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Sample records for macroscopic reaction coefficients

  1. Symmetry properties of macroscopic transport coefficients in porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasseux, D.; Valdés-Parada, F. J.

    2017-04-01

    We report on symmetry properties of tensorial effective transport coefficients characteristic of many transport phenomena in porous systems at the macroscopic scale. The effective coefficients in the macroscopic models (derived by upscaling (volume averaging) the governing equations at the underlying scale) are obtained from the solution of closure problems that allow passing the information from the lower to the upper scale. The symmetry properties of the macroscopic coefficients are identified from a formal analysis of the closure problems and this is illustrated for several different physical mechanisms, namely, one-phase flow in homogeneous porous media involving inertial effects, slip flow in the creeping regime, momentum transport in a fracture relying on the Reynolds model including slip effects, single-phase flow in heterogeneous porous media embedding a porous matrix and a clear fluid region, two-phase momentum transport in homogeneous porous media, as well as dispersive heat and mass transport. The results from the analysis of these study cases are summarized as follows. For inertial single-phase flow, the apparent permeability tensor is irreducibly decomposed into its symmetric (viscous) and skew-symmetric (inertial) parts; for creeping slip-flow, the apparent permeability tensor is not symmetric; for one-phase slightly compressible gas flow in the slip regime within a fracture, the effective transmissivity tensor is symmetric, a result that remains valid in the absence of slip; for creeping one-phase flow in heterogeneous media, the permeability tensor is symmetric; for two-phase flow, we found the dominant permeability tensors to be symmetric, whereas the coupling tensors do not exhibit any special symmetry property; finally for dispersive heat transfer, the thermal conductivity tensors include a symmetric and a skew-symmetric part, the latter being a consequence of convective transport only. A similar result is achieved for mass dispersion. Beyond the

  2. Stereodynamics: From elementary processes to macroscopic chemical reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasai, Toshio [Department of Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Graduate School of Science, Department of Chemistry, Osaka University, Toyonaka, 560-0043 Osaka (Japan); Che, Dock-Chil [Graduate School of Science, Department of Chemistry, Osaka University, Toyonaka, 560-0043 Osaka (Japan); Tsai, Po-Yu [Department of Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Department of Chemistry, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Lin, King-Chuen [Department of Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Palazzetti, Federico [Scuola Normale Superiore, Pisa (Italy); Dipartimento di Chimica Biologia e Biotecnologie, Università di Perugia, 06123 Perugia (Italy); Aquilanti, Vincenzo [Dipartimento di Chimica Biologia e Biotecnologie, Università di Perugia, 06123 Perugia (Italy); Istituto di Struttura della Materia, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Roma (Italy); Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador (Brazil)

    2015-12-31

    This paper aims at discussing new facets on stereodynamical behaviors in chemical reactions, i.e. the effects of molecular orientation and alignment on reactive processes. Further topics on macroscopic processes involving deviations from Arrhenius behavior in the temperature dependence of chemical reactions and chirality effects in collisions are also discussed.

  3. Negative Temperature Coefficient in Chemical Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leenson, I. A.; Sergeev, Gleb B.

    1984-05-01

    A systematic analysis of reactions whose rate decreases with increase of temperature is presented. The possibility of a negative temperature coefficient in the elementary reactions is examined from the standpoint of the transition state theory and of collision theory. The mechanisms of complex reactions in which the temperature dependence of the rate is anomalous are discussed, and possible reasons for the anomaly are examined. The bibliography contains 175 references.

  4. Manifestation of macroscopic correlations in elementary reaction kinetics. II. Irreversible reaction A+B→C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipriyanov, Alexander A; Kipriyanov, Alexey A; Doktorov, Alexander B

    2010-11-07

    The applicability of the Encounter Theory (ET) (the prototype of the Collision Theory) concepts for widely occurring diffusion assisted irreversible bulk reaction A+B→C (for example, radical reaction) in dilute solutions with arbitrary ratio of initial concentrations of reactants has been treated theoretically with modern many-particle method for the derivation of non-Markovian binary kinetic equations. The method shows that, just as in the reaction A+A→C considered earlier, the agreement with the Encounter Theory is observed when the familiar Integral Encounter Theory is used which is just a step in the derivation of kinetic equations in the framework of the method employed. It allows for two-particle correlations only, and fails to consider the correlation of reactant simultaneously with a partner and with a reactant in the bulk. However, the next step leading to the Modified Encounter Theory under reduction of equations to a regular form both extends the time applicability interval of ET homogeneous rate equation (as for reactions proceeding in excess of one of the reactants), and yields the inhomogeneous equation of the Generalized Encounter Theory (GET) that reveals macroscopic correlations induced by the encounters in a reservoir of free walks in full agreement with physical considerations. This means that the encounters of reactants in solution are correlated at rather large time interval of the reaction course. However, unlike the reaction A+A→C of identical reactants, the reaction A+B→C accumulation of the above macroscopic correlations (even with the initial concentrations of reactants being equal) proceeds much slower. Another distinction is that for the reaction A+A→C the long-term behavior of ET and GET kinetics is the same, while in the reaction A+B→C these kinetics behave differently. It is of interest that just taking account of the above macroscopic correlations in the reaction A+B→C (in GET) results in the universal character of the

  5. Manifestation of macroscopic correlations in elementary reaction kinetics. I. Irreversible reaction A +A→product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doktorov, Alexander B.; Kipriyanov, Alexander A.; Kipriyanov, Alexey A.

    2010-05-01

    Using an modern many-particle method for the derivation of non-Markovian binary kinetic equations, we have treated theoretically the applicability of the encounter theory (ET) (the prototype of the collision theory) concepts to the widely known diffusion assisted irreversible bulk reaction A +A→product (for example, radical reaction) in dilute solutions. The method shows that the agreement with the ET is observed when the familiar integral ET is employed which in this method is just a step in the derivation of kinetic equations. It allows for two-particle correlations only, but fails to take account of correlation of reactant simultaneously with the partner of the encounter and the reactant in the bulk. However, the next step leading to the modified ET under transformation of equations to the regular form both extends the time range of the applicability of ET rate equation (as it was for reactions proceeding with one of the reactants in excess), and gives the equation of the generalized ET. In full agreement with physical considerations, this theory reveals macroscopic correlations induced by the encounters in the reservoir of free walks. This means that the encounters of reactants in solution are correlated on a rather large time interval of the reaction. Though any nonstationary (non-Markovian) effects manifest themselves rather weakly in the kinetics of the bimolecular reaction in question, just the existence of the revealed macroscopic correlations in the binary theory is of primary importance. In particular, it means that the well-known phenomena which are generally considered to be associated solely with correlation of particles on the encounter (for example, chemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization) may be induced by correlation in the reservoir of free random walks of radicals in solution.

  6. Manifestation of macroscopic correlations in elementary reaction kinetics. I. Irreversible reaction A+A-->product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doktorov, Alexander B; Kipriyanov, Alexander A; Kipriyanov, Alexey A

    2010-05-28

    Using an modern many-particle method for the derivation of non-Markovian binary kinetic equations, we have treated theoretically the applicability of the encounter theory (ET) (the prototype of the collision theory) concepts to the widely known diffusion assisted irreversible bulk reaction A+A-->product (for example, radical reaction) in dilute solutions. The method shows that the agreement with the ET is observed when the familiar integral ET is employed which in this method is just a step in the derivation of kinetic equations. It allows for two-particle correlations only, but fails to take account of correlation of reactant simultaneously with the partner of the encounter and the reactant in the bulk. However, the next step leading to the modified ET under transformation of equations to the regular form both extends the time range of the applicability of ET rate equation (as it was for reactions proceeding with one of the reactants in excess), and gives the equation of the generalized ET. In full agreement with physical considerations, this theory reveals macroscopic correlations induced by the encounters in the reservoir of free walks. This means that the encounters of reactants in solution are correlated on a rather large time interval of the reaction. Though any nonstationary (non-Markovian) effects manifest themselves rather weakly in the kinetics of the bimolecular reaction in question, just the existence of the revealed macroscopic correlations in the binary theory is of primary importance. In particular, it means that the well-known phenomena which are generally considered to be associated solely with correlation of particles on the encounter (for example, chemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization) may be induced by correlation in the reservoir of free random walks of radicals in solution.

  7. Study of n-Butyl Acrylate Self-Initiation Reaction Experimentally and via Macroscopic Mechanistic Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Arabi Shamsabadi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental study of the self-initiation reaction of n-butyl acrylate (n-BA in free-radical polymerization. For the first time, the frequency factor and activation energy of the monomer self-initiation reaction are estimated from measurements of n-BA conversion in free-radical homo-polymerization initiated only by the monomer. The estimation was carried out using a macroscopic mechanistic mathematical model of the reactor. In addition to already-known reactions that contribute to the polymerization, the model considers a n-BA self-initiation reaction mechanism that is based on our previous electronic-level first-principles theoretical study of the self-initiation reaction. Reaction rate equations are derived using the method of moments. The reaction-rate parameter estimates obtained from conversion measurements agree well with estimates obtained via our purely-theoretical quantum chemical calculations.

  8. Determination of Catalytic Coefficient for a First-Order Reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, E. R.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Describes an undergraduate physical chemistry experiment in which the acid catalyzed hydrolysis of sucrose is used to determine the catalytic coefficient of the hydronium ion, the catalyst in this reaction. (MLH)

  9. Melanoidins extinction coefficient in the glucose/glycine Maillard reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martins, S.I.F.S.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.

    2003-01-01

    Melanoidins (brown, nitrogenous polymers and co-polymers) are the final products of the Maillard reaction. The glucose/glycine melanoidins extinction coefficient was determined using C-14-labelled glucose at three different reaction conditions. The absorbance was measured at different wavelengths (4

  10. Use of hybrid discrete cellular models for identification of macroscopic nutrient loss in reaction-diffusion models of tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aristotelous, Andreas C; Haider, Mansoor A

    2014-08-01

    Macroscopic models accounting for cellular effects in natural or engineered tissues may involve unknown constitutive terms that are highly dependent on interactions at the scale of individual cells. Hybrid discrete models, which represent cells individually, were used to develop and apply techniques for modeling diffusive nutrient transport and cellular uptake to identify a nonlinear nutrient loss term in a macroscopic reaction-diffusion model of the system. Flexible and robust numerical methods were used, based on discontinuous Galerkin finite elements in space and a Crank-Nicolson temporal discretization. Scales were bridged via averaging operations over a complete set of subdomains yielding data for identification of a macroscopic nutrient loss term that was accurately captured via a fifth-order polynomial. Accuracy of the identified macroscopic model was demonstrated by direct, quantitative comparisons of the tissue and cellular scale models in terms of three error norms computed on a mesoscale mesh. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Macroscopic corrosion front computations of sulfate attack in sewer pipes based on a micro-macro reaction-diffusion model

    CERN Document Server

    Chalupecký, Vladimír; Kruschwitz, Jens; Muntean, Adrian

    2012-01-01

    We consider a two-scale reaction diffusion system able to capture the corrosion of concrete with sulfates. Our aim here is to define and compute two macroscopic corrosion indicators: typical pH drop and gypsum profiles. Mathematically, the system is coupled, endowed with micro-macro transmission conditions, and posed on two different spatially-separated scales: one microscopic (pore scale) and one macroscopic (sewer pipe scale). We use a logarithmic expression to compute values of pH from the volume averaged concentration of sulfuric acid which is obtained by resolving numerically the two-scale system (microscopic equations with direct feedback with the macroscopic diffusion of one of the reactants). Furthermore, we also evaluate the content of the main sulfatation reaction (corrosion) product---the gypsum---and point out numerically a persistent kink in gypsum's concentration profile. Finally, we illustrate numerically the position of the free boundary separating corroded from not-yet-corroded regions.

  12. Saponification reaction system: a detailed mass transfer coefficient determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pečar, Darja; Goršek, Andreja

    2015-01-01

    The saponification of an aromatic ester with an aqueous sodium hydroxide was studied within a heterogeneous reaction medium in order to determine the overall kinetics of the selected system. The extended thermo-kinetic model was developed compared to the previously used simple one. The reaction rate within a heterogeneous liquid-liquid system incorporates a chemical kinetics term as well as mass transfer between both phases. Chemical rate constant was obtained from experiments within a homogeneous medium, whilst the mass-transfer coefficient was determined separately. The measured thermal profiles were then the bases for determining the overall reaction-rate. This study presents the development of an extended kinetic model for considering mass transfer regarding the saponification of ethyl benzoate with sodium hydroxide within a heterogeneous reaction medium. The time-dependences are presented for the mass transfer coefficient and the interfacial areas at different heterogeneous stages and temperatures. The results indicated an important role of reliable kinetic model, as significant difference in k(L)a product was obtained with extended and simple approach.

  13. Studying Nuclear Level Densities of 238U in the Nuclear Reactions within the Macroscopic Nuclear Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, Rohallah; Rahmatinejad, Azam; Kakavand, Tayeb; Taheri, Fariba; Aghajani, Maghsood; Khooy, Asghar

    2016-02-01

    In this work the nuclear level density parameters of 238U have been extracted in the back-shifted Fermi gas model (BSFGM), as well as the constant temperature model (CTM), through fitting with the recent experimental data on nuclear level densities measured by the Oslo group. The excitation functions for 238U(p,2nα)233Pa, and 238U(p,4n)235Np reactions and the fragment yields for the fragments of the 238U(p,f) reaction have been calculated using obtained level density parameters. The results are compared to their corresponding experimental values. It was found that the extracted excitation functions and the fragment yields in the CTM coincide well with the experimental values in the low-energy region. This finding is according to the claim made by the Oslo group that the extracted level densities of 238U show a constant temperature behaviour.

  14. Refit to numerically problematic UMIST reaction rate coefficients

    CERN Document Server

    Röllig, M

    2011-01-01

    Aims. Chemical databases such as the UMIST Database for Astrochemistry (UDFA) are indispensable in the numerical modeling of astrochemical networks. Several of the listed reactions in the UDFA have properties that are problematic in numerical computations: Some are parametrized in a way that leads to extremely divergent behavior for low kinetic temperatures. Other reactions possess multiple entries that are each valid in a different temperature regime, but have no smooth transition when switching from one to another. Numerically, this introduces many difficulties.We present corrected parametrizations for these sets of reactions in the UDFA06 database. Methods. From the tabulated parametrization in UDFA, we created artificial data points and used a Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm to find a set of improved fit parameters without divergent behavior for low temperatures. For reactions with multiple entries in the database that each possess a different temperature regime, we present one joint parametrization that is...

  15. Influence of nonlinear chemical reactions on the transport coefficients in oscillatory Couette flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barik, Swarup; Dalal, D. C.

    2016-10-01

    A multiple-scale method of averaging is applied to the study of transport of a chemical species in oscillatory Couette flow where the species may undergoes a reversible phase exchange with the boundary wall and nonlinear chemical reactions both within the fluid and at the boundary wall. Analytical expressions are obtained for transport coefficients. The results shows how the transport coefficients are influenced by the reversible phase exchange reaction kinetics and the rate and degree of the nonlinear decay chemical reaction.

  16. Effect of Ionic Liquids on Organic Reactions Based on Activity Coefficients at Infinite Dilution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马征; 董晓霞; 胡玉峰; 张柏松; 徐长英; 刘艳升

    2013-01-01

    It is important to know how ILs (ionic liquids) influence organic reaction. In this paper, activity coeffi-cients at infinite dilution of more than 80 organic compounds in ILs are collected and analyzed systematically. Through the study on typical organic reactions happened in ILs, such as Diels-Alder, esterification and Friedel-Crafts reaction, the ratio of activity coefficients at infinite dilution of products and reactants is employed to estimate different effects of different structural ILs on the rate and selectivity of reactions.

  17. MACROSCOPIC RIVERS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDENBERG, IP

    1991-01-01

    We present a mathematical model for the ''river-phenomenon'': striking concentrations of trajectories of ordinary differential equations. This model of ''macroscopic rivers'' is formulated within nonstandard analysis, and stated in terms of macroscopes and singular perturbations. For a subclass, the

  18. Sodium chloride precipitation reaction coefficient from crystallization experiment in a microfluidic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naillon, A.; Joseph, P.; Prat, M.

    2017-04-01

    The crystal growth of sodium chloride from an aqueous solution is studied from evaporation experiments in microfluidic channels in conjunction with analytical and numerical computations. The crystal growth kinetics is recorded using a high speed camera in order to determine the intrinsic precipitation reaction coefficient. The study reveals that the crystal growth rates determined in previous studies are all affected by the ions transport phenomena in the solution and thus not representative of the precipitation reaction. It is suggested that accurate estimate of sodium chloride precipitation reaction coefficient presented here offers new opportunities for a better understanding of important issues involved in the damages of porous materials induced by the salt crystallization.

  19. An accurate analytic representation of the temperature dependence of nonresonant nuclear reaction rate coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shizgal, Bernie D.

    2016-12-01

    There has been intense interest for several decades by different research groups to accurately model the temperature dependence of a large number of nuclear reaction rate coefficients for both light and heavy nuclides. The rate coefficient, k(T) , is given by the Maxwellian average of the reactive cross section expressed in terms of the astrophysical factor, S(E) , which for nonresonant reactions is generally written as a power series in the relative energy E. A computationally efficient algorithm for the temperature dependence of nuclear reaction rate coefficients is required for fusion reactor research and for models of nucleosynthesis and stellar evolution. In this paper, an accurate analytical expression for the temperature dependence of nuclear reaction rate coefficients is provided in terms of τ = 3(b / 2) 2/3 or equivalently, T - 1/3 , where b = B /√{kB T }, B is the Gamow factor and kB is the Boltzmann constant. The methodology is appropriate for all nonresonant nuclear reactions for which S(E) can be represented as a power series in E. The explicit expression for the rate coefficient versus temperature is derived with the asymptotic expansions of the moments of w(E) = exp(- E /kB T - B /√{ E }) in terms of τ. The zeroth order moment is the familiar Gaussian approximation to the rate coefficient. Results are reported for the representative reactions D(d, p)T, D(d, n)3He and 7Li(p, α) α and compared with several different fitting procedures reported in the literature.

  20. Chemical Reaction Rate Coefficients from Ring Polymer Molecular Dynamics: Theory and Practical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleimanov, Yury V; Aoiz, F Javier; Guo, Hua

    2016-11-03

    This Feature Article presents an overview of the current status of ring polymer molecular dynamics (RPMD) rate theory. We first analyze the RPMD approach and its connection to quantum transition-state theory. We then focus on its practical applications to prototypical chemical reactions in the gas phase, which demonstrate how accurate and reliable RPMD is for calculating thermal chemical reaction rate coefficients in multifarious cases. This review serves as an important checkpoint in RPMD rate theory development, which shows that RPMD is shifting from being just one of recent novel ideas to a well-established and validated alternative to conventional techniques for calculating thermal chemical rate coefficients. We also hope it will motivate further applications of RPMD to various chemical reactions.

  1. A numerical evaluation of prediction accuracy of CO2 absorber model for various reaction rate coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shim S.M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of the CO2 absorber column using mono-ethanolamine (MEA solution as chemical solvent are predicted by a One-Dimensional (1-D rate based model in the present study. 1-D Mass and heat balance equations of vapor and liquid phase are coupled with interfacial mass transfer model and vapor-liquid equilibrium model. The two-film theory is used to estimate the mass transfer between the vapor and liquid film. Chemical reactions in MEA-CO2-H2O system are considered to predict the equilibrium pressure of CO2 in the MEA solution. The mathematical and reaction kinetics models used in this work are calculated by using in-house code. The numerical results are validated in the comparison of simulation results with experimental and simulation data given in the literature. The performance of CO2 absorber column is evaluated by the 1-D rate based model using various reaction rate coefficients suggested by various researchers. When the rate of liquid to gas mass flow rate is about 8.3, 6.6, 4.5 and 3.1, the error of CO2 loading and the CO2 removal efficiency using the reaction rate coefficients of Aboudheir et al. is within about 4.9 % and 5.2 %, respectively. Therefore, the reaction rate coefficient suggested by Aboudheir et al. among the various reaction rate coefficients used in this study is appropriate to predict the performance of CO2 absorber column using MEA solution. [Acknowledgement. This research was supported by the Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF, funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (2011-0017220].

  2. Marangoni flows induced by A + B -> C reaction fronts with arbitrary diffusion coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiani, Reda; Rongy, Laurence

    2016-11-01

    We consider horizontal aqueous solutions in contact with air where three reacting species A, B, and C can affect the surface tension of the solution, thereby driving Marangoni flows. When the two reactants A and B, that are initially separated, are brought into contact, a reaction front producing species C is formed and evolves in time due to diffusion, convection and reaction processes. The resulting dynamics is studied by numerically integrating the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations coupled to reaction-diffusion-convection equations for the three chemical species. For equal initial concentrations of reactants and equal diffusion coefficients, we have explained how chemically-driven Marangoni flows can lead to complex dynamics of the front propagation. Here we extend such results for arbitrary values of the diffusion coefficients and initial concentrations of reactants. We give the general classification of the surface tension profiles as a function of the Marangoni numbers quantifying the effect of each species on the surface tension, the ratio of initial concentrations of reactants and the ratios of diffusion coefficients. Such a classification allows us then to study the resulting structure of the convective rolls as well as the nonlinear dynamics of the reaction front. F.R.S.- FNRS, ARC.

  3. Computational molecular technology towards macroscopic chemical phenomena-molecular control of complex chemical reactions, stereospecificity and aggregate structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagaoka, Masataka [Graduate School of Information Science, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan); Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology (CREST), Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Honmachi, Kawaguchi 332-0012 (Japan); ESICB, Kyoto University, Kyodai Katsura, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8520 (Japan)

    2015-12-31

    A new efficient hybrid Monte Carlo (MC)/molecular dynamics (MD) reaction method with a rare event-driving mechanism is introduced as a practical ‘atomistic’ molecular simulation of large-scale chemically reactive systems. Starting its demonstrative application to the racemization reaction of (R)-2-chlorobutane in N,N-dimethylformamide solution, several other applications are shown from the practical viewpoint of molecular controlling of complex chemical reactions, stereochemistry and aggregate structures. Finally, I would like to mention the future applications of the hybrid MC/MD reaction method.

  4. Studying nuclear level densities of {sup 238}U in the nuclear reactions within the macroscopic nuclear models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Razavi, Rohallah; Aghajani, Maghsood; Khooy, Asghar [Imam Hossein Comprehensive Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Physics; Rahmatinejad, Azam; Taheri, Fariba [Univ. of Zanjan (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Physics; Kakavand, Tayeb [Imam Khomeini International Univ., Qazvin (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Physics

    2016-05-01

    In this work the nuclear level density parameters of {sup 238}U have been extracted in the back-shifted Fermi gas model (BSFGM), as well as the constant temperature model (CTM), through fitting with the recent experimental data on nuclear level densities measured by the Oslo group. The excitation functions for {sup 238}U(p,2nα){sup 233}Pa, and {sup 238}U(p,4n){sup 235}Np reactions and the fragment yields for the fragments of the {sup 238}U(p,f) reaction have been calculated using obtained level density parameters. The results are compared to their corresponding experimental values. It was found that the extracted excitation functions and the fragment yields in the CTM coincide well with the experimental values in the low-energy region. This finding is according to the claim made by the Oslo group that the extracted level densities of {sup 238}U show a constant temperature behaviour.

  5. Ground reaction force analysed with correlation coefficient matrix in group of stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczerbik, Ewa; Krawczyk, Maciej; Syczewska, Małgorzata

    2014-01-01

    Stroke is the third cause of death in contemporary society and causes many disorders. Clinical scales, ground reaction force (GRF) and objective gait analysis are used for assessment of patient's rehabilitation progress during treatment. The goal of this paper is to assess whether signal correlation coefficient matrix applied to GRF can be used for evaluation of the status of post-stroke patients. A group of patients underwent clinical assessment and instrumented gait analysis simultaneously three times. The difference between components of patient's GRF (vertical, fore/aft, med/lat) and normal ones (reference GRF of healthy subjects) was calculated as correlation coefficient. Patients were divided into two groups ("worse" and "better") based on the clinical functional scale tests done at the beginning of rehabilitation process. The results obtained by these two groups were compared using statistical analysis. An increase of median value of correlation coefficient is observed in all components of GRF, but only in non-paretic leg. Analysis of GRF signal can be helpful in assessment of post-stroke patients during rehabilitation. Improvement in stroke patients was observed in non-paretic leg of the "worse" group. GRF analysis should not be the only tool for objective validation of patient's improvement, but could be used as additional source of information.

  6. Periodic and solitary wave solutions of cubic–quintic nonlinear reaction-diffusion equation with variable convection coefficients

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    BHARDWAJ S B; SINGH RAM MEHAR; SHARMA KUSHAL; MISHRA S C

    2016-06-01

    Attempts have been made to explore the exact periodic and solitary wave solutions of nonlinear reaction diffusion (RD) equation involving cubic–quintic nonlinearity along with timedependent convection coefficients. Effect of varying model coefficients on the physical parameters of solitary wave solutions is demonstrated. Depending upon the parametric condition, the periodic,double-kink, bell and antikink-type solutions for cubic–quintic nonlinear reaction-diffusion equation are extracted. Such solutions can be used to explain various biological and physical phenomena.

  7. CP: AN INVESTIGATION OF COEFFICIENT OF THERMAL EXPANSION, DECOMPOSITION KINETICS, AND REACTION TO VARIOUS STIMULI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weese, R K; Burnham, A K; Fontes, A T

    2005-03-23

    The properties of pentaamine (5-cyano-2H-tetrazolato-N2) cobalt (III) perchlorate (CP), which was first synthesized in 1968, continues to be of interest for predicting behavior in handling, shipping, aging, and thermal cook-off situations. We report coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) values over four specific temperature ranges, decomposition kinetics using linear heating rates, and the reaction to three different types of stimuli: impact, spark, and friction. The CTE was measured using a Thermal Mechanical Analyzer (TMA) for samples that were uniaxially compressed at 10,000 psi and analyzed over a dynamic temperature range of -20 C to 70 C. Using differential scanning calorimetry, DSC, CP was decomposed at linear heating rates of 1, 3, and 7 C/min and the kinetic triplet calculated using the LLNL code Kinetics05. Values are also reported for spark, friction, and impact sensitivity.

  8. Invariant regions and global solutions for reaction-diffusion systems with a tridiagonal symmetric Toeplitz matrix of diffusion coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salem Abdelmalek

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article we construct the invariant regions for m-component reaction-diffusion systems with a tridiagonal symmetric Toeplitz matrix of diffusion coefficients and with nonhomogeneous boundary conditions. We establish the existence of global solutions, and use Lyapunov functional methods. The nonlinear reaction term is assumed to be of polynomial growth.

  9. Singular 1-soliton solution of the nonlinear variable-coefficient diffusion reaction and mKdV equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guner, Ozkan; Bekir, Ahmet; Unsal, Omer; Cevikel, Adem C.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we pay attention to the analytical method named, ansatz method for finding the exact solutions of the variable-coefficient modified KdV equation and variable coefficient diffusion-reaction equation. As a result the singular 1-soliton solution is obtained. These solutions are important for the explanation of some practical physical problems. The obtained results show that these methods provides a powerful mathematical tool for solving nonlinear equations with variable coefficients. This method can be extended to solve other variable coefficient nonlinear partial differential equations.

  10. Transmission coefficients for chemical reactions with multiple states: role of quantum decoherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Lande, Aurélien; Řezáč, Jan; Lévy, Bernard; Sanders, Barry C; Salahub, Dennis R

    2011-03-23

    Transition-state theory (TST) is a widely accepted paradigm for rationalizing the kinetics of chemical reactions involving one potential energy surface (PES). Multiple PES reaction rate constants can also be estimated within semiclassical approaches provided the hopping probability between the quantum states is taken into account when determining the transmission coefficient. In the Marcus theory of electron transfer, this hopping probability was historically calculated with models such as Landau-Zener theory. Although the hopping probability is intimately related to the question of the transition from the fully quantum to the semiclassical description, this issue is not adequately handled in physicochemical models commonly in use. In particular, quantum nuclear effects such as decoherence or dephasing are not present in the rate constant expressions. Retaining the convenient semiclassical picture, we include these effects through the introduction of a phenomenological quantum decoherence function. A simple modification to the usual TST rate constant expression is proposed: in addition to the electronic coupling, a characteristic decoherence time τ(dec) now also appears as a key parameter of the rate constant. This new parameter captures the idea that molecular systems, although intrinsically obeying quantum mechanical laws, behave semiclassically after a finite but nonzero amount of time (τ(dec)). This new degree of freedom allows a fresh look at the underlying physics of chemical reactions involving more than one quantum state. The ability of the proposed formula to describe the main physical lines of the phenomenon is confirmed by comparison with results obtained from density functional theory molecular dynamics simulations for a triplet to singlet transition within a copper dioxygen adduct relevant to the question of dioxygen activation by copper monooxygenases.

  11. Rate Coefficients of the Reaction of OH with Allene and Propyne at High Temperatures

    KAUST Repository

    Es-Sebbar, Et Touhami

    2016-09-28

    Allene (H2C═C═CH2; a-C3H4) and propyne (CH3C≡CH; p-C3H4) are important species in various chemical environments. In combustion processes, the reactions of hydroxyl radicals with a-C3H4 and p-C3H4 are critical in the overall fuel oxidation system. In this work, rate coefficients of OH radicals with allene (OH + H2C═C═CH2 → products) and propyne (OH + CH3C≡CH → products) were measured behind reflected shock waves over the temperature range of 843–1352 K and pressures near 1.5 atm. Hydroxyl radicals were generated by rapid thermal decomposition of tert-butyl hydroperoxide ((CH3)3–CO–OH), and monitored by narrow line width laser absorption of the well-characterized R1(5) electronic transition of the OH A–X (0,0) electronic system near 306.7 nm. Results show that allene reacts faster with OH radicals than propyne over the temperature range of this study. Measured rate coefficients can be expressed in Arrhenius form as follows: kallene+OH(T) = 8.51(±0.03) × 10–22T3.05 exp(2215(±3)/T), T = 843–1352 K; kpropyne+OH(T) = 1.30(±0.07) × 10–21T3.01 exp(1140(±6)/T), T = 846–1335 K.

  12. PROPERTIES OF CP: COEFFICIENT OF THERMAL EXPANSION, DECOMPOSITION KINETICS, AND REACTION TO SPARK, FRICTION AND IMPACT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weese, R K; Burnham, A K

    2005-09-28

    The properties of pentaamine (5-cyano-2H-tetrazolato-N2) cobalt (III) perchlorate (CP), which was first synthesized in 1968, continues to be of interest for predicting behavior in handling, shipping, aging, and thermal cook-off situations. We report coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) values over four specific temperature ranges, decomposition kinetics using linear and isothermal heating, and the reaction to three different types of stimuli: impact, spark, and friction. The CTE was measured using a Thermal Mechanical Analyzer (TMA) for samples that were uniaxially compressed at 10,000 psi and analyzed over a dynamic temperature range of -20 C to 70 C. Differential scanning calorimetry, DSC, was used to monitor CP decomposition at linear heating rates of 1-7 C min{sup -1} in perforated pans and of 0.1-1.0 C min{sup -1} in sealed pans. The kinetic triplet was calculated using the LLNL code Kinetics05, and predictions for 210 and 240 C are compared to isothermal thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) experiments. Values are also reported for spark, friction, and impact sensitivity.

  13. Macroscopic-microscopic mass models

    CERN Document Server

    Nix, J R; Nix, J Rayford; Moller, Peter

    1995-01-01

    We discuss recent developments in macroscopic-microscopic mass models, including the 1992 finite-range droplet model, the 1992 extended-Thomas-Fermi Strutinsky-integral model, and the 1994 Thomas-Fermi model, with particular emphasis on how well they extrapolate to new regions of nuclei. We also address what recent developments in macroscopic-microscopic mass models are teaching us about such physically relevant issues as the nuclear curvature energy, a new congruence energy arising from a greater-than-average overlap of neutron and proton wave functions, the nuclear incompressibility coefficient, and the Coulomb redistribution energy arising from a central density depression. We conclude with a brief discussion of the recently discovered rock of metastable superheavy nuclei near 272:110 that had been correctly predicted by macroscopic-microscopic models, along with a possible new tack for reaching an island near 290:110 beyond our present horizon.

  14. Determination of the reaction rate coefficient of sulphide mine tailings deposited under water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awoh, Akué Sylvette; Mbonimpa, Mamert; Bussière, Bruno

    2013-10-15

    The efficiency of a water cover to limit dissolved oxygen (DO) availability to underlying acid-generating mine tailings can be assessed by calculating the DO flux at the tailings-water interface. Fick's equations, which are generally used to calculate this flux, require knowing the effective DO diffusion coefficient (Dw) and the reaction (consumption) rate coefficient (Kr) of the tailings, or the DO concentration profile. Whereas Dw can be accurately estimated, few studies have measured the parameter Kr for submerged sulphide tailings. The objective of this study was to determine Kr for underwater sulphide tailings in a laboratory experiment. Samples of sulphide mine tailings (an approximately 6 cm layer) were placed in a cell under a water cover (approximately 2 cm) maintained at constant DO concentration. Two tailings were studied: TA1 with high sulphide content (83% pyrite) and TA2 with low sulphide content (2.8% pyrite). DO concentration was measured with a microelectrode at various depths above and below the tailings-water interface at 1 mm intervals. Results indicate that steady-state condition was rapidly attained. As expected, a diffusive boundary layer (DBL) was observed in all cases. An iterative back-calculation process using the numerical code POLLUTEv6 and taking the DBL into account provided the Kr values used to match calculated and experimental concentration profiles. Kr obtained for tailings TA1 and TA2 was about 80 d(-1) and 6.5 d(-1), respectively. For comparison purposes, Kr obtained from cell tests on tailings TA1 was lower than Kr calculated from the sulphate production rate obtained from shake-flask tests. Steady-state DO flux at the water-tailings interface was then calculated with POLLUTEv6 using tailings characteristics Dw and Kr. For the tested conditions, DO flux ranged from 608 to 758 mg O2/m(2)/d for tailings TA1 and from 177 to 221 mg O2/m(2)/d for tailings TA2. The impact of placing a protective layer of inert material over

  15. Determination of the side-reaction coefficient of desferrioxamine B in trace-metal-free seawater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Schijf

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Electrochemical techniques like adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammetry with competitive ligand equilibration (ACSV-CLE can determine total concentrations of marine organic ligands and their conditional binding constants for specific metals, but cannot identify them. Individual organic ligands, isolated from microbial cultures or biosynthesized through genomics, can be structurally characterized via NMR and tandem MS analysis, but this is tedious and time-consuming. A complementary approach is to compare known properties of natural ligands, particularly their conditional binding constants, with those of model organic ligands, measured under suitable conditions. Such comparisons cannot be meaningfully interpreted unless the side-reaction coefficient (SRC of the model ligand in seawater is thoroughly evaluated.We conducted series of potentiometric titrations, in non-coordinating medium at seawater ionic strength (0.7 M NaClO4 over a range of metal:ligand molar ratios, to study complexation of the siderophore desferrioxamine B (DFOB with Mg and Ca, for which it has the highest affinity among the major seasalt cations. From similar titrations of acetohydroxamic acid in the absence and presence of methanesulfonate (mesylate, it was determined that Mg and Ca binding to this common DFOB counter-ion is not strong enough to interfere with the DFOB titrations. Stability constants were measured for all DFOB complexes with Mg and Ca including, for the first time, the bidentate complexes. No evidence was found for Mg and Ca coordination with the DFOB terminal amine. From the improved DFOB speciation, we calculated five SRCs for each of the five (deprotonated forms of DFOB in trace-metal-free seawater, yet we also present a more convenient definition of a single SRC that allows adjustment of all DFOB stability constants to seawater conditions, no matter which of these forms is selected as the 'component' (reference species. An example of Cd speciation in

  16. Micromechanical study of macroscopic friction and dissipation in idealised granular materials: the effect of interparticle friction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruyt, N.P.; Rothenburg, L.; Gutkowski, Witold; Kowalewski, Tomasz A.

    2004-01-01

    Using Discrete Element Method (DEM) simulations with varying interparticle friction coefficient, the relation between interparticle friction coefficient and macroscopic continuum friction and dissipation is investigated. As expected, macroscopic friction and dilatancy increase with interparticle fri

  17. An efficient nonclassical quadrature for the calculation of nonresonant nuclear fusion reaction rate coefficients from cross section data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shizgal, Bernie D.

    2016-08-01

    Nonclassical quadratures based on a new set of half-range polynomials, Tn(x) , orthogonal with respect to w(x) =e - x - b /√{ x } for x ∈ [ 0 , ∞) are employed in the efficient calculation of the nuclear fusion reaction rate coefficients from cross section data. The parameter b = B /√{kB T } in the weight function is temperature dependent and B is the Gamow factor. The polynomials Tn(x) satisfy a three term recurrence relation defined by two sets of recurrence coefficients, αn and βn. These recurrence coefficients define in turn the tridiagonal Jacobi matrix whose eigenvalues are the quadrature points and the weights are calculated from the first components of the eigenfunctions. For nonresonant nuclear reactions for which the astrophysical function can be expressed as a lower order polynomial in the relative energy, the convergence of the thermal average of the reactive cross section with this nonclassical quadrature is extremely rapid requiring in many cases 2-4 quadrature points. The results are compared with other libraries of nuclear reaction rate coefficient data reported in the literature.

  18. Guideline for Adopting the Local Reaction Assumption for Porous Absorbers in Terms of Random Incidence Absorption Coefficients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho

    2011-01-01

    errors of less than 10% if the thickness exceeds 120 mm for a flow resistivity of 5000 Nm-4s. As the flow resistivity doubles, a decrease in the required thickness by 25 mm is observed to achieve the same amount of error. For an absorber backed by an air gap, the thickness ratio between the material...... and air cavity is important, since the thicker the cavity, the more extendedly reacting the absorber. If the absorber thickness is approximately 40% of the cavity depth, the local reaction models give errors below 10% even for a low flow resistivity case....... resistivity and the absorber thickness on the difference between the two surface reaction models are examined and discussed. For a porous absorber backed by a rigid surface, the assumption of local reaction always underestimates the random incidence absorption coefficient and the local reaction models give...

  19. Optimisation of enzyme concentrations for unbranched reaction chains: the concept of combined response coefficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vienne, D; Bost, B; Fiévet, J; Dillmann, C

    2001-01-01

    In the metabolic control theory, the control coefficient is a key parameter in quantifying the sensitivity of the flux towards an infinitesimal variation of enzyme activity. This concept does not apply just as it is for variations of enzyme concentrations whenever there is spatial, energy or resources limitations in the cell. Due to constraint on total enzyme concentration, the variation of concentration of any given enzyme may affect the concentrations of other enzymes. To take into account these correlations between enzyme concentrations, we propose the concept of "combined response coefficient". Its definition is similar to that of the control coefficient, but its mathematical expression is different. Its range of variation is from -infinity to +1, the null value corresponding to optimum enzyme concentration, i.e. to concentrations that maximise the flux, and the negative values to concentrations beyond the optimum value. A summation property could be derived using a simple weighting of the combined response coefficients, the sum of the weighed coefficient being 0.

  20. Recommended Thermal Rate Coefficients for the C + H3 + Reaction and Some Astrochemical Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vissapragada, S.; Buzard, C. F.; Miller, K. A.; O'Connor, A. P.; de Ruette, N.; Urbain, X.; Savin, D. W.

    2016-11-01

    We incorporate our experimentally derived thermal rate coefficients for C + {{{H}}}3+ forming CH+ and CH2 + into a commonly used astrochemical model. We find that the Arrhenius-Kooij equation typically used in chemical models does not accurately fit our data and instead we use a more versatile fitting formula. At a temperature of 10 K and a density of 104 cm-3, we find no significant differences in the predicted chemical abundances, but at higher temperatures of 50, 100, and 300 K we find up to factor of 2 changes. In addition, we find that the relatively small error on our thermal rate coefficients, ˜15%, significantly reduces the uncertainties on the predicted abundances compared to those obtained using the currently implemented Langevin rate coefficient with its estimated factor of 2 uncertainty.

  1. Recommended Thermal Rate Coefficients for the C + H$_3^+$ Reaction and Some Astrochemical Implications

    CERN Document Server

    Vissapragada, S; Miller, K A; O'Connor, A P; de Ruette, N; Urbain, X; Savin, D W

    2016-01-01

    We have incorporated our experimentally derived thermal rate coefficients for C + H$_3^+$ forming CH$^+$ and CH$_2^+$ into a commonly used astrochemical model. We find that the Arrhenius-Kooij equation typically used in chemical models does not accurately fit our data and use instead a more versatile fitting formula. At a temperature of 10 K and a density of 10$^4$ cm$^{-3}$, we find no significant differences in the predicted chemical abundances, but at higher temperatures of 50, 100, and 300 K we find up to factor of 2 changes. Additionally, we find that the relatively small error on our thermal rate coefficients, $\\sim15\\%$, significantly reduces the uncertainties on the predicted abundances compared to those obtained using the currently implemented Langevin rate coefficient with its estimated factor of 2 uncertainty.

  2. Experimental and theoretical studies of rate coefficients for the reaction O(3P)+CH3OH at high temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chih-Wei; Chou, Shen-Long; Lee, Yuan-Pern; Xu, Shucheng; Xu, Z F; Lin, M C

    2005-06-22

    Rate coefficients of the reaction O((3)P) + CH(3)OH in the temperature range of 835-1777 K were determined using a diaphragmless shock tube. O atoms were generated by photolysis of SO(2) with a KrF excimer laser at 248 nm or an ArF excimer laser at 193 nm; their concentrations were monitored via atomic resonance absorption excited by emission from a microwave-discharged mixture of O(2) and He. The rate coefficients determined for the temperature range can be represented by the Arrhenius equation, k(T) = (2.29 +/- 0.18) x 10(-10) exp[-(4210 +/- 100)T] cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1); unless otherwise noted, all the listed errors represent one standard deviation in fitting. Combination of these and previous data at lower temperature shows a non-Arrhenius behavior described as the three-parameter equation, k(T) = (2.74 +/- 0.07) x 10(-18)T(2.25 +/- 0.13) exp[-(1500 +/- 90)T] cm(3)molecule(-1) s(-1). Theoretical calculations at the Becke-3-Lee-Yang-Parr (B3LYP)6-311 + G(3df,2p) level locate three transition states. Based on the energies computed with coupled clusters singles, doubles (triples) [CCSD(T)]/6-311 + G(3df,2p)B3LYP6-311 + G(3df,2p), the rate coefficients predicted with canonical variational transition state theory with small curvature tunneling corrections agree satisfactorily with the experimental observations. The branching ratios of two accessible reaction channels forming OH + CH(2)OH (1a) and OH + CH(3)O (1b) are predicted to vary strongly with temperature. At 300 K, reaction (1a) dominates, whereas reaction (1b) becomes more important than reaction (1a) above 1700 K.

  3. Random incidence absorption coefficients of porous absorbers based on local and extended reaction models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho

    2011-01-01

    Room surfaces have been extensively modeled as locally reacting in room acoustic predictions although such modeling could yield significant errors under certain conditions. Therefore, this study aims to propose a guideline for adopting the local reaction assumption by comparing predicted random...... incidence acoustical characteristics of typical building elements made of porous materials assuming extended and local reaction. For each surface reaction, five well-established wave propagation models, the Delany-Bazley, Miki, Beranek, Allard-Champoux, and Biot model, are employed. Effects of the flow...

  4. Atmospheric reactions of methylcyclohexanes with Cl atoms and OH radicals: determination of rate coefficients and degradation products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, Bernabé; Ceacero-Vega, Antonio A; Jiménez, Elena; Albaladejo, José

    2015-04-01

    As the result of biogenic and anthropogenic activities, large quantities of chemical compounds are emitted into the troposphere. Alkanes, in general, and cycloalkanes are an important chemical class of hydrocarbons found in diesel, jet and gasoline, vehicle exhaust emissions, and ambient air in urban areas. In general, the primary atmospheric fate of organic compounds in the gas phase is the reaction with hydroxyl radicals (OH). The oxidation by Cl atoms has gained importance in the study of atmospheric reactions because they may exert some influence in the boundary layer, particularly in marine and coastal environments, and in the Arctic troposphere. The aim of this paper is to study of the atmospheric reactivity of methylcylohexanes with Cl atoms and OH radicals under atmospheric conditions (in air at room temperature and pressure). Relative kinetic techniques have been used to determine the rate coefficients for the reaction of Cl atoms and OH radicals with methylcyclohexane, cis-1,4-dimethylcyclohexane, trans-1,4-dimethylcyclohexane, and 1,3,5-trimethylcyclohexane at 298 ± 2 K and 720 ± 5 Torr of air by Fourier transform infrared) spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in two atmospheric simulation chambers. The products formed in the reaction under atmospheric conditions were investigated using a 200-L Teflon bag and employing the technique of solid-phase microextraction coupled to a GC-MS. The rate coefficients obtained for the reaction of Cl atoms with the studied compounds are the following ones (in units of 10(-10) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1)): (3.11 ± 0.16), (2.89 ± 0.16), (2.89 ± 0.26), and (2.61 ± 0.42), respectively. For the reactions with OH radicals the determined rate coefficients are (in units of 10(-11) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1)): (1.18 ± 0.12), (1.49 ± 0.16), (1.41 ± 0.15), and (1.77 ± 0.23), respectively. The reported error is twice the standard deviation. A detailed

  5. Random incidence absorption coefficients of porous absorbers based on local and extended reaction models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho

    2011-01-01

    resistivity doubles, a decrease in the required thickness by 25 mm is observed to achieve the same amount of error. For an absorber backed by an air gap, the thickness ratio between the material and air cavity is important. If the absorber thickness is approximately 40% of the cavity depth, the local reaction...... resistivity and the absorber thickness on the difference between the two surface reaction models are examined and discussed. For a porous absorber backed by a rigid surface, the local reaction models give errors of less than 10% if the thickness exceeds 120 mm for a flow resistivity of 5000 Nm-4s. As the flow...... models give errors below 10% even for a low flow resistivity case....

  6. Interference of macroscopic superpositions

    CERN Document Server

    Vecchi, I

    2000-01-01

    We propose a simple experimental procedure based on the Elitzur-Vaidman scheme to implement a quantum nondemolition measurement testing the persistence of macroscopic superpositions. We conjecture that its implementation will reveal the persistence of superpositions of macroscopic objects in the absence of a direct act of observation.

  7. Experimental measurements of low temperature rate coefficients for neutral-neutral reactions of interest for atmospheric chemistry of Titan, Pluto and Triton: reactions of the CN radical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Sébastien B; Le Picard, Sébastien D; Canosa, André; Sims, Ian R

    2010-01-01

    The kinetics of the reactions of cyano radical, CN (X2sigma+) with three hydrocarbons, propane (CH3CH2CH3), propene (CH3CH=CH2) and 1-butyne (CH[triple band]CCH2CH3) have been studied over the temperature range of 23-298 K using a CRESU (Cinétique de Réaction en Ecoulement Supersonique Uniforme or Reaction Kinetics in Uniform Supersonic Flow) apparatus combined with the pulsed laser photolysis-laser induced fluorescence technique. These reactions are of interest for the cold atmospheres of Titan, Pluto and Triton, as they might participate in the formation of nitrogen and carbon bearing molecules, including nitriles, that are thought to play an important role in the formation of hazes and biological molecules. All three reactions are rapid with rate coefficients in excess of 10(-10) cm3 molecule(-1) s(-1) at the lowest temperatures of this study and show behaviour characteristic of barrierless reactions. Temperature dependences, different for each reaction, are compared to those used in the most recent photochemical models of Titan's atmosphere.

  8. Continuous dependence on the coefficients and global existence for stochastic reaction diffusion equations

    CERN Document Server

    Kunze, Markus

    2011-01-01

    We prove convergence of the solutions X_n of semilinear stochastic evolution equations dX_n(t) = (A_nX(t) + F_n(t,X_n(t)))dt + G_n(t,X_n(t))dW_H(t), X_n(0) = x_n, on a Banach space B, driven by a cylindrical Brownian motion W_H in a Hilbert space H. We assume that the operators A_n converge to A and the locally Lipschitz functions F_n and G_n converge to the locally Lipschitz functions F and G in an appropriate sense. Moreover, we obtain estimates for the lifetime of the solution X of the limiting problem in terms of the lifetimes of the approximating solutions X_n. We apply the results to prove global existence for reaction diffusion equations with multiplicative noise and a polynomially bounded reaction term satisfying suitable dissipativity conditions. The operator governing the linear part of the equation can be an arbitrary uniformly elliptic second order elliptic operator.

  9. Spectrophotometric method for the quantitative assay of N-hydroxysulfosuccinimide esters including extinction coefficients and reaction kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presentini, Rivo

    2017-05-15

    A quantitative spectrophotometric method has been developed for the analysis of N-hydroxysulfosuccinimide (sulfo-NHS), a chromophore with a maximum absorbance at 268 nm. The extinction coefficients were determined between pH 6.0 and 8.0 and found to vary in a nonlinear manner. This spectrophotometric profile is not present in its esters which however release an equimolar amount of sulfo-NHS when they react with nucleophilic groups or hydrolyze in aqueous solution. This fact facilitates the determination in solution of the concentration and purity of bis(sulfosuccinimidyl) suberate (BS3) used as a model, as well as the examination of hydrolysis and aminolysis half-lives in different reaction conditions, these parameters being valuable in optimization of the use of the active esters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A STUDY OF THE PROPERTIES OF CP: COEFFICIENT OF THERMAL EXPANSION, DECOMPOSITION KINETICS AND REACTION TO SPARK, FRICTION AND IMPACT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weese, R K; Burnham, A K; Fontes, A T

    2005-03-30

    The properties of pentaamine (5-cyano-2H-tetrazolato-N2) cobalt (III) perchlorate (CP), which was first synthesized in 1968, continues to be of interest for predicting behavior in handling, shipping, aging, and thermal cook-off situations. We report coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) values over four specific temperature ranges, decomposition kinetics using linear heating rates, and the reaction to three different types of stimuli: impact, spark, and friction. The CTE was measured using a Thermal Mechanical Analyzer (TMA) for samples that were uniaxially compressed at 10,000 psi and analyzed over a dynamic temperature range of -20 C to 70 C. Using differential scanning calorimetry, DSC, CP was decomposed at linear heating rates of 1, 3, and 7 C/min and the kinetic triplet calculated using the LLNL code Kinetics05. Values are also reported for spark, friction, and impact sensitivity.

  11. Macroscopic quantum resonators (MAQRO)

    CERN Document Server

    Kaltenbaek, Rainer; Kiesel, Nikolai; Romero-Isart, Oriol; Johann, Ulrich; Aspelmeyer, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Quantum physics challenges our understanding of the nature of physical reality and of space-time and suggests the necessity of radical revisions of their underlying concepts. Experimental tests of quantum phenomena involving massive macroscopic objects would provide novel insights into these fundamental questions. Making use of the unique environment provided by space, MAQRO aims at investigating this largely unexplored realm of macroscopic quantum physics. MAQRO has originally been proposed as a medium-sized fundamental-science space mission for the 2010 call of Cosmic Vision. MAQRO unites two experiments: DECIDE (DECoherence In Double-Slit Experiments) and CASE (Comparative Acceleration Sensing Experiment). The main scientific objective of MAQRO, which is addressed by the experiment DECIDE, is to test the predictions of quantum theory for quantum superpositions of macroscopic objects containing more than 10e8 atoms. Under these conditions, deviations due to various suggested alternative models to quantum th...

  12. Test of Determination of (p,γ) Astrophysical S-Factors Using the Asymptotic Normalization Coefficients from Neutron Transfer Reactions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Bing; LI Zhi-Hong; LIU Wei-Ping; BAI Xi-Xiang

    2007-01-01

    The asymptotic normalization coefficients (ANCs) for the virtual decay 17O→16O+n are derived from the angular distributions of the 16O(d, p)17O reaction leading to the ground and first excited states of 17O, respectively, using the distorted wave Born approximation and the adiabatic wave approximation. The ANCs of 17F are then extracted according to charge symmetry of mirror nuclei and used to calculate the astrophysical S-factors of 16O(p,γ)17F leading to the first two states of 17F. The present results are in good agreement with those from the direct measurement. This provides a test of this indirect method to determine direct astrophysical S-factors of(p, γ) reaction. In addition, the S-factors at zero energy for the direct captures to the ground and first excited states of 17F are presented, without the uncertainty associated with the extrapolation from higher energies in direct measurement.

  13. Direct Determination of the Rate Coefficient for the Reaction of OH Radicals with Monoethanol Amine (MEA) from 296 to 510 K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onel, L; Blitz, M A; Seakins, P W

    2012-04-05

    Monoethanol amine (H2NCH2CH2OH, MEA) has been proposed for large-scale use in carbon capture and storage. We present the first absolute, temperature-dependent determination of the rate coefficient for the reaction of OH with MEA using laser flash photolysis for OH generation, monitoring OH removal by laser-induced fluorescence. The room-temperature rate coefficient is determined to be (7.61 ± 0.76) × 10(-11) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1), and the rate coefficient decreases by about 40% by 510 K. The temperature dependence of the rate coefficient is given by k1= (7.73 ± 0.24) × 10(-11)(T/295)(-(0.79±0.11)) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1). The high rate coefficient shows that gas-phase processing in the atmosphere will be competitive with uptake onto aerosols.

  14. Macroscopic Objects, Intrinsic Spin, and Lorentz Violation

    CERN Document Server

    Atkinson, David W; Tasson, Jay D

    2013-01-01

    The framework of the Standard-Model Extension (SME) provides a relativistic quantum field theory for the study of Lorentz violation. The classical, nonrelativistic equations of motion can be extracted as a limit that is useful in various scenarios. In this work, we consider the effects of certain SME coefficients for Lorentz violation on the motion of macroscopic objects having net intrinsic spin in the classical, nonrelativistic limit.

  15. Rate coefficients and kinetic isotope effects of the X + CH4 → CH3 + HX (X = H, D, Mu) reactions from ring polymer molecular dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongle; Suleimanov, Yury V; Li, Jun; Green, William H; Guo, Hua

    2013-03-07

    The thermal rate coefficients and kinetic isotope effects have been calculated using ring polymer molecular dynamics (RPMD) for the prototypical reactions between methane and several hydrogen isotopes (H, D, and Mu). The excellent agreement with the theoretical rate coefficients of the H + CH4 reaction obtained previously from a multi-configuration time-dependent Hartree calculation on the same potential energy surface provides strong evidence for the accuracy of the RPMD approach. These quantum mechanical rate coefficients are also in good agreement with the results obtained previously using the transition-state theory with semi-classical tunneling corrections for the H∕D + CH4 reactions. However, it is shown that the RPMD rate coefficients for the ultralight Mu reaction with CH4 are significantly smaller than the experimental data, presumably suggesting inaccuracies in the potential energy surface and∕or experimental errors. Significant discrepancies between the RPMD and transition-state theory results have also been found for this challenging system.

  16. Dose coefficients for inhalation of radionuclides generated through the nuclear spallation reaction by high-energy protons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endo, Akira; Takada, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Yasuhiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-10-01

    Dose coefficients have been calculated for inhalation of radionuclides generated in spallation neutron targets and not listed in ICRP Publication 68. Eleven radionuclides, generated in large quantities in the targets and having half-lives more than 10 minutes, were selected for the present calculation. The calculation of the dose coefficients was performed with LUDEP, a program implementing the ICRP Publication 66 respiratory tract model, and NUDAT, a decay radiation database processed from ENSDF. Comparisons were made between the dose coefficients calculated by LUDEP and those listed in ICRP Publication 68 in order to validate the calculated dose coefficients. For 228 cases that vary inhaled particle diameters and biokinetic models of 66 radionuclides, the dose coefficients calculated by LUDEP agreed with those of ICRP Publication 68 within {+-} 25% for 213 cases. Discrepancies that exceed the ICRP`s coefficients by {+-} 25% were mainly attributable to the difference of radiation data employed. It was confirmed from the comparisons that the dose coefficients calculated by the present method are reliable ones. Annual limits on intake and derived air concentrations were calculated on the basis of the dose coefficients. It can be concluded that the dose coefficients and limits calculated here are useful from viewpoints of the design of ventilation system and the evaluation of internal exposures in high energy proton accelerator facilities. (author)

  17. Covariant Macroscopic Quantum Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Hogan, Craig J

    2012-01-01

    A covariant noncommutative algebra of position operators is presented, and interpreted as the macroscopic limit of a geometry that describes a collective quantum behavior of the positions of massive bodies in a flat emergent space-time. The commutator defines a quantum-geometrical relationship between world lines that depends on their separation and relative velocity, but on no other property of the bodies, and leads to a transverse uncertainty of the geometrical wave function that increases with separation. The number of geometrical degrees of freedom in a space-time volume scales holographically, as the surface area in Planck units. Ongoing branching of the wave function causes fluctuations in transverse position, shared coherently among bodies with similar trajectories. The theory can be tested using appropriately configured Michelson interferometers.

  18. The macroscopic pancake bounce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen Bro, Jonas; Sternberg Brogaard Jensen, Kasper; Nygaard Larsen, Alex; Yeomans, Julia M.; Hecksher, Tina

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate that the so-called pancake bounce of millimetric water droplets on surfaces patterned with hydrophobic posts (Liu et al 2014 Nat. Phys. 10 515) can be reproduced on larger scales. In our experiment, a bed of nails plays the role of the structured surface and a water balloon models the water droplet. The macroscopic version largely reproduces the features of the microscopic experiment, including the Weber number dependence and the reduced contact time for pancake bouncing. The scalability of the experiment confirms the mechanisms of pancake bouncing, and allows us to measure the force exerted on the surface during the bounce. The experiment is simple and inexpensive and is an example where front-line research is accessible to student projects.

  19. Rate coefficients for the reaction of methylglyoxal (CH3COCHO with OH and NO2 and glyoxal (HCO2 with NO3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. B. Burkholder

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Rate coefficients, k, for the gas-phase reaction of CH3COCHO (methylglyoxal with the OH and NO3 radicals and (CHO2 (glyoxal with the NO3 radical are reported. Rate coefficients for the OH + CH3COCHO (k1 reaction were measured under pseudo-first-order conditions in OH as a function of temperature (211–373 K and pressure (100–220 Torr, He and N2 bath gases using pulsed laser photolysis to produce OH radicals and laser induced fluorescence to measure its temporal profile. k1 was found to be independent of the bath gas pressure with k1(295 K = (1.29 ± 0.13 × 10−11 cm3 molecule−1 s−1 and a temperature dependence that is well represented by the Arrhenius expression k1(T = (1.74 ± 0.20 × 10−12 exp[(590 ± 40/T] cm3 molecule−1 s−1 where the uncertainties are 2σ and include estimated systematic errors. Rate coefficients for the NO3+ (CHO2 (k3 and NO3+ CH3COCHO (k4 reactions were measured using a relative rate technique to be k3(296 K = (3.7 ± 1.0 × 10−16 cm3 molecule−1 s−1 and k4(296 K = (4.1 ± 1.2 × 10−16 cm3 molecule−1 s−1. k3(T was also measured using an absolute rate coefficient method under pseudo-first-order conditions at 296 and 353 K to be (4.2 ± 0.8 × 10−16 and (7.9 ± 3.6 × 10−16 cm3 molecule−1 s−1, respectively, in agreement with the relative rate result obtained at room temperature. The atmospheric implications of the OH and NO3 reaction rate coefficients measured in this work are discussed.

  20. Rate coefficients for the reaction of methylglyoxal (CH3COCHO with OH and NO3 and glyoxal (HCO2 with NO3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. B. Burkholder

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Rate coefficients, k, for the gas-phase reaction of CH3COCHO (methylglyoxal with the OH and NO3 radicals and (CHO2 (glyoxal with the NO3 radical are reported. Rate coefficients for the OH + CH3COCHO (k1 reaction were measured under pseudo-first-order conditions in OH as a function of temperature (211–373 K and pressure (100–220 Torr, He and N2 bath gases using pulsed laser photolysis to produce OH radicals and laser induced fluorescence to measure its temporal profile. k1 was found to be independent of the bath gas pressure with k1(295 K = (1.29 ± 0.13 × 10−11 cm3 molecule−1 s−1 and a temperature dependence that is well represented by the Arrhenius expression k1(T = (1.74 ± 0.20 × 10−12 exp[(590 ± 40/T] cm3 molecule−1 s−1 where the uncertainties are 2σ and include estimated systematic errors. Rate coefficients for the NO3 + (CHO2 (k3 and NO3 + CH3COCHO (k4 reactions were measured using a relative rate technique to be k3(296 K = (4.0 ± 1.0 × 10−16 cm3 molecule−1 s−1 and k4(296 K = (5.1 ± 2.1 × 10−16 cm3 molecule−1 s−1. k3(T was also measured using an absolute rate coefficient method under pseudo-first-order conditions at 296 and 353 K to be (4.2 ± 0.8 × 10−16 and (7.9 ± 3.6 × 10−16 cm3 molecule−1 s−1, respectively, in agreement with the relative rate result obtained at room temperature. The atmospheric implications of the OH and NO3 reaction rate coefficients measured in this work are discussed.

  1. Canonical quantization of macroscopic electromagnetism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philbin, T G, E-mail: tgp3@st-andrews.ac.u [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews, Fife KY16 9SS (United Kingdom)

    2010-12-15

    Application of the standard canonical quantization rules of quantum field theory to macroscopic electromagnetism has encountered obstacles due to material dispersion and absorption. This has led to a phenomenological approach to macroscopic quantum electrodynamics where no canonical formulation is attempted. In this paper macroscopic electromagnetism is canonically quantized. The results apply to any linear, inhomogeneous, magnetodielectric medium with dielectric functions that obey the Kramers-Kronig relations. The prescriptions of the phenomenological approach are derived from the canonical theory.

  2. Canonical quantization of macroscopic electromagnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Philbin, T G

    2010-01-01

    Application of the standard canonical quantization rules of quantum field theory to macroscopic electromagnetism has encountered obstacles due to material dispersion and absorption. This has led to a phenomenological approach to macroscopic quantum electrodynamics where no canonical formulation is attempted. In this paper macroscopic electromagnetism is canonically quantized. The results apply to any linear, inhomogeneous, magnetoelectric medium with dielectric functions that obey the Kramers-Kronig relations. The prescriptions of the phenomenological approach are derived from the canonical theory.

  3. Quantum rate coefficients and kinetic isotope effect for the reaction Cl + CH4 → HCl + CH3 from ring polymer molecular dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongle; Suleimanov, Yury V; Green, William H; Guo, Hua

    2014-03-20

    Thermal rate coefficients and kinetic isotope effect have been calculated for prototypical heavy-light-heavy polyatomic bimolecular reactions Cl + CH4/CD4 → HCl/DCl + CH3/CD3, using a recently proposed quantum dynamics approach: ring polymer molecular dynamics (RPMD). Agreement with experimental rate coefficients, which are quite scattered, is satisfactory. However, differences up to 50% have been found between the RPMD results and those obtained from the harmonic variational transition-state theory on one of the two full-dimensional potential energy surfaces used in the calculations. Possible reasons for such discrepancy are discussed. The present work is an important step in a series of benchmark studies aimed at assessing accuracy for RPMD for chemical reaction rates, which demonstrates that this novel method is a quite reliable alternative to previously developed techniques based on transition-state theory.

  4. New integral formula for obtaining analytical Legendre expansion coefficients and its applications to light-nucleus reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaojun; Zhang, Jingshang

    2015-12-01

    A new integral formula, which has not been compiled in any integral tables or mathematical softwares, is proposed to obtain the analytical energy-angular spectra of the particles that are sequentially emitted from the discrete energy levels of the residual nuclei in the statistical theory of light nucleus reaction (STLN). In the cases of the neutron induced light nucleus reactions, the demonstration of the kinetic energy conservation in the sequential emission processes becomes straightforward thanks to this new integral formula and it is also helpful to largely reduce the volume of file-6 in nuclear reaction databases. Furthermore, taking p + 9Be reaction at 18 MeV as an example, this integral formula is extended to calculate the energy-angular spectra of the sequentially emitted neutrons for proton induced light nucleus reactions in the frame of STLN.

  5. Rate Coefficients for Reactions of Ethynyl Radical (C2H) With HCN and CH3CN: Implications for the Formation of Comples Nitriles on Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoobler, Ray J.; Leone, Stephen R.

    1997-01-01

    Rate coefficients for the reactions of C2H + HCN yields products and C2H + CH3CN yields products have been measured over the temperature range 262-360 K. These experiments represent an ongoing effort to accurately measure reaction rate coefficients of the ethynyl radical, C2H, relevant to planetary atmospheres such as those of Jupiter and Saturn and its satellite Titan. Laser photolysis of C2H2 is used to produce C2H, and transient infrared laser absorption is employed to measure the decay of C2H to obtain the subsequent reaction rates in a transverse flow cell. Rate constants for the reaction C2H + HCN yields products are found to increase significantly with increasing temperature and are measured to be (3.9-6.2) x 10(exp 13) cm(exp 3) molecules(exp -1) s(exp -1) over the temperature range of 297-360 K. The rate constants for the reaction C2H + CH3CN yields products are also found to increase substantially with increasing temperature and are measured to be (1.0-2.1) x 10(exp -12) cm(exp 3) molecules(exp -1) s(exp -1) over the temperature range of 262-360 K. For the reaction C2H + HCN yields products, ab initio calculations of transition state structures are used to infer that the major products form via an addition/elimination pathway. The measured rate constants for the reaction of C2H + HCN yields products are significantly smaller than values currently employed in photochemical models of Titan, which will affect the HC3N distribution.

  6. Rate coefficients for hydrogen abstraction reaction of pinonaldehyde C10H16O2 with Cl atoms between 200 and 400 K: A DFT study

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G SRINIVASULU; B RAJAKUMAR

    2016-06-01

    The kinetics of the reaction between pinonaldehyde C10H16O2 and Cl atom were studied usinghigh level ab initio G3(MP2) and DFT based MPWB1K/6-31+G(d) and MPW1K/6-31+G(d) levels of theoriescoupled with Conventional Transition State Theory in the temperature range between 200 and 400 K. Thenegative temperature dependent rate expression for the title reaction obtained with Wigner’s and Eckart’s symmetricaltunneling corrections are k(T)=(5.1 ± 0.56) × 10−19T2.35exp[(2098 ± 2)/T] cm3 molecule-1 s-1, and k(T)=(0.92 ± 0.18) × 10-19T2.60exp[(2204 ± 4)/T] cm3 molecule-1 s-1, respectively, at G3(MP2)//MPWB1Kmethod. The H abstraction reaction from the –CHO group was found to be the most dominant reaction channelamong all the possible reaction pathways and its corresponding rate coefficient at 300 K is kEckart’s unsymmetrical= 3.86 ×10-10 cm3 molecule-1 s-1. Whereas the channel with immediate lower activation energy is the H-abstraction from –CH- group (Tertiary H-abstraction site, Cg). The rate coefficient for this channel is kCg(Eckart’s unsymmetrical) = 1.83 ×10-15 cm3 molecule-1 s-1 which is smaller than the dominant channel byfive orders of magnitude. The atmospherically relevant parameters such as lifetimes were computed in thisinvestigation of its reaction with Cl atom.

  7. Atmospheric Chemistry of 1-Methoxy 2-Propyl Acetate: UV Absorption Cross Sections, Rate Coefficients, and Products of Its Reactions with OH Radicals and Cl Atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zogka, Antonia G; Mellouki, Abdelwahid; Romanias, Manolis N; Bedjanian, Yuri; Idir, Mahmoud; Grosselin, Benoit; Daële, Véronique

    2016-11-17

    The rate coefficients for the reactions of OH and Cl with 1-methoxy 2-propyl acetate (MPA) in the gas phase were measured using absolute and relative methods. The kinetic study on the OH reaction was conducted in the temperature (263-373) K and pressure (1-760) Torr ranges using the pulsed laser photolysis-laser-induced fluorescence technique, a low pressure fast flow tube reactor-quadrupole mass spectrometer, and an atmospheric simulation chamber/GC-FID. The derived Arrhenius expression is kMPA+OH(T) = (2.01 ± 0.02) × 10(-12) exp[(588 ± 123/T)] cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1). The absolute and relative rate coefficients for the reaction of Cl with MPA were measured at room temperature in the flow reactor and the atmospheric simulation chamber, which led to k(Cl+MPA) = (1.98 ± 0.31) × 10(-10) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1). GC-FID, GC-MS, and FT-IR techniques were used to investigate the reaction mechanism in the presence of NO. The products formed from the reaction of MPA with OH and their yields were methyl formate (80 ± 7.3%), acetic acid (50 ± 4.8%), and acetic anhydride (22 ± 2.4%), while for Cl reaction, the obtained yields were 60 ± 5.4, 41 ± 3.8, and 11 ± 1.2%, respectively, for the same products. The UV absorption cross section spectrum of MPA was determined in the wavelength range 210-370 nm. The study has shown no photolysis of MPA under atmospheric conditions. The obtained results are used to derive the atmospheric implication.

  8. Quantum equilibria for macroscopic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grib, A [Department of Theoretical Physics and Astronomy, Russian State Pedagogical University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Khrennikov, A [Centre for Mathematical Modelling in Physics and Cognitive Sciences Vaexjoe University (Sweden); Parfionov, G [Department of Mathematics, St. Petersburg State University of Economics and Finances (Russian Federation); Starkov, K [Department of Mathematics, St. Petersburg State University of Economics and Finances (Russian Federation)

    2006-06-30

    Nash equilibria are found for some quantum games with particles with spin-1/2 for which two spin projections on different directions in space are measured. Examples of macroscopic games with the same equilibria are given. Mixed strategies for participants of these games are calculated using probability amplitudes according to the rules of quantum mechanics in spite of the macroscopic nature of the game and absence of Planck's constant. A possible role of quantum logical lattices for the existence of macroscopic quantum equilibria is discussed. Some examples for spin-1 cases are also considered.

  9. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy experiments to quantify free diffusion coefficients in reaction-diffusion systems: The case of Ca2 + and its dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigaut, Lorena; Villarruel, Cecilia; Ponce, María Laura; Ponce Dawson, Silvina

    2017-06-01

    Many cell signaling pathways involve the diffusion of messengers that bind and unbind to and from intracellular components. Quantifying their net transport rate under different conditions then requires having separate estimates of their free diffusion coefficient and binding or unbinding rates. In this paper, we show how performing sets of fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) experiments under different conditions, it is possible to quantify free diffusion coefficients and on and off rates of reaction-diffusion systems. We develop the theory and present a practical implementation for the case of the universal second messenger, calcium (Ca2 +) and single-wavelength dyes that increase their fluorescence upon Ca2 + binding. We validate the approach with experiments performed in aqueous solutions containing Ca2 + and Fluo4 dextran (both in its high and low affinity versions). Performing FCS experiments with tetramethylrhodamine-dextran in Xenopus laevis oocytes, we infer the corresponding free diffusion coefficients in the cytosol of these cells. Our approach can be extended to other physiologically relevant reaction-diffusion systems to quantify biophysical parameters that determine the dynamics of various variables of interest.

  10. Communication: Rigorous quantum dynamics of O + O2 exchange reactions on an ab initio potential energy surface substantiate the negative temperature dependence of rate coefficients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yaqin; Sun, Zhigang; Jiang, Bin; Xie, Daiqian; Dawes, Richard; Guo, Hua

    2014-08-28

    The kinetics and dynamics of several O + O2 isotope exchange reactions have been investigated on a recently determined accurate global O3 potential energy surface using a time-dependent wave packet method. The agreement between calculated and measured rate coefficients is significantly improved over previous work. More importantly, the experimentally observed negative temperature dependence of the rate coefficients is for the first time rigorously reproduced theoretically. This negative temperature dependence can be attributed to the absence in the new potential energy surface of a submerged "reef" structure, which was present in all previous potential energy surfaces. In addition, contributions of rotational excited states of the diatomic reactant further accentuate the negative temperature dependence.

  11. A theoretical study of the mechanism of the atmospherically relevant reaction of chlorine atoms with methyl nitrate, and calculation of the reaction rate coefficients at temperatures relevant to the troposphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Maggie; Mok, Daniel K W; Lee, Edmond P F; Dyke, John M

    2015-03-21

    The reaction between atomic chlorine (Cl) and methyl nitrate (CH3ONO2) is significant in the atmosphere, as Cl is a key oxidant, especially in the marine boundary layer, and alkyl nitrates are important nitrogen-containing organic compounds, which are temporary reservoirs of the reactive nitrogen oxides NO, NO2 and NO3 (NOx). Four reaction channels HCl + CH2ONO2, CH3OCl + NO2, CH3Cl + NO3 and CH3O + ClNO2 were considered. The major channel is found to be the H abstraction channel, to give the products HCl + CH2ONO2. For all channels, geometry optimization and frequency calculations were carried out at the M06-2X/6-31+G** level, while relative electronic energies were improved to the UCCSD(T*)-F12/CBS level. The reaction barrier (ΔE(‡)0K) and reaction enthalpy (ΔH(RX)298K) of the H abstraction channel were computed to be 0.61 and -2.30 kcal mol(-1), respectively, at the UCCSD(T*)-F12/CBS//M06-2X/6-31+G** level. Reaction barriers (ΔE(‡)0K) for the other channels are more positive and these pathways do not contribute to the overall reaction rate coefficient in the temperature range considered (200-400 K). Rate coefficients were calculated for the H-abstraction channel at various levels of variational transition state theory (VTST) including tunnelling. Recommended ICVT/SCT rate coefficients in the temperature range 200-400 K are presented for the first time for this reaction. The values obtained in the 200-300 K region are particularly important as they will be valuable for atmospheric modelling calculations involving reactions with methyl nitrate. The implications of the results to atmospheric chemistry are discussed. Also, the enthalpies of formation, ΔHf,298K, of CH3ONO2 and CH2ONO2 were computed to be -29.7 and 19.3 kcal mol(-1), respectively, at the UCCSD(T*)-F12/CBS level.

  12. Technical note: Monte Carlo genetic algorithm (MCGA for model analysis of multiphase chemical kinetics to determine transport and reaction rate coefficients using multiple experimental data sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Berkemeier

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a Monte Carlo genetic algorithm (MCGA for efficient, automated, and unbiased global optimization of model input parameters by simultaneous fitting to multiple experimental data sets. The algorithm was developed to address the inverse modelling problems associated with fitting large sets of model input parameters encountered in state-of-the-art kinetic models for heterogeneous and multiphase atmospheric chemistry. The MCGA approach utilizes a sequence of optimization methods to find and characterize the solution of an optimization problem. It addresses an issue inherent to complex models whose extensive input parameter sets may not be uniquely determined from limited input data. Such ambiguity in the derived parameter values can be reliably detected using this new set of tools, allowing users to design experiments that should be particularly useful for constraining model parameters. We show that the MCGA has been used successfully to constrain parameters such as chemical reaction rate coefficients, diffusion coefficients, and Henry's law solubility coefficients in kinetic models of gas uptake and chemical transformation of aerosol particles as well as multiphase chemistry at the atmosphere–biosphere interface. While this study focuses on the processes outlined above, the MCGA approach should be portable to any numerical process model with similar computational expense and extent of the fitting parameter space.

  13. Technical note: Monte Carlo genetic algorithm (MCGA) for model analysis of multiphase chemical kinetics to determine transport and reaction rate coefficients using multiple experimental data sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkemeier, Thomas; Ammann, Markus; Krieger, Ulrich K.; Peter, Thomas; Spichtinger, Peter; Pöschl, Ulrich; Shiraiwa, Manabu; Huisman, Andrew J.

    2017-06-01

    We present a Monte Carlo genetic algorithm (MCGA) for efficient, automated, and unbiased global optimization of model input parameters by simultaneous fitting to multiple experimental data sets. The algorithm was developed to address the inverse modelling problems associated with fitting large sets of model input parameters encountered in state-of-the-art kinetic models for heterogeneous and multiphase atmospheric chemistry. The MCGA approach utilizes a sequence of optimization methods to find and characterize the solution of an optimization problem. It addresses an issue inherent to complex models whose extensive input parameter sets may not be uniquely determined from limited input data. Such ambiguity in the derived parameter values can be reliably detected using this new set of tools, allowing users to design experiments that should be particularly useful for constraining model parameters. We show that the MCGA has been used successfully to constrain parameters such as chemical reaction rate coefficients, diffusion coefficients, and Henry's law solubility coefficients in kinetic models of gas uptake and chemical transformation of aerosol particles as well as multiphase chemistry at the atmosphere-biosphere interface. While this study focuses on the processes outlined above, the MCGA approach should be portable to any numerical process model with similar computational expense and extent of the fitting parameter space.

  14. Rate coefficients for the gas-phase reactions of the nitrate radical with (Z)-3-hexenol (`leaf alcohol`) and its isomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfrang, C.; Kasyutich, V. L.; Canosa-Mas, C. E.; Vaughan, S.; Wayne, R. P.

    2003-04-01

    The nitrate radical, NO_3, is a key species in the night-time tropospheric oxidation of a variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including those emitted by living vegetation. In addition to the VOC emissions from intact plants, it is well known that wounding induces the release of a series of C_6 aldehydes and C_6 alcohols, as can be readily sensed in the odour of freshly mown grass. Large emissions of the "leaf alcohol", (Z)-3-hexenol, have been observed after wounding, during drying, and following pathogen attack, while (Z)-2-hexenol has been reported as an emission from clipped clover. Rate coefficients for the gas-phase reactions of the nitrate radical with these two isomeric compounds have been measured using the discharge-flow technique at room temperature. Because of the relatively low volatility of these compounds, it is necessary to employ low concentrations of NO_3 in order to determine the kinetics satisfactorily. To this end, we used a technique not hitherto applied in kinetic experiments on NO_3: that of off-axis continuous-wave cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy (CW CEAS) for the detection of NO_3, using a broadband absorption line at λ = 662 nm. A noise-equivalent detection sensitivity of 5.5 × 10^9 molecule cm-3 for the nitrate radical (Kasyutich et al., Appl. Phys. B, 2002, 75, 755--761) enabled us to work with the hexenol compounds in excess over NO_3. The rate coefficients were determined to be (2.80 ± 0.12) × 10-13 cm^3 molecule-1 s-1 and (1.36 ± 0.08) × 10-13 cm^3 molecule-1 s-1, respectively, for (Z)-3-hexenol and (Z)-2-hexenol. The rate constant for reaction with (Z)-3-hexenol lies within the combined error limits of the single measurement of the rate coefficient using relative rate methods of (2.72 ± 0.83) × 10-13 cm^3 molecule-1 s-1 (Atkinson et al., Int. J. Chem. Kinetics, 1995, 27, 941--955). However, for (Z)-3-hexenol there is some evidence for upward curvature of the second-order plot at longer contact times, and

  15. Modified two-body potential approach to the peripheral direct capture astrophysical a+A->B+{gamma} reaction and asymptotic normalization coefficients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Igamov, S.B. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Uzbekistan Academy of Sciences, 702132 Tashkent (Uzbekistan); Yarmukhamedov, R. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Uzbekistan Academy of Sciences, 702132 Tashkent (Uzbekistan)]. E-mail: rakhim@inp.uz

    2007-01-01

    A modified two-body potential approach is proposed for determination of both the asymptotic normalization coefficient (ANC) (or the respective nuclear vertex constant (NVC)) for the A+a->B (for the virtual decay B->A+a) from an analysis of the experimental S-factor for the peripheral direct capture a+A->B+{gamma} reaction and the astrophysical S-factor, S(E), at low experimentally inaccessible energy regions. The approach proposed involves two additional conditions which verify the peripheral character of the considered reaction and expresses S(E) in terms of the ANC. The connection between NVC (ANC) and the effective range parameters for Aa-scattering is derived. To test this approach we reanalyse the precise experimental astrophysical S-factors for t+{alpha}->Li7+{gamma} reaction at energies E=<1200 keV [C.R. Brune et al., Phys. Rev. C 50 (1994) 2205]. The same Wood-Saxon potential form both for the bound (t+{alpha})-state wave function and for the {alpha}t-scattering wave function is used to guarantee selfconsistency. New estimates have been obtained for the values of the ANC's (the NVC's) for the {alpha}+t->Li7(g.s.), {alpha}+t->Li7(0.478 MeV) and of S(E) at E=<50 keV. These ANC values have been used for getting information about the ''indirect'' measured values of the effective range parameters and the p-wave phase shift for {alpha}t-scattering in the energy range of 100-bar E-bar 180 keV.

  16. Generalized semi-analytical solutions to multispecies transport equation coupled with sequential first-order reaction network with spatially or temporally variable transport and decay coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suk, Heejun

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a semi-analytical procedure for solving coupled the multispecies reactive solute transport equations, with a sequential first-order reaction network on spatially or temporally varying flow velocities and dispersion coefficients involving distinct retardation factors. This proposed approach was developed to overcome the limitation reported by Suk (2013) regarding the identical retardation values for all reactive species, while maintaining the extensive capability of the previous Suk method involving spatially variable or temporally variable coefficients of transport, general initial conditions, and arbitrary temporal variable inlet concentration. The proposed approach sequentially calculates the concentration distributions of each species by employing only the generalized integral transform technique (GITT). Because the proposed solutions for each species' concentration distributions have separable forms in space and time, the solution for subsequent species (daughter species) can be obtained using only the GITT without the decomposition by change-of-variables method imposing the limitation of identical retardation values for all the reactive species by directly substituting solutions for the preceding species (parent species) into the transport equation of subsequent species (daughter species). The proposed solutions were compared with previously published analytical solutions or numerical solutions of the numerical code of the Two-Dimensional Subsurface Flow, Fate and Transport of Microbes and Chemicals (2DFATMIC) in three verification examples. In these examples, the proposed solutions were well matched with previous analytical solutions and the numerical solutions obtained by 2DFATMIC model. A hypothetical single-well push-pull test example and a scale-dependent dispersion example were designed to demonstrate the practical application of the proposed solution to a real field problem.

  17. Correlation between coefficient of variation of choice reaction time and components of event-related potentials (P300): effect of benzodiazepine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, R

    2000-09-01

    We studied the relationship between accuracy in the cognitive process and components of event-related potentials (P300) in 21 young and healthy subjects. Benzodiazepine was used to manipulate the cognitive state of the subjects. We recorded the serial changes in P300, choice reaction time (CRT), and error ratio (ER) before and after oral administration of 0.4 mg of alprazolam. After administration, the coefficient of variation of CRT tended to decrease in nine subjects (group I) and increase in 12 subjects (group II). Prolongation of the P300 latency was observed in all subjects after treatment; however, such change was more predominant in group II than in group I. In group I, there was no error and no significant difference in P300 amplitude before and after administration. In group II, alprazolam significantly reduced P300 amplitude and increased ER. Our results suggest that the accuracy and P300 amplitude were preserved when the central nerve system managed to reduce fluctuations in CRT but P300 amplitude diminished and the error ratio increased following deterioration of these processes.

  18. Macroscopic Theory of Dark Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris E. Meierovich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple Lagrangian with squared covariant divergence of a vector field as a kinetic term turned out to be an adequate tool for macroscopic description of the dark sector. The zero-mass field acts as the dark energy. Its energy-momentum tensor is a simple additive to the cosmological constant. Massive fields describe two different forms of dark matter. The space-like massive vector field is attractive. It is responsible for the observed plateau in galaxy rotation curves. The time-like massive field displays repulsive elasticity. In balance with dark energy and ordinary matter it provides a four-parametric diversity of regular solutions of the Einstein equations describing different possible cosmological and oscillating nonsingular scenarios of evolution of the Universe. In particular, the singular big bang turns into a regular inflation-like transition from contraction to expansion with the accelerated expansion at late times. The fine-tuned Friedman-Robertson-Walker singular solution is a particular limiting case at the lower boundary of existence of regular oscillating solutions in the absence of vector fields. The simplicity of the general covariant expression for the energy-momentum tensor allows displaying the main properties of the dark sector analytically. Although the physical nature of dark sector is still unknown, the macroscopic theory can help analyze the role of dark matter in astrophysical phenomena without resorting to artificial model assumptions.

  19. Testing nuclear forces by polarization transfer coefficients in d(p,p)d and d(p,d)p reactions at Ep=22.7 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evgeny Epelbaum

    2005-05-01

    The proton to proton polarization transfer coefficients K{sub x}{sup x'}, K{sub y}{sup y'}, K{sub z}{sup x'} and the proton to deuteron polarization transfer coefficients K{sub x}{sup x'}, K{sub y}{sup y'}, K{sub z}{sup x'}, K{sub x}{sup y'z'}, K{sub y}{sup z'z'}, K{sub z}{sup y'z'}, K{sub y}{sup x'z'} and K{sub y}{sup x'x'-y'y'} have been measured in d({rvec p}, {rvec p})d and d({rvec p}, {rvec d})p reactions at E{sub p}{sup lab} = 22.7 MeV, respectively. The data have been compared to predictions of modern nuclear forces obtained by solving the three-nucleon Faddeev equations in momentum space. Realistic (semi) phenomenological nucleon-nucleon potentials combined with model three-nucleon forces and modern chiral nuclear forces have been used. The AV18, CD Bonn, Nijm I and II nucleon-nucleon interactions have been applied alone or combined with the Tucson-Melbourne 99 three-nucleon force, adjusted separately for each potential to reproduce the triton binding energy. For the AV18 potential also the Urbana IX three-nucleon force have been used. In addition chiral NN potentials in the next-to-leading-order and chiral two- and three-nucleon forces in the next-to-next-to-leading-order have been applied. Only when three-nucleon forces are included a satisfactory description of all data results. For the chiral approach the restriction to the forces in the next-to-leading order is insufficient. Only when going over to the next-to-next-to-leading order one gets a satisfactory description of the data, similar to the one obtained with the (semi) phenomenological forces.

  20. Determination of diffusion coefficients of hydrogen in fused silica between 296 and 523 K by Raman spectroscopy and application of fused silica capillaries in studying redox reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, L.; Chou, I.-Ming; Lu, W.; Burruss, R.C.; Zhang, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Diffusion coefficients (D) of hydrogen in fused silica capillaries (FSC) were determined between 296 and 523 K by Raman spectroscopy using CO2 as an internal standard. FSC capsules (3.25 ?? 10-4 m OD, 9.9 ?? 10-5 m ID, and ???0.01 m long) containing CO2 and H2 were prepared and the initial relative concentrations of hydrogen in these capsules were derived from the Raman peak-height ratios between H2 (near 587 cm-1) and CO2 (near 1387 cm-1). The sample capsules were then heated at a fixed temperature (T) at one atmosphere to let H2 diffuse out of the capsule, and the changes of hydrogen concentration were monitored by Raman spectroscopy after quench. This process was repeated using different heating durations at 296 (room T), 323, 375, 430, 473, and 523 K; the same sample capsule was used repeatedly at each temperature. The values of D (in m2 s-1) in FSC were obtained by fitting the observed changes of hydrogen concentration in the FSC capsule to an equation based on Fick's law. Our D values are in good agreement with the more recent of the two previously reported experimental data sets, and both can be represented by: ln D = - (16.471 ?? 0.035) - frac(44589 ?? 139, RT) (R2 = 0.99991) where R is the gas constant (8.3145 J/mol K), T in Kelvin, and errors at 1?? level. The slope corresponds to an activation energy of 44.59 ?? 0.14 kJ/mol. The D in FSC determined at 296 K is about an order of magnitude higher than that in platinum at 723 K, indicating that FSC is a suitable membrane for hydrogen at temperature between 673 K and room temperature, and has a great potential for studying redox reactions at these temperatures, especially for systems containing organic material and/or sulphur. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Macroscopically-Discrete Quantum Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Chew, Geoffrey F

    2008-01-01

    To Milne's Lorentz-group-based spacetime and Gelfand-Naimark unitary representations of this group we associate a Fock space of 'cosmological preons'-quantum-theoretic universe constituents. Milne's 'cosmological principle' relies on Lorentz invariance of 'age'--global time. We divide Milne's spacetime into 'slices' of fixed macroscopic width in age, with 'cosmological rays' defined on (hyperbolic) slice boundaries-Fock space attaching only to these exceptional universe ages. Each (fixed-age) preon locates within a 6-dimensional manifold, one of whose 3 'extra' dimensions associates in Dirac sense to a self-adjoint operator that represents preon (continuous) local time, the operator canonically-conjugate thereto representing preon (total) energy. Self-adjoint-operator expectations at any spacetime-slice boundary prescribe throughout the following slice a non-fluctuating 'mundane reality'- electromagnetic and gravitational potentials 'tethered' to current densities of locally-conserved electric charge and ener...

  2. Seismic scanning tunneling macroscope - Theory

    KAUST Repository

    Schuster, Gerard T.

    2012-09-01

    We propose a seismic scanning tunneling macroscope (SSTM) that can detect the presence of sub-wavelength scatterers in the near-field of either the source or the receivers. Analytic formulas for the time reverse mirror (TRM) profile associated with a single scatterer model show that the spatial resolution limit to be, unlike the Abbe limit of λ/2, independent of wavelength and linearly proportional to the source-scatterer separation as long as the point scatterer is in the near-field region; if the sub-wavelength scatterer is a spherical impedance discontinuity then the resolution will also be limited by the radius of the sphere. Therefore, superresolution imaging can be achieved as the scatterer approaches the source. This is analogous to an optical scanning tunneling microscope that has sub-wavelength resolution. Scaled to seismic frequencies, it is theoretically possible to extract 100 Hz information from 20 Hz data by imaging of near-field seismic energy.

  3. Wave speeds in the macroscopic extended model for ultrarelativistic gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borghero, F., E-mail: borghero@unica.it [Dip. Matematica e Informatica, Università di Cagliari, Via Ospedale 72, 09124 Cagliari (Italy); Demontis, F., E-mail: fdemontis@unica.it [Dip. Matematica, Università di Cagliari, Viale Merello 92, 09123 Cagliari (Italy); Pennisi, S., E-mail: spennisi@unica.it [Dip. Matematica, Università di Cagliari, Via Ospedale 72, 09124 Cagliari (Italy)

    2013-11-15

    Equations determining wave speeds for a model of ultrarelativistic gases are investigated. This model is already present in literature; it deals with an arbitrary number of moments and it was proposed in the context of exact macroscopic approaches in Extended Thermodynamics. We find these results: the whole system for the determination of the wave speeds can be divided into independent subsystems which are expressed by linear combinations, through scalar coefficients, of tensors all of the same order; some wave speeds, but not all of them, are expressed by square roots of rational numbers; finally, we prove that these wave speeds for the macroscopic model are the same of those furnished by the kinetic model.

  4. Wave speeds in the macroscopic extended model for ultrarelativistic gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borghero, F., E-mail: borghero@unica.it [Dip. Matematica e Informatica, Università di Cagliari, Via Ospedale 72, 09124 Cagliari (Italy); Demontis, F., E-mail: fdemontis@unica.it [Dip. Matematica, Università di Cagliari, Viale Merello 92, 09123 Cagliari (Italy); Pennisi, S., E-mail: spennisi@unica.it [Dip. Matematica, Università di Cagliari, Via Ospedale 72, 09124 Cagliari (Italy)

    2013-11-15

    Equations determining wave speeds for a model of ultrarelativistic gases are investigated. This model is already present in literature; it deals with an arbitrary number of moments and it was proposed in the context of exact macroscopic approaches in Extended Thermodynamics. We find these results: the whole system for the determination of the wave speeds can be divided into independent subsystems which are expressed by linear combinations, through scalar coefficients, of tensors all of the same order; some wave speeds, but not all of them, are expressed by square roots of rational numbers; finally, we prove that these wave speeds for the macroscopic model are the same of those furnished by the kinetic model.

  5. Mesoscopic kinetic basis of macroscopic chemical thermodynamics: A mathematical theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Hao; Qian, Hong

    2016-11-01

    Gibbs' macroscopic chemical thermodynamics is one of the most important theories in chemistry. Generalizing it to mesoscaled nonequilibrium systems is essential to biophysics. The nonequilibrium stochastic thermodynamics of chemical reaction kinetics suggested a free energy balance equation dF^{(meso)}/dt=E_{in}-e_{p} in which the free energy input rate E_{in} and dissipation rate e_{p} are both non-negative, and E_{in}≤e_{p}. We prove that in the macroscopic limit by merely allowing the molecular numbers to be infinite, the generalized mesoscopic free energy F^{(meso)} converges to φ^{ss}, the large deviation rate function for the stationary distributions. This generalized macroscopic free energy φ^{ss} now satisfies a balance equation dφ^{ss}(x)/dt=cmf(x)-σ(x), in which x represents chemical concentration. The chemical motive force cmf(x) and entropy production rate σ(x) are both non-negative, and cmf(x)≤σ(x). The balance equation is valid generally in isothermal driven systems and is different from mechanical energy conservation and the first law; it is actually an unknown form of the second law. Consequences of the emergent thermodynamic quantities and equalities are further discussed. The emergent "law" is independent of underlying kinetic details. Our theory provides an example showing how a macroscopic law emerges from a level below.

  6. Mesoscopic kinetic basis of macroscopic chemical thermodynamics: A mathematical theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Hao; Qian, Hong

    2016-11-01

    Gibbs' macroscopic chemical thermodynamics is one of the most important theories in chemistry. Generalizing it to mesoscaled nonequilibrium systems is essential to biophysics. The nonequilibrium stochastic thermodynamics of chemical reaction kinetics suggested a free energy balance equation d F(meso)/d t =Ein-ep in which the free energy input rate Ein and dissipation rate ep are both non-negative, and Ein≤ep . We prove that in the macroscopic limit by merely allowing the molecular numbers to be infinite, the generalized mesoscopic free energy F(meso) converges to φss, the large deviation rate function for the stationary distributions. This generalized macroscopic free energy φss now satisfies a balance equation d φss(x ) /d t =cmf(x ) -σ (x ) , in which x represents chemical concentration. The chemical motive force cmf(x ) and entropy production rate σ (x ) are both non-negative, and cmf(x )≤σ (x ) . The balance equation is valid generally in isothermal driven systems and is different from mechanical energy conservation and the first law; it is actually an unknown form of the second law. Consequences of the emergent thermodynamic quantities and equalities are further discussed. The emergent "law" is independent of underlying kinetic details. Our theory provides an example showing how a macroscopic law emerges from a level below.

  7. OH Radical Reaction Rate Coefficients, Infrared Spectrum, and Global Warming Potential of (CF3)2CFCH═CHF (HFO-1438ezy(E)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitriou, Vassileios C; Burkholder, James B

    2016-08-25

    Rate coefficients, k(T), for the OH radical + (E)-(CF3)2CFCH═CHF ((E)-1,3,4,4,4-pentafluoro-3-(trifluoromethyl)-1-butene, HFO-1438ezy(E)) gas-phase reaction were measured using pulsed laser photolysis-laser-induced fluorescence (PLP-LIF) between 214 and 380 K and 50 and 450 Torr (He or N2 bath gas) and with a relative rate method at 296 K between 100 and 400 Torr (synthetic air). Over the range of pressures included in this study, no pressure dependence in k(T) was observed. k(296 K) obtained using the two techniques agreed to within ∼3% with (3.26 ± 0.26) × 10(-13) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) (2σ absolute uncertainty) obtained using the PLP-LIF technique. k(T) displayed non-Arrhenius behavior that is reproduced by (7.34 ± 0.30) × 10(-19)T(2) exp[(481 ± 10)/T) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1). With respect to OH reactive loss, the atmospheric lifetime of HFO-1438ezy(E) is estimated to be ∼36 days and HFO-1438ezy(E) is considered a very short-lived substance (VSLS) (the actual lifetime will depend on the time and location of the HFO-1438ezy(E) emission). On the basis of the HFO-1438ezy(E) infrared absorption spectrum measured in this work and its estimated lifetime, a radiative efficiency of 0.306 W m(-2) ppb(-1) (well-mixed gas) was calculated and its 100-year time-horizon global warming potential, GWP100, was estimated to be 8.6. CF3CFO, HC(O)F, and CF2O were identified using infrared spectroscopy as stable end products in the oxidation of HFO-1438ezy(E) in the presence of O2. Two additional fluorinated products were observed and theoretical calculations of the infrared spectra of likely degradation products are presented. The photochemical ozone creation potential of HFO-1438ezy(E) was estimated to be ∼2.15.

  8. Gas-phase rate coefficients for reactions of NO 3, OH, O 3 and O( 3P) with unsaturated alcohols and ethers: Correlations and structure-activity relations (SARs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfrang, Christian; King, Martin D.; Braeckevelt, Mareike; Canosa-Mas, Carlos E.; Wayne, Richard P.

    Experimental difficulties sometimes force modellers to use predicted rate coefficients for reactions of oxygenated volatile organic compounds (oVOCs). We examine here methods for making the predictions for reactions of atmospheric initiators of oxidation, NO 3, OH, O 3 and O( 3P), with unsaturated alcohols and ethers. Logarithmic correlations are found between measured rate coefficients and calculated orbital energies, and these correlations may be used directly to estimate rate coefficients for compounds where measurements have not been performed. To provide a shortcut that obviates the need to calculate orbital energies, structure-activity relations (SARs) are developed. Our SARs are tested for predictive power against compounds for which experimental rate coefficients exist, and their accuracy is discussed. Estimated atmospheric lifetimes for oVOCs are presented. The SARs for alkenols successfully predict key rate coefficients, and thus can be used to enhance the scope of atmospheric models incorporating detailed chemistry. SARs for the ethers have more limited applicability, but can still be useful in improving tropospheric models.

  9. Macroscopic theory of dark sector

    CERN Document Server

    Meierovich, Boris E

    2013-01-01

    A simple Lagrangian with squared covariant divergence of a vector field as a kinetic term turned out an adequate tool for macroscopic description of the dark sector. The zero-mass field acts as the dark energy. Its energy-momentum tensor is a simple additive to the cosmological constant. Massive fields {\\phi}_{I} with {\\phi}^{K}{\\phi}_{K}0 describe two different forms of dark matter. The space-like ({\\phi}^{K}{\\phi}_{K}0) massive field displays repulsive elasticity. In balance with dark energy and ordinary matter it provides a four parametric diversity of regular solutions of the Einstein equations describing different possible cosmological and oscillating non-singular scenarios of evolution of the universe. In particular, the singular big bang turns into a regular inflation-like transition from contraction to expansion with the accelerate expansion at late times. The fine-tuned Friedman-Robertson-Walker singular solution is a particular limiting case at the boundary of existence of regular oscillating soluti...

  10. Rate coefficients and reaction mechanism for the reaction of OH radicals with (E)-CF3CH═CHF, (Z)-CF3CH═CHF, (E)-CF3CF═CHF, and (Z)-CF3CF═CHF between 200 and 400 K: hybrid density functional theory and canonical variational transition state theory calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaganesh, M; Rajakumar, B

    2012-10-11

    The rate coefficients of ((E)-CF(3)CH═CHF, (Z)-CF(3)CH═CHF, (E)-CF(3)CF═CHF, and (Z)-CF(3)CF═CHF) + OH reactions were computed using M06-2X/6-31+G(d,p) theory in the temperature range of 200 and 400 K. The possible reaction mechanisms of the ((E)-CF(3)CH═CHF, (Z)-CF(3)CH═CHF, (E)-CF(3)CF═CHF, and (Z)-CF(3)CF═CHF) + OH reactions were examined. The rate coefficients for the addition and abstraction reactions were calculated using canonical variational transition state theory (CVT) and conventional transition state theory (CTST), respectively, and we concluded that abstraction reactions are negligible within the temperature range and addition reactions take the lead role. The small curvature tunnelling (SCT) was included in the computation of the rate coefficients. The temperature dependent rate expressions (in cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1)) of the (E)-CF(3)CH═CHF, (Z)-CF(3)CH═CHF, (E)-CF(3)CF═CHF, and (Z)-CF(3)CF═CHF + OH reactions between 200 and 400 K are presented. The atmospheric lifetimes and global warming potentials (GWPs) of the test molecules were computed using the rate coefficients obtained in this study, and it is concluded that these molecules are very short-lived in the Earth's atmosphere with low GWPs.

  11. MACROSCOPIC DIVERSITY FOR CDMA MOBILE SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pei Xiaoyan; Hu Jiandong

    2002-01-01

    A novel system of macroscopic diversity with voting rule in CDMA cellular system is suggested in order to raise the coverage and quality of service of CDMA mobile communication system. The estimation of the impact of macroscopic diversity on performance of CDMA cellular system is analyzed and investigated.

  12. MACROSCOPIC DIVERSITY FOR CDMA MOBILE SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PeiXiaoyan; HuJiandong

    2002-01-01

    A novel system of macroscopic diversity with voting rule in CDMA cellular system is suggested in order to raise the coverage and quality of service of CDMA mobile communication system.The estimation of the impact of macroscopic diversity on performance of CDMA cellular system is analyzed and investigated.

  13. Transport coefficients of saturated compact clays; Coefficients de transport pour des argiles compactes saturees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paszkuta, M.; Rosanne, M.; Adler, P.M. [Sisyphe, 75 - Paris (France)

    2006-10-15

    The coefficients that characterize the simultaneous transports of mass, heat, solute and current through compact clays are experimentally and theoretically determined. The role of a characteristic length scale that can be derived from conductivity and permeability is illustrated for the electrokinetic coefficients. The macroscopic Soret coefficient in clays was found five times larger than in the free fluid, presumably because of extra couplings with electrical phenomena. (authors)

  14. Mesoscopic Kinetic Basis of Macroscopic Chemical Thermodynamics: A Mathematical Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Ge, Hao

    2016-01-01

    From a mathematical model that describes a complex chemical kinetic system of $N$ species and $M$ elementrary reactions in a rapidly stirred vessel of size $V$ as a Markov process, we show that a macroscopic chemical thermodynamics emerges as $V\\rightarrow\\infty$. The theory is applicable to linear and nonlinear reactions, closed systems reaching chemical equilibrium, or open, driven systems approaching to nonequilibrium steady states. A generalized mesoscopic free energy gives rise to a macroscopic chemical energy function $\\varphi^{ss}(\\vx)$ where $\\vx=(x_1,\\cdots,x_N)$ are the concentrations of the $N$ chemical species. The macroscopic chemical dynamics $\\vx(t)$ satisfies two emergent laws: (1) $(\\rd/\\rd t)\\varphi^{ss}[\\vx(t)]\\le 0$, and (2)$(\\rd/\\rd t)\\varphi^{ss}[\\vx(t)]=\\text{cmf}(\\vx)-\\sigma(\\vx)$ where entropy production rate $\\sigma\\ge 0$ represents the sink for the chemical energy, and chemical motive force $\\text{cmf}\\ge 0$ is non-zero if the system is driven under a sustained nonequilibrium chemos...

  15. Rank distributions: A panoramic macroscopic outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliazar, Iddo I.; Cohen, Morrel H.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a panoramic macroscopic outlook of rank distributions. We establish a general framework for the analysis of rank distributions, which classifies them into five macroscopic "socioeconomic" states: monarchy, oligarchy-feudalism, criticality, socialism-capitalism, and communism. Oligarchy-feudalism is shown to be characterized by discrete macroscopic rank distributions, and socialism-capitalism is shown to be characterized by continuous macroscopic size distributions. Criticality is a transition state between oligarchy-feudalism and socialism-capitalism, which can manifest allometric scaling with multifractal spectra. Monarchy and communism are extreme forms of oligarchy-feudalism and socialism-capitalism, respectively, in which the intrinsic randomness vanishes. The general framework is applied to three different models of rank distributions—top-down, bottom-up, and global—and unveils each model's macroscopic universality and versatility. The global model yields a macroscopic classification of the generalized Zipf law, an omnipresent form of rank distributions observed across the sciences. An amalgamation of the three models establishes a universal rank-distribution explanation for the macroscopic emergence of a prevalent class of continuous size distributions, ones governed by unimodal densities with both Pareto and inverse-Pareto power-law tails.

  16. Macroscopic transport by synthetic molecular machines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berna, J; Leigh, DA; Lubomska, M; Mendoza, SM; Perez, EM; Rudolf, P; Teobaldi, G; Zerbetto, F

    2005-01-01

    Nature uses molecular motors and machines in virtually every significant biological process, but demonstrating that simpler artificial structures operating through the same gross mechanisms can be interfaced with - and perform physical tasks in - the macroscopic world represents a significant hurdle

  17. Assessments of macroscopicity for quantum optical states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laghaout, Amine; Neergaard-Nielsen, Jonas Schou; Andersen, Ulrik Lund

    2015-01-01

    With the slow but constant progress in the coherent control of quantum systems, it is now possible to create large quantum superpositions. There has therefore been an increased interest in quantifying any claims of macroscopicity. We attempt here to motivate three criteria which we believe should...... enter in the assessment of macroscopic quantumness: The number of quantum fluctuation photons, the purity of the states, and the ease with which the branches making up the state can be distinguished. © 2014....

  18. Quantum Bell Inequalities from Macroscopic Locality

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Tzyh Haur; Sheridan, Lana; Scarani, Valerio

    2010-01-01

    We propose a method to generate analytical quantum Bell inequalities based on the principle of Macroscopic Locality. By imposing locality over binary processings of virtual macroscopic intensities, we establish a correspondence between Bell inequalities and quantum Bell inequalities in bipartite scenarios with dichotomic observables. We discuss how to improve the latter approximation and how to extend our ideas to scenarios with more than two outcomes per setting.

  19. Tribological behaviour of graphite powders at nano- and macroscopic scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, M.; Bistac, S.; Jradi, K.

    2007-04-01

    With its high resistance, good hardness and electrical conductibility in the basal plans, graphite is used for many years in various tribological fields such as seals, bearings or electrical motor brushes, and also for applications needing excellent lubrication and wearreducing properties. But thanks to its low density, graphite is at the moment destined for technologies which need a reducing of the weight combined with an enhancement of the efficiency, as it is the case in aeronautical industry. In this contexte, the friction and wear of natural (named graphite A) and synthetic (called graphites B and C) powders were evaluated, first at the macroscopic scale when sliding against steel counterfaces, under various applied normal loads. Scanning Electron Microscopy and AFM in tapping mode were used to observe the morphological modifications of the graphites. It is noticed that an enlargement of the applied normal load leads to an increase of the friction coefficient for graphites A and C; but for the graphite B, it seems that a ''limit'' load can induce a complete change of the tribological behaviour. At the same time, the nano-friction properties of these powders were evaluated by AFM measurements in contact mode, at different contact loads. As it was the case at the macroscopic scale, an increase of the nano-contact load induces higher friction coefficients. The determining of the friction and wear mechanisms of the graphite powders, as a function of both their intrinsic characteristics and the applied normal load, is then possible.

  20. Low temperature rate coefficients of the H + CH{sup +} → C{sup +} + H{sub 2} reaction: New potential energy surface and time-independent quantum scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werfelli, Ghofran [Université de Bordeaux, Institut des Sciences Moléculaires, CNRS UMR 5255, 33405 Talence Cedex (France); Faculté des Sciences de Tunis, Université de Tunis El-Manar, Laboratoire de Physique de la Matière Condensée, 2092 Tunis (Tunisia); Halvick, Philippe; Stoecklin, Thierry [Université de Bordeaux, Institut des Sciences Moléculaires, CNRS UMR 5255, 33405 Talence Cedex (France); Honvault, Pascal [Université de Bourgogne Franche-Comté, Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Carnot de Bourgogne, CNRS UMR 6303, 21078 Dijon Cedex (France); Université de Franche-Comté, UFR ST, 25030 Besançon Cedex (France); Kerkeni, Boutheïna [Faculté des Sciences de Tunis, Université de Tunis El-Manar, Laboratoire de Physique de la Matière Condensée, 2092 Tunis (Tunisia); Institut Supérieur des Arts Multimédia de la Manouba, Université de la Manouba, 2010 la Manouba (Tunisia)

    2015-09-21

    The observed abundances of the methylidyne cation, CH{sup +}, in diffuse molecular clouds can be two orders of magnitude higher than the prediction of the standard gas-phase models which, in turn, predict rather well the abundances of neutral CH. It is therefore necessary to investigate all the possible formation and destruction processes of CH{sup +} in the interstellar medium with the most abundant species H, H{sub 2}, and e{sup −}. In this work, we address the destruction process of CH{sup +} by hydrogen abstraction. We report a new calculation of the low temperature rate coefficients for the abstraction reaction, using accurate time-independent quantum scattering and a new high-level ab initio global potential energy surface including a realistic model of the long-range interaction between the reactants H and CH{sup +}. The calculated thermal rate coefficient is in good agreement with the experimental data in the range 50 K–800 K. However, at lower temperatures, the experimental rate coefficient takes exceedingly small values which are not reproduced by the calculated rate coefficient. Instead, the latter rate coefficient is close to the one given by the Langevin capture model, as expected for a reaction involving an ion and a neutral species. Several recent theoretical works have reported a seemingly good agreement with the experiment below 50 K, but an analysis of these works show that they are based on potential energy surfaces with incorrect long-range behavior. The experimental results were explained by a loss of reactivity of the lowest rotational states of the reactant; however, the quantum scattering calculations show the opposite, namely, a reactivity enhancement with rotational excitation.

  1. Reactive uptake coefficients for heterogeneous reaction of N2O5 with submicron aerosols of NaCl and natural sea salt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. Stewart

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The kinetics of uptake of gaseous N2O5 on submicron aerosols containing NaCl and natural sea salt have been investigated in a flow reactor as a function of relative humidity (RH in the range 30-80% at 295±2K and a total pressure of 1bar. The measured uptake coefficients, γ, were larger on the aerosols containing sea salt compared to those of pure NaCl, and in both cases increased with increasing RH. These observations are explained in terms of the variation in the size of the salt droplets, which leads to a limitation in the uptake rate into small particles. After correction for this effect the uptake coefficients are independent of relative humidity, and agree with those measured previously on larger droplets. A value of γ=0.025 is recommended for the reactive uptake coefficient for N2O5 on deliquesced sea salt droplets at 298K and RH>40%.

  2. Effect of inhibitors on macroscopical oxidation kinetics of calcium sulfite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yi; WANG Li-dong; WANG Xiao-ming; LI Qiang-wei; XU Pei-yao

    2005-01-01

    In the presence of inhibitors, the macroscopical oxidation kinetics of calcium sulfite, the main byproduct in wet limestone scrubbing, was studied for the first time by adding different inhibitors and varying pH, concentration of calcium sulfite, oxygen partial pressure, concentration of inhibitors and temperature. The mathematical model about the general oxidation reaction was established,which was controlled by three steps involving dissolution of calcium sulfite, mass transfer of oxygen and chemical reaction in the solution.It was concluded that the general reaction was controlled by mass transfer of oxygen under uncatalyzed conditions, while it was controlled by dissolution of calcium sulfite after adding three kinds of inhibitors. Thus, the theory was provided for investigating the mechanism and oxidation kinetics of sulfite. The beneficial references were also supplied for design of oxidation technics in the wet limestone scrubbing.

  3. Gas-phase rate coefficients for the OH + n-, i-, s-, and t-butanol reactions measured between 220 and 380 K: non-Arrhenius behavior and site-specific reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGillen, Max R; Baasandorj, Munkhbayar; Burkholder, James B

    2013-06-01

    Butanol (C4H9OH) is a potential biofuel alternative in fossil fuel gasoline and diesel formulations. The usage of butanol would necessarily lead to direct emissions into the atmosphere; thus, an understanding of its atmospheric processing and environmental impact is desired. Reaction with the OH radical is expected to be the predominant atmospheric removal process for the four aliphatic isomers of butanol. In this work, rate coefficients, k, for the gas-phase reaction of the n-, i-, s-, and t-butanol isomers with the OH radical were measured under pseudo-first-order conditions in OH using pulsed laser photolysis to produce OH radicals and laser induced fluorescence to monitor its temporal profile. Rate coefficients were measured over the temperature range 221-381 K at total pressures between 50 and 200 Torr (He). The reactions exhibited non-Arrhenius behavior over this temperature range and no dependence on total pressure with k(296 K) values of (9.68 ± 0.75), (9.72 ± 0.72), (8.88 ± 0.69), and (1.04 ± 0.08) (in units of 10(-12) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1)) for n-, i-, s-, and t-butanol, respectively. The quoted uncertainties are at the 2σ level and include estimated systematic errors. The observed non-Arrhenius behavior is interpreted here to result from a competition between the available H-atom abstraction reactive sites, which have different activation energies and pre-exponential factors. The present results are compared with results from previous kinetic studies, structure-activity relationships (SARs), and theoretical calculations and the discrepancies are discussed. Results from this work were combined with available high temperature (1200-1800 K) rate coefficient data and room temperature reaction end-product yields, where available, to derive a self-consistent site-specific set of reaction rate coefficients of the form AT(n) exp(-E/RT) for use in atmospheric and combustion chemistry modeling.

  4. Temperature and pressure dependent rate coefficients for the reaction of C2H4 + HO2 on the C2H4O2H potential energy surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, JunJiang; Xu, JiaQi; Li, ZeRong; Tan, NingXin; Li, XiangYuan

    2015-04-02

    The potential energy surface (PES) for reaction C2H4 + HO2 was examined by using the quantum chemical methods. All rates were determined computationally using the CBS-QB3 composite method combined with conventional transition state theory(TST), variational transition-state theory (VTST) and Rice-Ramsberger-Kassel-Marcus/master-equation (RRKM/ME) theory. The geometries optimization and the vibrational frequency analysis of reactants, transition states, and products were performed at the B3LYP/CBSB7 level. The composite CBS-QB3 method was applied for energy calculations. The major product channel of reaction C2H4 + HO2 is the formation C2H4O2H via an OH(···)π complex with 3.7 kcal/mol binding energy which exhibits negative-temperature dependence. We further investigated the reactions related to this complex, which were ignored in previous studies. Thermochemical properties of the species involved in the reactions were determined using the CBS-QB3 method, and enthalpies of formation of species were compared with literature values. The calculated rate constants are in good agreement with those available from literature and given in modified Arrhenius equation form, which are serviceable in combustion modeling of hydrocarbons. Finally, in order to illustrate the effect for low-temperature ignition of our new rate constants, we have implemented them into the existing mechanisms, which can predict ethylene ignition in a shock tube with better performance.

  5. Methyl-perfluoroheptene-ethers (CH3OC7F13): measured OH radical reaction rate coefficients for several isomers and enantiomers and their atmospheric lifetimes and global warming potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jubb, Aaron M; Gierczak, Tomasz; Baasandorj, Munkhbayar; Waterland, Robert L; Burkholder, James B

    2014-05-06

    Mixtures of methyl-perfluoroheptene-ethers (CH3OC7F13, MPHEs) are currently in use as replacements for perfluorinated alkanes (PFCs) and poly-ether heat transfer fluids, which are persistent greenhouse gases with lifetimes >1000 years. At present, the atmospheric processing and environmental impact from the use of MPHEs is unknown. In this work, rate coefficients at 296 K for the gas-phase reaction of the OH radical with six key isomers (including stereoisomers and enantiomers) of MPHEs used commercially were measured using a relative rate method. Rate coefficients for the six MPHE isomers ranged from ∼ 0.1 to 2.9 × 10(-12) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) with a strong stereoisomer and -OCH3 group position dependence; the (E)-stereoisomers with the -OCH3 group in an α- position relative to the double bond had the greatest reactivity. Rate coefficients measured for the d3-MPHE isomer analogues showed decreased reactivity consistent with a minor contribution of H atom abstraction from the -OCH3 group to the overall reactivity. Estimated atmospheric lifetimes for the MPHE isomers range from days to months. Atmospheric lifetimes, radiative efficiencies, and global warming potentials for these short-lived MPHE isomers were estimated based on the measured OH rate coefficients along with measured and theoretically calculated MPHE infrared absorption spectra. Our results highlight the importance of quantifying the atmospheric impact of individual components in an isomeric mixture.

  6. Macroscopic optical response and photonic bands

    CERN Document Server

    Perez-Huerta, J S; Mendoza, Bernardo S; Mochan, W Luis

    2012-01-01

    We develop a formalism for the calculation of the macroscopic dielectric response of composite systems made of particles of one material embedded periodically within a matrix of another material, each of which is characterized by a well defined dielectric function. The nature of these dielectric functions is arbitrary, and could correspond to dielectric or conducting, transparent or opaque, absorptive and dispersive materials. The geometry of the particles and the Bravais lattice of the composite are also arbitrary. Our formalism goes beyond the longwavelenght approximation as it fully incorporates retardation effects. We test our formalism through the study the propagation of electromagnetic waves in 2D photonic crystals made of periodic arrays of cylindrical holes in a dispersionless dielectric host. Our macroscopic theory yields a spatially dispersive macroscopic response which allows the calculation of the full photonic band structure of the system, as well as the characterization of its normal modes, upo...

  7. A macroscopic challenge for quantum spacetime

    CERN Document Server

    Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Over the last decade a growing number of quantum-gravity researchers has been looking for opportunities for the first ever experimental evidence of a Planck-length quantum property of spacetime. These studies are usually based on the analysis of some candidate indirect implications of spacetime quantization, such as a possible curvature of momentum space. Some recent proposals have raised hope that we might also gain direct experimental access to quantum properties of spacetime, by finding evidence of limitations to the measurability of the center-of-mass coordinates of some macroscopic bodies. However I here observe that the arguments that originally lead to speculating about spacetime quantization do not apply to the localization of the center of mass of a macroscopic body. And I also analyze some popular formalizations of the notion of quantum spacetime, finding that when the quantization of spacetime is Planckian for the constituent particles then for the composite macroscopic body the quantization of spa...

  8. On Macroscopic Complexity and Perceptual Coding

    CERN Document Server

    Scoville, John

    2010-01-01

    While Shannon information establishes limits to the universal data compression of binary data, no existing theory provides an equivalent characterization of the lossy data compression algorithms prevalent in audiovisual media. The current paper proposes a mathematical framework for perceptual coding and inference which quantifies the complexity of objects indistinguishable to a particular observer. A definition of the complexity is presented and related to a generalization of Boltzmann entropy for these equivalence classes. When the classes are partitions of phase space, corresponding to classical observations, this is the proper Boltzmann entropy and the macroscopic complexity agrees with the Algorithmic Entropy. For general classes, the macroscopic complexity measure determines the optimal lossy compression of the data. Conversely, perceptual coding algorithms may be used to construct upper bounds on certain macroscopic complexities. Knowledge of these complexities, in turn, allows perceptual inference whic...

  9. Nanoplasmon-enabled macroscopic thermal management

    CERN Document Server

    Jonsson, Gustav Edman; Dmitriev, Alexandre

    2013-01-01

    In numerous applications of energy harvesting via transformation of light into heat the focus recently shifted towards highly absorptive materials featuring nanoplasmons. It is currently established that noble metals-based absorptive plasmonic platforms deliver significant light-capturing capability and can be viewed as super-absorbers of optical radiation. However, direct experimental evidence of plasmon-enabled macroscopic temperature increase that would result from these efficient absorptive properties is scarce. Here we derive a general quantitative method of characterizing light-capturing properties of a given heat-generating absorptive layer by macroscopic thermal imaging. We further monitor macroscopic areas that are homogeneously heated by several degrees with plasmon nanostructures that occupy a mere 8% of the surface, leaving it essentially transparent and evidencing significant heat generation capability of nanoplasmon-enabled light capture. This has a direct bearing to thermophotovoltaics and othe...

  10. First principles transport coefficients and reaction rates of Ar{sub 2}{sup +} ions in argon for cold plasma jet modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chicheportiche, Alexandre; Benhenni, Malika; Yousfi, Mohammed, E-mail: yousfi@laplace.univ-tlse.fr [Laboratoire Plasma et Conversion d’Energie, LAPLACE and UMR5213 du CNRS, Université de Toulouse, UPS, 118 route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse Cedex (France); Stachoň, Martin; Kalus, René, E-mail: rene.kalus@vsb.cz [Center of Excellence IT4Innovations and Department of Applied Mathematics, VSB - Technical University of Ostrava, 17. listopadu 15, 708 33 Ostrava (Czech Republic); Gadéa, Florent Xavier [Laboratoire de Chimie et de Physique Quantiques, IRSAMC and UMR5626 du CNRS, Université de Toulouse, UPS, 118 route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse Cedex (France)

    2014-10-07

    Momentum-transfer collision cross-sections and integral collision cross-sections for the collision-induced dissociation are calculated for collisions of ionized argon dimers with argon atoms using a nonadiabatic semiclassical method with the electronic Hamiltonian calculated on the fly via a diatomics-in-molecules semiempirical model as well as inverse-method modeling based on simple isotropic rigid-core potential. The collision cross-sections are then used in an optimized Monte Carlo code for evaluations of the Ar{sub 2}{sup +} mobility in argon gas, longitudinal diffusion coefficient, and collision-induced dissociation rates. A thorough comparison of various theoretical calculations as well as with available experimental data on the Ar{sub 2}{sup +} mobility and collision cross-sections is performed. Good agreement is found between both theoretical approaches and the experiment. Analysis of the role of inelastic processes in Ar{sub 2}{sup +}/Ar collisions is also provided.

  11. Departure of microscopic friction from macroscopic drag in molecular fluid dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanasaki, Itsuo; Fujiwara, Daiki; Kawano, Satoyuki

    2016-03-01

    Friction coefficient of the Langevin equation and drag of spherical macroscopic objects in steady flow at low Reynolds numbers are usually regarded as equivalent. We show that the microscopic friction can be different from the macroscopic drag when the mass is taken into account for particles with comparable scale to the surrounding fluid molecules. We illustrate it numerically by molecular dynamics simulation of chloride ion in water. Friction variation by the atomistic mass effect beyond the Langevin regime can be of use in the drag reduction technology as well as the electro or thermophoresis.

  12. Communication: Rate coefficients of the H + CH{sub 4} → H{sub 2} + CH{sub 3} reaction from ring polymer molecular dynamics on a highly accurate potential energy surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Qingyong, E-mail: mengqingyong@dicp.ac.cn; Chen, Jun, E-mail: chenjun@dicp.ac.cn; Zhang, Dong H., E-mail: zhangdh@dicp.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Molecular Reaction Dynamics and Center for Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Zhongshan Road 457, 116023 Dalian (China)

    2015-09-14

    The ring polymer molecular dynamics (RPMD) calculations are performed to calculate rate constants for the title reaction on the recently constructed potential energy surface based on permutation invariant polynomial (PIP) neural-network (NN) fitting [J. Li et al., J. Chem. Phys. 142, 204302 (2015)]. By inspecting convergence, 16 beads are used in computing free-energy barriers at 300 K ≤ T ≤ 1000 K, while different numbers of beads are used for transmission coefficients. The present RPMD rates are in excellent agreement with quantum rates computed on the same potential energy surface, as well as with the experimental measurements, demonstrating further that the RPMD is capable of producing accurate rates for polyatomic chemical reactions even at rather low temperatures.

  13. Low temperature rate coefficients for the reactions of 1CH2 with reactive and non-reactive species, and the implications for Titan's atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Kevin; Slater, Eloise; Blitz, Mark; Plane, John; Heard, Dwayne; Seakins, Paul

    2016-04-01

    The Cassini-Huygens mission to Titan revealed unexpectedly large amounts of benzene in the troposphere, and confirmed the absence of a global ethane ocean as predicted by photochemical models of methane conversion over the lifetime of the solar system. An important chemical intermediate in both the production and loss of benzene and ethane is the first electronically excited state of methylene, 1CH2. For example, at room temperature an important reaction of 1CH2 is with acetylene (R1a), leading to the formation of propargyl (C3H3)[1]. The subsequent recombination of propargyl radicals is the major suggested route to benzene in Titan's atmosphere (R2)[2]. In addition to reaction of 1CH2 leading to products, there is also competition between inelastic electronic relaxation to form the ground triplet state 3CH2 (R1b). This ground state 3CH2 has a markedly different reactivity to the singlet, reacting primarily with methyl radicals (CH3) to form ethene (R3). As methyl radical recombination is the primary route to ethane (R4)[3], reactions of 1CH2 will also heavily influence the ethane budget on Titan. 1CH2 + C2H2 → C3H3 + H (R1a) 1CH2 + C2H2 → 3CH2 + C2H2 (R1b) C3H3 + C3H3 → C6H6 (R2) 3CH2 + CH3 → C2H4 + H (R3) CH3 + CH3 (+ M) → C2H6 (R4) Thus this competition between chemical reaction and electronic relaxation in the reactions of 1CH2 with H2, CH4, C2H4, and C2H6 will play an important role in determining the benzene and ethane budgets on Titan. Despite this there are no measurements of any rate constants for 1CH2 at temperatures relevant to Titan's atmosphere (60 - 170 K). Using a pulsed Laval nozzle apparatus coupled with pulsed laser photolysis laser-induced fluorescence, the low temperature reaction kinetics for the removal of 1CH2 with nitrogen, hydrogen, methane, ethane, ethene, acetylene, and oxygen, have been studied. The results revealed an increase in the removal rate of 1CH2 at temperatures below 200 K, with a sharp increase of around a factor of

  14. Separation of the Microscopic and Macroscopic Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Zandt, L. L.

    1977-01-01

    Examines the possibility of observing interference in quantum magnification experiments such as the celebrated "Schroedinger cat". Uses the possibility of observing interference for separating the realm of microscopic from macroscopic dynamics; estimates the dividing line to fall at system sizes of about 100 Daltons. (MLH)

  15. Entropy, Macroscopic Information, and Phase Transitions

    OpenAIRE

    Parrondo, Juan M. R.

    1999-01-01

    The relationship between entropy and information is reviewed, taking into account that information is stored in macroscopic degrees of freedom, such as the order parameter in a system exhibiting spontaneous symmetry breaking. It is shown that most problems of the relationship between entropy and information, embodied in a variety of Maxwell demons, are also present in any symmetry breaking transition.

  16. Macroscopic Modeling of Polymer-Electrolyte Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, A.Z.; Newman, J.

    2007-04-01

    In this chapter, the various approaches for the macroscopic modeling of transport phenomena in polymer-electrolyte membranes are discussed. This includes general background and modeling methodologies, as well as exploration of the governing equations and some membrane-related topic of interest.

  17. Lozenge Tilings, Glauber Dynamics and Macroscopic Shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laslier, Benoît; Toninelli, Fabio Lucio

    2015-09-01

    We study the Glauber dynamics on the set of tilings of a finite domain of the plane with lozenges of side 1/ L. Under the invariant measure of the process (the uniform measure over all tilings), it is well known (Cohn et al. J Am Math Soc 14:297-346, 2001) that the random height function associated to the tiling converges in probability, in the scaling limit , to a non-trivial macroscopic shape minimizing a certain surface tension functional. According to the boundary conditions, the macroscopic shape can be either analytic or contain "frozen regions" (Arctic Circle phenomenon Cohn et al. N Y J Math 4:137-165, 1998; Jockusch et al. Random domino tilings and the arctic circle theorem, arXiv:math/9801068, 1998). It is widely conjectured, on the basis of theoretical considerations (Henley J Statist Phys 89:483-507, 1997; Spohn J Stat Phys 71:1081-1132, 1993), partial mathematical results (Caputo et al. Commun Math Phys 311:157-189, 2012; Wilson Ann Appl Probab 14:274-325, 2004) and numerical simulations for similar models (Destainville Phys Rev Lett 88:030601, 2002; cf. also the bibliography in Henley (J Statist Phys 89:483-507, 1997) and Wilson (Ann Appl Probab 14:274-325, 2004), that the Glauber dynamics approaches the equilibrium macroscopic shape in a time of order L 2+ o(1). In this work we prove this conjecture, under the assumption that the macroscopic equilibrium shape contains no "frozen region".

  18. Macroscopic invisibility cloaking of visible light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Xianzhong; Luo, Y.; Zhang, Jingjing

    2011-01-01

    to a few wavelengths. Here, we report the first realization of a macroscopic volumetric invisibility cloak constructed from natural birefringent crystals. The cloak operates at visible frequencies and is capable of hiding, for a specific light polarization, three-dimensional objects of the scale...

  19. Macroscopic heat transport equations and heat waves in nonequilibrium states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yangyu; Jou, David; Wang, Moran

    2017-03-01

    Heat transport may behave as wave propagation when the time scale of processes decreases to be comparable to or smaller than the relaxation time of heat carriers. In this work, a generalized heat transport equation including nonlinear, nonlocal and relaxation terms is proposed, which sums up the Cattaneo-Vernotte, dual-phase-lag and phonon hydrodynamic models as special cases. In the frame of this equation, the heat wave propagations are investigated systematically in nonequilibrium steady states, which were usually studied around equilibrium states. The phase (or front) speed of heat waves is obtained through a perturbation solution to the heat differential equation, and found to be intimately related to the nonlinear and nonlocal terms. Thus, potential heat wave experiments in nonequilibrium states are devised to measure the coefficients in the generalized equation, which may throw light on understanding the physical mechanisms and macroscopic modeling of nanoscale heat transport.

  20. Tropospheric oxidation of cyclic unsaturated ethers in the day-time: Comparison of the reactions with Cl, OH and O3 based on the determination of their rate coefficients at 298 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alwe, H. D.; Walavalkar, M. P.; Sharma, A.; Dhanya, S.; Naik, P. D.

    2014-01-01

    The rate coefficients of the reactions of three unsaturated cyclic ethers, 2,5-dihydrofuran (2,5-DHF), 2,3-dihydrofuran (2,3-DHF), and 3,4-dihydropyran (3,4-DHP), with the major day-time tropospheric oxidants - OH (kOH) and O3(kO3), and that of 3,4-DHP with Cl atom (kCl) are determined using relative rate method, at 298 K. The values of kOH are (6.45 ± 1.69), (11.95 ± 2.79) and (11.38 ± 2.64) × 10-11 cm3 molecule-1 s-1 for 2,5-DHF, 2,3-DHF and 3,4-DHP, respectively and kO3 are (1.65 ± 0.31), (443.20 ± 79.0) and (31.36 ± 5.80) × 10-17 cm3 molecule-1 s-1 for 2,5-DHF, 2,3-DHF and 3,4-DHP, respectively. The value of kCl for 3,4-DHP is (6.15 ± 0.84) × 10-10 cm3 molecule-1 s-1. The dominant pathway of tropospheric degradation of 2,5-DHF is the reaction with OH, whereas that of 2,3-DHF is the reaction with O3. Reaction with both OH and O3 are equally important in the case of 3,4-DHP. Under the conditions of marine boundary layer, the reaction with Cl atom is important in the tropospheric degradation of 2,5-DHF and 3,4-DHP, but insignificant in the case of 2,3-DHF (only 1.8%). The estimated tropospheric lifetimes in the day-time are 2.0, 0.08 and 0.62 h for 2,5-DHF, 2,3-DHF and 3,4-DHP respectively. The presence of O atom, unsaturation, conjugation etc. influences the rate coefficients in a complex manner. However, there is a good correlation of kOH with HOMO energy, which further improves by treating the molecules separately, either as ethers and hydrocarbons, or as cyclic and acyclic molecules. The values of kO3 of these ethers fit very well with the straight line regression derived for simple alkenes with their HOMO energy, except 2,3-DHF, which has a high strain enthalpy. The values of kCl also show a similar trend of increase with HOMO energy, but the correlation is not as good as that of kOH.

  1. Macroscopic quantum mechanics in a classical spacetime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huan; Miao, Haixing; Lee, Da-Shin; Helou, Bassam; Chen, Yanbei

    2013-04-26

    We apply the many-particle Schrödinger-Newton equation, which describes the coevolution of a many-particle quantum wave function and a classical space-time geometry, to macroscopic mechanical objects. By averaging over motions of the objects' internal degrees of freedom, we obtain an effective Schrödinger-Newton equation for their centers of mass, which can be monitored and manipulated at quantum levels by state-of-the-art optomechanics experiments. For a single macroscopic object moving quantum mechanically within a harmonic potential well, its quantum uncertainty is found to evolve at a frequency different from its classical eigenfrequency-with a difference that depends on the internal structure of the object-and can be observable using current technology. For several objects, the Schrödinger-Newton equation predicts semiclassical motions just like Newtonian physics, yet quantum uncertainty cannot be transferred from one object to another.

  2. Macroscopic Invisibility Cloaking of Visible Light

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Xianzhong; Zhang, Jingjing; Jiang, Kyle; Pendry, John B; Zhang, Shuang

    2010-01-01

    Invisibility cloaks of light, which used to be confined to the imagination, have now been turned into a scientific reality, thanks to the enabling theoretical tools of transformation optics and conformal mapping. Inspired by those theoretical works, the experimental realisation of electromagnetic invisibility cloaks has been reported at various electromagnetic frequencies. All the invisibility cloaks demonstrated thus far, however, have relied on nano- or micro-fabricated artificial composite materials with spatially varying electromagnetic properties, which limit the size of the cloaked region to a few wavelengths. Here we report realisation of a macroscopic volumetric invisibility cloak constructed from natural birefringent crystals. The cloak operates at visible frequencies and is capable of hiding three-dimensional objects of the scale of centimetres and millimetres. Our work opens avenues for future applications with macroscopic cloaking devices.

  3. Macroscopic spin and charge transport theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Da-Fang; Shi Jun-Ren

    2009-01-01

    According to the general principle of non-equilibrium thermodynamics, we propose a set of macroscopic transport equations for the spin transport and the charge transport. In particular, the spin torque is introduced as a generalized 'current density' to describe the phenomena associated with the spin non-conservation in a unified framework. The Einstein relations and the Onsager relations between different transport phenomena are established. Specifically, the spin transport properties of the isotropic non-magnetic and the isotropic magnetic two-dimensional electron gases are fully described by using this theory, in which only the macroscopic-spin-related transport phenomena allowed by the symmetry of the system are taken into account.

  4. Macroscopic entrainment of periodically forced oscillatory ensembles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovych, Oleksandr V; Tass, Peter A

    2011-03-01

    Large-amplitude oscillations of macroscopic neuronal signals, such as local field potentials and electroencephalography or magnetoencephalography signals, are commonly considered as being generated by a population of mutually synchronized neurons. In a computational study in generic networks of phase oscillators and bursting neurons, however, we show that this common belief may be wrong if the neuronal population receives an external rhythmic input. The latter may stem from another neuronal population or an external, e.g., sensory or electrical, source. In that case the population field potential may be entrained by the rhythmic input, whereas the individual neurons are phase desynchronized both mutually and with their field potential. Intriguingly, the corresponding large-amplitude oscillations of the population mean field are generated by pairwise desynchronized neurons oscillating at frequencies shifted far away from the frequency of the macroscopic field potential.

  5. Adsorption modeling for macroscopic contaminant dispersal analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Axley, J.W.

    1990-05-01

    Two families of macroscopic adsorption models are formulated, based on fundamental principles of adsorption science and technology, that may be used for macroscopic (such as whole-building) contaminant dispersal analysis. The first family of adsorption models - the Equilibrium Adsorption (EA) Models - are based upon the simple requirement of equilibrium between adsorbent and room air. The second family - the Boundary Layer Diffusion Controlled Adsorption (BLDC) Models - add to the equilibrium requirement a boundary layer model for diffusion of the adsorbate from the room air to the adsorbent surface. Two members of each of these families are explicitly discussed, one based on the linear adsorption isotherm model and the other on the Langmuir model. The linear variants of each family are applied to model the adsorption dynamics of formaldehyde in gypsum wall board and compared to measured data.

  6. Macroscopic Invisible Cloak for Visible Light

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Baile; Liu, Xiaogang; Barbastathis, George

    2011-01-01

    Invisibility cloaks, a subject that usually occurs in science fiction and myths, have attracted wide interest recently because of their possible realization. The biggest challenge to true invisibility is known to be the cloaking of a macroscopic object in the broad range of wavelengths visible to the human eye. Here we experimentally solve this problem by incorporating the principle of transformation optics into a conventional optical lens fabrication with low-cost materials and simple manufacturing techniques. A transparent cloak made of two pieces of calcite is created. This cloak is able to conceal a macroscopic object with a maximum height of 2 mm, larger than 3500 free-space-wavelength, inside a transparent liquid environment. Its working bandwidth encompassing red, green and blue light is also demonstrated.

  7. Macroscopic model and truncation error of discrete Boltzmann method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Yao-Hsin

    2016-10-01

    A derivation procedure to secure the macroscopically equivalent equation and its truncation error for discrete Boltzmann method is proffered in this paper. Essential presumptions of two time scales and a small parameter in the Chapman-Enskog expansion are disposed of in the present formulation. Equilibrium particle distribution function instead of its original non-equilibrium form is chosen as key variable in the derivation route. Taylor series expansion encompassing fundamental algebraic manipulations is adequate to realize the macroscopically differential counterpart. A self-contained and comprehensive practice for the linear one-dimensional convection-diffusion equation is illustrated in details. Numerical validations on the incurred truncation error in one- and two-dimensional cases with various distribution functions are conducted to verify present formulation. As shown in the computational results, excellent agreement between numerical result and theoretical prediction are found in the test problems. Straightforward extensions to more complicated systems including convection-diffusion-reaction, multi-relaxation times in collision operator as well as multi-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations are also exposed in the Appendix to point out its expediency in solving complicated flow problems.

  8. Macroscopic Quantum Resonators (MAQRO): 2015 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaltenbaek, Rainer [University of Vienna, Vienna Center for Quantum Science and Technology, Vienna (Austria); Aspelmeyer, Markus; Kiesel, Nikolai [University of Vienna, Vienna Center for Quantum Science and Technology, Vienna (Austria); Barker, Peter F.; Bose, Sougato [University College London, Department of Physics and Astronomy, London (United Kingdom); Bassi, Angelo [University of Trieste, Department of Physics, Trieste (Italy); INFN - Trieste Section, Trieste (Italy); Bateman, James [University of Swansea, Department of Physics, College of Science, Swansea (United Kingdom); Bongs, Kai; Cruise, Adrian Michael [University of Birmingham, School of Physics and Astronomy, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Braxmaier, Claus [University of Bremen, Center of Applied Space Technology and Micro Gravity (ZARM), Bremen (Germany); Institute of Space Systems, German Aerospace Center (DLR), Bremen (Germany); Brukner, Caslav [University of Vienna, Vienna Center for Quantum Science and Technology, Vienna (Austria); Austrian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Quantum Optics and Quantum Information (IQOQI), Vienna (Austria); Christophe, Bruno; Rodrigues, Manuel [The French Aerospace Lab, ONERA, Chatillon (France); Chwalla, Michael; Johann, Ulrich [Airbus Defence and Space GmbH, Immenstaad (Germany); Cohadon, Pierre-Francois; Heidmann, Antoine; Lambrecht, Astrid; Reynaud, Serge [ENS-PSL Research University, Laboratoire Kastler Brossel, UPMC-Sorbonne Universites, CNRS, College de France, Paris (France); Curceanu, Catalina [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); Dholakia, Kishan; Mazilu, Michael [University of St. Andrews, School of Physics and Astronomy, St. Andrews (United Kingdom); Diosi, Lajos [Wigner Research Center for Physics, P.O. Box 49, Budapest (Hungary); Doeringshoff, Klaus; Peters, Achim [Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Institut fuer Physik, Berlin (Germany); Ertmer, Wolfgang; Rasel, Ernst M. [Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Hannover (Germany); Gieseler, Jan; Novotny, Lukas; Rondin, Loic [ETH Zuerich, Photonics Laboratory, Zuerich (Switzerland); Guerlebeck, Norman; Herrmann, Sven; Laemmerzahl, Claus [University of Bremen, Center of Applied Space Technology and Micro Gravity (ZARM), Bremen (Germany); Hechenblaikner, Gerald [Airbus Defence and Space GmbH, Immenstaad (Germany); European Southern Observatory (ESO), Garching bei Muenchen (Germany); Hossenfelder, Sabine [KTH Royal Institute of Technology and Stockholm University, Nordita, Stockholm (Sweden); Kim, Myungshik [Imperial College London, QOLS, Blackett Laboratory, London (United Kingdom); Milburn, Gerard J. [University of Queensland, ARC Centre for Engineered Quantum Systems, Brisbane (Australia); Mueller, Holger [University of California, Department of Physics, Berkeley, CA (United States); Paternostro, Mauro [Queen' s University, Centre for Theoretical Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics, School of Mathematics and Physics, Belfast (United Kingdom); Pikovski, Igor [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, ITAMP, Cambridge, MA (United States); Pilan Zanoni, Andre [Airbus Defence and Space GmbH, Immenstaad (Germany); CERN - European Organization for Nuclear Research, EN-STI-TCD, Geneva (Switzerland); Riedel, Charles Jess [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, ON (Canada); Roura, Albert [Universitaet Ulm, Institut fuer Quantenphysik, Ulm (Germany); Schleich, Wolfgang P. [Universitaet Ulm, Institut fuer Quantenphysik, Ulm (Germany); Texas A and M University Institute for Advanced Study (TIAS), Institute for Quantum Science and Engineering (IQSE), and Department of Physics and Astronomy, College Station, TX (United States); Schmiedmayer, Joerg [Vienna University of Technology, Vienna Center for Quantum Science and Technology, Institute of Atomic and Subatomic Physics, Vienna (Austria); Schuldt, Thilo [Institute of Space Systems, German Aerospace Center (DLR), Bremen (Germany); Schwab, Keith C. [California Institute of Technology, Applied Physics, Pasadena, CA (United States)

    2016-12-15

    Do the laws of quantum physics still hold for macroscopic objects - this is at the heart of Schroedinger's cat paradox - or do gravitation or yet unknown effects set a limit for massive particles? What is the fundamental relation between quantum physics and gravity? Ground-based experiments addressing these questions may soon face limitations due to limited free-fall times and the quality of vacuum and microgravity. The proposed mission Macroscopic Quantum Resonators (MAQRO) may overcome these limitations and allow addressing such fundamental questions. MAQRO harnesses recent developments in quantum optomechanics, high-mass matter-wave interferometry as well as state-of-the-art space technology to push macroscopic quantum experiments towards their ultimate performance limits and to open new horizons for applying quantum technology in space. The main scientific goal is to probe the vastly unexplored 'quantum-classical' transition for increasingly massive objects, testing the predictions of quantum theory for objects in a size and mass regime unachievable in ground-based experiments. The hardware will largely be based on available space technology. Here, we present the MAQRO proposal submitted in response to the 4th Cosmic Vision call for a medium-sized mission (M4) in 2014 of the European Space Agency (ESA) with a possible launch in 2025, and we review the progress with respect to the original MAQRO proposal for the 3rd Cosmic Vision call for a medium-sized mission (M3) in 2010. In particular, the updated proposal overcomes several critical issues of the original proposal by relying on established experimental techniques from high-mass matter-wave interferometry and by introducing novel ideas for particle loading and manipulation. Moreover, the mission design was improved to better fulfill the stringent environmental requirements for macroscopic quantum experiments. (orig.)

  9. A macroscopic approach to creating exotic matter

    OpenAIRE

    Ridgely, C. T.

    2000-01-01

    Herein the Casimir effect is used to present a simple macroscopic view on creating exotic matter. The energy arising between two nearly perfectly conducting parallel plates is shown to become increasingly negative as the plate separation is reduced. It is proposed that the Casimir energy appears increasingly negative simply because the vacuum electromagnetic zero-point field performs positive work in pushing the plates together, transforming field energy into kinetic energy of the plates. Nex...

  10. Shot noise in linear macroscopic resistors

    OpenAIRE

    Gomila Lluch, Gabriel; Pennetta, C.; Reggiani, L.; Ferrari, G; Sampietro, M.; G. Bertuccio(Politecnico di Milano, Italy)

    2004-01-01

    We report on direct experimental evidence of shot noise in a linear macroscopic resistor. The origin of the shot noise comes from the fluctuation of the total number of charge carriers inside the resistor associated with their diffusive motion under the condition that the dielectric relaxation time becomes longer than the dynamic transit time. The present results show that neither potential barriers nor the absence of inelastic scattering are necessary to observe shot noise in electronic devi...

  11. Shot Noise in Linear Macroscopic Resistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomila, G.; Pennetta, C.; Reggiani, L.; Sampietro, M.; Ferrari, G.; Bertuccio, G.

    2004-06-01

    We report on direct experimental evidence of shot noise in a linear macroscopic resistor. The origin of the shot noise comes from the fluctuation of the total number of charge carriers inside the resistor associated with their diffusive motion under the condition that the dielectric relaxation time becomes longer than the dynamic transit time. The present results show that neither potential barriers nor the absence of inelastic scattering are necessary to observe shot noise in electronic devices.

  12. Active Polar Two-Fluid Macroscopic Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleiner, Harald; Svensek, Daniel; Brand, Helmut R.

    2014-03-01

    We study the dynamics of systems with a polar dynamic preferred direction. Examples include the pattern-forming growth of bacteria (in a solvent, shoals of fish (moving in water currents), flocks of birds and migrating insects (flying in windy air). Because the preferred direction only exists dynamically, but not statically, the macroscopic variable of choice is the macroscopic velocity associated with the motion of the active units. We derive the macroscopic equations for such a system and discuss novel static, reversible and irreversible cross-couplings connected to this second velocity. We find a normal mode structure quite different compared to the static descriptions, as well as linear couplings between (active) flow and e.g. densities and concentrations due to the genuine two-fluid transport derivatives. On the other hand, we get, quite similar to the static case, a direct linear relation between the stress tensor and the structure tensor. This prominent ``active'' term is responsible for many active effects, meaning that our approach can describe those effects as well. In addition, we also deal with explicitly chiral systems, which are important for many active systems. In particular, we find an active flow-induced heat current specific for the dynamic chiral polar order.

  13. Macroscopic self-reorientation of interacting two-dimensional crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, C R; Withers, F; Zhu, M J; Cao, Y; Yu, G; Kozikov, A; Ben Shalom, M; Morozov, S V; van Wijk, M M; Fasolino, A; Katsnelson, M I; Watanabe, K; Taniguchi, T; Geim, A K; Mishchenko, A; Novoselov, K S

    2016-03-10

    Microelectromechanical systems, which can be moved or rotated with nanometre precision, already find applications in such fields as radio-frequency electronics, micro-attenuators, sensors and many others. Especially interesting are those which allow fine control over the motion on the atomic scale because of self-alignment mechanisms and forces acting on the atomic level. Such machines can produce well-controlled movements as a reaction to small changes of the external parameters. Here we demonstrate that, for the system of graphene on hexagonal boron nitride, the interplay between the van der Waals and elastic energies results in graphene mechanically self-rotating towards the hexagonal boron nitride crystallographic directions. Such rotation is macroscopic (for graphene flakes of tens of micrometres the tangential movement can be on hundreds of nanometres) and can be used for reproducible manufacturing of aligned van der Waals heterostructures.

  14. Scattering of acoustic waves by macroscopically inhomogeneous poroelastic tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groby, J-P; Dazel, O; Depollier, C; Ogam, E; Kelders, L

    2012-07-01

    Wave propagation in macroscopically inhomogeneous porous materials has received much attention in recent years. For planar configurations, the wave equation, derived from the alternative formulation of Biot's theory of 1962, was reduced and solved recently: first in the case of rigid frame inhomogeneous porous materials and then in the case of inhomogeneous poroelastic materials in the framework of Biot's theory. This paper focuses on the solution of the full wave equation in cylindrical coordinates for poroelastic tubes in which the acoustic and elastic properties of the poroelastic tube vary in the radial direction. The reflection coefficient is obtained numerically using the state vector (or the so-called Stroh) formalism and Peano series. This coefficient can then be used to straightforwardly calculate the scattered field. To validate the method of resolution, results obtained by the present method are compared to those calculated by the classical transfer matrix method in the case of a two-layer poroelastic tube. As an example, a long bone excited in the sagittal plane is considered. Finally, a discussion is given of ultrasonic time domain scattered field for various inhomogeneity profiles, which could lead to the prospect of long bone characterization.

  15. Constraining the 6.05 MeV 0$^+$ and 6.13 MeV 3$^-$ cascade transitions in the $^{12}$C($\\alpha$,$\\gamma$)$^{16}$O reaction using the Asymptotic Normalization Coefficients

    CERN Document Server

    Avila, M L; Koshchiy, E; Baby, L T; Belarge, J; Kemper, K W; Kuchera, A N; Mukhamedzhanov, A M; Santiago-Gonzalez, D; Uberseder, E

    2014-01-01

    Background. The $^{12}$C($\\alpha,\\gamma$)$^{16}$O reaction plays a fundamental role in astrophysics because its cross section near 300 keV in c.m. determines the $^{12}$C/$^{16}$O ratio at the end of the helium burning stage of stellar evolution. The astrophysically desired accuracy of better than 10\\% has not been achieved. Cascade $\\gamma$ transitions through the excited states of $^{16}$O are contributing to the uncertainty. Purpose. To measure the Asymptotic Normalization Coefficients (ANCs) for the 0$^+$ (6.05 MeV) and 3$^-$ (6.13 MeV) excited states in $^{16}$O and provide constraints on the cross section for the corresponding cascade transitions. Method. The ANCs were measured using the $\\alpha$-transfer reaction $^{12}$C($^6$Li,$d$)$^{16}$O performed at sub-Coulomb energies for both the entrance and exit channels. Results. The ANCs for the 0$^+$(6.05 MeV), 3$^-$(6.13 MeV), 2$^+$(6.92 MeV) and 1$^-$(7.12 MeV) states in $^{16}$O have been measured. The contribution of the 0$^+$ and 3$^-$ cascade transit...

  16. Mass transfer coefficients in metallurgical reactors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    An overview on the application and achievements of physico-mathematical modeling of metallurgical processes in Chinais briefly declared. The important role of coefficients in model formulation is shown from our experience. The mass transfer coeffi-cients of the slag-metal reactions and the gas-metal reactions are discussed referring to the flow conditions near the interface. Theinfluence of the surface-active species on the mass transfer and the inteffacial reaction is also discussed briefly.

  17. Rainbow correlation imaging with macroscopic twin beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allevi, Alessia; Bondani, Maria

    2017-06-01

    We present the implementation of a correlation-imaging protocol that exploits both the spatial and spectral correlations of macroscopic twin-beam states generated by parametric downconversion. In particular, the spectral resolution of an imaging spectrometer coupled to an EMCCD camera is used in a proof-of-principle experiment to encrypt and decrypt a simple code to be transmitted between two parties. In order to optimize the trade-off between visibility and resolution, we provide the characterization of the correlation images as a function of the spatio-spectral properties of twin beams generated at different pump power values.

  18. Fingerprint Feature Extraction Based on Macroscopic Curvature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xiong; He Gui-ming; Zhang Yun

    2003-01-01

    In the Automatic Fingerprint Identification System (AFIS), extracting the feature of fingerprint is very important. The local curvature of ridges of fingerprint is irregular, so people have the barrier to effectively extract the fingerprint curve features to describe fingerprint. This article proposes a novel algorithm; it embraces information of few nearby fingerprint ridges to extract a new characteristic which can describe the curvature feature of fingerprint. Experimental results show the algorithm is feasible, and the characteristics extracted by it can clearly show the inner macroscopic curve properties of fingerprint. The result also shows that this kind of characteristic is robust to noise and pollution.

  19. Fingerprint Feature Extraction Based on Macroscopic Curvature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang; Xiong; He; Gui-Ming; 等

    2003-01-01

    In the Automatic Fingerprint Identification System(AFIS), extracting the feature of fingerprint is very important. The local curvature of ridges of fingerprint is irregular, so people have the barrier to effectively extract the fingerprint curve features to describe fingerprint. This article proposes a novel algorithm; it embraces information of few nearby fingerprint ridges to extract a new characterstic which can describe the curvature feature of fingerprint. Experimental results show the algorithm is feasible, and the characteristics extracted by it can clearly show the inner macroscopic curve properties of fingerprint. The result also shows that this kind of characteristic is robust to noise and pollution.

  20. Macroscopic Quantum Criticality in a Circuit QED

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Y D; Nori, F; Quan, H T; Sun, C P; Liu, Yu-xi; Nori, Franco

    2006-01-01

    Cavity quantum electrodynamic (QED) is studied for two strongly-coupled charge qubits interacting with a single-mode quantized field, which is provided by a on-chip transmission line resonator. We analyze the dressed state structure of this superconducting circuit QED system and the selection rules of electromagnetic-induced transitions between any two of these dressed states. Its macroscopic quantum criticality, in the form of ground state level crossing, is also analyzed, resulting from competition between the Ising-type inter-qubit coupling and the controllable on-site potentials.

  1. Macroscopic fluctuations theory of aerogel dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Lefevere, Raphael; Zambotti, Lorenzo

    2010-01-01

    We consider extensive deterministic dynamics made of $N$ particles modeling aerogels under a macroscopic fluctuation theory description. By using a stochastic model describing those dynamics after a diffusive rescaling, we show that the functional giving the exponential decay in $N$ of the probability of observing a given energy and current profile is not strictly convex as a function of the current. This behaviour is caused by the fact that the energy current is carried by particles which may have arbitrary low speed with sufficiently large probability.

  2. Spin models as microfoundation of macroscopic market models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Sebastian M.; Bornholdt, Stefan

    2013-09-01

    Macroscopic price evolution models are commonly used for investment strategies. There are first promising achievements in defining microscopic agent based models for the same purpose. Microscopic models allow a deeper understanding of mechanisms in the market than the purely phenomenological macroscopic models, and thus bear the chance for better models for market regulation. However microscopic models and macroscopic models are commonly studied separately. Here, we exemplify a unified view of a microscopic and a macroscopic market model in a case study, deducing a macroscopic Langevin equation from a microscopic spin market model closely related to the Ising model. The interplay of the microscopic and the macroscopic view allows for a better understanding and adjustment of the microscopic model, as well, and may guide the construction of agent based market models as basis of macroscopic models.

  3. MACROSCOPIC STRAIN POTENTIALS IN NONLINEAR POROUS MATERIALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘熠; 黄筑平

    2003-01-01

    By taking a hollow sphere as a representative volume element (RVE), the macroscopic strain potentials of porous materials with power-law incompressible matrix are studied in this paper.According to the principles of the minimum potential energy in nonlinear elasticity and the variational procedure, static admissible stress fields and kinematic admissible displacement fields are constructed,and hence the upper and the lower bounds of the macroscopic strain potential are obtained. The bounds given in the present paper differ so slightly that they both provide perfect approximations of the exact strain potential of the studied porous materials. It is also found that the upper bound proposed by previous authors is much higher than the present one, and the lower bounds given by Cocks is much lower. Moreover, the present calculation is also compared with the variational lower bound of Ponte Castafneda for statistically isotropic porous materials. Finally, the validity of the hollow spherical RVE for the studied nonlinear porous material is discussed by the difference between the present numerical results and the Cocks bound.

  4. Macroscopic theory for capillary-pressure hysteresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athukorallage, Bhagya; Aulisa, Eugenio; Iyer, Ram; Zhang, Larry

    2015-03-03

    In this article, we present a theory of macroscopic contact angle hysteresis by considering the minimization of the Helmholtz free energy of a solid-liquid-gas system over a convex set, subject to a constant volume constraint. The liquid and solid surfaces in contact are assumed to adhere weakly to each other, causing the interfacial energy to be set-valued. A simple calculus of variations argument for the minimization of the Helmholtz energy leads to the Young-Laplace equation for the drop surface in contact with the gas and a variational inequality that yields contact angle hysteresis for advancing/receding flow. We also show that the Young-Laplace equation with a Dirichlet boundary condition together with the variational inequality yields a basic hysteresis operator that describes the relationship between capillary pressure and volume. We validate the theory using results from the experiment for a sessile macroscopic drop. Although the capillary effect is a complex phenomenon even for a droplet as various points along the contact line might be pinned, the capillary pressure and volume of the drop are scalar variables that encapsulate the global quasistatic energy information for the entire droplet. Studying the capillary pressure versus volume relationship greatly simplifies the understanding and modeling of the phenomenon just as scalar magnetic hysteresis graphs greatly aided the modeling of devices with magnetic materials.

  5. Quantum correlations of lights in macroscopic environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sua, Yong Meng

    This dissertation presents a detailed study in exploring quantum correlations of lights in macroscopic environments. We have explored quantum correlations of single photons, weak coherent states, and polarization-correlated/polarization-entangled photons in macroscopic environments. These included macroscopic mirrors, macroscopic photon number, spatially separated observers, noisy photons source and propagation medium with loss or disturbances. We proposed a measurement scheme for observing quantum correlations and entanglement in the spatial properties of two macroscopic mirrors using single photons spatial compass state. We explored the phase space distribution features of spatial compass states, such as chessboard pattern by using the Wigner function. The displacement and tilt correlations of the two mirrors were manifested through the propensities of the compass states. This technique can be used to extract Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen correlations (EPR) of the two mirrors. We then formulated the discrete-like property of the propensity P b(m,n), which can be used to explore environmental perturbed quantum jumps of the EPR correlations in phase space. With single photons spatial compass state, the variances in position and momentum are much smaller than standard quantum limit when using a Gaussian TEM 00 beam. We observed intrinsic quantum correlations of weak coherent states between two parties through balanced homodyne detection. Our scheme can be used as a supplement to decoy-state BB84 protocol and differential phase-shift QKD protocol. We prepared four types of bipartite correlations +/- cos2(theta1 +/- theta 2) that shared between two parties. We also demonstrated bits correlations between two parties separated by 10 km optical fiber. The bits information will be protected by the large quantum phase fluctuation of weak coherent states, adding another physical layer of security to these protocols for quantum key distribution. Using 10 m of highly nonlinear

  6. Exploratory numerical experiments with a macroscopic theory of interfacial interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, D.; Solano-López, P.; Donoso, J. M.

    2017-09-01

    Phenomenological theories of interfacial interactions are founded on the core idea to model macroscopically the thin layer that forms between media in contact as a two-dimensional continuum (surface phase or interface) characterised by physical properties per unit area; the temporal evolution of the latter is governed by surface balance equations whose set acts as bridging channel in between the governing equations of the volume phases. These theories have targeted terrestrial applications since long time and their exploitation has inspired our research programme to build up, on the same core idea, a macroscopic theory of gas-surface interactions targeting the complex phenomenology of hypersonic reentry flows as alternative to standard methods in aerothermodynamics based on accommodation coefficients. The objective of this paper is the description of methods employed and results achieved in the exploratory study that kicked off our research programme, that is, the unsteady heat transfer between two solids in contact in planar and cylindrical configurations with and without interface. It is a simple numerical-demonstrator test case designed to facilitate quick numerical calculations but, at the same time, to bring forth already sufficiently meaningful aspects relevant to thermal protection due to the formation of the interface. The paper begins with a brief introduction on the subject matter and a review of relevant literature within an aerothermodynamics perspective. Then the case is considered in which the interface is absent. The importance of tension (force per unit area) continuity as boundary condition on the same footing of heat-flux continuity is recognised and the role of the former in governing the establishment of the temperature-difference distribution over the separation surface is explicitly shown. Evidence is given that the standard temperature-continuity boundary condition is just a particular case. Subsequently the case in which the interface is

  7. General multi-group macroscopic modeling for thermo-chemical non-equilibrium gas mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yen, E-mail: yen.liu@nasa.gov; Vinokur, Marcel [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California 94035 (United States); Panesi, Marco; Sahai, Amal [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, Illinois 61801 (United States)

    2015-04-07

    This paper opens a new door to macroscopic modeling for thermal and chemical non-equilibrium. In a game-changing approach, we discard conventional theories and practices stemming from the separation of internal energy modes and the Landau-Teller relaxation equation. Instead, we solve the fundamental microscopic equations in their moment forms but seek only optimum representations for the microscopic state distribution function that provides converged and time accurate solutions for certain macroscopic quantities at all times. The modeling makes no ad hoc assumptions or simplifications at the microscopic level and includes all possible collisional and radiative processes; it therefore retains all non-equilibrium fluid physics. We formulate the thermal and chemical non-equilibrium macroscopic equations and rate coefficients in a coupled and unified fashion for gases undergoing completely general transitions. All collisional partners can have internal structures and can change their internal energy states after transitions. The model is based on the reconstruction of the state distribution function. The internal energy space is subdivided into multiple groups in order to better describe non-equilibrium state distributions. The logarithm of the distribution function in each group is expressed as a power series in internal energy based on the maximum entropy principle. The method of weighted residuals is applied to the microscopic equations to obtain macroscopic moment equations and rate coefficients succinctly to any order. The model’s accuracy depends only on the assumed expression of the state distribution function and the number of groups used and can be self-checked for accuracy and convergence. We show that the macroscopic internal energy transfer, similar to mass and momentum transfers, occurs through nonlinear collisional processes and is not a simple relaxation process described by, e.g., the Landau-Teller equation. Unlike the classical vibrational energy

  8. General multi-group macroscopic modeling for thermo-chemical non-equilibrium gas mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yen; Panesi, Marco; Sahai, Amal; Vinokur, Marcel

    2015-04-01

    This paper opens a new door to macroscopic modeling for thermal and chemical non-equilibrium. In a game-changing approach, we discard conventional theories and practices stemming from the separation of internal energy modes and the Landau-Teller relaxation equation. Instead, we solve the fundamental microscopic equations in their moment forms but seek only optimum representations for the microscopic state distribution function that provides converged and time accurate solutions for certain macroscopic quantities at all times. The modeling makes no ad hoc assumptions or simplifications at the microscopic level and includes all possible collisional and radiative processes; it therefore retains all non-equilibrium fluid physics. We formulate the thermal and chemical non-equilibrium macroscopic equations and rate coefficients in a coupled and unified fashion for gases undergoing completely general transitions. All collisional partners can have internal structures and can change their internal energy states after transitions. The model is based on the reconstruction of the state distribution function. The internal energy space is subdivided into multiple groups in order to better describe non-equilibrium state distributions. The logarithm of the distribution function in each group is expressed as a power series in internal energy based on the maximum entropy principle. The method of weighted residuals is applied to the microscopic equations to obtain macroscopic moment equations and rate coefficients succinctly to any order. The model's accuracy depends only on the assumed expression of the state distribution function and the number of groups used and can be self-checked for accuracy and convergence. We show that the macroscopic internal energy transfer, similar to mass and momentum transfers, occurs through nonlinear collisional processes and is not a simple relaxation process described by, e.g., the Landau-Teller equation. Unlike the classical vibrational energy

  9. Macroscopic modeling for heat and water vapor transfer in dry snow by homogenization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calonne, Neige; Geindreau, Christian; Flin, Frédéric

    2014-11-26

    Dry snow metamorphism, involved in several topics related to cryospheric sciences, is mainly linked to heat and water vapor transfers through snow including sublimation and deposition at the ice-pore interface. In this paper, the macroscopic equivalent modeling of heat and water vapor transfers through a snow layer was derived from the physics at the pore scale using the homogenization of multiple scale expansions. The microscopic phenomena under consideration are heat conduction, vapor diffusion, sublimation, and deposition. The obtained macroscopic equivalent model is described by two coupled transient diffusion equations including a source term arising from phase change at the pore scale. By dimensional analysis, it was shown that the influence of such source terms on the overall transfers can generally not be neglected, except typically under small temperature gradients. The precision and the robustness of the proposed macroscopic modeling were illustrated through 2D numerical simulations. Finally, the effective vapor diffusion tensor arising in the macroscopic modeling was computed on 3D images of snow. The self-consistent formula offers a good estimate of the effective diffusion coefficient with respect to the snow density, within an average relative error of 10%. Our results confirm recent work that the effective vapor diffusion is not enhanced in snow.

  10. Macroscopic Dynamical Description of Rotating au + au System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cârjan, N.; Siwek-Wilczyńska, K.; Skwira-Chalot, I.; Wilczyński, J.

    Events with more than two heavy fragments have been abundantly observed in heavy-ion semi-peripheral (fission-like) reaction 197Au+197Au at 15 MeV/nucleon. This raised interesting questions about their origin and about the time-scale at which they occur. As a possible explanation of this process, the surface instability of the cylindrical neck that is formed along the path from contact to reseparation of the rotating Au+Au system is investigated in the present paper. For this purpose the Los Alamos finite-range macroscopic dynamical model was used. The calculations were performed at relatively high angular momenta, L = 100 to 300 ħ, for two types of dissipation mechanisms: two-body viscosity and one-body dissipation. Various initial nuclear deformations and initial kinetic energies in the fission direction were considered. The resulting dynamical evolution in the multidimensional deformation space always led to multifragment scission configurations suggesting that ternary and quaternary break-up can occur during the heavy-ion reaction studied.

  11. Macroscopic Quantum Coherence in Antiferromagnetic Molecular Magnets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Hui; LO Rong; ZHU Jia-Lin; XIONG Jia-Jiong

    2001-01-01

    The macroscopic quantum coherence in a biaxial antiferromagnetic molecular magnet in the presence of magnetic field acting parallel to its hard anisotropy axis is studied within the two-sublattice model. On the basis of instanton technique in the spin-coherent-state path-integral representation, both the rigorous Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin exponent and pre-exponential factor for the ground-state tunnel splitting are obtained. We find that the quantum fluctuations around the classical paths can not only induce a new quantum phase previously reported by Chiolero and Loss (Phys. Rev. Lett. 80 (1998) 169), but also have great influence on the intensity of the ground-state tunnel splitting. Those features clearly have no analogue in the ferromagnetic molecular magnets. We suggest that they may be the universal behaviors in all antiferromagnetic molecular magnets. The analytical results are complemented by exact diagonalization calculation.

  12. Micro- and macroscopic simulation of periodic metamaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Schuhmann

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to characterize three-dimensional, left-handed metamaterials (LHM we use electromagnetic field simulations of unit cells. For waves traveling in one of the main directions of the periodic LHM-arrays, the analysis is concentrated on the calculation of global quantities of the unit cells, such as scattering parameters or dispersion diagrams, and a careful interpretation of the results. We show that the concept of equivalent material values – which may be negative in a narrow frequency range – can be validated by large "global" simulations of a wedge structure. We also discuss the limitations of this concept, since in some cases the macroscopic behavior of an LHM cannot be accurately described by equivalent material values.

  13. Microscopic versus macroscopic calculation of dielectric nanospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühn, M.; Kliem, H.

    2008-12-01

    The issue of nanodielectrics has recently become an important field of interest. The term describes nanometric dielectrics, i. e. dielectric materials with structural dimensions typically smaller than 100 run. In contrast to the behaviour of a bulk material the nanodielectrics can behave completely different. With shrinking dimensions the surface or rather boundary effects outweigh the volume effects. This leads to a different observable physics at the nanoscale. A crucial point is the question whether a continuum model for the calculation of dielectric properties is still applicable for these nanomaterials. In order to answer this question we simulated dielectric nanospheres with a microscopic local field method and compared the results to the macroscopic mean field theory.

  14. Partitioning a macroscopic system into independent subsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delle Site, Luigi; Ciccotti, Giovanni; Hartmann, Carsten

    2017-08-01

    We discuss the problem of partitioning a macroscopic system into a collection of independent subsystems. The partitioning of a system into replica-like subsystems is nowadays a subject of major interest in several fields of theoretical and applied physics. The thermodynamic approach currently favoured by practitioners is based on a phenomenological definition of an interface energy associated with the partition, due to a lack of easily computable expressions for a microscopic (i.e. particle-based) interface energy. In this article, we outline a general approach to derive sharp and computable bounds for the interface free energy in terms of microscopic statistical quantities. We discuss potential applications in nanothermodynamics and outline possible future directions.

  15. Casimir effect from macroscopic quantum electrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philbin, T G, E-mail: tgp3@st-andrews.ac.uk [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews, Fife KY16 9SS (United Kingdom)

    2011-06-15

    The canonical quantization of macroscopic electromagnetism was recently presented in (Philbin 2010 New J. Phys. 12 123008). This theory is used here to derive the Casimir effect, by considering the special case of thermal and zero-point fields. The stress-energy-momentum tensor of the canonical theory follows from Noether's theorem, and its electromagnetic part in thermal equilibrium gives the Casimir energy density and stress tensor. The results hold for arbitrary inhomogeneous magnetodielectrics and are obtained from a rigorous quantization of electromagnetism in dispersive, dissipative media. Continuing doubts about the status of the standard Lifshitz theory as a proper quantum treatment of Casimir forces do not apply to the derivation given here. Moreover, the correct expressions for the Casimir energy density and stress tensor inside media follow automatically from the simple restriction to thermal equilibrium, without the need for complicated thermodynamical or mechanical arguments.

  16. Taming macroscopic jamming in transportation networks

    CERN Document Server

    Ezaki, Takahiro; Nishinari, Katsuhiro

    2015-01-01

    In transportation networks, a spontaneous jamming transition is often observed, e.g in urban road networks and airport networks. Because of this instability, flow distribution is significantly imbalanced on a macroscopic level. To mitigate the congestion, we consider a simple control method, in which congested nodes are closed temporarily, and investigate how it influences the overall system. Depending on the timing of the node closure and opening, and congestion level of a network, the system displays three different phases: free-flow phase, controlled phase, and deadlock phase. We show that when the system is in the controlled phase, the average flow is significantly improved, whereas when in the deadlock phase, the flow drops to zero. We study how the control method increases the network flow and obtain their transition boundary analytically.

  17. Black Holes and Quantumness on Macroscopic Scales

    CERN Document Server

    Flassig, D; Wintergerst, N

    2012-01-01

    It has recently been suggested that black holes may be described as condensates of weakly interacting gravitons at a critical point, exhibiting strong quantum effects. In this paper, we study a model system of attractive bosons in one spatial dimension which is known to undergo a quantum phase transition. We demonstrate explicitly that indeed quantum effects are important at the critical point, even if the number of particles is macroscopic. Most prominently, we evaluate the entropy of entanglement between different momentum modes and observe it to become maximal at the critical point. Furthermore, we explicitly see that the leading entanglement is between long wavelength modes and is hence a feature independent of ultraviolet physics. If applicable to black holes, our findings substantiate the conjectured breakdown of semiclassical physics even for large black holes. This can resolve long standing mysteries, such as the information paradox and the no-hair theorem.

  18. Variability of macroscopic dimensions of Moso bamboo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Le; Peng, Wanxi; Sun, Zhengjun; Sun, Zhengjun; Sun, Zhengjun; Lu, Huangfei; Chen, Guoning

    2015-03-01

    In order to the macroscopic geometry distributions of vascular bundles in Moso bamboo tubes. The circumference of bamboo tubes was measured, used a simple quadratic diameter formula to analyze the differences between the tubes in bamboo culm, and the arrangement of vascular bundles was investigated by cross sectional images of bamboo tubes. The results shown that the vascular bundles were differently distributed in a bamboo tube. In the outer layer, the vascular bundles had a variety of shapes, and were aligned parallel to each other. In the inner layers, the vascular bundles weren't aligned but uniform in shape. It was concluded that the vascular bundle sections arranged in parallel should be separated from the non-parallel sections for the maximum bamboo utilization.

  19. Robust macroscopic entanglement without complex encodings

    CERN Document Server

    Chaves, Rafael; Acín, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    One of the main challenges for the experimental manipulation and storage of macroscopic entanglement is its fragility under noise. We present a simple recipe for the systematic enhancement of the resistance of multipartite entanglement against any local noise with a privileged direction in the Bloch sphere. For the case of exact local dephasing along any given basis, and for all noise strengths, our prescription grants full robustness: even states whose entanglement decays exponentially with the number of parts are mapped to states whose entanglement is constant. In contrast to previous techniques resorting to complex logical-qubit encodings, such enhancement is attained simply by performing local unitary rotations before the noise acts. The scheme is therefore highly experimentally-friendly, as it brings no overhead of extra physical qubits to encode logical ones. In addition, we show that, apart from entanglement, the resilience of the states as resources for useful practical tasks such as metrology and non...

  20. Macroscopic Quantum Coherence in Antiferromagnetic Molecular Magnets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUHui; LURong; 等

    2001-01-01

    The macroscopic quantum coherence in a biaxial antiferromagnetic molecular magnet in the presence of magnetic field acting parallel to its hard anisotropy axis is studied within the two-sublattice model.On the basis of instanton technique in the spin-coherent-state path-integral representation,both the rigorous Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin exponent and pre-exponential factor for the ground-state tunnel splitting are obtained.We find that the quantum fluctuations around the classical paths can not only induce a new quantum phase previously reported by Chiolero and Loss (Phys.Rev.Lett.80(1998)169),but also have great influence on the intensity of the ground-state tunnel splitting.Those features clearly have no analogue in the ferromagnetic molecular magnets.We suggest that they may be the universal behaviors in all antiferromagnetic molecular magnets.The analytical results are complemented by exact diagonalization calculation.

  1. Thermophoresis of dissolved molecules and polymers: Consideration of the temperature-induced macroscopic pressure gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenov, Semen; Schimpf, Martin

    2004-01-01

    The movement of molecules and homopolymer chains dissolved in a nonelectrolyte solvent in response to a temperature gradient is considered a consequence of temperature-induced pressure gradients in the solvent layer surrounding the solute molecules. Local pressure gradients are produced by nonuniform London-van der Waals interactions, established by gradients in the concentration (density) of solvent molecules. The density gradient is produced by variations in solvent thermal expansion within the nonuniform temperature field. The resulting expression for the velocity of the solute contains the Hamaker constants for solute-solvent and solute-solute interactions, the radius of the solute molecule, and the viscosity and cubic coefficient of thermal expansion of the solvent. In this paper we consider an additional force that arises from directional asymmetry in the interaction between solvent molecules. In a closed cell, the resulting macroscopic pressure gradient gives rise to a volume force that affects the motion of dissolved solutes. An expression for this macroscopic pressure gradient is derived and the resulting force is incorporated into the expression for the solute velocity. The expression is used to calculate thermodiffusion coefficients for polystyrene in several organic solvents. When these values are compared to those measured in the laboratory, the consistency is better than that found in previous reports, which did not consider the macroscopic pressure gradient that arises in a closed thermodiffusion cell. The model also allows for the movement of solute in either direction, depending on the relative values of the solvent and solute Hamaker constants.

  2. Determining the Macroscopic Properties of Relativistic Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardee, P. E.

    2004-08-01

    The resolved relativistic jets contain structures whose observed proper motions are typically assumed to indicate the jet flow speed. In addition to structures moving with the flow, various normal mode structures such as pinching or helical and elliptical twisting can be produced by ejection events or twisting perturbations to the jet flow. The normal mode structures associated with relativistic jets, as revealed by numerical simulation, theoretical calculation, and suggested by observation, move more slowly than the jet speed. The pattern speed is related to the jet speed by the sound speed in the jet and in the surrounding medium. In the event that normal mode structures are observed, and where proper motions of pattern and flow speed are available or can be estimated, it is possible to determine the sound speed in the jet and surrounding medium. Where spatial development of normal mode structures is observed, it is possible to make inferences as to the heating rate/macroscopic viscosity of the jet fluid. Ultimately it may prove possible to separate the microscopic energization of the synchrotron radiating particles from the macroscopic heating of the jet fluid. Here I present the relevant properties of useful normal mode structures and illustrate the use of this technique. Various aspects of the work presented here have involved collaboration with I. Agudo (Max-Planck, Bonn), M.A. Aloy (Max-Planck, Garching), J. Eilek (NM Tech), J.L. Gómez (U. Valencia), P. Hughes (U. Michigan), A. Lobanov (Max-Planck, Bonn), J.M. Martí (U. Valencia), & C. Walker (NRAO).

  3. Properties of nuclear matter from macroscopic-microscopic mass formulas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Liu, Min; Ou, Li; Zhang, Yingxun

    2015-12-01

    Based on the standard Skyrme energy density functionals together with the extended Thomas-Fermi approach, the properties of symmetric and asymmetric nuclear matter represented in two macroscopic-microscopic mass formulas: Lublin-Strasbourg nuclear drop energy (LSD) formula and Weizsäcker-Skyrme (WS*) formula, are extracted through matching the energy per particle of finite nuclei. For LSD and WS*, the obtained incompressibility coefficients of symmetric nuclear matter are K∞ = 230 ± 11 MeV and 235 ± 11 MeV, respectively. The slope parameter of symmetry energy at saturation density is L = 41.6 ± 7.6 MeV for LSD and 51.5 ± 9.6 MeV for WS*, respectively, which is compatible with the liquid-drop analysis of Lattimer and Lim [4]. The density dependence of the mean-field isoscalar and isovector effective mass, and the neutron-proton effective masses splitting for neutron matter are simultaneously investigated. The results are generally consistent with those from the Skyrme Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov calculations and nucleon optical potentials, and the standard deviations are large and increase rapidly with density. A better constraint for the effective mass is helpful to reduce uncertainties of the depth of the mean-field potential.

  4. LETTERS AND COMMENTS: Adiabatic process reversibility: microscopic and macroscopic views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anacleto, Joaquim; Pereira, Mário G.

    2009-05-01

    The reversibility of adiabatic processes was recently addressed by two publications. In the first (Miranda 2008 Eur. J. Phys. 29 937-43), an equation was derived relating the initial and final volumes and temperatures for adiabatic expansions of an ideal gas, using a microscopic approach. In that relation the parameter r accounts for the process reversibility, ranging between 0 and 1, which corresponds to the free and reversible expansion, respectively. In the second (Anacleto and Pereira 2009 Eur. J. Phys. 30 177-83), the authors have shown that thermodynamics can effectively and efficiently be used to obtain the general law for adiabatic processes carried out by an ideal gas, including compressions, for which r \\ge 1. The present work integrates and extends the aforementioned studies, providing thus further insights into the analysis of the adiabatic process. It is shown that Miranda's work is wholly valid for compressions. In addition, it is demonstrated that the adiabatic reversibility coefficient given in terms of the piston velocity and the root mean square velocity of the gas particles is equivalent to the macroscopic description, given just by the quotient between surroundings and system pressure values.

  5. Properties of nuclear matter from macroscopic-microscopic mass formulas

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Ning; Ou, Li; Zhang, Yingxun

    2015-01-01

    Based on the standard Skyrme energy density functionals together with the extended Thomas-Fermi approach, the properties of symmetric and asymmetric nuclear matter represented in two macroscopic-microscopic mass formulas: Lublin-Strasbourg nuclear drop energy (LSD) formula and Weizs\\"acker-Skyrme (WS*) formula, are extracted through matching the energy per particle of finite nuclei. For LSD and WS*, the obtained incompressibility coefficients of symmetric nuclear matter are $K_\\infty=230 \\pm 11$ MeV and $235\\pm 11$ MeV, respectively. The slope parameter of symmetry energy at saturation density is $L=41.6\\pm 7.6$ MeV for LSD and $51.5\\pm 9.6$ MeV for WS*, respectively, which is compatible with the liquid-drop analysis of Lattimer and Lim [ApJ. \\textbf{771}, 51 (2013)]. The density dependence of the mean-field isoscalar and isovector effective mass, and the neutron-proton effective masses splitting for neutron matter are simultaneously investigated. The results are generally consistent with those from the Skyrm...

  6. Observability of relative phases of macroscopic quantum states

    CERN Document Server

    Pati, A K

    1998-01-01

    After a measurement, to observe the relative phases of macroscopically distinguishable states we have to ``undo'' a quantum measurement. We generalise an earlier model of Peres from two state to N-state quantum system undergoing measurement process and discuss the issue of observing relative phases of different branches. We derive an inequality which is satisfied by the relative phases of macroscopically distinguishable states and consequently any desired relative phases can not be observed in interference setups. The principle of macroscopic complementarity is invoked that might be at ease with the macroscopic world. We illustrate the idea of limit on phase observability in Stern-Gerlach measurements and the implications are discussed.

  7. Investigation of dissipative forces near macroscopic media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, R.S.

    1982-12-01

    The interaction of classical charged particles with the fields they induce in macroscopic dielectric media is investigated. For 10- to 1000-eV electrons, the angular perturbation of the trajectory by the image potential for surface impact parameters of 50 to 100 A is shown to be of the order of 0.001 rads over a distance of 100 A. The energy loss incurred by low-energy particles due to collective excitations such as surface plasmons is shown to be observable with a transition probability of 0.01 to 0.001 (Becker, et al., 1981b). The dispersion of real surface plasmon modes in planar and cylindrical geometries is discussed and is derived for pinhole geometry described in terms of a single-sheeted hyperboloid of revolution. An experimental apparatus for the measurement of collective losses for medium-energy electrons translating close to a dielectric surface is described and discussed. Data showing such losses at electron energies of 500 to 900 eV in silver foils containing many small apertures are presented and shown to be in good agreement with classical stopping power calculations and quantum mechanical calculations carried out in the low-velocity limit. The data and calculations are compared and contrasted with earlier transmission and reflection measurements, and the course of further investigation is discussed.

  8. Searching for the nanoscopic–macroscopic boundary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velásquez, E.A. [GICM and GES Groups, Instituto de Física-FCEN, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21 Medellín (Colombia); Grupo de Investigación en Modelamiento y Simulación Computacional, Universidad de San Buenaventura Sec. Medellín, A.A. 5222, Medellín (Colombia); Altbir, D. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Santiago de Chile (USACH), CEDENNA, Santiago (Chile); Mazo-Zuluaga, J. [GICM and GES Groups, Instituto de Física-FCEN, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21 Medellín (Colombia); Duque, L.F. [GICM and GES Groups, Instituto de Física-FCEN, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21 Medellín (Colombia); Grupo de Física Teórica, Aplicada y Didáctica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Aplicadas Instituto Tecnológico Metropolitano, Medellín (Colombia); Mejía-López, J., E-mail: jmejia@puc.cl [Facultad de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, CEDENNA, Santiago (Chile)

    2013-12-15

    Several studies have focused on the size-dependent properties of elements, looking for a unique definition of the nanoscopic–macroscopic boundary. By using a novel approach consisting of an energy variational method combined with a quantum Heisenberg model, here we address the size at which the ordering temperature of a magnetic nanoparticle reaches its bulk value. We consider samples with sizes in the range 1–500 nm, as well as several geometries and crystalline lattices and observe that, contrarily to what is commonly argued, the nanoscopic-microscopic boundary depends on both factors: shape and crystalline structure. This suggests that the surface-to-volume ratio is not the unique parameter that defines the behavior of a nanometric sample whenever its size increases reaching the bulk dimension. Comparisons reveal very good agreement with experimental evidence with differences less than 2%. Our results have broad implications for practical issues in measurements on systems at the nanometric scale. - Highlights: • A novel quantum-Heisenberg variational energy method is implemented. • The asymptotic behavior toward the thermodynamic limit is explored. • An important dependence of the nano-bulk boundary on the geometry is found. • And also an important dependence on the crystalline lattice. • We obtain a very good agreement with experimental evidence with differences <2%.

  9. The Proell Effect: A Macroscopic Maxwell's Demon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauen, Kenneth M.

    2011-12-01

    Maxwell's Demon is a legitimate challenge to the Second Law of Thermodynamics when the "demon" is executed via the Proell effect. Thermal energy transfer according to the Kinetic Theory of Heat and Statistical Mechanics that takes place over distances greater than the mean free path of a gas circumvents the microscopic randomness that leads to macroscopic irreversibility. No information is required to sort the particles as no sorting occurs; the entire volume of gas undergoes the same transition. The Proell effect achieves quasi-spontaneous thermal separation without sorting by the perturbation of a heterogeneous constant volume system with displacement and regeneration. The classical analysis of the constant volume process, such as found in the Stirling Cycle, is incomplete and therefore incorrect. There are extra energy flows that classical thermo does not recognize. When a working fluid is displaced across a regenerator with a temperature gradient in a constant volume system, complimentary compression and expansion work takes place that transfers energy between the regenerator and the bulk gas volumes of the hot and cold sides of the constant volume system. Heat capacity at constant pressure applies instead of heat capacity at constant volume. The resultant increase in calculated, recyclable energy allows the Carnot Limit to be exceeded in certain cycles. Super-Carnot heat engines and heat pumps have been designed and a US patent has been awarded.

  10. Macroscopic superpositions and gravimetry with quantum magnetomechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsson, Mattias T.; Brennen, Gavin K.; Twamley, Jason

    2016-11-01

    Precision measurements of gravity can provide tests of fundamental physics and are of broad practical interest for metrology. We propose a scheme for absolute gravimetry using a quantum magnetomechanical system consisting of a magnetically trapped superconducting resonator whose motion is controlled and measured by a nearby RF-SQUID or flux qubit. By driving the mechanical massive resonator to be in a macroscopic superposition of two different heights our we predict that our interferometry protocol could, subject to systematic errors, achieve a gravimetric sensitivity of Δg/g ~ 2.2 × 10-10 Hz-1/2, with a spatial resolution of a few nanometres. This sensitivity and spatial resolution exceeds the precision of current state of the art atom-interferometric and corner-cube gravimeters by more than an order of magnitude, and unlike classical superconducting interferometers produces an absolute rather than relative measurement of gravity. In addition, our scheme takes measurements at ~10 kHz, a region where the ambient vibrational noise spectrum is heavily suppressed compared the ~10 Hz region relevant for current cold atom gravimeters.

  11. Cloud Macroscopic Organization: Order Emerging from Randomness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Tianle

    2011-01-01

    Clouds play a central role in many aspects of the climate system and their forms and shapes are remarkably diverse. Appropriate representation of clouds in climate models is a major challenge because cloud processes span at least eight orders of magnitude in spatial scales. Here we show that there exists order in cloud size distribution of low-level clouds, and that it follows a power-law distribution with exponent gamma close to 2. gamma is insensitive to yearly variations in environmental conditions, but has regional variations and land-ocean contrasts. More importantly, we demonstrate this self-organizing behavior of clouds emerges naturally from a complex network model with simple, physical organizing principles: random clumping and merging. We also demonstrate symmetry between clear and cloudy skies in terms of macroscopic organization because of similar fundamental underlying organizing principles. The order in the apparently complex cloud-clear field thus has its root in random local interactions. Studying cloud organization with complex network models is an attractive new approach that has wide applications in climate science. We also propose a concept of cloud statistic mechanics approach. This approach is fully complementary to deterministic models, and the two approaches provide a powerful framework to meet the challenge of representing clouds in our climate models when working in tandem.

  12. Distributivity breaking and macroscopic quantum games

    CERN Document Server

    Grib, A A; Parfionov, G N; Starkov, K A

    2005-01-01

    Examples of games between two partners with mixed strategies, calculated by the use of the probability amplitude as some vector in Hilbert space are given. The games are macroscopic, no microscopic quantum agent is supposed. The reason for the use of the quantum formalism is in breaking of the distributivity property for the lattice of yes-no questions arising due to the special rules of games. The rules of the games suppose two parts: the preparation and measurement. In the first part due to use of the quantum logical orthocomplemented non-distributive lattice the partners freely choose the wave functions as descriptions of their strategies. The second part consists of classical games described by Boolean sublattices of the initial non-Boolean lattice with same strategies which were chosen in the first part. Examples of games for spin one half are given. New Nash equilibria are found for some cases. Heisenberg uncertainty relations without the Planck constant are written for the "spin one half game".

  13. Cloud macroscopic organization: order emerging from randomness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Yuan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Clouds play a central role in many aspects of the climate system and their forms and shapes are remarkably diverse. Appropriate representation of clouds in climate models is a major challenge because cloud processes span at least eight orders of magnitude in spatial scales. Here we show that there exists order in cloud size distribution of low-level clouds and it follows a power-law distribution with exponent γ close to 2. γ is insensitive to yearly variations in environmental conditions, but has regional variations and land-ocean contrasts. More importantly, we demonstrate this self-organizing behavior of clouds emerges naturally from a complex network model with simple, physical organizing principles: random clumping and merging. We also show clear-cloudy sky symmetry in terms of macroscopic organization because of similar fundamental underlying organizing principles. The order in the apparently complex cloud-clear field thus has its root in random simple interactions. Studying cloud organization with complex network models is an attractive new approach that has wide applications in climate science. This approach is fully complementary to deterministic models and the two approaches provide a powerful framework to meet the challenge of representing clouds in our climate models when working in tandem.

  14. An Experimental Proposal for Demonstration of Macroscopic Quantum Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jensen R.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available An experiment is proposed, whose purpose is to determine whether quantum indeterminism can be observed on a truly macroscopic scale. The experiment involves using a double-slit plate or interferometer and a macroscopic mechanical switch. The objective is to determine whether or not the switch can take on an indeterminate state.

  15. An Experimental Proposal for Demonstration of Macroscopic Quantum Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jensen R.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available An experiment is proposed, whose purpose is to determine whether quantum indeter- minism can be observed on a truly macroscopic scale. The experiment involves using a double-slit plate or interferometer and a macroscopic mechanical switch. The objective is to determine whether or not the switch can take on an indeterminate state.

  16. Macroscopic and microscopic observations of needle insertion into gels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, van Youri R.J.; Jahya, Alex; Misra, Sarthak

    2012-01-01

    Needle insertion into soft tissue is one of the most common medical interventions. This study provides macroscopic and microscopic observations of needle–gel interactions. A gelatin mixture is used as a soft-tissue simulant. For the macroscopic studies, system parameters, such as insertion velocity,

  17. Ballistic and diffusive dynamics in a two-dimensional ideal gas of macroscopic chaotic Faraday waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Kyle J; Hastings-Hauss, Isaac; Parthasarathy, Raghuveer; Corwin, Eric I

    2014-04-01

    We have constructed a macroscopic driven system of chaotic Faraday waves whose statistical mechanics, we find, are surprisingly simple, mimicking those of a thermal gas. We use real-time tracking of a single floating probe, energy equipartition, and the Stokes-Einstein relation to define and measure a pseudotemperature and diffusion constant and then self-consistently determine a coefficient of viscous friction for a test particle in this pseudothermal gas. Because of its simplicity, this system can serve as a model for direct experimental investigation of nonequilibrium statistical mechanics, much as the ideal gas epitomizes equilibrium statistical mechanics.

  18. Wave Reflection Coefficient Spectrum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞聿修; 邵利民; 柳淑学

    2003-01-01

    The wave reflection coefficient frequency spectrum and directional spectrum for concrete face slope breakwaters and rubble mound breakwaters are investigated through physical model tests in the present study. The reflection coefficients of oblique irregular waves are analyzed by the Modified Two-Point Method (MTPM) proposed by the authors. The results show that the wave reflection coefficient decreases with increasing wave frequency and incident angle or decreasing structure slope. The reflection coefficient frequency spectrum and its variation with Iribarren number are given in this paper. The paper also suggests an empirical 3-dimensional reflection coefficient spectrum, i.e. reflection coefficient directional spectrum, which can be used to illustrate quantitatively the variation of reflection coefficient with the incident angle and the Iribarren number for oblique irregular waves.

  19. Photocatalytic reaction engineering

    CERN Document Server

    de Lasa, Hugo; Salaices, Miguel

    2005-01-01

    Novel photocatalytic reactorsA non-equilibrium model proposed accounts for the mass balance in the liquid and solid phasesElucidates macroscopic radiation balances and the postulation of relatively simple approaches using effective extinction coefficientsThe experimental setup used here is unique and allows safe development of research on kinetic modelingComparisons to alternative technologies reveal the potential of photocatalysisFocuses on air decontamination using Photo-CREC reactors.

  20. Reconstruction of material properties profiles in one-dimensional macroscopically inhomogeneous rigid frame porous media in the frequency domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ryck, L; Lauriks, W; Leclaire, P; Groby, J P; Wirgin, A; Depollier, C

    2008-09-01

    The present paper deals with the inverse scattering problem involving macroscopically inhomogeneous rigid frame porous media. It consists of the recovery, from acoustic measurements, of the profiles of spatially varying material parameters by means of an optimization approach. The resolution is based on the modeling of acoustic wave propagation in macroscopically inhomogeneous rigid frame porous materials, which was recently derived from the generalized Biot's theory. In practice, the inverse problem is solved by minimizing an objective function defined in the least-square sense by the comparison of the calculated reflection (and transmission) coefficient(s) with the measured or synthetic one(s), affected or not by additive Gaussian noise. From an initial guess, the profiles of the x-dependent material parameters are reconstructed iteratively with the help of a standard conjugate gradient method. The convergence rate of the latter and the accuracy of the reconstructions are improved by the availability of an analytical gradient.

  1. Experimental demonstration of macroscopic quantum coherence in Gaussian states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marquardt, C.; Andersen, Ulrik Lund; Leuchs, G.

    2007-01-01

    We witness experimentally the presence of macroscopic coherence in Gaussian quantum states using a recently proposed criterion [E. G. Cavalcanti and M. D. Reid, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97 170405 (2006)]. The macroscopic coherence stems from interference between macroscopically distinct states in phase...... space, and we prove experimentally that a coherent state contains these features with a distance in phase space of 0.51 +/- 0.02 shot noise units. This is surprising because coherent states are generally considered being at the border between classical and quantum states, not yet displaying any...

  2. Microscopic Simulation and Macroscopic Modeling for Thermal and Chemical Non-Equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yen; Panesi, Marco; Vinokur, Marcel; Clarke, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the accurate microscopic simulation and macroscopic modeling of extreme non-equilibrium phenomena, such as encountered during hypersonic entry into a planetary atmosphere. The state-to-state microscopic equations involving internal excitation, de-excitation, dissociation, and recombination of nitrogen molecules due to collisions with nitrogen atoms are solved time-accurately. Strategies to increase the numerical efficiency are discussed. The problem is then modeled using a few macroscopic variables. The model is based on reconstructions of the state distribution function using the maximum entropy principle. The internal energy space is subdivided into multiple groups in order to better describe the non-equilibrium gases. The method of weighted residuals is applied to the microscopic equations to obtain macroscopic moment equations and rate coefficients. The modeling is completely physics-based, and its accuracy depends only on the assumed expression of the state distribution function and the number of groups used. The model makes no assumption at the microscopic level, and all possible collisional and radiative processes are allowed. The model is applicable to both atoms and molecules and their ions. Several limiting cases are presented to show that the model recovers the classical twotemperature models if all states are in one group and the model reduces to the microscopic equations if each group contains only one state. Numerical examples and model validations are carried out for both the uniform and linear distributions. Results show that the original over nine thousand microscopic equations can be reduced to 2 macroscopic equations using 1 to 5 groups with excellent agreement. The computer time is decreased from 18 hours to less than 1 second.

  3. Terahertz Science and Technology of Macroscopically Aligned Carbon Nanotube Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kono, Junichiro

    One of the outstanding challenges in nanotechnology is how to assemble individual nano-objects into macroscopic architectures while preserving their extraordinary properties. For example, the one-dimensional character of electrons in individual carbon nanotubes leads to extremely anisotropic transport, optical, and magnetic phenomena, but their macroscopic manifestations have been limited. Here, we describe methods for preparing macroscopic films, sheets, and fibers of highly aligned carbon nanotubes and their applications to basic and applied terahertz studies. Sufficiently thick films act as ideal terahertz polarizers, and appropriately doped films operate as polarization-sensitive, flexible, powerless, and ultra-broadband detectors. Together with recently developed chirality enrichment methods, these developments will ultimately allow us to study dynamic conductivities of interacting one-dimensional electrons in macroscopic single crystals of single-chirality single-wall carbon nanotubes.

  4. Accumulation of small protein molecules in a macroscopic complex coacervate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindhoud, S.; Claessens, M.M.A.E.

    2016-01-01

    To obtain insight into the accumulation of proteins into macroscopic complex coacervate phases, the lysozyme concentration in complex coacervates containing the cationic polyelectrolyte poly-(N,N dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) and the anionic polyelectrolyte polyacrylic acid was investigated as a

  5. Macroscopic cumulative fatigue damage of material under nonsymmetrical cycle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盖秉政

    2002-01-01

    Hashin's macroscopic theory of fatigue damage is further discussed and a new method has been proposed for prediction of cumulative fatigue damage of material and its lifetime under nonsymmetrical cyclic loading.

  6. Large Deviations for the Macroscopic Motion of an Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birmpa, P.; Dirr, N.; Tsagkarogiannis, D.

    2017-03-01

    We study the most probable way an interface moves on a macroscopic scale from an initial to a final position within a fixed time in the context of large deviations for a stochastic microscopic lattice system of Ising spins with Kac interaction evolving in time according to Glauber (non-conservative) dynamics. Such interfaces separate two stable phases of a ferromagnetic system and in the macroscopic scale are represented by sharp transitions. We derive quantitative estimates for the upper and the lower bound of the cost functional that penalizes all possible deviations and obtain explicit error terms which are valid also in the macroscopic scale. Furthermore, using the result of a companion paper about the minimizers of this cost functional for the macroscopic motion of the interface in a fixed time, we prove that the probability of such events can concentrate on nucleations should the transition happen fast enough.

  7. Quantum fluctuations, gauge freedom and mesoscopic/macroscopic stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Giudice, E [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milan (Italy); Vitiello, G [Dipartimento di Matematica e Informatica, Universita di Salerno and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Gruppo Collegato di Salerno, 84100 Salerno (Italy)

    2007-11-15

    We study how the mesoscopic/macroscopic stability of coherent extended domains is generated out of the phase locking between gauge field and matter field. The role of the radiative gauge field in sustaining the coherent regime is discussed.

  8. New Tests of Macroscopic Local Realism using Continuous Variable Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Reid, M D

    2001-01-01

    We show that quantum mechanics predicts an Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox (EPR), and also a contradiction with local hidden variable theories, for photon number measurements which have limited resolving power, to the point of imposing an uncertainty in the photon number result which is macroscopic in absolute terms. We show how this can be interpreted as a failure of a new, very strong premise, called macroscopic local realism. We link this premise to the Schrodinger-cat paradox. Our proposed experiments ensure all fields incident on each measurement apparatus are macroscopic. We show that an alternative measurement scheme corresponds to balanced homodyne detection of quadrature phase amplitudes. The implication is that where either EPR correlations or failure of local realism is predicted for continuous variable (quadrature phase amplitude) measurements, one can perform a modified experiment which would lead to conclusions about the much stronger premise of macroscopic local realism.

  9. Communication: Equilibrium rate coefficients from atomistic simulations: The O({sup 3}P) + NO({sup 2}Π) → O{sub 2}(X{sup 3}Σ{sub g}{sup −}) + N({sup 4}S) reaction at temperatures relevant to the hypersonic flight regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro-Palacio, Juan Carlos [Department of Chemistry, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 80, 4056 Basel (Switzerland); Bemish, Raymond J. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Space Vehicles Directorate, Kirtland AFB, New Mexico 87117 (United States); Meuwly, Markus, E-mail: m.meuwly@unibas.ch [Department of Chemistry, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 80, 4056 Basel (Switzerland); Department of Chemistry, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912 (United States)

    2015-03-07

    The O({sup 3}P) + NO({sup 2}Π) → O{sub 2}(X{sup 3}Σ{sub g}{sup −}) + N({sup 4}S) reaction is among the N- and O- involving reactions that dominate the energetics of the reactive air flow around spacecraft during hypersonic atmospheric re-entry. In this regime, the temperature in the bow shock typically ranges from 1000 to 20 000 K. The forward and reverse rate coefficients for this reaction derived directly from trajectory calculations over this range of temperature are reported in this letter. Results compare well with the established equilibrium constants for the same reaction from thermodynamic quantities derived from spectroscopy in the gas phase which paves the way for large-scale in silico investigations of equilibrium rates under extreme conditions.

  10. Modified Biserial Correlation Coefficients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Helena Chmura

    1981-01-01

    Asymptotic distribution theory of Brogden's form of biserial correlation coefficient is derived and large sample estimates of its standard error obtained. Its relative efficiency to the biserial correlation coefficient is examined. Recommendations for choice of estimator of biserial correlation are presented. (Author/JKS)

  11. From Microscopic to Macroscopic Descriptions of Cell Migration on Growing Domains

    KAUST Repository

    Baker, Ruth E.

    2009-10-28

    Cell migration and growth are essential components of the development of multicellular organisms. The role of various cues in directing cell migration is widespread, in particular, the role of signals in the environment in the control of cell motility and directional guidance. In many cases, especially in developmental biology, growth of the domain also plays a large role in the distribution of cells and, in some cases, cell or signal distribution may actually drive domain growth. There is an almost ubiquitous use of partial differential equations (PDEs) for modelling the time evolution of cellular density and environmental cues. In the last 20 years, a lot of attention has been devoted to connecting macroscopic PDEs with more detailed microscopic models of cellular motility, including models of directional sensing and signal transduction pathways. However, domain growth is largely omitted in the literature. In this paper, individual-based models describing cell movement and domain growth are studied, and correspondence with a macroscopic-level PDE describing the evolution of cell density is demonstrated. The individual-based models are formulated in terms of random walkers on a lattice. Domain growth provides an extra mathematical challenge by making the lattice size variable over time. A reaction-diffusion master equation formalism is generalised to the case of growing lattices and used in the derivation of the macroscopic PDEs. © 2009 Society for Mathematical Biology.

  12. Transport Coefficients of Fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Eu, Byung Chan

    2006-01-01

    Until recently the formal statistical mechanical approach offered no practicable method for computing the transport coefficients of liquids, and so most practitioners had to resort to empirical fitting formulas. This has now changed, as demonstrated in this innovative monograph. The author presents and applies new methods based on statistical mechanics for calculating the transport coefficients of simple and complex liquids over wide ranges of density and temperature. These molecular theories enable the transport coefficients to be calculated in terms of equilibrium thermodynamic properties, and the results are shown to account satisfactorily for experimental observations, including even the non-Newtonian behavior of fluids far from equilibrium.

  13. Extended Macroscopic Study of Dilute Gas Flow within a Microcavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Hssikou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The behaviour of monatomic and dilute gas is studied in the slip and early transition regimes using the extended macroscopic theory. The gas is confined within a two-dimensional microcavity where the longitudinal sides are in the opposite motion with constant velocity ±Uw. The microcavity walls are kept at the uniform and reference temperature T0. Thus, the gas flow is transported only by the shear stress induced by the motion of upper and lower walls. From the macroscopic point of view, the regularized 13-moment equations of Grad, R13, are solved numerically. The macroscopic gas proprieties are studied for different values of the so-called Knudsen number (Kn, which gives the gas-rarefaction degree. The results are compared with those obtained using the classical continuum theory of Navier-Stokes and Fourier (NSF.

  14. The quantum interaction of macroscopic objects and gravitons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piran, Tsvi

    2016-09-01

    Copious production of gravitational radiation requires a compact source that moves relativistically. Such sources are rare and are found only in extreme cases such as the formation of a black hole in either via a gravitational collapse or via a merger. Noncompact, nonrelativistic objects emit gravitational radiation, however, this emission is extremely weak due to very large value of the Planck energy. The quantum nature of gravitons, namely the fact that a single graviton carries energy of order ℏω implies that macroscopic objects whose kinetic energy is less than the Planck energy emit gravitons quantum mechanically, emitting a single graviton at a time. This is a unique situation in which a macroscopic object behaves quantum mechanically. While it is impossible to check experimentally this quantum gravitational effect, it might be possible to carry out analogous electromagnetic experiments that will shed light on this macroscopic quantum mechanical behavior.

  15. Geometric aspects of Schnakenberg's network theory of macroscopic nonequilibrium observables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polettini, M.

    2011-03-01

    Schnakenberg's network theory deals with macroscopic thermodynamical observables (forces, currents and entropy production) associated to the steady states of diffusions on generic graphs. Using results from graph theory and from the theory of discrete differential forms we recast Schnakenberg's treatment in the form of a simple discrete gauge theory, which allows to interpret macroscopic forces as the Wilson loops of a real connection. We discuss the geometric properties of transient states, showing that heat fluxes allow for a notion of duality of macroscopic observables which interchanges the role of the environment and that of the system. We discuss possible generalizations to less trivial gauge groups and the relevance for nonequilibrium fluctuation theorems. Based on work in collaboration with professor A. Maritan, University of Padua, to be published.

  16. Broadband Macroscopic Cortical Oscillations Emerge from Intrinsic Neuronal Response Failures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir eGoldental

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Broadband spontaneous macroscopic neural oscillations are rhythmic cortical firing which was extensively examined during the last century, however, their possible origination is still controversial. In this work we show how macroscopic oscillations emerge in solely excitatory random networks and without topological constraints. We experimentally and theoretically show that these oscillations stem from the counterintuitive underlying mechanism - the intrinsic stochastic neuronal response failures. These neuronal response failures, which are characterized by short-term memory, lead to cooperation among neurons, resulting in sub- or several- Hertz macroscopic oscillations which coexist with high frequency gamma oscillations. A quantitative interplay between the statistical network properties and the emerging oscillations is supported by simulations of large networks based on single-neuron in-vitro experiments and a Langevin equation describing the network dynamics. Results call for the examination of these oscillations in the presence of inhibition and external drives.

  17. Reconciling power laws in microscopic and macroscopic neural recordings

    CERN Document Server

    Pettersen, Klas H; Tetzlaff, Tom; Einevoll, Gaute T

    2013-01-01

    Power laws, characterized by quantities following 1/x^\\alpha{} distributions, are commonly reported when observing nature or society, and the question of their origin has for a long time intrigued physicists. Power laws have also been observed in neural recordings, both at the macroscopic and microscopic levels: at the macroscopic level, the power spectral density (PSD) of the electroencephalogram (EEG) has been seen to follow 1/f^\\alpha{} distributions; at the microscopic level similar power laws have been observed in single-neuron recordings of the neuronal soma potential and soma current, yet with different values of the power-law exponent \\alpha. In this theoretical study we find that these observed macroscopic and microscopic power laws may, despite the widely different spatial scales and different exponents, have the same source. By a combination of simulation on a biophysical detailed, pyramidal neuron model and analytical investigations of a simplified ball and stick neuron, we find that the transfer ...

  18. Microscopic and macroscopic infarct complicating pediatric epilepsy surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinger, Luc; Hazrati, Lili-Naz; Ahmed, Raheel; Rutka, James; Snead, Carter; Widjaja, Elysa

    2017-03-01

    There is some suggestion that microscopic infarct could be associated with invasive monitoring, but it is unclear if the microscopic infarct is also visible on imaging and associated with neurologic deficits. The aims of this study were to assess the rates of microscopic and macroscopic infarct and other major complications of pediatric epilepsy surgery, and to determine if these complications were higher following invasive monitoring. We reviewed the epilepsy surgery data from a tertiary pediatric center, and collected data on microscopic infarct on histology and macroscopic infarct on postoperative computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) done one day after surgery and major complications. Three hundred fifty-two patients underwent surgical resection and there was one death. Forty-two percent had invasive monitoring. Thirty patients (9%) had microscopic infarct. Univariable analyses showed that microscopic infarct was higher among patients with invasive monitoring relative to no invasive monitoring (20% vs. 0.5%, respectively, p microscopic infarct had transient right hemiparesis, and two with both macroscopic and microscopic infarct had unexpected persistent neurologic deficits. Thirty-two major complications (9.1%) were reported, with no difference in major complications between invasive monitoring and no invasive monitoring (10% vs. 7%, p = 0.446). In the multivariable analysis, invasive monitoring increased the odds of microscopic infarct (odds ratio [OR] 15.87, p = 0.009), but not macroscopic infarct (OR 2.6, p = 0.173) or major complications (OR 1.4, p = 0.500), after adjusting for age at surgery, sex, age at seizure onset, operative type, and operative location. Microscopic infarct was associated with invasive monitoring, and none of the patients had permanent neurologic deficits. Macroscopic infarct was not associated with invasive monitoring, and two patients with macroscopic infarct had persistent neurologic deficits. Wiley

  19. Approximating macroscopic observables in quantum spin systems with commuting matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Ogata, Yoshiko

    2011-01-01

    Macroscopic observables in a quantum spin system are given by sequences of spatial means of local elements $\\frac{1}{2n+1}\\sum_{j=-n}^n\\gamma_j(A_{i}), \\; n\\in{\\mathbb N},\\; i=1,...,m$ in a UHF algebra. One of their properties is that they commute asymptotically, as $n$ goes to infinity. It is not true that any given set of asymptotically commuting matrices can be approximated by commuting ones in the norm topology. In this paper, we show that for macroscopic observables, this is true.

  20. On the notion of a macroscopic quantum system

    CERN Document Server

    Khrenikov, A Yu

    2004-01-01

    We analyse the notion of macroscopic quantum system from the point of view of the statistical structure of quantum theory. We come to conclusion that the presence of interference of probabilities should be used the main characteristic of quantumness (in the opposition to N. Bohr who permanently emphasized the crucial role of quantum action). In the light of recent experiments with statistical ensembles of people who produced interference of probabilities for special pairs of questions (which can be considered as measurements on people) human being should be considered as a macroscopic quantum system. There is also discussed relation with experiments of A. Zeilinger on interference of probabilities for macromoleculas.

  1. Stimuli-deformable graphene materials: from nanosheet to macroscopic assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Zhao

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Stimulus-induced deformation (SID of graphene-based materials has triggered rapidly increasing research interest due to the spontaneous response to external stimulations, which enables precise configurational regulation of single graphene nanosheets (GNSs through control over the environmental conditions. While the micro-strain of GNS is barely visible, the deformation of graphene-based macroscopic assemblies (GMAs is remarkable, thereby presenting significant potential for future application in smart devices. This review presents the current progress of SID of graphene in the manner of nanosheets and macroscopic assemblies in both the experimental and theoretical fronts, and summarizes recent advancements of SID of graphene for applications in smart systems.

  2. Statistical thermodynamics understanding the properties of macroscopic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Fai, Lukong Cornelius

    2012-01-01

    Basic Principles of Statistical PhysicsMicroscopic and Macroscopic Description of StatesBasic PostulatesGibbs Ergodic AssumptionGibbsian EnsemblesExperimental Basis of Statistical MechanicsDefinition of Expectation ValuesErgodic Principle and Expectation ValuesProperties of Distribution FunctionRelative Fluctuation of an Additive Macroscopic ParameterLiouville TheoremGibbs Microcanonical EnsembleMicrocanonical Distribution in Quantum MechanicsDensity MatrixDensity Matrix in Energy RepresentationEntropyThermodynamic FunctionsTemperatureAdiabatic ProcessesPressureThermodynamic IdentityLaws of Th

  3. A new macroscopically anisotropic pressure dependent yield function for metal matrix composite based on strain gradient plasticity for the microstructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azizi, Reza; Legarth, Brian Nyvang; Niordson, Christian Frithiof

    2013-01-01

    Metal matrix composites with long aligned elastic fibers are studied using an energetic rate independent strain gradient plasticity theory with an isotropic pressure independent yield function at the microscale. The material response is homogenized to obtain a conventional macroscopic model...... that exhibits anisotropic yield properties with a pressure dependence. At the microscale free energy includes both elastic strains and plastic strain gradients, and the theory demands higher order boundary conditions in terms of plastic strain or work conjugate higher order tractions. The mechanical response...... of the composite is inclined compared to a standard pressure independent yield surfaces. The evolution of the macroscopic yield surface is investigated by quantifying both anisotropic hardening (expansion) and kinematic hardening (translation), where the coefficients of anisotropy and the Bauschinger stress...

  4. Correlation of macroscopic osteoarthrotic changes and radiographic findings in the acromioclavicular joint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenlund, B.; Marions, O.; Engstroem, K.F.; Goldie, I.

    In a total of 108 acromioclavicular articulations from cadavers the osteoarthrotic changes were studied. The articulations were macroscopically and radiographically ranked according to their grade of osteoarthrosis. The two ranking lines were correlated statistically and showed a rank correlation of 0.741. In 38 articulations tomography was also carried out. These articulations were classified into five grades of osteoarthrosis and the macroscopic, conventional radiographic and tomographic gradings were compared. The correlation coefficient for tomography versus macroscopy was 0.714. Tomography versus standard radiography showed a correlation of 0.767 and standard radiography versus macroscopy a correlation of 0.841. The standard radiographic investigation reveals moderate and severe osteoarthrotic changes in the acromioclavicular joint but cannot depict smaller changes. Tomography does not seem to improve the specificity. There is a need for a better radiologic technique in the examination of the acromioclavicular joint. Radiography during some kind of loading might be a practical way of improving the specificity and make it possible to show early osteoarthrosis in the acromioclavicular articulation.

  5. Theorem of turbulent intensity and macroscopic mechanism of the turbulence development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Turbulence is one of the most common nature phenomena in everyday experience, but that is not adequately understood yet. This article reviews the history and present state of development of the turbulence theory and indicates the necessity to probe into the turbulent features and mechanism with the different methods at different levels. Therefore this article proves a theorem of turbulent transpor- tation and a theorem of turbulent intensity by using the theory of the nonequilibrium thermodynamics, and that the Reynolds turbulence and the Rayleigh-Bénard turbulence are united in the theorems of the turbulent intensity and the turbulent transportation. The macroscopic cause of the development of fluid turbulence is a result from shearing effect of the velocity together with the temperature, which is also the macroscopic cause of the stretch and fold of trajectory in the phase space of turbulent field. And it is proved by the observed data of atmosphere that the phenomenological coefficient of turbulent in- tensity is not only a function of the velocity shear but also a function of temperature shear, viz the sta- bility of temperature stratification, in the atmosphere. Accordingly, authenticity of the theorem, which is proved by the theory of nonequilibrium thermodynamics, of turbulent intensity is testified by the facts of observational experiment.

  6. Theorem of turbulent intensity and macroscopic mechanism of the turbulence development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU YinQiao; CHEN JinBei; ZUO HongChao

    2007-01-01

    Turbulence is one of the most common nature phenomena in everyday experience, but that is not adequately understood yet. This article reviews the history and present state of development of the turbulence theory and indicates the necessity to probe into the turbulent features and mechanism with the different methods at different levels. Therefore this article proves a theorem of turbulent transportation and a theorem of turbulent intensity by using the theory of the nonequilibrium thermodynamics,turbulent intensity and the turbulent transportation. The macroscopic cause of the development of fluid turbulence is a result from shearing effect of the velocity together with the temperature, which is also the macroscopic cause of the stretch and fold of trajectory in the phase space of turbulent field. And it is proved by the observed data of atmosphere that the phenomenological coefficient of turbulent intensity is not only a function of the velocity shear but also a function of temperature shear, viz the stability of temperature stratification, in the atmosphere. Accordingly, authenticity of the theorem, which is proved by the theory of nonequilibrium thermodynamics, of turbulent intensity is testified by the facts of observational experiment.

  7. Cholesterics of colloidal helices: Predicting the macroscopic pitch from the particle shape and thermodynamic state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dussi, Simone, E-mail: s.dussi@uu.nl; Dijkstra, Marjolein, E-mail: m.dijkstra1@uu.nl [Soft Condensed Matter, Debye Institute for Nanomaterials Science, Utrecht University, Princetonplein 5, 3584 CC Utrecht (Netherlands); Belli, Simone; Roij, René van [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Center for Extreme Matter and Emergent Phenomena, Utrecht University, Leuvenlaan 4, 3584 CE Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2015-02-21

    Building a general theoretical framework to describe the microscopic origin of macroscopic chirality in (colloidal) liquid crystals is a long-standing challenge. Here, we combine classical density functional theory with Monte Carlo calculations of virial-type coefficients to obtain the equilibrium cholesteric pitch as a function of thermodynamic state and microscopic details. Applying the theory to hard helices, we observe both right- and left-handed cholesteric phases that depend on a subtle combination of particle geometry and system density. In particular, we find that entropy alone can even lead to a (double) inversion in the cholesteric sense of twist upon changing the packing fraction. We show how the competition between single-particle properties (shape) and thermodynamics (local alignment) dictates the macroscopic chiral behavior. Moreover, by expanding our free-energy functional, we are able to assess, quantitatively, Straley’s theory of weak chirality, which is used in several earlier studies. Furthermore, by extending our theory to different lyotropic and thermotropic liquid-crystal models, we analyze the effect of an additional soft interaction on the chiral behavior of the helices. Finally, we provide some guidelines for the description of more complex chiral phases, like twist-bend nematics. Our results provide new insights into the role of entropy in the microscopic origin of this state of matter.

  8. Quantum statistical derivation of the macroscopic Maxwell equations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schram, K.

    1960-01-01

    The macroscopic Maxwell equations in matter are derived on a quantum statistical basis from the microscopic equations for the field operators. Both the density operator formalism and the Wigner distribution function method are discussed. By both methods it can be proved that the quantum statistical

  9. Macroscopic and Microscopic Gradient Structures of Bamboo Culms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suwat SUTNAUN

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This work studied the structure of bamboo culms which is naturally designed to retard the bending stress caused by a wind load. A macroscopic gradient structure (diameter, thickness and internodal length and a microscopic one (distribution of fiber of three sympodial bamboo species i.e. Tong bamboo (Dendrocalamus asper Backer., Pah bamboo (Gigantochloa bambos and Pak bamboo (Gigantochloa hasskarliana were examined. From the macroscopic point of view, the wind-load generated bending stress for the tapered hollow tube of bamboo was found to vary uniformly with height, especially at the middle of the culms. Furthermore, the macroscopic shape of bamboo culm is about 2-6 times stiffer in bending mode than one with a solid circular section for the same amount of wood material. Microscopically, the distribution of fiber in the radial direction linearly decreases from the outer surface to the inner surface in the same manner as that of the distribution of the bending stress in the radial direction. Distribution of fiber along the vertical length of bamboos at each height is proportional to the level of bending stress generated by the wind load. Both macroscopic and microscopic gradient structures of sympodial type bamboos were found to be less effective to retard the bending stress than those of monopodial type bamboo.

  10. Microstructure and macroscopic properties of polydisperse systems of hard spheres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ogarko, Vitaliy Anatolyevich

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation describes an investigation of systems of polydisperse smooth hard spheres. This includes the development of a fast contact detection algorithm for computer modelling, the development of macroscopic constitutive laws that are based on microscopic features such as the moments of the

  11. Photoinduced macroscopic chiral structures in a series of azobenzene copolyesters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedelchev, L.; Nikolova, L.; Matharu, A.

    2002-01-01

    A study of the propagation of elliptically polarized light and the resulting formation of macroscopic chiral structures in a series of azobenzene side-chain copolyesters, in which the morphology is varied from liquid crystalline to amorphous, is reported. Real-time measurements are presented...

  12. [Macroscopic observations on corneal epithelial wound healing in the rabbit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, K

    1991-02-01

    A newly-developed macroscope was applied to observe the healing process of corneal epithelial wound in vivo. After removing epithelium of the central cornea, the changes of the corneal surface were observed with the macroscope and the findings were compared with histological examinations. At 12 hours after abrasion, areas unstained with Richardson's staining (R staining) appeared. In the histological section, a single layer of regenerating epithelial cells covered the same area. At 24 and 36 hours after abrasion, the epithelial defects became smaller but surrounding epithelium was rough and showed dot-like staining with R solution. By 2 days, the epithelial defects disappeared. On macroscopic observation, the central corneal surface showed a pavement-like appearance. Histology revealed that the regenerating epithelium still consisted of one or two layers. At 3 days, dot-like stainings were present only in the center and the corneal surface appeared considerably smooth. Histology also showed that regenerating epithelium became columnar and multilayered, thereby suggesting stratification. By 7 days, the abraded corneal surface had recovered its smooth appearance. Histologic sections also demonstrated that the epithelium had regained its normal structure. Thus, using this macroscope, findings suggesting the process of epithelial migration and proliferation could be observed.

  13. The black hole information paradox and macroscopic superpositions

    CERN Document Server

    Hsu, Stephen D H

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the experimental capabilities required to test whether black holes destroy information. We show that an experiment capable of illuminating the information puzzle must necessarily be able to detect or manipulate macroscopic superpositions (i.e., Everett branches). Hence, it could also address the fundamental question of decoherence versus wavefunction collapse.

  14. Macroscopic domain formation in the platelet plasma membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bali, Rachna; Savino, Laura; Ramirez, Diego A.;

    2009-01-01

    There has been ample debate on whether cell membranes can present macroscopic lipid domains as predicted by three-component phase diagrams obtained by fluorescence microscopy. Several groups have argued that membrane proteins and interactions with the cytoskeleton inhibit the formation of large d...

  15. A Macroscopic Analogue of the Nuclear Pairing Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    A macroscopic system involving permanent magnets is used as an analogue to nucleons in a nucleus to illustrate the significance of the pairing interaction. This illustrates that the view of the total nuclear energy based only on the nucleon occupancy of the energy levels can yield erroneous results and it is only when the pairing interaction is…

  16. Data requirements for traffic control on a macroscopic level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoop, V.L.; Van Lint, J.W.C.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.

    2011-01-01

    With current techniques, traffic monitoring and control is a data intensive process. Network control on a higher level, using high level variables, can make this process less data demanding. The macroscopic fundamental diagram relates accumulation, i.e. the number of vehicles in an area, to the netw

  17. Diagnosis of bladder tumours in patients with macroscopic haematuria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gandrup, Karen L; Løgager, Vibeke B; Bretlau, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare split-bolus computed tomography urography (CTU), magnetic resonance urography (MRU) and flexible cystoscopy in patients with macroscopic haematuria regarding the diagnosis of bladder tumours. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this prospective study, 150...

  18. Microstructure and macroscopic properties of polydisperse systems of hard spheres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ogarko, V.

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation describes an investigation of systems of polydisperse smooth hard spheres. This includes the development of a fast contact detection algorithm for computer modelling, the development of macroscopic constitutive laws that are based on microscopic features such as the moments of the

  19. Integrating a macro emission model with a macroscopic traffic model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klunder, G.A.; Stelwagen, U.; Taale, H.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a macro emission module for macroscopic traffic models to be used for assessment of ITS and traffic management. It especially focuses on emission estimates for different intersection types. It provides emission values for CO, CO2, HC, NOx, and PM10. It is applied and validated fo

  20. From 1D to 3D - macroscopic nanowire aerogel monoliths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Wei; Rechberger, Felix; Niederberger, Markus

    2016-08-01

    Here we present a strategy to assemble one-dimensional nanostructures into a three-dimensional architecture with macroscopic size. With the assistance of centrifugation, we successfully gel ultrathin W18O49 nanowires with diameters of 1 to 2 nm and aspect ratios larger than 100 into 3D networks, which are transformed into monolithic aerogels by supercritical drying.

  1. Numerical solutions of a generalized theory for macroscopic capillarity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doster, F.; Zegeling, P.A.; Hilfer, R.

    2010-01-01

    A recent macroscopic theory of biphasic flow in porous media [R. Hilfer, Phys. Rev. E 73, 016307 (2006)] has proposed to treat microscopically percolating fluid regions differently from microscopically nonpercolating regions. Even in one dimension the theory reduces to an analytically intractable se

  2. The fundamental diagram : a macroscopic traffic flow model.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botma, H.

    1976-01-01

    In models of traffic flow, the interactions between vehicles are of prime interest, and are based on characteristics of the drivers, road and vehicles. The fundamental diagram is a representation of a relationship on a macroscopic level in the steady state between the quantity of traffic and a chara

  3. Charge accumulation in DC cables: a macroscopic approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAllister, Iain Wilson; Crichton, George C; Pedersen, Aage

    1994-01-01

    The accumulation of space charge in solid dielectrics is examined from the macroscopic point of view using electromagnetic field theory. For practical dielectrics, it is shown that the occurrence of such charges is an inherent consequence of a non-uniform conductivity. The influence of both tempe...

  4. Multidimensional extremal dependence coefficients

    OpenAIRE

    2017-01-01

    Extreme values modeling has attracting the attention of researchers in diverse areas such as the environment, engineering, or finance. Multivariate extreme value distributions are particularly suitable to model the tails of multidimensional phenomena. The analysis of the dependence among multivariate maxima is useful to evaluate risk. Here we present new multivariate extreme value models, as well as, coefficients to assess multivariate extremal dependence.

  5. Extension of a Kinetic-Theory Approach for Computing Chemical-Reaction Rates to Reactions with Charged Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liechty, Derek S.; Lewis, Mark J.

    2010-01-01

    Recently introduced molecular-level chemistry models that predict equilibrium and nonequilibrium reaction rates using only kinetic theory and fundamental molecular properties (i.e., no macroscopic reaction rate information) are extended to include reactions involving charged particles and electronic energy levels. The proposed extensions include ionization reactions, exothermic associative ionization reactions, endothermic and exothermic charge exchange reactions, and other exchange reactions involving ionized species. The extensions are shown to agree favorably with the measured Arrhenius rates for near-equilibrium conditions.

  6. Macroscopic and microscopic analysis of mass transfer in reversed phase liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacskay, Ivett; Felinger, Attila

    2009-02-20

    For the correct description of a chromatographic process, the determination of mass-transfer kinetics in the column is required because the influence of the mass-transfer kinetics on the shape of chromatographic band profiles is crucial. Several sources of mass transfer in a chromatographic bed have been identified and studied: the axial dispersion in the stream of mobile phase, the external mass-transfer resistance, intraparticle diffusion, and the kinetics of adsorption-desorption In this study we compare mass-transfer coefficients obtained in a reversed phase chromatographic column using macroscopic and microscopic approaches. The general rate model, the plate height equation, moment analysis, and stochastic analysis were used to assess chromatographic process during the separation of alkylbenzenes.

  7. Macroscopic quantum phenomena from the large N perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, C. H.; Hu, B. L.; Subaşi, Y.

    2011-07-01

    Macroscopic quantum phenomena (MQP) is a relatively new research venue, with exciting ongoing experiments and bright prospects, yet with surprisingly little theoretical activity. What makes MQP intellectually stimulating is because it is counterpoised against the traditional view that macroscopic means classical. This simplistic and hitherto rarely challenged view need be scrutinized anew, perhaps with much of the conventional wisdoms repealed. In this series of papers we report on a systematic investigation into some key foundational issues of MQP, with the hope of constructing a viable theoretical framework for this new endeavour. The three major themes discussed in these three essays are the large N expansion, the correlation hierarchy and quantum entanglement for systems of 'large' sizes, with many components or degrees of freedom. In this paper we use different theories in a variety of contexts to examine the conditions or criteria whereby a macroscopic quantum system may take on classical attributes, and, more interestingly, that it keeps some of its quantum features. The theories we consider here are, the O(N) quantum mechanical model, semiclassical stochastic gravity and gauge / string theories; the contexts include that of a 'quantum roll' in inflationary cosmology, entropy generation in quantum Vlasov equation for plasmas, the leading order and next-to-leading order large N behaviour, and hydrodynamic / thermodynamic limits. The criteria for classicality in our consideration include the use of uncertainty relations, the correlation between classical canonical variables, randomization of quantum phase, environment-induced decoherence, decoherent history of hydrodynamic variables, etc. All this exercise is to ask only one simple question: Is it really so surprising that quantum features can appear in macroscopic objects? By examining different representative systems where detailed theoretical analysis has been carried out, we find that there is no a priori

  8. The origins of macroscopic quantum coherence in high temperature superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, Philip, E-mail: ph.turner@napier.ac.uk [Edinburgh Napier University, 10 Colinton Road, Edinburgh EH10 5DT (United Kingdom); Nottale, Laurent, E-mail: laurent.nottale@obspm.fr [CNRS, LUTH, Observatoire de Paris-Meudon, 5 Place Janssen, 92190 Meudon (France)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • We propose a new theoretical approach to superconductivity in p-type cuprates. • Electron pairing mechanisms in the superconducting and pseudogap phases are proposed. • A scale free network of dopants is key to macroscopic quantum coherence. - Abstract: A new, theoretical approach to macroscopic quantum coherence and superconductivity in the p-type (hole doped) cuprates is proposed. The theory includes mechanisms to account for e-pair coupling in the superconducting and pseudogap phases and their inter relations observed in these materials. Electron pair coupling in the superconducting phase is facilitated by local quantum potentials created by static dopants in a mechanism which explains experimentally observed optimal doping levels and the associated peak in critical temperature. By contrast, evidence suggests that electrons contributing to the pseudogap are predominantly coupled by fractal spin waves (fractons) induced by the fractal arrangement of dopants. On another level, the theory offers new insights into the emergence of a macroscopic quantum potential generated by a fractal distribution of dopants. This, in turn, leads to the emergence of coherent, macroscopic spin waves and a second associated macroscopic quantum potential, possibly supported by charge order. These quantum potentials play two key roles. The first involves the transition of an expected diffusive process (normally associated with Anderson localization) in fractal networks, into e-pair coherence. The second involves the facilitation of tunnelling between localized e-pairs. These combined effects lead to the merger of the super conducting and pseudo gap phases into a single coherent condensate at optimal doping. The underlying theory relating to the diffusion to quantum transition is supported by Coherent Random Lasing, which can be explained using an analogous approach. As a final step, an experimental program is outlined to validate the theory and suggests a new

  9. Macroscopic quantum phenomena from the large N perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, C H [department of Physics, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan 701 (China) and National Center for Theoretical Sciences (South), Tainan, Taiwan 701 (China); Hu, B L; Subasi, Y, E-mail: hubeilok@gmail.com [Joint Quantum Institute and Maryland Center for Fundamental Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)

    2011-07-08

    Macroscopic quantum phenomena (MQP) is a relatively new research venue, with exciting ongoing experiments and bright prospects, yet with surprisingly little theoretical activity. What makes MQP intellectually stimulating is because it is counterpoised against the traditional view that macroscopic means classical. This simplistic and hitherto rarely challenged view need be scrutinized anew, perhaps with much of the conventional wisdoms repealed. In this series of papers we report on a systematic investigation into some key foundational issues of MQP, with the hope of constructing a viable theoretical framework for this new endeavour. The three major themes discussed in these three essays are the large N expansion, the correlation hierarchy and quantum entanglement for systems of 'large' sizes, with many components or degrees of freedom. In this paper we use different theories in a variety of contexts to examine the conditions or criteria whereby a macroscopic quantum system may take on classical attributes, and, more interestingly, that it keeps some of its quantum features. The theories we consider here are, the O(N) quantum mechanical model, semiclassical stochastic gravity and gauge / string theories; the contexts include that of a 'quantum roll' in inflationary cosmology, entropy generation in quantum Vlasov equation for plasmas, the leading order and next-to-leading order large N behaviour, and hydrodynamic / thermodynamic limits. The criteria for classicality in our consideration include the use of uncertainty relations, the correlation between classical canonical variables, randomization of quantum phase, environment-induced decoherence, decoherent history of hydrodynamic variables, etc. All this exercise is to ask only one simple question: Is it really so surprising that quantum features can appear in macroscopic objects? By examining different representative systems where detailed theoretical analysis has been carried out, we find that

  10. Evaluation of macroscopic porosity-permeability relationships in heterogeneous mineral dissolution and precipitation scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckingham, L. E.

    2016-12-01

    Mineral dissolution and precipitation reactions, such as those resulting from CO2 injection in saline aquifers, can impact flow and transport in porous media and alter porosity and permeability. While porosity, in general, increases with mineral dissolution and decreases with precipitation, permeability alterations are complex and predicative capabilities remain limited. The locations of geochemical reactions in individual pores and throats and in the greater pore network control permeability evolution. Experimental studies have observed geochemical reactions to occur uniformly or non-uniformly, controlled, for example, by pore size, PeDa, or mineral distribution. For a given change in porosity, this may result in a wide range of permeability alterations. Macroscopic relationships that predict permeability evolutions resulting from these pore-scale reactions are needed for reactive transport simulations at the core-to-field scale. Currently, empirical relationships such as the Kozney-Carman equation are widely used to predict permeability evolution. These relationships, however, are unable to predict permeability alterations resulting from non-uniform pore network structure modifications. This work will use pore network models to investigate variations in sandstone permeability resulting from a range of uniform and heterogeneous dissolution and precipitation patterns and extents and evaluate the validity of existing porosity-permeability relationships under these scenarios. This will include mineral dissolution and precipitation occurring uniformly in pores and throats in addition to pore and pore-throat size, mineral surface, and preferential flow path dependent reactions.

  11. Prestarlike functions with negative coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Silverman

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available The extreme points for prestarlike functions having negative coefficients are determined. Coefficient, distortion and radii of univalence, starlikeness, and convexity theorems are also obtained.

  12. Gorenstein Hilbert Coefficients

    CERN Document Server

    Khoury, Sabine El

    2012-01-01

    We prove upper and lower bounds for all the coefficients in the Hilbert Polynomial of a graded Gorenstein algebra $S=R/I$ with a quasi-pure resolution over $R$. The bounds are in terms of the minimal and the maximal shifts in the resolution of $R$ . These bounds are analogous to the bounds for the multiplicity found in \\cite{S} and are stronger than the bounds for the Cohen Macaulay algebras found in \\cite{HZ}.

  13. Determination of the asymptotic normalization coefficients for 14C + n <--> 15C, the 14C(n, gamma)15C reaction rate, and evaluation of a new method to determine spectroscopic factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCleskey, M; Mukhamedzhanov, A M; Trache, L; Tribble, R E; Banu, A; Eremenko, V; Goldberg, V Z; Lui, Y W; McCleskey, E; Roeder, B T; Spiridon, A; Carstoiu, F; Burjan, V; Hons, Z; Thompson, I J

    2014-04-17

    The 14C + n <--> 15C system has been used as a test case in the evaluation of a new method to determine spectroscopic factors that uses the asymptotic normalization coefficient (ANC). The method proved to be unsuccessful for this case. As part of this experimental program, the ANCs for the 15C ground state and first excited state were determined using a heavy-ion neutron transfer reaction as well as the inverse kinematics (d,p) reaction, measured at the Texas A&M Cyclotron Institute. The ANCs were used to evaluate the astrophysical direct neutron capture rate on 14C, which was then compared with the most recent direct measurement and found to be in good agreement. A study of the 15C SF via its mirror nucleus 15F and a new insight into deuteron stripping theory are also presented.

  14. Macroscopic modeling of heat and water vapor transfer with phase change in dry snow based on an upscaling method: Influence of air convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calonne, N.; Geindreau, C.; Flin, F.

    2015-12-01

    At the microscopic scale, i.e., pore scale, dry snow metamorphism is mainly driven by the heat and water vapor transfer and the sublimation-deposition process at the ice-air interface. Up to now, the description of these phenomena at the macroscopic scale, i.e., snow layer scale, in the snowpack models has been proposed in a phenomenological way. Here we used an upscaling method, namely, the homogenization of multiple-scale expansions, to derive theoretically the macroscopic equivalent modeling of heat and vapor transfer through a snow layer from the physics at the pore scale. The physical phenomena under consideration are steady state air flow, heat transfer by conduction and convection, water vapor transfer by diffusion and convection, and phase change (sublimation and deposition). We derived three different macroscopic models depending on the intensity of the air flow considered at the pore scale, i.e., on the order of magnitude of the pore Reynolds number and the Péclet numbers: (A) pure diffusion, (B) diffusion and moderate convection (Darcy's law), and (C) strong convection (nonlinear flow). The formulation of the models includes the exact expression of the macroscopic properties (effective thermal conductivity, effective vapor diffusion coefficient, and intrinsic permeability) and of the macroscopic source terms of heat and vapor arising from the phase change at the pore scale. Such definitions can be used to compute macroscopic snow properties from 3-D descriptions of snow microstructures. Finally, we illustrated the precision and the robustness of the proposed macroscopic models through 2-D numerical simulations.

  15. Effective Diffusion Coefficients in Coal Chars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsson, Jan Erik; Jensen, Anker

    2001-01-01

    Knowledge of effective diffusion coefficients in char particles is important when interpreting experimental reactivity measurements and modeling char combustion or NO and N2O reduction. In this work, NO and N2O reaction with a bituminous coal char was studied in a fixed-bed quartz glass reactor....... The experimental results were compared with theoretical values calculated from the mean pore radius and the cross-linked pore model. The method of mean pore radius underestimated the effective diffusion coefficient more than an order of magnitude. Using the cross-linked pore model, the bimodal pore size...

  16. The Truth About Ballistic Coefficients

    CERN Document Server

    Courtney, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The ballistic coefficient of a bullet describes how it slows in flight due to air resistance. This article presents experimental determinations of ballistic coefficients showing that the majority of bullets tested have their previously published ballistic coefficients exaggerated from 5-25% by the bullet manufacturers. These exaggerated ballistic coefficients lead to inaccurate predictions of long range bullet drop, retained energy and wind drift.

  17. From 1D to 3D - macroscopic nanowire aerogel monoliths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Wei; Rechberger, Felix; Niederberger, Markus

    2016-07-01

    Here we present a strategy to assemble one-dimensional nanostructures into a three-dimensional architecture with macroscopic size. With the assistance of centrifugation, we successfully gel ultrathin W18O49 nanowires with diameters of 1 to 2 nm and aspect ratios larger than 100 into 3D networks, which are transformed into monolithic aerogels by supercritical drying.Here we present a strategy to assemble one-dimensional nanostructures into a three-dimensional architecture with macroscopic size. With the assistance of centrifugation, we successfully gel ultrathin W18O49 nanowires with diameters of 1 to 2 nm and aspect ratios larger than 100 into 3D networks, which are transformed into monolithic aerogels by supercritical drying. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details, SEM and TEM images, and digital photographs. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr04429h

  18. Microscopic versus macroscopic approaches to non-equilibrium systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derrida, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    The one-dimensional symmetric simple exclusion process (SSEP) is one of the very few exactly soluble models of non-equilibrium statistical physics. It describes a system of particles which diffuse with hard core repulsion on a one-dimensional lattice in contact with two reservoirs of particles at unequal densities. The goal of this paper is to review the two main approaches which lead to the exact expression of the large deviation functional of the density of the SSEP in its steady state: a microscopic approach (based on the matrix product ansatz and an additivity property) and a macroscopic approach (based on the macroscopic fluctuation theory of Bertini, De Sole, Gabrielli, Jona-Lasinio and Landim).

  19. Applying quantum mechanics to macroscopic and mesoscopic systems

    CERN Document Server

    T., N Poveda

    2012-01-01

    There exists a paradigm in which Quantum Mechanics is an exclusively developed theory to explain phenomena on a microscopic scale. As the Planck's constant is extremely small, $h\\sim10^{-34}{J.s}$, and as in the relation of de Broglie the wavelength is inversely proportional to the momentum; for a mesoscopic or macroscopic object the Broglie wavelength is very small, and consequently the undulatory behavior of this object is undetectable. In this paper we show that with a particle oscillating around its classical trajectory, the action is an integer multiple of a quantum of action, $S = nh_{o}$. The quantum of action, $h_{o}$, which plays a role equivalent to Planck's constant, is a free parameter that must be determined and depends on the physical system considered. For a mesoscopic and macroscopic system: $h_{o}\\gg h$, this allows us to describe these systems with the formalism of quantum mechanics.

  20. Analysis and Enhancements of a Prolific Macroscopic Model of Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Fietkiewicz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Macroscopic models of epilepsy can deliver surprisingly realistic EEG simulations. In the present study, a prolific series of models is evaluated with regard to theoretical and computational concerns, and enhancements are developed. Specifically, we analyze three aspects of the models: (1 Using dynamical systems analysis, we demonstrate and explain the presence of direct current potentials in the simulated EEG that were previously undocumented. (2 We explain how the system was not ideally formulated for numerical integration of stochastic differential equations. A reformulated system is developed to support proper methodology. (3 We explain an unreported contradiction in the published model specification regarding the use of a mathematical reduction method. We then use the method to reduce the number of equations and further improve the computational efficiency. The intent of our critique is to enhance the evolution of macroscopic modeling of epilepsy and assist others who wish to explore this exciting class of models further.

  1. Indirect measurement of interfacial melting from macroscopic ice observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saruya, Tomotaka; Kurita, Kei; Rempel, Alan W

    2014-06-01

    Premelted water that is adsorbed to particle surfaces and confined to capillary regions remains in the liquid state well below the bulk melting temperature and can supply the segregated growth of ice lenses. Using macroscopic measurements of ice-lens initiation position in step-freezing experiments, we infer how the nanometer-scale thicknesses of premelted films depend on temperature depression below bulk melting. The interfacial interactions between ice, liquid, and soda-lime glass particles exhibit a power-law behavior that suggests premelting in our system is dominated by short-range electrostatic forces. Using our inferred film thicknesses as inputs to a simple force-balance model with no adjustable parameters, we obtain good quantitative agreement between numerical predictions and observed ice-lens thickness. Macroscopic observations of lensing behavior have the potential as probes of premelting behavior in other systems.

  2. Quantum entanglement at ambient conditions in a macroscopic solid-state spin ensemble.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimov, Paul V; Falk, Abram L; Christle, David J; Dobrovitski, Viatcheslav V; Awschalom, David D

    2015-11-01

    Entanglement is a key resource for quantum computers, quantum-communication networks, and high-precision sensors. Macroscopic spin ensembles have been historically important in the development of quantum algorithms for these prospective technologies and remain strong candidates for implementing them today. This strength derives from their long-lived quantum coherence, strong signal, and ability to couple collectively to external degrees of freedom. Nonetheless, preparing ensembles of genuinely entangled spin states has required high magnetic fields and cryogenic temperatures or photochemical reactions. We demonstrate that entanglement can be realized in solid-state spin ensembles at ambient conditions. We use hybrid registers comprising of electron-nuclear spin pairs that are localized at color-center defects in a commercial SiC wafer. We optically initialize 10(3) identical registers in a 40-μm(3) volume (with [Formula: see text] fidelity) and deterministically prepare them into the maximally entangled Bell states (with 0.88 ± 0.07 fidelity). To verify entanglement, we develop a register-specific quantum-state tomography protocol. The entanglement of a macroscopic solid-state spin ensemble at ambient conditions represents an important step toward practical quantum technology.

  3. Optomechanical entanglement of a macroscopic oscillator by quantum feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, E.; Li, Fengzhi; Zhang, Xuefeng; Ma, Yonghong

    2016-07-01

    We propose a scheme to generate the case of macroscopic entanglement in the optomechanical system, which consist of Fabry-Perot cavity and a mechanical oscillator by applying a homodyne-mediated quantum feedback. We explore the effect of feedback on the entanglement in vacuum and coherent state, respectively. The results show that the introduction of quantum feedback can increase the entanglement effectively between the cavity mode and the oscillator mode.

  4. Identification of Bodies Exposed to High Temperatures Based on Macroscopic...

    OpenAIRE

    Barraza Salcedo, María del Socorro; Universidad Metropolitana de Barranquilla. Barranquilla; Rebolledo Cobos, Martha Leonor; Universidad Metropolitana de Barranquilla

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT. Background: Forensic dentistry in cases of incineration provides scientific elements that allow the identification of bodies, by analyzing dental organs, through the isolation of DNA obtained from the pulp as an alternative to confirm the identity of the victim. When the degree of temperature is highly elevated, dental tissues are vulnerable and therefore the DNA pulp is not salvageable, wasting resources and time by lack of standards to identify macroscopic characteristics that ind...

  5. CONTRIBUTION OF MACROSCOPIC DIMENSION EFFECT TO PIEZOELFCTRICITY IN POLYVINYLIDENE FLUORIDE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Jianxun; TAKEO FURUKAWA

    1987-01-01

    In this paper, we have studied the piezoelectricity in the poled uniaxially drawn polyvinylidene fluoride. The piezoelectric constants d31, d32, da33 and Young's moduli 1/s11 and 1/s22 have been determined as a function of the remanent polarization Pr. The piezoelectric constants of the samples show a strong in-plane anisotropy. Such an anisotropy is mostly attributable to different Poisson's ratio. It is found that the piezoelectric activity mainly arises from macroscopic dimensional change.

  6. Toward a superconducting quantum computer. Harnessing macroscopic quantum coherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jaw-Shen

    2010-01-01

    Intensive research on the construction of superconducting quantum computers has produced numerous important achievements. The quantum bit (qubit), based on the Josephson junction, is at the heart of this research. This macroscopic system has the ability to control quantum coherence. This article reviews the current state of quantum computing as well as its history, and discusses its future. Although progress has been rapid, the field remains beset with unsolved issues, and there are still many new research opportunities open to physicists and engineers.

  7. Measurement-Induced Macroscopic Superposition States in Cavity Optomechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Ulrich B.; Kollath-Bönig, Johann; Neergaard-Nielsen, Jonas S.; Andersen, Ulrik L.

    2016-09-01

    A novel protocol for generating quantum superpositions of macroscopically distinct states of a bulk mechanical oscillator is proposed, compatible with existing optomechanical devices operating in the bad-cavity limit. By combining a pulsed optomechanical quantum nondemolition (QND) interaction with nonclassical optical resources and measurement-induced feedback, the need for strong single-photon coupling is avoided. We outline a three-pulse sequence of QND interactions encompassing squeezing-enhanced cooling by measurement, state preparation, and tomography.

  8. Macroscopic Quantum Phenomena from the Correlation, Coupling and Criticality Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, C. H.; Hu, B. L.; Subaşi, Y.

    2011-12-01

    In this sequel paper we explore how macroscopic quantum phenomena can be measured or understood from the behavior of quantum correlations which exist in a quantum system of many particles or components and how the interaction strengths change with energy or scale, under ordinary situations and when the system is near its critical point. We use the nPI (master) effective action related to the Boltzmann-BBGKY / Schwinger-Dyson hierarchy of equations as a tool for systemizing the contributions of higher order correlation functions to the dynamics of lower order correlation functions. Together with the large N expansion discussed in our first paper [1] we explore 1) the conditions whereby an H-theorem is obtained, which can be viewed as a signifier of the emergence of macroscopic behavior in the system. We give two more examples from past work: 2) the nonequilibrium dynamics of N atoms in an optical lattice under the large Script N (field components), 2PI and second order perturbative expansions, illustrating how N and Script N enter in these three aspects of quantum correlations, coherence and coupling strength. 3) the behavior of an interacting quantum system near its critical point, the effects of quantum and thermal fluctuations and the conditions under which the system manifests infrared dimensional reduction. We also discuss how the effective field theory concept bears on macroscopic quantum phenomena: the running of the coupling parameters with energy or scale imparts a dynamical-dependent and an interaction-sensitive definition of 'macroscopia'.

  9. Stochastic and Macroscopic Thermodynamics of Strongly Coupled Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarzynski, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    We develop a thermodynamic framework that describes a classical system of interest S that is strongly coupled to its thermal environment E . Within this framework, seven key thermodynamic quantities—internal energy, entropy, volume, enthalpy, Gibbs free energy, heat, and work—are defined microscopically. These quantities obey thermodynamic relations including both the first and second law, and they satisfy nonequilibrium fluctuation theorems. We additionally impose a macroscopic consistency condition: When S is large, the quantities defined within our framework scale up to their macroscopic counterparts. By satisfying this condition, we demonstrate that a unifying framework can be developed, which encompasses both stochastic thermodynamics at one end, and macroscopic thermodynamics at the other. A central element in our approach is a thermodynamic definition of the volume of the system of interest, which converges to the usual geometric definition when S is large. We also sketch an alternative framework that satisfies the same consistency conditions. The dynamics of the system and environment are modeled using Hamilton's equations in the full phase space.

  10. Macroscopic quantum oscillator based on a flux qubit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Mandip, E-mail: mandip@iisermohali.ac.in

    2015-09-25

    In this paper a macroscopic quantum oscillator is proposed, which consists of a flux-qubit in the form of a cantilever. The net magnetic flux threading through the flux-qubit and the mechanical degrees of freedom of the cantilever are naturally coupled. The coupling between the cantilever and the magnetic flux is controlled through an external magnetic field. The ground state of the flux-qubit-cantilever turns out to be an entangled quantum state, where the cantilever deflection and the magnetic flux are the entangled degrees of freedom. A variant, which is a special case of the flux-qubit-cantilever without a Josephson junction, is also discussed. - Highlights: • In this paper a flux-qubit-cantilever is proposed. • Coupling can be varied by an external magnetic field. • Ground state is a macroscopic entangled quantum state. • Ground state of the superconducting-loop-oscillator is a macroscopic quantum superposition. • Proposed scheme is based on a generalized quantum approach.

  11. Macroscopic description of the limb muscles of Tupinambis merianae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Barbosa Casals

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Tegu lizard (Tupinambis merianae belongs to the Teiidae family. It is distributed throughout the Americas, with many species, including Brazilian ones. They are from the Tupinambis genus, the largest representatives of the Teiidae family. For this study three animals (run over coming from donation were used. The dissected lizards were fixed in 10%, formaldehyde, and the macroscopic analysis was carried out in a detailed and photo documented way, keeping the selected structures “in situ”. This paper had as its main aim contributing to the macroscopic description of the chest myology, as well as the thoracic and pelvic limbs of the lizard T. merianae. The results obtained from this research were compared to authors who have studied animals from the same Reptilia class. Thus, we conclude that our macroscopic results are similar to those already described by the researchers Hildebrand (1995, Moro and Abdala (2004 and Abdala and Diogo (2010. We should highlight that the knowledge on anatomy has importance and applications to various areas within Biology, contributing in a substantial way to the areas of human health and technology.

  12. Noise-driven interfaces and their macroscopic representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dentz, Marco; Neuweiler, Insa; Méheust, Yves; Tartakovsky, Daniel M.

    2016-11-01

    We study the macroscopic representation of noise-driven interfaces in stochastic interface growth models in (1 +1 ) dimensions. The interface is characterized macroscopically by saturation, which represents the fluctuating sharp interface by a smoothly varying phase field with values between 0 and 1. We determine the one-point interface height statistics for the Edwards-Wilkinson (EW) and Kadar-Paris-Zhang (KPZ) models in order to determine explicit deterministic equations for the phase saturation for each of them. While we obtain exact results for the EW model, we develop a Gaussian closure approximation for the KPZ model. We identify an interface compression term, which is related to mass transfer perpendicular to the growth direction, and a diffusion term that tends to increase the interface width. The interface compression rate depends on the mesoscopic mass transfer process along the interface and in this sense provides a relation between meso- and macroscopic interface dynamics. These results shed light on the relation between mesoscale and macroscale interface models, and provide a systematic framework for the upscaling of stochastic interface dynamics.

  13. Solvable Quantum Macroscopic Motions and Decoherence Mechanisms in Quantum Mechanics on Nonstandard Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Tsunehiro

    1996-01-01

    Quantum macroscopic motions are investigated in the scheme consisting of N-number of harmonic oscillators in terms of ultra-power representations of nonstandard analysis. Decoherence is derived from the large internal degrees of freedom of macroscopic matters.

  14. 298 K rate coefficients for the reaction of OH with i-C3H7I, n-C3H7I and C3H8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. N. Crowley

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The kinetics of the title reactions were investigated using the laser photolysis - resonance fluorescence method, employing the sequential two-photon dissociation of NO2 in the presence of H2 as the OH source. The 298 K rate constant for OH + C3H8 was found to be (1.15±0.1 × 10-12 cm3 s-1, in excellent agreement with the literature recommendation, and with a separate determination using HNO3 photolysis at 248 nm as the OH source. The 298 K rate constants for OH + n-C3H7I and i-C3H7I were measured for the first time and found to be (1.47±0.08 and (1.22±0.06 × 10-12 cm3 s-1, respectively. The errors include an assessment of systematic error due to concentration measurement, which, for the propyl-iodides was minimised by on-line UV-absorption spectroscopy. The implications of these results for the reactive iodine budget of the marine boundary layer are discussed.

  15. Unified Microscopic-Macroscopic Monte Carlo Simulations of Complex Organic Molecule Chemistry in Cold Cores

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    The recent discovery of methyl formate and dimethyl ether in the gas phase of cold cores with temperatures as cold as 10 K challenges our previous astrochemical models concerning the formation of complex organic molecules. The strong correlation between the abundances and distributions of methyl formate and dimethyl ether further shows that current astrochemical models may be missing important chemical processes in cold astronomical sources. We investigate a scenario in which complex organic molecules and the methoxy radical can be formed on dust grains via a so-called "chain reaction" mechanism, in a similar manner to CO$_2$. A unified gas-grain microscopic-macroscopic Monte Carlo approach with both normal and interstitial sites for icy grain mantles is used to perform the chemical simulations. Reactive desorption with varying degrees of efficiency is included to enhance the non-thermal desorption of species formed on cold dust grains. In addition, varying degrees of efficiency for the surface formation of m...

  16. Swelling/deswelling of polyacrylamide gels in aqueous NaCl solution: Light scattering and macroscopic swelling study

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Sivanantham; B V R Tata

    2012-09-01

    Swelling kinetics of water-swollen polyacrylamide (PAAm) hydrogels (WSG) was investigated in various concentrations of aqueous NaCl by macroscopic swelling measurements. For lower concentration of NaCl, WSG showed exponential swelling whereas at higher concentration of NaCl it underwent deswelling at short times and exponential swelling at long times. From these studies, collective diffusion coefficient, , of the polymer network and polymer–solvent interaction parameter, , were calculated and found to decrease with increase in [NaCl]. Collective diffusion coefficients measured from dynamic light scattering (DLS) and that obtained from macroscopic swelling measurements are found to agree well. Measured ensemble-averaged dynamic structure factor (, ) for WSG and salt-swollen gels (SSG) showed an initial decay followed by a plateau at long times and it can be described by harmonically bound Brownian particle (HBBP) model. Enhanced scattering intensity at low scattering angles using static light scattering (SLS) measurements revealed the presence of inhomogeneities in PAAm gels. The reasons for increased scattering intensity of SSG over WSG gel and the linear decrease of with increase in NaCl concentration are explained.

  17. Converting Sabine absorption coefficients to random incidence absorption coefficients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho

    2013-01-01

    Absorption coefficients measured by the chamber method are referred to as Sabine absorption coefficients, which sometimes exceed unity due to the finite size of a sample and non-uniform intensity in the reverberation chambers under test. In this study, conversion methods from Sabine absorption...... coefficients to random incidence absorption coefficients are proposed. The overestimations of the Sabine absorption coefficient are investigated theoretically based on Miki's model for porous absorbers backed by a rigid wall or an air cavity, resulting in conversion factors. Additionally, three optimizations...

  18. Assembly of tobacco mosaic virus into fibrous and macroscopic bundled arrays mediated by surface aniline polymerization.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niu, Z.; Bruckman, M.; Li, S.; Lee, A.; Lee, B.; Pingali, S.-V.; Thiyagarajan, P.; Wang, Q.; Univ. of South Carolina

    2007-06-05

    One-dimensional (1D) polyaniline/tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) composite nanofibers and macroscopic bundles of such fibers were generated via a self-assembly process of TMV assisted by in-situ polymerization of polyaniline on the surface of TMV. At near-neutral reaction pH, branched polyaniline formed on the surface of TMV preventing lateral association. Therefore, long 1D nanofibers were observed with high aspect ratios and excellent processibility. At a lower pH, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis revealed that initially long nanofibers were formed which resulted in bundled structures upon long-time reaction, presumably mediated by the hydrophobic interaction because of the polyaniline on the surface of TMV. In-situ time-resolved small-angle X-ray scattering study of TMV at different reaction conditions supported this mechanism. This novel strategy to assemble TMV into 1D and 3D supramolecular composites could be utilized in the fabrication of advanced materials for potential applications including electronics, optics, sensing, and biomedical engineering.

  19. Understanding the Pulsar High Energy Emission: Macroscopic and Kinetic Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalapotharakos, Constantinos; Brambilla, Gabriele; Timokhin, Andrey; Kust Harding, Alice; Kazanas, Demos

    2017-08-01

    Pulsars are extraordinary objects powered by the rotation of magnetic fields of order 10^8, 10^12G anchored onto neutron stars and rotating with periods 10^(-3)-10s. These fields mediate the conversion of their rotational energy into MHD winds and at the same time accelerate particles to energies sufficiently high to produce GeV photons. Fermi, since its launch in 2008, has established several trends among the observed gamma-ray pulsar properties playing a catalytic role in the current modeling of the high energy emission in pulsar magnetospheres. We judiciously use the guidance provided by the Fermi data to yield meaningful constraints on the macroscopic parameters of our global dissipative pulsar magnetosphere models. Our FIDO (Force-Free Inside, Dissipative Outside) models indicate that the dissipative regions lie outside the light cylinder near the equatorial current sheet. Our models reproduce the light-curve phenomenology while a detailed comparison of the model spectral properties with those observed by Fermi reveals the dependence of the macroscopic conductivity parameter on the spin-down rate providing a unique insight into the understanding of the physical mechanisms behind the high-energy emission in pulsar magnetospheres. Finally, we further exploit these important results by building self-consistent 3D global kinetic particle-in-cell (PIC) models which, eventually, provide the dependence of the macroscopic parameter behavior (e.g. conductivity) on the microphysical properties (e.g. particle multiplicities, particle injection rates). Our PIC models provide field structures and particle distributions that are not only consistent with each other but also able to reproduce a broad range of the observed gamma-ray phenomenology (light curves and spectral properties) of both young and millisecond pulsars.

  20. Self-Feeding Turbulent Magnetic Reconnection on Macroscopic Scales

    CERN Document Server

    Lapenta, Giovanni

    2008-01-01

    Within a MHD approach we find magnetic reconnection to progress in two entirely different ways. The first is well-known: the laminar Sweet-Parker process. But a second, completely different and chaotic reconnection process is possible. This regime has properties of immediate practical relevance: i) it is much faster, developing on scales of the order of the Alfv\\'en time, and ii) the areas of reconnection become distributed chaotically over a macroscopic region. The onset of the faster process is the formation of closed circulation patterns where the jets going out of the reconnection regions turn around and forces their way back in, carrying along copious amounts of magnetic flux.

  1. Single-atom quantum control of macroscopic mechanical oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bariani, F.; Otterbach, J.; Tan, Huatang; Meystre, P.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate a hybrid electromechanical system consisting of a pair of charged macroscopic mechanical oscillators coupled to a small ensemble of Rydberg atoms. The resonant dipole-dipole coupling between an internal atomic Rydberg transition and the mechanics allows cooling to its motional ground state with a single atom despite the considerable mass imbalance between the two subsystems. We show that the rich electronic spectrum of Rydberg atoms, combined with their high degree of optical control, paves the way towards implementing various quantum-control protocols for the mechanical oscillators.

  2. The Two-Time Interpretation and Macroscopic Time-Reversibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakir Aharonov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The two-state vector formalism motivates a time-symmetric interpretation of quantum mechanics that entails a resolution of the measurement problem. We revisit a post-selection-assisted collapse model previously suggested by us, claiming that unlike the thermodynamic arrow of time, it can lead to reversible dynamics at the macroscopic level. In addition, the proposed scheme enables us to characterize the classical-quantum boundary. We discuss the limitations of this approach and its broad implications for other areas of physics.

  3. Emergence of an urban traffic macroscopic fundamental diagram

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ranjan, Abhishek; Fosgerau, Mogens; Jenelius, Erik

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines mild conditions under which a macroscopic fundamental diagram (MFD) emerges, relating space-averaged speed to occupancy in some area. These conditions are validated against empirical data. We allow local speedoccupancy relationships and, in particular, require no equilibrating...... process to be in operation. This means that merely observing the stable relationship between the space-averages of speed, flow and occupancy are not sufficient to infer a robust relationship and the emerging MFD cannot be guaranteed to be stable if traffic interventions are implemented....

  4. Violation of smooth observable macroscopic realism in a harmonic oscillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leshem, Amir; Gat, Omri

    2009-08-14

    We study the emergence of macrorealism in a harmonic oscillator subject to consecutive measurements of a squeezed action. We demonstrate a breakdown of dynamical realism in a wide parameter range that is maximized in a scaling limit of extreme squeezing, where it is based on measurements of smooth observables, implying that macroscopic realism is not valid in the harmonic oscillator. We propose an indirect experimental test of these predictions with entangled photons by demonstrating that local realism in a composite system implies dynamical realism in a subsystem.

  5. Seismic scanning tunneling macroscope - Elastic simulations and Arizona mine test

    KAUST Repository

    Hanafy, Sherif M.

    2012-01-01

    Elastic seismic simulations and field data tests are used to validate the theory of a seismic scanning tunneling macroscope (SSTM). For nearfield elastic simulation, the SSTM results show superresolution to be better than λ/8 if the only scattered data are used as input data. If the direct P and S waves are muted then the resolution of the scatterer locations are within about λ/5. Seismic data collected in an Arizona tunnel showed a superresolution limit of at least λ/19. These test results are consistent with the theory of the SSTM and suggest that the SSTM can be a tool used by geophysicists as a probe for near-field scatterers.

  6. Macroscopic description of teeth of Azara's agouti (Dasyprocta azarae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício S. Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The teeth of Azara's agouti (Dasyprocta azarae were described macroscopically in order to provide biological data on one of the largest wild rodents of the Americas. Radiography was taken on six heads and the teeth were described. Enamel surrounds the coronal dentin, projects to the roots and is present as parallel inner laminae in buccolingual direction. The dentin is located among the enamel laminae and surrounds the pulp horns. The cementum is located internally to the enamel laminae. On the lingual surface, the cementum and dentin are the outer elements.

  7. Macroscopic and microscopic self-organization by nonlocal anisotropic interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Cristiani, Emiliano; Tosin, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    This paper is concerned with mathematical modeling of intelligent systems, such as human crowds and animal groups. In particular, the focus is on the emergence of different self-organized patterns from non-locality and anisotropy of the interactions among individuals. A mathematical technique by time-evolving measures is introduced to deal with both macroscopic and microscopic scales within a unified modeling framework. Then self-organization issues are investigated and numerically reproduced at the proper scale, according to the kind of agents under consideration.

  8. An investigation into why macroscopic systems behave classically

    OpenAIRE

    Hallwood, David W.; Burnett, Keith; Dunningham, Jacob

    2006-01-01

    We study why it is quite so hard to make a superposition of superfluid flows in a Bose-Einstein condensate. To do this we initially investigate the quantum states of $N$ atoms trapped in a 1D ring with a barrier at one position and a phase applied around it. We show how macroscopic superpositions can in principle be produced and investigate factors which affect the superposition. We then use the Bose-Hubbard model to study an array of Bose-Einstein condensates trapped in optical potentials an...

  9. Measurement-induced macroscopic superposition states in cavity optomechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Hoff, Ulrich B; Neergaard-Nielsen, Jonas S; Andersen, Ulrik L

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel proposal for generating quantum superpositions of macroscopically distinct states of a bulk mechanical oscillator, compatible with existing optomechanical devices operating in the readily achievable bad-cavity limit. The scheme is based on a pulsed cavity optomechanical quantum non-demolition (QND) interaction, driven by displaced non-Gaussian states, and measurement-induced feedback, avoiding the need for strong single-photon optomechanical coupling. Furthermore, we show that single-quadrature cooling of the mechanical oscillator is sufficient for efficient state preparation, and we outline a three-pulse protocol comprising a sequence of QND interactions for squeezing-enhanced cooling, state preparation, and tomography.

  10. Flagella bending affects macroscopic properties of bacterial suspensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potomkin, M.; Tournus, M.; Berlyand, L. V.; Aranson, I. S.

    2017-05-01

    To survive in harsh conditions, motile bacteria swim in complex environments and respond to the surrounding flow. Here, we develop a mathematical model describing how flagella bending affects macroscopic properties of bacterial suspensions. First, we show how the flagella bending contributes to the decrease in the effective viscosity observed in dilute suspension. Our results do not impose tumbling (random reorientation) as was previously done to explain the viscosity reduction. Second, we demonstrate how a bacterium escapes from wall entrapment due to the self-induced buckling of flagella. Our results shed light on the role of flexible bacterial flagella in interactions of bacteria with shear flow and walls or obstacles.

  11. Modelling and simulations of macroscopic multi-group pedestrian flow

    CERN Document Server

    Mahato, Naveen K; Tiwari, Sudarshan

    2016-01-01

    We consider a multi-group microscopic model for pedestrian flow describing the behaviour of large groups. It is based on an interacting particle system coupled to an eikonal equation. Hydrodynamic multi-group models are derived from the underlying particle system as well as scalar multi-group models. The eikonal equation is used to compute optimal paths for the pedestrians. Particle methods are used to solve the macroscopic equations. Numerical test cases are investigated and the models and, in particular, the resulting evacuation times are compared for a wide range of different parameters.

  12. Macroscopic modeling for traffic flow on three-lane highways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianzhong; Fang, Yuan

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, a macroscopic traffic flow model for three-lane highways is proposed. The model is an extension of the speed gradient model by taking into account the lane changing. The new source and sink terms of lane change rate are added into the continuity equations and the speed dynamic equations to describe the lane-changing behavior. The result of the steady state analysis shows that our model can describe the lane usage inversion phenomenon. The numerical results demonstrate that the present model effectively reproduces several traffic phenomena observed in real traffic such as shock and rarefaction waves, stop-and-go waves and local clusters.

  13. Simple deterministic dynamical systems with fractal diffusion coefficients

    CERN Document Server

    Klages, R

    1999-01-01

    We analyze a simple model of deterministic diffusion. The model consists of a one-dimensional periodic array of scatterers in which point particles move from cell to cell as defined by a piecewise linear map. The microscopic chaotic scattering process of the map can be changed by a control parameter. This induces a parameter dependence for the macroscopic diffusion coefficient. We calculate the diffusion coefficent and the largest eigenmodes of the system by using Markov partitions and by solving the eigenvalue problems of respective topological transition matrices. For different boundary conditions we find that the largest eigenmodes of the map match to the ones of the simple phenomenological diffusion equation. Our main result is that the difffusion coefficient exhibits a fractal structure by varying the system parameter. To understand the origin of this fractal structure, we give qualitative and quantitative arguments. These arguments relate the sequence of oscillations in the strength of the parameter-dep...

  14. Macroscopic Quantum Phenomena from the Correlation, Coupling and Criticality Perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Chou, C H; Subasi, Y

    2011-01-01

    In this sequel paper we explore how macroscopic quantum phenomena can be measured or understood from the behavior of quantum correlations which exist in a quantum system of many particles or components and how the interaction strengths change with energy or scale, under ordinary situations and when the system is near its critical point. We use the nPI (master) effective action related to the Boltzmann-BBGKY / Schwinger-Dyson hierarchy of equations as a tool for systemizing the contributions of higher order correlation functions to the dynamics of lower order correlation functions. Together with the large N expansion discussed in our first paper(MQP1) we explore 1) the conditions whereby an H-theorem is obtained, which can be viewed as a signifier of the emergence of macroscopic behavior in the system. We give two more examples from past work: 2) the nonequilibrium dynamics of N atoms in an optical lattice under the large $\\cal N$ (field components), 2PI and second order perturbative expansions, illustrating h...

  15. Macroscopic superposition states and decoherence by quantum telegraph noise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abel, Benjamin Simon

    2008-12-19

    In the first part of the present thesis we address the question about the size of superpositions of macroscopically distinct quantum states. We propose a measure for the ''size'' of a Schroedinger cat state, i.e. a quantum superposition of two many-body states with (supposedly) macroscopically distinct properties, by counting how many single-particle operations are needed to map one state onto the other. We apply our measure to a superconducting three-junction flux qubit put into a superposition of clockwise and counterclockwise circulating supercurrent states and find this Schroedinger cat to be surprisingly small. The unavoidable coupling of any quantum system to many environmental degrees of freedom leads to an irreversible loss of information about an initially prepared superposition of quantum states. This phenomenon, commonly referred to as decoherence or dephasing, is the subject of the second part of the thesis. We have studied the time evolution of the reduced density matrix of a two-level system (qubit) subject to quantum telegraph noise which is the major source of decoherence in Josephson charge qubits. We are able to derive an exact expression for the time evolution of the reduced density matrix. (orig.)

  16. How does Planck’s constant influence the macroscopic world?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Pao-Keng

    2016-09-01

    In physics, Planck’s constant is a fundamental physical constant accounting for the energy-quantization phenomenon in the microscopic world. The value of Planck’s constant also determines in which length scale the quantum phenomenon will become conspicuous. Some students think that if Planck’s constant were to have a larger value than it has now, the quantum effect would only become observable in a world with a larger size, whereas the macroscopic world might remain almost unchanged. After reasoning from some basic physical principles and theories, we found that doubling Planck’s constant might result in a radical change on the geometric sizes and apparent colors of macroscopic objects, the solar spectrum and luminosity, the climate and gravity on Earth, as well as energy conversion between light and materials such as the efficiency of solar cells and light-emitting diodes. From the discussions in this paper, students can appreciate how Planck’s constant affects various aspects of the world in which we are living now.

  17. Macroscopic Biological Characteristics of Individualized Therapy in Chinese Mongolian Osteopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namula, Zhao; Mei, Wang; Li, Xue-en

    Objective: Chinese Mongolian osteopathy has been passed down from ancient times and includes unique practices and favorable efficacy. In this study, we investigate the macroscopic biological characteristics of individualized Chinese Mongolian osteopathy, in order to provide new principle and methods for the treatment of bone fracture. Method: With a view to provide a vital link between nature and humans, the four stages of Chinese Mongolian osteopathy focus on the unity of the mind and body, the limbs and body organs, the body and its functions, and humans and nature. Results: We discuss the merits of individualized osteopathy in terms of the underlying concepts, and evaluate the approaches and principles of traditional medicine, as well as biomechanics. Conclusions: Individualized Mongolian osteopathy targets macroscopic biological components including dynamic reduction, natural fixation, and functional healing. Chinese Mongolian osteopathy is a natural, ecological and non-invasive osteopathy that values the link between nature and humans, including the unity of mind and body. The biological components not only serve as a foundation for Chinese Mongolian osteopathy but are also important for the future development of modern osteopathy, focusing on individualization, actualization and integration.

  18. Motion of macroscopic bodies in the electromagnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Horsley, S A R

    2013-01-01

    A theory is presented for calculating the effect of the electromagnetic field on the centre of mass of a macroscopic dielectric body that is valid in both quantum and classical regimes. We apply the theory to find the classical equation of motion for the centre of mass of a macroscopic object in a classical field, and the spreading of an initially localized wave-packet representing the centre of mass of a small object, in a quantum field. The classical force is found to be consistent with the identification of the Abraham momentum with the mechanical momentum of light, and the motion of the wave-packet is found to be subject to an acceleration due to the Casimir force, and a time dependent fluctuating motion due the creation of pairs of excitations within the object. The theory is valid for any dielectric that has susceptibilities satisfying the Kramers-Kronig relations, and is not subject to arguments regarding the form of the electromagnetic energy-momentum tensor within a medium.

  19. Parametric equations for calculation of macroscopic cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botelho, Mario Hugo; Carvalho, Fernando, E-mail: mariobotelho@poli.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2015-07-01

    Neutronic calculations of the core of a nuclear reactor is one thing necessary and important for the design and management of a nuclear reactor in order to prevent accidents and control the reactor efficiently as possible. To perform these calculations a library of nuclear data, including cross sections is required. Currently, to obtain a cross section computer codes are used, which require a large amount of processing time and computer memory. This paper proposes the calculation of macroscopic cross section through the development of parametric equations. The paper illustrates the proposal for the case of macroscopic cross sections of absorption (Σa), which was chosen due to its greater complexity among other cross sections. Parametric equations created enable, quick and dynamic way, the determination of absorption cross sections, enabling the use of them in calculations of reactors. The results show efficient when compared with the absorption cross sections obtained by the ALPHA 8.8.1 code. The differences between the cross sections are less than 2% for group 2 and less than 0.60% for group 1. (author)

  20. An exploration for the macroscopic physical meaning of entropy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The macroscopic physical meaning of entropy is analyzed based on the exergy (availability) of a combined system (a closed system and its environment), which is the maximum amount of useful work obtainable from the system and the environment as the system is brought into equilibrium with the environment. The process the system experiences can be divided in two sequent sub-processes, the process at constant volume, which represents the heat interaction of the system with the environment, and the adiabatic process, which represents the work interaction of the system with the environment. It is shown that the macroscopic physical meaning of entropy is a measure of the unavailable energy of a closed system for doing useful work through heat interaction. This statement is more precise than those reported in prior literature. The unavailability function of a closed system can be defined as T0S and p0V in volume constant process and adiabatic process, respectively. Their changes, that is, AiTgS) and A (p0V) represent the unusable parts of the internal energy of a closed system for doing useful work in corresponding processes. Finally, the relation between Clausius entropy and Boltzmann entropy is discussed based on the comparison of their expressions for absolute entropy.

  1. Inverted rank distributions: Macroscopic statistics, universality classes, and critical exponents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliazar, Iddo; Cohen, Morrel H.

    2014-01-01

    An inverted rank distribution is an infinite sequence of positive sizes ordered in a monotone increasing fashion. Interlacing together Lorenzian and oligarchic asymptotic analyses, we establish a macroscopic classification of inverted rank distributions into five “socioeconomic” universality classes: communism, socialism, criticality, feudalism, and absolute monarchy. We further establish that: (i) communism and socialism are analogous to a “disordered phase”, feudalism and absolute monarchy are analogous to an “ordered phase”, and criticality is the “phase transition” between order and disorder; (ii) the universality classes are characterized by two critical exponents, one governing the ordered phase, and the other governing the disordered phase; (iii) communism, criticality, and absolute monarchy are characterized by sharp exponent values, and are inherently deterministic; (iv) socialism is characterized by a continuous exponent range, is inherently stochastic, and is universally governed by continuous power-law statistics; (v) feudalism is characterized by a continuous exponent range, is inherently stochastic, and is universally governed by discrete exponential statistics. The results presented in this paper yield a universal macroscopic socioeconophysical perspective of inverted rank distributions.

  2. Macroscopic Behavior of Nematics with D2d Symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleiner, Harald; Brand, Helmut R.

    2010-03-01

    We discuss the symmetry properties and the macroscopic behavior of a nematic liquid crystal phase with D2d symmetry. Such a phase is a prime candidate for nematic phases made from banana-shaped molecules where the usual quadrupolar order coexists with octupolar (tetrahedratic) order. The resulting nematic phase is non-polar. While this phase could resemble the classic D∞h nematic in the polarizing microscope, it has many static as well as reversible and irreversible properties unknown to non-polar nematics without octupolar order. In particular, there is a linear gradient term in the free energy that selects parity leading to ambidextrously helical ground states when the molecules are achiral. In addition, there are static and irreversible coupling terms of a type only met otherwise in macroscopically chiral liquid crystals, e.g. the ambidextrous analogues of Lehmann-type effects known from cholesteric liquid crystals. Finally, we discuss certain nonlinear aspects of the dynamics related to the non-commutativity of three-dimensional finite rotations as well as other structural nonlinear hydrodynamic effects.

  3. Sabine absorption coefficients to random incidence absorption coefficients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho

    2014-01-01

    Absorption coefficients measured by the chamber method are referred to as Sabine absorption coefficients, which sometimes exceed unity due to the finite size of a specimen and non-uniform intensity in the test chamber. In this study, several methods that convert Sabine absorption coefficients...... into random incidence absorption coefficients for porous absorbers are investigated. Two optimization-based conversion methods are suggested: the surface impedance estimation for locally reacting absorbers and the flow resistivity estimation for extendedly reacting absorbers. The suggested conversion methods...

  4. Distinct molecular features of different macroscopic subtypes of colorectal neoplasms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenichi Konda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Colorectal adenoma develops into cancer with the accumulation of genetic and epigenetic changes. We studied the underlying molecular and clinicopathological features to better understand the heterogeneity of colorectal neoplasms (CRNs. METHODS: We evaluated both genetic (mutations of KRAS, BRAF, TP53, and PIK3CA, and microsatellite instability [MSI] and epigenetic (methylation status of nine genes or sequences, including the CpG island methylator phenotype [CIMP] markers alterations in 158 CRNs including 56 polypoid neoplasms (PNs, 25 granular type laterally spreading tumors (LST-Gs, 48 non-granular type LSTs (LST-NGs, 19 depressed neoplasms (DNs and 10 small flat-elevated neoplasms (S-FNs on the basis of macroscopic appearance. RESULTS: S-FNs showed few molecular changes except SFRP1 methylation. Significant differences in the frequency of KRAS mutations were observed among subtypes (68% for LST-Gs, 36% for PNs, 16% for DNs and 6% for LST-NGs (P<0.001. By contrast, the frequency of TP53 mutation was higher in DNs than PNs or LST-Gs (32% vs. 5% or 0%, respectively (P<0.007. We also observed significant differences in the frequency of CIMP between LST-Gs and LST-NGs or PNs (32% vs. 6% or 5%, respectively (P<0.005. Moreover, the methylation level of LINE-1 was significantly lower in DNs or LST-Gs than in PNs (58.3% or 60.5% vs. 63.2%, P<0.05. PIK3CA mutations were detected only in LSTs. Finally, multivariate analyses showed that macroscopic morphologies were significantly associated with an increased risk of molecular changes (PN or LST-G for KRAS mutation, odds ratio [OR] 9.11; LST-NG or DN for TP53 mutation, OR 5.30; LST-G for PIK3CA mutation, OR 26.53; LST-G or DN for LINE-1 hypomethylation, OR 3.41. CONCLUSION: We demonstrated that CRNs could be classified into five macroscopic subtypes according to clinicopathological and molecular differences, suggesting that different mechanisms are involved in the pathogenesis of colorectal

  5. Unified Microscopic-Macroscopic Monte Carlo Simulations of Complex Organic Molecule Chemistry in Cold Cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Qiang; Herbst, Eric

    2016-03-01

    The recent discovery of methyl formate and dimethyl ether in the gas phase of cold cores with temperatures as cold as 10 K challenges our previous astrochemical models concerning the formation of complex organic molecules (COMs). The strong correlation between the abundances and distributions of methyl formate and dimethyl ether further shows that current astrochemical models may be missing important chemical processes in cold astronomical sources. We investigate a scenario in which COMs and the methoxy radical can be formed on dust grains via a so-called chain reaction mechanism, in a similar manner to CO2. A unified gas-grain microscopic-macroscopic Monte Carlo approach with both normal and interstitial sites for icy grain mantles is used to perform the chemical simulations. Reactive desorption with varying degrees of efficiency is included to enhance the nonthermal desorption of species formed on cold dust grains. In addition, varying degrees of efficiency for the surface formation of methoxy are also included. The observed abundances of a variety of organic molecules in cold cores can be reproduced in our models. The strong correlation between the abundances of methyl formate and dimethyl ether in cold cores can also be explained. Nondiffusive chemical reactions on dust grain surfaces may play a key role in the formation of some COMs.

  6. Quadrature formulas for Fourier coefficients

    KAUST Repository

    Bojanov, Borislav

    2009-09-01

    We consider quadrature formulas of high degree of precision for the computation of the Fourier coefficients in expansions of functions with respect to a system of orthogonal polynomials. In particular, we show the uniqueness of a multiple node formula for the Fourier-Tchebycheff coefficients given by Micchelli and Sharma and construct new Gaussian formulas for the Fourier coefficients of a function, based on the values of the function and its derivatives. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Atmospheric chemistry of HFE-7000 (CF(3)CF (2)CF (2)OCH (3)) and 2,2,3,3,4,4,4-heptafluoro-1-butanol (CF (3)CF (2)CF (2)CH (2)OH): kinetic rate coefficients and temperature dependence of reactions with chlorine atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-de-Mera, Yolanda; Aranda, Alfonso; Bravo, Iván; Rodríguez, Diana; Rodríguez, Ana; Moreno, Elena

    2008-10-01

    The adverse environmental impacts of chlorinated hydrocarbons on the Earth's ozone layer have focused attention on the effort to replace these compounds by nonchlorinated substitutes with environmental acceptability. Hydrofluoroethers (HFEs) and fluorinated alcohols are currently being introduced in many applications for this purpose. Nevertheless, the presence of a great number of C-F bonds drives to atmospheric long-lived compounds with infrared absorption features. Thus, it is necessary to improve our knowledge about lifetimes and global warming potentials (GWP) for these compounds in order to get a complete evaluation of their environmental impact. Tropospheric degradation is expected to be initiated mainly by OH reactions in the gas phase. Nevertheless, Cl atoms reaction may also be important since rate constants are generally larger than those of OH. In the present work, we report the results obtained in the study of the reactions of Cl radicals with HFE-7000 (CF(3)CF(2)CF(2)OCH(3)) (1) and its isomer CF(3)CF(2)CF(2)CH(2)OH (2). Kinetic rate coefficients with Cl atoms have been measured using the discharge flow tube-mass spectrometric technique at 1 Torr of total pressure. The reactions of these chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) substitutes have been studied under pseudo-first-order kinetic conditions in excess of the fluorinated compounds over Cl atoms. The temperature ranges were 266-333 and 298-353 K for reactions of HFE-7000 and CF(3)CF(2)CF(2)CH(2)OH, respectively. The measured room temperature rate constants were k(Cl+CF(3)CF(2)CF(2)OCH(3)) = (1.24 +/- 0.28) x 10(-13) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1)and k(Cl+CF(3)CF(2)CF(2)CH(2)OH) = (8.35 +/- 1.63) x 10(-13) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) (errors are 2sigma + 10% to cover systematic errors). The Arrhenius expression for reaction 1 was k (1)(266-333 K) = (6.1 +/- 3.8) x 10(-13)exp[-(445 +/- 186)/T] cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) and k (2)(298-353 K) = (1.9 +/- 0.7) x 10(-12)exp[-(244 +/- 125)/T] cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) (errors

  8. Macroscopic Modeling of Transport Phenomena in Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Anders Christian

    An increasing need for energy efficiency and high energy density has sparked a growing interest in direct methanol fuel cells for portable power applications. This type of fuel cell directly generates electricity from a fuel mixture consisting of methanol and water. Although this technology...... for studying their transport. In this PhD dissertation the macroscopic transport phenomena governing direct methanol fuel cell operation are analyzed, discussed and modeled using the two-fluid approach in the computational fluid dynamics framework of CFX 14. The overall objective of this work is to extend...... the present fundamental understanding of direct methanol fuel cell operation by developing a three-dimensional, two-phase, multi-component, non-isotherm mathematical model including detailed non-ideal thermodynamics, non-equilibrium phase change and non-equilibrium sorption-desorption of methanol and water...

  9. Macroscopic quantum electrodynamics of high-Q cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khanbekyan, Mikayel

    2009-10-27

    In this thesis macroscopic quantum electrodynamics in linear media was applied in order to develop an universally valid quantum theory for the description of the interaction of the electromagnetic field with atomic sources in high-Q cavities. In this theory a complete description of the characteristics of the emitted radiation is given. The theory allows to show the limits of the applicability of the usually applied theory. In order to establish an as possible generally valid theory first the atom-field interaction was studied in the framework of macroscopic quantum electrodynamics in dispersive and absorptive media. In order to describe the electromagnetic field from Maxwell's equations was started, whereby the noise-current densities, which are connected with the absorption of the medium, were included. The solution of these equations expresses the electromagnetic field variables by the noise-current densities by means of Green's tensor of the macroscopic Maxwell equations. The explicit quantization is performed by means of the noise-current densities, whereby a diagonal Hamiltonian is introduced, which then guarantees the time development according to Maxwell's equation and the fulfillment of the fundamental simultaneous commutation relations of the field variables. In the case of the interaction of the medium-supported field with atoms the Hamiltonian must be extended by atom-field interactions energies, whereby the canonical coupling schemes of the minimal or multipolar coupling can be used. The dieelectric properties of the material bodies as well as their shape are coded in the Green tensor of the macroscopic Maxwell equations. As preparing step first the Green tensor was specified in order to derive three-dimensional input-output relations for the electromagnetic field operators on a plane multilayer structure. Such a general dewscription of the electromagnetic field allows the inclusion both of dispersion and absorption of the media and the

  10. Self-feeding turbulent magnetic reconnection on macroscopic scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapenta, Giovanni

    2008-06-13

    Within a MHD approach we find magnetic reconnection to progress in two entirely different ways. The first is well known: the laminar Sweet-Parker process. But a second, completely different and chaotic reconnection process is possible. This regime has properties of immediate practical relevance: (i) it is much faster, developing on scales of the order of the Alfvén time, and (ii) the areas of reconnection become distributed chaotically over a macroscopic region. The onset of the faster process is the formation of closed-circulation patterns where the jets going out of the reconnection regions turn around and force their way back in, carrying along copious amounts of magnetic flux.

  11. Room Temperature Experiments with a Macroscopic Sapphire Mechanical Oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourhill, Jeremy; Ivanov, Eugene; Tobar, Micahel

    2015-03-01

    We present initial results from a number of experiments conducted on a 0.53 kg sapphire ``dumbbell'' crystal. Mechanical motion of the crystal structure alters the dimensions of the crystal, and the induced strain changes the permittivity. These two effects frequency modulate resonant microwave whispering gallery modes, simultaneously excited within the crystal. A novel microwave readout system is described allowing extremely low noise measurements of this frequency modulation with a phase noise floor of -160 dBc/Hz at 100 kHz, near our modes of interest. Fine-tuning of the crystal's suspension have allowed for the optimisation of mechanical Q-factors in preparation for cryogenic experiments, with a value of 8 x 107 achieved so far. Finally, results are presented that demonstrate the excitation of mechanical modes via radiation pressure force. These are all important steps towards the overall goal of the experiment; to cool a macroscopic device to the quantum ground state.

  12. Macroscopic electromagnetic response of metamaterials with toroidal resonances

    CERN Document Server

    Savinov, V; Zheludev, N I

    2013-01-01

    Toroidal dipole, first described by Ia. B. Zeldovich [Sov. Phys. JETP 33, 1184 (1957)], is a distinct electromagnetic excitation that differs both from the electric and the magnetic dipoles. It has a number of intriguing properties: static toroidal nuclear dipole is responsible for parity violation in atomic spectra; interactions between static toroidal dipole and oscillating magnetic dipole are claimed to violate Newton's Third Law while non-stationary charge-current configurations involving toroidal multipoles have been predicted to produce vector potential in the absence of electromagnetic fields. Existence of the toroidal response in metamaterials was recently demonstrated and is now a growing field of research. However, no direct analytical link has yet been established between the transmission and reflection of macroscopic electromagnetic media and toroidal dipole excitations. To address this essential gap in electromagnetic theory we have developed an analytical approach linking microscopic and macrosc...

  13. Experiments testing macroscopic quantum superpositions must be slow

    CERN Document Server

    Mari, Andrea; Giovannetti, Vittorio

    2015-01-01

    We consider a thought experiment where the preparation of a macroscopically massive or charged particle in a quantum superposition and the associated dynamics of a distant test particle apparently allow for superluminal communication. We give a solution to the paradox which is based on the following fundamental principle: any local experiment, discriminating a coherent superposition from an incoherent statistical mixture, necessarily requires a minimum time proportional to the mass (or charge) of the system. For a charged particle, we consider two examples of such experiments, and show that they are both consistent with the previous limitation. In the first, the measurement requires to accelerate the charge, that can entangle with the emitted photons. In the second, the limitation can be ascribed to the quantum vacuum fluctuations of the electromagnetic field. On the other hand, when applied to massive particles our result provides an indirect evidence for the existence of gravitational vacuum fluctuations an...

  14. A macroscopic model of traffic jams in axons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, A V; Avramenko, A A

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a minimal macroscopic model capable of explaining the formation of traffic jams in fast axonal transport. The model accounts for the decrease of the number density of positively (and negatively) oriented microtubules near the location of the traffic jam due to formation of microtubule swirls; the model also accounts for the reduction of the effective velocity of organelle transport in the traffic jam region due to organelles falling off microtubule tracks more often in the swirl region. The model is based on molecular-motor-assisted transport equations and the hydrodynamic model of traffic jams in highway traffic. Parametric analyses of the model's predictions for various values of viscosity of the traffic flow, variance of the velocity distribution, diffusivity of microtubule-bound and free organelles, rate constants for binding to and detachment from microtubules, relaxation time, and average motor velocities of the retrograde and anterograde transport, are carried out.

  15. Elastic Enhancement Factor: from Mesoscopic Systems to Macroscopic Analogous Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Sokolov, Valentin V

    2014-01-01

    Excess of probabilities of the elastic processes over the inelastic ones is a common feature of the resonance phenomena, described in the framework of the random matrix theory. This phenomenon is quantitatively characterized by the elastic enhancement factor $F^{(\\beta)}$ that is a typical ratio of elastic and inelastic cross sections. Being measured experimentally, this quantity can supply us with information on the character of dynamics of the intermediate complicated open system. We discuss properties of the enhancement factor in a wide scope from mesoscopoic systems to macroscopic analogous devices and demonstrate essential qualitative distinction between the elastic enhancement factor's peculiarities in these two cases. Complete analytical solution is found for the case of systems without time-reversal symmetry and only a few open equivalent scattering channels.

  16. Macroscopic and direct light propulsion of bulk graphene material

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Tengfei; Wu, Yingpeng; Xiao, Peishuang; Yi, Ningbo; Lu, Yanhong; Ma, Yanfeng; Huang, Yi; Zhao, Kai; Yan, Xiao-Qing; Liu, Zhi-Bo; Tian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Yongsheng

    2015-01-01

    It has been a great challenge to achieve the direct light manipulation of matter on a bulk scale. In this work, the direct light propulsion of matter was observed on a macroscopic scale for the first time using a bulk graphene based material. The unique structure and properties of graphene and the morphology of the bulk graphene material make it capable of not only absorbing light at various wavelengths but also emitting energetic electrons efficiently enough to drive the bulk material following Newtonian mechanics. Thus, the unique photonic and electronic properties of individual graphene sheets are manifested in the response of the bulk state. These results offer an exciting opportunity to bring about bulk scale light manipulation with the potential to realize long-sought proposals in areas such as the solar sail and space transportation driven directly by sunlight.

  17. Macroscopic acousto-mechanical analogy of a microbubble

    CERN Document Server

    Chaline, Jennifer; Mehrem, Ahmed; Bouakaz, Ayache; Santos, Serge Dos; Sánchez-Morcillo, Víctor J

    2015-01-01

    Microbubbles, either in the form of free gas bubbles surrounded by a fluid or encapsulated bubbles used currently as contrast agents for medical echography, exhibit complex dynamics under specific acoustic excitations. Nonetheless, considering their micron size and the complexity of their interaction phenomenon with ultrasound waves, expensive and complex experiments and/or simulations are required for their analysis. The behavior of a microbubble along its equator can be linked to a system of coupled oscillators. In this study, the oscillatory behavior of a microbubble has been investigated through an acousto-mechanical analogy based on a ring-shaped chain of coupled pendula. Observation of parametric vibration modes of the pendula ring excited at frequencies between $1$ and $5$ Hz is presented. Simulations have been carried out and show mode mixing phenomena. The relevance of the analogy between a microbubble and the macroscopic acousto-mechanical setup is discussed and suggested as an alternative way to in...

  18. Combined macroscopic and microscopic detection of viral genes in tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haase, A.T.; Gantz, D.; Blum, H.; Stowring, L.; Ventura, P.; Geballe, A.; Moyer, B.; Brahic, M.

    1985-01-15

    A hybridization technique has been devised for detecting and quantitating viral genes in tissues that combines macroscopic and microscopic analyses in the same section. The method is based on dual labeling virus-specific probes with /sup 125/I and /sup 35/S to generate signals that can be detected both with X-ray films and nuclear track emulsions. The regions of increased hybridization evident in the X-ray film serve as a guide to the portion of the section that warrants microscopic examination. Detection of viral RNA in tissues with Visna virus and viral DNA with hepatitis B virus are illustrated, and potential applications of this technique in virology and other disciplines are discussed.

  19. Innovating e-waste management: From macroscopic to microscopic scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xianlai; Yang, Congren; Chiang, Joseph F; Li, Jinhui

    2017-01-01

    Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE or e-waste) has become a global problem, due to its potential environmental pollution and human health risk, and its containing valuable resources (e.g., metals, plastics). Recycling for e-waste will be a necessity, not only to address the shortage of mineral resources for electronics industry, but also to decline environmental pollution and human health risk. To systematically solve the e-waste problem, more attention of e-waste management should transfer from macroscopic to microscopic scales. E-waste processing technology should be significantly improved to diminish and even avoid toxic substance entering into downstream of material. The regulation or policy related to new production of hazardous substances in recycled materials should also be carried out on the agenda. All the findings can hopefully improve WEEE legislation for regulated countries and non-regulated countries.

  20. Witnessing Macroscopic Entanglement in a Staggered Magnetic Field

    CERN Document Server

    Hide, J; Son, W; Vedral, V; Hide, Jenny; Lawrie, Ian; Son, Wonmin; Vedral, Vlatko

    2007-01-01

    We investigate macroscopic entanglement in an infinite XX spin-1/2 chain with staggered magnetic field, $B_l=B+e^{-i\\pi l}b$. Using single-site entropy and by constructing an entanglement witness, we search for the existence of entanglement when the system is at absolute zero, as well as in thermal equilibrium. Although the role of the alternating magnetic field $b$ is, in general, to suppress entanglement as do $B$ and $T$, we find that when T=0, introducing $b$ allows the existence of entanglement even when the uniform magnetic field $B$ is arbitrarily large. We find that the region and the amount of entanglement in the spin chain can be enhanced by a staggered magnetic field.

  1. Microscopic and Macroscopic Simulation of Competition between Languages

    CERN Document Server

    Stauffer, D; Stauffer, Dietrich; Schulze, Christian

    2005-01-01

    The similarity of the evolution of human languages (or alphabets, bird songs, >...) to biological evolution of species is utilized to study with up to $10^9$ people the rise and fall of languages either by macroscopic differential equations similar to biological Lotka-Volterra equation, or by microscopic Monte Carlo simulations of bit-strings incorporating the birth, maturity, and death of every individual. For our bit-string model, depending on parameters either one language comprises the majority of speakers (dominance), or the population splits into many languages having in order of magnitude the same number of speakers (fragmentation); in the latter case the size distribution is log-normal, with upward deviations for small sizes, just as in reality for human languages. On a lattice two different dominating languages can coexist in neighbouring regions, without being favoured or disfavoured by different status. We deal with modifications and competition for existing languages, not with the evolution or lea...

  2. Dissipative Optomechanical Preparation of Macroscopic Quantum Superposition States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdi, M.; Degenfeld-Schonburg, P.; Sameti, M.; Navarrete-Benlloch, C.; Hartmann, M. J.

    2016-06-01

    The transition from quantum to classical physics remains an intensely debated question even though it has been investigated for more than a century. Further clarifications could be obtained by preparing macroscopic objects in spatial quantum superpositions and proposals for generating such states for nanomechanical devices either in a transient or a probabilistic fashion have been put forward. Here, we introduce a method to deterministically obtain spatial superpositions of arbitrary lifetime via dissipative state preparation. In our approach, we engineer a double-well potential for the motion of the mechanical element and drive it towards the ground state, which shows the desired spatial superposition, via optomechanical sideband cooling. We propose a specific implementation based on a superconducting circuit coupled to the mechanical motion of a lithium-decorated monolayer graphene sheet, introduce a method to verify the mechanical state by coupling it to a superconducting qubit, and discuss its prospects for testing collapse models for the quantum to classical transition.

  3. Anisotropic magnetothermopower in ferromagnetic thin films grown on macroscopic substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayathilaka, P.B. [Department of Physical Sciences, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Rajarata University of Sri Lanka, Mihintale (Sri Lanka); Belyea, D.D. [Department of Physics, University of South Florida, 4202 East Fowler Avenue, Tampa, FL 33620 (United States); Fawcett, T.J. [College of Engineering, University of South Florida, 4202 East Fowler Avenue, Tampa, FL 33620 (United States); Miller, Casey W. [School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Rochester Institute of Technology, 85 Lomb Memorial Drive, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    We report observing the anisotropic magnetothermopower in a variety of ferromagnetic thin films grown on macroscopic substrates. These measurements were enabled by eliminating spurious signals related to the Anomalous Nernst Effect by butt-mounting the sample to the heat source and sink, and appropriate positioning of electrical contacts to avoid unwanted thermal gradients. This protocol enabled detailed measurements of the magnetothermopower in the transverse and longitudinal configurations. This may enable Spin Seebeck Effect studies in the in-plane geometry. - Highlights: • Unintentional thermal gradients along surface normal mitigated via butt-mounting. • Longitudinal/transverse magnetothermopower measured on many systems. • Anomalous Nernst Effect reduced. • Importance of magnetic anisotropy identified with angle-dependent measurements.

  4. Macroscopic quantum electrodynamics of high-Q cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khanbekyan, Mikayel

    2009-10-27

    In this thesis macroscopic quantum electrodynamics in linear media was applied in order to develop an universally valid quantum theory for the description of the interaction of the electromagnetic field with atomic sources in high-Q cavities. In this theory a complete description of the characteristics of the emitted radiation is given. The theory allows to show the limits of the applicability of the usually applied theory. In order to establish an as possible generally valid theory first the atom-field interaction was studied in the framework of macroscopic quantum electrodynamics in dispersive and absorptive media. In order to describe the electromagnetic field from Maxwell's equations was started, whereby the noise-current densities, which are connected with the absorption of the medium, were included. The solution of these equations expresses the electromagnetic field variables by the noise-current densities by means of Green's tensor of the macroscopic Maxwell equations. The explicit quantization is performed by means of the noise-current densities, whereby a diagonal Hamiltonian is introduced, which then guarantees the time development according to Maxwell's equation and the fulfillment of the fundamental simultaneous commutation relations of the field variables. In the case of the interaction of the medium-supported field with atoms the Hamiltonian must be extended by atom-field interactions energies, whereby the canonical coupling schemes of the minimal or multipolar coupling can be used. The dieelectric properties of the material bodies as well as their shape are coded in the Green tensor of the macroscopic Maxwell equations. As preparing step first the Green tensor was specified in order to derive three-dimensional input-output relations for the electromagnetic field operators on a plane multilayer structure. Such a general dewscription of the electromagnetic field allows the inclusion both of dispersion and absorption of the media and the

  5. Fault detection by surface seismic scanning tunneling macroscope: Field test

    KAUST Repository

    Hanafy, Sherif M.

    2014-08-05

    The seismic scanning tunneling macroscope (SSTM) is proposed for detecting the presence of near-surface impedance anomalies and faults. Results with synthetic data are consistent with theory in that scatterers closer to the surface provide brighter SSTM profiles than those that are deeper. The SSTM profiles show superresolution detection if the scatterers are in the near-field region of the recording line. The field data tests near Gulf of Aqaba, Haql, KSA clearly show the presence of the observable fault scarp, and identify the subsurface presence of the hidden faults indicated in the tomograms. Superresolution detection of the fault is achieved, even when the 35 Hz data are lowpass filtered to the 5-10 Hz band.

  6. Effects of varying interfacial surface tension on macroscopic polymer lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Charlotte; White, Mason; Baylor, Martha-Elizabeth

    2015-09-01

    We investigate macroscopic polymer lenses (0.5- to 2.5-cm diameter) fabricated by dropping hydrophobic photocurable resin onto the surface of various hydrophilic liquid surfaces. Due to the intermolecular forces along the interface between the two liquids, a lens shape is formed. We find that we can vary the lens geometry by changing the region over which the resin is allowed to spread and the surface tension of the substrate to produce lenses with theoretically determined focal lengths ranging from 5 to 25 mm. These effects are varied by changing the container width, substrate composition, and substrate temperature. We present data for five different variants, demonstrating that we can control the lens dimensions for polymer lens applications that require high surface quality.

  7. Coefficient Alpha: A Reliability Coefficient for the 21st Century?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yanyun; Green, Samuel B.

    2011-01-01

    Coefficient alpha is almost universally applied to assess reliability of scales in psychology. We argue that researchers should consider alternatives to coefficient alpha. Our preference is for structural equation modeling (SEM) estimates of reliability because they are informative and allow for an empirical evaluation of the assumptions…

  8. Measuring of heat transfer coefficient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Poul; Lindegren, Maria

    Subtask 3.4 Measuring of heat transfer coefficient Subtask 3.4.1 Design and setting up of tests to measure heat transfer coefficient Objective: Complementary testing methods together with the relevant experimental equipment are to be designed by the two partners involved in order to measure...... the heat transfer coefficient for a wide range of interface conditions in hot and warm forging processes. Subtask 3.4.2 Measurement of heat transfer coefficient The objective of subtask 3.4.2 is to determine heat transfer values for different interface conditions reflecting those typically operating in hot...

  9. Measuring of heat transfer coefficient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Poul; Lindegren, Maria

    Subtask 3.4 Measuring of heat transfer coefficient Subtask 3.4.1 Design and setting up of tests to measure heat transfer coefficient Objective: Complementary testing methods together with the relevant experimental equipment are to be designed by the two partners involved in order to measure...... the heat transfer coefficient for a wide range of interface conditions in hot and warm forging processes. Subtask 3.4.2 Measurement of heat transfer coefficient The objective of subtask 3.4.2 is to determine heat transfer values for different interface conditions reflecting those typically operating in hot...

  10. A Possible Macroscopic-Photo-Catalysis Mechanism in Solar Furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Tsohsiu; Qing, Cheng-Rui; Chen, Ying-Tian

    2011-05-01

    Based on the experimental results of Chen et al. to use the solar furnace and medium frequency induction furnace to extract boron impurity from metallurgical silicon, we propose a strong radiation catalysis mechanism to explain the difference of reaction rates in these two furnaces. The postulate assuming the photons striking on the material not only increase the thermal energy of the molecules of reactants but also lower down the energy barrier of the reaction to speed up the chemical reaction. It is believed the photon catalysis mechanism is universal in most of high temperature chemical reactions and looking forward to more evidences for the postulate proposed in this article.

  11. A Possible Macroscopic-Photo-Catalysis Mechanism in Solar Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HO Tsohsiu; QING Cheng-Rui; CHEN Ying-Tian

    2011-01-01

    Based on the experimental results of Chen et al.to use the solar furnace and medium frequency induction furnace to extract boron impurity from metallurgical silicon, we propose a strong radiation catalysis mechanism to explain the difference of reaction rates in these two furnaces.The postulate assuming the photons striking on the material not only increase the thermal energy of the molecules of reactants but also lower down the energy barrier of the reaction to speed up the chemical reaction.It is believed the photon catalysis mechanism is universall in most of high temperature chemical reactions and looking forward to more evidences for the postulate proposed in this article.

  12. Long-term creep properties of cementitious materials: Comparing microindentation testing with macroscopic uniaxial compressive testing

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Qing; Le Roy, Robert; VANDAMME, Mathieu; ZUBER, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    This study is dedicated to comparing minutes-long microindentation creep experiments on cement paste with years-long macroscopic creep experiments on concrete and months-long macroscopic creep experiments on cement paste. For all experiments, after a transient period the creep function was well captured by a logarithmic function of time, the amplitude of which is governed by a so-called creep modulus. The non-logarithmic transient periods lasted for days at the macroscopic scale, but only for...

  13. New Micro- and Macroscopic Models of Contact and Friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-11-01

    T., and Rabinowicz , E., "The Nature of the Coefficient of Friction," .Journ. Appl. Phys., 24, 2, pp. 136-139, 1953. 23. Bush, A. W., Gibson, R. D...Nonlinear Friction Laws," International Journal of Engineering Science, Vol. 24, No. 11, pp. 1755-1768, 1986. 76. Rabinowicz , E., "The Nature of the...Static and Kinetic Coefficients of Friction," Journ. AppL. Physics, 11, 22, pp. 1373-1379, 1951. 77. Rabinowicz , E., "The Intrinsic Variables Affecting

  14. Determination of absolute internal conversion coefficients using the SAGE spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorri, J.; Greenlees, P. T.; Papadakis, P.; Konki, J.; Cox, D. M.; Auranen, K.; Partanen, J.; Sandzelius, M.; Pakarinen, J.; Rahkila, P.; Uusitalo, J.; Herzberg, R.-D.; Smallcombe, J.; Davies, P. J.; Barton, C. J.; Jenkins, D. G.

    2016-03-01

    A non-reference based method to determine internal conversion coefficients using the SAGE spectrometer is carried out for transitions in the nuclei of 154Sm, 152Sm and 166Yb. The Normalised-Peak-to-Gamma method is in general an efficient tool to extract internal conversion coefficients. However, in many cases the required well-known reference transitions are not available. The data analysis steps required to determine absolute internal conversion coefficients with the SAGE spectrometer are presented. In addition, several background suppression methods are introduced and an example of how ancillary detectors can be used to select specific reaction products is given. The results obtained for ground-state band E2 transitions show that the absolute internal conversion coefficients can be extracted using the methods described with a reasonable accuracy. In some cases of less intense transitions only an upper limit for the internal conversion coefficient could be given.

  15. Determination of absolute internal conversion coefficients using the SAGE spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorri, J., E-mail: juha.m.t.sorri@jyu.fi [University of Jyvaskyla, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 University of Jyvaskyla (Finland); Greenlees, P.T.; Papadakis, P.; Konki, J. [University of Jyvaskyla, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 University of Jyvaskyla (Finland); Cox, D.M. [University of Jyvaskyla, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 University of Jyvaskyla (Finland); Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Oxford Street, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Auranen, K.; Partanen, J.; Sandzelius, M.; Pakarinen, J.; Rahkila, P.; Uusitalo, J. [University of Jyvaskyla, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 University of Jyvaskyla (Finland); Herzberg, R.-D. [Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Oxford Street, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Smallcombe, J.; Davies, P.J.; Barton, C.J.; Jenkins, D.G. [Department of Physics, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom)

    2016-03-11

    A non-reference based method to determine internal conversion coefficients using the SAGE spectrometer is carried out for transitions in the nuclei of {sup 154}Sm, {sup 152}Sm and {sup 166}Yb. The Normalised-Peak-to-Gamma method is in general an efficient tool to extract internal conversion coefficients. However, in many cases the required well-known reference transitions are not available. The data analysis steps required to determine absolute internal conversion coefficients with the SAGE spectrometer are presented. In addition, several background suppression methods are introduced and an example of how ancillary detectors can be used to select specific reaction products is given. The results obtained for ground-state band E2 transitions show that the absolute internal conversion coefficients can be extracted using the methods described with a reasonable accuracy. In some cases of less intense transitions only an upper limit for the internal conversion coefficient could be given.

  16. Prediction of residual stress due to early age behaviour of massive concrete structures: on site experiments and macroscopic modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Zreiki, Jihad; Chaouche, Mohend; Moranville, Micheline

    2008-01-01

    Early age behaviour of concrete is based on complex multi-physical and multiscale phenomena. The predication of both cracking risk and residual stresses in hardened concrete structures is still a challenging task. We propose in this paper a practical method to characterize in the construction site the material parameters and to identify a macroscopic model from simple tests. We propose for instance to use a restrained shrinkage ring test to identify a basic early age creep model based on a simple ageing visco-elastic Kelvin model. The strain data obtained from this test can be treated through an early age finite element incremental procedure such that the fitting parameters of the creep law can be quickly identified. The others properties of concrete have been measured at different ages (elastic properties, hydration kinetics, and coefficient of thermal expansion). From the identified early age model, we computed the temperature rise and the stress development in a non reinforced concrete stress for nuclear w...

  17. Effects of microscopic transport coefficients on fission observables calculated by the Langevin equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usang, M. D.; Ivanyuk, F. A.; Ishizuka, C.; Chiba, S.

    2016-10-01

    Nuclear fission is treated by using the Langevin dynamical description with macroscopic and microscopic transport coefficients (mass and friction tensors), and it is elucidated how the microscopic (shell and pairing) effects in the transport coefficients, especially their dependence on temperature, affects various fission observables. We found that the microscopic transport coefficients, calculated by linear response theory, change drastically as a function of temperature: in general, the friction increases with growing temperature while the mass tensor decreases. This temperature dependence brings a noticeable change in the mass distribution and kinetic energies of fission fragments from nuclei around 236U at an excitation energy of 20 MeV. The prescission kinetic energy decreases from 25 MeV at low temperature to about 2.5 MeV at high temperature. In contrast, the Coulomb kinetic energy increases as the temperature increases. Interpolating the microscopic transport coefficients among the various temperatures enabled our Langevin equation to use the microscopic transport coefficients at a deformation-dependent local temperature of the dynamical evolution. This allowed us to compare directly the fission observables of both macroscopic and microscopic calculations, and we found almost identical results under the conditions considered in this work.

  18. The Unique Macroscopic Appearance of Gouty Arthritis of the Knee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittl, Gregory S; Zuckerman, Joseph D

    2015-07-01

    Patients with significant gouty arthritis can develop disabling joint pain secondary to monosodium urate (MSU) articular deposition. We report a case of white, chalky MSU crystal deposition covering the articular surfaces of the knee as discovered by total knee arthroplasty. A 65-year-old male with a history of gout presented with bilateral knee pain. His radiographic imaging was negative for gouty tophi, and he elected to undergo left total knee arthroplasty. Intraoperatively a distinct chalky, white paste consistent with MSU deposition was observed covering the articular surfaces of the knee consistent with the diagnosis of gouty arthritis. Gout is the most common inflammatory arthritis affecting more than 3 million people in the USA. The inflammation results from the phagocytosis of monosodium urate crystals (MSU) and the release of inflammatory cytokines within the joint. Gout progresses from acute to chronic over many years and frequently causes chronic arthropathy. When significant knee pain and disability is associated with gouty arthropathy, total knee arthroplasty is certainly an option. The pathological appearance of gouty joints is characteristic. Macroscopic examination of joints affected by gout reveals a nodular, white, chalky appearance. Polarized microscopy of gout demonstrates negative birefringent needle-shaped MSU crystals. In this case report, we describe the characteristic chalky, white MSU deposit that covers the articular surfaces of a knee joint in a patient with a history of gout undergoing total knee arthroplasty. The investigators have obtained the patient's informed written consent for print and electronic publication of the case report.

  19. A macroscopic crowd motion model of gradient flow type

    CERN Document Server

    Maury, Bertrand; Santambrogio, Filippo

    2010-01-01

    A simple model to handle the flow of people in emergency evacuation situations is considered: at every point x, the velocity U(x) that individuals at x would like to realize is given. Yet, the incompressibility constraint prevents this velocity field to be realized and the actual velocity is the projection of the desired one onto the set of admissible velocities. Instead of looking at a microscopic setting (where individuals are represented by rigid discs), here the macroscopic approach is investigated, where the unknwon is the evolution of the density . If a gradient structure is given, say U is the opposite of the gradient of D where D is, for instance, the distance to the exit door, the problem is presented as a Gradient Flow in the Wasserstein space of probability measures. The functional which gives the Gradient Flow is neither finitely valued (since it takes into account the constraints on the density), nor geodesically convex, which requires for an ad-hoc study of the convergence of a discrete scheme.

  20. Feedback Gating Control for Network Based on Macroscopic Fundamental Diagram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YangBeibei Ji

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Empirical data from Yokohama, Japan, showed that a macroscopic fundamental diagram (MFD of urban traffic provides for different network regions a unimodal low-scatter relationship between network vehicle density and network space-mean flow. This provides new tools for network congestion control. Based on MFD, this paper proposed a feedback gating control policy which can be used to mitigate network congestion by adjusting signal timings of gating intersections. The objective of the feedback gating control model is to maximize the outflow and distribute the allowed inflows properly according to external demand and capacity of each gating intersection. An example network is used to test the performance of proposed feedback gating control model. Two types of background signalization types for the intersections within the test network, fixed-time and actuated control, are considered. The results of extensive simulation validate that the proposed feedback gating control model can get a Pareto improvement since the performance of both gating intersections and the whole network can be improved significantly especially under heavy demand situations. The inflows and outflows can be improved to a higher level, and the delay and queue length at all gating intersections are decreased dramatically.

  1. The assembly of C. elegans lamins into macroscopic fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zingerman-Koladko, Irena; Khayat, Maayan; Harapin, Jan; Shoseyov, Oded; Gruenbaum, Yosef; Salman, Ahmad; Medalia, Ohad; Ben-Harush, Kfir

    2016-10-01

    Intermediate filament (IF) proteins are known mainly by their propensity to form viscoelastic filamentous networks within cells. In addition, IF-proteins are essential parts of various biological materials, such as horn and hagfish slime threads, which exhibit a range of mechanical properties from hard to elastic. These properties and their self-assembly nature made IF-proteins attractive building blocks for biomimetic and biological materials in diverse applications. Here we show that a type V IF-protein, the Caenorhabditis elegans nuclear lamin (Ce-lamin), is a promising building block for protein-based fibers. Electron cryo-tomography of vitrified sections enabled us to depict the higher ordered assembly of the Ce-lamin into macroscopic fibers through the creation of paracrystalline fibers, which are prominent in vitro structures of lamins. The lamin fibers respond to tensile force as other IF-protein-based fibers, i.e., hagfish slime threads, and possess unique mechanical properties that may potentially be used in certain applications. The self-assembly nature of lamin proteins into a filamentous structure, which is further assembled into a complex network, can be easily modulated. This knowledge may lead to a better understanding of the relationship in IF-proteins-based fibers and materials, between their hierarchical structures and their mechanical properties.

  2. Macroscopic effects of the spectral structure in turbulent flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, T.; Chakraborty, P.; Guttenberg, N.; Prescott, A.; Kellay, H.; Goldburg, W.; Goldenfeld, N.; Gioia, G.

    2010-11-01

    There is a missing link between macroscopic properties of turbulent flows, such as the frictional drag of a wall-bounded flow, and the turbulent spectrum. To seek the missing link we carry out unprecedented experimental measurements of the frictional drag in turbulent soap-film flows over smooth walls. These flows are effectively two-dimensional, and we are able to create soap-film flows with the two types of turbulent spectrum that are theoretically possible in two dimensions: the "enstrophy cascade," for which the spectral exponent α= 3, and the "inverse energy cascade," for which the spectral exponent α= 5/3. We find that the functional relation between the frictional drag f and the Reynolds number Re depends on the spectral exponent: where α= 3, f ˜Re-1/2; where α= 5/3, f ˜Re-1/4. Each of these scalings may be predicted from the attendant value of α by using a recently proposed spectral theory of the frictional drag. In this theory the frictional drag of turbulent flows on smooth walls is predicted to be f ˜Re^(1-α)/(1+α).

  3. Tunable Broadband Transparency of Macroscopic Quantum Superconducting Metamaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daimeng Zhang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Narrow-band invisibility in an otherwise opaque medium has been achieved by electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT in atomic systems. The quantum EIT behavior can be classically mimicked by specially engineered metamaterials via carefully controlled interference with a “dark mode.” However, the narrow transparency window limits the potential applications that require a tunable wideband transparent performance. Here, we present a macroscopic quantum superconducting metamaterial with manipulative self-induced broadband transparency due to a qualitatively novel nonlinear mechanism that is different from conventional EIT or its classical analogs. A near-complete disappearance of resonant absorption under a range of applied rf flux is observed experimentally and explained theoretically. The transparency comes from the intrinsic bistability of the meta-atoms and can be tuned on and off easily by altering rf and dc magnetic fields, temperature, and history. Hysteretic in situ 100% tunability of transparency paves the way for autocloaking metamaterials, intensity-dependent filters, and fast-tunable power limiters.

  4. Towards a macroscopic modeling of the complexity in traffic flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosswog, Stephan; Wagner, Peter

    2002-03-01

    Based on the assumption of a safe velocity U(e)(rho) depending on the vehicle density rho, a macroscopic model for traffic flow is presented that extends the model of the Kühne-Kerner-Konhäuser by an interaction term containing the second derivative of U(e)(rho). We explore two qualitatively different forms of U(e): a conventional Fermi-type function and, motivated by recent experimental findings, a function that exhibits a plateau at intermediate densities, i.e., in this density regime the exact distance to the car ahead is only of minor importance. To solve the fluid-like equations a Lagrangian particle scheme is developed. The suggested model shows a much richer dynamical behavior than the usual fluid-like models. A large variety of encountered effects is known from traffic observations, many of which are usually assigned to the elusive state of "synchronized flow." Furthermore, the model displays alternating regimes of stability and instability at intermediate densities. It can explain data scatter in the fundamental diagram and complicated jam patterns. Within this model, a consistent interpretation of the emergence of very different traffic phenomena is offered: they are determined by the velocity relaxation time, i.e., the time needed to relax towards U(e)(rho). This relaxation time is a measure of the average acceleration capability and can be attributed to the composition (e.g., the percentage of trucks) of the traffic flow.

  5. Zero time tunneling: macroscopic experiments with virtual particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nimtz Günter

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Feynman introduced virtual particles in his diagrams as intermediate states of an interaction process. They represent necessary intermediate states between observable real states. Such virtual particles were introduced to describe the interaction process between an electron and a positron and for much more complicated interaction processes. Other candidates for virtual particles are evanescent modes in optics and in elastic fields. Evanescent modes have a purely imaginary wave number, they represent the mathematical analogy of the tunneling solutions of the Schrödinger equation. Evanescent modes exist in the forbidden frequency bands of a photonic lattice and in undersized wave guides, for instance. The most prominent example for the occurrence of evanescent modes is the frustrated total internal reflection (FTIR at double prisms. Evanescent modes and tunneling lie outside the bounds of the special theory of relativity. They can cause faster than light (FTL signal velocities. We present examples of the quantum mechanical behavior of evanescent photons and phonons at a macroscopic scale. The evanescent modes of photons are described by virtual particles as predicted by former QED calculations.

  6. Macroscopic strain controlled ion current in an elastomeric microchannel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuo, Chin-Chang; Nguyen, Du; Buchsbaum, Steven; Innes, Laura; Dennin, Michael, E-mail: mdennin@uci.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Li, Yongxue [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Esser-Kahn, Aaron P. [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Valdevit, Lorenzo [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, Irvine, California 92697-3975 (United States); Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Sun, Lizhi [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Siwy, Zuzanna [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Department of Chemistry, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States)

    2015-05-07

    We report on the fabrication of an ultra-high aspect ratio ionically conductive single microchannel with tunable diameter from ≈ 20 μm to fully closed. The 4 mm-long channel is fabricated in a Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mold and its cross-sectional area is controlled by applying macroscopic compressive strain to the mold in a direction perpendicular to the channel length. We investigated the ionic conduction properties of the channel. For a wide range of compressive strain up to ≈ 0.27, the strain dependence of the resistance is monotonic and fully reversible. For strain > 0.27, ionic conduction suddenly shuts off and the system becomes hysteretic (whereby a finite strain reduction is required to reopen the channel). Upon unloading, the original behavior is retrieved. This reversible behavior is observed over 200 compression cycles. The cross-sectional area of the channel can be inferred from the ion current measurement, as confirmed by a Nano-Computed Tomography investigation. We show that the cross-sectional area decreases monotonically with the applied compressive strain in the reversible range, in qualitative agreement with linear elasticity theory. We find that the shut-off strain is affected by the spatial extent of the applied strain, which provides additional tunability. Our tunable channel is well-suited for multiple applications in micro/nano-fluidic devices.

  7. Gravitational wave echoes from macroscopic quantum gravity effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barceló, Carlos; Carballo-Rubio, Raúl; Garay, Luis J.

    2017-05-01

    New theoretical approaches developed in the last years predict that macroscopic quantum gravity effects in black holes should lead to modifications of the gravitational wave signals expected in the framework of classical general relativity, with these modifications being characterized in certain scenarios by the existence of dampened rep-etitions of the primary signal. Here we use the fact that non-perturbative corrections to the near-horizon external geometry of black holes are necessary for these modifications to exist, in order to classify different proposals and paradigms with respect to this criterion and study in a neat and systematic way their phenomenology. Proposals that lead naturally to the existence of echoes in the late-time ringdown of gravitational wave signals from black hole mergers must share the replacement of black holes by horizonless configurations with a physical surface showing reflective properties in the relevant range of frequencies. On the other hand, proposals or paradigms that restrict quantum gravity effects on the external geometry to be perturbative, such as black hole complementarity or the closely related firewall proposal, do not display echoes. For the sake of completeness we exploit the interplay between the timescales associated with the formation of firewalls and the mechanism behind the existence of echoes in order to conclude that even unconventional distortions of the firewall concept (such as naked firewalls) do not lead to this phenomenon.

  8. Experiments testing macroscopic quantum superpositions must be slow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mari, Andrea; de Palma, Giacomo; Giovannetti, Vittorio

    2016-03-01

    We consider a thought experiment where the preparation of a macroscopically massive or charged particle in a quantum superposition and the associated dynamics of a distant test particle apparently allow for superluminal communication. We give a solution to the paradox which is based on the following fundamental principle: any local experiment, discriminating a coherent superposition from an incoherent statistical mixture, necessarily requires a minimum time proportional to the mass (or charge) of the system. For a charged particle, we consider two examples of such experiments, and show that they are both consistent with the previous limitation. In the first, the measurement requires to accelerate the charge, that can entangle with the emitted photons. In the second, the limitation can be ascribed to the quantum vacuum fluctuations of the electromagnetic field. On the other hand, when applied to massive particles our result provides an indirect evidence for the existence of gravitational vacuum fluctuations and for the possibility of entangling a particle with quantum gravitational radiation.

  9. Lymphoepithelioma-like esophageal carcinoma with macroscopic reduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masaya; Uesato; Tuguaki; Kono; Tooru; Shiratori; Yasunori; Akutsu; Isamu; Hoshino; Kentarou; Murakami; Daisuke; Horibe; Tetsurou; Maruyama; Yoshihide; Semba; Ryuma; Urahama; Yukiko; Ogura; Takashi; Oide; Toru; Tanizawa; Hisahiro; Matsubara

    2014-01-01

    Esophageal lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma(LELC) is extremely rare. We report the first case of esopha-geal LELC showing macroscopic reduction. A 67-year-old male presented with dysphagia and, by endoscopic examination, was found to have a significantly raised tumor of 10 mm in diameter in the thoracic esophagus. The biopsied material showed esophageal cancer. We performed endoscopic submucosal dissection. However, the tumor became flattened, similar to a scar, in only 2 mo. Histologically, the carcinoma cells had infiltrated the submucosal layer. Prominent infiltration of T lymphoid cells that stained positive for CD8 was observed aroundthe carcinoma cells. Therefore, this lesion was consid-ered to be an LELC with poorly differentiated squamous cells. Because the margin was positive, an esophagec-tomy was performed. Carcinoma cells were detected in the neck in one lymph node. The staging was T1N0M1 b. However, the patient has been well, without adjuvant therapy or recurrence, for more than 5 years.

  10. Single-file diffusion of macroscopic charged particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coste, C; Delfau, J-B; Even, C; Saint Jean, M

    2010-05-01

    In this paper, we study a macroscopic system of electrically interacting metallic beads organized as a sequence along an annulus. A random mechanical shaking mimics the thermal excitation. We exhibit non-Fickian diffusion (single-file diffusion) at large time. We measure the mobility of the particles and compare it to theoretical expectations. We show that our system cannot be accurately described by theories assuming only hard-sphere interactions. Its behavior is qualitatively described by a theory extended to more realistic potentials [M. Kollmann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 180602 (2003)]. A correct quantitative agreement is shown and we interpret the discrepancies by the violation of the assumption of overdamped dynamics, which is a key point in the theory. We recast previous results on colloids with known interaction potentials and compare them quantitatively to the theory. Focusing on the transition between ordinary and single-file diffusions, we exhibit a dimensionless crossover time that is of order 1 both for colloids and our system, although the time and length scales differ by several orders of magnitude.

  11. Quantum-limited heat conduction over macroscopic distances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partanen, Matti; Tan, Kuan Yen; Govenius, Joonas; Lake, Russell E.; Mäkelä, Miika K.; Tanttu, Tuomo; Möttönen, Mikko

    2016-05-01

    The emerging quantum technological apparatuses, such as the quantum computer, call for extreme performance in thermal engineering. Cold distant heat sinks are needed for the quantized electric degrees of freedom owing to the increasing packaging density and heat dissipation. Importantly, quantum mechanics sets a fundamental upper limit for the flow of information and heat, which is quantified by the quantum of thermal conductance. However, the short distance between the heat-exchanging bodies in the previous experiments hinders their applicability in quantum technology. Here, we present experimental observations of quantum-limited heat conduction over macroscopic distances extending to a metre. We achieved this improvement of four orders of magnitude in the distance by utilizing microwave photons travelling in superconducting transmission lines. Thus, it seems that quantum-limited heat conduction has no fundamental distance cutoff. This work establishes the integration of normal-metal components into the framework of circuit quantum electrodynamics, which provides a basis for the superconducting quantum computer. Especially, our results facilitate remote cooling of nanoelectronic devices using faraway in situ-tunable heat sinks. Furthermore, quantum-limited heat conduction is important in contemporary thermodynamics. Here, the long distance may lead to ultimately efficient mesoscopic heat engines with promising practical applications.

  12. Semiconductor spintronics in a participating phonon medium: Macroscopic equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rossani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the last two decades considerable interest has arisen on the spin related phenomena in semiconductor devices. In semiconductor materials two essential mechanisms act on the spin dynamics: the spin-orbit coupling and the spin-flip interactions. Here the novelty is that we adopt the asymptotic approach developed in previous papers of mine [A. Rossani, Physica A 305, 323 (2002; A. Rossani, G. Spiga, and A. Domaingo, J. Phys. A 36, 11955 (2003; A. Rossani and G. Spiga, J. Math. Phys. 47, 013301 (2006; A. Rossani and A. M. Scarfone, Physica B 334, 292 (2003; A. Rossani, J. Phys. A 43, 165002 (2010]. The aim of this paper is to derive macroscopic equations starting from a kinetic approach. Moreover an equation for the evolution of the spin density is added, which account for a general dispersion relation. The treatment of spin-flip processes, derived from first principles, is new and leads to an explicit expression of the relaxation time as a function of the temperature.

  13. Theory and feasibility tests for a seismic scanning tunnelling macroscope

    KAUST Repository

    Schuster, Gerard T.

    2012-09-01

    We propose a seismic scanning tunnelling macroscope (SSTM) that can detect subwavelength scatterers in the near-field of either the source or the receivers. Analytic formulas for the time reverse mirror (TRM) profile associated with a single scatterer model show that the spatial resolution limit to be, unlike the Abbe limit of λ/2, independent of wavelength and linearly proportional to the source-scatterer separation as long as the scatterer is in the near-field region. This means that, as the scatterer approaches the source, imaging of the scatterer with super-resolution can be achieved. Acoustic and elastic simulations support this concept, and a seismic experiment in an Arizona tunnel shows a TRM profile with super-resolution adjacent to the fault location. The SSTM is analogous to the optical scanning tunnelling microscopes having subwavelength resolution. Scaled to seismic frequencies, it is theoretically possible to extract 100 Hz information from 20 Hz data by the imaging of near-field seismic energy.

  14. Direct Observation of Spatial Quantum Correlations in the Macroscopic Regime

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Ashok; Marino, A M

    2016-01-01

    Spatial quantum correlations in the transverse degree of freedom promise to enhance optical resolution, image detection, and quantum communications through parallel quantum information encoding. In particular, the ability to observe these spatial quantum correlations in a single shot will enable such enhancements in applications that require real time imaging, such as particle tracking and in-situ imaging of atomic systems. Here, we report on the direct measurement of spatial quantum correlations in the macroscopic regime in single images using an electron-multiplying charge-coupled device camera. A four-wave mixing process in hot rubidium atoms is used to generate narrowband-bright-entangled pulsed twin-beams of light with $\\sim10^8$ photons in each beam. Owing to momentum conservation in this process, the twin-beams are momentum correlated, which leads to spatial quantum correlations in far field. We show around 2 dB of spatial quantum noise reduction with respect to the shot noise limit. The spatial squeez...

  15. The Kauffman Constraint Coefficients Kw

    CERN Document Server

    Griggs, Kenneth A

    2011-01-01

    The Kauffman Constraint Coefficients Kw and their corresponding Elementals Ew are presented as solutions to the construction of the (beta)-derivative of Kauffman's Theta-function. Additionally, a new recursion relation is provided to construct the (beta)-derivative of Theta that requires only operational substitutions and summations; this algorithmically simplifies Kauffman's original technique. To demonstrate Kw, we generate the 30 Kw Coefficients from the corresponding Elementals Ew for the (9)-derivative of Theta and find that our results are in complete agreement with Kauffman's Mathematica\\texttrademark solutions. We further present a calculation of two coefficients for the (12)-derivative of Theta and invite readers to use Mathematica\\texttrademark or any other means to calculate and verify our results. Finally, we present a challenging calculation for a coefficient of the (40)-derivative of Theta; owing to the vast numbers of permutations involved, a Mathematica\\texttrademark approach may require subst...

  16. Kappa Coefficients for Circular Classifications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warrens, Matthijs J.; Pratiwi, Bunga C.

    2016-01-01

    Circular classifications are classification scales with categories that exhibit a certain periodicity. Since linear scales have endpoints, the standard weighted kappas used for linear scales are not appropriate for analyzing agreement between two circular classifications. A family of kappa coefficie

  17. Grasping the Second Law of Thermodynamics at University: The Consistency of Macroscopic and Microscopic Explanations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinonen, Risto; Asikainen, Mervi A.; Hirvonen, Pekka E.

    2015-01-01

    This study concentrates on evaluating the consistency of upper-division students' use of the second law of thermodynamics at macroscopic and microscopic levels. Data were collected by means of a paper and pencil test (N = 48) focusing on the macroscopic and microscopic features of the second law concerned with heat transfer processes. The data…

  18. Grasping the Second Law of Thermodynamics at University: The Consistency of Macroscopic and Microscopic Explanations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinonen, Risto; Asikainen, Mervi A.; Hirvonen, Pekka E.

    2015-01-01

    This study concentrates on evaluating the consistency of upper-division students' use of the second law of thermodynamics at macroscopic and microscopic levels. Data were collected by means of a paper and pencil test (N = 48) focusing on the macroscopic and microscopic features of the second law concerned with heat transfer processes. The data…

  19. A Model for Macroscopic Quantum Tunneling of Bose-Einstein Condensate with Attractive Interaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Ke-Zhu; TAN Wei-Han

    2000-01-01

    Based on the numerical wave function solutions of neutral atoms with attractive interaction in a harmonic trap, we propose an exactly solvable model for macroscopic quantum tunneling of a Bose condensate with attractive interaction. We calculate the rate of macroscopic quantum tunneling from a metastable condensate state to the collapse state and analyze the stability of the attractive Bose-Einstein condensation.

  20. Effect of particle friction and polydispersity on the macroscopic stress–strain relations of granular materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Göncü, F.; Luding, S.

    2013-01-01

    The macroscopic mechanical behavior of granular materials inherently depends on the properties of particles that compose them. Using the discrete element method, the effect of particle contact friction and polydispersity on the macroscopic stress response of 3D sphere packings is studied. The analyt

  1. Properties of Traffic Risk Coefficient

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Tie-Qiao; HUANG Hai-Jun; SHANG Hua-Yan; XUE Yu

    2009-01-01

    We use the model with the consideration of the traffic interruption probability (Physica A 387(2008)6845) to study the relationship between the traffic risk coefficient and the traffic interruption probability.The analytical and numerical results show that the traffic interruption probability will reduce the traffic risk coefficient and that the reduction is related to the density, which shows that this model can improve traffic security.

  2. Wrong Signs in Regression Coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Holly

    1999-01-01

    When using parametric cost estimation, it is important to note the possibility of the regression coefficients having the wrong sign. A wrong sign is defined as a sign on the regression coefficient opposite to the researcher's intuition and experience. Some possible causes for the wrong sign discussed in this paper are a small range of x's, leverage points, missing variables, multicollinearity, and computational error. Additionally, techniques for determining the cause of the wrong sign are given.

  3. Macroscopic realism, wave-particle duality and the superposition principle for entangled states

    CERN Document Server

    Chuprikov, N L

    2006-01-01

    On the basis of our model of a one-dimensional (1D) completed scattering (Russian Physics, 49, p.119 and p.314 (2006)) we argue that the linear formalism of quantum mechanics (QM) respects the principles of the macroscopic realism (J. Phys.: Condens. Matter, 14, R415-R451 (2002)). In QM one has to distinguish two kinds of pure ensembles: pure unentangled ensembles to be macroscopically inseparable, and pure entangled ones to be macroscopically separable. A pure entangled ensemble is an intermediate link between a pure unentangled ensemble and classical mixture. Like the former it strictly respects the linear formalism of QM. Like the latter it is decomposable into macroscopically distinct subensembles, in spite of interference between them; our new model exemplifies how to perform such a decomposition in the case of a 1D completed scattering. To respect macroscopic realism, the superposition principle must be reformulated: it must forbid introducing observables for entangled states.

  4. Macroscopic erosion of divertor and first wall armour in future tokamaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Würz, H.; Bazylev, B.; Landman, I.; Pestchanyi, S.; Safronov, V.

    2002-12-01

    Sputtering, evaporation and macroscopic erosion determine the lifetime of the 'in vessel' armour materials CFC, tungsten and beryllium presently under discussion for future tokamaks. For CFC armour macroscopic erosion means brittle destruction and dust formation whereas for metallic armour melt layer erosion by melt motion and droplet splashing. Available results on macroscopic erosion from hot plasma and e-beam simulation experiments and from tokamaks are critically evaluated and a comprehensive discussion of experimental and numerical macroscopic erosion and its extrapolation to future tokamaks is given. Shielding of divertor armour materials by their own vapor exists during plasma disruptions. The evolving plasma shield protects the armour from high heat loads, absorbs the incoming energy and reradiates it volumetrically thus reducing drastically the deposited energy. As a result, vertical target erosion by vaporization turns out to be of the order of a few microns per disruption event and macroscopic erosion becomes the dominant erosion source.

  5. Structuring of metal-organic frameworks at the mesoscopic/macroscopic scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, Shuhei; Reboul, Julien; Diring, Stéphane; Sumida, Kenji; Kitagawa, Susumu

    2014-08-21

    The assembly of metal ions with organic ligands through the formation of coordination bonds gives crystalline framework materials, known as metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), which recently emerged as a new class of porous materials. Besides the structural designability of MOFs at the molecular length scale, the researchers in this field very recently made important advances in creating more complex architectures at the mesoscopic/macroscopic scale, in which MOF nanocrystals are used as building units to construct higher-order superstructures. The structuring of MOFs in such a hierarchical order certainly opens a new opportunity to improve the material performance via design of the physical form rather than altering the chemical component. This review highlights these superstructures and their applications by categorizing them into four dimensionalities, zero-dimensional (0D), one-dimensional (1D), two-dimensional (2D), and three-dimensional (3D) superstructures. Because the key issue for structuring of MOFs is to spatially control the nucleation process in desired locations, this review conceptually categorizes the available synthetic methodologies from the viewpoint of the reaction system.

  6. A Macroscopic Mathematical Model for Cell Migration Assays Using a Real-Time Cell Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Costanzo, Ezio; Ingangi, Vincenzo; Angelini, Claudia; Carfora, Maria Francesca; Carriero, Maria Vincenza; Natalini, Roberto

    Experiments of cell migration and chemotaxis assays have been classically performed in the so-called Boyden Chambers. A recent technology, xCELLigence Real Time Cell Analysis, is now allowing to monitor the cell migration in real time. This technology measures impedance changes caused by the gradual increase of electrode surface occupation by cells during the course of time and provide a Cell Index which is proportional to cellular morphology, spreading, ruffling and adhesion quality as well as cell number. In this paper we propose a macroscopic mathematical model, based on advection-reaction-diffusion partial differential equations, describing the cell migration assay using the real-time technology. We carried out numerical simulations to compare simulated model dynamics with data of observed biological experiments on three different cell lines and in two experimental settings: absence of chemotactic signals (basal migration) and presence of a chemoattractant. Overall we conclude that our minimal mathematical model is able to describe the phenomenon in the real time scale and numerical results show a good agreement with the experimental evidences.

  7. Nonclassical interactions portrait in a macroscopic pedestrian flow model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosini, Massimiliano D.

    In this paper we describe the main characteristics of the macroscopic model for pedestrian flows introduced in [R.M. Colombo, M.D. Rosini, Pedestrian flows and non-classical shocks, Math. Methods Appl. Sci. 28 (13) (2005) 1553-1567] and recently sperimentally verified in [D. Helbing, A. Johansson, H.Z. Al-Abideen, Dynamics of crowd disasters: An empirical study, Phys. Rev. E (Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics) 75 (4) (2007) 046109]. After a detailed study of all the possible wave interactions, we prove the existence of a weighted total variation that does not increase after any interaction. This is the main ingredient used in [R.M. Colombo, M.D. Rosini, Existence of nonclassical Cauchy problem modeling pedestrian flows, technical report, Brescia Department of Mathematics, 2008] to tackle the Cauchy problem through wave front tracking, see [A. Bressan, Hyperbolic Systems of Conservation Laws. The One-Dimensional Cauchy Problem, Oxford Lecture Ser. Math. Appl., vol. 20, Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford, 2000, The one-dimensional Cauchy problem; A. Bressan, The front tracking method for systems of conservation laws, in: C.M. Dafermos, E. Feireisl (Eds.), Handbook of Differential Equations; Evolutionary Equations, vol. 1, Elsevier, 2004, pp. 87-168; R.M. Colombo, Wave front tracking in systems of conservation laws, Appl. Math. 49 (6) (2004) 501-537]. From the mathematical point of view, this model is one of the few examples of conservation laws in which nonclassical solutions have a physical motivation, see [P.G. Lefloch, Hyperbolic Systems of Conservation Laws, Lectures Math. ETH Zürich, Birkhäuser, Basel, 2002, The theory of classical and nonclassical shock waves], and an existence result is available.

  8. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of macroscopic morphology and dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrall, Geoffrey Alden [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1995-09-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance techniques are traditionally used to study molecular level structure and dynamics with a noted exception in medically applied NMR imaging (MRI). In this work, new experimental methods and theory are presented relevant to the study of macroscopic morphology and dynamics using NMR field gradient techniques and solid state two-dimensional exchange NMR. The goal in this work is not to take some particular system and study it in great detail, rather it is to show the utility of a number of new and novel techniques using ideal systems primarily as a proof of principle. By taking advantage of the analogy between NMR imaging and diffraction, one may simplify the experiments necessary for characterizing the statistical properties of the sample morphology. For a sample composed of many small features, e.g. a porous medium, the NMR diffraction techniques take advantage of both the narrow spatial range and spatial isotropy of the sample`s density autocorrelation function to obtain high resolution structural information in considerably less time than that required by conventional NMR imaging approaches. The time savings of the technique indicates that NMR diffraction is capable of finer spatial resolution than conventional NMR imaging techniques. Radio frequency NMR imaging with a coaxial resonator represents the first use of cylindrically symmetric field gradients in imaging. The apparatus as built has achieved resolution at the micron level for water samples, and has the potential to be very useful in the imaging of circularly symmetric systems. The study of displacement probability densities in flow through a random porous medium has revealed the presence of features related to the interconnectedness of the void volumes. The pulsed gradient techniques used have proven successful at measuring flow properties for time and length scales considerably shorter than those studied by more conventional techniques.

  9. Innovations in macroscopic evaluation of pancreatic specimens and radiologic correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charikleia Triantopoulou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of a novel dissection technique of surgical specimens in different cases of pancreatic tumors and provide a radiologic pathologic correlation. In our hospital, that is a referral center for pancreatic diseases, the macroscopic evaluation of the pancreatectomy specimens is performed by the pathologists using the axial slicing technique (instead of the traditional procedure with longitudinal opening of the main pancreatic and/or common bile duct and slicing along the plane defined by both ducts. The specimen is sliced in an axial plane that is perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the descending duodenum. The procedure results in a large number of thin slices (3–4 mm. This plane is identical to that of CT or MRI and correlation between pathology and imaging is straightforward. We studied 70 cases of suspected different solid and cystic pancreatic tumors and we correlated the tumor size and location, the structure—consistency (areas of necrosis—hemorrhage—fibrosis—inflammation, the degree of vessels’ infiltration, the size of pancreatic and common bile duct and the distance from resection margins. Missed findings by imaging or pitfalls were recorded and we tried to explain all discrepancies between radiology evaluation and the histopathological findings. Radiologic-pathologic correlation is extremely important, adding crucial information on imaging limitations and enabling quality assessment of surgical specimens. The deep knowledge of different pancreatic tumors’ consistency and way of extension helps to improve radiologists’ diagnostic accuracy and minimize the radiological-surgical mismatching, preventing patients from unnecessary surgery.

  10. Macroscopic behavior and microscopic magnetic properties of nanocarbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lähderanta, E., E-mail: Erkki.Lahderanta@lut.fi [Lappeenranta University of Technology, PO Box 20, FIN-53851 Lappeenranta (Finland); Ryzhov, V.A. [Lappeenranta University of Technology, PO Box 20, FIN-53851 Lappeenranta (Finland); Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, NRC “Kurchatov Institute”, Orlova Coppice, Gatchina, Leningrad province 188300 (Russian Federation); Lashkul, A.V. [Lappeenranta University of Technology, PO Box 20, FIN-53851 Lappeenranta (Finland); Galimov, D.M. [Lappeenranta University of Technology, PO Box 20, FIN-53851 Lappeenranta (Finland); South Ural State University, 454080 Chelyabinsk (Russian Federation); Titkov, A.N. [Lappeenranta University of Technology, PO Box 20, FIN-53851 Lappeenranta (Finland); A. F. Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Matveev, V.V. [Lappeenranta University of Technology, PO Box 20, FIN-53851 Lappeenranta (Finland); Saint-Petersburg State University, Saint-Petersburg 198504 (Russian Federation); Mokeev, M.V. [Institute of Macromolecular Compounds, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Kurbakov, A.I. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, NRC “Kurchatov Institute”, Orlova Coppice, Gatchina, Leningrad province 188300 (Russian Federation); Lisunov, K.G. [Lappeenranta University of Technology, PO Box 20, FIN-53851 Lappeenranta (Finland); Institute of Applied Physics ASM, Academiei Str., 5, MD 2028 Kishinev (Moldova, Republic of)

    2015-06-01

    Here are presented investigations of powder and glass-like samples containing carbon nanoparticles, not intentionally doped and doped with Ag, Au and Co. The neutron diffraction study reveals an amorphous structure of the samples doped with Au and Co, as well as the magnetic scattering due to a long-range FM order in the Co-doped sample. The composition and molecular structure of the sample doped with Au is clarified with the NMR investigations. The temperature dependence of the magnetization, M (T), exhibits large irreversibility in low fields of B=1–7 mT. M (B) saturates already above 2 T at high temperatures, but deviates from the saturation behavior below ~50 (150 K). Magnetic hysteresis is observed already at 300 K and exhibits a power-law temperature decay of the coercive field, B{sub c} (T). The macroscopic behavior above is typical of an assembly of partially blocked magnetic nanoparticles. The values of the saturation magnetization, M{sub s}, and the blocking temperature, T{sub b}, are obtained as well. However, the hysteresis loop in the Co-doped sample differs from that in other samples, and the values of B{sub c} and M{sub s} are noticeably increased. - Highlights: • We have investigated powder and glassy samples with carbon nanoparticles. • They include an undoped sample and those doped with Ag, Au and Co. • Neutron diffraction study reveals amorphous structure of Au- and Co-doped samples. • Composition and molecular structure of Au-doped sample was investigated with NMR. • Magnetic behavior is typical of an assembly of partially blocked magnetic nanoparticles.

  11. Proton irradiation effects on beryllium - A macroscopic assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simos, Nikolaos; Elbakhshwan, Mohamed; Zhong, Zhong; Camino, Fernando

    2016-10-01

    Beryllium, due to its excellent neutron multiplication and moderation properties, in conjunction with its good thermal properties, is under consideration for use as plasma facing material in fusion reactors and as a very effective neutron reflector in fission reactors. While it is characterized by unique combination of structural, chemical, atomic number, and neutron absorption cross section it suffers, however, from irradiation generated transmutation gases such as helium and tritium which exhibit low solubility leading to supersaturation of the Be matrix and tend to precipitate into bubbles that coalesce and induce swelling and embrittlement thus degrading the metal and limiting its lifetime. Utilization of beryllium as a pion production low-Z target in high power proton accelerators has been sought both for its low Z and good thermal properties in an effort to mitigate thermos-mechanical shock that is expected to be induced under the multi-MW power demand. To assess irradiation-induced changes in the thermal and mechanical properties of Beryllium, a study focusing on proton irradiation damage effects has been undertaken using 200 MeV protons from the Brookhaven National Laboratory Linac and followed by a multi-faceted post-irradiation analysis that included the thermal and volumetric stability of irradiated beryllium, the stress-strain behavior and its ductility loss as a function of proton fluence and the effects of proton irradiation on the microstructure using synchrotron X-ray diffraction. The mimicking of high temperature irradiation of Beryllium via high temperature annealing schemes has been conducted as part of the post-irradiation study. This paper focuses on the thermal stability and mechanical property changes of the proton irradiated beryllium and presents results of the macroscopic property changes of Beryllium deduced from thermal and mechanical tests.

  12. Nonisothermal Brownian motion: Thermophoresis as the macroscopic manifestation of thermally biased molecular motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Howard

    2005-12-01

    A quiescent single-component gravity-free gas subject to a small steady uniform temperature gradient T, despite being at rest, is shown to experience a drift velocity UD=-D* gradient ln T, where D* is the gas's nonisothermal self-diffusion coefficient. D* is identified as being the gas's thermometric diffusivity alpha. The latter differs from the gas's isothermal isotopic self-diffusion coefficient D, albeit only slightly. Two independent derivations are given of this drift velocity formula, one kinematical and the other dynamical, both derivations being strictly macroscopic in nature. Within modest experimental and theoretical uncertainties, this virtual drift velocity UD=-alpha gradient ln T is shown to be constitutively and phenomenologically indistinguishable from the well-known experimental and theoretical formulas for the thermophoretic velocity U of a macroscopic (i.e., non-Brownian) non-heat-conducting particle moving under the influence of a uniform temperature gradient through an otherwise quiescent single-component rarefied gas continuum at small Knudsen numbers. Coupled with the size independence of the particle's thermophoretic velocity, the empirically observed equality, U=UD, leads naturally to the hypothesis that these two velocities, the former real and the latter virtual, are, in fact, simply manifestations of the same underlying molecular phenomenon, namely the gas's Brownian movement, albeit biased by the temperature gradient. This purely hydrodynamic continuum-mechanical equality is confirmed by theoretical calculations effected at the kinetic-molecular level on the basis of an existing solution of the Boltzmann equation for a quasi-Lorentzian gas, modulo small uncertainties pertaining to the choice of collision model. Explicitly, this asymptotically valid molecular model allows the virtual drift velocity UD of the light gas and the thermophoretic velocity U of the massive, effectively non-Brownian, particle, now regarded as the tracer particle

  13. Transport coefficients of heavy baryons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolos, Laura; Torres-Rincon, Juan M.; Das, Santosh K.

    2016-08-01

    We compute the transport coefficients (drag and momentum diffusion) of the low-lying heavy baryons Λc and Λb in a medium of light mesons formed at the later stages of high-energy heavy-ion collisions. We employ the Fokker-Planck approach to obtain the transport coefficients from unitarized baryon-meson interactions based on effective field theories that respect chiral and heavy-quark symmetries. We provide the transport coefficients as a function of temperature and heavy-baryon momentum, and analyze the applicability of certain nonrelativistic estimates. Moreover we compare our outcome for the spatial diffusion coefficient to the one coming from the solution of the Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck transport equation, and we find a very good agreement between both calculations. The transport coefficients for Λc and Λb in a thermal bath will be used in a subsequent publication as input in a Langevin evolution code for the generation and propagation of heavy particles in heavy-ion collisions at LHC and RHIC energies.

  14. Study of Drag Coefficients in Solar Panel Under Wind Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro López Llanusa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the geographical situation of Cuba the wind plays an important role in the design of the solar panels. The aim of the research is to evaluate the differences that appear in the support reactions of the panel, due to pressures acting, in correspondence with the implementation of the Cuban standard NC-285: 2003 but varying the pressure coefficient by using standards NBR 6123: 1988, CIRSOC 102, CN-285: 2003, Eurocode 1-4: 2005, ASCE 7-10 and AS-1170.2: 2011. These reactions are also calculat-ed from pressure coefficients obtained by wind tunnel testing on a scale model and coefficients proposed by another international work carried out on a wind tunnel on a similar solar panel. The main conclusions are that: among the standards, the use of the pressure coefficients proposed by the Eurocode 1- 4: 2005 leads to higher values of the support reactions and about the studies on wind tunnel testing, it can be concluded that the use of a total value of pressure coefficient it is not a good approximation to the actual behavior of the pressures on the panel.

  15. Stationary space-periodic structures with equal diffusion coefficients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Peter Ragnar; Bache, Morten; Mosekilde, Erik;

    1999-01-01

    The paper investigates a chemical reaction-diffusion model in an open flow system. It is shown that such a system may, with particular boundary conditions, exhibit stationary space-periodic structures even in the case of equal diffusion coefficients. This is confirmed through numerical simulations....

  16. Harmonic functions with varying coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Dziok

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Complex-valued harmonic functions that are univalent and sense preserving in the open unit disk can be written in the form f = h + g ‾ $f=h+\\overline{g}$ , where h and g are analytic. In this paper we investigate some classes of univalent harmonic functions with varying coefficients related to Janowski functions. By using the extreme points theory we obtain necessary and sufficient convolution conditions, coefficients estimates, distortion theorems, and integral mean inequalities for these classes of functions. The radii of starlikeness and convexity for these classes are also determined.

  17. Studies into the averaging problem: Macroscopic gravity and precision cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijenayake, Tharake S.

    2016-08-01

    With the tremendous improvement in the precision of available astrophysical data in the recent past, it becomes increasingly important to examine some of the underlying assumptions behind the standard model of cosmology and take into consideration nonlinear and relativistic corrections which may affect it at percent precision level. Due to its mathematical rigor and fully covariant and exact nature, Zalaletdinov's macroscopic gravity (MG) is arguably one of the most promising frameworks to explore nonlinearities due to inhomogeneities in the real Universe. We study the application of MG to precision cosmology, focusing on developing a self-consistent cosmology model built on the averaging framework that adequately describes the large-scale Universe and can be used to study real data sets. We first implement an algorithmic procedure using computer algebra systems to explore new exact solutions to the MG field equations. After validating the process with an existing isotropic solution, we derive a new homogeneous, anisotropic and exact solution. Next, we use the simplest (and currently only) solvable homogeneous and isotropic model of MG and obtain an observable function for cosmological expansion using some reasonable assumptions on light propagation. We find that the principal modification to the angular diameter distance is through the change in the expansion history. We then linearize the MG field equations and derive a framework that contains large-scale structure, but the small scale inhomogeneities have been smoothed out and encapsulated into an additional cosmological parameter representing the averaging effect. We derive an expression for the evolution of the density contrast and peculiar velocities and integrate them to study the growth rate of large-scale structure. We find that increasing the magnitude of the averaging term leads to enhanced growth at late times. Thus, for the same matter content, the growth rate of large scale structure in the MG model

  18. Investigating the mechanics of earthquakes using macroscopic seismic parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkataraman, Anupama

    2002-09-01

    To understand the physics of earthquake rupture mechanics, we have to relate seismologically observable parameters to the dynamics of faulting. One of the key seismological parameters that will help us achieve this objective is the energy radiated by seismic waves. In this work, we develop a new method of estimating radiated energy from regional data using an empirical Green's function method; we also modify existing methods of estimating radiated energy from teleseismic data by improving the corrections applied to the observed seismic data for attenuation and directivity effects. We compute teleseismic estimates of radiated energy for 23 large subduction zone earthquakes recorded between 1992 and 2001; most of these earthquakes have a magnitude Mw > 7.5, but we also include some smaller (Mw ˜ 6.7) well-studied subduction zone earthquakes and 6 crustal earthquakes. We compile the static stress drop estimates for these 29 earthquakes from published literature. We then determine radiation efficiency of these earthquakes using a stress relaxation model that relates measurable and macroscopic seismological parameters to the physical processes on the fault zone via fracture energy. We also determine the rupture velocity of these earthquakes from published literature. A comparison of radiation efficiencies and rupture velocities of these earthquakes with the expected theoretical values for different modes crack propagation validates the use of the stress relaxation model to understand earthquake rupture mechanics. From our calculations, we observe that most earthquakes have radiation efficiencies between 0.25 and 1 and are hence efficient in generating seismic waves, but tsunami earthquakes and two deep earthquakes, the 1994 deep earthquake that occurred in Bolivia and the 1999 Russia-China border earthquake, have very small radiation efficiencies (<0.25) and hence dissipate a large amount of energy on the fault plane. We suggest that the difference in the radiation

  19. Effective Viscosity Coefficient of Nanosuspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudyak, V. Ya.; Belkin, A. A.; Egorov, V. V.

    2008-12-01

    Systematic calculations of the effective viscosity coefficient of nanosuspensions have been performed using the molecular dynamics method. It is established that the viscosity of a nanosuspension depends not only on the volume concentration of the nanoparticles but also on their mass and diameter. Differences from Einstein's relation are found even for nanosuspensions with a low particle concentration.

  20. Irrational "Coefficients" in Renaissance Algebra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oaks, Jeffrey A

    2017-06-01

    Argument From the time of al-Khwārizmī in the ninth century to the beginning of the sixteenth century algebraists did not allow irrational numbers to serve as coefficients. To multiply by x, for instance, the result was expressed as the rhetorical equivalent of . The reason for this practice has to do with the premodern concept of a monomial. The coefficient, or "number," of a term was thought of as how many of that term are present, and not as the scalar multiple that we work with today. Then, in sixteenth-century Europe, a few algebraists began to allow for irrational coefficients in their notation. Christoff Rudolff (1525) was the first to admit them in special cases, and subsequently they appear more liberally in Cardano (1539), Scheubel (1550), Bombelli (1572), and others, though most algebraists continued to ban them. We survey this development by examining the texts that show irrational coefficients and those that argue against them. We show that the debate took place entirely in the conceptual context of premodern, "cossic" algebra, and persisted in the sixteenth century independent of the development of the new algebra of Viète, Decartes, and Fermat. This was a formal innovation violating prevailing concepts that we propose could only be introduced because of the growing autonomy of notation from rhetorical text.

  1. WormAssay: a novel computer application for whole-plate motion-based screening of macroscopic parasites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Marcellino

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lymphatic filariasis is caused by filarial nematode parasites, including Brugia malayi. Adult worms live in the lymphatic system and cause a strong immune reaction that leads to the obstruction of lymph vessels and swelling of the extremities. Chronic disease leads to the painful and disfiguring condition known as elephantiasis. Current drug therapy is effective against the microfilariae (larval stage of the parasite, but no drugs are effective against the adult worms. One of the major stumbling blocks toward developing effective macrofilaricides to kill the adult worms is the lack of a high throughput screening method for candidate drugs. Current methods utilize systems that measure one well at a time and are time consuming and often expensive. We have developed a low-cost and simple visual imaging system to automate and quantify screening entire plates based on parasite movement. This system can be applied to the study of many macroparasites as well as other macroscopic organisms.

  2. Hydrazoic acid distribution coefficients in Purex processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelmers, A.D.; Browning, D.N.

    1977-01-01

    Mixtures of hydroxylamine nitrate and hydrazine are being considered for the reductive stripping of plutonium during Purex processing. The hydrazine functions as a holding reductant for plutonium(III) by destroying nitrous acid via the fast reaction N/sub 2/H/sub 4/ + HNO/sub 2/ ..-->.. HN/sub 3/ + 2H/sub 2/O which leads to the stoichiometric formation of hydrazoic acid. We have measured the distribution coefficients for hydrazoic acid between nitric acid solutions and tributylphosphate-dodecane solutions. Values in the range of 1 to 10 were obtained under typical Purex process conditions. This indicates that most of the hydrazoic acid will be present in the organic phase leaving the plutonium stripping contactors. The distribution coefficients can be expressed as log(E O/A) = n log(Free TBP) + log K' where K' is 7.0, 10.0, 5.1 and 4.7, respectively, at 25, 35, 45 and 55/sup 0/C; and the corresponding values of n are 1.11, 1.27, 0.97 and 1.20.

  3. Three-dimensional Fe3O4-graphene macroscopic composites for arsenic and arsenate removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Liangqia; Ye, Peirong; Wang, Jing; Fu, Fengfu; Wu, Zujian

    2015-11-15

    3D graphene macroscopic gel synthesized via self-assembly of GO nanosheets under basic conditions at low temperature is modified with polydopamine and Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The modification of polydopamine can not only strengthen the 3D graphene-based macroscopic architecture but also enhance the loadage and binding ability of Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The synthesized 3D Fe3O4-graphene macroscopic composites are characterized by SEM, XRD, XPS, BET, Raman and magnetic property and used as a versatile adsorbent for sub-ppm concentration of As(III) and As(V) removal from aqueous solutions. The experimental results suggest that the synthesized 3D Fe3O4-graphene macroscopic composites are promising for treating low concentration of arsenic contaminated water. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Hydrodynamic description of (visco)elastic composite materials and relative strains as a new macroscopic variable

    CERN Document Server

    Menzel, Andreas M

    2016-01-01

    One possibility to adjust material properties to a specific need is to embed units of one substance into a matrix of another substance. Even materials that are readily tunable during operation can be generated in this way. In (visco)elastic substances, both the matrix material as well as the inclusions and/or their immediate environment can be dynamically deformed. If the typical dynamic response time of the inclusions and their surroundings approach the macroscopic response time, their deformation processes need to be included into a dynamic macroscopic characterization. Along these lines, we present a hydrodynamic description of (visco)elastic composite materials. For this purpose, additional strain variables reflect the state of the inclusions and their immediate environment. These additional strain variables in general are not set by a coarse-grained macroscopic displacement field. Apart from that, during our derivation, we also include the macroscopic variables of relative translations and relative rotat...

  5. Generating giant and tunable nonlinearity in a macroscopic mechanical resonator from a single chemical bond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Pu; Zhou, Jingwei; Zhang, Liang; Hou, Dong; Lin, Shaochun; Deng, Wen; Meng, Chao; Duan, Changkui; Ju, Chenyong; Zheng, Xiao; Xue, Fei; Du, Jiangfeng

    2016-05-01

    Nonlinearity in macroscopic mechanical systems may lead to abundant phenomena for fundamental studies and potential applications. However, it is difficult to generate nonlinearity due to the fact that macroscopic mechanical systems follow Hooke's law and respond linearly to external force, unless strong drive is used. Here we propose and experimentally realize high cubic nonlinear response in a macroscopic mechanical system by exploring the anharmonicity in chemical bonding interactions. We demonstrate the high tunability of nonlinear response by precisely controlling the chemical bonding interaction, and realize, at the single-bond limit, a cubic elastic constant of 1 × 1020 N m-3. This enables us to observe the resonator's vibrational bi-states transitions driven by the weak Brownian thermal noise at 6 K. This method can be flexibly applied to a variety of mechanical systems to improve nonlinear responses, and can be used, with further improvements, to explore macroscopic quantum mechanics.

  6. Polyelectrolyte surfactant aggregates and their deposition on macroscopic surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voisin, David

    2002-07-01

    the CSC have been determined for mixtures of cationically modified guar gums (of varying charge density) with two anionic surfactants: sodium lauryl (or dodecyl) ether sulfate [SLES] and sodium dodecyl sulfate [SDS], for various concentrations of the polyelectrolyte and added sodium chloride, at room temperature. The addition of sodium chloride has only a minor net effect on the CFC, but increases the CSC significantly. The interactions between the cationic polyelectrolyte and the surfactant have been studied in the one-phase regions, i.e. below the CFC and above the CSC, using different techniques. Surface tension, electrophoresis, light scattering and viscosimetry have been employed. In the two-phase region, the sedimented floe phase has been analysed and the flocculation has been investigated. Rheology of the floe phase has been studied, after a mild compression by centrifugation. The initial rate of flocculation has been determined, using stop-flow equipment. The growth and the structure of the flocs have been investigated by light scattering. The open-network flocs of polyelectrolyte-surfactant particles grow to {approx}10's {mu}m in size, prior to their eventual settling out. Other colloidal particles can be trapped within these large flocs, and the flocs can be used to transport these particles to a macroscopic surface. The deposition and the removal of such composite flocs on glass surfaces, under flow, have been studied using a flow cell device coupled with an optical microscope. Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy have also been employed. (author)

  7. Macroscopic characterization of cell electroporation in biological tissue based on electrical measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cima, Lionel F.; Mir, Lluis M.

    2004-11-01

    A method is described to experimentally determine the temporal evolution of state variables involved in the electroporation of biological tissue, i.e., the transmembrane voltage and the macroscopic current flowing in the electropores. Indeed, the electrical parameters of the extracellular, intracellular, and unaltered membrane contributions as well as the electropores electrical characteristics can be deduced from the measurement of the tissue bioimpedance and from the variations of both the macroscopic voltage applied to the tissue and the delivered current.

  8. Review to better understand the macroscopic subtypes and histogenesis of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuichi; Sanada; Yujo; Kawashita; Satomi; Okada; Takashi; Azuma; Shigetoshi; Matsuo

    2014-01-01

    Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma is macroscopically classified into three subtypes, mass-forming-type, periductal infiltrating-type, and intraductal growth-type. Each subtype should be preoperatively differentiated to perform the valid surgical resection. Recent researches have revealed the clinical, radiologic, pathobiological characteristics of each subtype. We reviewed recently published studies covering various aspects of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma(ICC), focusing especially on the macroscopic subtypes and stem cell features to better understand the pathophysiology of ICC and to establish the valid therapeutic strategy.

  9. Critical Current in YBCO Coated Conductors in the Presence of a Macroscopic Defect (POSTPRINT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    AFRL-RZ-WP-TP-2010-2084 CRITICAL CURRENT IN YBCO COATED CONDUCTORS IN THE PRESENCE OF A MACROSCOPIC DEFECT (POSTPRINT) Milan Polak and...CRITICAL CURRENT IN YBCO COATED CONDUCTORS IN THE PRESENCE OF A MACROSCOPIC DEFECT (POSTPRINT) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER In-house 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...display, or disclose the work. 14. ABSTRACT We have studied the effects of localized defects in the YBCO coated conductors on the critical current. The

  10. Study of Dispersion Coefficient Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, K. R.; Bressan, C. K.; Pires, M. S. G.; Canno, L. M.; Ribeiro, L. C. L. J.

    2016-08-01

    The issue of water pollution has worsened in recent times due to releases, intentional or not, of pollutants in natural water bodies. This causes several studies about the distribution of pollutants are carried out. The water quality models have been developed and widely used today as a preventative tool, ie to try to predict what will be the concentration distribution of constituent along a body of water in spatial and temporal scale. To understand and use such models, it is necessary to know some concepts of hydraulic high on their application, including the longitudinal dispersion coefficient. This study aims to conduct a theoretical and experimental study of the channel dispersion coefficient, yielding more information about their direct determination in the literature.

  11. Clustering Coefficients in Multiplex Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Cozzo, Emanuele; De Domenico, Manlio; Solé, Albert; Arenas, Alex; Gómez, Sergio; Porter, Mason A; Moreno, Yamir

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in the study of complex networked systems has highlighted that our interconnected world is made of networks that are coupled together through different layers that each stand for one type of interaction or system. Despite this situation, it is traditional to aggregate multiplex data into a single weighted network in order take advantage of existing tools. This is admittedly convenient, but it is also extremely problematic. In this paper, we generalize the concept of clustering coefficients for multiplex networks. We show how the layered structure of multiplex networks introduces a new degree of freedom that has a fundamental effect on transitivity. We compute our new multiplex clustering coefficients for several real multiplex networks and illustrate why generalizing monoplex concepts to multiplex networks must be done with great care.

  12. Reproducibility of The Random Incidence Absorption Coefficient Converted From the Sabine Absorption Coefficient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Chang, Ji-ho

    2015-01-01

    Absorption coefficients measured in reverberation chambers, Sabine absorption coefficients, suffer from two major problems. Firstly, they sometimes exceed unity. Secondly, the reproducibility of the Sabine absorption coefficients is quite poor, meaning that the Sabine absorption coefficients vary...

  13. Molecular simulation and macroscopic modeling of the diffusion of hydrogen, carbon monoxide and water in heavy n-alkane mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makrodimitri, Zoi A; Unruh, Dominik J M; Economou, Ioannis G

    2012-03-28

    The self-diffusion coefficient of hydrogen (H(2)), carbon monoxide (CO) and water (H(2)O) in n-alkanes was studied by molecular dynamics simulation. Diffusion in a few pure n-alkanes (namely n-C(8), n-C(20), n-C(64) and n-C(96)) was examined. In addition, binary n-C(12)-n-C(96) mixtures with various compositions as well as more realistic five- and six-n-alkane component mixtures were simulated. In all cases, the TraPPE united atom force field was used for the n-alkane molecules. The force field for the mixture of n-alkanes was initially validated against experimental density values and was shown to be accurate. Moreover, macroscopic correlations for predicting diffusion coefficient of H(2), CO and H(2)O in n-alkanes and mixtures of n-alkanes were developed. The functional form of the correlation was based on the rough hard sphere theory (RHS). The correlation was applied to simulation data and an absolute average deviation (AAD) of 5.8% for pure n-alkanes and 3.4% for n-alkane mixtures was obtained. Correlation parameters vary in a systematic way with carbon number and so they can be used to provide predictions in the absence of any experimental or molecular simulation data. Finally, in order to reduce the number of adjustable parameters, for the n-alkane mixtures the "pseudo-carbon number" approach was used. This approach resulted in relatively higher deviation from MD simulation data (AAD of 18.2%); however, it provides a convenient and fast method to predict diffusion coefficients. The correlations developed here are expected to be useful for engineering calculations related to the design of the Gas-to-Liquid process.

  14. Dependence of the coefficient of ultrasonic velocity on the coefficient of free length in organic liquids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Yigang; PENG Jianxin; TONG Jie; DONG Yanwu

    2000-01-01

    On the basis of Jacobson's free length theory and the theory of pressure coefficient and temperature coefficient of free length in liquids, the relationship between the pressure coefficient of ultrasonic velocity and the pressure coefficient of free length, and the relationship between the temperature coefficient of ultrasonic velocity and the temperature coefficient of free length were studied. Relevant equations were given, and the pressure coefficient and temperature coefficient of ultrasonic velocity were calculated, which are in agreement with the measured values.

  15. Kinetic Modelling of Macroscopic Properties Changes during Crosslinked Polybutadiene Oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audouin, Ludmila; Coquillat, Marie; Colin, Xavier; Verdu, Jacques; Nevière, Robert

    2008-08-01

    The thermal oxidation of additive free hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) isocyanate crosslinked rubber bulk samples has been studied at 80, 100 and 120 °C in air. The oxidation kinetics has been monitored by gravimetry and thickness distribution of oxidation products was determined by FTIR mapping. Changes of elastic shear modulus G' during oxidation were followed during oxidation at the same temperatures. The kinetic model established previously for HTPB has been adapted for bulk sample oxidation using previously determined set of kinetic parameters. Oxygen diffusion control of oxidation has been introduced into the model. The mass changes kinetic curves and oxidation products profiles were simulated and adequate fit was obtained. Using the rubber elasticity theory the elastic modulus changes were simulated taking into account the elastically active chains concentration changes due to chain scission and crosslinking reactions. The reasonable fit of G' as a function of oxidation time experimental curves was obtained.

  16. Speeding chemical reactions by focusing

    CERN Document Server

    Lacasta, A M; Sancho, J M; Lindenberg, K

    2012-01-01

    We present numerical results for a chemical reaction of colloidal particles which are transported by a laminar fluid and are focused by periodic obstacles in such a way that the two components are well mixed and consequently the chemical reaction is speeded up. The roles of the various system parameters (diffusion coefficients, reaction rate, obstacles sizes) are studied. We show that focusing speeds up the reaction from the diffusion limited rate (t to the power -1/2) to very close to the perfect mixing rate, (t to the power -1).

  17. Spurious chemical diffusion coefficients of Li{sup +} in electrode materials evaluated with GITT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diss, E. [Paul Scherrer Inst., Villagen (Switzerland)

    2005-05-05

    The galvanostatic intermittent titration technique (GITT) has been used as a standard method for evaluating chemical diffusion coefficients in electrode materials in the last three decades. It will now be demonstrated that these chemical diffusion coefficients evaluated with GITT are spurious as any reaction kinetics is neglected in the GITT theory. The neglect of the reaction kinetics leads to a spurious potential dependence of the GITT diffusion coefficients with minima at those potentials where the slow scan rate cyclic voltammogram or differential capacity plot exhibits peaks even in case where the true chemical diffusion coefficient is constant. This will be demonstrated by the evaluation of GITT diffusion coefficients from numerically generated GITT experiments calculated with a constant chemical diffusion coefficient on the example of a spinel-type LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} electrode. (Author)

  18. Recent Results on the 3-Loop Heavy Flavor Wilson Coefficients in Deep-Inelastic Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Blümlein, J; Raab, C; Wißbrock, F; Ablinger, J; Hasselhuhn, A; Round, M; Schneider, C; von Manteuffel, A

    2013-01-01

    We report on recent progress in the calculation of the 3-loop massive Wilson coefficients in deep-inelastic scattering at general values of $N$ for neutral and charged current reactions in the asymptotic region $Q^2 \\gg m^2$.

  19. Macroscopic and microscopic examination of pulmonary Crenosoma striatum in hedgehog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naem, S; Tavakoli, M; Javanbakht, J; Alimohammadi, S; Farshid, A A; Mohammad Hassan, M A

    2014-06-01

    The aim of study was to necropsy and histopathology evaluation of lung Crenosoma striatum in hedgehog. In July 2012, 10 porcupines were collected from Urmia city and transferred to parasitology lab of the veterinary faculty where they were euthanized by ketamine (over 40-90 mg/kg) intraperitoneally. In this study the lungs were assessed through naked eyes regarding parasite presence upon washing. The lung tissue was examined under loop microscope in order to finding small worms in lung parenchyma. The worms were removed by Anse forceps and kept in AFA solution, and collected for diagnosis. In order to carrying out pathological tests, some samples prepared and placed in formalin 10 % for fixation. The counted worms frequency in high severe and moderate lungs were as 86 (50 females and 36 males) and 19 (13 females and 16 males) worms respectively. But no worms were observed in healthy lungs. The infestation severity was as; low infestation (1-7 worms), moderate infestation (8-20), severe infestation (21-50) and very severe infestation (more than 50 worms). The lung examinations of non-infested lungs indicated that the lung tissues had no parasite. In addition, no inflammation reactions as inflammatory cells presence were observed, and the air spaces with alveoles' wall in some regions were observable. On histopathological examination, the observed alteration was primarily inflammatory changes, and in some cases the proliferation was also observable. Hyperemia and inflammatory cell infiltration, somehow the alveolar space was filled, representing bronchopneumonia reaction. The bronchioles had various changes as hypertrophy and hyperplastic in different parts of respiratory system. Hyperemia and hemorrhage were very severe in some cases caused hemosiderosis in the lung. In severe inflammations the pneumonia along with increasing of bronchial cells in the lumen rose as well, leading to severe verminous infestation of the lung. In regard to the obtained results, the

  20. Connecting grain-scale physics to macroscopic granular flow behavior using discrete contact-dynamics simulations, centrifuge experiments, and continuum modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, Meredith; Stark, Colin; Hung, Chi-Yao; Smith, Breannan; Grinspin, Eitan; Capart, Herve; Li, Liming; Crone, Timothy; Hsu, Leslie; Ling, Hoe

    2014-05-01

    A complete theoretical understanding of geophysical granular flow is essential to the reliable assessment of landslide and debris flow hazard and for the design of mitigation strategies, but several key challenges remain. Perhaps the most basic is a general treatment of the processes of internal energy dissipation, which dictate the runout velocity and the shape and scale of the affected area. Currently, dissipation is best described by macroscopic, empirical friction coefficients only indirectly related to the grain-scale physics. Another challenge is describing the forces exerted at the boundaries of the flow, which dictate the entrainment of further debris and the erosion of cohesive surfaces. While the granular effects on these boundary forces have been shown to be large compared to predictions from continuum approximations, the link between granular effects and erosion or entrainment rates has not been settled. Here we present preliminary results of a multi-disciplinary study aimed at improving our understanding of granular flow energy dissipation and boundary forces, through an effort to connect grain-scale physics to macroscopic behaviors. Insights into grain-scale force distributions and energy dissipation mechanisms are derived from discrete contact-dynamics simulations. Macroscopic erosion and flow behaviors are documented from a series of granular flow experiments, in which a rotating drum half-filled with grains is placed within a centrifuge payload, in order to drive effective gravity levels up to ~100g and approach the forces present in natural systems. A continuum equation is used to characterize the flowing layer depth and velocity resulting from the force balance between the down-slope pull of gravity and the friction at the walls. In this presentation we will focus on the effect of granular-specific physics such as force chain networks and grain-grain collisions, derived from the contact dynamics simulations. We will describe our efforts to

  1. Determination of effective heat transport coefficients for wall-cooled packed beds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borkink, J.G.H.; Borkink, J.G.H.; Westerterp, K.R.

    1992-01-01

    The influence is studied of several assumptions, often made in literature, on the values for the effective radial heat conductivity, wall heat transfer coefficient and overall heat transfer coefficient, as obtained from experiments in wall-cooled packed beds without a chemical reaction. Especially t

  2. Determination of the gas-to-membrane mass transfer coefficient in a catalytic membrane reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldsink, J.W.; Versteeg, G.F.; Swaaij, W.P.M. van

    1995-01-01

    A novel method to determine the external mass transfer coefficient in catalytic membrane reactors (Sloot et al., 1992a, b) was presented in this study. In a catalytically active membrane reactor, in which a very fast reaction occurs, the external transfer coefficient can conveniently be measured by

  3. Asymptotic behavior of a delay predator-prey system with stage structure and variable coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier A. Hernandez-Pinzon

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we establish a global attractor for a Lotka-Volterra type reaction-diffusion predator-prey model with stage structure for the predator, delay due to maturity and variable coefficients. This attractor is found by the method of upper and lower solutions and is given in terms of bounds for the coefficients.

  4. Determination of the gas-to-membrane mass transfer coefficient in a catalytic membrane reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldsink, J.W.; Versteeg, G.F.; Swaaij, W.P.M. van

    1995-01-01

    A novel method to determine the external mass transfer coefficient in catalytic membrane reactors (Sloot et al., 1992a, b) was presented in this study. In a catalytically active membrane reactor, in which a very fast reaction occurs, the external transfer coefficient can conveniently be measured by

  5. Tough and Thermosensitive Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)/Graphene Oxide Hydrogels with Macroscopically Oriented Liquid Crystalline Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhongcheng; Li, Yang; Xu, Hui; Peng, Xin; Chen, Ya-Nan; Shang, Cong; Zhang, Qin; Liu, Jiaqi; Wang, Huiliang

    2016-06-22

    Bulk graphene oxide (GO) nanocomposite materials with macroscopically oriented GO liquid crystalline (LC) structures exhibit interesting anisotropic properties, but their facile preparations remain challenging. This work reports for the first time the facile preparation of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM)/GO nanocomposite hydrogels with macroscopically oriented LC structures with the assistance of a flow field induced by vacuum degassing and the in situ polymerization accelerated by GO. The hydrogel prepared with a GO concentration of 5.0 mg mL(-1) exhibits macroscopically aligned LC structures, which endow the gels with anisotropic optical, mechanical properties, and dimensional changes during the phase transition. The hydrogels show dramatically enhanced tensile mechanical properties and phase transition rates. The oriented LC structures are not damaged during the phase transition of the PNIPAM/GO hydrogels, and hence their LC behavior undergoes reversible change. Moreover, highly oriented LC structures can also be formed when the gels are elongated, even for the gels which do not have macroscopically oriented LC structures. Very impressively, the oriented LC structures in the hydrogels can be permanently maintained by drying the gel samples elongated to and then kept at a constant tensile strain. The thermosensitive nature of PNIPAM and the angle-dependent nature of the macroscopically aligned GO LC structures allow the practical applications of the PNIPAM/GO hydrogels as optical switches, soft sensors, and actuators and so on.

  6. Crack Coalescence in Molded Gypsum and Carrara Marble: Part 1. Macroscopic Observations and Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, L. N. Y.; Einstein, H. H.

    2009-06-01

    Cracking and coalescence behavior has been studied experimentally with prismatic laboratory-molded gypsum and Carrara marble specimens containing two parallel pre-existing open flaws. This was done at both the macroscopic and the microscopic scales, and the results are presented in two separate papers. This paper (the first of two) summarizes the macroscopic experimental results and investigates the influence of the different flaw geometries and material, on the cracking processes. In the companion paper (also in this issue), most of the macroscopic deformation and cracking processes shown in this present paper will be related to the underlying microscopic changes. In the present study, a high speed video system was used, which allowed us to precisely observe the cracking mechanisms. Nine crack coalescence categories with different crack types and trajectories were identified. The flaw inclination angle ( β), the ligament length ( L), that is, intact rock length between the flaws, and the bridging angle ( α), that is, the inclination of a line linking up the inner flaw tips, between two flaws, had different effects on the coalescence patterns. One of the pronounced differences observed between marble and gypsum during the compression loading test was the development of macroscopic white patches prior to the initiation of macroscopic cracks in marble, but not in gypsum. Comparing the cracking and coalescence behaviors in the two tested materials, tensile cracking generally occurred more often in marble than in gypsum for the same flaw pair geometries.

  7. Thermal Equilibrium of a Macroscopic Quantum System in a Pure State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Sheldon; Huse, David A.; Lebowitz, Joel L.; Tumulka, Roderich

    2015-09-01

    We consider the notion of thermal equilibrium for an individual closed macroscopic quantum system in a pure state, i.e., described by a wave function. The macroscopic properties in thermal equilibrium of such a system, determined by its wave function, must be the same as those obtained from thermodynamics, e.g., spatial uniformity of temperature and chemical potential. When this is true we say that the system is in macroscopic thermal equilibrium (MATE). Such a system may, however, not be in microscopic thermal equilibrium (MITE). The latter requires that the reduced density matrices of small subsystems be close to those obtained from the microcanonical, equivalently the canonical, ensemble for the whole system. The distinction between MITE and MATE is particularly relevant for systems with many-body localization for which the energy eigenfuctions fail to be in MITE while necessarily most of them, but not all, are in MATE. We note, however, that for generic macroscopic systems, including those with MBL, most wave functions in an energy shell are in both MATE and MITE. For a classical macroscopic system, MATE holds for most phase points on the energy surface, but MITE fails to hold for any phase point.

  8. Higher Order Macro Coefficients in Periodic Homogenization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conca, Carlos; San Martin, Jorge [Departamento de IngenierIa Matematica, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas y Matematicas, Universidad de Chile and Centro de Modelamiento Matematico, UMR 2071 CNRS-UChile, Casilla 170/3 - Correo 3, Santiago (Chile); Smaranda, Loredana [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science, University of Pitesti, 110040 Pitesti, Str. Targu din Vale Nr.1, Arges (Romania); Vanninathan, Muthusamy, E-mail: cconca@dim.uchile.cl, E-mail: jorge@dim.uchile.cl, E-mail: smaranda@dim.uchile.cl, E-mail: vanni@math.tifrbng.res.in [TIFR-CAM, Post Bag 6503, GKVK Post, Bangalore - 560065 (India)

    2011-09-15

    A first set of macro coefficients known as the homogenized coefficients appear in the homogenization of PDE on periodic structures. If energy is increased or scale is decreased, these coefficients do not provide adequate approximation. Using Bloch decomposition, it is first realized that the above coefficients correspond to the lowest energy and the largest scale. This naturally paves the way to introduce other sets of macro coefficients corresponding to higher energies and lower scales which yield better approximation. The next task is to compare their properties with those of the homogenized coefficients. This article reviews these developments along with some new results yet to be published.

  9. Effects of macroscopic bulk defects on the damping behaviors of materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A large number of macroscopic pores or graphite particulates wereintroduced into commercially pure Al and ZA27 alloy by infiltration proces s to comparatively study the influence of macroscopic defects on the damping beh aviors of the materials. The mean diameter of the bulk defects is (1.0±0.5) mm, and the volume fractions of pores and graphite particulates are in the range of 50%—75% and 19%—94%, separately. It is shown that addition of a number of por es or graphite particulates can significantly improve the damping of commerciall y pure Al, due to the comprehensive effects of the macroscopic and microscopic d efects. However, the pores have little effect on the damping capacity of high da mping ZA27 alloy, and graphite particulates make the high temperature internal f riction peak decrease. It is considered that graphite particulates may repress t he intrinsic damping mechanism of ZA27 alloy.

  10. Microscopic and macroscopic theories for the dynamics of polar liquid crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittkowski, Raphael; Löwen, Hartmut; Brand, Helmut R

    2011-10-01

    We derive and analyze the dynamic equations for polar liquid crystals in two spatial dimensions in the framework of classical dynamical density functional theory (DDFT). Translational density variations, polarization, and quadrupolar order are used as order-parameter fields. The results are critically compared with those obtained using the macroscopic approach of time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau (GL) equations for the analogous order-parameter fields. We demonstrate that, for both the microscopic DDFT and the macroscopic GL approach, the resulting dissipative dynamics can be derived from a dissipation function. We obtain microscopic expressions for all diagonal contributions and for many of the cross-coupling terms emerging from a GL approach. Thus, we establish a bridge between molecular correlations and macroscopic modeling for the dissipative dynamics of polar liquid crystals.

  11. The effect of interlayer adhesion on the mechanical behaviors of macroscopic graphene oxide papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yun; Liu, Lu-Qi; Zu, Sheng-Zhen; Peng, Ke; Zhou, Ding; Han, Bao-Hang; Zhang, Zhong

    2011-03-22

    High mechanical performances of macroscopic graphene oxide (GO) papers are attracting great interest owing to their merits of lightweight and multiple functionalities. However, the loading role of individual nanosheets and its effect on the mechanical properties of the macroscopic GO papers are not yet well understood. Herein, we effectively tailored the interlayer adhesions of the GO papers by introducing small molecules, that is, glutaraldehyde (GA) and water molecules, into the gallery regions. With the help of in situ Raman spectroscopy, we compared the varied load-reinforcing roles of nanosheets, and further predicted the Young's moduli of the GO papers. Systematic mechanical tests have proven that the enhancement of the tensile modulus and strength of the GA-treated GO paper arose from the improved load-bearing capability of the nanosheets. On the basis of Raman and macroscopic mechanical tests, the influences of interlayer adhesions on the fracture mechanisms of the strained GO papers were inferred.

  12. Mechanical Behaviour of Materials Volume 1 Micro- and Macroscopic Constitutive Behaviour

    CERN Document Server

    François, Dominique; Zaoui, André

    2012-01-01

    Advances in technology are demanding ever-increasing mastery over the materials being used: the challenge is to gain a better understanding of their behaviour, and more particularly of the relations between their microstructure and their macroscopic properties.   This work, of which this is the first volume, aims to provide the means by which this challenge may be met. Starting from the mechanics of deformation, it develops the laws governing macroscopic behaviour – expressed as the constitutive equations – always taking account of the physical phenomena which underlie rheological behaviour. The most recent developments are presented, in particular those concerning heterogeneous materials such as metallic alloys, polymers and composites. Each chapter is devoted to one of the major classes of material behaviour.   As the subtitles indicate, Volume 1 deals with micro- and macroscopic constitutive behaviour and Volume 2 with damage and fracture mechanics. A third volume will be devoted to exercises and the...

  13. On the macroscopic quantization in mesoscopic rings and single-electron devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenov, Andrew G.

    2016-05-01

    In this letter we investigate the phenomenon of macroscopic quantization and consider particle on the ring interacting with the dissipative bath as an example. We demonstrate that even in presence of environment, there is macroscopically quantized observable which can take only integer values in the zero temperature limit. This fact follows from the total angular momentum conservation combined with momentum quantization for bare particle on the ring. The nontrivial thing is that the model under consideration, including the notion of quantized observable, can be mapped onto the Ambegaokar-Eckern-Schon model of the single-electron box (SEB). We evaluate SEB observable, originating after mapping, and reveal new physics, which follows from the macroscopic quantization phenomenon and the existence of additional conservation law. Some generalizations of the obtained results are also presented.

  14. Student views of macroscopic and microscopic energy in physics and biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreyfus, Benjamin W.; Redish, Edward F.; Watkins, Jessica

    2012-02-01

    Energy concepts are fundamental across the sciences, yet these concepts can be fragmented along disciplinary boundaries, rather than integrated into a coherent whole. To teach physics effectively to biology students, we need to understand students' disciplinary perspectives. We present interview data from an undergraduate student who displays multiple stances towards the concept of energy. At times he views energy in macroscopic contexts as a separate entity from energy in microscopic (particularly biological) contexts, while at other times he uses macroscopic physics phenomena as productive analogies for understanding energy in the microscopic biological context, and he reasons about energy transformations between the microscopic and macroscopic scales. This case study displays preliminary evidence for the context dependence of students' ability to translate energy concepts across scientific disciplines. This points to challenges that must be taken into account in developing curricula for biology students that integrate physics and biology concepts.

  15. Students' Views of Macroscopic and Microscopic Energy in Physics and Biology

    CERN Document Server

    Dreyfus, Benjamin W; Watkins, Jessica

    2011-01-01

    Energy concepts are fundamental across the sciences, yet these concepts can be fragmented along disciplinary boundaries, rather than integrated into a coherent whole. To teach physics effectively to biology students, we need to understand students' disciplinary perspectives. We present interview data from an undergraduate student who displays multiple stances towards the concept of energy. At times he views energy in macroscopic contexts as a separate entity from energy in microscopic (particularly biological) contexts, while at other times he uses macroscopic physics phenomena as productive analogies for understanding energy in the microscopic biological context, and he reasons about energy transformations between the microscopic and macroscopic scales. This case study displays preliminary evidence for the context dependence of students' ability to translate energy concepts across scientific disciplines. This points to challenges that must be taken into account in developing curricula for biology students th...

  16. Macroscopic extent of gastric mucosal atrophy: increased risk factor for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobayashi Noritoshi

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We aimed to estimate whether the macroscopic extent of gastric mucosal atrophy is associated with a risk for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma using a case-control study in Japanese subjects, a population known to have a high prevalence of CagA-positive H. pylori infection. Methods Two hundred and fifty-three patients who were diagnosed as having esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, and 253 sex- and age-matched controls were enrolled in the present study. The macroscopic extent of gastric mucosal atrophy was evaluated based on the Kimura and Takemoto Classification. A conditional logistic regression model with adjustment for potential confounding factors was used to assess the associations. Results Body gastritis, defined endoscopically, was independently associated with an increased risk for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Conclusion Our findings suggest that macroscopic body gastritis may be a risk factor for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in Japan. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings.

  17. A strict experimental test of macroscopic realism in a superconducting flux qubit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knee, George C; Kakuyanagi, Kosuke; Yeh, Mao-Chuang; Matsuzaki, Yuichiro; Toida, Hiraku; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Saito, Shiro; Leggett, Anthony J; Munro, William J

    2016-11-04

    Macroscopic realism is the name for a class of modifications to quantum theory that allow macroscopic objects to be described in a measurement-independent manner, while largely preserving a fully quantum mechanical description of the microscopic world. Objective collapse theories are examples which aim to solve the quantum measurement problem through modified dynamical laws. Whether such theories describe nature, however, is not known. Here we describe and implement an experimental protocol capable of constraining theories of this class, that is more noise tolerant and conceptually transparent than the original Leggett-Garg test. We implement the protocol in a superconducting flux qubit, and rule out (by ∼84 s.d.) those theories which would deny coherent superpositions of 170 nA currents over a ∼10 ns timescale. Further, we address the 'clumsiness loophole' by determining classical disturbance with control experiments. Our results constitute strong evidence for the superposition of states of nontrivial macroscopic distinctness.

  18. Transformation-optics macroscopic visible-light cloaking beyond two dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Chu, Chia-Wei; Lee, Chih Jie; Duan, Yubo; Tsai, Din Ping; Zhang, Baile; Luo, Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Transformation optics, a recent geometrical design strategy of controlling light by combining Maxwell's principles of electromagnetism with Einstein's general relativity, promises without precedent an invisibility cloaking device that can render a macroscopic object invisible in three dimensions. However, most previous proof-of-concept transformation-optics cloaking devices focused predominantly on two dimensions, whereas detection of a macroscopic object along its third dimension was always unfailing. Here, we report the first experimental demonstration of transformation-optics macroscopic visible-light cloaking beyond two dimensions. This almost-three-dimensional cloak exhibits three-dimensional (3D) invisibility for illumination near its center (i.e. with a limited field of view), and its ideal wide-angle invisibility performance is preserved in multiple two-dimensional (2D) planes intersecting in the 3D space. Both light ray trajectories and optical path lengths have been verified experimentally at the ma...

  19. Bouncing droplets: a classroom experiment to visualize wave-particle duality on the macroscopic level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleutel, Pascal; Dietrich, Erik; Van der Veen, Jan T.; van Joolingen, Wouter R.

    2016-09-01

    This study brings a recently discovered macroscopic phenomenon with wave-particle characteristics into the classroom. The system consists of a liquid droplet levitating over a vertically shaken liquid pool. The droplets allow visualization of a wave-particle system in a directly observable way. We show how to interpret this macroscopic phenomenon and how to set up and carry out this experiment. A class of students performed single slit diffraction experiments with droplets. By scoring individual droplet trajectories students find a diffraction pattern. This pilot application in the classroom shows that students can study and discuss the wave-particle nature of the bouncing droplet experiment. The experiment therefore provides a useful opportunity to show wave-particle behavior on the macroscopic level.

  20. Correlations between Nanoindentation Hardness and Macroscopic Mechanical Properties in DP980 Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Mark D.; Choi, Kyoo Sil; Sun, Xin; Matlock, David K.; Packard, Corrine; Xu, Le; Barlat, Frederic

    2014-03-01

    Multiphase advanced high strength steels (AHSS) are being increasingly used in the automotive industry due to their low cost, good availability and excellent combination of strength and ductility. There is a keen interest from the automotive and steel industry for more fundamental understandings on the key microstructure features influencing the macroscopic properties, i.e., tensile properties, hole-expansion ratio and localized formability of AHSS. In this study, the micro- and macro-level properties for eight commercial DP980 steels are first characterized and quantified with various experimental methods. Correlations between macroscopic-level properties and relationships between various micro- and macro- properties for these steels are then established based on the experimental measurements. It is found that, despite their differences in their chemistry, processing parameters and sheet thickness, the eight DP980 steels do have common microstructural level properties governing their specific macroscopic properties in terms of strength, elongation and hole expansion performance.

  1. Macroscopic quantum superposition of spin ensembles with ultra-long coherence times via superradiant masing

    CERN Document Server

    Jin, Liang; Wrachtrup, Jörg; Liu, Ren-Bao

    2014-01-01

    Macroscopic quantum phenomena such as lasers, Bose-Einstein condensates, superfluids, and superconductors are of great importance in foundations and applications of quantum mechanics. In particular, quantum superposition of a large number of spins in solids is highly desirable for both quantum information processing and ultrasensitive magnetometry. Spin ensembles in solids, however, have rather short collective coherence time (typically less than microseconds). Here we demonstrate that under realistic conditions it is possible to maintain macroscopic quantum superposition of a large spin ensemble (such as about ~10^{14} nitrogen-vacancy center electron spins in diamond) with an extremely long coherence time ~10^8 sec under readily accessible conditions. The scheme, following the mechanism of superradiant lasers, is based on superradiant masing due to coherent coupling between collective spin excitations (magnons) and microwave cavity photons. The coherence time of the macroscopic quantum superposition is the ...

  2. Ground testing of bioconvective variables such as morphological characterizations and mechanisms which regulate macroscopic patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Adriel D.

    1992-01-01

    Conditions simulating low- and high-gravity, reveal changes in macroscopic pattern formation in selected microorganisms, but whether these structures are gravity dependent is not clear. Two theories have been identified in the fluid dynamics community which support macroscopic pattern formation. The first one is gravity dependent (fluid density models) where small concentrated regions of organisms sink unstably, and the second is gravity independent (wave reinforcement theory) where organisms align their movements in concert, such that either their swimming strokes beat in phase or their vortices entrain neighbors to follow parallel paths. Studies have shown that macroscopic pattern formation is consistent with the fluid density models for protozoa and algae and wave reinforcement hypothesis for caprine spermatozoa.

  3. Macroscopic effect of plasmon-driven high-order-harmonic generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Liu, Weiwei; He, Lixin; Li, Liang; Wang, Baoning; Zhu, Xiaosong; Lan, Pengfei; Lu, Peixiang

    2017-09-01

    We present a numerical method to calculate the macroscopic harmonic spectrum generated from the gas-exposed nanostructure. This method includes the propagation of plasmonic and harmonic fields in the macroscopic medium as well as the response of the single atom exposed to plasmonic field. Based on the simulation, we demonstrate that the macroscopic harmonic yields drop dramatically in the high-energy region. This result well interprets the disagreement in the cutoff between the single-atom prediction and the experimental detection. Moreover, we also show that the harmonic cutoff difference induced by a π shift in carrier-envelope phase (CEP) of laser pulses depends sensitively on the spatial position. However, when the collective effect of plasmon-driven high-order-harmonic generation is considered, this cutoff difference is eliminated.

  4. Graphene-based macroscopic assemblies and architectures: an emerging material system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Huai-Ping; Chen, Jia-Fu; Yu, Shu-Hong

    2014-11-07

    Due to the outstanding physicochemical properties arising from its truly two-dimensional (2D) planar structure with a single-atom thickness, graphene exhibits great potential for use in sensors, catalysts, electrodes, and in biological applications, etc. With further developments in the theoretical understanding and assembly techniques, graphene should enable great changes both in scientific research and practical industrial applications. By the look of development, it is of fundamental and practical significance to translate the novel physical and chemical properties of individual graphene nanosheets into the macroscale by the assembly of graphene building blocks into macroscopic architectures with structural specialities and functional novelties. The combined features of a 2D planar structure and abundant functional groups of graphene oxide (GO) should provide great possibilities for the assembly of GO nanosheets into macroscopic architectures with different macroscaled shapes through various assembly techniques under different bonding interactions. Moreover, macroscopic graphene frameworks can be used as ideal scaffolds for the incorporation of functional materials to offset the shortage of pure graphene in the specific desired functionality. The advantages of light weight, supra-flexibility, large surface area, tough mechanical strength, and high electrical conductivity guarantee graphene-based architectures wide application fields. This critical review mainly addresses recent advances in the design and fabrication of graphene-based macroscopic assemblies and architectures and their potential applications. Herein, we first provide overviews of the functional macroscopic graphene materials from three aspects, i.e., 1D graphene fibers/ribbons, 2D graphene films/papers, 3D network-structured graphene monoliths, and their composite counterparts with either polymers or nano-objects. Then, we present the promising potential applications of graphene-based macroscopic

  5. An Interactive Classroom Activity Demonstrating Reaction Mechanisms and Rate-Determining Steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Laura D.; Keller, Steven W.

    2005-01-01

    An interactive classroom activity that includes two-step reaction of unwrapping and eating chocolate candies is described which brings not only the reaction intermediate, but also the reactants and products into macroscopic view. The qualitative activation barriers of both steps can be adjusted independently.

  6. Impact of the irregular microgeometry of polyurethane foam on the macroscopic acoustic behavior predicted by a unit-cell model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doutres, O; Ouisse, M; Atalla, N; Ichchou, M

    2014-10-01

    This paper deals with the prediction of the macroscopic sound absorption behavior of highly porous polyurethane foams using two unit-cell microstructure-based models recently developed by Doutres, Atalla, and Dong [J. Appl. Phys. 110, 064901 (2011); J. Appl. Phys. 113, 054901 (2013)]. In these models, the porous material is idealized as a packing of a tetrakaidecahedra unit-cell representative of the disordered network that constitutes the porous frame. The non-acoustic parameters involved in the classical Johnson-Champoux-Allard model (i.e., porosity, airflow resistivity, tortuosity, etc.) are derived from characteristic properties of the unit-cell and semi-empirical relationships. A global sensitivity analysis is performed on these two models in order to investigate how the variability associated with the measured unit-cell characteristics affects the models outputs. This allows identification of the possible limitations of a unit-cell micro-macro approach due to microstructure irregularity. The sensitivity analysis mainly shows that for moderately and highly reticulated polyurethane foams, the strut length parameter is the key parameter since it greatly impacts three important non-acoustic parameters and causes large uncertainty on the sound absorption coefficient even if its measurement variability is moderate. For foams with a slight inhomogeneity and anisotropy, a micro-macro model associated to cell size measurements should be preferred.

  7. Spontaneous Fission and alpha -Decay Half-Lives of Superheavy Nuclei in Different Macroscopic Energy Models

    CERN Document Server

    Lojewski, Z; Pomorski, K

    2003-01-01

    Spontaneous fission half-lives (T sub s sub f) of the heaviest nuclei are calculated in the macroscopic-microscopic approach based on the deformed Woods-Saxon potential. Four different models of the macroscopic energy are examined and their influence on the results is discussed. The calculations of (T sub s sub f) are performed within WKB approximation. Multi-dimensional dynamical-programming method (MDP) is applied to minimize the action integral in a 3-dimensional space of deformation parameters describing the nuclear shape (beta sub 2 ,beta sub 4 ,beta sub 6).

  8. Comparison between Cooling Rate Dependence of Macroscopic and Microscopic Quantities in Simulated Aluminium Glass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Chang-Song; ZHU Zhen-Gang

    2000-01-01

    Constant-pressure molecular dynamics simulations and an analysis of the local atomic structures have been performed to study the cooling rate dependence of some macroscopic and microscopic quantities in aluminium glass. Macroscopic quantities, enthalpy and density, see an observable but small dependence on the cooling rate. Icosahedral ordering units exhibit strong cooling rate dependence, which is responsible for the dependence of the enthalpy and the density on the cooling rate; while the almost independence of some microstructural units such as the 1541, 1431 and 1421 pairs of the cooling rate may lead to a small dependence of the enthalpy and the density on the cooling rate.

  9. The flow around a macroscopical body by a colloid solution and the drag crisis

    CERN Document Server

    Iordanski, S V

    2013-01-01

    The motion of colloids in the flow field of a viscous liquid is investigated. The small colloid size compare to the macroscopical scale of the flow allow to calculate their velocity relative to that of the liquid. If the inner colloid density is larger then the density of the liquid the flow field has the domains where the colloid velocity is close to the liquid velocity. But in the domains with a strong braking of the liquid velocity the colloids are accelerated relative to the liquid. This effect is used for the qualitative explanation of the drag reduction in the flow around macroscopical bodies and in the pipes.

  10. Correlation between macroscopic porosity location and liquid metal pressure in centrifugal casting technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidyanathan, T K; Schulman, A; Nielsen, J P; Shalita, S

    1981-01-01

    Radiographic analysis of uniform cylindrical castings fabricated by the centrifugal casting technique has revealed that the macroscopic porosity is dependent on the location of the sprue attachment to the casting. This is attributed to the significant pressure gradient associated with the centrifugal casting technique. The pressure gradient results in different heat transfer rates at portions of the castings near and away from the free surface of the button. Consequently, the macroscopic porosity is invariably at portions of the casting close to the free surface of the button. In addition, some optimized sprue-reservoir combinations could be predicted and proved, based on this pressure gradient concept.

  11. α decay energies and half-lives from a macroscopic-microscopic model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Jin-Song; LI Lu-Lu; ZHOU Shan-Gui; ZHAO En-Guang

    2008-01-01

    α decay energies of 323 heavy nuclei with Z≥82 are evaluated with a macroscopic-microscopic model.In this model,the macroscopic part is treated by the continuous medium model and the microscopic part consists of shell and pairing corrections based on the Nilsson potential.α decay half-lives are calculated by Viola-Seaborg formula.The results of α decay energies and half-lives are compared with experimental values and satisfactory agreement is found.The recoiling effect of the daughter nucleus on α decay half-life is also discussed.

  12. A novel macroscopic traffic model based on generalized optimal velocity model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Xuan-Hao; Lu Yong-Zai

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we adopt the coarse graining method proposed by Lee H K et al. to develop a macroscopic model from the microscopic traffic model-GOVM. The proposed model inherits the pararneter p which considers the influence of next-neareet car introduced in the GOVM model. The simulation results show that the new model is strictly consistent with the former microscopic model. Using this macroscopic model, we can avoid considering the details of each traffic on the road, and build more complex models such as road network model easily in the future.

  13. Metastable states and macroscopic quantum tunneling in a cold atom josephson ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solenov, Dmitry [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mozyrsky, Dmitry [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    We study macroscopic properties of a system of weakly interacting neutral bosons confined in a ring-shaped potential with a Josephson junction. We derive an effective low energy action for this system and evaluate its properties. In particular we find that the system possesses a set of metastable current-carrying states and evaluate the rates of transitions between these states due to macroscopic quantum tunneling. Finally we discuss signatures of different metastable states in the time-of-flight images and argue that the effect is observable within currently available experimental technique.

  14. Note on Two Generalizations of Coefficient Alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, Nambury S.

    1979-01-01

    An important relationship is given for two generalizations of coefficient alpha: (1) Rajaratnam, Cronbach, and Gleser's generalizability formula for stratified-parallel tests, and (2) Raju's coefficient beta. (Author/CTM)

  15. Energy coefficients for a propeller series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Anders Smærup

    2004-01-01

    The efficiency for a propeller is calculated by energy coefficients. These coefficients are related to four types of losses, i.e. the axial, the rotational, the frictional, and the finite blade number loss, and one gain, i.e. the axial gain. The energy coefficients are derived by use of the poten......The efficiency for a propeller is calculated by energy coefficients. These coefficients are related to four types of losses, i.e. the axial, the rotational, the frictional, and the finite blade number loss, and one gain, i.e. the axial gain. The energy coefficients are derived by use...... of the potential theory with the propeller modelled as an actuator disk. The efficiency based on the energy coefficients is calculated for a propeller series. The results show a good agreement between the efficiency based on the energy coefficients and the efficiency obtained by a vortex-lattice method....

  16. Index-free Heat Kernel Coefficients

    CERN Document Server

    De van Ven, A E M

    1998-01-01

    Using index-free notation, we present the diagonal values of the first five heat kernel coefficients associated with a general Laplace-type operator on a compact Riemannian space without boundary. The fifth coefficient appears here for the first time. For a flat space with a gauge connection, the sixth coefficient is given too. Also provided are the leading terms for any coefficient, both in ascending and descending powers of the Yang-Mills and Riemann curvatures, to the same order as required for the fourth coefficient. These results are obtained by directly solving the relevant recursion relations, working in Fock-Schwinger gauge and Riemann normal coordinates. Our procedure is thus noncovariant, but we show that for any coefficient the `gauged' respectively `curved' version is found from the corresponding `non-gauged' respectively `flat' coefficient by making some simple covariant substitutions. These substitutions being understood, the coefficients retain their `flat' form and size. In this sense the fift...

  17. Certain Binomial Sums with recursive coefficients

    CERN Document Server

    Kilic, Emrah

    2010-01-01

    In this short note, we establish some identities containing sums of binomials with coefficients satisfying third order linear recursive relations. As a result and in particular, we obtain general forms of earlier identities involving binomial coefficients and Fibonacci type sequences.

  18. Macroscopic Anomalies and Pathological Findings in and Around the Achilles Tendon: Observations From 1661 Operations During a 40-Year Period

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johansson, Kristian; Lempainen, Lasse; Sarimo, Janne; Laitala-Leinonen, Tiina; Orava, Sakari

    2014-01-01

    ...; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: The main macroscopic pathologies of 1661 chronic Achilles tendon overuse injuries, which were diagnosed and surgically treated by a single surgeon, were reviewed...

  19. Standards for Standardized Logistic Regression Coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menard, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Standardized coefficients in logistic regression analysis have the same utility as standardized coefficients in linear regression analysis. Although there has been no consensus on the best way to construct standardized logistic regression coefficients, there is now sufficient evidence to suggest a single best approach to the construction of a…

  20. Comparing linear probability model coefficients across groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Anders; Ejrnæs, Mette; Karlson, Kristian Bernt

    2015-01-01

    This article offers a formal identification analysis of the problem in comparing coefficients from linear probability models between groups. We show that differences in coefficients from these models can result not only from genuine differences in effects, but also from differences in one or more...... these limitations, and we suggest a restricted approach to using linear probability model coefficients in group comparisons....

  1. Note on Methodology: The Coefficient of Variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheret, Michael

    1984-01-01

    Addresses applications of the coefficient of variation as a measure of educational inequality or as a means of measuring changes of inequality status. Suggests the Gini coefficient has many advantages over the coefficient of variation since it can be used with the Lorenz curve (Lorenz provides detail Gini omits). (BRR)

  2. Coefficient of Partial Correlation and Its Calculation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段全才; 张保法

    1992-01-01

    This thesis offers the general concept of coefficient of partial correlation.Starting with regres-sion analysis,the paper,by using samples,infers the general formula of expressing coefficient of partial correlation by way of simple correlation coefficient.

  3. Diffusion coefficient in photon diffusion theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaff, R; Ten Bosch, JJ

    2000-01-01

    The choice of the diffusion coefficient to be used in photon diffusion theory has been a subject of discussion in recent publications on tissue optics. We compared several diffusion coefficients with the apparent diffusion coefficient from the more fundamental transport theory, D-app. Application to

  4. Soccer Ball Lift Coefficients via Trajectory Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, John Eric; Carre, Matt J.

    2010-01-01

    We performed experiments in which a soccer ball was launched from a machine while two high-speed cameras recorded portions of the trajectory. Using the trajectory data and published drag coefficients, we extracted lift coefficients for a soccer ball. We determined lift coefficients for a wide range of spin parameters, including several spin…

  5. Diffusion coefficient in photon diffusion theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaff, R; Ten Bosch, JJ

    2000-01-01

    The choice of the diffusion coefficient to be used in photon diffusion theory has been a subject of discussion in recent publications on tissue optics. We compared several diffusion coefficients with the apparent diffusion coefficient from the more fundamental transport theory, D-app. Application to

  6. Soccer Ball Lift Coefficients via Trajectory Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, John Eric; Carre, Matt J.

    2010-01-01

    We performed experiments in which a soccer ball was launched from a machine while two high-speed cameras recorded portions of the trajectory. Using the trajectory data and published drag coefficients, we extracted lift coefficients for a soccer ball. We determined lift coefficients for a wide range of spin parameters, including several spin…

  7. Ageing effect of chloride diffusion coefficient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polder, R.B.

    2006-01-01

    Most of the currently used models to predict chloride ingress a constant diffusion coefficient over time. However, a reduction of the diffusion coefficient over time, is ob-served at specimens that are exposed to chlorides. This reduction of the diffusion coefficient is expressed with the ageing coe

  8. Standards for Standardized Logistic Regression Coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menard, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Standardized coefficients in logistic regression analysis have the same utility as standardized coefficients in linear regression analysis. Although there has been no consensus on the best way to construct standardized logistic regression coefficients, there is now sufficient evidence to suggest a single best approach to the construction of a…

  9. Note on Methodology: The Coefficient of Variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheret, Michael

    1984-01-01

    Addresses applications of the coefficient of variation as a measure of educational inequality or as a means of measuring changes of inequality status. Suggests the Gini coefficient has many advantages over the coefficient of variation since it can be used with the Lorenz curve (Lorenz provides detail Gini omits). (BRR)

  10. Reaction Graph

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅育熙

    1998-01-01

    The paper proposes reaction graphs as graphical representations of computational objects.A reaction graph is a directed graph with all its arrows and some of its nodes labeled.Computations are modled by graph rewriting of a simple nature.The basic rewriting rules embody the essence of both the communications among processes and cut-eliminations in proofs.Calculi of graphs are ideentified to give a formal and algebraic account of reaction graphs in the spirit of process algebra.With the help of the calculi,it is demonstrated that reaction graphs capture many interesting aspects of computations.

  11. Diffusion and reaction in crowded environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    EcheverIa, Carlos [Laboratorio de Fisica Aplicada y Computacional, Departamento de Matematica y Fisica, Universidad Nacional Experimental del Tachira, San Cristobal 5001 (Venezuela); Tucci, Kay [Centro de Fisica Fundamental, Universidad de Los Andes, Merida 5101 (Venezuela); Kapral, Raymond [Chemical Physics Theory Group, Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, M5S 3H6 (Canada)

    2007-02-14

    The effects of molecular crowding on small molecule diffusion and chemical reaction rate coefficients are investigated. The systems considered comprise a random distribution of stationary spherical obstacles occupying a volume fraction {phi} of the system and a large number of small molecules whose dynamics are followed. Chemical reactions are studied in such crowded systems where, in addition to the obstacles, a large reactive sphere C is present that catalyses the reaction A+C {yields} B+C. Using a mesoscopic description of the dynamics employing multiparticle collisions among the small molecules, the {phi} dependence of the diffusion and reaction rate coefficients is computed. Both the diffusion and reaction rate coefficients decrease with increase of the obstacle volume fraction as expected but variations of these quantities with {phi} are not predicted by simple models of the dynamics.

  12. Macroscopic and microscopic spectral properties of brain networks during local and global synchronization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maksimenko, V.A.; Lüttjohann, A.; Makarov, V.V.; Goremyko, M.V.; Koronovskii, A.A.; Nedaivozov, V.; Runnova, A.E.; Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van; Hramov, A.E.; Boccaletti, S.

    2017-01-01

    We introduce a practical and computationally not demanding technique for inferring interactions at various microscopic levels between the units of a network from the measurements and the processing of macroscopic signals. Starting from a network model of Kuramoto phase oscillators which evolve

  13. Macroscopic to Microscopic Scales of Particulate Dosimetry: From Source to Fate in the Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Additional perspective with regards to particle dosimetry is achieved by exploring dosimetry across a range of scales from macroscopic to microscopic in scope. Typically, one thinks of dosimetry as what happens when a particle is inhaled, where it is deposited, and how it is clea...

  14. Understanding of Macroscopic, Microscopic and Symbolic Representations among Form Four Students in Solving Stoichiometric Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujak, Kamariah Binti; Daniel, Esther Gnanamalar Sarojini

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to determine the levels of understanding for solving Stoichiometry problems from the aspect of macroscopic, microscopic and symbolic representations of high, average and low achieving students after infusion of metacognitive skills. Nine form four students aged sixteen years old from a secondary school in Kuala…

  15. Effect of the isovector coupling channel on the macroscopic part of the nuclear binding energy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Haddad

    2013-05-01

    The effect of isovector coupling channel on the macroscopic part of the nuclear binding energy is studied using the relativistic density-dependent Thomas–Fermi approach. The dependency of this effect on the number of neutrons and protons is also studied. The isovector coupling channel leads to increased nuclear binding energy, and this effect increases with the increasing neutron number in the nucleus.

  16. Macroscopic quantum tunneling in π Josephson junctions with insulating ferromagnets and its application to phase qubits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kawabata, Shiro; Golubov, Alexander A.

    2007-01-01

    We theoretically investigate macroscopic quantum tunneling (MQT) in a current-biased π junction with a superconductor (S) and an insulating ferromagnet (IF). By using the functional integral method and the instanton approximation, the influence of the quasiparticle dissipation on MQT is found to be

  17. Chaotic advection at the pore scale: Mechanisms, upscaling and implications for macroscopic transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, D. R.; Trefry, M. G.; Metcalfe, G.

    2016-11-01

    The macroscopic spreading and mixing of solute plumes in saturated porous media is ultimately controlled by processes operating at the pore scale. Whilst the conventional picture of pore-scale mechanical dispersion and molecular diffusion leading to persistent hydrodynamic dispersion is well accepted, this paradigm is inherently two-dimensional (2D) in nature and neglects important three-dimensional (3D) phenomena. We discuss how the kinematics of steady 3D flow at the pore scale generate chaotic advection-involving exponential stretching and folding of fluid elements-the mechanisms by which it arises and implications of microscopic chaos for macroscopic dispersion and mixing. Prohibited in steady 2D flow due to topological constraints, these phenomena are ubiquitous due to the topological complexity inherent to all 3D porous media. Consequently 3D porous media flows generate profoundly different fluid deformation and mixing processes to those of 2D flow. The interplay of chaotic advection and broad transit time distributions can be incorporated into a continuous-time random walk (CTRW) framework to predict macroscopic solute mixing and spreading. We show how these results may be generalised to real porous architectures via a CTRW model of fluid deformation, leading to stochastic models of macroscopic dispersion and mixing which both honour the pore-scale kinematics and are directly conditioned on the pore-scale architecture.

  18. Design of Macroscopically Ordered Liquid Crystalline Hydrogel Columns Knitted with Nanosilver for Topical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lali Raveendran, Reshma; Kumar Sasidharan, Nishanth; Devaki, Sudha J

    2017-04-19

    The design of liquid crystalline hydrogels knitted with silver nanoparticles in macroscopic ordering is becoming a subject of research interest due to their promising multifunctional applications in biomedical and optoelectronic applications. The present work describes the development of liquid crystalline Schiff-based hydrogel decorated with silver nanoparticles and the demonstration of its antifungal applications. Schiff base was prepared from polyglucanaldehyde and chitosan, and the former was prepared by the oxidation of amylose (polyglucopyranose) isolated from abundantly available unutilized jackfruit seed starch. Self-assembled silver columns decorated with macroscopically ordered networks were prepared in a single step of in situ condensation and a reduction/complexation process. The various noncovalent interactions among the -OH, -C═O, and -NH impart rigidity and ordering for the formation of macroscopically ordered liquid crystalline hydrogel and the Ag(I) complexation evidenced from the studies made by FT-IR spectroscopy in combination with rheology and microscopic techniques such as SEM, TEM, AFM, XRD, and PLM. The antifungal studies were screened using species of Candida by disc diffusion method. The MIC and MFC values, in vitro antifungal studies, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and propidium iodide (PI) uptake results suggest that the present macroscopically ordered liquid crystalline hydrogel system can be considered an excellent candidate for topical applications. All these results suggest that this design strategy can be exploited for the incorporation of biologically relevant metal nanoparticles for developing unique robust hydrogels for multifunctional applications.

  19. Analysis of macroscopic and microscopic rotating motions in rotating jets: A direct numerical simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingtuan Yang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A direct numerical simulation study of the characteristics of macroscopic and microscopic rotating motions in swirling jets confined in a rectangular flow domain is carried out. The different structures of vortex cores for different swirl levels are illustrated. It is found that the vortex cores of low swirl flows are of regular cylindrical-helix patterns, whereas those of the high swirl flows are characterized by the formation of the bubble-type vortex breakdown followed by the radiant processing vortex cores. The results of mean velocity fields show the general procedures of vortex origination. Moreover, the effects of macroscopic and microscopic rotating motions with respect to the mean and fluctuation fields of the swirling flows are evaluated. The microscopic rotating effects, especially the effects with respect to the turbulent fluctuation motion, are increasingly intermittent with the increase in the swirl levels. In contrast, the maximum value of the probability density functions with respect to the macroscopic rotating effects of the fluctuation motion occurs at moderate swirl levels since the macroscopic rotating effects are attenuated by the formation of the bubble vortex breakdown with a region of stagnant fluids at supercritical swirl levels.

  20. Simulation of root water uptake. I. Non-uniform transient salinity using different macroscopic reduction functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homaee, M.; Dirksen, C.; Feddes, R.A.

    2002-01-01

    A macroscopic root extraction model was used with four different reduction functions for salinity stress in the numerical simulation model HYSWASOR. Most of the parameter values originally proposed for these functions did not provide good agreement with the experimental data. Therefore, the paramete

  1. Reservoir engineering of a mechanical resonator: generating a macroscopic superposition state and monitoring its decoherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asjad, Muhammad; Vitali, David

    2014-02-01

    A deterministic scheme for generating a macroscopic superposition state of a nanomechanical resonator is proposed. The nonclassical state is generated through a suitably engineered dissipative dynamics exploiting the optomechanical quadratic interaction with a bichromatically driven optical cavity mode. The resulting driven dissipative dynamics can be employed for monitoring and testing the decoherence processes affecting the nanomechanical resonator under controlled conditions.

  2. Temperature dependent nonlinear Hall effect in macroscopic Si-MOS antidot array

    OpenAIRE

    Kuntsevich, A. Yu.; Shupltetsov, A. V.; Nunuparov, M. S.

    2015-01-01

    By measuring magnetoresistance and Hall effect in classically moderate perpendicular magnetic field in Si-MOSFET-type macroscopic antidot array we found a novel effect: nonlinear with field, temperature- and density-dependent Hall resistivity. We discuss qualitative explanation of the phenomenon and suggest that it might originate from strong temperature dependence of the resistivity and mobility in the shells of the antidots.

  3. Microscopic and macroscopic polarization within a combined quantum mechanics and molecular mechanics model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jensen, L; Swart, M; van Duijnen, PT

    2005-01-01

    A polarizable quantum mechanics and molecular mechanics model has been extended to account for the difference between the macroscopic electric field and the actual electric field felt by the solute molecule. This enables the calculation of effective microscopic properties which can be related to mac

  4. Microscopic and macroscopic polarization within a combined quantum mechanics and molecular mechanics model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, L; Swart, Marcel; van Duijnen, Piet Th

    2005-01-15

    A polarizable quantum mechanics and molecular mechanics model has been extended to account for the difference between the macroscopic electric field and the actual electric field felt by the solute molecule. This enables the calculation of effective microscopic properties which can be related to macroscopic susceptibilities directly comparable with experimental results. By separating the discrete local field into two distinct contribution we define two different microscopic properties, the so-called solute and effective properties. The solute properties account for the pure solvent effects, i.e., effects even when the macroscopic electric field is zero, and the effective properties account for both the pure solvent effects and the effect from the induced dipoles in the solvent due to the macroscopic electric field. We present results for the linear and nonlinear polarizabilities of water and acetonitrile both in the gas phase and in the liquid phase. For all the properties we find that the pure solvent effect increases the properties whereas the induced electric field decreases the properties. Furthermore, we present results for the refractive index, third-harmonic generation (THG), and electric field induced second-harmonic generation (EFISH) for liquid water and acetonitrile. We find in general good agreement between the calculated and experimental results for the refractive index and the THG susceptibility. For the EFISH susceptibility, however, the difference between experiment and theory is larger since the orientational effect arising from the static electric field is not accurately described.

  5. X-ray-generated heralded macroscopical quantum entanglement of two nuclear ensembles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Wen-Te; Keitel, Christoph H.; Pálffy, Adriana

    2016-09-01

    Heralded entanglement between macroscopical samples is an important resource for present quantum technology protocols, allowing quantum communication over large distances. In such protocols, optical photons are typically used as information and entanglement carriers between macroscopic quantum memories placed in remote locations. Here we investigate theoretically a new implementation which employs more robust x-ray quanta to generate heralded entanglement between two crystal-hosted macroscopical nuclear ensembles. Mössbauer nuclei in the two crystals interact collectively with an x-ray spontaneous parametric down conversion photon that generates heralded macroscopical entanglement with coherence times of approximately 100 ns at room temperature. The quantum phase between the entangled crystals can be conveniently manipulated by magnetic field rotations at the samples. The inherent long nuclear coherence times allow also for mechanical manipulations of the samples, for instance to check the stability of entanglement in the x-ray setup. Our results pave the way for first quantum communication protocols that use x-ray qubits.

  6. Macroscopic quasilinear theory of parallel electron firehose instability associated with solar wind electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarfraz, M.; Yoon, P. H.; Saeed, Sundas; Abbas, G.; Shah, H. A.

    2017-01-01

    A number of different microinstabilities are known to be responsible for regulating the upper bound of temperature anisotropies in solar wind protons, alpha particles, and electrons. In the present paper, quasilinear kinetic theory is employed to investigate the time variation in electron temperature anisotropies in response to the excitation of parallel electron firehose instability in homogeneous and non-collisional solar wind plasma under the condition of T∥e>T⊥e . By assuming the bi-Maxwellian form of velocity distribution functions, various velocity moments of the particle kinetic equation are taken in order to reduce the theory to macroscopic model in which the wave-particle interaction is incorporated, hence, the macroscopic quasilinear theory. The threshold condition for the parallel electron firehose instability, empirically constructed as a curve in (β∥e,T⊥e/T∥e) phase space, is implicit in the present macroscopic quasilinear calculation. Even though the present calculation excludes the oblique firehose instability, which is known to possess a higher growth rate, the basic methodology may be further extended to include such a mode. Among the findings is that the parallel electron firehose instability dynamically couples the electrons and protons, which implies that this instability may be important for overall solar wind dynamics. The present analysis shows that the macroscopic quasilinear approach may eventually be incorporated in global-kinetic models of the solar wind electrons and ions.

  7. Evolution and distribution of macroscopic gas channels in an overburden strata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu; Hongtao; Ma; Nianjie; Ma; Wang; Ren; Guoqiang

    2012-01-01

    The evolution of gas bearing channels in the roof,and their spatial distribution,was studied.A complete consideration of gas flow changes through the stress-strain changes in the roof near a working face is made.The theoretical abutment pressure distribution using displacement monitors and borehole visual recording instruments allow a theoretical analysis.Field test research determined the conditions for formation of macroscopic gas channels.These appear along the working face roof,normally distributed to it.These results show that the coal rock stratification becomes a macroscopic gas channel boundary if its deformation is less than the lower layer,or greater than the layer above it.At the same time the stability is greater than the distance from the roof for hanging dew conditions.The working face advances and the roof gas channels experience a cycle of development.Microscopic channels dominate the initial stage then macroscopic gas channels form,develop,and close.The evolution of the macroscopic channels depends on the ratio between the distances from the new compaction area in the goaf to the initial stress area in front of the working face.The amount of daily advance of the face also affects channel development.The experimental observations in one mining area showed that the main gas channels are located about 2 and 6.2 m above the lower surface of the roof and that they have an evolution period 7 to 11 days long.

  8. Students' Mind Wandering in Macroscopic and Submicroscopic Textual Narrations and Its Relationship with Their Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Balushi, Sulaiman M.; Al-Harthy, Ibrahim S.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate students' mind wandering while reading different types of textual narrations (macroscopic and submicroscopic) in chemistry. Another goal was to determine the relationship between mind wandering and students' reading comprehension. The participants were 65 female ninth grade students in Oman. Using a…

  9. X-ray-generated heralded macroscopical quantum entanglement of two nuclear ensembles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Wen-Te; Keitel, Christoph H; Pálffy, Adriana

    2016-09-19

    Heralded entanglement between macroscopical samples is an important resource for present quantum technology protocols, allowing quantum communication over large distances. In such protocols, optical photons are typically used as information and entanglement carriers between macroscopic quantum memories placed in remote locations. Here we investigate theoretically a new implementation which employs more robust x-ray quanta to generate heralded entanglement between two crystal-hosted macroscopical nuclear ensembles. Mössbauer nuclei in the two crystals interact collectively with an x-ray spontaneous parametric down conversion photon that generates heralded macroscopical entanglement with coherence times of approximately 100 ns at room temperature. The quantum phase between the entangled crystals can be conveniently manipulated by magnetic field rotations at the samples. The inherent long nuclear coherence times allow also for mechanical manipulations of the samples, for instance to check the stability of entanglement in the x-ray setup. Our results pave the way for first quantum communication protocols that use x-ray qubits.

  10. A macroscopic description of coherent geo-magnetic radiation from cosmic-ray air showers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, O.; Werner, K.; Rusydi, F.

    2008-01-01

    We have developed a macroscopic description of coherent electromagnetic radiation from air showers initiated by ultra-high-energy cosmic rays due to the presence of the geo-magnetic field. This description offers it simple and direct insight in the relation between the properties of the air shower a

  11. A Chiral Macroscopic Force between Liquid of Butyl Alcohol and Copper Block

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Yong-Hong; LIU Zhong-Zhu

    2008-01-01

    A non-zero macroscopic chirality-dependent force between a copper block and a vessel of homochiral molecules(butyl alcohol) is calculated quantitatively with the central field approximation. The magnitude of the force is estimated with the published limits of the scalar and pseudo-scalar coupling constants.

  12. Energetics of macroscopic helical domain in different tube geometries and loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Q.P.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Superelastic NiTi polycrystalline shape memory alloy tubes, when subject to slow quasistatic stretching, transform to a high strain phase by the formation and growth of a macroscopic helix-shaped domain as deformation progresses. This paper performed an experimental study on the effects of the external applied nominal strain and the tube geometry (tube radius R, wall-thickness h and length L on the helical domains in isothermal stretching of the tubes. The evolution of the macroscopic domains with the applied strain in different tube geometries are quantified by in-situ optical measurement. We demonstrate that the equilibrium shape of the macroscopic helical domain and its evolution are governed by the competition between the domain front energy and the elastic-misfit bending strain energy of the tube system. The former favors a short helical domain, while the latter favors a long slim helical domain. The experimental results provided basic physical and experimental foundations for further modelling and quantification of the macroscopic domain morphology evolution in tube geometries.

  13. Bilateral subacromial bursitis with macroscopic rice bodies: Ultrasound, CT and MR appearance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Law, T.C.; Chong, S.F.; Lu, P.P. [Kwong Wah Hospital (Hong Kong). Department of Radiology; Mak, K.H. [Kwong Wah Hospital (Hong Kong). Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology

    1998-05-01

    The radiological findings of ultrasound, CT and MR of a case of bilateral subacromial bursitis with macroscopic rice bodies is described. MRI is the investigation of choice and the intravenous gadolinium-enhanced usefulness was noted. The previous literature is also reviewed. Copyright (1998) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd 5 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

  14. Macroscopic Quantum Superposition States in a Model of Photon-Supersonic Phonon Interaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHAI Jin-Hua; WANG Yan-Bang; LU Yi-Qun

    2000-01-01

    A model of photon-hypersonic phonon interaction is proposed. The evolution of macroscopic quantum superpo sition states is analyzed, including the wave function and number distribution. It is shown that a superposition state of hypersonic phonon modes can be generated in the case of nondetuning and no losses.

  15. Bouncing droplets : A classroom experiment to visualize wave-particle duality on the macroscopic level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sleutel, Pascal; Dietrich, Erik; Van Der Veen, Jan T.; Van Joolingen, Wouter R.

    2016-01-01

    This study brings a recently discovered macroscopic phenomenon with wave-particle characteristics into the classroom. The system consists of a liquid droplet levitating over a vertically shaken liquid pool. The droplets allow visualization of a wave-particle system in a directly observable way. We

  16. Influence of macroscopic graphite particulates on the damping properties of Zn-Al eutectoid alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents in detail the effects of macroscopic graphite (Gr) particulates on the damping behavior of Zn-Al eutectoid alloy (Zn-Al). Macroscopic defects are graphite particulates with sizes of the order of a millimeter (0.5 mm and 1.0 mm). Macroscopic graphite particulate-reinforced Zn-Al eutectoid alloys were prepared by the air pressure infiltration process. The damping characterization was conducted on a multifunction internal friction apparatus (MFIFA). The internal friction (IF), as well as the relative dynamic modulus, was measured at different frequencies over the temperature range of 20 to 400℃. The damping capacity of the Zn-Al/Gr, with two different volume fractions of macroscopic graphite particulates, was compared with that of bulk Zn-Al eutectoid alloy. The damping capacity of the materials is shown to increase with increasing volume fraction of macroscopic graphite particulates. Two IF peaks were found in the IF-temperature curves. The first is a grain boundary peak, which is associated with the diffusive flux on a boundary between like phases, Al/Al. Its activation energy has been calculated to be 1.13±0.03 eV and the pre-exponential factor is 10?14 s in IF measurements. The second is a phase transition peak, which results from the transformation of Zn-Al eutectoid. In light of internal friction measurements and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) experiments, its activation energy has been calculated to be 2.36±0.08 eV.

  17. Influence of macroscopic graphite particulates on the damping properties of Zn-Al eutectoid alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI JianNing; SONG ShiHua; HU KongGang; XIE WeiJun; MA MingLiang; LI GenMei

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents in detail the effects of macroscopic graphite (Gr) particulates on the damping be-havior of Zn-AI eutectoid alloy (Zn-AI). Macroscopic defects are graphite particulates with sizes of the order of a millimeter (0.5 mm and 1.0 mm). Macroscopic graphite particulate-reinforced Zn-AI eutectoid alloys were prepared by the air pressure infiltration process. The damping characterization was con-ducted on a multifunction internal friction apparatus (MFIFA). The internal friction (IF), as well as the relative dynamic modulus, was measured at different frequencies over the temperature range of 20 to 400"C. The damping capacity of the Zn-AI/Gr, with two different volume fractions of macroscopic graphite particulates, was compared with that of bulk Zn-Al eutectoid alloy. The damping capacity of the materials is shown to increase with increasing volume fraction of macroscopic graphite particulates. Two IF peaks were found in the IF-temperature curves. The first is a grain boundary peak, which is as-sociated with the diffusive flux on a boundary between like phases, Al/Al. Its activation energy has been calculated to be 1.13±0.03 eV and the pre-exponential factor is 10-14 s in IF measurements. The second is a phase transition peak, which results from the transformation of Zn-AI eutectoid. In light of internal friction measurements and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) experiments, its activation energy has been calculated to be 2.36±0.08 eV.

  18. Grasping the second law of thermodynamics at university: The consistency of macroscopic and microscopic explanations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinonen, Risto; Asikainen, Mervi A.; Hirvonen, Pekka E.

    2015-12-01

    [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Upper Division Physics Courses.] This study concentrates on evaluating the consistency of upper-division students' use of the second law of thermodynamics at macroscopic and microscopic levels. Data were collected by means of a paper and pencil test (N =4 8 ) focusing on the macroscopic and microscopic features of the second law concerned with heat transfer processes. The data analysis was based on a qualitative content analysis where students' responses to the macroscopic- and microscopic-level items were categorized to provide insight into the consistency of the students' ideas; if students relied on the same idea at both levels, they ended up in the same category at both levels, and their use of the second law was consistent. The most essential finding is that a majority of students, 52%-69% depending on the physical system under evaluation, used the second law of thermodynamics consistently at macroscopic and microscopic levels; approximately 40% of the students used it correctly in terms of physics while others relied on erroneous ideas, such as the idea of conserving entropy. The most common inconsistency harbored by 10%-15% of the students (depending on the physical system under evaluation) was students' tendency to consider the number of accessible microstates to remain constant even if the entropy was stated to increase in a similar process; other inconsistencies were only seen in the answers of a few students. In order to address the observed inconsistencies, we would suggest that lecturers should utilize tasks that challenge students to evaluate phenomena at macroscopic and microscopic levels concurrently and tasks that would guide students in their search for contradictions in their thinking.

  19. Mathematical Formalism of Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics for Nonlinear Chemical Reaction Systems with General Rate Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Hao; Qian, Hong

    2017-01-01

    This paper studies a mathematical formalism of nonequilibrium thermodynamics for chemical reaction models with N species, M reactions, and general rate law. We establish a mathematical basis for J. W. Gibbs' macroscopic chemical thermodynamics under G. N. Lewis' kinetic law of entire equilibrium (detailed balance in nonlinear chemical kinetics). In doing so, the equilibrium thermodynamics is then naturally generalized to nonequilibrium settings without detailed balance. The kinetic models are represented by a Markovian jumping process. A generalized macroscopic chemical free energy function and its associated balance equation with nonnegative source and sink are the major discoveries. The proof is based on the large deviation principle of this type of Markov processes. A general fluctuation dissipation theorem for stochastic reaction kinetics is also proved. The mathematical theory illustrates how a novel macroscopic dynamic law can emerges from the mesoscopic kinetics in a multi-scale system.

  20. Electron affinity coefficients of nitrogen oxides and biodegradation kinetics in denitrification of contaminated stream water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung-Hyun; Chung, Jong-Bae; Jeong, Byeong-Ryong; Lee, Young-Deuk; Prasher, Shiv O

    2003-01-01

    During the dry season in Korea, rivers become more vulnerable to contamination by biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and nitrogen. It is hypothesized that the natural characteristics of the streams in Korea allow the contaminated water to be treated at the tributaries. Down-stream river water quality in Korea may be improved by spraying the contaminated stream water from the tributaries over the surrounding floodplains. The consequent water filtration through the soil could remove the contaminants through aerobic and denitrifying reactions. In this study, the kinetics parameters of the denitrifying reaction in floodplain filtration were determined using contaminated stream water. For the electron donor the Monod kinetics was used, while the competitive Michaelis-Menten model was employed for the electron acceptors. The parameters to the competitive Michaelis-Menten model were found using continuous denitrifying reactions, instead of the batch reactions employed in previous studies, to match the conditions needed to apply the competitive Michaelis-Menten kinetics. From the result, it was found that continuous reactions as well as batch reactions could be used to determine the affinity coefficients in denitrification. The results of this study also showed that the affinity coefficient of NO2, using continuous reactions, was similar to that of other studies in the literature found via batch reactions, whereas the affinity coefficient of N2O was much larger than that acquired with batch reactions. The parameters obtained in this study will be used in future work to simulate the contaminant behaviors during floodplain filtration using a mathematical model.

  1. A drying coefficient for building materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheffler, Gregor Albrecht; Plagge, Rudolf

    2009-01-01

    The drying experiment is an important element of the hygrothermal characterisation of building materials. Contrary to other moisture transport experiments as the vapour diffusion and the water absorption test, it is until now not possible to derive a simple coefficient for the drying. However...... coefficient is defined which can be determined based on measured drying data. The correlation of this coefficient with the water absorption and the vapour diffusion coefficient is analyzed and its additional information content is critically challenged. As result, a drying coefficient has been derived...... and defined as a new and independent material parameter. It contains information about the moisture transport properties throughout the wide range of moisture contents from hygroscopic up to saturation. With this new and valuable coefficient, it is now possible to distinguish and select building materials...

  2. INVERSE COEFFICIENT PROBLEMS FOR PARABOLIC HEMIVARIATIONAL INEQUALITIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Zhenhai; I.Szántó

    2011-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the class of inverse problems for a nonlinear parabolic hemivariational inequality.The unknown coefficient of the operator depends on the gradient of the solution and belongs to a set of admissible coefficients.It is proved that the convergence of solutions for the corresponding direct problems continuously depends on the coefficient convergence.Based on this result the existence of a quasisolution of the inverse problem is obtained.

  3. DIFFERENCE SCHEMES BASING ON COEFFICIENT APPROXIMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MOU Zong-ze; LONG Yong-xing; QU Wen-xiao

    2005-01-01

    In respect of variable coefficient differential equations, the equations of coefficient function approximation were more accurate than the coefficient to be frozen as a constant in every discrete subinterval. Usually, the difference schemes constructed based on Taylor expansion approximation of the solution do not suit the solution with sharp function.Introducing into local bases to be combined with coefficient function approximation, the difference can well depict more complex physical phenomena, for example, boundary layer as well as high oscillatory, with sharp behavior. The numerical test shows the method is more effective than the traditional one.

  4. Magnetoelectric voltage coefficients of magnetoelectric composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAN Yong-ping; ZHONG Zheng; QIU Jin-hao

    2006-01-01

    The magnetoelectric(ME) effect of the particulate magnetostrictive/piezoelectric composite was theoretically studied. The dependence of the ME voltage coefficients on the material properties of the magnetostrictive phase was discussed. The permittivity,permeability and the elastic modulus of the magnetostrictive phase generally have obvious influences on the ME voltage coefficients. The magnetostrictive phase with a large permittivity,large permeability or stiffer modulus will respectively contribute to the higher ME voltage coefficients. For a certain kind of piezoelectric matrix,the ME voltage coefficients can be improved to some extent by choosing those magnetostrictive materials with large permittivity,permeability or high elastic modulus.

  5. Why the Method of Undetermined Coefficients Works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Clay C., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    This note presents a simple theorem which explains why the method of undetermined coefficients works in finding a particular solution, both for differential equations and difference equations. (Author)

  6. Comparing linear probability model coefficients across groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Anders; Ejrnæs, Mette; Karlson, Kristian Bernt

    2015-01-01

    This article offers a formal identification analysis of the problem in comparing coefficients from linear probability models between groups. We show that differences in coefficients from these models can result not only from genuine differences in effects, but also from differences in one or more...... of the following three components: outcome truncation, scale parameters and distributional shape of the predictor variable. These results point to limitations in using linear probability model coefficients for group comparisons. We also provide Monte Carlo simulations and real examples to illustrate...... these limitations, and we suggest a restricted approach to using linear probability model coefficients in group comparisons....

  7. Why the Method of Undetermined Coefficients Works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Clay C., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    This note presents a simple theorem which explains why the method of undetermined coefficients works in finding a particular solution, both for differential equations and difference equations. (Author)

  8. Effective stress coefficient for uniaxial strain condition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alam, Mohammad Monzurul; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2012-01-01

    the reason for change in effective stress coefficient under stress. Our model suggests that change in effective stress coefficient will be higher at uniaxial stress condition than at hydrostatic condition. We derived equations from the original definition of Biot to estimate effective stress coefficient from...... one dimensional rock mechanical deformation. We further investigated the effect of boundary condition on the stress dependency of effective stress coefficient and discussed its application in reservoir study. As stress field in the reservoirs are most unlikely to be hydrostatic, effective stress...

  9. Solvation and chemical reaction of sodium in water clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobbert, C.; Schulz, C. P.

    Nam(H2O)n Clusters ( n = 1...200, m = 1...50) are formed in a recently build pick-up arrangement. Preformed water clusters traverse a sodium oven, where sodium atoms are picked up. At low sodium vapour pressure ( 1×10-3 mbar) the water cluster pick up more than 50 Na atoms and reaction products Na(NaOH)n ( n = 2, 4...50) dominate the mass spectra. The even number of NaOH units in the products indicate that also in a finite cluster the reaction occurs in pairs as in the macroscopic reaction.

  10. Kinetic studies of elementary chemical reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durant, J.L. Jr. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    This program concerning kinetic studies of elementary chemical reactions is presently focussed on understanding reactions of NH{sub x} species. To reach this goal, the author is pursuing experimental studies of reaction rate coefficients and product branching fractions as well as using electronic structure calculations to calculate transition state properties and reaction rate calculations to relate these properties to predicted kinetic behavior. The synergy existing between the experimental and theoretical studies allow one to gain a deeper insight into more complex elementary reactions.

  11. The relation between a microscopic threshold-force model and macroscopic models of adhesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulikal, Srivatsan; Bhattacharya, Kaushik; Lapusta, Nadia

    2017-01-01

    This paper continues our recent work on the relationship between discrete contact interactions at the microscopic scale and continuum contact interactions at the macroscopic scale (Hulikal et al., J. Mech. Phys. Solids 76, 144-161, 2015). The focus of this work is on adhesion. We show that a collection of a large number of discrete elements governed by a threshold-force based model at the microscopic scale collectively gives rise to continuum fracture mechanics at the macroscopic scale. A key step is the introduction of an efficient numerical method that enables the computation of a large number of discrete contacts. Finally, while this work focuses on scaling laws, the methodology introduced in this paper can also be used to study rough-surface adhesion.

  12. Measurements of effective total macroscopic cross sections and effective energy of continuum beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Hisao [Rikkyo Univ., Yokosuka, Kanagawa (Japan). Inst. for Atomic Energy

    1998-03-01

    Two practically useful quantities are introduced in this study to characterize a continuum neutron beam and to describe transmission phenomena of the beam in field of quantitative neutron radiography: an effective energy instead of a peak energy or a mean energy of the spectrum and an effective total macroscopic (ETM) cross section instead of a total macroscopic (TM) cross section defined at the monochromatic energy. The effective energy was evaluated by means of energy dependence of ETM cross section. To realize the method a beam quality indicator (BQI) has been proposed recently. Several effective energies were measured for non-filtered, filtered neutron beams, and outputs of neutron guide tubes in world by the BQI. A thermal neutron beam and three beams modulated by Pb filters with different thicknesses are studied to measure ETM cross sections for various materials and summarized in a table. Validity of the effective energy determined by the BQI is discussed relating with ETM cross sections of materials. (author)

  13. Macroscopic description of complex adaptive networks co-evolving with dynamic node states

    CERN Document Server

    Wiedermann, Marc; Heitzig, Jobst; Lucht, Wolfgang; Kurths, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    In many real-world complex systems, the time-evolution of the network's structure and the dynamic state of its nodes are closely entangled. Here, we study opinion formation and imitation on an adaptive complex network which is dependent on the individual dynamic state of each node and vice versa to model the co-evolution of renewable resources with the dynamics of harvesting agents on a social network. The adaptive voter model is coupled to a set of identical logistic growth models and we show that in such systems, the rate of interactions between nodes as well as the adaptive rewiring probability play a crucial role for the sustainability of the system's equilibrium state. We derive a macroscopic description of the system which provides a general framework to model and quantify the influence of single node dynamics on the macroscopic state of the network and is applicable to many fields of study, such as epidemic spreading or social modeling.

  14. Transport processes in macroscopically disordered media from mean field theory to percolation

    CERN Document Server

    Snarskii, Andrei A; Sevryukov, Vladimir A; Morozovskiy, Alexander; Malinsky, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    This book reflects on recent advances in the understanding of percolation systems to present a wide range of transport phenomena in inhomogeneous disordered systems. Further developments in the theory of macroscopically inhomogeneous media are also addressed. These developments include galvano-electric, thermoelectric, elastic properties, 1/f noise and higher current momenta, Anderson localization, and harmonic generation in composites in the vicinity of the percolation threshold. The book describes how one can find effective characteristics, such as conductivity, dielectric permittivity, magnetic permeability, with knowledge of the distribution of different components constituting an inhomogeneous medium. Considered are a wide range of recent studies dedicated to the elucidation of physical properties of macroscopically disordered systems. Aimed at researchers and advanced students, it contains a straightforward set of useful tools which will allow the reader to derive the basic physical properties of compli...

  15. The experimental failure of macroscopic determinism: the case of an electrocardiogram

    CERN Document Server

    Lapiedra, Ramon

    2010-01-01

    Even if never elucidated, the question of determinism is a standing question along the history of human thinking. A physical system evolves in a deterministic way if its future is completely determined once we have fixed some present characteristics of it, i.e., its initial conditions. The problem addressed in the present paper is to test determinism in the macroscopic domain. By imposing a very plausible ``separability'' assumption, we prove that determinism enters in contradiction with the recorded outcomes of a given electrocardiogram. The interest of this result comes from the fact such a basic idea as determinism has never been experimentally tested up to now in the macroscopic domain, and as far as we know not even in the quantum domain.

  16. Some Work and Some Play: Microscopic and Macroscopic Approaches to Labor and Leisure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niyogi, Ritwik K.; Shizgal, Peter; Dayan, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Given the option, humans and other animals elect to distribute their time between work and leisure, rather than choosing all of one and none of the other. Traditional accounts of partial allocation have characterised behavior on a macroscopic timescale, reporting and studying the mean times spent in work or leisure. However, averaging over the more microscopic processes that govern choices is known to pose tricky theoretical problems, and also eschews any possibility of direct contact with the neural computations involved. We develop a microscopic framework, formalized as a semi-Markov decision process with possibly stochastic choices, in which subjects approximately maximise their expected returns by making momentary commitments to one or other activity. We show macroscopic utilities that arise from microscopic ones, and demonstrate how facets such as imperfect substitutability can arise in a more straightforward microscopic manner. PMID:25474151

  17. Some work and some play: microscopic and macroscopic approaches to labor and leisure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritwik K Niyogi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Given the option, humans and other animals elect to distribute their time between work and leisure, rather than choosing all of one and none of the other. Traditional accounts of partial allocation have characterised behavior on a macroscopic timescale, reporting and studying the mean times spent in work or leisure. However, averaging over the more microscopic processes that govern choices is known to pose tricky theoretical problems, and also eschews any possibility of direct contact with the neural computations involved. We develop a microscopic framework, formalized as a semi-Markov decision process with possibly stochastic choices, in which subjects approximately maximise their expected returns by making momentary commitments to one or other activity. We show macroscopic utilities that arise from microscopic ones, and demonstrate how facets such as imperfect substitutability can arise in a more straightforward microscopic manner.

  18. On the role of wave-particle interactions in the macroscopic dynamics of collisionless plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Lynn B; Osmane, Adnane; Malaspina, David M

    2015-01-01

    What is the relative importance of small-scale (i.e., electron to sub-electron scales), microphysical plasma processes to the acceleration of particles from thermal to suprathermal or even to cosmic-ray energies? Additionally, can these microphysical plasma processes influence or even dominate macroscopic (i.e., greater than ion scales) processes, thus affecting global dynamics? These are fundamental and unresolved questions in plasma and astrophysical research. Recent observations of large amplitude electromagnetic waves in the terrestrial radiation belts [i.e., Cattell et al., 2008; Kellogg et al., 2010; Wilson III et al., 2011] and in collisionless shock waves [i.e., Wilson III et al., 2014a,b] have raised questions regarding the macrophysical effect of these microscopic waves. The processes thought to dominate particle acceleration and the macroscopic dynamics in both regions have been brought into question with these recent observations. The relative importance of wave-particle interactions has recently ...

  19. Maxwell's macroscopic equations, the energy-momentum postulates, and the Lorentz law of force

    CERN Document Server

    Mansuripur, Masud

    2013-01-01

    We argue that the classical theory of electromagnetism is based on Maxwell's macroscopic equations, an energy postulate, a momentum postulate, and a generalized form of the Lorentz law of force. These seven postulates constitute the foundation of a complete and consistent theory, thus eliminating the need for actual (i.e., physical) models of polarization P and magnetization M, these being the distinguishing features of Maxwell's macroscopic equations. In the proposed formulation, P(r,t) and M(r,t) are arbitrary functions of space and time, their physical properties being embedded in the seven postulates of the theory. The postulates are self-consistent, comply with the requirements of the special theory of relativity, and satisfy the laws of conservation of energy, linear momentum, and angular momentum. One advantage of the proposed formulation is that it side-steps the long-standing Abraham-Minkowski controversy surrounding the electromagnetic momentum inside a material medium by simply "assigning" the Abra...

  20. Power and energy relations for macroscopic dipolar continua derived from the microscopic Maxwell equations

    CERN Document Server

    Yaghjian, Arthur D

    2015-01-01

    Positive semi-definite expressions for the macroscopic energy density in passive, spatially nondispersive dipolar continua are derived from the underlying microscopic Maxwellian equations satisfied by discrete bound dipolar molecules or inclusions of the material or metamaterial continua. The microscopic derivation reveals two distinct positive semi-definite macroscopic energy expressions, one that applies to diamagnetic continua and another that applies to nondiamagnetic continua (for example, paramagnetic or ferro(i)magnetic material). The diamagnetic dipoles are unconditionally passive in that their Amperian magnetic dipole moments are zero in the absence of applied fields. The analysis of the nondiamagnetic continua, which are defined in terms of magnetization caused by the alignment of randomly oriented pre-existing Amperian magnetic dipole moments that dominate any induced diamagnetic magnetization, is greatly simplified by first proving that the microscopic power equations for rotating pre-existing Amp...

  1. Unaffected microscopic dynamics of macroscopically arrested water in dilute clay gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seydel, Tilo; Wiegart, Lutz; Juranyi, Fanni; Struth, Bernd; Schober, Helmut

    2008-12-01

    Adequate clay minerals considerably affect the macroscopic mechanical behavior of water even at concentrations of a few percent. Thus when 2wt.% laponite clay mineral nanoparticles are added to water, the resulting colloidal suspension after some time takes on the semisolid characteristics of a jellylike material at room temperature. Cold neutron time-of-flight spectroscopy data are in agreement with the assumption that notwithstanding this macroscopic change, the mobility of the water molecules on intermolecular and intramolecular length scales remains largely unaffected. This observation is discussed in the context of the properties and the role of water in different more or less dilute ionic environments. The result contributes to the ongoing debate of the properties and role of water in living cells.

  2. Macroscopic model of self-propelled bacteria swarming with regular reversals

    CERN Document Server

    Gejji, Richard; Alber, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Periodic reversals of the direction of motion in systems of self-propelled rod shaped bacteria enable them to effectively resolve traffic jams formed during swarming and maximize their swarming rate. In this paper, a connection is found between a microscopic one dimensional cell-based stochastic model of reversing non-overlapping bacteria and a macroscopic non-linear diffusion equation describing dynamics of the cellular density. Boltzmann-Matano analysis is used to determine the nonlinear diffusion equation corresponding to the specific reversal frequency. Macroscopically (ensemble-vise) averaged stochastic dynamics is shown to be in a very good agreement with the numerical solutions of the nonlinear diffusion equation. Critical density $p_0$ is obtained such that nonlinear diffusion is dominated by the collisions between cells for the densities $p>p_0$. An analytical approximation of the pairwise collision time and semi-analytical fit for the total jam time per reversal period are also obtained. It is shown...

  3. Determination of crystallographic and macroscopic orientation of planar structures in TEM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, X.; Liu, Q.

    1998-01-01

    With the aid of a double-tilt holder in a transmission electron microscope (TEM), simple methods are described for determination of the crystallographic orientation of a planar structure and for calculation of the macroscopic orientation of the planar structure. The correlation between a planar s...... taken at tilted positions, can be transformed to the real macroscopic orientation of the planar structures with estimated error of about +/- 2 degrees. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....... structure and a crystallographic plane can be found by comparing the differences in their trace directions on the projection plane and inclination angles with respect to that plane. The angles between the traces of planar structures and the sample axis measured from the TEM micrographs, which have been...

  4. Micro-macroscopic coupling in the cellular automaton model of solidification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Bertolazzi Biscuola

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A cellular automaton (CA model to predict the formation of grain macrostructure during solidification has been implemented and the coupling between the microscopic and the macroscopic submodels has been investigated. The microscopic submodel simulates the nucleation and growth of grains, whereas the macroscopic solves the heat conduction equation. The directional solidification of an Al-7 wt. (% Si alloy was simulated, enabling the calculation of the temperature and solid fraction profiles. The calculated temperature was used to obtain the solid fraction profile by an application of Scheil equation. This solid fraction disagrees with that calculated in the micro-macro coupling of the model, although this coupling is completely based on Scheil equation. Careful examination of the discrepancies shows that it is a result of the undercoolings for nucleation and growth of grains and also of the interpolations of enthalpy change and temperature from the finite volume mesh to the CA cell mesh.

  5. Some work and some play: microscopic and macroscopic approaches to labor and leisure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niyogi, Ritwik K; Shizgal, Peter; Dayan, Peter

    2014-12-01

    Given the option, humans and other animals elect to distribute their time between work and leisure, rather than choosing all of one and none of the other. Traditional accounts of partial allocation have characterised behavior on a macroscopic timescale, reporting and studying the mean times spent in work or leisure. However, averaging over the more microscopic processes that govern choices is known to pose tricky theoretical problems, and also eschews any possibility of direct contact with the neural computations involved. We develop a microscopic framework, formalized as a semi-Markov decision process with possibly stochastic choices, in which subjects approximately maximise their expected returns by making momentary commitments to one or other activity. We show macroscopic utilities that arise from microscopic ones, and demonstrate how facets such as imperfect substitutability can arise in a more straightforward microscopic manner.

  6. Macroscopic and microscopic analysis of knife stab wounds on fleshed and clothed ribs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferllini, Roxana

    2012-05-01

    Stab wounds upon bone are analyzed to interpret the weapon used and the physical context in which the attack occurred. The literature demonstrates that most research conducted pertaining to wound patterns has been carried out on defleshed and unclothed bone samples, not adequately replicating actual circumstances. For this research, six half pig torsos (Sus scrofa), fleshed (including muscle, fat, epidermis, and dermis layers) and clothed, were stabbed using three knife types, applying both straight and downward thrusts. Analysis conducted macroscopically and through a scanning electron microscope with an environmental secondary electron detector revealed a general lack of consistency in wound pattern and associated secondary effects. Consequently, it was not possible to establish wound pattern per knife type as suggested in previous research or relate it to stab motion. Advantage of microscopic analysis was evident in recognizing wound traits and observation of trace evidence not visible macroscopically.

  7. On cavitation and macroscopic behaviour of amorphous polymer-rubber blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naima Belayachi et al

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The macroscopic behaviour of rubber-modified polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA was investigated by taking into account the microdeformation mechanisms of rubber cavitation. The dependence of the macroscopic stress–strain behaviour of matrix deformation on the cavitation of rubber particles was discussed. A phenomenological elastic-viscoplastic model was used to model the behaviour of the matrix material, while the rubber particles were modelled with the hyperelasticity theory. A two-phase composite material with a periodic arrangement of reinforcing particles of a circular unit cell section was considered. Finite-element analysis was used to determine the local stresses and strains in the two-phase composite. In order to describe the cavitation of the rubber particles, a criterion of void nucleation is implemented in the finite-element (FE code. A comparison of the numerically predicted response with experimental result indicates that the numerical homogenisation analysis gives satisfactory prediction results.

  8. Macroscopic irreversibility and microscopic paradox: A Constructal law analysis of atoms as open systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucia, Umberto

    2016-10-01

    The relation between macroscopic irreversibility and microscopic reversibility is a present unsolved problem. Constructal law is introduced to develop analytically the Einstein’s, Schrödinger’s, and Gibbs’ considerations on the interaction between particles and thermal radiation (photons). The result leads to consider the atoms and molecules as open systems in continuous interaction with flows of photons from their surroundings. The consequent result is that, in any atomic transition, the energy related to the microscopic irreversibility is negligible, while when a great number of atoms (of the order of Avogadro’s number) is considered, this energy related to irreversibility becomes so large that its order of magnitude must be taken into account. Consequently, macroscopic irreversibility results related to microscopic irreversibility by flows of photons and amount of atoms involved in the processes.

  9. Macroscopic model for biological fixation and its uncover-ing idea in Chinese Mongolian traditional osteopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Namula; LI Xue-en; WANG Mei; HU Da-lai

    2009-01-01

    Splintage external fixation in Chinese Mongolian oste-opathy is a biological macroscopic model. In this model, the ideas of self-life "unity of mind and body" and vital natural "correspondence of nature and human" combine the physi-ological and psychological self-fixation with supplementary external fixation of fracture using small splints. This model implies macroscopic ideas of uncovering fixation and healing: structural stability integrating geometrical "dy-namic" stability with mechanical "dynamic" equilibrium and the stability of state integrating statics with dynamics, and osteoblasts with osteoclasts, and psychological stability in-tegrating closed and open systems of human and nature. These ideas indicate a trend of development in modem osteopathy.

  10. Macroscopic relationship for preferential flow in the vadose zone:Theory and validation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Preferential flow commonly observed in unsaturated soils allows rapid movement of solute from the ground surface or vadose zone to the groundwater, bypassing a significant volume of unsaturated soil and increasing the risk of groundwater contamination. A variety of evidence indicates that complex preferential flow patterns observed from fields are fractals. This paper discusses a macroscopic relationship for modeling preferential flow in the vadose zone. Conceptually, the flow domain can be divided into active and inactive regions. Flow occurs preferentially in the active region (characterized by fractals), and inactive region is simply bypassed. The portion of the active region was found to be a power function of saturation. The validity of this macroscopic relationship is demonstrated by its consistency with field observations and the related numerical experiments.

  11. Thermal extraction: enhancing thermal emission of finite size macroscopic blackbody to far-field vacuum

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Zongfu; Zhang, Torbjorn Skauli Gang; Wang, Hailiang; Fan, Shanhui

    2012-01-01

    The understanding of far-field thermal radiation had directly led to the discovery of quantum mechanics a century ago, and is of great current practical importance for applications in energy conversions, radiative cooling, and thermal control. It is commonly assumed that for any macroscopic thermal emitter, its maximal emitted power within any given frequency range cannot exceed that of a blackbody with the same surface area. In contrast to such conventional wisdom, here we propose, and experimentally demonstrate, that the emitted power from a finite size macroscopic blackbody to far field vacuum can be significantly enhanced, within the constraint of the second law of thermodynamics. To achieve such an enhancement, the thermal body needs to have internal electromagnetic density of states (DOS) greater than that of vacuum, and one needs to provide a thermal extraction mechanism to enable the contributions of all internal modes to far field radiation.

  12. Cavity-Assisted Generation of Sustainable Macroscopic Entanglement of Ultracold Gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaitanya Joshi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Prospects for reaching persistent entanglement between two spatially-separated atomic Bose–Einstein condensates are outlined. The system setup comprises two condensates loaded in an optical lattice, which, in return, is confined within a high-Q optical resonator. The system is driven by an external laser that illuminates the atoms, such that photons can scatter into the cavity. In the superradiant phase, a cavity field is established, and we show that the emerging cavity-mediated interactions between the two condensates is capable of entangling them despite photon losses. This macroscopic atomic entanglement is sustained throughout the time-evolution apart from occasions of sudden deaths/births. Using an auxiliary photon mode and coupling it to a collective quadrature of the two condensates, we demonstrate that the auxiliary mode’s squeezing is proportional to the atomic entanglement, and as such, it can serve as a probe field of the macroscopic entanglement.

  13. All-carbon nanotube diode and solar cell statistically formed from macroscopic network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Albert G. Nasibulin[1,2,3; Adinath M. Funde[3,4; Ilya V. Anoshkin[3; Igor A. Levitskyt[5,6

    2015-01-01

    Schottky diodes and solar cells are statistically created in the contact area between two macroscopic films of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) at the junction of semiconducting and quasi-metallic bundles consisting of several high quality tubes. The n-doping of one of the films allows for photovoltaic action, owing to an increase in the built-in potential at the bundle-to-bundle interface. Statistical analysis demonstrates that the Schottky barrier device contributes significantly to the I-V characteristics, compared to the p-n diode. The upper limit of photovoltaic conversion efficiency has been estimated at N20%, demonstrating that the light energy conversion is very efficient for such a unique solar cell. While there have been multiple studies on rectifying SWNT diodes in the nanoscale environment, this is the first report of a macroscopic all-carbon nanotube diode and solar cell.

  14. Macroscopic observables experimentally linked to microscopic processes in the explosive fracture and fragmentation of metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, Lawrence M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-12-16

    The response of a metal element to explosive loading depends on a broad spectrum of explosive and metal properties, macroscopic geometry plays a crucial role in defining the localized loading history and the resulting gradients of interest, while microscopic effects and defects are generally believed responsible for damage nucleation. Certain experiments reduce the complexity by producing conditions that are uniform in some sense, allowing dynamic measurement of variables that can be correlated with corresponding microscopic effects observed in recovery experiments. Spherical expansion of thin shells, that eventually fragment, and steady wave loading of flat plates are two such experiments. Proton radiography, x-radiography, laser velocimetry, imaging IR, and visible light photography all have produced dynamic measurements in 4340 steel, copper, uranium alloys, tantalum, and titanium. Correlation of the macroscopic measurements with microscopy on recovered samples has been done with a statistical approach.

  15. Macroscopic and large scale phenomena coarse graining, mean field limits and ergodicity

    CERN Document Server

    Rademacher, Jens; Zagaris, Antonios

    2016-01-01

    This book is the offspring of a summer school school “Macroscopic and large scale phenomena: coarse graining, mean field limits and ergodicity”, which was held in 2012 at the University of Twente, the Netherlands. The focus lies on mathematically rigorous methods for multiscale problems of physical origins. Each of the four book chapters is based on a set of lectures delivered at the school, yet all authors have expanded and refined their contributions. Francois Golse delivers a chapter on the dynamics of large particle systems in the mean field limit and surveys the most significant tools and methods to establish such limits with mathematical rigor. Golse discusses in depth a variety of examples, including Vlasov--Poisson and Vlasov--Maxwell systems. Lucia Scardia focuses on the rigorous derivation of macroscopic models using $\\Gamma$-convergence, a more recent variational method, which has proved very powerful for problems in material science. Scardia illustrates this by various basic examples and a mor...

  16. Investigating macroscopic quantum superpositions and the quantum-to-classical transition by optical parametric amplification

    CERN Document Server

    De Martini, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    The present work reports on an extended research endeavor focused on the theoretical and experimental realization of a macroscopic quantum superposition (MQS) made up with photons. As it is well known, this intriguing, fundamental quantum condition is at the core of a famous argument conceived by Erwin Schroedinger, back in 1935. The main experimental challenge to the actual realization of this object resides generally on the unavoidable and uncontrolled interactions with the environment, i.e. the decoherence leading to the cancellation of any evidence of the quantum features associated with the macroscopic system. The present scheme is based on a nonlinear process, the "quantum injected optical parametric amplification", that maps by a linearized cloning process the quantum coherence of a single - particle state, i.e. a Micro - qubit, into a Macro - qubit, consisting in a large number M of photons in quantum superposition. Since the adopted scheme was found resilient to decoherence, the MQS\\ demonstration wa...

  17. [Study on macroscopic and microscopic identification of Saposhnikovia divaricata and its counterfeits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hai-tao; Xu, An-shun; Zhang, Li-xia; Duan, Bao-zhong; Guan, Yan-hong

    2013-12-01

    To provide an identification method for the roots of Saposhnikovia divaricata and its three counterfeits. Macroscopic identification and microscopic identification of root transverse section and powder were carried out to distinguish these four species. For macroscopic characteristics, Saposhnikoviae Radix and its counterfeits can be distinguished by the head of the residual leaf and sections. As for microscopic identification, the feature was not obvious. But there were some differences to distinguish them,such as the number of cork layer, cambium was evident or not, the number of the xylem catheter,the presence or absence of large oil pipe and longitudinal cracks between the part from cortex to xylem. This is a simple and accurate method for distinguish Saposhnikoviae Radix and its counterfeits.

  18. Chaotic Advection at the Pore Scale: Mechanisms, Upscaling and Implications for Macroscopic Transport

    CERN Document Server

    Lester, D R; Metcalfe, Guy

    2016-01-01

    The macroscopic spreading and mixing of solute plumes in saturated porous media is ultimately controlled by processes operating at the pore scale. Whilst the conventional picture of pore-scale mechanical dispersion and molecular diffusion leading to persistent hydrodynamic dispersion is well accepted, this paradigm is inherently two-dimensional (2D) in nature and neglects important three-dimensional (3D) phenomena. We discuss how the kinematics of steady 3D flow at the porescale generate chaotic advection, involving exponential stretching and folding of fluid elements,the mechanisms by which it arises and implications of microscopic chaos for macroscopic dispersion and mixing. Prohibited in steady 2D flow due to topological constraints, these phenomena are ubiquitous due to the topological complexity inherent to all 3D porous media. Consequently 3D porous media flows generate profoundly different fluid deformation and mixing processes to those of 2D flow. The interplay of chaotic advection and broad transit t...

  19. A macroscopic relationship for preferential flow in the vadose zone: Theory and Validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, H.H.; Zhang, R.D.

    2010-02-15

    Preferential flow commonly observed in unsaturated soils allows rapid movement of solute from the ground surface or vadose zone to the groundwater, bypassing a significant volume of unsaturated soil and increasing the risk of groundwater contamination. A variety of evidence indicates that complex preferential flow patterns observed from fields are fractals. This paper discusses a macroscopic rela-tionship for modeling preferential flow in the vadose zone. Conceptually, the flow domain can be di-vided into active and inactive regions. Flow occurs preferentially in the active region (characterized by fractals), and inactive region is simply bypassed. The portion of the active region was found to be a power function of saturation. The validity of this macroscopic relationship is demonstrated by its consistency with field observations and the related numerical experiments.

  20. Dynamic Model and Control of a Photovoltaic Generation System using Energetic Macroscopic Representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano, Javier; Duarte, José; Vargas, Erwin; Cabrera, Jhon; Jácome, Andrés; Botero, Mónica; Rey, Juan

    2016-10-01

    This paper addresses the Energetic Macroscopic Representation EMR, the modelling and the control of photovoltaic panel PVP generation systems for simulation purposes. The model of the PVP considers the variations on irradiance and temperature. A maximum power point tracking MPPT algorithm is considered to control the power converter. A novel EMR is proposed to consider the dynamic model of the PVP with variations in the irradiance and the temperature. The EMR is evaluated through simulations of a PVP generation system.