WorldWideScience

Sample records for macroscopic system properties

  1. Quantum equilibria for macroscopic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grib, A; Khrennikov, A; Parfionov, G; Starkov, K

    2006-01-01

    Nash equilibria are found for some quantum games with particles with spin-1/2 for which two spin projections on different directions in space are measured. Examples of macroscopic games with the same equilibria are given. Mixed strategies for participants of these games are calculated using probability amplitudes according to the rules of quantum mechanics in spite of the macroscopic nature of the game and absence of Planck's constant. A possible role of quantum logical lattices for the existence of macroscopic quantum equilibria is discussed. Some examples for spin-1 cases are also considered

  2. Nonequilibrium work relation in a macroscopic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sughiyama, Yuki; Ohzeki, Masayuki

    2013-01-01

    We reconsider a well-known relationship between the fluctuation theorem and the second law of thermodynamics by evaluating stochastic evolution of the density field (probability measure valued process). In order to establish a bridge between microscopic and macroscopic behaviors, we must take the thermodynamic limit of a stochastic dynamical system following the standard procedure in statistical mechanics. The thermodynamic path characterizing a dynamical behavior in the macroscopic scale can be formulated as an infimum of the action functional for the stochastic evolution of the density field. In our formulation, the second law of thermodynamics can be derived only by symmetry of the action functional without recourse to the Jarzynski equality. Our formulation leads to a nontrivial nonequilibrium work relation for metastable (quasi-stationary) states, which are peculiar in the macroscopic system. We propose a prescription for computing the free energy for metastable states based on the resultant work relation. (paper)

  3. On quantum mechanics for macroscopic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primas, H.

    1992-01-01

    The parable of Schroedinger's cat may lead to several up-to date questions: how to treat open systems in quantum theory, how to treat thermodynamically irreversible processes in the quantum mechanics framework, how to explain, following the quantum theory, the existence, phenomenologically evident, of classical observables, what implies the predicted existence by the quantum theory of non localized macroscopic material object ?

  4. Thermodynamical properties and thermoelastic coupling of complex macroscopic structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabbri, M.; Sacripanti, A.

    1996-11-01

    Gross qualitative/quantitative analysis about thermodynamical properties and thermoelastic coupling (or elastocaloric effect) of complex macroscopic structure (running shoes) is performed by infrared camera. The experimental results showed the achievability of a n industrial research project

  5. Macroscopic properties of model disordered materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knackstedt, M.A.; Roberts, A.P.

    1996-01-01

    Disordered materials are ubiquitous in nature and in industry. Soils, sedimentary rocks, wood, bone, polymer composites, foams, catalysts, gels, concretes and ceramics have properties that depend on material structure. Present techniques for predicting properties are limited by the theoretical and computational difficulty of incorporating a realistic description of material structure. A general model for microstructure was recently proposed by Berk [Berk, Phys.Rev.A, 44 5069 (1991)]. The model is based on level cuts of a Gaussian random field with arbitrary spectral density. The freedom in specifying the parameters of the model allows the modeling of physical materials with diverse morphological characteristics. We have shown that the model qualitatively accounts for the principal features of a wider variety of disordered materials including geologic media, membranes, polymer blends, ceramics and foams. Correlation functions are derived for the model microstructure. From this characterisation we derive mechanical and conductive properties of the materials. Excellent agreement with experimentally measured properties of disordered solids is obtained. The agreement provides a strong hint that it is now possible to correlate effective physical properties of porous solids to microstructure. Simple extensions to modelling properties of non-porous multicomponent blends; metal alloys, ceramics, metal/matrix and polymer composites are also discussed

  6. Partitioning a macroscopic system into independent subsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delle Site, Luigi; Ciccotti, Giovanni; Hartmann, Carsten

    2017-08-01

    We discuss the problem of partitioning a macroscopic system into a collection of independent subsystems. The partitioning of a system into replica-like subsystems is nowadays a subject of major interest in several fields of theoretical and applied physics. The thermodynamic approach currently favoured by practitioners is based on a phenomenological definition of an interface energy associated with the partition, due to a lack of easily computable expressions for a microscopic (i.e. particle-based) interface energy. In this article, we outline a general approach to derive sharp and computable bounds for the interface free energy in terms of microscopic statistical quantities. We discuss potential applications in nanothermodynamics and outline possible future directions.

  7. Symmetry properties of macroscopic transport coefficients in porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasseux, D.; Valdés-Parada, F. J.

    2017-04-01

    We report on symmetry properties of tensorial effective transport coefficients characteristic of many transport phenomena in porous systems at the macroscopic scale. The effective coefficients in the macroscopic models (derived by upscaling (volume averaging) the governing equations at the underlying scale) are obtained from the solution of closure problems that allow passing the information from the lower to the upper scale. The symmetry properties of the macroscopic coefficients are identified from a formal analysis of the closure problems and this is illustrated for several different physical mechanisms, namely, one-phase flow in homogeneous porous media involving inertial effects, slip flow in the creeping regime, momentum transport in a fracture relying on the Reynolds model including slip effects, single-phase flow in heterogeneous porous media embedding a porous matrix and a clear fluid region, two-phase momentum transport in homogeneous porous media, as well as dispersive heat and mass transport. The results from the analysis of these study cases are summarized as follows. For inertial single-phase flow, the apparent permeability tensor is irreducibly decomposed into its symmetric (viscous) and skew-symmetric (inertial) parts; for creeping slip-flow, the apparent permeability tensor is not symmetric; for one-phase slightly compressible gas flow in the slip regime within a fracture, the effective transmissivity tensor is symmetric, a result that remains valid in the absence of slip; for creeping one-phase flow in heterogeneous media, the permeability tensor is symmetric; for two-phase flow, we found the dominant permeability tensors to be symmetric, whereas the coupling tensors do not exhibit any special symmetry property; finally for dispersive heat transfer, the thermal conductivity tensors include a symmetric and a skew-symmetric part, the latter being a consequence of convective transport only. A similar result is achieved for mass dispersion. Beyond the

  8. A toy model of a macroscopic quantum coherent system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muñoz-Vega, R; Flores-Godoy, J J; Fernández-Anaya, G; Salinas-Hernández, E

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with macroscopic quantum coherence while using only basic quantum mechanics. A square double well is used to illustrate Leggett–Caldeira oscillations. The effect of thermal radiation on two-level systems is discussed. The concept of decoherence is introduced at an elementary level. Reference values are deduced for the energy, temperature and time scales involved in macroscopic quantum coherence. (paper)

  9. Flagella bending affects macroscopic properties of bacterial suspensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potomkin, M.; Tournus, M.; Berlyand, L. V.; Aranson, I. S.

    2017-05-01

    To survive in harsh conditions, motile bacteria swim in complex environments and respond to the surrounding flow. Here, we develop a mathematical model describing how flagella bending affects macroscopic properties of bacterial suspensions. First, we show how the flagella bending contributes to the decrease in the effective viscosity observed in dilute suspension. Our results do not impose tumbling (random reorientation) as was previously done to explain the viscosity reduction. Second, we demonstrate how a bacterium escapes from wall entrapment due to the self-induced buckling of flagella. Our results shed light on the role of flexible bacterial flagella in interactions of bacteria with shear flow and walls or obstacles.

  10. The N-salicylidene aniline mesogen: Microscopic and macroscopic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesrullazade, A.

    2004-01-01

    The vast majority of compounds exhibiting Iiquid crystalline phases may be regarded as having a rigid molecular central group with one or two flexible terminal alkyl or alkyloxy chains. The N-saIicyIidene anilines are very interesting and important materials both from fundamental and application points of view. These materials are on the one hand the ligands used to obtain metal containing complexes and on the other hand they are materials having the thermotropic mesomorphism. In this work we present investigations of microscopic and macroscopic properties of the 4-(Octyloxy)-N-(4-hexylphenyl)-2-hydrobenzaIimine (8SA) compound which was synthesized by our group. The 8SA compound shows the smectic C and nematic mesophases. These mesophases are enantiotropic and display specific confocal and schlieren textures, respectively. Thermotropic and thermodynamical properties of the straight and reverse phase transitions between smectic C and nematic mesophases and between nematic mesophase and isotropic liquid have been investigated

  11. Sialic acid-triggered macroscopic properties switching on a smart polymer surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Yuting; Li, Minmin; Wang, Hongxi; Qing, Guangyan; Sun, Taolei

    2018-01-01

    Constructing smart surfaces with responsive polymers capable of dynamically and reversibly changing their chemical and physical properties by responding to the recognition of biomolecules remains a challenging task. And, the key to achieving this purpose relies on the design of polymers to precisely interact with the target molecule and successfully transform the interaction signal into tunable macroscopic properties, further achieve special bio-functions. Herein, inspired by carbohydrate-carbohydrate interaction (CCI) in life system, we developed a three-component copolymer poly(NIPAAm-co-PT-co-Glc) bearing a binding unit glucose (Glc) capable of recognizing sialic acid, a type of important molecular targets for cancer diagnosis and therapy, and reported the sialic acid triggered macroscopic properties switching on this smart polymer surface. Detailed mechanism studies indicated that multiple hydrogen bonding interactions between Glc unit and Neu5Ac destroyed the initial hydrogen bond network of the copolymer, leading to a reversible ;contraction-to-swelling; conformational transition of the copolymer chains, accompanied with distinct macroscopic property switching (i.e., surface wettability, morphology, stiffness) of the copolymer film. And these features enabled this copolymer to selectively capture sialic acid-containing glycopeptides from complex protein samples. This work provides an inspiration for the design of novel smart polymeric materials with sensitive responsiveness to sialic acid, which would promote the development of sialic acid-specific bio-devices and drug delivery systems.

  12. Macroscopic quantum systems and gravitational phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pikovski, I.

    2014-01-01

    Low-energy quantum systems are studied theoretically in light of possible experiments to test the interplay between quantum theory and general relativity. The research focus in this thesis is on quantum systems which can be controlled with very high precision and which allow for tests of quantum theory at novel scales in terms of mass and size. The pulsed regime of opto-mechanics is explored and it is shown how short optical pulses can be used to prepare and characterize quantum states of a massive mechanical resonator, and how some phenomenological models of quantum gravity can be probed. In addition, quantum interferometry with photons and matter-waves in the presence of gravitational time dilation is considered. It is shown that time dilation causes entanglement between internal states and the center-of-mass position and that it leads to decoherence of all composite quantum systems. The results of the thesis show that the interplay between quantum theory and general relativity affects even low-energy quantum systems and that it offers novel phenomena which can be probed in experiments. (author) [de

  13. Thermal Equilibrium of a Macroscopic Quantum System in a Pure State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Sheldon; Huse, David A; Lebowitz, Joel L; Tumulka, Roderich

    2015-09-04

    We consider the notion of thermal equilibrium for an individual closed macroscopic quantum system in a pure state, i.e., described by a wave function. The macroscopic properties in thermal equilibrium of such a system, determined by its wave function, must be the same as those obtained from thermodynamics, e.g., spatial uniformity of temperature and chemical potential. When this is true we say that the system is in macroscopic thermal equilibrium (MATE). Such a system may, however, not be in microscopic thermal equilibrium (MITE). The latter requires that the reduced density matrices of small subsystems be close to those obtained from the microcanonical, equivalently the canonical, ensemble for the whole system. The distinction between MITE and MATE is particularly relevant for systems with many-body localization for which the energy eigenfuctions fail to be in MITE while necessarily most of them, but not all, are in MATE. We note, however, that for generic macroscopic systems, including those with MBL, most wave functions in an energy shell are in both MATE and MITE. For a classical macroscopic system, MATE holds for most phase points on the energy surface, but MITE fails to hold for any phase point.

  14. Sialic Acid-Responsive Polymeric Interface Material: From Molecular Recognition to Macroscopic Property Switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Yuting; Jiang, Ge; Li, Minmin; Qing, Guangyan; Li, Xiuling; Liang, Xinmiao; Sun, Taolei

    2017-01-01

    Biological systems that utilize multiple weak non-covalent interactions and hierarchical assemblies to achieve various bio-functions bring much inspiration for the design of artificial biomaterials. However, it remains a big challenge to correlate underlying biomolecule interactions with macroscopic level of materials, for example, recognizing such weak interaction, further transforming it into regulating material’s macroscopic property and contributing to some new bio-applications. Here we designed a novel smart polymer based on polyacrylamide (PAM) grafted with lactose units (PAM-g-lactose0.11), and reported carbohydrate-carbohydrate interaction (CCI)-promoted macroscopic properties switching on this smart polymer surface. Detailed investigations indicated that the binding of sialic acid molecules with the grafted lactose units via the CCIs induced conformational transformation of the polymer chains, further resulted in remarkable and reversible switching in surface topography, wettability and stiffness. With these excellent recognition and response capacities towards sialic acid, the PAM-g-lactose0.11 further facilitated good selectivity, strong anti-interference and high adsorption capacity in the capture of sialylated glycopeptides (important biomarkers for cancers). This work provides some enlightenment for the development of biointerface materials with tunable property, as well as high-performance glycopeptide enrichment materials.

  15. Stochastic and Macroscopic Thermodynamics of Strongly Coupled Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Jarzynski

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We develop a thermodynamic framework that describes a classical system of interest S that is strongly coupled to its thermal environment E. Within this framework, seven key thermodynamic quantities—internal energy, entropy, volume, enthalpy, Gibbs free energy, heat, and work—are defined microscopically. These quantities obey thermodynamic relations including both the first and second law, and they satisfy nonequilibrium fluctuation theorems. We additionally impose a macroscopic consistency condition: When S is large, the quantities defined within our framework scale up to their macroscopic counterparts. By satisfying this condition, we demonstrate that a unifying framework can be developed, which encompasses both stochastic thermodynamics at one end, and macroscopic thermodynamics at the other. A central element in our approach is a thermodynamic definition of the volume of the system of interest, which converges to the usual geometric definition when S is large. We also sketch an alternative framework that satisfies the same consistency conditions. The dynamics of the system and environment are modeled using Hamilton’s equations in the full phase space.

  16. Approach to thermal equilibrium of macroscopic quantum systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Sheldon; Lebowitz, Joel L; Mastrodonato, Christian; Tumulka, Roderich; Zanghi, Nino

    2010-01-01

    We consider an isolated macroscopic quantum system. Let H be a microcanonical "energy shell," i.e., a subspace of the system's Hilbert space spanned by the (finitely) many energy eigenstates with energies between E and E+deltaE . The thermal equilibrium macrostate at energy E corresponds to a subspace H(eq) of H such that dim H(eq)/dim H is close to 1. We say that a system with state vector psi is the element of H is in thermal equilibrium if psi is "close" to H(eq). We show that for "typical" Hamiltonians with given eigenvalues, all initial state vectors psi(0) evolve in such a way that psi(t) is in thermal equilibrium for most times t. This result is closely related to von Neumann's quantum ergodic theorem of 1929.

  17. Macroscopic Properties of Restacked, Redox-Liquid Exfoliated Graphite and Graphite Mimics Produced in Bulk Quantities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, Vikram K [ORNL; Quinlan, Ronald [ORNL; Agapov, Alexander L [ORNL; Dunlap, John R [ORNL; Nelson, Kimberly M [ORNL; Duranty, Edward R [ORNL; Sokolov, Alexei P [ORNL; Bhat, Gajanan [ORNL; Mays, Jimmy [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    The excellent properties exhibited by monolayer graphene have spurred the development of exfoliation techniques using bulk graphite to produce large quantities of pristine monolayer sheets. Development of simple chemistry to exfoliate and intercalate graphite and graphite mimics in large quantities is required for numerous applications. To determine the macroscopic behavior of restacked, exfoliated bulk materials, a systematic approach is presented using a simple, redox-liquid sonication process along to obtain large quantities of 2D and 3D hexagonally layered graphite, molybdenum disulfi de, and boron nitride, which are subsequently characterized to observe chemical and structural changes. For MoS 2 sonicated with the antioxidant sodium bisulfi te, results from Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and electron microscopy indicate the presence of distorted phases from different polymorphs, and apparent nanotube structures in the bulk, restacked powder. Furthermore, using thermograviemtric analysis, the antioxidant enhances the resistance to oxidative degradation of MoS 2 , upon thermal treatment up to 900 C. The addition of the ionic antioxidant decreased dispersion stability in non-polar solvent, suggesting decreased compatibility with non-polar systems. Using simple chemical methods, the ability to generate tailored multidimensional layered materials with unique macroscopic properties is critical for numerous applications, including electrical devices, reinforced polymer composites, lithium ion capacitors, and chemical sensing.

  18. Macroscopic behavior and microscopic magnetic properties of nanocarbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lähderanta, E., E-mail: Erkki.Lahderanta@lut.fi [Lappeenranta University of Technology, PO Box 20, FIN-53851 Lappeenranta (Finland); Ryzhov, V.A. [Lappeenranta University of Technology, PO Box 20, FIN-53851 Lappeenranta (Finland); Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, NRC “Kurchatov Institute”, Orlova Coppice, Gatchina, Leningrad province 188300 (Russian Federation); Lashkul, A.V. [Lappeenranta University of Technology, PO Box 20, FIN-53851 Lappeenranta (Finland); Galimov, D.M. [Lappeenranta University of Technology, PO Box 20, FIN-53851 Lappeenranta (Finland); South Ural State University, 454080 Chelyabinsk (Russian Federation); Titkov, A.N. [Lappeenranta University of Technology, PO Box 20, FIN-53851 Lappeenranta (Finland); A. F. Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Matveev, V.V. [Lappeenranta University of Technology, PO Box 20, FIN-53851 Lappeenranta (Finland); Saint-Petersburg State University, Saint-Petersburg 198504 (Russian Federation); Mokeev, M.V. [Institute of Macromolecular Compounds, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Kurbakov, A.I. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, NRC “Kurchatov Institute”, Orlova Coppice, Gatchina, Leningrad province 188300 (Russian Federation); Lisunov, K.G. [Lappeenranta University of Technology, PO Box 20, FIN-53851 Lappeenranta (Finland); Institute of Applied Physics ASM, Academiei Str., 5, MD 2028 Kishinev (Moldova, Republic of)

    2015-06-01

    Here are presented investigations of powder and glass-like samples containing carbon nanoparticles, not intentionally doped and doped with Ag, Au and Co. The neutron diffraction study reveals an amorphous structure of the samples doped with Au and Co, as well as the magnetic scattering due to a long-range FM order in the Co-doped sample. The composition and molecular structure of the sample doped with Au is clarified with the NMR investigations. The temperature dependence of the magnetization, M (T), exhibits large irreversibility in low fields of B=1–7 mT. M (B) saturates already above 2 T at high temperatures, but deviates from the saturation behavior below ~50 (150 K). Magnetic hysteresis is observed already at 300 K and exhibits a power-law temperature decay of the coercive field, B{sub c} (T). The macroscopic behavior above is typical of an assembly of partially blocked magnetic nanoparticles. The values of the saturation magnetization, M{sub s}, and the blocking temperature, T{sub b}, are obtained as well. However, the hysteresis loop in the Co-doped sample differs from that in other samples, and the values of B{sub c} and M{sub s} are noticeably increased. - Highlights: • We have investigated powder and glassy samples with carbon nanoparticles. • They include an undoped sample and those doped with Ag, Au and Co. • Neutron diffraction study reveals amorphous structure of Au- and Co-doped samples. • Composition and molecular structure of Au-doped sample was investigated with NMR. • Magnetic behavior is typical of an assembly of partially blocked magnetic nanoparticles.

  19. Macroscopic multigroup constants for accelerator driven system core calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heimlich, Adino; Santos, Rubens Souza dos

    2011-01-01

    The high-level wastes stored in facilities above ground or shallow repositories, in close connection with its nuclear power plant, can take almost 106 years before the radiotoxicity became of the order of the background. While the disposal issue is not urgent from a technical viewpoint, it is recognized that extended storage in the facilities is not acceptable since these ones cannot provide sufficient isolation in the long term and neither is it ethical to leave the waste problem to future generations. A technique to diminish this time is to transmute these long-lived elements into short-lived elements. The approach is to use an Accelerator Driven System (ADS), a sub-critical arrangement which uses a Spallation Neutron Source (SNS), after separation the minor actinides and the long-lived fission products (LLFP), to convert them to short-lived isotopes. As an advanced reactor fuel, still today, there is a few data around these type of core systems. In this paper we generate macroscopic multigroup constants for use in calculations of a typical ADS fuel, take into consideration, the ENDF/BVI data file. Four energy groups are chosen to collapse the data from ENDF/B-VI data file by PREPRO code. A typical MOX fuel cell is used to validate the methodology. The results are used to calculate one typical subcritical ADS core. (author)

  20. Correlation of macroscopic material properties with microscopic nuclear data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simons, R.L.

    1981-01-01

    Two primary irradiation-induced changes occur during neutron irradiation: the displacement of atoms forming crystal defects and the transmutation of atoms into either gaseous or solid products. The material scientist studying irradiation damage to material by fusion-produced neutrons is faced with several questions: Is the nature of high-energy (14-MeV) displacement damage the same as or different from that caused by fission neutrons (< 2 MeV). How do the high helium concentrations expected in a fusion environment affect the material properties. What effects do solid transmutation products have on the behavior of the irradiated materials. In the past few years, much work has been done to answer these questions. This paper reviews recent work in this area

  1. Macroscopic Quantum-Type Potentials in Theoretical Systems Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Nottale

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We review in this paper the use of the theory of scale relativity and fractal space-time as a tool particularly well adapted to the possible development of a future genuine systems theoretical biology. We emphasize in particular the concept of quantum-type potentials, since, in many situations, the effect of the fractality of space—or of the underlying medium—can be reduced to the addition of such a potential energy to the classical equations of motion. Various equivalent representations—geodesic, quantum-like, fluid mechanical, stochastic—of these equations are given, as well as several forms of generalized quantum potentials. Examples of their possible intervention in high critical temperature superconductivity and in turbulence are also described, since some biological processes may be similar in some aspects to these physical phenomena. These potential extra energy contributions could have emerged in biology from the very fractal nature of the medium, or from an evolutive advantage, since they involve spontaneous properties of self-organization, morphogenesis, structuration and multi-scale integration. Finally, some examples of applications of the theory to actual biological-like processes and functions are also provided.

  2. A Mini Review on Nanocarbon-Based 1D Macroscopic Fibers: Assembly Strategies and Mechanical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Liang; Liu, Yingjun; Zhang, Cheng; Shao, Le; Tian, Zhanyuan; Deng, Zengshe; Gao, Chao

    2017-10-01

    Nanocarbon-based materials, such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene have been attached much attention by scientific and industrial community. As two representative nanocarbon materials, one-dimensional CNTs and two-dimensional graphene both possess remarkable mechanical properties. In the past years, a large amount of work have been done by using CNTs or graphene as building blocks for constructing novel, macroscopic, mechanically strong fibrous materials. In this review, we summarize the assembly approaches of CNT-based fibers and graphene-based fibers in chronological order, respectively. The mechanical performances of these fibrous materials are compared, and the critical influences on the mechanical properties are discussed. Personal perspectives on the fabrication methods of CNT- and graphene-based fibers are further presented.

  3. Analysis of the Macroscopic Behavior of Server Systems in the Internet Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Tanimura

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Elasticity is one of the key features of cloud-hosted services built on virtualization technology. To utilize the elasticity of cloud environments, administrators should accurately capture the operational status of server systems, which changes constantly according to service requests incoming irregularly. However, it is difficult to detect and avoid in advance that operating services are falling into an undesirable state. In this paper, we focus on the management of server systems that include cloud systems, and propose a new method for detecting the sign of undesirable scenarios before the system becomes overloaded as a result of various causes. In this method, a measure that utilizes the fluctuation of the macroscopic operational state observed in the server system is introduced. The proposed measure has the property of drastically increasing before the server system is in an undesirable state. Using the proposed measure, we realize a function to detect that the server system is falling into an overload scenario, and we demonstrate its effectiveness through experiments.

  4. The alignment of carbon nanotubes: an effective route to extend their excellent properties to macroscopic scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xuemei; Chen, Tao; Yang, Zhibin; Peng, Huisheng

    2013-02-19

    To improve the practical application of carbon nanotubes, it is critically important to extend their physical properties from the nanoscale to the macroscopic scale. Recently, chemists aligned continuous multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) sheets and fibers to produce materials with high mechanical strength and electrical conductivity. This provided an important clue to the use of MWCNTs at macroscopic scale. Researchers have made multiple efforts to optimize this aligned structure and improve the properties of MWCNT sheets and fibers. In this Account, we briefly highlight the new synthetic methods and promising applications of aligned MWCNTs for organic optoelectronic materials and devices. We describe several general methods to prepare both horizontally and perpendicularly aligned MWCNT/polymer composite films, through an easy solution or melting process. The composite films exhibit the combined properties of being flexible, transparent, and electrically conductive. These advances may pave the way to new flexible substrates for organic solar cells, sensing devices, and other related applications. Similarly, we discuss the synthesis of aligned MWCNT/polymer composite fibers with interesting mechanical and electrical properties. Through these methods, we can incorporate a wide variety of soluble or fusible polymers for such composite films and fibers. In addition, we can later introduce functional polymers with conjugated backbones or side chains to improve the properties of these composite materials. In particular, cooperative interactions between aligned MWCNTs and polymers can produce novel properties that do not occur individually. Common examples of this are two types of responsive polymers, photodeformable azobenzene-containing liquid crystalline polymer and chromatic polydiacetylene. Aligning the structure of MWCNTs induces the orientation of azobenzene-containing mesogens, and produces photodeformable polymer elastomers. This strategy also solves the long

  5. Modeling two-stage bunch compression with wakefields: Macroscopic properties and microbunching instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Bosch

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In a two-stage compression and acceleration system, where each stage compresses a chirped bunch in a magnetic chicane, wakefields affect high-current bunches. The longitudinal wakes affect the macroscopic energy and current profiles of the compressed bunch and cause microbunching at short wavelengths. For macroscopic wavelengths, impedance formulas and tracking simulations show that the wakefields can be dominated by the resistive impedance of coherent edge radiation. For this case, we calculate the minimum initial bunch length that can be compressed without producing an upright tail in phase space and associated current spike. Formulas are also obtained for the jitter in the bunch arrival time downstream of the compressors that results from the bunch-to-bunch variation of current, energy, and chirp. Microbunching may occur at short wavelengths where the longitudinal space-charge wakes dominate or at longer wavelengths dominated by edge radiation. We model this range of wavelengths with frequency-dependent impedance before and after each stage of compression. The growth of current and energy modulations is described by analytic gain formulas that agree with simulations.

  6. Relationship Between Filler-Matrix Interface and Macroscopical Properties of Polymer Nanocomposites

    KAUST Repository

    Aguilar Ventura, Isaac Enrique

    2017-11-01

    The macroscopic properties of Multiwall Carbon Nanotube (MWCNT) polymer nano-composites and multiscale composites have been studied from a multifunctional standpoint. The objective is to understand and correlate the mechanisms in which the addition of a small content of MWCNTs can affect the mechanical, thermal and electrical properties of thermoplastic and thermoset polymer nanocomposites. While CNTs are well-known to possess extraordinary properties in the nanoscale, it has been shown that, the CNT/polymer matrix and CNT/CNT interactions are mainly responsible for the modification of properties in the nanocomposites. Observation of the mechanical properties revealed that the addition of CNTs can increase the stiffness of the material, but the increment of interfacial regions can accelerate the damage process under cyclic loading conditions. Additionally, CNTs can interact with polymer chains in the matrix affecting thermomechanical properties such as the glass transition temperature and the storage modulus. A low content of well-dispersed CNTs can form percolated networks within the matrix, which, due to the nature of the electrical conduction mechanism, have demonstrated potential in increasing the electrical conductivity of the nanocomposites. In contrast, high phonon scattering at the interconnections along the CNT network are responsible for marginal increases in thermal conductivity. In this study, a special focus was placed in modifying the CNT interconnections with a conductive polymer "bridge" to increase the efficiency of the electrical carrier transport. Additional experimental observations such as piezoresistivity and electrical conductivity/temperature dependency, demonstrated the major role of the interfacial regions with respect to the observed material properties in the macroscale. Controlling the interactions that occur in these regions is key to achieve tailorable, multifunctional nanocomposites.

  7. Basic Characteristics of a Macroscopic Measure for Detecting Abnormal Changes in a Multiagent System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuo Kinoshita

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Multiagent application systems must deal with various changes in both the system and the system environment at runtime. Generally, such changes have undesirable negative effects on the system. To manage and control the system, it is important to observe and detect negative effects using an appropriate observation function of the system’s behavior. This paper focuses on the design of this function and proposes a new macroscopic measure with which to observe behavioral characteristics of a runtime multiagent system. The proposed measure is designed as the variance of fluctuation of a macroscopic activity factor of the whole system, based on theoretical analysis of the macroscopic behavioral model of a multiagent system. Experiments are conducted to investigate basic characteristics of the proposed measure, using a test bed system. The results of experiments show that the proposed measure reacts quickly and increases drastically in response to abnormal changes in the system. Hence, the proposed measure is considered a measure that can be used to detect undesirable changes in a multiagent system.

  8. Langevin dynamics encapsulate the microscopic and emergent macroscopic properties of midge swarms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    In contrast to bird flocks, fish schools and animal herds, midge swarms maintain cohesion but do not possess global order. High-speed imaging techniques are now revealing that these swarms have surprising properties. Here, I show that simple models found on the Langevin equation are consistent with this wealth of recent observations. The models predict correctly that large accelerations, exceeding 10 g, will be common and they predict correctly the coexistence of core condensed phases surrounded by dilute vapour phases. The models also provide new insights into the influence of environmental conditions on swarm dynamics. They predict that correlations between midges increase the strength of the effective force binding the swarm together. This may explain why such correlations are absent in laboratory swarms but present in natural swarms which contend with the wind and other disturbances. Finally, the models predict that swarms have fluid-like macroscopic mechanical properties and will slosh rather than slide back and forth after being abruptly displaced. This prediction offers a promising avenue for future experimentation that goes beyond current quasi-static testing which has revealed solid-like responses. PMID:29298958

  9. Dynamic Model and Control of a Photovoltaic Generation System using Energetic Macroscopic Representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano, Javier; Duarte, José; Vargas, Erwin; Cabrera, Jhon; Jácome, Andrés; Botero, Mónica; Rey, Juan

    2016-10-01

    This paper addresses the Energetic Macroscopic Representation EMR, the modelling and the control of photovoltaic panel PVP generation systems for simulation purposes. The model of the PVP considers the variations on irradiance and temperature. A maximum power point tracking MPPT algorithm is considered to control the power converter. A novel EMR is proposed to consider the dynamic model of the PVP with variations in the irradiance and the temperature. The EMR is evaluated through simulations of a PVP generation system.

  10. On creating macroscopically identical granular systems with different numbers of particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meer, Devaraj; Rivas, Nicolas

    2015-11-01

    One of the fundamental differences between granular and molecular hydrodynamics is the enormous difference in the total number of constituents. The small number of particles implies that the role of fluctuations in granular dynamics is of paramount importance. To obtain more insight in these fluctuations, we investigate to what extent it is possible to create identical granular hydrodynamic states with different number of particles. A definition is given of macroscopically equivalent systems, and the dependency of the conservation equations on the particle size is studied. We show that, in certain cases, and by appropriately scaling the microscopic variables, we are able to compare systems with significantly different number of particles that present the same macroscopic phenomenology. We apply these scalings in simulations of a vertically vibrated system, namely the density inverted granular Leidenfrost state and its transition to a buoyancy-driven convective state.

  11. Information and self-organization a macroscopic approach to complex systems

    CERN Document Server

    Haken, Hermann

    1988-01-01

    Complex systems are ubiquitous, and practically all branches of science ranging from physics through chemistry and biology to economics and sociology have to deal with them. In this book we wish to present concepts and methods for dealing with complex systems from a unifying point of view. Therefore it may be of inter­ est to graduate students, professors and research workers who are concerned with theoretical work in the above-mentioned fields. The basic idea for our unified ap­ proach sterns from that of synergetics. In order to find unifying principles we shall focus our attention on those situations where a complex system changes its macroscopic behavior qualitatively, or in other words, where it changes its macroscopic spatial, temporal or functional structure. Until now, the theory of synergetics has usually begun with a microscopic or mesoscopic description of a complex system. In this book we present an approach which starts out from macroscopic data. In particular we shall treat systems that acquir...

  12. Final Report: Model interacting particle systems for simulation and macroscopic description of particulate suspensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter J. Mucha

    2007-08-30

    Suspensions of solid particles in liquids appear in numerous applications, from environmental settings like river silt, to industrial systems of solids transport and water treatment, and biological flows such as blood flow. Despite their importance, much remains unexplained about these complicated systems. Mucha's research aims to improve understanding of basic properties of suspensions through a program of simulating model interacting particle systems with critical evaluation of proposed continuum equations, in close collaboration with experimentalists. Natural to this approach, the original proposal centered around collaboration with studies already conducted in various experimental groups. However, as was detailed in the 2004 progress report, following the first year of this award, a number of the questions from the original proposal were necessarily redirected towards other specific goals because of changes in the research programs of the proposed experimental collaborators. Nevertheless, the modified project goals and the results that followed from those goals maintain close alignment with the main themes of the original proposal, improving efficient simulation and macroscopic modeling of sedimenting and colloidal suspensions. In particular, the main investigations covered under this award have included: (1) Sedimentation instabilities, including the sedimentation analogue of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability (for heavy, particle-laden fluid over lighter, clear fluid). (2) Ageing dynamics of colloidal suspensions at concentrations above the glass transition, using simplified interactions. (3) Stochastic reconstruction of velocity-field dependence for particle image velocimetry (PIV). (4) Stochastic modeling of the near-wall bias in 'nano-PIV'. (5) Distributed Lagrange multiplier simulation of the 'internal splash' of a particle falling through a stable stratified interface. (6) Fundamental study of velocity fluctuations in sedimentation

  13. An analogy between macroscopic and microscopic systems for Maxwell's equations in higher dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emre Kansu, Mustafa

    2013-12-01

    In this study, Maxwell's equations are discussed for macroscopic and microscopic systems by obtaining them from free and bound charge and current densities. In addition to electric and magnetic fields, the polarization and magnetization vectors are defined by the hyperbolic octonion basis. Finally, by introducing the hyperbolic octonionic field equation, for the first time, the hyperbolic octonionic source equation is represented in a simple, useful and elegant manner in terms of free charge, free and bound current densities.

  14. Macroscopic irreversibility and microscopic paradox: A Constructal law analysis of atoms as open systems

    OpenAIRE

    Umberto Lucia

    2016-01-01

    The relation between macroscopic irreversibility and microscopic reversibility is a present unsolved problem. Constructal law is introduced to develop analytically the Einstein?s, Schr?dinger?s, and Gibbs? considerations on the interaction between particles and thermal radiation (photons). The result leads to consider the atoms and molecules as open systems in continuous interaction with flows of photons from their surroundings. The consequent result is that, in any atomic transition, the ene...

  15. Macroscopic Properties of Hollow Cone Spray Using an Outwardly Opening Piezoelectric Injector in GCI Engine

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Penghui

    2016-07-01

    Fuel mixture formation and spray characteristics are crucial for the advancement of Gasoline Compression Ignition (GCI) engine. For investigations of spray characteristics, a high-pressure high-temperature spray chamber with constant volume has been designed, tested and commissioned at CCRC, KAUST. Back light illumination technique has been applied to investigate the macroscopic spray properties of an outwardly opening piezoelec- tric injector. Three parameters including injection pressure, ambient pressure, and ambient temperature have been involved. A total of 18 combinations of experimental conditions were tested under non-reactive conditions. Through qualitative analysis of spray morphology under different operating conditions, an apparent distinction of spray morphology has been noticed. Spray morphology and propagation have shown strong dependencies on ambient pressure and ambient tempera- ture while injection pressure has a negligible effect on spray shape. Increasingly compact and bushier spray patterns were observed in the cases of high ambient pressure due to in- creasing aerodynamic drag force on spray boundary. It should also be noted that ambient temperature plays a fairly important role in fuel evaporation rate. At 200 °C, oscillating and considerably short spray shape was produced. Also, circumferential ring-like vortices and distinctive string-like structures have been identified for the fuel spray exiting this hollow cone injector. It has been observed that high ambient pressure conditions (Pamb = 4 bar and 10.5 bar) are favorable to the vortices generation, which has also been reported in previous literature. The quantitative description of macroscopic spray properties reveals that ambient pres- sure and ambient temperature are found to be the most influential parameters on liquid penetration length. The rise of ambient pressure results in considerably shorter liquid pen- etration length. Ambient temperature also appears to be a very effective

  16. Macroscopic irreversibility and microscopic paradox: A Constructal law analysis of atoms as open systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucia, Umberto

    2016-10-01

    The relation between macroscopic irreversibility and microscopic reversibility is a present unsolved problem. Constructal law is introduced to develop analytically the Einstein’s, Schrödinger’s, and Gibbs’ considerations on the interaction between particles and thermal radiation (photons). The result leads to consider the atoms and molecules as open systems in continuous interaction with flows of photons from their surroundings. The consequent result is that, in any atomic transition, the energy related to the microscopic irreversibility is negligible, while when a great number of atoms (of the order of Avogadro’s number) is considered, this energy related to irreversibility becomes so large that its order of magnitude must be taken into account. Consequently, macroscopic irreversibility results related to microscopic irreversibility by flows of photons and amount of atoms involved in the processes.

  17. Macroscopic behavior and fluctuation-dissipation response of stochastic ecohydrological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porporato, A. M.

    2017-12-01

    The coupled dynamics of water, carbon and nutrient cycles in ecohydrological systems is forced by unpredictable and intermittent hydroclimatic fluctuations at different time scales. While modeling and long-term prediction of these complex interactions often requires a probabilistic approach, the resulting stochastic equations however are only solvable in special cases. To obtain information on the behavior of the system one typically has to resort to approximation methods. Here we discuss macroscopic equations for the averages and fluctuation-dissipation estimates for the general correlations between the forcing and the ecohydrological response for the soil moisture-plant biomass interaction and the problem of primary salinization and nitrogen retention in soils.

  18. On the inherent self-excited macroscopic randomness of chaotic three-body system

    OpenAIRE

    Liao, Shijun; Li, Xiaoming

    2014-01-01

    What is the origin of macroscopic randomness (uncertainty)? This is one of the most fundamental open questions for human being. In this paper, 10000 samples of reliable (convergent), multiple-scale (from 1.0E-60 to 100) numerical simulations of a chaotic three-body system indicate that, without any external disturbance, the microscopic inherent uncertainty (in the level of 1.0E-60) due to physical fluctuation of initial positions of the three-body system enlarges exponentially into macroscopi...

  19. Effect of surface energy of solid surfaces on the micro- and macroscopic properties of adsorbed BSA and lysozyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Indu; Pattanayek, Sudip K

    2017-07-01

    The surface energy, a macroscopic property, depends on the chemical functionality and micro- and macroscopic roughness of the surface. The adsorption of two widely used proteins bovine serum albumin (BSA) and lysozyme on surfaces of four different chemical functionalities were done to find out the interrelation between macroscopic and microscopic properties. We have observed the secondary structure of protein after its adsorption. In addition, we observed the variation of surface energy of proteins due to variation in adsorption time, change in protein concentration and effect of a mixture of proteins. Surfaces of three different chemical functionalities namely, amine, hydroxyl and octyl were obtained through self-assembled monolayer on silica surfaces and were tested for responses towards adsorption of lysozyme and BSA. The adsorbed lysozyme has higher surface energy than the adsorbed BSA on amine and octyl surfaces. On hydroxyl functional surface, the surface energy due to the adsorbed lysozyme or BSA increases slowly with time. The surface energy of the adsorbed protein increases gradually with increasing protein concentration on hydrophobic surfaces. On hydrophilic surfaces, with increasing BSA concentration in bulk solution, the surface energy of the adsorbed protein on GPTMS and amine surfaces is maximum at 1μM concentration. During the adsorption from a mixture of BSA and lysozyme on octyl surface, first lysozyme adsorbs and subsequent BSA adsorption leads to a high surface energy. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Scale relativity theory and integrative systems biology: 2. Macroscopic quantum-type mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nottale, Laurent; Auffray, Charles

    2008-05-01

    In these two companion papers, we provide an overview and a brief history of the multiple roots, current developments and recent advances of integrative systems biology and identify multiscale integration as its grand challenge. Then we introduce the fundamental principles and the successive steps that have been followed in the construction of the scale relativity theory, which aims at describing the effects of a non-differentiable and fractal (i.e., explicitly scale dependent) geometry of space-time. The first paper of this series was devoted, in this new framework, to the construction from first principles of scale laws of increasing complexity, and to the discussion of some tentative applications of these laws to biological systems. In this second review and perspective paper, we describe the effects induced by the internal fractal structures of trajectories on motion in standard space. Their main consequence is the transformation of classical dynamics into a generalized, quantum-like self-organized dynamics. A Schrödinger-type equation is derived as an integral of the geodesic equation in a fractal space. We then indicate how gauge fields can be constructed from a geometric re-interpretation of gauge transformations as scale transformations in fractal space-time. Finally, we introduce a new tentative development of the theory, in which quantum laws would hold also in scale space, introducing complexergy as a measure of organizational complexity. Initial possible applications of this extended framework to the processes of morphogenesis and the emergence of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cellular structures are discussed. Having founded elements of the evolutionary, developmental, biochemical and cellular theories on the first principles of scale relativity theory, we introduce proposals for the construction of an integrative theory of life and for the design and implementation of novel macroscopic quantum-type experiments and devices, and discuss their potential

  1. Elucidation of molecular kinetic schemes from macroscopic traces using system identification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Fribourg

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Overall cellular responses to biologically-relevant stimuli are mediated by networks of simpler lower-level processes. Although information about some of these processes can now be obtained by visualizing and recording events at the molecular level, this is still possible only in especially favorable cases. Therefore the development of methods to extract the dynamics and relationships between the different lower-level (microscopic processes from the overall (macroscopic response remains a crucial challenge in the understanding of many aspects of physiology. Here we have devised a hybrid computational-analytical method to accomplish this task, the SYStems-based MOLecular kinetic scheme Extractor (SYSMOLE. SYSMOLE utilizes system-identification input-output analysis to obtain a transfer function between the stimulus and the overall cellular response in the Laplace-transformed domain. It then derives a Markov-chain state molecular kinetic scheme uniquely associated with the transfer function by means of a classification procedure and an analytical step that imposes general biological constraints. We first tested SYSMOLE with synthetic data and evaluated its performance in terms of its rate of convergence to the correct molecular kinetic scheme and its robustness to noise. We then examined its performance on real experimental traces by analyzing macroscopic calcium-current traces elicited by membrane depolarization. SYSMOLE derived the correct, previously known molecular kinetic scheme describing the activation and inactivation of the underlying calcium channels and correctly identified the accepted mechanism of action of nifedipine, a calcium-channel blocker clinically used in patients with cardiovascular disease. Finally, we applied SYSMOLE to study the pharmacology of a new class of glutamate antipsychotic drugs and their crosstalk mechanism through a heteromeric complex of G protein-coupled receptors. Our results indicate that our methodology

  2. Information and Self-Organization A Macroscopic Approach to Complex Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Haken, Hermann

    2006-01-01

    This book presents the concepts needed to deal with self-organizing complex systems from a unifying point of view that uses macroscopic data. The various meanings of the concept "information" are discussed and a general formulation of the maximum information (entropy) principle is used. With the aid of results from synergetics, adequate objective constraints for a large class of self-organizing systems are formulated and examples are given from physics, life and computer science. The relationship to chaos theory is examined and it is further shown that, based on possibly scarce and noisy data, unbiased guesses about processes of complex systems can be made and the underlying deterministic and random forces determined. This allows for probabilistic predictions of processes, with applications to numerous fields in science, technology, medicine and economics. The extensions of the third edition are essentially devoted to an introduction to the meaning of information in the quantum context. Indeed, quantum inform...

  3. Micro-finite-element method to assess elastic properties of trabecular bone at micro- and macroscopic level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, R; Auregan, J C; Hoc, T

    2018-03-01

    The objective of the present study is to assess the mechanical behavior of trabecular bone based on microCT imaging and micro-finite-element analysis. In this way two methods are detailed: (i) direct determination of macroscopic elastic property of trabecular bone; (ii) inverse approach to assess mechanical properties of trabecular bone tissue. Thirty-five females and seven males (forty-two subjects) mean aged (±SD) 80±11.7 years from hospitals of Assistance publique-Hôpitaux de Paris (AP-HP) diagnosed with osteoporosis following a femoral neck fracture due to a fall from standing were included in this study. Fractured heads were collected during hip replacement surgery. Standardized bone cores were removed from the femoral head's equator by a trephine in a water bath. MicroCT images acquisition and analysis were performed with CTan ® software and bone volume fraction was then determined. Micro-finite-element simulations were per-formed using Abaqus 6.9-2 ® software in order to determine the macroscopic mechanical behaviour of the trabecular bone. After microCT acquisition, a longitudinal compression test was performed and the experimental macroscopic Young's Modulus was extracted. An inverse approach based on the whole trabecular bone's mechanical response and micro-finite-element analysis was performed to determine microscopic mechanical properties of trabecular bone. In the present study, elasticity of the tissue was shown to be similar to that of healthy tissue but with a lower yield stress. Classical histomorphometric analysis form microCT imaging associated with an inverse micro-finite-element method allowed to assess microscopic mechanical trabecular bone parameters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Calculation of microscopic exchange interactions and modelling of macroscopic magnetic properties in molecule-based magnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novoa, J J; Deumal, M; Jornet-Somoza, J

    2011-06-01

    The state-of-the-art theoretical evaluation and rationalization of the magnetic interactions (J(AB)) in molecule-based magnets is discussed in this critical review, focusing first on isolated radical···radical pair interactions and afterwards on how these interactions cooperate in the solid phase. Concerning isolated radical pairwise magnetic interactions, an initial analysis is done on qualitative grounds, concentrating also on the validity of the most commonly used models to predict their size and angularity (namely, McConnell-I and McConnell-II models, overlap of magnetic orbitals,…). The failure of these models, caused by their oversimplified description of the magnetic interactions, prompted the introduction of quantitative approaches, whose basic principles and relative quality are also evaluated. Concerning the computation of magnetic interactions in solids, we resort to a sum of pairwise magnetic interactions within the Heisenberg Hamiltonian framework, and follow the First-principles Bottom-Up procedure, which allows the accurate study of the magnetic properties of any molecule-based magnet in an unbiased way. The basic principles of this approach are outlined, applied in detail to a model system, and finally demonstrated to properly describe the magnetic properties of molecule-based systems that show a variety of magnetic topologies, which range from 1D to 3D (152 references).

  5. Hydration of swelling clays: multi-scale sequence of hydration and determination of macroscopic energies from microscopic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salles, F.

    2006-10-01

    Smectites have interesting properties which make them potential candidates for engineered barriers in deep geological nuclear waste repository: low permeability, swelling and cations retention. The subject of this thesis consists in the determination of the relationship between hydration properties, swelling properties and cations mobility in relation with confinement properties of clayey materials. The aim is to understand and to predict the behaviour of water in smectites, following two research orientations: the mechanistic aspects and the energetic aspects of the hydration of smectites. We worked on the Na-Ca montmorillonite contained in the MX80 bentonite, with the exchanged homo ionic structure (saturated with alkaline cations and calcium cations). The approach crosses the various scales (microscopic, mesoscopic and macroscopic) and implied the study of the various components of the system (layer-cation-water), by using original experimental methods (thermo-poro-metry and electric conductivity for various relative humidities (RH) and electrostatic calculations. Initially, the dry state is defined by SCTA (scanning calorimetry thermal analysis). Then a classical characterization of the smectite porosity for the dry state is carried out using mercury intrusion and nitrogen adsorption. We evidenced the existence of a meso-porosity which radius varies from 2 to 10 nm depending on the compensating cation. The thermo-poro-metry and conductivity experiments performed at various hydration states made it possible to follow the increase in the pore sizes and the cations mobility as a function of the hydration state. We highlight in particular the existence of an osmotic mesoscopic swelling for low RH (approximately 50-60%RH for Li and Na). By combining the results of thermo-poro-metry, X-ray diffraction and electric conductivity, we are able to propose a complete hydration sequence for each cation, showing the crucial role of the compensating cation in the hydration of

  6. Impact of thickness on microscopic and macroscopic properties of Fe-Te-Se superconductor thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Zhang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A series of iron based Fe-Te-Se superconductor thin films depositing on 0.7wt% Nb-doped SrTiO3 at substrate temperatures in the 250°C -450°C range by pulsed laser ablation of a constituents well defined precursor FeTe0.55Se0.55 target sample. We study the possible growth mechanism and its influence on the superconductor properties. Experimental results indicate the superconductive and non-superconductive properties are modulated only by the thickness of the thin films through the temperature range. The films appear as superconductor whenever the thickness is above a critical value ∼30nm and comes to be non-superconductor below this value. Relative ratios of Fe to (Te+Se in the films retained Fe/(Te+Se1 for non-superconductor no matter what the film growth temperature was. The effect of film growth temperature takes only the role of modulating the ratio of Te/Se and improving crystallinity of the systems. According to the experimental results we propose a sandglass film growth mechanism in which the interfacial effect evokes to form a Fe rich area at the interface and Se or Te starts off a consecutive filling up process of chalcogenide elements defect sides, the process is significant before the film thickness reaches at ∼30nm.

  7. Probing the surface properties of a polymer glass with macroscopic friction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bureau, Lionel

    2007-01-01

    We show how macroscopic friction can be used as a sensitive probe of chain dynamics at the surface of a glassy polymer. We present experiments in which a smooth poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) solid slides on flat surfaces presenting different densities of pinning sites available for polymer/substrate bond formation. These experiments indicate that: (i) at high pinning level, frictional dissipation occurs through the sudden flips of molecular-sized bistable regions localized in a nm-thick layer of confined chains, which responds to shear as an elasto-plastic solid, and (ii) in situations of weak pinning, dissipation appears to be governed by a process akin to that proposed for rubber friction. This suggests that some 'glass-to-rubber' transition occurs at the polymer surface when its interaction with the substrate goes from strong to weak. The temperature-dependence of friction provides further support for the presence of a nm-thick layer at the polymer surface, which exhibits a rubberlike response in situation of weak interaction with the countersurface. This behavior results from the interplay between viscous flow in this surface layer, and shear induced depinning of adsorbed surface chains. Moreover, a quantitative analysis of the results indicates that the pinning dynamics of polymer chains is controlled by localized β rotational motions at the interface

  8. Quantum description of a field in macroscopic electrodynamics and photon properties in transparent media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toptygin, I. N.

    2017-12-01

    Applying a quantum mechanical treatment to a high-frequency macroscopic electromagnetic field and radiative phenomena in a medium, we construct quantum operators for energy–momentum tensor components in dispersive media and find their eigenvalues, which are different in the Minkowski and Abraham representations. It is shown that the photon momentum in a medium resulting from the quantization of the vector potential differs from that defined from Abraham’s symmetric energy–momentum-tensor but is equal to the momentum defined from the Minkowski tensor. A similar result is obtained by calculating the intrinsic angular momentum (spin) of an electro-magnetic field in the medium. Only the Minkowski tensor leads to the experimentally confirmed spin values that are multiples of ħ, providing the grounds for choosing the Minkowski representation as the proper form for the momentum density of a transverse electromagnetic field in a transparent medium, in both classical and quantum descriptions of the field. The Abraham representation is unsuitable for this purpose and leads to contradictions. The conclusion drawn does not apply to quasistatic and static fields.

  9. Agent-Based and Macroscopic Modeling of the Complex Socio-Economic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksejus Kononovičius

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – The focus of this contribution is the correspondence between collective behavior and inter-individual interactions in the complex socio-economic systems. Currently there is a wide selection of papers proposing various models for the both collective behavior and inter-individual interactions in the complex socio-economic systems. Yet the papers directly relating these two concepts are still quite rare. By studying this correspondence we discuss a cutting edge approach to the modeling of complex socio-economic systems. Design/methodology/approach – The collective behavior is often modeled using stochastic and ordinary calculus, while the inter-individual interactions are modeled using agent-based models. In order to obtain the ideal model, one should start from these frameworks and build a bridge to reach another. This is a formidable task, if we consider the top-down approach, namely starting from the collective behavior and moving towards inter-individual interactions. The bottom-up approach also fails, if complex inter-individual interaction models are considered, yet in this case we can start with simple models and increase the complexity as needed. Findings – The bottom-up approach, considering simple agent-based herding model as a model for the inter-individual interactions, allows us to derive certain macroscopic models of the complex socio-economic systems from the agent-based perspective. This provides interesting insights into the collective behavior patterns observed in the complex socio-economic systems. Research limitations/implications –The simplicity of the agent-based herding model might be considered to be somewhat limiting. Yet this simplicity implies that the model is highly universal. It reproduces universal features of social behavior and also can be further extended to fit different socio-economic scenarios. Practical implications – Insights provided in this contribution might be used to modify existing

  10. Does Synergism in Microscopic Polarity Correlate with Extrema in Macroscopic Properties for Aqueous Mixtures of Dipolar Aprotic Solvents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duereh, Alif; Sato, Yoshiyuki; Smith, Richard Lee; Inomata, Hiroshi; Pichierri, Fabio

    2017-06-22

    Aqueous mixtures of dipolar aprotic solvents (acetonitrile, γ-valerolactone, γ-butyrolactone, tetrahydrofuran, 1,4-dioxane, acetone, pyridine, N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone, N,N-dimethylformamide, N,N-dimethylacetamide, and dimethyl sulfoxide) show synergism in microscopic polarity and extrema in macroscopic viscosity (η) and molar excess enthalpy (H E ) in water-rich compositions that correlate with solvent functional group electrostatic basicity (β 2 H ). Microscopic polarities of aqueous solvent mixtures were estimated by measuring the spectral shift (λ max ) of 4-nitroaniline with UV-vis spectroscopy at 25 °C. Dynamic viscosities (η) and densities were measured for eight aqueous dipolar aprotic mixtures over the full range of compositions at (25 to 45) °C. The λ max , η, and H E values of the aqueous mixtures showed a linear trend with increasing electrostatic basicity of the solvent functional groups that is attributed to the size and strength of the hydration shell of water. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed for 1:3 complexes (solvent: (H 2 O) 3 ) and it was found that aqueous mixtures with high basicity have high binding energies and short hydrogen bonding distances implying that the size and strength of the hydration shell of water is proportional to functional group basicity. Consideration of functional group basicity of dipolar aprotic solvents allows one to relate synergism in microscopic polarity to extrema in macroscopic properties for a wide range of aqueous dipolar aprotic solvent mixtures.

  11. Demagnetization harmonic effects on the magnetization of granular systems on a macroscopic scale: the superconducting case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancusi, D.; Galluzzi, A.; Pace, S.; Polichetti, M.

    2017-10-01

    A model has been developed to determine the effective ac magnetic response of magnetic systems, taking into account the demagnetization effects arising from the sample geometry which determine the out-of-phase components of the applied fundamental frequency and higher harmonic components. Indeed, demagnetization fields and their intermodulation can significantly affect the ac magnetic response. This approach provides a system of self-consistent linear equations relating the magnetic response to the external magnetic field by means of nonlinear magnetic susceptibility. The model is extended to the magnetic response of granular systems in terms of the contributions of the individual grains and of the whole sample in the presence of demagnetization effects of the whole sample and of the grains on a macroscopic scale. In particular, our model is applied to a granular superconducting system. The comparison between the performed numerical simulations and the experimental data shows that the demagnetization fields of the single grains and of the whole sample, and their intermodulation, are relevant if magnetic measurements are used to extract detailed information about the analyzed material.

  12. Evolution of the macroscopic properties of two epoxy resins during ageing under irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vignoud, L.

    2001-11-01

    In this study, the thermomechanical properties of two epoxy resins (DGEBA/TETA and DGEBA/DDM systems) are analysed as a function of the irradiation dose. The maximum conversion and reticulation is obtained by post-curing treatment. Irradiation by electrons results in a decrease of the glass transition temperature and of the elastic modulus in the rubbery region. These results can be interpreted invoking a destruction of the crosslinks and chains breaks within the resin. The Arrhenius diagrams obtained for the various doses shows that the cooperative mobility associated with the α relaxation becomes faster after the irradiation. On the contrary, more local mobility corresponding to the γ relaxation is also modified, but in a lesser extent. The stress-strain curves are also discussed. In uniaxial compression test, the plastic flow stress σ p decreases when the irradiation dose increases and this effect can largely be accounted for by a variation of T g . Post-irradiative effects are studied in inert atmosphere. Reticulation increases when the material is heated to a higher temperature than its T g . This effect suggest the presence of radical formed during irradiation. For DGEBA/TETA system, glass transition temperature T g shifts towards lowest temperatures. This shift increases the molecular mobility and enhances the physical ageing process at the ambient temperature. The results are well described by the quasi point defects theory. Direct effect of irradiation and physical ageing evolve with the scale parameter t 0 . This parameter characterizes the gap (in time and/or temperature) between the principal relaxation and simplest ones. By connecting t 0 to the amount of irradiation, it is possible to predict the modifications of the behaviour and to predict these evolutions for various amounts. (author)

  13. Physicomechanical properties of single- and two-phase polycrystalline materials on micro- and macroscopic levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuksa, L.V.; Arzamaskova, L.M.

    2000-01-01

    The results of studies on elastic and plastic properties of the single- and two-phase polycrystalline materials in dependence on the choice of the consideration scale level are presented. The experimental and theoretical methods, making it possible to study the role of the scale factor by consideration on the micro- and macrolevel and the peculiarities of forming the physicomechanical properties of the material as a whole, are developed. The dependences, characterizing the change of the physicomechanical properties by different scales of consideration, are obtained [ru

  14. Functional network macroscopes for probing past and present Earth system dynamics (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donges, J. F.

    2013-12-01

    The Earth, as viewed from a physicist's perspective, is a dynamical system of great complexity. Functional complex networks are inferred from observational data and model runs or constructed on the basis of theoretical considerations. Representing statistical interdependencies or causal interactions between objects (e.g., Earth system subdomains, processes, or local field variables), functional complex networks are conceptually well-suited for naturally addressing some of the fundamental questions of Earth system analysis concerning, among others, major dynamical patterns, teleconnections, and feedback loops in the planetary machinery, as well as critical elements such as thresholds, bottlenecks, and switches. The first part of this talk concerns complex network theory and network-based time series analysis. Regarding complex network theory, the novel contributions include consistent frameworks for analyzing the topology of (i) general networks of interacting networks and (ii) networks with vertices of heterogeneously distributed weights, as well as (iii) an analytical theory for describing spatial networks. In the realm of time series analysis, (i) recurrence network analysis is put forward as a theoretically founded, nonlinear technique for the study of single, but possibly multivariate time series. (ii) Coupled climate networks are introduced as an exploratory tool of data analysis for quantitatively characterizing the intricate statistical interdependency structure within and between several fields of time series. The second part presents applications for detecting dynamical transitions (tipping points) in time series and studying bottlenecks in the atmosphere's general circulation structure. The analysis of paleoclimate data reveals a possible influence of large-scale shifts in Plio-Pleistocene African climate variability on events in human evolution. This presentation summarizes the contents of the dissertation titled "Functional network macroscopes for

  15. Doping Effect of Graphene Nanoplatelets on Electrical Insulation Properties of Polyethylene: From Macroscopic to Molecular Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziang Jing

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The doping effect of graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs on electrical insulation properties of polyethylene (PE was studied by combining experimental and theoretical methods. The electric conduction properties and trap characteristics were tested for pure PE and PE/GNPs composites by using a direct measurement method and a thermal stimulated current (TSC method. It was found that doping smaller GNPs is more beneficial to decrease the conductivity of PE/GNPs. The PE/GNPs composite with smaller size GNPs mainly introduces deep energy traps, while with increasing GNPs size, besides deep energy traps, shallow energy traps are also introduced. These results were also confirmed by density functional theory (DFT and the non-equilibrium Green’s function (NEGF method calculations. Therefore, doping small size GNPs is favorable for trapping charge carriers and enhancing insulation ability, which is suggested as an effective strategy in exploring powerful insulation materials.

  16. Studies of spatial and temporal disorder in macroscopic systems. Final report, April 1, 1993--May 31, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howes, F.A.; Stein, D.L.

    1998-06-01

    This document constitutes the final report of research conducted under the DOE grant {open_quotes}Studies of Spatial and Temporal Disorder in Macroscopic Systems{close_quotes}. There are three sections to this report, each describing research in a different general area, and a bibliography consisting of published journal articles reporting that research. The three sections are: the weak-noise characteristic boundary exit problem; spin glasses and other systems with quenched disorder; and dynamical problems arising from protein biophysics.

  17. Magnetic Vortices in Nanodisks: What are the implications in macroscopic magnetic properties?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelvez Pedroza, Ciro Fernando; Patino, Edgar J.; Superconductivity; Nanodevices Laboratory Team

    The study of nanodevices is of great importance nowadays. In particular nanodisks present extraordinary properties when varying their size, shape and materials. One of the most interesting ones has been the presence of magnetic vortices which are normally not present in continuous films or bulk materials. For that reason, these constitute of great interest in potential applications such as data storage, binary logic gates or nano-plasmonics. Although there are many high cost methods for fabrication we have chosen a low cost technique based on Colloidal Lithography. Using Polystyrene Nanoparticles (100nm) nanodisks of about 180 nm in diameter have been grown using Electron Beam evaporation. The fabrication technique requires a number of steps such as spin coating, oxygen plasma and Ion Beam Etching. The samples obtained with this method were Ti/Co/Nb nanodisks with various thickness of the Co layer. Micromagnetic simulations were carried out in OOMMF giving magnetic domain structure and hysteresis loops which were later compared with those obtained experimentally using Vibrating Sample Magnetometry. Simulation results suggest a critical thickness for the appearance of magnetic vortices, revealed by hysteresis loops with substantially lower coercive fields. Facultad de Ciencias,Vicerrectoria de Investigaciones - Universidad de los Andes.

  18. Measuring vessel dimensions in oak wood (Quercus sp.) on macroscopic level with image analysis system - Lucia G

    OpenAIRE

    Merela, Maks; Oven, Primož; Čufar, Katarina

    2005-01-01

    System for image analysis Lucia G was used for measuring vessel dimensions of oak wood (Quercus sp.) on macroscopic level. We present the problem of sample preparation as well as capturing and processing of images for automatic measurements of diameters, areas and perimeters of early wood vessels. After testing various methods of sample preparation we found out that the best results were obtained when the samples were sanded with paper of granulation 320 and the surface stained with black alc...

  19. Local origin of macroscopic properties and patterning in Lead zirconate titanate films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bintachitt, Patamas

    moved by both electrical and mechanical fields. In contrast, 180° domain walls can be moved by electric fields, but not by uniform stresses. In PZT films with mixed {111} and {001} orientation, some ferroelastic wall motion took place during loading, at stress levels on the order of GPa. The reduced elastic modulus is much higher on the unloading curve. Thus, on unloading, it is believed that there is no contribution from mechanical softening associated with ferroelasticity. The global polarization switching in polycrystalline, {001}-textured films on Si, and {001}-films on SrRuO3/SrTiO3 was studied through first order reversal curves (FORC) in order to assess the Preisach distribution governing the switching behavior. Acquisition of multiple hysteresis loops allows polarization switching parameters including nucleation biases, coercive biases, and the amount of switchable response to be mapped in real space. SS-PFM was studied on both bare PZT film surfaces and in capacitor structures (metal/PZT film/metal). The capacitor structure shows the evolution of correlated switching of 102 - 10 3 grain clusters with well-defined imprint and nucleation biases. A transition from a regime where the domain wall motion is over a short range to the formation of clusters to complete switching is observed. The switchable polarization as a function of bias window allows the voltage dependence and spatial distribution of regions with reversible and irreversible wall motions to be mapped. The final chapter of experimental work describes the patterning of PZT films for MEMS. The ability to dry etch large depths of ferroelectric materials such as lead zirconate titanate is important in both microelectromechanical systems and in high frequency medical ultrasound transducers. Dense Pb(Zr 0.52Ti0.48)O3 films (≥1 mum) were used to study the etching characteristics. The variation of the etch rate with gas flow rate, source power, substrate holder power, and operation pressure and the

  20. GRUCAL: a program system for the calculation of macroscopic group constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woll, D.

    1984-01-01

    Nuclear reactor calculations require material- and composition-dependent, energy-averaged neutron physical data in order to decribe the interaction between neutrons and isotopes. The multigroup cross section code GRUCAL calculates these macroscopic group constants for given material compositions from the material-dependent data of the group constant library GRUBA. The instructions for calculating group constants are not fixed in the program, but are read in from an instruction file. This makes it possible to adapt GRUCAL to various problems or different group constant concepts

  1. Finite element analysis of the macro fiber composite actuator: macroscopic elastic and piezoelectric properties and active control thereof by means of negative capacitance shunt circuit

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Steiger, Kateřina; Mokrý, P.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 2 (2015), 025026-025026 ISSN 0964-1726 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1206; GA ČR GA13-10365S Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : piezoelectric macro-fiber composite actuator * macroscopic material properties * finite element analysis (FEA) Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics Impact factor: 2.769, year: 2015 http://iopscience.iop.org/0964-1726

  2. The effect of inclusions on macroscopic composite elasticity: A systematic finite-element analysis of constituent and bulk elastic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoneda, A; Sohag, F H

    2010-01-01

    The bulk physical properties of composite systems are difficult to predict - even when the properties of the constituent materials in the system are well known. We conducted a finite-element method simulation to examine the inclusion effect by substituting an inclusion phase (second phase) into a host phase (first phase). We have organized the simulation results as a function of the elasticity of host and inclusion phases. In this procedure, special attention was paid to the initial change of elastic constants as the inclusion volume ratio was varied. To accomplish this, we introduced a new parameter D ij defined as the derivatives of the normalized stiffness elastic constant over the inclusion volume ratio. We succeeded in obtaining useful systematic formulations for D ij . These formulations are expected to be applicable to the study of composite systems in many disciplines, such as geophysics, mechanics, material engineering, and biology. The present results provide much more effective constraints on the physical properties of composite systems, like rocks, than traditional methods, such as the Voigt-Reuss bounds.

  3. Thermodynamical properties and thermoelastic coupling of complex macroscopic structure; Elastomeri proprieta` termodinamiche ed effetto termoelastico di una struttura complessa : teoria e prove termovisive sperimentali per una analisi di fattibilita`

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabbri, M.; Sacripanti, A. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dip. Innovazione

    1996-11-01

    Gross qualitative/quantitative analysis about thermodynamical properties and thermoelastic coupling (or elastocaloric effect) of complex macroscopic structure (running shoes) is performed by infrared camera. The experimental results showed the achievability of a n industrial research project.

  4. Conformity of macroscopic behavior to local properties in the catalytic ammonia synthesis and oscillatory reactions on metal surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Cholach, A. R.

    2016-01-01

    Unique catalytic potential of metal surfaces has encouraged a great number of basic and applied studies. The manuscript highlights the general regularities in a field on the grounds of strong interrelation between catalytic, kinetic and thermodynamic behaviour of the reaction system. The trials of the catalytic NH3 synthesis and the oscillatory NO+H2 reaction have revealed that the thermodynamics of the local structure determines the properties and multiplicity of the reaction intermediates e...

  5. Interpretation of macroscopic quantum phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, K.

    1986-01-01

    It is argued that a quantum theory without observer is required for the interpretation of macroscopic quantum tunnelling. Such a theory is obtained by augmenting QED by the actual electric field in the rest system of the universe. An equation of the motion of this field is formulated form which the correct macroscopic behavior of the universe and the validity of the Born interpretation is derived. Care is taken to use mathematically sound concepts only. (Author)

  6. Highly macroscopically degenerated single-point ground states as source of specific heat capacity anomalies in magnetic frustrated systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurčišinová, E.; Jurčišin, M.

    2018-04-01

    Anomalies of the specific heat capacity are investigated in the framework of the exactly solvable antiferromagnetic spin- 1 / 2 Ising model in the external magnetic field on the geometrically frustrated tetrahedron recursive lattice. It is shown that the Schottky-type anomaly in the behavior of the specific heat capacity is related to the existence of unique highly macroscopically degenerated single-point ground states which are formed on the borders between neighboring plateau-like ground states. It is also shown that the very existence of these single-point ground states with large residual entropies predicts the appearance of another anomaly in the behavior of the specific heat capacity for low temperatures, namely, the field-induced double-peak structure, which exists, and should be observed experimentally, along with the Schottky-type anomaly in various frustrated magnetic system.

  7. On disentanglement of quantum wave functions: Answer to a comment on ''Unified dynamics for microscopic and macroscopic systems''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghirardi, G.C.; Rimini, A.; Weber, T.

    1987-06-01

    It is shown that the assumption of a stochastic localization process for the quantum wave function is essentially different from the suppression of coherence over macroscopic distances arising from the interaction with the environment and allows for a conceptually complete derivation of the classical behaviour of macroscopic bodies. (author). 4 refs

  8. From microscopic to macroscopic sports injuries. Applying the complex dynamic systems approach to sports medicine: a narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pol, Rafel; Hristovski, Robert; Medina, Daniel; Balague, Natalia

    2018-04-19

    A better understanding of how sports injuries occur in order to improve their prevention is needed for medical, economic, scientific and sports success reasons. This narrative review aims to explain the mechanisms that underlie the occurrence of sports injuries, and an innovative approach for their prevention on the basis of complex dynamic systems approach. First, we explain the multilevel organisation of living systems and how function of the musculoskeletal system may be impaired. Second, we use both, a constraints approach and a connectivity hypothesis to explain why and how the susceptibility to sports injuries may suddenly increase. Constraints acting at multiple levels and timescales replace the static and linear concept of risk factors, and the connectivity hypothesis brings an understanding of how the accumulation of microinjuries creates a macroscopic non-linear effect, that is, how a common motor action may trigger a severe injury. Finally, a recap of practical examples and challenges for the future illustrates how the complex dynamic systems standpoint, changing the way of thinking about sports injuries, offers innovative ideas for improving sports injury prevention. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. The continuum limit of causal fermion systems from Planck scale structures to macroscopic physics

    CERN Document Server

    Finster, Felix

    2016-01-01

    This monograph introduces the basic concepts of the theory of causal fermion systems, a recent approach to the description of fundamental physics. The theory yields quantum mechanics, general relativity and quantum field theory as limiting cases and is therefore a candidate for a unified physical theory. From the mathematical perspective, causal fermion systems provide a general framework for describing and analyzing non-smooth geometries and "quantum geometries". The dynamics is described by a novel variational principle, called the causal action principle. In addition to the basics, the book provides all the necessary mathematical background and explains how the causal action principle gives rise to the interactions of the standard model plus gravity on the level of second-quantized fermionic fields coupled to classical bosonic fields. The focus is on getting a mathematically sound connection between causal fermion systems and physical systems in Minkowski space. The book is intended for graduate students e...

  10. Application of the inverse analysis for determining the material properties of the woven fabrics for macroscopic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleksik, Mihaela; Oleksik, Valentin

    2013-05-01

    The current paper intends to realise a fast method for determining the material characteristics in the case of composite materials used in the airbags manufacturing. For determining the material data needed for other complex numerical simulations at macroscopic level there was used the inverse analysis method. In fact, there were carried out tensile tests for the composite material extracted along two directions - the direction of the weft and the direction of the warp and afterwards there were realised numerical simulations (using the Ls-Dyna software). A second stage consisted in the numerical simulation through the finite element method and the experimental testing for the Bias test. The material characteristics of the composite fabric material were then obtained by applying a multicriterial analysis using the Ls-Opt software, for which there was imposed a decrease of the mismatch between the force-displacement curves obtained numerically and experimentally, respectively, for both directions (weft and warp) as well as the decrease of the mismatch between the strain - extension curves for two points at the Bias test.

  11. A mechanical mechanism for translocation of ring-shaped helicases on DNA and its demonstration in a macroscopic simulation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Y. C.

    2018-04-01

    The asymmetry in the two-layered ring structure of helicases and the random thermal fluctuations of the helicase and DNA molecules are considered as the bases for the generation of the force required for translocation of the ring-shaped helicase on DNA. The helicase comprises a channel at its center with two unequal ends, through which strands of DNA can pass. The random collisions between the portion of the DNA strand in the central channel and the wall of the channel generate an impulsive force toward the small end. This impulsive force is the starting point for the helicase to translocate along the DNA with the small end in front. Such a physical mechanism may serve as a complementary for the chemomechanical mechanism of the translocation of helicase on DNA. When the helicase arrives at the junction of ssDNA and dsDNA (a fork), the collision between the helicase and the closest base pair may produce a sufficient impulsive force to break the weak hydrogen bond of the base pair. Thus, the helicase may advance and repeat the process of unwinding the dsDNA strand. This mechanism was tested in a macroscopic simulation system where the helicase was simulated using a truncated-cone structure and DNA was simulated with bead chains. Many features of translocation and unwinding such as translocation on ssDNA and dsDNA, unwinding of dsDNA, rewinding, strand switching, and Holliday junction resolution were reproduced.

  12. Finite element analysis of the macro fiber composite actuator: macroscopic elastic and piezoelectric properties and active control thereof by means of negative capacitance shunt circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiger, Kateřina; Mokrý, Pavel

    2015-02-01

    The finite element method (FEM) model of a piezoelectric macro fiber composite (MFC) is presented. Using a specially developed numerical model, the complete set of macroscopic values of elastic compliance and piezoelectric tensors is computed. These values are useful in numerical FEM simulations of more complex systems such as noise and vibration suppression devices or active acoustic metamaterials, where the MFC actuator can be approximated by a plate-like uniform piezoelectric material. Using this approach, a great reduction of the FEM model complexity can be achieved. The computed numerical macroscopic values of the MFC actuator are compared with MFC manufacturer's data and with data obtained using different computational methods. A demonstration of active tuning of effective elastic constants of the piezoelectric MFC actuator by means of a shunt electric circuit is presented. The effective material constants are computed using the FEM model developed. The effect of the shunt circuit capacitance on the effective anisotropic Young's moduli is analyzed in detail. A method for finding the proper shunt circuit adjustment that yields the maximum values of the MFC actuator Young's modulus is shown. Possible applications to noise and vibration suppression are discussed.

  13. Large-scale structure of a network of co-occurring MeSH terms: statistical analysis of macroscopic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastrin, Andrej; Rindflesch, Thomas C; Hristovski, Dimitar

    2014-01-01

    Concept associations can be represented by a network that consists of a set of nodes representing concepts and a set of edges representing their relationships. Complex networks exhibit some common topological features including small diameter, high degree of clustering, power-law degree distribution, and modularity. We investigated the topological properties of a network constructed from co-occurrences between MeSH descriptors in the MEDLINE database. We conducted the analysis on two networks, one constructed from all MeSH descriptors and another using only major descriptors. Network reduction was performed using the Pearson's chi-square test for independence. To characterize topological properties of the network we adopted some specific measures, including diameter, average path length, clustering coefficient, and degree distribution. For the full MeSH network the average path length was 1.95 with a diameter of three edges and clustering coefficient of 0.26. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test rejects the power law as a plausible model for degree distribution. For the major MeSH network the average path length was 2.63 edges with a diameter of seven edges and clustering coefficient of 0.15. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test failed to reject the power law as a plausible model. The power-law exponent was 5.07. In both networks it was evident that nodes with a lower degree exhibit higher clustering than those with a higher degree. After simulated attack, where we removed 10% of nodes with the highest degrees, the giant component of each of the two networks contains about 90% of all nodes. Because of small average path length and high degree of clustering the MeSH network is small-world. A power-law distribution is not a plausible model for the degree distribution. The network is highly modular, highly resistant to targeted and random attack and with minimal dissortativity.

  14. Macroscopic transport equations in many-body systems from microscopic exclusion processes in disordered media: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Galanti

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Describing particle transport at the macroscopic or mesoscopic level in non-ideal environments poses fundamental theoretical challenges in domains ranging from inter and intra-cellular transport in biology to diffusion in porous media. Yet, often the nature of the constraints coming from many-body interactions or reflecting a complex and confining environment are better understood and modeled at the microscopic level.In this paper we review the subtle link between microscopic exclusion processes and the mean-field equations that ensue from them in the continuum limit. We show that in an inhomogeneous medium, i.e. when jumps are controlled by site-dependent hopping rates, one can obtain three different nonlinear advection-diffusion equations in the continuum limit, suitable for describing transport in the presence of quenched disorder and external fields, depending on the particular rule embodying site inequivalence at the microscopic level. In a situation that might be termed point-like scenario, when particles are treated as point-like objects, the effect of crowding as imposed at the microscopic level manifests in the mean-field equations only if some degree of inhomogeneity is enforced into the model. Conversely, when interacting agents are assigned a finite size, under the more realistic extended crowding framework, exclusion constraints persist in the unbiased macroscopic representation.

  15. Macroscopic transport equations in many-body systems from microscopic exclusion processes in disordered media: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galanti, Marta; Fanelli, Duccio; Piazza, Francesco

    2016-08-01

    Describing particle transport at the macroscopic or mesoscopic level in non-ideal environments poses fundamental theoretical challenges in domains ranging from inter and intra-cellular transport in biology to diffusion in porous media. Yet, often the nature of the constraints coming from many-body interactions or reflecting a complex and confining environment are better understood and modeled at the microscopic level. In this paper we review the subtle link between microscopic exclusion processes and the mean-field equations that ensue from them in the continuum limit. We show that in an inhomogeneous medium, i.e. when jumps are controlled by site-dependent hopping rates, one can obtain three different nonlinear advection-diffusion equations in the continuum limit, suitable for describing transport in the presence of quenched disorder and external fields, depending on the particular rule embodying site inequivalence at the microscopic level. In a situation that might be termed point-like scenario, when particles are treated as point-like objects, the effect of crowding as imposed at the microscopic level manifests in the mean-field equations only if some degree of inhomogeneity is enforced into the model. Conversely, when interacting agents are assigned a finite size, under the more realistic extended crowding framework, exclusion constraints persist in the unbiased macroscopic representation.

  16. Macroscopic magnetic Self assembly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Löthman, Per Arvid

    2018-01-01

    Exploring the macroscopic scale's similarities to the microscale is part and parcel of this thesis as reflected in the research question: what can we learn about the microscopic scale by studying the macroscale? Investigations of the environment in which the self-assembly takes place, and the

  17. From peptides and proteins to micro-structure mechanics and rheological properties of fibril systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linden, van der E.

    2012-01-01

    This article provides a summary of an example of how relationships between molecular scale properties and macroscopic properties are formulated, in this case with a focus on fibril microstructures and according system elasticity. Entropy plays a dominant role on all length scales. The elasticity is

  18. Descriptive macroscopic anatomy of the central nervous system six-banded armadillo (Euphractus sexcintus, Linnaeus, 1758 and nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus, Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Victor Silva Araújo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Armadillos of the species Dasypus novemcinctus and Euphractus sexcintus are xenarthrico is a mammal that inhabits fields and has several eating habits. This study proposes to analise the macroscopic anatomy of the nervous system of the armadillo peba, enabling comparisons with other mammals. Three animals of each species were to donated ICMBio - Chico Mendes Institute for Biodiversity, the Serra da Capivara National Park, authorized by SISBIO 22826-01, victims of poaching and they had died. The animals were stored in Histology and Embryology Laboratory of the Morphology Department of Health Sciences Center of the Federal University of Piauí. Initially, they were fixed with 10% buffered formalin for 24 hours and then dissected for observation of the organs forming the central nervous system. The central nervous system Armadillo consists of the brain and spinal cord. The macroscopic morphology, the central nervous system Armadillo resembles those of other mammals, however, anatomical features found in the brain and spinal cord suggest a higher olfactory expression and motor skills.

  19. Superposition and macroscopic observation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cartwright, N.D.

    1976-01-01

    The principle of superposition has long plagued the quantum mechanics of macroscopic bodies. In at least one well-known situation - that of measurement - quantum mechanics predicts a superposition. It is customary to try to reconcile macroscopic reality and quantum mechanics by reducing the superposition to a mixture. To establish consistency with quantum mechanics, values for the apparatus after a measurement are to be distributed in the way predicted by the superposition. The distributions observed, however, are those of the mixture. The statistical predictions of quantum mechanics, it appears, are not borne out by observation in macroscopic situations. It has been shown that, insofar as specific ergodic hypotheses apply to the apparatus after the interaction, the superposition which evolves is experimentally indistinguishable from the corresponding mixture. In this paper an idealized model of the measuring situation is presented in which this consistency can be demonstrated. It includes a simplified version of the measurement solution proposed by Daneri, Loinger, and Prosperi (1962). The model should make clear the kind of statistical evidence required to carry of this approach, and the role of the ergodic hypotheses assumed. (Auth.)

  20. Canonical quantization of macroscopic electromagnetism

    OpenAIRE

    Philbin, Thomas Gerard

    2010-01-01

    Application of the standard canonical quantization rules of quantum field theory to macroscopic electromagnetism has encountered obstacles due to material dispersion and absorption. This has led to a phenomenological approach to macroscopic quantum electrodynamics where no canonical formulation is attempted. In this paper macroscopic electromagnetism is canonically quantized. The results apply to any linear, inhomogeneous, magnetodielectric medium with dielectric functions that obey the Krame...

  1. Long-time behavior of macroscopic quantum systems. Commentary accompanying the English translation of John von Neumann's 1929 article on the quantum ergodic theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, S.; Lebowitz, J. L.; Tumulka, R.; Zanghì, N.

    2010-11-01

    The renewed interest in the foundations of quantum statistical mechanics in recent years has led us to study John von Neumann’s 1929 article on the quantum ergodic theorem. We have found this almost forgotten article, which until now has been available only in German, to be a treasure chest, and to be much misunderstood. In it, von Neumann studied the long-time behavior of macroscopic quantum systems. While one of the two theorems announced in his title, the one he calls the “quantum H-theorem”, is actually a much weaker statement than Boltzmann’s classical H-theorem, the other theorem, which he calls the “quantum ergodic theorem”, is a beautiful and very non-trivial result. It expresses a fact we call “normal typicality” and can be summarized as follows: for a “typical” finite family of commuting macroscopic observables, every initial wave function ψ0 from a micro-canonical energy shell so evolves that for most times t in the long run, the joint probability distribution of these observables obtained from ψt is close to their micro-canonical distribution.

  2. Macroscopic effects in attosecond pulse generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruchon, T; Varju, K; Mansten, E; Swoboda, M; L'Huillier, A; Hauri, C P; Lopez-Martens, R

    2008-01-01

    We examine how the generation and propagation of high-order harmonics in a partly ionized gas medium affect their strength and synchronization. The temporal properties of the resulting attosecond pulses generated in long gas targets can be significantly influenced by macroscopic effects, in particular by the intensity in the medium and the degree of ionization which control the dispersion. Under some conditions, the use of gas targets longer than the absorption length can lead to the generation of compressed attosecond pulses. We show these macroscopic effects experimentally, using a 6 mm-long argon-filled gas cell as the generating medium

  3. Macroscopic effects in attosecond pulse generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruchon, T; Varju, K; Mansten, E; Swoboda, M; L' Huillier, A [Department of Physics, Lund University, PO Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Hauri, C P; Lopez-Martens, R [Laboratoire d' Optique Appliquee, Ecole Nationale Superieure des Techniques Avancees (ENSTA)-Ecole Polytechnique CNRS UMR 7639, 91761 Palaiseau (France)], E-mail: anne.lhuillier@fysik.lth.se

    2008-02-15

    We examine how the generation and propagation of high-order harmonics in a partly ionized gas medium affect their strength and synchronization. The temporal properties of the resulting attosecond pulses generated in long gas targets can be significantly influenced by macroscopic effects, in particular by the intensity in the medium and the degree of ionization which control the dispersion. Under some conditions, the use of gas targets longer than the absorption length can lead to the generation of compressed attosecond pulses. We show these macroscopic effects experimentally, using a 6 mm-long argon-filled gas cell as the generating medium.

  4. The macroscopic pancake bounce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hecksher, Tina; Bro, Jonas Andersen; Jensen, Kasper Sternberg Brogaard

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate that the so-called pancake bounce of millimetric water droplets on surfaces patterned with hydrophobic posts (Liu et al 2014 Nat. Phys. 10 515) can be reproduced on larger scales. In our experiment, a bed of nails plays the role of the structured surface and a water balloon models...... the water droplet. The macroscopic version largely reproduces the features of the microscopic experiment, including the Weber number dependence and the reduced contact time for pancake bouncing. The scalability of the experiment confirms the mechanisms of pancake bouncing, and allows us to measure the force...... exerted on the surface during the bounce. The experiment is simple and inexpensive and is an example where front-line research is accessible to student projects....

  5. Assessments of macroscopicity for quantum optical states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laghaout, Amine; Neergaard-Nielsen, Jonas Schou; Andersen, Ulrik Lund

    2015-01-01

    With the slow but constant progress in the coherent control of quantum systems, it is now possible to create large quantum superpositions. There has therefore been an increased interest in quantifying any claims of macroscopicity. We attempt here to motivate three criteria which we believe should...... enter in the assessment of macroscopic quantumness: The number of quantum fluctuation photons, the purity of the states, and the ease with which the branches making up the state can be distinguished. © 2014.......With the slow but constant progress in the coherent control of quantum systems, it is now possible to create large quantum superpositions. There has therefore been an increased interest in quantifying any claims of macroscopicity. We attempt here to motivate three criteria which we believe should...

  6. Conversion of light into macroscopic helical motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iamsaard, Supitchaya; Aßhoff, Sarah J.; Matt, Benjamin; Kudernac, Tibor; Cornelissen, Jeroen J. L. M.; Fletcher, Stephen P.; Katsonis, Nathalie

    2014-03-01

    A key goal of nanotechnology is the development of artificial machines capable of converting molecular movement into macroscopic work. Although conversion of light into shape changes has been reported and compared to artificial muscles, real applications require work against an external load. Here, we describe the design, synthesis and operation of spring-like materials capable of converting light energy into mechanical work at the macroscopic scale. These versatile materials consist of molecular switches embedded in liquid-crystalline polymer springs. In these springs, molecular movement is converted and amplified into controlled and reversible twisting motions. The springs display complex motion, which includes winding, unwinding and helix inversion, as dictated by their initial shape. Importantly, they can produce work by moving a macroscopic object and mimicking mechanical movements, such as those used by plant tendrils to help the plant access sunlight. These functional materials have potential applications in micromechanical systems, soft robotics and artificial muscles.

  7. Hydration of swelling clays: multi-scale sequence of hydration and determination of macroscopic energies from microscopic properties; Hydratation des argiles gonflantes: sequence d'hydratation multi-echelle determination des energies macroscopiques a partir des proprietes microscopiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salles, F

    2006-10-15

    Smectites have interesting properties which make them potential candidates for engineered barriers in deep geological nuclear waste repository: low permeability, swelling and cations retention. The subject of this thesis consists in the determination of the relationship between hydration properties, swelling properties and cations mobility in relation with confinement properties of clayey materials. The aim is to understand and to predict the behaviour of water in smectites, following two research orientations: the mechanistic aspects and the energetic aspects of the hydration of smectites. We worked on the Na-Ca montmorillonite contained in the MX80 bentonite, with the exchanged homo ionic structure (saturated with alkaline cations and calcium cations). The approach crosses the various scales (microscopic, mesoscopic and macroscopic) and implied the study of the various components of the system (layer-cation-water), by using original experimental methods (thermo-poro-metry and electric conductivity for various relative humidities (RH) and electrostatic calculations. Initially, the dry state is defined by SCTA (scanning calorimetry thermal analysis). Then a classical characterization of the smectite porosity for the dry state is carried out using mercury intrusion and nitrogen adsorption. We evidenced the existence of a meso-porosity which radius varies from 2 to 10 nm depending on the compensating cation. The thermo-poro-metry and conductivity experiments performed at various hydration states made it possible to follow the increase in the pore sizes and the cations mobility as a function of the hydration state. We highlight in particular the existence of an osmotic mesoscopic swelling for low RH (approximately 50-60%RH for Li and Na). By combining the results of thermo-poro-metry, X-ray diffraction and electric conductivity, we are able to propose a complete hydration sequence for each cation, showing the crucial role of the compensating cation in the hydration of

  8. Thermomechanical macroscopic model of shape memory alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkov, A.E.; Sakharov, V.Yu.

    2003-01-01

    The phenomenological macroscopic model of the mechanical behaviour of the titanium nickelide-type shape memory alloys is proposed. The model contains as a parameter the average phase shear deformation accompanying the martensite formation. It makes i possible to describe correctly a number of functional properties of the shape memory alloys, in particular, the pseudoelasticity ferroplasticity, plasticity transformation and shape memory effects in the stressed and unstressed samples [ru

  9. Transport processes in macroscopically disordered media from mean field theory to percolation

    CERN Document Server

    Snarskii, Andrei A; Sevryukov, Vladimir A; Morozovskiy, Alexander; Malinsky, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    This book reflects on recent advances in the understanding of percolation systems to present a wide range of transport phenomena in inhomogeneous disordered systems. Further developments in the theory of macroscopically inhomogeneous media are also addressed. These developments include galvano-electric, thermoelectric, elastic properties, 1/f noise and higher current momenta, Anderson localization, and harmonic generation in composites in the vicinity of the percolation threshold. The book describes how one can find effective characteristics, such as conductivity, dielectric permittivity, magnetic permeability, with knowledge of the distribution of different components constituting an inhomogeneous medium. Considered are a wide range of recent studies dedicated to the elucidation of physical properties of macroscopically disordered systems. Aimed at researchers and advanced students, it contains a straightforward set of useful tools which will allow the reader to derive the basic physical properties of compli...

  10. Macroscopic optical response and photonic bands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pérez-Huerta, J S; Luis Mochán, W; Ortiz, Guillermo P; Mendoza, Bernardo S

    2013-01-01

    We develop a formalism for the calculation of the macroscopic dielectric response of composite systems made of particles of one material embedded periodically within a matrix of another material, each of which is characterized by a well-defined dielectric function. The nature of these dielectric functions is arbitrary, and could correspond to dielectric or conducting, transparent or opaque, absorptive and dispersive materials. The geometry of the particles and the Bravais lattice of the composite are also arbitrary. Our formalism goes beyond the long-wavelength approximation as it fully incorporates retardation effects. We test our formalism through the study of the propagation of electromagnetic waves in two-dimensional photonic crystals made of periodic arrays of cylindrical holes in a dispersionless dielectric host. Our macroscopic theory yields a spatially dispersive macroscopic response which allows the calculation of the full photonic band structure of the system, as well as the characterization of its normal modes, upon substitution into the macroscopic field equations. We can also account approximately for the spatial dispersion through a local magnetic permeability and analyze the resulting dispersion relation, obtaining a region of left handedness. (paper)

  11. Searching for the nanoscopic–macroscopic boundary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velásquez, E.A. [GICM and GES Groups, Instituto de Física-FCEN, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21 Medellín (Colombia); Grupo de Investigación en Modelamiento y Simulación Computacional, Universidad de San Buenaventura Sec. Medellín, A.A. 5222, Medellín (Colombia); Altbir, D. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Santiago de Chile (USACH), CEDENNA, Santiago (Chile); Mazo-Zuluaga, J. [GICM and GES Groups, Instituto de Física-FCEN, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21 Medellín (Colombia); Duque, L.F. [GICM and GES Groups, Instituto de Física-FCEN, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21 Medellín (Colombia); Grupo de Física Teórica, Aplicada y Didáctica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Aplicadas Instituto Tecnológico Metropolitano, Medellín (Colombia); Mejía-López, J., E-mail: jmejia@puc.cl [Facultad de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, CEDENNA, Santiago (Chile)

    2013-12-15

    Several studies have focused on the size-dependent properties of elements, looking for a unique definition of the nanoscopic–macroscopic boundary. By using a novel approach consisting of an energy variational method combined with a quantum Heisenberg model, here we address the size at which the ordering temperature of a magnetic nanoparticle reaches its bulk value. We consider samples with sizes in the range 1–500 nm, as well as several geometries and crystalline lattices and observe that, contrarily to what is commonly argued, the nanoscopic-microscopic boundary depends on both factors: shape and crystalline structure. This suggests that the surface-to-volume ratio is not the unique parameter that defines the behavior of a nanometric sample whenever its size increases reaching the bulk dimension. Comparisons reveal very good agreement with experimental evidence with differences less than 2%. Our results have broad implications for practical issues in measurements on systems at the nanometric scale. - Highlights: • A novel quantum-Heisenberg variational energy method is implemented. • The asymptotic behavior toward the thermodynamic limit is explored. • An important dependence of the nano-bulk boundary on the geometry is found. • And also an important dependence on the crystalline lattice. • We obtain a very good agreement with experimental evidence with differences <2%.

  12. Asymptotic Limits in Macroscopic Plasma Models

    OpenAIRE

    Jüngel, Ansgar

    2000-01-01

    A model hierarchy of macroscopic equations for plasmas consisting of electrons and ions is presented. The model equations are derived from the transient Euler-Poisson system in the zero-relaxation-time, zero-electron-mass and quasineutral limits. These asymptotic limits are performed using entropy estimates and compactness arguments. The resulting limits equations are Euler systems with a nonlinear Poisson equation and nonlinear drift-diffusion equations.

  13. Special relativity - the foundation of macroscopic physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, W.G.

    1978-01-01

    This book aims to show that an understanding of the basic laws of macroscopic systems can be gained more easily within relativistic physics than within Newtonian physics. The unity of dynamics, thermodynamics and electromagnetism under the umbrella of special relativity is examined under chapter headings entitled: the physics of space and time, affine spaces in mathematics and physics, foundations of dynamics, relativistic simple fluids, and, electrodynamics of polarizable fluids. (U.K.)

  14. From Tomography to Material Properties of Thermal Protection Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Nagi N.; Panerai, Francesco; Ferguson, Joseph C.; Borner, Arnaud; Barnhardt, Michael; Wright, Michael

    2017-01-01

    A NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) effort, under the Entry Systems Modeling (ESM) project, aims at developing micro-tomography (micro-CT) experiments and simulations for studying materials used in hypersonic entry systems. X-ray micro-tomography allows for non-destructive 3D imaging of a materials micro-structure at the sub-micron scale, providing fiber-scale representations of porous thermal protection systems (TPS) materials. The technique has also allowed for In-situ experiments that can resolve response phenomena under realistic environmental conditions such as high temperature, mechanical loads, and oxidizing atmospheres. Simulation tools have been developed at the NASA Ames Research Center to determine material properties and material response from the high-fidelity tomographic representations of the porous materials with the goal of informing macroscopic TPS response models and guiding future TPS design.

  15. Macroscopic quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favro, L.D.; Kuo, P.K.

    1976-01-01

    We investigate the quantum electrodynamics of many-body systems, and discuss the circumstances under which the results are identical to the results of classical electrodynamics. This classical behavior is shown to occur when the motion of a large number of the particles is correlated. The correlation manifests itself in a form of coherence which is characterized by the many-body quantum states being very nearly an eigenstate of the current operator. We present several explicit examples of quantum states which exhibit such coherence and show that they give the expected classical results. Nowhere do we assume h → 0

  16. Macroscopic superposition states and decoherence by quantum telegraph noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abel, Benjamin Simon

    2008-01-01

    In the first part of the present thesis we address the question about the size of superpositions of macroscopically distinct quantum states. We propose a measure for the ''size'' of a Schroedinger cat state, i.e. a quantum superposition of two many-body states with (supposedly) macroscopically distinct properties, by counting how many single-particle operations are needed to map one state onto the other. We apply our measure to a superconducting three-junction flux qubit put into a superposition of clockwise and counterclockwise circulating supercurrent states and find this Schroedinger cat to be surprisingly small. The unavoidable coupling of any quantum system to many environmental degrees of freedom leads to an irreversible loss of information about an initially prepared superposition of quantum states. This phenomenon, commonly referred to as decoherence or dephasing, is the subject of the second part of the thesis. We have studied the time evolution of the reduced density matrix of a two-level system (qubit) subject to quantum telegraph noise which is the major source of decoherence in Josephson charge qubits. We are able to derive an exact expression for the time evolution of the reduced density matrix. (orig.)

  17. Evaluation of soil structural changes through macroscopic and microscopic measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvin, Nargish; Chélin, Marie; Hiel, Marie-Pierre; Barbieux, Sophie; Bodson, Bernard; Garré, Sarah; Colinet, Gilles; Degré, Aurore

    2015-04-01

    The heterogeneity of soil structure and pore size distribution are highly influenced by external factors like tillage systems and other agricultural management practices. However, changes in soil hydrodynamic behavior are not fully understood and are still under research. Also, researchers have explained the impact of tillage practices on soil hydraulic properties related to pore size distribution, connectivity and orientation are involved but the characterization of these modifications and consequences remains a challenge. Furthermore, the relation between macroscopic measurements and microscopic investigation of the soil structure remains scarce. Recently, X-ray tomography (X- μCT) has been used in order to characterize changes in soil pore size distribution in various contexts and the method is able to link microtomography information to hydrodynamic measurement. In our study, X-μCT has been used in order to characterize changes in soil pore system. Since, tomography does not count most of the micropores, Richards' pressure plate and evaporation method was also combined to get complete range of pore size distribution. We found good match between evaporation data with X-μCT at the macropore scale and evaporation data with pressure plate method at micropore scale. X-μCT data refines retention and hydraulic curves near saturation where Richards' data alone can lead to numerous sets of fitted parameters. On the otherhand, evaporation data (Hyprop apparatus ©) provide comparable datasets with X-μCT. Combining micro and macroscopic measurements allows us to validate X-μCT information, which is otherwise not so obvious.

  18. Macroscopic superposition states and decoherence by quantum telegraph noise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abel, Benjamin Simon

    2008-12-19

    In the first part of the present thesis we address the question about the size of superpositions of macroscopically distinct quantum states. We propose a measure for the ''size'' of a Schroedinger cat state, i.e. a quantum superposition of two many-body states with (supposedly) macroscopically distinct properties, by counting how many single-particle operations are needed to map one state onto the other. We apply our measure to a superconducting three-junction flux qubit put into a superposition of clockwise and counterclockwise circulating supercurrent states and find this Schroedinger cat to be surprisingly small. The unavoidable coupling of any quantum system to many environmental degrees of freedom leads to an irreversible loss of information about an initially prepared superposition of quantum states. This phenomenon, commonly referred to as decoherence or dephasing, is the subject of the second part of the thesis. We have studied the time evolution of the reduced density matrix of a two-level system (qubit) subject to quantum telegraph noise which is the major source of decoherence in Josephson charge qubits. We are able to derive an exact expression for the time evolution of the reduced density matrix. (orig.)

  19. Rainbow correlation imaging with macroscopic twin beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allevi, Alessia; Bondani, Maria

    2017-06-01

    We present the implementation of a correlation-imaging protocol that exploits both the spatial and spectral correlations of macroscopic twin-beam states generated by parametric downconversion. In particular, the spectral resolution of an imaging spectrometer coupled to an EMCCD camera is used in a proof-of-principle experiment to encrypt and decrypt a simple code to be transmitted between two parties. In order to optimize the trade-off between visibility and resolution, we provide the characterization of the correlation images as a function of the spatio-spectral properties of twin beams generated at different pump power values.

  20. Single-Phase Bundle Flows Including Macroscopic Turbulence Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Jun; Yoon, Han Young [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Seok Jong; Cho, Hyoung Kyu [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    To deal with various thermal hydraulic phenomena due to rapid change of fluid properties when an accident happens, securing mechanistic approaches as much as possible may reduce the uncertainty arising from improper applications of the experimental models. In this study, the turbulence mixing model, which is well defined in the subchannel analysis code such as VIPRE, COBRA, and MATRA by experiments, is replaced by a macroscopic k-e turbulence model, which represents the aspect of mathematical derivation. The performance of CUPID with macroscopic turbulence model is validated against several bundle experiments: CNEN 4x4 and PNL 7x7 rod bundle tests. In this study, the macroscopic k-e model has been validated for the application to subchannel analysis. It has been implemented in the CUPID code and validated against CNEN 4x4 and PNL 7x7 rod bundle tests. The results showed that the macroscopic k-e turbulence model can estimate the experiments properly.

  1. Macroscopic proof of the Jarzynski–Wójcik fluctuation theorem for heat exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sughiyama, Yuki; Abe, Sumiyoshi

    2008-01-01

    In a recent work, Jarzynski and Wójcik (2004 Phys. Rev. Lett. 92 230602) have shown by using the properties of Hamiltonian dynamics and a statistical mechanical consideration that heat exchange through contact between two systems initially prepared at different temperatures obeys a fluctuation theorem. Here, another proof is presented, in which only macroscopic thermodynamic quantities are employed. The detailed balance condition is found to play an essential role. As a result, the theorem is found to hold under very general conditions

  2. Macroscopic nonclassical-state preparation via postselection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenegro, Víctor; Coto, Raúl; Eremeev, Vitalie; Orszag, Miguel

    2017-11-01

    Macroscopic quantum superposition states are fundamental to test the classical-quantum boundary and present suitable candidates for quantum technologies. Although the preparation of such states has already been realized, the existing setups commonly consider external driving and resonant interactions, predominantly by considering Jaynes-Cummings-like and beam-splitter-like interactions, as well as the nonlinear radiation pressure interaction in cavity optomechanics. In contrast to previous works on the matter, we propose a feasible probabilistic scheme to generate a macroscopic mechanical qubit, as well as phononic Schrödinger's cat states with no need of any energy exchange with the macroscopic mechanical oscillator. Essentially, we investigate an open dispersive spin-mechanical system in the absence of any external driving under nonideal conditions, such as the detrimental effects due to the oscillator and spin energy losses in a thermal bath at nonzero temperature. In our work, we show that the procedure to generate the mechanical qubit state is solely based on spin postselection in the weak to moderate coupling regime. Finally, we demonstrate that the mechanical superposition is related to the amplification of the mean values of the mechanical quadratures as they maximize the quantum coherence.

  3. Pathways toward understanding Macroscopic Quantum Phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, B L; Subaşi, Y

    2013-01-01

    Macroscopic quantum phenomena refer to quantum features in objects of 'large' sizes, systems with many components or degrees of freedom, organized in some ways where they can be identified as macroscopic objects. This emerging field is ushered in by several categories of definitive experiments in superconductivity, electromechanical systems, Bose-Einstein condensates and others. Yet this new field which is rich in open issues at the foundation of quantum and statistical physics remains little explored theoretically (with the important exception of the work of A J Leggett [1], while touched upon or implied by several groups of authors represented in this conference. Our attitude differs in that we believe in the full validity of quantum mechanics stretching from the testable micro to meso scales, with no need for the introduction of new laws of physics.) This talk summarizes our thoughts in attempting a systematic investigation into some key foundational issues of quantum macroscopic phenomena, with the goal of ultimately revealing or building a viable theoretical framework. Three major themes discussed in three intended essays are the large N expansion [2], the correlation hierarchy [3] and quantum entanglement [4]. We give a sketch of the first two themes and then discuss several key issues in the consideration of macro and quantum, namely, a) recognition that there exist many levels of structure in a composite body and only by judicious choice of an appropriate set of collective variables can one give the best description of the dynamics of a specific level of structure. Capturing the quantum features of a macroscopic object is greatly facilitated by the existence and functioning of these collective variables; b) quantum entanglement, an exclusively quantum feature [5], is known to persist to high temperatures [6] and large scales [7] under certain conditions, and may actually decrease with increased connectivity in a quantum network [8]. We use entanglement as a

  4. Mass properties measurement system dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doty, Keith L.

    1993-01-01

    The MPMS mechanism possess two revolute degrees-of-freedom and allows the user to measure the mass, center of gravity, and the inertia tensor of an unknown mass. The dynamics of the Mass Properties Measurement System (MPMS) from the Lagrangian approach to illustrate the dependency of the motion on the unknown parameters.

  5. Axial crystals macroscopic symmetry and tensor properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janovec, Václav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 1 (2017), s. 1-10 ISSN 0141-1594 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : axial * polar * pseudopolar * chiral * enantiomorphism * optical activity Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 1.060, year: 2016

  6. Macroscopic plasma properties and stability theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakanaka, P.H.

    1981-01-01

    1. Two-fluid equations: (a) Boltzmann equation: complete set of equations; collision models - Vlasov, BGK, Fokker-Planck-Landau, Boltzmann. (b) Moments of the Boltzmann equation: problem of closure. (c) Two-fluid equations. 2. One-fluid equation: (a) One-fluid variables. (b) One-fluid equations: quasi-neutrality. (c) Resistive MHD equations. (d) Ideal MHD equations: one-adiabatic approximation; double-adiabatic approximation - CGL. 3. MHD stability problem - energy principle: (a) Linearized ideal MHD equations: force-operator equation. (b) Boundary conditions. (c) Self-adjointness of force operator. (d) The energy principle. 4. Stability problems: application of the energy principle; stability of sharp-boundary plasmas. 5. Thermodynamic approach for stability of plasmas: Newcomb and Rosenbluth's stability criteria. (author)

  7. Macroscopic bulk cohesion and torque for wet granular materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roy, Sudeshna; Luding, Stefan; Weinhart, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Wet granular materials in steady-state in a quasi-static flow have been studied with discrete particle simulations. The total torque is an experimentally accessible macroscopic quantity that can be used to investigate the shear strength, bulk cohesion and other properties of the materials. We report

  8. Macroscopic definition of distributed swarm morphogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aznar, Fidel; Pujol, Mar; Rizo, Ramón

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, we present a system that will be able to obtain microscopic assembly behaviours for a robotic swarm to achieve an assembly target (macroscopic model). It will be designed taking into consideration the essential features of a self-assembling system needed to be implemented in a real robotic swarm. This system is composed of a typology of generative languages PD0L, and an algorithm for generating individual rules to be processed by the robots. The assembly process will be performed in a distributed manner, and will be also designed to require minimal communication capabilities between robots. Both the expressive capacities of language and the rule generation algorithm will be demonstrated by evaluating their performance with a core set of test morphologies widely used in self-assembly tasks. Furthermore, we compare the assembly time and the number of messages required between a classic controller (centralised) and our distributed approach.

  9. Macroscopic quantum tunneling in Mn12-acetat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beiter, J.; Reissner, M.; Hilscher, G.; Steiner, W.; Pajic, D.; Zadro, K.; Bartel, M.; Linert, W.

    2004-01-01

    Molecules provide the exciting opportunity to study magnetism on the passage from atomic to macroscopic level. One of the most interesting effects in such mesoscopic systems is the appearance of quantum tunnelling of magnetization (MQT) at low temperatures. In the last decade molecular chemistry has had a large impact in this field by providing new single molecule magnets. They consist of small clusters exhibiting superparamagnetic behavior, similar to that of conventional nanomagnetic particles. The advantage of these new materials is that they form macroscopic samples consisting of regularly arranged small identical high-spin clusters which are widely separated by organic molecules. The lack of distributions in size and shape of the magnetic clusters and the very weak intercluster interaction lead in principle to only one barrier for the spin reversal. We present detailed magnetic investigations on a Mn 12 -ac single crystal. In this compound the tetragonal ordered clusters consist of a central tetrahedron of four Mn 4+ (S = 3/2) atoms surrounded by eight Mn 3+ (S = 2) atoms with antiparallel oriented spins, leading to an overall spin moment of S = 10. In the hysteresis loops nine different jumps at regularly spaced fields are identified in the investigated temperature range (1.5 < T < 3 K). At these fields the relaxation of moment due to thermal activation is superimposed by strong quantum tunnelling. In lowering the temperature the time dependence changes from thermally activated to thermally assisted tunnelling. (author)

  10. Measurement contextuality is implied by macroscopic realism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zeqian; Montina, A.

    2011-01-01

    Ontological theories of quantum mechanics provide a realistic description of single systems by means of well-defined quantities conditioning the measurement outcomes. In order to be complete, they should also fulfill the minimal condition of macroscopic realism. Under the assumption of outcome determinism and for Hilbert space dimension greater than 2, they were all proved to be contextual for projective measurements. In recent years a generalized concept of noncontextuality was introduced that applies also to the case of outcome indeterminism and unsharp measurements. It was pointed out that the Beltrametti-Bugajski model is an example of measurement noncontextual indeterminist theory. Here we provide a simple proof that this model is the only one with such a feature for projective measurements and Hilbert space dimension greater than 2. In other words, there is no extension of quantum theory providing more accurate predictions of outcomes and simultaneously preserving the minimal labeling of events through projective operators. As a corollary, noncontextuality for projective measurements implies noncontextuality for unsharp measurements. By noting that the condition of macroscopic realism requires an extension of quantum theory, unless a breaking of unitarity is invoked, we arrive at the conclusion that the only way to solve the measurement problem in the framework of an ontological theory is by relaxing the hypothesis of measurement noncontextuality in its generalized sense.

  11. Macroscopic reality and the dynamical reduction program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghirardi, G.C.

    1995-10-01

    With reference to recently proposed theoretical models accounting for reduction in terms of a unified dynamics governing all physical processes, we analyze the problem of working out a worldview accommodating our knowledge about natural phenomena. We stress the relevant conceptual differences between the considered models and standard quantum mechanics. In spite of the fact that both theories describe individual physical systems within a genuine Hilbert space framework, the nice features of spontaneous reduction theories drastically limit the class of states which are dynamically stable. This allows one to work out a description of the world in terms of a mass density function in ordinary configuration space. A topology based on this function and differing radically from the one characterizing the Hilbert space is introduced and in terms of it the idea of similarity of macroscopic situations is made precise. Finally it is shown how the formalism and the proposed interpretation yield a natural criterion for establishing the psychophysical parallelism. The conclusion is that, within the considered theoretical models and at the nonrelativistic level, one can satisfy all sensible requirements for a consistent, unified, and objective description of reality at the macroscopic level. (author). 16 refs

  12. Seismic scanning tunneling macroscope - Theory

    KAUST Repository

    Schuster, Gerard T.

    2012-09-01

    We propose a seismic scanning tunneling macroscope (SSTM) that can detect the presence of sub-wavelength scatterers in the near-field of either the source or the receivers. Analytic formulas for the time reverse mirror (TRM) profile associated with a single scatterer model show that the spatial resolution limit to be, unlike the Abbe limit of λ/2, independent of wavelength and linearly proportional to the source-scatterer separation as long as the point scatterer is in the near-field region; if the sub-wavelength scatterer is a spherical impedance discontinuity then the resolution will also be limited by the radius of the sphere. Therefore, superresolution imaging can be achieved as the scatterer approaches the source. This is analogous to an optical scanning tunneling microscope that has sub-wavelength resolution. Scaled to seismic frequencies, it is theoretically possible to extract 100 Hz information from 20 Hz data by imaging of near-field seismic energy.

  13. Macroscopic description of spin transfer torque

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnas, J.; Fert, A.; Gmitra, M.; Weymann, I.; Dugaev, V.K.

    2006-01-01

    A macroscopic description of the current-induced torque due to spin transfer has been developed for layered systems consisting of ferromagnetic films, separated by nonmagnetic layers. The description is based on the classical spin diffusion equations for the distribution functions used in the theory of current-perpendicular-to-plane giant magnetoresistance (CPP-GMR), and the relevant boundary conditions for the longitudinal and transverse components of the spin current and spin accumulation. The torque is expressed as a function of the usual parameters derived from CPP-GMR experiments and two additional parameters involved in the transverse boundary conditions. The model describes qualitatively the normal and inverse switching phenomena studied in recent experiments. We also discuss a structure for which the spin torque disappears at a noncollinear magnetic configuration

  14. What in the (quantum) world is macroscopic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Gregg

    2014-09-01

    The notion of the macroscopic in fundamental quantum theory is analyzed. After a brief summary of use of the term macroscopic, its use in quantum theory is compared with its previous use elsewhere. Next, the connections specifically to the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics and quantum measurement theory more generally, where this term first began to deviate from previous uses, are explained and exhibited through a number of examples. Then, recent attempts to define accurately and quantitatively the extent of being macroscopic, that is, macroscopicity are discussed and their implications considered. This is done most particularly in the realm of quantum optics, where it differs most from previous uses and has recently been of considerable interest. Finally, with the benefit of this analysis, recommendations are made regarding future use of the notion of the macroscopic in fundamental physics.

  15. Calculations on nonlinear optical properties for large systems the elongation method

    CERN Document Server

    Gu, Feng Long; Springborg, Michael; Kirtman, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    For design purposes one needs to relate the structure of proposed materials to their NLO (nonlinear optical) and other properties, which is a situation where theoretical approaches can be very helpful in providing suggestions for candidate systems that subsequently can be synthesized and studied experimentally. This brief describes the quantum-mechanical treatment of the response to one or more external oscillating electric fields for molecular and macroscopic, crystalline systems. To calculate NLO properties of large systems, a linear scaling generalized elongation method for the efficient and accurate calculation is introduced. The reader should be aware that this treatment is particularly feasible for complicated three-dimensional and/or delocalized systems that are intractable when applied to conventional or other linear scaling methods.

  16. Rank distributions: A panoramic macroscopic outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliazar, Iddo I.; Cohen, Morrel H.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a panoramic macroscopic outlook of rank distributions. We establish a general framework for the analysis of rank distributions, which classifies them into five macroscopic "socioeconomic" states: monarchy, oligarchy-feudalism, criticality, socialism-capitalism, and communism. Oligarchy-feudalism is shown to be characterized by discrete macroscopic rank distributions, and socialism-capitalism is shown to be characterized by continuous macroscopic size distributions. Criticality is a transition state between oligarchy-feudalism and socialism-capitalism, which can manifest allometric scaling with multifractal spectra. Monarchy and communism are extreme forms of oligarchy-feudalism and socialism-capitalism, respectively, in which the intrinsic randomness vanishes. The general framework is applied to three different models of rank distributions—top-down, bottom-up, and global—and unveils each model's macroscopic universality and versatility. The global model yields a macroscopic classification of the generalized Zipf law, an omnipresent form of rank distributions observed across the sciences. An amalgamation of the three models establishes a universal rank-distribution explanation for the macroscopic emergence of a prevalent class of continuous size distributions, ones governed by unimodal densities with both Pareto and inverse-Pareto power-law tails.

  17. Mesoscopic kinetic basis of macroscopic chemical thermodynamics: A mathematical theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Hao; Qian, Hong

    2016-11-01

    Gibbs' macroscopic chemical thermodynamics is one of the most important theories in chemistry. Generalizing it to mesoscaled nonequilibrium systems is essential to biophysics. The nonequilibrium stochastic thermodynamics of chemical reaction kinetics suggested a free energy balance equation dF^{(meso)}/dt=E_{in}-e_{p} in which the free energy input rate E_{in} and dissipation rate e_{p} are both non-negative, and E_{in}≤e_{p}. We prove that in the macroscopic limit by merely allowing the molecular numbers to be infinite, the generalized mesoscopic free energy F^{(meso)} converges to φ^{ss}, the large deviation rate function for the stationary distributions. This generalized macroscopic free energy φ^{ss} now satisfies a balance equation dφ^{ss}(x)/dt=cmf(x)-σ(x), in which x represents chemical concentration. The chemical motive force cmf(x) and entropy production rate σ(x) are both non-negative, and cmf(x)≤σ(x). The balance equation is valid generally in isothermal driven systems and is different from mechanical energy conservation and the first law; it is actually an unknown form of the second law. Consequences of the emergent thermodynamic quantities and equalities are further discussed. The emergent "law" is independent of underlying kinetic details. Our theory provides an example showing how a macroscopic law emerges from a level below.

  18. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of macroscopic morphology and dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrall, Geoffrey Alden [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1995-09-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance techniques are traditionally used to study molecular level structure and dynamics with a noted exception in medically applied NMR imaging (MRI). In this work, new experimental methods and theory are presented relevant to the study of macroscopic morphology and dynamics using NMR field gradient techniques and solid state two-dimensional exchange NMR. The goal in this work is not to take some particular system and study it in great detail, rather it is to show the utility of a number of new and novel techniques using ideal systems primarily as a proof of principle. By taking advantage of the analogy between NMR imaging and diffraction, one may simplify the experiments necessary for characterizing the statistical properties of the sample morphology. For a sample composed of many small features, e.g. a porous medium, the NMR diffraction techniques take advantage of both the narrow spatial range and spatial isotropy of the sample`s density autocorrelation function to obtain high resolution structural information in considerably less time than that required by conventional NMR imaging approaches. The time savings of the technique indicates that NMR diffraction is capable of finer spatial resolution than conventional NMR imaging techniques. Radio frequency NMR imaging with a coaxial resonator represents the first use of cylindrically symmetric field gradients in imaging. The apparatus as built has achieved resolution at the micron level for water samples, and has the potential to be very useful in the imaging of circularly symmetric systems. The study of displacement probability densities in flow through a random porous medium has revealed the presence of features related to the interconnectedness of the void volumes. The pulsed gradient techniques used have proven successful at measuring flow properties for time and length scales considerably shorter than those studied by more conventional techniques.

  19. Macroscopic quantum waves in non local theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ventura, I.

    1979-01-01

    By means of an expansion in the density, it is shown that Macroscopic Quantum Waves also apear in non local theories. This result reinforces the conjecture that these waves should exist in liquid 4 He. (Author) [pt

  20. Macroscopic quantum waves in non local theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ventura, I.

    1979-01-01

    By means of an expansion in the density, it is shown that Macroscopic Quantum Waves also appear in non local theories. This result reinforces the conjecture that these waves should exist in liquid 4 He [pt

  1. Analysis and Enhancements of a Prolific Macroscopic Model of Epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Fietkiewicz, Christopher; Loparo, Kenneth A.

    2016-01-01

    Macroscopic models of epilepsy can deliver surprisingly realistic EEG simulations. In the present study, a prolific series of models is evaluated with regard to theoretical and computational concerns, and enhancements are developed. Specifically, we analyze three aspects of the models: (1) Using dynamical systems analysis, we demonstrate and explain the presence of direct current potentials in the simulated EEG that were previously undocumented. (2) We explain how the system was not ideally f...

  2. Problems related to macroscopic electric fields in the magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faelthammar, C.

    1977-01-01

    The macroscopic electric fields in the magnetosphere originate from internal as well as external sources. The fields are intimately coupled with the dynamics of magnetospheric plasma convection. They also depend on the complicated electrical properties of the hot collisionless plasma. Macroscopic electric fields are responsible for some important kinds of energization of charged particles that take place in the magnetosphere and affect not only particles of auroral energy but also, by multistep processes, trapped high-energy particles. A particularly interesting feature of magnetospheric electric fields is that they can have substantial components along the geomagnetic field, as has recently been confirmed by observations. Several physical mechanisms have been identified by which such electric fields can be supported even when collisions between particles are negligible. Comments are made on the magnetic mirror effect, anomalous resistivity, the collisionless thermoelectric effect, and electric double layers, emphasizing key features and differences and their significance in the light of recent observational data

  3. Macroscopic Neural Theories of Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    positive localizations of fMRI brain responses could be recorded from even as unlikely a specimen as a dead salmon . They pointed out that the...with their specific chemistry or genetic properties. However, this powerful technique does not, as sometimes suggested, permit the idiosyncratic...Wolford, G. L. (2011). Neural correlates of interspecies perspective taking in the post-mortem Atlantic Salmon : An argument for proper multiple

  4. Analysis and Enhancements of a Prolific Macroscopic Model of Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Fietkiewicz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Macroscopic models of epilepsy can deliver surprisingly realistic EEG simulations. In the present study, a prolific series of models is evaluated with regard to theoretical and computational concerns, and enhancements are developed. Specifically, we analyze three aspects of the models: (1 Using dynamical systems analysis, we demonstrate and explain the presence of direct current potentials in the simulated EEG that were previously undocumented. (2 We explain how the system was not ideally formulated for numerical integration of stochastic differential equations. A reformulated system is developed to support proper methodology. (3 We explain an unreported contradiction in the published model specification regarding the use of a mathematical reduction method. We then use the method to reduce the number of equations and further improve the computational efficiency. The intent of our critique is to enhance the evolution of macroscopic modeling of epilepsy and assist others who wish to explore this exciting class of models further.

  5. Analysis and Enhancements of a Prolific Macroscopic Model of Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fietkiewicz, Christopher; Loparo, Kenneth A.

    2016-01-01

    Macroscopic models of epilepsy can deliver surprisingly realistic EEG simulations. In the present study, a prolific series of models is evaluated with regard to theoretical and computational concerns, and enhancements are developed. Specifically, we analyze three aspects of the models: (1) Using dynamical systems analysis, we demonstrate and explain the presence of direct current potentials in the simulated EEG that were previously undocumented. (2) We explain how the system was not ideally formulated for numerical integration of stochastic differential equations. A reformulated system is developed to support proper methodology. (3) We explain an unreported contradiction in the published model specification regarding the use of a mathematical reduction method. We then use the method to reduce the number of equations and further improve the computational efficiency. The intent of our critique is to enhance the evolution of macroscopic modeling of epilepsy and assist others who wish to explore this exciting class of models further. PMID:27144054

  6. Modeling a nucleon system: static and dynamical properties - density fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idier, D.

    1997-01-01

    This thesis sets forth a quasi-particle model for the static and dynamical properties of nuclear matter. This model is based on a scale ratio of quasi-particle to nucleons and the projection of the semi-classical distribution on a coherent Gaussian state basis. The first chapter is dealing with the transport equations, particularly with the Vlasov equation for Wigner distribution function. The second one is devoted to the statics of nuclear matter. Here, the sampling effect upon the nuclear density is treated and the state equation of the Gaussian fluid is compared with that given by Hartree-Fock approximation. We define state equation as the relationship between the nucleon binding energy and density, for a given temperature. The curvature around the state equation minimum of the quasi-particle system is shown to be related to the speed of propagation of density perturbation. The volume energy and the surface properties of a (semi-)infinite nucleon system are derived. For the resultant saturated auto-coherent semi-infinite system of quasi-particles the surface coefficient appearing in the mass formula is extracted as well as the system density profile. The third chapter treats the dynamics of the two-particle residual interactions. The effect of different parameters on relaxation of a nucleon system without a mean field is studied by means of a Eulerian and Lagrangian modeling. The fourth chapter treats the volume instabilities (spinodal decomposition) in nuclear matter. The quasi-particle systems, initially prepared in the spinodal region of the utilized interaction, are set to evolve. It is shown then that the scale ratio acts upon the amount of fluctuations injected in the system. The inhomogeneity degree and a proper time are defined and the role of collisions in the spinodal decomposition as well as that of the initial temperature and density, are investigated. Assuming different effective macroscopic interactions, the influence of quantities as

  7. In-situ thermal analysis and macroscopical characterization of Mg–xCa and Mg–0.5Ca–xZn alloy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farahany, Saeed; Bakhsheshi-Rad, Hamid Reza; Idris, Mohd Hasbullah; Abdul Kadir, Mohammed Rafiq; Lotfabadi, Amir Fereidouni; Ourdjini, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The effect of Ca and Zn addition on Mg–Ca and Mg–Ca–Zn were investigated. ► Ca and Zn addition decreased solid fraction at coherency point. ► T N –T DCP increased by adding Ca and Zn in Mg–Ca and Mg–Ca–Zn, respectively. ► Three reactions were detected when Zn/Ca atomic ratio less than 1.25 in Mg–Ca–Zn. ► A new peak Mg 51 Zn 20 was identified in Mg–0.5Ca–9Zn in addition of other peaks. - Abstract: This research described the identification phases by thermal analysis and microscopy inspection of Mg–xCa and Mg–0.5%Ca–xZn alloys that were solidified at slow cooling rate. Analysis of cooling curve after Ca addition shows the evolution of the Mg 2 Ca intermetallic phase at around 520 °C in addition to α-Mg phase. First derivative curves of alloys after the addition of Zn to Mg–0.5Ca alloy reveals three peaks related to α-Mg, Mg 2 Ca and Ca 2 Mg 6 Zn 3 for alloys that have Zn/Ca atomic ratio less than 1.23. The peak of Mg 2 Ca reaction on the first derivative curves disappeared for alloys containing Zn/Ca ratio more than 1.23. A new peak was also observed at 330 °C for Mg–0.5Ca–9Zn which was identified as Mg 51 Zn 20 . Solid fraction at coherency point decreased with increasing Ca and Zn elements. However, coherency time and difference between the nucleation and coherency temperatures (T N –T DCP ) increased by adding Ca and Zn in Mg–Ca and Mg–Ca–Zn systems.

  8. Cloud Macroscopic Organization: Order Emerging from Randomness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Tianle

    2011-01-01

    Clouds play a central role in many aspects of the climate system and their forms and shapes are remarkably diverse. Appropriate representation of clouds in climate models is a major challenge because cloud processes span at least eight orders of magnitude in spatial scales. Here we show that there exists order in cloud size distribution of low-level clouds, and that it follows a power-law distribution with exponent gamma close to 2. gamma is insensitive to yearly variations in environmental conditions, but has regional variations and land-ocean contrasts. More importantly, we demonstrate this self-organizing behavior of clouds emerges naturally from a complex network model with simple, physical organizing principles: random clumping and merging. We also demonstrate symmetry between clear and cloudy skies in terms of macroscopic organization because of similar fundamental underlying organizing principles. The order in the apparently complex cloud-clear field thus has its root in random local interactions. Studying cloud organization with complex network models is an attractive new approach that has wide applications in climate science. We also propose a concept of cloud statistic mechanics approach. This approach is fully complementary to deterministic models, and the two approaches provide a powerful framework to meet the challenge of representing clouds in our climate models when working in tandem.

  9. In-situ thermal analysis and macroscopical characterization of Mg-xCa and Mg-0.5Ca-xZn alloy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farahany, Saeed [Department of Materials Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia); Bakhsheshi-Rad, Hamid Reza, E-mail: Rezabakhsheshi@gmail.com [Department of Materials Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia); Idris, Mohd Hasbullah [Department of Materials Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia); Abdul Kadir, Mohammed Rafiq [Medical Implants Technology Group, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia); Department of Biomechanics and Biomedical Materials, Faculty of Biomedical Engineering and Health Sciences, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia); Lotfabadi, Amir Fereidouni [Department of Manufacturing and Industrial Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia); Ourdjini, Ali [Department of Materials Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia)

    2012-01-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of Ca and Zn addition on Mg-Ca and Mg-Ca-Zn were investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ca and Zn addition decreased solid fraction at coherency point. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer T{sub N}-T{sub DCP} increased by adding Ca and Zn in Mg-Ca and Mg-Ca-Zn, respectively. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Three reactions were detected when Zn/Ca atomic ratio less than 1.25 in Mg-Ca-Zn. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new peak Mg{sub 51}Zn{sub 20} was identified in Mg-0.5Ca-9Zn in addition of other peaks. - Abstract: This research described the identification phases by thermal analysis and microscopy inspection of Mg-xCa and Mg-0.5%Ca-xZn alloys that were solidified at slow cooling rate. Analysis of cooling curve after Ca addition shows the evolution of the Mg{sub 2}Ca intermetallic phase at around 520 Degree-Sign C in addition to {alpha}-Mg phase. First derivative curves of alloys after the addition of Zn to Mg-0.5Ca alloy reveals three peaks related to {alpha}-Mg, Mg{sub 2}Ca and Ca{sub 2}Mg{sub 6}Zn{sub 3} for alloys that have Zn/Ca atomic ratio less than 1.23. The peak of Mg{sub 2}Ca reaction on the first derivative curves disappeared for alloys containing Zn/Ca ratio more than 1.23. A new peak was also observed at 330 Degree-Sign C for Mg-0.5Ca-9Zn which was identified as Mg{sub 51}Zn{sub 20}. Solid fraction at coherency point decreased with increasing Ca and Zn elements. However, coherency time and difference between the nucleation and coherency temperatures (T{sub N}-T{sub DCP}) increased by adding Ca and Zn in Mg-Ca and Mg-Ca-Zn systems.

  10. From System Complexity to Emergent Properties

    CERN Document Server

    Aziz-Alaoui, M. A

    2009-01-01

    Emergence and complexity refer to the appearance of higher-level properties and behaviours of a system that obviously comes from the collective dynamics of that system's components. These properties are not directly deductable from the lower-level motion of that system. Emergent properties are properties of the "whole'' that are not possessed by any of the individual parts making up that whole. Such phenomena exist in various domains and can be described, using complexity concepts and thematic knowledges. This book highlights complexity modelling through dynamical or behavioral systems. The pluridisciplinary purposes, developped along the chapters, are enable to design links between a wide-range of fundamental and applicative Sciences. Developing such links - instead of focusing on specific and narrow researches - is characteristic of the Science of Complexity that we try to promote by this contribution.

  11. Real Property Project Tracking System (RPPTS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Real Property Project Tracking System (RPPTS), formerly known as the Lease/Project Tracking (LEASE) database, contains information about lease and land projects...

  12. Magnetic properties of singlet ground state systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diederix, K.M.

    1979-01-01

    Experiments are described determining the properties of a magnetic system consisting of a singlet ground state. Cu(NO 3 ) 2 .2 1/2H 2 O has been studied which is a system of S = 1/2 alternating antiferromagnetic Heisenberg chains. The static properties, spin lattice relaxation time and field-induced antiferromagnetically ordered state measurements are presented. Susceptibility and magnetic cooling measurements of other compounds are summarised. (Auth.)

  13. Macroscopic Description for Networks of Spiking Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montbrió, Ernest; Pazó, Diego; Roxin, Alex

    2015-04-01

    A major goal of neuroscience, statistical physics, and nonlinear dynamics is to understand how brain function arises from the collective dynamics of networks of spiking neurons. This challenge has been chiefly addressed through large-scale numerical simulations. Alternatively, researchers have formulated mean-field theories to gain insight into macroscopic states of large neuronal networks in terms of the collective firing activity of the neurons, or the firing rate. However, these theories have not succeeded in establishing an exact correspondence between the firing rate of the network and the underlying microscopic state of the spiking neurons. This has largely constrained the range of applicability of such macroscopic descriptions, particularly when trying to describe neuronal synchronization. Here, we provide the derivation of a set of exact macroscopic equations for a network of spiking neurons. Our results reveal that the spike generation mechanism of individual neurons introduces an effective coupling between two biophysically relevant macroscopic quantities, the firing rate and the mean membrane potential, which together govern the evolution of the neuronal network. The resulting equations exactly describe all possible macroscopic dynamical states of the network, including states of synchronous spiking activity. Finally, we show that the firing-rate description is related, via a conformal map, to a low-dimensional description in terms of the Kuramoto order parameter, called Ott-Antonsen theory. We anticipate that our results will be an important tool in investigating how large networks of spiking neurons self-organize in time to process and encode information in the brain.

  14. Toward a superconducting quantum computer. Harnessing macroscopic quantum coherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jaw-Shen

    2010-01-01

    Intensive research on the construction of superconducting quantum computers has produced numerous important achievements. The quantum bit (qubit), based on the Josephson junction, is at the heart of this research. This macroscopic system has the ability to control quantum coherence. This article reviews the current state of quantum computing as well as its history, and discusses its future. Although progress has been rapid, the field remains beset with unsolved issues, and there are still many new research opportunities open to physicists and engineers.

  15. Stochastic stability properties of jump linear systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiangbo; Loparo, Kenneth A.; Ji, Yuandong; Chizeck, Howard J.

    1992-01-01

    Jump linear systems are defined as a family of linear systems with randomly jumping parameters (usually governed by a Markov jump process) and are used to model systems subject to failures or changes in structure. The authors study stochastic stability properties in jump linear systems and the relationship among various moment and sample path stability properties. It is shown that all second moment stability properties are equivalent and are sufficient for almost sure sample path stability, and a testable necessary and sufficient condition for second moment stability is derived. The Lyapunov exponent method for the study of almost sure sample stability is discussed, and a theorem which characterizes the Lyapunov exponents of jump linear systems is presented.

  16. A Review on Macroscopic Pedestrian Flow Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kormanová

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews several various approaches to macroscopic pedestrian modelling. It describes hydrodynamic models based on similarity of pedestrian flow with fluids and gases; first-order flow models that use fundamental diagrams and conservation equation; and a model similar to LWR vehicular traffic model, which allows non-classical shocks. At the end of the paper there is stated a comparison of described models, intended to find appropriate macroscopic model to eventually be a part of a hybrid model. The future work of the author is outlined.

  17. Macroscopic treatment of nuclear dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swiatecki, W.J.

    1984-05-01

    A qualitative classification of nucleus-nucleus reactions into four types is described, a consequence of the existence of up to three milestone configurations that a fusing system may be faced with. These considerations lead to phenomenological formulae for fusion and compound-nucleus cross-sections that may be compared with experiments by the use of rectilinear cross section plots. Examples of more specific model calculations of nuclear reactions employing the Chaotic Regime Dynamics are described. Some misunderstandings regarding the Wall and Wall-and-Window formulae, underlying this type of dynamics, are discussed in the appendix. 23 references

  18. Dynamic Properties of Impulse Measuring Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, A.; Lausen, P.

    1971-01-01

    After some basic considerations the dynamic properties of the measuring system are subjected to a general examination based on a number of responses, characteristic of the system. It is demonstrated that an impulse circuit has an internal impedance different from zero, for which reason...

  19. Inherent dynamic properties of interconnected power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ustinov, S.M. [St. Petersburg State Technical Univ. (Russian Federation). Dept. of Information and Control Systems; Milanovic, J.V. [UMIST, Manchester (United Kingdom). Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Electronics; Maslennikov, V.A. [St. Petersburg State Technical Univ. (Russian Federation). Dept. of Power Networks and Systems

    2002-06-01

    The paper presents the analytical formulae for calculation of the damping and frequency of the electromechanical modes in large interconnected power systems. The system used for the derivation of those formulae had a structure of a rectangular uniform grid of arbitrary dimensions. It is clearly shown that the low frequency inter-area (LFIA) oscillations are fundamental property of the large longitudinal systems. The reasons for poor damping of these modes are analysed. Analytical expressions for the corresponding eigenvalues are also derived and the modal properties of the LFIA oscillations are discussed. Analytically obtained results are verified through numerical simulations. (author)

  20. Wave speeds in the macroscopic extended model for ultrarelativistic gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borghero, F., E-mail: borghero@unica.it [Dip. Matematica e Informatica, Università di Cagliari, Via Ospedale 72, 09124 Cagliari (Italy); Demontis, F., E-mail: fdemontis@unica.it [Dip. Matematica, Università di Cagliari, Viale Merello 92, 09123 Cagliari (Italy); Pennisi, S., E-mail: spennisi@unica.it [Dip. Matematica, Università di Cagliari, Via Ospedale 72, 09124 Cagliari (Italy)

    2013-11-15

    Equations determining wave speeds for a model of ultrarelativistic gases are investigated. This model is already present in literature; it deals with an arbitrary number of moments and it was proposed in the context of exact macroscopic approaches in Extended Thermodynamics. We find these results: the whole system for the determination of the wave speeds can be divided into independent subsystems which are expressed by linear combinations, through scalar coefficients, of tensors all of the same order; some wave speeds, but not all of them, are expressed by square roots of rational numbers; finally, we prove that these wave speeds for the macroscopic model are the same of those furnished by the kinetic model.

  1. Macroscopic ordering of helical pores for arraying guest molecules noncentrosymmetrically

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunji; Cho, Joonil; Yamada, Kuniyo; Hashizume, Daisuke; Araoka, Fumito; Takezoe, Hideo; Aida, Takuzo; Ishida, Yasuhiro

    2015-09-01

    Helical nanostructures have attracted continuous attention, not only as media for chiral recognition and synthesis, but also as motifs for studying intriguing physical phenomena that never occur in centrosymmetric systems. To improve the quality of signals from these phenomena, which is a key issue for their further exploration, the most straightforward is the macroscopic orientation of helices. Here as a versatile scaffold to rationally construct this hardly accessible structure, we report a polymer framework with helical pores that unidirectionally orient over a large area (~10 cm2). The framework, prepared by crosslinking a supramolecular liquid crystal preorganized in a magnetic field, is chemically robust, functionalized with carboxyl groups and capable of incorporating various basic or cationic guest molecules. When a nonlinear optical chromophore is incorporated in the framework, the resultant complex displays a markedly efficient nonlinear optical output, owing to the coherence of signals ensured by the macroscopically oriented helical structure.

  2. Macroscopic polarization in crystalline dielectrics: the geometric phase approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resta, R.

    1994-01-01

    The macroscopic electric polarization of a crystal is often defined as the dipole of a unit cell. In fact, such a dipole moment is ill defined, and the above definition is incorrect. Looking more closely, the quantity generally measured is differential polarization, defined with respect to a ''reference state'' of the same material. Such differential polarizations include either derivatives of the polarization (dielectric permittivity, Born effective charges, piezoelectricity, pyroelectricity) or finite differences (ferroelectricity). On the theoretical side, the differential concept is basic as well. Owing to continuity, a polarization difference is equivalent to a macroscopic current, which is directly accessible to the theory as a bulk property. Polarization is a quantum phenomenon and cannot be treated with a classical model, particularly whenever delocalized valence electrons are present in the dielectric. In a quantum picture, the current is basically a property of the phase of the wave functions, as opposed to the charge, which is a property of their modulus. An elegant and complete theory has recently been developed by King-Smith and Vanderbilt, in which the polarization difference between any two crystal states--in a null electric field--takes the form of a geometric quantum phase. This gives a comprehensive account of this theory, which is relevant for dealing with transverse-optic phonons, piezoelectricity, and ferroelectricity. Its relation to the established concepts of linear-response theory is also discussed. Within the geometric phase approach, the relevant polarization difference occurs as the circuit integral of a Berry connection (or ''vector potential''), while the corresponding curvature (or ''magnetic field'') provides the macroscopic linear response

  3. Macroscopic quantum mechanics: theory and experimental concepts of optomechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yanbei

    2013-01-01

    Rapid experimental progress has recently allowed the use of light to prepare macroscopic mechanical objects into nearly pure quantum states. This research field of quantum optomechanics opens new doors towards testing quantum mechanics, and possibly other laws of physics, in new regimes. In the first part of this article, I will review a set of techniques of quantum measurement theory that are often used to analyse quantum optomechanical systems. Some of these techniques were originally designed to analyse how a classical driving force passes through a quantum system, and can eventually be detected with an optimal signal-to-noise ratio—while others focus more on the quantum-state evolution of a mechanical object under continuous monitoring. In the second part of this article, I will review a set of experimental concepts that will demonstrate quantum mechanical behaviour of macroscopic objects—quantum entanglement, quantum teleportation and the quantum Zeno effect. Taking the interplay between gravity and quantum mechanics as an example, I will review a set of speculations on how quantum mechanics can be modified for macroscopic objects, and how these speculations—and their generalizations—might be tested by optomechanics. (invited review)

  4. A System for Recommending Rental Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Shibwabo Kasamani

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an implementation of recommender technology to online search of rental properties. In particular, the paper uses the preference-based search approach combined with a technique called example-critiquing. Rather than perform a query against the database, this approach prompts the user to express some preferences on rental properties, uses them to construct a preference model for the user, and finally generates a list of properties that best match that preferences. The system is developed as Web application using the Ruby on Rails framework

  5. Cultivation of macroscopic marine algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryther, J.H.

    1982-11-01

    The red alga Gracilaria tikvahiae may be grown outdoors year-round in central Florida with yields averaging 35.5 g dry wt/m/sup 2/.day, greater than the most productive terrestrial plants. This occurs only when the plants are in a suspended culture, with vigorous aeration and an exchange of 25 or more culture volumes of enriched seawater per day, which is not cost-effective. A culture system was designed in which Gracilaria, stocked at a density of 2 kg wet wt/m/sup 2/, grows to double its biomass in one to two weeks; it is then harvested to its starting density, and anaerobically digested to methane. The biomass is soaked for 6 hours in the digester residue, storing enough nutrients for two weeks' growth in unenriched seawater. The methane is combusted for energy and the waste gas is fed to the culture to provide mixing and CO/sub 2/, eliminating the need for aeration and seawater exchange. The green alga Ulva lactuca, unlike Gracilaria, uses bicarbonate as a photosynthesis carbon source, and can grow at high pH, with little or no free CO/sub 2/. It can therefore produce higher yields than Gracilaria in low water exchange conditions. It is also more efficiently converted to methane than is Gracilaria, but cannot tolerate Florida's summer temperatures so cannot be grown year-round. Attempts are being made to locate or produce a high-temperature tolerant strain.

  6. Berkeley Experiments on Superfluid Macroscopic Quantum Effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Packard, Richard

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides a brief history of the evolution of the Berkeley experiments on macroscopic quantum effects in superfluid helium. The narrative follows the evolution of the experiments proceeding from the detection of single vortex lines to vortex photography to quantized circulation in 3He to Josephson effects and superfluid gyroscopes in both 4He and 3He

  7. Macroscopic invisibility cloaking of visible light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Xianzhong; Luo, Y.; Zhang, Jingjing

    2011-01-01

    to a few wavelengths. Here, we report the first realization of a macroscopic volumetric invisibility cloak constructed from natural birefringent crystals. The cloak operates at visible frequencies and is capable of hiding, for a specific light polarization, three-dimensional objects of the scale...

  8. Macroscopic Modeling of Polymer-Electrolyte Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, A.Z.; Newman, J.

    2007-04-01

    In this chapter, the various approaches for the macroscopic modeling of transport phenomena in polymer-electrolyte membranes are discussed. This includes general background and modeling methodologies, as well as exploration of the governing equations and some membrane-related topic of interest.

  9. Effective macroscopic adhesive contact behavior induced by small surface roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesari, Haneesh; Lew, Adrian J.

    2011-12-01

    In this paper we study a model contact problem involving adhesive elastic frictionless contact between rough surfaces. The problem's most notable feature is that it captures the phenomenon of depth-dependent-hysteresis (DDH) (e.g., see Kesari et al., 2010), which refers to the observation of different contact forces during the loading and unloading stages of a contact experiment. We specifically study contact between a rigid axi-symmetric punch and an elastic half-space. The roughness is represented as arbitrary periodic undulations in the punch's radial profile. These undulations induce multiple equilibrium contact regions between the bodies at each indentation-depth. Assuming that the system evolves so as to minimize its potential energy, we show that different equilibrium contact regions are selected during the loading and unloading stages at each indentation-depth, giving rise to DDH. When the period and amplitude of our model's roughness is reduced, we show that the evolution of the contact force and radius with the indentation-depth can be approximated with simpler curves, the effective macroscopic behavior, which we compute. Remarkably, the effective behavior depends solely on the amplitude and period of the model's roughness. The effective behavior is useful for estimating material properties from contact experiments displaying DDH. We show one such example here. Using the effective behavior for a particular roughness model (sinusoidal) we analyze the energy loss during a loading/unloading cycle, finding that roughness can toughen the interface. We also estimate the energy barriers between the different equilibrium contact regions at a fixed indentation-depth, which can be used to assess the importance of ambient energy fluctuations on DDH.

  10. Cholesterics of colloidal helices: predicting the macroscopic pitch from the particle shape and thermodynamic state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dussi, Simone; Belli, Simone; van Roij, René; Dijkstra, Marjolein

    2015-02-21

    Building a general theoretical framework to describe the microscopic origin of macroscopic chirality in (colloidal) liquid crystals is a long-standing challenge. Here, we combine classical density functional theory with Monte Carlo calculations of virial-type coefficients to obtain the equilibrium cholesteric pitch as a function of thermodynamic state and microscopic details. Applying the theory to hard helices, we observe both right- and left-handed cholesteric phases that depend on a subtle combination of particle geometry and system density. In particular, we find that entropy alone can even lead to a (double) inversion in the cholesteric sense of twist upon changing the packing fraction. We show how the competition between single-particle properties (shape) and thermodynamics (local alignment) dictates the macroscopic chiral behavior. Moreover, by expanding our free-energy functional, we are able to assess, quantitatively, Straley's theory of weak chirality, which is used in several earlier studies. Furthermore, by extending our theory to different lyotropic and thermotropic liquid-crystal models, we analyze the effect of an additional soft interaction on the chiral behavior of the helices. Finally, we provide some guidelines for the description of more complex chiral phases, like twist-bend nematics. Our results provide new insights into the role of entropy in the microscopic origin of this state of matter.

  11. Operator properties of generalized coherent state systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The main properties of standard quantum mechanical coherent states and the two generalizations of Klauder and of Perelomov are reviewed. For a system of generalized coherent states in the latter sense, necessary and sufficient conditions for existence of a diagonal coherent stable representation for all Hilbert-Schmidt ...

  12. Macroscopic and non-linear quantum games

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aerts, D.; D'Hooghe, A.; Posiewnik, A.; Pykacz, J.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: We consider two models of quantum games. The first one is Marinatto and Weber's 'restricted' quantum game in which only the identity and the spin-flip operators are used. We show that this quantum game allows macroscopic mechanistic realization with the use of a version of the 'macroscopic quantum machine' described by Aerts already in 1980s. In the second model we use non-linear quantum state transformations which operate on points of spin-1/2 on the Bloch sphere and which can be used to distinguish optimally between two non-orthogonal states. We show that efficiency of these non-linear strategies out-perform any linear ones. Some hints on the possible theory of non-linear quantum games are given. (author)

  13. Multiscale Investigation on Biofilm Distribution and Its Impact on Macroscopic Biogeochemical Reaction Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhifeng; Liu, Chongxuan; Liu, Yuanyuan; Bailey, Vanessa L.

    2017-11-01

    Biofilms are critical locations for biogeochemical reactions in the subsurface environment. The occurrence and distribution of biofilms at microscale as well as their impacts on macroscopic biogeochemical reaction rates are still poorly understood. This paper investigated the formation and distributions of biofilms in heterogeneous sediments using multiscale models and evaluated the effects of biofilm heterogeneity on local and macroscopic biogeochemical reaction rates. Sediment pore structures derived from X-ray computed tomography were used to simulate the microscale flow dynamics and biofilm distribution in the sediment column. The response of biofilm formation and distribution to the variations in hydraulic and chemical properties was first examined. One representative biofilm distribution was then utilized to evaluate its effects on macroscopic reaction rates using nitrate reduction as an example. The results revealed that microorganisms primarily grew on the surfaces of grains and aggregates near preferential flow paths where both electron donor and acceptor were readily accessible, leading to the heterogeneous distribution of biofilms in the sediments. The heterogeneous biofilm distribution decreased the macroscopic rate of biogeochemical reactions as compared with those in homogeneous cases. Operationally considering the heterogeneous biofilm distribution in macroscopic reactive transport models such as using dual porosity domain concept can significantly improve the prediction of biogeochemical reaction rates. Overall, this study provided important insights into the biofilm formation and distribution in soils and sediments as well as their impacts on the macroscopic manifestation of reaction rates.

  14. Macroscopic Quantum Resonators (MAQRO): 2015 update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaltenbaek, Rainer; Aspelmeyer, Markus; Kiesel, Nikolai; Barker, Peter F.; Bose, Sougato; Bassi, Angelo; Bateman, James; Bongs, Kai; Cruise, Adrian Michael; Braxmaier, Claus; Brukner, Caslav; Christophe, Bruno; Rodrigues, Manuel; Chwalla, Michael; Johann, Ulrich; Cohadon, Pierre-Francois; Heidmann, Antoine; Lambrecht, Astrid; Reynaud, Serge; Curceanu, Catalina; Dholakia, Kishan; Mazilu, Michael; Diosi, Lajos; Doeringshoff, Klaus; Peters, Achim; Ertmer, Wolfgang; Rasel, Ernst M.; Gieseler, Jan; Novotny, Lukas; Rondin, Loic; Guerlebeck, Norman; Herrmann, Sven; Laemmerzahl, Claus; Hechenblaikner, Gerald; Hossenfelder, Sabine; Kim, Myungshik; Milburn, Gerard J.; Mueller, Holger; Paternostro, Mauro; Pikovski, Igor; Pilan Zanoni, Andre; Riedel, Charles Jess; Roura, Albert; Schleich, Wolfgang P.; Schmiedmayer, Joerg; Schuldt, Thilo; Schwab, Keith C.; Tajmar, Martin; Tino, Guglielmo M.; Ulbricht, Hendrik; Ursin, Rupert; Vedral, Vlatko

    2016-01-01

    Do the laws of quantum physics still hold for macroscopic objects - this is at the heart of Schroedinger's cat paradox - or do gravitation or yet unknown effects set a limit for massive particles? What is the fundamental relation between quantum physics and gravity? Ground-based experiments addressing these questions may soon face limitations due to limited free-fall times and the quality of vacuum and microgravity. The proposed mission Macroscopic Quantum Resonators (MAQRO) may overcome these limitations and allow addressing such fundamental questions. MAQRO harnesses recent developments in quantum optomechanics, high-mass matter-wave interferometry as well as state-of-the-art space technology to push macroscopic quantum experiments towards their ultimate performance limits and to open new horizons for applying quantum technology in space. The main scientific goal is to probe the vastly unexplored 'quantum-classical' transition for increasingly massive objects, testing the predictions of quantum theory for objects in a size and mass regime unachievable in ground-based experiments. The hardware will largely be based on available space technology. Here, we present the MAQRO proposal submitted in response to the 4th Cosmic Vision call for a medium-sized mission (M4) in 2014 of the European Space Agency (ESA) with a possible launch in 2025, and we review the progress with respect to the original MAQRO proposal for the 3rd Cosmic Vision call for a medium-sized mission (M3) in 2010. In particular, the updated proposal overcomes several critical issues of the original proposal by relying on established experimental techniques from high-mass matter-wave interferometry and by introducing novel ideas for particle loading and manipulation. Moreover, the mission design was improved to better fulfill the stringent environmental requirements for macroscopic quantum experiments. (orig.)

  15. Testing quantum behaviour at the macroscopic level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghirardi, G.C.

    1994-07-01

    We reconsider recent proposals to test macro realism versus quantum mechanics in experiments involving noninvasive measurement processes on a Squid. In spite of the fact that we are able to prove that the proposed experiments do not represent a test of macro realism but simply of macroscopic quantum coherence we call attention to their extreme conceptual relevance. We also discuss some recent criticisms which have been raised against the considered proposal and we show that they are not relevant. (author). 12 refs

  16. Macroscopic Quantum Resonators (MAQRO): 2015 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaltenbaek, Rainer [University of Vienna, Vienna Center for Quantum Science and Technology, Vienna (Austria); Aspelmeyer, Markus; Kiesel, Nikolai [University of Vienna, Vienna Center for Quantum Science and Technology, Vienna (Austria); Barker, Peter F.; Bose, Sougato [University College London, Department of Physics and Astronomy, London (United Kingdom); Bassi, Angelo [University of Trieste, Department of Physics, Trieste (Italy); INFN - Trieste Section, Trieste (Italy); Bateman, James [University of Swansea, Department of Physics, College of Science, Swansea (United Kingdom); Bongs, Kai; Cruise, Adrian Michael [University of Birmingham, School of Physics and Astronomy, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Braxmaier, Claus [University of Bremen, Center of Applied Space Technology and Micro Gravity (ZARM), Bremen (Germany); Institute of Space Systems, German Aerospace Center (DLR), Bremen (Germany); Brukner, Caslav [University of Vienna, Vienna Center for Quantum Science and Technology, Vienna (Austria); Austrian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Quantum Optics and Quantum Information (IQOQI), Vienna (Austria); Christophe, Bruno; Rodrigues, Manuel [The French Aerospace Lab, ONERA, Chatillon (France); Chwalla, Michael; Johann, Ulrich [Airbus Defence and Space GmbH, Immenstaad (Germany); Cohadon, Pierre-Francois; Heidmann, Antoine; Lambrecht, Astrid; Reynaud, Serge [ENS-PSL Research University, Laboratoire Kastler Brossel, UPMC-Sorbonne Universites, CNRS, College de France, Paris (France); Curceanu, Catalina [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); Dholakia, Kishan; Mazilu, Michael [University of St. Andrews, School of Physics and Astronomy, St. Andrews (United Kingdom); Diosi, Lajos [Wigner Research Center for Physics, P.O. Box 49, Budapest (Hungary); Doeringshoff, Klaus; Peters, Achim [Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Institut fuer Physik, Berlin (Germany); Ertmer, Wolfgang; Rasel, Ernst M. [Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Hannover (Germany); Gieseler, Jan; Novotny, Lukas; Rondin, Loic [ETH Zuerich, Photonics Laboratory, Zuerich (Switzerland); Guerlebeck, Norman; Herrmann, Sven; Laemmerzahl, Claus [University of Bremen, Center of Applied Space Technology and Micro Gravity (ZARM), Bremen (Germany); Hechenblaikner, Gerald [Airbus Defence and Space GmbH, Immenstaad (Germany); European Southern Observatory (ESO), Garching bei Muenchen (Germany); Hossenfelder, Sabine [KTH Royal Institute of Technology and Stockholm University, Nordita, Stockholm (Sweden); Kim, Myungshik [Imperial College London, QOLS, Blackett Laboratory, London (United Kingdom); Milburn, Gerard J. [University of Queensland, ARC Centre for Engineered Quantum Systems, Brisbane (Australia); Mueller, Holger [University of California, Department of Physics, Berkeley, CA (United States); Paternostro, Mauro [Queen' s University, Centre for Theoretical Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics, School of Mathematics and Physics, Belfast (United Kingdom); Pikovski, Igor [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, ITAMP, Cambridge, MA (United States); Pilan Zanoni, Andre [Airbus Defence and Space GmbH, Immenstaad (Germany); CERN - European Organization for Nuclear Research, EN-STI-TCD, Geneva (Switzerland); Riedel, Charles Jess [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, ON (Canada); Roura, Albert [Universitaet Ulm, Institut fuer Quantenphysik, Ulm (Germany); Schleich, Wolfgang P. [Universitaet Ulm, Institut fuer Quantenphysik, Ulm (Germany); Texas A and M University Institute for Advanced Study (TIAS), Institute for Quantum Science and Engineering (IQSE), and Department of Physics and Astronomy, College Station, TX (United States); Schmiedmayer, Joerg [Vienna University of Technology, Vienna Center for Quantum Science and Technology, Institute of Atomic and Subatomic Physics, Vienna (Austria); Schuldt, Thilo [Institute of Space Systems, German Aerospace Center (DLR), Bremen (Germany); Schwab, Keith C. [California Institute of Technology, Applied Physics, Pasadena, CA (United States); Tajmar, Martin [Technische Universitaet Dresden, Institut fuer Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, Dresden (Germany); Tino, Guglielmo M. [Universita di Firenze, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia and LENS, INFN, Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Ulbricht, Hendrik [University of Southampton, Physics and Astronomy, Southampton (United Kingdom); Ursin, Rupert [Austrian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Quantum Optics and Quantum Information (IQOQI), Vienna (Austria); Vedral, Vlatko [University of Oxford, Atomic and Laser Physics, Clarendon Laboratory, Oxford (United Kingdom); National University of Singapore, Center for Quantum Technologies, Singapore (SG)

    2016-12-15

    Do the laws of quantum physics still hold for macroscopic objects - this is at the heart of Schroedinger's cat paradox - or do gravitation or yet unknown effects set a limit for massive particles? What is the fundamental relation between quantum physics and gravity? Ground-based experiments addressing these questions may soon face limitations due to limited free-fall times and the quality of vacuum and microgravity. The proposed mission Macroscopic Quantum Resonators (MAQRO) may overcome these limitations and allow addressing such fundamental questions. MAQRO harnesses recent developments in quantum optomechanics, high-mass matter-wave interferometry as well as state-of-the-art space technology to push macroscopic quantum experiments towards their ultimate performance limits and to open new horizons for applying quantum technology in space. The main scientific goal is to probe the vastly unexplored 'quantum-classical' transition for increasingly massive objects, testing the predictions of quantum theory for objects in a size and mass regime unachievable in ground-based experiments. The hardware will largely be based on available space technology. Here, we present the MAQRO proposal submitted in response to the 4th Cosmic Vision call for a medium-sized mission (M4) in 2014 of the European Space Agency (ESA) with a possible launch in 2025, and we review the progress with respect to the original MAQRO proposal for the 3rd Cosmic Vision call for a medium-sized mission (M3) in 2010. In particular, the updated proposal overcomes several critical issues of the original proposal by relying on established experimental techniques from high-mass matter-wave interferometry and by introducing novel ideas for particle loading and manipulation. Moreover, the mission design was improved to better fulfill the stringent environmental requirements for macroscopic quantum experiments. (orig.)

  17. Scanner-based macroscopic color variation estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chunghui; Lai, Di; Zeise, Eric

    2006-01-01

    Flatbed scanners have been adopted successfully in the measurement of microscopic image artifacts, such as granularity and mottle, in print samples because of their capability of providing full color, high resolution images. Accurate macroscopic color measurement relies on the use of colorimeters or spectrophotometers to provide a surrogate for human vision. The very different color response characteristics of flatbed scanners from any standard colorimetric response limits the utility of a flatbed scanner as a macroscopic color measuring device. This metamerism constraint can be significantly relaxed if our objective is mainly to quantify the color variations within a printed page or between pages where a small bias in measured colors can be tolerated as long as the color distributions relative to the individual mean values is similar. Two scenarios when converting color from the device RGB color space to a standardized color space such as CIELab are studied in this paper, blind and semi-blind color transformation, depending on the availability of the black channel information. We will show that both approaches offer satisfactory results in quantifying macroscopic color variation across pages while the semi-blind color transformation further provides fairly accurate color prediction capability.

  18. TRANSPORT PROPERTIES OF THE STRONGLY CORRELATED SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.Domanski

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The transport properties of various systems are studied here in the context of three different models. These are: - the disordered Hubbard model applicable to correlated binary alloys with a general disorder, - the Anderson model used in describing the Kondo physics of a quantum dot connected to the external superconducting leads, and - the Ranninger-Robaszkiewicz model applied to the study of optical properties of the system with preformed electron pairs above the temperature of transition to the superconducting state. We calculate the density of states, specific heat, the Wilson ratio and conductivity of the correlated binary alloy with off-diagonal disorder. We investigate the conditions under which the Kondo peak appears in the density of states and in the conductance of a dot coupled to the external superconducting leads. We analyze the effect of the pseudogap on the optical spectra in the high temperature superconductors described by the boson-fermion model.

  19. 'GAPHYOR': A computerized retrieval system for the properties of atoms, molecules, gases and plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delcroix, J.L.

    1977-01-01

    GAPHYOR (Gas Physics Orsay) is a computerized retrieval system for simple properties of atoms and molecules (e.g. energy levels, radiative life-times, dipole moments, polarisabilities...), their interaction properties (e.g. cross sections, reaction rates...) and the macroscopic properties of gases and plasmas (e.g. viscosities, electron and ion mobilities, thermodynamic functions ...). Chemical system covered, must be made from a small number of elements (1 to 4 in the most recent version) and include molecules of not more than eight atoms. This paper describes the basic principles of GAPHYOR and describes through some simple statistics, the present state of the system after six years of operation. At the beginning of November 1976 the file contains more than 33000 lines and it grows by about 10000 lines every year. This information comes from more than 300 journals, but 42% of the results is taken from the four main journals. The geographics analyses of the file provides interesting conclusions concerning the scientific production of the research centers and the policy of the countries with respect to scientific edition. Finally, the qualities, short comings and possible improvements of GAPHYOR are discussed [fr

  20. Macroscopic influence on the spontaneous symmetry breaking in quantum field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirzhnitz, D.A.

    1977-01-01

    Major results of investigations concerning macroscopic influence (heating, compression, external field and current) on elementary particle systems with spontaneous symmetry breaking are briefly reviewed. The study of this problem has been stimulated by recent progress in the unified renormalizable theory of elementary particles. Typically it appears that at some values of external parameters a phase transition with symmetry restoration takes place. There exists a profound and far going analogy with phase transition in many-body physics especially with superconductivity phenomenon. Some applications to cosmology are also considered

  1. Dynamical properties of unconventional magnetic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helgesen, G.

    1997-05-01

    The Advanced Study Institute addressed the current experimental and theoretical knowledge of the dynamical properties of unconventional magnetic systems including low-dimensional and mesoscopic magnetism, unconventional ground state, quantum magnets and soft matter. The main approach in this Advanced Study Institute was to obtain basic understanding of co-operative phenomena, fluctuations and excitations in the wide range unconventional magnetic systems now being fabricated or envisioned. The report contains abstracts for lectures, invited seminars and posters, together with a list of the 95 participants from 24 countries with e-mail addresses

  2. Macroscopic and microscopic assessments of the glenohumeral and subacromial synovitis in rotator cuff disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Chris H; Shin, Ji Sun; Kim, Ji Eun; Oh, Sohee

    2015-09-30

    Whereas synovitis is one of most common findings during arthroscopic surgery in patients with rotator cuff diseases, no study has investigated its characteristics. We propose a macroscopic assessment system for investigating the characteristics of synovitis. Fifty-four patients with a full-thickness rotator cuff tear undergoing arthroscopic rotator cuff repair with an average age of 62.5 ± 7.0 years were included. For the macroscopic assessment, 3 parameters, villous hypertrophy, hyperemia, and density, were measured and translated into grades in 3 regions-of-interest (ROI) in the glenohumeral joint and 4 ROIs in the subacromial space. For the microscopic assessments, 4 commonly used microscopic assessment systems were used. The reliability and association between the macroscopic and microscopic assessments were investigated. The inter- and intra-observer reliability of all of the macroscopic and microscopic assessments were excellent. The severity of synovitis was significantly greater in the glenohumeral joint than that in the subacromial space, 1.54 ± 0.61 versus 0.94 ± 0.56 (p system. Meanwhile, none of the microscopic assessment systems demonstrated differences between different ROIs in both the glenohumeral joint and the subacromial space. The macroscopic assessment system for synovitis in rotator cuff disease in this study showed excellent reliability. It critically described characteristics of synovitis that microscopic assessment systems could not. Therefore, this system could be a useful tool for investigating synovitis in rotator cuff disease.

  3. Useful and usable alarm systems : recommended properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veland, Oeystein; Kaarstad, Magnhild; Seim, Lars Aage; Foerdestroemmen, Nils T.

    2001-01-01

    This document describes the result of a study on alarm systems conducted by IFE in Halden. The study was initiated by the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate. The objective was to identify and formulate a set of important properties for useful and usable alarm systems. The study is mainly based on review of the latest international recognised guidelines and standards on alarm systems available at the time of writing, with focus on realistic solutions from research and best practice from different industries. In addition, IFE experiences gathered through specification and design of alarm systems and experimental activities in HAMMLAB and bilateral projects, have been utilized where relevant. The document presents a total of 43 recommendations divided into a number of general recommendations and more detailed recommendations on alarm generation, structuring, prioritisation, presentation and handling. (Author)

  4. Planetary ring systems properties, structures, and evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Murray, Carl D

    2018-01-01

    Planetary rings are among the most intriguing structures of our solar system and have fascinated generations of astronomers. Collating emerging knowledge in the field, this volume reviews our current understanding of ring systems with reference to the rings of Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and more. Written by leading experts, the history of ring research and the basics of ring–particle orbits is followed by a review of the known planetary ring systems. All aspects of ring system science are described in detail, including specific dynamical processes, types of structures, thermal properties and their origins, and investigations using computer simulations and laboratory experiments. The concluding chapters discuss the prospects of future missions to planetary rings, the ways in which ring science informs and is informed by the study of other astrophysical disks, and a perspective on the field's future. Researchers of all levels will benefit from this thorough and engaging presentation.

  5. Compressor Has No Moving Macroscopic Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasser, Max

    1995-01-01

    Compressor containing no moving macroscopic parts functions by alternating piston and valve actions of successive beds of magnetic particles. Fabricated easily because no need for precisely fitting parts rotating or sliding on each other. Also no need for lubricant fluid contaminating fluid to be compressed. Compressor operates continuously, eliminating troublesome on/off cycling of other compressors, and decreasing consumption of energy. Phased cells push fluid from bottom to top, adding increments of pressure. Each cell contains magnetic powder particles loose when electromagnet coil deenergized, but tightly packed when coil energized.

  6. Macroscopic quantum tunneling of the magnetic moment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejada, J.; Hernandez, J. M.; del Barco, E.

    1999-05-01

    In this paper we review the work done on magnetic relaxation during the last 10 years on both single-domain particles and magnetic molecules and its contribution to the discovery of quantum tunneling of the magnetic moment (Chudnovsky and Tejada, Macroscopic Quantum tunneling of the Magnetic moment, Cambridge University press, Cambridge, 1998). We present first the theoretical expressions and their connection to quantum relaxation and secondly, we show and discuss the experimental results. Finally, we discuss very recent hysteresis data on Mn 12Ac molecules at extremely large sweeping rate for the external magnetic field which suggest the existence of quantum spin—phonon avalanches.

  7. Decay property of Timoshenko system in thermoelasticity

    KAUST Repository

    Said-Houari, Belkacem

    2011-12-30

    We investigate the decay property of a Timoshenko system of thermoelasticity in the whole space for both Fourier and Cattaneo laws of heat conduction. We point out that although the paradox of infinite propagation speed inherent in the Fourier law is removed by changing to the Cattaneo law, the latter always leads to a solution with the decay property of the regularity-loss type. The main tool used to prove our results is the energy method in the Fourier space together with some integral estimates. We derive L 2 decay estimates of solutions and observe that for the Fourier law the decay structure of solutions is of the regularity-loss type if the wave speeds of the first and the second equations in the system are different. For the Cattaneo law, decay property of the regularity-loss type occurs no matter what the wave speeds are. In addition, by restricting the initial data to U 0∈H s(R)∩L 1,γ(R) with a suitably large s and γ ∈ [0,1], we can derive faster decay estimates with the decay rate improvement by a factor of t -γ/2. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Properties of on-line social systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, A.; Kruszewska, N.; Kosiński, R. A.

    2008-11-01

    We study properties of five different social systems: (i) internet society of friends consisting of over 106 people, (ii) social network consisting of 3 × 104 individuals, who interact in a large virtual world of Massive Multiplayer Online Role Playing Games (MMORPGs), (iii) over 106 users of music community website, (iv) over 5 × 106 users of gamers community server and (v) over 0.25 × 106 users of books admirer website. Individuals included in large social network form an Internet community and organize themselves in groups of different sizes. The destiny of those systems, as well as the method of creating of new connections, are different, however we found that the properties of these networks are very similar. We have found that the network components size distribution follow the power-law scaling form. In all five systems we have found interesting scaling laws concerning human dynamics. Our research has shown how long people are interested in a single task, how much time they devote to it and how fast they are making friends. It is surprising that the time evolution of an individual connectivity is very similar in each system.

  9. Macroscopic description of isoscalar giant multipole resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nix, J.R.; Sierk, A.J.

    1980-01-01

    On the basis of a simple macroscopic model, we calculate the isoscalar giant-resonance energy as a function of mass number and multipole degree. The restoring force is determined from the distortion of the Fermi surface, and the inertia is determined for the incompressible, irrotational flow of nucleons with unit effective mass. With no adjustable parameters, the resulting closed expression reproduces correctly the available experimental data, namely the magnitude and dependence upon mass number of the giant quadrupole energy and the magnitude of the giant octupole energy for 208 Pb. We also calculate the isoscalar giant-resonance width as a function of mass number and multipole degree for various macroscopic damping mechanisms, including two-body viscosity, one-body dissipation, and modified one-body dissipation. None of these damping mechanisms reproduces correctly all features of the available experimental data, namely the magnitude and dependence upon mass number of the giant quadrupole width and the magnitude of the giant octupole width for 208 Pb

  10. Imparting large macroscopic changes with small changes in polypeptide composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sing, Michelle; McKinley, Gareth; Olsen, Bradley

    Block copolymers composed of polypeptides provide an excellent platform for exploring the underlying physics surrounding macroscopic associative network behavior. Previous work in our group has elucidated a difference in the mechanical properties of two nearly identical elastin-like polypeptide (ELP) endblocks. In poly(ELP)s, this substitution is known to result in tighter beta turns. These beta turns exhibit slower responses to changes in temperature within the material. Under shear, the modulus for the alanine-containing ELP triblock is almost three times higher than the glycine-containing ELP. Additionally, preliminary tensile tests show higher stress and strain at break for the alanine ELP triblock. We are able to explain the reasons for this behavior using a variety of spectroscopic and analytical techniques. Small angle neutron and x-ray scattering indicate differences in ordering between the alanine and glycine containing ELP materials both in shear and in stagnant flow.

  11. Mechanical Behaviour of Materials Volume 1 Micro- and Macroscopic Constitutive Behaviour

    CERN Document Server

    François, Dominique; Zaoui, André

    2012-01-01

    Advances in technology are demanding ever-increasing mastery over the materials being used: the challenge is to gain a better understanding of their behaviour, and more particularly of the relations between their microstructure and their macroscopic properties.   This work, of which this is the first volume, aims to provide the means by which this challenge may be met. Starting from the mechanics of deformation, it develops the laws governing macroscopic behaviour – expressed as the constitutive equations – always taking account of the physical phenomena which underlie rheological behaviour. The most recent developments are presented, in particular those concerning heterogeneous materials such as metallic alloys, polymers and composites. Each chapter is devoted to one of the major classes of material behaviour.   As the subtitles indicate, Volume 1 deals with micro- and macroscopic constitutive behaviour and Volume 2 with damage and fracture mechanics. A third volume will be devoted to exercises and the...

  12. Global properties of systems quantized via bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doebner, H.D.; Werth, J.E.

    1978-03-01

    Take a smooth manifold M and a Lie algebra action (g-ation) theta on M as the geometrical arena of a physical system moving on M with momenta given by theta. It is proposed to quantize the system with a Mackey-like method via the associated vector bundle xisub(rho) of a principal bundle xi=(P,π,M,H) with model dependent structure group H and with g-action phi on P lifted from theta on M. This (quantization) bundle xisub(rho) gives the Hilbert space equal to L 2 (xisub(rho),ω) of the system as the linear space of sections in xisub(rho) being square integrable with respect to a volume form ω on M; the usual position operators are obtained; phi leads to a vector field representation D(phisub(rho),theta) of g in an hence Hilbert space to momentum operators. So Hilbert space carries the quantum kinematics. In this quantuzation the physically important connection between geometrical properties of the system, e.g. quasi-completeness of theta and G-maximality of phisub(rho), and global properties of its quantized kinematics, e.g. skew-adjointness of the momenta and integrability of D(phisub(rho), theta) can easily be studied. The relation to Nelson's construction of a skew-adjoint non-integrable Lie algebra representation and to Palais' local G-action is discussed. Finally the results are applied to actions induced by coverings as examples of non-maximal phisub(rho) on Esub(rho) lifted from maximal theta on M which lead to direct consequences for the corresponding quantum kinematics

  13. Magnetic susceptibility anisotropy: cylindrical symmetry from macroscopically ordered anisotropic molecules and accuracy of MRI measurements using few orientations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisnieff, Cynthia; Liu, Tian; Spincemaille, Pascal; Wang, Shuai; Zhou, Dong; Wang, Yi

    2013-04-15

    White matter is an essential component of the central nervous system and is of major concern in neurodegenerative diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS). Recent MRI studies have explored the unique anisotropic magnetic properties of white matter using susceptibility tensor imaging. However, these measurements are inhibited in practice by the large number of different head orientations needed to accurately reconstruct the susceptibility tensor. Adding reasonable constraints reduces the number of model parameters and can help condition the tensor reconstruction from a small number of orientations. The macroscopic magnetic susceptibility is decomposed as a sum of molecular magnetic polarizabilities, demonstrating that macroscopic order in molecular arrangement is essential to the existence of and symmetry in susceptibility anisotropy and cylindrical symmetry is a natural outcome of an ordered molecular arrangement. Noise propagation in the susceptibility tensor reconstruction is analyzed through its condition number, showing that the tensor reconstruction is highly susceptible to the distribution of acquired subject orientations and to the tensor symmetry properties, with a substantial over- or under-estimation of susceptibility anisotropy in fiber directions not favorably oriented with respect to the acquired orientations. It was found that a careful acquisition of three non-coplanar orientations and the use of cylindrical symmetry guided by diffusion tensor imaging allowed reasonable estimation of magnetic susceptibility anisotropy in certain major white matter tracts in the human brain. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Automatic mineral classification in the macroscopic scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschallinger, R.

    1997-02-01

    A method is introduced which enables reliable, automated mineral classification in the macroscopic scale. Polished rock samples are scanned by a color image scanner. Scanner output is split into red, green and blue component images to be evaluated by multispectral image processing methods. Different unsupervised and supervised image classification algorithms have been tested with medium-to-coarse grained crystalline rocks. Statistical evaluation of the results showed that the supervised maximum likelihood algorithm was the most robust approach: provided the minerals of interest show different hues, average mineral-phase recognition levels are approximately 90%. The result of the method is a classified raster image of mineral distribution which, besides giving rock modes, can be postprocessed by shape and fabric analysis programs or passed to 3D serial section reconstruction algorithms.

  15. Estimation of thermophysical properties in the system Li-Pb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jauch, U.; Schulz, B.

    1986-01-01

    Based on the phase diagram and the knowledge of thermophysical properties data of alloys and intermetallic compounds in the Li-Pb system, quantitative relationships between several properties and between the properties in solid and liquid state are used: to interpret the results on thermophysical properties in the quasibinary system LiPb-Pb and to estimate unknown properties in the concentration range 100 > Li (at.%) > 50. (orig.)

  16. Physically-based modeling of the cyclic macroscopic behaviour of metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauzay, M.; Evrard, P.; Steckmeyer, A.; Ferrie, E. [CEA Saclay, DEN DMN SRMA, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette (France)

    2010-07-01

    Grain size seems to have only a minor influence on the cyclic strain strain curves (CSSCs) of metallic polycrystals of medium to high stacking fault energy (SFE). That is why many authors tried to deduce the macroscopic CSSCs curves from the single crystals ones. Either crystals oriented for single slip or crystals oriented for multiple slip could be considered. In addition, a scale transition law should be used (from the grain scale to the macroscopic scale). Authors generally used either the Sachs rule (homogeneous single slip) or the Taylor one (homogeneous plastic strain, multiple slip). But the predicted macroscopic CSSCs do not generally agree with the experimental data for metals and alloys, presenting various SFE values. In order to avoid the choice of a particular scale transition rule, many finite element (FE) computations have been carried out using meshes of polycrystals including more than one hundred grains without texture. This allows the study of the influence of the crystalline constitutive laws on the macroscopic CSSCs. Activation of a secondary slip system in grains oriented for single slip is either allowed or hindered (slip planarity), which affects strongly the macroscopic CSSCs. The more planar the slip, the higher the predicted macroscopic stress amplitudes. If grains oriented for single slip obey slip planarity and two crystalline CSSCs are used (one for single slip grains and one for multiple slip grains), then the predicted macroscopic CSSCs agree well with experimental data provided the SFE is not too low (316L, copper, nickel, aluminium). Finally, the incremental self-consistent Hill-Hutchinson homogenization model is used for predicting CSS curves and partially validated with respect to the curves computed by the FE method. (authors)

  17. Stereoelectronic properties of aggregated chlorophyll systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christoffersen, R. E.; Maggiora, G. M.

    1979-09-01

    During the first nine months of the current contract, significant progress has occurred in several areas. All SCF CI studies of the singlet and triplet states of the neutral molecules Et-Chl a, Et-Pheo a, Et-BChl a, and Et-BPheo a, and the doublet states of the ..pi..-cation radicals Et-Chl a/sup +/. and Et-BChl a/sup +/. have now been completed. In addition, SCF CI calculations on BPheo a/sup -/. indicate that ..pi..-anion radicals can also be studied using the present approach. Similar work on a number of other ..pi..-cation and ..pi..-anion radicals is currently underway. Preliminary SCF CI studies have also been completed for benzoquinone and dihydroquinone, and studies on benzoquinone/sup -/. should be completed by the end of this year. The development and characterization of an empirical potential function is nearly complete, and data from selected systems is summarized. Implementation of a more efficient, quadratically convergent energy minimization procedure is also being carried out. This procedure should make it possible to study the geometry and properties of dimeric chlorophyll systems as well as various ligand-chlorophyll systems. Developmental work is continuing on the direct calculation of optical rotatory strengths.

  18. Entanglement property in matrix product spin systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Jingmin

    2012-01-01

    We study the entanglement property in matrix product spin-ring systems systemically by von Neumann entropy. We find that: (i) the Hilbert space dimension of one spin determines the upper limit of the maximal value of the entanglement entropy of one spin, while for multiparticle entanglement entropy, the upper limit of the maximal value depends on the dimension of the representation matrices. Based on the theory, we can realize the maximum of the entanglement entropy of any spin block by choosing the appropriate control parameter values. (ii) When the entanglement entropy of one spin takes its maximal value, the entanglement entropy of an asymptotically large spin block, i.e. the renormalization group fixed point, is not likely to take its maximal value, and so only the entanglement entropy S n of a spin block that varies with size n can fully characterize the spin-ring entanglement feature. Finally, we give the entanglement dynamics, i.e. the Hamiltonian of the matrix product system. (author)

  19. Properties of the open cluster system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janes, K.A.; Tilley, C.; Lynga, G.

    1988-01-01

    A system of weights corresponding to the precision of open cluster data is described. Using these weights, some properties of open clusters can be studied more accurately than was possible earlier. It is clear that there are three types of objects: unbound clusters, bound clusters in the thin disk, and older bound clusters. Galactic gradients of metallicity, longevity, and linear diameter are studied. Distributions at right angles to the galactic plane are discussed in the light of the different cluster types. The clumping of clusters in complexes is studied. An estimate of the selection effects influencing the present material of open cluster data is made in order to evaluate the role played by open clusters in the history of the galactic disk. 58 references

  20. Interfacial Properties of Polydimethylsiloxane-Water Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Ahmed E.; Grest, Gary S.; Stevens, Mark J.; Tsige, Mesfin; Heine, David R.

    2008-03-01

    Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is a main constituent of silicone adhesives, which have a wide use as adhesives. Often these adhesives are used as sealants. The interaction between water and PDMS is of fundamental importance. To improve our understanding at the molecular level, we have performed molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of PDMS in the presence of water, with the long-term goal of studying how water molecules effect debonding at the surface. Knowledge of the basic interfacial properties of a multicomponent system, such as the surface tension, contact angle, and diffusion constant, are essential to obtain the proper dynamic behavior in a molecular simulation of adhesion and wetting processes. Explicit-atom simulations of 10^5 or more atoms were used to determine liquid-vapor surface tension and the contact angle for water on the surface of PDMS. We present results for the dependence of the surface tension on chain length and end-group functionality.

  1. Consistent thermodynamic properties of lipids systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cunico, Larissa; Ceriani, Roberta; Sarup, Bent

    Physical and thermodynamic properties of pure components and their mixtures are the basic requirement for process design, simulation, and optimization. In the case of lipids, our previous works[1-3] have indicated a lack of experimental data for pure components and also for their mixtures...... different pressures, with azeotrope behavior observed. Available thermodynamic consistency tests for TPx data were applied before performing parameter regressions for Wilson, NRTL, UNIQUAC and original UNIFAC models. The relevance of enlarging experimental databank of lipids systems data in order to improve...... the performance of predictive thermodynamic models was confirmed in this work by analyzing the calculated values of original UNIFAC model. For solid-liquid equilibrium (SLE) data, new consistency tests have been developed [2]. Some of the developed tests were based in the quality tests proposed for VLE data...

  2. Bouncing droplets: a classroom experiment to visualize wave-particle duality on the macroscopic level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sleutel, Pascal; Dietrich, Erik; Veen, Jan T Van der; Joolingen, Wouter R van

    2016-01-01

    This study brings a recently discovered macroscopic phenomenon with wave-particle characteristics into the classroom. The system consists of a liquid droplet levitating over a vertically shaken liquid pool. The droplets allow visualization of a wave–particle system in a directly observable way. We show how to interpret this macroscopic phenomenon and how to set up and carry out this experiment. A class of students performed single slit diffraction experiments with droplets. By scoring individual droplet trajectories students find a diffraction pattern. This pilot application in the classroom shows that students can study and discuss the wave–particle nature of the bouncing droplet experiment. The experiment therefore provides a useful opportunity to show wave–particle behavior on the macroscopic level. (paper)

  3. Bouncing droplets : A classroom experiment to visualize wave-particle duality on the macroscopic level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sleutel, Pascal; Dietrich, Erik; Van Der Veen, Jan T.; Van Joolingen, Wouter R.

    2016-01-01

    This study brings a recently discovered macroscopic phenomenon with wave-particle characteristics into the classroom. The system consists of a liquid droplet levitating over a vertically shaken liquid pool. The droplets allow visualization of a wave-particle system in a directly observable way. We

  4. Proton irradiation effects on beryllium - A macroscopic assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simos, Nikolaos; Elbakhshwan, Mohamed; Zhong, Zhong; Camino, Fernando

    2016-10-01

    Beryllium, due to its excellent neutron multiplication and moderation properties, in conjunction with its good thermal properties, is under consideration for use as plasma facing material in fusion reactors and as a very effective neutron reflector in fission reactors. While it is characterized by unique combination of structural, chemical, atomic number, and neutron absorption cross section it suffers, however, from irradiation generated transmutation gases such as helium and tritium which exhibit low solubility leading to supersaturation of the Be matrix and tend to precipitate into bubbles that coalesce and induce swelling and embrittlement thus degrading the metal and limiting its lifetime. Utilization of beryllium as a pion production low-Z target in high power proton accelerators has been sought both for its low Z and good thermal properties in an effort to mitigate thermos-mechanical shock that is expected to be induced under the multi-MW power demand. To assess irradiation-induced changes in the thermal and mechanical properties of Beryllium, a study focusing on proton irradiation damage effects has been undertaken using 200 MeV protons from the Brookhaven National Laboratory Linac and followed by a multi-faceted post-irradiation analysis that included the thermal and volumetric stability of irradiated beryllium, the stress-strain behavior and its ductility loss as a function of proton fluence and the effects of proton irradiation on the microstructure using synchrotron X-ray diffraction. The mimicking of high temperature irradiation of Beryllium via high temperature annealing schemes has been conducted as part of the post-irradiation study. This paper focuses on the thermal stability and mechanical property changes of the proton irradiated beryllium and presents results of the macroscopic property changes of Beryllium deduced from thermal and mechanical tests.

  5. Molecular dynamics simulations of a fully hydrated dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine bilayer with different macroscopic boundary conditions and parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tieleman, D.P; Berendsen, H.J.C.

    1996-01-01

    We compared molecular dynamics simulations of a bilayer of 128 fully hydrated phospholipid (DPPC) molecules, using different parameters and macroscopic boundary conditions. The same system was studied under constant pressure, constant volume, and constant surface tension boundary conditions, with

  6. Numerical model for macroscopic quantum superpositions based on phase-covariant quantum cloning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buraczewski, A.; Stobińska, M.

    2012-10-01

    Macroscopically populated quantum superpositions pose a question to what extent the macroscopic world obeys quantum mechanical laws. Recently, such superpositions for light, generated by an optimal quantum cloner, have been demonstrated. They are of fundamental and technological interest. We present numerical methods useful for modeling of these states. Their properties are governed by a Gaussian hypergeometric function, which cannot be reduced to either elementary or easily tractable functions. We discuss the method of efficient computation of this function for half-integer parameters and a moderate value of its argument. We show how to dynamically estimate a cutoff for infinite sums involving this function performed over its parameters. Our algorithm exceeds double precision and is parallelizable. Depending on the experimental parameters it chooses one of the several ways of summation to achieve the best efficiency. The methods presented here can be adjusted for analysis of similar experimental schemes. Program summary Program title: MQSVIS Catalogue identifier: AEMR_ v1_ 0 Program summary URL: http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEMR_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1643 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 13212 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C with OpenMP extensions (main numerical program), Python (helper scripts). Computer: Modern PC (tested on AMD and Intel processors), HP BL2x220. Operating system: Unix/Linux. Has the code been vectorized or parallelized?: Yes (OpenMP). RAM: 200 MB for single run for 1000×1000 tile Classification: 4.15, 18. External routines: OpenMP Nature of problem: Recently, macroscopically populated quantum superpositions for light, generated by an optimal quantum cloner, have

  7. Observation of radiation pressure shot noise on a macroscopic object.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdy, T P; Peterson, R W; Regal, C A

    2013-02-15

    The quantum mechanics of position measurement of a macroscopic object is typically inaccessible because of strong coupling to the environment and classical noise. In this work, we monitor a mechanical resonator subject to an increasingly strong continuous position measurement and observe a quantum mechanical back-action force that rises in accordance with the Heisenberg uncertainty limit. For our optically based position measurements, the back-action takes the form of a fluctuating radiation pressure from the Poisson-distributed photons in the coherent measurement field, termed radiation pressure shot noise. We demonstrate a back-action force that is comparable in magnitude to the thermal forces in our system. Additionally, we observe a temporal correlation between fluctuations in the radiation force and in the position of the resonator.

  8. Three lectures on macroscopic aspects of nuclear dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swiatecki, W.J.

    1980-01-01

    In these lectures the macroscopic aspects of nuclear dynamics were discussed, that is those aspects that come into prominence when the number of nucleons A is large, A >> 1. The first lecture dealt with statics, and methods of treating the potential energy function of nuclear systems were discussed. It was shown that from the potential energy the conservative forces that drive the time evolution of a nuclear configuration can be deduced. The second lecture dealt with dynamical aspects, especially with the nuclear dissipation function, which describes how dissipative frictional forces oppose the conservative driving forces. In the third lecture the kind of dynamics that results from the balance of these forces was outlined and a number of applications to nuclear fission and heavy ion collisions of this 'New Dynamics' were described. (UK)

  9. Macroscopic Floquet topological crystalline steel and superconductor pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Anna M. E. B.; Bugase, Jonas; Fischer, Thomas M.

    2017-08-01

    The transport of a macroscopic steel sphere and a superconducting sphere on top of two-dimensional periodic magnetic patterns is studied experimentally and compared with the theory and with experiments on topological transport of magnetic colloids. Transport of the steel and superconducting sphere is achieved by moving an external permanent magnet on a closed loop around the two-dimensional crystal. The transport is topological, i.e., the spheres are transported by a primitive unit vector of the lattice when the external magnet loop winds around specific directions. We experimentally determine the set of directions the loops must enclose for nontrivial transport of the spheres into various directions. We show that the loops can be used to sort steel and superconducting spheres. We show that the topological transport is robust with respect to the scale of the system and therefore speculate on its down scalability to the molecular scale.

  10. Stress fluctuations and macroscopic stick-slip in granular materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evesque, P; Adjémian, F

    2002-11-01

    This paper deals with the quasi-static regime of deformation of granular matter. It investigates the size of the Representative Elementary Volume (REV), which is the minimum packing size above which the macroscopic mechanical behaviour of granular materials can be defined from averaging. The first part uses typical results from recent literature and finds that the minimum REV contains in general 10 grains; this result holds true either for most experiments or for Discrete Element Method (DEM) simulation. This appears to be quite small. However, the second part gives a counterexample, which has been found when investigating uniaxial compression of glass spheres which exhibit stick-slip; we show in this case that the minimum REV becomes 10(7) grains. This makes the system not computable by DEM. Moreover, similarity between the Richter law of seism and the exponential statistics of stick-slip is stressed.

  11. Investigation of dissipative forces near macroscopic media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, R.S.

    1982-12-01

    The interaction of classical charged particles with the fields they induce in macroscopic dielectric media is investigated. For 10- to 1000-eV electrons, the angular perturbation of the trajectory by the image potential for surface impact parameters of 50 to 100 A is shown to be of the order of 0.001 rads over a distance of 100 A. The energy loss incurred by low-energy particles due to collective excitations such as surface plasmons is shown to be observable with a transition probability of 0.01 to 0.001 (Becker, et al., 1981b). The dispersion of real surface plasmon modes in planar and cylindrical geometries is discussed and is derived for pinhole geometry described in terms of a single-sheeted hyperboloid of revolution. An experimental apparatus for the measurement of collective losses for medium-energy electrons translating close to a dielectric surface is described and discussed. Data showing such losses at electron energies of 500 to 900 eV in silver foils containing many small apertures are presented and shown to be in good agreement with classical stopping power calculations and quantum mechanical calculations carried out in the low-velocity limit. The data and calculations are compared and contrasted with earlier transmission and reflection measurements, and the course of further investigation is discussed.

  12. Macroscopic quantum electrodynamics of high-Q cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khanbekyan, Mikayel

    2009-10-27

    In this thesis macroscopic quantum electrodynamics in linear media was applied in order to develop an universally valid quantum theory for the description of the interaction of the electromagnetic field with atomic sources in high-Q cavities. In this theory a complete description of the characteristics of the emitted radiation is given. The theory allows to show the limits of the applicability of the usually applied theory. In order to establish an as possible generally valid theory first the atom-field interaction was studied in the framework of macroscopic quantum electrodynamics in dispersive and absorptive media. In order to describe the electromagnetic field from Maxwell's equations was started, whereby the noise-current densities, which are connected with the absorption of the medium, were included. The solution of these equations expresses the electromagnetic field variables by the noise-current densities by means of Green's tensor of the macroscopic Maxwell equations. The explicit quantization is performed by means of the noise-current densities, whereby a diagonal Hamiltonian is introduced, which then guarantees the time development according to Maxwell's equation and the fulfillment of the fundamental simultaneous commutation relations of the field variables. In the case of the interaction of the medium-supported field with atoms the Hamiltonian must be extended by atom-field interactions energies, whereby the canonical coupling schemes of the minimal or multipolar coupling can be used. The dieelectric properties of the material bodies as well as their shape are coded in the Green tensor of the macroscopic Maxwell equations. As preparing step first the Green tensor was specified in order to derive three-dimensional input-output relations for the electromagnetic field operators on a plane multilayer structure. Such a general dewscription of the electromagnetic field allows the inclusion both of dispersion and absorption of the media and the

  13. Microscopic and macroscopic aspects of the behavior of liquid/solid interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favier, J.-J.

    1977-01-01

    For pure metals and alloys, the nature of the solidification interface has an incidence on the structure of the solids and plays an important part in crystallization conditions. Two growth aspects are studied: microscopic and macroscopic. For the first one, two type of theoretical approaches on the atomic behavior of a solid/liquid interface are investigated: the topological or structural approaches that describe the interface structure and the dynamical approaches with more global hypotheses on interfacial structure that aim to establish a growth model compatible with the conditions assigned to the system. In the macroscopic growth, the morphological stability and the segregation of solids obtained are studied [fr

  14. Classical behaviour of macroscopic bodies and quantum measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghirardi, G.; Rimini, A.; Weber, T.

    1986-01-01

    This report describes a recent attempt of giving a consistent and unified description of microscopic and macroscopic phenomena. The model presented in this paper exhibits the nice features of leaving unaltered the quantum description of microsystems and of accounting for the classical behaviour of the macroscopic objects when their dynamical evolution is consistently deduced from the dynamics of their elementary constituents

  15. Macroscopic quantum tunnelling in a current biased Josephson junction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinis, J.M.; Devoret, M.H.; Clarke, J.; Urbina, C.

    1984-11-01

    We discuss in this work an attempt to answer experimentally the question: do macroscopic variables obey quantum mechanics. More precisely, this experiment deals with the question of quantum-mechanical tunnelling of a macroscopic variable, a subject related to the famous Schrodinger's cat problem in the theory of measurement

  16. Macroscopic Loop Amplitudes in Two-Dimensional Dilaton Gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Matsumura, Yoichro; Sakai, Norisuke; Shirokura, Hiroshi

    1993-01-01

    Macroscopic loop amplitudes are obtained for the dilation gravity in two-dimensions. The dependence on the macroscopic loop length $l$ is completely determined by using the Wheeler-DeWitt equation in the mini-superspace approximation. The dependence on the cosmological constant $\\Lambda$ is also determined by using the scaling argument in addition.

  17. Collective motion of macroscopic spheres floating on capillary ripples: Dynamic heterogeneity and dynamic criticality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanli, Ceyda; Saitoh, K.; Luding, Stefan; van der Meer, Roger M.

    2014-01-01

    When a densely packed monolayer of macroscopic spheres floats on chaotic capillary Faraday waves, a coexistence of large scale convective motion and caging dynamics typical for glassy systems is observed. We subtract the convective mean flow using a coarse graining (homogenization) method and reveal

  18. Macroscopic equivalence for microscopic motion in a turbulence driven three-dimensional self-assembly reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hageman, T. A. G.; Löthman, P. A.; Dirnberger, M.; Elwenspoek, M.; Manz, A; Abelmann, L.

    We built and characterised a macroscopic self-assembly reactor that agitates magnetic, centimeter-sized particles with a turbulent water flow. By scaling up the self-assembly processes to the centimeter-scale, the characteristic time constant scale also drastically increases. This makes the system a

  19. Multiscale Investigation on Biofilm Distribution and Its Impact on Macroscopic Biogeochemical Reaction Rates: BIOFILM DISTRIBUTION AND RATE SCALING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Zhifeng [Institute of Surface-Earth System Science, Tianjin University, Tianjin China; Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Liu, Chongxuan [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen China; Liu, Yuanyuan [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; School of Earth Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing China; Bailey, Vanessa L. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA

    2017-11-01

    Biofilms are critical locations for biogeochemical reactions in the subsurface environment. The occurrence and distribution of biofilms at microscale as well as their impacts on macroscopic biogeochemical reaction rates are still poorly understood. This paper investigated the formation and distributions of biofilms in heterogeneous sediments using multiscale models, and evaluated the effects of biofilm heterogeneity on local and macroscopic biogeochemical reaction rates. Sediment pore structures derived from X-ray computed tomography were used to simulate the microscale flow dynamics and biofilm distribution in the sediment column. The response of biofilm formation and distribution to the variations in hydraulic and chemical properties was first examined. One representative biofilm distribution was then utilized to evaluate its effects on macroscopic reaction rates using nitrate reduction as an example. The results revealed that microorganisms primarily grew on the surfaces of grains and aggregates near preferential flow paths where both electron donor and acceptor were readily accessible, leading to the heterogeneous distribution of biofilms in the sediments. The heterogeneous biofilm distribution decreased the macroscopic rate of biogeochemical reactions as compared with those in homogeneous cases. Operationally considering the heterogeneous biofilm distribution in macroscopic reactive transport models such as using dual porosity domain concept can significantly improve the prediction of biogeochemical reaction rates. Overall, this study provided important insights into the biofilm formation and distribution in soils and sediments as well as their impacts on the macroscopic manifestation of reaction rates.

  20. Templated synthesis, characterization, and sensing application of macroscopic platinum nanowire network electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, D. H.; Kou, R.; Gil, M. P.

    2005-01-01

    properties of the electrodes, such as electrochemical active area and methanol oxidation, have also been studied. Compared with conventional polycrystalline Pt electrodes, these novel nanowire network electrodes possess high electrochemical active areas and demonstrate higher current densities and a lower...... onset potential for methanol electro-oxidation. Enzymatic Pt nanowire-network-based sensors show higher sensitivity for glucose detection than that using conventional polycrystalline Pt electrode. Such macroscopic nanowire network electrodes provide ideal platforms for sensing and other device...

  1. Thermal activation and macroscopic quantum tunneling in a DC SQUID

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharifi, F.; Gavilano, J.L.; VanHarlingen, D.J.

    1989-01-01

    The authors report measurements of the transition rate from metastable minima in the two-dimensional 1 of a dc SQUID as a function of applied flux temperature. The authors observe a crossover from energy-activated escape to macroscopic quantum tunneling at a critical temperature. The macroscopic quantum tunneling rate is substantially reduced by damping, and also broadens the crossover region. Most interestingly, the authors observe thermal rates that are suppressed from those predicted by the two-dimensional thermal activation model. The authors discuss possible explanations for this based on the interaction of the macroscopic degree of freedom in the device and energy level effects

  2. Validity of macroscopic concepts for fluids on a microscopic scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alder, B.J.; Alley, W.E.; Pollock, E.L.

    1981-01-01

    By Fourier decomposition of the appropriate fluctuation it is possible within the regime of linear response to extend the concept of both thermodynamic quantities and transport coefficients to their dependence on both wavelength and frequency. Experimentally these generalized macroscopic properties are accessible through neutron diffraction and, as examples, the dependence of the sound speed on wavelength and the diffusion coefficient on time are discussed. Through the molecular dynamics computer method the dependence of the viscosity on wavelength is calculated and applied with spectacular success to predict the dependence of the friction coefficient on the size of a Brownian particle all the way to atomic dimensions. On the other hand, the dielectric constant continuum concept, as applied to a charge or dipole in a cavity, generally fails to predict even the correct field at large distance from the charge. Avoiding the introduction of a cavity cures that problem, but the generalized dielectric constant fails badly in predicting the field at shorter distances from the charge. (orig.)

  3. Testing quantum mechanics against macroscopic realism using the output of χ(2) nonlinearity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podoshvedov, Sergey A.; Kim, Jaewan

    2006-01-01

    We suggest an all-optical scheme to generate entangled superposition of a single photon with macroscopic entangled states for testing macroscopic realism. The scheme consists of source of single photons, a Mach-Zehnder interferometer in routes of which a system of coupled-down converters with type-I phase matching is inserted, and a beam splitter for the other auxiliary modes of the scheme. We use quantization of the pumping modes, depletion of the coherent states passing through the system, and interference effect in the pumping modes in the process of erasing which-path information of the single-photon on exit from the Mach-Zehnder interferometer. We show the macroscopic fields of the output superposition are distinguishable states. This scheme generates macroscopic entangled state that violates Bell's inequality. Moreover, the detailed analysis concerning change of amplitudes of entangled superposition by means of repeating this process many times is accomplished. We show our scheme works without photon number resolving detection and it is robust to detector inefficiency

  4. Macroscopic model with anisotropy based on micro-macro informations,

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumar, Nishant; Luding, Stefan; Magnanimo, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    Physical experiments can characterize the elastic response of granular materials in terms of macroscopic state variables, namely volume (packing) fraction and stress, while the microstructure is not accessible and thus neglected. Here, by means of numerical simulations, we analyze dense,

  5. Measurement-Induced Macroscopic Superposition States in Cavity Optomechanics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoff, Ulrich Busk; Kollath-Bönig, Johann; Neergaard-Nielsen, Jonas Schou

    2016-01-01

    A novel protocol for generating quantum superpositions of macroscopically distinct states of a bulk mechanical oscillator is proposed, compatible with existing optomechanical devices operating in the bad-cavity limit. By combining a pulsed optomechanical quantum nondemolition (QND) interaction...

  6. INDICATORS SYSTEM FOR MONITORING INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT IN COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru STRATAN,

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Organizations and companies with a high level of competitiveness had developed intellectualproperty management systems that aim at assuring information and indicators for decision-making.Furthermore, the systematization and monitoring of information on intellectual property managementcontributes to the improvement, reliability, quality and efficiency of managerial efficiency, offering, in theend, to the company an image of its competitive advantages, generated by the intellectual property. The purpose of this work is to identify a system of indicators (benchmarks that can be used formonitoring through self-evaluation of the intellectual property management as part of a methodic approachon researching the intellectual property management system in companies. The main results achieved following the investigations were the development of a set of indicators(benchmarks for monitoring the management of intellectual property in companies. Also, being based onthis group of indicators, an integrated indicator for assessing the effectiveness of the management systemof intellectual property in companies had been developed.

  7. Tillage system affects microbiological properties of soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, A.; de Santiago, A.; Avilés, M.; Perea, F.

    2012-04-01

    Soil tillage significantly affects organic carbon accumulation, microbial biomass, and subsequently enzymatic activity in surface soil. Microbial activity in soil is a crucial parameter contributing to soil functioning, and thus a basic quality factor for soil. Since enzymes remain soil after excretion by living or disintegrating cells, shifts in their activities reflect long-term fluctuations in microbial biomass. In order to study the effects of no-till on biochemical and microbiological properties in comparison to conventional tillage in a representative soil from South Spain, an experiment was conducted since 1982 on the experimental farm of the Institute of Agriculture and Fisheries Research of Andalusia (IFAPA) in Carmona, SW Spain (37o24'07''N, 5o35'10''W). The soil at the experimental site was a very fine, montomorillonitic, thermic Chromic Haploxerert (Soil Survey Staff, 2010). A randomized complete block design involving three replications and the following two tillage treatments was performed: (i) Conventional tillage, which involved mouldboard plowing to a depth of 50 cm in the summer (once every three years), followed by field cultivation to a depth of 15 cm before sowing; crop residues being burnt, (ii) No tillage, which involved controlling weeds before sowing by spraying glyphosate and sowing directly into the crop residue from the previous year by using a planter with double-disk openers. For all tillage treatments, the crop rotation (annual crops) consisted of winter wheat, sunflower, and legumes (pea, chickpea, or faba bean, depending on the year), which were grown under rainfed conditions. Enzymatic activities (ß-glucosidase, dehydrogenase, aryl-sulphatase, acid phosphatase, and urease), soil microbial biomass by total viable cells number by acridine orange direct count, the density of cultivable groups of bacteria and fungi by dilution plating on semi-selective media, the physiological profiles of the microbial communities by BiologR, and the

  8. Grasping the second law of thermodynamics at university: The consistency of macroscopic and microscopic explanations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinonen, Risto; Asikainen, Mervi A.; Hirvonen, Pekka E.

    2015-12-01

    [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Upper Division Physics Courses.] This study concentrates on evaluating the consistency of upper-division students' use of the second law of thermodynamics at macroscopic and microscopic levels. Data were collected by means of a paper and pencil test (N =4 8 ) focusing on the macroscopic and microscopic features of the second law concerned with heat transfer processes. The data analysis was based on a qualitative content analysis where students' responses to the macroscopic- and microscopic-level items were categorized to provide insight into the consistency of the students' ideas; if students relied on the same idea at both levels, they ended up in the same category at both levels, and their use of the second law was consistent. The most essential finding is that a majority of students, 52%-69% depending on the physical system under evaluation, used the second law of thermodynamics consistently at macroscopic and microscopic levels; approximately 40% of the students used it correctly in terms of physics while others relied on erroneous ideas, such as the idea of conserving entropy. The most common inconsistency harbored by 10%-15% of the students (depending on the physical system under evaluation) was students' tendency to consider the number of accessible microstates to remain constant even if the entropy was stated to increase in a similar process; other inconsistencies were only seen in the answers of a few students. In order to address the observed inconsistencies, we would suggest that lecturers should utilize tasks that challenge students to evaluate phenomena at macroscopic and microscopic levels concurrently and tasks that would guide students in their search for contradictions in their thinking.

  9. Macroscopic anatomy, irrigation and venous drainage of female reproductive apparatus of llama (Lama glama)

    OpenAIRE

    León M., Eric; Laboratorio de Anatomía Animal y Fauna Silvestre, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima; Sato S., Alberto; Laboratorio de Anatomía Animal y Fauna Silvestre, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima; Navarrete Z., Miluska; Laboratorio de Anatomía Animal y Fauna Silvestre, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima; Cisneros S., Jannet; Laboratorio de Anatomía Animal y Fauna Silvestre, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima

    2011-01-01

    The anatomical description of the reproductive tract of the female llama was studied in four animals. Macroscopically, the reproductive system is morphologically similar to the cow. However, the difference is the absence of intercornual ligament and cotyledons, and the presence of an intercornual septum, as in the alpaca. The distribution of the arteries and veins that irrigated and drained the blood to and from the pelvic cavity and reproductive system presented a vascular distribution almos...

  10. Calculations of optical properties of nanohole systems in metallic films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Peter; Miljkovic, Vladimir; Kall, Mikael

    2010-03-01

    We present a computational study of the optical properties of systems of nanohole system in thin (the typical thickness is less than 100 nm) noble metal films. The Green's tensor technique adopted to layered systems forms the analytical framework to the calculations. We have studied individual holes as well as several interacting holes, and calculated quantities related both to far-field properties such as scattering cross sections and near fields and near-field properties such as resonance energy transfer between molecules. The resonance properties of nanoholes are determined by their size and shape[1]. The interaction between two holes can, at a basic level, be understood as a dipole-dipole interaction between the holes, however, the interaction strength is strongly modulated by the properties of the surface plasmons of the metal film[2]. [1]. B. Sepulveda et al., Opt. Express 16, 5609 (2008). [2]. J. Alegret, P. Johansson, and M. K"all, New J. Phys.10, 105004 (2008).

  11. 18 CFR 367.58 - Property record system required for service company property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... to show the nature of each addition to or retirement of service company property, the related total... required for service company property. 367.58 Section 367.58 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... COMPANY ACT OF 2005, FEDERAL POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR CENTRALIZED...

  12. Tinnitus does not require Macroscopic Tonotopic Map Reorganization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dave R.M. Langers

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The pathophysiology underlying tinnitus, a hearing disorder characterized by the chronic perception of phantom sound, has been related to aberrant plastic reorganization of the central auditory system. More specifically, tinnitus is thought to involve changes in the tonotopic representation of sound. In the present study we used high-resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to determine tonotopic maps in the auditory cortex of twenty patients with tinnitus but otherwise near-normal hearing, and compared these to equivalent outcomes from twenty healthy controls with matched hearing thresholds. Using a dedicated experimental paradigm and data-driven analysis techniques, multiple tonotopic gradients could be robustly distinguished in both hemispheres, arranged in a pattern consistent with previous findings. Yet, maps were not found to significantly differ between the two groups in any way. In particular, we found no evidence for an overrepresentation of high sound frequencies, matching the tinnitus pitch. A significant difference in evoked response magnitude was found near the low-frequency tonotopic endpoint on the lateral extreme of left Heschl’s gyrus. Our results suggest that macroscopic tonotopic reorganization in the auditory cortex is not required for the emergence of tinnitus, and is not typical for tinnitus that accompanies normal hearing to mild hearing loss.

  13. Urban green commons: Insights on urban common property systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colding, J.; Barthel, S.; Bendt, P.; Snep, R.P.H.; Knaap, van der W.G.M.; Ernstson, H.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to shed new light on urban common property systems. We deal with urban commons in relation to urban green-space management, referring to them as urban green commons. Applying a property-rights analytic perspective, we synthesize information on urban green commons from three

  14. Hydraulic Servo Systems : Dynamic Properties and Control

    OpenAIRE

    Rydberg, Karl-Erik

    2016-01-01

    When closed-loop hydraulic control systems first began to appear in industry, the applications were generally those in which very high performance was required. While hydraulic servo systems are still heavily used in high-performance applications such as the machine-tool industry, they are beginning to gain wide acceptance in a variety of industries. Examples are material handling, mobile equipment, plastics, steel plants, mining, oil exploration and automotive testing Closed loop servo drive...

  15. Microscopic and macroscopic modeling of femtosecond laser ablation of metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Povarnitsyn, Mikhail E., E-mail: povar@ihed.ras.ru; Fokin, Vladimir B.; Levashov, Pavel R.

    2015-12-01

    Highlights: • We model laser ablation of aluminum using microscopic and macroscopic approaches. • We examine the domain of applicability for hydrodynamics and molecular dynamics. • Molecular dynamics describes ultra-fast processes of melting and fragmentation. • Hydrodynamics with a model of nucleation agrees well with molecular dynamics. • Both computational methods give similar ablation crater depths. - Abstract: Simulation of femtosecond laser ablation of a bulk aluminum target is performed using two complementary approaches. The first method is single-fluid two-temperature hydrodynamics (HD) completed with a two-temperature equation of state (EOS). The second approach is a combination of classical molecular dynamics (MD) and a continuum model of a free electron subsystem. In both methods, an identical and accurate description of optical and transport properties of the electron subsystem is based on wide-range models reproducing effects of electron heat wave propagation, electron–phonon/ion coupling and laser energy absorption on a time-dependent profile of the dielectric function. For simulation of homogeneous nucleation in a metastable liquid phase, a kinetic model of nucleation is implemented in the HD approach. The phase diagrams of the EOS and MD potential are in good agreement that gives opportunity to compare the dynamics of laser ablation obtained by both methods directly. Results of simulation are presented in the range of incident fluences 0.1–20 J/cm{sup 2} and match well with experimental findings for an ablation crater depth. The MD accurately reproduces nonequilibrium phase transitions and takes into account surface effects on nanoscale. The HD approach demonstrates good qualitative agreement with the MD method in the dynamics of phase explosion and spallation. Other advantages and disadvantages of both approaches are examined and discussed.

  16. Macroscopic structural coherence in two-component superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bar-Yam, Y.

    1991-01-01

    In two-component theory pairing arises from localized negative-U states and mobility arises from extended single particle states. A small hybridization of localized and extended states enables mobility and pairing to provide a high Tc. RPA analysis of the ''normal'' state implies uncondensed charged pairs carry current, while long lived single particle excitations are neutral electron-hole hybrids. At Tc pairs condense and single particle states undergo Cooper pairing. In the superconducting state pair-pair excitations exist in the BCS-like fermionic gap. Signatures of this theory range from distintive Tc, Δ, H c , ξ, conductance anomalies in sound and bulk modulii at Tc, linear temperature dependence of normal state resistivity, 2e charge carriers in the normal state, linear voltage dependence in normal-state-tunneling conductance, and finite zero-bias conductance in superconducting state tunneling. Quantitative comparisons with superconducting properties of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 were presented. A distinctive signature is the prediction of dynamical structural correlations which are local above Tc and macroscopic below Tc. Experiments provide direct evidence for such dynamical correlations: neutron diffraction ''thermal ovals'', channeling experiment cross section changes as a function of temperature near Tc, pair-distribution-function neutron diffraction including inelastic and elastic scattering showing direct evidence for dynamic correlations which change at Tc, and EXAFS showing a large dynamical displacement of oxygen atoms tunneling between sites separated by 0.13A. In two-component theory strong lattice coupling is consistent with low isotope shifts since tunneling occurs by a virtual Franck-Condon transition. Predictions for the dynamical structure factor are presented. (orig.)

  17. Microscopic to macroscopic depletion model development for FORMOSA-P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noh, J.M.; Turinsky, P.J.; Sarsour, H.N.

    1996-01-01

    Microscopic depletion has been gaining popularity with regard to employment in reactor core nodal calculations, mainly attributed to the superiority of microscopic depletion in treating spectral history effects during depletion. Another trend is the employment of loading pattern optimization computer codes in support of reload core design. Use of such optimization codes has significantly reduced design efforts to optimize reload core loading patterns associated with increasingly complicated lattice designs. A microscopic depletion model has been developed for the FORMOSA-P pressurized water reactor (PWR) loading pattern optimization code. This was done for both fidelity improvements and to make FORMOSA-P compatible with microscopic-based nuclear design methods. Needless to say, microscopic depletion requires more computational effort compared with macroscopic depletion. This implies that microscopic depletion may be computationally restrictive if employed during the loading pattern optimization calculation because many loading patterns are examined during the course of an optimization search. Therefore, the microscopic depletion model developed here uses combined models of microscopic and macroscopic depletion. This is done by first performing microscopic depletions for a subset of possible loading patterns from which 'collapsed' macroscopic cross sections are obtained. The collapsed macroscopic cross sections inherently incorporate spectral history effects. Subsequently, the optimization calculations are done using the collapsed macroscopic cross sections. Using this approach allows maintenance of microscopic depletion level accuracy without substantial additional computing resources

  18. Exploiting Graph Properties for Decentralized Reputation Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gkorou, D.

    2014-01-01

    In online communities, users frequently interact with strangers in order to buy and sell products, watch videos, educating themselves, and playing games. Establishing trust among strangers is essential for the functionality of these communities but challenging, as well. Online reputation systems

  19. Stochastic properties of the Friedman dynamical system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szydlowski, M.; Heller, M.; Golda, Z.

    1985-01-01

    Some mathematical aspects of the stochastic cosmology are discussed in the corresponding ordinary Friedman world models. In particulare, it is shown that if the strong and Lorentz energy conditions are known, or the potential function is given, or a stochastic measure is suitably defined then the structure of the phase plane of the Friedman dynamical system is determined. 11 refs., 2 figs. (author)

  20. Information system for property management. Prestudy; Kiinteistoejohtamisen tietojaerjestelmae. Esitutkimus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurila, S.; Kiiras, J.

    2003-07-01

    The objective of this research is to study the types of management systems does property management company need for information management services. A management system should communicate with all kinds of information systems that are used by real estate owners. Within the management system real estate information should be processed into form of documents. Mainly, these documents are plans and reports that a property manager prepares for the owner in question. Property management is here seen as a strategic and operative management function of real estate ownership, facilities, maintenance and development. An outsourced property management is a specialized service provided for the real estate owner. Services offered by a property management company are strategic planning and implementation, management of operative work, and strategy realigning. Property management information consists of plans and reports that can be presented on three levels. The highest, strategic level concerns owner's real estate portfolio as a whole. The middle, business level consists of real estate business information over several years. The lowest, annual level concerns operative information on a yearly basis. The suggested management system is based on a data warehouse technique. Information sources of a data warehouse involve both internal, operative information systems of real estate owners and external information sources. The information needed for planning and reporting will be delivered to the data warehouse on demand. (orig.)

  1. Cavity-Assisted Generation of Sustainable Macroscopic Entanglement of Ultracold Gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaitanya Joshi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Prospects for reaching persistent entanglement between two spatially-separated atomic Bose–Einstein condensates are outlined. The system setup comprises two condensates loaded in an optical lattice, which, in return, is confined within a high-Q optical resonator. The system is driven by an external laser that illuminates the atoms, such that photons can scatter into the cavity. In the superradiant phase, a cavity field is established, and we show that the emerging cavity-mediated interactions between the two condensates is capable of entangling them despite photon losses. This macroscopic atomic entanglement is sustained throughout the time-evolution apart from occasions of sudden deaths/births. Using an auxiliary photon mode and coupling it to a collective quadrature of the two condensates, we demonstrate that the auxiliary mode’s squeezing is proportional to the atomic entanglement, and as such, it can serve as a probe field of the macroscopic entanglement.

  2. Determination of payback periods for photovoltaic systems in domestic properties

    OpenAIRE

    O'Flaherty, Fin; Pinder, James; Jackson, Craig

    2012-01-01

    The paper reports on the two year performance of photovoltaic (PV) systems which were installed on 23 new build properties in South Yorkshire, UK, and the impact of the feed-in-tariff on payback periods. The majority of the properties (17 No.) were fitted with a 3.02 kiloWatt peak (kWp) photovoltaic system, designed to supply, on average, up to 2400 kiloWatt hours (kWh) of solar energy per annum whereas the remaining six systems were 3.75 kWp systems providing, on average, up to 3000 kWh per ...

  3. A tract-specific framework for white matter morphometry combining macroscopic and microscopic tract features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Awate, Suyash P; Das, Sandhitsu R; Woo, John H; Melhem, Elias R; Gee, James C; Yushkevich, Paul A

    2010-10-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging plays a key role in our understanding of white matter both in normal populations and in populations with brain disorders. Existing techniques focus primarily on using diffusivity-based quantities derived from diffusion tensor as surrogate measures of microstructural tissue properties of white matter. In this paper, we describe a novel tract-specific framework that enables the examination of white matter morphometry at both the macroscopic and microscopic scales. The framework leverages the skeleton-based modeling of sheet-like white matter fasciculi using the continuous medial representation, which gives a natural definition of thickness and supports its comparison across subjects. The thickness measure provides a macroscopic characterization of white matter fasciculi that complements existing analysis of microstructural features. The utility of the framework is demonstrated in quantifying white matter atrophy in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, a severe neurodegenerative disease of motor neurons. We show that, compared to using microscopic features alone, combining the macroscopic and microscopic features gives a more complete characterization of the disease. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Perturbing macroscopic magnetohydrodynamic stability for toroidal plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comer, Kathryn J.

    We have introduced a new perturbative technique to rapidly explore the dependence of long wavelength ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities on equilibrium profiles, shaping properties, and wall parameters. Traditionally, these relations are studied with numerical parameter scans using computationally intensive stability codes. Our perturbative technique first finds the equilibrium and stability using traditional methods. Subsequent small changes in the original equilibrium parameters change the stability. We quickly find the new stability with an expansion of the energy principle, rather than with another run of the stability codes. We first semi-analytically apply the technique to the screw pinch after eliminating compressional Alfven wave effects. The screw pinch results validate the approach, but also indicate that allowable perturbations to equilibria with certain features may be restricted. Next, we extend the approach to toroidal geometry using experimental equilibria and a simple constructed equilibrium, with the ideal MHD stability code GATO. Stability properties are successfully predicted from perturbed toroidal equilibria when only the vacuum beyond the plasma is perturbed (through wall parameter variations), rather than the plasma itself. Small plasma equilibrium perturbations to both experimental and simple equilibria result in very large errors to the predicted stability, and valid results are found only over a narrow range of most perturbations. Despite the large errors produced when changing plasma parameters, the wall perturbations revealed two useful applications of this technique. Because the calculations are non-iterative matrix multiplications, the convergence issues that can disrupt a full MHD stability code are absent. Marginal stability, therefore, is much easier to find with the perturbative technique. Also, the perturbed results can be input as the initial guess for the eigenvalue for a full stability code, and improve subsequent

  5. Graphene chiral liquid crystals and macroscopic assembled fibres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhen; Gao, Chao

    2011-12-06

    Chirality and liquid crystals are both widely expressed in nature and biology. Helical assembly of mesophasic molecules and colloids may produce intriguing chiral liquid crystals. To date, chiral liquid crystals of 2D colloids have not been explored. As a typical 2D colloid, graphene is now receiving unprecedented attention. However, making macroscopic graphene fibres is hindered by the poor dispersibility of graphene and by the lack of an assembly method. Here we report that soluble, chemically oxidized graphene or graphene oxide sheets can form chiral liquid crystals in a twist-grain-boundary phase-like model with simultaneous lamellar ordering and long-range helical frustrations. Aqueous graphene oxide liquid crystals were continuously spun into metres of macroscopic graphene oxide fibres; subsequent chemical reduction gave the first macroscopic neat graphene fibres with high conductivity and good mechanical performance. The flexible, strong graphene fibres were knitted into designed patterns and into directionally conductive textiles.

  6. Emergent Properties in Natural and Artificial Dynamical Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Aziz-Alaoui, M.A

    2006-01-01

    An important part of the science of complexity is the study of emergent properties arising through dynamical processes in various types of natural and artificial systems. This is the aim of this book, which is the outcome of a discussion meeting within the first European conference on complex systems. It presents multidisciplinary approaches for getting representations of complex systems and using different methods to extract emergent structures. This carefully edited book studies emergent features such as self organization, synchronization, opening on stability and robustness properties. Invariant techniques are presented which can express global emergent properties in dynamical and in temporal evolution systems. This book demonstrates how artificial systems such as a distributed platform can be used for simulation used to search emergent placement during simulation execution.

  7. Microscopic to Macroscopic Dynamical Models of Sociality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solis Salas, Citlali; Woolley, Thomas; Pearce, Eiluned; Dunbar, Robin; Maini, Philip; Social; Evolutionary Neuroscience Research Group (Senrg) Collaboration

    To help them survive, social animals, such as humans, need to share knowledge and responsibilities with other members of the species. The larger their social network, the bigger the pool of knowledge available to them. Since time is a limited resource, a way of optimising its use is meeting amongst individuals whilst fulfilling other necessities. In this sense it is useful to know how many, and how often, early humans could meet during a given period of time whilst performing other necessary tasks, such as food gathering. Using a simplified model of these dynamics, which comprehend encounter and memory, we aim at producing a lower-bound to the number of meetings hunter-gatherers could have during a year. We compare the stochastic agent-based model to its mean-field approximation and explore some of the features necessary for the difference between low population dynamics and its continuum limit. We observe an emergent property that could have an inference in the layered structure seen in each person's social organisation. This could give some insight into hunter-gatherer's lives and the development of the social layered structure we have today. With support from the Mexican Council for Science and Technology (CONACyT), the Public Education Secretariat (SEP), and the Mexican National Autonomous University's Foundation (Fundacion UNAM).

  8. Properties of interacting low-dimensional systems

    CERN Document Server

    Gumbs, Godfrey

    2013-01-01

    Filling the gap for comprehensive coverage of the realistic fundamentals and approaches needed to perform cutting-edge research on mesoscopic systems, this textbook allows advanced students to acquire and use the skills at a highly technical, research-qualifying level. Starting with a brief refresher to get all readers on an equal footing, the text moves on to a broad selection of advanced topics, backed by problems with solutions for use in classrooms as well as for self-study. Written by authors with research and teaching backgrounds from eminent institutions and based on a tried-and

  9. Processing and Linguistics Properties of Adaptable Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru TODOROI

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Continuation and development of the research in Adaptable Programming Initialization [Tod-05.1,2,3] is presented. As continuation of [Tod-05.2,3] in this paper metalinguistic tools used in the process of introduction of new constructions (data, operations, instructions and controls are developed. The generalization schemes of evaluation of adaptable languages and systems are discussed. These results analogically with [Tod-05.2,3] are obtained by the team, composed from the researchers D. Todoroi [Tod-05.4], Z. Todoroi [ZTod-05], and D. Micusa [Mic-03]. Presented results will be included in the book [Tod-06].

  10. Nanostructure surveys of macroscopic specimens by small-angle scattering tensor tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebi, Marianne; Georgiadis, Marios; Menzel, Andreas; Schneider, Philipp; Kohlbrecher, Joachim; Bunk, Oliver; Guizar-Sicairos, Manuel

    2015-11-01

    The mechanical properties of many materials are based on the macroscopic arrangement and orientation of their nanostructure. This nanostructure can be ordered over a range of length scales. In biology, the principle of hierarchical ordering is often used to maximize functionality, such as strength and robustness of the material, while minimizing weight and energy cost. Methods for nanoscale imaging provide direct visual access to the ultrastructure (nanoscale structure that is too small to be imaged using light microscopy), but the field of view is limited and does not easily allow a full correlative study of changes in the ultrastructure over a macroscopic sample. Other methods of probing ultrastructure ordering, such as small-angle scattering of X-rays or neutrons, can be applied to macroscopic samples; however, these scattering methods remain constrained to two-dimensional specimens or to isotropically oriented ultrastructures. These constraints limit the use of these methods for studying nanostructures with more complex orientation patterns, which are abundant in nature and materials science. Here, we introduce an imaging method that combines small-angle scattering with tensor tomography to probe nanoscale structures in three-dimensional macroscopic samples in a non-destructive way. We demonstrate the method by measuring the main orientation and the degree of orientation of nanoscale mineralized collagen fibrils in a human trabecula bone sample with a spatial resolution of 25 micrometres. Symmetries within the sample, such as the cylindrical symmetry commonly observed for mineralized collagen fibrils in bone, allow for tractable sampling requirements and numerical efficiency. Small-angle scattering tensor tomography is applicable to both biological and materials science specimens, and may be useful for understanding and characterizing smart or bio-inspired materials. Moreover, because the method is non-destructive, it is appropriate for in situ measurements and

  11. Nanostructure surveys of macroscopic specimens by small-angle scattering tensor tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebi, Marianne; Georgiadis, Marios; Menzel, Andreas; Schneider, Philipp; Kohlbrecher, Joachim; Bunk, Oliver; Guizar-Sicairos, Manuel

    2015-11-19

    The mechanical properties of many materials are based on the macroscopic arrangement and orientation of their nanostructure. This nanostructure can be ordered over a range of length scales. In biology, the principle of hierarchical ordering is often used to maximize functionality, such as strength and robustness of the material, while minimizing weight and energy cost. Methods for nanoscale imaging provide direct visual access to the ultrastructure (nanoscale structure that is too small to be imaged using light microscopy), but the field of view is limited and does not easily allow a full correlative study of changes in the ultrastructure over a macroscopic sample. Other methods of probing ultrastructure ordering, such as small-angle scattering of X-rays or neutrons, can be applied to macroscopic samples; however, these scattering methods remain constrained to two-dimensional specimens or to isotropically oriented ultrastructures. These constraints limit the use of these methods for studying nanostructures with more complex orientation patterns, which are abundant in nature and materials science. Here, we introduce an imaging method that combines small-angle scattering with tensor tomography to probe nanoscale structures in three-dimensional macroscopic samples in a non-destructive way. We demonstrate the method by measuring the main orientation and the degree of orientation of nanoscale mineralized collagen fibrils in a human trabecula bone sample with a spatial resolution of 25 micrometres. Symmetries within the sample, such as the cylindrical symmetry commonly observed for mineralized collagen fibrils in bone, allow for tractable sampling requirements and numerical efficiency. Small-angle scattering tensor tomography is applicable to both biological and materials science specimens, and may be useful for understanding and characterizing smart or bio-inspired materials. Moreover, because the method is non-destructive, it is appropriate for in situ measurements and

  12. Consolidity: Mystery of inner property of systems uncovered

    OpenAIRE

    Hassen T. Dorrah

    2012-01-01

    This paper uncovers the mystery of consolidity, an inner property of systems that was amazingly hidden. Consolidity also reveals the secrecy of why strong stable and highly controllable systems are not invulnerable of falling and collapsing. Consolidity is measured by its Consolidity Index, defined as the ratio of overall changes of output parameters over combined changes of input and system parameters, all operating in fully fuzzy environment. Under this notion, systems are classified into c...

  13. Optical approaches to macroscopic and microscopic engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Bartolo, P J D S

    2001-01-01

    This research investigates the theoretical basis of a new photo-fabrication system. By this system, optical and thermal effects are used, together or separately, to locally induce a phase change in a liquid resin. This phase change phenomena is used to 'write' three-dimensional shapes. In addition, a thermal-kinetic model has been developed to correctly simulate the physical and chemical changes that occur in the bulk (and surroundings) of the material directly exposed to radiation and/or heat, and the rates at which these changes occur. Through this model, the law of conservation of energy describing the heat transfer phenomena is coupled with a kinetic model describing in detail the cure kinetics in both chemical and diffusion-controlled regimes. The thermal-kinetic model has been implemented using the finite element method. Linear rectangular elements have been considered and the concept of isoparametric formulation used. The Cranck-Nicolson algorithm has been used to integrate the system of equations, res...

  14. Fluctuations in macroscopically agitated plasma:quasiparticles and effective temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sosenko, P.P.; Gresillon, D.

    1994-01-01

    Fluctuations in the plasma, in which macroscopic fluid-like motion is agitated due to large-scale and low-frequency electro-magnetic fields, are studied. Such fields can be produced by external factors or internally, for example due to turbulence. Fluctuation spectral distributions are calculated with regard to the renormalization of the transition probability for a test-particle and of the test-particle shielding. If the correlation length for the random fluid-like motion is large as compared to the fluctuation scale lengths, then the fluctuation spectral distributions can be explained in terms of quasiparticles originating from macroscopic plasma agitation and of an effective temperature

  15. Macroscopic and radiographic examination of proximal root surface caries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordenram, G.; Bergvist, A.; Johnson, G.; Henriksen, C.O.; Anneroth, G.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare macroscopic and radiographic examination of proximal root surface caries of extracted teeth from patients aged 65-95 years. Although the study conditions for macroscopic and radiographic diagnosis favored more sensitive evaluations than routine clinical conditions, there was a 24% disagreement in diagnosis. This finding indicates that under routine clinical conditions it is difficult to register with certainty all superficial root carious lesions. Even in the absence of clinically detectable root surface caries, preventive measures should be considered for elderly people with exposed root surfaces.

  16. Macroscopic and radiographic examination of proximal root surface caries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordenram, G.; Bergvist, A.; Johnson, G.; Henriksen, C.O.; Anneroth, G.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare macroscopic and radiographic examination of proximal root surface caries of extracted teeth from patients aged 65-95 years. Although the study conditions for macroscopic and radiographic diagnosis favored more sensitive evaluations than routine clinical conditions, there was a 24% disagreement in diagnosis. This finding indicates that under routine clinical conditions it is difficult to register with certainty all superficial root carious lesions. Even in the absence of clinically detectable root surface caries, preventive measures should be considered for elderly people with exposed root surfaces

  17. Chemosensory properties of the trigeminal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Félix

    2011-01-19

    The capacity of cutaneous, including trigeminal endings, to detect chemicals is known as chemesthesis or cutaneous chemosensation. This sensory function involves the activation of nociceptor and thermoreceptor endings and has a protective or defensive function, as many of these substances are irritants or poisonous. However, humans have also developed a liking for the distinct sharpness or pungency of many foods, beverages, and spices following activation of the same sensory afferents. Our understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of chemosensation in the trigeminal system has experienced enormous progress in the past decade, following the cloning and functional characterization of several ion channels activated by physical and chemical stimuli. This brief review attempts to summarize our current knowledge in this field, including a functional description of various sensory channels, especially TRP channels, involved in trigeminal chemosensitivy. Finally, some of these new findings are discussed in the context of the pathophysiology of trigeminal chemosensation, including pain, pruritus, migraine, cough, airway inflammation, and ophthalmic diseases.

  18. Modular properties of 6d (DELL) systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminov, G.; Mironov, A.; Morozov, A.

    2017-11-01

    If super-Yang-Mills theory possesses the exact conformal invariance, there is an additional modular invariance under the change of the complex bare charge [InlineMediaObject not available: see fulltext.]. The low-energy Seiberg-Witten prepotential ℱ( a), however, is not explicitly invariant, because the flat moduli also change a - → a D = ∂ℱ/∂ a. In result, the prepotential is not a modular form and depends also on the anomalous Eisenstein series E 2. This dependence is usually described by the universal MNW modular anomaly equation. We demonstrate that, in the 6 d SU( N) theory with two independent modular parameters τ and \\widehat{τ} , the modular anomaly equation changes, because the modular transform of τ is accompanied by an ( N -dependent!) shift of \\widehat{τ} and vice versa. This is a new peculiarity of double-elliptic systems, which deserves further investigation.

  19. Optical approaches to macroscopic and microscopic engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartolo, Paulo Jorge da Silva

    2001-01-01

    This research investigates the theoretical basis of a new photo-fabrication system. By this system, optical and thermal effects are used, together or separately, to locally induce a phase change in a liquid resin. This phase change phenomena is used to 'write' three-dimensional shapes. In addition, a thermal-kinetic model has been developed to correctly simulate the physical and chemical changes that occur in the bulk (and surroundings) of the material directly exposed to radiation and/or heat, and the rates at which these changes occur. Through this model, the law of conservation of energy describing the heat transfer phenomena is coupled with a kinetic model describing in detail the cure kinetics in both chemical and diffusion-controlled regimes. The thermal-kinetic model has been implemented using the finite element method. Linear rectangular elements have been considered and the concept of isoparametric formulation used. The Cranck-Nicolson algorithm has been used to integrate the system of equations, resulting from the finite element discretisation, with respect to time. Three different photo-fabrication processes were investigated. The first process uses ultraviolet radiation to cure a thermosetting polymer containing a certain amount of photo-initiator. The radiation generates free radicals by cleavage the initiator molecules, starting the chemical reaction. The second one uses ultraviolet radiation to start the curing reaction of a liquid thermosetting polymer containing a certain amount of photo-initiator. In this case, a heat source is also used to increase the temperature, and consequently, to increase the rate of gel formation and the fractional conversion, decreasing the necessary exposure time. Finally, the third system uses a thermosetting material containing small amounts of both thermal and photo-initiators. In this case ultraviolet radiation and heat are used to simultaneously start two types of chemical reactions: thermal-initiated and photo

  20. New Strategies for Teaching Properties of Number Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, John L.; Wiscamb, Margaret

    1970-01-01

    Presents techniques and materials for instruction at secondary school and upper elementary grades in mathematical concepts of number systems structure. Grouping is used as a simple algebraic system to illustrate structure. Closure, inverse, identity, commutative and associative properties are examines relative to manipulation of geometric figureS.…

  1. An ontology on property for physical, chemical, and biological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dybkaer, René

    2004-01-01

    Current metrological literature, including the International vocabulary of basic and general terms in metrology (VIM 1993), presents a special language slowly evolved without consistent use of the procedures of terminological work; furthermore, nominal properties are excluded by definition. Both deficiencies create problems in fields, such as laboratory medicine, which have to report results of all types of property, preferably in a unified systematic format. The present text aims at forming a domain ontology around "property", with intensional definitions and systematic terms, mainly using the terminological tools--with some additions--provided by the International Standards ISO 704, 1087-1, and 10241. "System" and "component" are defined, "quantity" is discussed, and the generic concept "property" is given as 'inherent state- or process-descriptive feature of a system including any pertinent components'. Previously, the term 'kind-of-quantity' and quasi-synonyms have been used as primitives; the proposed definition of "kind-of-property" is 'common defining aspect of mutually comparable properties'. "Examination procedure", "examination method", "examination principle", and "examination" are defined, avoiding the term 'test'. The need to distinguish between instances of "characteristic", "property", "type of characteristic", "kind-of-property", and "property value" is emphasized; the latter is defined together with "property value scale". These fundamental concepts are presented in a diagram, and the effect of adding essential characteristics to give expanded definitions is exemplified. Substitution usually leads to unwieldy definitions, but reveals circularity as does exhaustive consecutive listing of defining concepts. The top concept may be generically divided according to many terminological dimensions, especially regarding which operators are allowed among the four sets =, not equal to; ; +, -; and x, :. The coordinate concepts defined are termed by the

  2. Macroscopic Refrigeration Using Superconducting Tunnel Junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowell, Peter; O'Neil, Galen; Underwood, Jason; Zhang, Xiaohang; Ullom, Joel

    2014-03-01

    Sub-kelvin temperatures are often a prerequisite for modern scientific experiments, such as quantum information processing, astrophysical missions looking for dark energy signatures and tabletop time resolved x-ray spectroscopy. Existing methods of reaching these temperatures, such as dilution refrigerators, are bulky and costly. In order to increase the accessibility of sub-Kelvin temperatures, we have developed a new method of refrigeration using normal-metal/insulator/superconductor (NIS) tunnel junctions. NIS junctions cool the electrons in the normal metal since the hottest electrons selectively tunnel from the normal metal into the superconductor. By extending the normal metal onto a thermally isolated membrane, the cold electrons can cool the phonons through the electron-phonon coupling. When these junctions are combined with a pumped 3He system, they provide a potentially inexpensive method of reaching these temperatures. Using only three devices, each with a junction area of approximately 3,500 μm2, we have cooled a 2 cm3 Cu plate from 290 mK to 256 mK. We will present these experimental results along with recent modeling predictions that strongly suggest that further refinements will allow cooling from 300 mK to 120 mK. This work is supported by the NASA APRA program.

  3. Investigation of physical imaging properties in various digital radiography systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Hoi Woun [Dept. of Radiological Science, Baekseok Culture University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Min, Jung Hwan [Dept. of Radiological technology, Shingu University, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Yong Su [Dept. of Health Sciences, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Kyushu (Japan); Kim, Jung Min [Dept. of Health and Environmental Science, College of Health Science, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-09-15

    We aimed to evaluate the physical imaging properties in various digital radiography systems with charged coupled device (CCD), computed radiography (CR), and indirect flat panel detector (FPD). The imaging properties measured in this study were modulation transfer function (MTF) wiener spectrum (WS), and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) to compare the performance of each digital radiography system. The system response of CCD were in a linear relationship with exposure and that of CR and FPD were proportional to the logarithm of exposure. The MTF of both CR and FPD indicated a similar tendency but in case of CCD, it showed lower MTF than that of CR and FPD. FPD showed the lowest WS and also indicated the highest DQE among three systems. According to the results, digital radiography system with different type of image receptor had its own image characteristics. Therefore, it is important to know the physical imaging characteristics of the digital radiography system accurately to obtain proper image quality.

  4. Experimental study of macroscopic quantum tunnelling in Bi2212 intrinsic Josephson junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Tetsuro; Kashiwaya, Hiromi; Shibata, Hajime; Kashiwaya, Satoshi; Kawabata, Shiro; Eisaki, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Yoshiyuki; Tanaka, Yukio

    2007-01-01

    The quantum dynamics of Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8+δ intrinsic Josephson junctions (IJJs) is studied based on escape rate measurements. The saturations observed in the escape temperature and in the width of the switching current below 0.5 K (= T * ) indicate the transition of the switching mechanism from thermal activation to macroscopic quantum tunnelling. It is shown that the switching properties are consistently explained in terms of the underdamped Josephson junction with a quality factor of 70 ± 20 in spite of possible damping due to the nodal quasiparticles of d-wave superconductivity. The present result gives the upper limit of the damping of IJJs

  5. Diagnosis of bladder tumours in patients with macroscopic haematuria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gandrup, Karen L; Løgager, Vibeke B; Bretlau, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare split-bolus computed tomography urography (CTU), magnetic resonance urography (MRU) and flexible cystoscopy in patients with macroscopic haematuria regarding the diagnosis of bladder tumours. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this prospective study, 150 pat...

  6. Macroscopic and microscopic changes in the fallopian tube after ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 43 patients who had undergone laparoscopic tubal occl usion by means of bipolar cauterization underwent bilateral salpingectomy 6- 30 months later. The macroscopic and microscopic changes in the fallopian tubes are described. Although 35 patients appeared to have occluded tubes on macro-scopic ...

  7. Effects of dissipation and temperature on macroscopic quantum tunneling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washburn, S.; Webb, R.A.; Voss, R.F.; Faris, S.M.

    1985-01-01

    Measurements of the tunneling rate GAMMA out of the zero-voltage state for several Nb edge junctions with differing shunt capacitances are described. At zero temperature, increasing the shunt capacitance lowers GAMMA in agreement with dissipative calculations of the macroscopic-quantum-tunneling rate. As temperature increases, ln[GAMMA(T)/GAMMA(0)]proportionalT 2 as recently predicted

  8. Macroscopic and microscopic magnetism of metal-metalloid amorphous alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasconcellos, M.A.Z.; Fichtner, P.F.P.; Livi, F.P.; Costa, M.I. da; Baibich, M.N.

    1984-01-01

    In this paper is investigated the interrelation between macroscopic and microscopic magnetic phenomena using experimetnal data from Moessbauer effect and the magnetization of layers of amorphous (Fe 1-x Ni x ) 80 B 20 . The Moessbauer effect measurement show a distribution of hyperfine fields in Fe site as well as a likely distribution of isomeric shifts (M.W.O.) [pt

  9. Prevalence of characteristic macroscopic lung pathologies in pigs at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Considering the importance of pork in daily nutrition and livelihood of the people, the relatively large pig population in Benue State, coupled with others from neighbouring states, this cross-sectional study was aimed at estimating the prevalence of definable macroscopic lung lesions in pigs slaughtered in Makurdi. Lesions ...

  10. Stereodynamics: From elementary processes to macroscopic chemical reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasai, Toshio [Department of Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Graduate School of Science, Department of Chemistry, Osaka University, Toyonaka, 560-0043 Osaka (Japan); Che, Dock-Chil [Graduate School of Science, Department of Chemistry, Osaka University, Toyonaka, 560-0043 Osaka (Japan); Tsai, Po-Yu [Department of Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Department of Chemistry, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Lin, King-Chuen [Department of Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Palazzetti, Federico [Scuola Normale Superiore, Pisa (Italy); Dipartimento di Chimica Biologia e Biotecnologie, Università di Perugia, 06123 Perugia (Italy); Aquilanti, Vincenzo [Dipartimento di Chimica Biologia e Biotecnologie, Università di Perugia, 06123 Perugia (Italy); Istituto di Struttura della Materia, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Roma (Italy); Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador (Brazil)

    2015-12-31

    This paper aims at discussing new facets on stereodynamical behaviors in chemical reactions, i.e. the effects of molecular orientation and alignment on reactive processes. Further topics on macroscopic processes involving deviations from Arrhenius behavior in the temperature dependence of chemical reactions and chirality effects in collisions are also discussed.

  11. The impact of traffic dynamics on macroscopic fundamental diagram

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoop, V.L.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.; Van Lint, J.W.C.

    2013-01-01

    Literature shows that – under specific conditions – the macroscopic fundamental diagram (MFD) describes a crisp relationship between the average flow (production) and the average density in an entire network. The limiting condition is that traffic conditions must be homogeneous over the whole

  12. The origins of macroscopic quantum coherence in high temperature superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, Philip, E-mail: ph.turner@napier.ac.uk [Edinburgh Napier University, 10 Colinton Road, Edinburgh EH10 5DT (United Kingdom); Nottale, Laurent, E-mail: laurent.nottale@obspm.fr [CNRS, LUTH, Observatoire de Paris-Meudon, 5 Place Janssen, 92190 Meudon (France)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • We propose a new theoretical approach to superconductivity in p-type cuprates. • Electron pairing mechanisms in the superconducting and pseudogap phases are proposed. • A scale free network of dopants is key to macroscopic quantum coherence. - Abstract: A new, theoretical approach to macroscopic quantum coherence and superconductivity in the p-type (hole doped) cuprates is proposed. The theory includes mechanisms to account for e-pair coupling in the superconducting and pseudogap phases and their inter relations observed in these materials. Electron pair coupling in the superconducting phase is facilitated by local quantum potentials created by static dopants in a mechanism which explains experimentally observed optimal doping levels and the associated peak in critical temperature. By contrast, evidence suggests that electrons contributing to the pseudogap are predominantly coupled by fractal spin waves (fractons) induced by the fractal arrangement of dopants. On another level, the theory offers new insights into the emergence of a macroscopic quantum potential generated by a fractal distribution of dopants. This, in turn, leads to the emergence of coherent, macroscopic spin waves and a second associated macroscopic quantum potential, possibly supported by charge order. These quantum potentials play two key roles. The first involves the transition of an expected diffusive process (normally associated with Anderson localization) in fractal networks, into e-pair coherence. The second involves the facilitation of tunnelling between localized e-pairs. These combined effects lead to the merger of the super conducting and pseudo gap phases into a single coherent condensate at optimal doping. The underlying theory relating to the diffusion to quantum transition is supported by Coherent Random Lasing, which can be explained using an analogous approach. As a final step, an experimental program is outlined to validate the theory and suggests a new

  13. Stability properties of nonlinear dynamical systems and evolutionary stable states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleria, Iram, E-mail: iram@fis.ufal.br [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Alagoas, 57072-970 Maceió-AL (Brazil); Brenig, Leon [Faculté des Sciences, Université Libre de Bruxelles, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Rocha Filho, Tarcísio M.; Figueiredo, Annibal [Instituto de Física and International Center for Condensed Matter Physics, Universidade de Brasília, 70919-970 Brasília-DF (Brazil)

    2017-03-18

    Highlights: • We address the problem of equilibrium stability in a general class of non-linear systems. • We link Evolutionary Stable States (ESS) to stable fixed points of square quasi-polynomial (QP) systems. • We show that an interior ES point may be related to stable interior fixed points of QP systems. - Abstract: In this paper we address the problem of stability in a general class of non-linear systems. We establish a link between the concepts of asymptotic stable interior fixed points of square Quasi-Polynomial systems and evolutionary stable states, a property of some payoff matrices arising from evolutionary games.

  14. Quantum laws of the microworld and the wealth of macroscopic structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noga, M.

    2000-01-01

    The reasons are highlighted why classical physics was unable to explain the formation of any collective self-organized arrangement such as magnetism and how the wealth of macroscopic self-organized structures emerges spontaneously from quantum theory applied to the given physical system. This is demonstrated on the simplest multi-electron system, viz. the model of a metal as electron gas with Coulomb interaction with a background of homogeneously distributed positive charge possessing a constant density so as to ensure charge neutrality of the system

  15. A user's manual for managing database system of tensile property

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Woo Seok; Park, S. J.; Kim, D. H.; Jun, I.

    2003-06-01

    This manual is written for the management and maintenance of the tensile database system for managing the tensile property test data. The data base constructed the data produced from tensile property test can increase the application of test results. Also, we can get easily the basic data from database when we prepare the new experiment and can produce better result by compare the previous data. To develop the database we must analyze and design carefully application and after that, we can offer the best quality to customers various requirements. The tensile database system was developed by internet method using Java, PL/SQL, JSP(Java Server Pages) tool

  16. Electronic properties of graphene-based bilayer systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozhkov, A.V., E-mail: arozhkov@gmail.com [CEMS, RIKEN, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Institute for Theoretical and Applied Electrodynamics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 125412 Moscow (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Dolgoprudny, Moscow Region, 141700 (Russian Federation); Sboychakov, A.O. [CEMS, RIKEN, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Institute for Theoretical and Applied Electrodynamics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 125412 Moscow (Russian Federation); Rakhmanov, A.L. [CEMS, RIKEN, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Institute for Theoretical and Applied Electrodynamics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 125412 Moscow (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Dolgoprudny, Moscow Region, 141700 (Russian Federation); All-Russia Research Institute of Automatics, Moscow, 127055 (Russian Federation); Nori, Franco, E-mail: fnori@riken.jp [CEMS, RIKEN, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Physics Department, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1040 (United States)

    2016-08-23

    This article reviews the theoretical and experimental work related to the electronic properties of bilayer graphene systems. Three types of bilayer stackings are discussed: the AA, AB, and twisted bilayer graphene. This review covers single-electron properties, effects of static electric and magnetic fields, bilayer-based mesoscopic systems, spin–orbit coupling, dc transport and optical response, as well as spontaneous symmetry violation and other interaction effects. The selection of the material aims to introduce the reader to the most commonly studied topics of theoretical and experimental research in bilayer graphene.

  17. Macroscopic domain formation during cooling in the platelet plasma membrane: an issue of low cholesterol content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bali, Rachna; Savino, Laura; Ramirez, Diego A; Tsvetkova, Nelly M; Bagatolli, Luis; Tablin, Fern; Crowe, John H; Leidy, Chad

    2009-06-01

    There has been ample debate on whether cell membranes can present macroscopic lipid domains as predicted by three-component phase diagrams obtained by fluorescence microscopy. Several groups have argued that membrane proteins and interactions with the cytoskeleton inhibit the formation of large domains. In contrast, some polarizable cells do show large regions with qualitative differences in lipid fluidity. It is important to ask more precisely, based on the current phase diagrams, under what conditions would large domains be expected to form in cells. In this work we study the thermotropic phase behavior of the platelet plasma membrane by FTIR, and compare it to a POPC/Sphingomyelin/Cholesterol model representing the outer leaflet composition. We find that this model closely reflects the platelet phase behavior. Previous work has shown that the platelet plasma membrane presents inhomogeneous distribution of DiI18:0 at 24 degrees C, but not at 37 degrees C, which suggests the formation of macroscopic lipid domains at low temperatures. We show by fluorescence microscopy, and by comparison with published phase diagrams, that the outer leaflet model system enters the macroscopic domain region only at the lower temperature. In addition, the low cholesterol content in platelets ( approximately 15 mol%), appears to be crucial for the formation of large domains during cooling.

  18. Graphene and Other 2D Colloids: Liquid Crystals and Macroscopic Fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yingjun; Xu, Zhen; Gao, Weiwei; Cheng, Zhengdong; Gao, Chao

    2017-04-01

    Two-dimensional colloidal nanomaterials are running into renaissance after the enlightening researches of graphene. Macroscopic one-dimensional fiber is an optimal ordered structural form to express the in-plane merits of 2D nanomaterials, and the formation of liquid crystals (LCs) allows the creation of continuous fibers. In the correlated system from LCs to fibers, understanding their macroscopic organizing behavior and transforming them into new solid fibers is greatly significant for applications. Herein, we retrospect the history of 2D colloids and discuss about the concept of 2D nanomaterial fibers in the context of LCs, elaborating the motivation, principle and possible strategies of fabrication. Then we highlight the creation, development and typical applications of graphene fibers. Additionally, the latest advances of other 2D nanomaterial fibers are also summarized. Finally, conclusions, challenges and perspectives are provided to show great expectations of better and more fibrous materials of 2D nanomaterials. This review gives a comprehensive retrospect of the past century-long effort about the whole development of 2D colloids, and plots a clear roadmap - "lamellar solid - LCs - macroscopic fibers - flexible devices", which will certainly open a new era of structural-multifunctional application for the conventional 2D colloids. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Monitoring road traffic congestion using a macroscopic traffic model and a statistical monitoring scheme

    KAUST Repository

    Zeroual, Abdelhafid

    2017-08-19

    Monitoring vehicle traffic flow plays a central role in enhancing traffic management, transportation safety and cost savings. In this paper, we propose an innovative approach for detection of traffic congestion. Specifically, we combine the flexibility and simplicity of a piecewise switched linear (PWSL) macroscopic traffic model and the greater capacity of the exponentially-weighted moving average (EWMA) monitoring chart. Macroscopic models, which have few, easily calibrated parameters, are employed to describe a free traffic flow at the macroscopic level. Then, we apply the EWMA monitoring chart to the uncorrelated residuals obtained from the constructed PWSL model to detect congested situations. In this strategy, wavelet-based multiscale filtering of data has been used before the application of the EWMA scheme to improve further the robustness of this method to measurement noise and reduce the false alarms due to modeling errors. The performance of the PWSL-EWMA approach is successfully tested on traffic data from the three lane highway portion of the Interstate 210 (I-210) highway of the west of California and the four lane highway portion of the State Route 60 (SR60) highway from the east of California, provided by the Caltrans Performance Measurement System (PeMS). Results show the ability of the PWSL-EWMA approach to monitor vehicle traffic, confirming the promising application of this statistical tool to the supervision of traffic flow congestion.

  20. ANALYSIS OF BJ493 DIESEL ENGINE LUBRICATION SYSTEM PROPERTIES

    OpenAIRE

    F Liu*

    2018-01-01

    The BJ493ZLQ4A diesel engine design is based on the primary model of BJ493ZLQ3, of which exhaust level is upgraded to the National GB5 standard due to the improved design of combustion and injection systems. Given the above changes in the diesel lubrication system, its improved properties are analyzed in this paper. According to the structures, technical parameters and indices of the lubrication system, the lubrication system model of BJ493ZLQ4A diesel engine was constructed using the Flowmas...

  1. Conservation properties of numerical integrators for highly oscillatory Hamiltonian systems

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, David

    2017-01-01

    Modulated Fourier expansion is used to show long-time near-conservation of the total and oscillatory energies of numerical methods for Hamiltonian systems with highly oscillatory solutions. The numerical methods considered are an extension of the trigonometric methods. A brief discussion of conservation properties in the continuous problem and in the multi-frequency case is also given

  2. Changes In Soil Properties Under Alley Cropping System Of Three ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study to evaluate the changes in soil properties, under existing alley cropping system with three leguminous crops (Leucaena leucocephala, Gliricidia sepium, and Cajanus cajan) was conducted in the experimental farm of the Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources Management, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki ...

  3. Model-Checking of Linear-Time Properties in Multi-Valued Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yongming; Droste, Manfred; Lei, Lihui

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we study model-checking of linear-time properties in multi-valued systems. Safety property, invariant property, liveness property, persistence and dual-persistence properties in multi-valued logic systems are introduced. Some algorithms related to the above multi-valued linear-time properties are discussed. The verification of multi-valued regular safety properties and multi-valued $\\omega$-regular properties using lattice-valued automata are thoroughly studied. Since the law o...

  4. Ballistic and diffusive dynamics in a two-dimensional ideal gas of macroscopic chaotic Faraday waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Kyle J; Hastings-Hauss, Isaac; Parthasarathy, Raghuveer; Corwin, Eric I

    2014-04-01

    We have constructed a macroscopic driven system of chaotic Faraday waves whose statistical mechanics, we find, are surprisingly simple, mimicking those of a thermal gas. We use real-time tracking of a single floating probe, energy equipartition, and the Stokes-Einstein relation to define and measure a pseudotemperature and diffusion constant and then self-consistently determine a coefficient of viscous friction for a test particle in this pseudothermal gas. Because of its simplicity, this system can serve as a model for direct experimental investigation of nonequilibrium statistical mechanics, much as the ideal gas epitomizes equilibrium statistical mechanics.

  5. Soil properties mapping with the DIGISOIL multi-sensor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandjean, G.

    2012-04-01

    The multidisciplinary DIGISOIL project aimed to integrate and improve in situ and proximal measurement technologies for the assessment of soil properties and soil degradation indicators, going from the sensing technologies to their integration and their application in (digital) soil mapping (DSM). In order to assess and prevent soil degradation and to benefit from the different ecological, economical and historical functions of the soil in a sustainable way, high resolution and quantitative maps of soil properties are needed. The core objective of the project is to explore and exploit new capabilities of advanced geophysical technologies for answering this societal demand. To this aim, DIGISOIL addresses four issues covering technological, soil science and economic aspects: (i) the validation of geophysical (in situ, proximal and airborne) technologies and integrated pedo-geophysical inversion techniques (mechanistic data fusion) (ii) the relation between the geophysical parameters and the soil properties, (iii) the integration of the derived soil properties for mapping soil functions and soil threats, (iv) the pre-evaluation, standardisation and sub-industrialization of the proposed methodologies, including technical and economical studies related to the societal demand. With respect to these issues, the DIGISOIL project allows to develop, test and validate the most relevant geophysical technologies for mapping soil properties. The system was tested on different field tests, and validated the proposed technologies and solutions for each of the identified methods: geoelectric, GPR, EMI, seismics, magnetic and hyperspectral. After data acquisition systems, sensor geometry, and advanced data processing techniques have been developed and validated, we present now the solutions for going from geophysical data to soil properties maps. For two test sites, located respectively in Luxembourg (LU) and Mugello (IT) a set of soil properties maps have been produced. They give

  6. Probabilistic Metrology Attains Macroscopic Cloning of Quantum Clocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendra, B.; Calsamiglia, J.; Muñoz-Tapia, R.; Bagan, E.; Chiribella, G.

    2014-12-01

    It has recently been shown that probabilistic protocols based on postselection boost the performances of the replication of quantum clocks and phase estimation. Here we demonstrate that the improvements in these two tasks have to match exactly in the macroscopic limit where the number of clones grows to infinity, preserving the equivalence between asymptotic cloning and state estimation for arbitrary values of the success probability. Remarkably, the cloning fidelity depends critically on the number of rationally independent eigenvalues of the clock Hamiltonian. We also prove that probabilistic metrology can simulate cloning in the macroscopic limit for arbitrary sets of states when the performance of the simulation is measured by testing small groups of clones.

  7. From 1D to 3D - macroscopic nanowire aerogel monoliths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Wei; Rechberger, Felix; Niederberger, Markus

    2016-07-01

    Here we present a strategy to assemble one-dimensional nanostructures into a three-dimensional architecture with macroscopic size. With the assistance of centrifugation, we successfully gel ultrathin W18O49 nanowires with diameters of 1 to 2 nm and aspect ratios larger than 100 into 3D networks, which are transformed into monolithic aerogels by supercritical drying.Here we present a strategy to assemble one-dimensional nanostructures into a three-dimensional architecture with macroscopic size. With the assistance of centrifugation, we successfully gel ultrathin W18O49 nanowires with diameters of 1 to 2 nm and aspect ratios larger than 100 into 3D networks, which are transformed into monolithic aerogels by supercritical drying. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details, SEM and TEM images, and digital photographs. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr04429h

  8. A macroscopic model for magnetic shape-memory single crystals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bessoud, A. L.; Kružík, Martin; Stefanelli, U.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 2 (2013), s. 343-359 ISSN 0044-2275 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100750802; GA ČR GAP201/10/0357 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : magneto striction * evolution Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.214, year: 2013 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2012/MTR/kruzik-a macroscopic model for magnetic shape-memory single crystals.pdf

  9. Extension of Seismic Scanning Tunneling Macroscope to Elastic Waves

    KAUST Repository

    Tarhini, Ahmad

    2017-11-06

    The theory for the seismic scanning tunneling macroscope is extended from acoustic body waves to elastic body-wave propagation. We show that, similar to the acoustic case, near-field superresolution imaging from elastic body waves results from the O(1/R) term, where R is the distance between the source and near-field scatterer. The higher-order contributions R−n for n>1 are cancelled in the near-field region for a point source with normal stress.

  10. Property ($T$) for groups graded by root systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ershov, Mikhail; Kassabov, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The authors introduce and study the class of groups graded by root systems. They prove that if \\Phi is an irreducible classical root system of rank \\geq 2 and G is a group graded by \\Phi, then under certain natural conditions on the grading, the union of the root subgroups is a Kazhdan subset of G. As the main application of this theorem the authors prove that for any reduced irreducible classical root system \\Phi of rank \\geq 2 and a finitely generated commutative ring R with 1, the Steinberg group {\\mathrm St}_{\\Phi}(R) and the elementary Chevalley group \\mathbb E_{\\Phi}(R) have property (T). They also show that there exists a group with property (T) which maps onto all finite simple groups of Lie type and rank \\geq 2, thereby providing a "unified" proof of expansion in these groups.

  11. Higher frequency transmission properties of motor car-chassis systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tong

    The transmission properties of motor car systems are analytically examined in a broad frequency range (up to 200 Hz), using a multibody system, containing rigid and elastic bodies. Most typical motor car variants used in the automobile industry were qualitatively modeled and their global power transmission behavior was analyzed with regard to various geometric shapes. A detailed transmission investigation was represented in connection with the assembly transmission tire total car system. The modal parameters were set up by theoretical finite element calculation and by experimental modal analysis of real chassis components. The higher frequency dynamic property of the hydraulic shock absorber was obtained by a real dynamic measurement. Its various modeling possibilities were discussed.

  12. Effects of different tillage systems and amendments on root properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Mengyu; Yan, Yang; Li, Na; Luo, Peiyu; Yang, Jinfeng

    2017-06-01

    The object of this study was to investigate the effect of different tillage systems and amendments on root properties. There were five treatments: maize continuous cropping, maize and peanuts rotation, peanuts continuous cropping, peanuts continuous cropping with low level of amendment and peanuts continuous cropping with high level of amendment. The results showed that maize continuous cropping increased total root length by 118.95%, projected area by 204.86%, projected area by 150.70%, total root volume by 20.66%, and average root diameter by184.53%. The amendments also improved root properties and the high level of amendment had much more better effect.

  13. On mixing property in set-valued discrete systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Rongbao; Guo Wenjing

    2006-01-01

    Let (X,d) be a compact metric space and f:X->X be a continuous map. Let (K(X),H) be the space of all non-empty compact subsets of X endowed with the Hausdorff metric induced by d and f-bar :K(X)->K(X) be the map defined by f-bar (A):{f(a):a-bar A}. In this paper we investigate the relationships between the mixing property of (K(X),f-bar ) and the mixing property of (X,f). In addition, we discuss specification for the set-valued discrete dynamical system (K(X),f-bar )

  14. Artificial immune system for effective properties optimization of magnetoelectric composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poteralski, Arkadiusz; Dziatkiewicz, Grzegorz

    2018-01-01

    The optimization problem of the effective properties for magnetoelectric composites is considered. The effective properties are determined by the semi-analytical Mori-Tanaka approach. The generalized Eshelby tensor components are calculated numerically by using the Gauss quadrature method for the integral representation of the inclusion problem. The linear magnetoelectric constitutive equation is used. The effect of orientation of the electromagnetic materials components is taken into account. The optimization problem of the design is formulated and the artificial immune system is applied to solve it.

  15. Macroscopic phase-resetting curves for spiking neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, Grégory; Ermentrout, G. Bard; Gutkin, Boris

    2017-10-01

    The study of brain rhythms is an open-ended, and challenging, subject of interest in neuroscience. One of the best tools for the understanding of oscillations at the single neuron level is the phase-resetting curve (PRC). Synchronization in networks of neurons, effects of noise on the rhythms, effects of transient stimuli on the ongoing rhythmic activity, and many other features can be understood by the PRC. However, most macroscopic brain rhythms are generated by large populations of neurons, and so far it has been unclear how the PRC formulation can be extended to these more common rhythms. In this paper, we describe a framework to determine a macroscopic PRC (mPRC) for a network of spiking excitatory and inhibitory neurons that generate a macroscopic rhythm. We take advantage of a thermodynamic approach combined with a reduction method to simplify the network description to a small number of ordinary differential equations. From this simplified but exact reduction, we can compute the mPRC via the standard adjoint method. Our theoretical findings are illustrated with and supported by numerical simulations of the full spiking network. Notably our mPRC framework allows us to predict the difference between effects of transient inputs to the excitatory versus the inhibitory neurons in the network.

  16. Micromechanical study of macroscopic friction and dissipation in idealised granular materials: the effect of interparticle friction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruyt, Nicolaas P.; Gutkowski, Witold; Rothenburg, L.; Kowalewski, Tomasz A.

    2004-01-01

    Using Discrete Element Method (DEM) simulations with varying interparticle friction coefficient, the relation between interparticle friction coefficient and macroscopic continuum friction and dissipation is investigated. As expected, macroscopic friction and dilatancy increase with interparticle

  17. Solvable Quantum Macroscopic Motions and Decoherence Mechanisms in Quantum Mechanics on Nonstandard Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Tsunehiro

    1996-01-01

    Quantum macroscopic motions are investigated in the scheme consisting of N-number of harmonic oscillators in terms of ultra-power representations of nonstandard analysis. Decoherence is derived from the large internal degrees of freedom of macroscopic matters.

  18. Engineering Biomaterial Properties for Central Nervous System Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivet, Christopher John

    Biomaterials offer unique properties that are intrinsic to the chemistry of the material itself or occur as a result of the fabrication process; iron oxide nanoparticles are superparamagnetic, which enables controlled heating in the presence of an alternating magnetic field, and a hydrogel and electrospun fiber hybrid material provides minimally invasive placement of a fibrous, artificial extracellular matrix for tissue regeneration. Utilization of these unique properties towards central nervous system disease and dysfunction requires a thorough definition of the properties in concert with full biological assessment. This enables development of material-specific features to elicit unique cellular responses. Iron oxide nanoparticles are first investigated for material-dependent, cortical neuron cytotoxicity in vitro and subsequently evaluated for alternating magnetic field stimulation induced hyperthermia, emulating the clinical application for enhanced chemotherapy efficacy in glioblastoma treatment. A hydrogel and electrospun fiber hybrid material is first applied to a rat brain to evaluate biomaterial interface astrocyte accumulation as a function of hybrid material composition. The hybrid material is then utilized towards increasing functional engraftment of dopaminergic progenitor neural stem cells in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease. Taken together, these two scenarios display the role of material property characterization in development of biomaterial strategies for central nervous system repair and regeneration.

  19. 41 CFR 101-1.101 - Federal Property Management Regulations System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Federal Property Management Regulations System. 101-1.101 Section 101-1.101 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS GENERAL 1-INTRODUCTION 1.1...

  20. Screen-imaging guidance using a modified portable video macroscope for middle cerebral artery occlusion☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xingbao; Luo, Junli; Liu, Yun; Chen, Guolong; Liu, Song; Ruan, Qiangjin; Deng, Xunding; Wang, Dianchun; Fan, Quanshui; Pan, Xinghua

    2012-01-01

    The use of operating microscopes is limited by the focal length. Surgeons using these instruments cannot simultaneously view and access the surgical field and must choose one or the other. The longer focal length (more than 1 000 mm) of an operating telescope permits a position away from the operating field, above the surgeon and out of the field of view. This gives the telescope an advantage over an operating microscope. We developed a telescopic system using screen-imaging guidance and a modified portable video macroscope constructed from a Computar MLH-10 × macro lens, a DFK-21AU04 USB CCD Camera and a Dell laptop computer as monitor screen. This system was used to establish a middle cerebral artery occlusion model in rats. Results showed that magnification of the modified portable video macroscope was appropriate (5–20 ×) even though the Computar MLH-10 × macro lens was placed 800 mm away from the operating field rather than at the specified working distance of 152.4 mm with a zoom of 1–40 ×. The screen-imaging telescopic technique was clear, life-like, stereoscopic and matched the actual operation. Screen-imaging guidance led to an accurate, smooth, minimally invasive and comparatively easy surgical procedure. Success rate of the model establishment evaluated by neurological function using the modified neurological score system was 74.07%. There was no significant difference in model establishment time, sensorimotor deficit and infarct volume percentage. Our findings indicate that the telescopic lens is effective in the screen surgical operation mode referred to as “long distance observation and short distance operation” and that screen-imaging guidance using an modified portable video macroscope can be utilized for the establishment of a middle cerebral artery occlusion model and micro-neurosurgery. PMID:25722675

  1. Screen-imaging guidance using a modified portable video macroscope for middle cerebral artery occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xingbao; Luo, Junli; Liu, Yun; Chen, Guolong; Liu, Song; Ruan, Qiangjin; Deng, Xunding; Wang, Dianchun; Fan, Quanshui; Pan, Xinghua

    2012-04-25

    The use of operating microscopes is limited by the focal length. Surgeons using these instruments cannot simultaneously view and access the surgical field and must choose one or the other. The longer focal length (more than 1 000 mm) of an operating telescope permits a position away from the operating field, above the surgeon and out of the field of view. This gives the telescope an advantage over an operating microscope. We developed a telescopic system using screen-imaging guidance and a modified portable video macroscope constructed from a Computar MLH-10 × macro lens, a DFK-21AU04 USB CCD Camera and a Dell laptop computer as monitor screen. This system was used to establish a middle cerebral artery occlusion model in rats. Results showed that magnification of the modified portable video macroscope was appropriate (5-20 ×) even though the Computar MLH-10 × macro lens was placed 800 mm away from the operating field rather than at the specified working distance of 152.4 mm with a zoom of 1-40 ×. The screen-imaging telescopic technique was clear, life-like, stereoscopic and matched the actual operation. Screen-imaging guidance led to an accurate, smooth, minimally invasive and comparatively easy surgical procedure. Success rate of the model establishment evaluated by neurological function using the modified neurological score system was 74.07%. There was no significant difference in model establishment time, sensorimotor deficit and infarct volume percentage. Our findings indicate that the telescopic lens is effective in the screen surgical operation mode referred to as "long distance observation and short distance operation" and that screen-imaging guidance using an modified portable video macroscope can be utilized for the establishment of a middle cerebral artery occlusion model and micro-neurosurgery.

  2. Critical behavior of a two-dimensional complex fluid: Macroscopic and mesoscopic views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhuri, Madhumita; Datta, Alokmay

    2016-04-01

    Liquid disordered (Ld) to liquid ordered (Lo) phase transition in myristic acid [MyA, CH3(CH2) 12COOH ] Langmuir monolayers was studied macroscopically as well as mesoscopically to locate the critical point. Macroscopically, isotherms of the monolayer were obtained across the 20 ∘C-38 ∘Ctemperature (T ) range and the critical point was estimated, primarily from the vanishing of the order parameter, at ≈38 ∘C. Mesoscopically, domain morphology in the Ld-Lo coexistence regime was imaged using the technique of Brewster angle microscopy (BAM) as a function of T and the corresponding power spectral density function (PSDF) obtained. Monolayer morphology passed from stable circular domains and a sharp peak in PSDF to stable dendritic domains and a divergence of the correlation length as the critical point was approached from below. The critical point was found to be consistent at ≈38 ∘Cfrom both isotherm and BAM results. In the critical regime the scaling behavior of the transition followed the two-dimensional Ising model. Additionally, we obtained a precritical regime, over a temperature range of ≈8 ∘C below Tc, characterized by fluctuations in the order parameter at the macroscopic scale and at the mesoscopic scale characterized by unstable domains of fingering or dendritic morphology as well as proliferation of a large number of small sized domains, multiple peaks in the power spectra, and a corresponding fluctuation in the peak q values with T . Further, while comparing temperature studies on an ensemble of MyA monolayers with those on a single monolayer, the system was found to be not strictly ergodic in that the ensemble development did not strictly match with the time development in the system. In particular, the critical temperature was found to be lowered in the latter. These results clearly show that the critical behavior in fatty acid monolayer phase transitions have features of both complex and nonequilibrium systems.

  3. Spectral properties of porphyrins in the systems with layered silicates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceklovsky, A.

    2009-03-01

    This work is focused on investigation of hybrid materials based on layered silicates, representing host inorganic component, and porphyrin dyes as organic guest. Aqueous colloidal dispersions, as well as thin solid films of layered silicate/porphyrin systems were studied. Modification of photophysical properties, such as absorption and fluorescence of molecules, adsorbed or incorporated in layered silicate hosts, were studied mainly to spread the knowledge about the environments suitable for incorporating aromatic compounds, providing photoactive properties of potential technological interest. TMPyP cations interact with the surfaces of layered silicates via electrostatic interactions. The extent of dye adsorption on colloidal particles of the silicates is influenced by the CEC values and swelling ability of silicates. Interaction of porphyrins with layered silicate hosts leads to significant changes of dye spectral properties. One of the key parameters that has a crucial impact on this interaction is the layer charge of silicate template. Other factors influence the resulting spectral properties of hybrid systems, such as the method of hybrid material preparation, the material's type (colloid, film), and the modification of the silicate host. Molecular orientation studies using linearly-polarized spectroscopies in VIS and IR regions revealed that TMPyP molecules were oriented in almost parallel fashion with respect to the silicate surface plane. Slightly higher values of the orientation angle of TMPyP transition moment were observed for the TMPyP/FHT system. Thus, flattening of the guest TMPyP molecules is the next important factor (mainly in the systems with lower layer charge), influencing its spectral properties upon the interaction with layered silicates. Fluorescence was effectively quenched in the systems based on solid films prepared from the high concentration of the dye (10-3 mol.dm-3). The quenching is most probably related to the structure of the

  4. Characterization of system theoretic properties for a class of spatially invariant systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fatmawati, F.; Zwart, Heiko J.; El Jai, A.; Afifi, L.; Zerrik, E.

    This paper considers the analysis of the system properties stability and stabilizability for a class of spatially distributed systems on a two-dimensional spatial domain. Using the Fourier transform on the spatial variables, we obtain a mathematically simpler infinite dimensional system. The

  5. La Notion de Compatibilite des Systemes de Documentation Automatique. (The Compatibility Property of Automatic Documentation Systems)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonpas, M.

    1971-01-01

    The compatibility property of documentation system is defined by the capacity of the system to posit relationships of equivalence. This state is reached when cataloging references are properly structured and when a program allows searching the same data in the system. (15 references) (Author/MM)

  6. Glass properties in the yttria-alumina-silica system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyatt, M. J.; Day, D. E.

    1987-01-01

    The glass formation region in the yttria-alumina-silica system was investigated. Properties of glasses containing 25 to 55 wt pct yttria were measured and the effect of the composition was determined. The density, refractive index, thermal-expansion coefficient, and microhardness increased with increasing yttria content. The dissolution rate in 1N HCl increased with increasing yttria content and temperature. These glasses were also found to have high electrical resistivity.

  7. Path Integration Applied to Structural Systems with Uncertain Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren R.K.; Köylüoglu, H. Ugur

    Path integration (cell-to-cell mapping) method is applied to evaluate the joint probability density function (jpdf) of the response of the structural systems, with uncertain properties, subject to white noise excitation. A general methodology to deal with uncertainties is outlined and applied to ...... to the friction controlled slip of a structure on a foundation where the friction coefficient is modelled as a random variable. Exact results derived using the total probability theorem are compared to the ones obtained via path integration....

  8. IMPLEMENTATION OF PROPERTY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM IN HOTEL INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Krželj-Čolović, Zorica; Cerović, Zdenko

    2013-01-01

    Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) influences the development tourism on globally, and its development has changed the practice of business. Any reference ICT in the hotel industry necessarily begins the concept of Property Management System (PMS). PMS as an essential component for hotel management provides tools as are necessary hotel staff in performing daily operations of the reservation, the accommodation capacities management, accounting, etc. This software supports all bas...

  9. Properties of the hadronic system produced in antineutrino proton interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musgrave, B.

    1979-01-01

    The separation of the hadronic system produced in anti νp charged-current reactions into the current and target fragmentation components is discussed. The current fragments show properties in good qualitative agreement with the expectations of the naive quark-parton model. In particular, there is no evidence for either a Q 2 - or X/sub BJ/-dependence of the fragmentation functions. 7 references

  10. Eliminative Argumentation: A Basis for Arguing Confidence in System Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Eliminative Argumentation: A Basis for Arguing Confidence in System Properties John B. Goodenough Charles B. Weinstock Ari Z. Klein February... Goodenough 2012]. The current report supersedes our earlier report by providing a revised nota- tion, explicit rules for using the notation correctly, a...Theory of Argument Structure. Foris Publications, 1991. [ Goodenough 2012] Goodenough , J. B., Weinstock, C. B., & Klein, A. Z. Toward a Theory of

  11. Experimental studies of electromagnetic properties of few body systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosted, P.E.

    1987-08-01

    An overview is given of some recent and planned experiments which have or will substantially increase our knowledge of the electromagnetic properties of few body systems. Specific examples include the proton and neutron elastic form factors, the deuteron elastic form factors, deuteron threshold electrodisintegration and quasi-elastic scattering, deuteron photodisintegration, and finally measurements of cross sections in deep inelastic scattering from hydrogen, deuterium, and iron. 47 refs., 13 figs

  12. Experimental studies of electromagnetic properties of few body systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosted, P.E.

    1987-08-01

    An overview is given of some recent and planned experiments which have or will substantially increase our knowledge of the electromagnetic properties of few body systems. Specific examples include the proton and neutron elastic form factors, the deuteron elastic form factors, deuteron threshold electrodisintegration and quasi-elastic scattering, deuteron photodisintegration, and finally measurements of cross sections in deep inelastic scattering from hydrogen, deuterium, and iron. 47 refs., 13 figs. (DWL)

  13. Quasi-Three Body Systems: Properties and Scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amusia, M. Ya.

    2017-01-01

    We investigate systems of three mutually interacting particles with masses m e , m μ , M that obey the following inequality m e ≪ m μ ≪ M. Then the three-body problem reduces to the two-body scattering or structure of m e in the field of the pseudo-nucleus m μ M. We calculate analytically the properties of considered systems, such as the scattering cross-sections, hyperfine splitting, Auger decay of exited states and Lamb shifts, presenting them as expansions in powers of the parameter β=m e /m μ ≪1. (author)

  14. FINAL REPORT FOR DE-FG02-03ER46071 ENTITLED, "UNDERSTANDING FOAM RHEOLOGY FROM THE MICROSCOPIC TO THE MACROSCOPIC SCALE"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennin, Michael

    2012-01-10

    This research effort is focused on understanding the mechanical response of foams, and other complex fluids, from the microscopic to the macroscopic level. The research uses a model two-dimensional system: bubble rafts. Bubble rafts are a single layer of gas bubbles with liquid walls that float on a water surface. The work involves studies of the macroscopic response of foam under various conditions of external forcing, mesoscopic studies of bubble motion, and systematic variations of the microscopic details of the system. In addition to characterizing the specific properties of the bubble raft, a second aim of the research is to provide experimental tests of various general theories that have recently been developed to characterize complex fluids. Primarily, the focus is on testing the proposed jamming phase diagram paradigm. This paradigm suggests that a general jamme state of matter exists and is common to a wide range of systems, including foam, colloids, granular matter, glasses, and emulsions. Therefore,we have extended our research in two directions. First, we have included studies of plastic bead rafts. These are systems of plastic beads floating on the air-water interface. The advantage of plastic beads is that they do not pop, so they can be studied for the much longer periods of time required to measure the slow dynamics associated with the jammed state. Also, they allow us to explore a different density regime than the bubbles. Second, to better understand the role of defects in jamming behavior, we have done a few experiments on the impact of defects on domain growth.

  15. Analysis of BJ493 diesel engine lubrication system properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, F.

    2017-12-01

    The BJ493ZLQ4A diesel engine design is based on the primary model of BJ493ZLQ3, of which exhaust level is upgraded to the National GB5 standard due to the improved design of combustion and injection systems. Given the above changes in the diesel lubrication system, its improved properties are analyzed in this paper. According to the structures, technical parameters and indices of the lubrication system, the lubrication system model of BJ493ZLQ4A diesel engine was constructed using the Flowmaster flow simulation software. The properties of the diesel engine lubrication system, such as the oil flow rate and pressure at different rotational speeds were analyzed for the schemes involving large- and small-scale oil filters. The calculated values of the main oil channel pressure are in good agreement with the experimental results, which verifies the proposed model feasibility. The calculation results show that the main oil channel pressure and maximum oil flow rate values for the large-scale oil filter scheme satisfy the design requirements, while the small-scale scheme yields too low main oil channel’s pressure and too high. Therefore, application of small-scale oil filters is hazardous, and the large-scale scheme is recommended.

  16. Light induced electrical and macroscopic changes in hydrogenated polymorphous silicon solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roca i Cabarrocas P.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We report on light-induced electrical and macroscopic changes in hydrogenated polymorphous silicon (pm-Si:H PIN solar cells. To explain the particular light-soaking behavior of such cells – namely an increase of the open circuit voltage (Voc and a rapid drop of the short circuit current density (Jsc – we correlate these effects to changes in hydrogen incorporation and structural properties in the layers of the cells. Numerous techniques such as current-voltage characteristics, infrared spectroscopy, hydrogen exodiffusion, Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry are used to study the light-induced changes from microscopic to macroscopic scales (up to tens of microns. Such comprehensive use of complementary techniques lead us to suggest that light-soaking produces the diffusion of molecular hydrogen, hydrogen accumulation at p-layer/substrate interface and localized delamination of the interface. Based on these results we propose that light-induced degradation of PIN solar cells has to be addressed from not only as a material issue, but also a device point of view. In particular we bring experimental evidence that localized delamination at the interface between the p-layer and SnO2 substrate by light-induced hydrogen motion causes the rapid drop of Jsc.

  17. Microcracking and macroscopic failure in intermetallic titanium aluminides; Mikrorissbildung und makroskopisches Versagen in intermetallischen Titanaluminiden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiesand-Valk, B. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Werkstofforschung

    2000-07-01

    This paper deals with the correlations between microstructural disorder, that means statistical distribution of phases and local material properties, and macroscopic failure of disordered multiphase materials. On a microscopic level the microstructural disorder leads to randomly distributed local damage before failure (in brittle materials to microcracks) and eventually to localisation of damage. On a macroscopic level the value and scatter of fracture strength and its dependence on specimen size are essentially determined by the microstructural disorder. The failure behaviour is treated by using the discrete chain-of-bundles-model, which treats the details of the microstructure not explicitly but as locally distributed fluctuations of characteristical material parameters. The model has been verified by comparing with experimental results for four intermetallic titanium aluminides and its validity has been demonstrated. (orig.) [German] Die Arbeit behandelt die Zusammenhaenge zwischen der Stochastizitaet des Gefueges, das heisst, einer statistischen Verteilung von Phasen und lokalen Materialeigenschaften und dem makroskopischen Versagen von ungeordneten mehrphasigen Werkstoffen. Auf mikroskopischer Ebene fuehrt die Stochastizitaet des Gefueges vor dem Versagen zu lokalen Schaedigungen (in sproeden Werkstoffen zu Mikrorissen) und schliesslich (abhaengig vom Grad der Unordnung) zur Lokalisierung des Bruchgeschehens. Makroskopisch werden die Groesse und Streuung von Bruchfestigkeitswerten und ihre Probengroessenabhaengigkeit durch die mikrostrukturelle Unordnung wesentlich bestimmt. Dieses Versagensverhalten wird in dem diskreten Chain-of-Bundles-Modell beschrieben, das die Details der Mikrostruktur nicht explizit sondern als lokale statistische Schwankungen von charakteristischen Werkstoffparametern erfasst. Am Beispiel von vier ausgewaehlten Titan-Aluminiden wird das Modell validiert und verifiziert. (orig.)

  18. Synchronized Molecular-Dynamics Simulation via Macroscopic Heat and Momentum Transfer: An Application to Polymer Lubrication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shugo Yasuda

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A synchronized molecular-dynamics simulation via macroscopic heat and momentum transfer is proposed to model the nonisothermal flow behaviors of complex fluids. In this method, the molecular-dynamics simulations are assigned to small fluid elements to calculate the local stresses and temperatures and are synchronized at certain time intervals to satisfy the macroscopic heat- and momentum-transport equations. This method is applied to the lubrication of a polymeric liquid composed of short chains of ten beads between parallel plates. The rheological properties and conformation of the polymer chains coupled with local viscous heating are investigated with a nondimensional parameter, the Nahme-Griffith number, which is defined as the ratio of the viscous heating to the thermal conduction at the characteristic temperature required to sufficiently change the viscosity. The present simulation demonstrates that strong shear thinning and a transitional behavior of the conformation of the polymer chains are exhibited with a rapid temperature rise when the Nahme-Griffith number exceeds unity. The results also clarify that the reentrant transition of the linear stress-optical relation occurs for large shear stresses due to the coupling of the conformation of polymer chains with heat generation under shear flows.

  19. Coherent oscillations between two weakly coupled Bose-Einstein condensates: Josephson effects, π oscillations, and macroscopic quantum self-trapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghavan, S.; Smerzi, A.; Fantoni, S.; Shenoy, S.R.

    2001-03-01

    We discuss the coherent atomic oscillations between two weakly coupled Bose-Einstein condensates. The weak link is provided by a laser barrier in a (possibly asymmetric) double-well trap or by Raman coupling between two condensates in different hyperfine levels. The boson Josephson junction (BJJ) dynamics is described by the two-mode nonlinear Gross-Pitaevskii equation that is solved analytically in terms of elliptic functions. The BJJ, being a neutral, isolated system, allows the investigations of dynamical regimes for the phase difference across the junction and for the population imbalance that are not accessible with superconductor Josephson junctions (SJJ's). These include oscillations with either or both of the following properties: (i) the time-averaged value of the phase is equal to π (π-phase oscillations); (ii) the average population imbalance is nonzero, in states with macroscopic quantum self-trapping. The (nonsinusoidal) generalization of the SJJ ac and plasma oscillations and the Shapiro resonance can also be observed. We predict the collapse of experimental data (corresponding to different trap geometries and the total number of condensate atoms) onto a single universal curve for the inverse period of oscillations. Analogies with Josephson oscillations between two weakly coupled reservoirs of 3 He-B and the internal Josephson effect in 3 He-A are also discussed. (author)

  20. Proposed stratigraphic nomenclature and macroscopic identification of lithostratigraphic units of the Paintbrush Group exposed at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buesch, D.C.; Spengler, R.W.; Moyer, T.C.; Geslin, J.K.

    1996-09-01

    This paper describes the formations of the Paintbrush Group exposed at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, presents a detailed stratigraphic nomenclature for the Tiva Canyon and Topopah spring Tuffs, and discusses the criteria that define lithostratigraphic units. The Tiva Canyon and Topopah Spring Tuffs are divided into zones, subzones, and intervals on the basis of macroscopic features observed in surface exposures and borehole samples. Primary divisions reflect depositional and compositional zoning that is expressed by variations in crystal content, phenocryst assemblage, pumice content and composition, and lithic content. Secondary divisions define welding and crystlalization zones, depositional features, or fracture characteristics. Both formations are divided into crystal-rich and crystal-poor members that have an identical sequency of zones, although subzone designations vary slightly between the two units. The identified lithostratigraphic divisions can be used to approximate thermal-mechanical and hydrogeologic boundaries in the field. Linking these three systems of nomenclature provides a framework within which to correlate these properties through regions of sparse data.

  1. Proposed stratigraphic nomenclature and macroscopic identification of lithostratigraphic units of the Paintbrush Group exposed at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buesch, D.C.; Spengler, R.W.; Moyer, T.C.; Geslin, J.K.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the formations of the Paintbrush Group exposed at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, presents a detailed stratigraphic nomenclature for the Tiva Canyon and Topopah spring Tuffs, and discusses the criteria that define lithostratigraphic units. The Tiva Canyon and Topopah Spring Tuffs are divided into zones, subzones, and intervals on the basis of macroscopic features observed in surface exposures and borehole samples. Primary divisions reflect depositional and compositional zoning that is expressed by variations in crystal content, phenocryst assemblage, pumice content and composition, and lithic content. Secondary divisions define welding and crystlalization zones, depositional features, or fracture characteristics. Both formations are divided into crystal-rich and crystal-poor members that have an identical sequency of zones, although subzone designations vary slightly between the two units. The identified lithostratigraphic divisions can be used to approximate thermal-mechanical and hydrogeologic boundaries in the field. Linking these three systems of nomenclature provides a framework within which to correlate these properties through regions of sparse data

  2. Property (

    CERN Document Server

    Ershov, Mikhail; Kassabov, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The authors introduce and study the class of groups graded by root systems. They prove that if \\Phi is an irreducible classical root system of rank \\geq 2 and G is a group graded by \\Phi, then under certain natural conditions on the grading, the union of the root subgroups is a Kazhdan subset of G. As the main application of this theorem the authors prove that for any reduced irreducible classical root system \\Phi of rank \\geq 2 and a finitely generated commutative ring R with 1, the Steinberg group {\\mathrm St}_{\\Phi}(R) and the elementary Chevalley group \\mathbb E_{\\Phi}(R) have property (T). They also show that there exists a group with property (T) which maps onto all finite simple groups of Lie type and rank \\geq 2, thereby providing a "unified" proof of expansion in these groups.

  3. Hypervelocity macroscopic particle impact fusion with DT methane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Y. A.; Liu, J.; Wang, Z. X.

    2009-07-01

    Hypervelocity impact (HVI) is a very important workbench in high energy density (HED) physics studies. In this paper, we will discuss the physics of the impact of a macroscopic particle (macron) at the speed of up to ( ˜1000 km/s) to an immobile target, and its differences from other HED drives. As HVIs can create ultra high energy density, we believe that with a proper design, they can be very efficient drives to inertial confinement fusion energy (IFE). We will propose a fusion scheme of this concept, investigate the physics involved in detail, and present the preliminary simulation results. These investigations show that the scheme is very promising.

  4. Effect of Macroscopic Impurities on Resistive Measurements in Three Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koon, Daniel W.

    1997-03-01

    The authors extend their study of the effect of macroscopic impurities on resistive measurements to include specimens of finite thickness. The effect of such impurities is calculated for a rectangular parallelepiped with two current and two voltage contacts on the corners of one of its faces. The weighting function(D. W. Koon and C. J. Knickerbocker, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 207 (1992).) displays singularities near these contacts, but these are shown to vanish in the two-dimensional limit, in agreement with previous results.

  5. Emergence of an urban traffic macroscopic fundamental diagram

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ranjan, Abhishek; Fosgerau, Mogens; Jenelius, Erik

    2016-01-01

    process to be in operation. This means that merely observing the stable relationship between the space-averages of speed, flow and occupancy are not sufficient to infer a robust relationship and the emerging MFD cannot be guaranteed to be stable if traffic interventions are implemented.......This paper examines mild conditions under which a macroscopic fundamental diagram (MFD) emerges, relating space-averaged speed to occupancy in some area. These conditions are validated against empirical data. We allow local speedoccupancy relationships and, in particular, require no equilibrating...

  6. Seismic scanning tunneling macroscope - Elastic simulations and Arizona mine test

    KAUST Repository

    Hanafy, Sherif M.

    2012-01-01

    Elastic seismic simulations and field data tests are used to validate the theory of a seismic scanning tunneling macroscope (SSTM). For nearfield elastic simulation, the SSTM results show superresolution to be better than λ/8 if the only scattered data are used as input data. If the direct P and S waves are muted then the resolution of the scatterer locations are within about λ/5. Seismic data collected in an Arizona tunnel showed a superresolution limit of at least λ/19. These test results are consistent with the theory of the SSTM and suggest that the SSTM can be a tool used by geophysicists as a probe for near-field scatterers.

  7. The Two-Time Interpretation and Macroscopic Time-Reversibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakir Aharonov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The two-state vector formalism motivates a time-symmetric interpretation of quantum mechanics that entails a resolution of the measurement problem. We revisit a post-selection-assisted collapse model previously suggested by us, claiming that unlike the thermodynamic arrow of time, it can lead to reversible dynamics at the macroscopic level. In addition, the proposed scheme enables us to characterize the classical-quantum boundary. We discuss the limitations of this approach and its broad implications for other areas of physics.

  8. Macroscopic relationship in primal-dual portfolio optimization problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinzato, Takashi

    2018-02-01

    In the present paper, using a replica analysis, we examine the portfolio optimization problem handled in previous work and discuss the minimization of investment risk under constraints of budget and expected return for the case that the distribution of the hyperparameters of the mean and variance of the return rate of each asset are not limited to a specific probability family. Findings derived using our proposed method are compared with those in previous work to verify the effectiveness of our proposed method. Further, we derive a Pythagorean theorem of the Sharpe ratio and macroscopic relations of opportunity loss. Using numerical experiments, the effectiveness of our proposed method is demonstrated for a specific situation.

  9. Macroscopic domain formation in the platelet plasma membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bali, Rachna; Savino, Laura; Ramirez, Diego A.

    2009-01-01

    phase behavior of the platelet plasma membrane by FTIR, and compare it to a POPC/Sphingomyelin/Cholesterol model representing the outer leaflet composition. We find that this model closely reflects the platelet phase behavior. Previous work has shown that the platelet plasma membrane presents......There has been ample debate on whether cell membranes can present macroscopic lipid domains as predicted by three-component phase diagrams obtained by fluorescence microscopy. Several groups have argued that membrane proteins and interactions with the cytoskeleton inhibit the formation of large...

  10. Thermophysical and Thermomechanical Properties of Thermal Barrier Coating Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.

    2000-01-01

    Thermal barrier coatings have been developed for advanced gas turbine and diesel engine applications to improve engine reliability and fuel efficiency. However, the issue of coating durability under high temperature cyclic conditions is still of major concern. The coating failure is closely related to thermal stresses and oxidation in the coating systems. Coating shrinkage cracking resulting from ceramic sintering and creep at high temperatures can further accelerate the coating failure process. The purpose of this paper is to address critical issues such as ceramic sintering and creep, thermal fatigue and their relevance to coating life prediction. Novel test approaches have been established to obtain critical thermophysical and thermomechanical properties of the coating systems under near-realistic temperature and stress gradients encountered in advanced engine systems. Emphasis is placed on the dynamic changes of the coating thermal conductivity and elastic modulus, fatigue and creep interactions, and resulting failure mechanisms during the simulated engine tests. Detailed experimental and modeling results describing processes occurring in the thermal barrier coating systems provide a framework for developing strategies to manage ceramic coating architecture, microstructure and properties.

  11. Microscopic and macroscopic models for the onset and progression of Alzheimer's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertsch, Michiel; Franchi, Bruno; Carla Tesi, Maria; Tosin, Andrea

    2017-10-01

    In the first part of this paper we review a mathematical model for the onset and progression of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) that was developed in subsequent steps over several years. The model is meant to describe the evolution of AD in vivo. In Achdou et al (2013 J. Math. Biol. 67 1369-92) we treated the problem at a microscopic scale, where the typical length scale is a multiple of the size of the soma of a single neuron. Subsequently, in Bertsch et al (2017 Math. Med. Biol. 34 193-214) we concentrated on the macroscopic scale, where brain neurons are regarded as a continuous medium, structured by their degree of malfunctioning. In the second part of the paper we consider the relation between the microscopic and the macroscopic models. In particular we show under which assumptions the kinetic transport equation, which in the macroscopic model governs the evolution of the probability measure for the degree of malfunctioning of neurons, can be derived from a particle-based setting. The models are based on aggregation and diffusion equations for β-Amyloid (Aβ from now on), a protein fragment that healthy brains regularly produce and eliminate. In case of dementia Aβ monomers are no longer properly washed out and begin to coalesce forming eventually plaques. Two different mechanisms are assumed to be relevant for the temporal evolution of the disease: (i) diffusion and agglomeration of soluble polymers of amyloid, produced by damaged neurons; (ii) neuron-to-neuron prion-like transmission. In the microscopic model we consider mechanism (i), modelling it by a system of Smoluchowski equations for the amyloid concentration (describing the agglomeration phenomenon), with the addition of a diffusion term as well as of a source term on the neuronal membrane. At the macroscopic level instead we model processes (i) and (ii) by a system of Smoluchowski equations for the amyloid concentration, coupled to a kinetic-type transport equation for the distribution function of the

  12. Group contribution methods for estimating the properties of polymer systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdanić Grozdana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymer materials are nowadays used in a wide range of technological applications. Reliable knowledge of the thermo physical properties of pure polymers and their mixtures in the whole composition and a wide temperature and pressure range determines whether a given polymer is suitable for a specific application. On the other hand, accurate knowledge of the thermodynamic properties of the systems is a vital prerequisite for computer-aided syntheses, design, and the optimization of industrial polymer processes. However, the experimental data on polymer solubility are often scarce, and at this point, thermodynamics provide a powerful tool for modeling and extrapolating the experimental data. These models, together with factual data banks, are powerful software tools for the reliable development of chemical processes and other applications of industrial interest. The status of the different approaches and important applications of industrial interest using thermodynamic information derived from data banks or by using predictive thermodynamic models are presented in this review.

  13. [Physical properties of f electron systems]: Progress report, February 1987-January 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riseborough, P.S.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses the progress in research on f electron systems. The major properties discussed in this paper are: magnetic properties, transport properties, heavy fermion superconductivity, and photo-emission spectroscopy

  14. Gecko toe and lamellar shear adhesion on macroscopic, engineered rough surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, Andrew G; Henry, Amy; Lin, Hauwen; Ren, Angela; Shiuan, Kevin; Fearing, Ronald S; Full, Robert J

    2014-01-15

    The role in adhesion of the toes and lamellae - intermediate-sized structures - found on the gecko foot remains unclear. Insight into the function of these structures can lead to a more general understanding of the hierarchical nature of the gecko adhesive system, but in particular how environmental topology may relate to gecko foot morphology. We sought to discern the mechanics of the toes and lamellae by examining gecko adhesion on controlled, macroscopically rough surfaces. We used live Tokay geckos, Gekko gecko, to observe the maximum shear force a gecko foot can attain on an engineered substrate constructed with sinusoidal patterns of varying amplitudes and wavelengths in sizes similar to the dimensions of the toes and lamellae structures (0.5 to 6 mm). We found shear adhesion was significantly decreased on surfaces that had amplitudes and wavelengths approaching the lamella length and inter-lamella spacing, losing 95% of shear adhesion over the range tested. We discovered that the toes are capable of adhering to surfaces with amplitudes much larger than their dimensions even without engaging claws, maintaining 60% of shear adhesion on surfaces with amplitudes of 3 mm. Gecko adhesion can be predicted by the ratio of the lamella dimensions to surface feature dimensions. In addition to setae, remarkable macroscopic-scale features of gecko toes and lamellae that include compliance and passive conformation are necessary to maintain contact, and consequently, generate shear adhesion on macroscopically rough surfaces. Findings on the larger scale structures in the hierarchy of gecko foot function could provide the biological inspiration to drive the design of more effective and versatile synthetic fibrillar adhesives.

  15. On the macroscopic modeling of dilute emulsions under flow in the presence of particle inertia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwasame, Paul M.; Wagner, Norman J.; Beris, Antony N.

    2018-03-01

    Recently, Mwasame et al. ["On the macroscopic modeling of dilute emulsions under flow," J. Fluid Mech. 831, 433 (2017)] developed a macroscopic model for the dynamics and rheology of a dilute emulsion with droplet morphology in the limit of negligible particle inertia using the bracket formulation of non-equilibrium thermodynamics of Beris and Edwards [Thermodynamics of Flowing Systems: With Internal Microstructure (Oxford University Press on Demand, 1994)]. Here, we improve upon that work to also account for particle inertia effects. This advance is facilitated by using the bracket formalism in its inertial form that allows for the natural incorporation of particle inertia effects into macroscopic level constitutive equations, while preserving consistency to the previous inertialess approximation in the limit of zero inertia. The parameters in the resultant Particle Inertia Thermodynamically Consistent Ellipsoidal Emulsion (PITCEE) model are selected by utilizing literature-available mesoscopic theory for the rheology at small capillary and particle Reynolds numbers. At steady state, the lowest level particle inertia effects can be described by including an additional non-affine inertial term into the evolution equation for the conformation tensor, thereby generalizing the Gordon-Schowalter time derivative. This additional term couples the conformation and vorticity tensors and is a function of the Ohnesorge number. The rheological and microstructural predictions arising from the PITCEE model are compared against steady-shear simulation results from the literature. They show a change in the signs of the normal stress differences that is accompanied by a change in the orientation of the major axis of the emulsion droplet toward the velocity gradient direction with increasing Reynolds number, capturing the two main signatures of particle inertia reported in simulations.

  16. On monogamy of non-locality and macroscopic averages: examples and preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Soares Barbosa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We explore a connection between monogamy of non-locality and a weak macroscopic locality condition: the locality of the average behaviour. These are revealed by our analysis as being two sides of the same coin. Moreover, we exhibit a structural reason for both in the case of Bell-type multipartite scenarios, shedding light on but also generalising the results in the literature [Ramanathan et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 060405 (2001; Pawlowski & Brukner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 030403 (2009]. More specifically, we show that, provided the number of particles in each site is large enough compared to the number of allowed measurement settings, and whatever the microscopic state of the system, the macroscopic average behaviour is local realistic, or equivalently, general multipartite monogamy relations hold. This result relies on a classical mathematical theorem by Vorob'ev [Theory Probab. Appl. 7(2, 147-163 (1962] about extending compatible families of probability distributions defined on the faces of a simplicial complex – in the language of the sheaf-theoretic framework of Abramsky & Brandenburger [New J. Phys. 13, 113036 (2011], such families correspond to no-signalling empirical models, and the existence of an extension corresponds to locality or non-contextuality. Since Vorob'ev's theorem depends solely on the structure of the simplicial complex, which encodes the compatibility of the measurements, and not on the specific probability distributions (i.e. the empirical models, our result about monogamy relations and locality of macroscopic averages holds not just for quantum theory, but for any empirical model satisfying the no-signalling condition. In this extended abstract, we illustrate our approach by working out a couple of examples, which convey the intuition behind our analysis while keeping the discussion at an elementary level.

  17. [Macroscopic hematuria secondary to nutcracker syndrome and successful endovascular treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinojosa, Carlos A; Anaya-Ayala, Javier E; Boyer-Duck, Estefanía; Laparra-Escareno, Hugo; Torres-Machorro, Adriana; Lizola, Rene

    2017-12-01

    Nutcracker syndrome is a rare entity, and in the majority of cases is the result of extrinsic compression of the left renal vein between the superior mesenteric artery and the aorta, associated with functional stenosis. To present the case of a 19-year-old female with no significant medical history with confirmed diagnosed of nutcracker syndrome treated successfully by endovascular means. She was referred to the Vascular Surgery Department with a 6-month history of macroscopic haematuria, after other aetiologies were ruled out. Abdominal computed tomography angiography revealed compression of the left renal vein; the patient underwent endovascular treatment, and a 12×16 mm balloon expandable stent was placed with immediate angiographic improvement, decreased pressure gradients and progressive resolution of haematuria. At one year, she remains symptom-free. Nutcracker syndrome is uncommon, and a high index of suspicion is needed. Macroscopic haematuria is not always present, and in our case stent placement demonstrated effectiveness in the resolution of symptoms at 12 months' follow--up. We also present a brief review of the literature. Copyright © 2016 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  18. Macroscopic Biological Characteristics of Individualized Therapy in Chinese Mongolian Osteopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namula, Zhao; Mei, Wang; Li, Xue-en

    Objective: Chinese Mongolian osteopathy has been passed down from ancient times and includes unique practices and favorable efficacy. In this study, we investigate the macroscopic biological characteristics of individualized Chinese Mongolian osteopathy, in order to provide new principle and methods for the treatment of bone fracture. Method: With a view to provide a vital link between nature and humans, the four stages of Chinese Mongolian osteopathy focus on the unity of the mind and body, the limbs and body organs, the body and its functions, and humans and nature. Results: We discuss the merits of individualized osteopathy in terms of the underlying concepts, and evaluate the approaches and principles of traditional medicine, as well as biomechanics. Conclusions: Individualized Mongolian osteopathy targets macroscopic biological components including dynamic reduction, natural fixation, and functional healing. Chinese Mongolian osteopathy is a natural, ecological and non-invasive osteopathy that values the link between nature and humans, including the unity of mind and body. The biological components not only serve as a foundation for Chinese Mongolian osteopathy but are also important for the future development of modern osteopathy, focusing on individualization, actualization and integration.

  19. Inverted rank distributions: Macroscopic statistics, universality classes, and critical exponents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliazar, Iddo; Cohen, Morrel H.

    2014-01-01

    An inverted rank distribution is an infinite sequence of positive sizes ordered in a monotone increasing fashion. Interlacing together Lorenzian and oligarchic asymptotic analyses, we establish a macroscopic classification of inverted rank distributions into five “socioeconomic” universality classes: communism, socialism, criticality, feudalism, and absolute monarchy. We further establish that: (i) communism and socialism are analogous to a “disordered phase”, feudalism and absolute monarchy are analogous to an “ordered phase”, and criticality is the “phase transition” between order and disorder; (ii) the universality classes are characterized by two critical exponents, one governing the ordered phase, and the other governing the disordered phase; (iii) communism, criticality, and absolute monarchy are characterized by sharp exponent values, and are inherently deterministic; (iv) socialism is characterized by a continuous exponent range, is inherently stochastic, and is universally governed by continuous power-law statistics; (v) feudalism is characterized by a continuous exponent range, is inherently stochastic, and is universally governed by discrete exponential statistics. The results presented in this paper yield a universal macroscopic socioeconophysical perspective of inverted rank distributions.

  20. Microscopic and macroscopic instabilities in hyperelastic fiber composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slesarenko, Viacheslav; Rudykh, Stephan

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we study the interplay between macroscopic and microscopic instabilities in 3D periodic fiber reinforced composites undergoing large deformations. We employ the Bloch-Floquet analysis to determine the onset of microscopic instabilities for composites with hyperelastic constituents. We show that the primary mode of buckling in the fiber composites is determined by the volume fraction of fibers and the contrast between elastic moduli of fiber and matrix phases. We find that for composites with volume fraction of fibers exceeding a threshold value, which depends on elastic modulus contrast, the primary buckling mode corresponds to the long wave or macroscopic instability. However, composites with a lower amount of fibers experience microscopic instabilities corresponding to wavy or helical buckling shapes. Buckling modes and critical wavelengths are shown to be highly tunable by material composition. A comparison between the instability behavior of 3D fiber composites and laminates, subjected to uniaxial compression, reveals the significant differences in critical strains, wavelengths, and transition points from macro- to microscopic instabilities in these composites.

  1. Macroscopic damping model for structural dynamics with random polycrystalline configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yantao; Cui, Junzhi; Yu, Yifan; Xiang, Meizhen

    2017-12-01

    In this paper the macroscopic damping model for dynamical behavior of the structures with random polycrystalline configurations at micro-nano scales is established. First, the global motion equation of a crystal is decomposed into a set of motion equations with independent single degree of freedom (SDOF) along normal discrete modes, and then damping behavior is introduced into each SDOF motion. Through the interpolation of discrete modes, the continuous representation of damping effects for the crystal is obtained. Second, from energy conservation law the expression of the damping coefficient is derived, and the approximate formula of damping coefficient is given. Next, the continuous damping coefficient for polycrystalline cluster is expressed, the continuous dynamical equation with damping term is obtained, and then the concrete damping coefficients for a polycrystalline Cu sample are shown. Finally, by using statistical two-scale homogenization method, the macroscopic homogenized dynamical equation containing damping term for the structures with random polycrystalline configurations at micro-nano scales is set up.

  2. Parameterized representation of macroscopic cross section for PWR reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiel, João Cláudio Batista; Carvalho da Silva, Fernando; Senra Martinez, Aquilino; Leal, Luiz C.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • This work describes a parameterized representation of the homogenized macroscopic cross section for PWR reactor. • Parameterization enables a quick determination of problem-dependent cross-sections to be used in few group calculations. • This work allows generating group cross-section data to perform PWR core calculations without computer code calculations. - Abstract: The purpose of this work is to describe, by means of Chebyshev polynomials, a parameterized representation of the homogenized macroscopic cross section for PWR fuel element as a function of soluble boron concentration, moderator temperature, fuel temperature, moderator density and 235 92 U enrichment. The cross-section data analyzed are fission, scattering, total, transport, absorption and capture. The parameterization enables a quick and easy determination of problem-dependent cross-sections to be used in few group calculations. The methodology presented in this paper will allow generation of group cross-section data from stored polynomials to perform PWR core calculations without the need to generate them based on computer code calculations using standard steps. The results obtained by the proposed methodology when compared with results from the SCALE code calculations show very good agreement

  3. How does Planck’s constant influence the macroscopic world?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Pao-Keng

    2016-09-01

    In physics, Planck’s constant is a fundamental physical constant accounting for the energy-quantization phenomenon in the microscopic world. The value of Planck’s constant also determines in which length scale the quantum phenomenon will become conspicuous. Some students think that if Planck’s constant were to have a larger value than it has now, the quantum effect would only become observable in a world with a larger size, whereas the macroscopic world might remain almost unchanged. After reasoning from some basic physical principles and theories, we found that doubling Planck’s constant might result in a radical change on the geometric sizes and apparent colors of macroscopic objects, the solar spectrum and luminosity, the climate and gravity on Earth, as well as energy conversion between light and materials such as the efficiency of solar cells and light-emitting diodes. From the discussions in this paper, students can appreciate how Planck’s constant affects various aspects of the world in which we are living now.

  4. Influence of simulation environment on properties of swing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-min; Han, Yuan-yuan; Zhou, Yu-feng; Han, Jie-cai; Yao, Wang

    2007-12-01

    Swing system used in the guiding system is a kind of special equipment composed by a piece of silicon carbide mirror and a support structure made of Al alloy. In order to connect them without harm to their properties, epoxy resin is used and is solidified at room temperature. The influence of connecting process on the optical property of the mirror in swing system is studied by testing the wave-front error before and after connecting process. The results show that the connecting process under room temperature has little effect on wave-front error. The deformations of the mirror under gravity fields and thermal fields are analyzed by finite element method. The calculated results show that the surface figures under all conditions are satisfied with the requirement. The deformation of the mirror under gravity field paralleling to axial direction is the largest. When there is temperature gradient, the effect of axial temperature field on the mirror surface is much greater than that of radial temperature field.

  5. 41 CFR 109-1.5205 - Personal property management system changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Personal property management system changes. 109-1.5205 Section 109-1.5205 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... Personal property management system changes. Any proposed significant change to a designated contractor's...

  6. Effects of macroscopic inhomogeneities on resistive and Hall measurements on crosses, cloverleafs, and bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koon, D. W.; Knickerbocker, C. J.

    1996-12-01

    The effect of macroscopic inhomogeneities on resistivity and Hall angle measurements is studied by calculating weighting functions (the relative effect of perturbations in a local transport property on the measured global average for the object) for cross, cloverleaf, and bar-shaped geometries. The ``sweet spot,'' the region in the center of the object that the measurement effectively samples, is smaller for crosses and cloverleafs than for the circles and squares already studied, and smaller for the cloverleaf than for the corresponding cross. Resistivity measurements for crosses and cloverleafs suffer from singularities and negative weighting, which can be eliminated by averaging two independent resistance measurements, as done in the van der Pauw technique. Resistivity and Hall measurements made on sufficiently narrow bars are shown to effectively sample only the region directly between the voltage probes.

  7. Modeling a nucleon system: static and dynamical properties - density fluctuations; Modelisation d`un system de nucleons: proprietes statiques et dynamiques - fluctuation de densite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idier, D. [Nantes Univ., 44 (France)

    1997-02-15

    This thesis sets forth a quasi-particle model for the static and dynamical properties of nuclear matter. This model is based on a scale ratio of quasi-particle to nucleons and the projection of the semi-classical distribution on a coherent Gaussian state basis. The first chapter is dealing with the transport equations, particularly with the Vlasov equation for Wigner distribution function. The second one is devoted to the statics of nuclear matter. Here, the sampling effect upon the nuclear density is treated and the state equation of the Gaussian fluid is compared with that given by Hartree-Fock approximation. We define state equation as the relationship between the nucleon binding energy and density, for a given temperature. The curvature around the state equation minimum of the quasi-particle system is shown to be related to the speed of propagation of density perturbation. The volume energy and the surface properties of a (semi-)infinite nucleon system are derived. For the resultant saturated auto-coherent semi-infinite system of quasi-particles the surface coefficient appearing in the mass formula is extracted as well as the system density profile. The third chapter treats the dynamics of the two-particle residual interactions. The effect of different parameters on relaxation of a nucleon system without a mean field is studied by means of a Eulerian and Lagrangian modeling. The fourth chapter treats the volume instabilities (spinodal decomposition) in nuclear matter. The quasi-particle systems, initially prepared in the spinodal region of the utilized interaction, are set to evolve. It is shown then that the scale ratio acts upon the amount of fluctuations injected in the system. The inhomogeneity degree and a proper time are defined and the role of collisions in the spinodal decomposition as well as that of the initial temperature and density, are investigated. Assuming different effective macroscopic interactions, the influence of quantities as

  8. Consolidity: Mystery of inner property of systems uncovered

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassen T. Dorrah

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper uncovers the mystery of consolidity, an inner property of systems that was amazingly hidden. Consolidity also reveals the secrecy of why strong stable and highly controllable systems are not invulnerable of falling and collapsing. Consolidity is measured by its Consolidity Index, defined as the ratio of overall changes of output parameters over combined changes of input and system parameters, all operating in fully fuzzy environment. Under this notion, systems are classified into consolidated, quasi-consolidated, neutrally consolidated, unconsolidated, quasi-unconsolidated and mixed types. The strategy for the implementation of consolidity is elaborated for both natural and man-made existing systems as well as the new developed ones. An important critique arises that the by-product consolidity of natural or built-as-usual system could lead to trapping such systems into a completely undesired unconsolidity. This suggests that the ample number of conventional techniques that do not take system consolidity into account should gradually be changed, and adjusted with improved consolidity-based techniques. Four Golden Rules are highlighted for handling system consolidity, and applied to several illustrative case studies. These case studies cover the consolidity analysis of the Drug Concentration problem, Predator-Prey Population problem, Spread of Infectious Disease problem, AIDS Epidemic problem and Arm Race model. It is demonstrated that consolidity changes are contrary (opposite in sign to changes of both stability and controllability. This is a very significant result showing that our present practice of stressing on building strong stable and highly controllable systems could have already jeopardized the consolidity behavior of an ample family of existing real life systems. It is strongly recommended that the four Golden Rules of consolidity should be enforced as future strict regulations of systems modeling, analysis, design and

  9. Fundamental properties of and transition to a fully renewable pan-European power system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun Andresen, Gorm; Rasmussen, Morten Grud; Rodriguez, Rolando A.

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a top-down stylized model to analyse the impact of a transition to a European power system based only on wind and solar power. Wind and solar power generation is calculated from high-resolution weather data and based on the country specific electricity demand alone, we introduce...... a model of the conventional power system that facilitates simple spatio-temporal modelling of its macroscopic behaviour without direct reference to the underlying technological, economical, and political development in the system. Using this model, we find that wind and solar power generation can replace...... conventional power generation and power capacity to a large degree if power transmission across the continent is made possible....

  10. Biological Soil Properties in Integrated Crop-Livestock-Forest Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Camylla Ramos Assis

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Currently, agricultural productivity and sustainable development are the desired bases for the creation of production systems. Farming for greater production and the efficient use of soil resources are at the core of modern systems. However, the way in which agricultural management and practices can change soil quality has become increasingly important. The aim of this study was to detect changes in soil biological properties caused by implementation of the integrated crop-livestock-forest system (iCLF and to identify the properties suitable for detecting changes in soil biological quality. Soil samples were collected from the 0.00-0.10 m layer in Nova Canaã do Norte, MT, Brazil, and Cachoeira Dourada, GO, Brazil, in areas of the iCLF with 1 (iCLF1 or 3 (iCLF3 eucalyptus rows and in areas of recovered and degraded pasture. In Cachoeira Dourada, in the iCLF1, samples were taken in the tree row and at 2.5, 5.0, and 10.0 m from this row. In Nova Canaã in the iCLF3, samples were taken in the center row and at 3.0, 6.0, 9.0, and 12.0 m from this row. In Cachoeira Dourada, samples were taken in the center row and at 1.5, 3.0, 4.5, 6.0, and 9.0 m from this row. All samples had five replicates. In Nova Canaã, the iCLF1 caused less disturbance in the microbial population than the degraded pasture, which was evidenced by the lower metabolic quotient and basal respiration. The sampling position in relation to the tree row had little effect on comparison of the iCLF with the degraded pasture in regard to soil biological properties. Carbon and N of the microbial biomass and the microbial quotient were the best properties for differentiating the iCLF from the degraded pasture. ICLFs have not yet led to improvements in soil biological quality in relation to the degraded pasture.

  11. Thermodynamic properties for polycyclic systems by non-calorimetric methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steele, W.V.; Chirico, R.D.; Klots, T.D.

    1993-03-01

    A detailed vibrational spectroscopic study of furan, pyrrole, and thiophene has been completed. These compounds form part of the base of five-membered ring systems on which the rest of the research program will be built Several methyl-substituted derivatives were also studied. The results will be used to confirm the model for alkyl- substitution in the ring systems. Gas-phase spectra and fundamental- frequency assignments were completed for 2,3- and 2,5-dihydrofuran. Those compounds initiate work on ring-puckering within the research program. A paper describing the need for third virial estimation, when using the virial equation of state to derive thermodynamic properties at pressures greater than 1 bar was completed.

  12. Multiple planetary systems: Properties of the current sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, Melissa J.; Gomez, Mercedes

    2017-08-01

    We carry out analyses on stellar and planetary properties of multiple exoplanetary systems in the currently available sample. With regards to the stars, we study their temperature, distance from the Sun, and metallicity distributions, finding that the stars that harbour multiple exoplanets tend to have subsolar metallicities, in contrast to metal-rich Hot Jupiter hosts; while non-Hot Jupiter single planet hosts form an intermediate group between these two, with approximately solar metallicities. With regards to the planetary systems, we select those with four or more planets and analyse their configurations in terms of stability (via Hill radii), compactness, and size variations. We find that most planetary pairs are stable, and that the compactness correlates to the size variation: More compact systems have more similarly sized planets and vice versa. We also investigate the spectral energy distributions of the stars hosting multiple exoplanetary systems, seeking infra-red excesses that could indicate the presence of debris disks. These disks would be leftovers from the planetary formation process, and could be considered as analogues of the Solar System's Asteroid or Kuiper belts. We identify potential candidates for disks that are good targets for far infra-red follow-up observations to confirm their existence.

  13. Machine learning strategies for systems with invariance properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Julia; Jones, Reese; Templeton, Jeremy

    2016-08-01

    In many scientific fields, empirical models are employed to facilitate computational simulations of engineering systems. For example, in fluid mechanics, empirical Reynolds stress closures enable computationally-efficient Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes simulations. Likewise, in solid mechanics, constitutive relations between the stress and strain in a material are required in deformation analysis. Traditional methods for developing and tuning empirical models usually combine physical intuition with simple regression techniques on limited data sets. The rise of high performance computing has led to a growing availability of high fidelity simulation data. These data open up the possibility of using machine learning algorithms, such as random forests or neural networks, to develop more accurate and general empirical models. A key question when using data-driven algorithms to develop these empirical models is how domain knowledge should be incorporated into the machine learning process. This paper will specifically address physical systems that possess symmetry or invariance properties. Two different methods for teaching a machine learning model an invariance property are compared. In the first method, a basis of invariant inputs is constructed, and the machine learning model is trained upon this basis, thereby embedding the invariance into the model. In the second method, the algorithm is trained on multiple transformations of the raw input data until the model learns invariance to that transformation. Results are discussed for two case studies: one in turbulence modeling and one in crystal elasticity. It is shown that in both cases embedding the invariance property into the input features yields higher performance at significantly reduced computational training costs.

  14. Collective motion of macroscopic spheres floating on capillary ripples: dynamic heterogeneity and dynamic criticality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanlı, Ceyda; Saitoh, Kuniyasu; Luding, Stefan; van der Meer, Devaraj

    2014-09-01

    When a densely packed monolayer of macroscopic spheres floats on chaotic capillary Faraday waves, a coexistence of large scale convective motion and caging dynamics typical for glassy systems is observed. We subtract the convective mean flow using a coarse graining (homogenization) method and reveal subdiffusion for the caging time scales followed by a diffusive regime at later times. We apply the methods developed to study dynamic heterogeneity and show that the typical time and length scales of the fluctuations due to rearrangements of observed particle groups significantly increase when the system approaches its largest experimentally accessible packing concentration. To connect the system to the dynamic criticality literature, we fit power laws to our results. The resultant critical exponents are consistent with those found in densely packed suspensions of colloids.

  15. Distinct molecular features of different macroscopic subtypes of colorectal neoplasms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenichi Konda

    Full Text Available Colorectal adenoma develops into cancer with the accumulation of genetic and epigenetic changes. We studied the underlying molecular and clinicopathological features to better understand the heterogeneity of colorectal neoplasms (CRNs.We evaluated both genetic (mutations of KRAS, BRAF, TP53, and PIK3CA, and microsatellite instability [MSI] and epigenetic (methylation status of nine genes or sequences, including the CpG island methylator phenotype [CIMP] markers alterations in 158 CRNs including 56 polypoid neoplasms (PNs, 25 granular type laterally spreading tumors (LST-Gs, 48 non-granular type LSTs (LST-NGs, 19 depressed neoplasms (DNs and 10 small flat-elevated neoplasms (S-FNs on the basis of macroscopic appearance.S-FNs showed few molecular changes except SFRP1 methylation. Significant differences in the frequency of KRAS mutations were observed among subtypes (68% for LST-Gs, 36% for PNs, 16% for DNs and 6% for LST-NGs (P<0.001. By contrast, the frequency of TP53 mutation was higher in DNs than PNs or LST-Gs (32% vs. 5% or 0%, respectively (P<0.007. We also observed significant differences in the frequency of CIMP between LST-Gs and LST-NGs or PNs (32% vs. 6% or 5%, respectively (P<0.005. Moreover, the methylation level of LINE-1 was significantly lower in DNs or LST-Gs than in PNs (58.3% or 60.5% vs. 63.2%, P<0.05. PIK3CA mutations were detected only in LSTs. Finally, multivariate analyses showed that macroscopic morphologies were significantly associated with an increased risk of molecular changes (PN or LST-G for KRAS mutation, odds ratio [OR] 9.11; LST-NG or DN for TP53 mutation, OR 5.30; LST-G for PIK3CA mutation, OR 26.53; LST-G or DN for LINE-1 hypomethylation, OR 3.41.We demonstrated that CRNs could be classified into five macroscopic subtypes according to clinicopathological and molecular differences, suggesting that different mechanisms are involved in the pathogenesis of colorectal tumorigenesis.

  16. Distinct Molecular Features of Different Macroscopic Subtypes of Colorectal Neoplasms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konda, Kenichi; Konishi, Kazuo; Yamochi, Toshiko; Ito, Yoichi M.; Nozawa, Hisako; Tojo, Masayuki; Shinmura, Kensuke; Kogo, Mari; Katagiri, Atsushi; Kubota, Yutaro; Muramoto, Takashi; Yano, Yuichiro; Kobayashi, Yoshiya; Kihara, Toshihiro; Tagawa, Teppei; Makino, Reiko; Takimoto, Masafumi; Imawari, Michio; Yoshida, Hitoshi

    2014-01-01

    Background Colorectal adenoma develops into cancer with the accumulation of genetic and epigenetic changes. We studied the underlying molecular and clinicopathological features to better understand the heterogeneity of colorectal neoplasms (CRNs). Methods We evaluated both genetic (mutations of KRAS, BRAF, TP53, and PIK3CA, and microsatellite instability [MSI]) and epigenetic (methylation status of nine genes or sequences, including the CpG island methylator phenotype [CIMP] markers) alterations in 158 CRNs including 56 polypoid neoplasms (PNs), 25 granular type laterally spreading tumors (LST-Gs), 48 non-granular type LSTs (LST-NGs), 19 depressed neoplasms (DNs) and 10 small flat-elevated neoplasms (S-FNs) on the basis of macroscopic appearance. Results S-FNs showed few molecular changes except SFRP1 methylation. Significant differences in the frequency of KRAS mutations were observed among subtypes (68% for LST-Gs, 36% for PNs, 16% for DNs and 6% for LST-NGs) (P<0.001). By contrast, the frequency of TP53 mutation was higher in DNs than PNs or LST-Gs (32% vs. 5% or 0%, respectively) (P<0.007). We also observed significant differences in the frequency of CIMP between LST-Gs and LST-NGs or PNs (32% vs. 6% or 5%, respectively) (P<0.005). Moreover, the methylation level of LINE-1 was significantly lower in DNs or LST-Gs than in PNs (58.3% or 60.5% vs. 63.2%, P<0.05). PIK3CA mutations were detected only in LSTs. Finally, multivariate analyses showed that macroscopic morphologies were significantly associated with an increased risk of molecular changes (PN or LST-G for KRAS mutation, odds ratio [OR] 9.11; LST-NG or DN for TP53 mutation, OR 5.30; LST-G for PIK3CA mutation, OR 26.53; LST-G or DN for LINE-1 hypomethylation, OR 3.41). Conclusion We demonstrated that CRNs could be classified into five macroscopic subtypes according to clinicopathological and molecular differences, suggesting that different mechanisms are involved in the pathogenesis of colorectal

  17. Sub-pixel correlation length neutron imaging: Spatially resolved scattering information of microstructures on a macroscopic scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harti, Ralph P.; Strobl, Markus; Betz, Benedikt; Jefimovs, Konstantins; Kagias, Matias; Grünzweig, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Neutron imaging and scattering give data of significantly different nature and traditional methods leave a gap of accessible structure sizes at around 10 micrometers. Only in recent years overlap in the probed size ranges could be achieved by independent application of high resolution scattering and imaging methods, however without providing full structural information when microstructures vary on a macroscopic scale. In this study we show how quantitative neutron dark-field imaging with a novel experimental approach provides both sub-pixel resolution with respect to microscopic correlation lengths and imaging of macroscopic variations of the microstructure. Thus it provides combined information on multiple length scales. A dispersion of micrometer sized polystyrene colloids was chosen as a model system to study gravity induced crystallisation of microspheres on a macro scale, including the identification of ordered as well as unordered phases. Our results pave the way to study heterogeneous systems locally in a previously impossible manner. PMID:28303923

  18. Macroscopic Rock Texture Image Classification Using a Hierarchical Neuro-Fuzzy Class Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laercio B. Gonçalves

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We used a Hierarchical Neuro-Fuzzy Class Method based on binary space partitioning (NFHB-Class Method for macroscopic rock texture classification. The relevance of this study is in helping Geologists in the diagnosis and planning of oil reservoir exploration. The proposed method is capable of generating its own decision structure, with automatic extraction of fuzzy rules. These rules are linguistically interpretable, thus explaining the obtained data structure. The presented image classification for macroscopic rocks is based on texture descriptors, such as spatial variation coefficient, Hurst coefficient, entropy, and cooccurrence matrix. Four rock classes have been evaluated by the NFHB-Class Method: gneiss (two subclasses, basalt (four subclasses, diabase (five subclasses, and rhyolite (five subclasses. These four rock classes are of great interest in the evaluation of oil boreholes, which is considered a complex task by geologists. We present a computer method to solve this problem. In order to evaluate system performance, we used 50 RGB images for each rock classes and subclasses, thus producing a total of 800 images. For all rock classes, the NFHB-Class Method achieved a percentage of correct hits over 73%. The proposed method converged for all tests presented in the case study.

  19. Inverse Bayesian inference as a key of consciousness featuring a macroscopic quantum logical structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunji, Yukio-Pegio; Shinohara, Shuji; Haruna, Taichi; Basios, Vasileios

    2017-02-01

    To overcome the dualism between mind and matter and to implement consciousness in science, a physical entity has to be embedded with a measurement process. Although quantum mechanics have been regarded as a candidate for implementing consciousness, nature at its macroscopic level is inconsistent with quantum mechanics. We propose a measurement-oriented inference system comprising Bayesian and inverse Bayesian inferences. While Bayesian inference contracts probability space, the newly defined inverse one relaxes the space. These two inferences allow an agent to make a decision corresponding to an immediate change in their environment. They generate a particular pattern of joint probability for data and hypotheses, comprising multiple diagonal and noisy matrices. This is expressed as a nondistributive orthomodular lattice equivalent to quantum logic. We also show that an orthomodular lattice can reveal information generated by inverse syllogism as well as the solutions to the frame and symbol-grounding problems. Our model is the first to connect macroscopic cognitive processes with the mathematical structure of quantum mechanics with no additional assumptions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A macroscopic model of traffic jams in axons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, A V; Avramenko, A A

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a minimal macroscopic model capable of explaining the formation of traffic jams in fast axonal transport. The model accounts for the decrease of the number density of positively (and negatively) oriented microtubules near the location of the traffic jam due to formation of microtubule swirls; the model also accounts for the reduction of the effective velocity of organelle transport in the traffic jam region due to organelles falling off microtubule tracks more often in the swirl region. The model is based on molecular-motor-assisted transport equations and the hydrodynamic model of traffic jams in highway traffic. Parametric analyses of the model's predictions for various values of viscosity of the traffic flow, variance of the velocity distribution, diffusivity of microtubule-bound and free organelles, rate constants for binding to and detachment from microtubules, relaxation time, and average motor velocities of the retrograde and anterograde transport, are carried out.

  1. Innovating e-waste management: From macroscopic to microscopic scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xianlai; Yang, Congren; Chiang, Joseph F; Li, Jinhui

    2017-01-01

    Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE or e-waste) has become a global problem, due to its potential environmental pollution and human health risk, and its containing valuable resources (e.g., metals, plastics). Recycling for e-waste will be a necessity, not only to address the shortage of mineral resources for electronics industry, but also to decline environmental pollution and human health risk. To systematically solve the e-waste problem, more attention of e-waste management should transfer from macroscopic to microscopic scales. E-waste processing technology should be significantly improved to diminish and even avoid toxic substance entering into downstream of material. The regulation or policy related to new production of hazardous substances in recycled materials should also be carried out on the agenda. All the findings can hopefully improve WEEE legislation for regulated countries and non-regulated countries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Generation of macroscopic singlet states in atomic ensembles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Géza; Mitchell, Morgan W.

    2010-05-01

    We study squeezing of the spin uncertainties by quantum non-demolition (QND) measurement in non-polarized spin ensembles. Unlike the case of polarized ensembles, the QND measurements can be performed with negligible back-action, which allows, in principle, perfect spin squeezing as quantified by Tóth et al (2007 Phys. Rev. Lett. 99 250405). The generated spin states approach many-body singlet states and contain a macroscopic number of entangled particles even when individual spin is large. We introduce the Gaussian treatment of unpolarized spin states and use it to estimate the achievable spin squeezing for realistic experimental parameters. Our proposal might have applications for magnetometry with a high spatial resolution or quantum memories storing information in decoherence free subspaces.

  3. Non-Poissonian photon statistics from macroscopic photon cutting materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Mathijs; Meijerink, Andries; Rabouw, Freddy T

    2017-05-24

    In optical materials energy is usually extracted only from the lowest excited state, resulting in fundamental energy-efficiency limits such as the Shockley-Queisser limit for single-junction solar cells. Photon-cutting materials provide a way around such limits by absorbing high-energy photons and 'cutting' them into multiple low-energy excitations that can subsequently be extracted. The occurrence of photon cutting or quantum cutting has been demonstrated in a variety of materials, including semiconductor quantum dots, lanthanides and organic dyes. Here we show that photon cutting results in bunched photon emission on the timescale of the excited-state lifetime, even when observing a macroscopic number of optical centres. Our theoretical derivation matches well with experimental data on NaLaF 4 :Pr 3+ , a material that can cut deep-ultraviolet photons into two visible photons. This signature of photon cutting can be used to identify and characterize new photon-cutting materials unambiguously.

  4. Macroscopic Modeling of Transport Phenomena in Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Anders Christian

    An increasing need for energy efficiency and high energy density has sparked a growing interest in direct methanol fuel cells for portable power applications. This type of fuel cell directly generates electricity from a fuel mixture consisting of methanol and water. Although this technology...... for studying their transport. In this PhD dissertation the macroscopic transport phenomena governing direct methanol fuel cell operation are analyzed, discussed and modeled using the two-fluid approach in the computational fluid dynamics framework of CFX 14. The overall objective of this work is to extend...... the present fundamental understanding of direct methanol fuel cell operation by developing a three-dimensional, two-phase, multi-component, non-isotherm mathematical model including detailed non-ideal thermodynamics, non-equilibrium phase change and non-equilibrium sorption-desorption of methanol and water...

  5. Fault detection by surface seismic scanning tunneling macroscope: Field test

    KAUST Repository

    Hanafy, Sherif M.

    2014-08-05

    The seismic scanning tunneling macroscope (SSTM) is proposed for detecting the presence of near-surface impedance anomalies and faults. Results with synthetic data are consistent with theory in that scatterers closer to the surface provide brighter SSTM profiles than those that are deeper. The SSTM profiles show superresolution detection if the scatterers are in the near-field region of the recording line. The field data tests near Gulf of Aqaba, Haql, KSA clearly show the presence of the observable fault scarp, and identify the subsurface presence of the hidden faults indicated in the tomograms. Superresolution detection of the fault is achieved, even when the 35 Hz data are lowpass filtered to the 5-10 Hz band.

  6. Criticality in conserved dynamical systems: experimental observation vs. exact properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marković, Dimitrije; Gros, Claudius; Schuelein, André

    2013-03-01

    Conserved dynamical systems are generally considered to be critical. We study a class of critical routing models, equivalent to random maps, which can be solved rigorously in the thermodynamic limit. The information flow is conserved for these routing models and governed by cyclic attractors. We consider two classes of information flow, Markovian routing without memory and vertex routing involving a one-step routing memory. Investigating the respective cycle length distributions for complete graphs, we find log corrections to power-law scaling for the mean cycle length, as a function of the number of vertices, and a sub-polynomial growth for the overall number of cycles. When observing experimentally a real-world dynamical system one normally samples stochastically its phase space. The number and the length of the attractors are then weighted by the size of their respective basins of attraction. This situation is equivalent, for theory studies, to "on the fly" generation of the dynamical transition probabilities. For the case of vertex routing models, we find in this case power law scaling for the weighted average length of attractors, for both conserved routing models. These results show that the critical dynamical systems are generically not scale-invariant but may show power-law scaling when sampled stochastically. It is hence important to distinguish between intrinsic properties of a critical dynamical system and its behavior that one would observe when randomly probing its phase space.

  7. A STUDY ON MACROSCOPIC ANATOMY OF HUMAN PLACENTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alpana

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available It is only the eutherian mammals that have evolved a complex organ - “ The Placenta ” which not only protect but also gives nutrition to the embryo till its birth. We should see that the placenta is more than just some messy after birth to be discarded and ignored in the excitement and joy over the birth of a beautiful new child. So, this study aims to evaluate the macroscopic study of placenta and to explore the morphological variation of placenta with respect to preterm, term and post term pregnancy. MATERIALS AND METHOD: It’s a hospital based Prospective Nonrandomized Observational stud y of 90 placentae, conducted in the Department of Anatomy and the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, FAAMCH, Barpeta. RESULTS: The macroscopic study of placenta revealed that most of the placentae were discoidal in shape, only a few oval. The weight of the term and post term placentae were more than preterm placentae. Comparison of weight between preterm and term categories were found to be significant (p<0.01 whereas comparison of weight between term and post - term were found to be just significant (p<0.05. A difference in diameter between preterm and term cases were seen whereas the difference was less in respect to term and post - term cases, statistically just significant (p<0.05. Thickness showed no major difference, the number of cotyledons foun d were 15 – 20 and the arrangement of chorionic vessels were similar in all the three categories of placentae. O ut of 90 placentae two placentae had marginal attachment and seven had velamentous insertion of cord, rest of them were eccentric in position. CON CLUSION: Therefore, it is obvious that the various parameters of placenta are subjected to slight variations in preterm, term and post - term placentae. Direct examination and assessment of placental parameters contribute to the assessment of the neonate; he lp to explain certain antenatal events and aid in the management of the puerpera.

  8. Application of a single root-scale model to improve macroscopic modeling of root water uptake: focus on osmotic stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorda, Helena; Perelman, Adi; Lazarovitch, Naftali; Vanderborght, Jan

    2017-04-01

    Root water uptake is a fundamental process in the hydrological cycle and it largely regulates the water balance in the soil vadose zone. Macroscopic stress functions are currently used to estimate the effect of salinity on root water uptake. These functions commonly assume stress to be a function of bulk salinity and of the plant sensitivity to osmotic stress expressed as the salinity at which transpiration is reduced by half or so called tolerance value. However, they fail to integrate additional relevant factors such as atmospheric conditions or root architectural traits. We conducted a comprehensive simulation study on a single root using a 3-D physically-based model that resolves flow and transport to individual root segments and that couples flow in the soil and root system. The effect of salt concentrations on root water uptake was accounted for by including osmotic water potential gradients between the solution at the soil root interface and the root xylem sap in the hydraulic gradient between the soil and root. A large set of factors were studied, namely, potential transpiration rate and dynamics, root length density (RLD), irrigation water quality and irrigation frequency, and leaching fraction. Results were fitted to the macroscopic function developed by van Genuchten and Hoffman (1984) and the dependency of osmotic stress and the fitted macroscopic parameters on the studied factors was evaluated. Osmotic stress was found to be highly dependent on RLD. Low RLDs result in a larger stress to the plant due to high evaporative demand per root length unit. In addition, osmotic stress was positively correlated to potential transpiration rate, and sinusoidal potential transpiration lead to larger stress than when imposed as a constant boundary condition. Macroscopic parameters are usually computed as single values for each crop and used for the entire growing season. However, our study shows that both tolerance value and shape parameter p from the van Genuchten

  9. TOOLS OF INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT OF A HOLDING COMPANY AND ITS SUB-SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolai N. Samoilenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept and essence of intellectual property management are considered in the article, as well as the models, the methods and the tools of intellectual property management of holding structures. In particular, the life cycle of object of intellectual property is described, the concept "intellectual property management" is created, the most effective models of intellectual property management are revealed, and also the instruments of intellectual property management of a holding company and its sub-systems are defined.

  10. Particle synthesis, characterization, and properties of filled polymer systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohls, Douglas J.

    This dissertation presents results on the reinforcement of an elastomer system using different types of fillers and comparing the resulting mechanical properties of compounds made with these fillers. The analytic approach uses two classical models with which fillers are thought to reinforce elastomers. The first mechanism being based on filler structure while the second involves the interaction of the filler with an elastomer. Two new types of fillers are investigated: a fumed silica-carbon composite and a layered silicate. These fillers are compounded into elastomers using formulations that are standard in the tire industry for tire tread compounds. This work builds off of previous studies that use techniques such as microscopy and gas adsorption to characterize filler structure by adding the use of small-angle x-ray scattering to characterize fillers based on three structural levels. Classical rubber elasticity principles with recent fractal model analysis are used to describe how the structural levels of the fillers relate to elastomer reinforcement. Analysis of the SAXS data gives information about the size of the primary particle and of the aggregate formed by these primary particles. It is found, through analyzing the SAXS data, that the ratio of these two structural sizes gives the degree of aggregation or the number of particles in an aggregate. The measurement and analysis of the degree of aggregation and how it correlates with measured mechanical properties of compounds is presented in this dissertation. The results from the USAXS and the mechanical testing of elastomers showed that the degree of aggregation, z, helps to identify what is a 'reinforcing' filler. Higher degree of aggregation correlated with better mechanical properties. While other studies have shown the effects of surface modifications, filler concentration, and surface area, the studies in this dissertation conclude that the degree of aggregation is an important parameter that can predict

  11. Dynamics of macroscopic quantum self-bound states in arrays of transmon qubits

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Grandi, Claudia; Girvin, Steven M.

    2014-03-01

    We consider the many-body physics of an array of transmon qubits in a cavity. Due to the negative anharmonicity and the exchange coupling between the qubits, such a system realizes a Bose-Hubbard model with attractive interactions and thus the N-excitation manifold is expected to have self-bound states. We study the existence of such macroscopic states in the one-dimensional case with open boundary conditions as a function of the parameters of the model, comparing the classical and the quantum predictions. We then analyze the dynamics of the self-bound states in the experimentally relevant scenario of an open dissipative system, where the qubits have a finite energy relaxation time T1. We numerically simulate the dynamics with a quantum trajectory approach supported by a Lanczos diagonalization procedure.

  12. Dynamic Chiral Magnetic Effect and Faraday Rotation in Macroscopically Disordered Helical Metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, J; Pesin, D A

    2017-03-10

    We develop an effective medium theory for electromagnetic wave propagation through gapless nonuniform systems with a dynamic chiral magnetic effect. The theory allows us to calculate macroscopic-disorder-induced corrections to the values of optical, as well as chiral magnetic conductivities. In particular, we show that spatial fluctuations of the optical conductivity induce corrections to the effective value of the chiral magnetic conductivity. The absolute value of the effect varies strongly depending on the system parameters, but yields the leading frequency dependence of the polarization rotation and circular dichroism signals. Experimentally, these corrections can be observed as features in the Faraday rotation angle near frequencies that correspond to the bulk plasmon resonances of a material. Such features are not expected to be present in single-crystal samples.

  13. Application Of Geographic Information System In Property Valuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Wakaba Gatheru

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to investigate the application of Geographic Information System GIS in property valuation. The study adopted descriptive research design to investigate the relationship between value of land and the factors influencing it. A population of 400 land parcels was used with a sample size of 100 parcels of land. Data collection was done by use of questionnaires. A multivariate regression model was used to link the independent variables to the dependent variable. The resultant Hedonic Pricing Model HPM indicated that the value of land can be predicted by using the following key attributes land size accessibility to bypass accessibility to primary school. Results also showed that Hedonic Pricing Model is objective and verifiable and hence an ideal method of valuation.GIS technique has proved to be a powerful tool in ensuring that a geodatabase of all the attributes of each parcel of land is stored and retrievable at the clique of a button. The valuation map that was produced enables quick decision making as all the values of each parcel are displayed graphically. It is recommended that the HRM and GIS be used to do property valuation.

  14. Systemic ozone effects on root hydraulic properties in pima cotton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grantz, D.A.; Yang, S. [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States)]|[Kearney Agricultural Center, Parlier, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Ambient ozone concentrations have become problematic even in rural, agricultural areas such as the San Joaquin Valley of California. Pima cotton (cv. S6) has been shown to be relatively sensitive to ozone air pollution, at levels occurring in this production area. In this semi-arid area acquisition of water and nutrients may limit yield and biological productivity. Therefore maximal proliferation, exploration, and efficiency of root systems is desirable. Hydraulic conductance provides a parameter to characterize the efficiency of roots and shoots and their interaction. The authors have used a variety of transpiration and pressure vessel techniques to document ozone-induced reduction of root hydraulic conductance in cotton. They hypothesized that these effects are caused by reduced carbohydrate supply due to reduction of photosynthetic capacity of the shoot associated with direct oxidant damage to foliage. However, the authors simulated this reduced photosynthetic capacity by continuously removing leaf area to match that of ozone treated plants. This resulted in a reduction of whole plant biomass similar to ozone-treated plants, but a root/shoot biomass ratio and root hydraulic properties similar to control plants and contrasting with ozone-treated plants. Thus leaf removal did not simulate effects of ozone on root hydraulic properties. A systematic effect of ozone on whole plant function is indicated, perhaps mediated by direct effects on carbohydrate translocation throughout the plant.

  15. Statistical properties of dynamical systems – Simulation and abstract computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galatolo, Stefano; Hoyrup, Mathieu; Rojas, Cristóbal

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A survey on results about computation and computability on the statistical properties of dynamical systems. ► Computability and non-computability results for invariant measures. ► A short proof for the computability of the convergence speed of ergodic averages. ► A kind of “constructive” version of the pointwise ergodic theorem. - Abstract: We survey an area of recent development, relating dynamics to theoretical computer science. We discuss some aspects of the theoretical simulation and computation of the long term behavior of dynamical systems. We will focus on the statistical limiting behavior and invariant measures. We present a general method allowing the algorithmic approximation at any given accuracy of invariant measures. The method can be applied in many interesting cases, as we shall explain. On the other hand, we exhibit some examples where the algorithmic approximation of invariant measures is not possible. We also explain how it is possible to compute the speed of convergence of ergodic averages (when the system is known exactly) and how this entails the computation of arbitrarily good approximations of points of the space having typical statistical behaviour (a sort of constructive version of the pointwise ergodic theorem).

  16. Impact of fuel properties on advanced power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sondreal, E.A.; Jones, M.L.; Hurley, J.P.; Benson, S.A.; Willson, W.G. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Advanced coal-fired combined-cycle power systems currently in development and demonstration have the goal of increasing generating efficiency to a level approaching 50% while reducing the cost of electricity from new plants by 20% and meeting stringent standards on emissions of SO{sub x} NO{sub x} fine particulates, and air toxic metals. Achieving these benefits requires that clean hot gas be delivered to a gas turbine at a temperature approaching 1350{degrees}C, while minimizing energy losses in the gasification, combustion, heat transfer, and/or gas cleaning equipment used to generate the hot gas. Minimizing capital cost also requires that the different stages of the system be integrated as simply and compactly as possible. Second-generation technologies including integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC), externally fired combined cycle (EFCC), and other advanced combustion systems rely on different high-temperature combinations of heat exchange, gas filtration, and sulfur capture to meet these requirements. This paper describes the various properties of lignite and brown coals.

  17. Magnetic Properties of Large-Scale Nanostructured Graphene Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Søren Schou

    The on-going progress in two-dimensional (2D) materials and nanostructure fabrication motivates the study of altered and combined materials. Graphene—the most studied material of the 2D family—displays unique electronic and spintronic properties. Exceptionally high electron mobilities, that surpass...... those in conventional materials such as silicon, make graphene a very interesting material for high-speed electronics. Simultaneously, long spin-diffusion lengths and spin-life times makes graphene an eligible spin-transport channel. In this thesis, we explore fundamental features of nanostructured...... graphene systems using large-scale modeling techniques. Graphene perforations, or antidots, have received substantial interest in the prospect of opening large band gaps in the otherwise gapless graphene. Motivated by recent improvements of fabrication processes, such as forming graphene antidots and layer...

  18. Macroscopic Lagrangian description of warm plasmas. I Formulation of the Lagrangian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Y.-K. M.; Crawford, F. W.

    1983-01-01

    A macroscopic Lagrangian is derived which includes a pressure tensor, heat conduction, and elastic collisions. Its Euler-Lagrange equations are shown to be the Maxwell equations and the macroscopic force law. The corresponding Hamiltonian is derived, and Hamilton's canonical equations are also demonstrated to lead to the Maxwell equations and the macroscopic force law. The treatment is facilitated by working in a mixture of Eulerian coordinates (for the fields) and Lagrangian coordinates (for the particle motions), and the introduction of a macroscopic potential expressed in terms of the plasma thermal energy and the energy losses by heat conduction.

  19. Micro and macroscopic investigation to quantify tillage impact on soil hydrodynamic behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckers, E.; Roisin, C.; Plougonven, E.; Deraedt, D.; Léonard, A.; Degré, A.

    2012-04-01

    H1 and H2 for both management practices: 100cm3 samples were used to establish pF curves with the Richards procedure, and 35cm3 samples were used for X-ray microtomography investigation. Samples for microtomography were air-dried at 40°C in order to empty meso- and macroporosity and then scanned using a Skyscan-1172 high-resolution desktop micro-CT system (Skyscan, Kontich, Belgium). Macroscopic measurements show consistent results: penetrometry profiles confirm the presence of two different horizons for RT, with a permeable superficial horizon between 0 and 10cm and a compacted subjacent horizon. Despite the long-term experiment, the old plough pan is still observed. The superficial horizon is equivalent in terms of pF curves to CT. The second horizon in RT shows significant differences with CT: porosity and especially effective porosity are greater for CT than RT. Infiltration tests confirm these reports with a higher conductivity for CT than RT. In fact, the first permeable horizon for RT is thin and the second horizon impacts vertical infiltration. These observations will be completed with microtomograms analysis. Pore size distribution, but particularly morphological parameters like eccentricity, orientation, connectivity and anisotropy of the pore network will be quantified and connected with macroscopic measurements.

  20. A quick system for estimating the purification performance of waste water treatment plants based on the macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of activated sludge; Sistema rapido de estimacion de los rendimientos en depuracion de una EDAR en funcion de las caracteristicas macroscopicas del fango activado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, C.; Fernandez, N.; Horra de la, J. M.; Rodriguez, E.; Isac, L.; Salas, D.; Gomez, E.; Ortiz Vargas, A.; Gonzalez Carballo, J. A.

    2001-07-01

    Microbiological studies of activated sludge require time, specialized staff and the arduous task of identifying and analysing the results, which is not usually within the scope of every laboratory. This article raises the possibility of carrying out a simplified study of active sludge, based on its macroscopic and microscopic characteristics, which produces a sludge index value that is directly related to the percentage reduction of solids in suspension, COD and BOD in the waste water treatment plant. In addition, this sludge index would also provide the possibility of quickly obtaining a historical record of biological quality values using a simple protocol that could be use for comparisons. (Author) 10 refs.

  1. 'Essential' macroscopic hematuria from upper urinary tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrikov, R.; Mladenov, B.; Totev, M.

    2015-01-01

    Full text: The macroscopic haematuria is one of the most common reasons for visit in emergency urology clinic. Urology massive hematuria may be caused by inflammation, gallstones, trauma, benign and malignant tumors. The issue of 'Essential' haematuria, typically of the upper urinary tract - one where it is not established cause, stands for decades. With the introduction of new diagnostic technologies - imaging and instrumentation, the share of 'Essential' haematuria, decreased. The aim of the study was to investigate and establish the diagnostic value of venous and CT urography, MRI and ureterorenoscopy in case of chronic 'essential' haematuria from the upper urinary tract by comparing their specificity and sensitivity. For a period of three years 214 patients were prospectively followed and hospitalized with macroscopic haematuria. All were examined with ultrasonography, radiography of the kidneys, ureters and bladder, cystoscopy. In 20 of the patients was excluded pathology of lower urinary tract as a cystoscope establish bleeding ureteral ostium / ostium, but diagnosis or direction of such a listed methods could not be found. Patients were subjected to IVP, then CT urography or MRI (in patients with elevated serum creatinine) and rigid ureterorenoscopy in this sequence and the results were analyzed. Of these 20 patients, 9 were diagnosed with malignancy, 4 - X-ray-negative lithiasis, eroded court, 4 - hemangioma changes or bleeding benign mucosa, 1 arterio-venous fistula, 2 were not finally diagnosed . 10 patients were diagnosed by IVP, which was confirmed by other methods (sensitivity 56.2%, specificity 75.7%). Both indicators were more robustly to cases of urothelial carcinoma pielon or ureter (respectively 66.9% and 84.4%). For CT urography and MRI the total sensitivity for detection of pathology was 85.8%, specificity 94.5%. In our series has revealed no statistically significant difference between the possibility of diagnosis

  2. Management Academy LANL Business Systems: Property Management, Course #31036

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepherd, Michael J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rinke, Helen Mae [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hanson, Todd [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wolfe, Randy P. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-07-08

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is responsible for the efficient economical management of all government property in its stewardship. This training explains the role LANL managers have in managing, controlling, and disposing of government property. The Laboratory's goal is good asset management. By properly managing property across the facility, Laboratory managers can help ASM improve government property utilization and extend asset life, while reducing asset-related operating costs and expenditures.

  3. 77 FR 65048 - Privacy Act; System of Records: Personal Property Claims, State-27

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-24

    ... direct supervision of the system manager. The system manager has the capability of printing audit trails... system of records, Personal Property Claims, State-27, pursuant to the provisions of the Privacy Act of... State proposes that the current system will retain the name ``Personal Property Claims'' (42 FR 49715...

  4. Critical Properties of Pure and Random Antiferromagnets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cowley, R. A.; Carneiro, K.

    1980-01-01

    Neutron scattering techniques have been used to study the critical properties of CoF2 and the randomly mixed systems: Co/ZnF2 and KMn/NiF3. The results for CoF2 are in excellent accord with the critical properties of the three-dimensional Ising model. In all of the random crystals studied...... smearing. Despite and smearing, measurements were made of the critical properties of Co/ZnF2. The results are insufficiently accurate to clearly distinguish between the properties of the pure three-dimensional Ising model and of the random system....... the transition was smeared. In CoF2 the smearing corresponds to concentration fluctuations of about 1.5% while in KMn/NiF3 it corresponds to about 2.5%. In both cases macroscopic chemical inhomogeneities were observed in these systems by electron microprobe analysis of a magnitude consistent with the observed...

  5. A Macroscopic Performance Analysis of NASA’s Northrop Grumman RQ-4A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enric Pastor

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the process of identification, from a macroscopic point of view, of the Northrop Grumman RQ-4A Global Hawk Remote-Piloted Aircraft System from real, but limited flight information. Performance parameters and operational schemes will be extracted by analyzing available data from two specific science flights flown by the Global Hawk back in 2010. Each phase of the flight, take-off, climb, cruise climb, descent and landing, is analyzed from various points of view: speed profile, altitude, climb/descent ratios and rate of turn. The key performance parameters derived from individual flights will be confirmed by performing a wider statistical validation with additional flight trajectories. Derived data are exploited to validate a simulated RQ-4A vehicle employed in extensive real-time air traffic management simulated integration exercises and to complement the development of a future RQ-4A trajectory predictor.

  6. Large Scale Emerging Properties from Non Hamiltonian Complex Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Bianucci

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The concept of “large scale” depends obviously on the phenomenon we are interested in. For example, in the field of foundation of Thermodynamics from microscopic dynamics, the spatial and time large scales are order of fraction of millimetres and microseconds, respectively, or lesser, and are defined in relation to the spatial and time scales of the microscopic systems. In large scale oceanography or global climate dynamics problems the time scales of interest are order of thousands of kilometres, for space, and many years for time, and are compared to the local and daily/monthly times scales of atmosphere and ocean dynamics. In all the cases a Zwanzig projection approach is, at least in principle, an effective tool to obtain class of universal smooth “large scale” dynamics for few degrees of freedom of interest, starting from the complex dynamics of the whole (usually many degrees of freedom system. The projection approach leads to a very complex calculus with differential operators, that is drastically simplified when the basic dynamics of the system of interest is Hamiltonian, as it happens in Foundation of Thermodynamics problems. However, in geophysical Fluid Dynamics, Biology, and in most of the physical problems the building block fundamental equations of motions have a non Hamiltonian structure. Thus, to continue to apply the useful projection approach also in these cases, we exploit the generalization of the Hamiltonian formalism given by the Lie algebra of dissipative differential operators. In this way, we are able to analytically deal with the series of the differential operators stemming from the projection approach applied to these general cases. Then we shall apply this formalism to obtain some relevant results concerning the statistical properties of the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO.

  7. Macroscopic objects in quantum mechanics: A combinatorial approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitowsky, Itamar

    2004-01-01

    Why do we not see large macroscopic objects in entangled states? There are two ways to approach this question. The first is dynamic. The coupling of a large object to its environment cause any entanglement to decrease considerably. The second approach, which is discussed in this paper, puts the stress on the difficulty of observing a large-scale entanglement. As the number of particles n grows we need an ever more precise knowledge of the state and an ever more carefully designed experiment, in order to recognize entanglement. To develop this point we consider a family of observables, called witnesses, which are designed to detect entanglement. A witness W distinguishes all the separable (unentangled) states from some entangled states. If we normalize the witness W to satisfy tr(Wρ)≤1 for all separable states ρ, then the efficiency of W depends on the size of its maximal eigenvalue in absolute value; that is, its operator norm parallel W parallel . It is known that there are witnesses on the space of n qubits for which parallel W parallel is exponential in n. However, we conjecture that for a large majority of n-qubit witnesses parallel W parallel ≤O(√(n log n)). Thus, in a nonideal measurement, which includes errors, the largest eigenvalue of a typical witness lies below the threshold of detection. We prove this conjecture for the family of extremal witnesses introduced by Werner and Wolf [Phys. Rev. A 64, 032112 (2001)

  8. Zero time tunneling: macroscopic experiments with virtual particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nimtz Günter

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Feynman introduced virtual particles in his diagrams as intermediate states of an interaction process. They represent necessary intermediate states between observable real states. Such virtual particles were introduced to describe the interaction process between an electron and a positron and for much more complicated interaction processes. Other candidates for virtual particles are evanescent modes in optics and in elastic fields. Evanescent modes have a purely imaginary wave number, they represent the mathematical analogy of the tunneling solutions of the Schrödinger equation. Evanescent modes exist in the forbidden frequency bands of a photonic lattice and in undersized wave guides, for instance. The most prominent example for the occurrence of evanescent modes is the frustrated total internal reflection (FTIR at double prisms. Evanescent modes and tunneling lie outside the bounds of the special theory of relativity. They can cause faster than light (FTL signal velocities. We present examples of the quantum mechanical behavior of evanescent photons and phonons at a macroscopic scale. The evanescent modes of photons are described by virtual particles as predicted by former QED calculations.

  9. Thermodynamic Behaviors of Macroscopic Liquid Droplets Evaporation from Heated Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xue; Zhu, Zhi-Qiang; Liu, Qiu-Sheng; Wang, Xu-Wen

    2015-09-01

    Evaporation of a macroscopic-scale sessile droplet on different hot isothermal substrates has been experimentally investigated, for the framework of planning space experiments onboard Chinese recoverable satellite to explore the interface effect, heat and mass transfer during the phase transition process. Undoubtedly, the evaporation phenomenon of a sessile drop on heated substrates is a complex problem which involves the behavior of triple line, heat transfer with thermal conduction and convection, mass transfer into the vapor phase. Therefore, preparations from scientific view have been carried out to validate setup of the space experiment modes. Based on the experiments performed in the terrestrial gravity, we found that the evolution of a water droplet could be separated into three stages, began with the constant contact area, then switched to the depin stage and ended up with the flushing stage. The average evaporation rate was measured and the thermal effects of different substrates were studied. Results revealed a linear variation of contact diameter with its average evaporation rate, which has the similar tendency with small drops. The varieties of the heat flux density during evaporating showed that droplet absorbed energy from the heated substrate, then with the help of the internal flow of thermocaplliry and buoyant convection, heat was transported to the liquid-vapor interface providing the energy for evaporation.

  10. Diffraction of neutrons in crystals macroscopic double slits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacroix, A.

    2000-06-01

    Diffraction experiments with neutrons at slits in free space have been measured with very high accuracy and can be found in many text books. The experiments in this thesis demonstrate that diffraction still takes place when the ratio between the dimensions of the slits and the wavelength of the particle is very large. In our experiment neutrons are diffracted at macroscopic objects and these diffraction effects will be amplified in a silicon crystal. The following effect is used : Similar to electrons in solid state materials, the interaction of the neutron with a periodic crystal potential can be described by an effective mass. In contrast to the case of the electrons, however, the crystal potential is very small in comparison to the kinetic energy for neutrons. Thus the effective neutron mass can become almost six orders of magnitude smaller than the rest mass of the free neutron. Therefore the characteristic length, equivalent to the de Broglie wavelength in free space, inside the crystal is the Pendelloesung length which is in our case larger by a factor of 2x10 5 . Due to this fact a deflection by small forces can already be observed on a distance of some centimeters. Thus diffraction of neutrons with wavelengths of the order of a few angstroms at slits in the millimeter range can be shown. We remark that our intensity was of the order of 4 neutrons per minute which clearly indicates single-neutron interference. (author)

  11. Macroscopic local-field effects on photoabsorption processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Xiaoguang; Gong Yubing; Wang Meishan; Wang Dehua

    2008-01-01

    The influence of the local-field effect on the photoabsorption cross sections of the atoms which are embedded in the macroscopic medium has been studied by a set of alternative expressions in detail. Some notes on the validity of some different local-field models used to study the photoabsorption cross sections of atoms in condensed matter have been given for the first time. Our results indicate that the local fields can have substantial and different influence on the photoabsorption cross section of atoms in condensed matter for different models. Clausius-Mossotti model and Onsager model have proved to be more reasonable to describe the local field in gas, liquid, or even some simple solid, while Glauber-Lewenstein model probably is wrong in these conditions except for the ideal gas. A procedure which can avoid the errors introduced by Kramers-Kronig transformation has been implemented in this work. This procedure can guarantee that the theoretical studies on the local field effects will not be influenced by the integral instability of the Kramers-Kronig transformation

  12. Theory and feasibility tests for a seismic scanning tunnelling macroscope

    KAUST Repository

    Schuster, Gerard T.

    2012-09-01

    We propose a seismic scanning tunnelling macroscope (SSTM) that can detect subwavelength scatterers in the near-field of either the source or the receivers. Analytic formulas for the time reverse mirror (TRM) profile associated with a single scatterer model show that the spatial resolution limit to be, unlike the Abbe limit of λ/2, independent of wavelength and linearly proportional to the source-scatterer separation as long as the scatterer is in the near-field region. This means that, as the scatterer approaches the source, imaging of the scatterer with super-resolution can be achieved. Acoustic and elastic simulations support this concept, and a seismic experiment in an Arizona tunnel shows a TRM profile with super-resolution adjacent to the fault location. The SSTM is analogous to the optical scanning tunnelling microscopes having subwavelength resolution. Scaled to seismic frequencies, it is theoretically possible to extract 100 Hz information from 20 Hz data by the imaging of near-field seismic energy.

  13. Connecting local active forces to macroscopic stress in elastic media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronceray, Pierre; Lenz, Martin

    2015-02-28

    In contrast with ordinary materials, living matter drives its own motion by generating active, out-of-equilibrium internal stresses. These stresses typically originate from localized active elements embedded in an elastic medium, such as molecular motors inside the cell or contractile cells in a tissue. While many large-scale phenomenological theories of such active media have been developed, a systematic understanding of the emergence of stress from the local force-generating elements is lacking. In this paper, we present a rigorous theoretical framework to study this relationship. We show that the medium's macroscopic active stress tensor is equal to the active elements' force dipole tensor per unit volume in both continuum and discrete linear homogeneous media of arbitrary geometries. This relationship is conserved on average in the presence of disorder, but can be violated in nonlinear elastic media. Such effects can lead to either a reinforcement or an attenuation of the active stresses, giving us a glimpse of the ways in which nature might harness microscopic forces to create active materials.

  14. Macroscopic-microscopic model of nuclear potential energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamagno, Pierre; Bouland, Olivier; Serot, Olivier; Moller, Peter

    2017-09-01

    To improve the evaluation of nuclear observables, refined models are to be used more and more as underlying analysis tools. Fission is a complex process and is the less accurately described with current models. Standard evaluation models rely on the Hill-Wheeler formalism for the fission transmission coefficient, which in turns is based on phenomenological parameters "reflecting" the fission barrier heights and widths. To reduce the weight of phenomenology in the evaluation process, nuclear structure models are expected to embed more and more microscopic descriptions. As models are rarely exact, evaluators are often compelled to "tune" model parameters so that observables can be properly reproduced. Related computation time can thus be a major hindrance to the use of advanced models in evaluation as final adjustments are expected to remain necessary. For this reason, a macroscopic-microscopic model has been selected to replace the current phenomenological description of fission barriers. The Finite-Range Liquid-Drop Model (FRLDM) has been implemented in the CONRAD evaluation code and its present implementation shows remarkable consistency with experimental and published benchmark data. The CONRAD code can be used to provide expectation values but also related uncertainties and covariance data. Sensitivity of FRLDM parameters and the correlation matrix between these parameters have been obtained so that further uncertainty propagation on barrier heights can be carried out in the near future.

  15. [Physical properties of f electron systems]: Progress report, February 1986-December 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riseborough, P.S.

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses the progress in research on f electron systems. The major properties discussed in this paper are: transport properties, heavy fermion superconductivity, and photo-emission spectroscopy

  16. A fortran code CVTRAN to provide cross-section file for TWODANT by using macroscopic file written by SRAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamane, Tsuyoshi; Tsuchihashi, Keichiro

    1999-03-01

    A code CVTRAN provides the macroscopic cross-sections in the format of XSLIB file which is one of Standard interface files for a two-dimensional Sn transport code TWODANT by reading a macroscopic cross section file in the PDS format which is prepared by SRAC execution. While a two-dimensional Sn transport code TWOTRAN published by LANL is installed as a module in the SRAC code system, several functions such as alpha search, concentration search, zone thickness search and various edits are suppressed. Since the TWODANT code was released from LANL, its short running time, stable convergence and plenty of edits have attracted many users. The code CVTRAN makes the TWODANT available to the SRAC user by providing the macroscopic cross-sections on a card-image file XSLIB. The CVTRAN also provides material dependent fission spectra into a card-image format file CVLIB, together with group velocities, group boundary energies and material names. The user can feed them into the TWODANT input, if necessary, by cut-and-paste command. (author)

  17. Quantum mechanics versus macroscopic realism: Is the flux there when nobody looks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leggett, A.J.; Garg, A.

    1985-01-01

    It is shown that, in the contect of an idealized ''macroscopic quantum coherence'' experiment, the prediction of quantum mechanics are incompattible with the conjunction of two general assimptions which are designated ''macroscopic realism'' and ''noninvasive measurability at the macroscopiclevel.'' The conditions under which quantum mechanics can be tested against these assumptions in a realistic experiment are discussed

  18. Electronic properties and stability of graphene oxyradical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jinhua; Guo Liyuan; Li Zepeng

    2015-01-01

    An investigation about the electronic properties of a series of graphene patches with O-bonding to zigzag or armchair edges is performed by density functional theory (DFT). The stability, orbital hybridization, spin density, HOMO and LUMO energy for 4a4z-O, 5a5z-O and 6a6z-O graphene oxyradicals are discussed. The 4a4z-z2, 5a5z-z3 and 6a6z-z3 are the most stable structure in their individual graphene oxyradicals systems and the corresponding C=O bond length is about 0.1231 nm. This shows that the structure with O-bonding to central positions of zigzag edges is the most stable one indicating its “safe harbor” status. Meanwhile, spin density changes obviously after O-bonding to zigzag edge of graphene. As the presumptive outer effects, folding along an axis at z3 position would deprive the “safe harbor” status with O-bonding to zigzag edge. This inspires the exploration of new ways in absorbing or storage energy behavior and intermediate of combustion can be understood better. (author)

  19. Geothermal aquaculture project: Real Property Systems Inc. , Harney Basin, Oregon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-08-14

    Real Property Systems Inc., (RPS) owns two parcels in the vicinity of Harney Lake, Oregon. One parcel is 120 acres in size, the other is 200 acres. A study concludes that the 200 acre parcel has the greater potential for geothermal development. RPS is interested in an aquaculture operation that produces fresh water prawns, (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) for the market. To supply the heat necessary to maintain the ideal temperature of 82/sup 0/F desired for these prawns, a geothermal resource having a 150/sup 0/F temperature or higher, is needed. The best estimate is that 150/sup 0/F water can be found from a minimum 1090 feet depth to 2625 feet, with no absolute assurances that sufficient quantities of geothermal waters exist without drilling for the same. This study undertakes the preliminary determination of project economics so that a decision can be made whether or not to proceed with exploratory drilling. The study is based on 10 acres of ponds, with a peak requirement of 2500 gpm of 150/sup 0/F geothermal water.

  20. ORBITAL DEPENDENCE OF GALAXY PROPERTIES IN SATELLITE SYSTEMS OF GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Ho Seong; Park, Changbom

    2010-01-01

    We study the dependence of satellite galaxy properties on the distance to the host galaxy and the orbital motion (prograde and retrograde orbits) using the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data. From SDSS Data Release 7, we find 3515 isolated satellite systems of galaxies at z -1 . It is found that the radial distribution of early-type satellites in prograde orbit is strongly concentrated toward the host while that of retrograde ones shows much less concentration. We also find the orbital speed of late-type satellites in prograde orbit increases as the projected distance to the host (R) decreases while the speed decreases for those in retrograde orbit. At R less than 0.1 times the host virial radius (R vir,host ), the orbital speed decreases in both prograde and retrograde orbit cases. Prograde satellites are on average fainter than retrograde satellites for both early and late morphological types. The u - r color becomes redder as R decreases for both prograde and retrograde orbit late-type satellites. The differences between prograde and retrograde orbit satellite galaxies may be attributed to their different origin or the different strength of physical processes that they have experienced through hydrodynamic interactions with their host galaxies.

  1. Enforcement of opacity security properties for ship information system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bowen Xing

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider the cybersecurity issue of ship information system (SIS from a new perspective which is called opacity. For a SIS, its confidential information (named as “secret” may be leaked through the working behaviors of each Distributed Control Unit (DCU from an outside observer called an “intruder” which is able to determine ship's mission state by detecting the source of each data flow from the corresponding DCUs in SIS. Therefore we proposed a dual layer mechanism to enforce opacity by activating non-essential DCU during secret mission. This mechanism is calculated by two types of insertion functions: Safety-assured insertion function (fIS and Admissibility-assured insertion function (fIA. Due to different objectives, fIS is designed to confuse intruder by constructing a non-secret behaviors from a unsafe one, and the division of fIA is to polish the modified output behaviors back to normal. We define the property of “I2–Enforceability” that dual layer insertion functions has the ability to enforce opacity. By a given mission map of SIS and the marked secret missions, we propose an algorithm to select fIS and compute its matchable fIA and then the DCUs which should be activated to release non-essential data flow in each step is calculable.

  2. Macroscopic erosion of divertor and first wall armour in future tokamaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Würz, H.; Bazylev, B.; Landman, I.; Pestchanyi, S.; Safronov, V.

    2002-12-01

    Sputtering, evaporation and macroscopic erosion determine the lifetime of the 'in vessel' armour materials CFC, tungsten and beryllium presently under discussion for future tokamaks. For CFC armour macroscopic erosion means brittle destruction and dust formation whereas for metallic armour melt layer erosion by melt motion and droplet splashing. Available results on macroscopic erosion from hot plasma and e-beam simulation experiments and from tokamaks are critically evaluated and a comprehensive discussion of experimental and numerical macroscopic erosion and its extrapolation to future tokamaks is given. Shielding of divertor armour materials by their own vapor exists during plasma disruptions. The evolving plasma shield protects the armour from high heat loads, absorbs the incoming energy and reradiates it volumetrically thus reducing drastically the deposited energy. As a result, vertical target erosion by vaporization turns out to be of the order of a few microns per disruption event and macroscopic erosion becomes the dominant erosion source.

  3. Macroscopic erosion of divertor and first wall armour in future tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuerz, H.; Bazylev, B.; Landman, I.; Pestchanyi, S.; Safronov, V.

    2002-01-01

    Sputtering, evaporation and macroscopic erosion determine the lifetime of the 'in vessel' armour materials CFC, tungsten and beryllium presently under discussion for future tokamaks. For CFC armour macroscopic erosion means brittle destruction and dust formation whereas for metallic armour melt layer erosion by melt motion and droplet splashing. Available results on macroscopic erosion from hot plasma and e-beam simulation experiments and from tokamaks are critically evaluated and a comprehensive discussion of experimental and numerical macroscopic erosion and its extrapolation to future tokamaks is given. Shielding of divertor armour materials by their own vapor exists during plasma disruptions. The evolving plasma shield protects the armour from high heat loads, absorbs the incoming energy and reradiates it volumetrically thus reducing drastically the deposited energy. As a result, vertical target erosion by vaporization turns out to be of the order of a few microns per disruption event and macroscopic erosion becomes the dominant erosion source

  4. A simple macroscopic root water uptake model based on the hydraulic architecture approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couvreur, V.; Vanderborght, J.; Javaux, M.

    2012-12-01

    Many hydrological models including root water uptake (RWU) do not consider the dimension of root system hydraulic architecture (HA) because explicitly solving water flow in such a complex system is too time consuming. However, they might lack process understanding when basing RWU and plant water stress predictions on functions of variables such as the root length density distribution. On the basis of analytical solutions of water flow in a simple HA, we developed a model implicitly accounting for the root system HA, allowing the simulation of both RWU distribution and plant water stress, in three-dimensional soil water flow models. The new model has three macroscopic parameters defined at the soil element scale, or at the plant scale, rather than for each segment of the root system architecture: the standard sink fraction distribution SSF, the root system equivalent conductance Krs and the compensatory RWU conductance Kcomp. It clearly decouples the process of water stress from compensatory RWU, and its structure is appropriate for hydraulic lift simulation. As compared to a model explicitly solving water flow in a complex root system HA, the new model showed to be accurate and fast, in dissimilar water dynamics scenarios, while keeping the same parameter set. With the proposed model, new concepts are brought which open avenues towards simple and mechanistic RWU models and water stress functions operational for field scale water dynamics simulation. A further study focuses on its applicability for simulating one-dimensional water dynamics in wheat cropped fields.

  5. Macroscopic diffusion models for precipitation in crystalline gallium arsenide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimmerle, Sven-Joachim Wolfgang

    2009-09-21

    Based on a thermodynamically consistent model for precipitation in gallium arsenide crystals including surface tension and bulk stresses by Dreyer and Duderstadt, we propose two different mathematical models to describe the size evolution of liquid droplets in a crystalline solid. The first model treats the diffusion-controlled regime of interface motion, while the second model is concerned with the interface-controlled regime of interface motion. Our models take care of conservation of mass and substance. These models generalise the well-known Mullins- Sekerka model for Ostwald ripening. We concentrate on arsenic-rich liquid spherical droplets in a gallium arsenide crystal. Droplets can shrink or grow with time but the centres of droplets remain fixed. The liquid is assumed to be homogeneous in space. Due to different scales for typical distances between droplets and typical radii of liquid droplets we can derive formally so-called mean field models. For a model in the diffusion-controlled regime we prove this limit by homogenisation techniques under plausible assumptions. These mean field models generalise the Lifshitz-Slyozov-Wagner model, which can be derived from the Mullins-Sekerka model rigorously, and is well understood. Mean field models capture the main properties of our system and are well adapted for numerics and further analysis. We determine possible equilibria and discuss their stability. Numerical evidence suggests in which case which one of the two regimes might be appropriate to the experimental situation. (orig.)

  6. 48 CFR 2945.104 - Review and correction of contractors' property control systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Review and correction of... contractors' property control systems. When the Government's property administrator determines that review and... administrator must review the system to determine whether the contractor will be able to meet the requirements...

  7. 25 CFR 900.54 - Should the property management system prescribe internal controls?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... System Standards § 900.54 Should the property management system prescribe internal controls? Yes. Effective internal controls should include procedures: (a) For the conduct of periodic inventories; (b) To... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Should the property management system prescribe internal...

  8. Clinical significance of macroscopic completeness of mesorectal resection in rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, J S; Martins, S C; Oliveira, J; Cunha, M F; Castro-Sousa, F

    2011-04-01

    Local recurrence after resection of rectal cancer is usually regarded as being due to a 'failure' of surgery. The completeness of resection of the mesorectum has been proposed as an indicator of the 'quality' of the resection. We determined the prognostic value of macroscopic evaluation of rectal cancer resection specimens and the circumferential resection margin (CRM) after curative surgery. From 1999 to 2006, the macroscopic quality of the mesorectum and the CRM were prospectively assessed in 127 patients who underwent rectal cancer resection with curative intent (R0+R1). Chemoradiotherapy was administered for 61 tumours staged as locally advanced tumours (T3, T4 and N+). Univariate analysis of time to local recurrence and cancer-free survival were tested (Kaplan-Meier) and multivariate analysis calculated with a Cox regression model. The mesorectum was incomplete in 34 (26.8%) patients. At a median follow up of 34 months (range, 9-96 months), in the group with an adequate mesorectal excision, the cumulative risk of local recurrence at 5 years was 10%. This was 25% if the mesorectum was incomplete (P CRM and the mesorectal score as independent factors for local recurrence, and T and N status and the mesorectal score as independent factors for disease-free survival. The outcome of surgical treatment of rectal cancer is related to the completeness of mesorectal excision. It is a more discriminative prognostic factor than the classic tumour-node-metastasis (TNM) system. © 2011 The Authors. Colorectal Disease © 2011 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  9. Modelling an infinite nucleonic system. Static and dynamical properties. Study of density fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idier, D.; Farine, M.; Remaud, B.; Sébille, F.

    For one decade, several fields in physics as well microscopic as macroscopic benefit from the computational particle-models (astrophysics, electronics, fluids mechanics...). In particular, the nuclear matter offers an interesting challenge as many body problem, owing to the quantal nature of its components and the complexity of the in-medium interaction. Using a model derived from semi-classical Vlasov equation and the projection of the Wigner function on a Gaussian coherent states basis (pseudo-particles), static and dynamical properties of nuclear matter are studied, featuring the growing of bulk instabilities in dilute matter. Using different zero and finite range effective interactions, the effect of the model parameters upon the relation total energy - density - temperature and surface energy of the pseudo-particles fluid is pointed out. The dynamical feature is first based upon a model of the 2-body Uehling-Ulhenbeck collisionnal term. A study of the relaxation of a nucleonic system is performed. At last, the pseudo-particle model is used in order to extract time scale for the growing of density fluctuations. This process is supposed to be a possible way to clusterization during heavy nuclei collisions. Depuis une dizaine d'années, plusieurs domaines de la physique aussi bien microscopiques que macroscopiques bénéficient des modèles à particules pour ordinateurs (astrophysique, électronique, plasmas...). En particulier, la matière nucléaire constitue un objet intéressant pour le problème à N corps ; tant par la nature quantique des nucléons que par la complexité des interactions dans ce milieu. A travers un modèle dérivant de l'équation de Vlasov semi-classique et de la projection de la fonction de Wigner sur une base d'état cohérents gaussiens (les pseudo-particules), on étudie les propriétés statiques et dynamiques de la matière nucléaire dont en particulier le développement des instabilités de volume en milieu dilué. Pour diff

  10. Innovations in macroscopic evaluation of pancreatic specimens and radiologic correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charikleia Triantopoulou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of a novel dissection technique of surgical specimens in different cases of pancreatic tumors and provide a radiologic pathologic correlation. In our hospital, that is a referral center for pancreatic diseases, the macroscopic evaluation of the pancreatectomy specimens is performed by the pathologists using the axial slicing technique (instead of the traditional procedure with longitudinal opening of the main pancreatic and/or common bile duct and slicing along the plane defined by both ducts. The specimen is sliced in an axial plane that is perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the descending duodenum. The procedure results in a large number of thin slices (3–4 mm. This plane is identical to that of CT or MRI and correlation between pathology and imaging is straightforward. We studied 70 cases of suspected different solid and cystic pancreatic tumors and we correlated the tumor size and location, the structure—consistency (areas of necrosis—hemorrhage—fibrosis—inflammation, the degree of vessels’ infiltration, the size of pancreatic and common bile duct and the distance from resection margins. Missed findings by imaging or pitfalls were recorded and we tried to explain all discrepancies between radiology evaluation and the histopathological findings. Radiologic-pathologic correlation is extremely important, adding crucial information on imaging limitations and enabling quality assessment of surgical specimens. The deep knowledge of different pancreatic tumors’ consistency and way of extension helps to improve radiologists’ diagnostic accuracy and minimize the radiological-surgical mismatching, preventing patients from unnecessary surgery.

  11. Consistent Prediction of Properties of Systems with Lipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cunico, Larissa; Ceriani, Roberta; Sarup, Bent

    Equilibria between vapour, liquid and/or solid phases, pure component properties and also the mixture-phase properties are necessary for synthesis, design and analysis of different unit operations found in the production of edible oils, fats and biodiesel. A systematic numerical analysis....... Lipids are found in almost all mixtures involving edible oils, fats and biodiesel. They are also being extracted for use in the pharma-industry. A database for pure components (lipids) present in these processes and mixtures properties has been developed and made available for different applications...... (model development, property verification, property prediction, etc.). The database has verified data for fatty acids, acylglycerols, fatty esters, fatty alcohols, vegetable oils, biodiesel and minor compounds as phospholipids, tocopherols, sterols, carotene and squalene, together with a user friendly...

  12. Characterization and Correlation of Particle-Level Interactions to the Macroscopic Rheology of Powders, Granular Slurries, and Colloidal Suspensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poloski, Adam P.; Daniel, Richard C.; Rector, David R.; Bredt, Paul R.; Buck, Edgar C.; Berg, John C.; Saez, Avelino E.

    2006-09-29

    Hanford TRU tank sludges are complex mixtures of undissolved minerals and salt solids in an aqueous phase of high ionic strength. They show complex rheological behavior resulting from interactions at the macroscopic level, such as interparticle friction between grains in the coarse fraction, as well as from interactions at the nano-scale level, such as the agglomeration of colloidal particles. An understanding of how phenomena such as interparticle friction and aggregate stability under shear will allow better control of Hanford TRU tank sludges being processed for disposal. The project described in this report had two objectives. The first was to understand the physical properties and behavior of the Hanford transuranic (TRU) tank sludges under conditions that might exist during retrieval, treatment, packaging, and transportation for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The second objective was to develop a fundamental understanding of sludge physical properties by correlating the macroscopic behavior with interactions occurring at the particle/colloidal scale. These objectives were accomplished by: 1) developing continuum models for coarse granular slurries and 2) studying the behavior of colloidal agglomerates under shear and under irradiation.

  13. Investigation of tracking systems properties in CAVE-type virtual reality systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymaniak, Magda; Mazikowski, Adam; Meironke, Michał

    2017-08-01

    In recent years, many scientific and industrial centers in the world developed a virtual reality systems or laboratories. One of the most advanced solutions are Immersive 3D Visualization Lab (I3DVL), a CAVE-type (Cave Automatic Virtual Environment) laboratory. It contains two CAVE-type installations: six-screen installation arranged in a form of a cube, and four-screen installation, a simplified version of the previous one. The user feeling of "immersion" and interaction with virtual world depend on many factors, in particular on the accuracy of the tracking system of the user. In this paper properties of the tracking systems applied in I3DVL was investigated. For analysis two parameters were selected: the accuracy of the tracking system and the range of detection of markers by the tracking system in space of the CAVE. Measurements of system accuracy were performed for six-screen installation, equipped with four tracking cameras for three axes: X, Y, Z. Rotation around the Y axis was also analyzed. Measured tracking system shows good linear and rotating accuracy. The biggest issue was the range of the monitoring of markers inside the CAVE. It turned out, that the tracking system lose sight of the markers in the corners of the installation. For comparison, for a simplified version of CAVE (four-screen installation), equipped with eight tracking cameras, this problem was not occur. Obtained results will allow for improvement of cave quality.

  14. Optical Properties of Nanoparticle Systems Mie and Beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Quinten, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Unlike other books who concentrate on metallic nanoparticles with sizes less than 100 nm, the author discusses optical properties of particles with (a) larger size and (b) of any material. The intention of this book is to fill the gap in the description of the optical properties of small particles with sizes less than 1000 nm and to provide a comprehensive overview on the spectral behavior of nanoparticulate matter. The author concentrates on the linear optical properties elastic light scattering and absorption of single nanoparticles and on reflectance and transmittance of nanoparticle matter

  15. Superconducting and normal properties of metallic amorphous systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esquinazi, P.D.

    1983-02-01

    The superconducting and transport properties (superconducing critical temperature, superconducting critical currents, electric resistivity and thermal conductivity) of the amorphous alloys La 70 Cu 30 and Zr 70 Cu 30 prepared by melt spinning have been investigated. The modification of these properties when, the initial amorphous metals relax to other metastable state under thermal treatment at below crystallization temperatures, have also been studied. (M.E.L.) [es

  16. Effect of dispersive long-range corrections to the pressure tensor: The vapour-liquid interfacial properties of the Lennard-Jones system revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez-Ruiz, F. J.; Blas, F. J., E-mail: felipe@uhu.es [Departamento de Física Aplicada, Universidad de Huelva, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Centro de Investigación de Física Teórica y Matemática, Universidad de Huelva, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Mendiboure, B. [Laboratoire des Fluides Complexes et leurs Réservoirs, UMR5150, Université de Pau et des Pays de l’Adour, B. P. 1155, Pau Cedex 64014 (France); Moreno-Ventas Bravo, A. I. [Centro de Investigación de Física Teórica y Matemática, Universidad de Huelva, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Departamento de Geología, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, Universidad de Huelva, 21071 Huelva (Spain)

    2014-11-14

    We propose an extension of the improved version of the inhomogeneous long-range corrections of Janeček [J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 6264–6269 (2006)], presented recently by MacDowell and Blas [J. Chem. Phys. 131, 074705 (2009)] to account for the intermolecular potential energy of spherical, rigid, and flexible molecular systems, to deal with the contributions to the microscopic components of the pressure tensor due to the dispersive long-range corrections. We have performed Monte Carlo simulations in the canonical ensemble to obtain the interfacial properties of spherical Lennard-Jones molecules with different cutoff distances, r{sub c} = 2.5, 3, 4, and 5σ. In addition, we have also considered cutoff distances r{sub c} = 2.5 and 3σ in combination with the inhomogeneous long-range corrections proposed in this work. The normal and tangential microscopic components of the pressure tensor are obtained using the mechanical or virial route in combination with the recipe of Irving and Kirkwood, while the macroscopic components are calculated using the Volume Perturbation thermodynamic route proposed by de Miguel and Jackson [J. Chem. Phys. 125, 164109 (2006)]. The vapour-liquid interfacial tension is evaluated using three different procedures, the Irving-Kirkwood method, the difference between the macroscopic components of the pressure tensor, and the Test-Area methodology. In addition to the pressure tensor and the surface tension, we also obtain density profiles, coexistence densities, vapour pressure, critical temperature and density, and interfacial thickness as functions of temperature, paying particular attention to the effect of the cutoff distance and the long-range corrections on these properties. According to our results, the main effect of increasing the cutoff distance (at fixed temperature) is to sharpen the vapour-liquid interface, to decrease the vapour pressure, and to increase the width of the biphasic coexistence region. As a result, the interfacial

  17. Innovations in macroscopic evaluation of pancreatic specimens and radiologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triantopoulou, Charikleia; Papaparaskeva, Kleo; Agalianos, Christos; Dervenis, Christos

    2016-01-01

    •The axial slicing technique offers many advantages in accurate estimation of tumors extend and staging.•Cross-sectional axial imaging is the best technique for accurate radiologic-pathologic correlation.•Correlation may explain any discrepancies between radiological and histopathological findings.•Pathology correlation may offer a better understanding of the missed findings by imaging or pitfalls The axial slicing technique offers many advantages in accurate estimation of tumors extend and staging. Cross-sectional axial imaging is the best technique for accurate radiologic-pathologic correlation. Correlation may explain any discrepancies between radiological and histopathological findings. Pathology correlation may offer a better understanding of the missed findings by imaging or pitfalls The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of a novel dissection technique of surgical specimens in different cases of pancreatic tumors and provide a radiologic pathologic correlation. In our hospital, that is a referral center for pancreatic diseases, the macroscopic evaluation of the pancreatectomy specimens is performed by the pathologists using the axial slicing technique (instead of the traditional procedure with longitudinal opening of the main pancreatic and/or common bile duct and slicing along the plane defined by both ducts). The specimen is sliced in an axial plane that is perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the descending duodenum. The procedure results in a large number of thin slices (3–4 mm). This plane is identical to that of CT or MRI and correlation between pathology and imaging is straightforward. We studied 70 cases of suspected different solid and cystic pancreatic tumors and we correlated the tumor size and location, the structure—consistency (areas of necrosis—hemorrhage—fibrosis—inflammation), the degree of vessels’ infiltration, the size of pancreatic and common bile duct and the distance from resection margins

  18. Macroscopic and Microscopic Analysis of the Thumb Carpometacarpal Ligaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladd, Amy L.; Lee, Julia; Hagert, Elisabet

    2012-01-01

    Background: Stability and mobility represent the paradoxical demands of the human thumb carpometacarpal joint, yet the structural origin of each functional demand is poorly defined. As many as sixteen and as few as four ligaments have been described as primary stabilizers, but controversy exists as to which ligaments are most important. We hypothesized that a comparative macroscopic and microscopic analysis of the ligaments of the thumb carpometacarpal joint would further define their role in joint stability. Methods: Thirty cadaveric hands (ten fresh-frozen and twenty embalmed) from nineteen cadavers (eight female and eleven male; average age at the time of death, seventy-six years) were dissected, and the supporting ligaments of the thumb carpometacarpal joint were identified. Ligament width, length, and thickness were recorded for morphometric analysis and were compared with use of the Student t test. The dorsal and volar ligaments were excised from the fresh-frozen specimens and were stained with use of a triple-staining immunofluorescent technique and underwent semiquantitative analysis of sensory innervation; half of these specimens were additionally analyzed for histomorphometric data. Mixed-effects linear regression was used to estimate differences between ligaments. Results: Seven principal ligaments of the thumb carpometacarpal joint were identified: three dorsal deltoid-shaped ligaments (dorsal radial, dorsal central, posterior oblique), two volar ligaments (anterior oblique and ulnar collateral), and two ulnar ligaments (dorsal trapeziometacarpal and intermetacarpal). The dorsal ligaments were significantly thicker (p anterior oblique ligament (p anterior oblique ligament was consistently a thin structure with a histologic appearance of capsular tissue with low cellularity. Conclusions: The dorsal deltoid ligament complex is uniformly stout and robust; this ligament complex is the thickest morphometrically, has the highest cellularity histologically

  19. On quantum effects in the dynamics of macroscopic test masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller-Ebhardt, Helge

    2009-01-01

    This thesis provides theoretically a link between the increase of the sensitivity of gravitational-wave detectors and the possibility of preparing macroscopic quantum states in such detectors. In the first part of this thesis, we theoretically explore the quantum measurement noise of an optical speed meter topology, the Sagnac interferometer, equipped with an additional detuned cavity at the output port. This detuned signal-recycling technique was already investigated when applying it to a Michelson interferometer and is used in the gravitational-wave detector GEO600. Together with the quantum noise analysis of the simple Sagnac interferometer, it is the basis of our study: we optimize the Sagnac interferometer's sensitivity towards the detection of a certain gravitational-wave source in the vicinity of a realistic classical noise environment. Motivated by the fact that the Michelson interferometer, as a position meter, with detuned signal-recycling can transduce the gravitational-wave strain into real mirror motion, we compare the transducer effect in a speed and in a position meter. Furthermore, we theoretically investigate the conditional output squeezing of a cavity which is detuned with respect to its carrier and its subcarrier. Therewith we pursue the theoretical analysis of the ponderomotive squeezer. With the knowledge gained in the first part about the quantum measurement process in laser interferometers, the second part of this thesis comprises a theoretical analysis of the conditonal state in positon and momentum of the interferometer's test masses. We motivate not to obtain the conditional states from a stochastic master equation but with the help of the so-called Wiener filtering method. Using this method, we calculate the most general expression for the conditional covariance matrix of the Gaussian state of a test mass under any linear Markovian measurement process. Then we specify to the interferometry and theoretically show under which circumstances

  20. Observation of squeezed light and quantum description of the macroscopical body movement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bykov, V.P.

    1992-01-01

    The possibility of a nondemolition measurement (observation) of macroscopical objects in widely distributed quantum mechanical states arises from the fact of the squezzed light observation. Macroscopical bodies -bodies of classical mechanics - are usually in states with narrow wave packets. It is shown that the absence of macroscopical bodies in widely distributed states is due to the focusing influence of the body's gravity field on its wave packet. An evidence that the gravity is essential in the classic limit of quantum mechanics is given. (author). 14 refs, 7 figs

  1. Characterization and Correlation of Particle-Level Interactions to the Macroscopic Rheology of Powders, Granular Slurries, and Colloidal Suspensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.P. Poloski; R.C. Daniel; D.R. Rector; P.R. Bredt; E.C. Buck; Berg, J.C.; Saez, A.E.

    2006-09-29

    This project had two primary objectives. The first was to understand the physical properties and behavior of select Hanford tank sludges under conditions that might exist during retrieval, treatment, packaging, and transportation for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The second objective was to develop a fundamental understanding of these sludge suspensions by correlating the macroscopic properties with particle interactions occurring at the colloidal scale. The specific tank wastes considered herein are contained in thirteen Hanford tanks including three double-shell tanks (DSTs) (AW-103, AW-105, and SY-102) and ten single-shell tanks (SSTs) (B-201 through B-204, T-201 through T-204, T-110, and T-111). At the outset of the project, these tanks were designated as potentially containing transuranic (TRU) process wastes that would be treated and disposed of in a manner different from the majority of the tank wastes.

  2. Energy effects on the structure and thermodynamic properties of nanoconfined fluids (a density functional theory study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarzi, Ezat; Kamalvand, Mohammad

    2009-04-23

    The structure and properties of fluids confined in nanopores may show a dramatic departure from macroscopic bulk fluids. The main reason for this difference lies in the influence of system walls. In addition to the entropic wall effect, system walls can significantly change the energy of the confined fluid compared to macroscopic bulk fluids. The energy effect of the walls on a nanoconfined fluid appears in two forms. The first effect is the cutting off of the intermolecular interactions by the walls, which appears for example in the integrals for calculation of the thermodynamic properties. The second wall effect involves the wall-molecule interactions. In such confined fluids, the introduction of wall forces and the competition between fluid-wall and fluid-fluid forces could lead to interesting thermodynamic properties, including new kinds of phase transitions not observed in the macroscopic fluid systems. In this article, we use the perturbative fundamental measure density functional theory to study energy effects on the structure and properties of a hard core two-Yukawa fluid confined in a nanoslit. Our results show the changes undergone by the structure and phase transition of the nanoconfined fluids as a result of energy effects.

  3. Explicit macroscopic singlet oxygen modeling for benzoporphyrin derivative monoacid ring A (BPD)-mediated photodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Michele M; Penjweini, Rozhin; Liang, Xing; Zhu, Timothy C

    2016-11-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an effective non-ionizing treatment modality that is currently being used for various malignant and non-malignant diseases. In type II PDT with photosensitizers such as benzoporphyrin monoacid ring A (BPD), cell death is based on the creation of singlet oxygen ( 1 O 2 ). With a previously proposed empirical five-parameter macroscopic model, the threshold dose of singlet oxygen ([ 1 O 2 ] rx,sh ]) to cause tissue necrosis in tumors treated with PDT was determined along with a range of the magnitude of the relevant photochemical parameters: the photochemical oxygen consumption rate per light fluence rate and photosensitizer concentration (ξ), the probability ratio of 1 O 2 to react with ground state photosensitizer compared to a cellular target (σ), the ratio of the monomolecular decay rate of the triplet state photosensitizer (β), the low photosensitizer concentration correction factor (δ), and the macroscopic maximum oxygen supply rate (g). Mice bearing radiation-induced fibrosarcoma (RIF) tumors were treated interstitially with a linear light source at 690nm with total energy released per unit length of 22.5-135J/cm and source power per unit length of 12-150mW/cm to induce different radii of necrosis. A fitting algorithm was developed to determine the photochemical parameters by minimizing the error function involving the range between the calculated reacted singlet oxygen ([ 1 O 2 ] rx ) at necrosis radius and the [ 1 O 2 ] rx,sh . [ 1 O 2 ] rx was calculated based on explicit dosimetry of the light fluence distribution, the tissue optical properties, and the BPD concentration. The initial ground state oxygen concentration ([ 3 O 2 ] 0 ) was set to be 40μM in this study. The photochemical parameters were found to be ξ=(55±40)×10 -3 cm 2 mW -1 s -1 , σ=(1.8±3)×10 -5 μM -1 , and g=1.7±0.7μMs -1 . We have taken the literature values for δ=33μM, and β=11.9μM. [ 1 O 2 ] rx has shown promise to be a more effective

  4. Can common property resource systems work in Zimbabwe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We argue that current institutional systems are rooted in norm-based controls contrary to the formal rule-based systems that form the cornerstones of the proposed CPR systems. We suggest that interventions that propose CPR systems need critical analysis. The Zimbabwe Science News Volume 36 (1+ 2) 2002, pp. 13-17 ...

  5. Mixed 2D molecular systems: Mechanic, thermodynamic and dielectric properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beno, Juraj [Department of Physics, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, Slovak University of Technology, Ilkovicova 3, 812 19-SK Bratislava (Slovakia); Weis, Martin [Department of Physics, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, Slovak University of Technology, Ilkovicova 3, 812 19-SK Bratislava (Slovakia)], E-mail: Martin.Weis@stuba.sk; Dobrocka, Edmund [Department of Physics, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, Slovak University of Technology, Ilkovicova 3, 812 19-SK Bratislava (Slovakia); Institute of Electrical Engineering, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dubravska cesta 9, 841 04-SK Bratislava (Slovakia); Hasko, Daniel [International Laser Centre, Ilkovicova 3, 812 19-SK Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2008-08-15

    Study of Langmuir monolayers consisting of stearic acid (SA) and dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) molecules was done by surface pressure-area isotherms ({pi}-A), the Maxwell displacement current (MDC) measurement, X-ray reflectivity (XRR) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) to investigate the selected mechanic, thermodynamic and dielectric properties based on orientational structure of monolayers. On the base of {pi}-A isotherms analysis we explain the creation of stable structures and found optimal monolayer composition. The dielectric properties represented by MDC generated monolayers were analyzed in terms of excess dipole moment, proposing the effect of dipole-dipole interaction. XRR and AFM results illustrate deposited film structure and molecular ordering.

  6. Equation-Free Analysis of Macroscopic Behavior in Traffic and Pedestrian Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marschler, Christian; Sieber, Jan; Hjorth, Poul G.

    2014-01-01

    Equation-free methods make possible an analysis of the evolution of a few coarse-grained or macroscopic quantities for a detailed and realistic model with a large number of fine-grained or microscopic variables, even though no equations are explicitly given on the macroscopic level. This will fac......Equation-free methods make possible an analysis of the evolution of a few coarse-grained or macroscopic quantities for a detailed and realistic model with a large number of fine-grained or microscopic variables, even though no equations are explicitly given on the macroscopic level....... This will facilitate a study of how the model behavior depends on parameter values including an understanding of transitions between different types of qualitative behavior. These methods are introduced and explained for traffic jam formation and emergence of oscillatory pedestrian counter flow in a corridor...

  7. Calibration of steady-state car-following models using macroscopic loop detector data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    The paper develops procedures for calibrating the steady-state component of various car following models using : macroscopic loop detector data. The calibration procedures are developed for a number of commercially available : microscopic traffic sim...

  8. Polyelectrolyte surfactant aggregates and their deposition on macroscopic surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voisin, David

    2002-07-01

    the CSC have been determined for mixtures of cationically modified guar gums (of varying charge density) with two anionic surfactants: sodium lauryl (or dodecyl) ether sulfate [SLES] and sodium dodecyl sulfate [SDS], for various concentrations of the polyelectrolyte and added sodium chloride, at room temperature. The addition of sodium chloride has only a minor net effect on the CFC, but increases the CSC significantly. The interactions between the cationic polyelectrolyte and the surfactant have been studied in the one-phase regions, i.e. below the CFC and above the CSC, using different techniques. Surface tension, electrophoresis, light scattering and viscosimetry have been employed. In the two-phase region, the sedimented floe phase has been analysed and the flocculation has been investigated. Rheology of the floe phase has been studied, after a mild compression by centrifugation. The initial rate of flocculation has been determined, using stop-flow equipment. The growth and the structure of the flocs have been investigated by light scattering. The open-network flocs of polyelectrolyte-surfactant particles grow to {approx}10's {mu}m in size, prior to their eventual settling out. Other colloidal particles can be trapped within these large flocs, and the flocs can be used to transport these particles to a macroscopic surface. The deposition and the removal of such composite flocs on glass surfaces, under flow, have been studied using a flow cell device coupled with an optical microscope. Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy have also been employed. (author)

  9. Microscopic analysis of patients with chronic diarrhea without macroscopic disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ary Santos Silva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Colonoscopy is part of the current diagnostic armamentarium. However, in some patients with chronic diarrhea, a colonoscopy may show normal mucosa; in these cases, serial biopsies can provide important information for the diagnosis and treatment of patients. Aim: To analyze patients with chronic diarrhea having a macroscopically normal colonoscopy, by evaluating histological changes. Methods: 30 patients with chronic diarrhea and normal colonoscopy were prospectively evaluated and submitted to serial biopsies of the terminal ileum, ascending colon and rectum. Results: The sample of 30 patients showed a ratio of 18 men (60% and 12 women (40%. On histological types, it was found that 13 patients (43.3% had lymphoid hyperplasia, eosinophilic inflammation in 4 (13.3%, nonspecific inflammation in 4 (13.3%, regenerative changes in 3 (10%, lymphocytic colitis in 2 (6.6% and changes consistent with Crohn's disease in 1 (3.3%. Conclusions: One can observe that even chronic diarrhea patients, without other associated factors, benefited from colonoscopy with biopsy, because it held the etiologic diagnosis in some cases as also excluded by histopathology. It was noticed that the frequency of patients with altered biopsy and less dragged diarrheal episodes (84.2% was large, should consider their achievement. Resumo: Introdução: A colonoscopia faz parte do arsenal de diagnóstico atual. Porém, em alguns pacientes com diarreia crônica, a colonoscopia pode evidenciar mucosa normal; nesses casos biópsias seriadas podem trazer informações importantes para o diagnóstico e tratamento dos pacientes. Objetivo: Analisar pacientes com diarreia crônica submetidos à colonoscopia macroscopicamente normal, avaliando assim histologicamente as alterações. Métodos: Análise prospectiva da histologia 30 pacientes com diarreia crônica e colonoscopias normais, submetidos a biópsias seriadas de íleo terminal, cólon ascendente e reto. Resultados: A

  10. Modification of strength properties of soil-aggregate system on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    varying doses of cement is checked by conducting wetting and drying test. 2. Material and Methods. Stabilization in a broad sense includes various methods incorporated for modifying the properties of a soil to enhance its performance. It is being used for a variety of engineering works, the most common application being in ...

  11. Changes in photosynthetic properties and antioxidative system of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seedlings of the Cuiguan cultivar of the Asian pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) were used to study the effects of boron toxicity on leaf photosynthetic properties and lipid peroxidation. The plants were grown hydroponically and treated with four concentrations of boron: 10 (CK), 100, 300 and 500 μmol·L-1. After 16 weeks of treatment, ...

  12. 10 CFR 600.323 - Property management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... number, model number, Federal stock number, national stock number, or any other identification number. (3... determined by the physical inspection and those shown in the accounting records must be investigated to... to insure adequate safeguards to prevent loss, damage, or theft of the property. Any loss, damage, or...

  13. A measurement system for two-dimensional DC-biased properties of magnetic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enokizono, M.; Matsuo, H.

    2003-01-01

    So far, the DC-biased magnetic properties have been measured in one dimension (scalar). However, these scalar magnetic properties are not enough to clarify the DC-biased magnetic properties because the scalar magnetic properties cannot exactly take into account the phase difference between the magnetic flux density B vector and the magnetic filed strength H vector. Thus, the magnetic field strength H and magnetic flux density B in magnetic materials must be measured as vector quantities (two-dimensional), directly. We showed the measurement system using a single-sheet tester (SST) to clarify the two-dimensional DC-biased magnetic properties. This system excited AC in Y-direction and DC in X-direction. This paper shows the measurement system using an SST and presents the measurement results of two-dimensional DC-biased magnetic properties when changing the DC exciting voltage and the iron loss

  14. Physical Properties of Hanford Transuranic Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, John C.

    2010-03-25

    The research described herein was undertaken to provide needed physical property descriptions of the Hanford transuranic tank sludges under conditions that might exist during retrieval, treatment, packaging and transportation for disposal. The work addressed the development of a fundamental understanding of the types of systems represented by these sludge suspensions through correlation of the macroscopic rheological properties with particle interactions occurring at the colloidal scale in the various liquid media. The results of the work have advanced existing understanding of the sedimentation and aggregation properties of complex colloidal suspensions. Bench scale models were investigated with respect to their structural, colloidal and rheological properties that should be useful for the development and optimization of techniques to process the wastes at various DOE sites.

  15. Chemodynamics of Soft Nanoparticulate Metal Complexes: From the Local Particle/Medium Interface to a Macroscopic Sensor Surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Town, Raewyn M; Pinheiro, José Paulo; van Leeuwen, Herman P

    2017-01-17

    The lability of a complex species between a metal ion M and a binding site S, MS, is conventionally defined with respect to an ongoing process at a reactive interface, for example, the conversion or accumulation of the free metal ion M by a sensor. In the case of soft charged multisite nanoparticulate complexes, the chemodynamic features that are operative within the micro environment of the particle body generally differ substantially from those for dissolved similar single-site complexes in the same medium. Here we develop a conceptual framework for the chemodynamics and the ensuing lability of soft (3D) nanoparticulate metal complexes. The approach considers the dynamic features of MS at the intraparticulate level and their impact on the overall reactivity of free metal ions at the surface of a macroscopic sensing interface. Chemodynamics at the intraparticulate level is shown to involve a local reaction layer at the particle/medium interface, while at the macroscopic sensor level an operational reaction layer is invoked. Under a certain window of conditions, volume exclusion of the nanoparticle body near the medium/sensor interface is substantial and affects the properties of the reaction layer and the overall lability of the nanoparticulate MS complex toward the reactive surface.

  16. Three-dimensional Sponges with Super Mechanical Stability: Harnessing True Elasticity of Individual Carbon Nanotubes in Macroscopic Architectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Zhaohe; Liu, Luqi; Qi, Xiaoying; Kuang, Jun; Wei, Yueguang; Zhu, Hongwei; Zhang, Zhong

    2016-01-06

    Efficient assembly of carbon nanotube (CNT) based cellular solids with appropriate structure is the key to fully realize the potential of individual nanotubes in macroscopic architecture. In this work, the macroscopic CNT sponge consisting of randomly interconnected individual carbon nanotubes was grown by CVD, exhibiting a combination of super-elasticity, high strength to weight ratio, fatigue resistance, thermo-mechanical stability and electro-mechanical stability. To deeply understand such extraordinary mechanical performance compared to that of conventional cellular materials and other nanostructured cellular architectures, a thorough study on the response of this CNT-based spongy structure to compression is conducted based on classic elastic theory. The strong inter-tube bonding between neighboring nanotubes is examined, believed to play a critical role in the reversible deformation such as bending and buckling without structural collapse under compression. Based on in-situ scanning electron microscopy observation and nanotube deformation analysis, structural evolution (completely elastic bending-buckling transition) of the carbon nanotubes sponges to deformation is proposed to clarify their mechanical properties and nonlinear electromechanical coupling behavior.

  17. Determination of crystallographic and macroscopic orientation of planar structures in TEM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, X.; Liu, Q.

    1998-01-01

    With the aid of a double-tilt holder in a transmission electron microscope (TEM), simple methods are described for determination of the crystallographic orientation of a planar structure and for calculation of the macroscopic orientation of the planar structure. The correlation between a planar...... taken at tilted positions, can be transformed to the real macroscopic orientation of the planar structures with estimated error of about +/- 2 degrees. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  18. Value of conventional cytology in the presence of macroscopic lesions of the anal canal

    OpenAIRE

    Barcellos, Lêda Pereira de; Russomano, Fábio; Coutinho, José Ricardo Hildebrandt

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To verify the value of conventional cytology for the diagnosis of macroscopic lesions of the anal canal and to describe the limitations of the samples.METHOD: We evaluated 395 conventional cytology samples obtained by brushing the anal canal of patients (predominantly male, HIV-positive) and compared them to the presence of macroscopic lesions of the anal canal observed under anorectal examination.RESULTS: Of the total, 91.6% of samples were classified as adequate. Cellular elemen...

  19. Buckling of regular, chiral and hierarchical honeycombs under a general macroscopic stress state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghpanah, Babak; Papadopoulos, Jim; Mousanezhad, Davood; Nayeb-Hashemi, Hamid; Vaziri, Ashkan

    2014-01-01

    An approach to obtain analytical closed-form expressions for the macroscopic ‘buckling strength’ of various two-dimensional cellular structures is presented. The method is based on classical beam-column end-moment behaviour expressed in a matrix form. It is applied to sample honeycombs with square, triangular and hexagonal unit cells to determine their buckling strength under a general macroscopic in-plane stress state. The results were verified using finite-element Eigenvalue analysis. PMID:25002823

  20. Combined Macroscopic and Microscopic Thermo-Elasto-Plastic Stresses of Functionally Graded Palte Considering Fabrication Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabana, Yasser Mohamed; Noda, Naotake; Tohgo, Keiichiro

    Functionally Graded Material (FGM) is a heterogeneous composite material that consists of a gradient compositional variation of the constituent materials from one surface of the material to the other. These continuous changes result in gradient material properties. Since ceramic has good heat resistance and metal has high strength, FGM made by ceramic and metal can work at super high temperatures or under a high-temperature-difference field. It is a primary to reduce thermal stress by selection of different effective material properties for the intermediate composition of the EGM and to prevent destruction by thermal stress. FGM is manufactured at a high temperature and then residual thermal stresses are produced during cooling to room temperature. In this paper, the elastic-plastic thermal stresses induced in a ceramic-metal FGM plate (FGP) taking the fabrication process into consideration are discussed. The region near the heat resistant surface is produced by metal particle reinforced ceramic while the region near the cooling surface is vice versa. As the metal and the ceramic near the middle region of the FGM are perfectly mixed, it is impossible to consider the particle-reinforced material. In this study, the FGP is divided into three regions. First, the region near the cooling surface is metal rich and then the metal is considered as a matrix while the ceramic is considered as particles. Second, the region near the heat resistant surface is ceramic rich so that the ceramic is considered as a matrix while the metal is considered as particles. Third, in the middle part between the previous two regions the metal and ceramic are perfectly mixed. In the third region macroscopic analysis is considered because the difference between the volume fractions of the ceramic and the metal is small and it is difficult to consider one of them as a matrix or particles. The effects of the distribution parameter of the composition and the fabrication temperature on the thermal

  1. Core-shell structure in (La/Ce)CrO3 nanoparticles: evidences from macroscopic, microscopic and mesoscopic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manna, P.K.; Yusuf, S.M.; Mukadam, M.D.; Kohlbrecher, J.

    2013-01-01

    The fundamental properties of a magnetic material vary considerably at the nanoscale as compared to its bulk counterpart. This is often ascribed to the presence of disordered spins at the surface of the nanoparticles. The magnetic behavior of these surface-spins is different from the core-spins, and hence we can consider such nanoparticles as a core-shell type. However, it is difficult to get an evidence of this shell in a 'bare' nanoparticle system, because the magnetization-contributions of core and shell become indistinguishable in most cases. We have used a combination of microscopic neutron diffraction, mesoscopic polarized neutron small angle scattering (SANSPOL), and macroscopic dc-magnetization techniques to investigate core-shell structure in 'bare' La 0.2 Ce 0.8 CrO 3 nanoparticles, synthesized by using a two-step method. It is noteworthy to mention here that, in our study, the La 0.2 Ce 0.8 CrO 3 nanoparticles showed a novel coexistence of magnetization and exchange-bias-field sign-reversal, which might have an application in designing volatile and thermally assisted magnetic memory elements. The first evidence of a possible core-shell structure was obtained from the presence of surface roughness/defects in the high resolution transmission electron microscopy images. Microscopic neutron diffraction study depicted that these nanoparticles are antiferromagnetic in nature. However, the SANSPOL data at 2.5 K under a 3.5-T magnetic field show the presence of a pronounced asymmetric scattering in the iso-intensity plot signifying the presence of a strong interference between nuclear and magnetic scattering amplitudes. It has been argued that the presence of such asymmetric scattering in the SANSPOL data of these antiferromagnetic nanoparticles arises from the shell. The mean core diameter and shell thickness are found to be 12.3 ± 1.1, and 2.8 ± 0.4 nm, respectively. The net magnetization (observed from the dc magnetization study), arising from the shell of

  2. Macroscopic law of conservation revealed in the population dynamics of Toll-like receptor signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvarajoo Kumar

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Stimulating the receptors of a single cell generates stochastic intracellular signaling. The fluctuating response has been attributed to the low abundance of signaling molecules and the spatio-temporal effects of diffusion and crowding. At population level, however, cells are able to execute well-defined deterministic biological processes such as growth, division, differentiation and immune response. These data reflect biology as a system possessing microscopic and macroscopic dynamics. This commentary discusses the average population response of the Toll-like receptor (TLR 3 and 4 signaling. Without requiring detailed experimental data, linear response equations together with the fundamental law of information conservation have been used to decipher novel network features such as unknown intermediates, processes and cross-talk mechanisms. For single cell response, however, such simplicity seems far from reality. Thus, as observed in any other complex systems, biology can be considered to possess order and disorder, inheriting a mixture of predictable population level and unpredictable single cell outcomes.

  3. Study on time of flight property of electron optical systems by differential algebraic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Min; Tang Tiantong; Yao Zhenhua

    2002-01-01

    Differential algebraic method is a powerful and promising technique in computer numerical analysis. When applied to nonlinear dynamics systems, the arbitrary high-order transfer properties of the systems can be computed directly with high precision. In this paper, the principle of differential algebra is applied to study on the time of flight (TOF) property of electron optical systems and their arbitrary order TOF transfer properties can be numerically calculated out. As an example, TOF transfer properties of a uniform magnetic sector field analyzer have been studied by differential algebraic method. Relative errors of the first-order and second-order TOF transfer coefficients of the magnetic sector field analyzer are of the order 10 -11 or smaller compared with the analytic solutions. It is proved that differential algebraic TOF method is of high accuracy and very helpful for high-order TOF transfer property analysis of electron optical systems. (author)

  4. Mechanical properties of amorphous and polycrystalline multilayer systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barzen, I.; Edinger, M.; Scherer, J.; Ulrich, S.; Jung, K.; Ehrhardt, H.

    1993-01-01

    Amorphous and polycrystalline multilayer structures containing materials with metallic (Cr, Cr 3 C 2 ), ionic (Al 2 O 3 ) and covalent (SiC) bonding have been prepared by magnetron sputtering and ion plating in a dual-source apparatus. Up to 1000 layers have been deposited with a constant total thickness of 2.3 μm. Below a single-layer thickness of 10-30 nm the mechanical properties stress and hardness show strong variations. On one hand it is possible that below a certain thickness the mechanical properties of a single layer change. On the other hand electrical resistance and electron spin density measurements indicate that electronic effects may be involved. An attempt is made to explain the observed correlations by transport mechanisms of the electrons, by saturation of dangling bonds with delocalized electrons and by changes in the electronic band structure. (orig.)

  5. Frequency Properties Research of Elevator Drive System with Direct Torque Control-Pulse with Modulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Koval

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article problems of frequency properties research for electric drive system with direct torque control and pulse width modulator are described. The mathematical description of elevator is present. Simplified mathematical description of direct torque control - pulse width modulator electric drive system is shown. Transfer functions for torque and speed loops are determined. Logarithmic frequency characteristics are computed. Damping properties of elevator drive system are estimated.

  6. Applications of modeling in polymer-property prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, F. H.

    1996-08-01

    A number of molecular modeling techniques have been applied for the prediction of polymer properties and behavior. Five examples illustrate the range of methodologies used. A simple atomistic simulation of small polymer fragments is used to estimate drug compatibility with a polymer matrix. The analysis of molecular dynamics results from a more complex model of a swollen hydrogel system is used to study gas diffusion in contact lenses. Statistical mechanics are used to predict conformation dependent properties — an example is the prediction of liquid-crystal formation. The effect of the molecular weight distribution on phase separation in polyalkanes is predicted using thermodynamic models. In some cases, the properties of interest cannot be directly predicted using simulation methods or polymer theory. Correlation methods may be used to bridge the gap between molecular structure and macroscopic properties. The final example shows how connectivity-indices-based quantitative structure-property relationships were used to predict properties for candidate polyimids in an electronics application.

  7. Sine-Gordon modulation solutions: application to macroscopic friction, regular and slow earthquakes and fault dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershenzon, Naum; Bambakidis, Gust

    2014-05-01

    The Frenkel-Kontorova (FK) model and its continuum approximation, the sine-Gordon (SG) equation, are widely used for modeling various phenomena. In many practical applications the wave-train solution, which includes many solitons, is required. In such cases the system of Whitham's modulation equations, superimposed on the SG equation, provides such a solution. Here we consider several applications which use the SG modulation solutions [1-3]. Fault dynamics in the earth's crust, i.e. the nucleation and development of regular and slow earthquakes, is a complicated multidisciplinary problem which has been investigated using diverse approaches. Our approach, inspired by dislocation dynamics in crystals, is based on the FK model introduced to describe plasticity. In the model we propose, sliding occurs due to the movement of defects of a certain type (i.e. areas on the frictional surface with locally stressed material, known as a macroscopic dislocation or slip pulse) nucleated by shear stress in the presence of asperities. The spatial translation of a dislocation requires only a small fraction of the stress necessary for the uniform relative displacement of frictional surfaces. This is a fundamental distinction between our approach to macroscopic dry friction and those of others such as the Burridge-Knopoff and rate-and-state types of models. We show how this model can be applied to the qualitative and quantitative description of fault dynamics in general, and slow and regular earthquakes in particular. The three fundamental speeds of plate movement, earthquake migration, and seismic waves are shown to be connected in the FK model. The velocity of nonelastic stress propagation along faults is a function of accumulated stress. It changes from a few km/s during earthquakes to a few dozen km per day, month, or year during afterslip and inter-earthquake periods. The distribution of aftershocks in this model is consistent with both the Omori law for temporal distribution

  8. Software simulator for property investigation of document management system with RFID tags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiedrowicz Maciej

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study outlines the method for examining the properties of the RFID-tagged document management system. The system is composed of computers, where the software for supporting processes of the RFID-tagged doc-uments was installed. Furthermore, the system cooperates with many other elements of the secret office (cabinets, sluices, photocopiers, desks. The examination of the properties of the RFID-tagged document management system is, in this case, complex due to the number of a possible examination scenarios. The simulation method for examining the system properties was proposed. It allows to conduct the examination of the properties in a short period of time for numerous testing scenarios.

  9. Some dynamical properties of anisotropic collisionless stellar systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertin, G.; Pegoraro, F.

    1989-01-01

    The linear stability analysis of collisionless anisotropic spherical stellar systems presents many unresolved issues. Planning to study the stability of a simple and astrophysically interesting equilibrium seuence ∞ for such stellar systems, we describe here some analytical characterizations of the ∞-distribution functions, formulate the linearized equations for stability, and discuss the relevant boundary conditions. (author). 19 refs.; 1 tab

  10. Thermodynamic properties of some metal oxide-zirconia systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Nathan S.

    1989-01-01

    Metal oxide-zirconia systems are a potential class of materials for use as structural materials at temperatures above 1900 K. These materials must have no destructive phase changes and low vapor pressures. Both alkaline earth oxide (MgO, CaO, SrO, and BaO)-zirconia and some rare earth oxide (Y2O3, Sc2O3, La2O3, CeO2, Sm2O3, Gd2O3, Yb2O3, Dy2O3, Ho2O3, and Er2O3)-zirconia system are examined. For each system, the phase diagram is discussed and the vapor pressure for each vapor species is calculated via a free energy minimization procedure. The available thermodynamic literature on each system is also surveyed. Some of the systems look promising for high temperature structural materials.

  11. On frame properties for Fourier-like systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole; Osgooei, Elnaz

    2013-01-01

    structure. An attractive class of frames is formed by letting the window functions be trigonometric polynomials, restricted to compact intervals. We prove, under weak conditions, that such systems generate a frame with a dual that is also generated by a trigonometric polynomial. For polynomial windows......, a result of this type does not hold. Throughout the paper the results are related to the well established theory for Gabor systems.......Fourier-like systems are formed by multiplying a class of exponentials with a set of window functions. Via the Fourier transform they are equivalent to shift-invariant systems. We present sufficient and easily verifiable conditions for such systems to form a frame with a dual frame having the same...

  12. Plasma properties of RF magnetron sputtering system using Zn target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nafarizal, N.; Andreas Albert, A. R.; Sharifah Amirah, A. S.; Salwa, O.; Riyaz Ahmad, M. A. [Microelectronic and Nanotechnology - Shamsuddin Research Centre (MiNT-SRC), Faculty of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia 86400 Parit Raja, Batu Pahat, Johor (Malaysia)

    2012-06-29

    In the present work, we investigate the fundamental properties of magnetron sputtering plasma using Zn target and its deposited Zn thin film. The magnetron sputtering plasma was produced using radio frequency (RF) power supply and Argon (Ar) as ambient gas. A Langmuir probe was used to collect the current from the plasma and from the current intensity, we calculate the electron density and electron temperature. The properties of Zn sputtering plasma at various discharge conditions were studied. At the RF power ranging from 20 to 100 W and gas pressure 5 mTorr, we found that the electron temperature was almost unchanged between 2-2.5 eV. On the other hand, the electron temperature increased drastically from 6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} to 1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10}cm{sup -3} when the discharge gas pressure increased from 5 to 10 mTorr. The electron microscope images show that the grain size of Zn thin film increase when the discharge power is increased. This may be due to the enhancement of plasma density and sputtered Zn density.

  13. Structural properties of the material control and accounting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-12-01

    A unified digraph approach is proposed for the assessment of the structure of the MC and A System. The approach emphasizes the two structural aspects of the system: vulnerability and reliability. Vulnerability is defined as a possibility of loosing connectedness in a given structure due to line and/or node removals. It is purely deterministic notion which leads to a qualitative analysis of redundancy of connections in the corresponding system. Reliability of the MC and A System structure provides a more quantitative way of assessing how safe the system is to random failures of the links representing lines of communication, material paths, monitors, and the components of the power supply network. By assigning probabilities to the lines and nodes of the corresponding digraph, the least reliable path can be used as a measure of the goodness of the system, which can be computed by efficient shortest path algorithms. Both vulnerability and reliability considerations are important in determining the effect of tampering of an adversary with the elements of the MC and M System

  14. Theory of macroscopic quantum tunneling in high-T c cuprate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawabata, Shiro; Tanaka, Yukio; Kashiwaya, Satoshi; Asano, Yasuhiro

    2006-01-01

    To reveal macroscopic quantum tunneling (MQT) in high-T c superconductor Josephson junctions is an important issue since there is a possibility to fabricate a superconducting quantum bit by use of high T c junctions. Using the functional integral and the instanton theory, we analytically obtain the MQT rate (the inverse lifetime of the metastable state) for the c-axis twist Josephson junctions. In the case of the zero twist angle, the system shows the super-Ohmic dissipation due to the presence of the nodal quasiparticle tunneling. Therefore, the MQT rate is suppressed compared with the finite twist angle cases. Furthermore, the effect of the zero energy bound states (ZES) on the MQT in the in-plane junctions is theoretically investigated. We obtained the analytical formula of the MQT rate and showed that the presence of the ZES at the normal/superconductor interface leads to a strong Ohmic quasiparticle dissipation. Therefore, the MQT rate is noticeably inhibited compared with the c-axis junctions in which the ZES are completely absent

  15. Exploring the safety in numbers effect for vulnerable road users on a macroscopic scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasic, Ivana; Elvik, Rune; Brewer, Simon

    2017-12-01

    A "Safety in Numbers" effect for a certain group of road users is present if the number of crashes increases at a lower rate than the number of road users. The existence of this effect has been invoked to justify investments in multimodal transportation improvements in order to create more sustainable urban transportation systems by encouraging walking, biking, and transit ridership. The goal of this paper is to explore safety in numbers effect for cyclists and pedestrians in areas with different levels of access to multimodal infrastructure. Data from Chicago served to estimate the expected number of crashes on the census tract level by applying Generalized Additive Models (GAM) to capture spatial dependence in crash data. Measures of trip generation, multimodal infrastructure, network connectivity and completeness, and accessibility were used to model travel exposure in terms of activity, number of trips, trip length, travel opportunities, and conflicts. The results show that a safety in numbers effect exists on a macroscopic level for motor vehicles, pedestrians, and bicyclists. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Macroscopic Traffic State Estimation: Understanding Traffic Sensing Data-Based Estimation Errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul B. C. van Erp

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic state estimation is a crucial element in traffic management systems and in providing traffic information to road users. In this article, we evaluate traffic sensing data-based estimation error characteristics in macroscopic traffic state estimation. We consider two types of sensing data, that is, loop-detector data and probe speed data. These data are used to estimate the mean speed in a discrete space-time mesh. We assume that there are no errors in the sensing data. This allows us to study the errors resulting from the differences in characteristics between the sensing data and desired estimate together with the incomplete description of the relation between the two. The aim of the study is to evaluate the dependency of this estimation error on the traffic conditions and sensing data characteristics. For this purpose, we use microscopic traffic simulation, where we compare the estimates with the ground truth using Edie’s definitions. The study exposes a relation between the error distribution characteristics and traffic conditions. Furthermore, we find that it is important to account for the correlation between individual probe data-based estimation errors. Knowledge related to these estimation errors contributes to making better use of the available sensing data in traffic state estimation.

  17. Reverse engineering of a railcar prototype via energetic macroscopic representation approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agbli, Kréhi Serge; Hissel, Daniel; Sorrentino, Marco; Chauvet, Frédéric; Pouget, Julien

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A complex EMR model of a new railcar range has been developed. • A satisfactory assessment of the fuel consumption of the railcar. • The significant potential benefits are attainable by hybridizing the original railcar. • The regenerative braking can provide up to 240 kW h saving. - Abstract: Energetic Macroscopic Representation (EMR) modelling approach is proposed to perform model-based reverse-engineering of a new railcar range, having six propulsion units, each consisting of a diesel engine and a traction motor. Particularly, EMR intrinsic features were exploited to perform phenomenological structuration of power flows, thus allowing proper and comprehensive modelling of complex systems, such as the under-study railcar. Based on some prospective real trips, selected in such a way as to enable realistic evaluation of effective railcar effort, EMR-based prediction of railcar energy consumption is performed. Furthermore, physical consistency of each powertrain component operation was carefully verified. The suitability of EMR approach was thus proven effective to perform reverse-engineering of known specifications and available experimental data, with the final aim of reconstructing a high fidelity computational tool that meets computational burden requirements for subsequent model-based tasks deployment. Finally, specific simulation analyses were performed to evaluate the potential benefits attainable through electric hybridization of the original powertrain.

  18. Beating the macroscopic quantum tunneling limit by man-made magnetic dead layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ji; Chen, Kezheng

    2018-05-01

    Magnetic dead layers (MDLs) are always undesirable in practical applications due to their highly frustrated spin configurations and severe degradation of host magnetism. Here we provide new insights in MDLs and unravel their attractive prospect for ferrimagnetic hybrid of Fe3O4 and γ-Fe2O3 (denoted as Fe3O4@γ-Fe2O3 in the main text) to exhibit macroscopic quantum tunneling (MQT) phenomena in measureable kelvin range. The 3 nm-sized negatively-charged Fe3O4@γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles were immersed in various metal chloride solutions containing Mn2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Fe3+, and Fe2+ cations to form cationic MDLs via electrostatic attraction. These man-made MDLs, if being of positive enough zeta potentials, greatly disordered the magnetic dipole interactions among Fe3O4@γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles and induce extra energy barrier to yield pronounced MQT effect in Fe3O4@γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles even though they were dispersed neither in water nor in oil. Their crossover temperatures dividing MQT and purely thermal relaxation were found to be one order of magnitude higher than reported values in other MQT systems, and more strikingly, they could be tailored by altering the soak period in our facile and scalable route.

  19. Describing the macroscopic world: Closing the circle within the dynamical reduction program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghirardi, G.C.; Grassi, R.; Benatti, F.

    1994-06-01

    With reference to recently proposed theoretical models accounting for reduction in terms of a unified dynamics governing all physical processes we analyze the problem of working out a world view accommodating our knowledge about natural phenomena. We stress the relevant conceptual differences between the considered models and standard quantum mechanics. In spite of the fact that both theories describe systems within a genuine Hilbert space framework, the peculiar features of the spontaneous reduction models limit drastically the states which are dynamically stable. This fact by itself allows one to work out an interpretation of the formalism which makes possible to give a satisfactory description of the world in terms of the values taken by an appropriately defined mass density function in ordinary configuration space. A topology based on this function and which is radically different from the one characterizing the Hilbert space is introduced and in terms of it the ideal of similarity of macroscopic situations is precisely defined. Finally, the formalism and the interpretation are shown to yield a natural criterion for establishing the psycho-physical parallelism. The conclusion is that, within the considered theories and at the nonrelativistic level, one can satisfy all sensible requirements for a completely satisfactory macro-objective description of reality. (author). 21 refs, 1 fig

  20. Intellectual property education exemplified by the patents on the CRISPR/Cas9 system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiangyu; Liao, Guojian; Xie, Jianping

    2014-12-01

    With the accelerated globalization of the world economies, the role of intellectual property in the the competition is increasingly important. The universities are important base to instill the intellectual property awareness to the young generation. However, current model of intellectual property education cannot meet the needs of undergraduates. In this paper, we take the first patent issued for CRISPR/Cas9 system as a teaching example, and together with personal teaching experience in biomedicine related intellectual property, we propose a new way for intellectual property education which consists of two stages: enlightenment stage and in-depth training stage. In the former stage, we integrate the intellectual property education with the basic major courses. In the latter stage, students are encouraged to devote into intellectual property related career. This model can somehow solve the the current shortage of qualified teachers for biotechnology related intellectual property education and will facilitate the popularization of intellectual property in college students. Since genetics plays a pivotal role in biomedicine, this effort is illustrated by the novel genome editing technology based on the CRISPR/Cas9 system, which is one hotspot of recent studies. The trajectory of CRISPR/Cas9 from basic microbial genetics discovery to major tools for genome editing exeplified the essence of biomedicine related intellectual property education.

  1. 60 changes in soil properties under alley cropping system of three ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OLUWOLE AKINNAGBE

    2009-01-01

    Jan 1, 2009 ... A study to evaluate the changes in soil properties, under existing alley cropping system with three leguminous crops (Leucaena ... This exploits the biological .... chemical properties were observed in the last two years of study (2004-2005) over the pre-planting soil result. The pH values in the C. cajan alley.

  2. Retrogradation of concentrated starch systems : mechanism and consequences for product properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keetels, C.J.A.M.

    1995-01-01

    The mechanical properties of concentrated starch + water systems were studied during heating, cooling and storage. Methods used were a small-amplitude dynamic rheological test and compression between parallel plates. The mechanical properties were related to the structure of the gels.

  3. Quasiparticle properties of a coupled quantum-wire electron-phonon system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hwang, E. H.; Hu, Ben Yu-Kuang; Sarma, S. Das

    1996-01-01

    We study leading-order many-body effects of longitudinal-optical phonons on electronic properties of one-dimensional quantum-wire systems. We calculate the quasiparticle properties of a weakly polar one-dimensional electron gas in the presence of both electron-phonon and electron-electron interac...

  4. A new macroscopically anisotropic pressure dependent yield function for metal matrix composite based on strain gradient plasticity for the microstructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azizi, Reza; Legarth, Brian Nyvang; Niordson, Christian Frithiof

    2013-01-01

    in addition to the elastic strain. Hill's classical anisotropic yield criterion is extended to cover the composite such that hydrostatic pressure dependency, Bauschinger stress and size-effects are considered. It is found that depending on the fiber volume fraction, the anisotropic yield surface......Metal matrix composites with long aligned elastic fibers are studied using an energetic rate independent strain gradient plasticity theory with an isotropic pressure independent yield function at the microscale. The material response is homogenized to obtain a conventional macroscopic model...... that exhibits anisotropic yield properties with a pressure dependence. At the microscale free energy includes both elastic strains and plastic strain gradients, and the theory demands higher order boundary conditions in terms of plastic strain or work conjugate higher order tractions. The mechanical response...

  5. Macroscopic and Microstructural Aspects of the Transformation Behavior in a Polycrystalline NiTi Shape Memory Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benafan, Othmane; Noebe, Ronald D.; Padula, Santo A., II; Lerch, Bradley A.; Bigelow, Glen S.; Gaydosh, Darrell J.; Garg, Anita; An, Ke; Vaidyanathan, Raj

    2013-01-01

    The mechanical and microstructural behavior of a polycrystalline Ni(49.9)Ti(50.1) (at.%) shape memory alloy was investigated as a function of temperature around the transformation regime. The bulk macroscopic responses, measured using ex situ tensile deformation and impulse excitation tests, were compared to the microstructural evolution captured using in situ neutron diffraction. The onset stress for inelastic deformation and dynamic Young's modulus were found to decrease with temperature, in the martensite regime, reaching a significant minimum at approximately 80 C followed by an increase in both properties, attributed to the martensite to austenite transformation. The initial decrease in material compliance during heating affected the ease with which martensite reorientation and detwinning could occur, ultimately impacting the stress for inelastic deformation prior to the start of the reverse transformation.

  6. Reducing system of parameters and the Cohen–Macaulay property

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    dimR M −r the localizationMP ofM atP is anr-dimensional Cohen–Macaulay module over RP . Furthermore ... (iii) There exists a system of parameters of M which is a regular sequence on M. (2) Assume that M is a .... (iii) There is a y ∈ m such that (y) is part of a reducing system of parameters of M and. yM = xM. (iv) There is ...

  7. A comparative analysis of currently used microscopic and macroscopic traffic simulation software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratrout Nedal T; Rahman Syed Masiur

    2009-01-01

    The significant advancements of information technology have contributed to increased development of traffic simulation models. These include microscopic models and broadening the areas of applications ranging from the modeling of specific components of the transportation system to a whole network having different kinds of intersections and links, even in a few cases combining travel demand models. This paper mainly reviews the features of traditionally used macroscopic and microscopic traffic simulation models along with a comparative analysis focusing on freeway operations, urban congested networks, project-level emission modeling, and variations in delay and capacity estimates. The models AIMSUN, CORSIM, and VISSIM are found to be suitable for congested arterials and freeways, and integrated networks of freeways and surface streets. The features of AIMSUN are favorable for creating large urban and regional networks. The models AIMSUN, PARAMICS, INTEGRATION, and CORSIM are potentially useful for Intelligent Transportation System (ITS). There are a few simulation models which are developed focusing on ITS such as MITSIMLab. The TRAF-family and HUTSIM models attempt a system-level simulation approach and develop open environments where several analysis models can be used interactively to solve traffic simulation problems. In Saudi Arabia, use of simulation software with the capability of analyzing an integrated system of freeways and surface streets has not been reported. Calibration and validation of simulation software either for freeways or surface streets has been reported. This paper suggests that researchers evaluate the state-of-the-art simulation tools and find out the suitable tools or approaches for the local conditions of Saudi Arabia. (author)

  8. Relation of nanoscale and macroscopic properties of mixed-phase silicon thin films

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fejfar, Antonín; Vetushka, Aliaksi; Kalusová, V.; Čertík, Ondřej; Ledinský, Martin; Rezek, Bohuslav; Stuchlík, Jiří; Kočka, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 207, č. 3 (2010), s. 582-586 ISSN 1862-6300 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06040; GA AV ČR KAN400100701; GA MŠk LC510; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA100100902 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : conductive atomic force microscopy (C-AFM) * mixed phase silicon thin films Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.458, year: 2010 http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pssa.200982907

  9. Ion Adsorption at the Rutile-Water Interface: Linking Molecular and Macroscopic Properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zhang, Z.; Fenter, P.; Cheng, L.; Sturchio, N. C.; Bedzyk, M. J.; Předota, Milan; Bandura, A.; Kubicki, J. D.; Lvov, S. N.; Cummings, P. T.; Chialvo, A. A.; Ridley, M. K.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 12 (2004), s. 4954-4969 ISSN 0743-7463 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP203/03/P083 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4072921 Keywords : ion adsorption rutile Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.295, year: 2004

  10. Nuclear macroscopic properties and pionic exchange currents in (e,e/sup '/) processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lallena, A.M.; Dehesa, J.S.; Krewald, S.

    1986-07-01

    Using the effective pion propagator approximation, the two-body pion exchange current contributions to the form factor of the inelastic electron scattering from closed-shell nuclei are explicitly calculated in terms of nuclear densities (nucleon density, kinetic energy density, . . .). The electroexcitation of some high-spin magnetic stretched states in /sup 16/O and /sup 208/Pb is studied to illustrate our approach, and the goodness of the agreement with the exact results is discussed.

  11. Thermal properties of composite materials: a complex systems approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, J. L.; Bonilla, Beatriz; Reyes, J. J.; Dossetti, Victor

    We propose an effective media approximation to describe the thermal diffusivity of composite samples made of polyester resin and magnetite inclusions. By means of photoacoustic spectroscopy, the thermal diffusivity of the samples were experimentally measured. The volume fraction of the inclusions was systematically varied in order to study the changes in the effective thermal diffusivity of the composites. For some samples, a static magnetic field was applied during the polymerization process, resulting in anisotropic inclusion distributions. Our results show a significant difference in the thermal properties of the anisotropic samples, compared to the isotropic randomly distributed. We correlate some measures of the complexity of the inclusion structure with the observed thermal response through a multifractal analysis. In this way, we are able to describe, and at some extent predict, the behavior of the thermal diffusivity in terms of the lacunarity and other measures of the complexity of these samples Partial Financial Support by CONACyT México and VIEP-BUAP.

  12. From microscopic rules to macroscopic dynamics with active colloidal snakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Yan, Jing; Granick, Steve

    Seeking to learn about self-assembly far from equilibrium, these imaging experiments inspect self-propelled colloidal particles whose heads and tails attract other particles reversibly as they swim. We observe processes akin to polymerization (short times) and chain scission and recombination (long times). The steady-state of dilute systems consists of discrete rings rotating in place with largely quenched dynamics, but when concentration is high, the system dynamics share features with turbulence. The dynamical rules of this model system appear to be scale-independent and hence potentially relevant more generally.

  13. Cluster expansion for d-dimensional lattice systems and finite-volume factorization properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivieri, Enzo; Picco, Pierre

    1990-04-01

    We consider classical lattice systems with finite-range interactions in d dimensions. By means of a block-decimation procedure, we transform our original system into a polymer system whose activity is small provided a suitable factorization property of finite-volume partition functions holds. In this way we extend a result of Olivieri.

  14. Non-destructive system to evaluate critical properties of asphalt compaction : [research brief].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    The Wisconsin Highway Research Program sponsored a two-stage investigation to develop a non-destructive system to evaluate critical compaction properties and characteristics of asphalt pavements during the densification process. Stage One activities ...

  15. Adaptive mechanical properties of topologically interlocking material systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khandelwal, S; Siegmund, T; Cipra, R J; Bolton, J S

    2015-01-01

    Topologically interlocked material systems are two-dimensional granular crystals created as ordered and adhesion-less assemblies of unit elements of the shape of platonic solids. The assembly resists transverse forces due to the interlocking geometric arrangement of the unit elements. Topologically interlocked material systems yet require an external constraint to provide resistance under the action of external load. Past work considered fixed and passive constraints only. The objective of the present study is to consider active and adaptive external constraints with the goal to achieve variable stiffness and energy absorption characteristics of the topologically interlocked material system through an active control of the in-plane constraint conditions. Experiments and corresponding model analysis are used to demonstrate control of system stiffness over a wide range, including negative stiffness, and energy absorption characteristics. The adaptive characteristics of the topologically interlocked material system are shown to solve conflicting requirements of simultaneously providing energy absorption while keeping loads controlled. Potential applications can be envisioned in smart structure enhanced response characteristics as desired in shock absorption, protective packaging and catching mechanisms. (paper)

  16. Developing of impact and fatigue property test database system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, S. J.; Jun, I.; Kim, D. H.; Ryu, W. S.

    2003-01-01

    The impact and fatigue characteristics database systems were constructed using the data produced from impact and fatigue test and designed to hold in common the data and programs of tensile characteristics database that was constructed on 2001 and others characteristics databases that will be constructed in future. We can easily get the basic data from the impact and fatigue characteristics database systems when we prepare the new experiment and can produce high quality result by compare the previous data. The development part must be analysis and design more specific to construct the database and after that, we can offer the best quality to customers various requirements. In this thesis, we describe the procedure about analysis, design and development of the impact and fatigue characteristics database systems developed by internet method using jsp(Java Server pages) tool

  17. Developing of corrosion and creep property test database system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, S. J.; Jun, I.; Kim, J. S.; Ryu, W. S.

    2004-01-01

    The corrosion and creep characteristics database systems were constructed using the data produced from corrosion and creep test and designed to hold in common the data and programs of tensile, impact, fatigue characteristics database that was constructed since 2001 and others characteristics databases that will be constructed in future. We can easily get the basic data from the corrosion and creep characteristics database systems when we prepare the new experiment and can produce high quality result by compare the previous test result. The development part must be analysis and design more specific to construct the database and after that, we can offer the best quality to customers various requirements. In this thesis, we describe the procedure about analysis, design and development of the impact and fatigue characteristics database systems developed by internet method using jsp(Java Server pages) tool

  18. SOME CONCEPTUAL PROPERTIES FOR KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile MAZILESCU

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge Management Systems (KMS are important tools by which organizations can better useinformation and, more importantly, manage knowledge. Unlike other strategies, knowledge management (KM isdifficult to define because it encompasses a range of concepts, management tasks, technologies, and organizationalpractices, all of which come under the umbrella of the information management. Semantic approaches alloweasier and more efficient training, maintenance, and support knowledge. Current ICT markets are dominated byrelational databases and document-centric information technologies, procedural algorithmic programmingparadigms, and stack architecture. A key driver of global economic growth in the coming decade is the build-out ofbroadband telecommunications and the deployment of intelligent services bundling. This paper introduces themain characteristics of an Intelligent Knowledge Management System as a multi-agent system used in a LearningControl Problem (IKMSLCP. We describe an intelligent KM framework, allowing the observer (a human agentto learn from experience.

  19. Electronic transport properties of 4f shell elements of liquid metal using hard sphere Yukawa system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, H. P.; Sonvane, Y. A.; Thakor, P. B.

    2018-04-01

    The electronic transport properties are analyzed for 4f shell elements of liquid metals. To examine the electronic transport properties like electrical resistivity (ρ), thermal conductivity (σ) and thermo electrical power (Q), we used our own parameter free model potential with the Hard Sphere Yukawa (HSY) reference system. The screening effect on aforesaid properties has been examined by using different screening functions like Hartree (H), Taylor (T) and Sarkar (S). The correlations of our resultsand other data with available experimental values are intensely promising. Also, we conclude that our newly constructed parameter free model potential is capable of explaining the above mentioned electronic transport properties.

  20. Importance of the Recurrent Tax on Immovable Property in the Tax Systems of EU Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Břetislav Andrlík; Lucie Formanová

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the issue of the recurrent tax on immovable property and its significance in the tax systems of the EU Member States. The recurrent tax on immovable property is classified as property taxes, also according to the international methodology of the classification of taxes. This tax is imposed on the owners (in some cases on the lessee or user) of the immovable property in the various tax jurisdictions and belong to the taxes that the taxpayer cannot avoid and from this pers...

  1. Non-perturbative study of impurity effects on the Kubo conductivity in macroscopic periodic and quasiperiodic lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sánchez, Vicenta; Ramírez, Carlos; Sánchez, Fernando; Wang, Chumin

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze the effects of site and bond impurities on the electrical conductance of periodic and quasiperiodic systems with macroscopic length by means of a real-space renormalization plus a convolution method developed for the Kubo–Greenwood formula. All analyzed systems are connected to semi-infinite periodic leads. Analytical and numerical conductivity spectra are obtained for one and two site impurities in a periodic chain, where the separation between impurities determines the number of maximums in the spectra. We also found transparent states at the zero chemical potential in Fibonacci chains of every three generations with bond impurities, whose existence was confirmed by an analytical analysis within the Landauer formalism. For many impurities, the spectral average of the conductivity versus the system length reveals a power-law behavior, when the distance between impurities follows the Fibonacci sequence. Finally, we present an analysis of the conductance spectra of segmented periodic and Fibonacci chains and nanowires

  2. Non-perturbative study of impurity effects on the Kubo conductivity in macroscopic periodic and quasiperiodic lattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sánchez, Vicenta; Ramírez, Carlos; Sánchez, Fernando [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 70-542, 04510 México D.F., México (Mexico); Wang, Chumin, E-mail: chumin@unam.mx [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 70-360, 04510 México D.F. (Mexico)

    2014-09-15

    In this paper, we analyze the effects of site and bond impurities on the electrical conductance of periodic and quasiperiodic systems with macroscopic length by means of a real-space renormalization plus a convolution method developed for the Kubo–Greenwood formula. All analyzed systems are connected to semi-infinite periodic leads. Analytical and numerical conductivity spectra are obtained for one and two site impurities in a periodic chain, where the separation between impurities determines the number of maximums in the spectra. We also found transparent states at the zero chemical potential in Fibonacci chains of every three generations with bond impurities, whose existence was confirmed by an analytical analysis within the Landauer formalism. For many impurities, the spectral average of the conductivity versus the system length reveals a power-law behavior, when the distance between impurities follows the Fibonacci sequence. Finally, we present an analysis of the conductance spectra of segmented periodic and Fibonacci chains and nanowires.

  3. Spontaneous fission of superheavy nuclei in a macroscopic-microscopic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lojewski, Z.

    2012-01-01

    A systematic study of spontaneous fission half-lives of superheavy nuclei in the framework of the macroscopic-microscopic method was performed. The macroscopic-microscopic calculations of the half-lives consist in determining the collective potential energy V which splits into microscopic and smooth average macroscopic parts as well as into a nucleus mass tensor of the nucleus undergoing the fission process. The microscopic part of the energy is calculated using the single-particle Woods-Saxon potential with a universal set of parameters. Two models of the residual pairing interaction were studied. In the first approach we used monopole pairing (with constant matrix elements G). In the second approximation the pairing matrix elements were calculated with ?-force and are state dependent. As the macroscopic part of collective energy we examined four different macroscopic models of nuclear energy: Myers - Swiatecki liquid drop, Droplet expansion, Yukawa-plus-Exponential and the Lublin-Strasbourg Drop model. The analysis covers a wide range of even-even superheavy nuclei from Z = 100 to Z = 126. The calculations of spontaneous fission half-lives were performed by means of a WKB approximation, in the multi-dimensional dynamical-programming method within parameters describe the shape of nuclei. The studies offer an opportunity of a comprehensive approach to a very interesting group of exotic heavier nuclei, which are currently investigated by experimenters

  4. Noise power properties of a cone-beam CT system for breast cancer detection

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Kai; Kwan, Alexander L.C.; Huang, Shih-Ying; Packard, Nathan J.; Boone, John M.

    2008-01-01

    The noise power properties of a cone-beam computed tomography (CT) system dedicated for breast cancer detection were investigated. Uniform polyethylene cylinders of various diameters were scanned under different system acquisition conditions. Noise power spectra were calculated from difference data generated by subtraction between two identical scans. Multidimensional noise power spectra (NPS) were used as the metric to evaluate the noise properties of the breast CT (bCT) under different syst...

  5. System and methods to determine and monitor changes in microstructural properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Joseph A

    2014-11-18

    A system and methods with which changes in microstructure properties such as grain size, grain elongation, texture, and porosity of materials can be determined and monitored over time to assess conditions such as stress and defects. An example system includes a number of ultrasonic transducers configured to transmit ultrasonic waves towards a target region on a specimen, a voltage source configured to excite the first and second ultrasonic transducers, and a processor configured to determine one or more properties of the specimen.

  6. Quantum properties of a parametric four-wave mixing in a Raman type atomic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharypov A.V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a study of the quantum properties of two light fields used to parametric four-wave mixing in a Raman type atomic system. The system realizes an effective Hamiltonian of beamsplitter type coupling between the light fields, which allows to control squeezing and amplitude distribution of the light fields, as well as realizing their entanglement. The scheme can be feasibly applied to engineer the quantum properties of two single-mode light fields in properly chosen input states.

  7. Parameterized representation of macroscopic cross section in the PWR fuel element considering burn-up cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belo, Thiago F.; Fiel, Joao Claudio B., E-mail: thiagofbelo@hotmail.com [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Nuclear reactor core analysis involves neutronic modeling and the calculations require problem dependent nuclear data generated with few neutron energy groups, as for instance the neutron cross sections. The methods used to obtain these problem-dependent cross sections, in the reactor calculations, generally uses nuclear computer codes that require a large processing time and computational memory, making the process computationally very expensive. Presently, analysis of the macroscopic cross section, as a function of nuclear parameters, has shown a very distinct behavior that cannot be represented by simply using linear interpolation. Indeed, a polynomial representation is more adequate for the data parameterization. To provide the cross sections of rapidly and without the dependence of complex systems calculations, this work developed a set of parameterized cross sections, based on the Tchebychev polynomials, by fitting the cross sections as a function of nuclear parameters, which include fuel temperature, moderator temperature and density, soluble boron concentration, uranium enrichment, and the burn-up. In this study is evaluated the problem-dependent about fission, scattering, total, nu-fission, capture, transport and absorption cross sections for a typical PWR fuel element reactor, considering burn-up cycle. The analysis was carried out with the SCALE 6.1 code package. The results of comparison with direct calculations with the SCALE code system and also the test using project parameters, such as the temperature coefficient of reactivity and fast fission factor, show excellent agreements. The differences between the cross-section parameterization methodology and the direct calculations based on the SCALE code system are less than 0.03 percent. (author)

  8. An ultrasonic system for determining papaya physiological properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Sallehuddin; Ramli, Azlin; Yunus, Mohd Amri Md

    2015-05-01

    There is an increasing need for high quality fruit. As such it is important to have a fast, accurate and reliable method for measuring and monitoring the quality of fruit from the field to the consumer. This paper presents an investigation on the use of a non-destructive ultrasonic system which can be used to measure the quality of papaya.

  9. Comments on Stability Properties of Conservative Gyroscopic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lancaster, Peter; Kliem, Wolfhard

    1999-01-01

    A conjecture of Renshaw and Mote concerning gyroscopic systems with parameters predicts the eigenvalue locus in the neighborhood of a double-zero eigenvalue. In the present paper, this conjecture is reformulated in the language of generalized eigenvectors, angular splitting, and analytic behavior...

  10. Statistical properties of one-dimensional parametrically kicked Hamilton systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andresas, Dimitris; Batistić, Benjamin; Robnik, Marko

    2014-06-01

    We study the one-dimensional Hamiltonian systems and their statistical behavior, assuming the initial microcanonical distribution and describing its change under a parametric kick, which by definition means a discontinuous jump of a control parameter of the system. Following a previous work by Papamikos and Robnik [J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 44, 315102 (2011), 10.1088/1751-8113/44/31/315102], we specifically analyze the change of the adiabatic invariant (the action) of the system under a parametric kick: A conjecture has been put forward that the change of the action at the mean energy always increases, which means, for the given statistical ensemble, that the Gibbs entropy in the mean increases. By means of a detailed analysis of a great number of case studies, we show that the conjecture largely is satisfied, except if either the potential is not smooth enough or if the energy is too close to a stationary point of the potential (separatrix in the phase space). Very fast changes in a time-dependent system quite generally can be well described by such a picture and by the approximation of a parametric kick, if the change of the parameter is sufficiently fast and takes place on the time scale of less than one oscillation period. We discuss our work in the context of the statistical mechanics in the sense of Gibbs.

  11. Computing physical properties with quantum Monte Carlo methods with statistical fluctuations independent of system size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assaraf, Roland

    2014-12-01

    We show that the recently proposed correlated sampling without reweighting procedure extends the locality (asymptotic independence of the system size) of a physical property to the statistical fluctuations of its estimator. This makes the approach potentially vastly more efficient for computing space-localized properties in large systems compared with standard correlated methods. A proof is given for a large collection of noninteracting fragments. Calculations on hydrogen chains suggest that this behavior holds not only for systems displaying short-range correlations, but also for systems with long-range correlations.

  12. Evaluation of the electromechanical properties of the cardiovascular system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, S. A., Jr.; Hoffler, G. W.; Johnson, R. L.

    1974-01-01

    Cardiovascular electromechanical measurements were collected on returning Skylab crewmembers at rest and during both lower body negative pressure and exercise stress testing. These data were compared with averaged responses from multiple preflight tests. Systolic time intervals and first heart sound amplitude changes were measured. Clinical cardiovascular examinations and clinical phonocardiograms were evaluated. All changes noted returned to normal within 30 days postflight so that the processes appear to be transient and self limited. The cardiovascular system seems to adapt quite readily to zero-g, and more importantly it is capable of readaptation to one-g after long duration space flight. Repeated exposures to zero-g also appear to have no detrimental effects on the cardiovascular system.

  13. Structure, preparation and properties of refractory compounds and systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holleck, H.; Thuemmler, F.

    1977-01-01

    At the beginning of this report the possibilities of hardness optimization of refractory carbides are generally discussed. Three papers deal with TaC-basis refractories and hard metals. In particular, carbides with very low nonmetal/metal ratios and composites with hard phases formed by decomposition of tantalum carbonitrides are discussed. Another contribution reports investigations concerning the influence of the microstructure on the hardness of polycristaline mixed carbides. In a series of four papers, results are presented on the work of optimization conventional WC hard metals by introduction of a Fe,Co,Ni-binder: The influence of composition, carbon content and sintering conditions, as well as the wetting behaviour between carbides and binder metals are discussed. Phase relations in the refractory nitride and refractory nitride-binder metal systems as well as phase stabilities of ordered transition metal phases are reported in three papers, fundamental in character. Finally, the work concerning chemical analysis of refractory systems is described. (orig.) [de

  14. Properties of multilayered cloud systems from satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coakley, J. A., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The spatial coherence method for obtaining fractional cloud cover from satellite imagery is extended to the case of multilayered cloud systems. Examples are presented in which simultaneous observations at 3.7 microns and 11 microns are used to solve a system of linear equations for the nonoverlapped fractional cover contributed by each of two layers. The retrieval relies on the assumption that the clouds reside in distinct, well-defined layers and are optically thick at the wavelengths of observation. Simultaneous observations at 3.7 microns and 11 microns of the separate layers indicate that the assumptions are generally valid. Owing to the reflection of solar radiation at 3.7 microns by low-level water clouds, the method is limited to nighttime observations.

  15. Systemic analysis of thermodynamic properties of lanthanide halides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirsaidov, U.; Badalov, A.; Marufi, V.K.

    1992-01-01

    System analysis of thermodynamic characteristics of lanthanide halides was carried out. A method making allowances for the influence of spin and orbital moments of momentum of the main states of lanthanide trivalent ions in their natural series was employed. Unknown in literature thermodynamic values were calculated and corrected for certain compounds. The character of lanthanide halide thermodynamic parameter change depending on ordinal number of the metals was ascertained. Pronouncement of tetrad-effect in series of compounds considered was pointed out

  16. A macroscopic constitutive model of temperature-induced phase transition of polycrystalline Ni{sub 2}MnGa by directional solidification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Yuping, E-mail: zhuyuping@126.com; Gu, Yunling; Liu, Hongguang

    2015-02-25

    Directional solidification technology has been widely used to improve the properties of polycrystalline Ni{sub 2}MnGa materials. Mechanical training can adjust the internal organizational structures of the materials, reduce the stress of twin boundaries motion, and then result in larger strain at lower outfield levels. In this paper, we test the microscopic structure of Ni{sub 2}MnGa polycrystalline ferromagnetic shape memory alloy produced by directional solidification and compress it along two axes successively for mechanical training. The influences of pre-compressive stresses on the temperature-induced strains are analyzed. The macroscopic mechanical behaviors show anisotropy. According to the generating mechanism of the macroscopic strain, a three-dimensional constitutive model is established. Based on thermodynamic method, the kinetic equations of the martensitic transformation and inverse transformation are presented considering the driving force and energy dissipation. The prediction curves of temperature-induce strains along two different directions are investigated. And the results coincide well with the experiment data. It well explains the macroscopic anisotropy mechanical behaviors and fits for using in engineering.

  17. A critical review of macroscopic modeling studies on Li O2 and Li-air batteries using organic electrolyte: Challenges and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xianglin; Huang, Jing; Faghri, Amir

    2016-11-01

    A comprehensive review of the state-of-the-art macroscopic modeling studies on lithium oxygen (Li O2) and lithium air (Li-air) batteries has been presented. The Li O2 battery is a promising device for energy storage in portable electronics and electric vehicles due to its high specific energy. A number of technical challenges need to be addressed in order to bring this technology from laboratory concept to real products. The multi-scale, multi-physics phenomena in a Li O2 battery encompasses a wide range of scientific disciplines, including electrochemistry, heat and mass transfer, and material science. Modeling study provides a powerful tool to understand the charge-species transport phenomena inside a battery that cannot be captured by experimentation. It offers insight to optimize battery design and fabrication. Macroscopic models that treat battery components as continuous media will be the focus of this review while pore-scale sub-models that are integrated with macroscopic models to describe structural changes of battery components (mainly electrodes) will be presented and compared as well. Recent developments and opportunities for future improvement and advancement are also discussed. Finally, a detailed summary of property data relevant to Li O2 batteries is provided because of their critical role in modeling studies.

  18. 25 CFR 900.51 - What is an Indian tribe or tribal organization's property management system expected to do?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ASSISTANCE ACT Standards for Tribal or Tribal Organization Management Systems Property Management System Standards § 900.51 What is an Indian tribe or tribal organization's property management system expected to do? An Indian tribe or tribal organization's property management...

  19. 41 CFR 109-1.5204 - Review and approval of a designated contractor's personal property management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... property management system. (a) An initial review of a designated contractor's personal property management... follow-on contract. The purpose of the review is to determine whether the contractor's system provides... by the property administrator that all major system deficiencies identified in the review or...

  20. Macroscopic travel time reliability diagrams for freeway networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tu, H.; Li, H.; Van Lint, J.W.C.; Knoop, V.L.; Sun, L.

    2013-01-01

    Travel time reliability is considered to be one of the key indicators of transport system performance. Knowledge of the mechanisms of travel time unreliability enables the derivation of explanatory models with which travel time reliability can be predicted and utilized in traffic management.

  1. Protein diffusion coefficients determined by macroscopic-gradient Rayleigh interferometry and dynamic light scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annunziata, Onofrio; Buzatu, Daniela; Albright, John G

    2005-12-20

    Dynamic light scattering (DLS) is extensively used for measuring macromolecule diffusion coefficients. Contrary to classical techniques based on macroscopic concentration gradients, DLS probes microscopic fluctuations in concentration. DLS accuracy and its concordance with macroscopic-gradient techniques remains an outstanding important issue. We measured lysozyme diffusion coefficients in aqueous salt using both DLS and Rayleigh interferometry, a highly accurate macroscopic-gradient technique. The precision of our results is unprecedented. We find that our DLS values were systematically 2% higher than interferometry values. We believe that our interferometric measurements have produced the most accurate diffusion data ever reported for a protein, providing a new standard for quality control of DLS measurements. Furthermore, by interferometry, we have determined the whole diffusion coefficient matrix required for rigorously describing lysozyme-salt coupled diffusion. For the first time, we experimentally demonstrate that DLS does not provide the protein diffusion coefficient but one eigenvalue of the diffusion coefficient matrix.

  2. A strict experimental test of macroscopic realism in a superconducting flux qubit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knee, George C; Kakuyanagi, Kosuke; Yeh, Mao-Chuang; Matsuzaki, Yuichiro; Toida, Hiraku; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Saito, Shiro; Leggett, Anthony J; Munro, William J

    2016-11-04

    Macroscopic realism is the name for a class of modifications to quantum theory that allow macroscopic objects to be described in a measurement-independent manner, while largely preserving a fully quantum mechanical description of the microscopic world. Objective collapse theories are examples which aim to solve the quantum measurement problem through modified dynamical laws. Whether such theories describe nature, however, is not known. Here we describe and implement an experimental protocol capable of constraining theories of this class, that is more noise tolerant and conceptually transparent than the original Leggett-Garg test. We implement the protocol in a superconducting flux qubit, and rule out (by ∼84 s.d.) those theories which would deny coherent superpositions of 170 nA currents over a ∼10 ns timescale. Further, we address the 'clumsiness loophole' by determining classical disturbance with control experiments. Our results constitute strong evidence for the superposition of states of nontrivial macroscopic distinctness.

  3. Bioinspired Nanocellulose Based Hybrid Materials With Novel Interfacial Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keten, Sinan

    This talk will overview a simulation-based approach to enhancing the mechanical properties of nanocomposites by utilizing cellulose - the most abundant and renewable structural biopolymer found on our planet. Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) exhibit outstanding mechanical properties exceeding that of Kevlar, serving as reinforcing domains in nature's toughest hierarchical nanocomposites such as wood. Yet, weak interfaces at the surfaces of CNCs have so far made it impossible to scale these inherent properties to macroscopic systems. In this work, I will discuss how surface functionalization of CNCs influences their properties in their self-assembled films and nanocomposites with engineered polymer matrices . Specifically, the role of ion exchange based surface modifications and polymer conjugation will be discussed, where atomistic and coarse-grained simulations will reveal new insights into how superior mechanical properties can potentially be attained by hybrid constructs.

  4. NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Physical Properties of Nano systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bonca, Janez

    2011-01-01

    Recent advances in nanoscience have demonstrated that fundamentally new physical phenomena are found when systems are reduced to sizes comparable to the fundamental microscopic length scales of the material investigated. There has been great interest in this research due, in particular, to its role in the development of spintronics, molecular electronics and quantum information processing. The contributions to this volume describe new advances in many of these fundamental and fascinating areas of nanophysics, including carbon nanotubes, graphene, magnetic nanostructures, transport through coupled quantum dots, spintronics, molecular electronics, and quantum information processing.

  5. Properties of Powder Composite Polyhydroxybutyrate-Chitosan-Calcium Phosphate System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medvecky, L.; Stulajterova, R.; Giretova, M.; Faberova, M.

    2017-12-01

    Prepared powder polyhydroxybutyrate - chitosan - calcium phosphate composite system with 10 wt % of biopolymer component can be utilized as biocement which is characterized by the prolonged setting time and achieves wash out resistance after 5 minutes of setting. The origin powder tetracalcium phosphate/nanomonetite agglomerates were coated with the thin layer of biopolymer which decelerates both the transformation rate of calcium phosphates and hardening process of composites. The porosity of hardened composite was around 62% and the compressive strength (8 MPa) was close to trabecular bone. No cytotoxicity of composite resulted from live/dead staining of osteoblasts cultured on substrates.

  6. Reducing system of parameters and the Cohen–Macaulay property

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of parameters of M iff for all primes P ∈ Supp M ∩ VR(x1,...,xr ) with dimR R/P = dimR M −r the localizationMP ofM atP is anr-dimensional Cohen–Macaulay module over RP . Furthermore, we will show that M is a Cohen–Macaulay module iff yd is a non zero divisor on M/(y1,...,yd−1)M, where (y1,...,yd ) is a reducing system ...

  7. Dielectric properties measurement system at cryogenic temperatures and microwave frequencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molla, J.; Ibarra, A.; Margineda, J.; Zamarro, J. M.; Hernandez, A.

    1994-07-01

    A system based on the resonant cavity method has been developed to measure the permittivity and loss tangent at 12-18 GHz over the temperature range 80 K to 300 K. Changes of permittivity as low as 0.01 % in the range 1 to 30, and 3 x 10{sup 6} for loss tangent values below 10{sup 2}, can be obtained without requiring temperature stability. The thermal expansion coefficient and resistivity factor of copper have been measured between 80 K and 300 K. Permittivity of sapphire and loss tangent of alumina of 99.9 % purity in the same temperature range are presented. (Author) 23 refs.

  8. Putting Personal Knowledge Management under the Macroscope of Informing Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Schmitt

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper introduces a novel Personal Knowledge Management (PKM concept and prototype system. The system’s objective is to aid life-long-learning, resourcefulness, creativity, and teamwork of individuals throughout their academic and professional life and as contributors and beneficiaries of organizational and societal performance. Such a scope offers appealing and viable opportunities for stakeholders in the educational, professional, and developmental context. To further validate the underlying PKM application design, the systems thinking techniques of the transdiscipline of Informing Science (IS are employed. By applying Cohen’s IS-Framework, Leavitt’s Diamond Model, the IS-Meta Approach, and Gill’s and Murphy’s Three Dimensions of Design Task Complexity, the more specific KM models and methodologies central to the PKMS concept are aligned, introduced, and visualized. The extent of this introduction offers an essential overview, which can be deepened and broadened by using the cited URL and DOI links pointing to the available resources of the author’s prior publications. The paper emphasizes the differences of the proposed meme-based PKM System compared to its traditional organizational document-centric counterparts as well as its inherent complementing synergies. As a result, it shows how the system is closing in on Vannevar Bush’s still unfulfilled vison of the ‘Memex’, an as-close-as-it-gets imaginary ancestor celebrating its 70th anniversary as an inspiring idea never realized. It also addresses the scenario recently put forward by Levy which foresees a decentralizing revolution of knowledge management that gives more power and autonomy to individuals and self-organized groups. Accordingly, it also touches on the PKM potential in terms of Kuhn’s Scientific Revolutions and Disruptive Innovations.

  9. Complex modal properties of coupled moderately light equipment-structure systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, A.K.; Jaw Jingwen

    1986-01-01

    A new improved perturbation method for evaluating complex modal properties of coupled equipment-structure systems is presented. The method is applicable even when the equipment is not very light, and when the secondary system (equipment) introduces static constraint on the primary system (structure). The new method is applied to nine 8DOF coupled multiply connected equipment-structure systems. It is shown that the new method yields results which are in excellent agreement with the corresponding exact results. (orig.)

  10. Nanoscale Morphology to Macroscopic Performance in Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Preston B.

    Ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) fibers are increasingly used in high -performance applications where strength, stiffness, and the ability to dissipate energy are of critical importance. Despite their use in a variety of applications, the influence of morphological features at the meso/nanoscale on the macroscopic performance of the fibers has not been well understood. There is particular interest in gaining a better understanding of the nanoscale structure-property relationships in UHMWPE fibers used in ballistics applications. In order to accurately model and predict failure in the fiber, a more complete understanding of the complex load pathways that dictate the ways in which load is transferred through the fiber, across interfaces and length scales is required. The goal of the work discussed herein is to identify key meso/nanostructural features evolved in high performance fibers and determine how these features influence the performance of the fiber through a variety of different loading mechanisms. The important structural features in high-performance UHMWPE fibers are first identified through examination of the meso/nanostructure of a series of fibers with different processing conditions. This is achieved primarily through the use of wide-angle x-ray diffraction (WAXD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Analysis of AFM images and WAXD data allows identification and quantifications of important structural features at these length scales. Key meso/nanostructural features are then examined with respect to their influence on the transverse compression behavior of single fibers. Through post-mortem AFM analysis of samples at incremental compressive strains, the evolution of damage is examined and compared with macroscopic fiber mechanical response. It was found that collapse of mesoscale voids, followed by nanoscale fibrillation and reorganization of a fibrillar network has a significant influence on the mechanical response of the fiber. Through

  11. Spontaneous Fission and alpha -Decay Half-Lives of Superheavy Nuclei in Different Macroscopic Energy Models

    CERN Document Server

    Lojewski, Z; Pomorski, K

    2003-01-01

    Spontaneous fission half-lives (T sub s sub f) of the heaviest nuclei are calculated in the macroscopic-microscopic approach based on the deformed Woods-Saxon potential. Four different models of the macroscopic energy are examined and their influence on the results is discussed. The calculations of (T sub s sub f) are performed within WKB approximation. Multi-dimensional dynamical-programming method (MDP) is applied to minimize the action integral in a 3-dimensional space of deformation parameters describing the nuclear shape (beta sub 2 ,beta sub 4 ,beta sub 6).

  12. Coupling and Shielding Properties of the Baffle in ICP System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Brcka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This contribution is dealing with experimental and computational evaluation of the deposition baffle that is transparent to radio frequency (RF magnetic fields generated by an external antenna in an inductively coupled plasma (ICP source but opaque to the deposition of the metal onto a dielectric wall in ionized physical vapor deposition (IPVD system. Various engineering aspects related to the deposition baffle are discussed. Among the many requirements focus is on specific structure of the slots and analysis to minimize deposition on the baffle (we used a string model for simulating the profile evolution and deposition through the DB on dielectric components of the ICP source. Transparency of the baffle to RF magnetic fields is computed using a three-dimensional (3D electromagnetic field solver. A simple two-dimensional sheath model is used to understand plasma interactions with the DB slot structure. Performance and possible failure of device are briefly discussed.

  13. Glass formation and properties in the gallia-calcia system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whichard, G.; Day, D. E.

    1984-01-01

    The critical cooling rate for glass formation was measured for five compositions in the Ga2O3-CaO system and varied from a low of (315 + or - 85) C/s for a eutectic melt containing 37.5 mol pct Ga2O3 to a high of (840 + or - 60) C/s for a melt containing 52 mol pct Ga2O3. The density and refractive index both increased with increasing Ga2O3 content, but the crystallization temperature and microhardness varied only slightly. The IR spectra of these glasses suggest that both GaO4 tetrahedra and GaO6 octahedra are present.

  14. Standards, Data Exchange and Intellectual Property Rights in Systems Biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Zimmeren, Esther; Rutz, Berthold; Minssen, Timo

    2016-01-01

    and qualitative data on biological processes and activities in much greater volumes, velocity, variety and veracity. The skilful integration of multiple heterogeneous data sets allows scientists to model and predict biological processes. SysBio’s interdisciplinary nature requires data, models and other research...... we provided a number of recommendations for a variety of stakeholders. The current article offers some deeper reflections about the interface between IPRs, standards and data exchange in Systems Biology resulting from an Expert Meeting funded by another ERA-Net, ERASysAPP. The meeting brought...... assets to be formatted and described in standard ways to enable exchange and reuse of high quality data. This allows a more effective utilisation of the enormous potential that rests in “big data” analysis. Finally, SysBio is often closely linked to or provides the foundation for Synthetic Biology (Syn...

  15. Haplic Chernozem Properties as Affected by Different Tillage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Hábová

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During 2007–2011 we assessed content and quality of humic substances with relationship to soil structure. Object of study was Haplic Chernozem (Hrušovany nad Jevišovkou, Czech Republic under three different tillage systems: – conventional ploughing to a depth of 0.22 m (CP; – reduced tillage with shallow harrowing to a depth of 0.15 m (RTSH; – reduced tillage with subsoiling to a depth of 0.35–0.40 m (RTS. Isolation of humic acids was made according to IHSS standard method using spectrometer Shimadzu 8700. Aggregates stability was determined by wet sieving method. Results showed that macrostructure stability was directly connected with time of sampling and content and quality of humic substances. After five years of experiment statistically significant differences in humic substances content were found. The highest structure stability, quantity and quality of humic substances were achieved under reduced tillage with shallow harrowing.

  16. Neuroregulatory properties of substance P in the enteric nervous system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, K.E.

    1985-01-01

    Substance P (SP) is a putative neurotransmitter in both central and peripheral nervous systems. Its presence in intrinsic neurons of the gut, combined with its potent biological effects on this tissue, suggest that endogenous SP may play a role in the physiological regulation of gastrointestinal function. SP elicits potent, atropine-resistant contractions of guinea-pig ileum which mimic the effects of high-frequency electrical field stimulation. In addition, SP-like immunoreactivity was found to be released from segments of guinea-pig ileum in a calcium-dependent fashion by electrical stimulation. A SP radioligand binding assay was developed in order to characterize SP receptors in the rat gut. /sup 3/H-SP binds with specificity and high-affinity to membranes of rat small intestine; Scatchard plots of saturation data are curved, indicating the presence of multiple binding sites. The K/sub D/ for the high-affinity site is 0.25 nM as determined by computerized non-linear least squares analysis. Specific binding is linear with protein, dependent on temperature, and reversible. The rate constants for association and dissociation of 0.5 nm /sup 3/H-SP are: value derived form these constants, 0.34nM, agrees well with K/sub D/ derived from Scatchard plots. The rank order of potency for various tachykinins in inhibiting /sup 3/H-SP binding indicates that the high-affinity site is a P-type tachykinin receptor. Specific /sup 3/H-SP binding is modulated in a dose-related fashion by guanine nucleotides; a reduction in binding is seen which can be largely attributed to an increase in the rate of dissociation of /sup 3/H-SP in the presence of GTP. This suggests that the binding site is a receptor linked to an effector system by a GTP-binding protein.

  17. Neuroregulatory properties of substance P in the enteric nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, K.E.

    1985-01-01

    Substance P (SP) is a putative neurotransmitter in both central and peripheral nervous systems. Its presence in intrinsic neurons of the gut, combined with its potent biological effects on this tissue, suggest that endogenous SP may play a role in the physiological regulation of gastrointestinal function. SP elicits potent, atropine-resistant contractions of guinea-pig ileum which mimic the effects of high-frequency electrical field stimulation. In addition, SP-like immunoreactivity was found to be released from segments of guinea-pig ileum in a calcium-dependent fashion by electrical stimulation. A SP radioligand binding assay was developed in order to characterize SP receptors in the rat gut. 3 H-SP binds with specificity and high-affinity to membranes of rat small intestine; Scatchard plots of saturation data are curved, indicating the presence of multiple binding sites. The K/sub D/ for the high-affinity site is 0.25 nM as determined by computerized non-linear least squares analysis. Specific binding is linear with protein, dependent on temperature, and reversible. The rate constants for association and dissociation of 0.5 nm 3 H-SP are: value derived form these constants, 0.34nM, agrees well with K/sub D/ derived from Scatchard plots. The rank order of potency for various tachykinins in inhibiting 3 H-SP binding indicates that the high-affinity site is a P-type tachykinin receptor. Specific 3 H-SP binding is modulated in a dose-related fashion by guanine nucleotides; a reduction in binding is seen which can be largely attributed to an increase in the rate of dissociation of 3 H-SP in the presence of GTP. This suggests that the binding site is a receptor linked to an effector system by a GTP-binding protein

  18. Properties of the single Jovian planet population and the pursuit of Solar system analogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnew, Matthew T.; Maddison, Sarah T.; Horner, Jonathan

    2018-04-01

    While the number of exoplanets discovered continues to increase at a rapid rate, we are still to discover any system that truly resembles the Solar system. Existing and near future surveys will likely continue this trend of rapid discovery. To see if these systems are Solar system analogues, we will need to efficiently allocate resources to carry out intensive follow-up observations. We seek to uncover the properties and trends across systems that indicate how much of the habitable zone is stable in each system to provide focus for planet hunters. We study the dynamics of all known single Jovian planetary systems, to assess the dynamical stability of the habitable zone around their host stars. We perform a suite of simulations of all systems where the Jovian planet will interact gravitationally with the habitable zone, and broadly classify these systems. Besides the system's mass ratio (Mpl/Mstar), and the Jovian planet's semi-major axis (apl) and eccentricity (epl), we find that there are no underlying system properties which are observable that indicate the potential for planets to survive within the system's habitable zone. We use Mpl/Mstar, apl and epl to generate a parameter space over which the unstable systems cluster, thus allowing us to predict which systems to exclude from future observational or numerical searches for habitable exoplanets. We also provide a candidate list of 20 systems that have completely stable habitable zones and Jovian planets orbiting beyond the habitable zone as potential first order Solar system analogues.

  19. Macroscopic and microscopic biodistribution of intravenously administered iron oxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Adwiteeya; Petryk, Alicia A.; Strawbridge, Rendall R.; Hoopes, P. Jack

    2015-03-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles (IONP) are being developed for use as a cancer treatment. They have demonstrated efficacy when used either as a monotherapy or in conjunction with conventional chemotherapy and radiation. The success of IONP as a therapeutic tool depends on the delivery of a safe and controlled cytotoxic thermal dose to tumor tissue following activation with an alternating magnetic field (AMF). Prior to clinical approval, knowledge of IONP toxicity, biodistribution and physiological clearance is essential. This preliminary time-course study determines the acute toxicity and biodistribution of 110 nm dextran-coated IONP (iron) in mice, 7 days post systemic, at doses of 0.4, 0.6, and 1.0 mg Fe/ g mouse bodyweight. Acute toxicity, manifested as changes in the behavior of mice, was only observed temporarily at 1.0 mg Fe/ g mouse bodyweight, the highest dose administered. Regardless of dose, mass spectrometry and histological analysis demonstrated over 3 mg Fe/g tissue in organs within the reticuloendotheilial system (i.e. liver, spleen, and lymph nodes). Other organs (brain, heart, lungs, and kidney) had less than 0.5 mg Fe/g tissue with iron predominantly confined to the organ vasculature.

  20. Investigation of Macroscopic Brittle Creep Failure Caused by Microcrack Growth Under Step Loading and Unloading in Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaozhao; Shao, Zhushan

    2016-07-01

    The growth of subcritical cracks plays an important role in the creep of brittle rock. The stress path has a great influence on creep properties. A micromechanics-based model is presented to study the effect of the stress path on creep properties. The microcrack model of Ashby and Sammis, Charles' Law, and a new micro-macro relation are employed in our model. This new micro-macro relation is proposed by using the correlation between the micromechanical and macroscopic definition of damage. A stress path function is also introduced by the relationship between stress and time. Theoretical expressions of the stress-strain relationship and creep behavior are derived. The effects of confining pressure on the stress-strain relationship are studied. Crack initiation stress and peak stress are achieved under different confining pressures. The applied constant stress that could cause creep behavior is predicted. Creep properties are studied under the step loading of axial stress or the unloading of confining pressure. Rationality of the micromechanics-based model is verified by the experimental results of Jinping marble. Furthermore, the effects of model parameters and the unloading rate of confining pressure on creep behavior are analyzed. The coupling effect of step axial stress and confining pressure on creep failure is also discussed. The results provide implications on the deformation behavior and time-delayed rockburst mechanism caused by microcrack growth on surrounding rocks during deep underground excavations.