WorldWideScience

Sample records for macrosegregation freckle a-type

  1. Evolution of A-Type Macrosegregation in Large Size Steel Ingot After Multistep Forging and Heat Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loucif, Abdelhalim; Ben Fredj, Emna; Harris, Nathan; Shahriari, Davood; Jahazi, Mohammad; Lapierre-Boire, Louis-Philippe

    2018-06-01

    A-type macrosegregation refers to the channel chemical heterogeneities that can be formed during solidification in large size steel ingots. In this research, a combination of experiment and simulation was used to study the influence of open die forging parameters on the evolution of A-type macrosegregation patterns during a multistep forging of a 40 metric ton (MT) cast, high-strength steel ingot. Macrosegregation patterns were determined experimentally by macroetch along the longitudinal axis of the forged and heat-treated ingot. Mass spectroscopy, on more than 900 samples, was used to determine the chemical composition map of the entire longitudinal sectioned surface. FORGE NxT 1.1 finite element modeling code was used to predict the effect of forging sequences on the morphology evolution of A-type macrosegregation patterns. For this purpose, grain flow variables were defined and implemented in a large scale finite element modeling code to describe oriented grains and A-type segregation patterns. Examination of the A-type macrosegregation showed four to five parallel continuous channels located nearly symmetrical to the axis of the forged ingot. In some regions, the A-type patterns became curved or obtained a wavy form in contrast to their straight shape in the as-cast state. Mass spectrometry analysis of the main alloying elements (C, Mn, Ni, Cr, Mo, Cu, P, and S) revealed that carbon, manganese, and chromium were the most segregated alloying elements in A-type macrosegregation patterns. The observed differences were analyzed using thermodynamic calculations, which indicated that changes in the chemical composition of the liquid metal can affect the primary solidification mode and the segregation intensity of the alloying elements. Finite element modeling simulation results showed very good agreement with the experimental observations, thereby allowing for the quantification of the influence of temperature and deformation on the evolution of the shape of the

  2. Thermodynamic assessment of liquid composition change during solidification and its effect on freckle formation in superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long Zhengdong; Liu Xingbo; Yang Wanhong; Chang, K.-M.; Barbero, Ever

    2004-01-01

    The solidification macrosegregation, i.e. freckle, becomes more and more concerned with ever increasing demand for the large ingot size of superalloys. The evaluation of freckle formation is very difficult because of the less understanding of freckle formation mechanism and complex solidification behaviors of multi-component superalloys. The macrostructure of typical Nb-bearing and Ti-bearing superalloys in horizontally directional solidification and vacuum arc remelting (VAR) ingots were investigated to clarify the freckle formation mechanism. The thermodynamic approach was proposed to simulate the solidification behaviors. The relative Ra numbers, a reliable criterion, of freckle formation for some alloys were obtained based on the results of thermodynamic calculations. This thermodynamic approach was evaluated through comparison of the calculations from semi-experimental results. The Ra numbers obtained by thermodynamic approach are in good agreement with the ingot size capability of the industry melting shops, which is limited mainly by freckle defects

  3. Chemo-inflammation-an effective treatment for freckles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasricha J

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Freckles are fairly common and considered to be incurable. We have developed a new technique called "Chemo-inflammation" with which we have treated 5 patients (4 girls and one boy having extensive freckles with excellent results. All the freckles disappeared completely from the treated areas and there has been no recurrence so far. The technique consists of applying a liquid based on an alkyl sulphate, on the affected skin and repeating the application every hour for a day till the entire skin develops adequate inflammation. The liquid is then washed off with tap water and the skin is treated with topical (or systemic corticosteroids till the inflammation subsides and the treated skin peels off and attains its normal texture. This generally happens within a week or so. Post-inflammatory hyperpigmemation has to be prevented by adequate anti-inflammatory treatment. Otherwise there are no precautions.

  4. The Effect of Rotation Stirring on Macrosegregation in Bi-Sn Alloy

    OpenAIRE

    Zulaida Yeni Muriani; Afrizal Riyan; Suryana Suryana

    2017-01-01

    Macrosegregation is a defect that difficult to avoid in a metal alloy made by casting method. Macrosegregation can cause decreasing in mechanical properties of casting products. It will reduce their performance in industrial application. Macrosegregation is convinced occur during solidification time in liquid alloy. In the early solidified, The solids move upward/downward in liquid alloy during solidification are considered to contribute on macrosegregation formation. This movement occur due ...

  5. Freckle Defect Formation near the Casting Interfaces of Directionally Solidified Superalloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jianping; Ma, Dexin; Wang, Jun; Wang, Fu; Sun, Baode; Dong, Anping; Li, Fei; Bührig-Polaczek, Andreas

    2016-11-16

    Freckle defects usually appear on the surface of castings and industrial ingots during the directional solidification process and most of them are located near the interface between the shell mold and superalloys. Ceramic cores create more interfaces in the directionally solidified (DS) and single crystal (SX) hollow turbine blades. In order to investigate the location of freckle occurrence in superalloys, superalloy CM247 LC was directionally solidified in an industrial-sized Bridgman furnace. Instead of ceramic cores, Alumina tubes were used inside of the casting specimens. It was found that freckles occur not only on the casting external surfaces, but also appear near the internal interfaces between the ceramic core and superalloys. Meanwhile, the size, initial position, and area of freckle were investigated in various diameters of the specimens. The initial position of the freckle chain reduces when the diameter of the rods increase. Freckle area follows a linear relationship in various diameters and the average freckle fraction is 1.1% of cross sectional area of casting specimens. The flow of liquid metal near the interfaces was stronger than that in the interdendritic region in the mushy zone, and explained why freckle tends to occur on the outer or inner surfaces of castings. This new phenomenon suggests that freckles are more likely to occur on the outer or inner surfaces of the hollow turbine blades.

  6. Freckle Defect Formation near the Casting Interfaces of Directionally Solidified Superalloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianping Hong

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Freckle defects usually appear on the surface of castings and industrial ingots during the directional solidification process and most of them are located near the interface between the shell mold and superalloys. Ceramic cores create more interfaces in the directionally solidified (DS and single crystal (SX hollow turbine blades. In order to investigate the location of freckle occurrence in superalloys, superalloy CM247 LC was directionally solidified in an industrial-sized Bridgman furnace. Instead of ceramic cores, Alumina tubes were used inside of the casting specimens. It was found that freckles occur not only on the casting external surfaces, but also appear near the internal interfaces between the ceramic core and superalloys. Meanwhile, the size, initial position, and area of freckle were investigated in various diameters of the specimens. The initial position of the freckle chain reduces when the diameter of the rods increase. Freckle area follows a linear relationship in various diameters and the average freckle fraction is 1.1% of cross sectional area of casting specimens. The flow of liquid metal near the interfaces was stronger than that in the interdendritic region in the mushy zone, and explained why freckle tends to occur on the outer or inner surfaces of castings. This new phenomenon suggests that freckles are more likely to occur on the outer or inner surfaces of the hollow turbine blades.

  7. Thermosolutal convection and macrosegregation in dendritic alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, David R.; Heinrich, J. C.

    1993-01-01

    A mathematical model of solidification, that simulates the formation of channel segregates or freckles, is presented. The model simulates the entire solidification process, starting with the initial melt to the solidified cast, and the resulting segregation is predicted. Emphasis is given to the initial transient, when the dendritic zone begins to develop and the conditions for the possible nucleation of channels are established. The mechanisms that lead to the creation and eventual growth or termination of channels are explained in detail and illustrated by several numerical examples. A finite element model is used for the simulations. It uses a single system of equations to deal with the all-liquid region, the dendritic region, and the all-solid region. The dendritic region is treated as an anisotropic porous medium. The algorithm uses the bilinear isoparametric element, with a penalty function approximation and a Petrov-Galerkin formulation. The major task was to develop the solidification model. In addition, other tasks that were performed in conjunction with the modeling of dendritic solidification are briefly described.

  8. Gravitational Acceleration Effects on Macrosegregation: Experiment and Computational Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon-Torres, J.; Curreri, P. A.; Stefanescu, D. M.; Sen, S.

    1999-01-01

    Experiments were performed under terrestrial gravity (1g) and during parabolic flights (10-2 g) to study the solidification and macrosegregation patterns of Al-Cu alloys. Alloys having 2% and 5% Cu were solidified against a chill at two different cooling rates. Microscopic and Electron Microprobe characterization was used to produce microstructural and macrosegregation maps. In all cases positive segregation occurred next to the chill because shrinkage flow, as expected. This positive segregation was higher in the low-g samples, apparently because of the higher heat transfer coefficient. A 2-D computational model was used to explain the experimental results. The continuum formulation was employed to describe the macroscopic transports of mass, energy, and momentum, associated with the solidification phenomena, for a two-phase system. The model considers that liquid flow is driven by thermal and solutal buoyancy, and by solidification shrinkage. The solidification event was divided into two stages. In the first one, the liquid containing freely moving equiaxed grains was described through the relative viscosity concept. In the second stage, when a fixed dendritic network was formed after dendritic coherency, the mushy zone was treated as a porous medium. The macrosegregation maps and the cooling curves obtained during experiments were used for validation of the solidification and segregation model. The model can explain the solidification and macrosegregation patterns and the differences between low- and high-gravity results.

  9. Modelling of micro- and macrosegregation for industrial multicomponent aluminium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellingsen, K; M'Hamdi, M; Mortensen, D

    2015-01-01

    Realistic predictions of macrosegregation formation during casting of aluminium alloys requires an accurate modeling of solute microsegregation accounting for multicomponent phase diagrams and secondary phase formation. In the present work, the stand alone Alstruc model, a microsegregation model for industrial multicomponent aluminium alloys, is coupled with the continuum model ALSIM which calculates the macroscopic transport of mass, enthalpy, momentum, and solutes as well as stresses and deformation during solidification of aluminium. Alstruc deals with multicomponent alloys accounting for temperature dependent partition coefficients, liquidus slopes and the precipitation of secondary phases. The challenge associated with computation of microsegregation for multicomponent alloys is solved in Alstruc by approximating the phase diagram data by simple, analytical expressions which allows for a CPU-time efficient coupling with the macroscopic transport model. In the present work, the coupled model has been applied in a study of macrosegregation including thermal and solutal convection, solidification shrinkage and surface exudation on an industrial DC-cast billet. (paper)

  10. The Effect of Rotation Stirring on Macrosegregation in Bi-Sn Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulaida Yeni Muriani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Macrosegregation is a defect that difficult to avoid in a metal alloy made by casting method. Macrosegregation can cause decreasing in mechanical properties of casting products. It will reduce their performance in industrial application. Macrosegregation is convinced occur during solidification time in liquid alloy. In the early solidified, The solids move upward/downward in liquid alloy during solidification are considered to contribute on macrosegregation formation. This movement occur due to the density differences between the solid and the surrounding liquid. This research want to observe the effect of stirring on macrosegregation formation for interfering on the movement of initial solidified solid. Stiring with rotation method is applied in this experiment at certain temperature. The temperature and the rotation speed of stirring are varied to observe the effect of rotation stirring on macrosegregation formation. The mold is covered by insulation jacket and kept the bottom part opened in order to obtain the directionally solidification. The result shows that the rotation stirring can change the macrostructure of casting but in case of composition distribution, the macrosegregation still appear. Increasing the rotation stirring will rise solid crystals up and the macrosegregation become more uniform and the treatment is better if conducting at lower temperature.

  11. Three-Dimensional Numerical Modeling of Macrosegregation in Continuously Cast Billets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qipeng Dong

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Macrosegregation, serving as a major defect in billets, can severely degrade material homogeneity. Better understanding of the physical characteristics of macrosegregation through numerical simulation could significantly contribute to the segregation control. The main purpose of this study was to predict macrosegregation in continuously cast billets with a newly developed three-dimensional macrosegregation model. The fluid flow, solidification, and solute transport in the entire billet region were solved and analyzed. Flow patterns, revealing a typical melt recirculation at the upper region of mold and thermosolutal convection at the secondary cooling zone, significantly affect the solidification and solute distribution. The solute redistribution occurring with thermosolutal convection at the solidification front contributes significantly to continued macrosegregation as solidification proceeds. The results of this study show that the equilibrium partition coefficient is mostly responsible for the magnitude of macrosegregation, while comparison between solute P and S indicated that diffusion coefficients also have some amount of influence. Typical macrosegregation patterns containing a positively segregated peak at the centerline and negatively segregated minima at either side were obtained via the proposed three-dimensional macrosegregation model, which validated by the measured surface temperatures and segregation degree.

  12. Modelling of macrosegregation in steel ingots: benchmark validation and industrial application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Wensheng; Shen Houfa; Liu Baicheng; Shen Bingzhen

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents the recent progress made by the authors on modelling of macrosegregation in steel ingots. A two-phase macrosegregation model was developed that incorporates descriptions of heat transfer, melt convection, solute transport, and solid movement on the process scale with microscopic relations for grain nucleation and growth. The formation of pipe shrinkage at the ingot top is also taken into account in the model. Firstly, a recently proposed numerical benchmark test of macrosegregation was used to verify the model. Then, the model was applied to predict the macrosegregation in a benchmark industrial-scale steel ingot. The predictions were validated against experimental data from the literature. Furthermore, macrosegregation experiment of an industrial 53-t steel ingot was performed. The simulation results were compared with the measurements. It is indicated that the typical macrosegregation patterns encountered in steel ingots, including a positively segregated zone in the hot top and a negative segregation in the bottom part of the ingot, are well reproduced with the model.

  13. Intense pulsed light for photo-rejuvenation and freckles of middle eastern skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Bedewi, A.F.

    2003-01-01

    Facial ageing is a gradual process which could be due to intrinsic and extrinsic causes and it ultimately results in the appearance of activity induced tissue ptosis, wrinkles, epidermal and dermal artoply, dryness, senile lentigo, flushing, telangiectasia and enlarged pores. Moreover, freckles are frequently seen on the face and other sun exposed areas and it is characterized with incrreased melanin in the epidermis. Intense Pulsed Light (IPL)is the latest technology for selective photo-thermolysis as a non-ablative photo-rejuvenation. Thirty-four patients of age ranging between 35- 70 years with skin type ranging between III-V with or without freckles were treated with 3-5 sessions of IPL. Three weeks intervals were considered between every two succesive session. Irradiation wavelength was controlled using cutoff filters ranging from 535 to 580 nmwith a fluence of 25-35 j/cm-2. Significant improvement was demonstrated after 6 months by computerized image analysis compared with the baseline. IPL was found to be effective and saf treatment for fine wrinkles, facial freckles, telangiectasia, flushing as well as post-inflammatory hyper-pigmentation with a high satisfactory level and a relatively afew adverse effects

  14. Chemical Peeling with a Modified Phenol Formula for the Treatment of Facial Freckles on Asian Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hua-Feng; Lu, Hai-Shan; Sun, Le-Qi; Ping, Wei-Dong; Mao, Dong-Sheng; Li, Dan

    2018-04-01

    Chemical peeling is an efficient method for the treatment of pigment disorders. For freckles, medium-depth to deep peeling using a phenol solution is one of the most effective chemical peels, and modifications of facial skin can be observed up to 20 years after peeling. However, applying phenol to the skin may cause serious side effects. Phenol peeling has been rarely used in Asia due to its tendency to cause permanent pigmentary changes and hypertrophic scars. In total, 896 Chinese inpatients with facial freckles were enrolled in this study. The phenol formula was modified with crystalline phenol, dyclonine, camphor, anhydrous alcohol and glycerin and adjusted to a concentration of 73.6-90.0%. The entire peeling treatment was divided into two procedures performed separately on 2 days. All patients exhibited 26% or greater improvement, and 99.66% of patients exhibited 51% or greater improvement (good and excellent). Scarring and systemic complications were not observed in any patient. The modified phenol formula is very effective and safe for the treatment of facial freckles in Asian patients. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  15. Modeling Macrosegregation in Directionally Solidified Aluminum Alloys under Gravitational and Microgravitational Conditions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauer, Mark A.; Poirier, David R.; Erdmann, Robert G.; Tewari, Surendra N.; Madison, Jonathan D

    2014-09-01

    This report covers the modeling of seven directionally solidified samples, five under normal gravitational conditions and two in microgravity. A model is presented to predict macrosegregation during the melting phases of samples solidified under microgravitational conditions. The results of this model are compared against two samples processed in microgravity and good agreement is found. A second model is presented that captures thermosolutal convection during directional solidification. Results for this model are compared across several experiments and quantitative comparisons are made between the model and the experimentally obtained radial macrosegregation profiles with good agreement being found. Changes in cross section were present in some samples and micrographs of these are qualitatively compared with the results of the simulations. It is found that macrosegregation patterns can be affected by changing the mold material.

  16. Radial macrosegregation and dendrite clustering in directionally solidified Al-7Si and Al-19Cu alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghods, M.; Johnson, L.; Lauer, M.; Grugel, R. N.; Tewari, S. N.; Poirier, D. R.

    2016-05-01

    Hypoeutectic Al-7 wt% Si and Al-19 wt% Cu alloys were directionally solidified upward in a Bridgman furnace through a range of constant growth speeds and thermal gradients. Though processing is thermo-solutally stable, flow initiated by gravity-independent advection at, slightly leading, central dendrites moves rejected solute out ahead and across the advancing interface. Here any lagging dendrites are further suppressed which promotes a curved solid-liquid interface and the eventual dendrite "clustering" seen in transverse sections (dendrite "steepling" in longitudinal orientations) as well as extensive radial macrosegregation. Both aluminum alloys showed considerable macrosegregation at the low growth speeds (10 and 30 μm s-1) but not at higher speed (72 μm s-1). Distribution of the fraction eutectic-constituent on transverse sections was determined in order to quantitatively describe radial macrosegregation. The convective mechanisms leading to dendrite-steepling were elucidated with numerical simulations, and their results compared with the experimental observations.

  17. Effect of low frequency electromagnetic field on microstructures and macrosegregation of horizontal direct chill casting aluminum alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵志浩; 崔建忠; 董杰; 张海涛; 张北江

    2004-01-01

    The influences of low frequency electromagnetic field on cast surface, microstructures and macrosegregation in horizontal direct chill(HDC) casting process were investigated experimentally. The cast surfaces, microstructures and macrosegregation of the ingots manufactured by conventional HDC and low frequency electromagnetic HDC casting were compared. The results show that low frequency electromagnetic field significantly improves the surface quality, refines the microstructures and reduces macrosegregation. Further more, increasing electromagnetic intensity or decreasing frequency is beneficial to the improvement. In the range of ampere-turns and frequency employed in the experiments, the optimum ampere-turns is found to be 10 000 A · turn and the frequency to be 30 Hz.

  18. Estimating the attributable fraction for melanoma: a meta-analysis of pigmentary characteristics and freckling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Catherine M; Carroll, Heidi J; Whiteman, David C

    2010-11-15

    Epidemiologic research has demonstrated convincingly that certain pigmentary characteristics are associated with increased relative risks of melanoma; however there has been no comprehensive review to rank these characteristics in order of their importance on a population level. We conducted a systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis to quantify the contribution of pigmentary characteristics to melanoma, estimated by the population-attributable fraction (PAF). Eligible studies were those that permitted quantitative assessment of the association between histologically confirmed melanoma and hair colour, eye colour, skin phototype and presence of freckling; we identified 66 such studies using citation databases, followed by manual review of retrieved references. We calculated summary relative risks using weighted averages of the log RR, taking into account random effects, and used these to estimate the PAF. The pooled RRs for pigmentary characteristics were: 2.64 for red/red-blond, 2.0 for blond and 1.46 for light brown hair colour (vs. dark); 1.57 for blue/blue-grey and 1.51 for green/grey/hazel eye colour (vs. dark); 2.27, 1.99 and 1.35 for skin phototypes I, II and III respectively (vs. IV); and 1.99 for presence of freckling. The highest PAFs were observed for skin phototypes 1/II (0.27), presence of freckling (0.23), and blond hair colour (0.23). For eye colour, the PAF for blue/blue-grey eye colour was higher than for green/grey/hazel eye colour (0.18 vs. 0.13). The PAF of melanoma associated with red hair colour was 0.10. These estimates of melanoma burden attributable to pigmentary characteristics provide a basis for designing prevention strategies for melanoma.

  19. Numerical simulation of freckle formation in directional solidification of binary alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felicelli, Sergio D.; Heinrich, Juan C.; Poirier, David R.

    1992-01-01

    A mathematical model of solidification is presented which simulates the formation of segregation models known as 'freckles' during directional solidification of binary alloys. The growth of the two-phase or dendritic zone is calculated by solving the coupled equations of momentum, energy, and solute transport, as well as maintaining the thermodynamic constraints dictated by the phase diagram of the alloy. Calculations for lead-tin alloys show that the thermosolutal convection in the dendritic zone during solidification can produce heavily localized inhomogeneities in the composition of the final alloy.

  20. Effect of inlet geometry on macrosegregation during the direct chill casting of 7050 alloy billets: experiments and computer modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, L; Miroux, A; Subroto, T; Katgerman, L; Eskin, D G

    2012-01-01

    Controlling macrosegregation is one of the major challenges in direct-chill (DC) casting of aluminium alloys. In this paper, the effect of the inlet geometry (which influences the melt distribution) on macrosegregation during the DC casting of 7050 alloy billets was studied experimentally and by using 2D computer modelling. The ALSIM model was used to determine the temperature and flow patterns during DC casting. The results from the computer simulations show that the sump profiles and flow patterns in the billet are strongly influenced by the melt flow distribution determined by the inlet geometry. These observations were correlated to the actual macrosegregation patterns found in the as-cast billets produced by having two different inlet geometries. The macrosegregation analysis presented here may assist in determining the critical parameters to consider for improving the casting of 7XXX aluminium alloys.

  1. Effect of inlet geometry on macrosegregation during the direct chill casting of 7050 alloy billets: experiments and computer modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L.; Eskin, D. G.; Miroux, A.; Subroto, T.; Katgerman, L.

    2012-07-01

    Controlling macrosegregation is one of the major challenges in direct-chill (DC) casting of aluminium alloys. In this paper, the effect of the inlet geometry (which influences the melt distribution) on macrosegregation during the DC casting of 7050 alloy billets was studied experimentally and by using 2D computer modelling. The ALSIM model was used to determine the temperature and flow patterns during DC casting. The results from the computer simulations show that the sump profiles and flow patterns in the billet are strongly influenced by the melt flow distribution determined by the inlet geometry. These observations were correlated to the actual macrosegregation patterns found in the as-cast billets produced by having two different inlet geometries. The macrosegregation analysis presented here may assist in determining the critical parameters to consider for improving the casting of 7XXX aluminium alloys.

  2. Influence of Secondary Cooling Mode on Solidification Structure and Macro-segregation Behavior for High-carbon Continuous Casting Bloom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Kun; Yang, Zhenguo; Liu, Qing; Huang, Yunhua; Dong, Hongbiao

    2017-07-01

    A cellular automaton-finite element coupling model for high-carbon continuously cast bloom of GCr15 steel is established to simulate the solidification structure and to investigate the influence of different secondary cooling modes on characteristic parameters such as equiaxed crystal ratio, grain size and secondary dendrite arm spacing, in which the effect of phase transformation and electromagnetic stirring is taken into consideration. On this basis, evolution of carbon macro-segregation for GCr15 steel bloom is researched correspondingly via industrial tests. Based on above analysis, the relationship among secondary cooling modes, characteristic parameters for solidification structure as well as carbon macro-segregation is illustrated to obtain optimum secondary cooling strategy and alleviate carbon macro-segregation degree for GCr15 steel bloom in continuous casting process. The evaluating method for element macro-segregation is applicable in various steel types.

  3. Convection and macrosegregation in Al-19Cu alloy directionally solidified through an abrupt contraction in cross-section: A comparison with Al-7Si

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghods, M.; Lauer, M.; Grugel, R. N.; Tewari, S. N.; Poirier, D. R.

    2017-02-01

    Hypoeutectic Al-19 wt. % Cu alloys were directionally solidified in cylindrical molds that featured an abrupt cross-section decrease 9.5 to 3.2 mm in diameter). Thermo-solutal convection and cross-section-change-induced shrinkage flow effects on macrosegregation were investigated. Dendrite clustering and extensive radial macrosegregation was seen, particularly in the larger cross-section before contraction. This alloy shows positive longitudinal macrosegregation near the contraction followed by negative macrosegregation right after it; the extent of macrosegregation, however, decreases with increasing growth speed. The degree of thermo-solutal convection was compared to another study investigating directional solidification of Al-7 wt. % Si [1] in order to study the effect of solutal expansion coefficient on macrosegregation. An interesting change of the radial macrosegregation profile, attributable to the area-change-induced-shrinkage flow, was observed very close to the contraction. A two-dimensional model accounting for both shrinkage and thermo-solutal convection was used to simulate solidification, the resulting steepling as well as axial and radial macrosegregation. The experimentally observed macrosegregation associated with the contraction during directional solidification was well predicted by the numerical simulations.

  4. Macrosegregation Due to Convection in Al-19Cu Alloy Directionally Solidified Through an Abrupt Expansion in Cross-Section: A Comparison with Al-7Si

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghods, M.; Lauer, M.; Grugel, R. N.; Tewari, S. N.; Poirier, D. R.

    2017-10-01

    Hypoeutectic Al-19 wt.% Cu alloys were directionally solidified at two different growth speeds in cylindrical molds that featured an abrupt increase in cross-section, from 3.2 to 9.5 mm in diameter. The effects of thermosolutal convection and shrinkage flow induced by the cross-section change on macrosegregation were investigated. Dendrite clustering and extensive radial macrosegregation were seen, particularly in the larger cross-section after expansion. Negative longitudinal macrosegregation right after the cross-section increase was observed; the extent of macrosegregation, however, decreases with increasing growth speed. Both thermal and flow effects due to cross-section change were seen to influence the radial macrosegregation immediately before, and after the expansion. Radial macrosegregation pattern was found to be changing as the mushy zone enters the larger cross-section region above the cross-section change where the solidification is in its unsteady state. The effect of the solutal expansion coefficient on macrosegregation was studied by comparing the degree of thermosolutal convection in Al-19 wt.% Cu with a previous study in which we investigated Al-7 wt.% Si. A two-dimensional model accounting for both shrinkage and thermosolutal convection was used to simulate the resulting steepling, as well as the axial and radial macrosegregation. The experimentally observed macrosegregation associated with the expansion during directional solidification is well predicted by the numerical simulations.

  5. Simulations of Macrosegregation with consideration of inclusion effect in solidifying carbon steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Y F; Chen, Y; Kang, X H; Fu, P X; Liu, H W; Li, D Z

    2015-01-01

    During casting of steel ingots, the inclusions such as oxide, sulfide will inevitably exist in the melt. These inclusions will flow upward together with light solutes during solidification due to their lower density relative to the steel melt, which therefore causes impacts on the thermo-solutal convection in the melt and final solute distribution. Hence, a macrosegregation model that considers the effects of inclusions on melt flow in the mushy zone is established. Of the new model two important parameters, the inclusion capturing probability by solid, k p , and the original volume fraction, n 0 , are systematically studied in terms of simulations, which shows that decreasing k p or increasing n 0 leads to stronger ascending flow in the melt. And then as a validation example, the model was used to predict the macrosegregation in a 3.3-ton steel ingot. The prediction demonstrates that with consideration of inclusions, the melt convection strength is enhanced and thus the zones of macrosegregation are expanded comparing to simulations without taking account of inclusions. Further comparison with experiment results indicates that a better agreement of the carbon segregation along the centerline of the ingot can be achieved when considering the inclusion buoyancy. (paper)

  6. Modeling diffusion-governed solidification of ternary alloys - Part 2: Macroscopic transport phenomena and macrosegregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, M; Li, J; Ludwig, A; Kharicha, A

    2014-09-01

    Part 1 of this two-part investigation presented a multiphase solidification model incorporating the finite diffusion kinetics and ternary phase diagram with the macroscopic transport phenomena (Wu et al., 2013). In Part 2, the importance of proper treatment of the finite diffusion kinetics in the calculation of macrosegregation is addressed. Calculations for a two-dimensional (2D) square casting (50 × 50 mm 2 ) of Fe-0.45 wt.%C-1.06 wt.%Mn considering thermo-solutal convection and crystal sedimentation are performed. The modeling result indicates that the infinite liquid mixing kinetics as assumed by classical models (e.g., the Gulliver-Scheil or lever rule), which cannot properly consider the solute enrichment of the interdendritic or inter-granular melt at the early stage of solidification, might lead to an erroneous estimation of the macrosegregation. To confirm this statement, further theoretical and experimental evaluations are desired. The pattern and intensity of the flow and crystal sedimentation are dependent on the crystal morphologies (columnar or equiaxed); hence, the potential error of the calculated macrosegregation caused by the assumed growth kinetics depends on the crystal morphology. Finally, an illustrative simulation of an engineering 2.45-ton steel ingot is performed, and the results are compared with experimental results. This example demonstrates the model applicability for engineering castings regarding both the calculation efficiency and functionality.

  7. Modeling of macrosegregation caused by volumetric deformation in a coherent mushy zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolli, Lilia C.; Mo, Asbjørn; M'hamdi, Mohammed

    2005-02-01

    A two-phase volume-averaged continuum model is presented that quantifies macrosegregation formation during solidification of metallic alloys caused by deformation of the dendritic network and associated melt flow in the coherent part of the mushy zone. Also, the macrosegregation formation associated with the solidification shrinkage (inverse segregation) is taken into account. Based on experimental evidence established elsewhere, volumetric viscoplastic deformation (densification/dilatation) of the coherent dendritic network is included in the model. While the thermomechanical model previously outlined (M. M’Hamdi, A. Mo, and C.L. Martin: Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 2002, vol. 33A, pp. 2081-93) has been used to calculate the temperature and velocity fields associated with the thermally induced deformations and shrinkage driven melt flow, the solute conservation equation including both the liquid and a solid volume-averaged velocity is solved in the present study. In modeling examples, the macrosegregation formation caused by mechanically imposed as well as by thermally induced deformations has been calculated. The modeling results for an Al-4 wt pct Cu alloy indicate that even quite small volumetric strains (≈2 pct), which can be associated with thermally induced deformations, can lead to a macroscopic composition variation in the final casting comparable to that resulting from the solidification shrinkage induced melt flow. These results can be explained by the relatively large volumetric viscoplastic deformation in the coherent mush resulting from the applied constitutive model, as well as the relatively large difference in composition for the studied Al-Cu alloy in the solid and liquid phases at high solid fractions at which the deformation takes place.

  8. Macrosegregation Resulting from Directional Solidification Through an Abrupt Change in Cross-Sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauer, M.; Poirier, D. R.; Ghods, M.; Tewari, S. N.; Grugel, R. N.

    2017-01-01

    Simulations of the directional solidification of two hypoeutectic alloys (Al-7Si alloy and Al-19Cu) and resulting macrosegregation patterns are presented. The casting geometries include abrupt changes in cross-section from a larger width of 9.5 mm to a narrower 3.2 mm width then through an expansion back to a width of 9.5 mm. The alloys were chosen as model alloys because they have similar solidification shrinkages, but the effect of Cu on changing the density of the liquid alloy is about an order of magnitude greater than that of Si. The simulations compare well with experimental castings that were directionally solidified in a graphite mold in a Bridgman furnace. In addition to the simulations of the directional solidification in graphite molds, some simulations were effected for solidification in an alumina mold. This study showed that the mold must be included in numerical simulations of directional solidification because of its effect on the temperature field and solidification. For the model alloys used for the study, the simulations clearly show the interaction of the convection field with the solidifying alloys to produce a macrosegregation pattern known as "steepling" in sections with a uniform width. Details of the complex convection- and segregation-patterns at both the contraction and expansion of the cross-sectional area are revealed by the computer simulations. The convection and solidification through the expansions suggest a possible mechanism for the formation of stray grains. The computer simulations and the experimental castings have been part of on-going ground-based research with the goal of providing necessary background for eventual experiments aboard the ISS. For casting practitioners, the results of the simulations demonstrate that computer simulations should be applied to reveal interactions between alloy solidification properties, solidification conditions, and mold geometries on macrosegregation. The simulations also presents the

  9. Effect of Macrosegregation on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of a Pressure-Vessel Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Guanghua; Han, Lizhan; Li, Chuanwei; Luo, Xiaomeng; Gu, Jianfeng

    2017-07-01

    Macrosegregation refers to the chemical segregation, which occurs quite commonly in the large forgings such as nuclear reactor pressure vessel. This work assesses the effect of macrosegregation and homogenization treatment on the mechanical properties of a pressure-vessel steel (SA508 Gr.3). It was found that the primary reason for the inhomogeneity of the microstructure was the segregation of Mn, Mo, and Ni. Martensite, and coarse upper bainite with M-A (martensite-austenite) islands have been obtained, respectively, in the positive and negative segregation zone during a simulated quenching process. During tempering, the carbon-rich M-A islands decomposed into a mixture of ferrite and numerous carbides which deteriorated the toughness of the material. The segregation has been substantially minimized by a homogenizing treatment. The results indicate that the material homogenized has a higher impact toughness than the material with segregation, due to the reduction in M-A island in the negative segregation zone. It can be concluded that the microstructure and mechanical properties have been improved remarkably by means of homogenization treatment.

  10. Macrosegregation and Grain Formation Caused by Convection Associated with Directional Solidification Through Cross-Section Increase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghods, Masoud; Lauer, Mark; Tewari, Surendra; Poirier, David; Grugel, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Cylindrical Al-7 wt% Silicon, Al-19 wt% Copper and Lead-6 wt% Antimony alloy samples were directionally solidified (DS) with liquid above, solid below, and gravity pointing down, in graphite crucibles having an abrupt cross-sectional increase. These alloys have similar solidification shrinkage but are expected to have different degrees of thermosolutal convection during solidification. Microstructures in the DS samples in the vicinity of the section change have been studied in order to examine the effect of convection associated with the combined influence of thermosolutal effects and solidification shrinkage. Extensive radial and axial macrosegregation associated with cross-section change is observed. It also appears that steepling and local primary alpha-phase remelting resulting from convection are responsible for stray grain formation at the reentrant corners. Preliminary results from a numerical model, which includes solidification shrinkage and thermosolutal convection in the mushy zone, indicate that these regions are prone to solutal remelting of dendrites.

  11. Analysis and calculation of macrosegregation in a casting ingot, exhibits C and E

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, D. R.; Maples, A. L.

    1984-01-01

    A computer model which describes the solidification of a binary metal alloy in an insulated rectangular mold with a temperature gradient is presented. A numerical technique, applicable to a broad class of moving boundary problems, was implemented therein. The solidification model described is used to calculate the macrosegregation within the solidified casting by coupling the equations for liquid flow in the solid/liquid or mushy zone with the energy equation for heat flow throughout the ingot and thermal convection in the bulk liquid portion. The rate of development of the solid can be automatically calculated by the model. Numerical analysis of such solidification parameters as enthalpy and boundary layer flow is displayed. On-line user interface and software documentation are presented.

  12. Macrosegregation Caused by Convection Associated with Directional Solidification through Cross-Section Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghods, M.; Lauer, M.; Tewari, S. N.; Poirier, D. R..; Grugel, R. N.

    2015-01-01

    Al-7 wt% Si and Pb-6 wt% Sb alloy samples were directionally solidified (DS), with liquid above and solid below and gravity pointing down, in cylindrical graphite crucibles through an abrupt cross-section change. Fraction eutectic distribution in the microstructure, primary dendrite spacing and primary dendrite trunk diameters have been measured in the DS samples in the vicinity of section change in order to examine the effect of convection associated with the combined influence of thermosolutal factors and solidification shrinkage. It is observed that convection not only produces extensive radial and axial macrosegregation near cross-section change, it also affects the dendritic array morphology. Primary dendrite spacing and primary dendrite trunk diameter, both, are influenced by this convection. In addition to the experimental results, preliminary results from a numerical model which includes solidification shrinkage and thermosolutal convection in the mushy zone in its analysis will also be presented

  13. Evaluating visibility of age spot and freckle based on simulated spectral reflectance distribution and facial color image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Misa; Toyota, Saori; Tsumura, Norimichi

    2018-02-01

    In this research, we evaluate the visibility of age spot and freckle with changing the blood volume based on simulated spectral reflectance distribution and the actual facial color images, and compare these results. First, we generate three types of spatial distribution of age spot and freckle in patch-like images based on the simulated spectral reflectance. The spectral reflectance is simulated using Monte Carlo simulation of light transport in multi-layered tissue. Next, we reconstruct the facial color image with changing the blood volume. We acquire the concentration distribution of melanin, hemoglobin and shading components by applying the independent component analysis on a facial color image. We reproduce images using the obtained melanin and shading concentration and the changed hemoglobin concentration. Finally, we evaluate the visibility of pigmentations using simulated spectral reflectance distribution and facial color images. In the result of simulated spectral reflectance distribution, we found that the visibility became lower as the blood volume increases. However, we can see that a specific blood volume reduces the visibility of the actual pigmentations from the result of the facial color images.

  14. Analysis and calculation of macrosegregation in a casting ingot. MPS solidification model. Volume 1: Formulation and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maples, A. L.; Poirier, D. R.

    1980-01-01

    The physical and numerical formulation of a model for the horizontal solidification of a binary alloy is described. It can be applied in an ingot. The major purpose of the model is to calculate macrosegregation in a casting ingot which results from flow of interdendritic liquid during solidification. The flow, driven by solidification contractions and by gravity acting on density gradients in the interdendritic liquid, was modeled as flow through a porous medium. The symbols used are defined. The physical formulation of the problem leading to a set of equations which can be used to obtain: (1) the pressure field; (2) the velocity field: (3) mass flow and (4) solute flow in the solid plus liquid zone during solidification is presented. With these established, the model calculates macrosegregation after solidification is complete. The numerical techniques used to obtain solution on a computational grid are presented. Results, evaluation of the results, and recommendations for future development of the model are given. The macrosegregation and flow field predictions for tin-lead, aluminum-copper, and tin-bismuth alloys are included as well as comparisons of some of the predictions with published predictions or with empirical data.

  15. Efficacy and safety of fractional carbon dioxide laser for treatment of unwanted facial freckles in phototypes II-IV: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Zawahry, Bakr; Zaki, Naglaa; Hafez, Vanessa; Abdel Hay, Rania; Hay, Rania Abdel; Fahim, Aya

    2014-11-01

    Facial freckles are a cosmetic concern to Egyptians, particularly young females. Several therapeutic lines exist with variable response rates and limitations. Fractional carbon dioxide (FCO2) laser provides minimal ablation and therefore less down time and less side effects. The efficacy and safety of this laser technology have still not been studied in freckles. The aim of this study is to assess the efficacy and safety of FCO2 laser in the treatment of unwanted facial freckles in Egyptians. Twenty patients undergone a single session of FCO2 laser and then were followed up clinically a month later. Photographs were taken before treatment and at follow-up visit and were assessed by three blinded investigators. Percent of global improvement was measured on a 4-point grading scale. Patient's satisfaction and adverse events were recorded. Two patients (10 %) showed grade 1 improvement, while eight patients (40 %) showed grade 2 improvement. Nine patients (45 %) showed grade 3 improvement, and only one patient (5 %) showed grade 4 improvement. FCO2 laser resurfacing is effective and safe in treatment of facial freckles in skin phototypes II-IV. It can offer a more practical alternative to topical treatments, and a cheaper alternative to Q-switched lasers.

  16. Effect of Grain Refinement on Structure Evolution, “Floating” Grains, and Centerline Macrosegregation in Direct-Chill Cast AA2024 Alloy Billets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nadella, R.; Eskin, D.G.; Katgerman, L.

    2007-01-01

    Direct-chill (DC) cast billets 192 mm in diameter of an Al-Cu-Mg alloy were examined in detail with the aim to reveal the effects of grain refining (GR) and casting speed on structure, “floating” grains, and centerline macrosegregation. Experimental results show that grain size and dendrite arm

  17. Effect of Melt Convection and Solid Transport on Macrosegregation and Grain Structure in Equiaxed Al-Cu Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rerko, Rodney S.; deGroh, Henry C., III; Beckermann, Christoph; Gray, Hugh R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Macrosegregation in metal casting can be caused by thermal and solutal melt convection, and the transport of unattached solid crystals. These free grains can be a result of, for example, nucleation in the bulk liquid or dendrite fragmentation. In an effort to develop a comprehensive numerical model for the casting of alloys, an experimental study has been conducted to generate benchmark data with which such a solidification model could be tested. The specific goal of the experiments was to examine equiaxed solidification in situations where sinking of grains is (and is not) expected. The objectives were: 1) experimentally study the effects of solid transport and thermosolutal convection on macrosegregation and grain size distribution patterns; and 2) provide a complete set of controlled thermal boundary conditions, temperature data, segregation data, and grain size data, to validate numerical codes. The alloys used were Al-1 wt. pct. Cu, and Al-10 wt. pct. Cu with various amounts of the grain refiner TiB2 added. Cylindrical samples were either cooled from the top, or the bottom. Several trends in the data stand out. In attempting to model these experiments, concentrating on experiments that show clear trends or differences is recommended.

  18. Four-Phase Dendritic Model for the Prediction of Macrosegregation, Shrinkage Cavity, and Porosity in a 55-Ton Ingot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Honghao; Ren, Fengli; Li, Jun; Han, Xiujun; Xia, Mingxu; Li, Jianguo

    2017-03-01

    A four-phase dendritic model was developed to predict the macrosegregation, shrinkage cavity, and porosity during solidification. In this four-phase dendritic model, some important factors, including dendritic structure for equiaxed crystals, melt convection, crystals sedimentation, nucleation, growth, and shrinkage of solidified phases, were taken into consideration. Furthermore, in this four-phase dendritic model, a modified shrinkage criterion was established to predict shrinkage porosity (microporosity) of a 55-ton industrial Fe-3.3 wt pct C ingot. The predicted macrosegregation pattern and shrinkage cavity shape are in a good agreement with experimental results. The shrinkage cavity has a significant effect on the formation of positive segregation in hot top region, which generally forms during the last stage of ingot casting. The dendritic equiaxed grains also play an important role on the formation of A-segregation. A three-dimensional laminar structure of A-segregation in industrial ingot was, for the first time, predicted by using a 3D case simulation.

  19. Microstructure and Macrosegregation Study of Directionally Solidified Al-7Si Samples Processed Terrestrially and Aboard the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angart, Samuel; Erdman, R. G.; Poirier, David R.; Tewari, S.N.; Grugel, R. N.

    2014-01-01

    This talk reports research that has been carried out under the aegis of NASA as part of a collaboration between ESA and NASA for solidification experiments on the International Space Station (ISS). The focus has been on the effect of convection on the microstructural evolution and macrosegregation in hypoeutectic Al-Si alloys during directional solidification (DS). The DS-experiments have been carried out under 1-g at Cleveland State University (CSU) and under low-g on the International Space Station (ISS). The thermal processing-history of the experiments is well defined for both the terrestrially-processed samples and the ISS-processed samples. We have observed that the primary dendrite arm spacings of two samples grown in the low-g environment of the ISS show good agreement with a dendrite-growth model based on diffusion controlled growth. The gravity-driven convection (i.e., thermosolutal convection) in terrestrially grown samples has the effect of decreasing the primary dendrite arm spacings and causes macrosgregation. In order to process DS-samples aboard the ISS, dendritic-seed crystals have to partially remelted in a stationary thermal gradient before the DS is carried out. Microstructural changes and macrosegregation effects during this period are described.

  20. Macrosegregation During Re-melting and Holding of Directionally Solidified Al-7 wt.% Si Alloy in Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauer, M.; Ghods, M.; Angart, S. G.; Grugel, R. N.; Tewari, S. N.; Poirier, D. R.

    2017-08-01

    As-cast aluminum-7 wt.% ailicon alloy sample rods were re-melted and directionally solidified on Earth which resulted in uniform dendritically aligned arrays. These arrays were then partially back-melted through an imposed, and constant, temperature gradient in the microgravity environment aboard the International Space Station. The mushy zones that developed in the seed crystals were held for different periods prior to initiating directional solidification. Upon return, examination of the initial mushy-zone regions exhibited significant macrosegregation in terms of a solute-depleted zone that increased as a function of the holding time. The silicon (solute) content in these regions was measured on prepared longitudinal sections by electron microprobe analysis as well as by determining the fraction eutectic on several transverse sections. The silicon content was found to increase up the temperature gradient resulting in significant silicon concentration immediately ahead of the mushy-zone tips. The measured macrosegregation agrees well with calculations from a mathematical model developed to simulate the re-melting and holding process. The results, due to processing in a microgravity environment where buoyancy and thermosolutal convection are minimized, serve as benchmark solidification data.

  1. The iris signal: blue periphery, tan collaret and freckles pattern - strong indicators for epidermal skin cancer in South-Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigore, M; Furtunescu, F; Minca, D; Costache, M; Garbe, C; Simionescu, O

    2018-03-10

    Eye and skin share the embryological origin. Both are established risk factors in epidermal skin cancer. There are few reports using iris colour classification scales, most of them analyse colour in general or are too complex to use in daily practice. To investigate which iris colour pattern is associated with epidermal skin cancer in a S-E European Caucasian population. A case-control study was conducted on 480 patients: 229 skin cancers patients and 251 controls (dermatological patients free of skin cancers) admitted in two medical clinics of Dermatology in Bucharest, between October 2011 and May 2014. High-resolution iris photographs were taken for each patient. Three parameters of the iris were analysed individually and in association patterns for each patient: periphery, collaret and freckles. The most frequent iris colour pattern associated with epidermal skin cancer was blue periphery with light brown collaret and freckles present. In terms of individual parameters, the strongest indicators for skin cancer patients were blue periphery and blue collaret. The results of this study sustain the hypothesis that blue periphery with light brown collaret and freckles iris pattern is a reliable phenotypic marker for epidermal skin cancer. The results of this study differ from previous reports in which skin cancer risk was associated with a homogeneous blue iris. We account these differences in the characteristics of the recruited patients (S-E European, skin type II and III). The assessment of iris colour patterns is an easy and inexpensive detection tool in skin cancer risk assessment. © 2018 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  2. Effects of cell size and macrosegregation on the corrosion behavior of a dilute Pb-Sb alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosa, Daniel M.; Spinelli, Jose E.; Osorio, Wislei R.; Garcia, Amauri [Department of Materials Engineering, State University of Campinas-UNICAMP, P.O. Box 6122, 13083-970 Campinas, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2006-11-08

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of cooling rate on the cellular growth of a Pb-0.85wt%Sb alloy and to evaluate the influences of cell size and of the corresponding macrosegregation profile on the resultant corrosion behavior. In order to obtain the as-cast samples a water-cooled unidirectional solidification system was used. Such experimental set-up has permitted the development of a clear cellular structural array even for relative high cooling rates and has allowed a wide range of solidification conditions to be analyzed. Macrostructural and microstructural aspects along the casting were characterized by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscope (SEM) techniques. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy technique and potentiodynamic curves (Tafel extrapolation) were used to analyze the corrosion resistance of samples collected along the casting length and immersed in a 0.5M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution at 25{sup o}C. It was found that the corrosion rate decreases with increasing cell spacing and that the pre-programming of microstructure cell size can be used as an alternative way to produce as-cast components of Pb-Sb alloys, such as battery grids, with better corrosion resistance. (author)

  3. Numerical study of the impact of inoculant and grain transport on macrosegregation and microstructure formation during solidification of an Al-22%Cu alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tveito, K O; M'Hamdi, M; Bedel, M; Zaloz'nik, M; Combeau, H; Kumar, A; Dutta, P

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the impact of the nucleation law for nucleation on Al-Ti-B inoculant particles, of the motion of inoculant particles and of the motion of grains on the predicted macrosegregation and microstructure in a grain-refined Al-22 wt.% Cu alloy casting. We conduct the study by numerical simulations of a casting experiment in a side-cooled 76×76×254 mm sand mould. Macrosegregation and microstructure formation are studied with a volume-averaged two-phase model accounting for macroscopic heat and solute transport, melt convection, and transport of inoculant particles and equiaxed grains. On the microscopic scale it accounts for nucleation on inoculant particles with a given size distribution (and corresponding activation undercooling distribution)and for the growth of globular solid grains. The growth kinetics is described by accounting for limited solute diffusion in both liquid and solid phases and for convective effects. We show that the consideration of a size distribution of the inoculants has a strong impact on the microstructure(final grain size) prediction. The transport of inoculants significantly increases the microstructure heterogeneities and the grain motion refines the microstructure and reduces the microstructure heterogeneities.

  4. An Update on Neurofibromatosis Type 1: Not Just Café-au-Lait Spots and Freckling. Part II. Other Skin Manifestations Characteristic of NF1. NF1 and Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Martín, A; Duat-Rodríguez, A

    2016-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is the most common neurocutaneous syndrome and probably the one best known to dermatologists. Although the genetic locus of NF1 was identified on chromosome 17 in 1987, diagnosis of the disease is still based primarily on clinical observations. The 7 diagnostic criteria of the National Institutes of Health, which were established in 1988, include 3 skin manifestations (café-au-lait spots, freckling on flexural areas, and cutaneous neurofibromas). The age at which these diagnostic lesions appear is variable: onset can be late in some patients while others never develop certain symptoms. Definitive diagnosis may therefore be delayed by years. Although the appearance of the characteristic café-au-lait spots and freckling in the early years of childhood are very suggestive of the disease, these signs are not pathognomonic and, in isolation, do not constitute sufficient evidence to establish a definitive diagnosis. Thus, other diagnoses should be considered in patients whose only symptoms are café-au-lait spots and freckling. By contrast, the presence of multiple cutaneous neurofibromas or at least 1 plexiform neurofibroma is a very specific indication of NF1. Identification of the different types of neurofibroma allows us to confirm the diagnosis and initiate appropriate management. Copyright © 2016 AEDV. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. A novel missense KIT mutation causing piebaldism in one Chinese family associated with café-au-lait macules and intertriginous freckling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia WX

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Wei-Xue Jia,1,2 Xue-Min Xiao,1,2 Jian-Bing Wu,1,2 Yi-Ping Ma,1,2 Yi-Ping Ge,1,2 Qi Li,1,2 Qiu-Xia Mao,1,2 Cheng-Rang Li1,2 1Institute of Dermatology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China; 2Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology for Skin Diseases and STIs, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China Abstract: Piebaldism is a rare autosomal dominant genodermatosis, manifesting as congenital and stable depigmentation of the skin and white forelock. It has been found to be associated with mutations in the KIT or SLUG genes. We report a Chinese piebaldism family including a 28-year-old woman and her 3-year-old son with characteristics of white patches and forelock associated with numerous brown macules and patches. Genomic DNA samples of the proband and her son were extracted from their peripheral blood. One hundred unrelated healthy individuals were used as controls. All coding regions of KIT, SLUG, and NF1 genes were amplified by polymerase chain reaction using exon flanking intronic primers and Sanger sequencings were performed. DNA sequencing revealed heterozygous missense c.2431T>G mutation in exon 17 of the KIT gene in the proband and the affected son. No potentially pathogenic variant was identified in SLUG or NF1 genes. The nucleotide substitution was not found in 100 unrelated control individuals. This study reveals a novel KIT mutation in piebaldism, and it further supports that café-au-lait macules and intertriginous freckling of piebaldism are parts of pigmented anomaly in piebaldism, which does not necessarily represent coexistence of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1. Keywords: novel mutation, KIT gene, neurofibromatosis type 1 

  6. 耳穴埋豆对激光祛雀斑术后镇痛效果观察%Observation on analgesic effect of auricular acupoint burying beans after laser freckle surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王娅; 张顺玉; 陈华燕

    2017-01-01

    目的:观察耳穴埋豆对激光祛雀斑术后镇痛的效果.方法:对60例行Q开关倍频Nd:YAG532nm激光祛雀斑术,按照平行分组法分为治疗组(30例)和对照组(30例),对照组术后冰敷治疗,治疗组在冰敷基础上联合耳穴埋豆治疗,分析两组患者的镇痛效果.结果:治疗组总有效率为95.6%,对照组总有效率为82.2%,组间差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).治疗组疼痛评分明显少于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),疼痛时间明显少于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01),且治疗期间无严重不良反应.结论:耳穴埋豆在激光祛斑术后中的应用,可明显减轻患者疼痛程度,减少疼痛的时间,具有显著的镇痛效果,值得作为有效的镇痛方法.%Objective:Toobserve the postoperative analgesia effect of auricular buried beansaftcr laser freckle surgery.Methods:60patients that underwent laser freckle treatment by Q-switched Nd:YAG laser were divided into treatment group (30cases) and control group (30cases) by parallel grouping method.The control group was treated by ice compressing while the treatment group was treated by ice compressing and auricular buried beans.Analyzing the postoperative analgesia effect of both two groups.Results:There was a remarkable difference (P<0.05) in the effective rate between the treatment group (95.6%) and the control group (82.2%).The pain score of treatment group was significantly lower than that of control group (P<0.05).Theaching time after operation of treatment group waslessthancontrolgroup,thedifferencehasstatisticalsignificance (P<0.01).No adverse reaction was found during the treatment.Conclusion:Auricular buried beans applying in postoperative analgesia of laser freckle surgery can relieve pain degree and reduce the length of aching time.AS an effective method,it hasanotableeffect on pain alleviation.

  7. Evaluation of frequency-doubled Q-switched Nd: YAG laser in the treatment of freckle%倍频Q开关掺钕钇铝石榴石激光治疗雀斑疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗迪青; 张武军; 刘隽华; 张海燕; 何定阳

    2009-01-01

    目的 评估倍频Q开关掺钕钇铝石榴石激光治疗雀斑的疗效.方法 总结2004年10月至2007年8月间治疗的47例雀斑患者的资料及治疗后外涂丁卡因凝胶的效果.结果 治疗后6个月,47例患者中,治愈38例(80.9%),显效8例(17.0%),有效1例(2.1%),总有效率100%.1年后治愈率为100%.治疗后3个月时有15例(31.9%)出现色素沉着,但于9个月内全部消退.治疗后外涂丁卡因凝胶的起效时间为20~70 8,达到最大镇痛效果的时间为2~5 min,可以减轻疼痛70%~100%.结论 倍频Q开关Nd:YAG激光治疗雀斑有疗效好、不良反应少的优点.但可出现可逆性炎症后色素沉着.治疗后使用丁卡因凝胶,有较好的止痛效果.%Objective To evaluate the effects of Q-switched Nd: YAG laser in the treatment of freckle. Methods Fourty-seven cases treated by Q-switched Nd: YAG laser between October 2004 to August. 2007 were analyzed. The effects of post-laser treatment of tetracaine gel were evaluated. Results Of 47 cases, 38 were cured (80.9%), 8 were notablely improved (17.0%) and 1 was improved 6 months after treatment. The total efficient rate was 100%. All of them were cured 1 year after treatment. 15 cases had a postinflammatory hyperpigmentation 3 months after the laser treatment which disappeared in 9 months. Furthermore, when the tetracaine gel was used after the laser treatment, the onset time was 20 to 70 seconds, the time of the maxial decreased-pain was 2 to 5 minutes and the maximal decreased-pain was 70%~100%. Conclusions Frequency-doubled Q-switched Nd: YAG laser is an effective tool to treat freckles without any adverse effects. But some of the patients will have a reversible postin-flammatory hyperpigmentation. Tetracaine gel has a rapid and good effects on laser-induced pain when used immedi-ately after laser procedure.

  8. L-ascorbic acid, β-carotene and lycopene content in papaya fruits (Carica papaya with or without physiological skin freckles Conteúdo de ácido l-ascórbico, β-caroteno e licopeno em frutos de mamão (Carica papaya com e sem mancha fisiológica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Marelli de Souza

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The Skin Freckles is a papaya skin disorder that depreciates de fruit appearance and hampers its commercialization, although not lowering its nutritive value. Being the papaya a good source of ascorbic acid, β-carotene and licopene this research aimed at determining L-ascorbic acid, β-carotene and licopene content in papaya fruits, from 'Formosa' and 'Solo' group varieties, with and without apparent physiological skin disease (skin freckles. Fruits were harvested in the Southeast Region of Brazil. L-ascorbic acid content was determined by titration technique. β-carotene and licopene contents were determined by high performance liquid chromatography technique (HPLC. L-ascorbic acid content in papaya fruits ranged from (59.9 ± 3.4 mg 100 g-1 to (112.4 ± 12.6 mg 100 g-1 in fresh papaya pulp. β-carotene content ranged from (0.19 ± 0.07 mg 100 g-1 to (0.56 ± 0.09 mg 100 g-1 and that of licopene ranged from (1.44 ± 0.28 mg 100 g-1 to (3.39 ± 0.32 mg 100 g-1 in fresh papaya pulp. L-ascorbic acid contents of papaya fruits with skin disease averaged 7.0 mg 100 g-1 to 10.0 mg 100 g-1 higher than those of papaya fruits without skin freckles (P A Mancha Fisiológica do Mamão (MFM é uma desordem da casca do mamão, que deprecia a aparência do fruto e prejudica a sua comercialização, embora não prejudique o seu valor nutritivo. Considerando ser o mamão, uma boa fonte de ácido L-ascórbico, b-caroteno e licopeno, esta pesquisa visou determinar o índice destes componentes em frutas de mamão, das variedades do grupo 'Formosa' e 'Solo', com e sem Mancha Fisiológica do Mamão (MFM aparente na pele. As frutas foram colhidas na região do sudeste de Brasil. O teor de ácido L-ascórbico foi determinado pela técnica de titulação. Os índices do b-caroteno e do licopeno foram determinados pela técnica de cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (HPLC. O teor de ácido L-ascórbico variou de (59,9 ± 3,4 mg 100 g-1 a (112,4 ± 12,6 mg 100 g-1

  9. Lâminas de irrigação e coberturas do solo sobre a incidência da mancha fisiológica e produtividade do mamão "Golden" Irrigation dosages and soil coverings in the incidence of skin freckles and yield components of papaya ‘Golden’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aroldo Gomes Filho

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Nesse experimento, avaliou-se o efeito de diferentes lâminas de irrigação e coberturas do solo sobre aspectos qualitativos e de produção do mamão cv. "Golden" no período de dezembro de 2003 a novembro de 2004. Utilizou-se delineamento em blocos casualizados, com três repetições, em esquema fatorial. Os resultados encontrados demonstram uma alta correlação entre a época de colheita com a incidência da mancha fisiológica e as variáveis de produção. Com relação à mancha fisiológica do mamão (MFM, confirmou-se o aspecto sazonal de incidência, sendo que a cv. "Golden" apresentou a maior incidência do distúrbio no mês de setembro. Com relação às coberturas de solo, a cobertura morta se mostrou promissora para os fatores em estudo, ao contrário da cobertura verde com a leguminosa Arachis pintoe, pois a mesma, provavelmente, competiu por água e nutrientes com o mamoeiro, acarretando, assim, redução na sua produtividade.In this experiment the effect of different irrigation rates and soil coverings on qualitative aspects as well as yield components of the papaya cv. ‘Golden’ during the period December 2003 to November 2004 were evaluated. A randomized complete block design was used with three replications in a factorial scheme. The results demonstrate high correlation involving the factors harvest season, incidence of skin freckles and yield components. With relation to skin freckles a seasonal incidence was confirmed, showing that for cv. ‘Golden’, the major incidence of the disturbance was verified in September. The mulching treatment was promising for the factors studied, in contrast to the green covering using the leguminosae Arachis pintoe, due to competition with the papaya trees for water and nutrients, causing a reduction in the yield components.

  10. A Type System for Tom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Kirchner

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Extending a given language with new dedicated features is a general and quite used approach to make the programming language more adapted to problems. Being closer to the application, this leads to less programming flaws and easier maintenance. But of course one would still like to perform program analysis on these kinds of extended languages, in particular type checking and inference. In this case one has to make the typing of the extended features compatible with the ones in the starting language. The Tom programming language is a typical example of such a situation as it consists of an extension of Java that adds pattern matching, more particularly associative pattern matching, and reduction strategies. This paper presents a type system with subtyping for Tom, that is compatible with Java's type system, and that performs both type checking and type inference. We propose an algorithm that checks if all patterns of a Tom program are well-typed. In addition, we propose an algorithm based on equality and subtyping constraints that infers types of variables occurring in a pattern. Both algorithms are exemplified and the proposed type system is showed to be sound and complete.

  11. A Type Graph Model for Java Programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rensink, Arend; Zambon, Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    In this report we present a type graph that models all executable constructs of the Java programming language. Such a model is useful for any graph-based technique that relies on a representation of Java programs as graphs. The model can be regarded as a common representation to which all Java

  12. A Type Graph Model for Java Programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rensink, Arend; Zambon, Eduardo; Lee, D.; Lopes, A.; Poetzsch-Heffter, A.

    2009-01-01

    In this work we present a type graph that models all executable constructs of the Java programming language. Such a model is useful for any graph-based technique that relies on a representation of Java programs as graphs. The model can be regarded as a common representation to which all Java syntax

  13. Understanding A-type supergiants. I. Ultraviolet and visible spectral atlas of A-type supergiants

    CERN Document Server

    Verdugo, E; Gómez de Castro, A I

    1999-01-01

    This paper is the first of a series whose aim is to perform a systematic study of A-type supergiant atmospheres and winds. Here we present a spectral atlas of 41 A-supergiants observed by us in high and medium resolution in the visible and ultraviolet. The atlas consists of profiles of the H alpha , H beta , H gamma , H delta , H epsilon , Ca II (H and K), Na I (D1 and D2), Mg II/sub 4481/, Mg II uv1 and Fe II uv1, uv2, uv3, uv62, uv63, uv161 lines for 41 stars with spectral types ranging from B9 to A9 and luminosity classes Ia, Iab and Ib, and provides the basic data for a thoughtful study of these stars. The overall characteristics of the sample as well as the data reduction procedures are described. We also present some examples of spectral variability. Figures 1-3 are only available in electronic form at http://www.edpsciences.com. (27 refs).

  14. Thermophysical properties of a Type 308 stainless steel weld

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lore, J.D.; Richards, H.L.; King, R.T.; Greene, L.M.; Darby, D.M.

    1975-01-01

    Thermal expansion, thermal diffusivity, specific heat, and thermal conductivity measurements were obtained in vacuo for a Type 304-308 stainless steel weldment for use in the Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor. Property measurements were somewhat variant, depending upon the direction of measurement, but the observed differences were small. (U.S.)

  15. A Typed Text Retrieval Query Language for XML Documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colazzo, Dario; Sartiani, Carlo; Albano, Antonio; Manghi, Paolo; Ghelli, Giorgio; Lini, Luca; Paoli, Michele

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of XML focuses on a description of Tequyla-TX, a typed text retrieval query language for XML documents that can search on both content and structures. Highlights include motivations; numerous examples; word-based and char-based searches; tag-dependent full-text searches; text normalization; query algebra; data models and term language;…

  16. Investigations of a type 316L steam dryer plate material suffering from IGSCC after few years in BWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autio, J.M.; Ehrnsten, U.; Pakarinen, J.; Mouginot, R.; Cocco, M.

    2015-01-01

    A steam dryer plate material suffered from intergranular stress corrosion cracking after only one and two years of operation in two BWR plants. Numerous indications were observed on the inner roof plates of the steam dryers adjacent to the support beam welds. The material was Type 316L austenitic stainless steel with carbon content below 0.02%. The material was subjected to detailed investigations using optical microscopy, EBSD/SEM, TEM, hardness and nano-indentation. The material showed macro-segregation through the plate thickness. These bands coincided with the location of delta-ferrite islands indicating non-optimal solution heat treatment. α'-martensite was observed deep in the plate indicating cold deformation after solution annealing. A nonhomogeneous distribution of grain orientation was also observed through the plate thickness. Further, surface deformation, although not extending very deep, was observed using EBSD and surface hardness values above 300 HV when measured using small loads. Although the material fulfills the set requirements, the material characteristics have obviously increased the susceptibility of the material to IGSCC. The paper will discuss the possible role of changes in manufacturing over the years and the challenges in quality definitions in material specifications. (authors)

  17. Advantages and Challenges of a Type-3 PLL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golestan, Saeed; Monfared, Mohammad; Freijedo, Francisco D.

    2013-01-01

    electronics and power systems, which are focused on in this paper, the PLLs typically employ a proportional-integral controller as the loop filter, resulting in a type-2 control system (a control system of type-N has N poles at the origin in its open-loop transfer function). Recently, some attempts have been...... made to design type-3 PLLs, either by employing a specific second-order controller as the loop filter, or by implementing two parallel tracking paths for the PLL. For this type of PLLs, however, the advantages and limitations are not clear at all, as the results reported in different literature...... are contradictory, and there is no detailed knowledge about their stability and dynamic characteristics. In this paper, different approaches to realize a type-3 PLL are examined first. Then, a detailed study of dynamics and analysis of stability, followed by comprehensive parameters design guidelines for a typical...

  18. DOE evaluation document for DOT 7A Type A packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edling, D.A.; Hopkins, D.R.; Williams, R.L.

    1987-03-01

    This document is a support document for the ''DOE Evaluation Document for DOT 7A Type A Packaging,'' MLM-3245, March 1987. Provided herein are details concerning the performance requirements specified in 178.350 Specification 7A, General Packaging, Type A. MLM-3245 references appropriate sections in this document. This document does not by itself meet the documentation requirements specified in 49 CFR 173.415 and has compliance value only when used in conjunction with MLM-3245

  19. Test report dot7A type A liquid packaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketusky, E. T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Brandjes, C. [Ameriphysics LLC, Knoxville, TN (United States); Benoit, T. J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-09-19

    This section presents a general description of the DOT Specification 7A Type A liquid content packaging (HVYTAL), the liquid content evaluated as its payload, acceptable payload shipping configurations and features special to its use. This test report documents compliance with the regulatory safety requirements of 49 CFR Parts 173.24, 173.24a, 173.27, 173.410, 173.412, 173.461 – 173.466 and 178.350.

  20. A Type System for Required/Excluded Elements in CLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariangiola Dezani-Ciancaglini

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The calculus of looping sequences is a formalism for describing the evolution of biological systems by means of term rewriting rules. We enrich this calculus with a type discipline to guarantee the soundness of reduction rules with respect to some biological properties deriving from the requirement of certain elements, and the repellency of others. As an example, we model a toy system where the repellency of a certain element is captured by our type system and forbids another element to exit a compartment.

  1. DOT-7A Type A packaging design guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, D.L.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this Design Guide is to provide instruction for designing a U.S. Department of Transportation Specification 7A (DOT-7A) Type A packaging. Another purpose for this Design Guide is to support the evaluation and testing activities that are performed on new designs by a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) test facility. This evaluation and testing program is called the DOT-7A Program. When an applicant has determined that a DOT-7A packaging is needed and not commercially available, a design may be created according to this document. The design should include a packaging drawing, specifications, analysis report, operating instructions, and a Packaging Qualification Checklist; all of which should be forwarded to a DOE/HQ approved test facility for evaluation and testing. This report is being submitted through the Engineering Documentation System so that it may be used for reference and information purposes

  2. Qualification tests for a type B (U) package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieru, G.

    2004-01-01

    The primary objective for the safety of radioactive materials transport is to protect human health and the environment taking into consideration its potential risks and radiological consequences. Romania as a Member State of the International Atomic Energy Agency has implemented national regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials (RAM) in accordance with the Agency's recommendations as well as other international specialized organizations. The paper will describe the qualification tests performed for a type B (U) package, intended to be used for the transport of the radioactive sources Am-241 and Cs-137. For this kind of package the tests were performed the first time in Romania and include: the water spray test, the 1.2 m free drop test, the stacking test, the penetration test, the 9m free drop test, the thermal test and the submersion under a head of water of at least 15 m. The test facilities used for performing qualification tests for the type B (U) package as well as experience and conclusions will be also presented

  3. EVOLUTION OF ROTATIONAL VELOCITIES OF A-TYPE STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Wuming; Bi Shaolan; Tian Zhijia; Meng Xiangcun

    2013-01-01

    The equatorial velocity of A-type stars undergoes an acceleration in the first third of the main sequence (MS) stage, but the velocity decreases as if the stars were not undergoing any redistribution of angular momentum in the external layers in the last stage of the MS phase. Our calculations show that the acceleration and the decrease of the equatorial velocity can be reproduced by the evolution of the differential rotation zero-age MS model with the angular momentum transport caused by hydrodynamic instabilities during the MS stage. The acceleration results from the fact that the angular momentum stored in the interiors of the stars is transported outward. In the last stage, the core and the radiative envelope are uncoupling, and the rotation of the envelope is a quasi-solid rotation; the uncoupling and the expansion of the envelope indicate that the decrease of the equatorial velocity approximately follows the slope for the change in the equatorial velocity of the model without any redistribution of angular momentum. When the fractional age 0.3 ∼ MS ∼< 0.5, the equatorial velocity remains almost constant for stars whose central density increases with age in the early stage of the MS phase, while the velocity decreases with age for stars whose central density decreases with age in the early stage of the MS phase.

  4. EARLY ULTRAVIOLET OBSERVATIONS OF A TYPE IIn SUPERNOVA (2007pk)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pritchard, T. A.; Roming, P. W. A.; Brown, P. J.; Kuin, N. P. M.; Oates, S. R.; Bayless, Amanda J.; Holland, S. T.; Immler, S.; Milne, P.

    2012-01-01

    We present some of the earliest UV observations of a Type IIn supernova (SN)—SN 2007pk, where UV and optical observations using Swift's Ultra-Violet/Optical Telescope began 3 days after discovery or ∼5 days after shock breakout. The SN observations commence at approximately maximum light in the UV and u-band filters, suggesting that the UV light curve peaks begin very rapidly after the initial explosion, and subsequently exhibit a linear decay of 0.20, 0.21, 0.16 mag day –1 in the UVOT uvw2, uvm2, uvw1 (λ c = 1928, 2246, 2600 Å) filters. Meanwhile the b- and v-band light curves begin approximately seven days before v-band peak and exhibit a shallow rise followed by a subsequent decay. A series of optical/near-IR spectra taken with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope at days 3-26 after discovery show spectra similar to that of the peculiar Type IIn 1998S. The emission from 2007pk falls below detection ∼20 days after discovery in the UV and 50 days in the optical, showing no sign of the long duration emission seen in other Type IIn SNe. We examine the physical and spectral characteristics of 2007pk and compare its UV light curve and decay rate with other Type II SNe.

  5. EVIDENCE FOR GRANULATION IN EARLY A-TYPE STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallinger, Thomas; Matthews, Jaymie M.

    2010-01-01

    Stars with spectral types earlier than about F0 on (or close) to the main sequence have long been believed to lack observable surface convection, although evolutionary models of A-type stars do predict very thin surface convective zones. We present evidence for granulation in two δ Scuti stars of spectral type A2: HD 174936 and HD 50844. Recent analyses of space-based CoRoT data revealed up to some 1000 frequencies in the photometry of these stars. The frequencies were interpreted as individual pulsation modes. If true, there must be large numbers of nonradial modes of very high degree l which should suffer cancellation effects in disk-integrated photometry (even of high space-based precision). The p-mode interpretation of all the frequencies in HD 174936 and HD 50844 depends on the assumption of white (frequency-independent) noise. Our independent analyses of the data provide an alternative explanation: most of the peaks in the Fourier spectra are the signature of non-white granulation background noise, and less than about 100 of the frequencies are actual stellar p-modes in each star. We find granulation timescales which are consistent with scaling relations that describe cooler stars with known surface convection. If the granulation interpretation is correct, the hundreds of low-amplitude Fourier peaks reported in recent studies are falsely interpreted as independent pulsation modes and a significantly lower number of frequencies are associated with pulsation, consistent with only modes of low degree.

  6. Role of NSO compounds during primary cracking of a Type II kerogen and a Type III lignite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar, F.; Lorant, F.; Lewan, M.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this work is to follow the generation of NSO compounds during the artificial maturation of an immature Type II kerogen and a Type III lignite in order to determine the different sources of the petroleum potential during primary cracking. Experiments were carried out in closed system pyrolysis in the temperature range from 225 to 350 ??C. Two types of NSOs were recovered: one is soluble in n-pentane and the second in dichloromethane. A kinetic scheme was optimised including both kerogen and NSO cracking. It was validated by complementary experiments carried out on isolated asphaltenes generated from the Type II kerogen and on the total n-pentane and DCM extracts generated from the Type III lignite. Results show that kerogen and lignite first decompose into DCM NSOs with minor generation of hydrocarbons. Then, the main source of petroleum potential originates from secondary cracking of both DCM and n-pentane NSOs through successive decomposition reactions. These results confirm the model proposed by Tissot [Tissot, B., 1969. Premie??res donne??es sur les me??canismes et la cine??tique de la formation du pe??trole dans les bassins se??dimentaires. Simulation d'un sche??ma re??actionnel sur ordinateur. Oil and Gas Science and Technology 24, 470-501] in which the main source of hydrocarbons is not the insoluble organic matter, but the NSO fraction. As secondary cracking of the NSOs largely overlaps that of the kerogen, it was demonstrated that bulk kinetics in open system is a result of both kerogen and NSO cracking. Thus, another kinetic scheme for primary cracking in open system was built as a combination of kerogen and NSO cracking. This new kinetic scheme accounts for both the rate and amounts of hydrocarbons generated in a closed pyrolysis system. Thus, the concept of successive steps for hydrocarbon generation is valid for the two types of pyrolysis system and, for the first time, a common kinetic scheme is available for extrapolating results to natural

  7. The VLT Measures the Shape of a Type Ia Supernova

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-08-01

    First Polarimetric Detection of Explosion Asymmetry has Cosmological Implications Summary An international team of astronomers [2] has performed new and very detailed observations of a supernova in a distant galaxy with the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) at the Paranal Observatory (Chile). They show for the first time that a particular type of supernova, caused by the explosion of a "white dwarf", a dense star with a mass around that of the Sun, is asymmetric during the initial phases of expansion . The significance of this observation is much larger than may seem at a first glance . This particular kind of supernova, designated "Type Ia", plays a very important role in the current attempts to map the Universe. It has for long been assumed that Type Ia supernovae all have the same intrinsic brightness , earning them a nickname as "standard candles". If so, differences in the observed brightness between individual supernovae of this type simply reflect their different distances. This, and the fact that the peak brightness of these supernovae rivals that of their parent galaxy, has allowed to measure distances of even very remote galaxies . Some apparent discrepancies that were recently found have led to the discovery of cosmic acceleration . However, this first clearcut observation of explosion asymmetry in a Type Ia supernova means that the exact brightness of such an object will depend on the angle from which it is seen. Since this angle is unknown for any particular supernova, this obviously introduces an amount of uncertainty into this kind of basic distance measurements in the Universe which must be taken into account in the future. Fortunately, the VLT data also show that if you wait a little - which in observational terms makes it possible to look deeper into the expanding fireball - then it becomes more spherical. Distance determinations of supernovae that are performed at this later stage will therefore be more accurate. PR Photo 24a/03 : Spiral galaxy NGC

  8. Blood group antigen A type 3 expression is a favorable prognostic factor in advanced NSCLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, L H; Kuemmel, A; Schliemann, C; Schulze, A; Humberg, J; Mohr, M; Görlich, D; Hartmann, W; Bröckling, S; Marra, A; Hillejan, L; Goletz, S; Karsten, U; Berdel, W E; Spieker, T; Wiewrodt, R

    2016-02-01

    Several blood group-related carbohydrate antigens are prognosis-relevant markers of tumor tissues. A type 3 (repetitive A) is a blood group antigen specific for A1 erythrocytes. Its potential expression in tumor tissues has so far not been examined. We have evaluated its expression in normal lung and in lung cancer using a novel antibody (A69-A/E8). For comparison an anti-A antibody specific to A types 1 and 2 was used, because its expression on lung cancer tissue has been previously reported to be of prognostic relevance. Resected tissue samples of 398 NSCLC patients were analyzed in immunohistochemistry using tissue microarrays. Expression of A type 3 was not observed in non-malignant lung tissues. A type 3 was expressed on tumor cells of around half of NSCLC patients of blood group A1 (ptype 1/2 antigen was observed (p=0.562), the expression of A type 3 by tumor cells indicated a highly significant favorable prognosis among advanced NSCLC patients (p=0.011) and in NSCLC patients with lymphatic spread (p=0.014). Univariate prognostic results were confirmed in a Cox proportional hazards model. In this study we present for the first time prognostic data for A type 3 antigen expression in lung cancer patients. Prospective studies should be performed to confirm the prognostic value of A type 3 expression for an improved risk stratification in NSCLC patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Preparation and cellular response of porous A-type carbonated hydroxyapatite nanoceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Bo; Liao Xiaoling; Zheng Li; He Huawei; Wang Hong; Fan Hongsong; Zhang Xingdong

    2012-01-01

    Microwave sintering using the activated carbon as embedding material was applied in preparation of porous A-type carbonated hydroxyapatite ceramics with nano(nCHA) and submicron (mCHA) structure. By examining the linear shrinkages and the compressive strengths of samples at different temperatures, a suitable microwave sintering temperature was achieved. The microwave sintering method was successfully used to prepare A-type CHA with nano or submicron structure, and the mechanism of the formation of A-type carbonate groups was discussed also. Compared with the samples prepared by the conventional sintering method (mHA), the nCHA bioceramics synthesized by the microwave sintering approach had smaller grain size and more uniform microstructure, and showed a compressive strength similar to the conventional samples. In vitro dissolution test proved that nCHA exhibits better degradation property in comparison to pure HA. Rat osteoblasts were cultured with nCHA, mCHA and mHA to evaluate their biocompatibility, and nCHA showed significant enhancement of cells in attachment, proliferation and differentiation. In conclusion, carbonate groups can be easily introduced to HA crystal structure using the activated carbon as embedding material, and microwave sintering is an effective and simple method in preparing A-type CHA with a nanostructure. Results from this in vitro biological study suggest that porous A-type carbonated hydroxyapatite nanoceramics may be a much better candidate for clinical use in terms of bioactivity. - Highlights: ► We prepared porous A-type carbonated hydroxyapatite nanoceramics with microwave sintering. ► We examined physico-chemical characterization and osteoblast response. ► The nanoceramics have a comparable compressive strength to samples with conventional sintering method. ► The nanoceramics enhance degradation property, osteoblast proliferation and differentiation. ► The activated carbon is favorable for preheating samples and providing

  10. Are greenhouse gas emissions from international shipping a type of marine pollution?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Yubing

    2016-01-01

    Whether greenhouse gas emissions from international shipping are a type of marine pollution is a controversial issue and is currently open to debate. This article examines the current treaty definitions of marine pollution, and applies them to greenhouse gas emissions from ships. Based on the legal analysis of treaty definitions and relevant international and national regulation on this issue, this article asserts that greenhouse gas emissions from international shipping are a type of ‘conditional’ marine pollution. - Highlights: • Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from international shipping are a type of ‘conditional’ marine pollution. • Shipping CO 2 may be treated as marine pollution under the 1972 London Dumping Convention. • Countries have adopted different legislation concerning the legal nature of GHG emissions from ships. • Regulating CO 2 emissions from ships as marine pollution may expedite global GHG emissions reduction.

  11. Stability of monomeric Cro variants: Isoenergetic transformation of a type I' to a type II' beta-hairpin by single amino acid replacements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollah, A K M M; Stennis, Rhonda L; Mossing, Michael C

    2003-05-01

    The thermodynamic stabilities of three monomeric variants of the bacteriophage lambda Cro repressor that differ only in the sequence of two amino acids at the apex of an engineered beta-hairpin have been determined. The sequences of the turns are EVK-XX-EVK, where the two central residues are DG, GG, and GT, respectively. Standard-state unfolding free energies, determined from circular dichroism measurements as a function of urea concentration, range from 2.4 to 2.7 kcal/mole, while those determined from guanidine hydrochloride range from 2.8 to 3.3 kcal/mole for the three proteins. Thermal denaturation yields van't Hoff unfolding enthalpies of 36 to 40 kcal /mole at midpoint temperatures in the range of 53 to 58 degrees C. Extrapolation of the thermal denaturation free energies with heat capacities of 400 to 600 cal/mole deg gives good agreement with the parameters determined in denaturant titrations. As predicted from statistical surveys of amino acid replacements in beta-hairpins, energetic barriers to transformation from a type I' turn (DG) to a type II' turn (GT) can be quite small.

  12. IPHAS A-TYPE STARS WITH MID-INFRARED EXCESSES IN SPITZER SURVEYS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hales, Antonio S.; Barlow, Michael J.; Drew, Janet E.; Unruh, Yvonne C.; Greimel, Robert; Irwin, Michael J.; Gonzalez-Solares, Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    We have identified 17 A-type stars in the Galactic Plane that have mid-infrared (mid-IR) excesses at 8 μm. From observed colors in the (r' - Hα) - (r' - i') plane, we first identified 23,050 early A-type main-sequence (MS) star candidates in the Isaac Newton Photometric H-Alpha Survey (IPHAS) point source database that are located in Spitzer Galactic Legacy Mid-Plane Survey Extraordinaire Galactic plane fields. Imposing the requirement that they be detected in all seven Two Micron All Sky Survey and Infrared Astronomical Satellite bands led to a sample of 2692 candidate A-type stars with fully sampled 0.6 to 8 μm spectral energy distributions (SEDs). Optical classification spectra of 18 of the IPHAS candidate A-type MS stars showed that all but one could be well fitted using MS A-type templates, with the other being an A-type supergiant. Out of the 2692 A-type candidates 17 (0.6%) were found to have 8 μm excesses above the expected photospheric values. Taking into account non-A-Type contamination estimates, the 8 μm excess fraction is adjusted to ∼0.7%. The distances to these sources range from 0.7 to 2.5 kpc. Only 10 out of the 17 excess stars had been covered by Spitzer MIPSGAL survey fields, of which five had detectable excesses at 24 μm. For sources with excesses detected in at least two mid-IR wavelength bands, blackbody fits to the excess SEDs yielded temperatures ranging from 270 to 650 K, and bolometric luminosity ratios L IR /L * from 2.2 x 10 -3 - 1.9 x 10 -2 , with a mean value of 7.9 x 10 -3 (these bolometric luminosities are lower limits as cold dust is not detectable by this survey). Both the presence of mid-IR excesses and the derived bolometric luminosity ratios are consistent with many of these systems being in the planet-building transition phase between the early protoplanetary disk phase and the later debris disk phase.

  13. Are greenhouse gas emissions from international shipping a type of marine pollution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yubing

    2016-12-15

    Whether greenhouse gas emissions from international shipping are a type of marine pollution is a controversial issue and is currently open to debate. This article examines the current treaty definitions of marine pollution, and applies them to greenhouse gas emissions from ships. Based on the legal analysis of treaty definitions and relevant international and national regulation on this issue, this article asserts that greenhouse gas emissions from international shipping are a type of 'conditional' marine pollution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Abnormal A-type lamin organization in a human lung carcinoma cell line

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Machiels, BM; Broers, JL; Raymond, Y; de Leij, Louis; Kuijpers, HJH; Caberg, NEH; Ramaekers, Frans C. S.

    We have studied the expression of lamins A and C (A-type lamins) in a lung carcinoma cell line using type-specific monoclonal antibodies, Using immunofluorescence and immunoblotting studies it was noted that several irregularities in lamin expression exist in the cell line GLC-A1, derived from an

  15. Permian ultrafelsic A-type granite from Besar Islands group, Johor, peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghani, Azman A.; Hazad, Fatin Izzani; Jamil, Azmiah; Xiang, Quek Long; Atiqah Wan Ismail, Wan Nur; Chung, Sun-Lin; Lai, Yu-Ming; Roselee, Muhammad Hatta; Islami, Nur; Nyein, Kyaw Kyaw; Amir Hassan, Meor Hakif; Abu Bakar, Mohd Farid; Umor, Mohd Rozi

    2014-12-01

    The granitic rocks of the peninsula have traditionally been divided into two provinces, i.e., Western and Eastern provinces, corresponding to S- and I-type granite respectively. The Western Province granite is characterised by megacrystic and coarse-grained biotite, tin-mineralised, continental collision granite, whereas, the Eastern Province granite is bimodal I-type dominated by granodiorite and associated gabbroic of arc type granite. This paper reports the occurrence of an A-type granite from peninsular Malaysia. The rocks occur in the Besar, Tengah, and Hujung islands located in the southeastern part of the peninsula. The granite is highly felsic with SiO2 ranging from 75.70% to 77.90% (differentiation index = 94.2-97.04). It is weakly peraluminous (average ACNK =1.02), has normative hypersthene (0.09-2.19%) and high alkali content (8.32-8.60%). The granites have many A-type characteristics, among them are shallow level of emplacement, high Ga, FeT/MgO and low P, Sr, Ti, CaO and Nb. Calculated zircon saturation temperatures for the Besar magma ranging from 793 ∘ to 806 ∘C is consistent with high temperature partial melting of a felsic infracrustal source which is taken as one of the mechanisms to produce A-type magma. The occurrence of the A-type granite can be related to the extensional back arc basin in the Indo-China terrane during the earliest Permian.

  16. Traumatic separation of a type I patella bipartite in a sportsman

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottesen, Casper Smedegaard; Barfod, Kristoffer Weisskirchner; Holck, Kim

    2014-01-01

    fibrocartilage was found on both parts of the patella. Asymptomatic patella bi-partite was found on X-ray imaging of the patient's left knee, and he was diagnosed to have traumatic separation of a type I patella bipartite. The diagnosis was confirmed by surgical and radiological findings....

  17. Complexity and Intensionality in a Type-1 Framework for Computable Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambov, Branimir Zdravkov

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a type-1 framework for computable analysis designed to facilitate efficient implementations and discusses properties that have not been well studied before for type-1 approaches: the introduction of complexity measures for type-1 representations of real functions, and ways...

  18. When Is a Failure to Replicate Not a Type II Error?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Marco; Urcuioli, Peter J.; Lionello-DeNolf, Karen M.

    2007-01-01

    Zentall and Singer (2007) challenge our conclusion that the work-ethic effect reported by Clement, Feltus, Kaiser, and Zentall (2000) may have been a Type I error by arguing that (a) the effect has been extensively replicated and (b) the amount of overtraining our pigeons received may not have been sufficient to produce it. We believe that our…

  19. Intracellular PHB conversion in a type II methanotroph studied by 13 C NMR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vecherskaya, M.; Dijkema, C.; Stams, A.J.M.

    2001-01-01

    Poly-g-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) formation under aerobic conditions via incorporation of [13C-2]acetate as a cosubstrate and its intracellular degradation under anaerobic conditions in a Type II methanotroph was studied by 13C NMR. During PHB synthesis in the presence of labelled acetate, low levels of

  20. Preparation and cellular response of porous A-type carbonated hydroxyapatite nanoceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Bo, E-mail: Leewave@126.com [Institute of Biomaterials and Living Cell Imaging Technology, School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Chongqing University of Science and Technology, Chongqing 401331 (China) and National Engineering Research Center for Biomaterials, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Liao Xiaoling [Institute of Biomaterials and Living Cell Imaging Technology, School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Chongqing University of Science and Technology, Chongqing 401331 (China); Zheng Li [National Engineering Research Center for Biomaterials, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); He Huawei [Department of Prosthodontics, Beijing Stomatological Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, 100050 (China); Wang Hong [National Engineering Research Center for Biomaterials, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Fan Hongsong, E-mail: hsfan68@hotmail.com [National Engineering Research Center for Biomaterials, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Zhang Xingdong [National Engineering Research Center for Biomaterials, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China)

    2012-05-01

    Microwave sintering using the activated carbon as embedding material was applied in preparation of porous A-type carbonated hydroxyapatite ceramics with nano(nCHA) and submicron (mCHA) structure. By examining the linear shrinkages and the compressive strengths of samples at different temperatures, a suitable microwave sintering temperature was achieved. The microwave sintering method was successfully used to prepare A-type CHA with nano or submicron structure, and the mechanism of the formation of A-type carbonate groups was discussed also. Compared with the samples prepared by the conventional sintering method (mHA), the nCHA bioceramics synthesized by the microwave sintering approach had smaller grain size and more uniform microstructure, and showed a compressive strength similar to the conventional samples. In vitro dissolution test proved that nCHA exhibits better degradation property in comparison to pure HA. Rat osteoblasts were cultured with nCHA, mCHA and mHA to evaluate their biocompatibility, and nCHA showed significant enhancement of cells in attachment, proliferation and differentiation. In conclusion, carbonate groups can be easily introduced to HA crystal structure using the activated carbon as embedding material, and microwave sintering is an effective and simple method in preparing A-type CHA with a nanostructure. Results from this in vitro biological study suggest that porous A-type carbonated hydroxyapatite nanoceramics may be a much better candidate for clinical use in terms of bioactivity. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We prepared porous A-type carbonated hydroxyapatite nanoceramics with microwave sintering. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examined physico-chemical characterization and osteoblast response. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The nanoceramics have a comparable compressive strength to samples with conventional sintering method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The nanoceramics enhance degradation property, osteoblast

  1. HTTM - Design and Implementation of a Type-2 Hypervisor for MIPS64 Based Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ain, Qurrat ul; Anwar, Usama; Mehmood, Muhammad Amir; Waheed, Abdul

    2017-01-01

    Virtualization has emerged as an attractive software solution for many problems in server domain. Recently, it has started to enrich embedded systems domain by offering features such as hardware consolidation, security, and isolation. Our objective is to bring virtualization to high-end MIPS64 based systems, such as network routers, switches, wireless base station, etc. For this purpose a Type-2 hypervisor is a viable software solution which is easy to deploy and requires no changes in host system. In this paper we present the internal design HTTM -A Type-2 hypervisor for MIPS64 based systems and demonstrate its functional correctness by using Linux Testing Project (LTP) tests. Finally, we performed LMbench tests for performance evaluation.

  2. A comparative thermoluminescence and electron spin resonance study of synthetic carbonated A-type hydroxyapatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, L.C.; Rossi, A.M.; Baffa, O.

    2012-01-01

    Intensity of the 150 °C thermoluminescence peak of beta-irradiated carbonated synthetic A-type hydroxyapatite is approximately 12 times higher than that of the noncarbonated material. Deconvolution of the glow curve showed that this peak is a result of a trap distribution. An attempt was made to relate this thermoluminescence peak enhanced by carbonation with the ESR signal of the CO 2 − radical in natural or synthetic hydroxyapatite. - Highlights: ► Synthetic hydroxyapatite was carbonated with CO 2 . ► TL enhanced by 12 times in carbonated synthetic A-type hydroxyapatite. ► EPR and TL were performed to find out a relation between CO 2 − center and the TL. ► No direct relation was found between the CO 2 − center and TL enhancement.

  3. Formalizing and proving a typing result for security protocols in Isabelle/HOL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hess, Andreas Viktor; Modersheim, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    or the positive output of a verification tool. However several of these works have used a typed model, where the intruder is restricted to "well-typed" attacks. There also have been several works that show that this is actually not a restriction for a large class of protocols, but all these results so far...... are again pen-and-paper proofs. In this work we present a formalization of such a typing result in Isabelle/HOL. We formalize a constraint-based approach that is used in the proof argument of such typing results, and prove its soundness, completeness and termination. We then formalize and prove the typing...... result itself in Isabelle. Finally, to illustrate the real-world feasibility, we prove that the standard Transport Layer Security (TLS) handshake satisfies the main condition of the typing result....

  4. Spectroscopic classification of AT 2017byx as a Type Ia Supernova

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinko, J.; Wheeler, J. C.; Sarneczky, K.; Szakats, R.; Szalai, T.; Szekely, P.; HETDEX Collaboration

    2017-05-01

    During the commissioning phase of the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX) survey we observed AT 2017byx (ATLAS17bla, PS17bve) at R.A.=14:17:48.36 Dec.=+52:41:54.6 with the Visible Integral-field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS) at McDonald Observatory on 2017-04-28.2 UT. The spectrum (range between 3500 and 5500 Angstroms) indicates that AT 2017byx is a Type Ia supernova.

  5. Design and testing of a shock absorber for a type I container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sappok, M.; Beine, B.; Rittscher, D.; Jais, M.

    1994-01-01

    A simple method of designing a shock absorber to protect a type B cast-iron container is developed. The results of deformation tests of the structural material (steel pipes) used for the shock absorber are presented. The accelerations and strains measured during the 9m drop tests of the container with the shock absorber are compared with the theoretical results of the calculations for the shock absorber design. ((orig.))

  6. Elastic Composite, Reinforced Lightweight Concrete as a Type of Resilient Composite Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Esmaeili, Kamyar

    2015-01-01

    . A kind of "Elastic Composite, Reinforced Lightweight Concrete (ECRLC)" with the mentioned specifics is a type of "Resilient Composite Systems (RCS)" in which, contrary to the basic geometrical assumption of flexure theory in Solid Mechanics, "the strain changes in the beam height during bending" is typically "Non-linear". . Through employing this integrated structure, with significant high strain capability and modulus of resilience in bending, we could constructively achieve high bearing c...

  7. Struggling with a Gastric Volvulus Secondary to a Type IV Hiatal Hernia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dafnomilis George

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Type IV hiatal hernias are characterized by herniation of the stomach along with associated viscera such as the spleen, colon, small bowel, and pancreas through the esophageal hiatus. They are relatively rare, representing only about 5%–7% of all hernias, and can be associated with severe complications. We report a 71-year-old veteran wrestler who presented to our department with a type IV paraesophageal hernia containing a gastric volvulus and treated successfully with emergency operation.

  8. Magnetic levitation on a type-I superconductor as a practical demonstration experiment for students

    OpenAIRE

    Osorio, M. R.; Lahera, D. E.; Suderow, H.

    2012-01-01

    We describe and discuss an experimental set-up which allows undergraduate and graduate students to view and study magnetic levitation on a type-I superconductor. The demonstration can be repeated many times using one readily available 25 liter liquid helium dewar. We study the equilibrium position of a magnet that levitates over a lead bowl immersed in a liquid hand-held helium cryostat. We combine the measurement of the position of the magnet with simple analytical calculations. This provide...

  9. Osteomyelitis and Discitis Following Translumbar Repair of a Type II Endoleak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sella, David M., E-mail: Sella.david@mayo.edu; Frey, Gregory T., E-mail: Frey.gregory@mayo.edu; Giesbrandt, Kirk, E-mail: giesbrandt.kirk@mayo.edu [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Here we present the case of an 80-year-old man who developed a type II endoleak following endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. Initial attempts at treating the endoleak via a transarterial approach were unsuccessful; therefore the patient underwent percutaneous translumbar endoleak embolization. Approximately 1 month following the translumbar procedure, he developed back pain, with subsequent workup revealing osteomyelitis and discitis as a complication following repair via the translumbar approach.

  10. Regulatory compliance guide for DOT-7A type A packaging design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, D.L.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this guide is to provide instruction for assuring that the regulatory design requirements for a DOT-7A Type A packaging are met. This guide also supports the testing and evaluation activities that are performed on new packaging designs by a DOE-approved test facility through the DOE's DOT-7A Test Program. This Guide was updated to incorporate regulatory changes implemented by HM-169A (49 CFR, 'Transportation')

  11. Identification of a type of defects in CdTe crystals by the piezo spectroscopic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarbajev, M.Yi.

    1999-01-01

    The dependence of line shifts and the photoluminescence line intensity of bound exciton complexes on the direction of elastic deformation are studied for CdTe crystals at 4.2 K. On the basis of the found differences in piezo optic behavior of excitons bound to neutral donors and acceptors, the method of identification of a type of defects in CdTe crystals is proposed

  12. Mean energy of ions at outlet of a type Ecr plasma source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez T, C.; Gonzalez D, J.

    1998-01-01

    In this work it is described the calculations to mean energy of the ions in the extraction zone of a type Ecr plasma source considering the presence of a metallic substrate. This zone is characterized by the existence of a divergent magnetic field. It is showed that mean energy is function as the distance between the outlet and substrate as the value of the external magnetic field. (Author)

  13. A naturally occurring cowpox virus with an ectromelia virus A-type inclusion protein gene displays atypical A-type inclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeke, Malachy Ifeanyi; Hansen, Hilde; Traavik, Terje

    2012-01-01

    Human orthopoxvirus (OPV) infections in Europe are usually caused by cowpox virus (CPXV). The genetic heterogeneity of CPXVs may in part be due to recombination with other OPV species. We describe the characterization of an atypical CPXV (CPXV-No-H2) isolated from a human patient in Norway. CPXV-No-H2 was characterized on the basis of A-type inclusion (ATI) phenotype as well as the DNA region containing the p4c and atip open reading frames. CPXV-No-H2 produced atypical V(+/) ATI, in which virions are on the surface of ATI but not within the ATI matrix. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the atip gene of CPXV-No-H2 clustered closely with that of ectromelia virus (ECTV) with a bootstrap support of 100% whereas its p4c gene is diverged compared to homologues in other OPV species. By recombination analysis we identified a putative crossover event at nucleotide 147, downstream the start of the atip gene. Our results suggest that CPXV-No-H2 originated from a recombination between CPXV and ECTV. Our findings are relevant to the evolution of OPVs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Intrathoracic drainage of a perforated prepyloric gastric ulcer with a type II paraoesophageal hernia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zonneveld Bas JGL

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With an incidence of less than 5%, type II paraesophageal hernias are one of the less common types of hiatal hernias. We report a case of a perforated prepyloric gastric ulcer which, due to a type II hiatus hernia, drained into the mediastinum. Case presentation A 61-year old Caucasian man presented with acute abdominal pain. On a conventional x-ray of the chest a large mediastinal air-fluid collection and free intra-abdominal air was seen. Additional computed tomography revealed a large intra-thoracic air-fluid collection with a type II paraesophageal hernia. An emergency upper midline laparotomy was performed and a perforated pre-pyloric gastric ulcer was treated with an omental patch repair. The patient fully recovered after 10 days and continues to do well. Conclusion Type II paraesophageal hernia is an uncommon diagnosis. The main risk is gastric volvulus and possible gastric torsion. Intrathoracic perforation of gastric ulcers due to a type II hiatus hernia is extremely rare and can be a diagnostic and treatment challenge.

  15. Gamma ray induced electrical conductivity in bisphenol-A type epoxy resin and polyethylene terephthalate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Hideaki; Nakakita, Tsuneo

    1978-01-01

    The insulation materials to support magnets for nuclear fusion reactors are exposed to high energy neutron beam and the gamma ray due to the accompanying induced radio activity through blankets or radiation shields. In such materials, radiation-induced conduction (RIC) is a problem, which occurs due to the charged particles generated in the insulation materials during irradiation. As one of such materials, use of epoxy composite material is expected, but its RIC has been scarcely measured. An approach to measure the wave form of transient current (or electric charge) caused by irradiating the radiation pulses of nano-second order to the materials has been developed. This paper reports the results of having measured RIC in bisphenol-A type epoxy resin at the electric field from 1 x 10 4 to 3 x 10 5 V/cm and γ dose rate from 9 x 10 3 to 9 x 10 5 R/h over the temperature range of -170 deg. C to +110 deg. C. The RIC of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) was also measured in the same regions, whose molecular structure is comparatively similar to the bisphenol-A type epoxy resin, and of which the fundamental processes for RIC have been clarified pretty well. The radiation sources of 4.3 kCi 60 Co of NAIG and 45 kCi 60 Co of JAERI were used. The experimental circuits and the cryostat are described, then as for the results, explanation and discussion are given to the characteristics of induced current, dependence on dose rate and dependence on temperature of RIC conductivity. The process of capturing carrier in deep traps seems to be dominant in the bisphenol-A type epoxy resin, similarly to that of PET. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  16. Atomic-Scale Visualization of Quasiparticle Interference on a Type-II Weyl Semimetal Surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hao; Bian, Guang; Chang, Guoqing; Lu, Hong; Xu, Su-Yang; Wang, Guangqiang; Chang, Tay-Rong; Zhang, Songtian; Belopolski, Ilya; Alidoust, Nasser; Sanchez, Daniel S; Song, Fengqi; Jeng, Horng-Tay; Yao, Nan; Bansil, Arun; Jia, Shuang; Lin, Hsin; Hasan, M Zahid

    2016-12-23

    We combine quasiparticle interference simulation (theory) and atomic resolution scanning tunneling spectromicroscopy (experiment) to visualize the interference patterns on a type-II Weyl semimetal Mo_{x}W_{1-x}Te_{2} for the first time. Our simulation based on first-principles band topology theoretically reveals the surface electron scattering behavior. We identify the topological Fermi arc states and reveal the scattering properties of the surface states in Mo_{0.66}W_{0.34}Te_{2}. In addition, our result reveals an experimental signature of the topology via the interconnectivity of bulk and surface states, which is essential for understanding the unusual nature of this material.

  17. Detection of a human intracisternal A-type retroviral particle antigenically related to HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garry, R. F.; Fermin, C. D.; Hart, D. J.; Alexander, S. S.; Donehower, L. A.; Luo-Zhang, H.

    1990-01-01

    Sjogren's syndrome is an autoimmune disease that is characterized by dryness of the mouth and eyes. The loss of salivary and lacrimal gland function is accompanied by lymphocytic infiltration. Because similar symptoms and glandular pathology are observed in certain persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a search was initiated for a possible retroviral etiology in this syndrome. A human intracisternal A-type retroviral particle that is antigenically related to HIV was detected in lymphoblastoid cells exposed to homogenates of salivary tissue from patients with Sjogren's syndrome. Comparison of this retroviral particle to HIV indicates that they are distinguishable by several ultrastructural, physical, and enzymatic criteria.

  18. Cosmological evolution of a brane Universe in a type 0 string background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papantonopoulos, E.; Pappa, I.

    2002-01-01

    We study the cosmological evolution of a D3-brane Universe in a type 0 string background. We follow the brane universe along the radial coordinate of the background and we calculate the energy density which is induced on the brane because of its motion in the bulk. For constant values of tachyon and dilaton an inflationary phase is appearing. For non constant values of tachyon and dilaton and for a particular range of values of the scale factor of the brane-universe, the effective energy density is dominated by a term proportional to 1/(log α) 4 indicating a slowly varying inflationary phase

  19. A Type System for the Vectorial Aspect of the Linear-Algebraic Lambda-Calculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Arrighi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We describe a type system for the linear-algebraic lambda-calculus. The type system accounts for the part of the language emulating linear operators and vectors, i.e. it is able to statically describe the linear combinations of terms resulting from the reduction of programs. This gives rise to an original type theory where types, in the same way as terms, can be superposed into linear combinations. We show that the resulting typed lambda-calculus is strongly normalizing and features a weak subject-reduction.

  20. Critical region of a type II superconducting film near Hsub(c2): rational approximants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruggeri, G.J.

    1979-01-01

    The high-temperature perturbative expansions for the thermal quantities of a type II superconducting film are extrapolated to the critical region near Hsub(c2) by means of new rational approximants of the Pade type. The new approximants are forced to reproduce the leading correction to the flux lattice contribution on the low-temperature side of the transition. Compared to those previously considered in the literature: (i) the mutual consistency of the approximants is improved; and (ii) they are nearer to the exact solution of the zero-dimensional Landau-Ginsburg model. (author)

  1. Modeling-independent elucidation of inactivation pathways in recombinant and native A-type Kv channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fineberg, Jeffrey D.; Ritter, David M.

    2012-01-01

    A-type voltage-gated K+ (Kv) channels self-regulate their activity by inactivating directly from the open state (open-state inactivation [OSI]) or by inactivating before they open (closed-state inactivation [CSI]). To determine the inactivation pathways, it is often necessary to apply several pulse protocols, pore blockers, single-channel recording, and kinetic modeling. However, intrinsic hurdles may preclude the standardized application of these methods. Here, we implemented a simple method inspired by earlier studies of Na+ channels to analyze macroscopic inactivation and conclusively deduce the pathways of inactivation of recombinant and native A-type Kv channels. We investigated two distinct A-type Kv channels expressed heterologously (Kv3.4 and Kv4.2 with accessory subunits) and their native counterparts in dorsal root ganglion and cerebellar granule neurons. This approach applies two conventional pulse protocols to examine inactivation induced by (a) a simple step (single-pulse inactivation) and (b) a conditioning step (double-pulse inactivation). Consistent with OSI, the rate of Kv3.4 inactivation (i.e., the negative first derivative of double-pulse inactivation) precisely superimposes on the profile of the Kv3.4 current evoked by a single pulse because the channels must open to inactivate. In contrast, the rate of Kv4.2 inactivation is asynchronous, already changing at earlier times relative to the profile of the Kv4.2 current evoked by a single pulse. Thus, Kv4.2 inactivation occurs uncoupled from channel opening, indicating CSI. Furthermore, the inactivation time constant versus voltage relation of Kv3.4 decreases monotonically with depolarization and levels off, whereas that of Kv4.2 exhibits a J-shape profile. We also manipulated the inactivation phenotype by changing the subunit composition and show how CSI and CSI combined with OSI might affect spiking properties in a full computational model of the hippocampal CA1 neuron. This work unambiguously

  2. Ultraviolet spectra of field horizontal-branch A-type stars. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philip, A.G.D.; Hayes, D.S.; Adelman, S.J.

    1990-01-01

    The spectra of six additional A-type stars have been obtained at low resolution between 1200 and 1900 A with the IUE. The energy distributions of four of the stars match that of the field horizontal branch (FHB) distribution in Huenemoerder et al. (1984) while those of the other two do not. Three of the FHB stars fall above a line in the C(19 - V)0 vs. (b-y)0 diagram; however, HD 60825 is anomalously blue for its C(19 - V) color. 7 refs

  3. A-type nuclear lamins act as transcriptional repressors when targeted to promoters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Damian C.; Welton, K. Linnea; Smith, Erica D.; Kennedy, Brian K.

    2009-01-01

    Regions of heterochromatin are often found at the periphery of the mammalian nucleus, juxtaposed to the nuclear lamina. Genes in these regions are likely maintained in a transcriptionally silent state, although other locations at the nuclear periphery associated with nuclear pores are sites of active transcription. As primary components of the nuclear lamina, A- and B-type nuclear lamins are intermediate filament proteins that interact with DNA, histones and known transcriptional repressors, leading to speculation that they may promote establishment of repressive domains. However, no direct evidence of a role for nuclear lamins in transcriptional repression has been reported. Here we find that human lamin A, when expressed in yeast and cultured human cells as a fusion protein to the Gal4 DNA-binding domain (DBD), can mediate robust transcriptional repression of promoters with Gal4 binding sites. Full repression by lamin A requires both the coiled-coil rod domain and the C-terminal tail domain. In human cells, other intermediate filament proteins such as lamin B and vimentin are unable to confer robust repression as Gal4-DBD fusions, indicating that this property is specific to A-type nuclear lamins. These findings indicate that A-type lamins can promote transcriptional repression when in proximity of a promoter

  4. Safety analysis report: packages. DOT specification 7A - Type A container Mark 15 sludge shipping package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeh, C.W.

    1985-03-01

    Sludge or filter cake containing 1.1 wt % 235 U enriched uranium from Mark 15 fabrication will be packaged in 55-gallon containers and shipped from SRP to NLO, Fernald, Ohio for recovery of product. About 7 Metric Tons (MT) of filter cake will be produced from fabricating Mark 15 slugs each reactor charge. Packaged shipments of this material, consigned as exclusive use, will be shipped to NLO in Department of Transportation (DOT) Specification 7A - Type A packages under a DOE Certificate of Compliance for Fissile Class III shipments. ''Type A packaging'' is designed to retain containment and shielding integrity under normal conditions of transport. This report documents compliance of the package design, construction methods, material and test performance with DOT Specification 7A. This DOT 7A Type A package contains a carbon steel outer container which is a 0.060-in.-thick 55-gal, galvanized drum equipped with a gasketed closure. The outer container encloses a 0.090-in.-thick, open head, polyethylene liner with lid

  5. Hydrothermally-induced changes in mineralogy and magnetic properties of oxidized A-type granites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nédélec, Anne; Trindade, Ricardo; Peschler, Anne; Archanjo, Carlos; Macouin, Mélina; Poitrasson, Franck; Bouchez, Jean-Luc

    2015-01-01

    The changes in magnetic mineralogy due to the hydrothermal alteration of A-type granitic rocks have been thoroughly investigated in samples from the granite of Tana (Corsica, France), and compared with other A-type granites: Meruoca (NE Brazil), Bushveld (South Africa), Mount Scott (Wichita Mountains, Oklahoma, USA) and the stratoid hypersolvus granites of Madagascar. The altered red-colored samples and their non-altered equivalents were magnetically characterized by means of magnetic susceptibility measurements, hysteresis loops, remanent coercivity spectra, and Lowrie test. It is shown that hydrothermalization in magnetite-bearing granites is related to the formation of fine-grained magnetite and hematite, and to coeval depletion in the content of primary low-coercive coarse-grained magnetite. These mineralogical changes give typical rock magnetic signatures, namely lower susceptibility magnitudes and anisotropy degrees, prolate AMS (anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility) fabrics and increased coercivities. Optical microscopy and SEM (scanning electronic microscopy) images suggest that the orientation of the secondary magnetic minerals is related to fluid-pathways and micro-fractures formed during the hydrothermal event and therefore may be unrelated to magma emplacement and crystallization fabrics. Changes in magnetic mineralogy and grain-size distribution have also to be considered for any paleomagnetic and iron isotope studies in granites.

  6. Dentinogenesis imperfect a type II: A case report with 17 years of follow-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gama, Francisco Jose Reis; Correa, Isabella Sousa; Valerio, Claudia Scigliano; Fatima Ferreira, Emanuelle; Manzi, Flavio Ricardo [Pontifical Catholic University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte (Brazil)

    2017-06-15

    Dentinogenesis imperfect a is a dominant autosomal hereditary disorder of dentin formation that affects the deciduous and permanent teeth. Its etiology is characterized by inadequate cell differentiation during odontogenesis. The clinical characteristics of dentinogenesis imperfect a are discolored teeth with a translucency that varies from gray to brown or amber. Radiographically, the teeth exhibit pulp obliteration, thin and short roots, bell-shaped crowns, and periapical bone rarefaction. The aim of this report was to present a case of dentinogenesis imperfect a type II that was followed up over a 17-year period. This report also presents scanning electron microscopy images of the enamel and dentin, showing that both were altered in the affected teeth. The disease characteristics and the treatments that were administered are reported in this study to guide dentists with respect to the need for early diagnosis and adequate follow-up to avoid major sequelae.

  7. Dentinogenesis imperfect a type II: A case report with 17 years of follow-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gama, Francisco Jose Reis; Correa, Isabella Sousa; Valerio, Claudia Scigliano; Fatima Ferreira, Emanuelle; Manzi, Flavio Ricardo

    2017-01-01

    Dentinogenesis imperfect a is a dominant autosomal hereditary disorder of dentin formation that affects the deciduous and permanent teeth. Its etiology is characterized by inadequate cell differentiation during odontogenesis. The clinical characteristics of dentinogenesis imperfect a are discolored teeth with a translucency that varies from gray to brown or amber. Radiographically, the teeth exhibit pulp obliteration, thin and short roots, bell-shaped crowns, and periapical bone rarefaction. The aim of this report was to present a case of dentinogenesis imperfect a type II that was followed up over a 17-year period. This report also presents scanning electron microscopy images of the enamel and dentin, showing that both were altered in the affected teeth. The disease characteristics and the treatments that were administered are reported in this study to guide dentists with respect to the need for early diagnosis and adequate follow-up to avoid major sequelae

  8. A Type of Low-Latency Data Gathering Method with Multi-Sink for Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, Chao; Qiu, Jian-mei; Li, Shu-yan; Qiang, Meng-ye; Wang, Ru-chuan

    2016-01-01

    To balance energy consumption and reduce latency on data transmission in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), a type of low-latency data gathering method with multi-Sink (LDGM for short) is proposed in this paper. The network is divided into several virtual regions consisting of three or less data gathering units and the leader of each region is selected according to its residual energy as well as distance to all of the other nodes. Only the leaders in each region need to communicate with the mobile Sinks which have effectively reduced energy consumption and the end-to-end delay. Moreover, with the help of the sleep scheduling and the sensing radius adjustment strategies, redundancy in network coverage could also be effectively reduced. Simulation results show that LDGM is energy efficient in comparison with MST as well as MWST and its time efficiency on data collection is higher than one Sink based data gathering methods. PMID:27338401

  9. A Type of Low-Latency Data Gathering Method with Multi-Sink for Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Sha

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available To balance energy consumption and reduce latency on data transmission in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs, a type of low-latency data gathering method with multi-Sink (LDGM for short is proposed in this paper. The network is divided into several virtual regions consisting of three or less data gathering units and the leader of each region is selected according to its residual energy as well as distance to all of the other nodes. Only the leaders in each region need to communicate with the mobile Sinks which have effectively reduced energy consumption and the end-to-end delay. Moreover, with the help of the sleep scheduling and the sensing radius adjustment strategies, redundancy in network coverage could also be effectively reduced. Simulation results show that LDGM is energy efficient in comparison with MST as well as MWST and its time efficiency on data collection is higher than one Sink based data gathering methods.

  10. Magnetic levitation on a type-I superconductor as a practical demonstration experiment for students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osorio, M R; Lahera, D E; Suderow, H

    2012-01-01

    We describe and discuss an experimental set-up which allows undergraduate and graduate students to view and study magnetic levitation on a type-I superconductor. The demonstration can be repeated many times using one readily available 25 l liquid helium dewar. We study the equilibrium position of a magnet that levitates over a lead bowl immersed in a liquid hand-held helium cryostat. We combine the measurement of the position of the magnet with simple analytical calculations. This provides a vivid visualization of magnetic levitation from the balance between pure flux expulsion and gravitation. The experiment contrasts and illustrates the case of magnetic levitation with high temperature type-II superconductors using liquid nitrogen, where levitation results from partial flux expulsion and vortex physics. (paper)

  11. Magnetic levitation on a type-I superconductor as a practical demonstration experiment for students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, M. R.; Lahera, D. E.; Suderow, H.

    2012-09-01

    We describe and discuss an experimental set-up which allows undergraduate and graduate students to view and study magnetic levitation on a type-I superconductor. The demonstration can be repeated many times using one readily available 25 l liquid helium dewar. We study the equilibrium position of a magnet that levitates over a lead bowl immersed in a liquid hand-held helium cryostat. We combine the measurement of the position of the magnet with simple analytical calculations. This provides a vivid visualization of magnetic levitation from the balance between pure flux expulsion and gravitation. The experiment contrasts and illustrates the case of magnetic levitation with high temperature type-II superconductors using liquid nitrogen, where levitation results from partial flux expulsion and vortex physics.

  12. Vacuum technologies developed for at-400A Type B transportation and storage package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franklin, K.W.; Cockrell, G.D.

    1995-01-01

    The AT-400A TYPE B transportation and storage container will be used at Pantex Plant for the transportation and interim storage of plutonium pits. The AT-400A was designed by a joint effort between Sandia National Labs, Los Alamos National Labs, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and Mason and Hanger-Silas Mason Co., Inc. In order to meet the requirements for transportation and storage, five different vacuum technologies had to be developed. The goals of the various vacuum technologies were to verify the plutonium pit was sealed, perform the assembly verification leak check in accordance with ANSI N-14.5 and to provide a final inert gas backfill in the containment vessel. This paper will discuss the following five vacuum technologies: (1) Pit Leak Testing, (2) Containment Vessel Purge and Backfill with tracer gas, (3) Containment Vessel Leak Testing, (4) Containment Vessel Purge and Final Backfill, and (5) Leak Testing of the Containment Vessel Gas Transfer tube

  13. Multi-objective optimization of a type of ellipse-parabola shaped superelastic flexure hinge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Du

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Flexure hinges made of superelastic materials is a promising candidate to enhance the movability of compliant mechanisms. In this paper, we focus on the multi-objective optimization of a type of ellipse-parabola shaped superelastic flexure hinge. The objective is to determine a set of optimal geometric parameters that maximizes the motion range and the relative compliance of the flexure hinge and minimizes the relative rotation error during the deformation as well. Firstly, the paper presents a new type of ellipse-parabola shaped flexure hinge which is constructed by an ellipse arc and a parabola curve. Then, the static responses of superelastic flexure hinges are solved via non-prismatic beam elements derived by the co-rotational approach. Finite element analysis (FEA and experiment tests are performed to verify the modeling method. Finally, a multi-objective optimization is performed and the Pareto frontier is found via the NSGA-II algorithm.

  14. Supportive and non-supportive interactions in families with a type 2 diabetes patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennich, Birgitte B; Røder, Michael E; Overgaard, Dorthe

    2017-01-01

    changes and diabetes self-management. The purpose of this integrative review was to summarise and assess published studies on the intra-family perspective of supportive and non-supportive interactions in families with a type 2 diabetes patient. METHODS: Included in the review were published qualitative......BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes and its management affect the patient and the close family potentially causing either psychological distress or increased sense of responsibility and collaboration in these families. Interactions between patient and family play an important role in maintaining lifestyle...... of reference lists. Quality assessment, data extraction and analysis were undertaken on all included studies. RESULTS: We identified five eligible research papers. Employing content analysis three categories describing interactions were refined: Impact of practical action, impact of emotional involvement...

  15. Direct observations of low-energy solar electrons associated with a type 3 solar radio burst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, L. A.; Gurnett, D. A.

    1972-01-01

    On 6 April 1971 a solar X-ray flare and a type 3 solar radio noise burst were observed with instrumentation on the eccentric-orbiting satellite IMP 6. The type 3 solar radio noise burst was detected down to a frequency of 31 kHz. A highly anisotropic packet of low-energy solar electron intensities arrived at the satellite approximately 6000 seconds after the onset of the solar flare. This packet of solar electron intensities was observed for 4200 seconds. Maximum differential intensities of the solar electrons were in the energy range of one to several keV. The frequency drift rate of the type 3 radio noise at frequencies below 178 kHz also indicated an average particle speed corresponding to that of a 3-keV electron. The simultaneous observations of these solar electron intensities and of the type 3 solar radio burst are presented, and their interrelationships are explored.

  16. An overview of the toxicology and toxicokinetics of fusarenon-X, a type B trichothecene mycotoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aupanun, Sawinee; Poapolathep, Saranya; Giorgi, Mario; Imsilp, Kanjana; Poapolathep, Amnart

    2017-01-20

    Fusarenon-X (FX) is a type B trichothecene mycotoxin that is frequently observed along with deoxynivalenol (DON) and nivalenol (NIV) in agricultural commodities. This review aims to give an overview of the literature concerning the toxicology and toxicokinetics of FX. FX is primarily found in cereals grown in temperate regions, but it can also be found worldwide because of the global transport of products. The major toxicity of FX occurs through inhibition of protein synthesis, followed by the disruption of DNA synthesis. Moreover, FX has also been shown to induce apoptosis in in vitro and in vivo studies. The targets of FX are organs containing actively proliferating cells, such as the thymus, spleen, skin, small intestine, testes and bone marrow. FX causes immunosuppression, intestinal malabsorption, developmental toxicity and genotoxicity. In addition, sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in experimental animals is currently lacking, and the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classifies it as a group 3 carcinogen.

  17. The influence of parameters of A-type carbonated apatites synthesis on radiation dose response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Liana Macedo de; Lopes, Ricardo Tadeu

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this work is the investigation of dose response of A-type carbonated apatites prepared in different conditions. Irradiated samples prepared with carbonate content of 1.45 to 4.84% are studied by using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). The EPR spectra are mainly constituted of lines associated to axial CO 2 - species (g perp = 2.0028 and g // = 1.9973) and CO 3 - species (g 1 = 2,0170, g 2 = 2,0090 e g 3 = 2,0041). The production of CO 2 - species on gamma irradiation depends on the carbonate concentration and the hydroxyapatite stoichiometry. The lowest dose detection limit was achieved with stoichiometric samples and carbonate content around of 3.7%. (author)

  18. Effects of Spironolactone and Losartan on Diabetic Nephropathy in a Type 2 Diabetic Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi Young Lee

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundWhile there is an evidence that the anti-inflammatory properties of spironolactone can attenuate proteinuria in type 2 diabetes, its effects on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF expression in diabetic nephropathy have not been clearly defined. In this study, we examined the effects of spironolactone, losartan, and a combination of these two drugs on albuminuria, renal VEGF expression, and inflammatory and oxidative stress markers in a type 2 diabetic rat model.MethodsThirty-three Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima-Fatty (OLETF rats were divided into four groups and treated with different medication regimens from weeks 25 to 50; OLETF diabetic controls (n=5, spironolactone-treated (n=10, losartan-treated (n=9, and combination of spironolactone- and losartan-treated (n=9.ResultsAt week 50, the albumin-to-creatinine ratio was significantly decreased in the losartan and combination groups compared to the control OLETF group. No decrease was detected in the spironolactone group. There was a significant reduction in renal VEGF, transforming growth factor (TGF-β, and type IV collagen mRNA levels in the spironolactone- and combination regimen-treated groups. Twenty-four hour urine monocyte chemotactic protein-1 levels were comparable in all four groups but did show a decreasing trend in the losartan and combination regimen groups. Twenty-four hour urine malondialdehyde levels were significantly decreased in the spironolactone- and combination regimen-treated groups.ConclusionThese results suggest that losartan alone and a combined regimen of spironolactone and losartan could ameliorate albuninuria by reducing renal VEGF expression. Also, simultaneous treatment with spironolactone and losartan may have protective effects against diabetic nephropathy by decreasing TGF-β and type IV collagen expression and by reducing oxidative stress in a type 2 diabetic rat model.

  19. Intratumoral estrogen production and actions in luminal A type invasive lobular and ductal carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Mayu; Miki, Yasuhiro; Miyashita, Minoru; Hata, Shuko; Yoda, Tomomi; Hirakawa, Hisashi; Sagara, Yasuaki; Rai, Yoshiaki; Ohi, Yasuyo; Tamaki, Kentaro; Ishida, Takanori; Suzuki, Takashi; Ouchi, Noriaki; Sasano, Hironobu

    2016-02-01

    The great majority of invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) is estrogen-dependent luminal A type carcinoma but the details of estrogen actions and its intratumoral metabolism have not been well studied compared to invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). We first immunolocalized estrogen-related enzymes including estrogen sulfotransferase (EST), estrogen sulfatase (STS), 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD) 1/2, and aromatase. We then evaluated the tissue concentrations of estrogens in ILC and IDC and subsequently estrogen-responsive gene profiles in these tumors in order to explore the possible differences and/or similarity of intratumoral estrogen environment of these two breast cancer subtypes. The status of STS and 17βHSD1 was significantly lower in ILCs than IDCs (p = 0.022 and p < 0.0001), but that of EST and 17βHSD2 vice versa (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.0106). In ILCs, tissue concentrations of estrone and estradiol were lower than those in IDCs (p = 0.0709 and 0.069). In addition, the great majority of estrogen response genes tended to be lower in ILCs. Among those genes above, FOXP1 was significantly higher in ILCs than in IDCs (p = 0.002). FOXP1 expression was reported to be significantly higher in relapse-free IDC patients treated with tamoxifen. Therefore, tamoxifen may be considered an option of endocrine therapy for luminal A type ILC patients. This is the first study to demonstrate the detailed and comprehensive status of intratumoral production and metabolism of estrogens and the status of estrogen response genes in luminal A-like ILC with comparison to those in luminal A-like IDCs.

  20. EFFECTS OF FOSSIL MAGNETIC FIELDS ON CONVECTIVE CORE DYNAMOS IN A-TYPE STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Featherstone, Nicholas A.; Toomre, Juri; Browning, Matthew K.; Brun, Allan Sacha

    2009-01-01

    The vigorous magnetic dynamo action achieved within the convective cores of A-type stars may be influenced by fossil magnetic fields within their radiative envelopes. We study such effects through three-dimensional simulations that model the inner 30% by radius of a 2 M sun A-type star, capturing the convective core and a portion of the overlying radiative envelope within our computational domain. We employ the three-dimensional anelastic spherical harmonic code to model turbulent dynamics within a deep rotating spherical shell. The interaction between a fossil field and the core dynamo is examined by introducing a large-scale magnetic field into the radiative envelope of a mature A star dynamo simulation. We find that the inclusion of a twisted toroidal fossil field can lead to a remarkable transition in the core dynamo behavior. Namely, a super-equipartition state can be realized in which the magnetic energy built by dynamo action is 10-fold greater than the kinetic energy of the convection itself. Such strong-field states may suggest that the resulting Lorentz forces should seek to quench the flows, yet we have achieved super-equipartition dynamo action that persists for multiple diffusion times. This is achieved by the relative co-alignment of the flows and magnetic fields in much of the domain, along with some lateral displacements of the fastest flows from the strongest fields. Convection in the presence of such strong magnetic fields typically manifests as 4-6 cylindrical rolls aligned with the rotation axis, each possessing central axial flows that imbue the rolls with a helical nature. The roll system also possesses core-crossing flows that couple distant regions of the core. We find that the magnetic fields exhibit a comparable global topology with broad, continuous swathes of magnetic field linking opposite sides of the convective core. We have explored several poloidal and toroidal fossil field geometries, finding that a poloidal component is essential

  1. AC losses in a type II superconductor strip with inhomogeneous critical current distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukamoto, Osami

    2005-01-01

    Analytical formulae derived by Brandt and Indenbom (1993 Phys. Rev. B 48 12893-906) and Norris (1970 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 3 489-507) are often used to calculate the magnetization and AC transport current losses in HTS strip conductors, respectively. In these formulae, homogeneous distribution of critical sheet current density σ c in the strip is assumed. However, it is considered that σ c distributions are inhomogeneous in actual HTS strips and that the inhomogeneous σ c distributions cause deviations of the measured AC loss data of actual HTS strips from those formulae. A semi-analytical method to calculate AC transport current and magnetization losses is derived for a type II superconductor strip with inhomogeneous distribution of σ c in the direction of the strip width. The method is derived modifying the analysis of Brandt et al. The validity of the semi-analytical method is shown by comparing the results calculated by this method with those calculated by the Norris and Brandt formulae and by a different method of our previous work and also with experimental data. Moreover, it is shown that the deviation of the measured data from the Norris and Brandt models can be estimated by assuming proper σ c distributions

  2. Occurrence and activity of a type II CRISPR-Cas system in Lactobacillus gasseri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanozky-Dawes, Rosemary; Selle, Kurt; O'Flaherty, Sarah; Klaenhammer, Todd; Barrangou, Rodolphe

    2015-09-01

    Bacteria encode clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) and CRISPR-associated genes (cas), which collectively form an RNA-guided adaptive immune system against invasive genetic elements. In silico surveys have revealed that lactic acid bacteria harbour a prolific and diverse set of CRISPR-Cas systems. Thus, the natural evolutionary role of CRISPR-Cas systems may be investigated in these ecologically, industrially, scientifically and medically important microbes. In this study, 17 Lactobacillus gasseri strains were investigated and 6 harboured a type II-A CRISPR-Cas system, with considerable diversity in array size and spacer content. Several of the spacers showed similarity to phage and plasmid sequences, which are typical targets of CRISPR-Cas immune systems. Aligning the protospacers facilitated inference of the protospacer adjacent motif sequence, determined to be 5'-NTAA-3' flanking the 3' end of the protospacer. The system in L. gasseri JV-V03 and NCK 1342 interfered with transforming plasmids containing sequences matching the most recently acquired CRISPR spacers in each strain. We report the distribution and function of a native type II-A CRISPR-Cas system in the commensal species L. gasseri. Collectively, these results open avenues for applications for bacteriophage protection and genome modification in L. gasseri, and contribute to the fundamental understanding of CRISPR-Cas systems in bacteria.

  3. A-Type Cranberry Proanthocyanidins Inhibit the RANKL-Dependent Differentiation and Function of Human Osteoclasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy B. Howell

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of A-type cranberry proanthocyanidins (AC-PACs on osteoclast formation and bone resorption activity. The differentiation of human pre-osteoclastic cells was assessed by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP staining, while the secretion of interleukin-8 (IL-8 and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs was measured by ELISA. Bone resorption activity was investigated by using a human bone plate coupled with an immunoassay that detected the release of collagen helical peptides. AC-PACs up to 100 µg/mL were atoxic for osteoclastic cells. TRAP staining evidenced a dose-dependent inhibition of osteoclastogenesis. More specifically, AC-PACs at 50 µg/mL caused a 95% inhibition of RANKL-dependent osteoclast differentiation. This concentration of AC-PACs also significantly increased the secretion of IL-8 (6-fold and inhibited the secretion of both MMP-2 and MMP-9. Lastly, AC-PACs (10, 25, 50 and 100 µg/ml affected bone degradation mediated by mature osteoclasts by significantly decreasing the release of collagen helical peptides. This study suggests that AC-PACs can interfere with osteoclastic cell maturation and physiology as well as prevent bone resorption. These compounds may be considered as therapeutic agents for the prevention and treatment of periodontitis.

  4. Development and Simulation of a Type of Four-Shaft ECVT for a Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Zhang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In hybrid electric vehicles with power-split configurations, the engine can be decoupled from the wheel and operated with improved fuel economy, while the entire efficiency of the powertrain is affected by the circular electric power flow. Two planetary gear (2-PG sets with adding brakes/clutches, namely a type of four shaft elelctric continuously variable transmission (ECVT can provide multi-mode operation for the powertrain and extend the efficient area. First, a conventional 2-PG AT (Automatic Transmission architecture is investigated. By analyzing and comparing the connection and operating modes based on the kinematic relationship and lever analogy, a feasible four-shaft ECVT architecture with two brakes and two simplified versions are picked. To make a trade-off between fuel economy and configuration complexity, an instantaneous optimal control strategy based on the equivalent consumption minimization strategy (ECMS concept is then developed and employed as the unified optimization method in the simulations of three different configurations. Finally, the simulation results show that the simplified versions are suboptimal sets and the fuel economy is sacrificed by the limits of different modes. From the viewpoint of concept design, a multi-mode power-split configuration is more suitable for hybrid electric vehicles. This research applied a systematic methodology from concept design to energy management optimization, which can provide the guidelines for researchers to select a suitable multi-mode power-split hybrid powertrain.

  5. Higgs Signals in a Type I 2HDM or with a Sister Higgs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Daniele S.M. [Fermilab; Fox, Patrick J. [Fermilab; Weiner, Neal J. [New York U.

    2012-07-01

    In models where an additional SU(2)-doublet that does not have couplings to fermions participates in electroweak symmetry breaking, the properties of the Higgs boson are changed. At tree level, in the neighborhood of the SM-like range of parameter space, it is natural to have the coupling to vectors, cV, approximately constant, while the coupling to fermions, cf, is suppressed. This leads to enhanced VBF signals of gamma gamma while keeping other signals of Higgses approximately constant (such as WW* and ZZ*), and suppressing higgs to tau tau. Sizable tree-level effects are often accompanied by light charged Higgs states, which lead to important constraints from b to s gamma and top to b H+, but also often to similarly sizable contributions to the inclusive h to gamma gamma signal from radiative effects. In the simplest model, this is described by a Type I 2HDM, and in supersymmetry is naturally realized with 'sister Higgs' fields. In such a scenario, additional light charged states can contribute further with fewer constraints from heavy flavor decays. With supersymmetry, Grand Unification motivates the inclusion of colored partner fields. These G-quarks may provide additional evidence for such a model.

  6. Characterization of a type-A response regulator differentially expressed during adventitious caulogenesis in Pinus pinaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, José M; Cortizo, Millán; Ordás, Ricardo J

    2012-12-15

    The molecular cloning and characterization of PipsRR1, a type-A response regulator in Pinus pinaster, is reported here. Type-A response regulators mediate downstream responses to cytokinin and act as negative feedback regulators of the signal transduction pathway. Some type-A response regulators in Arabidopsis have been related to de novo meristem formation. However, little information exists in Pinus spp. The PipsRR1 gene contains 5 exons, as do all type-A response regulators in Arabidopsis, and the deduced protein contains a receiver domain with the conserved DDK residues and a short C terminal extension. Expression analysis showed that the PipsRR1 gene is differentially expressed during the first phases of adventitious caulogenesis induced by benzyladenine in P. pinaster cotyledons, suggesting that PipsRR1 plays a role in caulogenesis in conifers. Additionally, a binary vector carrying the PipsRR1 promoter driving GFP:GUS expression was constructed to analyze the promoter activity in P. pinaster somatic embryos. The results of genetic transformation showed GUS activity during somatic embryo mass proliferation and embryo maturation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. SDE decomposition and A-type stochastic interpretation in nonequilibrium processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ruoshi; Tang, Ying; Ao, Ping

    2017-12-01

    An innovative theoretical framework for stochastic dynamics based on the decomposition of a stochastic differential equation (SDE) into a dissipative component, a detailed-balance-breaking component, and a dual-role potential landscape has been developed, which has fruitful applications in physics, engineering, chemistry, and biology. It introduces the A-type stochastic interpretation of the SDE beyond the traditional Ito or Stratonovich interpretation or even the α-type interpretation for multidimensional systems. The potential landscape serves as a Hamiltonian-like function in nonequilibrium processes without detailed balance, which extends this important concept from equilibrium statistical physics to the nonequilibrium region. A question on the uniqueness of the SDE decomposition was recently raised. Our review of both the mathematical and physical aspects shows that uniqueness is guaranteed. The demonstration leads to a better understanding of the robustness of the novel framework. In addition, we discuss related issues including the limitations of an approach to obtaining the potential function from a steady-state distribution.

  8. Stability Analysis of a Type of Takagi-Sugeno PI Fuzzy Control Systems Using Circle Criterion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kairui Cao

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A type of Takagi-Sugeno (T-S Proportional-Integral (PI fuzzy controllers is studied. The T-S PI fuzzy controller is formed by a T-S Proportional-Derivative (PD fuzzy controller connected with an integrator. In this particular structure, the T-S PD fuzzy controller is a weighted sum of some linear PD sub-controllers. The mathematical properties of our T-S PI fuzzy controller are also investigated. Based on these properties, the global asymptotic stability of the fuzzy control systems, in which the T-S PI fuzzy controllers are employed, are analyzed by using the well-known circle criterion. A sufficient condition with an elegant graphical interpretation in the frequency domain is further derived to guarantee the global asymptotic stability of the above fuzzy control systems. Finally, two numerical examples are provided to demonstrate how to deploy this method in analyzing the T-S PI fuzzy control systems in the frequency domain with the aid of some simple graphs.

  9. Hepatitis E virus persists in the presence of a type III interferon response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xin; Li, Xinlei; Ambardekar, Charuta; Hu, Zhimin; Lhomme, Sébastien; Feng, Zongdi

    2017-05-01

    The RIG-I-like RNA helicase (RLR)-mediated interferon (IFN) response plays a pivotal role in the hepatic antiviral immunity. The hepatitis A virus (HAV) and the hepatitis C virus (HCV) counter this response by encoding a viral protease that cleaves the mitochondria antiviral signaling protein (MAVS), a common signaling adaptor for RLRs. However, a third hepatotropic RNA virus, the hepatitis E virus (HEV), does not appear to encode a functional protease yet persists in infected cells. We investigated HEV-induced IFN responses in human hepatoma cells and primary human hepatocytes. HEV infection resulted in persistent virus replication despite poor spread. This was companied by a type III IFN response that upregulated multiple IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs), but type I IFNs were barely detected. Blocking type III IFN production or signaling resulted in reduced ISG expression and enhanced HEV replication. Unlike HAV and HCV, HEV did not cleave MAVS; MAVS protein size, mitochondrial localization, and function remained unaltered in HEV-replicating cells. Depletion of MAVS or MDA5, and to a less extent RIG-I, also diminished IFN production and increased HEV replication. Furthermore, persistent activation of the JAK/STAT signaling rendered infected cells refractory to exogenous IFN treatment, and depletion of MAVS or the receptor for type III IFNs restored the IFN responsiveness. Collectively, these results indicate that unlike other hepatotropic RNA viruses, HEV does not target MAVS and its persistence is associated with continuous production of type III IFNs.

  10. A Peculiar Subclass of Type Ia Supernovae a.k.a. Type Iax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mridweeka; Misra, Kuntal; Sahu, Devendra Kumar; Dastidar, Raya; Gangopadhyay, Anjasha; Bose, Subhash; Srivastav, Shubham; Anapuma, Gadiyara Chakrapani; Chakradhari, Nand Kumar; Kumar, Brajesh; Kumar, Brijesh; Pandey, Shashi Bhushan

    2018-04-01

    We present optical photometric (upto ˜ 410 days since Bmax) and spectroscopic (upto ˜ 235 days since Bmax) observations of a type Iax supernova SN 2014dt located in M61. The broad band light curves follow a linear decline up to ˜ 100 days after which a significant flattening is seen in the late-time (beyond 150 days) light curves of SN 2014dt. SN 2014dt best matches the light curve evolution of SN 2005hk and reaches a peak magnitude of MB˜ -18.12±0.04 with ?m15˜ 1.35±0.06 mag. The earliest spectrum at ˜ 23 days is dominated by FeII and CoII lines with the absence of the Si II 6150 Å line. Using the peak bolometric luminosity we estimate a 56Ni mass of 0.14 M⊙ in the case of SN 2005hk and the striking similarity between SN 2014dt and SN 2005hk implies that a comparable amount of 56Ni would have been synthesized in the explosion of SN 2014dt. There are several explosion scenarios proposed for these peculiar events. Being one of the brightest and closest SN! , SN 2014dt is an ideal candidate for long term monitoring. Late phase observations are very essential to understand the progenitor system and the actual explosion scenario for these events.

  11. Siblings Promote a Type 1/Type 17-oriented immune response in the airways of asymptomatic neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolsk, H M; Chawes, B L; Følsgaard, N V; Rasmussen, M A; Brix, S; Bisgaard, H

    2016-06-01

    Siblings have been shown to reduce the risk of childhood asthma and allergy, but the mechanism driving this association is unknown. The objective was to study whether siblings affect the airway immune response in healthy neonates, which could represent an underlying immune modulatory pathway. We measured 20 immune mediators related to the Type 1, Type 2, Type 17, or regulatory immune pathways in the airway mucosa of 571 one-month-old asymptomatic neonates from the Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood2010 birth cohort (COPSAC2010 ). The association between airway mediator levels and presence of siblings was investigated using conventional statistics and principle component analysis (PCA). Neonates with siblings had an upregulated level of airway immune mediators, with predominance of Type 1- and Type 17-related mediators. This was supported by the PCA showing a highly significant difference between children with vs without siblings: P Siblings mediate a Type 1/Type 17-related immune-stimulatory effect in the airways of asymptomatic neonates, also after adjustment for pathogenic bacteria and viruses, indicating that siblings exert a transferable early immune modulatory effect. These findings may represent an in utero immune priming effect of the fetal immune system caused by previous pregnancies as the effect was attenuated with time since last childbirth, or it could relate to the presence of unidentified microbes, but further studies are needed to confirm our findings. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Rhynchophylline from Uncaria rhynchophylla functionally turns delayed rectifiers into A-Type K+ channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Chun-Hsiao; Gong, Chi-Li; Chao, Chia-Chia; Lin, Chia-Huei; Kwan, Chiu-Yin; Hsieh, Ching-Liang; Leung, Yuk-Man

    2009-05-22

    Rhynchophylline (1), a neuroprotective agent isolated from the traditional Chinese medicinal herb Uncaria rhynchophylla, was shown to affect voltage-gated K(+) (Kv) channel slow inactivation in mouse neuroblastoma N2A cells. Extracellular 1 (30 microM) accelerated the slow decay of Kv currents and shifted the steady-state inactivation curve to the left. Intracellular dialysis of 1 did not accelerate the slow current decay, suggesting that this compound acts extracellularly. In addition, the percent blockage of Kv currents by this substance was independent of the degree of depolarization and the intracellular K(+) concentration. Therefore, 1 did not appear to directly block the outer channel pore, with the results obtained suggesting that it drastically accelerated Kv channel slow inactivation. Interestingly, 1 also shifted the activation curve to the left. This alkaloid also strongly accelerated slow inactivation and caused a left shift of the activation curve of Kv1.2 channels heterologously expressed in HEK293 cells. Thus, this compound functionally turned delayed rectifiers into A-type K(+) channels.

  13. Polymetallic mineralised veins in ferroan/A-type Cretaceous leucogranite, Stewart Island, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allibone, A.H.; MacKenzie, D.; Turnbull, R.E.; Tulloch, A.J.; Craw, D.; Palin, M.

    2016-01-01

    The 140±1 Ma hypersolvus, ferroan, weakly peralkaline to weakly peraluminous North Red Head leucogranite in northwest Stewart Island is cut by quartz-pyrite-rich veins that contain a wide variety of Mo, Ag, Te, Bi, Au, Co, Cu, Pb, Zn, REE, Nb, Y, Th, U, Zr, Ti, Be and F-bearing minerals. Patchy hematite-pyrite alteration locally overprints leucogranite in the vicinity of the mineralised veins. Individual veins are up to 5 m thick and 200+ m long. U-Pb dating and trace-element geochemistry indicate a direct link between leucogranite crystallisation and exsolution of the vein-forming hydrothermal fluid. Mineralised veins developed along transpressional faults within the leucogranite soon after emplacement. Incipiently mineralised quartz?±?pyrite veins at Waituna Bay and the northern end of West Ruggedy Beach several kilometres from North Red Head are probably part of the same hydrothermal system as the veins at North Red Head. Metal and alteration assemblages at North Red Head most closely resemble those in rare hydrothermal systems associated with oxidised fluorine-rich A-type granites. (author).

  14. Influence of grain size on the tensile and creep properties of a type 316 stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mannan, S.L.; Samuel, K.G.; Rodriguez, P.

    The influence of grain size, on the tensile deformation behaviour in the temperature range 300-1223 K and on the creep rate at 873 and 973 K over a wide range of applied stresses, in a type 316 stainless steel has been investigated. For the tensile results, the Hall-Petch relation was found to be valid up to 1023 K. The variations of flow stress and work hardening rate with temperature and grain size have been found to be influenced by dynamic strain aging which occurs in the temperature range 523-923 K. The creep experiments revealed that grain boundaries contribute to strengthening at high stresses (180-260 MPa) at 873 K but this strengthening does not correlate with the available models which attempt to incorporate the Hall-Petch strengthening effect into creep rate equations. At 973 K the creep rate was generally constant but increased at small grain sizes and at lower stresses due to increased contribution from grain boundary sliding. The difference in the grain size effects on creep at the two temperatures is attributed to the difference in the substructures developed during creep. (author)

  15. The Fractional Step Method Applied to Simulations of Natural Convective Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westra, Douglas G.; Heinrich, Juan C.; Saxon, Jeff (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes research done to apply the Fractional Step Method to finite-element simulations of natural convective flows in pure liquids, permeable media, and in a directionally solidified metal alloy casting. The Fractional Step Method has been applied commonly to high Reynold's number flow simulations, but is less common for low Reynold's number flows, such as natural convection in liquids and in permeable media. The Fractional Step Method offers increased speed and reduced memory requirements by allowing non-coupled solution of the pressure and the velocity components. The Fractional Step Method has particular benefits for predicting flows in a directionally solidified alloy, since other methods presently employed are not very efficient. Previously, the most suitable method for predicting flows in a directionally solidified binary alloy was the penalty method. The penalty method requires direct matrix solvers, due to the penalty term. The Fractional Step Method allows iterative solution of the finite element stiffness matrices, thereby allowing more efficient solution of the matrices. The Fractional Step Method also lends itself to parallel processing, since the velocity component stiffness matrices can be built and solved independently of each other. The finite-element simulations of a directionally solidified casting are used to predict macrosegregation in directionally solidified castings. In particular, the finite-element simulations predict the existence of 'channels' within the processing mushy zone and subsequently 'freckles' within the fully processed solid, which are known to result from macrosegregation, or what is often referred to as thermo-solutal convection. These freckles cause material property non-uniformities in directionally solidified castings; therefore many of these castings are scrapped. The phenomenon of natural convection in an alloy under-going directional solidification, or thermo-solutal convection, will be explained. The

  16. [Work integration of impaired workers in a type-B social cooperative].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taino, G; Gazzoldi, T; Marandola, P; Fabris, F; Ferrari, M; Imbriani, M

    2008-01-01

    This research aims to evaluate job occupation results of impaired workers in a type-B social cooperative, taking into consideration not only specific occupational risks' analysis and assessment, but also organisational, relational and psycho-social matters essential for their stable job occupation. The impaired workers involved were all those hired by a type-B social cooperative from Jan 1999 until Dec 2007, ie. 16 workers (M 8, F 8), equal to 40% of employees' total number. Every impaired worker has been submitted to preventive health surveillance in order to evaluate the degree of disability and residual job ability in relation to the job tasks suitable for him/her. In order to find available tasks which can be performed by disadvantaged workers, the personnel chart has been analyzed, and 10 of the 16 workers (equal to 62.5%) have been considered fit for the specific task without limitations. The other 6 (37.5%) have been considered capable of the specific task with limitations and/or prescriptions, and for 2 of them (12.5%) a tutorial supervision prescription was also necessary. Among those 6 workers with limitations and/or prescriptions, 4 were psychologically impaired (67%) and 2 were physically impaired (37%). The situation of these 16 impaired workers has been periodically verified and followed up for 8 years. Not only have the fifteen workers continued to perform the task initially considered suitable for their health status, but for some of them (5 workers), an increase in job performance, in both complexity and shift duration, has been observed. Moreover, with the only exception of a psychologically impaired worker who did alternate between good comfort times and occasional disease acute phases, all other workers have shown good and stable gains in psychological and physical health conditions, performing requested tasks not only with efficiency, but also with commitment and motivation. All workers have shown a remarkable improvement in their ability to

  17. Design and testing of a shock absorber for a type 1 container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sappok, M.; Beine, B.; Rittscher, D.

    1993-01-01

    A shock-absorber will be required for a rad. waste 'Konrad' type 1 container made of ductile cast iron whenever it will be used as a type B container according to the IAEA-Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive materials. The shock-absorber has to protect the type B container during shipping such as to withstand the accident scenarios that are covered by the IAEA-Regulation tests without substantial loss of its shielding and tightness functions. The designation as type 1 container originates from German regulations for the intermediate storage site Gorleben and the final depository Konrad-mine. These regulations call for the limits on outside dimensions of 1700 mm in length, 1600 mm in width and 1450 mm in height as well as for a limit of 20 Mg on total weight without shock-absorber. The relatively simple design method for the shock-absorber has been validated by the test results. It can be extended to other materials and designs for shock-absorbers if reliable force-displacement-diagrams are available for the structural elements from which the absorbed energy and the displacements can be calculated by integration. In order to account for the dynamic effects, the better approximation of the true duration of the impact would be helpful. The present limit of 0.5 R p0,2 on the nominal stresses should be discussed because the large number of tests on containers made of ductile cast iron that have been performed up to now have shown a substantial level of conservatism on this respect. The sharply tapered pipes on edge Kl of the shock-absorbers should be replaced by pipe bends. This will result in smaller accelerations and in an even higher level of protection of the container than effected by the tested shock-absorber

  18. Effective cancer vaccine platform based on attenuated salmonella and a type III secretion system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xin; Hegazy, Wael A H; Guo, Linjie; Gao, Xiuhua; Courtney, Amy N; Kurbanov, Suhrab; Liu, Daofeng; Tian, Gengwen; Manuel, Edwin R; Diamond, Don J; Hensel, Michael; Metelitsa, Leonid S

    2014-11-01

    Vaccines explored for cancer therapy have been based generally on injectable vector systems used to control foreign infectious pathogens, to which the immune system evolved to respond naturally. However, these vectors may not be effective at presenting tumor-associated antigens (TAA) to the immune system in a manner that is sufficient to engender antitumor responses. We addressed this issue with a novel orally administered Salmonella-based vector that exploits a type III secretion system to deliver selected TAA in the cytosol of professional antigen-presenting cells in situ. A systematic comparison of candidate genes from the Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 2 (SPI2) locus was conducted in the vaccine design, using model antigens and a codon-optimized form of the human TAA survivin (coSVN), an oncoprotein that is overexpressed in most human cancers. In a screen of 20 SPI2 promoter:effector combinations, a PsifB::sseJ combination exhibited maximal potency for antigen translocation into the APC cytosol, presentation to CD8 T cells, and murine immunogenicity. In the CT26 mouse model of colon carcinoma, therapeutic vaccination with a lead PsifB::sseJ-coSVN construct (p8032) produced CXCR3-dependent infiltration of tumors by CD8 T cells, reversed the CD8:Treg ratio at the tumor site, and triggered potent antitumor activity. Vaccine immunogenicity and antitumor potency were enhanced by coadministration of the natural killer T-cell ligand 7DW8-5, which heightened the production of IL12 and IFNγ. Furthermore, combined treatment with p8032 and 7DW8-5 resulted in complete tumor regression in A20 lymphoma-bearing mice, where protective memory was demonstrated. Taken together, our results demonstrate how antigen delivery using an oral Salmonella vector can provide an effective platform for the development of cancer vaccines. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  19. Charnockites and granites of the western Adirondacks, New York, USA: a differentiated A-type suite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, P.R.

    1992-01-01

    Granitic rocks in the west-central Adirondack Highlands of New York State include both relatively homogeneous charnockitic and hornblende granitic gneisses (CG), that occur in thick stratiform bodies and elliptical domes, and heterogeneous leucogneisses (LG), that commonly are interlayered with metasedimentary rocks. Major- and trace-element geochemical analyses were obtained for 115 samples, including both types of granitoids. Data for CG fail to show the presence of more than one distinct group based on composition. Most of the variance within the CG sample population is consistent with magmatic differentiation combined with incomplete separation of early crystals of alkali feldspar, plagioclase, and pyroxenes or amphibole from the residual liquid. Ti, Fe, Mg, Ca, P, Sr, Ba, and Zr decrease with increasing silica, while Rb and K increase. Within CG, the distinction between charnockitic (orthopyroxene-bearing) and granitic gneisses is correlated with bulk chemistry. The charnockites are consistently more mafic than the hornblende granitic gneisses, although forming a continuum with them. The leucogneisses, while generally more felsic than the charnockites and granitic gneisses, are otherwise geochemically similar to them. The data are consistent with the LG suite being an evolved extrusive equivalent of the intrusive CG suite. Both CG and LG suites are metaluminous to mildly peraluminous and display an A-type geochemical signature, enriched in Fe, K, Ce, Y, Nb, Zr, and Ga and depleted in Ca, Mg, and Sr relative to I- and S-type granites. Rare earth element patterns show moderate LREE enrichment and a negative Eu anomaly throughout the suite. The geochemical data suggest an origin by partial melting of biotite- and plagioclase-rich crustal rocks. Emplacement occurred in an anorogenic or post-collisional tectonic setting, probably at relatively shallow depths. Deformation and granulite-facies metamorphism with some partial melting followed during the Ottawan phase

  20. THE EARLIEST NEAR-INFRARED TIME-SERIES SPECTROSCOPY OF A TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsiao, E. Y.; Phillips, M. M.; Morrell, N.; Contreras, C.; Roth, M. [Carnegie Observatories, Las Campanas Observatory, Colina El Pino, Casilla 601 (Chile); Marion, G. H.; Kirshner, R. P. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Burns, C. R.; Freedman, W. L.; Persson, S. E. [Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara St, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Winge, C. [Gemini South Observatory, c/o AURA Inc., Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile); Kromer, M.; Gall, E. E. E. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, D-85741 Garching bei Muenchen (Germany); Gerardy, C. L.; Hoeflich, P. [Department of Physics, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306 (United States); Im, M.; Jeon, Y. [CEOU/Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Nugent, P. E. [Computational Cosmology Center, Computational Research Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road MS 50B-4206, Berkeley, CA 94611 (United States); Pignata, G. [Departamento de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Andres Bello, Avda. Republica 252, Santiago (Chile); Stanishev, V., E-mail: hsiao@lco.cl [CENTRA - Centro Multidisciplinar de Astrofisica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); and others

    2013-04-01

    We present ten medium-resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio near-infrared (NIR) spectra of SN 2011fe from SpeX on the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) and Gemini Near-Infrared Spectrograph (GNIRS) on Gemini North, obtained as part of the Carnegie Supernova Project. This data set constitutes the earliest time-series NIR spectroscopy of a Type Ia supernova (SN Ia), with the first spectrum obtained at 2.58 days past the explosion and covering -14.6 to +17.3 days relative to B-band maximum. C I {lambda}1.0693 {mu}m is detected in SN 2011fe with increasing strength up to maximum light. The delay in the onset of the NIR C I line demonstrates its potential to be an effective tracer of unprocessed material. For the first time in a SN Ia, the early rapid decline of the Mg II {lambda}1.0927 {mu}m velocity was observed, and the subsequent velocity is remarkably constant. The Mg II velocity during this constant phase locates the inner edge of carbon burning and probes the conditions under which the transition from deflagration to detonation occurs. We show that the Mg II velocity does not correlate with the optical light-curve decline rate {Delta}m{sub 15}(B). The prominent break at {approx}1.5 {mu}m is the main source of concern for NIR k-correction calculations. We demonstrate here that the feature has a uniform time evolution among SNe Ia, with the flux ratio across the break strongly correlated with {Delta}m{sub 15}(B). The predictability of the strength and the onset of this feature suggests that the associated k-correction uncertainties can be minimized with improved spectral templates.

  1. B- AND A-TYPE STARS IN THE TAURUS-AURIGA STAR-FORMING REGION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mooley, Kunal; Hillenbrand, Lynne; Rebull, Luisa; Padgett, Deborah; Knapp, Gillian

    2013-01-01

    We describe the results of a search for early-type stars associated with the Taurus-Auriga molecular cloud complex, a diffuse nearby star-forming region noted as lacking young stars of intermediate and high mass. We investigate several sets of possible O, B, and early A spectral class members. The first is a group of stars for which mid-infrared images show bright nebulae, all of which can be associated with stars of spectral-type B. The second group consists of early-type stars compiled from (1) literature listings in SIMBAD, (2) B stars with infrared excesses selected from the Spitzer Space Telescope survey of the Taurus cloud, (3) magnitude- and color-selected point sources from the Two Micron All Sky Survey, and (4) spectroscopically identified early-type stars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey coverage of the Taurus region. We evaluated stars for membership in the Taurus-Auriga star formation region based on criteria involving: spectroscopic and parallactic distances, proper motions and radial velocities, and infrared excesses or line emission indicative of stellar youth. For selected objects, we also model the scattered and emitted radiation from reflection nebulosity and compare the results with the observed spectral energy distributions to further test the plausibility of physical association of the B stars with the Taurus cloud. This investigation newly identifies as probable Taurus members three B-type stars: HR 1445 (HD 28929), τ Tau (HD 29763), 72 Tau (HD 28149), and two A-type stars: HD 31305 and HD 26212, thus doubling the number of stars A5 or earlier associated with the Taurus clouds. Several additional early-type sources including HD 29659 and HD 283815 meet some, but not all, of the membership criteria and therefore are plausible, though not secure, members.

  2. Depot-Specific Changes in Fat Metabolism with Aging in a Type 2 Diabetic Animal Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Se Eun; Park, Cheol-Young; Choi, Jung Mook; Chang, Eugene; Rhee, Eun-Jung; Lee, Won-Young; Oh, Ki Won; Park, Sung Woo; Kang, Eun Seok; Lee, Hyun Chul; Cha, Bong Soo

    2016-01-01

    Visceral fat accretion is a hallmark of aging and is associated with aging-induced metabolic dysfunction. PPARγ agonist was reported to improve insulin sensitivity by redistributing fat from visceral fat to subcutaneous fat. The purpose of this study was to investigate the underlying mechanisms by which aging affects adipose tissue remodeling in a type 2 diabetic animal model and through which PPARγ activation modulates aging-related fat tissue distribution. At the ages of 21, 31 and 43 weeks, OLETF rats as an animal model of type 2 diabetes were evaluated for aging-related effects on adipose tissue metabolism in subcutaneous and visceral fat depots. During aging, the ratio of visceral fat weight to subcutaneous fat weight (V/S ratio) increased. Aging significantly increased the mRNA expression of genes involved in lipogenesis such as lipoprotein lipase, fatty acid binding protein aP2, lipin 1, and diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1, which were more prominent in visceral fat than subcutaneous fat. The mRNA expression of adipose triglyceride lipase, which is involved in basal lipolysis and fatty acid recycling, was also increased, more in visceral fat compared to subcutaneous fat during aging. The mRNA levels of the genes associated with lipid oxidation were increased, whereas the mRNA levels of genes associated with energy expenditure showed no significant change during aging. PPARγ agonist treatment in OLETF rats resulted in fat redistribution with a decreasing V/S ratio and improved glucose intolerance. The genes involved in lipogenesis decreased in visceral fat of the PPARγ agonist-treated rats. During aging, fat distribution was changed by stimulating lipid uptake and esterification in visceral fat rather than subcutaneous fat, and by altering the lipid oxidation.

  3. Isoflurane depolarizes bronchopulmonary C neurons by inhibiting transient A-type and delayed rectifier potassium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenxiong; Zhuang, Jianguo; Zhang, Cancan; Xu, Fadi

    2013-04-01

    Inhalation of isoflurane (ISO), a widely used volatile anesthetic, can produce clinical tachypnea. In dogs, this response is reportedly mediated by bronchopulmonary C-fibers (PCFs), but the relevant mechanisms remain unclear. Activation of transient A-type potassium current (IA) channels and delayed rectifier potassium current (IK) channels hyperpolarizes neurons, and inhibition of both channels by ISO increases neural firing. Due to the presence of these channels in the cell bodies of rat PCFs, we determined whether ISO could stimulate PCFs to produce tachypnea in anesthetized rats, and, if so, whether this response resulted from ISO-induced depolarization of the pulmonary C neurons via the inhibition of IA and IK. We recorded ventilatory responses to 5% ISO exposure in anesthetized rats before and after blocking PCF conduction and the responses of pulmonary C neurons (extracellularly recorded) to ISO exposure. ISO-induced (1mM) changes in pulmonary C neuron membrane potential and IA/IK were tested using the perforated patch clamp technique. We found that: (1) ISO inhalation evoked a brief tachypnea (∼7s) and that this response disappeared after blocking PCF conduction; (2) the ISO significantly elevated (by 138%) the firing rate of most pulmonary C neurons (17 out of 21) in the nodose ganglion; and (3) ISO perfusion depolarized the pulmonary C neurons in the vitro and inhibited both IA and IK, and this evoked-depolarization was largely diminished after blocking both IA and IK. Our results suggest that ISO is able to stimulate PCFs to elicit tachypnea in rats, at least partly, via inhibiting IA and IK, thereby depolarizing the pulmonary C neurons. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Depot-Specific Changes in Fat Metabolism with Aging in a Type 2 Diabetic Animal Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Se Eun Park

    Full Text Available Visceral fat accretion is a hallmark of aging and is associated with aging-induced metabolic dysfunction. PPARγ agonist was reported to improve insulin sensitivity by redistributing fat from visceral fat to subcutaneous fat. The purpose of this study was to investigate the underlying mechanisms by which aging affects adipose tissue remodeling in a type 2 diabetic animal model and through which PPARγ activation modulates aging-related fat tissue distribution. At the ages of 21, 31 and 43 weeks, OLETF rats as an animal model of type 2 diabetes were evaluated for aging-related effects on adipose tissue metabolism in subcutaneous and visceral fat depots. During aging, the ratio of visceral fat weight to subcutaneous fat weight (V/S ratio increased. Aging significantly increased the mRNA expression of genes involved in lipogenesis such as lipoprotein lipase, fatty acid binding protein aP2, lipin 1, and diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1, which were more prominent in visceral fat than subcutaneous fat. The mRNA expression of adipose triglyceride lipase, which is involved in basal lipolysis and fatty acid recycling, was also increased, more in visceral fat compared to subcutaneous fat during aging. The mRNA levels of the genes associated with lipid oxidation were increased, whereas the mRNA levels of genes associated with energy expenditure showed no significant change during aging. PPARγ agonist treatment in OLETF rats resulted in fat redistribution with a decreasing V/S ratio and improved glucose intolerance. The genes involved in lipogenesis decreased in visceral fat of the PPARγ agonist-treated rats. During aging, fat distribution was changed by stimulating lipid uptake and esterification in visceral fat rather than subcutaneous fat, and by altering the lipid oxidation.

  5. The a-Type K = 0 Microwave Spectrum of the Methanol Dimer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovas, F. J.; Belov, S. P.; Tretyakov, M. Y.; Stahl, W.; Suenram, R. D.

    1995-04-01

    The rotational spectrum of (CH3OH)2 has been observed in the region 4-22 GHz with pulsed-beam Fabry-Perot cavity Fourier-transform microwave spectrometers at NIST and at the University of Kiel. Each a-type R(J), Ka = 0 transition is split into 15 states by tunneling motions for (CH3OH)2, (13CH3OH)2, (CH3OD)2, (CD3OH)2, and (CD3OH)2. The preliminary analysis of the methyl internal rotation presented here was guided by the previously developed multidimensional tunneling theory which predicts 16 tunneling components for each R(J) transition from 25 distinct tunneling motions. Several isotopically mixed dimers of methanol have also been measured, namely 13CH3OH, CH3OD, CD3OH, and CD3OD bound to 12CH3OH. Since the hydrogen bond interchange motion (which converts a donor into an acceptor) would produce a new and less favorable conformation from an energy viewpoint, it does not occur and only 10 tunneling components are observed for these mixed dimers. The structure of the complex is similar to that of water dimer with a hydrogen bond distance of 2.035 Å and a tilt of the acceptor methanol of 84° from the O-H-O axis. The effective barrier to internal rotation for the donor methyl group of (CH3OH)2 is ν3 = 183.0 cm-1 and is one-half of the value for the methanol monomer (370 cm-1), while the barrier to internal rotation of the acceptor methyl group is 120 cm-1.

  6. Design of a type - a transport package for 99Mo-99mTc Coltech generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kothalkar, Chetan; Suryanarayana, G.V.; Dey, A.C.; Sachdev, S.S.; Choughule, N.; Murali, S.

    2012-01-01

    BRIT is launching a new product called 99 Mo- 99m Tc Coltech generator. The Coltech generator is a devise designed for the transport of 99 Mo radioisotope adsorbed on the acidic alumina in a sealed glass column (max dimensions: 13 mm diameter, 70 mm height) as the primary containment. At hospital end, 99m Tc, the daughter product of 99 Mo, can be eluted out from the generator using saline. The active column is fitted with a leak proof network of stainless steel needles. The glass column carrying 99 Mo is housed inside a lead shielding having minimum thickness of 50 mm all around, which serves as secondary containment. The shielding is housed inside the ABS shell which acts as tertiary containment, also provides protection to the needles, filters etc. Total weight of the generator is 16 kg. Based on the AERB code SC/TR-1 (being revised), 99 Mo- 99m Tc Coltech generator will be transported in a Type-A transport container. A transport package has been designed by following the code SC/TR-1. Principle design of the package is based on the package for transportation of the similar generator produced by POLATOM, Poland and the package is approved by the Polish regulatory authority. Components are manufactured locally taking care of lndian conditions. The package comprised of a MS drum (HOBBOCK) with tamper proof lockable MS lid and a handle to assist in lifting. For absorbing the shock during transportation, the generator assembly is packed inside the two pieces EPS top and bottom support. The package has been designed for transportation by all modes of transport. Since radioactive material is solid in form and sealed a glass column, it has been designed to sustain a free drop test of 1.2 m, in addition to other tests specified in SC/TR-1. During trial batches upto ∼ 1 Ci of 99 Mo generators were produced, packed in the same Type-A package and supplied to local nuclear medicine center RMC, Mumbai in BRIT vehicle in consultation with AERB. The radiometry of the packages

  7. A type I interferon signature characterizes chronic antibody-mediated rejection in kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rascio, Federica; Pontrelli, Paola; Accetturo, Matteo; Oranger, Annarita; Gigante, Margherita; Castellano, Giuseppe; Gigante, Maddalena; Zito, Anna; Zaza, Gianluigi; Lupo, Antonio; Ranieri, Elena; Stallone, Giovanni; Gesualdo, Loreto; Grandaliano, Giuseppe

    2015-09-01

    Chronic antibody-mediated rejection (CAMR) represents the main cause of kidney graft loss. To uncover the molecular mechanisms underlying this condition, we characterized the molecular signature of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and, separately, of CD4(+) T lymphocytes isolated from CAMR patients, compared to kidney transplant recipients with normal graft function and histology. We enrolled 29 patients with biopsy-proven CAMR, 29 stable transplant recipients (controls), and 8 transplant recipients with clinical and histological evidence of interstitial fibrosis/tubular atrophy. Messenger RNA and microRNA profiling of PBMCs and CD4(+) T lymphocytes was performed using Agilent microarrays in eight randomly selected patients per group from CAMR and control subjects. Results were evaluated statistically and by functional pathway analysis (Ingenuity Pathway Analysis) and validated in the remaining subjects. In PBMCs, 45 genes were differentially expressed between the two groups, most of which were up-regulated in CAMR and were involved in type I interferon signalling. In the same patients, 16 microRNAs were down-regulated in CAMR subjects compared to controls: four were predicted modulators of six mRNAs identified in the transcriptional analysis. In silico functional analysis supported the involvement of type I interferon signalling. To further confirm this result, we investigated the transcriptomic profiles of CD4(+) T lymphocytes in an independent group of patients, observing that the activation of type I interferon signalling was a specific hallmark of CAMR. In addition, in CAMR patients, we detected a reduction of circulating BDCA2(+) dendritic cells, the natural type I interferon-producing cells, and their recruitment into the graft along with increased expression of MXA, a type I interferon-induced protein, at the tubulointerstitial and vascular level. Finally, interferon alpha mRNA expression was significantly increased in CAMR compared to control

  8. Emplacement and deformation of the A-type Madeira granite (Amazonian Craton, Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siachoque, Astrid; Salazar, Carlos Alejandro; Trindade, Ricardo

    2017-04-01

    The Madeira granite is one of the Paleoproterozoic (1.82 Ga) A-type granite intrusions in the Amazonian Craton. It is elongated in the NE-SW direction and is composed of four facies. Classical structural techniques and the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) method were applied to the study of its internal fabric. Magnetic susceptibility measurements, thermomagnetic curves, remanent coercivity spectra, optical microscopy and SEM (scanning electron microscopy) analyses were carried out on the earlier and later facies of the Madeira granite: the rapakivi granite (RG) and the albite granite (AG) respectively. The last one is subdivided into the border albite granite (BAG) and the core albite granite (CAG) subfacies. AMS fabric pattern is controlled by pure magnetite in all facies, despite significant amounts of hematite in the BAG subfacies. Microstructural observations show that in almost all sites, magnetic fabric correlates to magmatic state fabrics that are defined by a weak NE-SW orientation of mafic and felsic silicates. However, strain mechanisms in both subfacies of AG also exhibit evidence for solid-state deformation at high to moderate temperatures. Pegmatite dyke, strike slip fault (SFA-B-C), hydrothermal vein, normal fault (F1-2) and joint (J) structures were observed and their orientation and kinematics is consistent with the magmatic and solid-state structures. Dykes, SFA-C and F1, are usually orientated along the N70°E/40°N plane, which is nearly parallel to the strike of AMS and magmatic foliations. In contrast, veins, SFB, F2 and some J are oriented perpendicular to the N70°E trend. Kinematic analysis in these structures shows evidence for a dextral sense of movement in the system in the brittle regime. The coherent structural pattern for the three facies of Madeira granite suggests that the different facies form a nested pluton. The coherence in orientation and kinematics from magmatic to high-temperature solid-state, and into the brittle

  9. SN 2017dio: A Type-Ic Supernova Exploding in a Hydrogen-rich Circumstellar Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuncarayakti, Hanindyo; Maeda, Keiichi; Ashall, Christopher J.; Prentice, Simon J.; Mattila, Seppo; Kankare, Erkki; Fransson, Claes; Lundqvist, Peter; Pastorello, Andrea; Leloudas, Giorgos; Anderson, Joseph P.; Benetti, Stefano; Bersten, Melina C.; Cappellaro, Enrico; Cartier, Régis; Denneau, Larry; Della Valle, Massimo; Elias-Rosa, Nancy; Folatelli, Gastón; Fraser, Morgan; Galbany, Lluís; Gall, Christa; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Gutiérrez, Claudia P.; Hamanowicz, Aleksandra; Heinze, Ari; Inserra, Cosimo; Kangas, Tuomas; Mazzali, Paolo; Melandri, Andrea; Pignata, Giuliano; Rest, Armin; Reynolds, Thomas; Roy, Rupak; Smartt, Stephen J.; Smith, Ken W.; Sollerman, Jesper; Somero, Auni; Stalder, Brian; Stritzinger, Maximilian; Taddia, Francesco; Tomasella, Lina; Tonry, John; Weiland, Henry; Young, David R.

    2018-02-01

    SN 2017dio shows both spectral characteristics of a type-Ic supernova (SN) and signs of a hydrogen-rich circumstellar medium (CSM). Prominent, narrow emission lines of H and He are superposed on the continuum. Subsequent evolution revealed that the SN ejecta are interacting with the CSM. The initial SN Ic identification was confirmed by removing the CSM interaction component from the spectrum and comparing with known SNe Ic and, reversely, adding a CSM interaction component to the spectra of known SNe Ic and comparing them to SN 2017dio. Excellent agreement was obtained with both procedures, reinforcing the SN Ic classification. The light curve constrains the pre-interaction SN Ic peak absolute magnitude to be around {M}g=-17.6 mag. No evidence of significant extinction is found, ruling out a brighter luminosity required by an SN Ia classification. These pieces of evidence support the view that SN 2017dio is an SN Ic, and therefore the first firm case of an SN Ic with signatures of hydrogen-rich CSM in the early spectrum. The CSM is unlikely to have been shaped by steady-state stellar winds. The mass loss of the progenitor star must have been intense, \\dot{M}∼ 0.02{({ε }{{H}α }/0.01)}-1 ({v}{wind}/500 km s‑1) ({v}{shock}/10,000 km s‑1)‑3 M ⊙ yr‑1, peaking at a few decades before the SN. Such a high mass-loss rate might have been experienced by the progenitor through eruptions or binary stripping. Based on observations made with the NOT, operated by the Nordic Optical Telescope Scientific Association at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos, La Palma, Spain, of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias. This work is based (in part) on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Chile as part of PESSTO, (the Public ESO Spectroscopic Survey for Transient Objects Survey) ESO program 188.D-3003, 191.D-0935, 197.D-1075. Based on observations made with the Liverpool Telescope operated on the

  10. A-type and I-type granitoids and mylonitic granites of Hassan Salaran area of SE Saqqez, Kurdistan, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Fakhraddin Mohammad; Saeed Ahmad, Sheler

    2014-05-01

    The Hassan Salarn area is located 20km to southeast of Saqqez city in Kurdistan Province, western Iran. In this area there are two distinct granitic rock suites consisting A-type and I-type granites and also mylonitic granites. These A-type and I-type granites have various petrological and geochemical characteristics. They also have different origins and petrogenesis. A-type granitoids comprise alkali feldspar granite, syenogranite and quartz alkali feldspar syenite, whereas I-type granitoids are composed of monzogranite, granodiorite and tonalite. Geochemically, A-type granitoids are peralkaline and acmite-normative but I-type granitoids are subalkaline (calc-alkaline), metaluminous and diopside-normative. A-type granitoids are also ferroan alkali and ferroan alkali-calcic whereas I-type granitoids are magnesian and calcic. A-type granitoids resemble to within plate granites and post-orogenic granites whereas I-type granitoids resemble to volcanic arc granites. A-type granitoids contain higher concentrations of alkalies, Zr, Rb, Nb, Y, Th, Ce, high FeO/MgO ratios and lower concentrations of Mg, Ca and Sr, resembling post-orogenic A-type granites. It is possible that heat from a mantle-derived magma which intruded into the lower crust, and/or rapid crustal extension have been essential generation of approriate melts producing A-type granitoids. Thus we can conclude that A-type granitoids were generated from a mixed mantle-crust source. Negative Nb anomalies and low contents of Ti and P probably indicate a subduction-related origin for protolith of I-type granitoids. Negative Nb anomalies and enrichment in Ce relative to its adjacent elements can be related to involvement of continental crust in magmatic processes. I-type granitoids are also enriched in Rb, Ba, K, Th, Ce and depleted in Nb, Zr and Y, indicating that they have had interacted with crust. I-type granitoids may result from contamination of mantle-derived magmas by continental crust during a subduction

  11. Biphasic somatic A-type K channel downregulation mediates intrinsic plasticity in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Cherl Jung

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Since its original description, the induction of synaptic long-term potentiation (LTP has been known to be accompanied by a lasting increase in the intrinsic excitability (intrinsic plasticity of hippocampal neurons. Recent evidence shows that dendritic excitability can be enhanced by an activity-dependent decrease in the activity of A-type K(+ channels. In the present manuscript, we examined the role of A-type K(+ channels in regulating intrinsic excitability of CA1 pyramidal neurons of the hippocampus after synapse-specific LTP induction. In electrophysiological recordings we found that LTP induced a potentiation of excitability which was accompanied by a two-phased change in A-type K(+ channel activity recorded in nucleated patches from organotypic slices of rat hippocampus. Induction of LTP resulted in an immediate but short lasting hyperpolarization of the voltage-dependence of steady-state A-type K(+ channel inactivation along with a progressive, long-lasting decrease in peak A-current density. Blocking clathrin-mediated endocytosis prevented the A-current decrease and most measures of intrinsic plasticity. These results suggest that two temporally distinct but overlapping mechanisms of A-channel downregulation together contribute to the plasticity of intrinsic excitability. Finally we show that intrinsic plasticity resulted in a global enhancement of EPSP-spike coupling.

  12. Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide reduces A-type K+ currents and caspase activity in cultured adult mouse olfactory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, P; Lucero, M T

    2005-01-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide has been shown to reduce apoptosis in neonatal cerebellar and olfactory receptor neurons, however the underlying mechanisms have not been elucidated. In addition, the neuroprotective effects of pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide have not been examined in adult tissues. To study the effects of pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide on neurons in apoptosis, we measured caspase activation in adult olfactory receptor neurons in vitro. Interestingly, we found that the protective effects of pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide were related to the absence of a 4-aminopyridine (IC50=144 microM) sensitive rapidly inactivating potassium current often referred to as A-type current. In the presence of 40 nM pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide 38, both A-type current and activated caspases were significantly reduced. A-type current reduction by pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide was blocked by inhibiting the phospholipase C pathway, but not the adenylyl cyclase pathway. Our observation that 5 mM 4-aminopyridine mimicked the caspase inhibiting effects of pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide indicates that A-type current is involved in apoptosis. This work contributes to our growing understanding that potassium currents are involved with the activation of caspases to affect the balance between cell life and death.

  13. Analysis of A-Type and B-Type Highly Polymeric Proanthocyanidins and Their Biological Activities as Nutraceuticals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazushige Yokota

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Proanthocyanidins have a series of heteroflavan-3-ols, (+-catechin/(−-epicatechin units, which are linked through a single B-type linkage and a doubly linked A-type linkage. Recently, we have performed the structural characterization of seed shells of the Japanese horse chestnut and fruits of blueberry and cranberry. The molecular sizes of them were higher in the order of blueberry > cranberry > seed shells of the Japanese horse chestnut between the respective fractions. For the analysis of terminal and extension units in those proanthocyanidins, the isolated fractions were subjected to the thiolytic cleavage of the B-type linkages using 1-dodecanethiol, and the resulting degradation products were identified by ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry. These analyses provided fast and good resolution of the degradation products and revealed higher proportions of A-type linkages compared with B-type linkages in both isolated fractions in the order of the seed shells > cranberry > blueberry. Moreover, the isolated fractions with higher molecular sizes and those more abundant in the proportions of A-type linkages were found to be more effective in the inhibition of pancreatic lipase activity. The results suggest that A-type highly polymeric proanthocyanidins are promising for the attenuation of lipid digestion as dietary supplements.

  14. Chemical characteristics of zircon from A-type granites and comparison to zircon of S-type granites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Breiter, Karel; Lamarão, C. N.; Krás Borges, R. M.; Dall'Agnol, R.

    1192/195, April (2014), s. 208-225 ISSN 0024-4937 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : zircon * A-type granites * S-type granites * Wiborg batholith * Brazil * Krušné hory/Erzgebirge Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry Impact factor: 4.482, year: 2014

  15. Geochemical constraints on genesis of Paleoproterozoic A-type granite in the south margin of North China Craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Shuo; Xu, Yang; Ling, Ming-Xing; Kang, Qing-Qing; Jiang, Xiao-Yan; Sun, Sai-Jun; Wu, Kai; Zhang, Zhe-Kun; Luo, Ze-Bin; Liu, Yu-Long; Sun, Weidong

    2018-04-01

    Paleoproterozoic A-type granites are widely outcropped in the North China Craton (NCC), particularly in the Trans-North China Orogen. However, their genesis and tectonic significance remain obscure. Here we report systematic studies on geochronology and geochemical characteristics of A-type granite in Huayangchuan, south margin of the NCC. The samples are enriched in total alkali (K2O + Na2O > 8.97 wt%), and depleted in MgO (0.84-0.93 wt%), CaO (1.28-1.90 wt%) and P2O5 (0.18-0.20 wt%), with high FeOT/MgO (5.69-6.67). They are characterized by high Zr + Y + Nb + Ce values (1293-1392 ppm) and 10,000 × Ga/Al ratios (3.14-3.35), which are typical characteristics of A-type granite. The Huayangchuan A-type granite can be further classified as A1-type subgroup based on particular geochemical features, e.g., low Y/Nb (0.87-1.00) and Yb/Ta (0.88-1.10). High precision zircon U-Pb dating of the A-type granite by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) yields Paleoproterozoic 207Pb/206Pb ages of 1829.5 ± 2.5 Ma. The low zircon ɛHf(t) values (-6.97 to -10.45), along with zircon Hf model age of 2.7-2.9 Ga, indicate that the Huayangchuan A-type granite was derived from partial melting of the ancient continental crust with contribution of enriched mantle components. The low zircon δ18O composition (4.00 to 6.78‰) indicates that the zircons were crystallized from low δ18O magmas, which derived from the crust metasomatized by low δ18O mantle fluids or melts. The E-W trend A1-type granitic plutons in the NCC are generally outcropped in a rift tectonic regime, which is consistent with the development of the mantle plume in the Xiong'er district. The large volume of basaltic magmas, generated by mantle plume head, underplated the lower continental crust and formed the Huayangchuan A-type granite.

  16. Ticking Stellar Time Bomb Identified - Astronomers find prime suspect for a Type Ia supernova

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    Using ESO's Very Large Telescope and its ability to obtain images as sharp as if taken from space, astronomers have made the first time-lapse movie of a rather unusual shell ejected by a "vampire star", which in November 2000 underwent an outburst after gulping down part of its companion's matter. This enabled astronomers to determine the distance and intrinsic brightness of the outbursting object. It appears that this double star system is a prime candidate to be one of the long-sought progenitors of the exploding stars known as Type Ia supernovae, critical for studies of dark energy. "One of the major problems in modern astrophysics is the fact that we still do not know exactly what kinds of stellar system explode as a Type Ia supernova," says Patrick Woudt, from the University of Cape Town and lead author of the paper reporting the results. "As these supernovae play a crucial role in showing that the Universe's expansion is currently accelerating, pushed by a mysterious dark energy, it is rather embarrassing." The astronomers studied the object known as V445 in the constellation of Puppis ("the Stern") in great detail. V445 Puppis is the first, and so far only, nova showing no evidence at all for hydrogen. It provides the first evidence for an outburst on the surface of a white dwarf [1] dominated by helium. "This is critical, as we know that Type Ia supernovae lack hydrogen," says co-author Danny Steeghs, from the University of Warwick, UK, "and the companion star in V445 Pup fits this nicely by also lacking hydrogen, instead dumping mainly helium gas onto the white dwarf." In November 2000, this system underwent a nova outburst, becoming 250 times brighter than before and ejecting a large quantity of matter into space. The team of astronomers used the NACO adaptive optics instrument [2] on ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) to obtain very sharp images of V445 Puppis over a time span of two years. The images show a bipolar shell, initially with a very narrow

  17. Spatiotemporal Characteristics of QRS Complexes Enable the Diagnosis of Brugada Syndrome Regardless of the Appearance of a Type 1 ECG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillem, Maria S; Climent, Andreu M; Millet, José; Berne, Paola; Ramos, Rafael; Brugada, Josep; Brugada, Ramon

    2016-05-01

    The diagnosis of Brugada syndrome based on the ECG is hampered by the dynamic nature of its ECG manifestations. Brugada syndrome patients are only 25% likely to present a type 1 ECG. The objective of this study is to provide an ECG diagnostic criterion for Brugada syndrome patients that can be applied consistently even in the absence of a type 1 ECG. We recorded 67-lead body surface potential maps from 94 Brugada syndrome patients and 82 controls (including right bundle branch block patients and healthy individuals). The spatial propagation direction during the last r' wave and the slope at the end of the QRS complex were measured and compared between patients groups. Receiver-operating characteristic curves were constructed for half of the database to identify optimal cutoff values; sensitivity and specificity for these cutoff values were measured in the other half of the database. A spontaneous type 1 ECG was present in only 30% of BrS patients. An orientation in the sagittal plane ECG recordings can enable a robust identification of BrS even without the presence of a type 1 ECG. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Proteasome-mediated degradation of integral inner nuclear membrane protein emerin in fibroblasts lacking A-type lamins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muchir, Antoine; Massart, Catherine; Engelen, Baziel G. van; Lammens, Martin; Bonne, Gisele; Worman, Howard J.

    2006-01-01

    We previously identified and characterized a homozygous LMNA nonsense mutation leading to the absence of A-type lamins in a premature neonate who died at birth. We show here that the absence of A-type lamins is due to degradation of the aberrant mRNA transcript with a premature termination codon. In cultured fibroblasts from the subject with the homozygous LMNA nonsense mutation, there was a decreased steady-state expression of the integral inner nuclear membrane proteins emerin and nesprin-1α associated with their mislocalization to the bulk endoplasmic reticulum and a hyperphosphorylation of emerin. To determine if decreased emerin expression occurred post-translationally, we treated cells with a selective proteasome inhibitor and observed an increase in expression. Our results show that mislocalization of integral inner nuclear membrane proteins to the endoplasmic reticulum in human cells lacking A-type lamins leads to their degradation and provides the first evidence that their degradation is mediated by the proteasome

  19. En bloc resection of extra-peritoneal soft tissue neoplasms incorporating a type III internal hemipelvectomy: a novel approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reddy Sanjay S

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A type III hemipelvectomy has been utilized for the resection of tumors arising from the superior or inferior pubic rami. Methods In eight patients, we incorporated a type III internal hemipelvectomy to achieve an en bloc R0 resection for tumors extending through the obturator foramen or into the ischiorectal fossa. The pelvic ring was reconstructed utilizing marlex mesh. This allowed for pelvic stability and abdominal wall reconstruction with obliteration of the obturator space to prevent herniations. Results All eight patients had an R0 resection with an overall survival of 88% and with average follow up of 9.5 years. Functional evaluation utilizing the Enneking classification system, which evaluates motion, pain, stability and strength of the affected extremity, revealed a 62% excellent result and a 37% good result. No significant complications were associated with the operative procedure. Marlex mesh reconstruction provided pelvic stability and eliminated all hernial defects. Conclusion The superior and inferior pubic rami provide a barrier to a resection for tumors that arise in the extra-peritoneal pelvis extending through the obturator foramen or ischiorectal fossa. Incorporating a type III internal hemipelvectomy with a simple marlex mesh reconstruction allows for complete tumor resection without functional compromise, acute infectious issues, obturator or abdominal hernia defects.

  20. The repair of a type Ia endoleak following thoracic endovascular aortic repair using a stented elephant trunk procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Rui-Dong; Zhu, Jun-Ming; Liu, Yong-Min; Chen, Lei; Li, Cheng-Nan; Xing, Xiao-Yan; Sun, Li-Zhong

    2018-04-01

    Type Ia endoleaks are not uncommon complications that occur after thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR). Because aortic arch vessels prevent extension of the landing zone, it is very difficult to manipulate a type Ia endoleak using an extension cuff or stent-graft, especially when the aortic arch is involved. Here, we retrospectively review our experience of surgical treatment of type Ia endoleak after TEVAR using a stented elephant trunk procedure. From July 2010 to August 2016, we treated 17 patients diagnosed with a type Ia endoleak following TEVAR using stented elephant trunk procedure. The mean age of our patients was 52 ± 8 years. The mean interval between TEVAR and the open surgical repair was 38 ± 43 months. All cases of type Ia endoleak (100%) were repaired successfully. There were no in-hospital deaths. One case required reintubation and continuous renal replacement therapy due to renal failure; this patient recovered smoothly before discharge. One other patient suffered a stroke and renal failure and did not fully recover following discharge, or follow-up. During follow-up, there were 3 deaths. Acceptable results were obtained using a stented elephant trunk procedure in patients with a type Ia endoleak after TEVAR. This technique allowed us to repair the proximal aortic arch lesions, surgically correct the type Ia endoleak, and promote false lumen thrombosis in the distal aorta. Implantation of a stented elephant trunk, with or without a concomitant aortic arch procedure, is an alternative approach for this type of lesion. Copyright © 2017 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Detection of a Type IIn Supernova in Optical Follow-up Observations of IceCube Neutrino Events

    OpenAIRE

    Aartsen, M. G.; Abraham, K.; Ackermann, M.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Ahrens, M.; Altmann, D.; Anderson, T.; Archinger, M.; Arguelles, C.; Arlen, T. C.; Auffenberg, J.; Bai, X.; Barwick, S. W.

    2015-01-01

    The IceCube neutrino observatory pursues a follow-up program selecting interesting neutrino events in real-time and issuing alerts for electromagnetic follow-up observations. In 2012 March, the most significant neutrino alert during the first three years of operation was issued by IceCube. In the follow-up observations performed by the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF), a Type IIn supernova (SN IIn) PTF12csy was found 0.degrees 2 away from the neutrino alert direction, with an error radius of 0...

  2. Theory of flux cutting and flux transport at the critical current of a type-II superconducting cylindrical wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clem, John R.

    2011-01-01

    I introduce a critical-state theory incorporating both flux cutting and flux transport to calculate the magnetic-field and current-density distributions inside a type-II superconducting cylinder at its critical current in a longitudinal applied magnetic field. The theory is an extension of the elliptic critical-state model introduced by Romero-Salazar and Perez-Rodriguez. The vortex dynamics depend in detail on two nonlinear effective resistivities for flux cutting (ρ(parallel)) and flux flow (ρ(perpendicular)), and their ratio r = ρ(parallel)/ρ(perpendicular). When r c (φ) that makes the vortex arc unstable.

  3. On the nitrogen isotope dilution analysis by means of the automated NA-5A type 15N-analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faust, H.; Mueller, G.; Stoerl, H.J.

    1976-01-01

    The analytical conditions are investigated under which quantitative nitrogen determination through isotope dilution analysis is possible using the NA-5A type 15 N-analyzer. Calculation of the nitrogen quantity, estimation of the maximum error and the evaluation technique are considered in detail. Test analyses performed on ammonia, urea, and amino acid nitrogen model solutions labelled in different ways yielded good correspondence with preset values. This technique was applied to determine the nitrogen content of biomedical materials. A working scheme for direct quantitative determination of ammonia-N, urea-N, and total-N in urine is presented. (author)

  4. Serious clopidogrel associated renal hematoma in a type 2 diabetic patient with primary hyperparathyroidism after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahceci, Mithat; Tuzcu, Alpaslan; Agil, Cuneyt; Akay, Ferruh; Akay, Hatice

    2005-01-01

    Renal hematoma after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy SWL is a rare complication. We report a case of a large renal hematoma following SWL that resulted in nephrectomy in a type 2 diabetic patient with primary hyperparathyroidism using clopidogrel due to coronary heart disease CHD. Although it was claimed that preoperative use of clopidogrel was not associated with increased bleeding, all patients who are scheduled for SWL should be interrogated in terms of using of platelet aggregation inhibitors such as clopidogrel, and these drugs should be interrupted appropriately before undergoing SWL. (author)

  5. PSN J11290437+1714095 is a Type Ia supernova (91T-like) near maximum light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childress, M.; Owen, C.; Scalzo, R.; Yuan, F.; Schmidt, B.; Tucker, B.

    2013-12-01

    We report spectroscopic classification of PSN J11290437+1714095 with the Wide Field Spectrograph (WiFeS - Dopita et al., 2007, ApSS, 310, 255) on the ANU 2.3m telescope at Siding Spring Observatory, NSW Australia, using the B3000/R3000 gratings (3500-9800 A, 1 A resolution). PSN J11290437+1714095 was discovered by TAROT on 2013 Dec 11.09 at mag 15.9 in UGC 6483. A 20 minute spectrum of the SN on 2013 Dec 12.72 shows this to be a Type Ia supernova of the SN 1991T subclass near maximum light.

  6. Ordovician A-type granitoid magmatism on the Ceará Central Domain, Borborema Province, NE-Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Neivaldo A.; Ganade de Araujo, Carlos E.; Basei, Miguel A. S.; Osako, Liliane S.; Nutman, Alan A.; Liu, Dunyi

    2012-07-01

    We present field relationships, major and trace element geochemistry and U-Pb SHRIMP and ID-TIMS geochronology of the A-type Ordovician Quintas pluton located in the Ceará Central Domain of the Borborema Province, in northeastern Brazil. This pluton presents a concentric geometry and is composed mainly of syenogranite, monzogranite, quartz syenite to quartz monzodiorite, monzogabbro and diorite. Its geochemical characteristics [SiO2 (52-70%), Na2O/K2O (1.55-0.65), Fe2O3/MgO (2.2-7.3), metaluminous to sligthly alkaline affinity, post-collisional type in (Y + Nb) × Rb diagram, and A-type affinity (Ga > 22 ppm, Nb > 20 ppm, Zn > 60 ppm), REE fractioned pattern with negative Eu anomaly] are coherent with post-collisional A2-type granitoids. However, the emplacement of this pluton is to some extent temporally associated with the deposition of the first strata of the Parnaíba intracratonic basin, attesting also to a purely anorogenic character (A1-type granitoid). The emplacement of this pluton is preceded by one of the largest known orogenesis of the planet (Neoproterozoic Pan-African/Brasiliano) and, if it is classified as an A2-type granitoid, it provides interesting constraints about how long can last A2-type magmatic activity after a major collisional episode, arguably triggered by disturbance of the underlying mantle, a topic extensively debated in the geoscience community.

  7. [Differentiation of influenza (Flu) type A, type B, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) by QuickNavi™-Flu+RSV].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohiyama, Risa; Miyazawa, Takashi; Shibano, Nobuko; Inano, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    Because it is not easy to differentiate Influenza virus (Flu) from RS virus (RSV) just by clinical symptoms, to accurately diagnose those viruses in conjunction with patient's clinical symptoms, rapid diagnostic kits has been used separately for each of those viruses. In our new study, we have developed a new rapid diagnostic kit, QuickNavi™-Flu+RSV. The kit can detect Flu A, Flu B, and RSV antigens with a single sample collection and an assay. Total of 2,873 cases (including nasopharyngeal swabs and nasopharyngeal aspirates specimens) in 2010/2011 and 2011/2012 seasons were evaluated with QuickNavi™-Flu+RSV and a commercially available kit. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of Flu type A, type B, and RSV were above 95% when compared to commercially available kits (QuickNavi™-Flu and QuickNavi™-RSV) and considered to be equivalent to the commercially available kits. In 2011/2012 season, RSV infections increased prior to Flu season and continued during the peak of the Flu season. The kit can contribute to accurate diagnosis of Flu and RSV infections since co-infection cases have also been reported during the 2011/2012 season. QuickNavi™-Flu+RSV is useful for differential diagnosis of respiratory infectious diseases since it can detect Flu type A, type B, and RSV virus antigens with a single sample collection.

  8. iPTF13bvn: The first evidence of a binary progenitor for a type Ib supernova

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bersten, Melina C.; Folatelli, Gastón; Nomoto, Ken' ichi; Quimby, Robert [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Benvenuto, Omar G. [Facultad de Ciencias Astronómicas y Geofísicas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Paseo del Bosque S/N, B1900FWA La Plata (Argentina); Kuncarayakti, Hanindyo [Millennium Institute of Astrophysics, Casilla 36-D, Santiago (Chile); Srivastav, Shubham; Anupama, G. C.; Sahu, Devendra K., E-mail: melina.bersten@ipmu.jp [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Koramangala, Bangalore 560034 (India)

    2014-10-01

    The recent detection in archival Hubble Space Telescope images of an object at the location of supernova (SN) iPTF13bvn may represent the first direct evidence of the progenitor of a Type Ib SN. The object's photometry was found to be compatible with a Wolf-Rayet pre-SN star mass of ≈11 M {sub ☉}. However, based on hydrodynamical models, we show that the progenitor had a pre-SN mass of ≈3.5 M {sub ☉} and that it could not be larger than ≈8 M {sub ☉}. We propose an interacting binary system as the SN progenitor and perform evolutionary calculations that are able to self-consistently explain the light curve shape, the absence of hydrogen, and the pre-SN photometry. We further discuss the range of allowed binary systems and predict that the remaining companion is a luminous O-type star of significantly lower flux in the optical than the pre-SN object. A future detection of such a star may be possible and would provide the first robust identification of a progenitor system for a Type Ib SN.

  9. The synthesis and properties of linear A-π-D-π-A type organic small molecule containing diketopyrrolopyrrole terminal units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shanshan; Niu, Qingfen; Sun, Tao; Li, Yang; Li, Tianduo; Liu, Haixia

    2017-08-01

    A novel linear A-π-D-π-A-type organic small molecule Ph2(PDPP)2 consisting diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP) as acceptor unit, biphenylene as donor unit and acetylene unit as π-linkage has been successfully designed and synthesized. Its corresponding thermal, photophysical and electrochemical properties as well as the photoinduced charge-separation process were investigated. Ph2(PDPP)2 exhibits high thermal stability and it can be soluble in common organic solvents such as chloroform and tetrahydrofuran. The photophysical properties show that DPP2Ph2 harvests sunlight over the entire visible spectrum range in the thin-film state (300-800 nm). DPP2Ph2 has lower band gaps and appropriate energy levels to satisfy the requirement of solution-processable organic solar cells. The efficient photoinduced charge separation process was clearly observed between DPP2Ph2 with PC61BM and the Ksv value was found to be as high as 2.13 × 104 M- 1. Therefore, these excellent properties demonstrate that the designed A-π-D-π-A-type small molecule Ph2(PDPP)2 is the prospective candidate as donor material for organic photovoltaic material.

  10. The many sides of RCW 86: a Type Ia supernova remnant evolving in its progenitor's wind bubble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broersen, Sjors; Chiotellis, Alexandros; Vink, Jacco; Bamba, Aya

    2014-07-01

    We present the results of a detailed investigation of the Galactic supernova remnant RCW 86 using the XMM-Newton X-ray telescope. RCW 86 is the probable remnant of SN 185 A.D., a supernova that likely exploded inside a wind-blown cavity. We use the XMM-Newton Reflection Grating Spectrometer to derive precise temperatures and ionization ages of the plasma, which are an indication of the interaction history of the remnant with the presumed cavity. We find that the spectra are well fitted by two non-equilibrium ionization models, which enables us to constrain the properties of the ejecta and interstellar matter plasma. Furthermore, we performed a principal component analysis on EPIC MOS and pn data to find regions with particular spectral properties. We present evidence that the shocked ejecta, emitting Fe K and Si line emission, are confined to a shell of approximately 2 pc width with an oblate spheroidal morphology. Using detailed hydrodynamical simulations, we show that general dynamical and emission properties at different portions of the remnant can be well reproduced by a Type Ia supernova that exploded in a non-spherically symmetric wind-blown cavity. We also show that this cavity can be created using general wind properties for a single degenerate system. Our data and simulations provide further evidence that RCW 86 is indeed the remnant of SN 185, and is the likely result of a Type Ia explosion of single degenerate origin.

  11. Atypical Presentation of a Type 2 Endoleak following Emergency Open Repair of a Ruptured Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sharma

    Full Text Available : Background: An endoleak is a common complication following EVAR. Specifically, a Type 2 endoleak occurs because of retrograde flow from lumbar vessels outside the endograft within the aneurysm sac. Even though it is common following EVAR, it has not been identified as a complication following open ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA repair. Report: A 73-year-old male underwent open repair of a ruptured AAA. Five months later, computed tomography revealed filling from a lumbar vessel mimicking a Type 2 “endoleak.” The initial ultrasound showed a single pair of lumbar vessels with aneurysm sac expansion 8 weeks later. The “endoleak” and expanding sac were treated, and the 2-year surveillance demonstrated sac shrinkage. Discussion: Because endoleak is a complication after EVAR, this case provides a unique presentation of Type 2 “endoleak” physiology following open repair of a ruptured AAA. It is believed that it is necessary to expand the list of possible complications after open ruptured AAA repair to include “endoleaks.” Keywords: Endoleak: EVAR, Ruptured aneurysm, Open abdominal aortic aneurysm

  12. Time-dependent magnetization of a type-II superconductor numerically calculated by using the flux-creep equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J. H.; Park, I. S.; Ahmad, D.; Kim, D.; Kim, Y. C.; Ko, R. K.; Jeong, D. Y.

    2012-01-01

    The macroscopic magnetic behaviors of a type-II superconductor, such as the field- or the temperature-dependent magnetization, have been described by using critical state models. However, because the models are time-independent, the magnetic relaxation in a type-II superconductor cannot be described by them, and the time dependence of the magnetization can affect the field or the temperature-dependent magnetization curve described by the models. In order to avoid the time independence of critical state models, we try the numerical calculation used by Qin et al., who mainly calculated the temperature dependence of the ac susceptibility χ(T). Their calculation showed that the frequency-dependent χ(T) could be obtained by using the flux-creep equation. We calculated the field-dependent magnetization and magnetic relaxation by using a numerical method. The calculated field-dependent magnetization M(H) curves shows the shapes of a typical type-II superconductor. The calculated magnetic relaxation do not show a logarithmic decay of the magnetization, but the addition of a surface barrier to the relaxation calculation caused a clear logarithmic decay of the magnetization, producing a crossover at a mid-time. This means that the logarithmic magnetic relaxation is caused by not only flux creep but also a combination of flux creep and a surface barrier.

  13. Test Plan for Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company (LITCO), ARROW-PAK Packaging, Docket 95-40-7A, Type A Container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, D.L.

    1995-01-01

    This report documents the U.S. Department of Transportation Specification 7A Type A (DOT-7A) compliance testing to be followed for qualification of the Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company, ARROW-PAK, for use as a Type A Packaging. The packaging configuration being tested is intended for transportation of radioactive solids, Form No. 1, Form No. 2, and Form No. 3

  14. Design and construction of a Type B overpack container for the safe transportation of enriched uranium hexafluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gablin, K.A.

    1976-01-01

    The Paducah Tiger is an overpack designed for the international shipment of ten-ton cylinders of uranium hexafluoride in enriched form above the level of low specific acitivity. This container is designed as a Type B Package and has undergone all the tests and analyses required for a U.S. Department of Transportation Permit No. 6553. The Paducah Tiger is currently being used to ship fuel material in the USA on both truck and rail modes of transportation. In many ways, the design resembles the Super Tigersup(R), but incorporates features such as ISO corners, quick opening fasteners, and interior shock isolators that provide a system approach to the high volume of fuel shipment required in the last half of the 20th century. (author)

  15. Elimination of A-type inclusion formation enhances cowpox virus replication in mice: implications for orthopoxvirus evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastenmayer, Robin J; Maruri-Avidal, Liliana; Americo, Jeffrey L; Earl, Patricia L; Weisberg, Andrea S; Moss, Bernard

    2014-03-01

    Some orthopoxviruses including cowpox virus embed virus particles in dense bodies, comprised of the A-type inclusion (ATI) protein, which may provide long-term environmental protection. This strategy could be beneficial if the host population is sparse or spread is inefficient or indirect. However, the formation of ATI may be neutral or disadvantageous for orthopoxviruses that rely on direct respiratory spread. Disrupted ATI open reading frames in orthopoxviruses such as variola virus, the agent of smallpox, and monkeypox virus suggests that loss of this feature provided positive selection. To test this hypothesis, we constructed cowpox virus mutants with deletion of the ATI gene or another gene required for embedding virions. The ATI deletion mutant caused greater weight loss and higher replication in the respiratory tract than control viruses, supporting our hypothesis. Deletion of the gene for embedding virions had a lesser effect, possibly due to known additional functions of the encoded protein. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. The Transition of a Type IIL Supernova into a Supernova Remnant: Late-time Observations of SN 2013by

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, C. S.; Fesen, R. A. [6127 Wilder Lab, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Milisavljevic, D.; Patnaude, D. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Margutti, R. [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics (CIERA) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Parker, S. [Parkdale Observatory, 225 Warren Road, RDl Oxford, Canterbury 7495 (New Zealand)

    2017-10-10

    We present early-time Swift and Chandra X-ray data along with late-time optical and near-infrared observations of SN 2013by, a Type IIL supernova (SN) that occurred in the nearby spiral galaxy ESO 138−G10 ( D ∼ 14.8 Mpc). Optical and NIR photometry and spectroscopy follow the late-time evolution of the SN from days +89 to +457 post maximum brightness. The optical spectra and X-ray light curves are consistent with the picture of an SN having prolonged interaction with circumstellar material (CSM) that accelerates the transition from SN to supernova remnant (SNR). Specifically, we find SN 2013by’s H α profile exhibits significant broadening (∼10,000 km s{sup −1}) on day +457, the likely consequence of high-velocity, H-rich material being excited by a reverse shock. A relatively flat X-ray light curve is observed that cannot be modeled using Inverse Compton scattering processes alone, but requires an additional energy source most likely originating from the SN-CSM interaction. In addition, we see the first overtone of CO emission near 2.3 μ m on day +152, signaling the formation of molecules and dust in the SN ejecta and is the first time CO has been detected in a Type IIL SN. We compare SN 2013by with Type IIP SNe, whose spectra show the rarely observed SN-to-SNR transition in varying degrees and conclude that Type IIL SNe may enter the remnant phase at earlier epochs than their Type IIP counterparts.

  17. Construction of the landscape for multi-stable systems: Potential landscape, quasi-potential, A-type integral and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Peijie; Li, Tiejun

    2016-03-01

    Motivated by the famous Waddington's epigenetic landscape metaphor in developmental biology, biophysicists and applied mathematicians made different proposals to construct the landscape for multi-stable complex systems. We aim to summarize and elucidate the relationships among these theories from a mathematical point of view. We systematically investigate and compare three different but closely related realizations in the recent literature: the Wang's potential landscape theory from steady state distribution of stochastic differential equations (SDEs), the Freidlin-Wentzell quasi-potential from the large deviation theory, and the construction through SDE decomposition and A-type integral. We revisit that the quasi-potential is the zero noise limit of the potential landscape, and the potential function in the third proposal coincides with the quasi-potential. We compare the difference between local and global quasi-potential through the viewpoint of exchange of limit order for time and noise amplitude. We argue that local quasi-potentials are responsible for getting transition rates between neighboring stable states, while the global quasi-potential mainly characterizes the residence time of the states as the system reaches stationarity. The difference between these two is prominent when the transitivity property is broken. The most probable transition path by minimizing the Onsager-Machlup or Freidlin-Wentzell action functional is also discussed. As a consequence of the established connections among different proposals, we arrive at the novel result which guarantees the existence of SDE decomposition while denies its uniqueness in general cases. It is, therefore, clarified that the A-type integral is more appropriate to be applied to the decomposed SDEs rather than its primitive form as believed by previous researchers. Our results contribute to a deeper understanding of landscape theories for biological systems.

  18. Construction of the landscape for multi-stable systems: Potential landscape, quasi-potential, A-type integral and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Peijie; Li, Tiejun

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by the famous Waddington’s epigenetic landscape metaphor in developmental biology, biophysicists and applied mathematicians made different proposals to construct the landscape for multi-stable complex systems. We aim to summarize and elucidate the relationships among these theories from a mathematical point of view. We systematically investigate and compare three different but closely related realizations in the recent literature: the Wang’s potential landscape theory from steady state distribution of stochastic differential equations (SDEs), the Freidlin-Wentzell quasi-potential from the large deviation theory, and the construction through SDE decomposition and A-type integral. We revisit that the quasi-potential is the zero noise limit of the potential landscape, and the potential function in the third proposal coincides with the quasi-potential. We compare the difference between local and global quasi-potential through the viewpoint of exchange of limit order for time and noise amplitude. We argue that local quasi-potentials are responsible for getting transition rates between neighboring stable states, while the global quasi-potential mainly characterizes the residence time of the states as the system reaches stationarity. The difference between these two is prominent when the transitivity property is broken. The most probable transition path by minimizing the Onsager-Machlup or Freidlin-Wentzell action functional is also discussed. As a consequence of the established connections among different proposals, we arrive at the novel result which guarantees the existence of SDE decomposition while denies its uniqueness in general cases. It is, therefore, clarified that the A-type integral is more appropriate to be applied to the decomposed SDEs rather than its primitive form as believed by previous researchers. Our results contribute to a deeper understanding of landscape theories for biological systems.

  19. Construction of the landscape for multi-stable systems: Potential landscape, quasi-potential, A-type integral and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Peijie, E-mail: cliffzhou@pku.edu.cn; Li, Tiejun, E-mail: tieli@pku.edu.cn [LMAM and School of Mathematical Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2016-03-07

    Motivated by the famous Waddington’s epigenetic landscape metaphor in developmental biology, biophysicists and applied mathematicians made different proposals to construct the landscape for multi-stable complex systems. We aim to summarize and elucidate the relationships among these theories from a mathematical point of view. We systematically investigate and compare three different but closely related realizations in the recent literature: the Wang’s potential landscape theory from steady state distribution of stochastic differential equations (SDEs), the Freidlin-Wentzell quasi-potential from the large deviation theory, and the construction through SDE decomposition and A-type integral. We revisit that the quasi-potential is the zero noise limit of the potential landscape, and the potential function in the third proposal coincides with the quasi-potential. We compare the difference between local and global quasi-potential through the viewpoint of exchange of limit order for time and noise amplitude. We argue that local quasi-potentials are responsible for getting transition rates between neighboring stable states, while the global quasi-potential mainly characterizes the residence time of the states as the system reaches stationarity. The difference between these two is prominent when the transitivity property is broken. The most probable transition path by minimizing the Onsager-Machlup or Freidlin-Wentzell action functional is also discussed. As a consequence of the established connections among different proposals, we arrive at the novel result which guarantees the existence of SDE decomposition while denies its uniqueness in general cases. It is, therefore, clarified that the A-type integral is more appropriate to be applied to the decomposed SDEs rather than its primitive form as believed by previous researchers. Our results contribute to a deeper understanding of landscape theories for biological systems.

  20. Petrogenesis of Karamaili alkaline A-type granites from East Junggar, Xinjiang (NW China) and their relationship with tin mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Yuping; Tang Hongfeng; Liu Congqiang; Hou Guangshun; Cong Feng; Sylvester, Paul J.; Qu Wenjun

    2007-01-01

    Several types of granites including alkaline granites and alkali feldspar granites are distributed in the Karamaili tectonic belt of East Junggar, Xinjiang, China. Some medium-small tin deposits are located within or near the contact zones of the granitic intrusions. The alkaline granites share all the features commonly observed in peralkaline A-type granites. They contain alkalic mafic minerals such as riebeckite and aegirine; have high contents of SiO 2 , alkalis, Rb, Th, Zr, Hf, REE (except Eu), and high ratios of FeO/MgO and Ga/Al; and show strong depletions in Ba, Sr, Eu in the spidergrams. Laser ablation-ICPMS U-Pb zircon geochronology indicates a crystallization age of ca. 305 Ma for the granites; TIMS analyses of the granites found high ε Nd (T) values of +5.9 to +6.5. Considering their geochemical features, alkaline granites most likely formed by fractional crystallization of graodioritic magmas, which were probably produced by partial melting of lower crustal basaltic to andesitic rocks formed from oceanic crustal materials that were deeply buried during late Palezoic subduction and accretion. Six molybdenite samples from the Sareshike tin deposit in East Junggar yielded an isochron age of 307±11 Ma (2σ) and a weighted mean model age of 306.5±3.4 Ma, consistent with zircon U-Pb ages of the alkaline granites. Low Re contents (0.323-0.961 ppm) in the molybdenite suggest that they originated from crustal sources related to the alkaline granites. Considering their identical ages, close spatial distribution, and similar sources, we argue that the A-type granites have a genetic relationship with the tin mineralization, and that the same association may be important elsewhere. (author)

  1. Behavior of Abundances in Chemically Peculiar Dwarf and Subgiant A-Type Stars: HD 23193 and HD 170920

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kılıçoğlu, Tolgahan; Çalışkan, Şeyma; Ünal, Kübraözge

    2018-01-01

    To understand the origin of the abundance peculiarities of non-magnetic A-type stars, we present the first detailed chemical abundance analysis of a metallic line star HD 23193 (A2m) and an A-type subgiant HD 170920 (A5), which could have been a HgMn star on the main sequence. Our analysis is based on medium (R ∼ 14,000) and high (R ∼ 40,000) resolution spectroscopic data of the stars. The abundances of 18 elements are derived: C, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, Ca, Sc, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Zn, Sr, Y, and Ba. The masses of HD 23193 and HD 170920 are estimated from evolutionary tracks as 2.3 ± 0.1 M ⊙ and 2.9 ± 0.1 M ⊙. The ages are found to be 635 ± 33 Myr for HD 23193 and 480 ± 50 Myr for HD 170920 using isochrones. The abundance pattern of HD 23193 shows deviations from solar values in the iron-peak elements and indicates remarkable overabundances of Sr (1.16), Y (1.03), and Ba (1.24) with respect to the solar abundances. We compare the derived abundances of this moderately rotating (v\\sin i =37.5 km s‑1) Am star to the theoretical chemical evolution models including rotational mixing. The theoretically predicted abundances resemble our derived abundance pattern, except for a few elements (Si and Cr). For HD 170920, we find nearly solar abundances, except for C (‑0.43), S (0.16), Ti (0.15), Ni (0.16), Zn (0.41), Y (0.57), and Ba (0.97). Its low rotational velocity (v\\sin i=14.5 km s‑1), reduced carbon abundance, and enhanced heavy element abundances suggest that the star is most likely an evolved HgMn star. Based on observations made at the TÜBITAK National Observatory (Program ID 14BRTT150–671), and the Ankara University Observatory, Turkey.

  2. A-type granites from the Guéra Massif, Central Chad: Petrology, geochemistry, geochronology, and petrogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Ngoc Ha T.; Shellnutt, J. Gregory; Yeh, Meng-Wan; Lee, Tung-Yi

    2017-04-01

    The poorly studied Saharan Metacraton of North-Central Africa is located between the Arabian-Nubian Shield in the east, the Tuareg Shield in the west and the Central African Orogenic Belt in the south. The Saharan Metacraton is composed of Neoproterozoic juvenile crust and the relics of pre-Neoproterozoic components reactivated during the Pan-African Orogeny. The Republic of Chad, constrained within the Saharan Metacraton, comprises a Phanerozoic cover overlying Precambrian basement outcroppings in four distinct massifs: the Mayo Kebbi, Tibesti, Ouaddaï, and the Guéra. The Guéra massif is the least studied of the four massifs but it likely preserves structures that were formed during the collision between Congo Craton and Saharan Metacraton. The Guéra Massif is composed of mostly granitic rocks. The granitoids have petrologic features that are consistent with A-type granite, such as micrographic intergrowth of sodic and potassic feldspar, the presence of sodic- and iron-rich amphibole, and iron-rich biotite. Compositionally, the granitic rocks of the Guéra Massif have high silica (SiO2 ≥ 68.9 wt.%) content and are metaluminous to marginally peraluminous. The rocks are classified as ferroan calc-alkalic to alkali-calcic with moderately high to very high Fe* ratios. The first zircon U/Pb geochronology of the silicic rocks from the Guéra Massif yielded three main age groups: 590 Ma, 570 Ma, 560 Ma, while a single gabbro yielded an intermediate age ( 580 Ma). A weakly foliated biotite granite yielded two populations, in which the emplacement age is interpreted to be 590 ± 10 Ma, whereas the younger age (550 ± 11 Ma) is considered to be a deformation age. Furthermore, inherited Meso- to Paleoproterozoic zircons are found in this sample. The geochemical and geochronology data indicate that there is a temporal evolution in the composition of rocks with the old, high Mg# granitoids shifting to young, low Mg# granitoids. This reveals that the A-type granites in

  3. SERS activity with tenfold detection limit optimization on a type of nanoporous AAO-based complex multilayer substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Chaofan; Wang, Kaige; Wang, Shuang; Ren, Junying; Bai, Xiaohong; Bai, Jintao

    2016-03-01

    Most of SERS applications are constricted by heterogeneous hotspots and aggregates of nanostructure, which result in low sensitivity and poor reproducibility of characteristic signals. This work intends to introduce SERS properties of a type of SERS-active substrate, Au-CuCl2-AAO, which is innovatively developed on a porous anodic alumina oxide (AAO) template. Spectral measuring results of Rhodamine 6G (R6G) on this substrate optimized by controlling morphology and gold thickness showed that enhancement factor (2.30 × 107) and detection limit (10-10 M) were both improved and represented better performance than its template AAO. Homogenous hot spots across the region of interest were achieved by scanning SERS intensity distribution for the band at 1505 cm-1 in 5 × 5 μm2 area. Furthermore, the promising SERS activity of the flower-patterned substrate was theoretically explained through simulation of the electromagnetic field distribution. In addition, this SERS substrate is proposed for applications within the field of chemical and biochemical analyses.Most of SERS applications are constricted by heterogeneous hotspots and aggregates of nanostructure, which result in low sensitivity and poor reproducibility of characteristic signals. This work intends to introduce SERS properties of a type of SERS-active substrate, Au-CuCl2-AAO, which is innovatively developed on a porous anodic alumina oxide (AAO) template. Spectral measuring results of Rhodamine 6G (R6G) on this substrate optimized by controlling morphology and gold thickness showed that enhancement factor (2.30 × 107) and detection limit (10-10 M) were both improved and represented better performance than its template AAO. Homogenous hot spots across the region of interest were achieved by scanning SERS intensity distribution for the band at 1505 cm-1 in 5 × 5 μm2 area. Furthermore, the promising SERS activity of the flower-patterned substrate was theoretically explained through simulation of the

  4. Formation of A-type granites in the Lower Yangtze River Belt: A perspective from apatite geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiao-Yan; Li, He; Ding, Xing; Wu, Kai; Guo, Jia; Liu, Ji-Qiang; Sun, Wei-Dong

    2018-04-01

    Apatite is ubiquitous in A-type granites, and can be used to elucidate the volatile contents of the silicate melt, which reflect its source characteristics. A-type granites have been recognized as a distinct group of granites. A1- and A2-type subgroups are produced under different extensional settings. However, the details of the mechanisms behind the distinctive geochemical characteristics of A1- and A2-type granites remain obscure. Belts of Cretaceous A1- and A2-type granites occur along the Lower Yangtze River Belt in eastern China. Here we investigated the major and trace element compositions of apatites from contemporary A1- and A2-type granites at different localities along the Lower Yangtze River Belt, in order to decipher their discrepant source processes. Apatites from A1- and A2-type granites show similar major and trace elements, but differ in their F and Cl concentrations. Apatites from A1-type granites in the eastern part of the Lower Yangtze River Belt have much lower F and higher Cl concentrations compared to A2-type granites in the western part. Moreover, from the east to the west, the F concentrations of apatites from A1-type granites increase, while the Cl concentrations decline. In a subducted plate, F is retained by amphibole, chlorite, serpentine and mica minerals through the amphibolite stage, and finally by phengite and lawsonite during the eclogite stage, whereas, Cl is controlled by amphibole, chlorite and serpentine. The high and varied Cl concentrations in A1 subgroup apatites, therefore, may be attributed to the breakdown of amphibole, chlorite and/or serpentine decomposition during partial melting of subducted oceanic crust releasing a large amount of Cl at shallower depth. In contrast, F is transported to deeper depths in the subducted oceanic crust, and released through breakdown of phengite and lawsonite, making an important contribution to the formation of A2-type granites. Apatites from A1- and A2-type granite samples show regular

  5. Kv4 channels underlie the subthreshold-operating A-type K+-current in nociceptive dorsal root ganglion neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanawath R Na Phuket

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The dorsal root ganglion (DRG contains heterogeneous populations of sensory neurons including primary nociceptive neurons and C-fibers implicated in pain signaling.  Recent studies have demonstrated DRG hyperexcitability associated with downregulation of A-type K+ channels; however, the molecular correlate of the corresponding A-type K+ current (IA has remained hypothetical.  Kv4 channels may underlie the IA in DRG neurons.  We combined electrophysiology, molecular biology (whole-tissue and single-cell RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry to investigate the molecular basis of the IA in acutely dissociated DRG neurons from 7-8 day-old rats.  Whole-cell recordings demonstrate a robust tetraethylammonium-resistant (20 mM and 4-aminopyridine-sensitive (5 mM IA.  Matching Kv4 channel properties, activation and inactivation of this IA occur in the subthreshold range of membrane potentials and the rate of recovery from inactivation is rapid and voltage-dependent.  Among Kv4 transcripts, the DRG expresses significant levels of Kv4.1 and Kv4.3 mRNAs.  Also, single small-medium diameter DRG neurons (~30 mm exhibit correlated frequent expression of mRNAs encoding Kv4.1 and Nav1.8, a known nociceptor marker.  In contrast, the expressions of Kv1.4 and Kv4.2 mRNAs at the whole-tissue and single-cell levels are relatively low and infrequent.  Kv4 protein expression in nociceptive DRG neurons was confirmed by immunohistochemistry, which demonstrates colocalization of Kv4.3 and Nav1.8, and negligible expression of Kv4.2.  Furthermore, specific dominant-negative suppression and overexpression strategies confirmed the contribution of Kv4 channels to IA in DRG neurons.  Contrasting the expression patterns of Kv4 channels in the central and peripheral nervous systems, we discuss possible functional roles of these channels in primary sensory neurons.

  6. A type of 2D magnetic equivalent circuit framework of permanent magnet for magnetic system in AEMR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huimin Liang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Modeling of permanent magnet (PM is very important in the process of electromagnetic system calculation of aerospace electromagnetic relay (AEMR. In traditional analytical calculation, PM is often equivalent to a lumped parameter model of one magnetic resistance and one magnetic potential, but great error is often caused for the inner differences of PM; based on the conception of flux tube, a type of 2D magnetic equivalent circuit framework of permanent magnet model (2D MECF is established; the element is defined, the relationship between elements is deduced, and solution procedure as well as verification condition of this model is given; by a case study of the electromagnetic system of a certain type of AEMR, the electromagnetic system calculation model is established based on 2D MECF and the attractive force at different rotation angles is calculated; the proposed method is compared with the traditional lumped parameter model and finite element method (FEM; for some types of electromagnetic systems with symmetrical structure, 2D MECF proves to be of acceptable accuracy and high calculation speed which fit the requirement of robust design for AEMR.

  7. Orally administered Taenia solium Calreticulin prevents experimental intestinal inflammation and is associated with a type 2 immune response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fela Mendlovic

    Full Text Available Intestinal helminth antigens are inducers of type 2 responses and can elicit regulatory immune responses, resulting in dampened inflammation. Several platyhelminth proteins with anti-inflammatory activity have been reported. We have identified, cloned and expressed the Taenia solium calreticulin (rTsCRT and shown that it predominantly induces a type 2 response characterized by IgG1, IL-4 and IL-5 production in mice. Here, we report the rTsCRT anti-inflammatory activity in a well-known experimental colitis murine model. Mice were orally immunized with purified rTsCRT and colitis was induced with trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS. Clinical signs of disease, macroscopic and microscopic tissue inflammation, cytokine production and micronuclei formation, as a marker of genotoxicity, were measured in order to assess the effect of rTsCRT immunization on experimentally induced colitis. rTsCRT administration prior to TNBS instillation significantly reduced the inflammatory parameters, including the acute phase cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6. Dampened inflammation was associated with increased local expression of IL-13 and systemic IL-10 and TGF-β production. Genotoxic damage produced by the inflammatory response was also precluded. Our results show that oral treatment with rTsCRT prevents excessive TNBS-induced inflammation in mice and suggest that rTsCRT has immunomodulatory properties associated with the expression of type 2 and regulatory cytokines commonly observed in other helminths.

  8. A TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA AT REDSHIFT 1.55 IN HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE INFRARED OBSERVATIONS FROM CANDELS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodney, Steven A.; Riess, Adam G.; Jones, David O.; Dahlen, Tomas; Ferguson, Henry C.; Casertano, Stefano; Grogin, Norman A.; Strolger, Louis-Gregory; Hjorth, Jens; Frederiksen, Teddy F.; Weiner, Benjamin J.; Mobasher, Bahram; Challis, Peter; Kirshner, Robert P.; Faber, S. M.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Garnavich, Peter; Hayden, Brian; Graur, Or; Jha, Saurabh W.

    2012-01-01

    We report the discovery of a Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) at redshift z = 1.55 with the infrared detector of the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3-IR) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). This object was discovered in CANDELS imaging data of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field and followed as part of the CANDELS+CLASH Supernova project, comprising the SN search components from those two HST multi-cycle treasury programs. This is the highest redshift SN Ia with direct spectroscopic evidence for classification. It is also the first SN Ia at z > 1 found and followed in the infrared, providing a full light curve in rest-frame optical bands. The classification and redshift are securely defined from a combination of multi-band and multi-epoch photometry of the SN, ground-based spectroscopy of the host galaxy, and WFC3-IR grism spectroscopy of both the SN and host. This object is the first of a projected sample at z > 1.5 that will be discovered by the CANDELS and CLASH programs. The full CANDELS+CLASH SN Ia sample will enable unique tests for evolutionary effects that could arise due to differences in SN Ia progenitor systems as a function of redshift. This high-z sample will also allow measurement of the SN Ia rate out to z ≈ 2, providing a complementary constraint on SN Ia progenitor models.

  9. Contrasting origin of two A-type rhyolite series from the Early Permian Nomgon bimodal volcanic association (Southern Mongolia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlovsky, A. M.; Yarmolyuk, V. V.; Savatenkov, V. M.; Kudryashova, E. A.

    2017-08-01

    A-type rhyolites of contrasting compositions and eruption characters were revealed among two volcanic series of the Early Permian bimodal association in the Nomgon graben. Rhyolites of the lower volcanic series formed extrusions, lava domes, and tuff horizons. They had low FeOt, Zr, Hf, Nb, Ta, Y, and REE concentrations and also a moderately depleted Nd isotope composition (ɛNd( T) = 6.7-7.1). Their formation was related to anatexis of the juvenile continental crust, triggered by the thermal effect of mafic magmas. Rhyolites of the upper volcanic series formed extensive lava flows and dikes. Their composition was characterized by high FeOt, Zr, Hf, Nb, Ta, Y, and REE concentrations, and also depleted Nd isotope characteristics (ɛNd( T) = 7.7-9.0). These rhyolite melts formed under long-term crystallizational differentiation of basaltoids in the intracrustal magmatic chambers, with limited participation of crustal contamination. The source of magmas for the upper volcanic series was the sublithospheric mantle.

  10. TEST and EVALUATION REPORT FOR THE HEDGEHOG-II PACKAGING SYSTEMS DOT-7A TYPE A CONTAINER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KELLY, D.L.

    2003-01-01

    This report documents the US. Department of Transportation Specification 7A (DOT-7A) Type A compliance test and evaluation results for the Hedgehog-II packaging systems. The approved Hedgehog-II packaging configurations provide primary and secondary containment. The approved packaging configurations described within this report are designed to ship Type A quantities of radioactive materials, normal form. Contents may be in solid or liquid form. Liquids transported in the approved 1 L glass bottle assembly shall have a specific gravity of less than or equal to 1.6. Liquids transported in all other approved configurations shall have a specific gravity of less than or equal to 2.0. The solid contents, including packaging, are limited in weight to the gross weight of the as-tested liquids and bottles. The approved Hedgehog-II packaging configurations described in this report may be transported by air, and have been evaluated as meeting the applicable International Air Transport Association/International Civil Aviation Organization (IATA/ICAO) Dangerous Goods Regulations in addition to the DOT requirements

  11. Test and evaluation report for Westinghouse Hanford Company's Hedgehog Shielded Container, Docket 94-39-7A, Type A container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, D.L.

    1995-01-01

    This report documents the US Department of Transportation Specification 7A Type A (DOT-7A) compliance test results of the Westinghouse Hanford Company Hedgehog Shielded Container. The Hedgehog packaging configurations provide primary and secondary containment. The packaging configurations tested consisted of an internal bottle, varying in size. Testing showed that the bottles are not required for the packaging to pass Type A requirements, with the exception of the 1-liter version, in which the polyvinyl chloride (PVC)-coated glass bottle used in testing is considered a part of the containment system. The packaging configurations were evaluated and tested in February 1995. The packaging configurations described in this report are designed to ship Type A quantities of radioactive materials, normal form. Contents may be in solid or liquid form. Liquids may have a specific gravity ≤2. The solid versions would allow the shipment of normal or special form solids. The solid materials would be limited in weight--to include packaging--to the gross weight of the as-tested liquids and bottles. The packaging configurations described in this document may be transported by air, and they meet the applicable International Air Transport Association/International Civil Aviation Organization (IATA/ICAO) Dangerous Goods Regulations in addition to the DOT-7A requirements

  12. Structural Dependence of Electronic Properties in A-A-D-A-A-Type Organic Solar Cell Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram S. Bhatta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Small conjugated molecules (SCMs are promising candidates for organic photovoltaic (OPV devices because of their structural simplicity, well control over synthetic reproducibility, and low purification cost. However, industrial development of SCM-based OPV devices requires improving their performance, which in turn relies on the fundamental understanding of structural dependence of electronic properties of SCMs. Herein, we report the structural and electronic properties of the BCNDTS molecule as a model system for acceptor-acceptor-donor-acceptor-acceptor (A-A-D-A-A type SCMs, using density functional theory (DFT and time-dependent DFT methods. Systematic calculations of two-dimensional potential energy surfaces, molecular electrostatic potential surfaces, ground state frontier molecular orbital energies, and the vertical excitation energies are performed. We found that the lowest energy conformation of the BCNDTS molecule is planar. The planar conformation favors the lowest ground state and the excited state energies as well as the strongest oscillator strength. The present results suggest that SCMs containing central dithienosilole cores connected with 2,1,3-benzothiadiazole groups have potential to be an efficient electron donor for OPV devices.

  13. A-type central stars of planetary nebulae. 1. A radial-velocity study of the central stars of NGC2346 and NGC3132

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendez, R H; Niemela, V S [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio, Succuoa, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Lee, P

    1978-08-01

    Radial-velocity measurements of the A-type central stars of NGC2346 and NGC3132 are presented. The first one is almost certainly a spectroscopic binary; no definite statement can be made about the second.

  14. Development of A-type allatostatin immunoreactivity in antennal lobe neurons of the sphinx moth Manduca sexta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utz, Sandra; Schachtner, Joachim

    2005-04-01

    The antennal lobe (AL) of the sphinx moth Manduca sexta is a well-established model system for studying mechanisms of neuronal development. To understand whether neuropeptides are suited to playing a role during AL development, we have studied the cellular localization and temporal expression pattern of neuropeptides of the A-type allatostatin family. Based on morphology and developmental appearance, we distinguished four types of AST-A-immunoreactive cell types. The majority of the cells were local interneurons of the AL (type Ia) which acquired AST-A immunostaining in a complex pattern consisting of three rising (RI-RIII) and two declining phases (DI, DII). Type Ib neurons consisted of two local neurons with large cell bodies not appearing before 7/8 days after pupal ecdysis (P7/P8). Types II and III neurons accounted for single centrifugal neurons, with type II neurons present in the larva and disappearing in the early pupa. The type III neuron did not appear before P7/P8. RI and RII coincided with the rises of the ecdysteroid hemolymph titer. Artificially shifting the pupal 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) peak to an earlier developmental time point resulted in the precocious appearance of AST-A immunostaining in types Ia, Ib, and III neurons. This result supports the hypothesis that the pupal rise in 20E plays a role in AST-A expression during AL development. Because of their early appearance in newly forming glomeruli, AST-A-immunoreactive fibers could be involved in glomerulus formation. Diffuse AST-A labeling during early AL development is discussed as a possible signal providing information for ingrowing olfactory receptor neurons.

  15. Incremental growth of an upper crustal, A-type pluton, Argentina: Evidence of a re-used magma pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alasino, Pablo H.; Larrovere, Mariano A.; Rocher, Sebastián; Dahlquist, Juan A.; Basei, Miguel A. S.; Memeti, Valbone; Paterson, Scott; Galindo, Carmen; Macchioli Grande, Marcos; da Costa Campos Neto, Mario

    2017-07-01

    Carboniferous igneous activity in the Sierra de Velasco (NW Argentina) led to the emplacement of several magmas bodies at shallow levels (relationships) intrusive units are: (1) the Asha unit (340 ± 7 Ma): a tabular to funnel-shaped intrusion emplaced during a regional strain field dominated by WSW-ENE shortening with contacts discordant to regional host-rock structures; (2) the San Blas unit (344 ± 2 Ma): an approximate cylindrical-shaped intrusion formed by multiple batches of magmas, with a roughly concentric fabric pattern and displacement of the host rock by ductile flow of about 35% of shortening; and (3) the Hualco unit (346 ± 6 Ma): a small body with a possible mushroom geometry and contacts concordant to regional host-rock structures. The magma pulses making up these units define two groups of A-type granitoids. The first group includes the peraluminous granitic rocks of the Asha unit generated mostly by crustal sources (εNdt = - 5.8 and εHft in zircon = - 2.9 to - 4.5). The second group comprises the metaluminous to peraluminous granitic rocks of the youngest units (San Blas and Hualco), which were formed by a heterogeneous mixture between mantle and crustal sources (εNdt = + 0.6 to - 4.8 and εHft in zircon = + 3 to - 6). Our results provide a comprehensive view of the evolution of an intrusive complex formed from multiple non-consanguineous magma intrusions that utilized the same magmatic plumbing system during downward transfer of host materials. As the plutonic system matures, the ascent of magmas is governed by the visco-elastic flow of host rock that for younger batches include older hot magma mush. The latter results in ductile downward flow of older, during rise of younger magma. Such complexes may reflect the plutonic portion of volcanic centers where chemically distinct magmas are erupted.

  16. Dynamic, nonlinear feedback regulation of slow pacemaking by A-type potassium current in ventral tegmental area neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaliq, Zayd M; Bean, Bruce P

    2008-10-22

    We analyzed ionic currents that regulate pacemaking in dopaminergic neurons of the mouse ventral tegmental area by comparing voltage trajectories during spontaneous firing with ramp-evoked currents in voltage clamp. Most recordings were made in brain slice, with key experiments repeated using acutely dissociated neurons, which gave identical results. During spontaneous firing, net ionic current flowing between spikes was calculated from the time derivative of voltage multiplied by cell capacitance, signal-averaged over many firing cycles to enhance resolution. Net inward interspike current had a distinctive nonmonotonic shape, reaching a minimum (generally current that peaked near -55 mV. This current was undetectable with 5 mV/s ramps and increased steeply with depolarization rate over the range (10-50 mV/s) typical of natural pacemaking. Ramp-evoked subthreshold current was resistant to alpha-dendrotoxin, paxilline, apamin, and tetraethylammonium but sensitive to 4-aminopyridine and 0.5 mM Ba2+, consistent with A-type potassium current (I(A)). Same-cell comparison of currents elicited by various ramp speeds with natural spontaneous depolarization showed how the steep dependence of I(A) on depolarization rate results in small net inward currents during pacemaking. These results reveal a mechanism in which subthreshold I(A) is near zero at steady state, but is engaged at depolarization rates >10 mV/s to act as a powerful, supralinear feedback element. This feedback mechanism explains how net ionic current can be constrained to <1-2 pA but reliably inward, thus enabling slow, regular firing.

  17. Investigation of a type C/D botulism outbreak in free-range laying hens in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souillard, R; Le Maréchal, C; Ballan, V; Rouxel, S; Léon, D; Balaine, L; Poëzevara, T; Houard, E; Robineau, B; Robinault, C; Chemaly, M; Le Bouquin, S

    2017-04-01

    In 2014, a botulism outbreak in a flock of laying hens was investigated in France. In the flock of 5020 hens, clinical signs of botulism occurred at 46 weeks of age. A type C/D botulism outbreak was confirmed using the mouse lethality assay for detection of botulinum toxin in serum and a real-time PCR test to detect Clostridium botulinum in intestinal contents. The disease lasted one week with a mortality rate of 2.6% without recurrence. Botulism in laying hens has rarely been reported. Five monthly visits were made to the farm between December 2014 and May 2015 for a longitudinal study of the persistence of C. botulinum in the poultry house after the outbreak, and to assess egg contamination by C. botulinum. Several samples were collected on each visit: in the house (from the ventilation circuit, the egg circuit, water and feed, droppings) and the surrounding area. Thirty clean and 30 dirty eggs were also swabbed at each visit. In addition, 12 dirty and 12 clean eggs were collected to analyse eggshell and egg content. The samples were analysed using real-time PCR to detect type C/D C. botulinum. The bacterium was still detected in the house more than 5 months after the outbreak, mostly on the walls and in the egg circuit. Regarding egg contamination, the bacteria were detected only on the shell but not in the content of the eggs. Control measures should therefore be implemented throughout the egg production period to avoid dissemination of the bacteria, particularly during egg collection.

  18. Heterologous gene expression and functional analysis of a type III polyketide synthase from Aspergillus niger NRRL 328

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirimura, Kohtaro, E-mail: kkohtaro@waseda.jp; Watanabe, Shotaro; Kobayashi, Keiichi

    2016-05-13

    Type III polyketide synthases (PKSs) catalyze the formation of pyrone- and resorcinol-types aromatic polyketides. The genomic analysis of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger NRRL 328 revealed that this strain has a putative gene (chr-8-2: 2978617–2979847) encoding a type III PKS, although its functions are unknown. In this study, for functional analysis of this putative type III PKS designated as An-CsyA, cloning and heterologous expression of the An-CsyA gene (An-csyA) in Escherichia coli were performed. Recombinant His-tagged An-CsyA was successfully expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3), purified by Ni{sup 2+}-affinity chromatography, and used for in vitro assay. Tests on the substrate specificity of the His-tagged An-CsyA with myriad acyl-CoAs as starter substrates and malonyl-CoA as extender substrate showed that His-tagged An-CsyA accepted fatty acyl-CoAs (C2-C14) and produced triketide pyrones (C2-C14), tetraketide pyrones (C2-C10), and pentaketide resorcinols (C10-C14). Furthermore, acetoacetyl-CoA, malonyl-CoA, isobutyryl-CoA, and benzoyl-CoA were also accepted as starter substrates, and both of triketide pyrones and tetraketide pyrones were produced. It is noteworthy that the His-tagged An-CsyA produced polyketides from malonyl-CoA as starter and extender substrates and produced tetraketide pyrones from short-chain fatty acyl-CoAs as starter substrates. Therefore, this is the first report showing the functional properties of An-CsyA different from those of other fungal type III PKSs. -- Highlights: •Type III PKS from Aspergillus niger NRRL 328, An-CsyA, was cloned and characterized. •An-CsyA produced triketide pyrones, tetraketide pyrones and pentaketide resorcinols. •Functional properties of An-CsyA differs from those of other fungal type III PKSs.

  19. Heterologous gene expression and functional analysis of a type III polyketide synthase from Aspergillus niger NRRL 328

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirimura, Kohtaro; Watanabe, Shotaro; Kobayashi, Keiichi

    2016-01-01

    Type III polyketide synthases (PKSs) catalyze the formation of pyrone- and resorcinol-types aromatic polyketides. The genomic analysis of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger NRRL 328 revealed that this strain has a putative gene (chr-8-2: 2978617–2979847) encoding a type III PKS, although its functions are unknown. In this study, for functional analysis of this putative type III PKS designated as An-CsyA, cloning and heterologous expression of the An-CsyA gene (An-csyA) in Escherichia coli were performed. Recombinant His-tagged An-CsyA was successfully expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3), purified by Ni"2"+-affinity chromatography, and used for in vitro assay. Tests on the substrate specificity of the His-tagged An-CsyA with myriad acyl-CoAs as starter substrates and malonyl-CoA as extender substrate showed that His-tagged An-CsyA accepted fatty acyl-CoAs (C2-C14) and produced triketide pyrones (C2-C14), tetraketide pyrones (C2-C10), and pentaketide resorcinols (C10-C14). Furthermore, acetoacetyl-CoA, malonyl-CoA, isobutyryl-CoA, and benzoyl-CoA were also accepted as starter substrates, and both of triketide pyrones and tetraketide pyrones were produced. It is noteworthy that the His-tagged An-CsyA produced polyketides from malonyl-CoA as starter and extender substrates and produced tetraketide pyrones from short-chain fatty acyl-CoAs as starter substrates. Therefore, this is the first report showing the functional properties of An-CsyA different from those of other fungal type III PKSs. -- Highlights: •Type III PKS from Aspergillus niger NRRL 328, An-CsyA, was cloned and characterized. •An-CsyA produced triketide pyrones, tetraketide pyrones and pentaketide resorcinols. •Functional properties of An-CsyA differs from those of other fungal type III PKSs.

  20. Blood glucose kinetics and physiological changes in a type 1 diabetic finisher of the Ultraman triathlon: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Christopher W; Baur, Daniel A; Hyder, William S; Ormsbee, Michael J

    2017-05-01

    To investigate the blood glucose kinetics and physiological effects experienced by a type 1 diabetic (T1D) finisher of a 3-day, multi-stage ultra endurance triathlon consisting of a 10 km swim and 144.8 km bike (stage 1), a 275.4 km bike (stage 2), and an 84.4 km run (stage 3). The athlete self-monitored blood glucose (SMBG) levels via fingerstick blood draw and hand-held glucometer. Researchers evaluated blood glucose kinetics via a continuous glucose monitoring device. The athlete maintained normal dietary and insulin patterns before, during and after competition daily. Weight and body composition were measured via bioelectrical impedance and select biomarkers were measured in blood. The athlete spent 73.0, 3.4, and 15.1% of during race time in a hyperglycemic state (≥130 mg dL -1 ) during stages 1, 2, and 3, respectively, and 0.0, 78.6, and 33.6% in a hypoglycemic state (≤80 mg dL -1 ). Nocturnal glycemic levels showed the athlete spent 86.1, 83.0, and 84.8% of sleep in a hyperglycemic state during nights 1, 2, and 3, respectively, and 9.0, 0.0, and 0.0% in a hypoglycemic state. From pre- to post-race, body weight (73.2 to 76.9 kg) and total body water increased (49.2-51.6 kg). In addition, there were dramatic increases in creatine kinase (271.7-9252.8 µ L -1 ), cortisol (137.1-270.2 pg mL -1 ), CRP (188.3-8046.9 ng mL -1 ), and aldosterone (449.1-1679.6 pg mL -1 ). It is possible for a T1D athlete to complete a multi-stage ultraendurance triathlon and maintain glycemic control using SMBG methods. In addition, a T1D athlete participating in an ultraendurance triathlon results in substantial changes in body composition, hormones, and muscle damage.

  1. Management of a type two avulsion fracture of the tibial intercondylar eminence in children: arthroscopic suture fixation versus conservative immobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chen; Bi, Qing; Bi, Mingguang

    2018-06-01

    Treatment of a type II tibial eminence avulsion fracture was controversial. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical outcomes of a modified arthroscopic suture fixation versus conservative immobilization in treatment of this type fracture in immature population. A total of 43 type II avulsion fractures of tibial intercondylar eminence in immature patients were retrospectively enrolled in the study. Twenty-two (13 males, 9 females) were treated with arthroscopic suture fixation and 21(12 males, 9 females) with conservative cast immobilization. Radiograph, Lachman test, anterior drawer test (ADT), International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) 2000 subjective score, and Lysholm score were used to evaluate clinical outcomes in follow-up. All 43 paediatric or adolescent patients with a mean of 11.3 years (range, 8-16 years) were followed up for a median period of 34.5 months (range, 24-46 months). Radiographic evaluation showed optimal reduction immediately after surgery and bone union within three months. At the final follow-up, no limitation of knee motion range was found in any children. Grade II laxity was found in one case from surgical group and six from conservation group, showing significant difference based on ADT (χ2 = 7.927, P = 0.005) and Lachman tests (χ2 = 9.546, P = 0.002). IKDC and Lysholm scores were significantly improved; however, there were significant differences in the IKDC score (91.7 ± 4.34 vs. 84.7 ± 6.11, t = 4.35, P < 0.001) and Lysholm score (93.4 ± 4.04 vs. 87.1 ± 5.24, t = 4.53, P < 0.001), and the improvement of IKDC value (40.2 ± 7.83 vs. 31.4 ± 8.4, t = 3.57, P = 0.001) and Lysholm value (43.8 ± 6.55 vs. 35.4 ± 5.97, t = 4.36, P < 0.001) between the surgical group and the nonsurgical group. In treatment of type II tibial eminence avulsion fracture, a modified, 8 shape suture fixation under arthroscopy showed superior clinical

  2. LA PLANTA ÚNICA COMO TIPO RESISTENTE A LA ESCALA / the single plan as a type resistant to scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Colmenares Vilata

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN El sistema capitalista ha generado dos de los modelos espaciales de indiferencia funcional más extremos: por un lado, el espacio tecnificado y repetido del edificio de oficinas en altura, encarnado por la ‘planta tipo’ y, por otro, el espacio diáfano y extenso del gran contendor, que responde a la lógica de lo que llamaremos ‘planta única’. En los edificios construidos para la industria automovilística y bélica americana se encuentra el germen de un tipo que servirá de modelo para los nuevos espacios de consumo de bienes y servicios de la ciudad post-industrial. En ella, la identificación del rascacielos con el centro y del contenedor con la periferia sigue vigente, porque la densidad necesaria del primero y la ocupación extensiva del segundo hacen que resulte imposible invertir los términos. Sin embargo, ambos representan el desarrollo estrictamente pragmático de los principios de la ‘planta libre’ como sistema operativo genérico, dando lugar a construcciones de gran tamaño que ponen a prueba la resistencia a la escala del propio tipo. Tomando como referencia la neutralidad característica de la ‘planta única’ el texto analiza el comportamiento frente al cambio de tamaño de sus dos configuraciones complementarias: la gran sala hipóstila y la gran sala diáfana. SUMMARY The capitalist system has generated two of the most extreme spatial models of functional indifference: on the one hand, the technified and repeated space of the high-rise office building, incarnated by the “typical plan” and, on the other, the diaphanous and extensive space of the large container, which responds to the logic of what we will call “single plan”. In the buildings constructed for the American automobile and military industries is the germ of a type that would serve as a model for the new spaces for consumption of goods and services of the post-industrial city. In that city, the identification of the skyscraper with the

  3. Test plan for the M-100 container, (model M-101/7A/12/90) docket 96-43-7A, type A container. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, D.L.

    1997-01-01

    This report concerns the packaging configurations being tested by the U.S. DOE and its contractors, and according to U.S. DOT specification 7A Type A (DOT-7A) requirements. The objective of this Test Plan is to describe the testing for the qualification of the M-100 Container, Model M-101/7A/12/90 as a DOT-7A Type A packaging. This packaging system is designed to ship Type A solid radioactive materials, normal form, Form Number 1, Form Number 2, and Form Number 3

  4. "We Are a Chinese School": Constructing School Identity from the Lived Experiences of Expatriate and Chinese Teaching Faculty in a Type C International School in Shanghai, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Adam

    2018-01-01

    This study explores school identity by analysing the perceptions of Chinese and expatriate teachers in a Type C, non-traditional international school in Shanghai, China. The purpose of this study was to build on Hayden's (2016) work by offering a detailed description of this type of school which continues to be under researched. A mixed-methods…

  5. Permian A-type rhyolites of the Muráň Nappe, Inner Western Carpathians, Slovakia: in-situ zircon U-Pb SIMS ages and tectonic setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondrejka, Martin; Li, Xian-Hua; Vojtko, Rastislav; Putis, Marian; Uher, Pavel; Sobocký, Tomas

    2018-04-01

    Three representative A-type rhyolitic rock samples from the Muráň Nappe of the inferred Silicic Unit of the Inner Western Carpathians (Slovakia) were dated using the high-precision SIMS U-Pb isotope technique on zircons. The geochronological data presented in this paper is the first in-situ isotopic dating of these volcanic rocks. Oscillatory zoned zircon crystals mostly revealed concordant Permian (Guadalupian) ages: 266.6 ± 2.4 Ma in Tisovec-Rejkovo (TIS-1), 263.3 ± 1.9 Ma in Telgárt-Gregová Hill (TEL-1) and 269.5 ± 1.8 Ma in Veľká Stožka-Dudlavka (SD-2) rhyolites. The results indicate that the formation of A-type rhyolites and their plutonic equivalents are connected to magmatic activity during the Permian extensional tectonics and most likely related to the Pangea supercontinent break-up.

  6. 4D-π-1A type β-substituted ZnII-porphyrins: ideal green sensitizers for building-integrated photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covezzi, A; Orbelli Biroli, A; Tessore, F; Forni, A; Marinotto, D; Biagini, P; Di Carlo, G; Pizzotti, M

    2016-10-18

    Two novel green β-substituted Zn II -porphyrins, G1 and G2, based on a 4D-π-1A type substitution pattern have been synthesized. Their enhanced push-pull character, by reduction of H-L energy gaps, promotes broadening and red-shifting of absorption bands. The effective synthetic pathway and the remarkable spectroscopic properties make G2 ideal for BIPV application.

  7. Stimulation of protective antibodies against type Ia and Ib group B streptococci by a type Ia polysaccharide-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine.

    OpenAIRE

    Wessels, M R; Paoletti, L C; Rodewald, A K; Michon, F; DiFabio, J; Jennings, H J; Kasper, D L

    1993-01-01

    Antisera elicited by type Ia group B streptococci (GBS) contain antibodies that react with both type Ia and type Ib strains. Previous studies suggested that antibodies elicited by type Ia organisms recognized a carbohydrate antigen or epitope common to Ia and Ib strains. We now report the synthesis and immunogenicity testing of a type Ia polysaccharide-tetanus toxoid (Ia-TT) conjugate vaccine. Ia-TT elicited type Ia polysaccharide-specific immunoglobulin G antibodies in all three of the rabbi...

  8. Study of catalysts prepared on the basis of synthetic zeolite of A-type in the reaction of oxidation of isopropyl alcohol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliev, A.M; Matiev, K.I; Mirgashimov, F.M; Kuliev, F.D; Mejidov, N.J

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Partial oxidation of isopropyl alcohol into acetone at the zeolite of A-type modified by ions copper and palladium at the temperature interval 150-230 degree C, of volume velocity 2400 H - 1 under different ratio alcohol-oxygen-helium at atmoshpheric pressure has been studied. It has been established that the conversion of isopropyl alcohol on zeolites CuPdNaA and CuPdCaA is noticable however selective by acetone alcohol, modofoed zeolites, acetone

  9. Retrograde Embolization of the Left Vertebral Artery in a Type II Endoleak After Endovascular Treatment of Aortic Thoracic Rupture: Technical Note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabellino, Martin; Garcia Nielsen, L.; Baldi, S.; Zander, T.; Arnaiz, L.; Llorens, R.; Zerolo, I.; Maynar, M.

    2009-01-01

    Endoleak is a frequent complication after endovascular repair of aortic rupture. We describe the case of a female patient with traumatic aortic injury, treated with endograft, who developed a type II endoleak through the left subclavian and vertebral arteries. Both arteries originated independently from the aortic arch, and were managed with coil embolization of each vessel. We also report our experience with treating the left vertebral artery by placing a microcatheter through the right vertebral one.

  10. A-type and B-type lamins initiate layer assembly at distinct areas of the nuclear envelope in living cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furukawa, Kazuhiro, E-mail: furukawa@chem.sc.niigata-u.ac.jp [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Niigata University, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Ishida, Kazuya; Tsunoyama, Taka-aki; Toda, Suguru; Osoda, Shinichi; Horigome, Tsuneyoshi [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Niigata University, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Fisher, Paul A. [Department of Pharmacological Sciences, School of Medicine, University Medical Center, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY 11794-8651 (United States); Sugiyama, Shin [Division of Biological Science, Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan)

    2009-04-15

    To investigate nuclear lamina re-assembly in vivo, Drosophila A-type and B-type lamins were artificially expressed in Drosophila lamin Dm{sub 0}null mutant brain cells. Both exogenous lamin C (A-type) and Dm{sub 0} (B-type) formed sub-layers at the nuclear periphery, and efficiently reverted the abnormal clustering of the NPC. Lamin C initially appeared where NPCs were clustered, and subsequently extended along the nuclear periphery accompanied by the recovery of the regular distribution of NPCs. In contrast, lamin Dm{sub 0} did not show association with the clustered NPCs during lamina formation and NPC spacing recovered only after completion of a closed lamin Dm{sub 0} layer. Further, when lamin Dm{sub 0} and C were both expressed, they did not co-polymerize, initiating layer formation in separate regions. Thus, A and B-type lamins reveal differing properties during lamina assembly, with A-type having the primary role in organizing NPC distribution. This previously unknown complexity in the assembly of the nuclear lamina could be the basis for intricate nuclear envelope functions.

  11. Loss of Drosophila A-type lamin C initially causes tendon abnormality including disintegration of cytoskeleton and nuclear lamina in muscular defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchino, Ryo; Nonaka, Yu-Ki; Horigome, Tuneyoshi; Sugiyama, Shin; Furukawa, Kazuhiro

    2013-01-01

    Lamins are the major components of nuclear envelope architecture, being required for both the structural and informational roles of the nuclei. Mutations of lamins cause a spectrum of diseases in humans, including muscular dystrophy. We report here that the loss of the A-type lamin gene, lamin C in Drosophila resulted in pupal metamorphic lethality caused by tendon defects, matching the characteristics of human A-type lamin revealed by Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (EDMD). In tendon cells lacking lamin C activity, overall cell morphology was affected and organization of the spectraplakin family cytoskeletal protein Shortstop which is prominently expressed in tendon cells gradually disintegrated, notably around the nucleus and in a manner correlating well with the degradation of musculature. Furthermore, lamin C null mutants were efficiently rescued by restoring lamin C expression to shortstop-expressing cells, which include tendon cells but exclude skeletal muscle cells. Thus the critical function of A-type lamin C proteins in Drosophila musculature is to maintain proper function and morphology of tendon cells. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Early Cretaceous MORB-type basalt and A-type rhyolite in northern Tibet: Evidence for ridge subduction in the Bangong-Nujiang Tethyan Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jian-Jun; Li, Cai; Sun, Zhen-Ming; Xu, Wei; Wang, Ming; Xie, Chao-Ming

    2018-04-01

    New zircon U-Pb ages, major- and trace-element data, and Hf isotopic compositions are presented for bimodal volcanic rocks of the Zhaga Formation (ZF) in the western-middle segment of the Bangong-Nujiang suture zone (BNSZ), northern Tibet. The genesis of these rocks is described, and implications for late-stage evolution of the Bangong-Nujiang Tethyan Ocean (BNTO) are considered. Detailed studies show that the ZF bimodal rocks, which occur as layers within a typical bathyal to abyssal flysch deposit, comprise MORB-type basalt that formed at a mid-ocean ridge, and low-K calc-alkaline A-type rhyolite derived from juvenile crust. The combination of MORB-type basalt, calc-alkaline A-type rhyolite, and bathyal to abyssal flysch deposits in the ZF leads us to propose that they formed as a result of ridge subduction. The A-type ZF rhyolites yield LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb ages of 118-112 Ma, indicating formation during the Early Cretaceous. Data from the present study, combined with regional geological data, indicate that the BNTO underwent conversion from ocean opening to ocean closure during the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous. The eastern segment of the BNTO closed during this period, while the western and western-middle segments were still at least partially open and active during the Early Cretaceous, accompanied by ridge subduction within the Bangong-Nujiang Tethyan Ocean.

  13. A discussion on the tectonic implications of Ediacaran late- to post-orogenic A-type granite in the northeastern Arabian Shield, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, F. A.; Bonin, B.; Pease, V.; Anderson, J. L.

    2017-03-01

    The transition from late-orogenic to post-orogenic magmatism following major orogenic episodes such as the Neoproterozoic to Cambrian East African Orogen (EAO) is an important, yet not well-understood geological event marking the cessation of subduction-controlled magmatism between buoyant lithospheric fragments. Forming the northern part of the EAO in the Arabian-Nubian Shield are three granitic suites that successively intruded the same northeastern area and post-date the 640 Ma major orogenic episode: (1) 620-600 Ma alkali feldspar (hypersolvous) granite with alkaline/ferroan/A-type geochemistry, (2) 599 Ma granite cumulates (some garnet-bearing) with calc-alkaline/magnesian affinities, and (3) 584-566 Ma alkali feldspar (hypersolvous) granite (aegirine-bearing) with a distinctive peralkaline/ferroan/A-type signature. Combining whole-rock geochemistry from the southern and northern Arabian Shield, suites 1 and 2 are suggested to be products of late-orogenic slab tear/rollback inducing asthenospheric mantle injection and lower crustal melting/fractionation toward A-type/ferroan geochemistry. Suite 3, however, is suggested to be produced by post-orogenic lithospheric delamination, which replaced the older mantle with new asthenospheric (rare earth element-enriched) mantle that ultimately becomes the thermal boundary layer of the new lithosphere. Major shear zones, such as the 620-540 Ma Najd Fault System (NFS), are some of the last tectonic events recorded across the Arabian Shield. Data presented here suggest that the NFS is directly related to the late-orogenic (620-600 Ma) slab tear/rollback in the northeastern Shield as it met with opposing subduction polarity in the southern Shield. Furthermore, this study infers that east and west Gondwana amalgamation interacted with opposing convergence reflected by the NFS.

  14. Early Cretaceous ( 140 Ma) aluminous A-type granites in the Tethyan Himalaya, Tibet: Products of crust-mantle interaction during lithospheric extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lin; Kerr, Andrew C.; Wang, Qiang; Jiang, Zi-Qi; Hu, Wan-Long

    2018-02-01

    A-type granites have been the focus of considerable research due to their distinctive major- and trace-element signatures and tectonic significance. However, their petrogenesis, magmatic source and tectonic setting remain controversial, particularly for aluminous A-type granites. The earliest Cretaceous (ca. 140 Ma) Comei granite in the eastern Tethyan Himalaya is associated with coeval oceanic island basalt (OIB)-type mafic lava, and has A-type granite geochemical characteristics including high 10,000 × Ga/Al (up to 6), FeOtotal/MgO (4.6-6.1) and (Na2O + K2O)/Al2O3 (0.50-0.61) ratios but low CaO (0.6-1.6 wt%) and Na2O (1.8-2.6 wt%) contents. The Comei granite also has variable peraluminous compositions (A/CNK = 1.00-1.36) along with zircon δ18O, εNd(t) and initial 87Sr/86Sr values of 8.2‰ to 9.3‰, - 13.0 to - 12.4 and 0.7238 to 0.7295, respectively. This range of compositions can be interpreted as the interaction between high-temperature upwelling OIB type basaltic magmas and a shallow crustal (The Comei granite and coeval OIB type basaltic rock could represent the earliest stage (145-140 Ma) of a large igneous event in eastern Tethyan Himalaya, which may well have been triggered by pre-breakup lithospheric extension prior to the arrival of the Kerguelen plume head.

  15. Late Neoproterozoic to Carboniferous genesis of A-type magmas in Avalonia of northern Nova Scotia: repeated partial melting of anhydrous lower crust in contrasting tectonic environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, J. Brendan; Shellnutt, J. Gregory; Collins, William J.

    2018-03-01

    Avalonian rocks in northern mainland Nova Scotia are characterized by voluminous 640-600 Ma calc-alkalic to tholeiitic mafic to felsic magmas produced in a volcanic arc. However, after the cessation of arc activity, repeated episodes of felsic magmatism between ca. 580 Ma and 350 Ma are dominated by A-type geochemical characteristics. Sm-Nd isotopic data, combined with zircon saturation temperature estimates, indicate that these magmas were formed by high temperature (800-1050 °C) melting of the same anhydrous crustal source. Regional tectonic considerations indicate that A-type felsic magmatism was produced (1) at 580 Ma in a San Andreas-type strike slip setting, (2) at 495 Ma as Avalonia rifted off Gondwana, (3) at 465 and 455 in an ensialic island arc environment and (4) at 360-350 Ma during post-collisional, intra-continental strike-slip activity as Avalonia was translated dextrally along the Laurentian margin. These results attest to the importance of crustal source, rather than tectonic setting, in the generation of these A-type magmas and are an example of how additional insights are provided by comparing the geochemical and isotopic characteristics of igneous suites of different ages within the same terrane. They also suggest that the shallow crustal rocks in northern mainland Nova Scotia were not significantly detached from their lower crustal source between ca. 620 Ma and 350 Ma, a time interval that includes the separation of Avalonia from Gondwana, its drift and accretion to Laurentia as well as post-accretionary strike-slip displacement.

  16. Genetics Home Reference: Noonan syndrome with multiple lentigines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Noonan syndrome with multiple lentigines include brown skin spots called lentigines that are similar to freckles, heart ... individuals may have thousands of small dark brown skin spots by the time they reach puberty. Unlike freckles, ...

  17. Molecular characterization of a Leishmania donovani cDNA clone with similarity to human 20S proteasome a-type subunit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, C B; Jørgensen, L; Jensen, A T

    2000-01-01

    Using plasma from patients infected or previously infected with Leishmania donovanii, we isolated a L. donovanii cDNA clone with similarity to the proteasome a-type subunit from humans and other eukaryotes. The cDNA clone, designated LePa, was DNA sequenced and Northern blot analysis of L....... donovanii poly(A(+))mRNA indicated the isolation of a full length cDNA clone with a transcript size of 1.9 kb. The expressed recombinant LePa fusion protein induced proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in one out of seven patients who had suffered from visceral leishmaniasis. Plasma from 16...

  18. Test and evaluation report for Westinghouse Hanford Company`s 1-L liquid shipper, docket 95-41-7A, Type A container

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, D.L.

    1996-03-13

    This report incorporates the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Facility Safety Analysis (DOE/EH-32) approval letter for packaging use. This report documents the U.S. Department of Transportation Specification 7A Type A (DOT-7A) compliance test results of the 1-L Liquid Shipper packaging. The approved packaging system is designed to ship Type A quantities of radioactive materials, normal form. Contents may be liquid or solid form. Liquid contents must have a specific gravity {lt}2. Solid materials are limited in weight, to include packaging, to the gross weight of the as-tested liquids and bottles.

  19. Analytic validation and comparison of three commercial immunoassays for measurement of plasma atrial/A-type natriuretic peptide concentration in horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trachsel, D S; Schwarzwald, C C; Grenacher, B

    2014-01-01

    Measurement of atrial/A-type natriuretic peptide (ANP) concentrations may be of use for assessment of cardiac disease, and reliable data on the analytic performance of available assays are needed. To assess the suitability for clinical use of commercially available ANP assays, intra-assay and inter......-Altman analyses. For all assays, precision was moderate but acceptable and dilution parallelism was good. All assays showed analytic performance similar to other immunoassays used in veterinary medicine. However, the results from the three assays were poorly comparable. Our study highlights the need...

  20. BmTx3, a scorpion toxin with two putative functional faces separately active on A-type K+ and HERG currents.

    OpenAIRE

    Huys, Isabelle; Xu, Chen-Qi; Wang, Cheng-Zhong; Vacher, Hélène; Martin-Eauclaire, Marie-France; Chi, Cheng-Wu; Tytgat, Jan

    2004-01-01

    A novel HERG channel blocker was isolated from the venom of the scorpion Buthus martensi Karsch, sequenced and characterized at the pharmacological level after chemical synthesis. According to the determined amino acid sequence, the cDNA and genomic genes were then cloned. The genomic gene consists of two exons interrupted by an intron of 65 bp at position -6 upstream from the mature toxin. The protein sequence of this toxin was completely identical with that of a known A-type K+ current bloc...

  1. Test and evaluation report for Westinghouse Hanford Company's 1-L liquid shipper, docket 95-41-7A, Type A container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, D.L.

    1996-01-01

    This report incorporates the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Facility Safety Analysis (DOE/EH-32) approval letter for packaging use. This report documents the U.S. Department of Transportation Specification 7A Type A (DOT-7A) compliance test results of the 1-L Liquid Shipper packaging. The approved packaging system is designed to ship Type A quantities of radioactive materials, normal form. Contents may be liquid or solid form. Liquid contents must have a specific gravity <2. Solid materials are limited in weight, to include packaging, to the gross weight of the as-tested liquids and bottles

  2. A FIVE-YEAR SPECTROSCOPIC AND PHOTOMETRIC CAMPAIGN ON THE PROTOTYPICAL α CYGNI VARIABLE AND A-TYPE SUPERGIANT STAR DENEB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, N. D.; Morrison, N. D.; Kryukova, E. E.; Adelman, S. J.

    2011-01-01

    Deneb is often considered the prototypical A-type supergiant and is one of the visually most luminous stars in the Galaxy. A-type supergiants are potential extragalactic distance indicators, but the variability of these stars needs to be better characterized before this technique can be considered reliable. We analyzed 339 high-resolution echelle spectra of Deneb obtained over the five-year span of 1997 through 2001 as well as 370 Stroemgren photometric measurements obtained during the same time frame. Our spectroscopic analysis included dynamical spectra of the Hα profile, Hα equivalent widths, and radial velocities measured from Si II λλ 6347, 6371. Time-series analysis reveals no obvious cyclic behavior that proceeds through multiple observing seasons, although we found a suspected 40 day period in two, non-consecutive observing seasons. Some correlations are found between photometric and radial velocity data sets and suggest radial pulsations at two epochs. No correlation is found between the variability of the Hα profiles and that of the radial velocities or the photometry. Lucy found evidence that Deneb was a long-period single-lined spectroscopic binary star, but our data set shows no evidence for radial velocity variations caused by a binary companion.

  3. A-type granitoid in Hasansalaran complex, northwestern Iran: Evidence for extensional tectonic regime in northern Gondwana in the Late Paleozoic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Hossein; Kazemi, Tahmineh; Asahara, Yoshihiro

    2017-07-01

    The Hasansalaran plutonic complex is one of the main intrusive bodies with a wide range of granite, monzonite, diorite and syenite that crop out in northwest Iran. This body includes Paleozoic granitoids that are surrounded and cut by Cretaceous granitoids. Zircon U-Pb age dating shows that the crystallization of this body occurred at 360 Ma ago in the Early Carboniferous. Whole rock compositions of the investigated intrusive body, show high contents of Ga (11.1-76.3 ppm), Zr (73.5-1280 ppm), Zn (43.7-358 ppm), Y(17.9-177 ppm), enrichment of rare earth elements (REEs) together with high Ga/Al ratios and a strong Eu negative anomaly, fairly consistent with typical A-type signature. The low εNd(t = 360 Ma) value (model for evolution of northwest Iran in the Late Paleozoic. Based on our model, the upwelling of a mantle plume, probably due to the proto-Tethys oceanic rollback activity beneath northern Gondwana, had a crucial role in the uplifting of the continental crust and resulted in the crystallization of A-type granitoids with some gabbroic rocks in northwest Iran.

  4. Strain and high-temperature discrimination using a Type II fiber Bragg grating and a miniature fiber Fabry-Perot interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yajun; Yang, Dexing; Yuan, Yuan; Xu, Jian; Li, Dong; Zhao, Jianlin

    2016-08-10

    A novel method for simultaneous measurement of strain and high temperature using a Type II fiber Bragg grating (FBG) and a miniature fiber Fabry-Perot interferometer (MFFPI) is proposed. The MFFPI is produced by fusion splicing a short section of quartz capillary tube with two single-mode fibers, and then it is exposed by a focused femtosecond laser and a phase mask to inscribe a Type II FBG nearby. The reflection spectrum of this sensor is the superposition of the reflection spectrum of the FBG and the interference fringe of the MFFPI. This sensor shows perfect high-temperature and strain responses. Because of the different responses to the uniform variations of strain and temperature, by measuring the reflection peak of FBG and one of the interference dips of the MFFPI, strain and temperature can be simultaneously determined. The resolutions of this particular sensor in measuring strain and temperature are estimated to be ±8.4  μϵ and ±3.3°C, respectively, in the range from 0 to 1122 μϵ and from 23°C to 600°C.

  5. Test and evaluation report for Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company, arrow-pak packaging, docket 95-40-7A, type A container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, D.L.

    1996-01-01

    This report incorporates the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Facility Safety Analysis (DOE/EH-32) approval letter for packaging use. This report documents the U.S. Department of Transportation Specification 7A Type A (DOT-7A) compliance test results of the Arrow-Pak packaging. The Arrow-Pak packaging system consists of Marlex M-8000 Driscopipe, manufactured by Phillips-Driscopipe, Inc., and is sealed with two dome-shaped end caps manufactured from the same materials. The patented sealing process involves the use of electrical energy to heat opposing faces of the pipe and end caps, and hydraulic rams to press the heated surfaces together. This fusion process produces a homogeneous bonding of the end cap to the pipe. The packaging may be used with or without the two internal plywood spacers. This packaging configuration described in this report is designed to ship Type A quantities of solid radioactive materials

  6. Main aspects in licensing of a type B(U) package design for the transport of 12.95 PBq of cobalt 60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Vietri, J.R.; Novo, R.G.; Bianchi, A.J.

    1995-01-01

    This paper points out the relevant technical issues related to the licensing process, of a type B(U) package design, with cylindrical form and 9.3 ton mass, approved by the Argentine Competent Authority for the transport of 12.95 PBq of cobalt 60 as special form radioactive material. It is briefly described the heat transfer analysis, the structural performance under impulsive loads and the shielding calculation under both normal and accidental conditions of transport, as well as the comparative analysis of the results obtained from design, pre-operational tests and independent evaluation performed by the Argentine Competent Authority to verify the compliance with the Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material of the International Atomic Energy Agency. (author). 14 refs., 1 fig., tabs

  7. Final evaluation report for Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company, ARROW-PAK packaging, Docket 95-40-7A, Type A container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, D.L.

    1995-11-01

    The report documents the U.S. Department of Transportation Specification 7A Type A (DOT-7A) compliance test results of the ARROW-PAK packaging. The ARROW-PAK packaging system consists of Marlex M-8000 Driscopipe (Series 8000 [gas] or Series 8600 [industrial]) resin pipe, manufactured by Phillips-Driscopipe, Inc., and is sealed with two dome-shaped end caps manufactured from the same materials. The patented sealing process involves the use of electrical energy to heat opposing faces of the pipe and end caps, and hydraulic rams to press the heated surfaces together. This fusion process produces a homogeneous bonding of the end cap to the pipe. The packaging may be used with or without the two internal plywood spacers. This packaging was evaluated and tested in October 1995. The packaging configuration described in this report is designed to ship Type A quantities of solid radioactive materials, Form No. 1, Form No. 2, and Form No. 3

  8. Down-regulation of A-type potassium channel in gastric-specific DRG neurons in a rat model of functional dyspepsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S; Chen, J D Z

    2014-07-01

    Although without evidence of organic structural abnormalities, pain or discomfort is a prominent symptom of functional dyspepsia and considered to reflect visceral hypersensitivity whose underlying mechanism is poorly understood. Here, we studied electrophysiological properties and expression of voltage-gated potassium channels in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons in a rat model of functional dyspepsia induced by neonatal gastric irritation. Male Sprague-Dawley rat pups at 10-day old received 0.1% iodoacetamide (IA) or vehicle by oral gavage for 6 days and studied at adulthood. Retrograde tracer-labeled gastric-specific T8 -T12 DRG neurons were harvested for the patch-clamp study in voltage and current-clamp modes and protein expression of K(+) channel in T8 -T12 DRGs was examined by western blotting. (1) Gastric specific but not non-gastric DRG neurons showed an enhanced excitability in neonatal IA-treated rats compared to the control: depolarized resting membrane potentials, a lower current threshold for action potential (AP) activation, and an increase in the number of APs in response to current stimulation. (2) The current density of tetraethylammonium insensitive (transiently inactivating A-type current), but not the tetraethylammonium sensitive (slow-inactivating delayed rectifier K(+) currents), was significantly smaller in IA-treated rats (65.4 ± 6.9 pA/pF), compared to that of control (93.1 ± 8.3 pA/pF). (3) Protein expression of KV 4.3 was down-regulated in IA-treated rats. A-type potassium channels are significantly down-regulated in the gastric-specific DRG neurons in adult rats with mild neonatal gastric irritation, which in part contribute to the enhanced DRG neuron excitabilities that leads to the development of gastric hypersensitivity. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Subchronic effects of inhaled ambient particulate matter on glucose homeostasis and target organ damage in a type 1 diabetic rat model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Yuan-Horng [Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Research, Ditmanson Medical Foundation Chia-Yi Christian Hospital, Chiayi, Taiwan (China); Charles, Chou C.-K. [Research Center for Environmental Changes, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Wang, Jyh-Seng [Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Tung, Chun-Liang [Department of Pathology, Ditmanson Medical Foundation Chia-Yi Christian Hospital, Chiayi, Taiwan (China); Li, Ya-Ru; Lo, Kai [Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Cheng, Tsun-Jen, E-mail: tcheng@ntu.edu.tw [Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Public Health, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2014-12-01

    Epidemiological studies have reported associations between particulate matter (PM) and cardiovascular effects, and diabetes mellitus (DM) patients might be susceptible to these effects. The chief chronic injuries resulting from DM are small vascular injuries (micro-vascular complications) or large blood vessel injuries (macro-vascular complications). However, toxicological data regarding the effects of PM on DM-related cardiovascular complications is limited. Our objective was to investigate whether subchronic PM exposure alters glucose homeostasis and causes cardiovascular complications in a type 1 DM rat model. We constructed a real world PM{sub 2.5} exposure system, the Taipei Air Pollution Exposure System for Health Effects (TAPES), to continuously deliver non-concentrated PM for subchronic exposure. A type 1 DM rat model was induced using streptozotocin. Between December 22, 2009 and April 9, 2010, DM rats were exposed to PM or to filtered air (FA) using TAPES in Taipei, Taiwan, 24 h/day, 7 days/week, for a total of 16 weeks. The average concentrations (mean [SD]) of PM{sub 2.5} in the exposure and control chambers of the TAPES were 13.30 [8.65] and 0.13 [0.05] μg/m{sup 3}, respectively. Glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) was significantly elevated after exposure to PM compared with exposure to FA (mean [SD], 7.7% [3.1%] vs. 4.7% [1.0%], P < 0.05). Interleukin 6 and fibrinogen levels were significantly increased after PM exposure. PM caused focal myocarditis, aortic medial thickness, advanced glomerulosclerosis, and accentuation of tubular damage of the kidney (tubular damage index: 1.76 [0.77] vs. 1.15 [0.36], P < 0.001). PM exposure might induce the macro- and micro-vascular complications in DM through chronic hyperglycemia and systemic inflammation. - Highlights: • The study demonstrated cardiovascular and renal effects of PM in a rat model of DM. • TAPES is a continuous, real world, long-term PM exposure system. • HbA1c, a marker of glycemic

  10. Subchronic effects of inhaled ambient particulate matter on glucose homeostasis and target organ damage in a type 1 diabetic rat model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Yuan-Horng; Charles, Chou C.-K.; Wang, Jyh-Seng; Tung, Chun-Liang; Li, Ya-Ru; Lo, Kai; Cheng, Tsun-Jen

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have reported associations between particulate matter (PM) and cardiovascular effects, and diabetes mellitus (DM) patients might be susceptible to these effects. The chief chronic injuries resulting from DM are small vascular injuries (micro-vascular complications) or large blood vessel injuries (macro-vascular complications). However, toxicological data regarding the effects of PM on DM-related cardiovascular complications is limited. Our objective was to investigate whether subchronic PM exposure alters glucose homeostasis and causes cardiovascular complications in a type 1 DM rat model. We constructed a real world PM 2.5 exposure system, the Taipei Air Pollution Exposure System for Health Effects (TAPES), to continuously deliver non-concentrated PM for subchronic exposure. A type 1 DM rat model was induced using streptozotocin. Between December 22, 2009 and April 9, 2010, DM rats were exposed to PM or to filtered air (FA) using TAPES in Taipei, Taiwan, 24 h/day, 7 days/week, for a total of 16 weeks. The average concentrations (mean [SD]) of PM 2.5 in the exposure and control chambers of the TAPES were 13.30 [8.65] and 0.13 [0.05] μg/m 3 , respectively. Glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) was significantly elevated after exposure to PM compared with exposure to FA (mean [SD], 7.7% [3.1%] vs. 4.7% [1.0%], P < 0.05). Interleukin 6 and fibrinogen levels were significantly increased after PM exposure. PM caused focal myocarditis, aortic medial thickness, advanced glomerulosclerosis, and accentuation of tubular damage of the kidney (tubular damage index: 1.76 [0.77] vs. 1.15 [0.36], P < 0.001). PM exposure might induce the macro- and micro-vascular complications in DM through chronic hyperglycemia and systemic inflammation. - Highlights: • The study demonstrated cardiovascular and renal effects of PM in a rat model of DM. • TAPES is a continuous, real world, long-term PM exposure system. • HbA1c, a marker of glycemic homeostasis, was

  11. Magmatic evolution and controls on rare metal-enrichment of the Strange Lake A-type peralkaline granitic pluton, Québec-Labrador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Karin; Vasyukova, Olga V.; Williams-Jones, Anthony E.

    2018-05-01

    Although it is well known that A-type granites are enriched in the rare earth elements (REE) and other high field strength elements (HFSE), the magmatic processes that concentrate these elements are still poorly understood. The 1.24 Ga Strange Lake pluton in northern Québec-Labrador provides an extraordinary example of hyper-enrichment in the REE, Zr, and Nb in a peralkaline A-type granite. The pluton consists of two hypersolvus granite units (southern and northern) and a transsolvus granite, all of which contain perthitic alkali feldspar as the earliest major mineral; the transsolvus granite also contains separate albite and microcline crystals. Arfvedsonite, a sodic amphibole, occurs exclusively as phenocrysts in the transsolvus granite, whereas in the hypersolvus granite it is present as a late, interstitial phase. The primary HFSE minerals are zircon, monazite-(Ce), gagarinite-(Ce) and the pyrochlore group minerals. Magma evolution was monitored by the alumina content in the bulk rock, which decreases from the southern to the northern hypersolvus granite and is lowest in the transsolvus granite. Alkalinity indices and bulk Si, Fe, Rb, REE, Zr, Nb concentrations show the opposite trend. Alkali feldspar compositions mirror the trend shown by the bulk rock, i.e., decreasing Al contents are accompanied by increasing Si, Fe3+, REE, Zr and Nb contents. The major driving forces for the evolution of the hypersolvus magma prior to emplacement were the early separation of a fluoride melt from the silicate melt and the crystallization of alkali feldspar and HFSE-rich phases (zircon, monazite-(Ce), pyrochlore group). An alkali feldspar-rich crystal-mush containing LREE-fluoride melt droplets was emplaced as the least evolved southern hypersolvus granite. Massive fractionation of alkali feldspar led to a sharp increase in ƒH2O and F- activity in the magma chamber that triggered the crystallization of arfvedsonite and was followed by emplacement of the northern hypersolvus

  12. From Compression to Extension: Cretaceous A-type Granite as Indicator of Geodynamic Changes in the Adria Part of the European Neotethys Suture Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balen, D.; Schneider, P.; Massonne, H. J.; Opitz, J.; Petrinec, Z.

    2017-12-01

    The Cretaceous suture zone between the colliding plates of European and Adria (Gondwana) marks the closure of the W Neotethys branch. This zone, partly located in the northern Croatia, comprises reddish alkali granite which is mainly composed of alkali feldspar and quartz, with small amounts of albite, white mica and hematite with ilmenite exsolutions. Accessory minerals include zircon, apatite and Fe-(Ti)-oxides. This granite shows a geochemical signature typical for A2-type granite characterized by a highly siliceous composition and an enrichment in alkalies (high-K calc-alkaline series) and Al (strongly peraluminous, ASI>1.1). The rock belongs to the group of oxidized and ferroan granites with low CaO, MgO, MnO and FeO* contents. Characteristic trace element ratios, primitive mantle and OIB normalized spider-diagrams show significant positive anomalies of Rb, Th, U, K, Zr and Pb accompanied with clear negative anomalies of Ba, Nb, Sr, P, Eu and Ti. The negative anomalies suggest fractionation of plagioclase, apatite and Fe-Ti oxide. Based on the geochemical characteristics the magma originated mainly from melting of lower continental crust (granulite facies metasediments) although a mantle contribution cannot be excluded. The melting process could have been triggered by a heat from the upwelling upper mantle as inferred from zircon typology (D and J5 types prevail), as well from the zircon and whole-rock chemistry accompanied with high zircon saturation temperatures (T=860-950°C). Subsequent ascent of granitic magma was localized along the Europe-Adria suture i.e. the Sava Zone segment of the Late Cretaceous collisional zone where granite was emplaced at ca. 20 km depth. The emplacement followed a long period of Mesozoic orogenic compressional activity. Typical for A-type granites, although in our case related to the subduction of the Adria plate underneath the European plate, is their formation in an extensional tectonic regime. Thus, the studied A-type

  13. Bridging the Gap: Capturing the Lyα Counterpart of a Type-II Spicule and its Heating Evolution with VAULT2.0 and IRIS Campaign Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chintzoglou, G.; De Pontieu, B.; Martinez-Sykora, J.; Mendes Domingos Pereira, T.; Vourlidas, A.; Tun Beltran, S.

    2017-12-01

    We present the analysis of data from the observing campaign in support to the VAULT2.0 sounding rocket launch on September 30, 2014. VAULT2.0 is a Lyα (1216 Å) spectroheliograph capable of providing fast cadence spectroheliograms of high-spectral purity. High resolution Lyα observations are highly complementary with the IRIS observations of the upper chromosphere and the low transition region but have previously been unavailable. The VAULT2.0 data provide critical, new upper-chromospheric constraints for numerical models. The observing campaign was closely coordinated with the IRIS mission. Taking advantage of this simultaneous multi-wavelength coverage of target AR 12172 and by using state-of-the-art radiative-MHD simulations of spicules, we are able to perform a detailed investigation of a type-II spicule associated with a fast apparent network jet recorded in the campaign observations during the VAULT2.0 flight. Our unique analysis suggests that spicular material exists suspended in lower temperatures until it rapidly gets heated and becomes visible in transition-region temperatures as an apparent network jet.

  14. Charge Transfer Enhancement in the D-π-A Type Porphyrin Dyes: A Density Functional Theory (DFT and Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory (TD-DFT Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Jun Kang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The electronic geometries and optical properties of two D-π-A type zinc porphyrin dyes (NCH3-YD2 and TPhe-YD were systematically investigated by density functional theory (DFT and time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT to reveal the origin of significantly altered charge transfer enhancement by changing the electron donor of the famous porphyrin-based sensitizer YD2-o-C8. The molecular geometries and photophysical properties of dyes before and after binding to the TiO2 cluster were fully investigated. From the analyses of natural bond orbital (NBO, extended charge decomposition analysis (ECDA, and electron density variations (Δρ between the excited state and ground state, it was found that the introduction of N(CH32 and 1,1,2-triphenylethene groups enhanced the intramolecular charge-transfer (ICT character compared to YD2-o-C8. The absorption wavelength and transition possess character were significantly influenced by N(CH32 and 1,1,2-triphenylethene groups. NCH3-YD2 with N(CH32 groups in the donor part is an effective way to improve the interactions between the dyes and TiO2 surface, light having efficiency (LHE, and free energy change (ΔGinject, which is expected to be an efficient dye for use in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs.

  15. Statistical radii associated with amino acids to determine the contact map: fixing the structure of a type I cohesin domain in the Clostridium thermocellum cellulosome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chwastyk, Mateusz; Poma Bernaola, Adolfo; Cieplak, Marek

    2015-07-01

    We propose to improve and simplify protein refinement procedures through consideration of which pairs of amino acid residues should form native contacts. We first consider 11 330 proteins from the CATH database to determine statistical distributions of contacts associated with a given type of amino acid. The distributions are set across the distances between the α-C atoms that are in contact. Based on this data, we determine typical radii of effective spheres that can be placed on the α-C atoms in order to reconstruct the distribution of the contact lengths. This is done by checking for overlaps with enlarged van der Waals spheres associated with heavy atoms on other amino acids. The resulting contacts can be used to identify non-native contacts that may arise during the time evolution of structure-based models. Here, the radii are used to guide reconstruction of nine missing side chains in a type I cohesin domain with the Protein Data Bank code 1AOH. We first identify the likely missing contacts and then sculpt the corresponding side chains by standard refinement tools to achieve consistency with the expected contact map. One ambiguity in refinement is resolved by determining all-atom conformational energies.

  16. Geology, petrography and geochemistry of the A-type granites from the Morro Redondo Complex (PR-SC, southern Brazil, Graciosa Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FREDERICO C.J. VILALVA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Morro Redondo Complex is one of the most important occurrences of the Graciosa A-type Province, southern Brazil. It consists of the Papanduva and Quiriri granitic plutons and a contemporaneous bimodal volcanic association. The Papanduva Pluton includes massive and deformed peralkaline alkali-feldspar granites with Na-Ca and Na-amphiboles and clinopyroxenes. The deformed types are the most evolved rocks in the province and carry rare ‘agpaitic’ minerals, some being described for the first time in granites from Brazil. The larger Quiriri Pluton comprises massive, slightly peraluminous, biotite syeno- and monzogranites with rare Ca-amphibole. Biotite compositions are relatively homogeneous, whereas sodic amphiboles and clinopyroxenes show increasing Na and Fe3+ evolving paths. The Morro Redondo granites are ferroan, with high SiO2, alkalis and HFSE contents; the peralkaline types registering the highest fe#. LILE and HFSE abundances increase with the agpaitic index and the most evolved are HHP granites, with radiogenic heat production up to 5.7 µWm–3. Geothermobarometric estimates indicate emplacement under low pressures (∼100 MPa, at temperatures up to 850-800 °C, and relatively reduced (QFM and oxidized (+1 REPLACE_LT ΔQFM REPLACE_LT +3 environments for the Papanduva and Quiriri Plutons, respectively. In both cases, melts evolved to relatively high oxidation states upon crystallization progress.

  17. Synthesis of an A-D-A type of molecule used as electron acceptor for improving charge transfer in organic solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Chao-Zhi, E-mail: chzhzhang@sohu.com [Department of Chemistry, Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology, Nanjing 210044 (China); Gu, Shu-Duo; Shen, Dan; Yuan, Yang [Department of Chemistry, Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology, Nanjing 210044 (China); Zhang, Mingdao, E-mail: matchlessjimmy@163.com [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Environment Monitoring and Pollution Control, Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology, Nanjing 210044 (China)

    2016-08-22

    Electron-accepting molecules play an important role in developing organic solar cells. A new type of A-D-A molecule, 3,6-di([7-(5-bromothiophen-2-yl)-1,5,2,4,6,8-dithiotetrazocin-3-yl]thiophen -2-yl)-9-(2-ethylhexyl)carbazole, was synthesized. The lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) and highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) energy levels are −3.55 and −5.85 eV, respectively. Therefore, the A-D-A type of compound could be used as electron acceptor for fabricating organic solar cell with a high open circuit voltage. Gibbs free energy (−49.2 kJ/mol) reveals that the process of A-D-A acceptor accepting an electron from poly(3-hexylthiophene) at excited state is spontaneous. The value of entropy (118 J/mol) in the process of an electron transferring from P3HT to the A-D-A acceptor at organic interface suggests that electrons generated from separation of electron-hole pairs at donor/acceptor interface would be delocalized efficiently. Therefore, the A-D-A molecule would be a potential acceptor for efficient organic BHJ solar cells.

  18. Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopic analysis of the effects of cereal type and variety within a type of grain on structural makeup in relation to rumen degradation kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Amanda M; Yu, Peiqiang; Christensen, Colleen R; Christensen, David A; McKinnon, John J

    2009-08-12

    The objectives of this study were to use Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (FTIRM) to determine structural makeup (features) of cereal grain endosperm tissue and to reveal and identify differences in protein and carbohydrate structural makeup between different cereal types (corn vs barley) and between different varieties within a grain (barley CDC Bold, CDC Dolly, Harrington, and Valier). Another objective was to investigate how these structural features relate to rumen degradation kinetics. The items assessed included (1) structural differences in protein amide I to nonstructural carbohydrate (NSC, starch) intensity and ratio within cellular dimensions; (2) molecular structural differences in the secondary structure profile of protein, alpha-helix, beta-sheet, and their ratio; (3) structural differences in NSC to amide I ratio profile. From the results, it was observed that (1) comparison between grain types [corn (cv. Pioneer 39P78) vs barley (cv. Harrington)] showed significant differences in structural makeup in terms of NSC, amide I to NSC ratio, and rumen degradation kinetics (degradation ratio, effective degradability of dry matter, protein and NSC) (P makeup in terms of amide I, NSC, amide I to NSC ratio, alpha-helix and beta-sheet protein structures, and rumen degradation kinetics (effective degradability of dry matter, protein, and NSC) (P makeup differences between cereal types and between different varieties within a type of grain could be revealed. These structural makeup differences were related to the rate and extent of rumen degradation.

  19. Enterovirus 71 contains a type I IRES element that functions when eukaryotic initiation factor eIF4G is cleaved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, Sunnie R.; Sarnow, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a member of the Enterovirus genus of the Picornaviridae family. Other members of this family utilize an unusual mechanism of translation initiation whereby ribosomes are recruited internally to the viral RNA by an internal ribosome site (IRES) located in their 5' noncoding regions (5' NCR). Using dicistronic reporter constructs, we demonstrate that the 5' NCRs of the 7423/MS/87 and BrCr strains of EV71 function as an IRES both in extracts and in cultured cells. Preincubation of translation extracts with purified coxsackievirus 2A protease cleaved elF4G, a component of the cap binding complex, resulting in a significant decrease in translation of capped mRNAs. In contrast, the translational efficiency of the EV71 IRES was enhanced under this condition, demonstrating that the EV71 IRES functions similar to other enterovirus IRES elements when components of the cap binding protein complex are cleaved. Finally, insertion of an upstream, out-of-frame start codon in the 5' NCR of the EV71 genome inhibited IRES activity, suggesting that EV71 can be classified as a type I IRES, in which ribosomes first bind upstream of the initiation codon and then scan the mRNA until an appropriate downstream AUG start codon is encountered and protein synthesis commences

  20. The oxygenating constituent of 3,6-diketocamphane monooxygenase from the CAM plasmid of Pseudomonas putida: the first crystal structure of a type II Baeyer–Villiger monooxygenase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isupov, Michail N.; Schröder, Ewald; Gibson, Robert P.; Beecher, Jean; Donadio, Giuliana; Saneei, Vahid; Dcunha, Stephlina A.; McGhie, Emma J.; Sayer, Christopher; Davenport, Colin F. [University of Exeter, Stocker Road, Exeter EX4 4QD (United Kingdom); Lau, Peter C. [National Research Council Canada, 6100 Royalmount Avenue, Montreal, QC H4P 2R2 (Canada); Hasegawa, Yoshie; Iwaki, Hiroaki [Kansai University (Japan); Kadow, Maria; Balke, Kathleen; Bornscheuer, Uwe T. [Greifswald University, Felix-Hausdorff-Strasse 4, 17487 Greifswald (Germany); Bourenkov, Gleb [European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), Hamburg Outstation, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Littlechild, Jennifer A., E-mail: j.a.littlechild@exeter.ac.uk [University of Exeter, Stocker Road, Exeter EX4 4QD (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-31

    The first crystal structure of a type II Baeyer–Villiger monooxygenase reveals a different ring orientation of its FMN cofactor compared with other related bacterial luciferase-family enzymes. The three-dimensional structures of the native enzyme and the FMN complex of the overexpressed form of the oxygenating component of the type II Baeyer–Villiger 3,6-diketocamphane monooxygenase have been determined to 1.9 Å resolution. The structure of this dimeric FMN-dependent enzyme, which is encoded on the large CAM plasmid of Pseudomonas putida, has been solved by a combination of multiple anomalous dispersion from a bromine crystal soak and molecular replacement using a bacterial luciferase model. The orientation of the isoalloxazine ring of the FMN cofactor in the active site of this TIM-barrel fold enzyme differs significantly from that previously observed in enzymes of the bacterial luciferase-like superfamily. The Ala77 residue is in a cis conformation and forms a β-bulge at the C-terminus of β-strand 3, which is a feature observed in many proteins of this superfamily.

  1. The oxygenating constituent of 3,6-diketocamphane monooxygenase from the CAM plasmid of Pseudomonas putida: the first crystal structure of a type II Baeyer–Villiger monooxygenase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isupov, Michail N.; Schröder, Ewald; Gibson, Robert P.; Beecher, Jean; Donadio, Giuliana; Saneei, Vahid; Dcunha, Stephlina A.; McGhie, Emma J.; Sayer, Christopher; Davenport, Colin F.; Lau, Peter C.; Hasegawa, Yoshie; Iwaki, Hiroaki; Kadow, Maria; Balke, Kathleen; Bornscheuer, Uwe T.; Bourenkov, Gleb; Littlechild, Jennifer A.

    2015-01-01

    The first crystal structure of a type II Baeyer–Villiger monooxygenase reveals a different ring orientation of its FMN cofactor compared with other related bacterial luciferase-family enzymes. The three-dimensional structures of the native enzyme and the FMN complex of the overexpressed form of the oxygenating component of the type II Baeyer–Villiger 3,6-diketocamphane monooxygenase have been determined to 1.9 Å resolution. The structure of this dimeric FMN-dependent enzyme, which is encoded on the large CAM plasmid of Pseudomonas putida, has been solved by a combination of multiple anomalous dispersion from a bromine crystal soak and molecular replacement using a bacterial luciferase model. The orientation of the isoalloxazine ring of the FMN cofactor in the active site of this TIM-barrel fold enzyme differs significantly from that previously observed in enzymes of the bacterial luciferase-like superfamily. The Ala77 residue is in a cis conformation and forms a β-bulge at the C-terminus of β-strand 3, which is a feature observed in many proteins of this superfamily

  2. Effects of xylitol on blood glucose, glucose tolerance, serum insulin and lipid profile in a type 2 diabetes model of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Shahidul; Indrajit, Mitesh

    2012-01-01

    The present study was conducted to examine the antidiabetic effects of xylitol in a type 2 diabetes rat model. Six-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: normal control (NC), diabetic control (DBC) and xylitol (XYL). Diabetes was induced only in the DBC and XYL animal groups by feeding them a 10% fructose solution for 2 weeks followed by an injection (i.p.) of streptozotocin (40 mg/kg body weight). One week after the streptozotocin injection, the animals with a nonfasting blood glucose level of >300 mg/dl were considered to be diabetic. The XYL group was fed further with a 10% xylitol solution, whereas the NC and DBC groups were supplied with normal drinking water. After 5 weeks of intervention, food and fluid intake, body weight, blood glucose, serum fructosamine and most of the serum lipids were significantly decreased, and serum insulin concentration and glucose tolerance ability was significantly increased in the XYL group compared to the DBC group. Liver weight, liver glycogen and serum triglycerides were not influenced by feeding with xylitol. The data of this study suggest that xylitol can be used not only as a sugar substitute but also as a supplement to antidiabetic food and other food products. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Behavior of the elements in the mechanically alloyed and cast ferritic steels and a type 316 stainless steel in a flowing sodium environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, T.; Mutoh, I.

    1988-01-01

    Sodium corrosion behavior of a mechanically alloyed ferritic steel, dispersion-strengthened with addition of Y 2 0 3 and Ti, two kinds of melted/cast ferritic steels and a Type 316 stainless steel was examined by using a non-isothermal sodium loop system, constructed of another Type 316 stainless steel, with a direct resistance electrical heater. The sodium conditions were 675 0 C, 4.0 m/s in velocity and 1-2 ppm oxygen concentration and a cumulative exposure time of the specimens was about 3000 h. The absorption of Ni and selective dissolution of Cr played an important role in the corrosion of the mechanically alloyed ferritic steel as in the case of the cast ferritic steels. However, the region of Ni absorption and Cr diminution was deeper than that of the cast ferritic steels. Peculiar finding for the mechanically alloyed ferritic steel was the corroded surface with irregularly shaped protuberance, that might be related with formation of sodium titanate, and the absorption of carbon and nitrogen to form carbide and nitride of titanium. It seems that these facts resulted in the irregular weight loss of the specimens, which depended on the downstream position and the cumulative exposure time. However, the tensile properties of the mechanically alloyed ferritic steel did not noticeably change by the sodium exposure

  4. The D4Z4 macrosatellite repeat acts as a CTCF and A-type lamins-dependent insulator in facio-scapulo-humeral dystrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Ottaviani

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Both genetic and epigenetic alterations contribute to Facio-Scapulo-Humeral Dystrophy (FSHD, which is linked to the shortening of the array of D4Z4 repeats at the 4q35 locus. The consequence of this rearrangement remains enigmatic, but deletion of this 3.3-kb macrosatellite element might affect the expression of the FSHD-associated gene(s through position effect mechanisms. We investigated this hypothesis by creating a large collection of constructs carrying 1 to >11 D4Z4 repeats integrated into the human genome, either at random sites or proximal to a telomere, mimicking thereby the organization of the 4q35 locus. We show that D4Z4 acts as an insulator that interferes with enhancer-promoter communication and protects transgenes from position effect. This last property depends on both CTCF and A-type Lamins. We further demonstrate that both anti-silencing activity of D4Z4 and CTCF binding are lost upon multimerization of the repeat in cells from FSHD patients compared to control myoblasts from healthy individuals, suggesting that FSHD corresponds to a gain-of-function of CTCF at the residual D4Z4 repeats. We propose that contraction of the D4Z4 array contributes to FSHD physio-pathology by acting as a CTCF-dependent insulator in patients.

  5. Ginzburg-Landau-Gor close-quote kov theory of magnetic oscillations in a type-II two-dimensional superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruun, G.M.; Nicopoulos, V.N.; Johnson, N.F.

    1997-01-01

    We investigate de Haas endash van Alphen (dHvA) oscillations in the mixed state of a type-II two-dimensional superconductor within a self-consistent Gor close-quote kov perturbation scheme. Assuming that the order parameter forms a vortex lattice we can calculate the expansion coefficients exactly to any order. We have tested the results of the perturbation theory to fourth and eighth order against an exact numerical solution of the corresponding Bogoliubov endash de Gennes equations. The perturbation theory is found to describe well the onset of superconductivity close to the transition point H c2 . Contrary to earlier calculations by other authors we do not find that the perturbative scheme predicts any maximum of the dHvA oscillations below H c2 . Instead we obtain a substantial damping of the magnetic oscillations in the mixed state as compared to the normal state. We have examined the effect of an oscillatory chemical potential due to particle conservation and the effect of a finite Zeeman splitting. Furthermore, we have investigated the recently debated issue of the possibility of a sign change of the fundamental harmonic of the magnetic oscillations. Our theory is compared with experiment and we have found good agreement. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  6. Preventive Effect of TU-100 on a Type-2 Model of Colitis in Mice: Possible Involvement of Enhancing Adrenomedullin in Intestinal Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Kaneko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Crohn's disease (CD and ulcerative colitis (UC, the two major forms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, have histopathologically and immunologically different characteristics. We previously reported that a traditional Japanese medicine, daikenchuto (TU-100, ameliorated a trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid- (TNBS- induced type-1 model colitis exhibiting histopathological features of CD through adrenomedullin (ADM enhancement. Our current aims were to examine whether TU-100 ameliorates a type-2 model colitis that histologically resembles UC and identify the active ingredients. Methods. TU-100 was administered orally to mice with oxazolone- (OXN- induced type-2 model colitis. The morbidity was evaluated by body weight loss and the macroscopic score of colonic lesions. ADM was quantified using an EIA kit. Results. TU-100 prevented weight loss and colon ulceration. ADM production by intestinal epithelial cells was increased by TU-100 addition. Screening to identify active ingredients showed that [6]-shogaol and hydroxy α-sanshool enhanced ADM production. Conclusions. TU-100 exerted a protective effect in OXN-induced type-2 model colitis, indicating that TU-100 may be a beneficial agent for treatment of UC.

  7. On the ability of some cyclic plasticity models to predict the evolution of stored energy in a type 304L stainless steel submitted to high cycle fatigue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vincent, L.

    2008-01-01

    Fatigue analyses of materials are generally based on a so-called stabilized cycle, on which plastic strain amplitude, plastic energy, maximum shear stress and so on are determined. The part of plastic energy which is dissipated in heat cannot be used to accumulate damage and it should be worthwhile extracting only the part of plastic energy which is stored in material microstructure in order to build a consistent damage model. In this paper, some cyclic plasticity models including a polycrystalline model are reformulated in the thermodynamic framework in order to test their capacity to predict both the stress-strain behaviour and the partition of plastic energy for a high cycle fatigue test on a type 304L stainless steel. For an equivalent description of stress-strain loops, the number of kinematic hardening variables chosen in a model may qualitatively alter the prediction of plastic energy partition due to the modification of the isotropic hardening variable. Measurements of the specimen temperature increase due to plastic dissipation is therefore proposed as a convenient complementary experimental data to identify the constitutive equation of the isotropic hardening variable of a cyclic plasticity model. (author)

  8. Identifying the contents of a type 1 diabetes outpatient care program based on the self-adjustment of insulin using the Delphi method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Mutsuko; Shindo, Yukari; Kawaharada, Mariko

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study is to identify the items necessary for an outpatient care program based on the self-adjustment of insulin for type 1 diabetes patients. Two surveys based on the Delphi method were conducted. The survey participants were 41 certified diabetes nurses in Japan. An outpatient care program based on the self-adjustment of insulin was developed based on pertinent published work and expert opinions. There were a total of 87 survey items in the questionnaire, which was developed based on the care program mentioned earlier, covering matters such as the establishment of prerequisites and a cooperative relationship, the basics of blood glucose pattern management, learning and practice sessions for the self-adjustment of insulin, the implementation of the self-adjustment of insulin, and feedback. The participants' approval on items in the questionnaires was defined at 70%. Participants agreed on all of the items in the first survey. Four new parameters were added to make a total of 91 items for the second survey and participants agreed on the inclusion of 84 of them. Items necessary for a type 1 diabetes outpatient care program based on self-adjustment of insulin were subsequently selected. It is believed that this care program received a fairly strong approval from certified diabetes nurses; however, it will be necessary to have the program further evaluated in conjunction with intervention studies in the future. © 2014 The Authors. Japan Journal of Nursing Science © 2014 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  9. Test and evaluation report for Westinghouse Hanford Company's 1-L Liquid Shipper, Docket 95-41-7A, Type A container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, D.L.

    1995-11-01

    This report documents the U.S. Department of Transportation Specification 7A Type A (DOT-7A) compliance test results of the 1-L Liquid Shipper packaging. The 1-L Liquid Shipper consists of the 3M SafeSend polyethylene canister base and cap with integral sorbent material, a quad ring gasket, a plastic bag, and six foam inserts. A 1-L narrow-mouth, Teflon bottle with Tefzel lid holds contents. The inner bottle is placed inside the SafeSend container. The inner bottle content weight cannot exceed 2000 g (4.4 lb). Total bottle weight, including contents cannot exceed 2167.5 g (4.78 lb). The nominal gross weight of the assembled packaging is to be no more that 3830.5 g (8.4 lb). The approved packaging system is designed to ship Type A quantities of radioactive materials, normal form. Contents may be liquid or solid form. Liquid contents may have a specific gravity less than or equal to (<2). Solid materials are limited in weight, to include packaging, to the gross weight of the as-tested liquids and bottles

  10. Retired A Stars and Their Companions. III. Comparing the Mass-Period Distributions of Planets Around A-Type Stars and Sun-Like Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowler, Brendan P.; Johnson, John Asher; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Henry, Gregory W.; Peek, Kathryn M. G.; Fischer, Debra A.; Clubb, Kelsey I.; Liu, Michael C.; Reffert, Sabine; Schwab, Christian; Lowe, Thomas B.

    2010-01-01

    We present an analysis of ~5 years of Lick Observatory radial velocity measurements targeting a uniform sample of 31 intermediate-mass (IM) subgiants (1.5 lsim M */M sunlsim 2.0) with the goal of measuring the occurrence rate of Jovian planets around (evolved) A-type stars and comparing the distributions of their orbital and physical characteristics to those of planets around Sun-like stars. We provide updated orbital solutions incorporating new radial velocity measurements for five known planet-hosting stars in our sample; uncertainties in the fitted parameters are assessed using a Markov-Chain Monte Carlo method. The frequency of Jovian planets interior to 3 AU is 26+9 -8%, which is significantly higher than the 5%-10% frequency observed around solar-mass stars. The median detection threshold for our sample includes minimum masses down to {0.2, 0.3, 0.5, 0.6, 1.3} M Jup within {0.1, 0.3, 0.6, 1.0, 3.0} AU. To compare the properties of planets around IM stars to those around solar-mass stars we synthesize a population of planets based on the parametric relationship dN vprop M α P β dlnMdlnP, the observed planet frequency, and the detection limits we derived. We find that the values of α and β for planets around solar-type stars from Cumming et al. fail to reproduce the observed properties of planets in our sample at the 4σ level, even when accounting for the different planet occurrence rates. Thus, the properties of planets around A stars are markedly different than those around Sun-like stars, suggesting that only a small (~50%) increase in stellar mass has a large influence on the formation and orbital evolution of planets. Based on observations obtained at the Lick Observatory, which is operated by the University of California.

  11. Z-schematic water splitting by the synergistic effect of a type-II heterostructure and a highly efficient oxygen evolution catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoyun; Hu, Haihua; Xu, Lingbo; Cui, Can; Qian, Degui; Li, Shuang; Zhu, Wenzhe; Wang, Peng; Lin, Ping; Pan, Jiaqi; Li, Chaorong

    2018-05-01

    Artificial Z-scheme system inspired by the natural photosynthesis in green plants has attracted extensive attention owing to its advantages such as simultaneously wide range light absorption, highly efficient charge separation and strong redox ability. In this paper, we report the synthesis of a novel all-solid-state direct Z-scheme photocatalyst of Ag3PO4/CeO2/TiO2 by depositing Ag3PO4 nanoparticles (NPs) on CeO2/TiO2 hierarchical branched nanowires (BNWs), where the CeO2/TiO2 BNWs act as a novel substrate for the well dispersed nano-size Ag3PO4. The Ag3PO4/CeO2/TiO2 photocatalyst exhibits excellent ability of photocatalytic oxygen evolution from pure water splitting. It is suggested that the Z-scheme charge transfer route between CeO2/TiO2 and Ag3PO4 improves the redox ability. On the other hand, the cascade energy level alignment in CeO2/TiO2 BNWs expedites the spatial charge separation, and hence suppresses photocatalytic backward reaction. However, it is difficult to realize a perfect excitation balance in Ag3PO4/CeO2/TiO2 and the composite still surfers photo-corrosion in photocatalysis reaction. Nevertheless, our results provide an innovative strategy of constructing a Z-scheme system from a type-II heterostructure and a highly efficient oxygen evolution catalyst.

  12. Distribution of the ompA-types among ruminant and swine pneumonic strains of Pasteurella multocida exhibiting various cap-locus and toxA patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vougidou, C; Sandalakis, V; Psaroulaki, A; Siarkou, V; Petridou, E; Ekateriniadou, L

    2015-05-01

    Pasteurella multocida is an important pathogen in food-producing animals and numerous virulence genes have been identified in an attempt to elucidate the pathogenesis of pasteurellosis. Currently, some of these genes including the capsule biosynthesis genes, the toxA and the OMPs-encoding genes have been suggested as epidemiological markers. However, the number of studies concerning ruminant isolates is limited, while, no attempt has ever been made to investigate the existence of ompA sequence diversity among P. multocida isolates. The aim of the present study was the comparative analysis of 144 P. multocida pneumonic isolates obtained from sheep, goats, cattle and pigs by determining the distribution of the ompA-types in conjunction with the cap-locus and toxA patterns. The ompA genotypes of the isolates were determined using both a PCR-RFLP method and DNA sequence analysis. The most prevalent capsule biosynthesis gene among the isolates was capA (86.1%); a noticeable, however, rate of capD-positive isolates (38.6%) was found among the ovine isolates that had been associated primarily with the capsule type A in the past. Moreover, an unexpectedly high percentage of toxA-positive pneumonic isolates was noticed among small ruminants (93.2% and 85.7% in sheep and goats, respectively), indicating an important epidemiological role of toxigenic P. multocida for these species. Despite their great heterogeneity, certain ompA-genotypes were associated with specific host species, showing evidence of a host preference. The OmpA-based PCR-RFLP method developed proved to be a valuable tool in typing P. multocida strains. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Rare ADAR and RNASEH2B variants and a type I interferon signature in glioma and prostate carcinoma risk and tumorigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Ulrike; Brand, Frank; Martens, Helge; Weder, Julia; Christians, Arne; Elyan, Natalie; Hentschel, Bettina; Westphal, Manfred; Schackert, Gabriele; Pietsch, Torsten; Hong, Bujung; Krauss, Joachim K; Samii, Amir; Raab, Peter; Das, Anibh; Dumitru, Claudia A; Sandalcioglu, I Erol; Hakenberg, Oliver W; Erbersdobler, Andreas; Lehmann, Ulrich; Reifenberger, Guido; Weller, Michael; Reijns, Martin A M; Preller, Matthias; Wiese, Bettina; Hartmann, Christian; Weber, Ruthild G

    2017-12-01

    In search of novel germline alterations predisposing to tumors, in particular to gliomas, we studied a family with two brothers affected by anaplastic gliomas, and their father and paternal great-uncle diagnosed with prostate carcinoma. In this family, whole-exome sequencing yielded rare, simultaneously heterozygous variants in the Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (AGS) genes ADAR and RNASEH2B co-segregating with the tumor phenotype. AGS is a genetically induced inflammatory disease particularly of the brain, which has not been associated with a consistently increased cancer risk to date. By targeted sequencing, we identified novel ADAR and RNASEH2B variants, and a 3- to 17-fold frequency increase of the AGS mutations ADAR,c.577C>G;p.(P193A) and RNASEH2B,c.529G>A;p.(A177T) in the germline of familial glioma patients as well as in test and validation cohorts of glioblastomas and prostate carcinomas versus ethnicity-matched controls, whereby rare RNASEH2B variants were significantly more frequent in familial glioma patients. Tumors with ADAR or RNASEH2B variants recapitulated features of AGS, such as calcification and increased type I interferon expression. Patients carrying ADAR or RNASEH2B variants showed upregulation of interferon-stimulated gene (ISG) transcripts in peripheral blood as seen in AGS. An increased ISG expression was also induced by ADAR and RNASEH2B variants in tumor cells and was blocked by the JAK inhibitor Ruxolitinib. Our data implicate rare variants in the AGS genes ADAR and RNASEH2B and a type I interferon signature in glioma and prostate carcinoma risk and tumorigenesis, consistent with a genetic basis underlying inflammation-driven malignant transformation in glioma and prostate carcinoma development.

  14. Interleukin-27 is a potent inhibitor of cis HIV-1 replication in monocyte-derived dendritic cells via a type I interferon-independent pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Chen

    Full Text Available IL-27, a member of the IL-12 family of cytokines, plays an important and diverse role in the function of the immune system. Whilst generally recognized as an anti-inflammatory cytokine, in addition IL-27 has been found to have broad anti-viral effects. Recently, IL-27 has been shown to be a potent inhibitor of HIV-1 infection in CD4+ T cells and macrophages. The main objective of this study was to see whether IL-27 has a similar inhibitory effect on HIV-1 replication in dendritic cells (DCs. Monocytes were differentiated into immature DCs (iDCs and mature DCs (mDCs with standard techniques using a combination of GM-CSF, IL-4 and LPS. Following differentiation, iDCs were infected with HIV-1 and co-cultured in the presence or absence of IL-27. IL-27 treated DCs were shown to be highly potent inhibitors of cis HIV-1, particularly of CCR5 tropic strains. Of note, other IL-12 family members (IL-12, IL-23 and IL-35 had no effect on HIV-1 replication. Microarray studies of IL-27 treated DCs showed no up-regulation of Type I (IFN gene expression. Neutralization of the Type-I IFN receptor had no impact on the HIV inhibition. Lastly, IL-27 mediated inhibition was shown to act post-viral entry and prior to completion of reverse transcription. These results show for the first time that IL-27 is a potent inhibitor of cis HIV-1 infection in DCs by a Type I IFN independent mechanism. IL-27 has previously been reported to inhibit HIV-1 replication in CD4+ T cells and macrophages, thus taken together, this cytokine is a potent anti-HIV agent against all major cell types targeted by the HIV-1 virus and may have a therapeutic role in the future.

  15. Bridging the Gap: Capturing the Lyα Counterpart of a Type-II Spicule and Its Heating Evolution with VAULT2.0 and IRIS Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chintzoglou, Georgios; De Pontieu, Bart; Martínez-Sykora, Juan; Pereira, Tiago M. D.; Vourlidas, Angelos; Tun Beltran, Samuel

    2018-04-01

    We present results from an observing campaign in support of the VAULT2.0 sounding rocket launch on 2014 September 30. VAULT2.0 is a Lyα (1216 Å) spectroheliograph capable of providing spectroheliograms at high cadence. Lyα observations are highly complementary to the IRIS observations of the upper chromosphere and the low transition region (TR) but have previously been unavailable. The VAULT2.0 data provide new constraints on upper-chromospheric conditions for numerical models. The observing campaign was closely coordinated with the IRIS mission. Taking advantage of this simultaneous multi-wavelength coverage of target AR 12172 and by using state-of-the-art radiative-MHD simulations of spicules, we investigate in detail a type-II spicule associated with a fast (300 km s‑1) network jet recorded in the campaign observations. Our analysis suggests that spicular material exists suspended high in the atmosphere but at lower temperatures (seen in Lyα) until it is heated and becomes visible in TR temperatures as a network jet. The heating begins lower in the spicule and propagates upwards as a rapidly propagating thermal front. The front is then observed as fast, plane-of-the-sky motion typical of a network jet, but contained inside the pre-existing spicule. This work supports the idea that the high speeds reported in network jets should not be taken as real mass upflows but only as apparent speeds of a rapidly propagating heating front along the pre-existing spicule.

  16. Analysis of chitin-binding proteins from Manduca sexta provides new insights into evolution of peritrophin A-type chitin-binding domains in insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetreau, Guillaume; Dittmer, Neal T; Cao, Xiaolong; Agrawal, Sinu; Chen, Yun-Ru; Muthukrishnan, Subbaratnam; Haobo, Jiang; Blissard, Gary W; Kanost, Michael R; Wang, Ping

    2015-07-01

    In insects, chitin is a major structural component of the cuticle and the peritrophic membrane (PM). In nature, chitin is always associated with proteins among which chitin-binding proteins (CBPs) are the most important for forming, maintaining and regulating the functions of these extracellular structures. In this study, a genome-wide search for genes encoding proteins with ChtBD2-type (peritrophin A-type) chitin-binding domains (CBDs) was conducted. A total of 53 genes encoding 56 CBPs were identified, including 15 CPAP1s (cuticular proteins analogous to peritrophins with 1 CBD), 11 CPAP3s (CPAPs with 3 CBDs) and 17 PMPs (PM proteins) with a variable number of CBDs, which are structural components of cuticle or of the PM. CBDs were also identified in enzymes of chitin metabolism including 6 chitinases and 7 chitin deacetylases encoded by 6 and 5 genes, respectively. RNA-seq analysis confirmed that PMP and CPAP genes have differential spatial expression patterns. The expression of PMP genes is midgut-specific, while CPAP genes are widely expressed in different cuticle forming tissues. Phylogenetic analysis of CBDs of proteins in insects belonging to different orders revealed that CPAP1s from different species constitute a separate family with 16 different groups, including 6 new groups identified in this study. The CPAP3s are clustered into a separate family of 7 groups present in all insect orders. Altogether, they reveal that duplication events of CBDs in CPAP1s and CPAP3s occurred prior to the evolutionary radiation of insect species. In contrast to the CPAPs, all CBDs from individual PMPs are generally clustered and distinct from other PMPs in the same species in phylogenetic analyses, indicating that the duplication of CBDs in each of these PMPs occurred after divergence of insect species. Phylogenetic analysis of these three CBP families showed that the CBDs in CPAP1s form a clearly separate family, while those found in PMPs and CPAP3s were clustered

  17. Toll-like receptor 7 agonist GS-9620 induces prolonged inhibition of HBV via a type I interferon-dependent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Congrong; Li, Li; Daffis, Stephane; Lucifora, Julie; Bonnin, Marc; Maadadi, Sarah; Salas, Eduardo; Chu, Ruth; Ramos, Hilario; Livingston, Christine M; Beran, Rudolf K; Garg, Abhishek V; Balsitis, Scott; Durantel, David; Zoulim, Fabien; Delaney, William E; Fletcher, Simon P

    2018-05-01

    GS-9620, an oral agonist of toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7), is in clinical development for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B (CHB). GS-9620 was previously shown to induce prolonged suppression of serum viral DNA and antigens in the woodchuck and chimpanzee models of CHB. Herein, we investigated the molecular mechanisms that contribute to the antiviral response to GS-9620 using in vitro models of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Cryopreserved primary human hepatocytes (PHH) and differentiated HepaRG (dHepaRG) cells were infected with HBV and treated with GS-9620, conditioned media from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells treated with GS-9620 (GS-9620 conditioned media [GS-9620-CM]), or other innate immune stimuli. The antiviral and transcriptional response to these agents was determined. GS-9620 had no antiviral activity in HBV-infected PHH, consistent with low level TLR7 mRNA expression in human hepatocytes. In contrast, GS-9620-CM induced prolonged reduction of HBV DNA, RNA, and antigen levels in PHH and dHepaRG cells via a type I interferon (IFN)-dependent mechanism. GS-9620-CM did not reduce covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) levels in either cell type. Transcriptional profiling demonstrated that GS-9620-CM strongly induced various HBV restriction factors - although not APOBEC3A or the Smc5/6 complex - and indicated that established HBV infection does not modulate innate immune sensing or signaling in cryopreserved PHH. GS-9620-CM also induced expression of immunoproteasome subunits and enhanced presentation of an immunodominant viral peptide in HBV-infected PHH. Type I IFN induced by GS-9620 durably suppressed HBV in human hepatocytes without reducing cccDNA levels. Moreover, HBV antigen presentation was enhanced, suggesting additional components of the TLR7-induced immune response played a role in the antiviral response to GS-9620 in animal models of CHB. GS-9620 is a drug currently being tested in clinical trials for the treatment of chronic

  18. Sr and Nd isotopic compositions, age and petrogenesis of A-type granitoids of the Vernon Supersuite, New Jersey Highlands, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkert, R.A.; Feigenson, M.D.; Patino, L.C.; Delaney, J.S.; Drake, Avery A.

    2000-01-01

    Voluminous late Mesoproterozoic monzonite through granite of the Vernon Supersuite underlies an area of approximately 1300 km2 in the Highlands of northern New Jersey. The Vernon Supersuite consists of hastingsite ?? biotite-bearing granitoids of the Byram Intrusive Suite (BIS) and hedenbergite-bearing granitoids of the Lake Hopatcong Intrusive Suite (LHIS). These rocks have similar major and trace element abundances over a range of SiO2 from 58 to 75 wt.%, are metaluminous to weakly peraluminous, and have a distinctive A-type chemistry characterized by high contents of Y, Nb, Zr, LREE, and Ga/Al ratios, and low MgO, CaO, Sr and HREE. Whole-rock Rb-Sr isochrons of BIS granite yield an age of 1116 ?? 41 Ma and initial 87Sr/86Sr ratio of 0.70389, and of LHIS granite an age of 1095 ?? 9 Ma and initial 87Sr/86Sr ratio of 0.70520. Both suites have similar initial 143Nd/144Nd ratios of 0.511267 to 0.511345 (BIS) and 0.511359 to 0.511395 (LHIS). Values of ??(Nd) are moderately high and range from +1.21 to +2.74 in the BIS and +2.24 +2.95 in the LHIS. Petrographic evidence, field relationships, geochemistry, and isotopic data support an interpretation of comagmatism and the derivation of both suites from a mantle-derived or a juvenile lower crustal parent with little crustal assimilation. Both suites crystallized under overlapping conditions controlled by P-T-f(H(2)O). Lake Hopatcong magma crystallized at a liquidus temperature that approached 900??C and a pressure of about 6 kbar, and remained relatively anhydrous throughout its evolution. Initial P-T conditions of the Byram magma were ??? 850??C and about 5.5 kbar. BIS magma was emplaced contemporaneous with, or slightly preceding LHIS magma, and both magmas were emplaced during a compressional tectonic event prior to granulite facies metamorphism that occurred in the Highlands between 1080 and 1030 Ma. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Detection and characterization of recombinant DNA expressing vip3A-type insecticidal gene in GMOs--standard single, multiplex and construct-specific PCR assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Chandra K; Ojha, Abhishek; Bhatanagar, Raj K; Kachru, Devendra N

    2008-01-01

    Vegetative insecticidal protein (Vip), a unique class of insecticidal protein, is now part of transgenic plants for conferring resistance against lepidopteron pests. In order to address the imminent regulatory need for detection and labeling of vip3A carrying genetically modified (GM) products, we have developed a standard single PCR and a multiplex PCR assay. As far as we are aware, this is the first report on PCR-based detection of a vip3A-type gene (vip-s) in transgenic cotton and tobacco. Our assay involves amplification of a 284-bp region of the vip-s gene. This assay can possibly detect as many as 20 natural wild-type isolates bearing a vip3A-like gene and two synthetic genes of vip3A in transgenic plants. The limit of detection as established by our assay for GM trait (vip-s) is 0.1%. Spiking with nontarget DNA originating from diverse plant sources had no inhibitory effect on vip-s detection. Since autoclaving of vip-s bearing GM leaf samples showed no deterioration/interference in detection efficacy, the assay seems to be suitable for processed food products as well. The vip-s amplicon identity was reconfirmed by restriction endonuclease assay. The primer set for vip-s was equally effective in a multiplex PCR assay format (duplex, triplex and quadruplex), used in conjunction with the primer sets for the npt-II selectable marker gene, Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter and nopaline synthetase terminator, enabling concurrent detection of the transgene, regulatory sequences and marker gene. Further, the entire transgene construct was amplified using the forward primer of the promoter and the reverse primer of the terminator. The resultant amplicon served as a template for nested PCR to confirm the construct integrity. The method is suitable for screening any vip3A-carrying GM plant and food. The availability of a reliable PCR assay method prior to commercial release of vip3A-based transgenic crops and food would facilitate rapid and efficient regulatory

  20. [Experimental study on the corrosion behavior of a type of oral near β-type titanium alloys modified with double glow plasma nitriding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Ke; Li, Fenglan

    2015-12-01

    To study the electrochemical corrosion performance of a type of biomedical materials near beta titanium alloy(Ti-3Zr-2Sn-3Mo-25Nb, TLM) in artificial saliva before and after nitride changing, and to provide clinical basis for clinical application of titanium alloy TLM. The double glow plasma alloying technology was used to nitride the surface of titanium alloy TLM. The surface properties of the modified layer were observed and tested by optical microscope, scanning electron microscope, glow discharge spectrum analyzer, X-ray diffraction and micro hardness tester. Then, electrochemical measurement system was used to test and compare titanium alloy TLM's electrochemical corrosion in artificial saliva before and after its surface change. Finally, the surface morphology of the original titanium alloy and the modified layer was compared by scanning electron microscope. By the technology of double glow plasma nitriding, the surface of the titanium alloy TLM had been successfully nitrided with a modified layer of 4-5 µm in thickness, uniform and compact. Its main compositions were Ti and Ti(2)N. The Microhardness of modified layer also had been improved from (236.8 ± 5.4) to (871.8 ± 5.2) HV. The self-corrosion potential in electrochemical corrosion tests had been increased from -0.559 V to -0.540 V, while the self- corrosion current density had been reduced from 2.091 × 10(-7) A/cm(2) to 7.188 × 10(-8) A/cm(2). Besides, alternating-current impedance(AC Impedance) had also been increased. With the scanning electron microscope, it's obvious that the diameter of corrosion holes on modified layer were approximately 10 µm. As to the diameter and number of corrosion holes on modified layer, they had been decreased comparing with the original titanium alloy. The type of near beta titanium alloy TLM can construct a nitriding modified layer on its surface. Meanwhile, the performance of its anti- corrosion in artificial saliva has been improved, comparing to the original

  1. Mineral and textural evolution of a subvolcanic A-type granite: Hora Svaté Kateřiny stock, Krušné Hory Mts., Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Breiter, Karel

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 6 (2008), s. 365-382 ISSN 0303-4534 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300130801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : A-type granite * rock textures * mineralogy * geochemistry * Krušné Hory Mts. * Erzgebirge Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy http://www.zgw-online.de/pages/_ausgabe2008.php

  2. US Department of Transportation (DOT) Spec 7A Type A evaluation document: Spec 17C 55-gal steel drum with RWMC/SWEPP drum venting system carbon filter assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edling, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    As part of MRC-Mound's responsibility to coordinate DOE Spec 7A Type A Packaging testing, evaluation, and utilization, this document evaluates per 49CFR 173.415(a) the SWEPP packaging system: DOT Spec 17C steel drums - 30, 55 and 83-gal; High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) liners; and SWEPP DVS Filter Assemblies (two configurations) as a US DOT Spec 7A Type A packaging. A variety of Type A performance testing was done on: DOT Spec 17C 55-gal steel drums; DOT Spec 17C 55-gal steel drums with HDPE liners; and DOT Spec 17C 55-gal steel drums with ''Nucfil'' filters as part of MRC-Mound's Type A Packaging Evaluation Program funded by DOE/HQ, DP-4, Security Evaluations. The subject SWEPP packaging incorporates modifications to the ''Nucfil'' filter and installation assembly previously tested in conjunction with the Spec 17C 55-gal drums. Thus, additional testing was required on the new filter installation in order to evaluate the entire packaging system. This document presents the test data to demonstrate the SWEPP packaging system's performance against the DOT 7A Type A requirements

  3. [Analysis of Relationship between Serum Total Light Chain κ/λ Ratio and Proportion of Bone Marrow Plasma Cells in Patients with IgG type and IgA type Multiple Myeloma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, An-You; Zhu, Fang-Bing; Wang, Feng-Chao; Zhang, Lun-Jun; Ma, Yue; Hu, Jian-Guo

    2017-10-01

    To explore the relationship between serum total light chain κ/λ ratio (sTLC-κ/λ) and proportion of bone marrow plasma cells (BMPC) in patients with IgG type and IgA type multiple myeloma (MM) and its clinical significance. The levels of serum IgG, IgA, κ type and λ type total light chain were detected in 79 newly diagnosed patients with IgG type (n=52) and IgA type (n=27) MM by immuno-nephelometric assay and the sTLC-κ/λ ratio was calculated. The proportion of BMPC was determined by bone marrow smears in the corresponding period, and the changes in sTLC-κ/λ ratio and the proportion of BMPC were observed in 19 patients with IgG type(n=16) and IgA type (n=3) MM undergoing treatment, 26 cases of non-phasmocytic proliferative diseases were enrolled in control group. In MM patients with IgGκ type and IgAκ type, the sTLC-κ/λ ratio was significantly higher than that in the control group (Pratio was significantly lower than that in the control group (Pratio was significantly higher than that in MM patients with IgAκ(Pratio in MM patients with IgGλ was significantly lower than that in MM patients with IgAλ. The sTLC-κ/λ ratios in MM patients with IgGκ and IgAκ were positively correlated with the concentrations of IgG (r=0.778,P=0.000) and IgA (r=0.601,P=0.039), while the sTLC-κ/λ ratios of patients with IgGλ and IgAλ were negativily correlated with the IgG(r=-0.586,P=0.01) and IgA level(r=-0.718,P=0.003). In addition, a correlation between each type MM was not found except the IgGκ type MM which had a positive correlation between the sTLC-κ/λ ratio and proportion of BMPC (r=0.579,P=0.002). Nonetheless, 18 of 19 patients with IgG type and IgA type MM undergoing treatment showed concordance between the sTLC-κ/λ ratio and proportion of BMPC change. There is a lower correlation between the sTLC-κ/λ ratio and the proportion of BMPC in MM patients with IgG type and IgA type, but there is a high concordance between the sTLC-κ/λ ratio and the

  4. A Typed Functional Calculus With State

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rensink, Arend; Müllhäuser, M.

    1997-01-01

    We extend the simple typed \\lambda-calculus with statements. A statement (which can also be thought of as a method or transition) is an abstraction similar to function abstraction: it can be instantiated by providing it with a source state, whereafter it yields a pair of values consisting of an

  5. A Type System for Dynamic Web Documents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff; Sandholm, Anders

    2000-01-01

    Many interactive Web services use the CGI interface for communication with clients. They will dynamically create HTML documents that are presented to the client who then resumes the interaction by submitting data through incorporated form fields. This protocol is difficult to statically type-chec...... system is based on a flow analysis of which we prove soundness. We present an efficient runtime implementation that respects the semantics of only well-typed programs. This work is fully implemented as part of the system for defining interactive Web services.......Many interactive Web services use the CGI interface for communication with clients. They will dynamically create HTML documents that are presented to the client who then resumes the interaction by submitting data through incorporated form fields. This protocol is difficult to statically type...

  6. On a type of generalized closed sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhananjoy Mandal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to introduce and study a new class ofgeneralized closed sets in a topological space X, defined in terms of a grill G on X. Explicit characterization of such sets along with certain other properties of them are obtained. As applications, some characterizations of regular and normal spaces are achieved by use of the introduced class of sets.

  7. Prosopagnosia as a Type of Conversion Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clodagh Power

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Conversion disorder is a common and debilitating condition that remains poorly understood. We present a previously undescribed form of conversion disorder to highlight the complexity of the condition and consider the interplay of factors that produce conversion symptoms. Case. A 50-year-old male presented with acquired prosopagnosia and language impairment. Neuropsychological testing indicated right temporal lobe dysfunction. Extensive work-up outruled an organic aetiology. Reactivation of childhood trauma coincided with the onset of his symptoms. Childhood trauma is known to have adverse effects on the developing brain which may affect an individual’s emotional behaviour and coping style. Functional neuroimaging techniques suggest that conversion symptoms may be linked to the disruption of higher order neural circuitry involved in the integration of emotional processing and cortical functioning. Conclusions. We propose that our patient’s adverse childhood experiences led to the development of a particular personality and coping style that “primed” him for a later abnormal emotional and behavioural response when confronted with reminders of his traumatic background. Further interdisciplinary studies are required to further elucidate the neurobiological basis for this condition.

  8. A Typeful Integration of SQL into Curry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Hanus

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an extension of the declarative programming language Curry to support the access to data stored in relational databases via SQL. Since Curry is statically typed, our emphasis on this SQL integration is on type safety. Our extension respects the type system of Curry so that run-time errors due to ill-typed data are avoided. This is obtained by preprocessing SQL statements at compile time and translating them into type-safe database access operations. As a consequence, the type checker of the Curry system can spot type errors in SQL statements at compile time. To generate appropriately typed access operations, the preprocessor uses an entity-relationship (ER model describing the structure of the relational data. In addition to standard SQL, SQL statements embedded in Curry can include program expressions and also relationships specified in the ER model. The latter feature is useful to avoid the error-prone use of foreign keys. As a result, our SQL integration supports a high-level and type-safe access to databases in Curry programs.

  9. Prosopagnosia as a Type of Conversion Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Clodagh; Hannigan, Oisin; Coen, Robert; Bruce, Irene; Gibb, Matthew; McCarthy, Marie; Robinson, David; Lawlor, Brian A

    2018-01-01

    Conversion disorder is a common and debilitating condition that remains poorly understood. We present a previously undescribed form of conversion disorder to highlight the complexity of the condition and consider the interplay of factors that produce conversion symptoms. A 50-year-old male presented with acquired prosopagnosia and language impairment. Neuropsychological testing indicated right temporal lobe dysfunction. Extensive work-up outruled an organic aetiology. Reactivation of childhood trauma coincided with the onset of his symptoms. Childhood trauma is known to have adverse effects on the developing brain which may affect an individual's emotional behaviour and coping style. Functional neuroimaging techniques suggest that conversion symptoms may be linked to the disruption of higher order neural circuitry involved in the integration of emotional processing and cortical functioning. We propose that our patient's adverse childhood experiences led to the development of a particular personality and coping style that "primed" him for a later abnormal emotional and behavioural response when confronted with reminders of his traumatic background. Further interdisciplinary studies are required to further elucidate the neurobiological basis for this condition.

  10. A type system for continuation calculus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geuvers, J.H.; Geraedts, W.; Geron, B.; Stegeren, van J.; Oliva, P.

    2014-01-01

    Continuation Calculus (CC), introduced by Geron and Geuvers, is a simple foundational model for functional computation. It is closely related to lambda calculus and term rewriting, but it has no variable binding and no pattern matching. It is Turing complete and evaluation is deterministic. Notions

  11. A type system for Continuation Calculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Geuvers

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Continuation Calculus (CC, introduced by Geron and Geuvers, is a simple foundational model for functional computation. It is closely related to lambda calculus and term rewriting, but it has no variable binding and no pattern matching. It is Turing complete and evaluation is deterministic. Notions like "call-by-value" and "call-by-name" computation are available by choosing appropriate function definitions: e.g. there is a call-by-value and a call-by-name addition function. In the present paper we extend CC with types, to be able to define data types in a canonical way, and functions over these data types, defined by iteration. Data type definitions follow the so-called "Scott encoding" of data, as opposed to the more familiar "Church encoding". The iteration scheme comes in two flavors: a call-by-value and a call-by-name iteration scheme. The call-by-value variant is a double negation variant of call-by-name iteration. The double negation translation allows to move between call-by-name and call-by-value.

  12. Pro–A-Type Natriuretic Peptide, Proadrenomedullin, and N-Terminal Pro–B-Type Natriuretic Peptide Used in a Multimarker Strategy in Primary Health Care in Risk Assessment of Patients With Symptoms of Heart Failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alehagen, Urban; Dahlström, Ulf; Rehfeld, Jens F

    2013-01-01

    Use of new biomarkers in the handling of heart failure patients has been advocated in the literature, but most often in hospital-based populations. Therefore, we wanted to evaluate whether plasma measurement of N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), midregional pro-A-type...... natriuretic peptide (MR-proANP), and midregional proadrenomedullin (MR-proADM), individually or combined, gives prognostic information regarding cardiovascular and all-cause mortality that could motivate use in elderly patients presenting with symptoms suggestive of heart failure in primary health care....

  13. Rational design and characterization of high-efficiency planar A–π–D–π–A type electron donors in small molecule organic solar cells: A quantum chemical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Dongmei; Ding, Weilu; Geng, Zhiyuan; Wang, Li; Geng, Yun; Su, Zhongmin; Yu, Hailing

    2014-01-01

    Taking the reported donor DR3TBDT as reference, a series of A–π–D–π–A type donor molecules involving different planar donor cores were designed and investigated by using density functional theory (DFT)/time-dependent DFT methods. Preliminary calculations on geometries, energy levels and spectrum properties show that four of the designed molecules (4, 5, 12 and 13) could become potential donor replacements of DR3TBDT due to their good planarity, larger light harvesting efficiencies and similar exciton migration capability. Additionally, several factors influencing on short-circuit current density (J sc ) were analyzed by in-depth quantum chemical investigations on the transition density matrix, charge transfer indexes, exciton binding energy and Gibbs free energy loss in charge dissociation process. Comparative analyses demonstrate that 4 with indaceno[1,2-b:5,6-b′]dithiophene donor core has more significant electron transfer character and favorable exciton dissociation capability for enhancing the J sc , and would be potentially promising donor material in organic solar cells. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • A series of A–π–D–π–A type donors with different donor core for OSC were designed. • The relationship between donor properties and device performance is explored by DFT. • An In-depth quantum chemical investigation on the affecting factors on J sc . • The efficiency of new donor 4 may surpass the reported donor DR3TBDT

  14. Addison's Disease Caused by Tuberculosis with Atypical Hyperpigmentation and Active Pulmonary Tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namikawa, Hiroki; Takemoto, Yasuhiko; Kainuma, Shigeto; Umeda, Sakurako; Makuuchi, Ayako; Fukumoto, Kazuo; Kobayashi, Masanori; Kinuhata, Shigeki; Isaka, Yoshihiro; Toyoda, Hiromitsu; Kamata, Noriko; Tochino, Yoshihiro; Hiura, Yoshikazu; Morimura, Mina; Shuto, Taichi

    2017-01-01

    We herein report a case of Addison's disease caused by tuberculosis characterized by atypical hyperpigmentation, noted as exacerbation of the pigmentation of freckles and the occurrence of new freckles, that was diagnosed in the presence of active pulmonary tuberculosis. The clinical condition of the patient was markedly ameliorated by the administration of hydrocortisone and anti-tuberculosis agents. When exacerbation of the pigmentation of the freckles and/or the occurrence of new freckles are noted, Addison's disease should be considered as part of the differential diagnosis. In addition, the presence of active tuberculosis needs to be assumed whenever we treat patients with Addison's disease caused by tuberculosis, despite its rarity.

  15. 1.88 Ga São Gabriel AMCG association in the southernmost Uatumã-Anauá Domain: Petrological implications for post-collisional A-type magmatism in the Amazonian Craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valério, Cristóvão da Silva; Macambira, Moacir José Buenano; Souza, Valmir da Silva; Dantas, Elton Luiz; Nardi, Lauro Valentim Stoll

    2018-02-01

    In the southernmost Uatumã-Anauá Domain, central Amazonian craton (Brazil), crop out 1.98 Ga basement inliers represented by (meta)leucosyenogranites and amphibolites (Igarapé Canoas Suite), 1.90-1.89 Ga high-K calc-alkaline granitoids (Água Branca Suite), a 1.88-1.87 Ga alkali-calcic A-type volcano-plutonic system (Iricoumé-Mapuera), Tonian SiO2-satured alkaline granitoids, 1.45-1.25 Ga orthoderived metamorphic rocks (Jauaperi Complex) and Orosirian-Upper Triassic mafic intrusions. New data on petrography, multielementar geochemistry, in situ zircon U-Pb ages and Nd and Hf isotopes of alkali-calcic A-type granites (São Gabriel Granite, Mapuera Suite) and related rocks are indicative of a 1.89-1.87 Ga volcano-plutonic system integrated to the São Gabriel AMCG association. Its magmatic evolution was controlled by the fractional crystallization combined with magma mixing and cumulation processes. Nd isotope values (εNdt values = - 3.71 to + 0.51 and Nd TDM model age = 2.44 to 2.12 Ga) and U-Pb inherited zircon crystals (2115 ± 22 Ma; 2206 ± 21 Ma; 2377 ± 17 Ma, 2385 ± 17 Ma) of the São Gabriel system indicate a large participation of Siderian-Rhyacian crust (granite-greenstones and granulites) and small contribution of Rhyacian mantelic magma. εHft values (+ 5.2 to - 5.8) and Hf TDM ages (3.27-2.14 Ga) also point to contribution of Paleoarchean-Rhyacian crustal melts and small participation of Siderian-Rhyacian mantle melts. Residual melts from the lower crust have been mixed with basaltic melts generated by partial melting of the subcontinental lithospheric mantle (peridotite) in a post-collisional setting at 1.89-1.87 Ga. The mafic melts of such a mixture could have been originated through partial melting of residual ocean plate fragments (eclogites) which ascended onto a residual mantle wedge (hornblende peridotite) and melted it, resulting in modified basaltic magma which, by underplating, led heat to the anatexis of the lower continental crust

  16. Mineral chemistry and geochemistry of the Late Neoproterozoic Gabal Abu Diab granitoids, Central Eastern Dessert, Egypt: Implications for the origin of rare metal post-orogenic A-type granites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sami, Mabrouk; Ntaflos, Theodoros; Farahat, Esam S.; Ahmed, Awaad F.; Mohamed, Haroun A.

    2015-04-01

    within A-type granite worldwide. According to Zhang et al., 2012, the garnet crystallized at the expense of biotite from the MnO-rich evolved melt after fractionation of biotite, plagioclase, K-feldspar, zircon, apatite, and ilmenite. The granitoids are alkali feldspar granites showing distinct geochemical features and most likely, belong to the post-orogenic younger Egyptian granitoids. They are peraluminous A-type alkaline rocks but they have lower Fe2O3, MgO, MnO, CaO, TiO2, P2O5, Sr, Ba, V, and higher SiO2, Na2O, K2O, Nb, Ta, U, Zr, Th, Ga/Al and Rb than the typical rocks of this type. The positive correlation between Ba and Sr, and the negative correlation between Rb and K/Rb reveal fractional crystallization of alkali feldspar. The similarity in most geochemical characteristics suggests that Abu Diab granitoids are genetically related to each other and extremely enrichment in incompatible elements such as Nb and Ta, indicating that they crystallized from extremely differentiated magmas. References: Zhang, J., Ma, C. and She, Z., 2012. An Early Cretaceous garnet-bearing metaluminous A-type granite intrusion in the East Qinling Orogen, central China: Petrological, mineralogical and geochemical constraints. Geoscience Frontiers 3 (5), 635-646.

  17. Comparative evaluation of B-type natriuretic peptide and mid-regional pro-A-type natriuretic peptide changes from admission to discharge in prognosis of acute decompensated heart failure patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenner, Elisabetta; Buiatti, Alessandra; Barbati, Giulia; Merlo, Marco; Sinagra, Gianfranco; Biasioli, Bruno

    2012-01-01

    Mid-regional pro-A-type natriuretic peptide (MRproANP) seems to be non-inferior compared to B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) for heart failure diagnosis and prognosis; however, no previous studies have investigated the MRproANP in-hospital changes in prognostic role. This study aimed to compare the prognostic accuracy of BNP and MRproANP in-hospital changes in acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) patients. 37 patients with either admission/pre-discharge BNP and MRproANP data, were investigated. The combined endpoint was cardiovascular death/heart transplantation/readmission for HF. BNP and MRproANP had a median decrease of 55% [72;45] and 21% [40; 11] respectively in event-free patients; BNP decrease of 34% [48; 29] but MRproANP increase of 4% [-7; 25] in patients with cardiovascular events. Prognostic accuracy of deltaBNP and deltaMRproANP was similar. MRproANP basically trends up in patients with worse outcome and decreases in event-free patients, likely leading to a simpler interpretation although the prognostic accuracy is similar for both peptides.

  18. The selective A-type K+ current blocker Tx3-1 isolated from the Phoneutria nigriventer venom enhances memory of naïve and Aβ(25-35)-treated mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Guilherme M; Dalmolin, Gerusa D; Cordeiro, Marta do Nascimento; Gomez, Marcus V; Ferreira, Juliano; Rubin, Maribel A

    2013-12-15

    Potassium channels regulate many neuronal functions, including neuronal excitability and synaptic plasticity, contributing, by these means, to mnemonic processes. In particular, A-type K(+) currents (IA) play a key role in hippocampal synaptic plasticity. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of the peptidic toxin Tx3-1, a selective blocker of IA currents, extracted from the venom of the spider Phoneutria nigriventer, on memory of mice. Administration of Tx3-1 (i.c.v., 300 pmol/site) enhanced both short- and long-term memory consolidation of mice tested in the novel object recognition task. In comparison, 4-aminopyridine (4-AP; i.c.v., 30-300 pmol/site), a non-selective K(+) channel blocker did not alter long-term memory and caused toxic side effects such as circling, freezing and tonic-clonic seizures. Moreover, Tx3-1 (i.c.v., 10-100 pmol/site) restored memory of Aβ25-35-injected mice, and exhibited a higher potency to improve memory of Aβ25-35-injected mice when compared to control group. These results show the effect of the selective blocker of IA currents Tx3-1 in both short- and long-term memory retention and in memory impairment caused by Aβ25-35, reinforcing the role of IA in physiological and pathological memory processes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Petrogenesis and geodynamic implications of Ediacaran highly fractionated A-type granitoids in the north Arabian-Nubian Shield (Egypt): Constraints from whole-rock geochemistry and Sr-Nd isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sami, Mabrouk; Ntaflos, Theodoros; Farahat, Esam S.; Mohamed, Haroun A.; Hauzenberger, Christoph; Ahmed, Awaad F.

    2018-04-01

    Mineral chemistry, whole-rock geochemical and Sr-Nd isotopic data are reported for the Abu-Diab granitoids in the northern Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS) of Egypt, to investigate their petrogenesis and geodynamic significance. Gabal Abu-Diab constitute a multiphase pluton, consisting largely of two-mica granites (TMGs) enclosing microgranular enclaves and intruded by garnet bearing muscovite granites (GMGs) and muscovite granites (MGs). The granitoids are weakly peraluminous (A/CNK = 1.01-1.12) and show high SiO2 (>72.9 wt%) and alkali (K2O + Na2O = 8.60-9.13) contents. The geochemical features show that they are post-collisional and highly fractionated A-type granitoids. Compared to their host TMGs, the microgranular enclaves are strongly peraluminous (A/CNK = 1.18-1.24) with lower SiO2 and higher abundances of trace elements. The TMGs are depleted in Ba, Nb, P and Ti and are enriched in LREEs relative to HREEs with weakly negative Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu* = 0.45-0.64). In contrast, the GMGs and MGs are extremely depleted in Ba, Sr and Ti and have tetrad-type REE patterns (TE1-3 = 1.1-1.3) with strongly pronounced negative Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu* = 0.03-0.26), similar to rare metals bearing granites. The Ediacaran (585 ± 24 Ma) TMGs, are characterized by restricted and relatively low initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.70337-0.70382) that suggests their derivation from a depleted mantle source, with little contamination from the older continental crust. In contrast, the GMGs and MGs have extremely high 87Rb/86Sr and 87Sr/86Sr ratios that reflect the disturbance of the Rb-Sr isotopic system and may give an indication for magmatic-fluid interaction. However, all the granitoids display positive εNd(t) (4.41-6.57) and depleted mantle model ages TDM2 between 777 and 956 Ma, which indicate their derivation from a Neoproterozoic juvenile magma sources and preclude the occurrence of pre-Neoproterozoic crustal rocks in the ANS. The microgranular enclaves represent globules of hot mafic

  20. 47-mG2a: A Mouse IgG2a-Type of PcMab-47 Useful for Detecting Podocalyxin in Esophageal Cancers by Immunohistochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Mika K; Itai, Shunsuke; Yamada, Shinji; Kato, Yukinari

    2018-04-09

    Esophageal cancer is one of the highly malignant cancers. It comprises two of the most common histological tumor types: squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and adenocarcinoma. SCC accounts for about 90% of esophageal cancers. Despite developments in treatment strategies, the prognosis and survival rate remain poor. Podocalyxin (PODXL) is a highly glycosylated type-I transmembrane protein. It is expressed in normal tissues such as kidney, heart, breast, and pancreas. Upregulation of PODXL correlates with tumor progression, invasion, and metastasis. Therefore, this glycoprotein could be a potential biomarker for predicting the prognosis of some cancers, for instance, brain, colorectal, oral, lung, bladder, prostate, and ovarian cancers. We previously developed a specific and sensitive anti-PODXL monoclonal antibody (mAb), PcMab-47 (mouse IgG 1 , kappa) and its mouse IgG 2a -type (47-mG 2a ). We showed their utility in immunohistochemical analysis of oral cancers. Herein, we demonstrate that PcMab-47 and 47-mG 2a can also be used to detect esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) with this technique. These two antibodies, respectively, stained 123/130 (94.6%) and 127/130 (97.7%) ESCC cases, indicating that they can detect PODXL with high sensitivity in this carcinoma. Of more than 3+ cases, 47-mG 2a was more effective than PcMab-47, respectively, staining 56/127 (44.1%) and 41/123 (33.3%). Therefore, 47-mG 2a can be used for the detection of PODXL in ESCC using immunohistochemical analysis.

  1. Geochemistry, geochronology and Nd isotopes of the Gogó da Onça Granite: A new Paleoproterozoic A-type granite of Carajás Province, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Mayara Fraeda Barbosa; Dall'Agnol, Roberto; Santos, João Orestes Schneider; de Sousa, Luan Alexandre Martins; Lafon, Jean-Michel

    2017-12-01

    The Gogó da Onça Granite (GOG) comprise a stock located in the Carajás Province in the southeastern part of Amazonian Craton near its border with the Araguaia Belt. Three facies were identified in the pluton: biotite-amphibole granodiorite, biotite-amphibole monzogranite and amphibole-biotite syenogranite. The GGO crosscut discordantly the Archean country rocks and are not foliated. All Gogó da Onça Granite varieties are metaluminous, ferroan A2-subtype granites with reduced character. The major and trace element behavior suggests that its different facies are related by fractional crystallization. Zircon and titanite U-Pb SHRIMP ages show that the pluton crystallized at ∼1880-1870 Ma and is related to the remarkable Paleoproterozoic magmatic event identified in the Carajás Province. Whole-rock Nd isotope data (TDM ages 2.78 to 2.81, εNd values of -9.07 to -9.48) indicate that the GOG magmas derived from an Archaean source compatible with that of some other Paleoproterozoic suites from Carajás Province. The GOG show significant contrasts with the Jamon and Velho Guilherme Paleoproterozoic suites from Carajás Province and the inclusion of the Gogó da Onça granite in any of these suites is not justified. The GOG is more akin to the Serra dos Carajás Suite and to the Seringa and São João granites of Carajás and to the Mesoproterozoic Sherman granite of USA and the Paleoproterozoic Suomenniemi Batholith of Finland. This study puts in evidence the relevance of precise geochronological data and estimation of magma oxidation state in the characterization and correlation of A-type granites.

  2. Análise de contingências de um portador de diabetes mellitus tipo 2: estudo de caso Contingency analysis of a type 2 diabetes mellitus pacient: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Ribeiro Coelho

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O diabetes mellitus é uma doença crônica e o seu tratamento é altamente complexo. Pesquisas têm surgido com o objetivo de compreender as contribuições do estilo de vida e dos fatores comportamentais no desenvolvimento e no controle da doença. O presente estudo realizou uma análise de contingências dos comportamentos de adesão e de não-adesão ao tratamento, buscando, para isso, relações de dependência entre eventos comportamentais e ambientais, a partir de um estudo de caso único com uma paciente portadora de diabetes mellitus tipo 2. O procedimento adotado para a coleta de dados foi a caracterização dos comportamentos de acordo com as seguintes categorias: mensuração da glicemia, administração da insulina, controle da dieta e prática de exercício físico. Os resultados indicaram a prevalência de contingências aversivas e demonstraram a necessidade de se ensinar estratégias de autocontrole ao paciente, e regras por parte da equipe de saúde, que descrevam as contingências em operação no ambiente.Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease wich requires a highly complex treatment. Researches have been done with the objective of understanding the role that life style and behavioral factors play on the onset and control of the disease. The present study aimed at analysing the contingencies involved in the behavior of adherence and non adherence to treatment of a type 2diabetes mellitus patient and the dependency relationship between behavioral and environmental variables in a single case study. The procedure adopted for data collection was the characterization of behaviors according to the following categories: glucemia measurement, insulin administration, diet control and the practice of physical exercise. Results indicate the prevalence of aversive contingencies and demonstrate the need of teaching the pacient self control strategies, and rules by the health team which describe the environmental contingencies in operation.

  3. Geochronology and petrogenesis of the Early Cretaceous A-type granite from the Feie'shan W-Sn deposit in the eastern Guangdong Province, SE China: Implications for W-Sn mineralization and geodynamic setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peng; Mao, Jingwen; Santosh, M.; Bao, Zhian; Zeng, Xiaojian; Jia, Lihui

    2018-02-01

    juvenile mantle-derived melts resulting in the formation of mafic dikes, and I- or A-type granitic intrusions related to the W-Sn ore mineral systems.

  4. Recognition of Highly Diverse Type-1 and -2 Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Viruses (PRRSVs by T-Lymphocytes Induced in Pigs after Experimental Infection with a Type-2 PRRSV Strain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chungwon J Chung

    genetically diverse isolates were induced by infection with a type 2 PRRSV strain (SD23983. If these reponses have cytotoxic or other protective functions, they may help overcome the suboptimal heterologous protection conferred by conventional vaccines.

  5. Characterisation by multilocus sequence and porA and flaA typing of Campylobacter jejuni isolated from samples of dog faeces collected in one city in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, V; Stevenson, M A; Marshall, J C; French, N P

    2017-07-01

    To investigate the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. and C. jejuni in dog faecal material collected from dog walkways in the city of Palmerston North, New Zealand, and to characterise the C. jejuni isolates by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and porA and flaA antigen gene typing. A total of 355 fresh samples of dogs faeces were collected from bins provided for the disposal of dog faeces in 10 walkways in Palmerston North, New Zealand, between August 2008-July 2009. Presumptive Campylobacter colonies, cultured on modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate plates, were screened for genus Campylobacter and C. jejuni by PCR. The C. jejuni isolates were subsequently characterised by MLST and porA and flaA typing, and C. jejuni sequence types (ST) were assigned. Of the 355 samples collected, 72 (20 (95% CI=16-25)%) were positive for Campylobacter spp. and 22 (6 (95% CI=4-9)%) were positive for C. jejuni. Of the 22 C. jejuni isolates, 19 were fully typed by MLST. Ten isolates were assigned to the clonal complex ST-45 and three to ST-52. The allelic combinations of ST-45/flaA 21/porA 44 (n=3), ST-45/flaA 22/porA 53 (n=3) and ST-52/ flaA 57/porA 905 (n=3) were most frequent. The successful isolation of C. jejuni from canine faecal samples collected from faecal bins provides evidence that Campylobacter spp. may survive outside the host for at least several hours despite requiring fastidious growth conditions in culture. The results show that dogs carry C. jejuni genotypes (ST-45, ST-50, ST-52 and ST-696) that have been reported in human clinical cases. Although these results do not provide any evidence either for the direction of infection or for dogs being a potential risk factor for human campylobacteriosis, dog owners are advised to practice good hygiene with respect to their pets to reduce potential exposure to infection.

  6. Early Neoarchaean A-type granitic magmatism by crustal reworking ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    29

    marginal part of the Singhbhum craton whose origin and role in crustal evolution are poorly ...... Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd isotope systematics of Archean komatiites; Earth Planet. ..... Association Commission on New Minerals and Mineral Names; Can.

  7. Low cycle fatigue studies on a type 304 stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhanu Sankara Rao, K.; Valsan, M.; Sandhya, R.; Ray, S.K.; Rodriguez, P.

    The effects of temperature and strain rate on the low cycle fatigue behaviour were investigated for an AISI 304 stainless steel under total axial strain control mode at 823 and 923 K. The fatigue life was strongly dependent on cyclic deformation rate for this material at these temperatures, decreasing markedly with decreasing strain rate. The cyclic stress-strain response recorded in the form of hysterisis loops exhibited serrations at low strain rates at 823 and 923 K. Cyclic stress-strain response at 823 K has shown an increase in saturation stress and decrease in plastic strain range whereas there is an increase in plastic strain range without marked variation in saturation stress level at 923 K with decreasing strain rate. It has been observed that there are three simultaneous effects namely environment, creep and cyclic strain ageing which contribute to the observed degradation in fatigue life at low strain rates. At 823 K, where the creep damage as well as environmental damage is relatively small, the fatigue life is considered mainly to be affected by dynamic strain ageing effect which depends on strain rate. At 923 K, on the other hand, the strain rate dependence of fatigue life is considered to be determined by the combination of creep and environmental effects. Deformation and fracture studies have also confirmed that the wedge type crack propagation is accelerated by oxidation effect. (author)

  8. Nonrandom association of a type II procollagen genotype with achondroplasia

    OpenAIRE

    1986-01-01

    Achondroplasia is an autosomal dominant disorder that involves defective endochondral bone formation. Type II collagen is the predominant collagen of cartilage. We found a HindIII polymorphic site in the normal Caucasian population by using the type II procollagen gene probe pgHCol(II)A. The presence of this site yields a 7.0-kilobase (kb) band; its absence yields a 14.0-kb band. We found a significant deviation in genotype distribution and allele frequencies in a population of unrelated indi...

  9. MONEY LAUNDERING AS A TYPE OF ORGANIZED CRIME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevan Aleksoski

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Laundry wash is a new form of crime that endangers stability, transparency and efficiency of financial systems, the developed countries and developing countries. One of the most widespread and simplest understanding, and according to some authors and simplest definition of the term money laundering is the conversion of "black money in green." The most comprehensive definition of the term money laundering would be the definition accepted by the G-7 and the FATF, as supplemented by the element of avoiding legal consequences. According to this definition the process of money laundering is: - "The process by which the gains for which it is believed to originate from criminal activity are transported, transferred, converted or incorporated into legal funds in order to conceal their origin, source, movement or ownership. The purpose of the process of money laundering through illegal activities to enable these funds to appear as legitimate, and persons involved in criminal activity to escape the legal consequences of such action. " Given that money laundering is an international problem, the national regulations of almost all countries contain provisions that prohibit and penalize any kind of organized crime aimed at acquiring illegal material benefit. The money acquired illegally, criminals need to legalize or black money to resort to legal financial flows in order to conceal their origin, source, movement or ownership.

  10. Biological Methanol Production by a Type II Methanotroph Methylocystis bryophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sanjay K S; Mardina, Primata; Kim, Sang-Yong; Lee, Jung-Kul; Kim, In-Won

    2016-04-28

    Methane (CH₄) is the most abundant component in natural gas. To reduce its harmful environmental effect as a greenhouse gas, CH₄ can be utilized as a low-cost feed for the synthesis of methanol by methanotrophs. In this study, several methanotrophs were examined for their ability to produce methanol from CH₄; including Methylocella silvestris, Methylocystis bryophila, Methyloferula stellata, and Methylomonas methanica. Among these methanotrophs, M. bryophila exhibited the highest methanol production. The optimum process parameters aided in significant enhancement of methanol production up to 4.63 mM. Maximum methanol production was observed at pH 6.8, 30°C, 175 rpm, 100 mM phosphate buffer, 50 mM MgCl₂ as a methanol dehydrogenase inhibitor, 50% CH₄ concentration, 24 h of incubation, and 9 mg of dry cell mass ml(-1) inoculum load, respectively. Optimization of the process parameters, screening of methanol dehydrogenase inhibitors, and supplementation with formate resulted in significant improvements in methanol production using M. bryophila. This report suggests, for the first time, the potential of using M. bryophila for industrial methanol production from CH₄.

  11. A type of loop algebra and the associated loop algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tam Honwah; Zhang Yufeng

    2008-01-01

    A higher-dimensional twisted loop algebra is constructed. As its application, a new Lax pair is presented, whose compatibility gives rise to a Liouville integrable hierarchy of evolution equations by making use of Tu scheme. One of the reduction cases of the hierarchy is an analogous of the well-known AKNS system. Next, the twisted loop algebra, furthermore, is extended to another higher dimensional loop algebra, from which a hierarchy of evolution equations with 11-potential component functions is obtained, whose reduction is just standard AKNS system. Especially, we prove that an arbitrary linear combination of the four Hamiltonian operators directly obtained from the recurrence relations is still a Hamiltonian operator. Therefore, the hierarchy with 11-potential functions possesses 4-Hamiltonian structures. Finally, an integrable coupling of the hierarchy is worked out

  12. The development of a Type B sample container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass, R.E.

    1993-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is developing a package to support chemical agent sampling for the multilateral Chemical Weapons Convention. The package is designed to prevent the release of lethal chemical agents during international transport of chemical agents. The package is being designed to meet the IAEA requirements for Type B container. The configuration of the packaging working from the exterior to the interior is as follows. The outer shell provides a sacrificial boundary which will provide protection against the thermal and structural assaults of the hypothetical accident sequence. This shell provides all of the lifting and tie-down attachments. The closure is provided with a v-clamp. The cylindrical shell is austenitic stainless steel with standard pressure vessel heads. Internal to this shell is approximately 7 cm of ceramic fiber insulation to provide protection for the containment boundary against the all-engulfing fire. The containment vessel consists of a stainless steel cylindrical shell with pressure vessel heads at each end. The closure includes an o-ring test port to sample between an elastomeric double o-ring seal. The interior of the package can hold various teflon inserts which are machined to accept samples. The package has a mass of 35 kg and external dimension of 33 cm in length and 30 cm in diameter. The internal cavity is 10 cm in length and 10 cm in diameter. An insert can be machined to accept multiple samples of any configuration within that envelope. This paper describes the design and testing of the Type B sample container. (author)

  13. Late Presentation of a Type III Axis Fracture with Spondyloptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, Prakash; Choi, David; Casey, Adrian

    2008-01-01

    A 58-year-old man presented with an undiagnosed Effendi type III classification fracture and spondyloptosis of the axis with remarkably normal neurology. We discuss his surgery 4 years since the initial injury, and the presentation, features and management of fractures of the axis. PMID:18430325

  14. Diabetic Cystopathy In A Type 2 DM Patient *Omosule | Omosule ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diabetic cystopathy is a well -recognized but often overlooked complication of diabetes mellitus which usually develops in middle age or at least ten years after the onset of hyperglycemia. In this case report, we present a 48 year old man, diagnosed diabetic ten years before, who presented with painless abdominal swelling ...

  15. Tax balance in agribusiness as a type of special balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milojević Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The tendency of continuous compounding of business processes inevitably leads to application of increasingly complex instruments for the purposes of financial reporting in agribusiness. In this system the existential place and role of individual elements that alter the existing and acquire new functions comes into question. Balancing implies a regulated and consistent system in which every change leads to the creation of new relations and changing already established relationships. In this regard, in this paper we will focus on the place and role of tax balance in the group of special balances in agribusiness, as a very significant group of accounting instruments. Displaying information for users and situations in which they are used, balances gain their place in this classification. For the purposes of applying financial instruments, referring primarily to balances in agribusiness, it is necessary to know the way of their classification according to their functions. From this aspect, tax balance in agribusiness is a specific report, both in terms of its formal and material structure, which gives it the basis to belong to ordinary as well as special types of balances in agribusiness.

  16. Early Neoarchaean A-type granitic magmatism by crustal reworking ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    29

    understand their petrogenesis and tectonic setting. .... crystallize from magmas with temperatures significantly higher than those of other intracrustal ...... blanketing by greenstone belt volcanic rocks, crustal thickening and hot subduction or a. 1.

  17. Nitrate induces a type 1 diabetic profile in alligator hatchlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Thea M; Hamlin, Heather J; Freymiller, Haley; Green, Stephen; Thurman, Jenna; Guillette, Louis J

    2018-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a chronic autoimmune disease that affects 1 in 300 children by age 18. T1D is caused by inflammation-induced loss of insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells, leading to high blood glucose and a host of downstream complications. Although multiple genes are associated with T1D risk, only 5% of genetically susceptible individuals actually develop clinical disease. Moreover, a growing number of T1D cases occur in geographic clusters and among children with low risk genotypes. These observations suggest that environmental factors contribute to T1D etiology. One potential factor, supported primarily by epidemiological studies, is the presence of nitrate and nitrite in drinking water. To test this hypothesis, female hatchling alligators were exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of nitrate in their tank water (reference, 10mg/L, or 100mg/L NO 3 -N) from hatch through 5 weeks or 5 months of age. At each time point, endpoints related to T1D were investigated: plasma levels of glucose, triglycerides, testosterone, estradiol, and thyroxine; pancreas, fat body, and thyroid weights; weight gain or loss; presence of immune cells in the pancreas; and pancreatic beta cell number, assessed by antibody staining of nkx6.1 protein. Internal dosing of nitrate was confirmed by measuring plasma and urine nitrate levels and whole blood methemoglobin. Cluster analysis indicated that high nitrate exposure (most animals exposed to 100mg/L NO3-N and one alligator exposed to 10mg/L NO3-N) induced a profile of endpoints consistent with early T1D that could be detected after 5 weeks and was more strongly present after 5 months. Our study supports epidemiological data correlating elevated nitrate with T1D onset in humans, and highlights nitrate as a possible environmental contributor to the etiology of T1D, possibly through its role as a nitric oxide precursor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. ) Ima Field: A Type Marginal Field-Challenges and Prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afolabi, T. J.

    2003-01-01

    The IMA Field is located in the south-eastern Niger Delta in approximately 30' of water. Discovered in 1972 by Japan Petroleum, commercial accumulation was not established until 1994 by the AMNI/Abacan Joint Venture, with the drilling of ima-3 well, which discovered the major reservoirs in the C and D sands. Recoverable Reserve of 48MMBO. Ten wells have been drilled on the IMA structure to date, with a cumulative production of 16 Million barrels of condensates.The IMA Field is a typical Niger Delta rollover anticlinal structure trending northeast southwest with a regional tilt to the northeast. The major trapping mechanism is the anticline.The sediments of IMA Field are Miocene Agbada Fm. They are deltaic deposits with high sand/shale ratio. The reservoirs are loosely compacted sandstones with porosity values ranging from 21% to 27% while permeability is generally measured in darcies.The development of IMA Field posed financial and logistical challenges since the partners had decided to fast track this process, and since neither had the resources to drill the development wells, assemble/install the crude processing and storage facilities; a mixture of debt financing and contractor financing arrangements were made.The prospects in IMA Field are to be found in early realisation of the limitations of a marginal field, particularly the management of cash flow. Workers and field development funding is financed by current production. Appraisal and exploration drilling within the same lease have required equity financing (participation)

  19. AT-400A Type B transportation and storage package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cockrell, G.D.; Franklin, K.W.

    1995-01-01

    This paper discusses the design considerations for the AT-400A container which will meet the requirements for the transportation and long-term storage of plutonium pits. The AT-400A was designed by a joint effort between Sandia National Labs, Los Alamos National Labs, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and Mason and Hanger Silas Mason Co., Inc.. The paper will outline the problems and impact on the design of the container necessitated by the need to meet DOT TYPE B transportation requirements and undefined requirements for the interim and long-term storage of pits. Areas covered will include: (1) determining the storage requirements, (2) surveillance program for interim storage, and (3) impact of storage requirements on the containment vessel and inner fixturing design

  20. A Type Theoretic Investigation of the Verification of Voting Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Daniel

    is correct, and on the other hand we can we trust that the secrecy of the vote is preserved. These seemingly contradictory statements have fuelled new developments in cryptography, but the question remain can we trust these developments? The thesis of my dissertation is that it possible to formalise...... and calculation of probabilities, in particular ∑-types are used as they correspond to summation. Furthermore, I extend the type theory with process algebraic constructions in order to capture attack games as defined by semantic security in cryptography. To type these processes I propose a session type system...

  1. Early Neoarchaean A-type granitic magmatism by crustal reworking ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abhishek Topno

    2018-04-11

    Apr 11, 2018 ... along the marginal part of the Singhbhum craton. (Mishra et al. 2000 .... Province occurred during the Neoarchaean time. (c. 2800–2500 Ma) as ...... equilibria of the Lyngdal granodiorite (Norway): Implica- tions for the origin of ...

  2. The erosive potential of jawbreakers, a type of hard candy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, H.S.; Gambon, D.L.; van Dop, L.F.; van Liere, L.E.; Veerman, E.C.I.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives:  To explore the consumption pattern of a specific type of acidic solid candy, the so-called jawbreakers, by primary school children and determine the erosive potential of this type of candy in vivo. Methods:  A questionnaire about jawbreaker consumption was distributed among 10-12

  3. Ambitwistor pure spinor string in a type II supergravity background

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandia, Osvaldo [Departamento de Ciencias, Facultad de Artes Liberales, Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez,Facultad de Ingeniería y Ciencias, Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez,Diagonal Las Torres 2640, Peñalolén, Santiago (Chile); Vallilo, Brenno Carlini [Departamento de Ciencias Físicas, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Andres Bello,República 220, Santiago (Chile)

    2015-06-30

    We construct the ambitwistor pure spinor string in a general type II supergravity background in the semi-classical regime. Almost all supergravity constraints are obtained from nilpotency of the BRST charge and further consistency conditions from additional world-sheet the case of AdS{sub 5}×S{sup 5} background.

  4. Response of a Type III waste tank to hydrogen deflagration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, Chung; Jerrell, J.W.; Pelfrey, J.R.; Yau, W.W.F.

    1992-01-01

    The type III waste tank is built with ASTM A516 Grade 70 steel shells in the shape of a torus with a central concrete core. The tank is buried underground and covered with a four foot thick reinforced concrete slab. The tank is enriched by 2.5 foot thick reinforced concrete wall. Between the tank surface and the wall there is a 2.5 foot annular space. The tank itself is called the ''primary liner.'' The interior surface of the concrete wall is line with steel plates, called the ''secondary liner.'' The base of the tank rests on a concrete mat. Underneath the mat the secondary liner extends from the wall to the central column surfaces. The bottom liner is attached to the reinforced concrete foundation. Based on the conditions that the tank is filled with liquid wastes to 50% of the design capacity, and that the accumulation of hydrogen becomes 20% inside its free board, the resulting deflagration would cause an overpressure of 100 psig in the tank [Wallace and Yau, 1986]. The task of this analysis is to simulate the ''hydrogen deflagration'' scenario in the Type III Waste Tank complex. During the deflagration, the stresses in the steel tank would be expected to exceed the elastic limit of the steel and the tank would then undergo large deformation. The concrete roof slab could be fractured by the expansion of the tank. The central concrete column would start to exhibit large deformation first. All the structural members in the system are expected to interact drastically during the deflagration

  5. A Type System For Certified Runtime Type Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-12-01

    1999 ACM SIGPLAN International Conf. on Functional Pro- gramming (ICFP’99), pages 183–196. ACM Press, September 1999. [Min97] Yasuhiko Minamide. Full...lifting of type parameters. Technical report, RIMS, Kyoto University, 1997. [MMH96] Yasuhiko Minamide, Greg Morrisett, and Robert Harper. Typed

  6. A type-driven approach to concrete meta programming.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J. Vinju (Jurgen)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractApplications that manipulate programs as data are called meta programs. Examples of meta programs are compilers, source-to-source translators and code generators. Meta programming can be supported by the ability to represent program fragments in concrete syntax instead of abstract

  7. Self-regulation as a type of managerial activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Algazina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available УДК 342.9The subject. In the context of the ongoing administrative reform in the Russian Federation the issue of self-regulation is becoming increasingly important.Introduction of Institute of self-regulation is intended to reduce the degree of state intervention in private spheres of professional activity, to eliminate excessive administrative barriers, reduce government expenditures on regulation and control in their respective areas of operation, which is especially important in the current economic conditions.However, in Russian legal science is no recognized definition of "self-regulation", but a unity of views on the question of the relationship between self-regulation and state regulation of business relations.In this regard, the author attempts to examine the concept of "self-regulation" through the prism of knowledge about public administration.The purpose of the article is to identify the essential features and to articulate the concept of self-regulation by comparing it with other varieties of regulation.Methodology. The methodological basis for the study: general scientific methods (analysis, synthesis, comparison, description; private and academic (interpretation, formal-legal.Results, scope. Based on the analysis allocated in the science of administrative law approaches to the system of public administration justifies the conclusion that the notion "regulation" is specific in relation to the generic concept of "management" and is a kind of management, consisting in the drafting of rules of conduct and sanctions for non-compliance or inadequate performance.In addition, the article highlights the problem of the genesis of self-regulation, building a system of principles of self-regulation, comparison of varieties of self-regulatory organizations among themselves.Conclusions. The comparison of self-regulation other types of regulation (such as state regulation and co-regulation highlighted the essential features of this phenomenon and the place of self regulation in the system of public administration. Based on the above characteristics formulated the author's definition of self-regulation. Self-regulation is proposed to understand the management activities carried out by self-regulatory organizations, and consisting in the development and establishment of standards and rules of professional activity, as well as sanctions for non-compliance or inadequate performance.

  8. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2017-11-24

    Nov 24, 2017 ... Self-medication may be one of the major consequences of drug .... concerned about the health of their family and children (37). ... removal products,guaranteed treatment of freckles, guaranteed treatment of addiction,.

  9. Common Moles, Atypical Moles (Dysplastic Nevi), and Risk of Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data Conducting Clinical Trials Statistical Tools and Data Terminology Resources NCI Data Catalog Cryo-EM NCI's Role ... freckles have an increased chance of melanoma. Certain medical conditions or medicines : Medical conditions or medicines (such ...

  10. Albinism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... generally pink-colored Large freckle-like spots (lentigines) Sunburn and the inability to tan For some people ... skin that is very sensitive to light and sun exposure. Sunburn is one of the most serious complications ...

  11. An Ethnobotanical Survey on Fuel Wood and Timber plant Species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2011-12-19

    Dec 19, 2011 ... zones with very low precipitation to support tree growth ... Its ruthless exploitation greatly damages the land and ... 3 2 Bark and seeds are restorative and astringent .... 1 Used in leprosy and in solution to remove freckles.

  12. Cancer - vulva

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... freckle, which may be pink, red, white, or gray Skin thickening or lump Skin sore (ulcer) Other ... vulvar cancer; HPV - vulvar cancer Images Female perineal anatomy References Jhingran A, Russell AH, Seiden MV, et ...

  13. Xeroderma Pigmentosum - A Family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garg Anush

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A family of xeroderma pigmentosum is reported. Four children of different ages were afflicted with varying clinical presentation. Sequential development and progression of the disease from freckling to malignancy within the family are discussed.

  14. (2)Maintaining Beauty Through Skin Care(Well-aging-Present State of Rejuvenation Medicine, The 73rd General Meeting of the Society of Tokyo Women's Medical University)

    OpenAIRE

    川島, 眞; Makoto, KAWASHIMA

    2008-01-01

    Dry skin, senile freckles and wrinkles are major symptoms of aged skin. Dry skin is caused by the decrease of skin surface lipids, natural moisturizing factors and intercellular lipids of the stratum corneum. Senile freckles are the deposition of melanin pigments on the basal layer of the epidermis which is brought about by the activation of melanocytes through UV exposure and the delay in the turnover rate of epidermal cells due to aging. Wrinkles are caused by UV-induced damage to collagen ...

  15. Main aspects in licensing of a type B(U) package design for the transport of 12.95 PBq of cobalt 60; Aspectos relevantes del licenciamiento en Argentina de un modelo de bulto tipo B(U) para transporte de 12,95 PBq de cobalto 60

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Vietri, J R; Novo, R G; Bianchi, A J

    1996-12-31

    This paper points out the relevant technical issues related to the licensing process, of a type B(U) package design, with cylindrical form and 9.3 ton mass, approved by the Argentine Competent Authority for the transport of 12.95 PBq of cobalt 60 as special form radioactive material. It is briefly described the heat transfer analysis, the structural performance under impulsive loads and the shielding calculation under both normal and accidental conditions of transport, as well as the comparative analysis of the results obtained from design, pre-operational tests and independent evaluation performed by the Argentine Competent Authority to verify the compliance with the Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material of the International Atomic Energy Agency. (author). 14 refs., 1 fig., tabs.

  16. Typing of the sausage-shaped bacteria forming A-type sulfur-turf according to cell length distributions of natural populations and physico-chemical conditions of hot spring waters; Saibo chobunpu to seiiku kankyo kara mita A gata io shiba shizen kotaigun ni okeru okamagata saikin no katabetsu ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aki, Y. [Iwate University, Iwate (Japan). Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences

    1996-01-25

    In order to type the sausage-shaped bacteria forming A-type sulfur-turf, cell length distributions and physics-chemical conditions of hot spring waters were investigated on twelve samples collected from all over Japan. The frequency distributions of the cell length of eight samples were bimodal, while the other four samples were unimodal. In seven samples with bimodal distributions, two types (large and small) of the sausage-shaped bacteria could be differentiated. The cell length of the large-type was between 10.1 and 31.9{mu}m, while that of the small-type ranged 2.2 to 6.6{mu}m. The pH of seven hot spring waters were between 6 and 8, and the two types (large and small) formed together sulfur-turf. In contrast, pH of the three hot springs were over 8, and the two types of the sausage-shaped bacteria could not be detected in the sulfur-turf. Therefore, it is reasonable to set a third type of the sausage-shaped bacteria which prefers high-pH (over 8) and low calcium condition. The cell lengths of the third type were in the range of 5.5 to 8.6{mu}m, which correspond to the sausage-shaped bacteria of medium size. 20 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Effect of the π-conjugation length on the properties and photovoltaic performance of A–π–D–π–A type oligothiophenes with a 4,8-bis(thienylbenzo[1,2-b:4,5-b′]dithiophene core

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Yin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b′]dithiophene (BDT is an excellent building block for constructing π-conjugated molecules for the use in organic solar cells. In this paper, four 4,8-bis(5-alkyl-2-thienylbenzo[1,2-b:4,5-b′]dithiophene (TBDT-containing A–π–D–π–A-type small molecules (COOP-nHT-TBDT, n = 1, 2, 3, 4, having 2-cyano-3-octyloxy-3-oxo-1-propenyl (COOP as terminal group and regioregular oligo(3-hexylthiophene (nHT as the π-conjugated bridge unit were synthesized. The optical and electrochemical properties of these compounds were systematically investigated. All these four compounds displayed broad absorption bands over 350–600 nm. The optical band gap becomes narrower (from 1.94 to 1.82 eV and the HOMO energy levels increased (from −5.68 to −5.34 eV with the increase of the length of the π-conjugated bridge. Organic solar cells using the synthesized compounds as the electron donor and PC61BM as the electron acceptor were fabricated and tested. Results showed that compounds with longer oligothiophene π-bridges have better power conversion efficiency and higher device stability. The device based on the quaterthiophene-bridged compound 4 gave a highest power conversion efficiency of 5.62% with a VOC of 0.93 V, JSC of 9.60 mA·cm−2, and a FF of 0.63.

  18. Elimination of Hot Tears in Steel Castings by Means of Solidification Pattern Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotas, Petr; Tutum, Cem Celal; Thorborg, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    A methodology of how to exploit the Niyama criterion for the elimination of various defects such as centerline porosity, macrosegregation, and hot tearing in steel castings is presented. The tendency of forming centerline porosity is governed by the temperature distribution close to the end...... of the solidification interval, specifically by thermal gradients and cooling rates. The physics behind macrosegregation and hot tears indicate that these two defects also are dependent heavily on thermal gradients and pressure drop in the mushy zone. The objective of this work is to show that by optimizing...... the solidification pattern, i.e., establishing directional and progressive solidification with the help of the Niyama criterion, macrosegregation and hot tearing issues can be both minimized or eliminated entirely. An original casting layout was simulated using a transient three-dimensional (3-D) thermal fluid model...

  19. Segmental Neurofibromatosis with Angiolipomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamlender Singh

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available A 28 year old male had right axillary freckling, a few cafe-aulait macules and numerous freckles over the right upper half of his body involving the -scapular region, shoulder, chest wall, upper arm and proximal half of the forearm Numerous, bilateral subcutaneous nodules which could possibly be dismissed clinically as subcutaneous nodules of neurofibromatosis, proved to be angiolipomas histopathologically. It is suggested that in the cal molluscum fibrosum, histopathology of subcutaneous nodules should always be resorted to in suspected cases of Neurofibromatosis even when there are suggestive pigmentary changes.

  20. Modelling of convection during solidification of metal and alloys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    material parameters on double-diffusive convection is illustrated through comparative study of ... In the majority of the cases, the transition from liquid to solid takes place in the ... The role of mush model on macrosegregation is examined through ..... flow field through the resistance of the mushy phase only. The specific role ...

  1. Influence of ring growth rate on damage development in hot ring rolling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, C.; Geijselaers, H. J.M.; Omerspahic, E.; Recina, V.; van den Boogaard, A. H.

    2015-01-01

    As an incremental forming process of bulk metal, ring rolling provides a cost effective process route to manufacture seamless rings. In the production of hot rolled rings, defects such as porosity can sometimes be found in high alloyed steel, manufactured from ingots having macro-segregation. For

  2. Elimination of Hot Tears in Steel Castings by Means of Solidification Pattern Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotas, Petr; Tutum, Cem Celal; Thorborg, Jesper; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2012-06-01

    A methodology of how to exploit the Niyama criterion for the elimination of various defects such as centerline porosity, macrosegregation, and hot tearing in steel castings is presented. The tendency of forming centerline porosity is governed by the temperature distribution close to the end of the solidification interval, specifically by thermal gradients and cooling rates. The physics behind macrosegregation and hot tears indicate that these two defects also are dependent heavily on thermal gradients and pressure drop in the mushy zone. The objective of this work is to show that by optimizing the solidification pattern, i.e., establishing directional and progressive solidification with the help of the Niyama criterion, macrosegregation and hot tearing issues can be both minimized or eliminated entirely. An original casting layout was simulated using a transient three-dimensional (3-D) thermal fluid model incorporated in a commercial simulation software package to determine potential flaws and inadequacies. Based on the initial casting process assessment, multiobjective optimization of the solidification pattern of the considered steel part followed. That is, the multiobjective optimization problem of choosing the proper riser and chill designs has been investigated using genetic algorithms while simultaneously considering their impact on centerline porosity, the macrosegregation pattern, and primarily on hot tear formation.

  3. Feasibility Analysis of a Type of Soft Firing Technology with Pneumatic Transmission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jun-rong; MI Liang-chuan; ZHAO Hua

    2006-01-01

    Aimed at solving the conflict between the requirements of reducing gun recoil and increasing muzzle velocity, a new type of soft firing technology with pneumatic transmission is put forward. By mathematical model and instance simulation, the feasibility analysis of this technique is made. The result shows that the soft firing technology with pneumatic transmission can reduce the maximum pressure on the breechblock by 27 % and increase the muzzle velocity by 20 %. The proposed new approach has the significance to the compatibility of power and flexibility.

  4. Analytical Evaluation to Determine Selected PAHs by HPLC in a Type 2 Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Alonso, S.; Perez Pastor, R. M.; Sevillano Castano, M. L.; Escolano Segovia, O.; Garcia Frutos, F. J.

    2009-01-01

    An evaluation of analytical parameters to determine selected PAHs in a fuel oil type II by HPLC coupled to fluorescence and diode detectors is presented. The study was focused on four conventional treatments of these kinds of oil samples and the main objective was giving a measure of confidence level of PAH results in the fuel oil. This study was performed in the frame of the project Assessment of natural attenuation of PAHs in agricultural soil contaminated with fuel from an accidental spill (Spanish National Plain I+D+I, CTM2007-64537). This paper is presented as follows: Analysis of reference material 1582 (NIST) by using the four kinds of sample treatments of interest. Application of variance analysis to compare results obtained from type II fuel by using each sample treatment and chromatographic detector. Finally, a statistic calculation was performed to measure uncertainty components in chromatographic analysis. (Author)

  5. Involvement of integrins in the adhesion of osteoblastic cells to a type-I collagen matrix

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Desmond McCarthy; Toshimasa Uemura; Susana Beatriz Etcheverry; Ana María Cortizo

    2006-01-01

    Se han desarrollado varios biomateriales con potencial aplicaci ón en la reconstrucción de tejidos. En este sentido, existe un creciente interés en el diseño de materiales de implante óseo con máxima biocompatibilidad y adecuada adhesividad celular. El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar cuáles receptores integrinas participan en la adhesión de osteoblastos a una matriz de colágeno tipo-I. Se analizaron dos líneas celulares osteoblásticas: UMR106, derivada de osteosarcoma de rata; y MC3T3E1...

  6. Irradiation response of rapidly solidified Path A type prime candidate alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imeson, E.; Tong, C.; Lee, M.; Vander Sande, J.B.; Harling, O.K.

    1981-01-01

    The objective of this study is to present a first assessment of the microstructural response to neutron irradiation shown by Path A alloys prepared by rapid solidification processing. To more fully demonstrate the potential of the method, alloys with increased titanium and carbon content have been used in addition to the Path A prime candidate alloy

  7. Complex evaluation of the loft-style of retrivation as a type of building conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chulkov, V.; Kazaryan, R.; Kuzina, O.; Maloyan, G.; Efimenko, A.

    2017-10-01

    Construction reorganization is part of a basic reorganization cycle in which four phases (phases, states, technological redistribution) are consistently implemented: device, disorganization, reorganization and co-organization. The field of our research lies in the phase of reconstruction. One of the varieties of building reconstruction is retrieval (from English retrieve - to restore, find) - bringing the reorganized object into a working state by attaching to the old functional building system of the new system. Retraining provides the ability to replace elements of the new system locally or in general (implementing the principle of “assembly-disassembly”) and provides for the elimination of the moral deterioration of the building and the normal operation of the facility. In the construction and transport industry there is a sufficiently large number of multiparameter tasks that require a systematic approach and the definition of a single integrated indicator of the effectiveness of the operation. These tasks can be solved using a variety of approaches. One of such approaches, as the method of integral evaluation based on stellar infographic models, is considered.

  8. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectrometer Console Upgrade for a Type II Quantum Computer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cory, David

    2003-01-01

    ...) spectrometer to enable an improved implementation of type II quantum computers (TTQC). This upgrade is fully functional and has permitted our NMR studies to be moved to higher strength magnetic fields for better sensitivity and spectral dispersion...

  9. Patient characteristics and participation in a genetic study: a type 2 diabetes cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Loabat; Cassidy-Bushrow, Andrea E; Dakki, Heather; Li, Jia; Wells, Karen; Oliveria, Susan A; Yood, Marianne Ulcickas; Thomas, Abraham; Lanfear, David E

    2014-01-01

    Recruitment of large, diverse populations into genetic studies remains challenging. Potential strategies to overcome limitations include leveraging electronic health data and minimizing patient burden. We sought to describe the overall participation rate and identify characteristics associated with participation in a genetic substudy of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, in which patients were identified via electronic hospital data and asked to participate by providing DNA samples by mail. During a phone interview, participants (n = 455) were asked to take part in a genetic substudy. Subjects verbally consenting were mailed saliva collection kits and written consent forms. We examined demographic and clinical variables associated with verbal consent and DNA kit return using logistic regression. Overall, 90% (n = 410) verbally consented to the genetic substudy during interviews. However, of those consenting, only 70% returned the DNA kit (n = 287). Among those consenting, after covariate adjustment, male sex (odds ratio [OR], 1.70; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09-2.65), African American race (OR, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.39-0.95), hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) (OR, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.75-1.00), and physical activity (OR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.37-0.91) were significantly associated with DNA kit return. To our knowledge, we are the first to demonstrate an inverse association between HbA1c and participation in genetic research, potentially indicating a compliance-related trait needing further exploration. The DNA kit return rate being notably lower than the verbal consent rate suggests that the greater convenience of a telephone/mail-in process did not drastically enhance full participation. Direct comparison to in-person donation may be warranted.

  10. Simulation of the diffusion equation on a type-II quantum computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berman, G.P.; Kamenev, D.I.; Ezhov, A.A.; Yepez, J.

    2002-01-01

    A lattice-gas algorithm for the one-dimensional diffusion equation is realized using radio frequency pulses in a one-dimensional spin system. The model is a large array of quantum two-qubit nodes interconnected by the nearest-neighbor classical communication channels. We present a quantum protocol for implementation of the quantum collision operator and a method for initialization and reinitialization of quantum states. Numerical simulations of the quantum-classical dynamics are in good agreement with the analytic solution for the diffusion equation

  11. A type III-B CRISPR-Cas effector complex mediating massive target DNA destruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wenyuan; Li, Yingjun; Deng, Ling; Feng, Mingxia; Peng, Wenfang; Hallstrøm, Søren; Zhang, Jing; Peng, Nan; Liang, Yun Xiang; White, Malcolm F; She, Qunxin

    2017-02-28

    The CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) system protects archaea and bacteria by eliminating nucleic acid invaders in a crRNA-guided manner. The Sulfolobus islandicus type III-B Cmr-α system targets invading nucleic acid at both RNA and DNA levels and DNA targeting relies on the directional transcription of the protospacer in vivo. To gain further insight into the involved mechanism, we purified a native effector complex of III-B Cmr-α from S. islandicus and characterized it in vitro. Cmr-α cleaved RNAs complementary to crRNA present in the complex and its ssDNA destruction activity was activated by target RNA. The ssDNA cleavage required mismatches between the 5΄-tag of crRNA and the 3΄-flanking region of target RNA. An invader plasmid assay showed that mutation either in the histidine-aspartate acid (HD) domain (a quadruple mutation) or in the GGDD motif of the Cmr-2α protein resulted in attenuation of the DNA interference in vivo. However, double mutation of the HD motif only abolished the DNase activity in vitro. Furthermore, the activated Cmr-α binary complex functioned as a highly active DNase to destroy a large excess DNA substrate, which could provide a powerful means to rapidly degrade replicating viral DNA. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  12. Factors associated with the implementation of the Familias Unidas intervention in a type 3 translational trial

    OpenAIRE

    St. George, Sara M.; Huang, Shi; Vidot, Denise C.; Smith, Justin D.; Brown, C. Hendricks; Prado, Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    This study highlights how Familias Unidas, a Hispanic-specific, evidence-based, family centered preventive intervention, progressed from intervention development (type 1 translation; T1) through rigorous evaluation (T2) and examines the role of intervention fidelity—adherence and competence—in a T3 trial. Effects of participant, provider, and organizational variables on direct (observational) and indirect (self-reported) fidelity were examined as were effects of fidelity. Two structural equat...

  13. A type II first branchial cleft cyst masquerading as an infected parotid Warthin's tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Meng-Feng; Ueng, Shir-Hwa; Jung, Shih-Ming; Chen, Yao-Liang; Chang, Kai-Ping

    2006-01-01

    The diagnosis of a parotid mass usually depends on thorough history taking and physical examination. Diagnostic modalities, including ultrasonographic examinations, computed tomography and magnetic resonance images, may also provide substantial information but their accuracy for diagnosis is sometimes questionable, especially in differentiating some rare neoplasms. First branchial cleft cysts (FBCCs) are rare causes of parotid swelling and comprise less than 1% of all branchial anomalies. They are frequently misdiagnosed due to their rarity and unfamiliar clinical signs and symptoms. We present a case of type II FBCC masquerading as an infected parotid Warthin's tumor. We also review the clinical signs and symptoms of FBCCs in order to remind clinicians that this rare branchial anomaly can mimic an infected Warthin's tumor and may be seated in the deep lobe of the parotid gland. By making an accurate pre-operative diagnosis of type II FBCC, we can minimize surgical morbidity and avoid incomplete resection and possible recurrence.

  14. An unusual otoscopic finding associated with a type II first branchial cleft anomaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebelhar, A J; Potts, K

    2012-03-01

    We report an interesting case involving a child with a branchial cleft anomaly with two fistulous tracts, one of which was associated with an unusual otoscopic finding. A seven-year-old girl presented with an apparent type II first branchial cleft cyst after an acute infection. Parotidectomy and excision of the tract were performed, with subsequent development of pre-auricular swelling three months later. Further surgery was performed to remove a second duplication anomaly of the external auditory canal. Otomicroscopy showed a fibrous band arising from the wall of the canal and attached to the tympanic membrane at the umbo. Otoscopic findings on physical examination can be important diagnostic clues in the early recognition of branchial cleft anomalies. The classification system proposed by Work may fail to describe some branchial cleft lesions.

  15. A Type I first branchial cleft cyst masquerading as a parotid tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, Arvind; Ramshanker, Vijayalakshmi

    2014-01-01

    Branchial cleft anomalies are caused by incomplete regression of the cervical sinus of “His” during the 6th and 7th weeks of embryologic development. Although congenital in origin, first branchial cleft cysts (FBCCs) can present later in life. FBCCs are rare causes of parotid swellings, accounting for branchial cleft abnormalities. The diagnosis of FBCCs is a clinical challenge; the condition is often overlooked and mismanaged. We report a case of Type 1 FBCC in a 22-year-old female with an asymptomatic 3.5 cm × 2.5 cm sized cystic mass. It was removed completely under the impression of a cystic tumor of the parotid. On histopathology, the cyst had a squamous epithelium-lined wall with lymphoid aggregation which was characteristic of a branchial cleft cyst. A good understanding of the regional anatomy and embryology can lead to an early diagnosis and thereby effective management of FBCC. PMID:25298726

  16. A Type I first branchial cleft cyst masquerading as a parotid tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, Arvind; Ramshanker, Vijayalakshmi

    2014-01-01

    Branchial cleft anomalies are caused by incomplete regression of the cervical sinus of "His" during the 6(th) and 7(th) weeks of embryologic development. Although congenital in origin, first branchial cleft cysts (FBCCs) can present later in life. FBCCs are rare causes of parotid swellings, accounting for branchial cleft abnormalities. The diagnosis of FBCCs is a clinical challenge; the condition is often overlooked and mismanaged. We report a case of Type 1 FBCC in a 22-year-old female with an asymptomatic 3.5 cm × 2.5 cm sized cystic mass. It was removed completely under the impression of a cystic tumor of the parotid. On histopathology, the cyst had a squamous epithelium-lined wall with lymphoid aggregation which was characteristic of a branchial cleft cyst. A good understanding of the regional anatomy and embryology can lead to an early diagnosis and thereby effective management of FBCC.

  17. Substantial proportion of MODY among multiplex families participating in a Type 1 diabetes prediction programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petruzelkova, L; Dusatkova, P; Cinek, O; Sumnik, Z; Pruhova, S; Hradsky, O; Vcelakova, J; Lebl, J; Kolouskova, S

    2016-12-01

    Patients with maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) might be over-represented in families with histories of Type 1 diabetes. Our aim was to re-evaluate families participating in the Czech T1D Prediction Programme (PREDIA.CZ) with at least two members affected with diabetes to assess the proportion of MODY among these families and determine its most significant clinical predictors. Of the 557 families followed up by the PREDIA.CZ, 53 (9.5%) had two or more family members with diabetes. One proband with diabetes from these families was chosen for direct sequencing of the GCK, HNF1A, HNF4A and INS genes. Non-parametric tests and a linear logistic regression model were used to evaluate differences between MODY and non-MODY families. MODY was genetically diagnosed in 24 of the 53 families with multiple occurrences of diabetes (45%). Mutations were detected most frequently in GCK (58%), followed by HNF1A (38%) and INS (4%). MODY families were more likely to have a parent with diabetes and had a higher proportion of females with diabetes than non-MODY families. Higher age (P MODY families already presenting with diabetes. A prediction programme for Type 1 diabetes would provide a useful new source of patients with MODY most likely to benefit from an accurate diagnosis. This identification has implications for patient treatment and disease prognosis. © 2015 Diabetes UK.

  18. An existence theorem for a type of functional differential equation with infinite delay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Izsak, F.

    We prove an existence theorem for a functional differential equation with infinite delay using the Schauder fixpoint theorem. We extend a result in [19] applying the fixed point procedure in an appropriate function space.

  19. Non-linear Response to a Type of Seismic Input Motion. Additional Information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-06-01

    This publication reports the results and findings of a coordinated research project on the safety significance of near-field earthquakes in the design of nuclear power plants. It describes the outcome of a benchmark exercise conducted by a number of institutions on the effects of low to moderate magnitude near-field earthquakes, comparing model analytical simulations with the results of a shaking test performed in France on a physical model of a conventional shear-wall structure. The results build the basis for proposals for possible evolution of engineering practices in order to realistically take into account the effects of near-field earthquakes. A CD is attached that contains the List of participants; Summary of the Research Coordination Meetings; Description of the Camus data; Description of the Japanese input motions: near-field earthquakes observed recently in Japan; Description of the output requested of the IAEA CRP participants; Summary of the participants' modelling; Results of Benchmark Step 1, 2 and 3; Scientific background on classification of seismic loads as primary or secondary; and Japanese practice on nonlinear seismic response analysis of safety related important structures.

  20. Distinct HbA1c trajectories in a type 2 diabetes cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walraven, I.; Mast, M.R.; Hoekstra, T.; Jansen, A.P.D.; van der Heijden, A.A.W.A.; Rauh, S.P.; Rutters, F.; van 't Riet, E.; Elders, P.J.M.; Moll, A.C.; Polak, B.C.P.; Dekker, J.M.; Nijpels, G.

    2015-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this study was to identify subgroups of type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with distinct hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) trajectories. Subgroup characteristics were determined and the prevalence of microvascular complications over time was investigated. Study design and setting: Data from a

  1. Energy Storage Opportunities and Capabilities in a Type 3 Wind Turbine Generator: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muljadi, Eduard; Gevorgian, Vahan; Hoke, Andy

    2016-09-01

    Wind power plants and other renewable power plants with power electronic interfaces are capable of delivering frequency response (both governor and/or inertial response) to the grid by a control action; thus, the reduction of available online inertia as conventional power plants are retired can be compensated by designing renewable power plant controls to include frequency response. The source of energy to be delivered as inertial response is determined by the type of generation and control strategy chosen. The cost of energy storage is expected to drop over time, and global research activities on energy storage are very active, funded both by the private industry and governments. Different industry sectors (e.g., transportation, energy) are the major drivers of the recent storage research and development. This work investigates the opportunities and capabilities of deploying energy storage in renewable power plants. In particular, we focus on wind power plants with doubly-fed induction generators, or Type 3 wind turbine generator (WTGs). We find that the total output power of a system with Type 3 WTGs with energy storage can deliver a power boost during inertial response that is up to 45% higher than one without energy storage without affecting the torque limit, thus enabling an effective delivery of ancillary services to the grid.

  2. Molecular Evolution of a Type 1 Wild-Vaccine Poliovirus Recombinant during Widespread Circulation in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong-Mei; Zheng, Du-Ping; Zhang, Li-Bi; Oberste, M. Steven; Pallansch, Mark A.; Kew, Olen M.

    2000-01-01

    Type 1 wild-vaccine recombinant polioviruses were isolated from poliomyelitis patients in China from 1991 to 1993. We compared the sequences of 34 recombinant isolates over the 1,353-nucleotide (nt) genomic interval (nt 2480 to 3832) encoding the major capsid protein, VP1, and the protease, 2A. All recombinants had a 367-nt block of sequence (nt 3271 to 3637) derived from the Sabin 1 oral poliovirus vaccine strain spanning the 3′-terminal sequences of VP1 (115 nt) and the 5′ half of 2A (252 nt). The remaining VP1 sequences were closely (up to 99.5%) related to those of a major genotype of wild type 1 poliovirus endemic to China up to 1994. In contrast, the non-vaccine-derived sequences at the 3′ half of 2A were more distantly related (polioviruses from China. The vaccine-derived sequences of the earliest (April 1991) isolates completely matched those of Sabin 1. Later isolates diverged from the early isolates primarily by accumulation of synonymous base substitutions (at a rate of ∼3.7 × 10−2 substitutions per synonymous site per year) over the entire VP1-2A interval. Distinct evolutionary lineages were found in different Chinese provinces. From the combined epidemiologic and evolutionary analyses, we propose that the recombinant virus arose during mixed infection of a single individual in northern China in early 1991 and that its progeny spread by multiple independent chains of transmission into some of the most populous areas of China within a year of the initiating infection. PMID:11070012

  3. On the number of encoder states for a type of RLL codes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cai, K.; Schouhamer Immink, K.A.

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between the number of encoder states and the probable size of certain runlength-limited (RLL) codes is derived analytically. By associating the number of encoder states with (generalized) Fibonacci numbers, the minimum number of encoder states is obtained, which maximizes the rate

  4. Qualification of A type package for transport and final disposal of radium-226 needles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, D.L.; Vicente, R.

    1988-01-01

    One of the objectives of the Fuel Cycle Department is to develop packages for radioactive wastes, including discarded industrial and radiotherapy sources. This paper describes the work undertaken to qualify a package for transport and final disposal of radium needles, and gives a detailed description of the tests carried out to verify shielding integrity and contaiment system before and after free drop test according to IAEA recomendations for type A, non-especial form packages. Shielding integrity was verified by gamma field scanning over the package surface, using a Geiger-Muller detector and a 60 Co gamma source. Containment system was verified by pressurizing the specimen with helium and by searching for leaks a He-leak detector, with sensitivity of 3 x 10 -10 atm x cm 3 /s, air equivalent. The package is described in detail along with the apparatus for the safe handling and packing of the radium needles. (author) [pt

  5. Aligning drivers, contract, and management of IT-outsourcing relationships: a type-dependent model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arenfeldt, Katrine; Corty Dam, Amalie; Fenger, Kim Harder

    2017-01-01

    In today’s competitive business environment, information technology outsourcing has become a wide-spread reality across all industries and sectors. Researchers have investigated this complex phenomenon from various angles, and established a sound knowledge base regarding the drivers, management......, and success factors related to IT outsourcing. However, little is known about the relationship between outsourcing drivers and goals on the one hand, and contractual and managerial aspects on the other hand. To overcome this gap, this study presents a synthesized conceptual model of existing literature...... that relates aspects of contractual governance and relationship management to three generic types of IT outsourcing, based on their underlying drivers: task-based, process-based, and partnership-based outsourcing. Our model identifies the specific contractual and managerial factors relevant for each type...

  6. Expression of a type B RIFIN in Plasmodium falciparum merozoites and gametes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mwakalinga Steven B

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ability of Plasmodium falciparum to undergo antigenic variation, by switching expression among protein variants encoded by multigene families, such as var, rif and stevor, is key to the survival of this parasite in the human host. The RIFIN protein family can be divided into A and B types based on the presence or absence of a 25 amino acid motif in the semi-conserved domain. A particular type B RIFIN, PF13_0006, has previously been shown to be strongly transcribed in the asexual and sexual stages of P. falciparum in vitro. Methods Antibodies to recombinant PF13_0006 RIFIN were used in immunofluorescence and confocal imaging of 3D7 parasites throughout the asexual reproduction and sexual development to examine the expression of PF13_0006. Furthermore, reactivity to recombinant PF13_0006 was measured in plasma samples collected from individuals from both East and West African endemic areas. Results The PF13_0006 RIFIN variant appeared expressed by both released merozoites and gametes after emergence. 7.4% and 12.1% of individuals from East and West African endemic areas, respectively, carry plasma antibodies that recognize recombinant PF13_0006, where the antibody responses were more common among older children. Conclusions The stage specificity of PF13_0006 suggests that the diversity of RIFIN variants has evolved to provide multiple specialized functions in different stages of the parasite life cycle. These data also suggest that RIFIN variants antigenically similar to PF13_0006 occur in African parasite populations.

  7. Carvedilol and antioxidant proteins in a type I diabetes animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diogo, Cátia V; Deus, Cláudia M; Lebiedzinska-Arciszewska, Magdalena; Wojtala, Aleksandra; Wieckowski, Mariusz R; Oliveira, Paulo J

    2017-01-01

    Patients with diabetes are at a high risk of developing both micro- and macrovascular disease. Hyperglycaemia seems to be the main factor in the pathogenesis of diabetic cardiomyopathy, often based on increased oxidative stress. Carvedilol, a β-adrenergic blocker, has intrinsic antioxidant properties and was previously described to be effective in the protection of cardiac mitochondria against oxidative stress. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of carvedilol on hyperglycaemia-induced oxidative damage and mitochondrial abnormalities in cardiac and skeletal muscle in streptozotocin-treated rats. Body mass, blood glucose, the level of protein carbonylation, caspase-9- and caspase-3-like activities, mitochondrial proteins, the status of antioxidant defence system and stress-related proteins were evaluated in streptozotocin vs streptozotocin + carvedilol (1 mg/kg/day)-treated rats. The results showed that carvedilol decreased blood glucose in streptozotocin-treated animals. Content of catalase in the heart and SOD2, SOD1 and catalase in skeletal muscle were increased by carvedilol treatment in streptozotocin-treated animals. At this particular time point, streptozotocin-induced hyperglycaemia did not cause caspase activation or increase in protein carbonylation status. The data showed that carvedilol increased the level of antioxidant enzymes, what may contribute to preserve cell redox balance during hyperglycaemia. We also showed here for the first time that carvedilol effects on streptozotocin-treated rats are tissue dependent, with a more predominant effect on skeletal muscle. Based on data showing modulation of the antioxidant network in the heart, carvedilol may be beneficial in diabetic patients without advanced disease complications, delaying their progression. © 2016 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

  8. Non-linear Response to a Type of Seismic Input Motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-06-01

    This publication reports the results and findings of a coordinated research project on the safety significance of near-field earthquakes in the design of nuclear power plants. It describes the outcome of a benchmark exercise conducted by a number of institutions on the effects of low to moderate magnitude near-field earthquakes, comparing model analytical simulations with the results of a shaking test performed in France on a physical model of a conventional shear-wall structure. The results build the basis for proposals for possible evolution of engineering practices in order to realistically take into account the effects of near-field earthquakes. A CD is attached that contains the List of participants; Summary of the Research Coordination Meetings; Description of the CAMUS data; Description of the Japanese input motions: near-field earthquakes observed recently in Japan; Description of the output requested of the IAEA CRP participants; Summary of the participants' modelling; Results of Benchmark Step 1, 2 and 3; Scientific background on classification of seismic loads as primary or secondary; and Japanese practice on nonlinear seismic response analysis of safety related important structures.

  9. Petrogenesis, zircon U–Pb age, and geochemistry of the A-type ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    These geochemical features indicate that the primary magma of the Mogou syenite most likely originated .... 2013). However, as the ages of the Mogou syenite and the associated tec- ...... Collins W J, Beams S D, White A J R and Chappell B W.

  10. Massive particle formation in a type 316 stainless steel during creep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, D.G.; Harries, D.R.

    1976-10-01

    Extremely large grain boundary particles have previously been observed in type 316 steel after creeping for short times at 625 0 C. These features have been identified as consisting of numerous plates of M 23 C 6 carbides precipitated on partial dislocations and stacking faults emitted from high angle grain boundaries. No wholesale phase transformation to produce large intermetallic particles occurs in longer term tests, and the large particles do not, of themselves, appear to weaken the boundaries and cause cracking. (author)

  11. Primary volcanic structures from a type section of Deccan Trap flows ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Swanson 1967; Macdonald 1967; Long and Wood. Keywords. Deccan Traps; lava flows; volcanism; isotherm; cooling history. J. Earth Syst. Sci. 115, No. ...... Kilauea Volcanic island of Hawaii; J. Geophys. Res. 103. 27,303–27,323. Lightfoot ...

  12. Spectroscopic Classification of SN 2018bgc (=ATLAS18nvs) as a Type Ia Supernova

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Han; Wang, Xiaofeng; Xiang, Danfeng; Rui, Liming; Hu, Lei; Hu, Maokai; Zhang, Xinhan; Li, Xue; Zhang, Tianmeng; Zhang, Jujia

    2018-05-01

    We obtained an optical spectrum (range 385-855 nm) of SN 2018bgc(=ATLAS18nvs), discovered by ATLAS, on UT May 08.60 2018 with the 2.16-m telescope (+BFOSC) at Xinglong Station of National Astronomical Observatories of China (NAOC).

  13. Spectroscopic classification of SN 2018brz as a type Ia supernova before maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbany, Lluis; Lopez-Sanchez, Angel R.; Ascasibar, Yago; Fiegert, Kristin

    2018-05-01

    We report the spectroscopic classification of SN 2018brz (RA=08:33:22.27, DEC=-76:37:39.8) in an anonymous host galaxy. The candidate was discovered by the All-Sky Automated Survey for SuperNovae (ASAS-SN: Shappee et al. 2014) on UT 2018-05-15 at 16.5 mag. Observations were performed on the 4m Anglo-Australian Telescope at Siding Spring Observatory on 2018 May 19 9:15 UT, using Koala+AAOmega and Grisms 580V+1000R (3500-6000A and 6300-7300A).

  14. Spectroscopic classification of SN 2018bsn as a type Ia supernova before the maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jujia; Ye, Kai; Xu, Zhijian; Li, Wenxiong; Wang, Xiaofeng; Mo, Jun; Tan, Hanjie; Zhang, Tianmeng

    2018-05-01

    We obtained an optical spectrum (range 350-890 nm) of SN 2018bsn, discovered by the Tsinghua-NAOC Transient Survey (TNTS), on UT May 17.7 2018 with the 2.4 m telescope (LJT + YFOSC) at Lijiang Observatory of Yunnan Observatories (YNAO).

  15. The First Maximum-light Ultraviolet through Near-infrared Spectrum of a Type Ia Supernova

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foley, Ryan J.; Kromer, Markus; Howie Marion, G.

    2012-01-01

    between UV spectral properties, light-curve shape, and ejecta velocity. We tentatively find that SNe with similar light-curve shapes but different ejecta velocities have similar UV spectra, while those with similar ejecta velocities but different light-curve shapes have very different UV spectra. Through...

  16. Critical temperature gradient and critical current density in thin films of a type I superconductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heubener, R P

    1968-12-16

    Measurements of the critical temperature gradient and the critical current density in superconducting lead films in a transverse magnetic field indicate that the critical current flows predominantly along the surface of the films and that the critical surface currents contribute only very little to the Lorentz force on a fluxoid.

  17. Decomposing the Bragg glass and the peak effect in a Type-II superconductor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft-Petersen, Rasmus; Abrahamsen, Asger Bech; Balog, Sandor

    2018-01-01

    . In Type-II superconductors, disorder generally works to pin vortices, giving zero resistivity below a critical current j(c). However, peaks have been observed in the temperature and field dependences of j(c). This peak effect is difficult to explain in terms of an ordered Abrikosov vortex lattice. Here we...

  18. Flares on A-Type Stars: Evidence for Heating of Solar Corona by Nanoflares?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Švanda, Michal; Karlický, Marian

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 831, č. 1 (2016), 9/1-9/7 ISSN 0004-637X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP209/12/0103 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA15-02112S Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : stars * activity * coronae Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 5.533, year: 2016

  19. Bouncing forward: families living with a type I diabetic child | Brown ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Despite the multitude of challenges that families living with a child with diabetes face, they have been found to adapt to such an extent that diabetes is viewed as a manageable condition. This study was concerned with the factors that enable these families to adapt. The internationally acclaimed Resiliency Model of Stress, ...

  20. Classification of AT2018bym as a Type I Superluminous Supernova

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, P.; Gomez, S.; Berger, E.; Nicholl, M.; Kattner, S.; Weiner, B.

    2018-06-01

    AT2018bym = ATLAS18ohj = MLS180520:184313+451228 = ZTF18aapgrxo was announced to the TNS by ATLAS (Tonry et al. 2011; ATel #8680) with a detection on 10 May 2018 UT and was detected even earlier by CRTS (Drake et al. 2009) on 5 May 2018 UT. We selected this event for spectroscopic follow up based on its ZTF data (Bellm & Kulkarni 2017; ATel #11266) as available through the ZTF Alert Archive (https://ztf.uw.edu/alerts/public/).

  1. Dependance on online computer games as a type of addictive behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaretskaya O.V.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the dependence on online computer games as a kind of addic- tive behavior, analyzing different viewpoints of researchers. The author represents the results of empirical studies of personality and behavioral characteristics of players, which enable to detect statistically significant differences in characteristics such as locus of control (internality / externality and coping behavior. In the group of players internality level was lower than in the control group, and the frequency of selection of coping strategy avoidance was higher. Moreover, the author found out the correla- tion between these parameters: the level of internality is negatively correlated with the frequency of selection of avoidance strategies. These data indicate that the one of the basic factors, which forms addictive behavior, in particular, addiction to com- puter online games, is the consciousness of the degree of responsibility for one’s live, of opportunities to influence its course. These results open new perspectives for further study of the problem of computer and Internet addiction. In addition to empirical data, obtained as a result of the author's research, the article analyses well-known theoreti- cal concepts and practical work in the field of Internet addiction, coping behavior and locus of control.

  2. Functional Coupling of Duplex Translocation to DNA Cleavage in a Type I Restriction Enzyme

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cséfalvay, Eva; Lapkouski, Mikalai; Guzanová, Alena; Cséfalvay, Ladislav; Baikova, T.; Shevelev, Igor; Bialevich, V.; Shamayeva, Katerina; Janščák, Pavel; Kutá-Smatanová, Ivana; Panjikar, S.; Carey, J.; Weiserová, Marie; Ettrich, Rüdiger

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 6 (2015), e0128700 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP207/12/2323; GA ČR GAP305/10/0281 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 ; RVO:61388971 ; RVO:68378050 Keywords : Escherichia-Coli * Endonuclease ecor1241 * HSDR subunit * RECBCD enzyme * proteins * genes * helicase * sequence * family * domain Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 3.057, year: 2015

  3. Spectroscopic classification of SN 2018bxs as a type Ia supernova a few days before maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Samuel; Andrews, Jennifer; Sand, David; Smith, Nathan

    2018-06-01

    On UT 2018 May 25.3 we obtained an optical spectrum (range 370-800 nm) of AT2018bxs (=ATLAS18ppz), discovered by ATLAS (Tonry et al. 2011, PASP, 123, 58) with the 2.3m Bok telescope (+ Boller & Chivens spectrograph) on Kitt Peak, Arizona.

  4. Aligning drivers, contract, and management of IT-outsourcing relationships: a type-dependent model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arenfeldt, Katrine; Corty Dam, Amalie; Fenger, Kim Harder

    2017-01-01

    In today’s competitive business environment, information technology outsourcing has become a wide-spread reality across all industries and sectors. Researchers have investigated this complex phenomenon from various angles, and established a sound knowledge base regarding the drivers, management, ...

  5. Choosing a Type 2 Diabetes Drug: Why Generic Metformin is Often the Best Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Streaming Media Players Streaming Media Services Tablets TVs Wireless Routers All Electronics More on Electronics Best Low- ... but federal investigators still can’t pinpoint the source 10 Best ... an independent agency responsible for overseeing the financial industry with powers to police abusive practices and to enact new ...

  6. Cdkal1, a type 2 diabetes susceptibility gene, regulates mitochondrial function in adipose tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin J. Palmer

    2017-10-01

    Conclusions: Cdkal1 is necessary for normal mitochondrial morphology and function in adipose tissue. These results suggest that the type 2 diabetes susceptibility gene CDKAL1 has novel functions in regulating mitochondrial activity.

  7. Design of a Type-1 Diabetes Vaccine Candidate Using Edible Plants Expressing a Major Autoantigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edoardo Bertini

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Type-1 diabetes (T1D is a metabolic disease involving the autoimmune destruction of insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells. It is often diagnosed by the detection of autoantibodies, typically those recognizing insulin itself or the 65-kDa isoform of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65. Oral insulin can be used to induce systemic immunological tolerance and thus prevent or delay the onset of T1D, suggesting that combination treatments with other autoantigens such as GAD65 could be even more successful. GAD65 has induced oral tolerance and prevented T1D in preclinical studies but it is difficult to produce in sufficient quantities for clinical testing. Here we combined edible plant systems, namely spinach (Spinacia oleracea cv Industra and red beet (Beta vulgaris cv Moulin Rouge, with the magnICON® expression system to develop a safe, cost-effective and environmentally sustainable platform for the large-scale production of GAD65. The superior red beet platform was extensively characterized in terms of recombinant protein yields and bioequivalence to wild-type plants, and the product was tested for its ability to resist simulated gastric digestion. Our results indicate that red beet plants are suitable for the production of a candidate oral vaccine based on GAD65 for the future preclinical and clinical testing of T1D immunotherapy approaches.

  8. Experimental Neuromyelitis Optica Induces a Type I Interferon Signature in the Spinal Cord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oji, Satoru; Nicolussi, Eva-Maria; Kaufmann, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    -IFN signature genes in EAE spinal cords, and a further upregulation of these genes in ENMO. To learn whether the local I-IFN signature is harmful or beneficial, we induced ENMO by transfer of CNS antigen-specific T cells and NMO-IgG, and treated the animals with I-IFN at the very onset of clinical symptoms...

  9. Magnetic fields in O-, B- and A-type stars on the main sequence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Briquet Maryline

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this review, the latest observational results on magnetic fields in main-sequence stars with radiative envelopes are summarised together with the theoretical works aimed at explaining them.

  10. Acoustic emission characteristics of stress corrosion cracks in a type 304 stainless steel tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Woong Gi; Bae, Seung Gi; Lee, Bo Young [School of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, Korea Aerospace University, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae Seong [Center for Robot Technology and Manufacturing, Institute for Advanced Engineering, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Sung Sik [Dept. of Nuclear Safety Research, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kwag, Nog Won [Ultrasonic Division, RM910, Byucksan Digital Valley II, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    Acoustic emission (AE) is one of the promising methods for detecting the formation of stress corrosion cracks (SCCs) in laboratory tests. This method has the advantage of online inspection. Some studies have been conducted to investigate the characteristics of AE parameters during SCC propagation. However, it is difficult to classify the distinct features of SCC behavior. Because the previous studies were performed on slow strain rate test or compact tension specimens, it is difficult to make certain correlations between AE signals and actual SCC behavior in real tube-type specimens. In this study, the specimen was a AISI 304 stainless steel tube widely applied in the nuclear industry, and an accelerated test was conducted at high temperature and pressure with a corrosive environmental condition. The study result indicated that intense AE signals were mainly detected in the elastic deformation region, and a good correlation was observed between AE activity and crack growth. By contrast, the behavior of accumulated counts was divided into four regions. According to the waveform analysis, a specific waveform pattern was observed during SCC development. It is suggested that AE can be used to detect and monitor SCC initiation and propagation in actual tubes.

  11. Criticality safety evaluation of a type B enriched uranium shipping container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopper, C.M.

    1978-01-01

    The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant Model DT-14 container was developed to replace and extend the enriched uranium shipping capabilities of the USA/5765/BF Vermiculite shipping container. This work was accomplished to comply with the DOE Immediate Action Directive Number 0529-02 for ''Phasing out the use of loose or bagged Vermiculite packaging material as a thermal shield and shock absorber in radioactive material packages''. The Model DT-14 is fabricated from a Specification 17H 30-gallon drum, cane fiberboard insulation, and a steel inner containment vessel (159 mm dia by 390 mm height). The single-package and array analyses are based upon results of the multigroup Monte Carlo criticality program, KENO, utilizing 16-energy-group Hansen-Roach, and Knight modified 238 U cross sections. The program and cross sections are considered well established on the basis of their success in calculating a large variety of critical experiments. Validation results show that a calculated neutron multiplication factor plus two standard deviations equal to 0.970 or greater must be considered critical, and all lower values may be considered safe

  12. A novel interference mechanism by a type IIIB CRISPR-Cmr module in Sulfolobus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Ling; Garrett, Roger Antony; Shah, Shiraz Ali

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies on CRISPR-based adaptive immune systems have revealed extensive structural and functional diversity of the interference complexes which often coexist intracellularly. The archaeon Sulfolobus islandicus REY15A encodes three interference modules, one of type IA and two of type IIIB...... targeting. A rationale is provided for the intracellular coexistence of the different interference systems in S.¿islandicus REY15A which cooperate functionally by sharing a single Cas6 protein for crRNA processing and utilize crRNA products from identical CRISPR spacers....

  13. Early Algebra with Graphics Software as a Type II Application of Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramovich, Sergei

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the use of Kid Pix-graphics software for creative activities of young children--in the context of early algebra as determined by the mathematics core curriculum of New York state. It shows how grade-two appropriate pedagogy makes it possible to bring about a qualitative change in the learning process of those commonly…

  14. Test and evaluation document for DOT Specification 7A Type A Packaging. Revision 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has been conducting, through several of its operating contractors, an evaluation and testing program to qualify Type A radioactive material packagings per US Department of Transportation (DOT) Specification 7A (DOT-7A) of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 49, Part 178 (49 CFR 178). The program is currently administered by the DOE, Office of Facility Safety Analysis, DOE/EH-32, at DOE-Headquarters (DOE-HQ) in Germantown, Maryland. This document summarizes the evaluation and testing performed for all of the packagings successfully qualified in this program

  15. Experimental Neuromyelitis Optica Induces a Type I Interferon Signature in the Spinal Cord

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Nathalie; Zeka, Bleranda; Schanda, Kathrin; Fujihara, Kazuo; Illes, Zsolt; Dahle, Charlotte; Reindl, Markus; Lassmann, Hans; Bradl, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an acute inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS) which predominantly affects spinal cord and optic nerves. Most patients harbor pathogenic autoantibodies, the so-called NMO-IgGs, which are directed against the water channel aquaporin 4 (AQP4) on astrocytes. When these antibodies gain access to the CNS, they mediate astrocyte destruction by complement-dependent and by antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. In contrast to multiple sclerosis (MS) patients who benefit from therapies involving type I interferons (I-IFN), NMO patients typically do not profit from such treatments. How is I-IFN involved in NMO pathogenesis? To address this question, we made gene expression profiles of spinal cords from Lewis rat models of experimental neuromyelitis optica (ENMO) and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). We found an upregulation of I-IFN signature genes in EAE spinal cords, and a further upregulation of these genes in ENMO. To learn whether the local I-IFN signature is harmful or beneficial, we induced ENMO by transfer of CNS antigen-specific T cells and NMO-IgG, and treated the animals with I-IFN at the very onset of clinical symptoms, when the blood-brain barrier was open. With this treatment regimen, we could amplify possible effects of the I-IFN induced genes on the transmigration of infiltrating cells through the blood brain barrier, and on lesion formation and expansion, but could avoid effects of I-IFN on the differentiation of pathogenic T and B cells in the lymph nodes. We observed that I-IFN treated ENMO rats had spinal cord lesions with fewer T cells, macrophages/activated microglia and activated neutrophils, and less astrocyte damage than their vehicle treated counterparts, suggesting beneficial effects of I-IFN. PMID:26990978

  16. Minaturized disk bend tests of neutron-irradiated path A type alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, M.; Sohn, D.S.; Grant, N.J.; Harling, O.K.

    1983-01-01

    Path A Prime Candidate Alloy (PCA) has been rapidly solidified and consoliated by extrusion. Twenty percent CW samples, precision TEM disks, 3 phi x 0.254 mm, were irradiated in the mixed flux of the Oak Ridge HFIR reactor up to approx. 8.5 dpa (360 appm He) and approx. 34 dpa (3100 appm He) at 300, 400, 500 and 600 0 C. Similar samples of conventionally processed PCA were also irradiated for comparison. Mechanical properties were characterized using a minaturized disk bend test (MDBT) developed at MIT. These tests indicate major decreases in strength and ductility especially for the 500 and 600 0 C irradiations. No major differences were found between this first version of a rapidly solidified and extruded PCA type alloy and conventionally processed PCA

  17. Networks as a type of social entrepreneurship to advance population health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei-Skillern, Jane

    2010-11-01

    A detailed case study from the field of social entrepreneurship is used to illustrate the network approach, which does not require more resources but rather makes better use of existing resources. Leaders in public health can use networks to overcome some of the barriers that inhibit the widespread adoption of a population health approach to community health. Public health leaders who embrace social entrepreneurship may be better able to accomplish their missions by building their networks rather than just their organizations.

  18. Charting improvements in US registry HLA typing ambiguity using a typing resolution score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paunić, Vanja; Gragert, Loren; Schneider, Joel; Müller, Carlheinz; Maiers, Martin

    2016-07-01

    Unrelated stem cell registries have been collecting HLA typing of volunteer bone marrow donors for over 25years. Donor selection for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is based primarily on matching the alleles of donors and patients at five polymorphic HLA loci. As HLA typing technologies have continually advanced since the beginnings of stem cell transplantation, registries have accrued typings of varied HLA typing ambiguity. We present a new typing resolution score (TRS), based on the likelihood of self-match, that allows the systematic comparison of HLA typings across different methods, data sets and populations. We apply the TRS to chart improvement in HLA typing within the Be The Match Registry of the United States from the initiation of DNA-based HLA typing to the current state of high-resolution typing using next-generation sequencing technologies. In addition, we present a publicly available online tool for evaluation of any given HLA typing. This TRS objectively evaluates HLA typing methods and can help define standards for acceptable recruitment HLA typing. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Recovery of gold as a type of porous fiber by using biosorption followed by incineration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seong-In; Kwak, In Seob; Bae, Min A; Mao, Juan; Won, Sung Wook; Han, Do Hyeong; Chung, Yong Sik; Yun, Yeoung-Sang

    2012-01-01

    This study introduces a new process for the recovery of gold in porous fiber form by the incineration of Au-loaded biosorbent fiber from gold-cyanide solutions. For the recovery of gold from such aqueous solutions, polyethylenimine (PEI)-modified bacterial biosorbent fiber (PBBF) and PEI-modified chitosan fiber (PCSF) were developed and used. The maximum uptakes of Au(I) ions were estimated as 421.1 and 251.7 mg/g at pH 5.5 for PBBF and PCSF, respectively. Au-loaded biosorbents were freeze-dried and then incinerated to oxidize their organic constituents while simultaneously obtaining reduced gold. As a result, porous metallic gold fibers were obtained with 60 μm of diameter. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) analysis and mercury porosimetry revealed the fibers to have 60 μm of diameter and to be highly porous and hollow. The proposed process therefore offers the potential for the efficient recovery of metallic porous gold fibers using combined biosorption and incineration. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Expression of a type B RIFIN in Plasmodium falciparum merozoites and gametes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mwakalinga, Steven B; Wang, Christian W; Bengtsson, Dominique C

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The ability of Plasmodium falciparum to undergo antigenic variation, by switching expression among protein variants encoded by multigene families, such as var, rif and stevor, is key to the survival of this parasite in the human host. The RIFIN protein family can be divided...... into A and B types based on the presence or absence of a 25 amino acid motif in the semi-conserved domain. A particular type B RIFIN, PF13_0006, has previously been shown to be strongly transcribed in the asexual and sexual stages of P. falciparum in vitro. METHODS: Antibodies to recombinant PF13_0006 RIFIN...... were used in immunofluorescence and confocal imaging of 3D7 parasites throughout the asexual reproduction and sexual development to examine the expression of PF13_0006. Furthermore, reactivity to recombinant PF13_0006 was measured in plasma samples collected from individuals from both East and West...

  1. A-type Stellar Abundances: A Corollary to Herschel Observations of Debris Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, Zachary H.; Matthews, Brenda; Venn, Kim; Lambert, David; Kennedy, Grant; Sitnova, Tatyana

    2018-04-01

    In order to assess the relationship between metallicity and exoplanetary systems, we compare the abundances of AF-type main-sequence stars with debris disk properties assessed using Herschel observations of an unbiased survey of nearby stars. Hot stars are not as commonly observed, given their unique constraints in data reduction, lack of metal lines, and “astrophysical noise” from rotation speed. Here, we address that deficiency using new and archival spectra of 83 AF-type stars. We measure the abundances of a few species in addition to Fe in order to classify the stars with Ap/Am or Lambda Boo signatures. Lambda Boo stars have a chemical signature of solar-abundant volatile species and sub-solar refractory abundances that is hypothesized to be altered by the pollution of volatiles. Overall, we see no correlation between debris disks and metallicity, primarily because the sample size is cut significantly when using only reliable fits to the spectroscopic data. The abundance measured from the Mg II 4481 blend is a useful diagnostic because it can be reliably measured at large v·sin(i) and is found to be lower around stars with bright debris disks. We find that Lambda Boo stars have brighter debris disks compared to a bias-free sample of AF stars. The trend with disk brightness and Mg abundances suggests pollution effects can be significant and used as a marker for the stability of planetary systems. We explore trends with other species, such as with the C/O ratios, but are significantly limited by the low number of reliable detections.

  2. Test and evaluation document for DOT Specification 7A Type A Packaging. Revision 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-30

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has been conducting, through several of its operating contractors, an evaluation and testing program to qualify Type A radioactive material packagings per US Department of Transportation (DOT) Specification 7A (DOT-7A) of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 49, Part 178 (49 CFR 178). The program is currently administered by the DOE, Office of Facility Safety Analysis, DOE/EH-32, at DOE-Headquarters (DOE-HQ) in Germantown, Maryland. This document summarizes the evaluation and testing performed for all of the packagings successfully qualified in this program.

  3. Streptocollin, a type IV lanthipeptide produced by Streptomyces collinus Tü 365

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iftime, Dumitrita; Jasyk, Martin; Kulik, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Lanthipeptides are ribosomally synthesized and posttranslationally modified microbial secondary metabolites. Here, we report the identification and isolation of streptocollin from Streptomyces collinus Tü 365, a new member of the class IV lanthipeptides. Insertion of the constitutive ermE* promoter...

  4. Normal conditions of transport thermal analysis and testing of a Type B drum package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerrell, J.W.; Alstine, M.N. van; Gromada, R.J.

    1995-01-01

    Increasing the content limits of radioactive material packagings can save money and increase transportation safety by decreasing the total number of shipments required to transport large quantities of material. The contents of drum packages can be limited by unacceptable containment vessel pressures and temperatures due to the thermal properties of the insulation. The purpose of this work is to understand and predict the effects of insulation properties on containment system performance. The type B shipping container used in the study is a double containment fiberboard drum package. The package is primarily used to transport uranium and plutonium metals and oxides. A normal condition of transport (NCT) thermal test was performed to benchmark an NCT analysis of the package. A 21 W heater was placed in an instrumented package to simulate the maximum source decay heat. The package reached thermal equilibrium 120 hours after the heater was turned on. Testing took place indoors to minimize ambient temperature fluctuations. The thermal analysis of the package used fiberboard properties reported in the literature and resulted in temperature significantly greater than those measured during the test. Details of the NCT test will be described and transient temperatures at key thermocouple locations within the package will be presented. Analytical results using nominal fiberboard properties will be presented. Explanations of the results and the attempt to benchmark the analysis will be presented. The discovery that fiberboard has an anisotropic thermal conductivity and its effect on thermal performance will also be discussed

  5. Effectiveness of a Type 2 Diabetes Screening Intervention in the Canadian Workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarride, Jean-Eric; Smofsky, Allan; Nykoliation, Priscilla; Allain, Stephen; Lewis-Daly, Linda; Satok, David; Schwartz, Jeremy; Pollack, Joshua Hart; Guertin, Jason Robert; McIntyre, Roger S

    2017-12-18

    There is a lack of Canadian data concerning the effectiveness of diabetes interventions in the workplace. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Motivaction, a diabetes screening and education pilot program, in the workplace. The Motivaction program involves a voluntary web-based diabetes health-risk assessment, the Canadian Diabetes Risk Questionnaire (CANRISK), combined with an opportunity for those eligible (i.e. having diabetes or having a CANRISK score ≥21) to attend 2 on-site biometric screening meetings with a registered nurse and 4 educational sessions by telephone with a certified diabetes educator. Biometric data, as well as information about self-efficacy, lifestyle changes, productivity, well-being, mental health and program satisfaction, were collected at baseline and at 6 months. Attendance at the initial and 6-month clinical visits included 293 people. At baseline, 21% were identified as having prediabetes (13%) or having diabetes (8%). Statistically significant reductions in glycated hemoglobin levels from baseline to the study's end were observed in those with prediabetes or diabetes. No statistically significant changes in glycated hemoglobin levels were observed in individuals with normal levels or in those at risk for diabetes at baseline. No statistical differences were observed in terms of productivity or mental health for the full population or across diabetes-risk categories. More than 90% of employees would recommend the Motivaction program to other employers. This study provides a framework for future diabetes interventions in the workplace and demonstrates that workplace interventions may reduce employees' diabetes risk levels and are valued by employees. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Reactive oxygen species explicit dosimetry (ROSED) of a type 1 photosensitizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Yi Hong; Kim, Michele M.; Huang, Zheng; Zhu, Timothy C.

    2018-02-01

    Type I photodynamic therapy (PDT) is based on the use of photochemical reactions mediated through an interaction between a tumor-selective photosensitizer, photoexcitation with a specific wavelength of light, and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The goal of this study is to develop a model to calculate reactive oxygen species concentration ([ROS]rx) after Tookad®-mediated vascular PDT. Mice with radiation-induced fibrosarcoma (RIF) tumors were treated with different light fluence and fluence rate conditions. Explicit measurements of photosensitizer drug concentration were made via diffuse reflective absorption spectrum using a contact probe before and after PDT. Blood flow and tissue oxygen concentration over time were measured during PDT as a mean to validate the photochemical parameters for the ROSED calculation. Cure index was computed from the rate of tumor regrowth after treatment and was compared against three calculated dose metrics: total light fluence, PDT dose, reacted [ROS]rx. The tumor growth study demonstrates that [ROS]rx serves as a better dosimetric quantity for predicting treatment outcome, as a clinically relevant tumor growth endpoint.

  7. Technical problems encountered during certification of a Type B (plutonium) package (U)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gromada, R.J.; Opperman, E.K.

    1993-01-01

    Westinghouse Savannah River Company is responsible for maintaining the 5320 Plutonium Shipping Cask. The 5320 Cask was originally designed over 15 years ago to transport plutonium and americium. Since then the 5320 Cask has been redesigned numerous times to meet changing packaging regulations. During the current certificate renewal process, four of the 5320 Casks were subjected to hypothetical accident condition drop, puncture and thermal tests. This paper will discuss the technical problems encountered as well as the experiences gained from performing the accident test sequence. The first two sequential tests, the drop and puncture tests, were performed satisfactorily and immediately met the intent of the regulations. The third sequential test, a 1475degF thermal test, was performed in an electric furnace and did not meet regulations. Problems were encountered with oxygen deficiency and radiation attenuation during the test. An evaluation of the problems associated with furnace testing and their solutions will be discussed. The thermal test was repeated in a pool fire at the Sandia National Laboratory Lurance Canyon Burn Site. Unexpected problems from extremely high (1900degF) flame temperatures resulted in secondary vessel containment failure. From the results of a failure study, a heat shield was added to the 5320 Cask and a subsequent fire test determined that the packaging finally met the intent of the regulations. The failure study as well as the subsequent design solution will be discussed. (author)

  8. A Type-II First Branchial Cleft Anomaly Presenting as a Post ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hanumantp

    [2]. Here, we report an extremely rare variant of first branchial cleft anomaly of type‑2 presenting as a salivary fistula near mastoid tip in a young female patient. To the best of our knowledge, this is probably the first case of this type to be reported. Case Report. A 12-year-old female presented to Otolaryngology Department.

  9. Identification of a type 1 diabetes-associated CD4 promoter haplotype with high constitutive activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, O P; Karlsen, A E; Larsen, Z M

    2004-01-01

    screened the human CD4 promoter for mutations and identified three frequent single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs): CD4-181C/G, CD4-521C/G and CD4-1050T/C. The SNPs are in strong linkage disequilibrium (LD) and association with the CD4-1188(TTTTC)(5-14) alleles, and we observed nine CD4 promoter haplotypes...... promoter activity and (2) the CD4-181G variant encodes higher stimulated promoter activity than the CD4-181C variant. This difference is in part neutralized in the frequently occurring CD4 promoter haplotypes by the more upstream genetic variants. Thus, we report functional impact of a novel CD4-181C/G SNP...

  10. Creating and using a type of free-form geometry in Monte Carlo particle transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wessol, D.E.; Wheeler, F.J.

    1993-01-01

    While the reactor physicists were fine-tuning the Monte Carlo paradigm for particle transport in regular geometries, the computer scientists were developing rendering algorithms to display extremely realistic renditions of irregular objects ranging from the ubiquitous teakettle to dynamic Jell-O. Even though the modeling methods share a common basis, the initial strategies each discipline developed for variance reduction were remarkably different. Initially, the reactor physicist used Russian roulette, importance sampling, particle splitting, and rejection techniques. In the early stages of development, the computer scientist relied primarily on rejection techniques, including a very elegant hierarchical construction and sampling method. This sampling method allowed the computer scientist to viably track particles through irregular geometries in three-dimensional space, while the initial methods developed by the reactor physicists would only allow for efficient searches through analytical surfaces or objects. As time goes by, it appears there has been some merging of the variance reduction strategies between the two disciplines. This is an early (possibly first) incorporation of geometric hierarchical construction and sampling into the reactor physicists' Monte Carlo transport model that permits efficient tracking through nonuniform rational B-spline surfaces in three-dimensional space. After some discussion, the results from this model are compared with experiments and the model employing implicit (analytical) geometric representation

  11. Influencing factors on bread-derived exposure to ochratoxin A: type, origin and composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, S C; Bento, J; Pena, A; Lino, C M; Delerue-Matos, C; Oliveira, M B P P; Alves, M R; Pereira, J A

    2010-01-01

    The nearly ubiquitous consumption of cereals all over the world renders them an important position in international nutrition, but concurrently allocates exposure to possible contained contaminants. Mycotoxins are natural food contaminants, difficult to predict, evade, and reduce, so it is important to establish the real contribution of each contaminated food product, with the aim to evaluate mycotoxin exposure. This was the key objective of this survey and analysis for ochratoxin A content on 274 samples of commercialized bread in the Portuguese market, during the winter 2007. Different bread products were analyzed through an HPLC-FD method, including traditional types, novel segments, and different grain based bread products. A wide-ranging low level contamination was observed in all regions and types of bread products analyzed, especially in the Porto and Coimbra regions, and in the maize and whole-grain or fiber-enriched bread. Nevertheless, the exposure through contaminated wheat bread continues to be the most significant, given its high consumption and dominance in relation to the other types of bread. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Molecular model of a type III secretion system needle: Implications for host-cell sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deane, Janet E; Roversi, Pietro; Cordes, Frank S; Johnson, Steven; Kenjale, Roma; Daniell, Sarah; Booy, Frank; Picking, William D; Picking, Wendy L; Blocker, Ariel J; Lea, Susan M

    2006-08-15

    Type III secretion systems are essential virulence determinants for many Gram-negative bacterial pathogens. The type III secretion system consists of cytoplasmic, transmembrane, and extracellular domains. The extracellular domain is a hollow needle protruding above the bacterial surface and is held within a basal body that traverses both bacterial membranes. Effector proteins are translocated, via this external needle, directly into host cells, where they subvert normal cell functions to aid infection. Physical contact with host cells initiates secretion and leads to formation of a pore, thought to be contiguous with the needle channel, in the host-cell membrane. Here, we report the crystal structure of the Shigella flexneri needle subunit MxiH and a complete model for the needle assembly built into our three-dimensional EM reconstruction. The model, combined with mutagenesis data, reveals that signaling of host-cell contact is relayed through the needle via intersubunit contacts and suggests a mode of binding for a tip complex.

  13. Evaluation of a type 1 diabetes serum cohort by SELDI-TOF MS protein profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrethsen, J.; Kaas, A.; Schonle, E.

    2009-01-01

    Proteomics analysis of serum from patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) may lead to novel biomarkers for prediction of disease and for patient monitoring. However, the serum proteome is highly sensitive to sample processing and before proteomics biomarker research serum cohorts should preferably...... be examined for potential bias between sample groups. S ELDI-TOF MS protein profiling was used for preliminary evaluation of a biological-bank with 766 serum samples from 270 patients with T1D, collected at 18 different paediatric centers representing 15 countries in Europe and Japan over 2 years (2000......-2002). Samples collected 1 (n = 270), 6 (n = 248), and 12 (n = 248) months after T1D diagnosis were grouped across centers and compared. The serum protein profiles varied with collection site and day of analysis; however, markers of sample processing were not systematically different between samples collected...

  14. Project finance: a type of financing applied to wind CearÃ

    OpenAIRE

    Allisson David de Oliveira Martins

    2010-01-01

    Este trabalho enfatiza a importÃncia da energia eÃlica e demonstra o potencial eÃlico tecnicamente aproveitÃvel no Estado do CearÃ. Investiga-se especificamente a modalidade de financiamento Project Finance, atravÃs de suas definiÃÃes, riscos, vantagens e desvantagens como uma alternativa de crÃdito de longo prazo capaz de viabilizar novos projetos relacionados à diversificaÃÃo da matriz energÃtica brasileira. A estrutura do Project Finance à estudada para projetos eÃlicos no Cearà onde...

  15. Pinning of a curved flux line by macroscopic inclusions in a type II superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shehata, L.N.; Saif, A.G.

    1983-08-01

    The pinning force is calculated as a function of the distance between a curved (or straight) flux line and the centre of a macroscopic superconducting (or normal) ellipsoidal inclusion. When the ellipsoidal tends to a spherical inclusion the results agree with those previously obtained. (author)

  16. Definition of a type of abnormal vaginal flora that is distinct from bacterial vaginosis: aerobic vaginitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donders, Gilbert G G; Vereecken, Annie; Bosmans, Eugene; Dekeersmaecker, Alfons; Salembier, Geert; Spitz, Bernard

    2002-01-01

    To define an entity of abnormal vaginal flora: aerobic vaginitis. Observational study. University Hospital Gasthuisberg, Leuven, Belgium. 631 women attending for routine prenatal care or attending vaginitis clinic. Samples were taken for fresh wet mount microscopy of vaginal fluid, vaginal cultures and measurement of lactate, succinate and cytokine levels in vaginal fluid. Smears deficient in lactobacilli and positive for clue cells were considered to indicate a diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis. Aerobic vaginitis was diagnosed if smears were deficient in lactobacilli, positive for cocci or coarse bacilli, positive for parabasal epithelial cells, and/or positive for vaginal leucocytes (plus their granular aspect). Genital complaints include red inflammation, yellow discharge, vaginal dyspareunia. Group B streptococci, escherichia coli, staphylococcus aureus and trichomonas vaginalis are frequently cultured. Vaginal lactate concentration is severely depressed in women with aerobic vaginitis, as in bacterial vaginosis, but vaginal succinate is not produced. Also in contrast to bacterial vaginosis, aerobic vaginitis produces a host immune response that leads to high production of interleukin-6, interleukin-1-beta and leukaemia inhibitory factor in the vaginal fluid. Aerobic vaginitis is associated with aerobic micro-organisms, mainly group B streptococci and E. coli. Its characteristics are different from those of bacterial vaginosis and elicit an important host response. The most severe form of aerobic vaginitis equals desquamative inflammatory vaginitis. In theory, aerobic vaginitis may be a better candidate than bacterial vaginosis as the cause of pregnancy complications, such as ascending chorioamnionitis, preterm rupture of the membranes and preterm delivery.

  17. A type IV pilus mediates DNA binding during natural transformation in Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphaël Laurenceau

    Full Text Available Natural genetic transformation is widely distributed in bacteria and generally occurs during a genetically programmed differentiated state called competence. This process promotes genome plasticity and adaptability in Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Transformation requires the binding and internalization of exogenous DNA, the mechanisms of which are unclear. Here, we report the discovery of a transformation pilus at the surface of competent Streptococcus pneumoniae cells. This Type IV-like pilus, which is primarily composed of the ComGC pilin, is required for transformation. We provide evidence that it directly binds DNA and propose that the transformation pilus is the primary DNA receptor on the bacterial cell during transformation in S. pneumoniae. Being a central component of the transformation apparatus, the transformation pilus enables S. pneumoniae, a major Gram-positive human pathogen, to acquire resistance to antibiotics and to escape vaccines through the binding and incorporation of new genetic material.

  18. Spectroscopic Classification of ASASSN-15rm as a Type Ia Supernova

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, W.; Halevi, G.; Shivvers, I.; Yuk, H.; Filippenko, A. V.

    2015-10-01

    We report that inspection of a CCD spectrum (range 350-1050 nm) of ASASSN-15rm (ATel #8192), obtained on Oct. 20.50 UT with the Shane 3-m reflector (+ Kast spectrograph) at Lick Observatory, shows that the object is a normal Type Ia supernova roughly 1 week past maximum brightness.

  19. Spectroscopic Classification of MASTER OT J110707.62-052244.0 as a Type Ia Supernova

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, W.; Kim, M.; Shivvers, I.; Yuk, H.; Filippenko, A. V.

    2015-11-01

    We report that inspection of a CCD spectrum (range 350-1050 nm) of MASTER OT J110707.62-052244.0 (ATel #8236), obtained on Nov. 11.57 UT with the Shane 3-m reflector (+ Kast spectrograph) at Lick Observatory, shows that the object is a normal Type Ia supernova roughly 1 week past maximum brightness.

  20. Spectroscopic Classification of PSN J07051005+2102327: a Type Ia Supernova

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivvers, I.; Yuk, H.; Filippenko, A. V.; U, V.

    2015-11-01

    We report that inspection of a low signal-to-noise ratio CCD spectrum (range 350-1050 nm) of PSN J07051005+2102327 (CBAT TOCP), obtained on Nov. 17.46 UT with the Shane 3-m reflector (+ Kast spectrograph) at Lick Observatory, shows that the object is a normal Type Ia supernova within a few days of maximum brightness.

  1. SN 2013dh in NGC 5936 is probably a type Iax supernova

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Saurabh W.; McCully, Curtis; Foley, Ryan J.; Cenko, S. Bradley; Zheng, WeiKang; Clubb, Kelsey I.; Shivvers, Isaac; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Tucker, Brad E.; Garnavich, Peter M.

    2013-06-01

    Further to CBET 3561 (Kumar et al. 2013; Cenko et al. 2013), we have analyzed spectra of SN 2013dh obtained on June 14.3 and June 17.3 UT with the Shane 3-m reflector (+ Kast spectrograph) at Lick Observatory. The observations continue to show that SN 2013dh has a blue continuum with relatively narrow (FWHM approximately 3000 km/s) Fe III absorption.

  2. PTF11kx: A Type Ia Supernova with Hydrogen Emission Persisting after 3.5 Years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, M. L. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, U.W., Seattle, WA 98195-1580 (United States); Harris, C. E.; Nugent, P. E.; Kasen, D.; Filippenko, A. V. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Fox, O. D. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Silverman, J. M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)

    2017-07-10

    The optical transient PTF11kx exhibited both the characteristic spectral features of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) and the signature of ejecta interacting with circumstellar material (CSM) containing hydrogen, indicating the presence of a nondegenerate companion. We present an optical spectrum at 1342 days after peak from Keck Observatory, in which the broad component of H α emission persists with a similar profile as in early-time observations. We also present Spitzer IRAC detections obtained 1237 and 1818 days after peak, and an upper limit from Hubble Space Telescope ultraviolet imaging at 2133 days. We interpret our late-time observations in the context of published results—and reinterpret the early-time observations—in order to constrain the CSM’s physical parameters and to compare to theoretical predictions for recurrent-nova systems. We find that the CSM’s radial extent may be several times the distance between the star and the CSM’s inner edge, and that the CSM column density may be two orders of magnitude lower than previous estimates. We show that the H α luminosity decline is similar to other SNe with CSM interaction and demonstrate how our infrared photometry is evidence for newly formed, collisionally heated dust. We create a model for PTF11kx’s late-time CSM interaction and find that X-ray reprocessing by photoionization and recombination cannot reproduce the observed H α luminosity, suggesting that the X-rays are thermalized and that H α radiates from collisional excitation. Finally, we discuss the implications of our results regarding the progenitor scenario and the geometric properties of the CSM for the PTF11kx system.

  3. Siblings Promote a Type 1/Type 17-oriented immune response in the airways of asymptomatic neonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolsk, Helene Mygind; Chawes, Bo L.; Følsgaard, Nilofar V.

    2016-01-01

    -related mediators. This was supported by the PCA showing a highly significant difference between children with vs. without siblings: p...BACKGROUND: Siblings have been shown to reduce the risk of later asthma and allergy, but the mechanism driving this association is unknown. The objective was to study whether siblings affect the airway immune response in healthy neonates. We hypothesized that siblings exert immune modulatory......-cohort (COPSAC2010). The association between airway mediator levels and presence of siblings was investigated using conventional statistics and principle component analyses (PCA). RESULTS: Neonates with siblings had an up-regulated level of airway immune-mediators, with predominance of Type 1- and Type 17...

  4. Dual-artery stenting of a type III single coronary artery from right aortic sinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivanad Patil

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A single coronary artery presenting with stenosis in two of the three vessels arising from a common ostium is a rare anomaly Lipton et al. proposed a classification, which was modified by Yamanaka and Hobbs. In our case, a single coronary artery was giving rise to the LAD, left circumflex (LCx, and the right coronary artery (RCA. There was 80% stenosis in the ostium of the LCx. The RCA in the mid and distal segment had stenosis of 80% and 70%, respectively. We were able to successfully stent the three stenotic segments.

  5. Spectroscopic classification of PTSS-18ecg (SN 2018bhb) as a type Ia supernova around maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jujia; Ding, Xu; Wang, Xiaofeng; Li, Wenxiong; Li, Bin; Xu, Zhijian; Tan, Hanjie; Zhao, Haibin; Wang, Lifan; Li, Zhitong

    2018-05-01

    We obtained an optical spectrum (range 350-890 nm) of PTSS-18ecg (SN 2018bhb), discovered by the PMO-Tsinghua Supernova Survey (PTSS, http://www.cneost.org/ptss/), on UT 2018 May 10.7 with the Li-Jiang 2.4 m telescope (LJT+YFOSC) at Li-Jiang Observatory of Yunnan Observatories.

  6. The design process seen through the eyes of a type designer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Sofie

    2015-01-01

    To understand how the design process works, the paper takes the outset in the work of one of the first innovating type designers: the English printer and typefounder John Baskerville (1706-1775). By comparing his way of working with a model for a contemporary design process, the paper reflects upon...

  7. Using the Enneagram for Client Insight and Transformation: A Type Eight Illustration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapp, Karen; Engebretson, Ken

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to demonstrate how mental health practitioners can use the Enneagram's system of human personality development as a source of insight and a tool for personality transformation. The article provides an introduction to the Enneagram and its orientation to personality types and defines a linear process of how to use the…

  8. Validation of a Type 2 Diabetes Screening Tool in Rural Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milton, Evan C.; Herman, William H.; Aiello, Allison E.; Danielson, Kris R.; Mendoza-Avelarez, Milton O.; Piette, John D.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To validate a low-cost tool for identifying diabetic patients in rural areas of Latin America. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A regression equation incorporating postprandial time and a random plasma glucose was used to screen 800 adults in Honduras. Patients with a probability of diabetes of ≥20% were asked to return for a fasting plasma glucose (FPG). A random fifth of those with a screener-based probability of diabetes Honduras and could be used to identify diabetic patients in poor clinics in Latin America. PMID:19918008

  9. Structure of Spa15, a type III secretion chaperone from Shigella flexneri with broad specificity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eerde, André van; Hamiaux, Cyril; Pérez, Javier; Parsot, Claude; Dijkstra, Bauke W.

    2004-01-01

    Type III secretion (TTS) systems are used by many Gram-negative pathogens to inject virulence proteins into the cells of their hosts. Several of these virulence effectors require TTS chaperones that maintain them in a secretion-competent state. Whereas most chaperones bind only one effector, Spa15

  10. Permian ultrafelsic A-type granite from Besar Islands group, Johor ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    X = dark brown and Y = straw yellow. The tex- ture suggests that the mineral was early in origin because it ... transparent, colourless to pale brown and showed oscillatory ...... 96–105. Ghani A A 2006 Batuan volkanik dari Pulau Tinggi dan.

  11. Spectroscopic Classification of SN 2017ghm as a Type Ia Supernova

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinko, J.; Wheeler, J. C.; Wang, X.; Li, W.; Li, Z.; Xiang, D.; Rui, L.; Lin, H.; Xu, Z.; Li, B.; Zhao, H.; Wang, L.; Tan, H.; Zhang, J.

    2017-09-01

    An optical spectrum (range 360-680 nm) of SN 2017ghm (=PTSS-17uyml), discovered by the PMO-Tsinghua Supernova Survey (PTSS, http://www.cneost.org/ptss/), was obtained with the new "Low Resolution Spectrograph-2" (LRS2) on the 10m Hobby-Eberly Telescope at McDonald Observatory by S. Rostopchin on 2017 Aug 31.17 UT. The spectrum is consistent with that of a heavily reddened Type Ia supernova (with Av > 2.3 mag) around maximum light.

  12. Networks as a Type of Social Entrepreneurship to Advance Population Health

    OpenAIRE

    Wei-Skillern, Jane

    2010-01-01

    A detailed case study from the field of social entrepreneurship is used to illustrate the network approach, which does not require more resources but rather makes better use of existing resources. Leaders in public health can use networks to overcome some of the barriers that inhibit the widespread adoption of a population health approach to community health. Public health leaders who embrace social entrepreneurship may be better able to accomplish their missions by building their networks ra...

  13. Liverpool Telescope classification of ATLAS16bdg as a Type Ia supernova near maximum light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundell, C. G.; Smith, R. J.; Childress, M. J.

    2016-06-01

    On 2016 June 15 at approximately 21:03 UT, we performed multicolour optical imaging, spectroscopy and polarimetry with the 2-m robotic Liverpool Telescope IO:O camera of galaxy NGC4708 in which a bright optical transient was reported by Tonry et al. ATel #9151 (ATLAS16bdg).

  14. Fenofibrate plus Metformin Produces Cardioprotection in a Type 2 Diabetes and Acute Myocardial Infarction Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Hugo Oidor-Chan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated whether fenofibrate, metformin, and their combination generate cardioprotection in a rat model of type 2 diabetes (T2D and acute myocardial infarction (AMI. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic- (DB- rats received 14 days of either vehicle, fenofibrate, metformin, or their combination and immediately after underwent myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R. Fenofibrate plus metformin generated cardioprotection in a DBI/R model, reported as decreased coronary vascular resistance, compared to DBI/R-Vehicle, smaller infarct size, and increased cardiac work. The subchronic treatment with fenofibrate plus metformin increased, compared with DBI/R-Vehicle, total antioxidant capacity, manganese-dependent superoxide dismutase activity (MnSOD, guanosine triphosphate cyclohydrolase I (GTPCH-I expression, tetrahydrobiopterin : dihydrobiopterin (BH4 : BH2 ratio, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS activity, nitric oxide (NO bioavailability, and decreased inducible NOS (iNOS activity. These findings suggest that PPARα activation by fenofibrate + metformin, at low doses, generates cardioprotection in a rat model of T2D and AMI and may represent a novel treatment strategy to limit I/R injury in patients with T2D.

  15. Insulin Modulates Liver Function in a Type I Diabetes Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo L. Nolasco

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Several studies have been performed to unravel the association between diabetes and increased susceptibility to infection. This study aimed to investigate the effect of insulin on the local environment after cecal ligation and puncture (CLP in rats. Methods: Diabetic (alloxan, 42 mg/kg i.v., 10 days and non-diabetic (control male Wistar rats were subjected to a two-puncture CLP procedure and 6 h later, the following analyses were performed: (a total and differential cell counts in peritoneal lavage (PeL and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluids; (b quantification of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, interleukin (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10 and cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC-1 and CINC-2 in the PeL and BAL fluids by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA; (c total leukocyte count using a veterinary hematology analyzer and differential leukocyte counts on stained slides; (d biochemical parameters (urea, creatinine, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP by colorimetric analyses; and (e lung, kidney, and liver morphological analyses (hematoxylin and eosin staining. Results: Relative to controls, non-diabetic and diabetic CLP rats exhibited an increased in the concentration of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, CINC-1, and CINC-2 and total and neutrophil in the PeL fluid. Treatment of these animals with neutral protamine Hagedorn insulin (NPH, 1IU and 4IU, respectively, s.c., 2 hours before CLP procedure, induced an increase on these cells in the PeL fluid but it did not change cytokine levels. The levels of ALT, AST, ALP, and urea were higher in diabetic CLP rats than in non-diabetic CLP rats. ALP levels were higher in diabetic sham rats than in non-diabetic sham rats. Treatment of diabetic rats with insulin completely restored ALT, AST, and ALP levels. Conclusion: These results together suggest that insulin attenuates liver dysfunction during early two-puncture CLP-induced peritoneal inflammation in diabetic rats.

  16. The shaping of two distinct dendritic spikes by A-type voltage-gated K+ channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungchil eYang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic ion channels have been a subject of intense research in neuroscience because active ion channels in dendrites shape input signals. Ca2+-permeable channels including NMDA receptors (NMDARs have been implicated in supralinear dendritic integration, and the IA conductance in sublinear integration. Despite their essential roles in dendritic integration, it has remained uncertain whether these conductances coordinate with, or counteract, each other in the process of dendritic integration. To address this question, experiments were designed in hippocampal CA1 neurons with a recent 3D digital holography system that has shown excellent performance for spatial photoactivation. The results demonstrated a role of IA as a key contributor to two distinct dendritic spikes, low- and high-threshold Ca2+ spikes, through a preferential action of IA on Ca2+-permeable channel-mediated currents, over fast AMPAR-mediated currents. It is likely that the rapid kinetics of IA provides feed-forward inhibition to counteract the delayed Ca2+ channel-mediated dendritic excitability. This research reveals one dynamic ionic mechanism of dendritic integration, and may contribute to a new understanding of neuronal hyperexcitability embedded in several neural diseases such as epilepsy, fragile X syndrome and Alzheimer's disease.

  17. Visualizing the photovoltaic behavior of a type-II p-n heterojunction superstructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xing, Juanjuan, E-mail: xingjuanjuan@mail.sic.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1295 Dingxi Road, Shanghai 200050 (China); Electron Microscopy Group, Surface Physics and Structure Unit, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Takeguchi, Masaki [Electron Microscopy Group, Surface Physics and Structure Unit, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Hashimoto, Ayako [Electron Microscopy Group, Surface Physics and Structure Unit, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Global Research Center for Environment and Energy Based on Nanomaterials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Cao, Junyu; Ye, Jinhua [International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics (WPI-MANA), 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan)

    2014-04-21

    Photovoltaic behavior of a CaFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} p-n multi-junction was investigated with electron holography combined with an in situ light irradiation system. Potential profiles of the samples with and without light irradiation were extracted to measure the open circuit photovoltage generated either by the whole heterojunction superstructure or from each p-n junction. Investigation on the variation in the energy band configuration under light irradiation revealed the mechanism involved in the photoelectric effect, with respect to the properties of the heterojunction and its periodic quantum structure.

  18. Topology of a type I secretion system for bacteriocins of Lactococcus lactis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franke, Christian Marc

    1998-01-01

    This thesis describes the analysis of a number of aspects of the secretion and muturation machinery of the bacteriocin lactococcin A (LcnA) from Lactococcus lactis, whick is initially synthesized as a precursor protein (preLcnA), containing an N-terminal extension of 20 amino acids (the leader)....

  19. Coagulation and oxidative stress plasmatic levels in a type 2 diabetes population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barillari, Giovanni; Fabbro, Elisabetta; Pasca, Samantha; Bigotto, Enrico

    2009-06-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) is a metabolic disorder characterized by relative insulin deficiency, insulin resistance and hyperglycemia. DM2 improperly managed can cause severe complications such as renal failure, blindness or arterial disease. In addition to serious complications due to DM2, in the past 20 years, several studies have demonstrated the association between DM2, insulin resistance and prothrombotic risk. In our study, we wanted to evaluate the correlation between coagulation factor levels, oxidative plasmatic levels and DM2. We considered 20 DM2 patients (65% women and 35% men), 40-65 years of age, who had a BMI between 25 and 40 kg/m2 and followed a diet with or without oral antidiabetic treatment and 20 controls, blood donors, 15 men (75%) and five women (25%), who had a BMI between 25 and 40 kg/m2 and their age was between 40 and 65 years. Plasmatic levels of oxidative stress markers (tumor necrosis factor-alpha, nitrotyrosine, oxidized low-density lipoprotein) and coagulation markers (factors VII, VIII, IX, XI, XII, antithrombin III and fibrinogen) of both populations were analyzed following statistic criteria. The analyzed data of this study related to oxidative stress and coagulation factors proved that the differences observed between diabetic patients and controls were not statistically significant (P statistically significant (P < 0.01). In patients with DM2, factor VIII increased from 79 to 103%, factor IX from 88 to 103%, factor XII from 87 to 105% and finally, antithrombin III from 81 to 103%. Different results between literature and our study could be due to fact that the patients considered were in the early stage of diabetes when endothelial damage is absent and vascular complications are not clinically expressed. In this study, it is still shown that DM2 is a multifactor disease and its physiopathologic mechanisms are not completely known today.

  20. Relationship between vacA Types and Development of Gastroduodenal Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Thi Huyen Trang, Tran; Thanh Binh, Tran; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2016-01-01

    The Helicobacter pylori vacuolating cytotoxin (VacA) is a secreted pore-forming toxin and a major virulence factor in the pathogenesis of H. pylori infection. While VacA is present in almost all strains, only some forms are toxigenic and pathogenic. While vacA and its genotypes are considered as markers of H. pylori-related diseases or disorders, the pathophysiological mechanisms of VacA and its genotypes remain controversial. This review outlines key findings of publications regarding vacA w...

  1. Prespacer processing and specific integration in a Type I-A CRISPR system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollie, Clare; Graham, Shirley; Rouillon, Christophe

    2018-01-01

    Abstract The CRISPR–Cas system for prokaryotic adaptive immunity provides RNA-mediated protection from viruses and mobile genetic elements. Adaptation is dependent on the Cas1 and Cas2 proteins along with varying accessory proteins. Here we analyse the process in Sulfolobus solfataricus, showing that while Cas1 and Cas2 catalyze spacer integration in vitro, host factors are required for specificity. Specific integration also requires at least 400 bp of the leader sequence, and is dependent on the presence of hydrolysable ATP, suggestive of an active process that may involve DNA remodelling. Specific spacer integration is associated with processing of prespacer 3′ ends in a PAM-dependent manner. This is reflected in PAM-dependent processing of prespacer 3′ ends in vitro in the presence of cell lysate or the Cas4 nuclease, in a reaction consistent with PAM-directed binding and protection of prespacer DNA. These results highlight the diverse interplay between CRISPR–Cas elements and host proteins across CRISPR types. PMID:29228332

  2. Normal Condition on Transport Thermal Analysis and Testing of a Type B Drum Package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerrell, J.W.; van Alstine, M.N.; Gromada, R.J.

    1995-01-01

    Increasing the content limits of radioactive material packagings can save money and increase transportation safety by decreasing the total number of shipments required to transport large quantities of material. The contents of drum packages can be limited by unacceptable containment vessel pressures and temperatures due to the thermal properties of the insulation. The purpose of this work is to understand and predict the effects of insulation properties on containment system performance

  3. 21 CFR 700.13 - Use of mercury compounds in cosmetics including use as skinbleaching agents in cosmetic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...-containing cosmetic preparations have been represented for many years as skin-bleaching agents or as preparations to remove or prevent freckles and/or brown spots (so-called age spots). Preparations intended for such use are regarded as drugs as well as cosmetics. In addition to such use as skin-bleaching agents...

  4. Effect of spot size and fluence on Q-switched alexandrite laser treatment for pigmentation in Asians: a randomized, double-blinded, split-face comparative trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chia-Chen; Chen, Chih-Kang

    2012-10-01

    Q-switched laser treatment for pigment disorders commonly leads to postinflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH) in Asians. To evaluate the effect of spot size and fluence on Q-switched alexandrite laser (QSAL) treatment for pigmentation in Asians. Ten patients with freckles, 18 with lentigines, and 8 with acquired bilateral nevus of Ota-like macules (ABNOM) received 1 session of QSAL treatment for a 3-mm spot on one cheek and a 4-mm spot on the other cheek. The lowest fluences to achieve a visible biologic effect were chosen. The patients with freckles experienced the highest improvement rate (83-84%), followed by those with lentigines (52%) and ABNOM (35%). Similar efficacy was observed for both cheeks (p > 0.05). PIH developed in 10% (1/10), 44% (8/18), and 75% (6/8) of the patients with freckles, lentigines, and ABNOM, respectively. The severity of PIH was lower in the 4-mm spot with a lower fluence than in the 3-mm spot with a higher fluence in patients with lentigines (p = 0.03), but not in those with freckles or ABNOM. Using a larger spot to achieve the same biologic effect at a lower fluence is associated with equal efficacy and less-severe PIH in patients with lentigines.

  5. Expert system for skin problem consultation in Thai traditional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: This paper aimed to demonstrate the research and development of a rule-based expert system for skin problem consulting in the areas of acne, melasma, freckle, wrinkle, and uneven skin tone, with recommended treatments from Thai traditional medicine knowledge. Materials and Methods: The tool selected ...

  6. Use of laser in dermatology | Eldin | Sudanese Journal of Dermatology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    New clinical indications are continually being proposed, some of which have been confirmed and others still in trial stage. In dermatology lasers are used in removal of benign skin lesion (moles, warts), scar resurfacing, treatment of vascular lesions and pigmented lesions (tattoos, freckles) and hair removal. In this paper we ...

  7. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 151 - 200 of 683 ... Vol 78, No 2 (2007), Breeding of marine birds on Farwa Island, western Libya, Abstract. KS Etayeb .... Vol 81, No 2 (2010), Comparison of the two rupicolous nightjars: the Afrotropical Freckled Nightjar Caprimulgus tristigma and the Neotropical Blackish Nightjar C. nigrescens, Abstract. HD Jacksons, J ...

  8. Ostrich: Journal of African Ornithology - Vol 81, No 2 (2010)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparison of the two rupicolous nightjars: the Afrotropical Freckled Nightjar Caprimulgus tristigma and the Neotropical Blackish Nightjar C. nigrescens · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL ... Book Review Farmland Birds across the World By W van der Weijden, P Terwan ...

  9. A comparison of acoustic levitation with microgravity processing for containerless solidification of ternary Al-Cu-Sn alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, N.; Hong, Z. Y.; Geng, D. L.; Wei, B.

    2015-07-01

    The containerless rapid solidification of liquid ternary Al-5 %Cu-65 %Sn immiscible alloy was accomplished at both ultrasonic levitation and free fall conditions. A maximum undercooling of 185 K (0.22 T L) was obtained for the ultrasonically levitated alloy melt at a cooling rate of about 122 K s-1. Meanwhile, the cooling rate of alloy droplets in drop tube varied from 102 to 104 K s-1. The macrosegregation was effectively suppressed through the complex melt flow under ultrasonic levitation condition. In contrast, macrosegregation became conspicuous and core-shell structures with different layers were formed during free fall. The microstructure formation mechanisms during rapid solidification at containerless states were investigated in comparison with the conventional static solidification process. It was found that the liquid phase separation and structural growth kinetics may be modulated by controlling both alloy undercooling and cooling rate.

  10. Effect of steady and time-harmonic magnetic fields on macrosegragation in alloy solidification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Incropera, F.P.; Prescott, P.J. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Buoyancy-induced convection during the solidification of alloys can contribute significantly to the redistribution of alloy constituents, thereby creating large composition gradients in the final ingot. Termed macrosegregation, the condition diminishes the quality of the casting and, in the extreme, may require that the casting be remelted. The deleterious effects of buoyancy-driven flows may be suppressed through application of an external magnetic field, and in this study the effects of both steady and time-harmonic fields have been considered. For a steady magnetic field, extremely large field strengths would be required to effectively dampen convection patterns that contribute to macrosegregation. However, by reducing spatial variations in temperature and composition, turbulent mixing induced by a time-harmonic field reduces the number and severity of segregates in the final casting.

  11. Primary Dendrite Arm Spacings in Al-7Si Alloy Directionally Solidified on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angart, Samuel; Lauer, Mark; Poirier, David; Tewari, Surendra; Rajamure, Ravi; Grugel, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Samples from directionally solidified Al- 7 wt. % Si have been analyzed for primary dendrite arm spacing (lambda) and radial macrosegregation. The alloy was directionally solidified (DS) aboard the ISS to determine the effect of mitigating convection on lambda and macrosegregation. Samples from terrestrial DS-experiments thermal histories are discussed for comparison. In some experiments, lambda was measured in microstructures that developed during the transition from one speed to another. To represent DS in the presence of no convection, the Hunt-Lu model was used to represent diffusion controlled growth under steady-state conditions. By sectioning cross-sections throughout the entire length of a solidified sample, lambda was measured and calculated using the model. During steady-state, there was reasonable agreement between the measured and calculated lambda's in the space-grown samples. In terrestrial samples, the differences between measured and calculated lambda's indicated that the dendritic growth was influenced by convection.

  12. Numerical simulation and analysis of single grain YBCO processed from graded precursor powders

    OpenAIRE

    Zou, J; Ainslie, Mark Douglas; Hu, D; Zhai, W; Kumar, N Devendra; Durrell, John Hay; Shi, Yunhua; Cardwell, David Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Large single-grain bulk high-temperature superconducting materials can trap high magnetic fields in comparison with conventional permanent magnets, making them ideal candidates to develop more compact and efficient devices, such as actuators, magnetic levitation systems, flywheel energy storage systems and electric machines. However, macro-segregation of Y-211 inclusions in melt processed Y–Ba–Cu–O (YBCO) limits the macroscopic critical current density Jc of such bulk supercond...

  13. Comparison of Directionally Solidified Samples Solidified Terrestrially and Aboard the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angart, S.; Lauer, M.; Tewari, S. N.; Grugel, R. N.; Poirier, D. R.

    2014-01-01

    This article reports research that has been carried out under the aegis of NASA as part of a collaboration between ESA and NASA for solidification experiments on the International Space Station (ISS). The focus has been on the effect of convection on the microstructural evolution and macrosegregation in hypoeutectic Al-Si alloys during directional solidification (DS). Terrestrial DS-experiments have been carried out at Cleveland State University (CSU) and under microgravity on the International Space Station (ISS). The thermal processing-history of the experiments is well defined for both the terrestrially processed samples and the ISS-processed samples. As of this writing, two dendritic metrics was measured: primary dendrite arm spacings and primary dendrite trunk diameters. We have observed that these dendrite-metrics of two samples grown in the microgravity environment show good agreements with models based on diffusion controlled growth and diffusion controlled ripening, respectively. The gravity-driven convection (i.e., thermosolutal convection) in terrestrially grown samples has the effect of decreasing the primary dendrite arm spacings and causes macrosegregation. Dendrite trunk diameters also show differences between the earth- and space-grown samples. In order to process DS-samples aboard the ISS, the dendritic seed crystals were partially remelted in a stationary thermal gradient before the DS was carried out. Microstructural changes and macrosegregation effects during this period are described and have modeled.

  14. Neuronal ceroid-lipofuscinosis, a type of amaurotic family idiocy: clinical and pathological study of four cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano de Souza Queiroz

    1974-03-01

    Full Text Available Neuronal ceroid-lipofuscinosis (NCL is a recent term, proposed for acurate designation of the late-onset types of Amaurotic Family Idiocy (AFI. Histopathology shows ubiquitous intraneuronal accumulation of lipopigments, being the most important factor for characterization of the entity at present time. Biochemical changes and pathogenesis are obscure. NCL is in contrast to the infantile type of AFI (Tay-Sachs disease, in which intraneuronal accumulation of gangliosides (sphingolipids is due to the well known deficiency of a lysosomal enzyme. The authors report on four cases of NCL, two brothers of the late infantile (Jansky-Bielschowsky type and a brother and a sister of the juvenile (Spielmeyer-Sjögren type. One autopsy and three cortical biopsies revealed moderate to severe distention of the neurons by lipopigment, with nerve cell loss, gliosis and cerebral atrophy. Lipopigment was also increased in liver, heart and spleen. The patients were the first in Brazilian literature in whom the storage material was identified as lipopigment by histochemical methods. A brief summary of the clinical features of NCL is presented, and relevant problems are discussed, concerning interpretation of the nature of the storage material, and significance of the disease for gerontological research.

  15. A Type of Rural Houses or a Cultural Heritage That Tending to Disappear: Beehive Houses of Suruç

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Sait Şahinalp

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Beehive houses of Suruç are completely built from sun dried mudbrick. Traditionally, rural house of Suruç plain is beehive houses. It has known that these houses have been used for centuries. These houses rooms have square plan and each room have conical roof. In terms of their own characteristic, Suruç beehive houses different from other conical or dome roofed houses such as beehive house of Harran, Trullo and Clochán. Basically there are four usage spaces; living rooms, designs of granaries, barn or folds and haylofts which are respectively arranged from south to north. These usage spaces are connected to each other with eyvans or gates without door. As requirement of rural life, these houses have some outbuildings such as tendur (tandoor, kadin (hayloft, gom (open folder, ça’l, lod and seki (terrace. Due to some environmental and socio-economic problems have caused migration from countryside to cities during the last 30 years. As a result of this, the Suruç beehive houses have either disused or abandoned completely. In addition, especially in last 30 years, the villagers in the area have begun to prefer building the reinforced concrete houses. This has led some of the Suruç beehive houses either to be destroyed or abandoned. Recent survived examples of these houses can be seen in Kara, Yatırtepe and Boztepe villages

  16. Brain glycogen and its role in supporting glutamate and GABA homeostasis in a type 2 diabetes rat model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sickmann, Helle Mark; Waagepetersen, Helle S.; Schousboe, Arne

    2012-01-01

    -(13)C]glucose was used to monitor metabolism. Brain levels of (13)C labeling in glucose, lactate, alanine, glutamate, GABA, glutamine and aspartate were determined. Our results show that inhibition of brain glycogen metabolism reduced the amounts of glutamate in both the control and type 2 diabetes......The number of people suffering from diabetes is hastily increasing and the condition is associated with altered brain glucose homeostasis. Brain glycogen is located in astrocytes and being a carbohydrate reservoir it contributes to glucose homeostasis. Furthermore, glycogen has been indicated...... to be important for proper neurotransmission under normal conditions. Previous findings from our laboratory suggested that glucose metabolism was reduced in type 2 diabetes, and thus we wanted to investigate more specifically how brain glycogen metabolism contributes to maintain energy status in the type 2...

  17. Risk evaluation of ground water table decline as a type of desertification. A case study are: Southern Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asrari, E.; Masoudi, M.

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents a model to assess risk of ground water table decline. Taking into consideration eleven indicators of lowering of ground water table the model identifies areas with Potential Risk (risky zones) and areas of Actual risk as well as projects the probability of the worse degradation in future. (Author) 7 refs.

  18. Indigenous Sky Stories: Reframing How We Introduce Primary School Students to Astronomy--A Type II Case Study of Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruddell, Nicholas; Danaia, Lena; McKinnon, David

    2016-01-01

    The Indigenous Sky Stories Program may have the potential to deliver significant and long-lasting changes to the way science is taught to Year 5 and 6 primary school students. The context for this article is informed by research that shows that educational outcomes can be strengthened when Indigenous knowledge is given the space to co-exist with…

  19. A Type-2 fuzzy data fusion approach for building reliable weighted protein interaction networks with application in protein complex detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehranfar, Adele; Ghadiri, Nasser; Kouhsar, Morteza; Golshani, Ashkan

    2017-09-01

    Detecting the protein complexes is an important task in analyzing the protein interaction networks. Although many algorithms predict protein complexes in different ways, surveys on the interaction networks indicate that about 50% of detected interactions are false positives. Consequently, the accuracy of existing methods needs to be improved. In this paper we propose a novel algorithm to detect the protein complexes in 'noisy' protein interaction data. First, we integrate several biological data sources to determine the reliability of each interaction and determine more accurate weights for the interactions. A data fusion component is used for this step, based on the interval type-2 fuzzy voter that provides an efficient combination of the information sources. This fusion component detects the errors and diminishes their effect on the detection protein complexes. So in the first step, the reliability scores have been assigned for every interaction in the network. In the second step, we have proposed a general protein complex detection algorithm by exploiting and adopting the strong points of other algorithms and existing hypotheses regarding real complexes. Finally, the proposed method has been applied for the yeast interaction datasets for predicting the interactions. The results show that our framework has a better performance regarding precision and F-measure than the existing approaches. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Aphids transform and detoxify the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol via a type II biotransformation mechanism yet unknown in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Zutter, N; Audenaert, K; Arroyo-Manzanares, N; De Boevre, M; Van Poucke, C; De Saeger, S; Haesaert, G; Smagghe, G

    2016-12-08

    Biotransformation of mycotoxins in animals comprises phase I and phase II metabolisation reactions. For the trichothecene deoxynivalenol (DON), several phase II biotransformation reactions have been described resulting in DON-glutathiones, DON-glucuronides and DON-sulfates made by glutathione-S-transferases, uridine-diphosphoglucuronyl transferases and sulfotransferases, respectively. These metabolites can be easily excreted and are less toxic than their free compounds. Here, we demonstrate for the first time in the animal kingdom the conversion of DON to DON-3-glucoside (DON-3G) via a model system with plant pathogenic aphids. This phase II biotransformation mechanism has only been reported in plants. As the DON-3G metabolite was less toxic for aphids than DON, this conversion is considered a detoxification reaction. Remarkably, English grain aphids (Sitobion avenae) which co-occur with the DON producer Fusarium graminearum on wheat during the development of fusarium symptoms, tolerate DON much better and convert DON to DON-3G more efficiently than pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum), the latter being known to feed on legumes which are no host for F. graminearum. Using a non-targeted high resolution mass spectrometric approach, we detected DON-diglucosides in aphids probably as a result of sequential glucosylation reactions. Data are discussed in the light of an eventual co-evolutionary adaptation of S. avenae to DON.

  1. A Type-II First Branchial Cleft Anomaly Presenting as a Post-Auricular Salivary Fistula: A Rare Presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, S; Deshmukh, Pt; Gupta, M; Shukla, S

    2014-01-01

    First branchial cleft anomalies are rare with the average age of presentation as 19 years. There is an average delay of 3.5 years between initial presentation and adequate treatment due to diagnostic dilemma. A very rare variant of first branchial cleft anomaly presenting as a post-auricular salivary fistula is reported. A 12-year-old girl presented with a history of intermittent watery discharge, more so at the time of meals from a right post-auricular opening for last 3 years. Computed tomography sialography revealed a fistulous tract connecting the sub segmental duct of the parotid gland extending along the pre-tragus region in subcutaneous plane up to mastoid tip after passing inferior to external auditory canal. Superficial parotidectomy with identification of facial nerve branches was carried out for excision of the tract. Histopathology revealed sinus tract comprising of ectodermal components and acini of the parotid gland. We classified our case into work's type-2 based on anatomical location at an angle of mandible, its relationship to parotid gland and facial nerve and previous history of ear discharge. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of its type to be reported.

  2. A Type-II First Branchial Cleft Anomaly Presenting as a Post-Auricular Salivary Fistula: A Rare Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, S; Deshmukh, PT; Gupta, M; Shukla, S

    2014-01-01

    First branchial cleft anomalies are rare with the average age of presentation as 19 years. There is an average delay of 3.5 years between initial presentation and adequate treatment due to diagnostic dilemma. A very rare variant of first branchial cleft anomaly presenting as a post-auricular salivary fistula is reported. A 12-year-old girl presented with a history of intermittent watery discharge, more so at the time of meals from a right post-auricular opening for last 3 years. Computed tomography sialography revealed a fistulous tract connecting the sub segmental duct of the parotid gland extending along the pre-tragus region in subcutaneous plane up to mastoid tip after passing inferior to external auditory canal. Superficial parotidectomy with identification of facial nerve branches was carried out for excision of the tract. Histopathology revealed sinus tract comprising of ectodermal components and acini of the parotid gland. We classified our case into work's type-2 based on anatomical location at an angle of mandible, its relationship to parotid gland and facial nerve and previous history of ear discharge. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of its type to be reported. PMID:24669347

  3. Measurement of vortex motion in a type-II superconductor: A novel use of the neutron spin-echo technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgan; Kealey; Johnson; Pautrat; Simon; Lee; Aegerter; Cubitt; Farago; Schleger

    2000-10-16

    We have used the neutron spin-echo technique to measure the small energy change of neutrons which are diffracted by a moving vortex lattice in a low-pinning Nb-Ta superconducting sample. A transport current was passed in the mixed state to cause flux line movement. In the case of uniform motion, the flux velocity v(L) was given as expected by the values of electric and magnetic fields, via E = -v(L)wedgeB. We show that with a nonuniformly moving vortex lattice, one can measure the dispersion of the velocities, opening up new possibilities for investigating moving vortex lines.

  4. Huntingtin-interacting protein 14 is a type 1 diabetes candidate protein regulating insulin secretion and β-cell apoptosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berchtold, Lukas Adrian; Størling, Zenia Marian; Ortis, Fernanda

    2011-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a complex disease characterized by the loss of insulin-secreting β-cells. Although the disease has a strong genetic component, and several loci are known to increase T1D susceptibility risk, only few causal genes have currently been identified. To identify disease...... genes in T1D, including the INS gene. An unexpected top-scoring candidate gene was huntingtin-interacting protein (HIP)-14/ZDHHC17. Immunohistochemical analysis of pancreatic sections demonstrated that HIP14 is almost exclusively expressed in insulin-positive cells in islets of Langerhans. RNAi...... knockdown experiments established that HIP14 is an antiapoptotic protein required for β-cell survival and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and IFN-γ) that mediate β-cell dysfunction in T1D down-regulated HIP14 expression in insulin-secreting INS-1 cells and in isolated...

  5. Molecular cloning and tissue-specific expression analysis of mouse spinesin, a type II transmembrane serine protease 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Yoshihisa; Okui, Akira; Mitsui, Shinichi; Kawarabuki, Kentaro; Yamaguchi, Tatsuyuki; Uemura, Hidetoshi; Yamaguchi, Nozomi

    2004-01-01

    We have previously reported novel serine proteases isolated from cDNA libraries of the human and mouse central nervous system (CNS) by PCR using degenerate oligodeoxyribonucleotide primers designed on the basis of the serine protease motifs, AAHC and DSGGP. Here we report a newly isolated serine protease from the mouse CNS. This protease is homologous (77.9% identical) to human spinesin type II transmembrane serine protease 5. Mouse spinesin (m-spinesin) is also composed of (from the N-terminus) a short cytoplasmic domain, a transmembrane domain, a stem region containing a scavenger-receptor-like domain, and a serine protease domain, as is h-spinesin. We also isolated type 1, type 2, and type 3 variant cDNAs of m-spinesin. Full-length spinesin (type 4) and type 3 contain all the domains, whereas type 1 and type 2 variants lack the cytoplasmic, transmembrane, and scavenger-receptor-like domains. Subcellular localization of the variant forms was analyzed using enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) fusion proteins. EGFP-type 4 fusion protein was predominantly localized to the ER, Golgi apparatus, and plasma membrane, whereas EGFP-type 1 was localized to the cytoplasm, reflecting differential classification of m-spinesin variants into transmembrane and cytoplasmic types. We analyzed the distribution of m-spinesin variants in mouse tissues, using RT-PCR with variant-specific primer sets. Interestingly, transmembrane-type spinesin, types 3 and 4, was specifically expressed in the spinal cord, whereas cytoplasmic type, type 1, was expressed in multiple tissues, including the cerebrum and cerebellum. Therefore, m-spinesin variants may have distinct biological functions arising from organ-specific variant expression

  6. Garcinia kola aqueous suspension prevents cerebellar neurodegeneration in long-term diabetic rat - a type 1 diabetes mellitus model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahna, Mohammed; Seke Etet, Paul F; Osman, Sayed Y; Yurt, Kıymet K; Amir, Naheed; Vecchio, Lorella; Aydin, Isınsu; Aldebasi, Yousef H; Sheikh, Azimullah; Chijuka, John C; Kaplan, Süleyman; Adem, Abdu

    2017-01-04

    The development of compounds able to improve metabolic syndrome and mitigate complications caused by inappropriate glycemic control in type 1 diabetes mellitus is challenging. The medicinal plant with established hypoglycemic properties Garcinia kola Heckel might have the potential to mitigate diabetes mellitus metabolic syndrome and complications. We have investigated the neuroprotective properties of a suspension of G. kola seeds in long-term type 1 diabetes mellitus rat model. Wistar rats, made diabetic by single injection of streptozotocin were monitored for 8 months. Then, they were administered with distilled water or G. kola oral aqueous suspension daily for 30 days. Body weight and glycemia were determined before and after treatment. After sacrifice, cerebella were dissected out and processed for stereological quantification of Purkinje cells. Histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses of markers of neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration were performed. Purkinje cell counts were significantly increased, and histopathological signs of apoptosis and neuroinflammation decreased, in diabetic animals treated with G. kola compared to diabetic rats given distilled water. Glycemia was also markedly improved and body weight restored to non-diabetic control values, following G. kola treatment. These results suggest that G. kola treatment improved the general condition of long-term diabetic rats and protected Purkinje cells partly by improving the systemic glycemia and mitigating neuroinflammation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of PD/PID controller for insulin control on blood glucose regulation in a Type-I diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, Farhanahani; Isse, Nadir Hussien; Daud, Nur Atikah Mohd; Morsin, Marlia

    2017-01-01

    This project introduces a simulation of Proportional-Derivative (PD) and Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) controller based on a virtual Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM) patient: Hovorka diabetic model using MATLAB-Simulink software. The results of these simulations are based on three tuning responses for each controller which are fast, slow and oscillation responses. The main purpose of this simulation is to achieve an acceptable stability and fastness response towards the regulation of glucose concentration using PD and PID controller response with insulin infusion rate. Therefore, in order to analyze and compare the responses of both controller performances, one-day simulations of the insulin-glucose dynamic have been conducted using a typical day meal plan that contains five meals of different bolus size. It is found that the PID closed-loop control with a short rise time is required to retrieve a satisfactory glucose regulation.

  8. Specific equilibrium behavior of hydrogen isotopes adsorbed onto synthetic zeolite A-type governed by lithium cations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takashima, Shoji; Kotoh, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Isotherms for H 2 and D 2 adsorbed onto SZ-LiA at 77.4 K are shown. • The adsorption isotherms exhibit specific deviation in the range lower than 10 Pa. • SZ-LiA indicates the power of several 100-times at 0.1 Pa, compared with SZ-NaA. • Experimental isotherms are described empirically by a dual-site Langmuir equation. • The isotope effect on adsorption isotherms appears in the Langmuir constants. -- Abstract: Since synthetic zeolites (SZs) are powerfully adsorptive for hydrogen isotopes at cryogenic temperatures such as liquefied nitrogen, adsorption processes using these have been considered applicable to such as recovery of tritium from the lithium blanket of DT fusion reactor system. Onto these zeolites the adsorptions isotherms for hydrogen isotopes onto SZ-NaA, SZ-CaA and SZ-NaX at 77.4 K were already clarified experimentally and analytically. These isotherms exhibit similar profiles of Langmuir type. In this work, adsorption isotherms were examined for H 2 and D 2 on SZ-LiA at 77.4 K. SZ-LiA was made from SZ-NaA by exchanging its sodium ions for lithium ones, provided by TOSOH Corp. The experimental results demonstrate the specific equilibrium behavior of hydrogen isotopes adsorbed on SZ-LiA, deviating from isothermal profiles on SZ-CaA and SZ-NaX. SZ-LiA show the isothermal profiles of adsorption for H 2 and D 2 similar to on the conventional zeolites in the range from around 1 kPa to the atmospheric pressure, but exhibit a plateau around 1 mol/kg between 0.1 Pa and 100 Pa, while other zeolites show linearly profiling isotherms. This deviation indicates the adsorptive power of SZ-LiA remarkably greater than that of the others

  9. Risk evaluation of ground water table decline as a type of desertification. A case study are: Southern Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asrari, E.; Masoudi, M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a model to assess risk of ground water table decline. Taking into consideration eleven indicators of lowering of ground water table the model identifies areas with Potential Risk (risky zones) and areas of Actual risk as well as projects the probability of the worse degradation in future. (Author) 7 refs.

  10. Assessment of psychosocial risks faced by workers in Almería-type greenhouses, using the Mini Psychosocial Factor method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya-García, M E; Callejón-Ferre, A J; Pérez-Alonso, J; Sánchez-Hermosilla, J

    2013-03-01

    This work reports the use of the Mini Psychosocial Factor (MPF) method for assessing the psychosocial risks faced by agricultural workers in the greenhouses of Almería (Spain) with the aim of improving their health. The variables Rhythm, Mobbing, Relationships, Health, Recognition, Autonomy, Emotional Involvement, Support, Compensation, Control, Demands, and Mental Load were recorded using a pre-validated questionnaire containing 15 questions. The sex, age, and nationality of the respondents (n = 310) were also recorded, as were the type of greenhouse in which each worked, the size of the greenhouse, and the crop grown. The results showed psychosocial risks to exist for the workers. Multiple correspondence analysis, however, showed that moderate risks can be offset by new prevention programmes that improve Spanish legislation in terms of workers' salaries, worker-employer social days, work timetables to facilitate family life, and training courses. This could improve the work environment and health of Almería's greenhouse workers as well as their productivity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  11. Development of a type 2 diabetes risk model from a panel of serum biomarkers from the Inter99 cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolberg, Janice A; Jørgensen, Torben; Gerwien, Robert W

    2009-01-01

    who did not were tested. An ultrasensitive immunoassay was used to measure of 58 candidate biomarkers in multiple diabetes-associated pathways, along with six routine clinical variables. Statistical learning methods and permutation testing were used to select the most informative biomarkers. Risk....... This model has a bootstrap-estimated area under the curve of 0.76, which is greater than that for A1C, fasting plasma glucose, fasting serum insulin, BMI, sex-adjusted waist circumference, a model using fasting glucose and insulin, and a noninvasive clinical model. CONCLUSIONS: A model incorporating six...... circulating biomarkers provides an objective and quantitative estimate of the 5-year risk of developing type 2 diabetes, performs better than single risk indicators and a noninvasive clinical model, and provides better stratification than fasting plasma glucose alone....

  12. Temporal chaotic behaviour of vortex motion in a type-II superconductors with periodically-distributed pinning centres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, H.T.; Ke, C.; Cheng, C.H.

    2010-01-01

    Temporal chaotic character of vortex motion in systems where defects are arranged in periodic arrays has been investigated by computer simulation. Due to the high nonlinearity of the vortex-defect interaction, the temporal evolution of the vortex motion is chaotic with a power spectrum similar to what have been observed in the experiments. It is found that the strength of both the vortex-vortex and vortex-defect interactions have no significant effects on the chaotic motion of the vortices, however, the mismatch between these two interactions causes attractor crisis of the system. Different from them, the Lorentz force is not the origin of the attractor crisis, but it causes a divergent motion of the vortex (i.e., the flux flow).

  13. INTEGRAL/JEM-X detection of a type-I X-ray burst from MAXI J1421-613

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozzo, E.; Bazzano, A.; Kuulkers, Erik

    2014-01-01

    . The onset of the burst occurred on 2014 January 10 at 19:05 UTC, and the total event as observed by JEM-X lasted for about 20 s (3-25 keV). The average spectrum of the burst could be roughly described by using a black-body model with temperature kT~1 keV. The corresponding flux was 1.7E-9 erg/cm^2/s...... (translating into a luminosity of 1.3E37 erg/s at 8 kpc; 3-10 keV). We estimated a persistent flux outside the burst of 7E-10 erg/cm^2/s (3-25 keV). This detection reveals that MAXI J1421-613 is a newly discovered X-ray bursting transient source, thus hosting an accreting neutron star....

  14. Spacer capture and integration by a type I-F Cas1-Cas2-3 CRISPR adaptation complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagerlund, Robert D; Wilkinson, Max E; Klykov, Oleg; Barendregt, Arjan; Pearce, F Grant; Kieper, Sebastian N; Maxwell, Howard W R; Capolupo, Angela; Heck, Albert J R; Krause, Kurt L; Bostina, Mihnea; Scheltema, Richard A; Staals, Raymond H J; Fineran, Peter C

    2017-06-27

    CRISPR-Cas adaptive immune systems capture DNA fragments from invading bacteriophages and plasmids and integrate them as spacers into bacterial CRISPR arrays. In type I-E and II-A CRISPR-Cas systems, this adaptation process is driven by Cas1-Cas2 complexes. Type I-F systems, however, contain a unique fusion of Cas2, with the type I effector helicase and nuclease for invader destruction, Cas3. By using biochemical, structural, and biophysical methods, we present a structural model of the 400-kDa Cas1 4 -Cas2-3 2 complex from Pectobacterium atrosepticum with bound protospacer substrate DNA. Two Cas1 dimers assemble on a Cas2 domain dimeric core, which is flanked by two Cas3 domains forming a groove where the protospacer binds to Cas1-Cas2. We developed a sensitive in vitro assay and demonstrated that Cas1-Cas2-3 catalyzed spacer integration into CRISPR arrays. The integrase domain of Cas1 was necessary, whereas integration was independent of the helicase or nuclease activities of Cas3. Integration required at least partially duplex protospacers with free 3'-OH groups, and leader-proximal integration was stimulated by integration host factor. In a coupled capture and integration assay, Cas1-Cas2-3 processed and integrated protospacers independent of Cas3 activity. These results provide insight into the structure of protospacer-bound type I Cas1-Cas2-3 adaptation complexes and their integration mechanism.

  15. Ansa Pancreatica: A Case Report of a Type of Ductal Variation in a Patient with Idiopathic Acute Recurrent Pancreatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hye Mi; Park, Jung Yup; Kim, Myeong Jin

    2010-01-01

    Ansa pancreatica is a rare type of pancreatic ductal variation. Recently, ansa pancreatic has been considered as a predisposing factor in patients with idiopathic acute pancreatitis. To the best of our knowledge, no previously published report in Korea has described ansa pancreatica. We report a case of acute recurrent pancreatitis with ansa pancreatica, which was revealed on magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP)

  16. Steered molecular dynamics simulations of a type IV pilus probe initial stages of a force-induced conformational transition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph L Baker

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Type IV pili are long, protein filaments built from a repeating subunit that protrudes from the surface of a wide variety of infectious bacteria. They are implicated in a vast array of functions, ranging from bacterial motility to microcolony formation to infection. One of the most well-studied type IV filaments is the gonococcal type IV pilus (GC-T4P from Neisseria gonorrhoeae, the causative agent of gonorrhea. Cryo-electron microscopy has been used to construct a model of this filament, offering insights into the structure of type IV pili. In addition, experiments have demonstrated that GC-T4P can withstand very large tension forces, and transition to a force-induced conformation. However, the details of force-generation, and the atomic-level characteristics of the force-induced conformation, are unknown. Here, steered molecular dynamics (SMD simulation was used to exert a force in silico on an 18 subunit segment of GC-T4P to address questions regarding the nature of the interactions that lead to the extraordinary strength of bacterial pili. SMD simulations revealed that the buried pilin α1 domains maintain hydrophobic contacts with one another within the core of the filament, leading to GC-T4P's structural stability. At the filament surface, gaps between pilin globular head domains in both the native and pulled states provide water accessible routes between the external environment and the interior of the filament, allowing water to access the pilin α1 domains as reported for VC-T4P in deuterium exchange experiments. Results were also compared to the experimentally observed force-induced conformation. In particular, an exposed amino acid sequence in the experimentally stretched filament was also found to become exposed during the SMD simulations, suggesting that initial stages of the force induced transition are well captured. Furthermore, a second sequence was shown to be initially hidden in the native filament and became exposed upon stretching.

  17. The third serine proteinase with chymotrypsin specificity isolated from Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) is a type-II elastase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asgeirsson, B; Leth-Larsen, Rikke; Thórólfsson, M

    1998-01-01

    -Ala-Ala-Pro-Phe-p-nitroanilide, but inactive against the typical elastase substrates succinyl-Ala-Ala-Ala-p-nitroanilide and orcein-elastin. Comparison of the kinetic properties of the cod elastase C with bovine chymotrypsin and cod chymotrypsin variants A and B, using succinyl-Ala-Ala-Pro-Phe-p-nitroanilide, showed a lower catalytic...

  18. Molecular cloning of the common acute lymphoblastic leukemia antigen (CALLA) identifies a type II integral membrane protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shipp, M.A.; Richardson, N.E.; Sayre, P.H.; Brown, N.R.; Masteller, E.L.; Clayton, L.K.; Ritz, J.; Reinherz, E.L.

    1988-01-01

    Common acute lymphoblastic leukemia antigen (CALLA) is a 100-kDa cell-surface glycoprotein expressed on most acute lymphoblastic leukemias and certain other immature lymphoid malignancies and on normal lymphoid progenitors. The latter are either uncommitted to B- or T-cell lineage or committed to only the earliest stages of B- or T-lymphocyte maturation. To elucidate the primary structure of CALLA, the authors purified the protein to homogeneity, obtained the NH 2 -terminal sequence from both the intact protein and derived tryptic and V8 protease peptides and isolated CALLA cDNAs from a Nalm-6 cell line λgt10 library using redundant oligonucleotide probes. The CALLA cDNA sequence predicts a 750-amino acid integral membrane protein with a single 24-amino acid hydrophobic segment that could function as both a transmembrane region and a signal peptide. The COOH-terminal 700 amino acids, including six potential N-linked glycosylation sites compose the extracellular protein segment, whereas the 25 NM 2 -terminal amino acids remaining after cleavage of the initiation methionine form the cytoplasmic tail. CALLA + cells contain CALLA transcripts of 2.7 to 5.7 kilobases with the major 5.7- and 3.7-kilobase mRNAs being preferentially expressed in specific cell types

  19. Geochemistry and petrogenesis of Mesoproterozoic A-type granitoids from the Danish island of Bornholm, southern Fennoscandia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Åke; Waight, Tod Earle; Andersen, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Granitoids and gneisses from the Danish island of Bornholm have been investigated using whole rock geochemistry, Sr and Nd isotope geochemistry and Hf isotopes in zircon. Recent U–Pb dating shows that the rocks were formed during a short time interval at 1.45 to 1.46 Ga, penecontemporaneous...

  20. A Type 1 Diabetes Genetic Risk Score Can Aid Discrimination Between Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes in Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oram, Richard A; Patel, Kashyap; Hill, Anita; Shields, Beverley; McDonald, Timothy J; Jones, Angus; Hattersley, Andrew T; Weedon, Michael N

    2016-03-01

    With rising obesity, it is becoming increasingly difficult to distinguish between type 1 diabetes (T1D) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) in young adults. There has been substantial recent progress in identifying the contribution of common genetic variants to T1D and T2D. We aimed to determine whether a score generated from common genetic variants could be used to discriminate between T1D and T2D and also to predict severe insulin deficiency in young adults with diabetes. We developed genetic risk scores (GRSs) from published T1D- and T2D-associated variants. We first tested whether the scores could distinguish clinically defined T1D and T2D from the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium (WTCCC) (n = 3,887). We then assessed whether the T1D GRS correctly classified young adults (diagnosed at 20-40 years of age, the age-group with the most diagnostic difficulty in clinical practice; n = 223) who progressed to severe insulin deficiency 0.280 (>50th centile in those with T1D) is indicative of T1D (50% sensitivity, 95% specificity). A low T1D GRS (young adults with diabetes, T1D GRS alone predicted progression to insulin deficiency (AUC 0.87 [95% CI 0.82-0.92]; P young adults with diabetes who will require insulin treatment. This will be an important addition to correctly classifying individuals with diabetes when clinical features and autoimmune markers are equivocal. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  1. Inhibition of a type III secretion system by the deletion of a short loop in one of its membrane proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meshcheryakov, Vladimir A. [Okinawa Instiute of Science and Technology, Okinawa 904-0495 (Japan); Kitao, Akio [University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0032 (Japan); Core Research for Evolutionary Science and Technology, Tokyo 113-0032 (Japan); Matsunami, Hideyuki; Samatey, Fadel A., E-mail: f.a.samatey@oist.jp [Okinawa Instiute of Science and Technology, Okinawa 904-0495 (Japan)

    2013-05-01

    Crystal structures of the cytoplasmic domain of FlhB from S. typhimurium and A. aeolicus were solved at 2.45 and 2.55 Å resolution, respectively. The deletion of a short loop in the cytoplasmic domain of Salmonella FlhB completely abolishes secretion by the type III secretion system. A molecular-dynamics simulation shows that the deletion of the loop affects the flexibility of a linker between the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains of FlhB. The membrane protein FlhB is a highly conserved component of the flagellar secretion system. It is composed of an N-terminal transmembrane domain and a C-terminal cytoplasmic domain (FlhB{sub C}). Here, the crystal structures of FlhB{sub C} from Salmonella typhimurium and Aquifex aeolicus are described at 2.45 and 2.55 Å resolution, respectively. These flagellar FlhB{sub C} structures are similar to those of paralogues from the needle type III secretion system, with the major difference being in a linker that connects the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains of FlhB. It was found that deletion of a short flexible loop in a globular part of Salmonella FlhB{sub C} leads to complete inhibition of secretion by the flagellar secretion system. Molecular-dynamics calculations demonstrate that the linker region is the most flexible part of FlhB{sub C} and that the deletion of the loop reduces this flexibility. These results are in good agreement with previous studies showing the importance of the linker in the function of FlhB and provide new insight into the relationship between the different parts of the FlhB{sub C} molecule.

  2. Disabling a Type I-E CRISPR-Cas Nuclease with a Bacteriophage-Encoded Anti-CRISPR Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    April Pawluk

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat-Cas adaptive immune systems are prevalent defense mechanisms in bacteria and archaea. They provide sequence-specific detection and neutralization of foreign nucleic acids such as bacteriophages and plasmids. One mechanism by which phages and other mobile genetic elements are able to overcome the CRISPR-Cas system is through the expression of anti-CRISPR proteins. Over 20 different families of anti-CRISPR proteins have been described, each of which inhibits a particular type of CRISPR-Cas system. In this work, we determined the structure of type I-E anti-CRISPR protein AcrE1 by X-ray crystallography. We show that AcrE1 binds to the CRISPR-associated helicase/nuclease Cas3 and that the C-terminal region of the anti-CRISPR protein is important for its inhibitory activity. We further show that AcrE1 can convert the endogenous type I-E CRISPR system into a programmable transcriptional repressor.

  3. Temporal chaotic behaviour of vortex motion in a type-II superconductors with periodically-distributed pinning centres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, H.T. [Faculty of Information Management, Cheng Shiu University, Kaoshuing, Taiwan (China); Ke, C. [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Levitation and Maglev Trains (Ministry of Education of China), Superconductivity R and D Center (SRDC), Mail Stop 165, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); Cheng, C.H., E-mail: c.cheng@unsw.edu.a [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Levitation and Maglev Trains (Ministry of Education of China), Superconductivity R and D Center (SRDC), Mail Stop 165, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wale, Sydney, 2052 NSW (Australia)

    2010-11-01

    Temporal chaotic character of vortex motion in systems where defects are arranged in periodic arrays has been investigated by computer simulation. Due to the high nonlinearity of the vortex-defect interaction, the temporal evolution of the vortex motion is chaotic with a power spectrum similar to what have been observed in the experiments. It is found that the strength of both the vortex-vortex and vortex-defect interactions have no significant effects on the chaotic motion of the vortices, however, the mismatch between these two interactions causes attractor crisis of the system. Different from them, the Lorentz force is not the origin of the attractor crisis, but it causes a divergent motion of the vortex (i.e., the flux flow).

  4. NuSTAR Observation Of A Type I X-Ray Burst From GRS 1741.9-2853

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barriere, Nicolas M.; Krivonos, Roman; Tomsick, John A.

    2015-01-01

    of the burst, reminiscent of the detection by Waki et al. We propose that the line, if real, is formed in the wind above the photosphere of the NS by a resonant K alpha transition from H-like Cr gravitationally redshifted by a factor 1 + z = 1.09, corresponding to a radius range of 29.0-41.4 km for a mass...

  5. On the uniqueness of the Myers-Perry spacetime as a type II(D) solution in six dimensions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ortaggio, Marcello

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 2017, č. 6 (2017), s. 1-40, č. článku 042. ISSN 1029-8479 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-10042S Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Black Hole s * Classical Theories of Gravity Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Applied mathematics Impact factor: 6.063, year: 2016 https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/JHEP06(2017)042

  6. Signal amplification strategy for biomarkers: Structural origins of epitaxial-growth twinned nanocrystals and D-π-A type polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, He; Gu, Yue; Dong, Tao; Yan, Liuqing; Yan, Xiaoyi; Zhang, Tingting; Lu, Nannan; Xu, Zhiqian; Xu, Haixin; Zhang, Zhiquan; Bian, Ting

    2018-06-30

    The combination of nanoparticles and biomarkers yields functional nanostructured biointerface, which is playing a notable role in biotechnology development. Due to the 5-fold twined structure in the Au-Pt star-shaped decahedra not only allowed it to act as efficient scaffold for immobilization of antibody, but it also exhibits superior electrocatalytic activity toward H 2 O 2 reduction, the nanocrystal as the efficient signal transduction label is first employed to construct an electrochemical immunosensor. Donor-π-Acceptor (D-π-A) linking fashion generates a dipolar push-pull system and assures superior intramolecular charge transfer. It is considered as a suitable π-conjugated backbone for conducting polymer on biointerface application. Under a D-π-A architecture which imidazole as the π-bridge and amino phenyl/phenyl groups as peripheral electron-donating/withdrawing functional groups, 4-(2,4,5-triphenyl-1H-imidazol-1-yl) aniline (TPIDA) is designed and synthesized for good biocompatibility and high conductivity. In this proposal, we attempt to integrate the above-mentioned two features from nanobiotechnology and organic bioelectronics. Then, a novel nonenzymatic sandwich-type immunosensor is performed by Au-Pt core-shell with surface-engineered twinning as a label and π-conjugated D-π-A polymers as the signal amplification platform. Human IgG (HIgG) as the model target protein can be detected with a wide linear range from 0.1 pg mL -1 to 100 ng mL -1 . The detection limit is down to 0.06 pg mL -1 (S/N = 3). Moreover, as a practical application, the prepared biosensor is used to monitor HIgG level in human serum with desirable results obtained. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Non-enzymatic glycosylation of a type I collagen matrix: effects on osteoblastic development and oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrio Daniel A

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The tissue accumulation of protein-bound advanced glycation endproducts (AGE may be involved in the etiology of diabetic chronic complications, including osteopenia. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of an AGE-modified type I collagen substratum on the adhesion, spreading, proliferation and differentiation of rat osteosarcoma UMR106 and mouse non-transformed MC3T3E1 osteoblastic cells. We also studied the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS and nitric oxide synthase (NOS expression on these AGE-collagen mediated effects. Results AGE-collagen decreased the adhesion of UMR106 cells, but had no effect on the attachment of MC3T3E1 cells. In the UMR106 cell line, AGE-collagen also inhibited cellular proliferation, spreading and alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity. In preosteoblastic MC3T3E1 cells (24-hour culture, proliferation and spreading were significantly increased by AGE-collagen. After one week of culture (differentiated MC3T3E1 osteoblasts AGE-collagen inhibited ALP activity, but had no effect on cell number. In mineralizing MC3T3E1 cells (3-week culture AGE-collagen induced a decrease in the number of surviving cells and of extracellular nodules of mineralization, without modifying their ALP activity. Intracellular ROS production, measured after a 48-hour culture, was decreased by AGE-collagen in MC3T3E1 cells, but was increased by AGE-collagen in UMR106 cells. After a 24-hour culture, AGE-collagen increased the expression of endothelial and inducible NOS, in both osteoblastic cell lines. Conclusions These results suggest that the accumulation of AGE on bone extracellular matrix could regulate the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblastic cells. These effects appear to depend on the stage of osteoblastic development, and possibly involve the modulation of NOS expression and intracellular ROS pathways.

  8. Separation of boron isotopes by ion exchange chromatography: studies with Duolite-162, a type-II resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, B.K.; Subramanian, R.; Balasubramanian, R.; Mathur, P.K.

    1994-01-01

    The selection of resin plays an important role in the process of separation of boron isotopes by ion exchange chromatography. The determination of (i) ion exchange capacity of Duolite-162 resin for hydroxyl - chloride exchange, (ii) hydroxyl - borate exchange, (iii) isotopic exchange separation factor by batch method and (iv) effect of concentration of boric acid on isotopic exchange separation factor to test the suitability of the above resin for this process are discussed in this report. (author)

  9. New generation HMA mix designs : accelerated pavement testing of a type C mix with the ALF machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Recent changes to the Texas hot-mix asphalt (HMA) mix-design procedures, such as the adaption of the higher-stiffer performance-grade asphalt-binder grades and the Hamburg test, have ensured that the mixes that are routinely used on Texas highways ar...

  10. Two-phase regime in the magnetic field-temperature phase diagram of a type-II superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, L.L.A.; Halterman, Klaus; Valls, Oriol T.; Goldman, A.M.

    2004-01-01

    The magnetic field and temperature dependencies of the magnetic moments of superconducting crystals of V 3 Si have been studied. In a constant magnetic field and at temperatures somewhat below the superconducting transition temperature, the moments are hysteretic in temperature. However, the magnetic moment-magnetic field isotherms are reversible and exhibit features that formally resemble the pressure-volume isotherms of the liquid-gas transition. This suggests the existence of a first-order phase transition, a two-phase regime, and a critical point in the superconducting phase diagram. The two phases are disordered vortex configurations with the same magnetization, but with different vortex densities. The entropy change, determined from the data using the Clausius-Clapeyron equation, is consistent with estimates based on the difference in the vortex densities of the two phases

  11. Two-phase regime in the magnetic field-temperature phase diagram of a type-II superconductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, L.L.A.; Halterman, Klaus; Valls, Oriol T.; Goldman, A.M

    2004-01-01

    The magnetic field and temperature dependencies of the magnetic moments of superconducting crystals of V{sub 3}Si have been studied. In a constant magnetic field and at temperatures somewhat below the superconducting transition temperature, the moments are hysteretic in temperature. However, the magnetic moment-magnetic field isotherms are reversible and exhibit features that formally resemble the pressure-volume isotherms of the liquid-gas transition. This suggests the existence of a first-order phase transition, a two-phase regime, and a critical point in the superconducting phase diagram. The two phases are disordered vortex configurations with the same magnetization, but with different vortex densities. The entropy change, determined from the data using the Clausius-Clapeyron equation, is consistent with estimates based on the difference in the vortex densities of the two phases.

  12. Parallel Evolution of a Type IV Secretion System in Radiating Lineages of the Host-Restricted Bacterial Pathogen Bartonella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Philipp; Salzburger, Walter; Liesch, Marius; Chang, Chao-Chin; Maruyama, Soichi; Lanz, Christa; Calteau, Alexandra; Lajus, Aurélie; Médigue, Claudine; Schuster, Stephan C.; Dehio, Christoph

    2011-01-01

    Adaptive radiation is the rapid origination of multiple species from a single ancestor as the result of concurrent adaptation to disparate environments. This fundamental evolutionary process is considered to be responsible for the genesis of a great portion of the diversity of life. Bacteria have evolved enormous biological diversity by exploiting an exceptional range of environments, yet diversification of bacteria via adaptive radiation has been documented in a few cases only and the underlying molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. Here we show a compelling example of adaptive radiation in pathogenic bacteria and reveal their genetic basis. Our evolutionary genomic analyses of the α-proteobacterial genus Bartonella uncover two parallel adaptive radiations within these host-restricted mammalian pathogens. We identify a horizontally-acquired protein secretion system, which has evolved to target specific bacterial effector proteins into host cells as the evolutionary key innovation triggering these parallel adaptive radiations. We show that the functional versatility and adaptive potential of the VirB type IV secretion system (T4SS), and thereby translocated Bartonella effector proteins (Beps), evolved in parallel in the two lineages prior to their radiations. Independent chromosomal fixation of the virB operon and consecutive rounds of lineage-specific bep gene duplications followed by their functional diversification characterize these parallel evolutionary trajectories. Whereas most Beps maintained their ancestral domain constitution, strikingly, a novel type of effector protein emerged convergently in both lineages. This resulted in similar arrays of host cell-targeted effector proteins in the two lineages of Bartonella as the basis of their independent radiation. The parallel molecular evolution of the VirB/Bep system displays a striking example of a key innovation involved in independent adaptive processes and the emergence of bacterial pathogens. Furthermore, our study highlights the remarkable evolvability of T4SSs and their effector proteins, explaining their broad application in bacterial interactions with the environment. PMID:21347280

  13. Purification and characterization of a type B feruloyl esterase (StFAE-A) from the thermophilic fungus Sporotrichum thermophile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topakas, E.; Stamatis, H.; Biely, P.

    2004-01-01

    A feruloyl esterase (StFAE-A) produced by Sporotrichum thermophile was purified to homogeneity. The purified homogeneous preparation of native StFAE-A exhibited a molecular mass of 57.0+/-1.5 kDa, with a mass of 33+/-1 kDa on SDS-PAGE. The pI of the enzyme was estimated by cation......-exchange chromatofocusing to be at pH 3.1. The enzyme activity was optimal at pH 6.0 and 55-60 degreesC. The purified esterase was stable at the pH range 5.0-7.0. The enzyme retained 70% of activity after 7 h at 50 degreesC and lost 50% of its activity after 45 min at 55 degreesC and after 12 min at 60 degrees......C. Determination of k(cat)/K-m revealed that the enzyme hydrolyzed methyl p-coumarate 2.5- and 12-fold more efficiently than methyl caffeate and methyl ferulate, respectively. No activity on methyl sinapinate was detected. The enzyme was active on substrates containing ferulic acid ester linked to the C-5 and C-2...

  14. Spin-echo observation of radio frequency induced flux lattice annealing (RIFLA) in a type-II superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, W.G.; Hanson, M.E.; Wong, W.H.

    1999-01-01

    We report the annealing of a strained flux line lattice (FLL) in 10 μm diameter type-II superconducting NbTi filaments by an RF magnetic field at 4.2 K in a magnetic field of 1 T. The strained FLL is prepared by slowly changing the direction of the applied magnetic field. When the RF magnetic field used to generate a 93 Nb NMR spin echo anneals the FLL, there is a corresponding reduction in the amplitude of the spin echo. Starting from an annealed condition, a rotation threshold of 3 mr is needed to produce enough FLL strain to be observed in these measurements. (orig.)

  15. Structural dynamics of the MecA-ClpC complex: a type II AAA+ protein unfolding machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Mei, Ziqing; Li, Ningning; Qi, Yutao; Xu, Yanji; Shi, Yigong; Wang, Feng; Lei, Jianlin; Gao, Ning

    2013-06-14

    The MecA-ClpC complex is a bacterial type II AAA(+) molecular machine responsible for regulated unfolding of substrates, such as transcription factors ComK and ComS, and targeting them to ClpP for degradation. The six subunits of the MecA-ClpC complex form a closed barrel-like structure, featured with three stacked rings and a hollow passage, where substrates are threaded and translocated through successive pores. Although the general concepts of how polypeptides are unfolded and translocated by internal pore loops of AAA(+) proteins have long been conceived, the detailed mechanistic model remains elusive. With cryoelectron microscopy, we captured four different structures of the MecA-ClpC complexes. These complexes differ in the nucleotide binding states of the two AAA(+) rings and therefore might presumably reflect distinctive, representative snapshots from a dynamic unfolding cycle of this hexameric complex. Structural analysis reveals that nucleotide binding and hydrolysis modulate the hexameric complex in a number of ways, including the opening of the N-terminal ring, the axial and radial positions of pore loops, the compactness of the C-terminal ring, as well as the relative rotation between the two nucleotide-binding domain rings. More importantly, our structural and biochemical data indicate there is an active allosteric communication between the two AAA(+) rings and suggest that concerted actions of the two AAA(+) rings are required for the efficiency of the substrate unfolding and translocation. These findings provide important mechanistic insights into the dynamic cycle of the MecA-ClpC unfoldase and especially lay a foundation toward the complete understanding of the structural dynamics of the general type II AAA(+) hexamers.

  16. IDENTIFICATION OF SPONTANEOUS FELINE IDIOPATHIC PULMONARY FIBROSIS: MORPHOLOGY AND ULTRASTRUCTURAL EVIDENCE FOR A TYPE II PNEUMOCYTE DEFECT

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbstractIdiopathic pulmonary fibrosis currently lacks an animal model that develops the persistent, progressive lung fibrosis characteristic of the disease. Sixteen domestic cats developed dyspnea that was not responsive to therapy and which rapidly progressed until death/eu...

  17. A Type-2 Block-Component-Decomposition Based 2D AOA Estimation Algorithm for an Electromagnetic Vector Sensor Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Fei Gao

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates a two-dimensional angle of arrival (2D AOA estimation algorithm for the electromagnetic vector sensor (EMVS array based on Type-2 block component decomposition (BCD tensor modeling. Such a tensor decomposition method can take full advantage of the multidimensional structural information of electromagnetic signals to accomplish blind estimation for array parameters with higher resolution. However, existing tensor decomposition methods encounter many restrictions in applications of the EMVS array, such as the strict requirement for uniqueness conditions of decomposition, the inability to handle partially-polarized signals, etc. To solve these problems, this paper investigates tensor modeling for partially-polarized signals of an L-shaped EMVS array. The 2D AOA estimation algorithm based on rank- ( L 1 , L 2 , · BCD is developed, and the uniqueness condition of decomposition is analyzed. By means of the estimated steering matrix, the proposed algorithm can automatically achieve angle pair-matching. Numerical experiments demonstrate that the present algorithm has the advantages of both accuracy and robustness of parameter estimation. Even under the conditions of lower SNR, small angular separation and limited snapshots, the proposed algorithm still possesses better performance than subspace methods and the canonical polyadic decomposition (CPD method.

  18. Identification, characterization and structure analysis of a type I ribosome-inactivating protein from Sapium sebiferum (Euphorbiaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Ying [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering and Bioenergy Forest Research Center of State Forestry Administration, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031, Anhui (China); School of Life Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230027, Anhui (China); College of Food and Bioengineering, Henan University of Science and Technology, Luoyang 471023, Henan (China); Mao, Yingji [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering and Bioenergy Forest Research Center of State Forestry Administration, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031, Anhui (China); School of Life Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230027, Anhui (China); Jin, Shan; Hou, Jinyan; Du, Hua [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering and Bioenergy Forest Research Center of State Forestry Administration, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031, Anhui (China); Yang, Minglei, E-mail: yml888@mail.ustc.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering and Bioenergy Forest Research Center of State Forestry Administration, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031, Anhui (China); Wu, Lifang, E-mail: lfwu@ipp.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering and Bioenergy Forest Research Center of State Forestry Administration, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031, Anhui (China); School of Life Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230027, Anhui (China)

    2015-08-07

    Ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) are N-glycosidases (EC3.2.2.22) that universally inactivate the ribosome, thereby inhibiting protein biosynthesis. In this study, a novel type I RIPs named SEBIN was identified in Sapium sebiferum. Nuclear acid depurine experiment showed that SEBIN had rRNA N-Glycosidase activity. Further experiment indicated that SEBIN significantly inhibited Caenorhabditis elegans development as well as resulted in worm cell apoptosis. This is the first report to evaluate RIPs toxicity using C. elegans. We proposed that SEBIN may impaire C. elegans reproduction in a DNA-damage manner besides traditional protein synthesis inhibition approach. The predicted 3D structure was modeled using threading and ab initio modeling, and the r-RNA binding residue of SEBIN was identified through the protein-ligand docking approach. It showed the amino acid residues, Glu195, Asn81, Ala82, Tyr83, Glu164, Ser163, Ile159 and Arg167, played critical roles in catalytic process. Our results provided the theoretical foundation of structure–function relationships between enzymatic properties, toxicity and structural characterization of SEBIN. - Graphical abstract: Superposition of main chains of ricin (cyan) and SEBIN (brown), and adenine binding site residues of SEBIN. - Highlights: • A Ribosome-inactivating proteins gene (SEBIN) was isolated from Sapium sebiferum. • SEBIN had DNase activity besides widely reported ribosome inactivation via N-glycosidases activity. • SEBIN significantly inhibited Caenorhabditis elegans development in vivo. • SEBIN may impaire C. elegans reproduction in a DNA-damage manner with the aid of mutant strains hus-1 and clk-2. • The possible active sites between SEBIN and the adenine of rRNA were predicted.

  19. Peierls barriers of a-type edge and screw dislocations moving on basal and prismatic planes in magnesium

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ostapovets, Andriy; Vatazhuk, O.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 43, Č. 3 (2017), s. 421-427 ISSN 1063-777X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-14599S; GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1601 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : minimum energy paths * elastic band method * cross-slip stress * hcp metals * plastic deformation Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 0.804, year: 2016

  20. Bioremediation of oil sludge using a type of nitrogen source and the consortium of bacteria with composting method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitri, Inayah; Ni'matuzahroh, Surtiningsih, Tini

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this research are to know the effect of addition of different nitrogen source, consortium of bacteria, incubation time and the interaction between those variables to the total number of bacteria (CFU/g-soil) and the percentage of degradation (%) in the bioremediation of oil sludge contaminated soil; as well as degraded hydrocarbon components at the best treatment on 6th week. The experiments carried out by mixing the materials and placed them in each bath with and without adding different nitrogen source and bacterial consortium. pH and moisture were measured for every week. An increase in total number of bacteria and percent of maximum degradation recorded at treatment with the addition of NPK+Azotobacter+bacteria consortium; with the TPC value was 14.24 log CFU/g, percent degradation was 77.8%, organic C content was 10.91%, total N was 0.12% and organic matter content was 18.87%, respectively.

  1. Identification and molecular characterization of Van A-type vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis in Northeast of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinalda Anselmo Vilela

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The isolation of vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE in Brazil has rapidly increased, following the world wide tendency. We report in the present study the first isolation of vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecalis (VRE in the Northeast of Brazil. The four VRE isolates were characterized for antimicrobial susceptibility, genotypic typing by macro restriction of chromosomal DNA followed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and for characterization of the Tn1546-like element and plasmid contents. The isolates showed resistance to multiple antibiotics and a single genotype profile, suggesting the dissemination of a single clone among the patients. Tn1546 associated to genetic elements as plasmids shows the importance of infection control measures to avoid the spreading of glycopetide resistance by conjugative transfer of VanA elements.

  2. Magnetization reversal of a type-II superconductor thin disk under the action of a constant magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koval'chuk, D.G.; Chornomorets', M.P.

    2010-01-01

    The applicability of relations obtained by Clem and Sanchez for the ac magnetic susceptibility of type-II superconductor thin films to the case where an additional constant magnetic field is applied perpendicularly to the film has been analyzed in the framework of the critical state model. The issues concerning the sample 'memory' and the influence of the magnetic field change prehistory on the current sample state have been discussed. It has been shown that the ac component of the magnetic moment and, hence, the amplitudes of ac magnetic susceptibility harmonics are established within one period of the ac magnetic field irrespective of the field prehistory.

  3. Development of a type IP-2 freight container and leak testing during the longitudinal and transverse racking tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holden, G.V.

    2002-01-01

    The leak performance of freight containers has never been particularly well defined within the UK and up to the publication of 'A DETR guide to the approval of freight containers as IP-2 and IP-3 packages' freight containers with twin rear doors were acceptable as IP-2/3 packages. The containment argument has usually been based on providing adequate load securing and transport under exclusive use (with no transhipment between modes). Hence the likelihood for dropping the freight container during transhipment is eliminated. These arguments are less acceptable to competent authorities and the document above requires that leak integrity is determined during the standard freight container tests. This paper outlines the methodology used to determine the acceptable leak rate from the container (in terms of a pressure drop); the justification for conducting leak testing during racking only; the results of tests and difficulties that were overcome during design. (author)

  4. Specific heat and magnetization of a ZrB12 single crystal: characterization of a type II/1 superconductor

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yuxing; Lortz, Rolf; Paderno, Yuriy; Filippov, Vladimir; Abe, Satoko; Tutsch, Ulrich; Junod, Alain

    2005-01-01

    We measured the specific heat, the magnetization, and the magnetoresistance of a single crystal of ZrB12, which is superconducting below Tc ~ 6 K. The specific heat in zero field shows a BCS-type superconducting transition. The normal- to superconducting-state transition changes from first order (with a latent heat) to second order (without latent heat) with increasing magnetic field, indicating that the pure compound is a low-kappa, type-II/1 superconductor in the classification of Auer and ...

  5. Single base substitution causing the fragrant phenotype and development of a type-specific marker in aromatic coconut (Cocos nucifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vongvanrungruang, A; Mongkolsiriwatana, C; Boonkaew, T; Sawatdichaikul, O; Srikulnath, K; Peyachoknagul, S

    2016-09-19

    The fragrance gene, betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (Badh2), has been well studied in many plant species. The objectives of this study were to clone Badh2 and compare the sequences between aromatic and non-aromatic coconuts. The complete coding region was cloned from cDNA of both aromatic and non-aromatic coconuts. The nucleotide sequences were highly homologous to Badh2 genes of other plants. Badh2 consisted of a 1512-bp open reading frame encoding 503 amino acids. A single nucleotide difference between aromatic and non-aromatic coconuts resulted in the conversion of alanine (non-aromatic) to proline (aromatic) at position 442, which was the substrate binding site of BADH2. The ring side chain of proline could destabilize the structure leading to a non-functional enzyme. Badh2 genomic DNA was cloned from exon 1 to 4, and from exon 5 to 15 from the two coconut types, except for intron 4 that was very long. The intron sequences of the two coconut groups were highly homologous. No differences in Badh2 expression were found among the tissues of aromatic coconut or between aromatic and non-aromatic coconuts. The amino acid sequences of BADH2 from coconut and other plants were compared and the genetic relationship was analyzed using MEGA 7.0. The phylogenetic tree reconstructed by the Bayesian information criterion consisted of two distinct groups of monocots and dicots. Among the monocots, coconut (Cocos nucifera) and oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) were the most closely related species. A marker for coconut differentiation was developed from one-base substitution site and could be successfully used.

  6. Steered molecular dynamics simulations of a type IV pilus probe initial stages of a force-induced conformational transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Joseph L; Biais, Nicolas; Tama, Florence

    2013-04-01

    Type IV pili are long, protein filaments built from a repeating subunit that protrudes from the surface of a wide variety of infectious bacteria. They are implicated in a vast array of functions, ranging from bacterial motility to microcolony formation to infection. One of the most well-studied type IV filaments is the gonococcal type IV pilus (GC-T4P) from Neisseria gonorrhoeae, the causative agent of gonorrhea. Cryo-electron microscopy has been used to construct a model of this filament, offering insights into the structure of type IV pili. In addition, experiments have demonstrated that GC-T4P can withstand very large tension forces, and transition to a force-induced conformation. However, the details of force-generation, and the atomic-level characteristics of the force-induced conformation, are unknown. Here, steered molecular dynamics (SMD) simulation was used to exert a force in silico on an 18 subunit segment of GC-T4P to address questions regarding the nature of the interactions that lead to the extraordinary strength of bacterial pili. SMD simulations revealed that the buried pilin α1 domains maintain hydrophobic contacts with one another within the core of the filament, leading to GC-T4P's structural stability. At the filament surface, gaps between pilin globular head domains in both the native and pulled states provide water accessible routes between the external environment and the interior of the filament, allowing water to access the pilin α1 domains as reported for VC-T4P in deuterium exchange experiments. Results were also compared to the experimentally observed force-induced conformation. In particular, an exposed amino acid sequence in the experimentally stretched filament was also found to become exposed during the SMD simulations, suggesting that initial stages of the force induced transition are well captured. Furthermore, a second sequence was shown to be initially hidden in the native filament and became exposed upon stretching.

  7. Increased Autoreactivity of the Complement-Activating Molecule Mannan-Binding Lectin in a Type 1 Diabetes Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob Appel Østergaard

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Diabetic kidney disease is the leading cause of end-stage renal failure despite intensive treatment of modifiable risk factors. Identification of new drug targets is therefore of paramount importance. The complement system is emerging as a potential new target. The lectin pathway of the complement system, initiated by the carbohydrate-recognition molecule mannan-binding lectin (MBL, is linked to poor kidney prognosis in diabetes. We hypothesized that MBL activates complement upon binding within the diabetic glomerulus. Methods. We investigated this by comparing complement deposition and activation in kidneys from streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice and healthy control mice. Results. After 20 weeks of diabetes, glomerular deposition of MBL was significantly increased. Diabetic animals had 2.0-fold higher (95% CI 1.6–2.5 immunofluorescence intensity from anti-MBL antibodies compared with controls (P<0.001. Diabetes and control groups did not differ in glomerular immunofluorescence intensity obtained by antibodies against complement factors C4, C3, and C9. However, the circulating complement activation product C3a was increased in diabetes as compared to control mice (P=0.04. Conclusion. 20 weeks of diabetes increased MBL autoreactivity in the kidney and circulating C3a concentration. Together with previous findings, these results indicate direct effects of MBL within the kidney in diabetes.

  8. Activities of modified Cry3A-type toxins on the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mostafa, Moataz; Vlasák, Josef; Sehnal, František

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 137, č. 9 (2013), s. 684-692 ISSN 0931-2048 R&D Projects: GA MZe QI91A229; GA MZe QH71290 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Bacillus thuringensis * biocontrol * Cry3Aa Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.701, year: 2013 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jen.12054/pdf

  9. Identification, characterization and structure analysis of a type I ribosome-inactivating protein from Sapium sebiferum (Euphorbiaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Ying; Mao, Yingji; Jin, Shan; Hou, Jinyan; Du, Hua; Yang, Minglei; Wu, Lifang

    2015-01-01

    Ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) are N-glycosidases (EC3.2.2.22) that universally inactivate the ribosome, thereby inhibiting protein biosynthesis. In this study, a novel type I RIPs named SEBIN was identified in Sapium sebiferum. Nuclear acid depurine experiment showed that SEBIN had rRNA N-Glycosidase activity. Further experiment indicated that SEBIN significantly inhibited Caenorhabditis elegans development as well as resulted in worm cell apoptosis. This is the first report to evaluate RIPs toxicity using C. elegans. We proposed that SEBIN may impaire C. elegans reproduction in a DNA-damage manner besides traditional protein synthesis inhibition approach. The predicted 3D structure was modeled using threading and ab initio modeling, and the r-RNA binding residue of SEBIN was identified through the protein-ligand docking approach. It showed the amino acid residues, Glu195, Asn81, Ala82, Tyr83, Glu164, Ser163, Ile159 and Arg167, played critical roles in catalytic process. Our results provided the theoretical foundation of structure–function relationships between enzymatic properties, toxicity and structural characterization of SEBIN. - Graphical abstract: Superposition of main chains of ricin (cyan) and SEBIN (brown), and adenine binding site residues of SEBIN. - Highlights: • A Ribosome-inactivating proteins gene (SEBIN) was isolated from Sapium sebiferum. • SEBIN had DNase activity besides widely reported ribosome inactivation via N-glycosidases activity. • SEBIN significantly inhibited Caenorhabditis elegans development in vivo. • SEBIN may impaire C. elegans reproduction in a DNA-damage manner with the aid of mutant strains hus-1 and clk-2. • The possible active sites between SEBIN and the adenine of rRNA were predicted

  10. The Happy Life Club™ study protocol: A cluster randomised controlled trial of a type 2 diabetes health coach intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Hui

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Happy Life Club™ is an intervention that utilises health coaches trained in behavioural change and motivational interviewing techniques to assist with the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM in primary care settings in China. Health coaches will support participants to improve modifiable risk factors and adhere to effective self-management treatments associated with T2DM. Methods/Design A cluster randomised controlled trial involving 22 Community Health Centres (CHCs in Fengtai District of Beijing, China. CHCs will be randomised into a control or intervention group, facilitating recruitment of at least 1320 individual participants with T2DM into the study. Participants in the intervention group will receive a combination of both telephone and face-to-face health coaching over 18 months, in addition to usual care received by the control group. Health coaching will be performed by CHC doctors and nurses certified in coach-assisted chronic disease management. Outcomes will be assessed at baseline and again at 6, 12 and 18 months by means of a clinical health check and self-administered questionnaire. The primary outcome measure is HbA1c level. Secondary outcomes include metabolic, physiological and psychological variables. Discussion This cluster RCT has been developed to suit the Chinese health care system and will contribute to the evidence base for the management of patients with T2DM. With a strong focus on self-management and health coach support, the study has the potential to be adapted to other chronic diseases, as well as other regions of China. Trial Registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN01010526

  11. A Type II Supernova Hubble Diagram from the CSP-I, SDSS-II, and SNLS Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jaeger, T.; González-Gaitán, S.; Hamuy, M.; Galbany, L.; Anderson, J. P.; Phillips, M. M.; Stritzinger, M. D.; Carlberg, R. G.; Sullivan, M.; Gutiérrez, C. P.; Hook, I. M.; Howell, D. Andrew; Hsiao, E. Y.; Kuncarayakti, H.; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V.; Folatelli, G.; Pritchet, C.; Basa, S.

    2017-02-01

    The coming era of large photometric wide-field surveys will increase the detection rate of supernovae by orders of magnitude. Such numbers will restrict spectroscopic follow-up in the vast majority of cases, and hence new methods based solely on photometric data must be developed. Here, we construct a complete Hubble diagram of Type II supernovae (SNe II) combining data from three different samples: the Carnegie Supernova Project-I, the Sloan Digital Sky Survey II SN, and the Supernova Legacy Survey. Applying the Photometric Color Method (PCM) to 73 SNe II with a redshift range of 0.01-0.5 and with no spectral information, we derive an intrinsic dispersion of 0.35 mag. A comparison with the Standard Candle Method (SCM) using 61 SNe II is also performed and an intrinsic dispersion in the Hubble diagram of 0.27 mag, I.e., 13% in distance uncertainties, is derived. Due to the lack of good statistics at higher redshifts for both methods, only weak constraints on the cosmological parameters are obtained. However, assuming a flat universe and using the PCM, we derive the universe’s matter density: {{{Ω }}}m={0.32}-0.21+0.30 providing a new independent evidence for dark energy at the level of two sigma. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes, with the du Pont and Swope telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile; and the Gemini Observatory, Cerro Pachon, Chile (Gemini Program N-2005A-Q-11, GN-2005B-Q-7, GN-2006A-Q-7, GS-2005A-Q-11, GS-2005B-Q-6, and GS-2008B-Q-56). Based on observations collected at the European Organization for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Chile (ESO Programmes 076.A-0156,078.D-0048, 080.A-0516, and 082.A-0526).

  12. A Type II Supernova Hubble diagram from the CSP-I, SDSS-II, and SNLS surveys

    OpenAIRE

    de Jaeger, T.; González-Gaitán, S.; Hamuy, M.; Galbany, L.; Anderson, J. P.; Phillips, M. M.; Stritzinger, M. D.; Carlberg, R. G.; Sullivan, M.; Gutiérrez, C. P.; Hook, I. M.; Howell, D. Andrew; Hsiao, E. Y.; Kuncarayakti, H.; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V.

    2016-01-01

    The coming era of large photometric wide-field surveys will increase the detection rate of supernovae by orders of magnitude. Such numbers will restrict spectroscopic follow-up in the vast majority of cases, and hence new methods based solely on photometric data must be developed. Here, we construct a complete Hubble diagram of Type II supernovae (SNe II) combining data from three different samples: the Carnegie Supernova Project-I, the Sloan Digital Sky Survey II SN, and th...

  13. Development of a typing system for epidemiological studies of porcine toxin-producing Pasteurella multocida ssp. multocida in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fussing, V.; Nielsen, Jens; Bisgaard, M.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate capsular-typing, plasmid-profiling, phage-typing and ribotyping for epidemiological studies of toxin-producing Pasteurella multocida ssp. multocida in Denmark. The evaluation of methods was based on 68 strains from nasal swabs and 14 strains from...... by HindIII ribotyping, as 85% of isolates from all herds were assigned to one ribotype. In conclusion, HindIII ribotyping seems to represent a useful tool for epidemiological studies of toxigenic P. multocida ssp. multocida....

  14. NuSTAR OBSERVATION OF A TYPE I X-RAY BURST FROM GRS 1741.9-2853

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrière, Nicolas M.; Krivonos, Roman; Tomsick, John A.; Boggs, Steven E.; Craig, William W.; Bachetti, Matteo; Chakrabarty, Deepto; Christensen, Finn E.; Hailey, Charles J.; Mori, Kaya; Harrison, Fiona A.; Hong, Jaesub; Stern, Daniel; Zhang, William W.

    2015-01-01

    We report on two NuSTAR observations of GRS 1741.9-2853, a faint neutron star (NS) low-mass X-ray binary burster located 10' away from the Galactic center. NuSTAR detected the source serendipitously as it was emerging from quiescence: its luminosity was 6 × 10 34  erg s –1 on 2013 July 31 and 5 × 10 35  erg s –1 in a second observation on 2013 August 3. A bright, 800 s long, H-triggered mixed H/He thermonuclear Type I burst with mild photospheric radius expansion (PRE) was present during the second observation. Assuming that the luminosity during the PRE was at the Eddington level, an H mass fraction X = 0.7 in the atmosphere, and an NS mass M = 1.4 M ☉ , we determine a new lower limit on the distance for this source of 6.3 ± 0.5 kpc. Combining with previous upper limits, this places GRS 1741.9-2853 at a distance of 7 kpc. Energy independent (achromatic) variability is observed during the cooling of the NS, which could result from the disturbance of the inner accretion disk by the burst. The large dynamic range of this burst reveals a long power-law decay tail. We also detect, at a 95.6% confidence level (1.7σ), a narrow absorption line at 5.46 ± 0.10 keV during the PRE phase of the burst, reminiscent of the detection by Waki et al. We propose that the line, if real, is formed in the wind above the photosphere of the NS by a resonant Kα transition from H-like Cr gravitationally redshifted by a factor 1 + z = 1.09, corresponding to a radius range of 29.0-41.4 km for a mass range of 1.4-2.0 M ☉

  15. A survey of the safety conditions of student housings: A case study in a type one university in Shiraz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Jahangiri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the extent of implementation of safety measures in 14 student housings in one of the largest universities in Fars province, Shiraz, Iran. Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 14 student housings of one of the largest universities, located in Shiraz, Iran. Audit checklists were completed and rated thought field inspection and interview. Safety Requirement Index (SRI was then used to evaluate the safety of student housings. SRI was graded on five scales (0-19%: very poor (unsafe; 20-39%: poor (relatively unsafe; 40-59%: moderate; 60-79%: good (relatively safe: and 80-100%: excellent (safe. Results: The mean SRI score was 71.01±15.46%. The highest and lowest level of SRI was 94.11±6.60% for dimensions of public health (and 47.70±18.42% for elevator safety. Conclusion: None of the studied housings was completely safe in all dimensions. Most of the studied housings were categorized as safe in the dimensions of public health and ventilation and air-conditioning systems; relatively safe in the dimensions of electrical, building, fire and kitchen safety; and moderate in the elevator safety and emergency response. Establishment of safety management system is necessary to promote safety in the studied housings. The results of this study indicated the need to inform the authorities about the safety priorities in housings, to promote the safety conditions. The results could also be used to raise awareness regarding their role and responsibilities about the safety of housings.

  16. On the uniqueness of the Myers-Perry spacetime as a type II(D) solution in six dimensions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ortaggio, Marcello

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 2017, č. 6 (2017), s. 1-40, č. článku 042. ISSN 1029-8479 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-10042S Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Black Holes * Classical Theories of Gravity Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Applied mathematics Impact factor: 6.063, year: 2016 https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/JHEP06(2017)042

  17. Some observations on the relationship between microstructures, fatigue and creep behaviours in a type 316 stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horton, C.A.P.; Lai, J.K.L.; Skelton, R.P.

    Comparisons have been made between microstructures in Type 316 steel after high strain fatigue or creep at 625 deg. C and which had been subjected to various pre-test ageing treatments. The microstructures observed in the specimens generally consisted of a three dimensional dislocation network together with 'cells' delineated by dislocation sub-boundaries. In fatigue, under strain control conditions, pre-ageing reduced the dislocation density and coarsened the cell structure produced during test. This was related to less solute hardening and strain induced precipitation after pre-ageing and was accompanied by a lower rate of cyclic strain hardening. During fatigue with dwell, the dislocations introduced led to five times more precipitation than that observed during stress free ageing solution treated material. The 'cell' structure produced by fatigue was retained even after solution treatment at 1050 deg. C. In creep, under constant loads, a coarser and more clearly defined dislocation sub-grain structure developed and its size was not influenced by pre-ageing. However, creep testing after various pre-treatments, including fatigue, demonstrated that the creep resistance was dependent on a combination of solution strengthening, cell size and dislocation density. Consequently prior fatigue considerably increased the creep resistance. The work has demonstrated the microstructural aspects of creep-fatigue interaction and that the use of creep data obtained from solution treated material is likely to lead to errors in creep-fatigue life fraction summations

  18. Parallel evolution of a type IV secretion system in radiating lineages of the host-restricted bacterial pathogen Bartonella.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Engel

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive radiation is the rapid origination of multiple species from a single ancestor as the result of concurrent adaptation to disparate environments. This fundamental evolutionary process is considered to be responsible for the genesis of a great portion of the diversity of life. Bacteria have evolved enormous biological diversity by exploiting an exceptional range of environments, yet diversification of bacteria via adaptive radiation has been documented in a few cases only and the underlying molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. Here we show a compelling example of adaptive radiation in pathogenic bacteria and reveal their genetic basis. Our evolutionary genomic analyses of the α-proteobacterial genus Bartonella uncover two parallel adaptive radiations within these host-restricted mammalian pathogens. We identify a horizontally-acquired protein secretion system, which has evolved to target specific bacterial effector proteins into host cells as the evolutionary key innovation triggering these parallel adaptive radiations. We show that the functional versatility and adaptive potential of the VirB type IV secretion system (T4SS, and thereby translocated Bartonella effector proteins (Beps, evolved in parallel in the two lineages prior to their radiations. Independent chromosomal fixation of the virB operon and consecutive rounds of lineage-specific bep gene duplications followed by their functional diversification characterize these parallel evolutionary trajectories. Whereas most Beps maintained their ancestral domain constitution, strikingly, a novel type of effector protein emerged convergently in both lineages. This resulted in similar arrays of host cell-targeted effector proteins in the two lineages of Bartonella as the basis of their independent radiation. The parallel molecular evolution of the VirB/Bep system displays a striking example of a key innovation involved in independent adaptive processes and the emergence of bacterial pathogens. Furthermore, our study highlights the remarkable evolvability of T4SSs and their effector proteins, explaining their broad application in bacterial interactions with the environment.

  19. Parallel evolution of a type IV secretion system in radiating lineages of the host-restricted bacterial pathogen Bartonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Philipp; Salzburger, Walter; Liesch, Marius; Chang, Chao-Chin; Maruyama, Soichi; Lanz, Christa; Calteau, Alexandra; Lajus, Aurélie; Médigue, Claudine; Schuster, Stephan C; Dehio, Christoph

    2011-02-10

    Adaptive radiation is the rapid origination of multiple species from a single ancestor as the result of concurrent adaptation to disparate environments. This fundamental evolutionary process is considered to be responsible for the genesis of a great portion of the diversity of life. Bacteria have evolved enormous biological diversity by exploiting an exceptional range of environments, yet diversification of bacteria via adaptive radiation has been documented in a few cases only and the underlying molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. Here we show a compelling example of adaptive radiation in pathogenic bacteria and reveal their genetic basis. Our evolutionary genomic analyses of the α-proteobacterial genus Bartonella uncover two parallel adaptive radiations within these host-restricted mammalian pathogens. We identify a horizontally-acquired protein secretion system, which has evolved to target specific bacterial effector proteins into host cells as the evolutionary key innovation triggering these parallel adaptive radiations. We show that the functional versatility and adaptive potential of the VirB type IV secretion system (T4SS), and thereby translocated Bartonella effector proteins (Beps), evolved in parallel in the two lineages prior to their radiations. Independent chromosomal fixation of the virB operon and consecutive rounds of lineage-specific bep gene duplications followed by their functional diversification characterize these parallel evolutionary trajectories. Whereas most Beps maintained their ancestral domain constitution, strikingly, a novel type of effector protein emerged convergently in both lineages. This resulted in similar arrays of host cell-targeted effector proteins in the two lineages of Bartonella as the basis of their independent radiation. The parallel molecular evolution of the VirB/Bep system displays a striking example of a key innovation involved in independent adaptive processes and the emergence of bacterial pathogens. Furthermore, our study highlights the remarkable evolvability of T4SSs and their effector proteins, explaining their broad application in bacterial interactions with the environment.

  20. SN 2016coi/ASASSN-16fp: An example of residual helium in a type Ic supernova?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prentice, S. J.; Ashall, C.; Mazzali, P. A.; Zhang, J.-J.; James, P. A.; Wang, X.-F.; Vinkó, J.; Percival, S.; Short, L.; Piascik, A.; Huang, F.; Mo, J.; Rui, L.-M.; Wang, J.-G.; Xiang, D.-F.; Xin, Y.-X.; Yi, W.-M.; Yu, X.-G.; Zhai, Q.; Zhang, T.-M.; Hosseinzadeh, G.; Howell, D. A.; McCully, C.; Valenti, S.; Cseh, B.; Hanyecz, O.; Kriskovics, L.; Pál, A.; Sárneczky, K.; Sódor, Á.; Szakáts, R.; Székely, P.; Varga-Verebélyi, E.; Vida, K.; Bradac, M.; Reichart, D. E.; Sand, D.; Tartaglia, L.

    2018-05-01

    The optical observations of Ic-4 supernova (SN) 2016coi/ASASSN-16fp, from ˜2 to ˜450 days after explosion, are presented along with analysis of its physical properties. The SN shows the broad lines associated with SNe Ic-3/4 but with a key difference. The early spectra display a strong absorption feature at ˜5400 Åwhich is not seen in other SNe Ic-3/4 at this epoch. This feature has been attributed to HeIin the literature. Spectral modelling of the SN in the early photospheric phase suggests the presence of residual He in a C/O dominated shell. However, the behaviour of the HeIlines is unusual when compared with He-rich SNe, showing relatively low velocities and weakening rather than strengthening over time. The SN is found to rise to peak ˜16 d after core-collapse reaching a bolometric luminosity of Lp ˜ 3 × 1042 erg s-1. Spectral models, including the nebular epoch, show that the SN ejected 2.5 - 4 M⊙of material, with ˜1.5 M⊙below 5000 km s-1, and with a kinetic energy of (4.5 - 7) × 1051 erg. The explosion synthesised ˜0.14 M⊙of 56Ni. There are significant uncertainties in E(B - V)host and the distance however, which will affect Lp and MNi. SN 2016coi exploded in a host similar to the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and away from star-forming regions. The properties of the SN and the host-galaxy suggest that the progenitor had MZAMS of 23 - 28 M⊙and was stripped almost entirely down to its C/O core at explosion.