WorldWideScience

Sample records for macroscopic measuring apparatus

  1. New Tests of Macroscopic Local Realism using Continuous Variable Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Reid, M D

    2001-01-01

    We show that quantum mechanics predicts an Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox (EPR), and also a contradiction with local hidden variable theories, for photon number measurements which have limited resolving power, to the point of imposing an uncertainty in the photon number result which is macroscopic in absolute terms. We show how this can be interpreted as a failure of a new, very strong premise, called macroscopic local realism. We link this premise to the Schrodinger-cat paradox. Our proposed experiments ensure all fields incident on each measurement apparatus are macroscopic. We show that an alternative measurement scheme corresponds to balanced homodyne detection of quadrature phase amplitudes. The implication is that where either EPR correlations or failure of local realism is predicted for continuous variable (quadrature phase amplitude) measurements, one can perform a modified experiment which would lead to conclusions about the much stronger premise of macroscopic local realism.

  2. Current measurement apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umans, Stephen D.

    2008-11-11

    Apparatus and methods are provided for a system for measurement of a current in a conductor such that the conductor current may be momentarily directed to a current measurement element in order to maintain proper current without significantly increasing an amount of power dissipation attributable to the current measurement element or adding resistance to assist in current measurement. The apparatus and methods described herein are useful in superconducting circuits where it is necessary to monitor current carried by the superconducting elements while minimizing the effects of power dissipation attributable to the current measurement element.

  3. Measuring Apparatus for Coal Powder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The measuring apparatus for coal powder, equipped with radioactive source, is a set of device andcan be used to measure the density in the pipes and cumulative consumed amount of coal powder in apower plant, and to examine and display the status of the coal powder input system. It is sketched asFig. 1.

  4. Apparatus for measuring fluid flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J.E.; Thomas, D.G.

    Flow measuring apparatus includes a support loop having strain gages mounted thereon and a drag means which is attached to one end of the support loop and which bends the sides of the support loop and induces strains in the strain gages when a flow stream impacts thereon.

  5. Electromechanical Apparatus Measures Residual Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chern, Engmin J.; Flom, Yury

    1993-01-01

    Nondestructive test exploits relationship between stress and eddy-current-probe resistance. Yields data on residual stress or strain in metal tension/compression specimen (stress or strain remaining in specimen when no stress applied from without). Apparatus is assembly of commercial equipment: tension-or-compression testing machine, eddy-current probe, impedance gain-and-phase analyzer measuring impedance of probe coil, and desktop computer, which controls other equipment and processes data received from impedance gain-and-phase analyzer.

  6. Tube wall thickness measurement apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagasse, P.R.

    1985-06-21

    An apparatus for measuring the thickness of a tube's wall for the tube's entire length and radius by determining the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the known thickness of a selected standard item. The apparatus comprises a base and a first support member having first and second ends. The first end is connected to the base and the second end is connected to a spherical element. A second support member is connected to the base and spaced apart from the first support member. A positioning element is connected to and movable relative to the second support member. An indicator is connected to the positioning element and is movable to a location proximate the spherical element. The indicator includes a contact ball for first contacting the selected standard item and holding it against the spherical element. The contact ball then contacts the tube when the tube is disposed about the spherical element. The indicator includes a dial having a rotatable needle for indicating the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the thickness of the selected standard item.

  7. Tube wall thickness measurement apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagasse, P.R.

    1985-06-21

    An apparatus for measuring the thickness of a tube's wall for the tube's entire length and radius by determining the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the known thickness of a selected standard item. The apparatus comprises a base and a first support member having first and second ends. The first end is connected to the base and the second end is connected to a spherical element. A second support member is connected to the base and spaced apart from the first support member. A positioning element is connected to and movable relative to the second support member. An indicator is connected to the positioning element and is movable to a location proximate the spherical element. The indicator includes a contact ball for first contacting the selected standard item and holding it against the spherical element. The contact ball then contacts the tube when the tube is disposed about the spherical element. The indicator includes a dial having a rotatable needle for indicating the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the thickness of the selected standard item.

  8. Tube wall thickness measurement apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagasse, Paul R. (Santa Fe, NM)

    1987-01-01

    An apparatus for measuring the thickness of a tube's wall for the tube's entire length and circumference by determining the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the known thickness of a selected standard item. The apparatus comprises a base and a first support member having first and second ends. The first end is connected to the base and the second end is connected to a spherical element. A second support member is connected to the base and spaced apart from the first support member. A positioning element is connected to and movable relative to the second support member. An indicator is connected to the positioning element and is movable to a location proximate the spherical element. The indicator includes a contact ball for first contacting the selected standard item and holding it against the spherical element. The contact ball then contacts the tube when the tube is disposed about the spherical element. The indicator includes a dial having a rotatable needle for indicating the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the thickness of the selected standard item.

  9. Tube wall thickness measurement apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagasse, P.R.

    1987-01-06

    An apparatus is described for measuring the thickness of a tube's wall for the tube's entire length and circumference by determining the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the known thickness of a selected standard item, the apparatus comprising: a. a base; b. a first support member having first and second ends, the first end being connected to the base, the first support member having a sufficiently small circumference that the tube can be slid over the first support member; c. a spherical element, the spherical element being connected to the second end of the first support member. The spherical element has a sufficiently small circumference at its equator that the tube can be slid over the spherical element, the spherical element having at its equator a larger circumference than the first support member; d. a second support member having first and second ends, the first end being connected to the base, the second support member being spaced apart form the first support member; e. a positioning element connected to and moveable relative to the second support member; and f. an indicator connected to the positioning element and being moveable thereby to a location proximate the spherical element. The indicator includes a contact ball for contacting the selected standard item and holding it against the spherical element, the contact ball contacting the tube when the tube is disposed about the spherical element. The indicator includes a dial having a rotatable needle for indicating the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the thickness of the selected standard item, the rotatable needle being operatively connected to and responsive to the position of the contact ball.

  10. Pulse measurement apparatus and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciante, John R.; Donaldson, William R.; Roides, Richard G.

    2011-10-25

    An embodiment of the invention is directed to a pulse measuring system that measures a characteristic of an input pulse under test, particularly the pulse shape of a single-shot, nano-second duration, high shape-contrast optical or electrical pulse. An exemplary system includes a multi-stage, passive pulse replicator, wherein each successive stage introduces a fixed time delay to the input pulse under test, a repetitively-gated electronic sampling apparatus that acquires the pulse train including an entire waveform of each replica pulse, a processor that temporally aligns the replicated pulses, and an averager that temporally averages the replicated pulses to generate the pulse shape of the pulse under test. An embodiment of the invention is directed to a method for measuring an optical or an electrical pulse shape. The method includes the steps of passively replicating the pulse under test with a known time delay, temporally stacking the pulses, and temporally averaging the stacked pulses. An embodiment of the invention is directed to a method for increasing the dynamic range of a pulse measurement by a repetitively-gated electronic sampling device having a rated dynamic range capability, beyond the rated dynamic range of the sampling device; e.g., enhancing the dynamic range of an oscilloscope. The embodied technique can improve the SNR from about 300:1 to 1000:1. A dynamic range enhancement of four to seven bits may be achieved.

  11. Apparatus for measuring particle properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rader, D.J.; Castaneda, J.N.; Grasser, T.W.; Brockmann, J.E.

    1998-08-11

    An apparatus is described for determining particle properties from detected light scattered by the particles. The apparatus uses a light beam with novel intensity characteristics to discriminate between particles that pass through the beam and those that pass through an edge of the beam. The apparatus can also discriminate between light scattered by one particle and light scattered by multiple particles. The particle`s size can be determined from the intensity of the light scattered. The particle`s velocity can be determined from the elapsed time between various intensities of the light scattered. 11 figs.

  12. Manufacture of ultrasonic thickness measurement apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohba, Toshihiro; Yanagihara, Takao; Katoh, Chiaki; Hamada, Shozo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-09-01

    The demonstration test for evaluating reliability of the acid recovery evaporator at Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant has been carried out at JAERI. For the nondestructive measurement of the thickness of heat transfer tubes in the acid recovery evaporator and short tubes used in corrosion test, we have developed ultra sonic thickness measuring apparatus using immersion method with high resolution. This apparatus can measure and record tube thickness automatically with a personal computer. The results obtained by this apparatus are coincident with the results obtained by a destructive method using an optical microscope. (author)

  13. Measurement-Induced Macroscopic Superposition States in Cavity Optomechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Ulrich B.; Kollath-Bönig, Johann; Neergaard-Nielsen, Jonas S.; Andersen, Ulrik L.

    2016-09-01

    A novel protocol for generating quantum superpositions of macroscopically distinct states of a bulk mechanical oscillator is proposed, compatible with existing optomechanical devices operating in the bad-cavity limit. By combining a pulsed optomechanical quantum nondemolition (QND) interaction with nonclassical optical resources and measurement-induced feedback, the need for strong single-photon coupling is avoided. We outline a three-pulse sequence of QND interactions encompassing squeezing-enhanced cooling by measurement, state preparation, and tomography.

  14. Indirect measurement of interfacial melting from macroscopic ice observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saruya, Tomotaka; Kurita, Kei; Rempel, Alan W

    2014-06-01

    Premelted water that is adsorbed to particle surfaces and confined to capillary regions remains in the liquid state well below the bulk melting temperature and can supply the segregated growth of ice lenses. Using macroscopic measurements of ice-lens initiation position in step-freezing experiments, we infer how the nanometer-scale thicknesses of premelted films depend on temperature depression below bulk melting. The interfacial interactions between ice, liquid, and soda-lime glass particles exhibit a power-law behavior that suggests premelting in our system is dominated by short-range electrostatic forces. Using our inferred film thicknesses as inputs to a simple force-balance model with no adjustable parameters, we obtain good quantitative agreement between numerical predictions and observed ice-lens thickness. Macroscopic observations of lensing behavior have the potential as probes of premelting behavior in other systems.

  15. High-field bipolar loss measurement apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weldon, D.; Thullen, P.; Wollan, J.

    1980-09-01

    An apparatus was constructed to measure dissipation in superconducting wire in high alternating fields. The circuit incorporates a pair of locomotive traction motors as the capacitive circuit element for the bipolar swing. The design, construction and operating characteristics of the field coil and the associated circuitry are described.

  16. Measurement-induced macroscopic superposition states in cavity optomechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Hoff, Ulrich B; Neergaard-Nielsen, Jonas S; Andersen, Ulrik L

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel proposal for generating quantum superpositions of macroscopically distinct states of a bulk mechanical oscillator, compatible with existing optomechanical devices operating in the readily achievable bad-cavity limit. The scheme is based on a pulsed cavity optomechanical quantum non-demolition (QND) interaction, driven by displaced non-Gaussian states, and measurement-induced feedback, avoiding the need for strong single-photon optomechanical coupling. Furthermore, we show that single-quadrature cooling of the mechanical oscillator is sufficient for efficient state preparation, and we outline a three-pulse protocol comprising a sequence of QND interactions for squeezing-enhanced cooling, state preparation, and tomography.

  17. Apparatus and techniques for measuring bedload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbell, David Wellington

    1964-01-01

    The need for accurate determinations of the total sediment discharge of particles of bedload size has prompted this investigation of available and possible measuring apparatus and procedures. The accuracy of measurements of sediment discharge made with trap-type samplers is affected by the variability of sampler efficiency, by the oscillatory variation of bedload discharge, and by sampler placement. Equations that were developed for determining total discharge from measured bedioad discharge and measured suspended-sediment discharge are simplest if the bedload apparatus measures only the true bedload. Early bedload samplers are generally unsatisfactory. Recently developed or suggested apparatus include various improved samplers of the pressure-difference type, a pumping sampler, a magnetic sampler, acoustical instruments that measure the magnitude of the sound of particle collisions, an ultrasonic bedload sampler designed to measure and integrate electronically the concentration and velocity, and a tiltmeter designed to measure the total sediment discharge from the ground tilt that results from the passage of flow. All the pressure-difference samplers are improvements over early samplers, but none are void of the inherent shortcomings of trap-type apparatus; probably the Sphinx (Dutch) and VUV (Hungarian) samplers are the most satisfactory. The acoustical instruments are capable of measuring only the relative discharge. The ultrasonic sampler and the tiltmeter are not adequate without further development. Some new possible apparatus and means for measuring or aiding in measuring bedload discharge are small pit samplers, ultrasonic sounders, pressure transducers, and photography. A small pit sampler for measuring bedload discharge was designed to provide self-placement and portability ; however, its practicability and efficiency are undetermined. Exploratory films show that by using slowmotion photography the discharge of particles larger than about pea size can be

  18. High-field bipolar loss measurement apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thullen, P.; Weldon, D.; Wollan, J.

    1980-01-01

    An apparatus was constructed to measure dissipation in superconducting wire in high alternating fields. The apparatus will be used to make measurements on conductors which must operate in fields up to 7.0 T and rates of field change up to 15 T/s. The magnet for this facility is wound of uninsulated, 15 strand Rutherford cable in which the strand is a 0.812 mm diameter, fully mixed matrix, Cu plus CuNi, multifilament NbTi conductor. The coil is wound in a bath cooled configuration with an overall current density of 7.8 kA/cm/sup 2/. The circuit incorporates a pair of locomotive traction motors as the capacitive circuit element for the bipolar swing. The design, construction and operating characteristics of the field coil and the associated circuitry are described.

  19. A radial transmission line material measurement apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warne, L.K.; Moyer, R.D.; Koontz, T.E.; Morris, M.E.

    1993-05-01

    A radial transmission line material measurement sample apparatus (sample holder, offset short standards, measurement software, and instrumentation) is described which has been proposed, analyzed, designed, constructed, and tested. The purpose of the apparatus is to obtain accurate surface impedance measurements of lossy, possibly anisotropic, samples at low and intermediate frequencies (vhf and low uhf). The samples typically take the form of sections of the material coatings on conducting objects. Such measurements thus provide the key input data for predictive numerical scattering codes. Prediction of the sample surface impedance from the coaxial input impedance measurement is carried out by two techniques. The first is an analytical model for the coaxial-to-radial transmission line junction. The second is an empirical determination of the bilinear transformation model of the junction by the measurement of three full standards. The standards take the form of three offset shorts (and an additional lossy Salisbury load), which have also been constructed. The accuracy achievable with the device appears to be near one percent.

  20. Method and apparatus for measuring electromagnetic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Been, J. F. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    An apparatus and method are described in which the capacitance of a semiconductor junction subjected to an electromagnetic radiation field is utilized to indicate the intensity or strength of the radiation.

  1. Macroscopic characterization of cell electroporation in biological tissue based on electrical measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cima, Lionel F.; Mir, Lluis M.

    2004-11-01

    A method is described to experimentally determine the temporal evolution of state variables involved in the electroporation of biological tissue, i.e., the transmembrane voltage and the macroscopic current flowing in the electropores. Indeed, the electrical parameters of the extracellular, intracellular, and unaltered membrane contributions as well as the electropores electrical characteristics can be deduced from the measurement of the tissue bioimpedance and from the variations of both the macroscopic voltage applied to the tissue and the delivered current.

  2. Microwave/Sonic Apparatus Measures Flow and Density in Pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, G. D.; Ngo, Phong; Carl, J. R.; Byerly, Kent A.

    2004-01-01

    An apparatus for measuring the rate of flow and the mass density of a liquid or slurry includes a special section of pipe instrumented with microwave and sonic sensors, and a computer that processes digitized readings taken by the sensors. The apparatus was conceived specifically for monitoring a flow of oil-well-drilling mud, but the basic principles of its design and operation are also applicable to monitoring flows of other liquids and slurries.

  3. Development and application of spectacles frame parameter measurement apparatus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Qing; Gary Ming Guo; Hu Hongzhi; Hu Jinquan

    2007-01-01

    The measurement of the spectacles frame parameters has substantial effects on both the production and export of spectacles products. In fact, this measurement is the measurement of related three-dimensional trajectory.The working principles of the measurement apparatus developed based on capacitive grating technology are introduced in this paper. Capacitive grating technology is a precision length measurement method. Its advantages are small volume, low price, low production cost, and easy to obtain precise readings of the measured data. The measurement apparatus is composed of one industrial control computer, two microcontrollers and corresponding circuits. The system stability is guaranteed during the design of the circuit with the practical situation of its industry application taken into account. The software is divided into lower layer and upper layer. Each layer has different emphasis. The causes of system errors and the method of error elimination are also analyzed. The analysis of the data obtained from experiments and the operating results of prototype apparatus both indicate that the proposed measurement apparatus has achieved outstanding competitive technical level of same kind products in international market and thus has ideal implications for mass production.

  4. Method and apparatus of measuring unburned carbon in fly ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Robert C.

    1991-12-03

    A method and apparatus are shown to measure unburned carbon particles in the exhaust of a combustor. Photoacoustic absorption spectrometry is employed to measure the presence of the unburned carbon. Especially helpful in these measurements is a vertically elongated photoacoustic cell in which high flow velocities are maintained to prevent particles from settling. These measurements are useful in determining the efficiency of coal-fired combustors.

  5. Nab: Measurement Principles, Apparatus and Uncertainties

    CERN Document Server

    Pocanic, D; Alonzi, L P; Baessler, S; Balascuta, S; Bowman, J D; Bychkov, M A; Byrne, J; Calarco, J R; Cianciolo, V; Crawford, C; Frlez, E; Gericke, M T; Greene, G L; Grzywacz, R K; Gudkov, V; Hersman, F W; Klein, A; Martín, J; Page, S A; Palladino, A; Penttila, S I; Rykaczewski, K P; Wilburn, W S; Young, A R; Young, G R

    2008-01-01

    The Nab collaboration will perform a precise measurement of 'a', the electron-neutrino correlation parameter, and 'b', the Fierz interference term in neutron beta decay, in the Fundamental Neutron Physics Beamline at the SNS, using a novel electric/magnetic field spectrometer and detector design. The experiment is aiming at the 10^{-3} accuracy level in (Delta a)/a, and will provide an independent measurement of lambda = G_A/G_V, the ratio of axial-vector to vector coupling constants of the nucleon. Nab also plans to perform the first ever measurement of 'b' in neutron decay, which will provide an independent limit on the tensor weak coupling.

  6. Arterial endothelial function measurement method and apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maltz, Jonathan S; Budinger, Thomas F

    2014-03-04

    A "relaxoscope" (100) detects the degree of arterial endothelial function. Impairment of arterial endothelial function is an early event in atherosclerosis and correlates with the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease. An artery (115), such as the brachial artery (BA) is measured for diameter before and after several minutes of either vasoconstriction or vasorelaxation. The change in arterial diameter is a measure of flow-mediated vasomodification (FMVM). The relaxoscope induces an artificial pulse (128) at a superficial radial artery (115) via a linear actuator (120). An ultrasonic Doppler stethoscope (130) detects this pulse 10-20 cm proximal to the point of pulse induction (125). The delay between pulse application and detection provides the pulse transit time (PTT). By measuring PTT before (160) and after arterial diameter change (170), FMVM may be measured based on the changes in PTT caused by changes in vessel caliber, smooth muscle tone and wall thickness.

  7. Method and apparatus for measuring particle size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemse, A.W.; Merkus, H.G.

    1998-01-01

    Described is a method for measuring the particle size of ultra-small particles (202) which are suspended in a fluid. Laser light (121, 123) is guided via a first optical path (160) to a suspension (201), and light (125) scattered by the particles (202) in the suspension (201) is guided to an optical

  8. Apparatus for accurately measuring high temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D.D.

    The present invention is a thermometer used for measuring furnace temperatures in the range of about 1800/sup 0/ to 2700/sup 0/C. The thermometer comprises a broadband multicolor thermal radiation sensor positioned to be in optical alignment with the end of a blackbody sight tube extending into the furnace. A valve-shutter arrangement is positioned between the radiation sensor and the sight tube and a chamber for containing a charge of high pressure gas is positioned between the valve-shutter arrangement and the radiation sensor. A momentary opening of the valve shutter arrangement allows a pulse of the high gas to purge the sight tube of air-borne thermal radiation contaminants which permits the radiation sensor to accurately measure the thermal radiation emanating from the end of the sight tube.

  9. Basic Characteristics of a Macroscopic Measure for Detecting Abnormal Changes in a Multiagent System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuo Kinoshita

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Multiagent application systems must deal with various changes in both the system and the system environment at runtime. Generally, such changes have undesirable negative effects on the system. To manage and control the system, it is important to observe and detect negative effects using an appropriate observation function of the system’s behavior. This paper focuses on the design of this function and proposes a new macroscopic measure with which to observe behavioral characteristics of a runtime multiagent system. The proposed measure is designed as the variance of fluctuation of a macroscopic activity factor of the whole system, based on theoretical analysis of the macroscopic behavioral model of a multiagent system. Experiments are conducted to investigate basic characteristics of the proposed measure, using a test bed system. The results of experiments show that the proposed measure reacts quickly and increases drastically in response to abnormal changes in the system. Hence, the proposed measure is considered a measure that can be used to detect undesirable changes in a multiagent system.

  10. Basic Characteristics of a Macroscopic Measure for Detecting Abnormal Changes in a Multiagent System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Tetsuo

    2015-01-01

    Multiagent application systems must deal with various changes in both the system and the system environment at runtime. Generally, such changes have undesirable negative effects on the system. To manage and control the system, it is important to observe and detect negative effects using an appropriate observation function of the system’s behavior. This paper focuses on the design of this function and proposes a new macroscopic measure with which to observe behavioral characteristics of a runtime multiagent system. The proposed measure is designed as the variance of fluctuation of a macroscopic activity factor of the whole system, based on theoretical analysis of the macroscopic behavioral model of a multiagent system. Experiments are conducted to investigate basic characteristics of the proposed measure, using a test bed system. The results of experiments show that the proposed measure reacts quickly and increases drastically in response to abnormal changes in the system. Hence, the proposed measure is considered a measure that can be used to detect undesirable changes in a multiagent system. PMID:25897499

  11. Method and Apparatus for Measuring Surface Air Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Bing (Inventor); Hu, Yongxiang (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention is directed to an apparatus and method for remotely measuring surface air pressure. In one embodiment, the method of the present invention utilizes the steps of transmitting a signal having multiple frequencies into the atmosphere, measuring the transmitted/reflected signal to determine the relative received power level of each frequency and then determining the surface air pressure based upon the attenuation of the transmitted frequencies.

  12. Measurements of effective total macroscopic cross sections and effective energy of continuum beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Hisao [Rikkyo Univ., Yokosuka, Kanagawa (Japan). Inst. for Atomic Energy

    1998-03-01

    Two practically useful quantities are introduced in this study to characterize a continuum neutron beam and to describe transmission phenomena of the beam in field of quantitative neutron radiography: an effective energy instead of a peak energy or a mean energy of the spectrum and an effective total macroscopic (ETM) cross section instead of a total macroscopic (TM) cross section defined at the monochromatic energy. The effective energy was evaluated by means of energy dependence of ETM cross section. To realize the method a beam quality indicator (BQI) has been proposed recently. Several effective energies were measured for non-filtered, filtered neutron beams, and outputs of neutron guide tubes in world by the BQI. A thermal neutron beam and three beams modulated by Pb filters with different thicknesses are studied to measure ETM cross sections for various materials and summarized in a table. Validity of the effective energy determined by the BQI is discussed relating with ETM cross sections of materials. (author)

  13. An apparatus for measuring the tensile strength of blood clots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MACFARLANE, R G; TOMLINSON, A H

    1961-05-01

    An apparatus is described which uses the principle of the ballistic pendulum to measure the tensile strength of blood clots formed in special cuvettes. The method appears to have a reproducibility which would allow a study to be made of the factors influencing clot strength. A brief survey of the findings with normal blood and with blood from cases of thrombosis and haemophilia shows significant differences between the mean values for each group.

  14. 3D shape measurement of macroscopic objects in digital off-axis holography using structured illumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Marcus; Buehl, Johannes; Babovsky, Holger; Kiessling, Armin; Kowarschik, Richard

    2010-04-15

    We propose what we believe to be a novel approach to measure the 3D shape of arbitrary diffuse-reflecting macroscopic objects in holographic setups. Using a standard holographic setup, a second CCD and a liquid-crystal-on-silicon spatial light modulator to modulate the object wave, the method yields a dense 3D point cloud of an object or a scene. The calibration process is presented, and first quantitative results of a shape measurement are shown and discussed. Furthermore, a shape measurement of a complex object is displayed to demonstrate its universal use.

  15. Apparatus designed for very accurate measurement of the optical reflection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piombini, Hervé; Voarino, Philippe

    2007-12-20

    The described instrument is a new reflectometer designed to check the normal specular reflectance of 40,000 reflectors necessary for the Laser Megajoule (LMJ). This new reflectometer has a high accuracy over the 400-950 nm wavelength range and allows the delicate measurement of shaped parts. The measurements are relative and several reference mirrors, which are low loss dielectric mirrors [R(lambda)>99.9%], are used for the standardization. The apparatus gives an excellent repeatability (spectrophotometers, our facility and its components are described. The methodology of focusing and calibration are explained. The capabilities of our device are illustrated through some measurements realized on flat or shaped samples.

  16. Development of Portable Uranium Enrichment Measurement Apparatus With CdZnTe Detector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>A portable uranium enrichment measurement apparatus with CdZnTe detector manufactured by "eV Products" company was tested in this work. The apparatus consists of a co-planar grid detector based on

  17. Development of measuring apparatus for monitoring the preparation of fines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechmann, C.; Fauth, G.; Luedke, H.; Schieder, T.

    1984-01-01

    Monitoring or controlling a preparation process requires a sufficiently precise knowledge of the raw material characteristics and also high-speed automatic analysis by measuring apparatus of the quantities and properties of bulk materials and pulpflows. Such apparatus includes devices to measure ash content of pulps, concentration of solids, grain size or grain size distribution and pulp flow. For monitoring flotation, radiometric analysis of the ash content of pulps using the transmission method was tested in a semi-industrial plant. The radioactive sources used were Americium 241 and Caesium 137. The residual standard deviation compared with manual sampling was about 1 g/l for the solids concentration and around 0.4% for ash content. As regards the measurement of grain size and grain size distribution, optical methods have proved to be unsuitable for operational use in coal preparation plants. The ultrasonic absorption method requires further basic research. For short time-interval measurement of pulp flows using devices requiring no conversion, the devices based on the ultrasonic Doppler effect did not yield satisfactory results during operational testing in spite of the accuracy achieved on the test rig. For monitoring washery water thickeners, measuring by means of photometric devices has proved to be suitable for operational use.

  18. Ghost Cell Suspensions as Blood Analogue Fluid for Macroscopic Particle Image Velocimetry Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Sebastian V; Müller, Indra; Nachtsheim, Max; Schmitz-Rode, Thomas; Steinseifer, Ulrich

    2016-02-01

    Spatially resolved measurement of blood flow is of great interest in the development of artificial blood-carrying devices such as blood pumps, heart valve prostheses, and oxygenators. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) is able to measure instantaneous velocity fields in a plane with high accuracy and is being used more frequently for the development of such devices. However, as this measurement technique is based on optical access, blood flow at physiological hematocrit values is difficult to measure due to its low transparency and multiscattering properties. So far, only very small dimensions (in the range of 400 μm) can be measured using PIV. A suspension of ghost cells (GCs) offers a higher optical transparency than blood while having a similar rheological behavior. In this study, a procedure for the production of GC suspensions containing a very low intracellular hemoglobin concentration is presented. With the help of multiple rounds of controlled cell lysis, the intracellular hemoglobin concentration could be decreased to a point where a standard macroscopic PIV measurement was possible. A velocity profile of a 44% GC suspension in a circular channel with a diameter of 9.5 mm was measured with high spatial resolution. Meanwhile, the rheological behavior was found to be comparable with blood.

  19. Pass-through Mach-Zehnder topologies for macroscopic quantum measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Khalili, F Ya

    2011-01-01

    Several relatively small-scale experimental setups aimed on prototyping of future laser gravitational-wave detectors and testing of new methods of quantum measurements with macroscopic mechanical objects, are under development now. In these devices, not devoted directly to the gravitational-wave detection, Mach-Zehnder interferometer with pass-through Fabry-Perot cavities in the arms can be used instead of the standard Michelson/Fabry-Perot one. The advantage of this topology is that it does not contain high-reflectivity end mirrors with multilayer coatings, which Brownian noise could constitute the major part of the noise budget of the Michelson/Fabry-Perot interferometers. We consider here two variants of this topology: the "ordinary" position meter scheme, and a new variant of the quantum speed meter.

  20. System, method, and apparatus for remote measurement of terrestrial biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Patrick W

    2011-04-12

    A system, method, and/or apparatus for remote measurement of terrestrial biomass contained in vegetative elements, such as large tree boles or trunks present in an area of interest, are provided. The method includes providing an airborne VHF radar system in combination with a LiDAR system, overflying the area of interest while directing energy toward the area of interest, using the VHF radar system to collect backscatter data from the trees as a function of incidence angle and frequency, and determining a magnitude of the biomass from the backscatter data and data from the laser radar system for each radar resolution cell. A biomass map is generated showing the magnitude of the biomass of the vegetative elements as a function of location on the map by using each resolution cell as a unique location thereon. In certain preferred embodiments, a single frequency is used with a linear array antenna.

  1. Apparatus to measure low level helium for neutron dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozaki, Shuji; Takao, Yoshiyuki; Muramasu, Masatomo; Hida, Tomoya; Sou, Hirofumi; Nakashima, Hideki [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan); Kanda, Yukinori

    1998-03-01

    An apparatus to measure low level helium in a solid sample for neutron dosimetry in the practical use such as area monitoring in the long-term and reactor surveillance was reported. In our previous work, the helium atoms measurement system (HAMS) was developed. A sample was evaporated in the furnace and the released gas from the sample was analyzed with the mass spectrometer of the system to determine the amount of helium contained in it. The system has been improved to advance the lower helium measurement limit in a solid sample for its application to an area monitoring system. The mass of a solid is up to 100mg. Two important points should be considered to advance the lower limit. One was to produce a high quality vacuum in the system chamber for suppressing background gases during the sample measurement. The other important point was to detect very small output from the mass spectrometer. A pulse counting system was used to get high sensitivity in the mass 4 analyzing. (author)

  2. An apparatus for measuring mechanical properties of microstructures in tensile mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU; Hao; MENG; Yonggang; SU; Caijun; WEN; Shizhu

    2004-01-01

    An apparatus for measuring mechanical properties of microstructures in tensile mode is described. The apparatus consists of 4 functional parts: piezoelectric actuator, capacitive displacement sensor, specimen gripping mechanism and optical microscope. The configurations and specifications of these parts are elucidated in detail.Specimens used for the tensile mechanical testing are fabricated with the photolithography process. By using this apparatus, the fatigue property of polysilicon films has been measured successfully.

  3. Sub-Kelvin Cooling of a Macroscopic Oscillator and femto-Newton Force Measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, F; Wang, L J

    2007-01-01

    Measuring very small forces, particularly those of a gravitational nature, has always been of great interest, as fundamental tests of our understanding of the physical laws. Ultra-long period mechanical oscillators, typically used in such measurements, will have kT/2 of thermal energy associated with each degree of freedom, owing to the equal-partition of energy. Moreover, additional seismic fluctuations in the low frequency band can raise this equivalent temperature significantly to 10^5 K. Recently, various methods using opto-mechanical forces have been reported to decrease this thermal energy for MHz, micro-cantilever oscillators, effectively cooling them. Here we show the direct, dynamical cooling of a gram-size, macroscopic oscillator to 300 mK in equivalent temperature - noise reduction by a factor of 10^6. By precisely measuring the torsional oscillator's position, we dynamically provide an external 'viscous' damping force. Such an added, dissipative force is essentially free of noise, resulting in rap...

  4. Development of a Handmade Conductivity Measurement Apparatus and Application to Vegetables and Fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Set, Seng; Kita, Masakazu

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a simple handmade conductivity measurement apparatus based on a Kohlrausch bridge with inexpensive materials. We have examined the reliability of this apparatus with standard solutions and then measured juices of vegetables and fruits as well as a sports drink. Comparisons to total alkali content as…

  5. An apparatus to measure the thermal conductivity of insulation panels at sub-ambient temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanapalli, Srinivas; Klünder, T.; Hegeman, I.; Tolboom, A.H.; ter Brake, Hermanus J.M.

    2017-01-01

    A single-sided guarded-plate apparatus has been developed to measure the thermal conductivity of insulation panels of sub-meter size at sub-ambient temperatures ranging from 250 to 300 K. This apparatus allows thermal conductivity measurements to be performed at large temperature differences

  6. Particle velocity measurements with macroscopic fluorescence imaging in lymph tissue mimicking microfluidic phantoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, Ricky; Koo, Chiwan; Ton, Phuc; Han, Arum; Righetti, Raffaella; Maitland, Kristen C.

    2011-03-01

    Ultrasound poroelastography can quantify structural and mechanical properties of tissues such as stiffness, compressibility, and fluid flow rate. This novel ultrasound technique is being explored to detect tissue changes associated with lymphatic disease. We have constructed a macroscopic fluorescence imaging system to validate ultrasonic fluid flow measurements and to provide high resolution imaging of microfluidic phantoms. The optical imaging system is composed of a white light source, excitation and emission filters, and a camera with a zoom lens. The field of view can be adjusted from 100 mm x 75 mm to 10 mm x 7.5 mm. The microfluidic device is made of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and has 9 channels, each 40 μm deep with widths ranging from 30 μm to 200 μm. A syringe pump was used to propel water containing 15 μm diameter fluorescent microspheres through the microchannels, with flow rates ranging from 0.5 μl/min to 10 μl/min. Video was captured at a rate of 25 frames/sec. The velocity of the microspheres in the microchannels was calculated using an algorithm that tracked the movement of the fluorescent microspheres. The imaging system was able to measure particle velocities ranging from 0.2 mm/sec to 10 mm/sec. The range of flow velocities of interest in lymph vessels is between 1 mm/sec to 10 mm/sec; therefore our imaging system is sufficient to measure particle velocity in phantoms modeling lymphatic flow.

  7. MACROSCOPIC RIVERS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDENBERG, IP

    1991-01-01

    We present a mathematical model for the ''river-phenomenon'': striking concentrations of trajectories of ordinary differential equations. This model of ''macroscopic rivers'' is formulated within nonstandard analysis, and stated in terms of macroscopes and singular perturbations. For a subclass, the

  8. Interference of macroscopic superpositions

    CERN Document Server

    Vecchi, I

    2000-01-01

    We propose a simple experimental procedure based on the Elitzur-Vaidman scheme to implement a quantum nondemolition measurement testing the persistence of macroscopic superpositions. We conjecture that its implementation will reveal the persistence of superpositions of macroscopic objects in the absence of a direct act of observation.

  9. Apparatus Measures Friction In Vacuum Or Pressurized Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevathan, Joseph R.

    1996-01-01

    Friction-testing apparatus in small test chamber contains special atmosphere, which could include vacuum or pressurized gas. Provides readings indicative of friction between pin specimen and plate specimen sliding under pin in reciprocating linear motion. Pin and plate specimens made of same or different material.

  10. Simple multipurpose apparatus for solubility measurement of solid solutes in liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malwade, Chandrakant Ramkrishna; Christensen, Lars Porskjær

    2016-01-01

    , solubility measurement of solid solutes in different solvents or solvent mixtures as a function of temperature can be of great significance to the university students and researchers. In this article, comparatively inexpensive apparatus for solubility measurement of solid solutes in pure or mixture......-hexane-ethyl acetate mixtures of varying composition at different temperatures to demonstrate the suitability and reliability of the proposed solubility measurement apparatus. The proposed apparatus has been used to conduct laboratory exercises in the course “Industrial Separation Technology” offered to undergraduate...

  11. [Building artificial neural networks model on portable NIR integrity wheat component measuring apparatus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Hai-yan; Wen, Ming; Hao, Bin

    2006-01-01

    The quantitative analysis model of protein in integrity wheat was built by three layers back propagation artificial neural networks for portable near infrared (NIR) integrity wheat component measuring apparatus. The structure diagram of integrity wheat component measuring apparatus, light route structure of apparatus and the spectrum of integrity wheat were given in the present paper. The theory of artificial neural network was briefly introduced and the results of quantitative analysis model of protein were given. For calibration set and prediction set, the correlation coefficient was 0.90 and 0.96 respectively; the relative standard deviation is 3.77% and 4.46% respectively. Because of the influence of light route structure, electrical circuit, and integrity sample forms on the measuring apparatus, some nonlinearity exists between the spectral parameters and chemical values. The results of artificial neural networks nonlinear model were superior to linear model.

  12. A low cost apparatus for measuring the xylem hydraulic conductance in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Pereira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant yield and resistance to drought are directly related to the efficiency of the xylem hydraulic conductance and the ability of this system to avoid interrupting the flow of water. In this paper we described in detail the assembling of an apparatus proposed by TYREE et al. (2002, and its calibration, as well as low cost adaptations that make the equipment accessible for everyone working in this research area. The apparatus allows measuring the conductance in parts of roots or shoots (root ramifications or branches, or in the whole system, in the case of small plants or seedlings. The apparatus can also be used to measure the reduction of conductance by embolism of the xylem vessels. Data on the hydraulic conductance of eucalyptus seedlings obtained here and other reports in the literature confirm the applicability of the apparatus in physiological studies on the relationship between productivity and water stress.

  13. Method and apparatus for real-time measurement of fuel gas compositions and heating values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelepouga, Serguei; Pratapas, John M.; Saveliev, Alexei V.; Jangale, Vilas V.

    2016-03-22

    An exemplary embodiment can be an apparatus for real-time, in situ measurement of gas compositions and heating values. The apparatus includes a near infrared sensor for measuring concentrations of hydrocarbons and carbon dioxide, a mid infrared sensor for measuring concentrations of carbon monoxide and a semiconductor based sensor for measuring concentrations of hydrogen gas. A data processor having a computer program for reducing the effects of cross-sensitivities of the sensors to components other than target components of the sensors is also included. Also provided are corresponding or associated methods for real-time, in situ determination of a composition and heating value of a fuel gas.

  14. A Study of the Relationship between Macroscopic Measures and Physical Processes Occurring during N00014-89-J-1708.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    The following personnel have worked on the project A. Principal Investigators 1. Stephen D. Antolovich Fracture Mechanics analytical studies...Physical Processes of Crack Closure of Al-Li Alloy 2090," T.M. Breunig, S.R. Stock, S.D. Antolovich , J.H. Kinney, W.N. Massey and M.C. Nichols, to appear in...Relating Macroscopic Measures and Physical Processes of Crack Closure of Al-Li Alloy 2090," T.M. Breunig, S.R. Stock, S.D. Antolovich , J.H. Kinney, W.N

  15. Air method measurements of apple vessel length distributions with improved apparatus and theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabtal Cohen; John Bennink; Mel Tyree

    2003-01-01

    Studies showing that rootstock dwarfing potential is related to plant hydraulic conductance led to the hypothesis that xylem properties are also related. Vessel length distribution and other properties of apple wood from a series of varieties were measured using the 'air method' in order to test this hypothesis. Apparatus was built to measure and monitor...

  16. Study on the Apparatus Accessory to Seal Radioactive Samples for XRD Measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; Xie-chun; LUO; Fang-xiang; LI; Hui-rong; XIAO; Song-tao; YANG; He; LAN; Tian; MENG; Zhao-kai

    2012-01-01

    <正>According to the principle of XRD determination, we tried to seal radioactive powder effectively when it was measured by XRD. After the measure- ments, we must make sure that the surroundings are not contaminated. Now, by a few times of modifica- tions, a suit of apparatus which is able to seal radio-

  17. Development of ultrasonic heat transfer tube thickness measurement apparatus. Contract research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohba, Toshihiro; Katoh, Chiaki; Yanagihara, Takao [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Suetugu, Hidehiko; Yano, Masaya [Sumitomo Chemical Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2003-01-01

    The demonstration test for evaluating reliability of the acid recovery evaporator at Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant has been carried out at JAERI. For the nondestructive measurement of the thickness of heat transfer tubes of the acid recovery evaporator in corrosion test, we have developed thickness measurement apparatus for heat transfer tubes by ultrasonic immersion method with high resolution. The ultrasonic prove in a heat transfer tube can be moved vertically and radially. The results obtained by this apparatus coincident well with those obtained by a destructive method using an optical microscope. (author)

  18. Development of ultrasonic heat transfer tube thickness measurement apparatus. Contract research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohba, Toshihiro; Katoh, Chiaki; Yanagihara, Takao [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Suetugu, Hidehiko; Yano, Masaya [Sumitomo Chemical Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2003-01-01

    The demonstration test for evaluating reliability of the acid recovery evaporator at Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant has been carried out at JAERI. For the nondestructive measurement of the thickness of heat transfer tubes of the acid recovery evaporator in corrosion test, we have developed thickness measurement apparatus for heat transfer tubes by ultrasonic immersion method with high resolution. The ultrasonic prove in a heat transfer tube can be moved vertically and radially. The results obtained by this apparatus coincident well with those obtained by a destructive method using an optical microscope. (author)

  19. Apparatus for accurate density measurements of fluids based on a magnetic suspension balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Maoqiong; Li, Huiya; Guo, Hao; Dong, Xueqiang; Wu, J. F.

    2012-06-01

    A new apparatus for accurate pressure, density and temperature (p, ρ, T) measurements over wide ranges of (p, ρ, T) (90 K to 290 K; 0 MPa to 3 MPa; 0 kg/m3 to 2000 kg/m3) is described. This apparatus is based on a magnetic suspension balance which applies the Archimedes' buoyancy principle. In order to verify the new apparatus, comprehensive (p, ρ, T) measurements on pure nitrogen were carried out. The maximum relative standard uncertainty is 0.09% in density. The maximum standard uncertainty in temperature is 5 mK, and that in pressure is 250 Pa for 1.5 MPa and 390 Pa for 3MPa full scale range respectively. The experimental data were compared with selected literature data and good agreements were found.

  20. The design of high-temperature thermal conductivity measurements apparatus for thin sample size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Syamsul

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the designing, constructing and validating processes of thermal conductivity apparatus using steady-state heat-transfer techniques with the capability of testing a material at high temperatures. This design is an improvement from ASTM D5470 standard where meter-bars with the equal cross-sectional area were used to extrapolate surface temperature and measure heat transfer across a sample. There were two meter-bars in apparatus where each was placed three thermocouples. This Apparatus using a heater with a power of 1,000 watts, and cooling water to stable condition. The pressure applied was 3.4 MPa at the cross-sectional area of 113.09 mm2 meter-bar and thermal grease to minimized interfacial thermal contact resistance. To determine the performance, the validating process proceeded by comparing the results with thermal conductivity obtained by THB 500 made by LINSEIS. The tests showed the thermal conductivity of the stainless steel and bronze are 15.28 Wm-1K-1 and 38.01 Wm-1K-1 with a difference of test apparatus THB 500 are −2.55% and 2.49%. Furthermore, this apparatus has the capability to measure the thermal conductivity of the material to a temperature of 400°C where the results for the thermal conductivity of stainless steel is 19.21 Wm-1K-1 and the difference was 7.93%.

  1. Signatures of granular superconductivity and Josephson effects in macroscopic measurements: the case of new superconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Senoussi

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available   We report systematic investigations of the magnetic superconducting properties of the new superconducting materials (NS: New high temperature superconductors (HTS, Organic superconductors (OS, fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, MgB2 etc. We show that, contrary to conventional superconductors where the superconducting state can be coherent over several tenths of km, the macroscopic coherence range lc of the NS is often as short as 0.1 to 10 µm typically. As a consequence, the magnetic properties are dominated by granular-like effects as well as Josephson coupling between grains. Here, we concentrate on HTS ceramics and organic superconductors exclusively. In the first case we observe three distinct regimes: (i At very low field (H < 5 Oe to say all the grains are coupled via Josephson effect and lc can be considered as infinite. (2 At intermediate field (5 < H < 50 Oe, typically the grains are gradually decoupled by H and/or T. (iii At higher fields all the grains are decoupled and lc roughly coincides with the diameter of the metallurgical grains. The case of OS is more subtle and is connected with a kind of order-disorder transition that occurs in most of them. For instance, in this study, we exploit quenched disorder (after crossing such a transition in the -(BEDT-TTF2Cu[N(CN2]Br layered organic superconductor to get new insights on both the superconducting state (T £ 11.6 K and the glassy transition at Tg, by studying the superconducting properties as functions of annealing time and annealing temperature around the glassy transition. Our main result is that the data can be described by a percolation molecular cluster model in which the topology and the growth of the molecular clusters obey an Ising spin-glass-like model with Tg ≈ 80 K for the hydrogenated compound and Tg ≈ 55 K for the fully deuterated one.

  2. Method and apparatus for measuring particle size at low concentration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marijnissen, J.C.M.; Willemse, A.W.; Roos, R.A.

    1997-01-01

    Described is an improved method for measuring the particle size of ultrasmall particles (111) which are suspended in a fluid. Laser light (121) is scattered by the particles, and the scattered light (122) is received by a light detector (131) which provides an electrical measuring signal (Sm) which

  3. Method and apparatus for measuring weak magnetic fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1995-01-01

    When measuring weak magnetic fields, a container containing a medium, such as a solution containing a stable radical, is placed in a polarising magnetic field, which is essentially at right angles to the field to be measured. The polarising field is interrupted rapidly, the interruption being...

  4. An apparatus for the specific heat measurement of undercooled liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohsaka, K.; Gatewood, J. R.; Trinh, E. H.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a drop calorimeter with an electromagnetic levitator that was specifically built for enthalpy measurements of undercooled liquids, including high-melting-point metals. Design diagrams of this device and of a furnace for making a suspended drop are presented together with results of measurements on an aluminum sample.

  5. Retention curves measured using pressure plate and pressure membrane apparatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten Hjorslev

    This report presents a proposal for a test method for the measurement of the retention curve, especially in the high moisture content range, and the pore size distribution of building materials. The test method includes the measurement of apparent density, solid density, and open porosity. The re...

  6. Apparatus for measuring high-flux heat transfer in radiatively heated compact exchangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Douglas A.

    1989-01-01

    An apparatus is described which can deliver uniform heat flux densities of up to 80 W/sq cm over an area 7.8 cm x 15.2 cm for use in measuring the heat transfer and pressure drop in thin (6 mm or less), compact heat exchangers. Helium gas at flow rates of 0 to 40 kg/h and pressures to 6.9 MPa (1000 psi) is the working fluid. The instrumentation used in the apparatus and the methods for analyzing the data is described. The apparatus will be used initially to test the performance of prototype cooling jackets for the engine struts of the National Aerospace Plane (NASP).

  7. Apparatus for measuring the permeability of crystal particles suspended in a slurry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diepen, P.J.; Vreeken, V.P.C.

    1998-01-01

    The invention relates to an apparatus for measuring the permeability of crystal particles suspended in a slurry, comprising a filtering element (3) and driving means (4, 5, 6) for driving the slurry into the filtering element. The filtering element is connected with discharge means (8, 9) for the

  8. Method and apparatus for measuring an elemental carbon content in an aerosol of soot particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt Ott, A.; Burtscher, H.

    2008-01-01

    The invention relates to a method and apparatus for measuring an elemental carbon content in an aerosol of soot particles by exposing the particles to ultraviolet radiation to induce photoelectron emission of the particles, wherein whilst the particles receive ultraviolet radiation the aero sol with

  9. Spectroscopy Apparatus for the Measurement of The Hyperfine Structure of Antihydrogen

    CERN Document Server

    Malbrunot, C; Diermaier, M; Dilaver, N; Friedreich, S; Kolbinger, B; Lehner, S; Lundmark, R; Massiczek, O; Radics, B; Sauerzopf, C; Simon, M; Widmann, E; Wolf, M; Wunschek, B; Zmeskal, J

    2014-01-01

    The ASACUSA CUSP collaboration at the Antiproton Decelerator (AD) of CERN is planning to measure the ground-state hyperfine splitting of antihydrogen using an atomic spectroscopy beamline. We describe here the latest developments on the spectroscopy apparatus developed to be coupled to the antihydrogen production setup (CUSP).

  10. Method and apparatus for nondestructive in vivo measurement of photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenbaum, Elias

    1988-01-01

    A device for in situ, nondestructive measurement of photosynthesis in live plants and photosynthetic microorganisms is disclosed which comprises a Clark-type oxygen electrode having a substantially transparent cathode comprised of an optical fiber having a metallic grid microetched onto its front face and sides, an anode, a substantially transparent electrolyte film, and a substantially transparent oxygen permeable membrane. The device is designed to be placed in direct contact with a photosynthetic portion of a living plant, and nondestructive, noninvasive measurement of photosynthetic oxygen production from the plant can be taken by passing light through the fiber-optic cathode, transparent electroyte and transparent membrane, and onto the plant so that photosynthesis occurs. The oxygen thus produced by the plant is measured polargraphically by the electrode. The present invention allows for rapid, nondestructive measurements of photosynthesis in living plants in a manner heretofore impossible using prior art methods.

  11. A BRDF Measurement Apparatus for Lab-based Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunderson, K.; Whitby, J.; Thomas, N.

    2004-03-01

    We have constructed an instrument to make full-hemisphere bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) laboratory measurements of terrestrial samples in order to validate BRDF models and help interpret data of solar system objects.

  12. Method and apparatus for measuring particle size at low concentration

    OpenAIRE

    Marijnissen, J.C.M.; Willemse, A.W.; Roos, R A

    1997-01-01

    Described is an improved method for measuring the particle size of ultrasmall particles (111) which are suspended in a fluid. Laser light (121) is scattered by the particles, and the scattered light (122) is received by a light detector (131) which provides an electrical measuring signal (Sm) which is representative of the intensity of the scattered light (122). According to the present invention, signal components with a relatively low characteristic frequency are removed from the electrical...

  13. Ancilla-assisted calibration of a measuring apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brida, G; Ciavarella, L; Degiovanni, I P; Genovese, M; Migdall, A; Mingolla, M G; Paris, M G A; Piacentini, F; Polyakov, S V

    2012-06-22

    A quantum measurement can be described by a set of matrices, one for each possible outcome, which represents the positive operator-valued measure (POVM) of the sensor. Efficient protocols of POVM extraction for arbitrary sensors are required. We present the first experimental POVM reconstruction that takes explicit advantage of a quantum resource, i.e., nonclassical correlations with an ancillary state. A POVM of a photon-number-resolving detector is reconstructed by using strong quantum correlations of twin beams generated by parametric down-conversion. Our reconstruction method is more statistically robust than POVM reconstruction methods that use classical input states.

  14. High-Temperature Thermal Conductivity Measurement Apparatus Based on Guarded Hot Plate Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turzo-Andras, E.; Magyarlaki, T.

    2017-10-01

    An alternative calibration procedure has been applied using apparatus built in-house, created to optimize thermal conductivity measurements. The new approach compared to those of usual measurement procedures of thermal conductivity by guarded hot plate (GHP) consists of modified design of the apparatus, modified position of the temperature sensors and new conception in the calculation method, applying the temperature at the inlet section of the specimen instead of the temperature difference across the specimen. This alternative technique is suitable for eliminating the effect of thermal contact resistance arising between a rigid specimen and the heated plate, as well as accurate determination of the specimen temperature and of the heat loss at the lateral edge of the specimen. This paper presents an overview of the specific characteristics of the newly developed "high-temperature thermal conductivity measurement apparatus" based on the GHP method, as well as how the major difficulties are handled in the case of this apparatus, as compared to the common GHP method that conforms to current international standards.

  15. An experimental apparatus for measuring the Casimir effect at large distances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonini, P; Carugno, G; Messineo, G [INFN sez di Padova, via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Bimonte, G [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche Universita di Napoli Federico II Complesso Universitario MSA, Via Cintia, 80126 Napoli, Italy and INFN, Sezione di Napoli, Napoli (Italy); Bressi, G [INFN sez. di Pavia, via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Galeazzi, G [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Padova, via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Ruoso, G, E-mail: Giuseppe.Ruoso@lnl.infn.i [INFN Lab. Naz. Legnaro, viale dell' Universita 2, 35020 Legnaro (Italy)

    2009-04-01

    An experimental set-up for the measurement of the Casimir effect at separations larger than a few microns is presented. The apparatus is based on a mechanical resonator and uses a homodyne detection technique to sense the Casimir force in the plane-parallel configuration. First measurements in the 3-10 micrometer range show an unexpected large force probably due to patch effects.

  16. Hyaline cartilage thickness in radiographically normal cadaveric hips: comparison of spiral CT arthrographic and macroscopic measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyler, Annabelle; Bousson, Valérie; Bergot, Catherine; Polivka, Marc; Leveque, Eric; Vicaut, Eric; Laredo, Jean-Denis

    2007-02-01

    To assess spiral multidetector computed tomographic (CT) arthrography for the depiction of cartilage thickness in hips without cartilage loss, with evaluation of anatomic slices as the reference standard. Permission to perform imaging studies in cadaveric specimens of individuals who had willed their bodies to science was obtained from the institutional review board. Two independent observers measured the femoral and acetabular hyaline cartilage thickness of 12 radiographically normal cadaveric hips (from six women and five men; age range at death, 52-98 years; mean, 76.5 years) on spiral multidetector CT arthrographic reformations and on coronal anatomic slices. Regions of cartilage loss at gross or histologic examination were excluded. CT arthrographic and anatomic measurements in the coronal plane were compared by using Bland-Altman representation and a paired t test. Differences between mean cartilage thicknesses at the points of measurement were tested by means of analysis of variance. Interobserver and intraobserver reproducibilities were determined. At CT arthrography, mean cartilage thickness ranged from 0.32 to 2.53 mm on the femoral head and from 0.95 to 3.13 mm on the acetabulum. Observers underestimated cartilage thickness in the coronal plane by 0.30 mm +/- 0.52 (mean +/- standard error) at CT arthrography (P cartilage thicknesses at the different measurement points was significant for coronal spiral multidetector CT arthrography and anatomic measurement of the femoral head and acetabulum and for sagittal and transverse CT arthrography of the femoral head (P cartilage thickness from the periphery to the center of the joint ("gradients") were found by means of spiral multidetector CT arthrography and anatomic measurement. Spiral multidetector CT arthrography depicts cartilage thickness gradients in radiographically normal cadaveric hips. (c) RSNA, 2007.

  17. Transport in lymphatic capillaries. I. Macroscopic measurements using residence time distribution theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, M A; Berk, D A; Jain, R K

    1996-01-01

    We present a novel integrative method for characterizing transport in the lymphatic capillaries in the tail of the anesthetized mouse, which is both sensitive and reproducible for quantifying uptake and flow. Interstitially injected, fluorescently labeled macromolecules were used to visualize and quantify these processes. Residence time distribution (RTD) theory was employed to measure net flow velocity in the lymphatic network as well as to provide a relative measure of lymphatic uptake of macromolecules from the interstitium. The effects of particle size and injection pressure were determined. The uptake rate was found to be independent of particle size in the range of a 6- to 18-nm radius; beyond this size, the interstitial matrix seemed to pose a greater barrier. A comparison of 10 vs. 40 cmH2O injection pressure showed a significant influence on the relative uptake rate but not on the net velocity within the network (3.3 +/- 0.8 vs. 3.8 +/- 1.0 micron/s). This suggested the presence of a systemic driving force for baseline lymph propulsion that is independent of the local pressure gradients driving the uptake. This model can be used to examine various aspects of transport physiology of the initial lymphatics.

  18. Analysis of the transient rotating cylinder apparatus for the measurement of liquid-liquid interface shear viscosity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassager, Ole; Westborg, H

    1987-01-01

    An analysis of the transient rotating cylinder apparatus for the measurement of liquid-liquid interface viscosity is given. An analytical expression that allows the determination of the interfacial viscosity from observations of the interface movement is given. The expression is presented...... in tabular form for selected values of the physical parameters of the two phases, and suggestions for apparatus design are given....

  19. Proposal for a macroscopic test of local realism with phase-space measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Atul S.; Asadian, Ali

    2015-12-01

    We propose a test of local realism based on correlation measurements of continuum valued functions of positions and momenta, known as modular variables. The Wigner representations of these observables are bounded in phase space and, therefore, the associated inequality holds for any state described by a non-negative Wigner function. This agrees with Bell's remark that positive Wigner functions, serving as a valid probability distribution over local (hidden) phase-space coordinates, do not reveal nonlocality. We construct a class of entangled states resulting in a violation of the inequality and thus truly demonstrate nonlocality in phase space. The states can be realized through grating techniques in spacelike separated interferometric setups. The nonlocality is verified from the spatial correlation data that is collected from the screens.

  20. Apparatus for the measurement of total body nitrogen using prompt neutron activation analysis with californium-252.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackie, A; Hannan, W J; Smith, M A; Tothill, P

    1988-01-01

    Details of clinical apparatus designed for the measurement of total body nitrogen (as an indicator of body protein), suitable for the critically ill, intensive-care patient are presented. Californium-252 radio-isotopic neutron sources are used, enabling a nitrogen measurement by prompt neutron activation analysis to be made in 40 min with a precision of +/- 3.2% for a whole body dose equivalent of 0.145 mSv. The advantages of Californium-252 over alternative neutron sources are discussed. A comparison between two irradiation/detection geometries is made, leading to an explanation of the geometry adopted for the apparatus. The choice of construction and shielding materials to reduce the count rate at the detectors and consequently to reduce the pile-up contribution to the nitrogen background is discussed. Salient features of the gamma ray spectroscopy system to reduce spectral distortion from pulse pile-up are presented.

  1. Development of a Test Apparatus for Measurement of Hydraulic Fluid Efficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Matt Jackson; Brian Koehler

    2011-01-01

    With increasing demand for nonrenewable resources,energy conservation is critical.Efficiency gains allow more work to be performed while maintaining or even decreasing the energy expended in the process.Reducing the energy consumed by a system results in favorable economic and environmental impact.An apparatus has been developed to measure hydraulic fluid efficiency in a stationary application.The system can be used to develop more efficient fluids,leading to increased work output or decreased energy consumption.

  2. Apparatus Measures Thermal Conductance Through a Thin Sample from Cryogenic to Room Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, James G.

    2009-01-01

    An apparatus allows the measurement of the thermal conductance across a thin sample clamped between metal plates, including thermal boundary resistances. It allows in-situ variation of the clamping force from zero to 30 lb (133.4 N), and variation of the sample temperature between 40 and 300 K. It has a special design feature that minimizes the effect of thermal radiation on this measurement. The apparatus includes a heater plate sandwiched between two identical thin samples. On the side of each sample opposite the heater plate is a cold plate. In order to take data, the heater plate is controlled at a slightly higher temperature than the two cold plates, which are controlled at a single lower temperature. The steady-state controlling power supplied to the hot plate, the area and thickness of samples, and the temperature drop across the samples are then used in a simple calculation of the thermal conductance. The conductance measurements can be taken at arbitrary temperatures down to about 40 K, as the entire setup is cooled by a mechanical cryocooler. The specific geometry combined with the pneumatic clamping force control system and the steady-state temperature control approach make this a unique apparatus.

  3. Modified Shear Box Test Apparatus for Measuring Shear Strength of Unsaturated Residual Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bujang B.K. Huat

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Residual soils occur in most countries of the world but the greater areas and depths are normally found in tropical humid areas. Most of these soils exhibit high suctions for most of the year. The shear strength parameters, c’ and Φ’, of soil can be obtained using conventional shear strength tests. However the conventional shear strength test equipments would not be able to measure Φb value (change of shear strength to change in suction without certain modification to them. This study describes the modifications that have been made to a standard shear box test apparatus to enable it to test soil samples in unsaturated conditions. The modifications include fabrication of an air pressure chamber, modifications of the shear box assembly inside the air pressure chamber, modification to the normal loading system, as well as additions of data acquisition devices to enhance the performance and simplify the usage of the modified shear box test apparatus.

  4. Apparatus for measuring pressure-driven transport through channels at high Knudsen numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakitsiou, S.; Holst, B.; Hoffmann, A. C.

    2016-12-01

    The pressure-driven gas flow through micro- and nano-porous structures is particularly interesting for innovative technologies such as microelectromechanical and nano-mechanical-electrical systems. The classical continuum assumption breaks down for rarefied flow through channels with a characteristic dimension comparable to the mean free path of the gas. Theories based on molecular interactions have been formulated to predict the flow at high Knudsen numbers. Measuring rarefied gas flow experimentally is a challenge since only a few studies have been able to determine flowrates in the molecular flow regime. Here we present the design of an experimental apparatus, which can be used to measure the flow of gases through nano- and microscale channels in the flow regimes where molecular effects are critical. The equations used to design the apparatus are given, focusing on the slip and transition flow regimes (together sometimes called "Intermediate flow regime"). A channel with a diameter of 325 μm ± 5μm and a length of 2 mm was tested experimentally with the apparatus for a wide range of Knudsen numbers (10-2 < Kn < 1 × 105) demonstrating its suitability through the slip and transition regime (2.23 × 10-2 < Kn < 2.26).

  5. Space-resolved diffusing wave spectroscopy measurements of the macroscopic deformation and the microscopic dynamics in tensile strain tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagazi, Med-Yassine; Brambilla, Giovanni; Meunier, Gérard; Marguerès, Philippe; Périé, Jean-Noël; Cipelletti, Luca

    2017-01-01

    We couple a laser-based, space-resolved dynamic light scattering apparatus to a universal traction machine for mechanical extensional tests. We perform simultaneous optical and mechanical measurements on polyether ether ketone, a semi-crystalline polymer widely used in the industry. Due to the high turbidity of the sample, light is multiply scattered by the sample and the diffusing wave spectroscopy (DWS) formalism is used to interpret the data. Space-resolved DWS yields spatial maps of the sample strain and of the microscopic dynamics. An excellent agreement is found between the strain maps thus obtained and those measured by a conventional stereo-digital image correlation technique. The microscopic dynamics reveals both affine motion and plastic rearrangements. Thanks to the extreme sensitivity of DWS to displacements as small as 1 nm, plastic activity and its spatial localization can be detected at an early stage of the sample strain, making the technique presented here a valuable complement to existing material characterization methods.

  6. WTP Waste Feed Qualification: Hydrogen Generation Rate Measurement Apparatus Testing Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, M. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Newell, J. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Smith, T. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Pareizs, J. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-06-01

    The generation rate of hydrogen gas in the Hanford tank waste will be measured during the qualification of the staged tank waste for processing in the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant. Based on a review of past practices in measurement of the hydrogen generation, an apparatus to perform this measurement has been designed and tested for use during waste feed qualification. The hydrogen generation rate measurement apparatus (HGRMA) described in this document utilized a 100 milliliter sample in a continuously-purged, continuously-stirred vessel, with measurement of hydrogen concentration in the vent gas. The vessel and lid had a combined 220 milliliters of headspace. The vent gas system included a small condenser to prevent excessive evaporative losses from the sample during the test, as well as a demister and filter to prevent particle migration from the sample to the gas chromatography system. The gas chromatograph was an on line automated instrument with a large-volume sample-injection system to allow measurement of very low hydrogen concentrations. This instrument automatically sampled the vent gas from the hydrogen generation rate measurement apparatus every five minutes and performed data regression in real time. The fabrication of the hydrogen generation rate measurement apparatus was in accordance with twenty three (23) design requirements documented in the conceptual design package, as well as seven (7) required developmental activities documented in the task plan associated with this work scope. The HGRMA was initially tested for proof of concept with physical simulants, and a remote demonstration of the system was performed in the Savannah River National Laboratory Shielded Cells Mockup Facility. Final verification testing was performed using non-radioactive simulants of the Hanford tank waste. Three different simulants were tested to bound the expected rheological properties expected during waste feed qualification testing. These

  7. WTP Waste Feed Qualification: Hydrogen Generation Rate Measurement Apparatus Testing Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, M. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Newell, J. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Smith, T. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Pareizs, J. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-06-01

    The generation rate of hydrogen gas in the Hanford tank waste will be measured during the qualification of the staged tank waste for processing in the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant. Based on a review of past practices in measurement of the hydrogen generation, an apparatus to perform this measurement has been designed and tested for use during waste feed qualification. The hydrogen generation rate measurement apparatus described in this document and shown in Figure 0-1 utilized a 100 milliliter sample in a continuously-purged, continuously-stirred vessel, with measurement of hydrogen concentration in the vent gas. The vessel and lid had a combined 220 milliliters of headspace. The vent gas system included a small condenser to prevent excessive evaporative losses from the sample during the test, as well as a demister and filter to prevent particle migration from the sample to the gas chromatography system. The gas chromatograph was an on line automated instrument with a large-volume sample-injection system to allow measurement of very low hydrogen concentrations. This instrument automatically sampled the vent gas from the hydrogen generation rate measurement apparatus every five minutes and performed data regression in real time. The fabrication of the hydrogen generation rate measurement apparatus was in accordance with twenty three (23) design requirements documented in the conceptual design package, as well as seven (7) required developmental activities documented in the task plan associated with this work scope. The HGRMA was initially tested for proof of concept with physical simulants and a remote demonstration of the system was performed in the Savannah River National Laboratory Shielded Cells Mockup Facility. Final verification testing was performed using non-radioactive simulants of the Hanford tank waste. Three different simulants were tested to bound the expected rheological properties expected during waste feed qualification

  8. Proposed apparatus for measuring internal friction in rocks at high temperatures and pressures: a design analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonner, B.P.

    1977-10-03

    An apparatus is described that measures internal friction in rocks at high temperatures (approximately 800/sup 0/C) and pressures (approximately 1.0 GPa). Steady oscillations (approximately 1.0 Hz) are induced in a jacketed sample while coaxial capacitive transducers monitor the resulting radial strain. Sample strains are continuously compared to the deformation of a low-loss standard, which acts as a stress transducer. The stress state produced is uniaxial stress. We use the theory of viscoelasticity to partition the loss into components depending on pure shear and dilatation. The theoretical results emphasize the importance of ultimately measuring each loss independently.

  9. Techniques and Apparatus for Measuring Rotational Core Losses of Soft Magnetic Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In many situations such as the cores of a rotating electrical machine and the T joints of a multiphase transformer, the local flux density varies with time in terms of both magnitude and direction, i.e. the flux density vector is rotating. Therefore, the magnetic properties of the core materials under the rotating flux density vector excitation should be properly measured, modeled and applied in the design and analysis of these electromagnetic devices. This paper presents an extensive review on the development of techniques and apparatus for measuring the rotational core losses of soft magnetic materials based on the experiences of various researchers in the last hundred years.

  10. Apparatus for Measuring Total Emissivity of Small, Low-Emissivity Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, James; DiPirro, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    An apparatus was developed for measuring total emissivity of small, lightweight, low-emissivity samples at low temperatures. The entire apparatus fits inside a small laboratory cryostat. Sample installation and removal are relatively quick, allowing for faster testing. The small chamber surrounding the sample is lined with black-painted aluminum honeycomb, which simplifies data analysis. This results in the sample viewing a very high-emissivity surface on all sides, an effect which would normally require a much larger chamber volume. The sample and chamber temperatures are individually controlled using off-the-shelf PID (proportional integral derivative) controllers, allowing flexibility in the test conditions. The chamber can be controlled at a higher temperature than the sample, allowing a direct absorptivity measurement. The lightweight sample is suspended by its heater and thermometer leads from an isothermal bar external to the chamber. The wires run out of the chamber through small holes in its corners, and the wires do not contact the chamber itself. During a steady-state measurement, the thermometer and bar are individually controlled at the same temperature, so there is zero heat flow through the wires. Thus, all of sample-temperature-control heater power is radiated to the chamber. Double-aluminized Kapton (DAK) emissivity was studied down to 10 K, which was about 25 K colder than any previously reported measurements. This verified a minimum in the emissivity at about 35 K and a rise as the temperature dropped to lower values.

  11. Quantum equilibria for macroscopic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grib, A [Department of Theoretical Physics and Astronomy, Russian State Pedagogical University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Khrennikov, A [Centre for Mathematical Modelling in Physics and Cognitive Sciences Vaexjoe University (Sweden); Parfionov, G [Department of Mathematics, St. Petersburg State University of Economics and Finances (Russian Federation); Starkov, K [Department of Mathematics, St. Petersburg State University of Economics and Finances (Russian Federation)

    2006-06-30

    Nash equilibria are found for some quantum games with particles with spin-1/2 for which two spin projections on different directions in space are measured. Examples of macroscopic games with the same equilibria are given. Mixed strategies for participants of these games are calculated using probability amplitudes according to the rules of quantum mechanics in spite of the macroscopic nature of the game and absence of Planck's constant. A possible role of quantum logical lattices for the existence of macroscopic quantum equilibria is discussed. Some examples for spin-1 cases are also considered.

  12. Apparatus for measuring weight, torque and side force on a drill bit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maron, R.

    1990-09-25

    This patent describes an apparatus for measuring at least one load applied to a drill bit during the drilling of a well. It comprises: drillstring sub means adapted to be connected in a drillstring above the drill bit; a pair of diametrically opposite openings extending only partially through the wall of the sub from an outer surface of the sub means; plug means in each of the openings. The plug means cooperating with the openings to define an atmospheric chamber means in each of the openings; and weight sensor means in each of the opening for generating an output in response to at least the parameter of weight on the drill bit.

  13. Fabrication of a simple apparatus for the Seebeck coefficient measurement in the temperature range of 300-620 K

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Saurabh

    2015-01-01

    A simple apparatus for the measurement of Seebeck coefficient ({\\alpha}) in the temperature range 300-620 K has been fabricated. Our design is appropriate for the characterization of samples with different geometries like disk and rod shaped. The sample holder assembly of the apparatus has been designed in such a way that, single heater used for sample heating purpose is enough to provide a self maintain temperature gradient (1-10 K) across the sample. The value of $\\alpha$ is obtained without explicit measurement of temperature gradient. The whole apparatus is fabricated from the materials, which are commonly available, so that any part can be replaced in case of any damage. Commercially available standard Nickel (Ni) metal sample has been used as a reference material for calibration of the instrument. The experimentally observed value of {\\alpha} by our apparatus gives the similar temperature dependent behavior as reported in the literature.

  14. Method and apparatus for white-light dispersed-fringe interferometric measurement of corneal topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochberg, Eric B. (Inventor); Baroth, Edmund C. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    An novel interferometric apparatus and method for measuring the topography of aspheric surfaces, without requiring any form of scanning or phase shifting. The apparatus and method of the present invention utilize a white-light interferometer, such as a white-light Twyman-Green interferometer, combined with a means for dispersing a polychromatic interference pattern, using a fiber-optic bundle and a disperser such as a prism for determining the monochromatic spectral intensities of the polychromatic interference pattern which intensities uniquely define the optical path differences or OPD between the surface under test and a reference surface such as a reference sphere. Consequently, the present invention comprises a snapshot approach to measuring aspheric surface topographies such as the human cornea, thereby obviating vibration sensitive scanning which would otherwise reduce the accuracy of the measurement. The invention utilizes a polychromatic interference pattern in the pupil image plane, which is dispersed on a point-wise basis, by using a special area-to-line fiber-optic manifold, onto a CCD or other type detector comprising a plurality of columns of pixels. Each such column is dedicated to a single point of the fringe pattern for enabling determination of the spectral content of the pattern. The auto-correlation of the dispersed spectrum of the fringe pattern is uniquely characteristic of a particular optical path difference between the surface under test and a reference surface.

  15. Method and Apparatus for Measuring Thermal Conductivity of Small, Highly Insulating Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Robert A (Inventor); Kuczmarski, Maria A (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A method and apparatus for the measurement of thermal conductivity combines the following capabilities: 1) measurements of very small specimens; 2) measurements of specimens with thermal conductivity on the same order of that as air; and, 3) the ability to use air as a reference material. Care is taken to ensure that the heat flow through the test specimen is essentially one-dimensional. No attempt is made to use heated guards to minimize the flow of heat from the hot plate to the surroundings. Results indicate that since large correction factors must be applied to account for guard imperfections when specimen dimensions are small, simply measuring and correcting for heat from the heater disc that does not flow into the specimen is preferable.

  16. Further elucidation of nanofluid thermal conductivity measurement using a transient hot-wire method apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Donghoon; Lee, Joohyun; Lee, Byeongchan; Kwon, Suyong; Koo, Junemo

    2017-08-01

    The Transient Hot-Wire Method (THWM) was developed to measure the absolute thermal conductivity of gases, liquids, melts, and solids with low uncertainty. The majority of nanofluid researchers used THWM to measure the thermal conductivity of test fluids. Several reasons have been suggested for the discrepancies in these types of measurements, including nanofluid generation, nanofluid stability, and measurement challenges. The details of the transient hot-wire method such as the test cell size, the temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) and the sampling number are further investigated to improve the accuracy and consistency of the measurements of different researchers. It was observed that smaller test apparatuses were better because they can delay the onset of natural convection. TCR values of a coated platinum wire were measured and statistically analyzed to reduce the uncertainty in thermal conductivity measurements. For validation, ethylene glycol (EG) and water thermal conductivity were measured and analyzed in the temperature range between 280 and 310 K. Furthermore, a detailed statistical analysis was conducted for such measurements, and the results confirmed the minimum number of samples required to achieve the desired resolution and precision of the measurements. It is further proposed that researchers fully report the information related to their measurements to validate the measurements and to avoid future inconsistent nanofluid data.

  17. Development of measurement apparatus for high resolution electrical surveys; Komitsudo denki tansa sokuteiki no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriuchi, H.; Matsuda, Y.; Shiokawa, Y. [Sumiko Consultants Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Uchino, Y. [Cosmic Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    For the enforcement of the {rho}a-{rho}u survey method which is a type of high-density electrical survey, a multichannel resistivity measuring instrument has been developed. This instrument, in addition to the above, conducts resistivity tomography and various other kinds of high-density electrical survey. A potential produced by a low frequency rectangular current of 1Hz or lower outputted by the transmitter of this instrument is received and measured by the receiver connected to electrodes positioned at 100 or less locations. The receiver comprises a scanner that automatically switches from electrode to electrode, conditioner that processes signals, and controller. A transmitter of the standard design outputs a maximum voltage of 800V and maximum current of 2A, making a device suitable for probing 50 to several 100m-deep levels. The receiver is operated by a personal computer that the controller is provided with. The newly-developed apparatus succeeded in presenting high-precision images of the result of a {rho}a-{rho}u analysis for an apparent resistivity section and of the underground structure, verifying the high quality of the data collected by this apparatus. 10 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Estimation of strain from piezoelectric effect and domain switching in morphotropic PZT by combined analysis of macroscopic strain measurements and synchrotron X-ray data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kungl, Hans [Institute of Ceramics in Mechanical Engineering, University of Karlsruhe, Haid-und-Neu-Str. 7, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany)]. E-mail: hans.kungl@ikm.uni-karlsruhe.de; Theissmann, Ralf [Materials Science, Darmstadt University of Technology (Germany); Knapp, Michael [Materials Science, Darmstadt University of Technology (Germany); Baehtz, Carsten [Materials Science, Darmstadt University of Technology (Germany); Fuess, Hartmut [Materials Science, Darmstadt University of Technology (Germany); Wagner, Susanne [Institute of Ceramics in Mechanical Engineering, University of Karlsruhe, Haid-und-Neu-Str. 7, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Fett, Theo [Institute of Ceramics in Mechanical Engineering, University of Karlsruhe, Haid-und-Neu-Str. 7, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Hoffmann, Michael J. [Institute of Ceramics in Mechanical Engineering, University of Karlsruhe, Haid-und-Neu-Str. 7, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2007-04-15

    Morphotropic PZT ceramics are State of the art materials for ferroelectric actuators. Essential performance parameters for these materials are strain and hysteresis. On a microscopic scale the strain provided by an electric field is due to two different mechanisms. The piezoelectric effect causes an elongation of the unit cells, whereas domain switching changes their crystallographic orientation by aligning the polarization axis towards the field direction. A method is outlined to estimate the contribution of the two mechanisms to total strain by combining macroscopic strain measurements and X-ray diffraction (XRD) data. Results from macroscopic measurements of remanent and unipolar strain with the corresponding data on texture, derived from in situ synchrotron radiation XRD patterns, are analyzed and evaluated by a semi-empirical approach. The method was applied to six morphotropic, LaSr doped PZT materials of different Zr/Ti ratios. Results are discussed with respect to the differences between the materials.

  19. Kingdon trap apparatus and technique for precise measurement of the lifetimes of metastable levels of ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moehs, D.P.; Church, D.A. [Physics Department, Texas AM University, College Station, Texas77843-4242 (United States); Phaneuf, R.A. [Physics Department, University of Nevada at Reno, Reno, Nevada89557-0058 (United States)

    1998-05-01

    A portable system consisting of a Kingdon electrostatic ion trap and associated vacuum system and electronics has been especially designed to capture multiply charged ions from a beam produced by an electron cyclotron resonance ion source and to measure the lifetimes of the decays of metastable levels of these ions, which are excited in the source. Measurements on ion charge states as high as 14+ have been completed, with precisions exceeding 1{percent} achieved with a few hours of data collection time in favorable cases. Gaseous and metallic ions of astrophysical interest have been studied. The measured lifetime of the 3s{sup 2}3p{sup 2} {sup 1}D{sub 2} level of Mn{sup 11+}, {tau}=11.16{plus_minus}0.10 ms, is discussed as an example of the apparatus capabilities. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  20. Apparatus and methods for measuring of the film structures homogeneity degree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makara V. A.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The designer-technological analysis of ellipsometric parameters measuring and calculation of the film refraction index and thickness scheme is conducted in this article. The flow-chart is developed and the model of apparatus for the film refraction index and thickness measuring and control of the film structures technology making is created. Package of automated programs of the film refraction index and thicknes calculating on the measured ellipsometric parameters, based on the iteration method of decision of ellipsometry equation was developed. The approbation of device, which showed the checking feature of films homogeneity both on an area and on a thickness on the example of determination of CdTe and HfO2 films refraction index and thickness is conducted.

  1. Apparatus and methods of measuring minority carrier lifetime using a liquid probe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jian

    2016-04-12

    Methods and apparatus for measuring minority carrier lifetimes using liquid probes are provided. In one embodiment, a method of measuring the minority carrier lifetime of a semiconductor material comprises: providing a semiconductor material having a surface; forming a rectifying junction at a first location on the surface by temporarily contacting the surface with a conductive liquid probe; electrically coupling a second junction to the semiconductor material at a second location, wherein the first location and the second location are physically separated; applying a forward bias to the rectifying junction causing minority carrier injection in the semiconductor material; measuring a total capacitance as a function of frequency between the rectifying junction and the second junction; determining an inflection frequency of the total capacitance; and determining a minority lifetime of the semiconductor material from the inflection frequency.

  2. Measuring the Biodegradability of Plastic Polymers in Olive-Mill Waste Compost with an Experimental Apparatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Castellani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of biodegradable polymers is spreading in agriculture to replace those materials derived from petroleum, thus reducing the environmental concerns. However, to issue a significant assessment, biodegradation rate must be measured in case-specific standardized conditions. In accordance with ISO 14855-1, we designed and used an experimental apparatus to evaluate the biodegradation rate of three biopolymers based on renewable resources, two poly(ε-caprolactone (PCL composites, and a compatibilized polylactic acid and polybutyrate (PLA/PBAT blend. Biodegradation tests were carried out under composting condition using mature olive-mill waste (OMW compost as inoculum. Carbon dioxide emissions were automatically recorded by infrared gas detectors and also trapped in saturated Ba(OH2 solution and evaluated via a standard titration method to check the results. Some of the samples reached more than 80% biodegradation in less than 20 days. Both the experimental apparatus and the OMW compost showed to be suitable for the cases studied.

  3. TRANSFORMER APPARATUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfgang, F.; Nicol, J.

    1962-11-01

    Transformer apparatus is designed for measuring the amount of a paramagnetic substance dissolved or suspended in a diamagnetic liquid. The apparatus consists of a cluster of tubes, some of which are closed and have sealed within the diamagnetic substance without any of the paramagnetic material. The remaining tubes are open to flow of the mix- ture. Primary and secondary conductors are wrapped around the tubes in such a way as to cancel noise components and also to produce a differential signal on the secondaries based upon variations of the content of the paramagnetic material. (AEC)

  4. Validation of measured microwave absorption and temperature change for development of a single-mode-type microwave heating thermogravimetry apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karisma, Achmad Dwitama; Hamaba, Taishu; Fukasawa, Tomonori; Huang, An-Ni; Segawa, Tomoomi; Fukui, Kunihiro

    2017-02-01

    The temperature distribution, microwave absorption efficiency, and dielectric properties of a copper (ii) oxide (CuO) pellet heated by microwave irradiation were investigated for use in developing a single-mode-type microwave heating thermogravimetry apparatus. The validity of the apparatus was confirmed by comparing the measured data with the results of numerical simulations. The dielectric properties and error margins of other parameters estimated using the apparatus were also examined. The temperature distribution of the CuO pellet was observed to decrease monotonously on moving from the outlet to the inlet side of the apparatus. A three-dimensional numerical simulation of the electromagnetic field accurately reproduced this temperature distribution, suggesting the one-way movement of microwaves in the single-mode-type microwave apparatus. The numerically determined dependency of the CuO absorption efficiency was also found to be in very good agreement with published data. The same was the case with the permittivity loss of the CuO at various temperatures, as estimated from the measured microwave absorption efficiency. However, a larger error was observed in the estimation of the permittivity loss of a material with a lower microwave absorption efficiency, which was apparently due to the measurement error of the absorption efficiency of such a material.

  5. Measuring Antioxidant Activity in Bioorganic Samples by the Differential Oxygen Uptake Apparatus: Recent Advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Amorati

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The measure of O2 consumption during the inhibited autoxidation of an easily oxidizable substrate is one of the most reliable and predictive methods to assess antioxidant activity, especially for structure-activity relationship studies, for food and industrial applications. The differential oxygen uptake apparatus described herein represents a powerful and cost-effective way to obtain antioxidant activity from inhibited autoxidation studies. These experiments provide the rate constant and the stoichiometry of the reaction between antioxidants and peroxyl radicals (ROO∙, which are involved in the propagation of radical damage. We show the operation principles and the utility of this instrumentation in the bioorganic laboratory, with regard to the recent advances in this field, ranging from the study of natural antioxidants in biomimetic system, to the use of substrates generating hydroperoxyl radicals, and to the evaluation of novel nanoantioxidants.

  6. Apparatus for measuring weight, torque and side force on a drill bit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maron, R.

    1989-04-18

    This patent describes an apparatus for measuring at least one load applied to a drill bit during the drilling of a well, including: drill string sub means adapted to be connected in a drill string above the drill bit; hole means for defining a pair of diametrically opposite through-hole means in the wall of the sub; plug means in each of the hole means, the plug means cooperating with the through hole means to define an atmospheric chamber means in each of the through hole means; ring means in the centerbore of the drillstring sub; fastener means for connecting the plug means to the annular ring means; weight sensor means in each of the through hole means for generating an output in response to at least the parameter of weight on the drill bit.

  7. Measuring Apparatus for Convective Heat Transfer Coefficient of Nanofluids Using a Thermistor Temperature Sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sin Pyo [Kyonggi Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    Fine wires made from platinum have been used as sensors to evaluate the convection performance of nanofluids. However, the wire sensor is difficult to handle due to its fragility. Additionally, an unrealistic convective heat transfer coefficient (h) is obtained if a rigorous calibration process combined with precision equipment is not used for measurement. This paper proposes a new evaluation apparatus for h of nanofluids that uses a thermistor sensor instead of the platinum wire. The working principles are also explained in detail. Validation experiments for pure engine oil comparing h from the two sensors confirmed numerous practical benefits of the thermistor. The proposed system can be used as a useful tool to justify the adoption of developed nanofluids.

  8. An Apparatus for the Measurement of Various Scattering Processes in Intermediate Energy, Ion - Atom Collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kvale, T. J.; Seely, D. G.

    1998-07-01

    This paper summarizes the main features of an apparatus constructed at the University of Toledo for the study of various scattering processes in intermediate energy, ion - atom collisions. The main purpose of this facility is to provide experimental data which serve as benchmarks to test current scattering theories for those processes. Recent measurements of single electron detachment (SED) and double electron detachment (DED) total cross sections for 5-50 keV H{sup -} ions incident on noble gases and for 10-50 keV H{sup -} ions incident on CH{sub 4} molecules were conducted in this laboratory. As a result of an analysis of the scattered beam growth curves, information about other charge-changing cross sections in the hydrogen-atom (molecule) collision systems were obtain, as well.

  9. A Movable Mass Spectroscopy Sampling Apparatus for Measuring Spatial Distribution of Neutral Radicals in Silane Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhao-Kui; LIN Kui-Xun; LIN Xuan-Ying; QIU Gui-Ming; ZHU Zu-Song

    2005-01-01

    @@ A movable mass spectroscopy gas sampling apparatus has been established and a straight-line fit ofsilane depletion fraction f is proposed.The spatial density distributions of SiHn (n = 0-3) radicals in silane radio frequency glow discharge have been measured by a mass spectrometer.The experimental results demonstrate that the densities of the neutral radicals have the peak value near the middle position of electrodes, and the densities of SiH2 and SiHs are higher than those of Si and SiH in silane plasma.This reveals that SiH2 and SiH3 may be the primary precursors in forming the a-Si:H film.

  10. Apparatus for Measuring Spectral Emissivity of Solid Materials at Elevated Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Dengfeng; Tan, Hong; Xuan, Yimin; Han, Yuge; Li, Qiang

    2016-05-01

    Spectral emissivity measurements at high temperature are of great importance for both scientific research and industrial applications. A method to perform spectral emissivity measurements is presented based on two sample heating methods, the flat plate and tubular furnace. An apparatus is developed to measure the normal spectral emissivity of solid material at elevated temperatures from 1073 K to 1873 K and wavelengths from 2 \\upmu hbox {m} to 25 \\upmu hbox {m}. Sample heating is accomplished by a torch flame or a high temperature furnace. Two different variable temperature blackbody sources are used as standard references and the radiance is measured by a FTIR spectrometer. Following calibration of the spectral response and background radiance of the spectrometer, the effect of the blackbody temperature interval on calibration results is discussed. Measurements are performed of the normal spectral emissivity of SiC and graphite over the prescribed temperature and wavelength range. The emissivity of SiC at high temperatures is compared with the emissivity at room temperature, and the influence of an oxide layer formed at the surface of SiC on the emissivity is studied. The effect of temperature on the emissivity of graphite is also investigated. Furthermore, a thorough analysis of the uncertainty components of the emissivity measurement is performed.

  11. Apparatus and method to measure dielectric properties (epsilon(') and epsilon(")) of ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göllei, Attila; Vass, András; Pallai, Elisabeth; Gerzson, Miklós; Ludányi, Lajos; Mink, János

    2009-04-01

    Conventional techniques for measurement of dielectric properties of ionic liquids or electrolyte solutions fail because the samples are largely short circuited by the high electrical conductance. The object of the author's research activity was to elaborate an apparatus (microwave dielectrometer) and method suitable to measure the dielectric constant (epsilon(')) and loss factor (epsilon(")) of well conducting ionic liquids and other solvents. This process is based on a revised waveguide method completed with an automatic calibration possibility. Contrary to conventional measuring methods this technique uses about 20 W/g power density. The measurements were carried out at 2.45 GHz frequency in the temperature range from 10 up to 100 degrees C. The obtained (epsilon(')) and (epsilon(")) values of different solvents were compared with several published (calculated and measured) data. Statistical analysis was used to determine the error of measurements and distilled water was chosen as a standard for study of data dispersion. To accomplish statistical analysis, namely, the dielectric characteristics have to be determined at the same temperature. The values of variances were less or equal 1 in case of epsilon(') and decrease with increasing temperature. In case of epsilon(") the variance data were much smaller.

  12. Method and apparatus for measuring thermal conductivity of small, highly insulating specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Robert A. (Inventor); Kuczmarski, Maria A. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A hot plate method and apparatus for the measurement of thermal conductivity combines the following capabilities: 1) measurements of very small specimens; 2) measurements of specimens with thermal conductivity on the same order of that as air; and, 3) the ability to use air as a reference material. Care is taken to ensure that the heat flow through the test specimen is essentially one-dimensional. No attempt is made to use heated guards to minimize the flow of heat from the hot plate to the surroundings. Results indicate that since large correction factors must be applied to account for guard imperfections when specimen dimensions are small, simply measuring and correcting for heat from the heater disc that does not flow into the specimen is preferable. The invention is a hot plate method capable of using air as a standard reference material for the steady-state measurement of the thermal conductivity of very small test samples having thermal conductivity on the order of air.

  13. Pilot study on the relationship between personality traits and skin conductivity of specific surface points as measured by Motoyama's apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livesay, J R; Chevalier, G

    1999-06-01

    This pilot study used Motoyama's electrodermal response-measuring apparatus to test resting skin conductivity from 28 extremity digit surface coordinates of 33 subjects who also were administered the Eysenck Personality Inventory on an alternatively assigned basis for the dimensions of extraversion and neuroticism. Correlations show significant relationships between neuroticism and extraversion raw scores on two of the 14 bilateral finger surface coordinates.

  14. The macroscopic pancake bounce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen Bro, Jonas; Sternberg Brogaard Jensen, Kasper; Nygaard Larsen, Alex; Yeomans, Julia M.; Hecksher, Tina

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate that the so-called pancake bounce of millimetric water droplets on surfaces patterned with hydrophobic posts (Liu et al 2014 Nat. Phys. 10 515) can be reproduced on larger scales. In our experiment, a bed of nails plays the role of the structured surface and a water balloon models the water droplet. The macroscopic version largely reproduces the features of the microscopic experiment, including the Weber number dependence and the reduced contact time for pancake bouncing. The scalability of the experiment confirms the mechanisms of pancake bouncing, and allows us to measure the force exerted on the surface during the bounce. The experiment is simple and inexpensive and is an example where front-line research is accessible to student projects.

  15. The new IMGC-02 transportable absolute gravimeter: measurement apparatus and applications in geophysics and volcanology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D’errico

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The research carried out at the Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica (formerly Istituto di Metrologia «G. Colonnetti» aiming to develop a transportable ballistic absolute gravimeter ended with a new version of the instrument, called the IMGC-02. It uses laser interferometry to measure the symmetrical free rising and falling motion of a test mass in the gravity field. Providing the same accuracy achieved with previous versions, the instrumental improvements mainly concern size, weight, data processing algorithms and operational simplicity. An uncertainty of 9 ?Gal (1 ?Gal=1×10–8 m·s?2 can be achieved within a single observation session, lasting about 12 h, while the time series of several observation sessions show a reproducibility of 4 ?Gal. At this level, gravity measurements provide useful information in Geophysics and Volcanology. A wide set of dynamic phenomena, i.e. seismicity and volcanic activity, can produce temporal gravity changes, often quite small, with an amplitude ranging from a few to hundreds of microgals. Therefore the IMGC absolute gravimeter has been employed since 1986 in surveying the Italian active volcanoes. A brief history of the gravimeter and the description of the new apparatus, together with the main results of ongoing applications in Geophysics and Volcanology are presented.

  16. Apparatus for using a time interval counter to measure frequency stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhall, Charles A. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    An apparatus for measuring the relative stability of two signals is disclosed comprising a means for mixing the two signals down to a beat note sine wave and for producing a beat note square wave whose upcrossings are the same as the sine wave. A source of reference frequency is supplied to a clock divider and interval counter to synchronize them and to generate a picket fence for providing a time reference grid of period shorter than the beat period. An interval counter is employed to make a preliminary measurement between successive upcrossings of the beat note square wave for providing an approximate time interval therebetween as a reference. The beat note square wave and the picket fence are then provided to the interval counter to provide an output consisting of the time difference between the upcrossing of each beat note square wave cycle and the next picket fence pulse such that the counter is ready for each upcrossing and dead time is avoided. A computer containing an algorithm for calculating the exact times of the beat note upcrossings then computes the upcrossing times.

  17. Volumetric apparatus for hydrogen adsorption and diffusion measurements: sources of systematic error and impact of their experimental resolutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Policicchio, Alfonso; Maccallini, Enrico; Kalantzopoulos, Georgios N; Cataldi, Ugo; Abate, Salvatore; Desiderio, Giovanni; Agostino, Raffaele Giuseppe

    2013-10-01

    The development of a volumetric apparatus (also known as a Sieverts' apparatus) for accurate and reliable hydrogen adsorption measurement is shown. The instrument minimizes the sources of systematic errors which are mainly due to inner volume calibration, stability and uniformity of the temperatures, precise evaluation of the skeletal volume of the measured samples, and thermodynamical properties of the gas species. A series of hardware and software solutions were designed and introduced in the apparatus, which we will indicate as f-PcT, in order to deal with these aspects. The results are represented in terms of an accurate evaluation of the equilibrium and dynamical characteristics of the molecular hydrogen adsorption on two well-known porous media. The contribution of each experimental solution to the error propagation of the adsorbed moles is assessed. The developed volumetric apparatus for gas storage capacity measurements allows an accurate evaluation over a 4 order-of-magnitude pressure range (from 1 kPa to 8 MPa) and in temperatures ranging between 77 K and 470 K. The acquired results are in good agreement with the values reported in the literature.

  18. Design and realization of a two-dimensional spatial magnetic field mapping apparatus to measure magnetic fields of metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Quan; Zhou, Xiao Yang; Chin, Jessie Yao; Cui, Tie Jun

    2011-07-01

    The two-dimensional (2D) spatial electric-field mapping apparatus [Opt. Express 14, 8694 (2006)] plays an important role in experiments involving metamaterials, such as the verification of free-space and ground-plane invisibility cloaks. However, such an apparatus is valid only for the transverse-electric (TE) mode and is invalid for the transverse-magnetic (TM) mode, as it requires perfectly magnetic conducting (PMC) planes, which do not exist in nature. In this paper, we propose a 2D spatial magnetic-field mapping apparatus based on artificial magnetic conductor (AMC) plates. The AMC structure is designed using periodically perfectly electrical conducting patches with a sub-wavelength size on a dielectric substrate backed with the ground plane, which can simulate a PMC plane. Using two parallel PMC plates to form a TM-wave planar waveguide, we realize the 2D spatial magnetic-field mapping apparatus in order to measure the external and internal magnetic fields of metamaterials. Two types of excitations, a plane-wave source and a magnetic dipole, are used to feed the system. In order to validate the performance of the magnetic-field mapper, two gradient-index metamaterial lenses are measured, and the experimental results are in good agreement with the full-wave simulations.

  19. An apparatus for in situ x-ray scattering measurements during polymer injection molding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendon, Stanley; Fang, Jun; Burghardt, Wesley R; Bubeck, Robert A

    2009-04-01

    We report a novel instrument for synchrotron-based in situ x-ray scattering measurements during injection molding processing. It allows direct, real-time monitoring of molecular-scale structural evolution in polymer materials undergoing a complex processing operation. The instrument is based on a laboratory-scale injection molding machine, and employs customized mold tools designed to allow x-ray access during mold filling and subsequent solidification, while providing sufficient robustness to withstand high injection pressures. The use of high energy, high flux synchrotron radiation, and a fast detector allows sufficiently rapid data acquisition to resolve time-dependent orientation dynamics in this transient process. Simultaneous monitoring of temperature and pressure signals allows transient scattering data to be referenced to various stages of the injection molding cycle. Representative data on a commercial liquid crystalline polymer, Vectra(R) B950, are presented to demonstrate the features of this apparatus; however, it may find application in a wide range of polymeric materials such as nanocomposites, semicrystalline polymers and fiber-reinforced thermoplastics.

  20. Improvements of the experimental apparatus for measurement of the surface tension of supercooled liquids using horizontal capillary tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinš Václav

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental apparatus with a horizontal capillary tube for measurement of the surface tension of supercooled liquids, i.e. liquids in a metastable state below the equilibrium freezing point, was designed and tested in the previous study [V. Vinš et al., EPJ Web Conf. 92, 02108 (2015]. In this work, recent modifications of both the experimental setup and the measurement analysis are described. The main aim is to improve the accuracy and the reproducibility of measured surface tension and to achieve higher degrees of supercooling. Temperature probes measuring the temperature of cooling medium near the horizontal capillary tube were calibrated in the relevant temperature range from – 31 °C to + 45 °C. An additional pressure transducer was installed in the helium distribution setup at the position close to the capillary tube. The optical setup observing the liquid meniscus at the open end of the horizontal capillary tube together with the video analysis were thoroughly revised. The red laser illuminating the liquid meniscus, used at the original apparatus, was replaced by a fiber optic light source, which significantly improved the quality of the meniscus image. The modified apparatus was used for the measurement of surface tension of supercooled water at temperatures down to – 11 °C. The new data have a lower scatter compared to the previous horizontal measurements and show a good agreement with the other data obtained with a different measurement technique based on the modified capillary rise method.

  1. Investigation of dissipative forces near macroscopic media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, R.S.

    1982-12-01

    The interaction of classical charged particles with the fields they induce in macroscopic dielectric media is investigated. For 10- to 1000-eV electrons, the angular perturbation of the trajectory by the image potential for surface impact parameters of 50 to 100 A is shown to be of the order of 0.001 rads over a distance of 100 A. The energy loss incurred by low-energy particles due to collective excitations such as surface plasmons is shown to be observable with a transition probability of 0.01 to 0.001 (Becker, et al., 1981b). The dispersion of real surface plasmon modes in planar and cylindrical geometries is discussed and is derived for pinhole geometry described in terms of a single-sheeted hyperboloid of revolution. An experimental apparatus for the measurement of collective losses for medium-energy electrons translating close to a dielectric surface is described and discussed. Data showing such losses at electron energies of 500 to 900 eV in silver foils containing many small apertures are presented and shown to be in good agreement with classical stopping power calculations and quantum mechanical calculations carried out in the low-velocity limit. The data and calculations are compared and contrasted with earlier transmission and reflection measurements, and the course of further investigation is discussed.

  2. Method of Measuring the Vapor Pressure and Concentration of Fluids using VLE and Vibrating Tube Densitometer Apparatuses

    OpenAIRE

    Abdalla, Momin Elhadi; Pannir, Siddharth

    2016-01-01

    This work presents the vapor pressure and concentration measurement of newly discovered environmentally friendly refrigerants 1, 1-difluoroethane (R152a) and 1,1,1,3,3-Pentafluorbutane (R365mfc), besides their mixture. The experimental procedure used in this work was a VLE recirculation type apparatus in which the liquid phase is circulating around the equilibrium cell. Special attention was given to enable a highly accurate vapor pressure measurement up to maximum pressure of 25 bar. The li...

  3. Development of an experimental apparatus for oscillating-flow pressure-drop measurements through a stirling engine regenerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gekas, V.; Ahladianakis, K.; Nikolos, I. K.

    2004-07-01

    In this work the development of an experimental apparatus is described, designed for oscillating-flow pressure-drop measurements through a Stirling engine regenerator. A literature survey was initially performed, in order to investigate the different experimental approaches to the measurement of oscillating flow through a Stirling engine regenerator. The test rig was designed to be modular, versatile and scalable, in order to provide the ability of introducing variable measuring devices, variable regenerator designs and variable operating conditions, without the need of building a new test rig for each different case. Adopting a modular design for the experimental apparatus, it is possible to introduce new features in the future, with a minimal cost and risk. (Author) 7 refs.

  4. Experimental apparatus for measuring heat transfer coefficients by the Wilson plot method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Seara, Jose [Area de Maquinas y Motores Termicos, Escuela Superior de Ingenieros Industriales, Campus Lagoas-Marcosende, No 9, 36200 Vigo (Spain); UhIa, Francisco Jose [Area de Maquinas y Motores Termicos, Escuela Superior de Ingenieros Industriales, Campus Lagoas-Marcosende, No 9, 36200 Vigo (Spain); Sieres, Jaime [Area de Maquinas y Motores Termicos, Escuela Superior de Ingenieros Industriales, Campus Lagoas-Marcosende, No 9, 36200 Vigo (Spain); Campo, Antonio [Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05405 (United States)

    2005-05-01

    The Wilson plot is a technique to estimate the film coefficients in several types of heat transfer processes and to obtain general heat transfer correlations. This method is an outstanding tool in practical applications and in laboratory research activities that involve analysis of heat exchangers. Moreover, the application of this method is simple enough to be taught in laboratory practices for students at university and doctoral level of physics and engineering. Therefore, an experimental apparatus has been designed and built in our laboratory that allows the students to carry out experiments based on the application of the Wilson plot method. In this note, the principles of the method are explained, the experimental apparatus is described and representative results of the experimental data taken from the apparatus and the application of the Wilson plot method are shown. (note)

  5. New rotation-balance apparatus for measuring airplane spin aerodynamics in the wind tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm, G. N.

    1978-01-01

    An advanced rotation-balance apparatus has been developed for the Ames 12-ft pressure tunnel to study the effects of spin rate, angles of attack and sideslip, and, particularly, Reynolds number on the aerodynamics of fighter and general aviation aircraft in a steady spin. Angles of attack to 100 deg and angles of sideslip to 30 deg are possible with spin rates to 42 rad/sec (400 rpm) and Reynolds numbers to 30 million/m on fighter models with wing spans that are typically 0.7 m. A complete description of the new rotation-balance apparatus, the sting/balance/model assembly, and the operational capabilities is given.

  6. Slip Correction Measurements of Polystyrene and Polyvinyltoluene Aerosol Particles Using AN Improved Millikan Apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Michael Dana

    A slip correction equation of the form C(Kn) = 1 + Kn{(alpha) + (beta)exp(-(gamma)/Kn)} with Kn the particle Knudsen number is routinely used to correct Stokes' law for progressively lower than predicted drag force as Kn increases. The published values of the parameters ((alpha), (beta), and (gamma)) are based on Millikan's original values corrected with an improved value of mean free path for gas molecules in dry air. In this work, Millikan's most accurate raw data were carefully reviewed and the slip correction parameters were reevaluated using the latest published values of physical constants and nonlinear least squares function fitting. The values of (alpha), (beta), and (gamma) given by Millikan in 1923 adjusted for a modern value of the mean free path ((lamda) = 0.0673 (mu)m at 23(DEGREES)C and 760 mm of Hg) were 1.209, 0.406, and 0.893, respectively. Improved values of these parameters calculated by least squares using Millikan's most accurate raw data are 1.155, 0.471, and 0.596, respectively. Though these two sets of values appear significantly different, the maximum percentage difference in the calculated correction factor is less than 2.0% over the Knudsen number range of 0.001 to 100. This error is small when compared to differences which may be caused by different particle surfaces and gas compositions. An improved version of the Millikan oil-drop apparatus was built and slip correction measurements were made on ninety solid, spherical particles in air. Measurements were made on eleven polystyrene latex-divinylbenzene particles, twenty-five polyvinyltoluene particles, and fifty-four polystyrene latex particles, spanning a Knudsen number range from 0.03 to 7.2. The values of (alpha), (beta), and (gamma) computed using nonlinear least squares function fitting for a mean free path at 23(DEGREES)C of 0.0673 (mu)m and a viscosity of 1.83245 x 10('-4) gcm('-1)s(' -1) were 1.142, 0.558, and 0.99 respectively. The value of (alpha) agrees very closely with

  7. Macroscopic quantum resonators (MAQRO)

    CERN Document Server

    Kaltenbaek, Rainer; Kiesel, Nikolai; Romero-Isart, Oriol; Johann, Ulrich; Aspelmeyer, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Quantum physics challenges our understanding of the nature of physical reality and of space-time and suggests the necessity of radical revisions of their underlying concepts. Experimental tests of quantum phenomena involving massive macroscopic objects would provide novel insights into these fundamental questions. Making use of the unique environment provided by space, MAQRO aims at investigating this largely unexplored realm of macroscopic quantum physics. MAQRO has originally been proposed as a medium-sized fundamental-science space mission for the 2010 call of Cosmic Vision. MAQRO unites two experiments: DECIDE (DECoherence In Double-Slit Experiments) and CASE (Comparative Acceleration Sensing Experiment). The main scientific objective of MAQRO, which is addressed by the experiment DECIDE, is to test the predictions of quantum theory for quantum superpositions of macroscopic objects containing more than 10e8 atoms. Under these conditions, deviations due to various suggested alternative models to quantum th...

  8. Real time measurement of plasma macroscopic parameters on RFX-mod using a limited set of sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudlacek, Ondrej; Zanca, Paolo; Finotti, Claudio; Marchiori, Giuseppe; Cavazzana, Roberto; Marrelli, Lionello

    2015-10-01

    A method to estimate the plasma boundary and global parameters such as βp+li/2 and the edge safety factor q95 is described. The method is based on poloidal flux extrapolation in the vacuum region between the plasma and the magnetic measurements, and it is efficient and accurate even if a limited set of sensors is used. The discrepancy between the plasma boundary provided by this method and the boundary computed by the Grad-Shafranov solver MAXFEA is lower than 8 mm in all the considered cases. Moreover, the method is robust against the noise level present in the RFX-mod measurements. The difference between the estimated global parameters and the MAXFEA simulation results is lower than 4%. The method was finally implemented in the RFX-mod shape control system, working at 5 kHz cycle frequency, to provide a reliable set of plasma-wall distances (gaps) used as feedback signals. Experimental results obtained in one year of RFX-mod operation are shown.

  9. Apparatus for measurement of acoustic wave propagation under uniaxial loading with application to measurement of third-order elastic constants of piezoelectric single crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haifeng; Kosinski, J A; Karim, Md Afzalul

    2013-05-01

    We describe an apparatus for the measurement of acoustic wave propagation under uniaxial loading featuring a special mechanism designed to assure a uniform mechanical load on a cube-shaped sample of piezoelectric material. We demonstrate the utility of the apparatus by determining the effects of stresses on acoustic wave speed, which forms a foundation for the final determination of the third-order elastic constants of langasite and langatate single crystals. The transit time method is used to determine changes in acoustic wave velocity as the loading is varied. In order to minimize error and improve the accuracy of the wave speed measurements, the cross correlation method is used to determine the small changes in the time of flight. Typical experimental results are presented and discussed.

  10. Influence of macroscopic graphite particulates on the damping properties of Zn-Al eutectoid alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents in detail the effects of macroscopic graphite (Gr) particulates on the damping behavior of Zn-Al eutectoid alloy (Zn-Al). Macroscopic defects are graphite particulates with sizes of the order of a millimeter (0.5 mm and 1.0 mm). Macroscopic graphite particulate-reinforced Zn-Al eutectoid alloys were prepared by the air pressure infiltration process. The damping characterization was conducted on a multifunction internal friction apparatus (MFIFA). The internal friction (IF), as well as the relative dynamic modulus, was measured at different frequencies over the temperature range of 20 to 400℃. The damping capacity of the Zn-Al/Gr, with two different volume fractions of macroscopic graphite particulates, was compared with that of bulk Zn-Al eutectoid alloy. The damping capacity of the materials is shown to increase with increasing volume fraction of macroscopic graphite particulates. Two IF peaks were found in the IF-temperature curves. The first is a grain boundary peak, which is associated with the diffusive flux on a boundary between like phases, Al/Al. Its activation energy has been calculated to be 1.13±0.03 eV and the pre-exponential factor is 10?14 s in IF measurements. The second is a phase transition peak, which results from the transformation of Zn-Al eutectoid. In light of internal friction measurements and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) experiments, its activation energy has been calculated to be 2.36±0.08 eV.

  11. Influence of macroscopic graphite particulates on the damping properties of Zn-Al eutectoid alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI JianNing; SONG ShiHua; HU KongGang; XIE WeiJun; MA MingLiang; LI GenMei

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents in detail the effects of macroscopic graphite (Gr) particulates on the damping be-havior of Zn-AI eutectoid alloy (Zn-AI). Macroscopic defects are graphite particulates with sizes of the order of a millimeter (0.5 mm and 1.0 mm). Macroscopic graphite particulate-reinforced Zn-AI eutectoid alloys were prepared by the air pressure infiltration process. The damping characterization was con-ducted on a multifunction internal friction apparatus (MFIFA). The internal friction (IF), as well as the relative dynamic modulus, was measured at different frequencies over the temperature range of 20 to 400"C. The damping capacity of the Zn-AI/Gr, with two different volume fractions of macroscopic graphite particulates, was compared with that of bulk Zn-Al eutectoid alloy. The damping capacity of the materials is shown to increase with increasing volume fraction of macroscopic graphite particulates. Two IF peaks were found in the IF-temperature curves. The first is a grain boundary peak, which is as-sociated with the diffusive flux on a boundary between like phases, Al/Al. Its activation energy has been calculated to be 1.13±0.03 eV and the pre-exponential factor is 10-14 s in IF measurements. The second is a phase transition peak, which results from the transformation of Zn-AI eutectoid. In light of internal friction measurements and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) experiments, its activation energy has been calculated to be 2.36±0.08 eV.

  12. The G0 Experiment: Apparatus for Parity-Violating Electron Scattering Measurements at Forward and Backward Angles

    CERN Document Server

    Androic, D; Arvieux, J; Asaturyan, R; Averett, T D; Bailey, S L; Batigne, G; Beck, D H; Beise, E J; Benesch, J; Benmokhtar, F; Bimbot, L; Birchall, J; Biselli, A; Bosted, P; Breuer, H; Brindza, P; Capuano, C L; Carlini, R D; Carr, R; Chant, N; Chao, Y -C; Clark, R; Coppens, A; Covrig, S D; Cowley, A; Dale, D; Davis, C A; Ellis, C; Falk, W R; Fenker, H; Finn, J M; Forest, T; Franklin, G; Frascaria, R; Furget, C; Gaskell, D; Gericke, M T W; Grames, J; Griffioen, K A; Grimm, K; Guillard, G; Guillon, B; Guler, H; Gustafsson, K; Hannelius, L; Hansknecht, J; Hasty, R D; Allen, A M Hawthorne; Horn, T; Ito, T M; Johnston, K; Jones, M; Kammel, P; Kazimi, R; King, P M; Kolarkar, A; Korkmaz, E; Korsch, W; Kox, S; Kuhn, J; Lachniet, J; Laszewski, R; Lee, L; Lenoble, J; Liatard, E; Liu, J; Lung, A; MacLachlan, G A; Mammei, J; Marchand, D; Martin, J W; Mack, D J; McFarlane, K W; McKee, D W; McKeown, R D; Merchez, F; Mihovilovic, M; Micherdzinska, A; Mkrtchyan, H; Moffit, B; Morlet, M; Muether, M; Musson, J; Nakahara, K; Neveling, R; Niccolai, S; Nilsson, D; Ong, S; Page, S A; Papavassiliou, V; Pate, S F; Phillips, S K; Pillot, P; Pitt, M L; Poelker, M; Porcelli, T A; Quemener, G; Quinn, B P; Ramsay, W D; Rauf, A W; Real, J -S; Ries, T; Roos, J Roche P; Rutledge, G A; Schaub, J; Secrest, J; Seva, T; Simicevic, N; Smith, G R; Spayde, D T; Stepanyan, S; Stutzman, M; Suleiman, R; Tadevosyan, V; Tieulent, R; van de Wiele, J; van Oers, W T H; Versteegen, M; Voutier, E; Vulcan, W F; Wells, S P; Warren, G; Williamson, S E; Woo, R J; Wood, S A; Yan, C; Yun, J; Zeps, V

    2011-01-01

    In the G0 experiment, performed at Jefferson Lab, the parity-violating elastic scattering of electrons from protons and quasi-elastic scattering from deuterons is measured in order to determine the neutral weak currents of the nucleon. Asymmetries as small as 1 part per million in the scattering of a polarized electron beam are determined using a dedicated apparatus. It consists of specialized beam-monitoring and control systems, a cryogenic hydrogen (or deuterium) target, and a superconducting, toroidal magnetic spectrometer equipped with plastic scintillation and aerogel Cerenkov detectors, as well as fast readout electronics for the measurement of individual events. The overall design and performance of this experimental system is discussed.

  13. Preferred states of the apparatus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anu Venugopalan

    2012-02-01

    A simple one-dimensional model for the system–apparatus interaction is analysed. The system is a spin-1/2 particle, and its position and momentum degrees constitute the apparatus. An analysis involving only unitary Schrödinger dynamics illustrates the nature of the correlations established in the system–apparatus entangled state. It is shown that even in the absence of any environment-induced decoherence, or any other measurement model, certain initial states of the apparatus – like localized Gaussian wavepackets – are preferred over others, in terms of measurementlike one-to-one correlations in the pure system–apparatus entangled state.

  14. Observability of relative phases of macroscopic quantum states

    CERN Document Server

    Pati, A K

    1998-01-01

    After a measurement, to observe the relative phases of macroscopically distinguishable states we have to ``undo'' a quantum measurement. We generalise an earlier model of Peres from two state to N-state quantum system undergoing measurement process and discuss the issue of observing relative phases of different branches. We derive an inequality which is satisfied by the relative phases of macroscopically distinguishable states and consequently any desired relative phases can not be observed in interference setups. The principle of macroscopic complementarity is invoked that might be at ease with the macroscopic world. We illustrate the idea of limit on phase observability in Stern-Gerlach measurements and the implications are discussed.

  15. NMR logging apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, David O; Turner, Peter

    2014-05-27

    Technologies including NMR logging apparatus and methods are disclosed. Example NMR logging apparatus may include surface instrumentation and one or more downhole probes configured to fit within an earth borehole. The surface instrumentation may comprise a power amplifier, which may be coupled to the downhole probes via one or more transmission lines, and a controller configured to cause the power amplifier to generate a NMR activating pulse or sequence of pulses. Impedance matching means may be configured to match an output impedance of the power amplifier through a transmission line to a load impedance of a downhole probe. Methods may include deploying the various elements of disclosed NMR logging apparatus and using the apparatus to perform NMR measurements.

  16. NMR logging apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, David O; Turner, Peter

    2014-05-27

    Technologies including NMR logging apparatus and methods are disclosed. Example NMR logging apparatus may include surface instrumentation and one or more downhole probes configured to fit within an earth borehole. The surface instrumentation may comprise a power amplifier, which may be coupled to the downhole probes via one or more transmission lines, and a controller configured to cause the power amplifier to generate a NMR activating pulse or sequence of pulses. Impedance matching means may be configured to match an output impedance of the power amplifier through a transmission line to a load impedance of a downhole probe. Methods may include deploying the various elements of disclosed NMR logging apparatus and using the apparatus to perform NMR measurements.

  17. Covariant Macroscopic Quantum Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Hogan, Craig J

    2012-01-01

    A covariant noncommutative algebra of position operators is presented, and interpreted as the macroscopic limit of a geometry that describes a collective quantum behavior of the positions of massive bodies in a flat emergent space-time. The commutator defines a quantum-geometrical relationship between world lines that depends on their separation and relative velocity, but on no other property of the bodies, and leads to a transverse uncertainty of the geometrical wave function that increases with separation. The number of geometrical degrees of freedom in a space-time volume scales holographically, as the surface area in Planck units. Ongoing branching of the wave function causes fluctuations in transverse position, shared coherently among bodies with similar trajectories. The theory can be tested using appropriately configured Michelson interferometers.

  18. Development and testing of a new apparatus for the measurement of high-pressure low-temperature phase equilibria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonseca, José M.S.; von Solms, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    A new apparatus for the study of high-pressure phase equilibria at low temperatures using an analytical method was designed, assembled and tested. The apparatus was specially developed for the study of multi-phase equilibria in systems containing hydrocarbons, water and hydrate inhibitors...

  19. Measurements of the streaming potential of clay soils from tropical and subtropical regions using self-made apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhong-Yi; Li, Jiu-Yu; Liu, Yuan; Xu, Ren-Kou

    2014-09-01

    The streaming potential has been wildly used in charged parallel plates, capillaries, and porous media. However, there have been few studies involving the ζ potential of clay soils based on streaming potential measurements. A laboratory apparatus was developed in this study to measure the streaming potential (ΔE) of bulk clay soils' coupling coefficient (C) and cell resistance (R) of saturated granular soil samples. Excellent linearity of ΔE versus liquid pressure (ΔP) ensured the validity of measurements. The obtained parameters of C and R can be used to calculate the ζ potential of bulk soils. The results indicated that the ζ potentials measured by streaming potential method were significantly correlated with the ζ potentials of soil colloids determined by electrophoresis (r (2) = 0.960**). Therefore, the streaming potential method can be used to study the ζ potentials of bulk clay soils. The absolute values of the ζ potentials of four soils followed the order: Ultisol from Jiangxi > Ultisol from Anhui > Oxisol from Guangdong > Oxisol from Hainan, and this was consistent with the cation exchange capacities of these soils. The type and concentration of electrolytes affected soil ζ potentials. The ζ potential became less negative with increased electrolyte concentration. The ζ potentials were more negative in monovalent than in divalent cationic electrolyte solutions because more divalent cations were distributed in the shear plane of the diffuse layer as counter-cations on the soil surfaces than monovalent cations at the same electrolyte concentration.

  20. An apparatus for high temperature measurement of the resistivity and Hall coefficient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, Kasper Andersen; Toberer, Eric; Snyder, G Jeffrey

    Two instruments implementing the van der Pauw (VDP) method for measuring the specific resistivity and Hall coefficient at high temperatures are described. Several features to minimize the measurement errors are proposed and some of the advantages compared with traditional six-probe combined...... resistivity and Hall coefficient measurements are outlined. The VDP method is convenient for use in thermoelectrics research since it accepts sample geometries compatible with measurements of the Seebeck coefficient and thermal diffusivity. This allows for the thermoelectric figure of merit to be measured...... using a single sample and without shaping the sample between measurement of individual properties. The technique is simple and can be used with samples showing a broad range of shapes and physical properties, from near insulators to metals. The two instruments are currently in use at Caltech...

  1. Design and construction of an apparatus to measure reaction time (RT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Achyuthan

    1958-01-01

    Full Text Available "An instrument for measuring the Reaction Time (RT of individual has been developed. It is direct reading instrument, the deflection of a galvanometer being proportional to the Reaction Time Being measured. A motor controlled switch also assembled at this laboratory provides visual or auditory stimuli of short duration. The response can be given either by tapping a Morse key or by speaking into microphone. In the latter case, a correction factor of 11oms. has to be applied to the value of the RT as measured with galvanometer for getting the true RT. Simple RT, discrimination RT, discrimination and choice RT and serial RT can be measured."

  2. Canonical quantization of macroscopic electromagnetism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philbin, T G, E-mail: tgp3@st-andrews.ac.u [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews, Fife KY16 9SS (United Kingdom)

    2010-12-15

    Application of the standard canonical quantization rules of quantum field theory to macroscopic electromagnetism has encountered obstacles due to material dispersion and absorption. This has led to a phenomenological approach to macroscopic quantum electrodynamics where no canonical formulation is attempted. In this paper macroscopic electromagnetism is canonically quantized. The results apply to any linear, inhomogeneous, magnetodielectric medium with dielectric functions that obey the Kramers-Kronig relations. The prescriptions of the phenomenological approach are derived from the canonical theory.

  3. Canonical quantization of macroscopic electromagnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Philbin, T G

    2010-01-01

    Application of the standard canonical quantization rules of quantum field theory to macroscopic electromagnetism has encountered obstacles due to material dispersion and absorption. This has led to a phenomenological approach to macroscopic quantum electrodynamics where no canonical formulation is attempted. In this paper macroscopic electromagnetism is canonically quantized. The results apply to any linear, inhomogeneous, magnetoelectric medium with dielectric functions that obey the Kramers-Kronig relations. The prescriptions of the phenomenological approach are derived from the canonical theory.

  4. An apparatus with a horizontal capillary tube intended for measurement of the surface tension of supercooled liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinš Václav

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available New experimental apparatus for measurement of the surface tension of liquids under the metastable supercooled state has been designed and assembled in the study. The measuring technique is similar to the method employed by P.T. Hacker [NACA TN 2510] in 1951. A short liquid thread of the liquid sample was sucked inside a horizontal capillary tube partly placed in a temperature-controlled glass chamber. One end of the capillary tube was connected to a setup with inert gas which allowed for precise tuning of the gas overpressure in order of hundreds of Pa. The open end of the capillary tube was precisely grinded and polished before the measurement in order to assure planarity and perpendicularity of the outer surface. The liquid meniscus at the open end was illuminated by a laser beam and observed by a digital camera. Application of an increasing overpressure of the inert gas at the inner meniscus of the liquid thread caused variation of the outer meniscus such that it gradually changed from concave to flat and subsequently convex shape. The surface tension at the temperature of the inner meniscus could be evaluated from the overpressure corresponding to exactly planar outer meniscus. Detailed description of the new setup together with results of the preliminary tests is provided in the study.

  5. Mechanical properties of mammalian single smooth muscle cells. II. Evaluation of a modified technique for attachment of cells to the measurement apparatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J. Glerum (Jacobus); R. van Mastrigt (Ron)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractA method is described for attaching isolated single smooth muscle cells to an apparatus designed for measuring the longitudinal forces developed passively and actively by the cell upon straining, electrical or pharmacological stimulation. Primary attachment of the cell is based on its

  6. Mechanical properties of mammalian single smooth muscle cells. II. Evaluation of a modified technique for attachment of cells to the measurement apparatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J. Glerum (Jacobus); R. van Mastrigt (Ron)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractA method is described for attaching isolated single smooth muscle cells to an apparatus designed for measuring the longitudinal forces developed passively and actively by the cell upon straining, electrical or pharmacological stimulation. Primary attachment of the cell is based on its na

  7. Optimization of Apparatus Design and Behavioral Measures for the Assessment of Visuo-Spatial Learning and Memory of Mice on the Barnes Maze

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Timothy P.; Brown, Richard E.

    2013-01-01

    We have previously shown that apparatus design can affect visual-spatial cue use and memory performance of mice on the Barnes maze. The present experiment extends these findings by determining the optimal behavioral measures and test procedure for analyzing visuo-spatial learning and memory in three different Barnes maze designs. Male and female…

  8. Apparatus and method for measuring single cell and sub-cellular photosynthetic efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Ryan Wesley; Singh, Seema; Wu, Huawen

    2013-07-09

    Devices for measuring single cell changes in photosynthetic efficiency in algal aquaculture are disclosed that include a combination of modulated LED trans-illumination of different intensities with synchronized through objective laser illumination and confocal detection. Synchronization and intensity modulation of a dual illumination scheme were provided using a custom microcontroller for a laser beam block and constant current LED driver. Therefore, single whole cell photosynthetic efficiency, and subcellular (diffraction limited) photosynthetic efficiency measurement modes are permitted. Wide field rapid light scanning actinic illumination is provided for both by an intensity modulated 470 nm LED. For the whole cell photosynthetic efficiency measurement, the same LED provides saturating pulses for generating photosynthetic induction curves. For the subcellular photosynthetic efficiency measurement, a switched through objective 488 nm laser provides saturating pulses for generating photosynthetic induction curves. A second near IR LED is employed to generate dark adapted states in the system under study.

  9. Method of and apparatus for measuring temperature and pressure. [atmospheric sounding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korb, C. L.; Kalshoven, J. E., Jr. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    Laser beams are transmitted through gas to a reflecting target, which may be either a solid surface or particulate matter in gas or the gas molecules. The return beams are measured to determine the amount of energy absorbed by the gas. For temperature measurements, the laser beam has a wavelength at which the gas exhibits a relatively temperature sensitive and pressure insensitive absorption characteristic for pressure measurements, the laser beam has a wavelength at which the gas has a relatively pressure sensitive and temperature insensitive absorption characteristic. To reduce the effects of scattering on the absorption measurements a reference laser beam with a weak absorption characteristic is transmitted colinearly with the data beam having a strong absorption characteristic. The two signals are processed as a ratio to eliminate back scattering. Embodiments of transmitters and receivers described include a sequential laser pulse transmitter and receiver, a simultaneous laser pulse transmitter and receiver.

  10. A macroscopic challenge for quantum spacetime

    CERN Document Server

    Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Over the last decade a growing number of quantum-gravity researchers has been looking for opportunities for the first ever experimental evidence of a Planck-length quantum property of spacetime. These studies are usually based on the analysis of some candidate indirect implications of spacetime quantization, such as a possible curvature of momentum space. Some recent proposals have raised hope that we might also gain direct experimental access to quantum properties of spacetime, by finding evidence of limitations to the measurability of the center-of-mass coordinates of some macroscopic bodies. However I here observe that the arguments that originally lead to speculating about spacetime quantization do not apply to the localization of the center of mass of a macroscopic body. And I also analyze some popular formalizations of the notion of quantum spacetime, finding that when the quantization of spacetime is Planckian for the constituent particles then for the composite macroscopic body the quantization of spa...

  11. On Macroscopic Complexity and Perceptual Coding

    CERN Document Server

    Scoville, John

    2010-01-01

    While Shannon information establishes limits to the universal data compression of binary data, no existing theory provides an equivalent characterization of the lossy data compression algorithms prevalent in audiovisual media. The current paper proposes a mathematical framework for perceptual coding and inference which quantifies the complexity of objects indistinguishable to a particular observer. A definition of the complexity is presented and related to a generalization of Boltzmann entropy for these equivalence classes. When the classes are partitions of phase space, corresponding to classical observations, this is the proper Boltzmann entropy and the macroscopic complexity agrees with the Algorithmic Entropy. For general classes, the macroscopic complexity measure determines the optimal lossy compression of the data. Conversely, perceptual coding algorithms may be used to construct upper bounds on certain macroscopic complexities. Knowledge of these complexities, in turn, allows perceptual inference whic...

  12. Design of protonation constant measurement apparatus for carbon dioxide capturing solvents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma'mun, S.; Amelia, E.; Rahmat, V.; Alwani, D. R.; Kurniawan, D.

    2016-11-01

    Global warming phenomenon has led to world climate change caused by high concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHG), e.g. carbon dioxide (CO2), in the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide is produced in large amount from coal-fired power plants, iron and steel production, cement production, chemical and petrochemical manufacturing, natural gas purification, and transportation. Carbon dioxide emissions seem to rise from year to year; some efforts to reduce the emissions are, therefore, required. Amine-based absorption could be deployed for post-combustion capture. Some parameters, e.g. mass transfer coefficients and chemical equilibrium constants, are required for a vapor-liquid equilibrium modeling. Protonation constant (pKa), as one of those parameters, could then be measured experimentally. Therefore, an experimental setup to measure pKa of CO2 capturing solvents was designed and validated by measuring the pKa of acetic acid at 30 to 70 °C by a potentiometric titration method. The set up was also used to measure the pKa of MEA at 27 °C. Based on the validation results and due to low vapor pressure of CO2 capturing solvents in general, e.g. alkanolamines, the setup could therefore be used for measuring pKa of the CO2 capturing solvents at temperatures up to 70 °C.

  13. Measurements of thermal diffusivity, specific heat capacity and thermal conductivity with LFA 447 apparatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zajas, Jan Jakub; Heiselberg, Per

    The LFA 447 can be successfully used for measurements of thermal diffusivity, specific heat and thermal conductivity of various samples. It is especially useful when determining the properties of materials on a very small scale. The matrix measurement mode allows for determining the local...... properties with a fine resolution, down to 1 millimeter. Special attention needs to be taken when determining the specific heat capacity in the comparative method. First of all, the test and reference sample should be of nearly identical thickness. Secondly, their heat diffusion time should be comparable, so...... that the heat losses from both samples during the measurement are similar. Finally, the leveling of the samples is very important. Very small discrepancies can cause a massive error in the derivation of specific heat capacity and, as a result, thermal conductivity....

  14. Method and apparatus for background signal reduction in opto-acoustic absorption measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosengren, L. G. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    The sensitivity of an opto-acoustic absorption detector is increased to make it possible to measure trace amounts of constituent gases. A second beam radiation path is created through the sample cell identical to a first path except as to length, alternating the beam through the two paths and minimizing the detected pressure difference for the two paths while the beam wavelength is tuned away from the absorption lines of the sample. Then with the beam wavelength tuned to the absorption line of any constituent of interest, the pressure difference is a measure of trace amounts of the constituent. The same improved detector may also be used for measuring the absorption coefficient of known concentrations of absorbing gases.

  15. Top loading cryogen-free apparatus for low temperature thermophysical properties measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huiming; Gong, Linghui; Xu, Dong; Huang, Chuanjun; Zhang, Meimei; Xu, Peng; Li, Laifeng

    2014-07-01

    The thermophysical properties of matter, especially properties at low temperature, are extremely important for engineering and materials science. Traditional liquid helium based cryostats are in many cases no longer affordable to operate due to the high liquid helium cost. This paper describes the design and test results of a cryogen-free cryostat, based on a GM cryocooler, with 50 mm diameter top loading sample facilities for thermophysical properties measurement at low temperature. The sample temperature range is tuned between 2.6 K and 300 K and it can be continuously controlled with a high resolution. Moreover, the modular sample holder can be adapted to multiple properties measurement.

  16. Freezing Point Depressions of Aqueous MEA, MDEA, and MEA−MDEA Measured with a New Apparatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup; Pedersen, Mikkel Gielsager; Thomsen, Kaj

    2011-01-01

    Freezing points for aqueous monoethanolamine (MEA), methyl diethanolamine (MDEA), and MEA−MDEA solutions were measured in the concentration range from 0 to 0.4 mass fractions of the alkanolamines. For the aqueous MEA−MDEA system, freezing points for 1:4, 1:2, 1:1, 2:1, and 4:1 molar ratios of MEA...

  17. Biases of chamber methods for measuring soil CO2 efflux demonstrated with a laboratory apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Mark Nay; Kim G. Mattson; Bernard T. Bormann

    1994-01-01

    Investigators have historically measured soil CO2 efflux as an indicator of soil microbial and root activity and more recently in calculations of carbon budgets. The most common methods estimate CO2 efflux by placing a chamber over the soil surface and quantifying the amount of CO2 entering the...

  18. A Hot-Wire Method Based Thermal Conductivity Measurement Apparatus for Teaching Purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, S.; Marin, E.; Juarez, A. G.; Calderon, A.; Ivanov, R.

    2012-01-01

    The implementation of an automated system based on the hot-wire technique is described for the measurement of the thermal conductivity of liquids using equipment easily available in modern physics laboratories at high schools and universities (basically a precision current source and a voltage meter, a data acquisition card, a personal computer…

  19. Thermal Conductivity Measurements By Means of a New `Small Hot-Box' Apparatus: Manufacturing, Calibration and Preliminary Experimental Tests on Different Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buratti, C.; Belloni, E.; Lunghi, L.; Barbanera, M.

    2016-05-01

    The evaluation of the thermal performance building components requires a high level of accuracy. Windows, doors and thermal bridges are not homogeneous, and their thermal transmittance can be evaluated by means of Hot-Box, used for full-scale elements. For homogeneous materials and one-dimensional heat flux, the thermal conductivity can be easily measured through other experimental apparatuses, such as the guarded hot plate and the heat flow meters. This study presents a new experimental apparatus named Small Hot-Box, built at the University of Perugia. No European standards are available for this innovative facility, but it takes into account some prescriptions of EN ISO 8990 and EN ISO 12567; it was built for the evaluation of the thermal properties of small specimens. The apparatus was designed, built, and calibrated by means of preliminary measurements. It is composed of a hot and a cold side, and the external walls are made of thick insulation. The thermal conductivity can be calculated by two different methodologies: the Hot-Box and the thermal flux meter method. Preliminary calibrations were carried out and different materials with known thermal transmittance were tested. The aim is the development of a new experimental apparatus; guidance documents could be defined for the measurements methodology requirements.

  20. Method and apparatus for measuring gravitational acceleration utilizing a high temperature superconducting bearing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, John R. (Downers Grove, IL)

    2000-01-01

    Gravitational acceleration is measured in all spatial dimensions with improved sensitivity by utilizing a high temperature superconducting (HTS) gravimeter. The HTS gravimeter is comprised of a permanent magnet suspended in a spaced relationship from a high temperature superconductor, and a cantilever having a mass at its free end is connected to the permanent magnet at its fixed end. The permanent magnet and superconductor combine to form a bearing platform with extremely low frictional losses, and the rotational displacement of the mass is measured to determine gravitational acceleration. Employing a high temperature superconductor component has the significant advantage of having an operating temperature at or below 77K, whereby cooling may be accomplished with liquid nitrogen.

  1. Method and Apparatus for measuring Gravitational Acceleration Utilizing a high Temperature Superconducting Bearing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, John R.

    1998-11-06

    Gravitational acceleration is measured in all spatial dimensions with improved sensitivity by utilizing a high temperature superconducting (HTS) gravimeter. The HTS gravimeter is comprised of a permanent magnet suspended in a spaced relationship from a high temperature superconductor, and a cantilever having a mass at its free end is connected to the permanent magnet at its fixed end. The permanent magnet and superconductor combine to form a bearing platform with extremely low frictional losses, and the rotational displacement of the mass is measured to determine gravitational acceleration. Employing a high temperature superconductor component has the significant advantage of having an operative temperature at or below 77K, whereby cooling maybe accomplished with liquid nitrogen.

  2. Apparatus for parity-violation study via capture gamma-ray measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Seestrom, S J; Bowman, J D; Crawford, B C; Haseyama, T; Masaike, A; Matsuda, A; Penttilae, S I; Roberson, R N; Sharapov, E I; Stephenson, S L

    1999-01-01

    The Time Reversal and Parity at Low Energy (TRIPLE) Collaboration uses a short-pulsed longitudinally polarized epithermal neutron beam at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center to study spatial parity violation (PV) in the compound nucleus. The typical PV experiment measures the longitudinal cross-section asymmetry by the neutron transmission method through thick samples. Neutron capture gamma-ray measurement provides an alternative method for the study of PV, which enables the use of smaller amounts of isotopically pure target material. In 1995 TRIPLE commissioned a new neutron-capture detector consisting of 24 pure CsI scintillators arranged in a cylindrical geometry around the neutron beam. The characteristics and the performance of the detector and spin transport are described.

  3. A hot-wire method based thermal conductivity measurement apparatus for teaching purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, S.; Marín, E.; Juárez, A. G.; Calderón, A.; Ivanov, R.

    2012-07-01

    The implementation of an automated system based on the hot-wire technique is described for the measurement of the thermal conductivity of liquids using equipment easily available in modern physics laboratories at high schools and universities (basically a precision current source and a voltage meter, a data acquisition card, a personal computer and a high purity platinum wire). The wire, which is immersed in the investigated sample, is heated by passing a constant electrical current through it, and its temperature evolution, ΔT, is measured as a function of time, t, for several values of the current. A straightforward methodology is then used for data processing in order to obtain the liquid thermal conductivity. The start point is the well known linear relationship between ΔT and ln(t) predicted for long heating times by a model based on a solution of the heat conduction equation for an infinite lineal heat source embedded in an infinite medium into which heat is conducted without convective and radiative heat losses. A criterion is used to verify that the selected linear region is the one that matches the conditions imposed by the theoretical model. As a consequence the method involves least-squares fits in linear, semi-logarithmic (semi-log) and log-log graphs, so that it becomes attractive not only to teach about heat transfer and thermal properties measurement techniques, but also as a good exercise for students of undergraduate courses of physics and engineering learning about these kinds of mathematical functional relationships between variables. The functionality of the experiment was demonstrated by measuring the thermal conductivity in samples of liquids with well known thermal properties.

  4. Development of a quadrupole trap apparatus for UHV measurements of levitated graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppock, Joyce; Nagornykh, Pavel; McAdams, Ian; Kane, Bruce

    2015-03-01

    Completely decoupling graphene from any substrate opens up new possibilities for measurement of its electrical and mechanical properties as well as the exploration of novel methods of crystal growth and fabrication of 2D materials. We levitate a charged micron-scale few-layer graphene-like flake in an electrical AC quadrupole trap and induce rotation using a circularly polarized laser beam. We aim to achieve an ultra-high vacuum (UHV) environment (stretching (via rotation at frequencies greater than 100 MHz), to perform thermodynamic measurements on the particles as they are heated by the laser, and to avoid chemical contamination of the particles. Measurements of particles in UHV require two technologies: (1) the reliable capture of particles and their introduction into a UHV environment, and (2) a center-of-mass cooling method to prevent particle loss. This talk will focus on the first challenge. We will discuss improvements to the sample preparation and to the trapping procedure, describe a method of transferring particles from the initial capture trap to a second trap in a UHV chamber, and present a model of the trap potential. Finally, we will discuss preliminary work on the deposition of particles onto a conducting substrate after they have been cooled and oriented parallel to the substrate.

  5. Prehensile apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C.M.

    1993-10-12

    The present invention relates to an apparatus for handling a workpiece comprising a vessel that is longitudinally extensible and pressurizable, and a nonextensible and laterally flexible member on the vessel. The member constrains one side of the vessel to be nonextensible, causing the vessel to bend in the direction of the nonextensible member when pressurized. 8 figures.

  6. Foucault's method for measuring the speed of light with modern apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vörös, Zoltán; Weihs, Gregor

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, we introduce two simple and inexpensive, yet quite accurate versions of the well-known Foucault method for measuring the speed of light. In a compact footprint of just 20 cm by 270 cm with readily available laboratory items, a rotating mirror taken from a laser printer, and a webcam, we obtained c=296\\720+/- 3000 km s-1, and c=302\\295+/- 3000 km s-1, respectively, both within less than a per cent of the defined value. The experiment also prepares students for extracting data through image processing.

  7. Thermoelectric transport properties of novel nanoscaled materials via homemade and commercial apparatus measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukas, Kevin C.

    Thermoelectric (TE) materials are of broad interest for alternate energy applications, specifically waste heat applications, as well as solid-state refrigeration. The efficiency of TE materials can be improved through either the enhancement of the Seebeck coefficient and electrical conductivity, or through the reduction of the thermal conductivity, kappa, specifically the lattice portion of thermal conductivity, kappalatt. Nanostructuring has been proven to reduce kappalatt and therefore increase efficiency. The inability to accurately model the lattice and electronic contributions to kappa makes optimizing the reduction of kappalatt difficult. This work demonstrates that the lattice and electronic contributions to kappa in nanostructured materials can be directly measured experimentally by separating the contributions using magnetic field. We use this technique along with other characterization techniques to determine the effects of doping Ce, Sm, and Ho into Bi88Sb12. Along with enhancing the efficiency of the material, TE devices must be thermally stable in the temperature range of operation. Therefore we also study the effects of temperature cycling, annealing, oxidation, and diffusion barriers on TE devices. These studies are accomplished through both homemade and commercially available measurement equipment.

  8. Calorimetric apparatus for alternating current loss measurements on high-temperature superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, N.; Hörnfeldt, S.

    1998-09-01

    The use of high-temperature superconductors in electric power components requires the knowledge of their alternating current (ac) losses. Methods are therefore needed to characterize the conductors with respect to their ac losses under applicationlike conditions. In this article we describe a calorimetric setup for ac loss measurements on long length high-temperature superconductors carrying ac transport currents in ac external magnetic fields at variable temperatures. The variable temperature is achieved by a thermal connection between the sample and a cooling machine. Current in copper coils generates the magnetic field parallel to the plane of the tape and perpendicular to the transport current. This current can be induced in the coil-formed sample. Two slightly different methods are used to determine the ac losses, one in which the temperature rise of the sample, caused by the ac losses, is compared to the temperature rise caused by a reference heater and another in which the increase in power dissipation of the sample is compensated for by a reduction of the power dissipation in the heater. Typical results of the ac loss measurements are presented.

  9. Apparatus for measuring the flow rate of a heat carrier and injection wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Putilov, M.F.; Bar-Sliva, V.I.; Dichenko, M.A.; Nikiforov, Yu.V.; Petrov, A.I.; Turchaninov, Yu.N.

    1981-01-01

    A device is proposed for measuring the flow rate of the heat carrier in N wells, which contains a housing, turbine ( a permanent magnet is attached to the shaft eccentrically), a reed relay, a secondary converter and a power supply. In order to expand the measurement range by developing torque in the turbine it is equipped with additional reed relay, which is installed diametrically opposite the primary reed relay, and it also has a breaking unit made in the form of an additional permanent magnet placed on the turbine shaft. There was also a torodial core with a two-section winding and a winding power supply polarity switch in the frame. The primary and secondary reed relays are connected to the winding power supply polarity switch circuit. It in turn is connected to the secondary converter. In order to assure the possibility of changing the slope of the flow rate converter into a number of turbine revolutions it is equipped with a frequency to voltage converter with a setting mechanism. The frequency to voltage converter input is connected to the secondary converter, and the output is connected to the power supply source.

  10. Method and apparatus for measuring properties of particle beams using thermo-resistive material properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degtiarenko, Pavel V.; Dotson, Danny Wayne

    2007-10-09

    A beam position detector for measuring the properties of a charged particle beam, including the beam's position, size, shape, and intensity. One or more absorbers are constructed of thermo-resistive material and positioned to intercept and absorb a portion of the incoming beam power, thereby causing local heating of each absorber. The local temperature increase distribution across the absorber, or the distribution between different absorbers, will depend on the intensity, size, and position of the beam. The absorbers are constructed of a material having a strong dependence of electrical resistivity on temperature. The beam position detector has no moving parts in the vicinity of the beam and is especially suited to beam areas having high ionizing radiation dose rates or poor beam quality, including beams dispersed in the transverse direction and in their time radio frequency structure.

  11. Implications of Dynamic Pressure Transducer Mounting Variations on Measurements in Pyrotechnic Test Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibbern, Andreas; Crisafulli, Jeffrey; Hagopia, Michael; McDougle, Stephen H.; Saulsberry, Regor L.

    2009-01-01

    Accurate dynamic pressure measurements are often difficult to make within small pyrotechnic devices, and transducer mounting difficulties can cause data anomalies that lead to erroneous conclusions. Delayed initial pressure response followed by data ringing has been observed when using miniaturized pressure transducer mounting adapters required to interface transducers to small test chambers. This delayed pressure response and ringing, combined with a high data acquisition rate, has complicated data analysis. This paper compares the output signal characteristics from different pressure transducer mounting options, where the passage distance from the transducer face to the pyrotechnic chamber is varied in length and diameter. By analyzing the data and understating the associated system dynamics, a more realistic understanding of the actual dynamic pressure variations is achieved. Three pressure transducer mounting configurations (elongated, standard, and face/flush mount) were simultaneously tested using NASA standard initiators in closed volume pressure bombs. This paper also presents results of these pressure transducer mounting configurations as a result of a larger NASA Engineering and Safety Center pyrovalve test project. Results from these tests indicate the improved performance of using face/flush mounted pressure transducers in this application. This type of mounting improved initial pressure measurement response time by approximately 19 s over standard adapter mounting, eliminating most of the lag time; provided a near step-function type initial pressure increase; and greatly reduced data ringing in high data acquisition rate systems. The paper goes on to discuss other issues associated with the firing and instrumentation that are important for the tester to understand.

  12. Measurements of the radiolytic oxidation of aqueous CsI using a sparging apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashmore, C.B.; Brown, D.; Sims, H.E. [AEA Technology, Harwell (United Kingdom); Gwyther, J.R. [NE plc Berkeley Technology Centre, Berkeley (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-01

    Radiolytic oxidation is considered to be the main mechanism for the formation of I{sub 2} from aqueous CsI in containment of a water cooled reactor after a LOCA. Despite the amount of study over the last 60 years on the radiation chemistry of iodine there has been no consistent set of experiments spanning a wide enough range of conditions to verify models with confidence. This paper describes results from a set of experiments carried out in order to remedy this deficiency. In this work the rate of evolution of I{sub 2} from sparged irradiated CsI solution labeled with {sup 131}I was measured on-line over a range of conditions. This work involved the measurement of the effects of pH, temperature, O{sub 2} concentration, I{sup -} concentration, phosphate concentration, dose-rate and impurities on the rate of evolution of I{sub 2}. The range of conditions was chosen in order to span as closely as possible conditions expected in a LOCA but also to help to elucidate some of the mechanisms especially at high pH. pH was found to be a very important factor influencing iodine volatility, over the temperature range studied the extent of oxidation reduced with temperature but this was compensated for by the decrease in partition coefficient. Oxygen concentration was more important in solutions not containing phosphate. The fractional oxidation was not particularly dependent on iodide concentration but G{sub I2} was very dependent on [I{sup -}]. There was no effect of added impurities, Fe, Mn, Mo or organics although in separate work silver was found to have a very important effect. During attempts to interpret the data it was found that it was necessary to include the iodine atom as a volatile species with a partition coefficient of 1.9 taken from thermodynamic data. The modelling work is described in a separate paper. (author) 15 figs., 1 tab., 19 refs.

  13. Lozenge Tilings, Glauber Dynamics and Macroscopic Shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laslier, Benoît; Toninelli, Fabio Lucio

    2015-09-01

    We study the Glauber dynamics on the set of tilings of a finite domain of the plane with lozenges of side 1/ L. Under the invariant measure of the process (the uniform measure over all tilings), it is well known (Cohn et al. J Am Math Soc 14:297-346, 2001) that the random height function associated to the tiling converges in probability, in the scaling limit , to a non-trivial macroscopic shape minimizing a certain surface tension functional. According to the boundary conditions, the macroscopic shape can be either analytic or contain "frozen regions" (Arctic Circle phenomenon Cohn et al. N Y J Math 4:137-165, 1998; Jockusch et al. Random domino tilings and the arctic circle theorem, arXiv:math/9801068, 1998). It is widely conjectured, on the basis of theoretical considerations (Henley J Statist Phys 89:483-507, 1997; Spohn J Stat Phys 71:1081-1132, 1993), partial mathematical results (Caputo et al. Commun Math Phys 311:157-189, 2012; Wilson Ann Appl Probab 14:274-325, 2004) and numerical simulations for similar models (Destainville Phys Rev Lett 88:030601, 2002; cf. also the bibliography in Henley (J Statist Phys 89:483-507, 1997) and Wilson (Ann Appl Probab 14:274-325, 2004), that the Glauber dynamics approaches the equilibrium macroscopic shape in a time of order L 2+ o(1). In this work we prove this conjecture, under the assumption that the macroscopic equilibrium shape contains no "frozen region".

  14. Multi-field nanoindentation apparatus for measuring local mechanical properties of materials in external magnetic and electric fields

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Hao; Huang, Hu; Zhao, Hongwei; Li, Faxin; Fang, Daining

    2013-01-01

    Nano/micro-scale mechanical properties of multiferroic materials can be controlled by the external magnetic or electric field due to the coupling interaction. For the first time, a modularized multi-field nanoindentation apparatus for carrying out testing on materials in external magnetostatic/electrostatic field is constructed. Technical issues, such as the application of magnetic/electric field and the processes to diminish the interference between external fields and the other parts of the apparatus, are addressed. Tests on calibration specimen indicate the feasibility of the apparatus. The load-displacement curves of ferromagnetic, ferroelectric and magnetoelectric materials in the presence/absence of external fields reveal the small-scale magnetomechanical and electromechanical coupling, showing as the Delta-E and Delta-H effects, i.e. the magnetic/electric field induced changes in the apparent elastic modulus and indentation hardness.

  15. An apparatus for simultaneous measurement of electrical conductivity and thermopower of thin films in the temperature range of 300-750 K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravichandran, J; Kardel, J T; Scullin, M L; Bahk, J-H; Heijmerikx, H; Bowers, J E; Majumdar, A

    2011-01-01

    An automated apparatus capable of measuring the electrical conductivity and thermopower of thin films over a temperature range of 300-750 K is reported. A standard dc resistance measurement in van der Pauw geometry was used to evaluate the electrical conductivity, and the thermopower was measured using the differential method. The design of the instrument, the methods used for calibration, and the measurement procedure are described in detail. Given the lack of a standard National Institute of Standards and Technology (Gaithersburg, Md.) sample for high temperature thermopower calibration, the disclosed calibration procedure shall be useful for calibration of new instruments.

  16. Flowing afterglow: construction of an apparatus, measurement of rate constants, and consideration of the diffusive behavior of charges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuoka, Shingo; Nakamura, Hirone; Tamura, Takaaki (Tokyo Univ., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Nuclear Engineering Research Lab.); Fujii, Toshihiro

    1984-06-01

    A flowing afterglow apparatus was constructed and the operation of the afterglow system including data analysis was tested by measuring the rate constants for the reactions N/sup +/ + NO, N/sub 2//sup +/ + NO, He/sup +/ + N/sub 2/, and SF/sub 6/ + e; the results were 5.8 x 10/sup -10/, 3.9 x 10/sup -10/, 1.20 x 10/sup -9/, and 2.1 x 10/sup -7/ cm/sup 3/s/sup -1/ respectively. In the measurements an extraction voltage for ion sampling was not applied to the nose cone in order not to introduce an electric field into the reaction region. A ''non-ambipolar'' model developed by us was used for the data analysis of the ion/molecule reactions. For the data analysis of the electron attachment, a typical curve fit mehtod to the product ion signal was used. However, no theoretical curves fit the experimental points. This disagreement is attributed to a change of the ion-sampling efficiency through the nose-cone aperture arising from a change of the electron-dominated plasma to a negative-ion-dominated plasma with an increasing flow rate of SF/sub 6/. Nevertheless, the attachment rate could be determined by fitting the theoretical and experimantal curves in the limited region of the SF/sub 6/ flow rate where the negative-ion-dominated plasma is established at the sampling aperture. All the rate constants obtained here agree reasonably well with literature values. Next, errors in the positive ion/molecule reaction rate constants, which would occur if the diffusion coefficients of the ions and neutrals each have a + 10 % error were calculated for the flow model to be -0.4 and +1.2 % respectively, demonstrating that these parameters are not important in the analysis of data. This insensitivity explains why the nose-cone voltage applied in a typical flowing afterglow operation has not caused a significant error in the published rate constants although it disturbs the ion diffusive behavior.

  17. Macroscopic-microscopic mass models

    CERN Document Server

    Nix, J R; Nix, J Rayford; Moller, Peter

    1995-01-01

    We discuss recent developments in macroscopic-microscopic mass models, including the 1992 finite-range droplet model, the 1992 extended-Thomas-Fermi Strutinsky-integral model, and the 1994 Thomas-Fermi model, with particular emphasis on how well they extrapolate to new regions of nuclei. We also address what recent developments in macroscopic-microscopic mass models are teaching us about such physically relevant issues as the nuclear curvature energy, a new congruence energy arising from a greater-than-average overlap of neutron and proton wave functions, the nuclear incompressibility coefficient, and the Coulomb redistribution energy arising from a central density depression. We conclude with a brief discussion of the recently discovered rock of metastable superheavy nuclei near 272:110 that had been correctly predicted by macroscopic-microscopic models, along with a possible new tack for reaching an island near 290:110 beyond our present horizon.

  18. Adsorption modeling for macroscopic contaminant dispersal analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Axley, J.W.

    1990-05-01

    Two families of macroscopic adsorption models are formulated, based on fundamental principles of adsorption science and technology, that may be used for macroscopic (such as whole-building) contaminant dispersal analysis. The first family of adsorption models - the Equilibrium Adsorption (EA) Models - are based upon the simple requirement of equilibrium between adsorbent and room air. The second family - the Boundary Layer Diffusion Controlled Adsorption (BLDC) Models - add to the equilibrium requirement a boundary layer model for diffusion of the adsorbate from the room air to the adsorbent surface. Two members of each of these families are explicitly discussed, one based on the linear adsorption isotherm model and the other on the Langmuir model. The linear variants of each family are applied to model the adsorption dynamics of formaldehyde in gypsum wall board and compared to measured data.

  19. Apparatus for Measurement of the Electric Dipole Moment of the Neutron using a Cohabiting Atomic-Mercury Magnetometer

    CERN Document Server

    Baker, C A; Chouder, M; Geltenbort, P; Green, K; Harris, P G; Heckel, B R; Iaydjiev, P; Ivanov, S N; Kilvington, I; Lamoreaux, S K; May, D J; Pendlebury, J M; Richardson, J D; Shiers, D B; Smith, K F; van der Grinten, M

    2013-01-01

    A description is presented of apparatus used to carry out an experimental search for an electric dipole moment of the neutron, at the Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL), Grenoble. The experiment incorporated a cohabiting atomic-mercury magnetometer in order to reduce spurious signals from magnetic field fluctuations. The result has been published in an earlier letter; here, the methods and equipment used are discussed in detail.

  20. Electrical Noise and the Measurement of Absolute Temperature, Boltzmann's Constant and Avogadro's Number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericson, T. J.

    1988-01-01

    Describes an apparatus capable of measuring absolute temperatures of a tungsten filament bulb up to normal running temperature and measuring Botzmann's constant to an accuracy of a few percent. Shows that electrical noise techniques are convenient to demonstrate how the concept of temperature is related to the micro- and macroscopic world. (CW)

  1. Quantum measurement as a driven phase transition: An exactly solvable model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allahverdyan, A.; Balian, R.

    2001-01-01

    A model of quantum measurement is proposed, which aims to describe statistical mechanical aspects of this phenomenon, starting from a purely Hamiltonian formulation. The macroscopic measurement apparatus is modeled as an ideal Bose gas, the order parameter of which, that is, the amplitude of the con

  2. Scaling macroscopic aquatic locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazzola, Mattia; Argentina, Mederic; Mahadevan, Lakshminarayanan

    2014-11-01

    Inertial aquatic swimmers that use undulatory gaits range in length L from a few millimeters to 30 meters, across a wide array of biological taxa. Using elementary hydrodynamic arguments, we uncover a unifying mechanistic principle characterizing their locomotion by deriving a scaling relation that links swimming speed U to body kinematics (tail beat amplitude A and frequency ω) and fluid properties (kinematic viscosity ν). This principle can be simply couched as the power law Re ~ Swα , where Re = UL / ν >> 1 and Sw = ωAL / ν , with α = 4 / 3 for laminar flows, and α = 1 for turbulent flows. Existing data from over 1000 measurements on fish, amphibians, larvae, reptiles, mammals and birds, as well as direct numerical simulations are consistent with our scaling. We interpret our results as the consequence of the convergence of aquatic gaits to the performance limits imposed by hydrodynamics.

  3. Apparatus for the measurement of electrical resistivity, Seebeck coefficient, and thermal conductivity of thermoelectric materials between 300 K and 12 K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Joshua; Nolas, George S

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a custom apparatus for the consecutive measurement of the electrical resistivity, the Seebeck coefficient, and the thermal conductivity of materials between 300 K and 12 K. These three transport properties provide for a basic understanding of the thermal and electrical properties of materials. They are of fundamental importance in identifying and optimizing new materials for thermoelectric applications. Thermoelectric applications include waste heat recovery for automobile engines and industrial power generators, solid-state refrigeration, and remote power generation for sensors and space probes. The electrical resistivity is measured using a four-probe bipolar technique, the Seebeck coefficient is measured using the quasi-steady-state condition of the differential method in a 2-probe arrangement, and the thermal conductivity is measured using a longitudinal, multiple gradient steady-state technique. We describe the instrumentation and the measurement uncertainty associated with each transport property, each of which is presented with representative measurement comparisons using round robin samples and/or certified reference materials. Transport properties data from this apparatus have supported the identification, development, and phenomenological understanding of novel thermoelectric materials.

  4. Apparatus for the measurement of electrical resistivity, Seebeck coefficient, and thermal conductivity of thermoelectric materials between 300 K and 12 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Joshua; Nolas, George S.

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a custom apparatus for the consecutive measurement of the electrical resistivity, the Seebeck coefficient, and the thermal conductivity of materials between 300 K and 12 K. These three transport properties provide for a basic understanding of the thermal and electrical properties of materials. They are of fundamental importance in identifying and optimizing new materials for thermoelectric applications. Thermoelectric applications include waste heat recovery for automobile engines and industrial power generators, solid-state refrigeration, and remote power generation for sensors and space probes. The electrical resistivity is measured using a four-probe bipolar technique, the Seebeck coefficient is measured using the quasi-steady-state condition of the differential method in a 2-probe arrangement, and the thermal conductivity is measured using a longitudinal, multiple gradient steady-state technique. We describe the instrumentation and the measurement uncertainty associated with each transport property, each of which is presented with representative measurement comparisons using round robin samples and/or certified reference materials. Transport properties data from this apparatus have supported the identification, development, and phenomenological understanding of novel thermoelectric materials.

  5. The radon EDM apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardiff, E. R.; Rand, E. T.; Ball, G. C.; Chupp, T. E.; Garnsworthy, A. B.; Garrett, P.; Hayden, M. E.; Kierans, C. A.; Lorenzon, W.; Pearson, M. R.; Schaub, C.; Svensson, C. E.

    2014-01-01

    The observation of a permanent electric dipole moment (EDM) at current experimentally accessible levels would provide clear evidence of physics beyond the Standard Model. EDMs violate CP symmetry, making them a possible route to explaining the size of the observed baryon asymmetry in the universe. The Radon EDM Experiment aims to search for an EDM in radon isotopes whose sensitivity to CP-odd interactions is enhanced by octupole-deformed nuclei. A prototype apparatus currently installed in the ISAC hall at TRIUMF includes a gas handling system to move radon from a collection foil to a measurement cell and auxiliary equipment for polarization diagnostics and validation. The features and capabilities of the apparatus are described and an overview of the experimental design for a gamma-ray-anisotropy based EDM measurement is provided.

  6. Apparatus for measuring the finite load-deformation behavior of a sheet of epithelial cells cultured on a mesoscopic freestanding elastomer membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selby, John C.; Shannon, Mark A.

    2007-09-01

    Details are given for the design, calibration, and operation of an apparatus for measuring the finite load-deformation behavior of a sheet of living epithelial cells cultured on a mesoscopic freestanding elastomer membrane, 10μm thick and 5mm in diameter. Although similar in concept to bulge tests used to investigate the mechanical properties of micromachined thin films, cell-elastomer composite diaphragm inflation tests pose a unique set of experimental challenges. Composite diaphragm (CD) specimens are extremely compliant (Eexperience large displacements when subject to small inflation pressures (˜100Pa), and must be continuously immersed in a bath of liquid culture medium during the acquisition of load-deformation measurements. Given these considerations, we have constructed an inflation apparatus consisting of an air-piston-cylinder pump integrated with a modular specimen mounting fixture that constitutes a horizontally semi-infinite reservoir of liquid culture medium. In a deformation-controlled inflation test, pressurized air is used to inflate a CD specimen into the liquid reservoir with minimum disturbance of the liquid-air interface. Piston displacements and absolute pump chamber air pressures are utilized as feedback to cycle the displaced (or inflated) CD volume V in a 0.05Hz triangular or sinusoidal wave form (VMIN=0μl, VMAX⩽40μl) while simultaneously recording the inflation pressure acting at the fixed boundary of the specimen, p(r =a). Using a carefully prescribed six-cycle inflation test protocol, the apparatus is shown to be capable of measuring the [V,p(r=a)] inflation response of a cell-elastomer CD with random uncertainties estimated at ±0.45μl and ±2.5Pa, respectively.

  7. Apparatus for Comparing Thermal Conductivity of Nanofluids and Base Fluid Using Simultaneously Measured Resistance Variation Signals from Two Hot Wire Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Shin Pyo [Kyonggi University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    Exact comparisons of the thermal conductivities of the base fluid and a nanofluid are very important in the early stages of nanofluid development. A simple procedure of measuring the thermal conductivity of the two fluids by the transient hot wire method and numerically dividing these values is used for this purpose. However, because the experiments are not performed simultaneously and the physical properties of the measurement system are sometimes not properly known, large errors are incurred during the evaluation process. This article proposes a new apparatus for thermal conductivity comparison where the working principle is mainly based on relative measurement rather than absolute measurement. The measuring circuit and data processing steps are explained in detail; a validation test was performed using the well-known glycerine and engine oil.

  8. Optimization of apparatus design and behavioral measures for the assessment of visuo-spatial learning and memory of mice on the Barnes maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Timothy P; Brown, Richard E

    2013-01-15

    We have previously shown that apparatus design can affect visual-spatial cue use and memory performance of mice on the Barnes maze. The present experiment extends these findings by determining the optimal behavioral measures and test procedure for analyzing visuo-spatial learning and memory in three different Barnes maze designs. Male and female C57BL/6J mice were trained with a stable or random escape hole location and the sensitivities (statistical power) of four commonly used measures of learning and three measures of memory to detect differences between these training procedures were compared on each maze design. A maze design with a large diameter and no wall was optimal, because mice showed a reliable use of extra-maze visual cues, visuo-spatial search strategies, and spatial memory. A maze design with a small diameter, surrounding wall, and intra-maze visual cues was the least sensitive for determining visuo-spatial learning and memory, because mice showed little evidence of extra-maze cue use. Errors, distance traveled, and hole deviation scores were more sensitive measures of learning than latency to find the escape hole. Measures based on locating the escape hole (primary measures) were more sensitive than measures based on entering the escape hole (total measures). Measures of memory had similar levels of sensitivity on each maze. This experiment demonstrates that both apparatus design and the behavioral measures used as indicators of learning and memory can influence the ability of the Barnes maze to detect visuo-spatial learning and memory impairments in mice.

  9. Multiple effects of cadmium on the photosynthetic apparatus of Avicennia germinans L. as probed by OJIP chlorophyll fluorescence measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzales-Mendoza, D.; Zapata-Perez, O. [Cinvestav Unidad Merida, Yucatan (Mexico). Dept. de Recursos del Mar; Espadas y Gil, F.; Santamaria, J.M. [Unidad de Biotecnologia, CICY, Yucatan (Mexico)

    2007-03-15

    The toxic effects of cadmium on the photosynthetic apparatus of Avicennia germinans were evaluated by means of the chlorophyll fluorescence transient O-J-I-P. The chlorophyll fluorescence transients were recorded in vivo with high time resolution and analyzed according to the OJIP-test that can quantify the performance of photosystem II. Cadmium-treated plants showed a decrease in yield for primary photochemistry, TR{sup 0}/ABS. The performance index of photosystem II (PSII), PI{sub ABS}, decreased due to cadmium treatment. This performance index is the combination of the indexes of three independent parameters: (1) total number of active reaction centers per absorption (RC/ABS), (2) yield of primary photochemistry (TR{sup 0}/ABS), and (3) efficiency with which a trapped exciton can move an electron into the electron transport chain (ET{sup 0}/TR{sup 0}). Additionally, the F{sub 0}/F{sub v} registered the highest sensitivity to the metal, thus indicating that the water-splitting apparatus of the oxidizing side of PSII is the primary site of action of cadmium. In summary, cadmium affects several targets of photosystem II. More specifically the main targets of cadmium, according to the OJIP-test, can be listed as a decrease in the number of active reaction centers and damage to the activity of the water-splitting complex. (orig.)

  10. Apparatus development for measurement of (134)Cs and (137)Cs radioactivity of soil contaminated by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajimoto, Tsuyoshi; Endo, Satoru; Tanaka, Kenichi; Okashiro, Yasuharu; Kai, Hiroaki; Fujii, Syuuji; Mishima, Atsushi; Matsubara, Takahide; Yoshida, Shinji

    2016-09-01

    We developed an apparatus containing a NaI(Tl) scintillator to measure the (134)Cs and (137)Cs radioactivity of soil contaminated by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. The unfolding method with the least-squares technique was used to determine the radioactivity. Detector responses for each radionuclide in soil were calculated with EGS5 code for the unfolding method. The radionuclides that were measured were (40)K, (134)Cs, (137)Cs, (208)Tl, (214)Bi, and (228)Ac. The measured spectrum agreed well with the spectrum calculated from the response matrix and measured radioactivities. The unfolding method allows us to use the NaI(Tl) scintillator despite the overlap of peaks.

  11. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of macroscopic morphology and dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrall, Geoffrey Alden [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1995-09-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance techniques are traditionally used to study molecular level structure and dynamics with a noted exception in medically applied NMR imaging (MRI). In this work, new experimental methods and theory are presented relevant to the study of macroscopic morphology and dynamics using NMR field gradient techniques and solid state two-dimensional exchange NMR. The goal in this work is not to take some particular system and study it in great detail, rather it is to show the utility of a number of new and novel techniques using ideal systems primarily as a proof of principle. By taking advantage of the analogy between NMR imaging and diffraction, one may simplify the experiments necessary for characterizing the statistical properties of the sample morphology. For a sample composed of many small features, e.g. a porous medium, the NMR diffraction techniques take advantage of both the narrow spatial range and spatial isotropy of the sample`s density autocorrelation function to obtain high resolution structural information in considerably less time than that required by conventional NMR imaging approaches. The time savings of the technique indicates that NMR diffraction is capable of finer spatial resolution than conventional NMR imaging techniques. Radio frequency NMR imaging with a coaxial resonator represents the first use of cylindrically symmetric field gradients in imaging. The apparatus as built has achieved resolution at the micron level for water samples, and has the potential to be very useful in the imaging of circularly symmetric systems. The study of displacement probability densities in flow through a random porous medium has revealed the presence of features related to the interconnectedness of the void volumes. The pulsed gradient techniques used have proven successful at measuring flow properties for time and length scales considerably shorter than those studied by more conventional techniques.

  12. Exploitation of a noninvasive small animal's heart rate measuring apparatus%小动物无创式心率监测仪的研制及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴艳茹; 司伟; 易小林; 孟燕军; 范振中

    2012-01-01

    目的:研制一种无创测量小动物心率及存活时间的监测仪.方法:采用MB-6型鼠尾脉搏波传感器,无创伤状态下拾取鼠尾脉搏波信号,应用单片机对脉搏波信号进行识别,寻找出正确的心动周期,计算小动物的实时心率,并与对应的记忆示波器测量的数据进行统计分析.结果:监测仪和示波器所测大鼠心率分别为(370.0±45.3) min-1和(371.0±46.0) min-1,小鼠心率(598.4±78.0) min-1和(597.5±74.9) min-1,差异均无统计学意义(t大鼠=0.026,P=0.979;t小鼠=0.049,P=0.961).大、小鼠的两种测量数据的直线相关系数值皆为0.996.结论:该仪器可用于无创测量小动物心率及存活期.%Aim:To develop a noninvasive measuring apparatus in order to measure the heart rate and survival time of small animals. Methods:By using the MB-6-type tail pulse wave sensor,the pulse wave signals of small animals were obtained without hurting. Then by analyzing these signals with a microcontroller,and to acquire the right cardiac cycle,which can be used to calculate the real time heart rate. Furthermore, we contrasted the results with those obtained by the oscilloscope. Results: The heart rates of rats/mice measured by the apparatus and the oscilloscope were ( 370. 0 ± 45. 3 ) min -1/ (598.4±78.0) min-1 and ( 371. 0 ±46. 0 ) min-1/(597.5 ±74.9) min-1,respectively. There was no significant difference between the values measured by the two methods( t-rat = 0.026 ,P = 0. 979 ;t-mouse = 0. 049 ,P = 0. 961 ). Linear correlation analyses of the two data sets showed that the coefficients of correlation were both 0.996. Conclusion: The developed apparatus could hold promise for the application in measuring the heart rate noninvasively.

  13. Macroscopic Theory of Dark Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris E. Meierovich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple Lagrangian with squared covariant divergence of a vector field as a kinetic term turned out to be an adequate tool for macroscopic description of the dark sector. The zero-mass field acts as the dark energy. Its energy-momentum tensor is a simple additive to the cosmological constant. Massive fields describe two different forms of dark matter. The space-like massive vector field is attractive. It is responsible for the observed plateau in galaxy rotation curves. The time-like massive field displays repulsive elasticity. In balance with dark energy and ordinary matter it provides a four-parametric diversity of regular solutions of the Einstein equations describing different possible cosmological and oscillating nonsingular scenarios of evolution of the Universe. In particular, the singular big bang turns into a regular inflation-like transition from contraction to expansion with the accelerated expansion at late times. The fine-tuned Friedman-Robertson-Walker singular solution is a particular limiting case at the lower boundary of existence of regular oscillating solutions in the absence of vector fields. The simplicity of the general covariant expression for the energy-momentum tensor allows displaying the main properties of the dark sector analytically. Although the physical nature of dark sector is still unknown, the macroscopic theory can help analyze the role of dark matter in astrophysical phenomena without resorting to artificial model assumptions.

  14. Large Rotor Test Apparatus

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This test apparatus, when combined with the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex, produces a thorough, full-scale test capability. The Large Rotor Test Apparatus...

  15. Could quantum decoherence and measurement be deterministic phenomena?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sparenberg Jean-Marc

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The apparent random outcome of a quantum measurement is conjectured to be fundamentally determined by the microscopic state of the macroscopic measurement apparatus. The apparatus state thus plays the role of a hidden variable which, in contrast with variables characterizing the measured microscopic system, is shown to lead to a violation of Bell’s inequalities and to agree with standard quantum mechanics. An explicit realization of this interpretation is explored (for details, see [1] for a primitive model of cloud chamber inspired by Mott [2]. Being highly non local, this interpretation of quantum mechanics is argued to open the way to faster-than-light information transfer.

  16. Pore roller filtration apparatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to the field of filtering, more precisely the present invention concerns an apparatus and a method for the separation of dry matter from a medium and the use of said apparatus. One embodiment discloses an apparatus for the separation of dry matter from a medium, comp...

  17. Macroscopically-Discrete Quantum Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Chew, Geoffrey F

    2008-01-01

    To Milne's Lorentz-group-based spacetime and Gelfand-Naimark unitary representations of this group we associate a Fock space of 'cosmological preons'-quantum-theoretic universe constituents. Milne's 'cosmological principle' relies on Lorentz invariance of 'age'--global time. We divide Milne's spacetime into 'slices' of fixed macroscopic width in age, with 'cosmological rays' defined on (hyperbolic) slice boundaries-Fock space attaching only to these exceptional universe ages. Each (fixed-age) preon locates within a 6-dimensional manifold, one of whose 3 'extra' dimensions associates in Dirac sense to a self-adjoint operator that represents preon (continuous) local time, the operator canonically-conjugate thereto representing preon (total) energy. Self-adjoint-operator expectations at any spacetime-slice boundary prescribe throughout the following slice a non-fluctuating 'mundane reality'- electromagnetic and gravitational potentials 'tethered' to current densities of locally-conserved electric charge and ener...

  18. Seismic scanning tunneling macroscope - Theory

    KAUST Repository

    Schuster, Gerard T.

    2012-09-01

    We propose a seismic scanning tunneling macroscope (SSTM) that can detect the presence of sub-wavelength scatterers in the near-field of either the source or the receivers. Analytic formulas for the time reverse mirror (TRM) profile associated with a single scatterer model show that the spatial resolution limit to be, unlike the Abbe limit of λ/2, independent of wavelength and linearly proportional to the source-scatterer separation as long as the point scatterer is in the near-field region; if the sub-wavelength scatterer is a spherical impedance discontinuity then the resolution will also be limited by the radius of the sphere. Therefore, superresolution imaging can be achieved as the scatterer approaches the source. This is analogous to an optical scanning tunneling microscope that has sub-wavelength resolution. Scaled to seismic frequencies, it is theoretically possible to extract 100 Hz information from 20 Hz data by imaging of near-field seismic energy.

  19. A simple Cavendish experimental apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossler, W. J.; Klein, Susann; Morrow, Dominick; Juliao, Andre

    2016-03-01

    A simple Cavendish apparatus is described that allows measurement of the gravitational constant G and makes observable the gravitational attraction between commonplace objects. The apparatus consists of a torsion balance constructed from readily available materials, including lead bricks and fishing weights ("sinkers"). A computer program is used to determine the gravitational field at the location of the small mass due to a nearby lead brick, which allows students to gain experience with numerical methods. Experimental results obtained are compatible with the accepted value of G.

  20. Quantum correlations of lights in macroscopic environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sua, Yong Meng

    This dissertation presents a detailed study in exploring quantum correlations of lights in macroscopic environments. We have explored quantum correlations of single photons, weak coherent states, and polarization-correlated/polarization-entangled photons in macroscopic environments. These included macroscopic mirrors, macroscopic photon number, spatially separated observers, noisy photons source and propagation medium with loss or disturbances. We proposed a measurement scheme for observing quantum correlations and entanglement in the spatial properties of two macroscopic mirrors using single photons spatial compass state. We explored the phase space distribution features of spatial compass states, such as chessboard pattern by using the Wigner function. The displacement and tilt correlations of the two mirrors were manifested through the propensities of the compass states. This technique can be used to extract Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen correlations (EPR) of the two mirrors. We then formulated the discrete-like property of the propensity P b(m,n), which can be used to explore environmental perturbed quantum jumps of the EPR correlations in phase space. With single photons spatial compass state, the variances in position and momentum are much smaller than standard quantum limit when using a Gaussian TEM 00 beam. We observed intrinsic quantum correlations of weak coherent states between two parties through balanced homodyne detection. Our scheme can be used as a supplement to decoy-state BB84 protocol and differential phase-shift QKD protocol. We prepared four types of bipartite correlations +/- cos2(theta1 +/- theta 2) that shared between two parties. We also demonstrated bits correlations between two parties separated by 10 km optical fiber. The bits information will be protected by the large quantum phase fluctuation of weak coherent states, adding another physical layer of security to these protocols for quantum key distribution. Using 10 m of highly nonlinear

  1. Variability of macroscopic dimensions of Moso bamboo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Le; Peng, Wanxi; Sun, Zhengjun; Sun, Zhengjun; Sun, Zhengjun; Lu, Huangfei; Chen, Guoning

    2015-03-01

    In order to the macroscopic geometry distributions of vascular bundles in Moso bamboo tubes. The circumference of bamboo tubes was measured, used a simple quadratic diameter formula to analyze the differences between the tubes in bamboo culm, and the arrangement of vascular bundles was investigated by cross sectional images of bamboo tubes. The results shown that the vascular bundles were differently distributed in a bamboo tube. In the outer layer, the vascular bundles had a variety of shapes, and were aligned parallel to each other. In the inner layers, the vascular bundles weren't aligned but uniform in shape. It was concluded that the vascular bundle sections arranged in parallel should be separated from the non-parallel sections for the maximum bamboo utilization.

  2. On the notion of a macroscopic quantum system

    CERN Document Server

    Khrenikov, A Yu

    2004-01-01

    We analyse the notion of macroscopic quantum system from the point of view of the statistical structure of quantum theory. We come to conclusion that the presence of interference of probabilities should be used the main characteristic of quantumness (in the opposition to N. Bohr who permanently emphasized the crucial role of quantum action). In the light of recent experiments with statistical ensembles of people who produced interference of probabilities for special pairs of questions (which can be considered as measurements on people) human being should be considered as a macroscopic quantum system. There is also discussed relation with experiments of A. Zeilinger on interference of probabilities for macromoleculas.

  3. Construction Of An Apparatus And Preliminary Measurements For A Search For The Electric Dipole Moment Of The Electron Using Lead Monoxide

    CERN Document Server

    Bay, F

    2003-01-01

    We have developed a vapor cell and heater for an experiment to search for an electric dipole moment (EDM) of the electron using the metastable state a(1)[3Σ+] of lead monoxide. Using our apparatus and the method of quantum beat spectroscopy, we have measured the g-factors of the a(1)(3Σ+) state. We obtain (g∥)− = 1.8571 ± 0.0041 for the J = 1− component and ( g∥)+ = 1.8584 ± 0.0045 for the J = 1+ component. We also establish a limit on the difference of the g-factors of dgg=2˙ g&dvbm0;- -g&dvbm0;+ g∥- + g∥+ < 2.3 · 10−3 (90% CL). In the course of our measurements, we have demonstrated shot-noise limited sensitivity to the Zeeman quantum beat frequency of 35HzHz . We point out relatively straightforward improvements, which should increase the statistical sensitivity to 100mHzHz in the near future. With this level of sensitivity, it should be possible to measure an...

  4. Vestibulo-ocular reflex gain as a measure of vestibular function in guinea pigs while in a recompression chamber: apparatus design and effects of nitrogen narcosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, D M; Dutka, A J; Snyder, J E

    1995-05-01

    There are several mechanisms whereby alteration of barometric pressure can produce vertigo in divers or aviators. Development of a reliable measure of vestibular function in an animal model is the first requirement for further study of these mechanisms. This report presents the development of a rotatory table device capable of evoking the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) of a guinea pig while in a hyperbaric chamber. To assess the reproducibility of this response, eight animals were monitored by electronystagmography during rotations at three table velocities (62.4, 83.3, and 100 degrees/s). Two test sessions were performed on each animal with a 6-hour interval between sessions. The VOR gain was calculated by dividing the average peak velocity of the slow phase component of the nystagmus by the peak stimulus velocity. At least eight observations per test speed were averaged; calibration of eye movement was performed prior to each session by forced ocular abduction. Multifactorial analysis of variance revealed no significant differences (p > .05) between the differing rotation speeds nor between test sessions for individual animals. However, there was a significant difference in VOR gain between animals (p nitrogen narcosis. Pre- and post-dive VOR gains were significantly greater than those measured at depth (p nitrogen narcosis and the controversial theory that central nervous system depressants decrease the VOR gain. The results also demonstrate the ability of this inexpensive apparatus to provide a sensitive measure of pressure-induced changes of vestibular function in guinea pigs.

  5. Photoinduced macroscopic chiral structures in a series of azobenzene copolyesters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedelchev, L.; Nikolova, L.; Matharu, A.

    2002-01-01

    A study of the propagation of elliptically polarized light and the resulting formation of macroscopic chiral structures in a series of azobenzene side-chain copolyesters, in which the morphology is varied from liquid crystalline to amorphous, is reported. Real-time measurements are presented...

  6. Macroscopic theory of dark sector

    CERN Document Server

    Meierovich, Boris E

    2013-01-01

    A simple Lagrangian with squared covariant divergence of a vector field as a kinetic term turned out an adequate tool for macroscopic description of the dark sector. The zero-mass field acts as the dark energy. Its energy-momentum tensor is a simple additive to the cosmological constant. Massive fields {\\phi}_{I} with {\\phi}^{K}{\\phi}_{K}0 describe two different forms of dark matter. The space-like ({\\phi}^{K}{\\phi}_{K}0) massive field displays repulsive elasticity. In balance with dark energy and ordinary matter it provides a four parametric diversity of regular solutions of the Einstein equations describing different possible cosmological and oscillating non-singular scenarios of evolution of the universe. In particular, the singular big bang turns into a regular inflation-like transition from contraction to expansion with the accelerate expansion at late times. The fine-tuned Friedman-Robertson-Walker singular solution is a particular limiting case at the boundary of existence of regular oscillating soluti...

  7. MACROSCOPIC DIVERSITY FOR CDMA MOBILE SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pei Xiaoyan; Hu Jiandong

    2002-01-01

    A novel system of macroscopic diversity with voting rule in CDMA cellular system is suggested in order to raise the coverage and quality of service of CDMA mobile communication system. The estimation of the impact of macroscopic diversity on performance of CDMA cellular system is analyzed and investigated.

  8. MACROSCOPIC DIVERSITY FOR CDMA MOBILE SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PeiXiaoyan; HuJiandong

    2002-01-01

    A novel system of macroscopic diversity with voting rule in CDMA cellular system is suggested in order to raise the coverage and quality of service of CDMA mobile communication system.The estimation of the impact of macroscopic diversity on performance of CDMA cellular system is analyzed and investigated.

  9. Ultrasonic measurements of single-crystal gold under hydrostatic pressures up to 8 GPa in a Kawai-type multi-anvil apparatus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG MaoShuang; Akira YONEDA; Eiji ITO

    2007-01-01

    Ultrasonic measurements were conducted on single-crystal gold at ambient condition and hydrostatic pressures up to 8 GPa at room temperature in a Kawai-type multi-anvil apparatus.The P-wave velocities measured at high pressures were in good agreement with Daniels and Smith's ultrasonic tudy.The three independent elastic constants of gold at ambient condition were determined to be C11=192.7 GPa,C12=162.9 GPa,and C44=42.4 GPa.On the basis of an analysis of previous elastic data and the present ultrasonic data,the pressure derivatives of three elastic constants were estimated to be C11=7.12,C12=6.24,and C44=1.82.The calculated values of isothermal bulk modulus(KTO)and its pressure derivatives(K'TO)are KTO=166.44 GPa and K'TO=6.56.This indicates that Anderson et al.'s model of equation of state of gold might underestimates pressure about 1 GPa at pressure around 23 GPa and ambient temperature.Our results explained the discrepancies among the models of equation f state of gold proposed previously.

  10. Negative chemiions formed in jet fuel combustion: new insights from jet engine and laboratory measurements using a quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiendler, A.; Aberle, S.; Arnold, F. [Max Planck Institute for Nuclaear Physics, Heidelberg (Germany). Atmospheric Physics Div.

    2000-07-01

    Measurements were made of mass numbers and composition of negative chemiions produced in jet fuel combustion in the exhaust of a jet engine and of a burner in the laboratory. The measurements made by a novel quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer apparatus revealed the presence of three major ion families: ions containing an HSO{sub 4}{sup -} ''core's' or an NO{sub 3}{sup -} ''core's' and {sup O}HC-ions{sup .} The latter which contain C and H atoms and in part also 0 atoms can be divided into two subfamilies with even and odd mass numbers. It is proposed that the O HC ions are formed by free-electron attachment to HC and OHC molecules and/or ion-molecule reactions of primary negative chemiions with HC and OHC molecules. It is also proposed that HSO{sub 4}{sup -}- and NO{sub 3}{sup -}- containing ions are formed by ion-molecule reactions involving OHC ions and the sulfur- and reactive nitrogen-containing molecules H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, SO{sub 3} and NO, NO{sub 2}, HNO{sub 2}, HNO{sub 3}. (author)

  11. Concept and architecture of a new apparatus for cylindrical form measurement with a nanometric level of accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vissiere, A.; Nouira, H.; Damak, M.; Gibaru, O.; David, J.-M.

    2012-09-01

    In relation to the industrial need and to the progress of technology, Laboratoire National de Métrologie et d’Essais (LNE) would like to improve the measurement of its primary pressure standards, spherical and flick standards. The spherical and flick standards are, respectively, used to calibrate the spindle motion error and the probe, which equip commercial conventional cylindricity-measuring machines. The primary pressure standards are obtained using pressure balances equipped with rotary pistons. To reach a relative uncertainty of 10-6 in the pressure measurement, it is necessary to know the diameters of both the piston and the cylinder with an uncertainty of 5 nm for a piston diameter of 10 mm. Conventional machines are not able to reach such an uncertainty level. That is why the development of a new machine is necessary. The purpose of this paper is to present the concepts and the architecture adopted in the development of the new equipment dedicated to cylindricity measurement at a nanometric level of a accuracy. The choice of these concepts is based on the analysis of the uncertainty sources encountered in conventional architectures. The architecture of the new ultra-high equipment as well as the associated calibration procedures will be described and detailed.

  12. A Measurement of the Weak Charge of the Proton through Parity Violating Electron Scattering using the Qweak Apparatus: A 21% Result

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beminiwattha, Rakitha [Ohio Univ., Athens, OH (United States)

    2013-08-01

    After a decade of preparations, the Qweak experiment at Jefferson Lab is making the first direct measurement of the weak charge of the proton, Q^p_W. This quantity is suppressed in the Standard Model making a good candidate for search for new physics beyond the SM at the TeV scale. Operationally, we measure a small (about -0.200 ppm) parity-violating asymmetry in elastic electron-proton scattering in integrating mode while flipping the helicity of the electrons 1000 times per second. Commissioning took place Fall 2010, and we finished taking data in early summer 2012. This dissertation is based on the data taken on an initial two weeks period (Wien0). It will provide an overview of the Qweak apparatus, description of the data acquisition and analysis software systems, and final analysis and results from the Wien0 data set. The result is a 16% measurement of the parity violating electron-proton scattering asymmetry, A = -0.2788 +/- 0.0348 (stat.) +/- 0.0290 (syst.) ppm at Q^2 = 0.0250 +/- 0.0006 (GeV)^2. From this a 21% measurement of the weak charge of the proton, Q_w^p(msr)= +0.0952 +/- 0.0155 (stat.) +/- 0.0131 (syst.) +/- 0.0015 (theory) is extracted. From this a 2% measurement of the weak mixing angle, sin^2theta_W(msr)= +0.2328 +/- 0.0039 (stat.) +/- 0.0033 (syst.) +/- 0.0004 (theory) and improved constraints on isoscalar/isovector effective coupling constants of the weak neutral hadronic currents are extracted. These results deviate from the Standard Model by one standard deviation. The Wien0 results are a proof of principle of the Qweak data analysis and a highlight of the road ahead for obtaining full results.

  13. Radiative Gasification Apparatus

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This apparatus, developed at EL, determines gasification rate (mass loss rate) of a horizontally oriented specimen exposed in a nitrogen environment to a controlled...

  14. Use of Closed Vessel as a Constant Pressure Apparatus for the Measurement of the Rate of Burning of Propellants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Vittal

    1980-04-01

    Full Text Available A method for the determination of burning rates of propellants whose from function is unknown is introduced. The method consists of burning in the closed vessel, a known charge weight of the test propellant alongwith a known pressure which remains nearly constant during the burning of the test propellant whose web size is the only quantity required for the evaluation of its rate of burning. The test propellants burns at near constant pressure conditions just as in the strand burner technique. This method can be applied to any unknown propellant of any shape whose web size can be measured and very large webs also can be used. In addition, the measurement of the records and the computation are very simple.

  15. Wave transmission through silicone foam pads in a compression Kolsky bar apparatus. Comparisons between simulations and measurements.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corona, Edmundo [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Song, Bo [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-01-01

    This memo concerns the transmission of mechanical signals through silicone foam pads in a compression Kolsky bar set-up. The results of numerical simulations for four levels of pad pre-compression and two striker velocities were compared directly to test measurements to assess the delity of the simulations. The nite element model simulated the Kolsky tests in their entirety and used the hyperelastic `hyperfoam' model for the silicone foam pads. Calibration of the hyperfoam model was deduced from quasi-static compression data. It was necessary, however, to augment the material model by adding sti ness proportional damping in order to generate results that resembled the experimental measurements. Based on the results presented here, it is important to account for the dynamic behavior of polymeric foams in numerical simulations that involve high loading rates.

  16. Measurement of fragmentation cross sections of 12C ions on a thin gold target with the FIRST apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toppi, M.; Abou-Haidar, Z.; Agodi, C.; Alvarez, M. A. G.; Aumann, T.; Balestra, F.; Battistoni, G.; Bocci, A.; Böhlen, T. T.; Boudard, A.; Brunetti, A.; Carpinelli, M.; Cirio, R.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Cortes-Giraldo, M. A.; Cuttone, G.; de Napoli, M.; Durante, M.; Fernández-García, J. P.; Finck, Ch.; Golosio, B.; Iarocci, E.; Iazzi, F.; Ickert, G.; Introzzi, R.; Juliani, D.; Krimmer, J.; Kummali, A. H.; Kurz, N.; Labalme, M.; Leifels, Y.; Le Fèvre, A.; Leray, S.; Marchetto, F.; Monaco, V.; Morone, M. C.; Nicolosi, D.; Oliva, P.; Paoloni, A.; Piersanti, L.; Pleskac, R.; Randazzo, N.; Rescigno, R.; Romano, F.; Rossi, D.; Rosso, V.; Rousseau, M.; Sacchi, R.; Sala, P.; Salvador, S.; Sarti, A.; Scheidenberger, C.; Schuy, C.; Sciubba, A.; Sfienti, C.; Simon, H.; Sipala, V.; Spiriti, E.; Tropea, S.; Vanstalle, M.; Younis, H.; Patera, V.; FIRST Collaboration

    2016-06-01

    A detailed knowledge of the light ions interaction processes with matter is of great interest in basic and applied physics. As an example, particle therapy and space radioprotection require highly accurate fragmentation cross-section measurements to develop shielding materials and estimate acute and late health risks for manned missions in space and for treatment planning in particle therapy. The Fragmentation of Ions Relevant for Space and Therapy experiment at the Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion research (GSI) was designed and built by an international collaboration from France, Germany, Italy, and Spain for studying the collisions of a 12C ion beam with thin targets. The collaboration's main purpose is to provide the double-differential cross-section measurement of carbon-ion fragmentation at energies that are relevant for both tumor therapy and space radiation protection applications. Fragmentation cross sections of light ions impinging on a wide range of thin targets are also essential to validate the nuclear models implemented in MC simulations that, in such an energy range, fail to reproduce the data with the required accuracy. This paper presents the single differential carbon-ion fragmentation cross sections on a thin gold target, measured as a function of the fragment angle and kinetic energy in the forward angular region (θ ≲6° ), aiming to provide useful data for the benchmarking of the simulation softwares used in light ions fragmentation applications. The 12C ions used in the measurement were accelerated at the energy of 400 MeV/nucleon by the SIS (heavy ion synchrotron) GSI facility.

  17. Macroscopic superpositions and gravimetry with quantum magnetomechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsson, Mattias T.; Brennen, Gavin K.; Twamley, Jason

    2016-11-01

    Precision measurements of gravity can provide tests of fundamental physics and are of broad practical interest for metrology. We propose a scheme for absolute gravimetry using a quantum magnetomechanical system consisting of a magnetically trapped superconducting resonator whose motion is controlled and measured by a nearby RF-SQUID or flux qubit. By driving the mechanical massive resonator to be in a macroscopic superposition of two different heights our we predict that our interferometry protocol could, subject to systematic errors, achieve a gravimetric sensitivity of Δg/g ~ 2.2 × 10-10 Hz-1/2, with a spatial resolution of a few nanometres. This sensitivity and spatial resolution exceeds the precision of current state of the art atom-interferometric and corner-cube gravimeters by more than an order of magnitude, and unlike classical superconducting interferometers produces an absolute rather than relative measurement of gravity. In addition, our scheme takes measurements at ~10 kHz, a region where the ambient vibrational noise spectrum is heavily suppressed compared the ~10 Hz region relevant for current cold atom gravimeters.

  18. Rank distributions: A panoramic macroscopic outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliazar, Iddo I.; Cohen, Morrel H.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a panoramic macroscopic outlook of rank distributions. We establish a general framework for the analysis of rank distributions, which classifies them into five macroscopic "socioeconomic" states: monarchy, oligarchy-feudalism, criticality, socialism-capitalism, and communism. Oligarchy-feudalism is shown to be characterized by discrete macroscopic rank distributions, and socialism-capitalism is shown to be characterized by continuous macroscopic size distributions. Criticality is a transition state between oligarchy-feudalism and socialism-capitalism, which can manifest allometric scaling with multifractal spectra. Monarchy and communism are extreme forms of oligarchy-feudalism and socialism-capitalism, respectively, in which the intrinsic randomness vanishes. The general framework is applied to three different models of rank distributions—top-down, bottom-up, and global—and unveils each model's macroscopic universality and versatility. The global model yields a macroscopic classification of the generalized Zipf law, an omnipresent form of rank distributions observed across the sciences. An amalgamation of the three models establishes a universal rank-distribution explanation for the macroscopic emergence of a prevalent class of continuous size distributions, ones governed by unimodal densities with both Pareto and inverse-Pareto power-law tails.

  19. Apparatus for Teaching Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Herbert H., Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Describes: (1) a variable inductor suitable for an inductance-capacitance bridge consisting of a fixed cylindrical solenoid and a moveable solenoid; (2) long-range apparatus for demonstrating falling bodies; and (3) an apparatus using two lasers to demonstrate ray optics. (SK)

  20. Aerosol distribution apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, W.D.

    An apparatus for uniformly distributing an aerosol to a plurality of filters mounted in a plenum, wherein the aerosol and air are forced through a manifold system by means of a jet pump and released into the plenum through orifices in the manifold. The apparatus allows for the simultaneous aerosol-testing of all the filters in the plenum.

  1. Annihilation detector for an in-beam spectroscopy apparatus to measure the ground state hyperfine splitting of antihydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauerzopf, Clemens; Capon, Aaron A.; Diermaier, Martin; Fleck, Markus; Kolbinger, Bernadette; Malbrunot, Chloé; Massiczek, Oswald; Simon, Martin C.; Vamosi, Stefan; Zmeskal, Johann; Widmann, Eberhard

    2017-02-01

    The matter-antimatter asymmetry observed in the universe today still lacks a quantitative explanation. One possible mechanism that could contribute to the observed imbalance is a violation of the combined Charge-, Parity- and Time symmetries (CPT). A test of CPT symmetry using anti-atoms is being carried out by the ASACUSA-CUSP collaboration at the CERN Antiproton Decelerator using a low temperature beam of antihydrogen-the most simple atomic system built only of antiparticles. While hydrogen is the most abundant element in the universe, antihydrogen is produced in very small quantities in a laboratory framework. A detector for in-beam measurements of the ground state hyperfine structure of antihydrogen has to be able to detect very low signal rates within high background. To fulfil this challenging task, a two layer barrel hodoscope detector was developed. It is built of plastic scintillators with double sided readout via Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs). The SiPM readout is done using novel, compact and cost efficient electronics that incorporate power supply, amplifier and discriminator on a single board. This contribution will evaluate the performance of the new hodoscope detector.

  2. Macroscopic transport by synthetic molecular machines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berna, J; Leigh, DA; Lubomska, M; Mendoza, SM; Perez, EM; Rudolf, P; Teobaldi, G; Zerbetto, F

    2005-01-01

    Nature uses molecular motors and machines in virtually every significant biological process, but demonstrating that simpler artificial structures operating through the same gross mechanisms can be interfaced with - and perform physical tasks in - the macroscopic world represents a significant hurdle

  3. Assessments of macroscopicity for quantum optical states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laghaout, Amine; Neergaard-Nielsen, Jonas Schou; Andersen, Ulrik Lund

    2015-01-01

    With the slow but constant progress in the coherent control of quantum systems, it is now possible to create large quantum superpositions. There has therefore been an increased interest in quantifying any claims of macroscopicity. We attempt here to motivate three criteria which we believe should...... enter in the assessment of macroscopic quantumness: The number of quantum fluctuation photons, the purity of the states, and the ease with which the branches making up the state can be distinguished. © 2014....

  4. Quantum Bell Inequalities from Macroscopic Locality

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Tzyh Haur; Sheridan, Lana; Scarani, Valerio

    2010-01-01

    We propose a method to generate analytical quantum Bell inequalities based on the principle of Macroscopic Locality. By imposing locality over binary processings of virtual macroscopic intensities, we establish a correspondence between Bell inequalities and quantum Bell inequalities in bipartite scenarios with dichotomic observables. We discuss how to improve the latter approximation and how to extend our ideas to scenarios with more than two outcomes per setting.

  5. Rotor balancing apparatus and system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyman, Frank (Inventor); Lyman, Joseph (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    Rotor balancing apparatus and a system comprising balance probes for measuring unbalance at the ends of a magnetically suspended rotor are disclosed. Each balance probe comprises a photocell which is located in relationship to the magnetically suspended rotor such that unbalance of the rotor changes the amount of light recorded by each photocell. The signal from each photocell is electrically amplified and displayed by a suitable device, such as an oscilloscope.

  6. Eddy current thickness measurement apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosen, Gary J.; Sinclair, Frank; Soskov, Alexander; Buff, James S.

    2015-06-16

    A sheet of a material is disposed in a melt of the material. The sheet is formed using a cooling plate in one instance. An exciting coil and sensing coil are positioned downstream of the cooling plate. The exciting coil and sensing coil use eddy currents to determine a thickness of the solid sheet on top of the melt.

  7. Many Time Interpretation Of the Quantum Measurement Process

    CERN Document Server

    Dugic, M

    1998-01-01

    Many Time Interpretation (MTI) proposes that each stochastic "quantum jump" ("reduction") concerning each single object (of an ensemble) represents a consequence of a (stochastic) choice (change) of Time. Therefore, each single object experiences its own (local), stochastically chosen Time, which is as real for it, as the macroscopic Time is real in classical physics. Therefore, instead of the "indeterminism" with regard to the macroscopic Time, MTI proposes "determinism", but with regard to the set(s) of (stochastically chosen) local Times. Within an axiomatization, which includes the composite system "single object+apparatus+environment, MTI leads to : (i) Recognizing the amplification process as the fundamental "part" of the measurement process, (ii) Nonvalidity of the Schrodinger equation concerning the "whole", O+A+E, which makes the "state reduction process" unnecessary and unphysical, (iii) Natural deducibility of the macroscopic irreversibility, and (iv) Nonequivalence of MTI with any existing measure...

  8. Searching for the nanoscopic–macroscopic boundary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velásquez, E.A. [GICM and GES Groups, Instituto de Física-FCEN, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21 Medellín (Colombia); Grupo de Investigación en Modelamiento y Simulación Computacional, Universidad de San Buenaventura Sec. Medellín, A.A. 5222, Medellín (Colombia); Altbir, D. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Santiago de Chile (USACH), CEDENNA, Santiago (Chile); Mazo-Zuluaga, J. [GICM and GES Groups, Instituto de Física-FCEN, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21 Medellín (Colombia); Duque, L.F. [GICM and GES Groups, Instituto de Física-FCEN, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21 Medellín (Colombia); Grupo de Física Teórica, Aplicada y Didáctica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Aplicadas Instituto Tecnológico Metropolitano, Medellín (Colombia); Mejía-López, J., E-mail: jmejia@puc.cl [Facultad de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, CEDENNA, Santiago (Chile)

    2013-12-15

    Several studies have focused on the size-dependent properties of elements, looking for a unique definition of the nanoscopic–macroscopic boundary. By using a novel approach consisting of an energy variational method combined with a quantum Heisenberg model, here we address the size at which the ordering temperature of a magnetic nanoparticle reaches its bulk value. We consider samples with sizes in the range 1–500 nm, as well as several geometries and crystalline lattices and observe that, contrarily to what is commonly argued, the nanoscopic-microscopic boundary depends on both factors: shape and crystalline structure. This suggests that the surface-to-volume ratio is not the unique parameter that defines the behavior of a nanometric sample whenever its size increases reaching the bulk dimension. Comparisons reveal very good agreement with experimental evidence with differences less than 2%. Our results have broad implications for practical issues in measurements on systems at the nanometric scale. - Highlights: • A novel quantum-Heisenberg variational energy method is implemented. • The asymptotic behavior toward the thermodynamic limit is explored. • An important dependence of the nano-bulk boundary on the geometry is found. • And also an important dependence on the crystalline lattice. • We obtain a very good agreement with experimental evidence with differences <2%.

  9. Distributivity breaking and macroscopic quantum games

    CERN Document Server

    Grib, A A; Parfionov, G N; Starkov, K A

    2005-01-01

    Examples of games between two partners with mixed strategies, calculated by the use of the probability amplitude as some vector in Hilbert space are given. The games are macroscopic, no microscopic quantum agent is supposed. The reason for the use of the quantum formalism is in breaking of the distributivity property for the lattice of yes-no questions arising due to the special rules of games. The rules of the games suppose two parts: the preparation and measurement. In the first part due to use of the quantum logical orthocomplemented non-distributive lattice the partners freely choose the wave functions as descriptions of their strategies. The second part consists of classical games described by Boolean sublattices of the initial non-Boolean lattice with same strategies which were chosen in the first part. Examples of games for spin one half are given. New Nash equilibria are found for some cases. Heisenberg uncertainty relations without the Planck constant are written for the "spin one half game".

  10. 3D velocity distribution of P- and S-waves in a biotite gneiss, measured in oil as the pressure medium: Comparison with velocity measurements in a multi-anvil pressure apparatus and with texture-based calculated data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokajíček, T.; Kern, H.; Svitek, T.; Ivankina, T.

    2014-06-01

    Ultrasonic measurements of the 3D velocity distribution of P- and S-waves were performed on a spherical sample of a biotite gneiss from the Outokumpu scientific drill hole. Measurements were done at room temperature and pressures up to 400 and 70 MPa, respectively, in a pressure vessel with oil as a pressure medium. A modified transducer/sample assembly and the installation of a new mechanical system allowed simultaneous measurements of P- and S-wave velocities in 132 independent directions of the sphere on a net in steps of 15°. Proper signals for P- and S-waves could be recorded by coating the sample surface with a high-viscosity shear wave gel and by temporal point contacting of the transmitter and receiver transducers with the sample surface during the measurements. The 3D seismic measurements revealed a strong foliation-related directional dependence (anisotropy) of P- and S-wave velocities, which is confirmed by measurements in a multi-anvil apparatus on a cube-shaped specimen of the same rock. Both experimental approaches show a marked pressure sensitivity of P- and S-wave velocities and velocity anisotropies. With increasing pressure, P- and S-wave velocities increase non-linearly due to progressive closure of micro-cracks. The reverse is true for velocity anisotropy. 3D velocity calculations based on neutron diffraction measurements of crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) of major minerals show that the intrinsic bulk anisotropy is basically caused by the CPO of biotite constituting about 23 vol.% of the rock. Including the shape of biotite grains and oriented low-aspect ratio microcracks into the modelling increases bulk anisotropy. An important finding from this study is that the measurements on the sample sphere and on the sample cube displayed distinct differences, particularly in shear wave velocities. It is assumed that the differences are due to the different geometries of the samples and the configuration of the transducer-sample assembly

  11. Light shielding apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Richard Dean; Thom, Robert Anthony

    2017-10-10

    A light shielding apparatus for blocking light from reaching an electronic device, the light shielding apparatus including left and right support assemblies, a cross member, and an opaque shroud. The support assemblies each include primary support structure, a mounting element for removably connecting the apparatus to the electronic device, and a support member depending from the primary support structure for retaining the apparatus in an upright orientation. The cross member couples the left and right support assemblies together and spaces them apart according to the size and shape of the electronic device. The shroud may be removably and adjustably connectable to the left and right support assemblies and configured to take a cylindrical dome shape so as to form a central space covered from above. The opaque shroud prevents light from entering the central space and contacting sensitive elements of the electronic device.

  12. Thermal Acoustic Fatigue Apparatus

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Thermal Acoustic Fatigue Apparatus (TAFA) is a progressive wave tube test facility that is used to test structures for dynamic response and sonic fatigue due to...

  13. Spin coating apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torczynski, John R.

    2000-01-01

    A spin coating apparatus requires less cleanroom air flow than prior spin coating apparatus to minimize cleanroom contamination. A shaped exhaust duct from the spin coater maintains process quality while requiring reduced cleanroom air flow. The exhaust duct can decrease in cross section as it extends from the wafer, minimizing eddy formation. The exhaust duct can conform to entrainment streamlines to minimize eddy formation and reduce interprocess contamination at minimal cleanroom air flow rates.

  14. Apparatus for drying sugar cubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derckx, H.A.J.; Torringa, H.M.

    1999-01-01

    Device for drying sugar cubes containing a heating apparatus for heating and dehumidifying the sugar cubes, a conditioning apparatus for cooling off and possibly further dehumidifying the sugar cubes and a conveying apparatus for conveying the sugar cubes through the heating apparatus and the condit

  15. Apparatus for drying sugar cubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derckx, H.A.J.; Torringa, H.M.

    1999-01-01

    Device for drying sugar cubes containing a heating apparatus for heating and dehumidifying the sugar cubes, a conditioning apparatus for cooling off and possibly further dehumidifying the sugar cubes and a conveying apparatus for conveying the sugar cubes through the heating apparatus and the

  16. Apparatus for drying sugar cubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derckx, H.A.J.; Torringa, H.M.

    1999-01-01

    Device for drying sugar cubes containing a heating apparatus for heating and dehumidifying the sugar cubes, a conditioning apparatus for cooling off and possibly further dehumidifying the sugar cubes and a conveying apparatus for conveying the sugar cubes through the heating apparatus and the condit

  17. Macroscopic optical response and photonic bands

    CERN Document Server

    Perez-Huerta, J S; Mendoza, Bernardo S; Mochan, W Luis

    2012-01-01

    We develop a formalism for the calculation of the macroscopic dielectric response of composite systems made of particles of one material embedded periodically within a matrix of another material, each of which is characterized by a well defined dielectric function. The nature of these dielectric functions is arbitrary, and could correspond to dielectric or conducting, transparent or opaque, absorptive and dispersive materials. The geometry of the particles and the Bravais lattice of the composite are also arbitrary. Our formalism goes beyond the longwavelenght approximation as it fully incorporates retardation effects. We test our formalism through the study the propagation of electromagnetic waves in 2D photonic crystals made of periodic arrays of cylindrical holes in a dispersionless dielectric host. Our macroscopic theory yields a spatially dispersive macroscopic response which allows the calculation of the full photonic band structure of the system, as well as the characterization of its normal modes, upo...

  18. Nanoplasmon-enabled macroscopic thermal management

    CERN Document Server

    Jonsson, Gustav Edman; Dmitriev, Alexandre

    2013-01-01

    In numerous applications of energy harvesting via transformation of light into heat the focus recently shifted towards highly absorptive materials featuring nanoplasmons. It is currently established that noble metals-based absorptive plasmonic platforms deliver significant light-capturing capability and can be viewed as super-absorbers of optical radiation. However, direct experimental evidence of plasmon-enabled macroscopic temperature increase that would result from these efficient absorptive properties is scarce. Here we derive a general quantitative method of characterizing light-capturing properties of a given heat-generating absorptive layer by macroscopic thermal imaging. We further monitor macroscopic areas that are homogeneously heated by several degrees with plasmon nanostructures that occupy a mere 8% of the surface, leaving it essentially transparent and evidencing significant heat generation capability of nanoplasmon-enabled light capture. This has a direct bearing to thermophotovoltaics and othe...

  19. Separation of the Microscopic and Macroscopic Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Zandt, L. L.

    1977-01-01

    Examines the possibility of observing interference in quantum magnification experiments such as the celebrated "Schroedinger cat". Uses the possibility of observing interference for separating the realm of microscopic from macroscopic dynamics; estimates the dividing line to fall at system sizes of about 100 Daltons. (MLH)

  20. Entropy, Macroscopic Information, and Phase Transitions

    OpenAIRE

    Parrondo, Juan M. R.

    1999-01-01

    The relationship between entropy and information is reviewed, taking into account that information is stored in macroscopic degrees of freedom, such as the order parameter in a system exhibiting spontaneous symmetry breaking. It is shown that most problems of the relationship between entropy and information, embodied in a variety of Maxwell demons, are also present in any symmetry breaking transition.

  1. Macroscopic Modeling of Polymer-Electrolyte Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, A.Z.; Newman, J.

    2007-04-01

    In this chapter, the various approaches for the macroscopic modeling of transport phenomena in polymer-electrolyte membranes are discussed. This includes general background and modeling methodologies, as well as exploration of the governing equations and some membrane-related topic of interest.

  2. Macroscopic invisibility cloaking of visible light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Xianzhong; Luo, Y.; Zhang, Jingjing

    2011-01-01

    to a few wavelengths. Here, we report the first realization of a macroscopic volumetric invisibility cloak constructed from natural birefringent crystals. The cloak operates at visible frequencies and is capable of hiding, for a specific light polarization, three-dimensional objects of the scale...

  3. Macroscopic Quantum Phenomena from the Correlation, Coupling and Criticality Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, C. H.; Hu, B. L.; Subaşi, Y.

    2011-12-01

    In this sequel paper we explore how macroscopic quantum phenomena can be measured or understood from the behavior of quantum correlations which exist in a quantum system of many particles or components and how the interaction strengths change with energy or scale, under ordinary situations and when the system is near its critical point. We use the nPI (master) effective action related to the Boltzmann-BBGKY / Schwinger-Dyson hierarchy of equations as a tool for systemizing the contributions of higher order correlation functions to the dynamics of lower order correlation functions. Together with the large N expansion discussed in our first paper [1] we explore 1) the conditions whereby an H-theorem is obtained, which can be viewed as a signifier of the emergence of macroscopic behavior in the system. We give two more examples from past work: 2) the nonequilibrium dynamics of N atoms in an optical lattice under the large Script N (field components), 2PI and second order perturbative expansions, illustrating how N and Script N enter in these three aspects of quantum correlations, coherence and coupling strength. 3) the behavior of an interacting quantum system near its critical point, the effects of quantum and thermal fluctuations and the conditions under which the system manifests infrared dimensional reduction. We also discuss how the effective field theory concept bears on macroscopic quantum phenomena: the running of the coupling parameters with energy or scale imparts a dynamical-dependent and an interaction-sensitive definition of 'macroscopia'.

  4. Quantum-limited heat conduction over macroscopic distances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partanen, Matti; Tan, Kuan Yen; Govenius, Joonas; Lake, Russell E.; Mäkelä, Miika K.; Tanttu, Tuomo; Möttönen, Mikko

    2016-05-01

    The emerging quantum technological apparatuses, such as the quantum computer, call for extreme performance in thermal engineering. Cold distant heat sinks are needed for the quantized electric degrees of freedom owing to the increasing packaging density and heat dissipation. Importantly, quantum mechanics sets a fundamental upper limit for the flow of information and heat, which is quantified by the quantum of thermal conductance. However, the short distance between the heat-exchanging bodies in the previous experiments hinders their applicability in quantum technology. Here, we present experimental observations of quantum-limited heat conduction over macroscopic distances extending to a metre. We achieved this improvement of four orders of magnitude in the distance by utilizing microwave photons travelling in superconducting transmission lines. Thus, it seems that quantum-limited heat conduction has no fundamental distance cutoff. This work establishes the integration of normal-metal components into the framework of circuit quantum electrodynamics, which provides a basis for the superconducting quantum computer. Especially, our results facilitate remote cooling of nanoelectronic devices using faraway in situ-tunable heat sinks. Furthermore, quantum-limited heat conduction is important in contemporary thermodynamics. Here, the long distance may lead to ultimately efficient mesoscopic heat engines with promising practical applications.

  5. Violation of smooth observable macroscopic realism in a harmonic oscillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leshem, Amir; Gat, Omri

    2009-08-14

    We study the emergence of macrorealism in a harmonic oscillator subject to consecutive measurements of a squeezed action. We demonstrate a breakdown of dynamical realism in a wide parameter range that is maximized in a scaling limit of extreme squeezing, where it is based on measurements of smooth observables, implying that macroscopic realism is not valid in the harmonic oscillator. We propose an indirect experimental test of these predictions with entangled photons by demonstrating that local realism in a composite system implies dynamical realism in a subsystem.

  6. communication method and apparatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2005-01-01

    The present invention relates to a non-lingual communication method and apparatus, wherein a physical or physiological signal consciously created by a first subject (1) is detected and converted into a transmitted output signal presented to a second subject (7) in order to communicate information...

  7. Mobile lighting apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, George Michael; Klebanoff, Leonard Elliott; Rea, Gerald W; Drake, Robert A; Johnson, Terry A; Wingert, Steven John; Damberger, Thomas A; Skradski, Thomas J; Radley, Christopher James; Oros, James M; Schuttinger, Paul G; Grupp, David J; Prey, Stephen Carl

    2013-05-14

    A mobile lighting apparatus includes a portable frame such as a moveable trailer or skid having a light tower thereon. The light tower is moveable from a stowed position to a deployed position. A hydrogen-powered fuel cell is located on the portable frame to provide electrical power to an array of the energy efficient lights located on the light tower.

  8. Application of total bacteria measuring apparatus for detecting total bacteria in raw milk%生乳细菌总数检测仪测定生乳细菌总数的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    富鑫; 田雨; 管勇佳; 房乔; 李湘怡; 田波

    2012-01-01

    以还原法为理论基础,研制生乳细菌总数检测仪进行生乳细菌总数快速检测,以克服经典还原法目测比色主观性强的缺点,而且检测结果可以定量表示。该仪器连续检测加入试剂后的生乳样品颜色(RGB),通过数理统计分析,采用斜率法以R值斜率表示样品颜色的变化速度。研究以标准平板计数法(SPC法)为标准,建立了R值斜率与菌落总数之间的标准方程,经验证生乳细菌总数检测仪检测结果与SPC法检测结果差异不显著。与流式细胞仪比较,在与SPC法的相关性、运行成本及便携性等方面具有一定优势。%A total bacteria measuring apparatus was developed for detecting total bacteria in raw milk, which overcame the defects of traditional reduction test measured by eyes,and might make a quantitative expression of total bacteria.The apparatus detected continuously the color (RGB) of the milk samples which had been added reagents,and the rate of color change was showed as R slope by statistical analysis. A standard curve was established to show the relation between R slope and total plate count.There was no significant difference between the two results of total bacteria measuring apparatus and standard plate count method. Comparing with flow cytometry,the total bacteria measuring apparatus had some advantages about better relativity with SPC, lower operating cost and more efficiency.

  9. Macroscopic quantum mechanics in a classical spacetime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huan; Miao, Haixing; Lee, Da-Shin; Helou, Bassam; Chen, Yanbei

    2013-04-26

    We apply the many-particle Schrödinger-Newton equation, which describes the coevolution of a many-particle quantum wave function and a classical space-time geometry, to macroscopic mechanical objects. By averaging over motions of the objects' internal degrees of freedom, we obtain an effective Schrödinger-Newton equation for their centers of mass, which can be monitored and manipulated at quantum levels by state-of-the-art optomechanics experiments. For a single macroscopic object moving quantum mechanically within a harmonic potential well, its quantum uncertainty is found to evolve at a frequency different from its classical eigenfrequency-with a difference that depends on the internal structure of the object-and can be observable using current technology. For several objects, the Schrödinger-Newton equation predicts semiclassical motions just like Newtonian physics, yet quantum uncertainty cannot be transferred from one object to another.

  10. Macroscopic Invisibility Cloaking of Visible Light

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Xianzhong; Zhang, Jingjing; Jiang, Kyle; Pendry, John B; Zhang, Shuang

    2010-01-01

    Invisibility cloaks of light, which used to be confined to the imagination, have now been turned into a scientific reality, thanks to the enabling theoretical tools of transformation optics and conformal mapping. Inspired by those theoretical works, the experimental realisation of electromagnetic invisibility cloaks has been reported at various electromagnetic frequencies. All the invisibility cloaks demonstrated thus far, however, have relied on nano- or micro-fabricated artificial composite materials with spatially varying electromagnetic properties, which limit the size of the cloaked region to a few wavelengths. Here we report realisation of a macroscopic volumetric invisibility cloak constructed from natural birefringent crystals. The cloak operates at visible frequencies and is capable of hiding three-dimensional objects of the scale of centimetres and millimetres. Our work opens avenues for future applications with macroscopic cloaking devices.

  11. Macroscopic spin and charge transport theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Da-Fang; Shi Jun-Ren

    2009-01-01

    According to the general principle of non-equilibrium thermodynamics, we propose a set of macroscopic transport equations for the spin transport and the charge transport. In particular, the spin torque is introduced as a generalized 'current density' to describe the phenomena associated with the spin non-conservation in a unified framework. The Einstein relations and the Onsager relations between different transport phenomena are established. Specifically, the spin transport properties of the isotropic non-magnetic and the isotropic magnetic two-dimensional electron gases are fully described by using this theory, in which only the macroscopic-spin-related transport phenomena allowed by the symmetry of the system are taken into account.

  12. Macroscopic entrainment of periodically forced oscillatory ensembles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovych, Oleksandr V; Tass, Peter A

    2011-03-01

    Large-amplitude oscillations of macroscopic neuronal signals, such as local field potentials and electroencephalography or magnetoencephalography signals, are commonly considered as being generated by a population of mutually synchronized neurons. In a computational study in generic networks of phase oscillators and bursting neurons, however, we show that this common belief may be wrong if the neuronal population receives an external rhythmic input. The latter may stem from another neuronal population or an external, e.g., sensory or electrical, source. In that case the population field potential may be entrained by the rhythmic input, whereas the individual neurons are phase desynchronized both mutually and with their field potential. Intriguingly, the corresponding large-amplitude oscillations of the population mean field are generated by pairwise desynchronized neurons oscillating at frequencies shifted far away from the frequency of the macroscopic field potential.

  13. Macroscopic Invisible Cloak for Visible Light

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Baile; Liu, Xiaogang; Barbastathis, George

    2011-01-01

    Invisibility cloaks, a subject that usually occurs in science fiction and myths, have attracted wide interest recently because of their possible realization. The biggest challenge to true invisibility is known to be the cloaking of a macroscopic object in the broad range of wavelengths visible to the human eye. Here we experimentally solve this problem by incorporating the principle of transformation optics into a conventional optical lens fabrication with low-cost materials and simple manufacturing techniques. A transparent cloak made of two pieces of calcite is created. This cloak is able to conceal a macroscopic object with a maximum height of 2 mm, larger than 3500 free-space-wavelength, inside a transparent liquid environment. Its working bandwidth encompassing red, green and blue light is also demonstrated.

  14. Macroscopic Quantum Resonators (MAQRO): 2015 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaltenbaek, Rainer [University of Vienna, Vienna Center for Quantum Science and Technology, Vienna (Austria); Aspelmeyer, Markus; Kiesel, Nikolai [University of Vienna, Vienna Center for Quantum Science and Technology, Vienna (Austria); Barker, Peter F.; Bose, Sougato [University College London, Department of Physics and Astronomy, London (United Kingdom); Bassi, Angelo [University of Trieste, Department of Physics, Trieste (Italy); INFN - Trieste Section, Trieste (Italy); Bateman, James [University of Swansea, Department of Physics, College of Science, Swansea (United Kingdom); Bongs, Kai; Cruise, Adrian Michael [University of Birmingham, School of Physics and Astronomy, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Braxmaier, Claus [University of Bremen, Center of Applied Space Technology and Micro Gravity (ZARM), Bremen (Germany); Institute of Space Systems, German Aerospace Center (DLR), Bremen (Germany); Brukner, Caslav [University of Vienna, Vienna Center for Quantum Science and Technology, Vienna (Austria); Austrian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Quantum Optics and Quantum Information (IQOQI), Vienna (Austria); Christophe, Bruno; Rodrigues, Manuel [The French Aerospace Lab, ONERA, Chatillon (France); Chwalla, Michael; Johann, Ulrich [Airbus Defence and Space GmbH, Immenstaad (Germany); Cohadon, Pierre-Francois; Heidmann, Antoine; Lambrecht, Astrid; Reynaud, Serge [ENS-PSL Research University, Laboratoire Kastler Brossel, UPMC-Sorbonne Universites, CNRS, College de France, Paris (France); Curceanu, Catalina [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); Dholakia, Kishan; Mazilu, Michael [University of St. Andrews, School of Physics and Astronomy, St. Andrews (United Kingdom); Diosi, Lajos [Wigner Research Center for Physics, P.O. Box 49, Budapest (Hungary); Doeringshoff, Klaus; Peters, Achim [Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Institut fuer Physik, Berlin (Germany); Ertmer, Wolfgang; Rasel, Ernst M. [Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Hannover (Germany); Gieseler, Jan; Novotny, Lukas; Rondin, Loic [ETH Zuerich, Photonics Laboratory, Zuerich (Switzerland); Guerlebeck, Norman; Herrmann, Sven; Laemmerzahl, Claus [University of Bremen, Center of Applied Space Technology and Micro Gravity (ZARM), Bremen (Germany); Hechenblaikner, Gerald [Airbus Defence and Space GmbH, Immenstaad (Germany); European Southern Observatory (ESO), Garching bei Muenchen (Germany); Hossenfelder, Sabine [KTH Royal Institute of Technology and Stockholm University, Nordita, Stockholm (Sweden); Kim, Myungshik [Imperial College London, QOLS, Blackett Laboratory, London (United Kingdom); Milburn, Gerard J. [University of Queensland, ARC Centre for Engineered Quantum Systems, Brisbane (Australia); Mueller, Holger [University of California, Department of Physics, Berkeley, CA (United States); Paternostro, Mauro [Queen' s University, Centre for Theoretical Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics, School of Mathematics and Physics, Belfast (United Kingdom); Pikovski, Igor [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, ITAMP, Cambridge, MA (United States); Pilan Zanoni, Andre [Airbus Defence and Space GmbH, Immenstaad (Germany); CERN - European Organization for Nuclear Research, EN-STI-TCD, Geneva (Switzerland); Riedel, Charles Jess [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, ON (Canada); Roura, Albert [Universitaet Ulm, Institut fuer Quantenphysik, Ulm (Germany); Schleich, Wolfgang P. [Universitaet Ulm, Institut fuer Quantenphysik, Ulm (Germany); Texas A and M University Institute for Advanced Study (TIAS), Institute for Quantum Science and Engineering (IQSE), and Department of Physics and Astronomy, College Station, TX (United States); Schmiedmayer, Joerg [Vienna University of Technology, Vienna Center for Quantum Science and Technology, Institute of Atomic and Subatomic Physics, Vienna (Austria); Schuldt, Thilo [Institute of Space Systems, German Aerospace Center (DLR), Bremen (Germany); Schwab, Keith C. [California Institute of Technology, Applied Physics, Pasadena, CA (United States)

    2016-12-15

    Do the laws of quantum physics still hold for macroscopic objects - this is at the heart of Schroedinger's cat paradox - or do gravitation or yet unknown effects set a limit for massive particles? What is the fundamental relation between quantum physics and gravity? Ground-based experiments addressing these questions may soon face limitations due to limited free-fall times and the quality of vacuum and microgravity. The proposed mission Macroscopic Quantum Resonators (MAQRO) may overcome these limitations and allow addressing such fundamental questions. MAQRO harnesses recent developments in quantum optomechanics, high-mass matter-wave interferometry as well as state-of-the-art space technology to push macroscopic quantum experiments towards their ultimate performance limits and to open new horizons for applying quantum technology in space. The main scientific goal is to probe the vastly unexplored 'quantum-classical' transition for increasingly massive objects, testing the predictions of quantum theory for objects in a size and mass regime unachievable in ground-based experiments. The hardware will largely be based on available space technology. Here, we present the MAQRO proposal submitted in response to the 4th Cosmic Vision call for a medium-sized mission (M4) in 2014 of the European Space Agency (ESA) with a possible launch in 2025, and we review the progress with respect to the original MAQRO proposal for the 3rd Cosmic Vision call for a medium-sized mission (M3) in 2010. In particular, the updated proposal overcomes several critical issues of the original proposal by relying on established experimental techniques from high-mass matter-wave interferometry and by introducing novel ideas for particle loading and manipulation. Moreover, the mission design was improved to better fulfill the stringent environmental requirements for macroscopic quantum experiments. (orig.)

  15. A macroscopic approach to creating exotic matter

    OpenAIRE

    Ridgely, C. T.

    2000-01-01

    Herein the Casimir effect is used to present a simple macroscopic view on creating exotic matter. The energy arising between two nearly perfectly conducting parallel plates is shown to become increasingly negative as the plate separation is reduced. It is proposed that the Casimir energy appears increasingly negative simply because the vacuum electromagnetic zero-point field performs positive work in pushing the plates together, transforming field energy into kinetic energy of the plates. Nex...

  16. Shot noise in linear macroscopic resistors

    OpenAIRE

    Gomila Lluch, Gabriel; Pennetta, C.; Reggiani, L.; Ferrari, G; Sampietro, M.; G. Bertuccio(Politecnico di Milano, Italy)

    2004-01-01

    We report on direct experimental evidence of shot noise in a linear macroscopic resistor. The origin of the shot noise comes from the fluctuation of the total number of charge carriers inside the resistor associated with their diffusive motion under the condition that the dielectric relaxation time becomes longer than the dynamic transit time. The present results show that neither potential barriers nor the absence of inelastic scattering are necessary to observe shot noise in electronic devi...

  17. Shot Noise in Linear Macroscopic Resistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomila, G.; Pennetta, C.; Reggiani, L.; Sampietro, M.; Ferrari, G.; Bertuccio, G.

    2004-06-01

    We report on direct experimental evidence of shot noise in a linear macroscopic resistor. The origin of the shot noise comes from the fluctuation of the total number of charge carriers inside the resistor associated with their diffusive motion under the condition that the dielectric relaxation time becomes longer than the dynamic transit time. The present results show that neither potential barriers nor the absence of inelastic scattering are necessary to observe shot noise in electronic devices.

  18. Macroscopic Objects, Intrinsic Spin, and Lorentz Violation

    CERN Document Server

    Atkinson, David W; Tasson, Jay D

    2013-01-01

    The framework of the Standard-Model Extension (SME) provides a relativistic quantum field theory for the study of Lorentz violation. The classical, nonrelativistic equations of motion can be extracted as a limit that is useful in various scenarios. In this work, we consider the effects of certain SME coefficients for Lorentz violation on the motion of macroscopic objects having net intrinsic spin in the classical, nonrelativistic limit.

  19. Electric Birefringence: A Simple Apparatus for Determining Physical Parameters of Macromolecules and Colloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimm, Harold H.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Describes a birefringence apparatus that can be assembled for less than $100 and can be used to measure both the dimensions and dipole moments of many macromolecules. Details are given of the construction and manipulation of the apparatus. (JN)

  20. Active Polar Two-Fluid Macroscopic Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleiner, Harald; Svensek, Daniel; Brand, Helmut R.

    2014-03-01

    We study the dynamics of systems with a polar dynamic preferred direction. Examples include the pattern-forming growth of bacteria (in a solvent, shoals of fish (moving in water currents), flocks of birds and migrating insects (flying in windy air). Because the preferred direction only exists dynamically, but not statically, the macroscopic variable of choice is the macroscopic velocity associated with the motion of the active units. We derive the macroscopic equations for such a system and discuss novel static, reversible and irreversible cross-couplings connected to this second velocity. We find a normal mode structure quite different compared to the static descriptions, as well as linear couplings between (active) flow and e.g. densities and concentrations due to the genuine two-fluid transport derivatives. On the other hand, we get, quite similar to the static case, a direct linear relation between the stress tensor and the structure tensor. This prominent ``active'' term is responsible for many active effects, meaning that our approach can describe those effects as well. In addition, we also deal with explicitly chiral systems, which are important for many active systems. In particular, we find an active flow-induced heat current specific for the dynamic chiral polar order.

  1. The Two-Time Interpretation and Macroscopic Time-Reversibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakir Aharonov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The two-state vector formalism motivates a time-symmetric interpretation of quantum mechanics that entails a resolution of the measurement problem. We revisit a post-selection-assisted collapse model previously suggested by us, claiming that unlike the thermodynamic arrow of time, it can lead to reversible dynamics at the macroscopic level. In addition, the proposed scheme enables us to characterize the classical-quantum boundary. We discuss the limitations of this approach and its broad implications for other areas of physics.

  2. Macroscopic and microscopic self-organization by nonlocal anisotropic interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Cristiani, Emiliano; Tosin, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    This paper is concerned with mathematical modeling of intelligent systems, such as human crowds and animal groups. In particular, the focus is on the emergence of different self-organized patterns from non-locality and anisotropy of the interactions among individuals. A mathematical technique by time-evolving measures is introduced to deal with both macroscopic and microscopic scales within a unified modeling framework. Then self-organization issues are investigated and numerically reproduced at the proper scale, according to the kind of agents under consideration.

  3. Archimedes Force on Casimir Apparatus

    CERN Document Server

    Shevchenko, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    We address a problem of Casimir apparatus in dense medium and weak gravitational field. The falling of the apparatus has to be governed by the equivalence principle, with proper account for contributions to the weight of the apparatus from its material part and from distorted quantum fields. We discuss general expression for the corresponding force in metric with cylindrical symmetry. By way of example we compute explicit expression for Archimedes force, acting on the Casimir apparatus of finite size, immersed into thermal bath of free scalar field. It is shown that besides universal term, proportional to the volume of the apparatus, there are non-universal quantum corrections, depending on the boundary conditions.

  4. The yeast Golgi apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suda, Yasuyuki; Nakano, Akihiko

    2012-04-01

    The Golgi apparatus is an organelle that has been extensively studied in the model eukaryote, yeast. Its morphology varies among yeast species; the Golgi exists as a system of dispersed cisternae in the case of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, whereas the Golgi cisternae in Pichia pastoris and Schizosaccharomyces pombe are organized into stacks. In spite of the different organization, the mechanism of trafficking through the Golgi apparatus is believed to be similar, involving cisternal maturation, in which the resident Golgi proteins are transported backwards while secretory cargo proteins can stay in the cisternae. Questions remain regarding the organization of the yeast Golgi, the regulatory mechanisms that underlie cisternal maturation of the Golgi and transport machinery of cargo proteins through this organelle. Studies using different yeast species have provided hints to these mechanisms.

  5. Heat exchange apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degtiarenko, Pavel V.

    2003-08-12

    A heat exchange apparatus comprising a coolant conduit or heat sink having attached to its surface a first radial array of spaced-apart parallel plate fins or needles and a second radial array of spaced-apart parallel plate fins or needles thermally coupled to a body to be cooled and meshed with, but not contacting the first radial array of spaced-apart parallel plate fins or needles.

  6. Pyrolysis process and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang-Kuei

    1983-01-01

    This invention discloses a process and apparatus for pyrolyzing particulate coal by heating with a particulate solid heating media in a transport reactor. The invention tends to dampen fluctuations in the flow of heating media upstream of the pyrolysis zone, and by so doing forms a substantially continuous and substantially uniform annular column of heating media flowing downwardly along the inside diameter of the reactor. The invention is particularly useful for bituminous or agglomerative type coals.

  7. A low cost apparatus for measuring the xylem hydraulic conductance in plants Um aparato de baixo custo para medição da condutância hidráulica do xilema em plantas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Pereira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant yield and resistance to drought are directly related to the efficiency of the xylem hydraulic conductance and the ability of this system to avoid interrupting the flow of water. In this paper we described in detail the assembling of an apparatus proposed by TYREE et al. (2002, and its calibration, as well as low cost adaptations that make the equipment accessible for everyone working in this research area. The apparatus allows measuring the conductance in parts of roots or shoots (root ramifications or branches, or in the whole system, in the case of small plants or seedlings. The apparatus can also be used to measure the reduction of conductance by embolism of the xylem vessels. Data on the hydraulic conductance of eucalyptus seedlings obtained here and other reports in the literature confirm the applicability of the apparatus in physiological studies on the relationship between productivity and water stress.A produtividade das plantas e a capacidade de resistência à seca estão diretamente relacionadas com a eficiência da condutância hidráulica do xilema e a capacidade desse sistema em evitar a interrupção do fluxo de água. No presente trabalho, detalha-se a montagem de um aparato proposto por TYREE et al. (2002, e sua calibração, bem como adaptações com peças de menor custo que tornam o aparelho acessível a qualquer um trabalhando nesta linha de pesquisa. Esse aparato possibilita medir a condutância de partes do sistema radicular ou da parte aérea (ramificações radiculares ou ramos, ou em todo o sistema, no caso de plantas de porte pequeno ou plântulas. O aparato também pode ser usado para medir a redução da condutância pela embolização dos vasos do xilema. Medições de condutância hidráulica feitas em plântulas de eucalipto e outros trabalhos encontrados na literatura confirmaram a aplicabilidade desse aparato em estudos fisiológicos de produtividade relacionada ao estresse hídrico.

  8. Apparatus for processing electromagnetic radiation and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatewood, George D. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    Measuring apparatus including a ruled member having alternate transparent and opaque zones. An optical coupler connecting the ruled member with electromagnetic radiation-conversion apparatus. The conversion apparatus may include a photomultiplier and a discriminator. Radiation impinging on the ruled member will, in part, be converted to electrical pulses which correspond to the intensity of the radiation. A method of processing electromagnetic radiation includes providing a member having alternating dark and light zones, establishing movement of the member through the beam of electromagnetic radiation with the dark zones interrupting passage of radiation through the rule, providing an optical coupler to connect a portion of the radiation with a conversion station where the radiation portion is converted into an electrical pulse which is related to the intensity of the radiation received at the conversion station. The electrical pulses may be counted and the digitized signals stored or permanently recorded to produce positional information.

  9. Lidiam - direct-link computer for the photo measurement apparatus of a bubble chamber; Lidiam - liaison directe d'une calculatrice aux appareils de mesure de photos de chambre a bulles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deler, B. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    The treatment of bubble chamber pictures can be considerably improved by connecting conventional measuring machines to a small computer providing continuous control of the later as well as the immediate detection of errors and their immediate corrections. The computer will also perform first processing of the measured data. In addition the system described will improve the effective yield of each apparatus and facilitates the control of the data. A description is given here of the apparatus and of some future extensions. (author) [French] L'exploitation des cliches de chambre a bulles peut etre sensiblement amelioree par la jonction directe des appareils de mesure a une calculatrice qui permettra la detection immediate des erreurs et leurs corrections, le controle continu des appareils et un premier traitement des evenements mesures. De plus, le rendement effectif des appareils de mesure sera notablement augmente et la gestion ainsi que l'exploitation des mesures grandement facilitees. Nous presentons ici la description d'un dispositif de ce genre ainsi que les projets d'extensions envisagees.

  10. Method and apparatus for calibrating spectrophotometers

    OpenAIRE

    Schreutelkamp, F.H.

    2003-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of calibrating spectrophotometers by placing one or more filters in the light path of the spectrophotometer and measuring the amount of radiation by means of a detector. The present invention furthermore relates to an apparatus to be used with such a method.

  11. Apparatus, system, and method for traffic monitoring

    KAUST Repository

    Claudel, Christian G.

    2016-08-25

    An apparatus, system, and method for traffic monitory can have a Lagrangian inertial measurement unit. The Lagrangian inertial measurement unit can have a processor, an accelerometer, a gyroscope, and/or a wireless transmitter. The processor can have an integrated direction cosine matrix. The accelerometer can be configured to measure linear accelerations of a vehicle and/or can communicate measured linear acceleration to the processor. The gyroscope can be configured to measure rotational accelerations of the vehicle and/or can communicate measured rotational acceleration to the processor. The processor can be configured to calculate estimated vehicle speed and/or estimated vehicle attitude. The wireless transmitter can be configured to wirelessly transmit estimated vehicle speed and/or estimated vehicle attitude. The apparatus, system, and method can be integrated with a wireless sensor network.

  12. Anisotropic magnetothermopower in ferromagnetic thin films grown on macroscopic substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayathilaka, P.B. [Department of Physical Sciences, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Rajarata University of Sri Lanka, Mihintale (Sri Lanka); Belyea, D.D. [Department of Physics, University of South Florida, 4202 East Fowler Avenue, Tampa, FL 33620 (United States); Fawcett, T.J. [College of Engineering, University of South Florida, 4202 East Fowler Avenue, Tampa, FL 33620 (United States); Miller, Casey W. [School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Rochester Institute of Technology, 85 Lomb Memorial Drive, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    We report observing the anisotropic magnetothermopower in a variety of ferromagnetic thin films grown on macroscopic substrates. These measurements were enabled by eliminating spurious signals related to the Anomalous Nernst Effect by butt-mounting the sample to the heat source and sink, and appropriate positioning of electrical contacts to avoid unwanted thermal gradients. This protocol enabled detailed measurements of the magnetothermopower in the transverse and longitudinal configurations. This may enable Spin Seebeck Effect studies in the in-plane geometry. - Highlights: • Unintentional thermal gradients along surface normal mitigated via butt-mounting. • Longitudinal/transverse magnetothermopower measured on many systems. • Anomalous Nernst Effect reduced. • Importance of magnetic anisotropy identified with angle-dependent measurements.

  13. Rainbow correlation imaging with macroscopic twin beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allevi, Alessia; Bondani, Maria

    2017-06-01

    We present the implementation of a correlation-imaging protocol that exploits both the spatial and spectral correlations of macroscopic twin-beam states generated by parametric downconversion. In particular, the spectral resolution of an imaging spectrometer coupled to an EMCCD camera is used in a proof-of-principle experiment to encrypt and decrypt a simple code to be transmitted between two parties. In order to optimize the trade-off between visibility and resolution, we provide the characterization of the correlation images as a function of the spatio-spectral properties of twin beams generated at different pump power values.

  14. Fingerprint Feature Extraction Based on Macroscopic Curvature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xiong; He Gui-ming; Zhang Yun

    2003-01-01

    In the Automatic Fingerprint Identification System (AFIS), extracting the feature of fingerprint is very important. The local curvature of ridges of fingerprint is irregular, so people have the barrier to effectively extract the fingerprint curve features to describe fingerprint. This article proposes a novel algorithm; it embraces information of few nearby fingerprint ridges to extract a new characteristic which can describe the curvature feature of fingerprint. Experimental results show the algorithm is feasible, and the characteristics extracted by it can clearly show the inner macroscopic curve properties of fingerprint. The result also shows that this kind of characteristic is robust to noise and pollution.

  15. Fingerprint Feature Extraction Based on Macroscopic Curvature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang; Xiong; He; Gui-Ming; 等

    2003-01-01

    In the Automatic Fingerprint Identification System(AFIS), extracting the feature of fingerprint is very important. The local curvature of ridges of fingerprint is irregular, so people have the barrier to effectively extract the fingerprint curve features to describe fingerprint. This article proposes a novel algorithm; it embraces information of few nearby fingerprint ridges to extract a new characterstic which can describe the curvature feature of fingerprint. Experimental results show the algorithm is feasible, and the characteristics extracted by it can clearly show the inner macroscopic curve properties of fingerprint. The result also shows that this kind of characteristic is robust to noise and pollution.

  16. Macroscopic Quantum Criticality in a Circuit QED

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Y D; Nori, F; Quan, H T; Sun, C P; Liu, Yu-xi; Nori, Franco

    2006-01-01

    Cavity quantum electrodynamic (QED) is studied for two strongly-coupled charge qubits interacting with a single-mode quantized field, which is provided by a on-chip transmission line resonator. We analyze the dressed state structure of this superconducting circuit QED system and the selection rules of electromagnetic-induced transitions between any two of these dressed states. Its macroscopic quantum criticality, in the form of ground state level crossing, is also analyzed, resulting from competition between the Ising-type inter-qubit coupling and the controllable on-site potentials.

  17. Macroscopic fluctuations theory of aerogel dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Lefevere, Raphael; Zambotti, Lorenzo

    2010-01-01

    We consider extensive deterministic dynamics made of $N$ particles modeling aerogels under a macroscopic fluctuation theory description. By using a stochastic model describing those dynamics after a diffusive rescaling, we show that the functional giving the exponential decay in $N$ of the probability of observing a given energy and current profile is not strictly convex as a function of the current. This behaviour is caused by the fact that the energy current is carried by particles which may have arbitrary low speed with sufficiently large probability.

  18. Macroscopic superposition states and decoherence by quantum telegraph noise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abel, Benjamin Simon

    2008-12-19

    In the first part of the present thesis we address the question about the size of superpositions of macroscopically distinct quantum states. We propose a measure for the ''size'' of a Schroedinger cat state, i.e. a quantum superposition of two many-body states with (supposedly) macroscopically distinct properties, by counting how many single-particle operations are needed to map one state onto the other. We apply our measure to a superconducting three-junction flux qubit put into a superposition of clockwise and counterclockwise circulating supercurrent states and find this Schroedinger cat to be surprisingly small. The unavoidable coupling of any quantum system to many environmental degrees of freedom leads to an irreversible loss of information about an initially prepared superposition of quantum states. This phenomenon, commonly referred to as decoherence or dephasing, is the subject of the second part of the thesis. We have studied the time evolution of the reduced density matrix of a two-level system (qubit) subject to quantum telegraph noise which is the major source of decoherence in Josephson charge qubits. We are able to derive an exact expression for the time evolution of the reduced density matrix. (orig.)

  19. Orthopedics tool measurement apparatus based on three-dimensional space measurement%依据三维空间测量原理设计的关节角度测量器

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆明; 邱贵兴; 翁习生

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Cybex NORMTM isokinetic dynamometer exhibits precise measurement,but the operation is too complex and the cost is too high to apply on routine examination.OBJECTIVE:To compare orthopedics tool measurement apparatus(OTMA)and Cybex NORMTM dynamometer in evaluating the range of motion after the treatment of shoulder.hip and knee joint diseases,and to verify tlle practical value of OTMA as a scientitic patent achievement.DESIGN,TIME AND SETTING:Clinical randomized control trial was carried out in the Rcsearch Center for Orthopaedics and Artificial Joint.Peking Union Medical College Hospital from October 2004 to March 2005.PARTICIPANTS:A total of 121 patients were randomly divided into two groups.OTMA group comprised 22 patients with shoulder periarthritis(22 shoulders).1 5 patients with avascular necrosis of the femoral head(21 hips),and 24 patients with knee osteoarthritis(33 knees).Cybex group comprised 21 patients with shoulder periarthritis(21 shoulders),16 patients with avascular necrosis of the femoral head(21 hips),and 23 patients with knee osteoarthritis(33 knees).METHODS:Two groups patients were treated with OTMA or Cybex NORMTM dynamometer,respectively,the range of motion was measured before treatment and 3 months,1 year after treatment.The Hospital for Special Surgery(HSS)knee rating scale,Karisson evaluation criterion of shoulder function and Harris hip score were applied to evaluate the patients,Visual analog scale(VAS)pain scale and short-form health survey(SF-36)were also used in this study.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:The range of motion in shoulder,hip and knee;Karlsson,Harris and HSS scores;VAS pain score and SF-36 score.RESULTS:OTMA measurement had a coincidence with Cybex NORMTM dynamometer measurement as 98.3%.All patients accepted and completed the measurement.The range of motion Was associated with HSS.Karlsson and Harris scores (P=0.002).CONCLUSION:According to three-dimensional space measurement,the digital OTMA may obtain the outcomes

  20. Spin models as microfoundation of macroscopic market models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Sebastian M.; Bornholdt, Stefan

    2013-09-01

    Macroscopic price evolution models are commonly used for investment strategies. There are first promising achievements in defining microscopic agent based models for the same purpose. Microscopic models allow a deeper understanding of mechanisms in the market than the purely phenomenological macroscopic models, and thus bear the chance for better models for market regulation. However microscopic models and macroscopic models are commonly studied separately. Here, we exemplify a unified view of a microscopic and a macroscopic market model in a case study, deducing a macroscopic Langevin equation from a microscopic spin market model closely related to the Ising model. The interplay of the microscopic and the macroscopic view allows for a better understanding and adjustment of the microscopic model, as well, and may guide the construction of agent based market models as basis of macroscopic models.

  1. MACROSCOPIC STRAIN POTENTIALS IN NONLINEAR POROUS MATERIALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘熠; 黄筑平

    2003-01-01

    By taking a hollow sphere as a representative volume element (RVE), the macroscopic strain potentials of porous materials with power-law incompressible matrix are studied in this paper.According to the principles of the minimum potential energy in nonlinear elasticity and the variational procedure, static admissible stress fields and kinematic admissible displacement fields are constructed,and hence the upper and the lower bounds of the macroscopic strain potential are obtained. The bounds given in the present paper differ so slightly that they both provide perfect approximations of the exact strain potential of the studied porous materials. It is also found that the upper bound proposed by previous authors is much higher than the present one, and the lower bounds given by Cocks is much lower. Moreover, the present calculation is also compared with the variational lower bound of Ponte Castafneda for statistically isotropic porous materials. Finally, the validity of the hollow spherical RVE for the studied nonlinear porous material is discussed by the difference between the present numerical results and the Cocks bound.

  2. Macroscopic theory for capillary-pressure hysteresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athukorallage, Bhagya; Aulisa, Eugenio; Iyer, Ram; Zhang, Larry

    2015-03-03

    In this article, we present a theory of macroscopic contact angle hysteresis by considering the minimization of the Helmholtz free energy of a solid-liquid-gas system over a convex set, subject to a constant volume constraint. The liquid and solid surfaces in contact are assumed to adhere weakly to each other, causing the interfacial energy to be set-valued. A simple calculus of variations argument for the minimization of the Helmholtz energy leads to the Young-Laplace equation for the drop surface in contact with the gas and a variational inequality that yields contact angle hysteresis for advancing/receding flow. We also show that the Young-Laplace equation with a Dirichlet boundary condition together with the variational inequality yields a basic hysteresis operator that describes the relationship between capillary pressure and volume. We validate the theory using results from the experiment for a sessile macroscopic drop. Although the capillary effect is a complex phenomenon even for a droplet as various points along the contact line might be pinned, the capillary pressure and volume of the drop are scalar variables that encapsulate the global quasistatic energy information for the entire droplet. Studying the capillary pressure versus volume relationship greatly simplifies the understanding and modeling of the phenomenon just as scalar magnetic hysteresis graphs greatly aided the modeling of devices with magnetic materials.

  3. Thermal stir welding apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, R. Jeffrey (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A welding method and apparatus are provided for forming a weld joint between first and second elements of a workpiece. The method includes heating the first and second elements to form an interface of material in a plasticized or melted state interface between the elements. The interface material is then allowed to cool to a plasticized state if previously in a melted state. The interface material, while in the plasticized state, is then mixed, for example, using a grinding/extruding process, to remove any dendritic-type weld microstructures introduced into the interface material during the heating process.

  4. Solder dross removal apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Winston S. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    An automatic dross removal apparatus (10) is disclosed for removing dross from the surface of a solder bath (22) in an automated electric component handling system. A rotatable wiper blade (14) is positioned adjacent the solder bath (22) which skims the dross off of the surface prior to the dipping of a robot conveyed component into the bath. An electronic control circuit (34) causes a motor (32) to rotate the wiper arm (14) one full rotational cycle each time a pulse is received from a robot controller (44) as a component approaches the solder bath (22).

  5. Macroscopic Quantum Phenomena from the Correlation, Coupling and Criticality Perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Chou, C H; Subasi, Y

    2011-01-01

    In this sequel paper we explore how macroscopic quantum phenomena can be measured or understood from the behavior of quantum correlations which exist in a quantum system of many particles or components and how the interaction strengths change with energy or scale, under ordinary situations and when the system is near its critical point. We use the nPI (master) effective action related to the Boltzmann-BBGKY / Schwinger-Dyson hierarchy of equations as a tool for systemizing the contributions of higher order correlation functions to the dynamics of lower order correlation functions. Together with the large N expansion discussed in our first paper(MQP1) we explore 1) the conditions whereby an H-theorem is obtained, which can be viewed as a signifier of the emergence of macroscopic behavior in the system. We give two more examples from past work: 2) the nonequilibrium dynamics of N atoms in an optical lattice under the large $\\cal N$ (field components), 2PI and second order perturbative expansions, illustrating h...

  6. Tribological behaviour of graphite powders at nano- and macroscopic scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, M.; Bistac, S.; Jradi, K.

    2007-04-01

    With its high resistance, good hardness and electrical conductibility in the basal plans, graphite is used for many years in various tribological fields such as seals, bearings or electrical motor brushes, and also for applications needing excellent lubrication and wearreducing properties. But thanks to its low density, graphite is at the moment destined for technologies which need a reducing of the weight combined with an enhancement of the efficiency, as it is the case in aeronautical industry. In this contexte, the friction and wear of natural (named graphite A) and synthetic (called graphites B and C) powders were evaluated, first at the macroscopic scale when sliding against steel counterfaces, under various applied normal loads. Scanning Electron Microscopy and AFM in tapping mode were used to observe the morphological modifications of the graphites. It is noticed that an enlargement of the applied normal load leads to an increase of the friction coefficient for graphites A and C; but for the graphite B, it seems that a ''limit'' load can induce a complete change of the tribological behaviour. At the same time, the nano-friction properties of these powders were evaluated by AFM measurements in contact mode, at different contact loads. As it was the case at the macroscopic scale, an increase of the nano-contact load induces higher friction coefficients. The determining of the friction and wear mechanisms of the graphite powders, as a function of both their intrinsic characteristics and the applied normal load, is then possible.

  7. An exploration for the macroscopic physical meaning of entropy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The macroscopic physical meaning of entropy is analyzed based on the exergy (availability) of a combined system (a closed system and its environment), which is the maximum amount of useful work obtainable from the system and the environment as the system is brought into equilibrium with the environment. The process the system experiences can be divided in two sequent sub-processes, the process at constant volume, which represents the heat interaction of the system with the environment, and the adiabatic process, which represents the work interaction of the system with the environment. It is shown that the macroscopic physical meaning of entropy is a measure of the unavailable energy of a closed system for doing useful work through heat interaction. This statement is more precise than those reported in prior literature. The unavailability function of a closed system can be defined as T0S and p0V in volume constant process and adiabatic process, respectively. Their changes, that is, AiTgS) and A (p0V) represent the unusable parts of the internal energy of a closed system for doing useful work in corresponding processes. Finally, the relation between Clausius entropy and Boltzmann entropy is discussed based on the comparison of their expressions for absolute entropy.

  8. Fluidized bed calciner apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Thomas J.; Klem, Jr., Michael J.; Cash, Robert J.

    1988-01-01

    An apparatus for remotely calcining a slurry or solution feed stream of toxic or hazardous material, such as ammonium diurante slurry or uranyl nitrate solution, is disclosed. The calcining apparatus includes a vertical substantially cylindrical inner shell disposed in a vertical substantially cylindrical outer shell, in which inner shell is disposed a fluidized bed comprising the feed stream material to be calcined and spherical beads to aid in heat transfer. Extending through the outer and inner shells is a feed nozzle for delivering feed material or a cleaning chemical to the beads. Disposed in and extending across the lower portion of the inner shell and upstream of the fluidized bed is a support member for supporting the fluidized bed, the support member having uniform slots for directing uniform gas flow to the fluidized bed from a fluidizing gas orifice disposed upstream of the support member. Disposed in the lower portion of the inner shell are a plurality of internal electric resistance heaters for heating the fluidized bed. Disposed circumferentially about the outside length of the inner shell are a plurality of external heaters for heating the inner shell thereby heating the fluidized bed. Further, connected to the internal and external heaters is a means for maintaining the fluidized bed temperature to within plus or minus approximately 25.degree. C. of a predetermined bed temperature. Disposed about the external heaters is the outer shell for providing radiative heat reflection back to the inner shell.

  9. Improved apparatus for continuous culture of hydrogen-fixing bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, J. F.; Litchfield, J. H.

    1970-01-01

    Improved apparatus permits the continuous culture of Hydrogenomonas eutropha. System incorporates three essential subsystems - /1/ environmentally isolated culture vessel, /2/ analytical system with appropriate sensors and readout devices, /3/ control system with feedback responses to each analytical measurement.

  10. A strict experimental test of macroscopic realism in a superconducting flux qubit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knee, George C; Kakuyanagi, Kosuke; Yeh, Mao-Chuang; Matsuzaki, Yuichiro; Toida, Hiraku; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Saito, Shiro; Leggett, Anthony J; Munro, William J

    2016-11-04

    Macroscopic realism is the name for a class of modifications to quantum theory that allow macroscopic objects to be described in a measurement-independent manner, while largely preserving a fully quantum mechanical description of the microscopic world. Objective collapse theories are examples which aim to solve the quantum measurement problem through modified dynamical laws. Whether such theories describe nature, however, is not known. Here we describe and implement an experimental protocol capable of constraining theories of this class, that is more noise tolerant and conceptually transparent than the original Leggett-Garg test. We implement the protocol in a superconducting flux qubit, and rule out (by ∼84 s.d.) those theories which would deny coherent superpositions of 170 nA currents over a ∼10 ns timescale. Further, we address the 'clumsiness loophole' by determining classical disturbance with control experiments. Our results constitute strong evidence for the superposition of states of nontrivial macroscopic distinctness.

  11. Macroscopic Quantum Coherence in Antiferromagnetic Molecular Magnets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Hui; LO Rong; ZHU Jia-Lin; XIONG Jia-Jiong

    2001-01-01

    The macroscopic quantum coherence in a biaxial antiferromagnetic molecular magnet in the presence of magnetic field acting parallel to its hard anisotropy axis is studied within the two-sublattice model. On the basis of instanton technique in the spin-coherent-state path-integral representation, both the rigorous Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin exponent and pre-exponential factor for the ground-state tunnel splitting are obtained. We find that the quantum fluctuations around the classical paths can not only induce a new quantum phase previously reported by Chiolero and Loss (Phys. Rev. Lett. 80 (1998) 169), but also have great influence on the intensity of the ground-state tunnel splitting. Those features clearly have no analogue in the ferromagnetic molecular magnets. We suggest that they may be the universal behaviors in all antiferromagnetic molecular magnets. The analytical results are complemented by exact diagonalization calculation.

  12. Micro- and macroscopic simulation of periodic metamaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Schuhmann

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to characterize three-dimensional, left-handed metamaterials (LHM we use electromagnetic field simulations of unit cells. For waves traveling in one of the main directions of the periodic LHM-arrays, the analysis is concentrated on the calculation of global quantities of the unit cells, such as scattering parameters or dispersion diagrams, and a careful interpretation of the results. We show that the concept of equivalent material values – which may be negative in a narrow frequency range – can be validated by large "global" simulations of a wedge structure. We also discuss the limitations of this concept, since in some cases the macroscopic behavior of an LHM cannot be accurately described by equivalent material values.

  13. Microscopic versus macroscopic calculation of dielectric nanospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühn, M.; Kliem, H.

    2008-12-01

    The issue of nanodielectrics has recently become an important field of interest. The term describes nanometric dielectrics, i. e. dielectric materials with structural dimensions typically smaller than 100 run. In contrast to the behaviour of a bulk material the nanodielectrics can behave completely different. With shrinking dimensions the surface or rather boundary effects outweigh the volume effects. This leads to a different observable physics at the nanoscale. A crucial point is the question whether a continuum model for the calculation of dielectric properties is still applicable for these nanomaterials. In order to answer this question we simulated dielectric nanospheres with a microscopic local field method and compared the results to the macroscopic mean field theory.

  14. Partitioning a macroscopic system into independent subsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delle Site, Luigi; Ciccotti, Giovanni; Hartmann, Carsten

    2017-08-01

    We discuss the problem of partitioning a macroscopic system into a collection of independent subsystems. The partitioning of a system into replica-like subsystems is nowadays a subject of major interest in several fields of theoretical and applied physics. The thermodynamic approach currently favoured by practitioners is based on a phenomenological definition of an interface energy associated with the partition, due to a lack of easily computable expressions for a microscopic (i.e. particle-based) interface energy. In this article, we outline a general approach to derive sharp and computable bounds for the interface free energy in terms of microscopic statistical quantities. We discuss potential applications in nanothermodynamics and outline possible future directions.

  15. Casimir effect from macroscopic quantum electrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philbin, T G, E-mail: tgp3@st-andrews.ac.uk [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews, Fife KY16 9SS (United Kingdom)

    2011-06-15

    The canonical quantization of macroscopic electromagnetism was recently presented in (Philbin 2010 New J. Phys. 12 123008). This theory is used here to derive the Casimir effect, by considering the special case of thermal and zero-point fields. The stress-energy-momentum tensor of the canonical theory follows from Noether's theorem, and its electromagnetic part in thermal equilibrium gives the Casimir energy density and stress tensor. The results hold for arbitrary inhomogeneous magnetodielectrics and are obtained from a rigorous quantization of electromagnetism in dispersive, dissipative media. Continuing doubts about the status of the standard Lifshitz theory as a proper quantum treatment of Casimir forces do not apply to the derivation given here. Moreover, the correct expressions for the Casimir energy density and stress tensor inside media follow automatically from the simple restriction to thermal equilibrium, without the need for complicated thermodynamical or mechanical arguments.

  16. Taming macroscopic jamming in transportation networks

    CERN Document Server

    Ezaki, Takahiro; Nishinari, Katsuhiro

    2015-01-01

    In transportation networks, a spontaneous jamming transition is often observed, e.g in urban road networks and airport networks. Because of this instability, flow distribution is significantly imbalanced on a macroscopic level. To mitigate the congestion, we consider a simple control method, in which congested nodes are closed temporarily, and investigate how it influences the overall system. Depending on the timing of the node closure and opening, and congestion level of a network, the system displays three different phases: free-flow phase, controlled phase, and deadlock phase. We show that when the system is in the controlled phase, the average flow is significantly improved, whereas when in the deadlock phase, the flow drops to zero. We study how the control method increases the network flow and obtain their transition boundary analytically.

  17. Black Holes and Quantumness on Macroscopic Scales

    CERN Document Server

    Flassig, D; Wintergerst, N

    2012-01-01

    It has recently been suggested that black holes may be described as condensates of weakly interacting gravitons at a critical point, exhibiting strong quantum effects. In this paper, we study a model system of attractive bosons in one spatial dimension which is known to undergo a quantum phase transition. We demonstrate explicitly that indeed quantum effects are important at the critical point, even if the number of particles is macroscopic. Most prominently, we evaluate the entropy of entanglement between different momentum modes and observe it to become maximal at the critical point. Furthermore, we explicitly see that the leading entanglement is between long wavelength modes and is hence a feature independent of ultraviolet physics. If applicable to black holes, our findings substantiate the conjectured breakdown of semiclassical physics even for large black holes. This can resolve long standing mysteries, such as the information paradox and the no-hair theorem.

  18. Robust macroscopic entanglement without complex encodings

    CERN Document Server

    Chaves, Rafael; Acín, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    One of the main challenges for the experimental manipulation and storage of macroscopic entanglement is its fragility under noise. We present a simple recipe for the systematic enhancement of the resistance of multipartite entanglement against any local noise with a privileged direction in the Bloch sphere. For the case of exact local dephasing along any given basis, and for all noise strengths, our prescription grants full robustness: even states whose entanglement decays exponentially with the number of parts are mapped to states whose entanglement is constant. In contrast to previous techniques resorting to complex logical-qubit encodings, such enhancement is attained simply by performing local unitary rotations before the noise acts. The scheme is therefore highly experimentally-friendly, as it brings no overhead of extra physical qubits to encode logical ones. In addition, we show that, apart from entanglement, the resilience of the states as resources for useful practical tasks such as metrology and non...

  19. Macroscopic Quantum Coherence in Antiferromagnetic Molecular Magnets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUHui; LURong; 等

    2001-01-01

    The macroscopic quantum coherence in a biaxial antiferromagnetic molecular magnet in the presence of magnetic field acting parallel to its hard anisotropy axis is studied within the two-sublattice model.On the basis of instanton technique in the spin-coherent-state path-integral representation,both the rigorous Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin exponent and pre-exponential factor for the ground-state tunnel splitting are obtained.We find that the quantum fluctuations around the classical paths can not only induce a new quantum phase previously reported by Chiolero and Loss (Phys.Rev.Lett.80(1998)169),but also have great influence on the intensity of the ground-state tunnel splitting.Those features clearly have no analogue in the ferromagnetic molecular magnets.We suggest that they may be the universal behaviors in all antiferromagnetic molecular magnets.The analytical results are complemented by exact diagonalization calculation.

  20. Evaluation of the Measurement Uncertainty for the Determination of Nitrogen Content in the Fertilizer by Kjeldahl Apparatus%定氮仪测定化肥中总氮含量不确定度评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈国雄; 林兴发; 魏苗; 黎薇薇

    2011-01-01

    对使用凯氏定氮仪测定肥料中总氮含量方法进行不确定度评定,分析该测定方法中不确定度的来源,通过数字模型对各不确定度分量进行评定,并给出了结果的报告形式。%The uncertainty of measurement for the determination of nitrogen content in the fertilizer by Kjeldahl apparatus was evaluated in the paper.The determination of the sources of uncertainty for the method was analyzed.Through the digital model of the uncertainty components were assessed,and gives the results of the report form.

  1. Determining the Macroscopic Properties of Relativistic Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardee, P. E.

    2004-08-01

    The resolved relativistic jets contain structures whose observed proper motions are typically assumed to indicate the jet flow speed. In addition to structures moving with the flow, various normal mode structures such as pinching or helical and elliptical twisting can be produced by ejection events or twisting perturbations to the jet flow. The normal mode structures associated with relativistic jets, as revealed by numerical simulation, theoretical calculation, and suggested by observation, move more slowly than the jet speed. The pattern speed is related to the jet speed by the sound speed in the jet and in the surrounding medium. In the event that normal mode structures are observed, and where proper motions of pattern and flow speed are available or can be estimated, it is possible to determine the sound speed in the jet and surrounding medium. Where spatial development of normal mode structures is observed, it is possible to make inferences as to the heating rate/macroscopic viscosity of the jet fluid. Ultimately it may prove possible to separate the microscopic energization of the synchrotron radiating particles from the macroscopic heating of the jet fluid. Here I present the relevant properties of useful normal mode structures and illustrate the use of this technique. Various aspects of the work presented here have involved collaboration with I. Agudo (Max-Planck, Bonn), M.A. Aloy (Max-Planck, Garching), J. Eilek (NM Tech), J.L. Gómez (U. Valencia), P. Hughes (U. Michigan), A. Lobanov (Max-Planck, Bonn), J.M. Martí (U. Valencia), & C. Walker (NRAO).

  2. An extraordinary tabletop speed of light apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegna, Guido

    2017-09-01

    A compact, low-cost, pre-aligned apparatus of the modulation type is described. The apparatus allows accurate determination of the speed of light in free propagation with an accuracy on the order of one part in 104. Due to the 433.92 MHz radio frequency (rf) modulation of its laser diode, determination of the speed of light is possible within a sub-meter measuring base and in small volumes (some cm3) of transparent solids or liquids. No oscilloscope is necessary, while the required function generators, power supplies, and optical components are incorporated into the design of the apparatus and its receiver can slide along the optical bench while maintaining alignment with the laser beam. Measurement of the velocity factor of coaxial cables is also easily performed. The apparatus detects the phase difference between the rf modulation of the laser diode by further modulating the rf signal with an audio frequency signal; the phase difference between these signals is then observed as the loudness of the audio signal. In this way, the positions at which the minima of the audio signal are found determine where the rf signals are completely out of phase. This phase detection method yields a much increased sensitivity with respect to the display of coincidence of two signals of questionable arrival time and somewhat distorted shape on an oscilloscope. The displaying technique is also particularly suitable for large audiences as well as in unattended exhibits in museums and science centers. In addition, the apparatus can be set up in less than one minute.

  3. The development of a chemical kinetic measurement apparatus and the determination of the reaction rate constants for lithium-lead/steam interaction. Final report 9-21-90--3-31-95

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biney, P.O.

    1995-03-01

    The objective of this research to experimentally determine the hydrogen generation rate during the beginning and subsequent stages of liquid metal (Li{sub 17}Pb{sub 83}) and water reaction. The experimental set-up has been built. It includes a metal sample preparation apparatus, a reaction system, a measurement system and a PC based data acquisition and control system. The most important feature of the reaction system is a pneumatic actuated quick opening and closing high temperature, all stainless steel valve used the system for reaction time control. The PC system provides remote process sequencing, acquisition and control of all the systems except the metal preparation apparatus. Due to the reactivity of the lithium, all the metal sampling, preparation and loading procedures are executed in a glove box under argon protection. The metal temperature was varied between 350{degrees}C-650{degrees}C and water temperature fixed at 60{degrees}C during the experiments. A set of experimental procedures and two analyses methods: (1) thermodynamics method and (2) heat transfer method are discussed. All the measurements and data collections are executed under the PC system control. A data analysis program is used to calculate both the partial pressure of hydrogen and the hydrogen generation rate. The experiment results indicate that the amount of hydrogen generated is relate to the initial liquid metal temperature when the reaction surface is fixed. The mass of hydrogen generated as a function of initial liquid metal temperature and time of reaction is presented, The hydrogen generation over a time period of 240 seconds and the calculated errors are summarized in Table 1.

  4. Neutron detection apparatus and method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derzon, Mark S.; Borek, III, Theodore T.

    2017-08-15

    An apparatus for neutron detection is provided. The apparatus comprises a sensor medium in electrical contact with an electrode arrangement conformed to collect radiation-generated charge from the sensor medium. The sensor medium comprises a borazine and/or a borazine-based polymer.

  5. Heat Treating Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Saro, Robert; Bateman, Willis

    2002-09-10

    Apparatus for heat treating a heat treatable material including a housing having an upper opening for receiving a heat treatable material at a first temperature, a lower opening, and a chamber therebetween for heating the heat treatable material to a second temperature higher than the first temperature as the heat treatable material moves through the chamber from the upper to the lower opening. A gas supply assembly is operatively engaged to the housing at the lower opening, and includes a source of gas, a gas delivery assembly for delivering the gas through a plurality of pathways into the housing in countercurrent flow to movement of the heat treatable material, whereby the heat treatable material passes through the lower opening at the second temperature, and a control assembly for controlling conditions within the chamber to enable the heat treatable material to reach the second temperature and pass through the lower opening at the second temperature as a heated material.

  6. FLUID CONTACTOR APPARATUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, R.; Streeton, R.J.W.

    1956-04-17

    The fluid contactor apparatus comprises a cylindrical column mounted co- axially and adapted to rotate within a cylindrical vessel, for the purpose of extracting a solute from am aqueous solution by means of an organic solvent. The column is particularly designed to control the vortex pattern so as to reduce the height of the vortices while, at the same time, the width of the annular radius in the radial direction between the vessel and column is less than half the radius of the column. A plurality of thin annular fins are spaced apart along the rotor approximately twice the radial dimension of the column such that two contrarotating substantially circular vortices are contained within each pair of fins as the column is rotated.

  7. Spine immobilization apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambson, K. H.; Vykukal, H. C. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    The apparatus makes use of a normally flat, flexible bladder filled with beads or micro-balloons that form a rigid mass when the pressure within the bladder is decreased below ambient through the use of a suction pump so that the bladder can be conformed to the torso of the victim and provide the desired restraint. The bladder is strapped to the victim prior to being rigidified by an arrangement of straps which avoid the stomach area. The bladder is adapted to be secured to a rigid support, i.e., a rescue chair, so as to enable removal of a victim after the bladder has been made rigid. A double sealing connector is used to connect the bladder to the suction pump and a control valve is employed to vary the pressure within the bladder so as to soften and harden the bladder as desired.

  8. Archimedes force on Casimir apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchenko, V.; Shevrin, E.

    2016-11-01

    The talk addresses a problem of Casimir apparatus in weak gravitational field, surrounded by a dense medium. The falling of the apparatus has to be governed by the equivalence principle, taking into account proper contributions to the weight of the apparatus from its material part and from distorted quantum fields. We discuss general ex pression for the corresponding force in terms of the effective action. By way of example we compute explicit expression for Archimedes force, acting on the Casimir apparatus of finite size, immersed into thermal bath of free scalar field. It is shown that besides universal term, proportional to the volume of the apparatus, there are non-universal quantum corrections, depending on the boundary conditions.

  9. Archimedes force on Casimir apparatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shevchenko V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The talk addresses a problem of Casimir apparatus in weak gravitational field, surrounded by a dense medium. The falling of the apparatus has to be governed by the equivalence principle, taking into account proper contributions to the weight of the apparatus from its material part and from distorted quantum fields. We discuss general ex pression for the corresponding force in terms of the effective action. By way of example we compute explicit expression for Archimedes force, acting on the Casimir apparatus of finite size, immersed into thermal bath of free scalar field. It is shown that besides universal term, proportional to the volume of the apparatus, there are non-universal quantum corrections, depending on the boundary conditions.

  10. Specifications for gas treatment apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teraoka, Yuden; Yoshigoe, Akitaka [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Kansai Research Establishment, Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Mikazuki, Hyogo (Japan)

    2001-03-01

    A surface reaction analysis apparatus was installed as an experimental end-station for the study of surface chemistry at the JAERI soft x-ray beamline in the SPring-8. The surface reaction analysis apparatus is devoted to the study of reaction mechanisms on solid surfaces with incident gas molecules. It is necessary to supply reagent gases to the apparatus. Chlorine and metal organic molecules will be used in the apparatus as well as oxygen molecules. Since the chlorine is corrosive and virulent, the metal organic molecules are flammable, the satiety treatments and the removal of virulence from the exhaust gas are needed. This gas supply and exhaust system is mainly composed of a cylinder cabinet, a gas mixer, a virulence removal cell and an urgent virulence removal apparatus. The former three devices are considered to take a countermeasure against virulent gas leak. The detail specifications concerning the gas supply and exhaust system are described in this report. (author)

  11. Microelectromechanical acceleration-sensing apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Robb M. (Albuquerque, NM); Shul, Randy J. (Albuquerque, NM); Polosky, Marc A. (Albuquerque, NM); Hoke, Darren A. (Albuquerque, NM); Vernon, George E. (Rio Rancho, NM)

    2006-12-12

    An acceleration-sensing apparatus is disclosed which includes a moveable shuttle (i.e. a suspended mass) and a latch for capturing and holding the shuttle when an acceleration event is sensed above a predetermined threshold level. The acceleration-sensing apparatus provides a switch closure upon sensing the acceleration event and remains latched in place thereafter. Examples of the acceleration-sensing apparatus are provided which are responsive to an acceleration component in a single direction (i.e. a single-sided device) or to two oppositely-directed acceleration components (i.e. a dual-sided device). A two-stage acceleration-sensing apparatus is also disclosed which can sense two acceleration events separated in time. The acceleration-sensing apparatus of the present invention has applications, for example, in an automotive airbag deployment system.

  12. Room Temperature Experiments with a Macroscopic Sapphire Mechanical Oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourhill, Jeremy; Ivanov, Eugene; Tobar, Micahel

    2015-03-01

    We present initial results from a number of experiments conducted on a 0.53 kg sapphire ``dumbbell'' crystal. Mechanical motion of the crystal structure alters the dimensions of the crystal, and the induced strain changes the permittivity. These two effects frequency modulate resonant microwave whispering gallery modes, simultaneously excited within the crystal. A novel microwave readout system is described allowing extremely low noise measurements of this frequency modulation with a phase noise floor of -160 dBc/Hz at 100 kHz, near our modes of interest. Fine-tuning of the crystal's suspension have allowed for the optimisation of mechanical Q-factors in preparation for cryogenic experiments, with a value of 8 x 107 achieved so far. Finally, results are presented that demonstrate the excitation of mechanical modes via radiation pressure force. These are all important steps towards the overall goal of the experiment; to cool a macroscopic device to the quantum ground state.

  13. Experiments testing macroscopic quantum superpositions must be slow

    CERN Document Server

    Mari, Andrea; Giovannetti, Vittorio

    2015-01-01

    We consider a thought experiment where the preparation of a macroscopically massive or charged particle in a quantum superposition and the associated dynamics of a distant test particle apparently allow for superluminal communication. We give a solution to the paradox which is based on the following fundamental principle: any local experiment, discriminating a coherent superposition from an incoherent statistical mixture, necessarily requires a minimum time proportional to the mass (or charge) of the system. For a charged particle, we consider two examples of such experiments, and show that they are both consistent with the previous limitation. In the first, the measurement requires to accelerate the charge, that can entangle with the emitted photons. In the second, the limitation can be ascribed to the quantum vacuum fluctuations of the electromagnetic field. On the other hand, when applied to massive particles our result provides an indirect evidence for the existence of gravitational vacuum fluctuations an...

  14. Macroscopic heat transport equations and heat waves in nonequilibrium states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yangyu; Jou, David; Wang, Moran

    2017-03-01

    Heat transport may behave as wave propagation when the time scale of processes decreases to be comparable to or smaller than the relaxation time of heat carriers. In this work, a generalized heat transport equation including nonlinear, nonlocal and relaxation terms is proposed, which sums up the Cattaneo-Vernotte, dual-phase-lag and phonon hydrodynamic models as special cases. In the frame of this equation, the heat wave propagations are investigated systematically in nonequilibrium steady states, which were usually studied around equilibrium states. The phase (or front) speed of heat waves is obtained through a perturbation solution to the heat differential equation, and found to be intimately related to the nonlinear and nonlocal terms. Thus, potential heat wave experiments in nonequilibrium states are devised to measure the coefficients in the generalized equation, which may throw light on understanding the physical mechanisms and macroscopic modeling of nanoscale heat transport.

  15. Elastic Enhancement Factor: from Mesoscopic Systems to Macroscopic Analogous Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Sokolov, Valentin V

    2014-01-01

    Excess of probabilities of the elastic processes over the inelastic ones is a common feature of the resonance phenomena, described in the framework of the random matrix theory. This phenomenon is quantitatively characterized by the elastic enhancement factor $F^{(\\beta)}$ that is a typical ratio of elastic and inelastic cross sections. Being measured experimentally, this quantity can supply us with information on the character of dynamics of the intermediate complicated open system. We discuss properties of the enhancement factor in a wide scope from mesoscopoic systems to macroscopic analogous devices and demonstrate essential qualitative distinction between the elastic enhancement factor's peculiarities in these two cases. Complete analytical solution is found for the case of systems without time-reversal symmetry and only a few open equivalent scattering channels.

  16. Method and apparatus to assess compartment syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Toshiaki (Inventor); Hargens, Alan R. (Inventor); Yost, William T. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A method and apparatus for measuring pressure buildup in a body compartment that encases muscular tissue. The method includes assessing the body compartment configuration and identifying the effect of pulsatile components on at least one compartment dimension. This process is used in preventing tissue necrosis, and in decisions of whether to perform surgery on the body compartment for prevention of Compartment Syndrome. An apparatus is used for measuring excess pressure in the body compartment having components for imparting ultrasonic waves such as a transducer, placing the transducer to impart the ultrasonic waves, capturing the reflected imparted ultrasonic waves, and converting them to electrical signals, a pulsed phase-locked loop device for assessing a body compartment configuration and producing an output signal, and means for mathematically manipulating the output signal to thereby categorize pressure build-up in the body compartment from the mathematical manipulations.

  17. Correlations between Nanoindentation Hardness and Macroscopic Mechanical Properties in DP980 Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Mark D.; Choi, Kyoo Sil; Sun, Xin; Matlock, David K.; Packard, Corrine; Xu, Le; Barlat, Frederic

    2014-03-01

    Multiphase advanced high strength steels (AHSS) are being increasingly used in the automotive industry due to their low cost, good availability and excellent combination of strength and ductility. There is a keen interest from the automotive and steel industry for more fundamental understandings on the key microstructure features influencing the macroscopic properties, i.e., tensile properties, hole-expansion ratio and localized formability of AHSS. In this study, the micro- and macro-level properties for eight commercial DP980 steels are first characterized and quantified with various experimental methods. Correlations between macroscopic-level properties and relationships between various micro- and macro- properties for these steels are then established based on the experimental measurements. It is found that, despite their differences in their chemistry, processing parameters and sheet thickness, the eight DP980 steels do have common microstructural level properties governing their specific macroscopic properties in terms of strength, elongation and hole expansion performance.

  18. A stepwise planned approach to the solution of Hilbert’s sixth problem. III: Measurements and von Neumann projection/collapse rule

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tulsi Dass

    2011-12-01

    Supmech, the universal mechanics developed in the previous two papers (Dass, arXiv: 0909.4606[math-ph]; 1002:2061[math-ph]), accommodates both quantum and classical mechanics as subdisciplines (a brief outline is included for completeness); this feature facilitates, in a supmechbased treatment of quantum measurements, an unambiguous treatment of the apparatus as a quantum system approximated well by a classical one. Taking explicitly into consideration the fact that observations on the apparatus are made when it has ‘settled down after the measurement interaction’ and are restricted to macroscopically distinguishable pointer readings, the unwanted superpositions of (system + apparatus) states are shown to be suppressed; this provides a genuinely physics-based justification for the (traditionally postulated) von Neumann projection/collapse rule. The decoherence mechanism brought into play by the stated observational constraints is free from the objections against the traditional decoherence program.

  19. Macroscopic and microscopic spectral properties of brain networks during local and global synchronization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maksimenko, V.A.; Lüttjohann, A.; Makarov, V.V.; Goremyko, M.V.; Koronovskii, A.A.; Nedaivozov, V.; Runnova, A.E.; Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van; Hramov, A.E.; Boccaletti, S.

    2017-01-01

    We introduce a practical and computationally not demanding technique for inferring interactions at various microscopic levels between the units of a network from the measurements and the processing of macroscopic signals. Starting from a network model of Kuramoto phase oscillators which evolve

  20. Temperature dependent nonlinear Hall effect in macroscopic Si-MOS antidot array

    OpenAIRE

    Kuntsevich, A. Yu.; Shupltetsov, A. V.; Nunuparov, M. S.

    2015-01-01

    By measuring magnetoresistance and Hall effect in classically moderate perpendicular magnetic field in Si-MOSFET-type macroscopic antidot array we found a novel effect: nonlinear with field, temperature- and density-dependent Hall resistivity. We discuss qualitative explanation of the phenomenon and suggest that it might originate from strong temperature dependence of the resistivity and mobility in the shells of the antidots.

  1. Automated Desalting Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Maegan K.; Liu, De-Ling; Kanik, Isik; Beegle, Luther

    2010-01-01

    Because salt and metals can mask the signature of a variety of organic molecules (like amino acids) in any given sample, an automated system to purify complex field samples has been created for the analytical techniques of electrospray ionization/ mass spectroscopy (ESI/MS), capillary electrophoresis (CE), and biological assays where unique identification requires at least some processing of complex samples. This development allows for automated sample preparation in the laboratory and analysis of complex samples in the field with multiple types of analytical instruments. Rather than using tedious, exacting protocols for desalting samples by hand, this innovation, called the Automated Sample Processing System (ASPS), takes analytes that have been extracted through high-temperature solvent extraction and introduces them into the desalting column. After 20 minutes, the eluent is produced. This clear liquid can then be directly analyzed by the techniques listed above. The current apparatus including the computer and power supplies is sturdy, has an approximate mass of 10 kg, and a volume of about 20 20 20 cm, and is undergoing further miniaturization. This system currently targets amino acids. For these molecules, a slurry of 1 g cation exchange resin in deionized water is packed into a column of the apparatus. Initial generation of the resin is done by flowing sequentially 2.3 bed volumes of 2N NaOH and 2N HCl (1 mL each) to rinse the resin, followed by .5 mL of deionized water. This makes the pH of the resin near neutral, and eliminates cross sample contamination. Afterward, 2.3 mL of extracted sample is then loaded into the column onto the top of the resin bed. Because the column is packed tightly, the sample can be applied without disturbing the resin bed. This is a vital step needed to ensure that the analytes adhere to the resin. After the sample is drained, oxalic acid (1 mL, pH 1.6-1.8, adjusted with NH4OH) is pumped into the column. Oxalic acid works as a

  2. THE APPARATUS FOR ALIGNMENT OF THE PHOTOMETRIC LAMP FILAMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Dlugunovich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available During photometric measurements involving the use of photometric lamps it is necessary that the filament of lamp takes a strictly predetermined position with respect to the photodetector and the optical axis of the photometric setup. The errors in positioning of alignment filament with respect to the optical axis of the measuring system lead to increase the uncertainty of measurement of the photometric characteristics of the light sources. A typical method for alignment of filament of photometric lamps is based on the use a diopter tubes (telescopes. Using this method, the mounting of filament to the required position is carried out by successive approximations, which requires special concentration and a lot of time. The aim of this work is to develop an apparatus for alignment which allows simultaneous alignment of the filament of lamps in two mutually perpendicular planes. The method and apparatus for alignment of the photometric lamp filament during measurements of the photometric characteristics of light sources based on two digital video cameras is described in this paper. The apparatus allows to simultaneously displaying the image of lamps filament on the computer screen in two mutually perpendicular planes. The apparatus eliminates a large number of functional units requiring elementwise alignment and reduces the time required to carry out the alignment. The apparatus also provides the imaging of lamps filament with opaque coated on the bulb. The apparatus is used at the National standard of light intensity and illuminance units of the Republic of Belarus. 

  3. The Proell Effect: A Macroscopic Maxwell's Demon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauen, Kenneth M.

    2011-12-01

    Maxwell's Demon is a legitimate challenge to the Second Law of Thermodynamics when the "demon" is executed via the Proell effect. Thermal energy transfer according to the Kinetic Theory of Heat and Statistical Mechanics that takes place over distances greater than the mean free path of a gas circumvents the microscopic randomness that leads to macroscopic irreversibility. No information is required to sort the particles as no sorting occurs; the entire volume of gas undergoes the same transition. The Proell effect achieves quasi-spontaneous thermal separation without sorting by the perturbation of a heterogeneous constant volume system with displacement and regeneration. The classical analysis of the constant volume process, such as found in the Stirling Cycle, is incomplete and therefore incorrect. There are extra energy flows that classical thermo does not recognize. When a working fluid is displaced across a regenerator with a temperature gradient in a constant volume system, complimentary compression and expansion work takes place that transfers energy between the regenerator and the bulk gas volumes of the hot and cold sides of the constant volume system. Heat capacity at constant pressure applies instead of heat capacity at constant volume. The resultant increase in calculated, recyclable energy allows the Carnot Limit to be exceeded in certain cycles. Super-Carnot heat engines and heat pumps have been designed and a US patent has been awarded.

  4. Cloud Macroscopic Organization: Order Emerging from Randomness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Tianle

    2011-01-01

    Clouds play a central role in many aspects of the climate system and their forms and shapes are remarkably diverse. Appropriate representation of clouds in climate models is a major challenge because cloud processes span at least eight orders of magnitude in spatial scales. Here we show that there exists order in cloud size distribution of low-level clouds, and that it follows a power-law distribution with exponent gamma close to 2. gamma is insensitive to yearly variations in environmental conditions, but has regional variations and land-ocean contrasts. More importantly, we demonstrate this self-organizing behavior of clouds emerges naturally from a complex network model with simple, physical organizing principles: random clumping and merging. We also demonstrate symmetry between clear and cloudy skies in terms of macroscopic organization because of similar fundamental underlying organizing principles. The order in the apparently complex cloud-clear field thus has its root in random local interactions. Studying cloud organization with complex network models is an attractive new approach that has wide applications in climate science. We also propose a concept of cloud statistic mechanics approach. This approach is fully complementary to deterministic models, and the two approaches provide a powerful framework to meet the challenge of representing clouds in our climate models when working in tandem.

  5. Cloud macroscopic organization: order emerging from randomness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Yuan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Clouds play a central role in many aspects of the climate system and their forms and shapes are remarkably diverse. Appropriate representation of clouds in climate models is a major challenge because cloud processes span at least eight orders of magnitude in spatial scales. Here we show that there exists order in cloud size distribution of low-level clouds and it follows a power-law distribution with exponent γ close to 2. γ is insensitive to yearly variations in environmental conditions, but has regional variations and land-ocean contrasts. More importantly, we demonstrate this self-organizing behavior of clouds emerges naturally from a complex network model with simple, physical organizing principles: random clumping and merging. We also show clear-cloudy sky symmetry in terms of macroscopic organization because of similar fundamental underlying organizing principles. The order in the apparently complex cloud-clear field thus has its root in random simple interactions. Studying cloud organization with complex network models is an attractive new approach that has wide applications in climate science. This approach is fully complementary to deterministic models and the two approaches provide a powerful framework to meet the challenge of representing clouds in our climate models when working in tandem.

  6. An Experimental Proposal for Demonstration of Macroscopic Quantum Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jensen R.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available An experiment is proposed, whose purpose is to determine whether quantum indeterminism can be observed on a truly macroscopic scale. The experiment involves using a double-slit plate or interferometer and a macroscopic mechanical switch. The objective is to determine whether or not the switch can take on an indeterminate state.

  7. An Experimental Proposal for Demonstration of Macroscopic Quantum Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jensen R.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available An experiment is proposed, whose purpose is to determine whether quantum indeter- minism can be observed on a truly macroscopic scale. The experiment involves using a double-slit plate or interferometer and a macroscopic mechanical switch. The objective is to determine whether or not the switch can take on an indeterminate state.

  8. Macroscopic and microscopic observations of needle insertion into gels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, van Youri R.J.; Jahya, Alex; Misra, Sarthak

    2012-01-01

    Needle insertion into soft tissue is one of the most common medical interventions. This study provides macroscopic and microscopic observations of needle–gel interactions. A gelatin mixture is used as a soft-tissue simulant. For the macroscopic studies, system parameters, such as insertion velocity,

  9. Development of Tunneling Spectroscopy Apparatus for Kelvin and Sub-Kelvin Measurements of Superconducting Energy Gaps by Multi-disciplinary students at a Liberal Arts University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckhardt, Matt

    2014-03-01

    Tunneling spectroscopy is an important technique used to measure the superconducting energy gap, a feature that is at the heart of the nature of superconductivity in various materials. In this presentation, we report the progress and results in developing high-resolution tunneling spectroscopy experimental platforms in a helium three cryostat, a 3 Kelvin cryocooler and a helium dip-tester. The experimental team working in a liberal arts university is a multi-disciplinary group consisting of one physics major, chemisty majors and a biology major. Students including non-physics majors learned and implemented current-voltage measurement techniques, vacuum system engineering, built electronic boxes and amplifier circuits from scratch, built custom multi-conductor cables for thermometry and current-voltage measurements, and performed conductance measurements. We report preliminary results. Acknowledgments: We acknowledge support from National Science Foundation Grant # DMR-1206561.

  10. Apparatus for photon excited catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffren, M. M. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    An apparatus is described for increasing the yield of photonically excited gas phase reactions by extracting excess energy from unstable, excited species by contacting the species with the surface of a finely divided solid.

  11. Radioactive waste material melter apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, D.F.; Ross, W.A.

    1990-04-24

    An apparatus for preparing metallic radioactive waste material for storage is disclosed. The radioactive waste material is placed in a radiation shielded enclosure. The waste material is then melted with a plasma torch and cast into a plurality of successive horizontal layers in a mold to form a radioactive ingot in the shape of a spent nuclear fuel rod storage canister. The apparatus comprises a radiation shielded enclosure having an opening adapted for receiving a conventional transfer cask within which radioactive waste material is transferred to the apparatus. A plasma torch is mounted within the enclosure. A mold is also received within the enclosure for receiving the melted waste material and cooling it to form an ingot. The enclosure is preferably constructed in at least two parts to enable easy transport of the apparatus from one nuclear site to another. 8 figs.

  12. Cherry-Slush-Candling Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, James B.; Weiss, James R.; Hoover, Gordon

    1996-01-01

    Proposed infrared-scanning apparatus for use in bakeries making cherry pies detect cherry pits remaining in cherry slush after pitting process. Pits detected via their relative opacity to infrared radiation.

  13. Continuous steel production and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peaslee, Kent D.; Peter, Jorg J.; Robertson, David G. C.; Thomas, Brian G.; Zhang, Lifeng

    2009-11-17

    A process for continuous refining of steel via multiple distinct reaction vessels for melting, oxidation, reduction, and refining for delivery of steel continuously to, for example, a tundish of a continuous caster system, and associated apparatus.

  14. Logging-while-coring method and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, David S.; Myers, Gregory J.

    2007-11-13

    A method and apparatus for downhole coring while receiving logging-while-drilling tool data. The apparatus includes core collar and a retrievable core barrel. The retrievable core barrel receives core from a borehole which is sent to the surface for analysis via wireline and latching tool The core collar includes logging-while-drilling tools for the simultaneous measurement of formation properties during the core excavation process. Examples of logging-while-drilling tools include nuclear sensors, resistivity sensors, gamma ray sensors, and bit resistivity sensors. The disclosed method allows for precise core-log depth calibration and core orientation within a single borehole, and without at pipe trip, providing both time saving and unique scientific advantages.

  15. Method and apparatus for electrospark deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, Jeffrey A.; Johnson, Roger N.; Park, Walter R.; Munley, John T.

    2004-12-28

    A method and apparatus for controlling electrospark deposition (ESD) comprises using electrical variable waveforms from the ESD process as a feedback parameter. The method comprises measuring a plurality of peak amplitudes from a series of electrical energy pulses delivered to an electrode tip. The maximum peak value from among the plurality of peak amplitudes correlates to the contact force between the electrode tip and a workpiece. The method further comprises comparing the maximum peak value to a set point to determine an offset and optimizing the contact force according to the value of the offset. The apparatus comprises an electrode tip connected to an electrical energy wave generator and an electrical signal sensor, which connects to a high-speed data acquisition card. An actuator provides relative motion between the electrode tip and a workpiece by receiving a feedback drive signal from a processor that is operably connected to the actuator and the high-speed data acquisition card.

  16. Comparison of ankle-brachial index measured by an automated oscillometric apparatus with that by standard Doppler technique in vascular patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korno, M.; Eldrup, N.; Sillesen, H.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the determination of ankle-brachial indices (ABIs) using a simple automated ankle pressure measurement device in comparison with the Doppler technique. DESIGN: ABI was measured in 61 patients (122 legs) admitted to the department of vascular surgery, Rigshospitalet. ABI...... was calculated twice using both the methods on both legs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We tested the automated oscillometric blood pressure device, CASMED 740, for measuring ankle and arm blood pressure and compared it with the current gold standard, the hand-held Doppler technique, by the Bland-Altman analysis....... RESULTS: Using the Doppler-derived ABI as the gold standard, the sensitivity and specificity of the oscillometric method for determining an ABI Udgivelsesdato: 2009/11...

  17. Heat transfer measurements on smooth and finned tubes in a standard apparatus for boiling experiments. Waermeuebergangsmessungen an Glatt- und Rippenrohren in einer Standardapparatur fuer Siedeversuche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fath, W.

    1986-07-28

    The use of Rankine cycles with refrigerants or other organic working fluids for waste heat recovery has been a matter of discussion lately. The evaporating pressure is higher in these systems than in conventional application of finned tubes, so the problems of heat transfer in nucleate boiling on finned tubes are investigated here. Measurements were made on smooth and finned tubes and on surface-treated smooth and finned tubes. Refrigerant R-22 was used for the experiments; the measurements cover a wide range of pressures. (HAG).

  18. Experimental measurement of vapor pressures and (vapor + liquid) equilibrium for {l_brace}1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (R134a) + propane (R290){r_brace} by a recirculation apparatus with view windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong Xueqiang [Key Laboratory of Cryogenics, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2711, Beijing 100190 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Gong Maoqiong, E-mail: gongmq@mail.ipc.ac.c [Key Laboratory of Cryogenics, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2711, Beijing 100190 (China); Liu Junsheng [Key Laboratory of Cryogenics, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2711, Beijing 100190 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Wu Jianfeng, E-mail: jfwu@mail.ipc.ac.c [Key Laboratory of Cryogenics, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2711, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2011-03-15

    The saturated vapor pressures of 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (R134a) and propane (R290), and the (vapor + liquid) equilibrium (VLE) data at (255.000, 265.000, 275.000, and 285.000) K for the (R134a + R290) system were measured by a recirculation apparatus with view windows. The uncertainty of the temperatures, pressures, and compositions are less than {+-}5 mK, {+-}0.0005 MPa, and {+-}0.005, respectively. The saturated vapor pressures data were correlated by a Wagner type equation and compared with the reference data. The binary VLE data were correlated with the Peng-Robinson equation of state (PR EoS) incorporating the Huron-Vidal (HV) mixing rule utilizing the nonrandom two-liquid (NRTL) activity coefficient model. For mixtures, the maximum average absolute relative deviation of pressure is 0.15%, while the maximum average absolute deviation of vapor phase mole fraction is 0.0045. Azeotropic behavior can be found for the (R134a + R290) system at measured temperatures.

  19. On consistent micromechanical estimation of macroscopic elastic energy, coherence energy and phase transformation strains for SMA materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziółkowski, Andrzej

    2016-09-01

    An apparatus of micromechanics is used to isolate the key ingredients entering macroscopic Gibbs free energy function of a shape memory alloy (SMA) material. A new self-equilibrated eigenstrains influence moduli (SEIM) method is developed for consistent estimation of effective (macroscopic) thermostatic properties of solid materials, which in microscale can be regarded as amalgams of n-phase linear thermoelastic component materials with eigenstrains. The SEIM satisfy the self-consistency conditions, following from elastic reciprocity (Betti) theorem. The method allowed expressing macroscopic coherency energy and elastic complementary energy terms present in the general form of macroscopic Gibbs free energy of SMA materials in the form of semilinear and semiquadratic functions of the phase composition. Consistent SEIM estimates of elastic complementary energy, coherency energy and phase transformation strains corresponding to classical Reuss and Voigt conjectures are explicitly specified. The Voigt explicit relations served as inspiration for working out an original engineering practice-oriented semiexperimental SEIM estimates. They are especially conveniently applicable for an isotropic aggregate (composite) composed of a mixture of n isotropic phases. Using experimental data for NiTi alloy and adopting conjecture that it can be treated as an isotropic aggregate of two isotropic phases, it is shown that the NiTi coherency energy and macroscopic phase strain are practically not influenced by the difference in values of austenite and martensite elastic constants. It is shown that existence of nonzero fluctuating part of phase microeigenstrains field is responsible for building up of so-called stored energy of coherency, which is accumulated in pure martensitic phase after full completion of phase transition. Experimental data for NiTi alloy show that the stored coherency energy cannot be neglected as it considerably influences the characteristic phase transition

  20. On consistent micromechanical estimation of macroscopic elastic energy, coherence energy and phase transformation strains for SMA materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziółkowski, Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    An apparatus of micromechanics is used to isolate the key ingredients entering macroscopic Gibbs free energy function of a shape memory alloy (SMA) material. A new self-equilibrated eigenstrains influence moduli (SEIM) method is developed for consistent estimation of effective (macroscopic) thermostatic properties of solid materials, which in microscale can be regarded as amalgams of n-phase linear thermoelastic component materials with eigenstrains. The SEIM satisfy the self-consistency conditions, following from elastic reciprocity (Betti) theorem. The method allowed expressing macroscopic coherency energy and elastic complementary energy terms present in the general form of macroscopic Gibbs free energy of SMA materials in the form of semilinear and semiquadratic functions of the phase composition. Consistent SEIM estimates of elastic complementary energy, coherency energy and phase transformation strains corresponding to classical Reuss and Voigt conjectures are explicitly specified. The Voigt explicit relations served as inspiration for working out an original engineering practice-oriented semiexperimental SEIM estimates. They are especially conveniently applicable for an isotropic aggregate (composite) composed of a mixture of n isotropic phases. Using experimental data for NiTi alloy and adopting conjecture that it can be treated as an isotropic aggregate of two isotropic phases, it is shown that the NiTi coherency energy and macroscopic phase strain are practically not influenced by the difference in values of austenite and martensite elastic constants. It is shown that existence of nonzero fluctuating part of phase microeigenstrains field is responsible for building up of so-called stored energy of coherency, which is accumulated in pure martensitic phase after full completion of phase transition. Experimental data for NiTi alloy show that the stored coherency energy cannot be neglected as it considerably influences the characteristic phase transition

  1. Apparatus Development In Maros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Aras Solong

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aims to identify and describe 1 Development of Administrative through education and training training promotion transfer and rotation and the application of demotion system non-title under Law No. 43 of 1999 on the development of career civil servants based merit system and work performance and Government Regulation No. 101 of 2000 on Education and Training Training for Civil Servants. 2 Revealing differences in work motivation based on the intensity of the education or training training using Herzbergs Two Factor Theory of extrinsic factors hygiene and intrinsic factors motivator that influence employees motivation Maros regency government in carrying out its duties and functions as members civil in public service. This study uses a quantitative approach to date collection techniques through a questionnaire Questionnaire. Informant are civil servants who occupied echelon II III. And IV while the analysis of the date used quantitative analysis to uncover the implementation of personnel development and employees motivation difference Maros region based on the intensity of the education or training training to get job satisfaction in the public service. The results of this study will reveal that 1 Development of Apparatus for improving the knowledge ability professionalism competence skills can work as a reformer change attitude eager to work motivated to do the work get satisfaction in work and getting justice in employment. 2 The difference in work motivation Maros local government employees affected by extrinsic factors hygiene and intrinsic factor motivator is the variable gain high salary H occupies the first ranking while serving the community satisfaction variables M occupy the last ranking. That is that the satisfaction of serving the people affected by the high salaries earned by the employees to do the job.

  2. Development of a chemical kinetic measurement apparatus and the determination of the reaction rate constants for lithium-lead/water interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biney, P.O.

    1993-04-01

    An experimental set-up for accurate measurement of hydrogen generation rate in Lithium-Lead (Li[sub 17]Pb[sub 83]) Steam or water interactions has been designed. The most important features of the design include a pneumatic actuated quick opening and closing high temperature all stainless steel valve used to control the reaction time and the placement of most measuring devices below a water line to minimize leakage of the hydrogen collected. A PC based data acquisition and control system provides remote process sequencing, acquisition and control of all major components of the set-up. Initial tests indicate that the first design objective of maintaining leakproof gas collection chamber has been achieved. Initial pressure tests indicated that the pressure drop over a time span of 30 minutes was within the tolerance of the pressure transducer used to measure the pressure (within 0.690 kPa) at a nominal system pressure of 685 kPa. The experimental system hardware, data acquisition and control programs and data analysis program have been completed, tested and are currently functional.

  3. Methods and apparatus for determining cardiac output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Richard J. (Inventor); Mukkamala, Ramakrishna (Inventor); Sherman, Derin A. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention provides methods and apparatus for determining a dynamical property of the systemic or pulmonary arterial tree using long time scale information, i.e., information obtained from measurements over time scales greater than a single cardiac cycle. In one aspect, the invention provides a method and apparatus for monitoring cardiac output (CO) from a single blood pressure signal measurement obtained at any site in the systemic or pulmonary arterial tree or from any related measurement including, for example, fingertip photoplethysmography.According to the method the time constant of the arterial tree, defined to be the product of the total peripheral resistance (TPR) and the nearly constant arterial compliance, is determined by analyzing the long time scale variations (greater than a single cardiac cycle) in any of these blood pressure signals. Then, according to Ohm's law, a value proportional to CO may be determined from the ratio of the blood pressure signal to the estimated time constant. The proportional CO values derived from this method may be calibrated to absolute CO, if desired, with a single, absolute measure of CO (e.g., thermodilution). The present invention may be applied to invasive radial arterial blood pressure or pulmonary arterial blood pressure signals which are routinely measured in intensive care units and surgical suites or to noninvasively measured peripheral arterial blood pressure signals or related noninvasively measured signals in order to facilitate the clinical monitoring of CO as well as TPR.

  4. Polarization Imaging Apparatus with Auto-Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yingyin Kevin (Inventor); Zhao, Hongzhi (Inventor); Chen, Qiushui (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A polarization imaging apparatus measures the Stokes image of a sample. The apparatus consists of an optical lens set, a first variable phase retarder (VPR) with its optical axis aligned 22.5 deg, a second variable phase retarder with its optical axis aligned 45 deg, a linear polarizer, a imaging sensor for sensing the intensity images of the sample, a controller and a computer. Two variable phase retarders were controlled independently by a computer through a controller unit which generates a sequential of voltages to control the phase retardations of the first and second variable phase retarders. A auto-calibration procedure was incorporated into the polarization imaging apparatus to correct the misalignment of first and second VPRs, as well as the half-wave voltage of the VPRs. A set of four intensity images, I(sub 0), I(sub 1), I(sub 2) and I(sub 3) of the sample were captured by imaging sensor when the phase retardations of VPRs were set at (0,0), (pi,0), (pi,pi) and (pi/2,pi), respectively. Then four Stokes components of a Stokes image, S(sub 0), S(sub 1), S(sub 2) and S(sub 3) were calculated using the four intensity images.

  5. Experimental demonstration of macroscopic quantum coherence in Gaussian states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marquardt, C.; Andersen, Ulrik Lund; Leuchs, G.

    2007-01-01

    We witness experimentally the presence of macroscopic coherence in Gaussian quantum states using a recently proposed criterion [E. G. Cavalcanti and M. D. Reid, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97 170405 (2006)]. The macroscopic coherence stems from interference between macroscopically distinct states in phase...... space, and we prove experimentally that a coherent state contains these features with a distance in phase space of 0.51 +/- 0.02 shot noise units. This is surprising because coherent states are generally considered being at the border between classical and quantum states, not yet displaying any...

  6. PainVision® Apparatus for Assessment of Efficacy of Pulsed Radiofrequency Combined with Pharmacological Therapy in the Treatment of Postherpetic Neuralgia and Correlations with Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. PainVision device was a developed application for the evaluation of pain intensity. The objective was to assess the efficacy and safety of pulsed radiofrequency (PRF combined with pharmacological therapy in the treatment of postherpetic neuralgia (PHN. We also discussed the correlation of the measurements. Method. Forty patients with PHN were randomized for treatment with PRF combined with pharmacological therapy (PRF group, n=20 or pharmacological therapy (control group, n=20 at postoperative 48 hours. The efficacy measure was pain degree (PD that was assessed by PainVision and visual analog scale (VAS, short form Mcgill pain questionnaire (SF-Mcgill, and numeric rate scale sleep interference score (NRSSIS. Correlations between PD, VAS, SF-Mcgill, and NRSSIS were determined. Results. The PD for persistent pain (PP and breakthrough pain (BTP at postoperative 48 hours assessed by PainVision were significantly lower in PRF group than in control group (PD-PP, P<0.01; PD-BTP, P<0.01. PD and VAS were highly correlated for both persistent pain (r=0.453, ρ=0.008 and breakthrough pain (r=0.64, ρ=0.001. Conclusion. PRF was well tolerated and superior to isolated pharmacological therapy in the treatment of PHN. PainVision device showed great value in the evaluation of pain intensity and PD had an excellent correlation with VAS and SF-Mcgill.

  7. Monolith filter apparatus and membrane apparatus, and method using same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldsmith, Robert L [Wayland, MA

    2012-04-03

    A filtration apparatus that separates a liquid feedstock mixed with a gas into filtrate and retentate, the apparatus including at least one filtration device comprised of at least one monolith segment of porous material that defines a plurality of passageways extending longitudinally from a feed face of the structure to a retentate end face. The filtration device contains at least one filtrate conduit within it for carrying filtrate toward a filtrate collection zone, the filtrate conduit providing a path of lower flow resistance than that of alternative flow paths through the porous material of the device. The filtration device can also be utilized as a membrane support for a device for microfiltration, ultrafiltration, nanofiltration, reverse osmosis, or pervaporation. Also disclosed is a method for using such a filtration apparatus.

  8. Measuring the Absorption Rate of CO 2 in Nonaqueous CO 2 -Binding Organic Liquid Solvents with a Wetted-Wall Apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathias, Paul M. [Process Technology, Fluor Corporation, 3 Polaris Way Aliso Viejo CA 92698 USA; Zheng, Feng [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard Richland WA 99352 USA; Heldebrant, David J. [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard Richland WA 99352 USA; Zwoster, Andy [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard Richland WA 99352 USA; Whyatt, Greg [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard Richland WA 99352 USA; Freeman, Charles M. [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard Richland WA 99352 USA; Bearden, Mark D. [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard Richland WA 99352 USA; Koech, Phillip [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard Richland WA 99352 USA

    2015-09-17

    The kinetics of the absorption of CO2 into two nonaqueous CO2-binding organic liquid (CO2BOL) solvents were measured at T=35, 45, and 55 °C with a wetted-wall column. Selected CO2 loadings were run with a so-called “first-generation” CO2BOL, comprising an independent base and alcohol, and a “second-generation” CO2BOL, in which the base and alcohol were conjoined. Liquid-film mass-transfer coefficient (k'g) values for both solvents were measured to be comparable to values for monoethanolamine and piperazine aqueous solvents under a comparable driving force, in spite of far higher solution viscosities. An inverse temperature dependence of the k'g value was also observed, which suggests that the physical solubility of CO2 in organic liquids may be making CO2 mass transfer faster than expected. Aspen Plus software was used to model the kinetic data and compare the CO2 absorption behavior of nonaqueous solvents with that of aqueous solvent platforms. This work continues our development of the CO2BOL solvents. Previous work established the thermodynamic properties related to CO2 capture. The present paper quantitatively studies the kinetics of CO2 capture and develops a rate-based model.

  9. Energetics of macroscopic helical domain in different tube geometries and loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Q.P.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Superelastic NiTi polycrystalline shape memory alloy tubes, when subject to slow quasistatic stretching, transform to a high strain phase by the formation and growth of a macroscopic helix-shaped domain as deformation progresses. This paper performed an experimental study on the effects of the external applied nominal strain and the tube geometry (tube radius R, wall-thickness h and length L on the helical domains in isothermal stretching of the tubes. The evolution of the macroscopic domains with the applied strain in different tube geometries are quantified by in-situ optical measurement. We demonstrate that the equilibrium shape of the macroscopic helical domain and its evolution are governed by the competition between the domain front energy and the elastic-misfit bending strain energy of the tube system. The former favors a short helical domain, while the latter favors a long slim helical domain. The experimental results provided basic physical and experimental foundations for further modelling and quantification of the macroscopic domain morphology evolution in tube geometries.

  10. Terahertz Science and Technology of Macroscopically Aligned Carbon Nanotube Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kono, Junichiro

    One of the outstanding challenges in nanotechnology is how to assemble individual nano-objects into macroscopic architectures while preserving their extraordinary properties. For example, the one-dimensional character of electrons in individual carbon nanotubes leads to extremely anisotropic transport, optical, and magnetic phenomena, but their macroscopic manifestations have been limited. Here, we describe methods for preparing macroscopic films, sheets, and fibers of highly aligned carbon nanotubes and their applications to basic and applied terahertz studies. Sufficiently thick films act as ideal terahertz polarizers, and appropriately doped films operate as polarization-sensitive, flexible, powerless, and ultra-broadband detectors. Together with recently developed chirality enrichment methods, these developments will ultimately allow us to study dynamic conductivities of interacting one-dimensional electrons in macroscopic single crystals of single-chirality single-wall carbon nanotubes.

  11. Accumulation of small protein molecules in a macroscopic complex coacervate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindhoud, S.; Claessens, M.M.A.E.

    2016-01-01

    To obtain insight into the accumulation of proteins into macroscopic complex coacervate phases, the lysozyme concentration in complex coacervates containing the cationic polyelectrolyte poly-(N,N dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) and the anionic polyelectrolyte polyacrylic acid was investigated as a

  12. Macroscopic cumulative fatigue damage of material under nonsymmetrical cycle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盖秉政

    2002-01-01

    Hashin's macroscopic theory of fatigue damage is further discussed and a new method has been proposed for prediction of cumulative fatigue damage of material and its lifetime under nonsymmetrical cyclic loading.

  13. Large Deviations for the Macroscopic Motion of an Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birmpa, P.; Dirr, N.; Tsagkarogiannis, D.

    2017-03-01

    We study the most probable way an interface moves on a macroscopic scale from an initial to a final position within a fixed time in the context of large deviations for a stochastic microscopic lattice system of Ising spins with Kac interaction evolving in time according to Glauber (non-conservative) dynamics. Such interfaces separate two stable phases of a ferromagnetic system and in the macroscopic scale are represented by sharp transitions. We derive quantitative estimates for the upper and the lower bound of the cost functional that penalizes all possible deviations and obtain explicit error terms which are valid also in the macroscopic scale. Furthermore, using the result of a companion paper about the minimizers of this cost functional for the macroscopic motion of the interface in a fixed time, we prove that the probability of such events can concentrate on nucleations should the transition happen fast enough.

  14. Quantum fluctuations, gauge freedom and mesoscopic/macroscopic stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Giudice, E [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milan (Italy); Vitiello, G [Dipartimento di Matematica e Informatica, Universita di Salerno and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Gruppo Collegato di Salerno, 84100 Salerno (Italy)

    2007-11-15

    We study how the mesoscopic/macroscopic stability of coherent extended domains is generated out of the phase locking between gauge field and matter field. The role of the radiative gauge field in sustaining the coherent regime is discussed.

  15. Macroscopic observables experimentally linked to microscopic processes in the explosive fracture and fragmentation of metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, Lawrence M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-12-16

    The response of a metal element to explosive loading depends on a broad spectrum of explosive and metal properties, macroscopic geometry plays a crucial role in defining the localized loading history and the resulting gradients of interest, while microscopic effects and defects are generally believed responsible for damage nucleation. Certain experiments reduce the complexity by producing conditions that are uniform in some sense, allowing dynamic measurement of variables that can be correlated with corresponding microscopic effects observed in recovery experiments. Spherical expansion of thin shells, that eventually fragment, and steady wave loading of flat plates are two such experiments. Proton radiography, x-radiography, laser velocimetry, imaging IR, and visible light photography all have produced dynamic measurements in 4340 steel, copper, uranium alloys, tantalum, and titanium. Correlation of the macroscopic measurements with microscopy on recovered samples has been done with a statistical approach.

  16. Oil recovery apparatus and method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowe, J.G.

    1981-05-19

    An oil recovery apparatus and method, particularly for removing oil and grease from the discharge of dishwashing machines or the like, provides a small size assembly employing the same principle as in U.S. Pat. No. 4,051,024. This apparatus and method employs single rotating discs of plastic or plastic coated material and each disk has a pair of scraper blades arranged to scrape opposite sides of the rotating blade. Exterior of the container for the oil recovery apparatus is at least one filter basket adapted to receive the flow into the strainer container of large particles of food and other waste such as cigarette butts and the like. Each filter is disposed for the ready cleaning of accumulated matter from the basket. There is shown plural filters, valve controls, auxiliary heating and disc support means to be more fully described.

  17. A macroscopic crowd motion model of gradient flow type

    CERN Document Server

    Maury, Bertrand; Santambrogio, Filippo

    2010-01-01

    A simple model to handle the flow of people in emergency evacuation situations is considered: at every point x, the velocity U(x) that individuals at x would like to realize is given. Yet, the incompressibility constraint prevents this velocity field to be realized and the actual velocity is the projection of the desired one onto the set of admissible velocities. Instead of looking at a microscopic setting (where individuals are represented by rigid discs), here the macroscopic approach is investigated, where the unknwon is the evolution of the density . If a gradient structure is given, say U is the opposite of the gradient of D where D is, for instance, the distance to the exit door, the problem is presented as a Gradient Flow in the Wasserstein space of probability measures. The functional which gives the Gradient Flow is neither finitely valued (since it takes into account the constraints on the density), nor geodesically convex, which requires for an ad-hoc study of the convergence of a discrete scheme.

  18. Macroscopic effects of the spectral structure in turbulent flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, T.; Chakraborty, P.; Guttenberg, N.; Prescott, A.; Kellay, H.; Goldburg, W.; Goldenfeld, N.; Gioia, G.

    2010-11-01

    There is a missing link between macroscopic properties of turbulent flows, such as the frictional drag of a wall-bounded flow, and the turbulent spectrum. To seek the missing link we carry out unprecedented experimental measurements of the frictional drag in turbulent soap-film flows over smooth walls. These flows are effectively two-dimensional, and we are able to create soap-film flows with the two types of turbulent spectrum that are theoretically possible in two dimensions: the "enstrophy cascade," for which the spectral exponent α= 3, and the "inverse energy cascade," for which the spectral exponent α= 5/3. We find that the functional relation between the frictional drag f and the Reynolds number Re depends on the spectral exponent: where α= 3, f ˜Re-1/2; where α= 5/3, f ˜Re-1/4. Each of these scalings may be predicted from the attendant value of α by using a recently proposed spectral theory of the frictional drag. In this theory the frictional drag of turbulent flows on smooth walls is predicted to be f ˜Re^(1-α)/(1+α).

  19. Towards a macroscopic modeling of the complexity in traffic flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosswog, Stephan; Wagner, Peter

    2002-03-01

    Based on the assumption of a safe velocity U(e)(rho) depending on the vehicle density rho, a macroscopic model for traffic flow is presented that extends the model of the Kühne-Kerner-Konhäuser by an interaction term containing the second derivative of U(e)(rho). We explore two qualitatively different forms of U(e): a conventional Fermi-type function and, motivated by recent experimental findings, a function that exhibits a plateau at intermediate densities, i.e., in this density regime the exact distance to the car ahead is only of minor importance. To solve the fluid-like equations a Lagrangian particle scheme is developed. The suggested model shows a much richer dynamical behavior than the usual fluid-like models. A large variety of encountered effects is known from traffic observations, many of which are usually assigned to the elusive state of "synchronized flow." Furthermore, the model displays alternating regimes of stability and instability at intermediate densities. It can explain data scatter in the fundamental diagram and complicated jam patterns. Within this model, a consistent interpretation of the emergence of very different traffic phenomena is offered: they are determined by the velocity relaxation time, i.e., the time needed to relax towards U(e)(rho). This relaxation time is a measure of the average acceleration capability and can be attributed to the composition (e.g., the percentage of trucks) of the traffic flow.

  20. Macroscopic strain controlled ion current in an elastomeric microchannel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuo, Chin-Chang; Nguyen, Du; Buchsbaum, Steven; Innes, Laura; Dennin, Michael, E-mail: mdennin@uci.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Li, Yongxue [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Esser-Kahn, Aaron P. [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Valdevit, Lorenzo [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, Irvine, California 92697-3975 (United States); Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Sun, Lizhi [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Siwy, Zuzanna [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Department of Chemistry, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States)

    2015-05-07

    We report on the fabrication of an ultra-high aspect ratio ionically conductive single microchannel with tunable diameter from ≈ 20 μm to fully closed. The 4 mm-long channel is fabricated in a Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mold and its cross-sectional area is controlled by applying macroscopic compressive strain to the mold in a direction perpendicular to the channel length. We investigated the ionic conduction properties of the channel. For a wide range of compressive strain up to ≈ 0.27, the strain dependence of the resistance is monotonic and fully reversible. For strain > 0.27, ionic conduction suddenly shuts off and the system becomes hysteretic (whereby a finite strain reduction is required to reopen the channel). Upon unloading, the original behavior is retrieved. This reversible behavior is observed over 200 compression cycles. The cross-sectional area of the channel can be inferred from the ion current measurement, as confirmed by a Nano-Computed Tomography investigation. We show that the cross-sectional area decreases monotonically with the applied compressive strain in the reversible range, in qualitative agreement with linear elasticity theory. We find that the shut-off strain is affected by the spatial extent of the applied strain, which provides additional tunability. Our tunable channel is well-suited for multiple applications in micro/nano-fluidic devices.

  1. Experiments testing macroscopic quantum superpositions must be slow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mari, Andrea; de Palma, Giacomo; Giovannetti, Vittorio

    2016-03-01

    We consider a thought experiment where the preparation of a macroscopically massive or charged particle in a quantum superposition and the associated dynamics of a distant test particle apparently allow for superluminal communication. We give a solution to the paradox which is based on the following fundamental principle: any local experiment, discriminating a coherent superposition from an incoherent statistical mixture, necessarily requires a minimum time proportional to the mass (or charge) of the system. For a charged particle, we consider two examples of such experiments, and show that they are both consistent with the previous limitation. In the first, the measurement requires to accelerate the charge, that can entangle with the emitted photons. In the second, the limitation can be ascribed to the quantum vacuum fluctuations of the electromagnetic field. On the other hand, when applied to massive particles our result provides an indirect evidence for the existence of gravitational vacuum fluctuations and for the possibility of entangling a particle with quantum gravitational radiation.

  2. Single-file diffusion of macroscopic charged particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coste, C; Delfau, J-B; Even, C; Saint Jean, M

    2010-05-01

    In this paper, we study a macroscopic system of electrically interacting metallic beads organized as a sequence along an annulus. A random mechanical shaking mimics the thermal excitation. We exhibit non-Fickian diffusion (single-file diffusion) at large time. We measure the mobility of the particles and compare it to theoretical expectations. We show that our system cannot be accurately described by theories assuming only hard-sphere interactions. Its behavior is qualitatively described by a theory extended to more realistic potentials [M. Kollmann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 180602 (2003)]. A correct quantitative agreement is shown and we interpret the discrepancies by the violation of the assumption of overdamped dynamics, which is a key point in the theory. We recast previous results on colloids with known interaction potentials and compare them quantitatively to the theory. Focusing on the transition between ordinary and single-file diffusions, we exhibit a dimensionless crossover time that is of order 1 both for colloids and our system, although the time and length scales differ by several orders of magnitude.

  3. Direct Observation of Spatial Quantum Correlations in the Macroscopic Regime

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Ashok; Marino, A M

    2016-01-01

    Spatial quantum correlations in the transverse degree of freedom promise to enhance optical resolution, image detection, and quantum communications through parallel quantum information encoding. In particular, the ability to observe these spatial quantum correlations in a single shot will enable such enhancements in applications that require real time imaging, such as particle tracking and in-situ imaging of atomic systems. Here, we report on the direct measurement of spatial quantum correlations in the macroscopic regime in single images using an electron-multiplying charge-coupled device camera. A four-wave mixing process in hot rubidium atoms is used to generate narrowband-bright-entangled pulsed twin-beams of light with $\\sim10^8$ photons in each beam. Owing to momentum conservation in this process, the twin-beams are momentum correlated, which leads to spatial quantum correlations in far field. We show around 2 dB of spatial quantum noise reduction with respect to the shot noise limit. The spatial squeez...

  4. Apparatus for determining changes in limb volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagat, P. K.; Wu, V. C. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    Measuring apparatus for determining changes in the volume of limbs or other boty extremities by determining the cross-sectional area of such limbs many comprise a transmitter including first and second transducers for positioning on the surface of the limb at a predetermined distance there between, and a receiver including a receiver crystal for positioning on the surface of the limb. The distance between the receiver crystal and the first and second transducers are represented by respective first and second chords of the cross-section of the limb and the predetermined distance between the first and second transducers is represented by a third chord of the limb cross section.

  5. Magnetic separation apparatus and methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tibbe, Arjan; Scholtens, Tycho M.; Terstappen, Leon W.M.M.

    2010-01-01

    Apparatuses and methods for separating, immobilizing, and quantifying biological substances from within a fluid medium. Biological substances are observed by employing a vessel (6) having a chamber therein, the vessel comprising a transparent collection wall (5). A high internal gradient magnetic ca

  6. Extended range chemical sensing apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Robert C.; Schubert, W. Kent

    1994-01-01

    An apparatus for sensing chemicals over extended range of concentrations. In particular, first and second sensors each having separate, but overlapping ranges for sensing concentrations of hydrogen are provided. Preferably, the first sensor is a MOS solid state device wherein the metal electrode or gate is a nickel alloy. The second sensor is a chemiresistor comprising a nickel alloy.

  7. The ALPHA antihydrogen trapping apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amole, C.; Andresen, G. B.; Ashkezari, M. D.; Baquero-Ruiz, M.; Bertsche, W.; Bowe, P. D.; Butler, E.; Capra, A.; Carpenter, P. T.; Cesar, C. L.; Chapman, S.; Charlton, M.; Deller, A.; Eriksson, S.; Escallier, J.; Fajans, J.; Friesen, T.; Fujiwara, M. C.; Gill, D. R.; Gutierrez, A.; Hangst, J. S.; Hardy, W. N.; Hayano, R. S.; Hayden, M. E.; Humphries, A. J.; Hurt, J. L.; Hydomako, R.; Isaac, C. A.; Jenkins, M. J.; Jonsell, S.; Jørgensen, L. V.; Kerrigan, S. J.; Kurchaninov, L.; Madsen, N.; Marone, A.; McKenna, J. T. K.; Menary, S.; Nolan, P.; Olchanski, K.; Olin, A.; Parker, B.; Povilus, A.; Pusa, P.; Robicheaux, F.; Sarid, E.; Seddon, D.; Seif El Nasr, S.; Silveira, D. M.; So, C.; Storey, J. W.; Thompson, R. I.; Thornhill, J.; Wells, D.; van der Werf, D. P.; Wurtele, J. S.; Yamazaki, Y.

    2014-01-01

    The ALPHA collaboration, based at CERN, has recently succeeded in confining cold antihydrogen atoms in a magnetic minimum neutral atom trap and has performed the first study of a resonant transition of the anti-atoms. The ALPHA apparatus will be described herein, with emphasis on the structural aspects, diagnostic methods and techniques that have enabled antihydrogen trapping and experimentation to be achieved.

  8. Portable Pallet-Weighing Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, R. M.

    1983-01-01

    Portable apparatus intended for standard four-trunnion pallets readily adaptable to any large payload or other loads where shifting of cargo is to be avoided. Device lifts trunnion of pallet short distance above its resting place. Weight at trunnion applied to load cell. Similar units placed at all four trunnions.

  9. A FILTRATION METHOD AND APPARATUS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    The present invention concerns a method and an apparatus for separating dry matter from liquid, comprising providing an enclosed separation environment capable of being pressure regulated, and in said enclosed separation environment contacting at least one filter with a suspension accumulating dr...

  10. Feature Referenced Error Correction Apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A feature referenced error correction apparatus utilizing the multiple images of the interstage level image format to compensate for positional...images and by the generation of an error correction signal in response to the sub-frame registration errors. (Author)

  11. Material transport method and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, J. Michael; Ramsey, Roswitha S.

    2000-01-01

    An electrospray apparatus uses a microchannel formed in a microchip. Fluid is pumped through the channel to an outlet orifice using either hydraulic or electrokinetic means. An electrospray is generated by establishing a sufficient potential difference between the fluid at the outlet orifice and a target electrode spaced from the outlet orifice. Electrokinetic pumping is also utilized to provide additional benefits to microchip devices.

  12. The ALPHA antihydrogen trapping apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amole, C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, York University, Toronto ON Canada, M3J 1P3 (Canada); Andresen, G.B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Ashkezari, M.D. [Department of Physics, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC Canada, V5A 1S6 (Canada); Baquero-Ruiz, M. [Department of Physics, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-7300 (United States); Bertsche, W. [Department of Physics, College of Science, Swansea University, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); The Cockcroft Institute, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Bowe, P.D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Butler, E. [Physics Department, CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Capra, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, York University, Toronto ON Canada, M3J 1P3 (Canada); Carpenter, P.T. [Department of Physics, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849-5311 (United States); Cesar, C.L. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro 21941-972 (Brazil); Chapman, S. [Department of Physics, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-7300 (United States); Charlton, M.; Deller, A.; Eriksson, S. [Department of Physics, College of Science, Swansea University, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Escallier, J. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Fajans, J. [Department of Physics, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-7300 (United States); Friesen, T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, Calgary AB, Canada, T2N 1N4 (Canada); Fujiwara, M.C.; Gill, D.R. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver BC, Canada V6T 2A3 (Canada); Gutierrez, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver BC, Canada V6T 1Z4 (Canada); and others

    2014-01-21

    The ALPHA collaboration, based at CERN, has recently succeeded in confining cold antihydrogen atoms in a magnetic minimum neutral atom trap and has performed the first study of a resonant transition of the anti-atoms. The ALPHA apparatus will be described herein, with emphasis on the structural aspects, diagnostic methods and techniques that have enabled antihydrogen trapping and experimentation to be achieved.

  13. Method and automated apparatus for detecting coliform organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dill, W. P.; Taylor, R. E.; Jeffers, E. L. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    Method and automated apparatus are disclosed for determining the time of detection of metabolically produced hydrogen by coliform bacteria cultured in an electroanalytical cell from the time the cell is inoculated with the bacteria. The detection time data provides bacteria concentration values. The apparatus is sequenced and controlled by a digital computer to discharge a spent sample, clean and sterilize the culture cell, provide a bacteria nutrient into the cell, control the temperature of the nutrient, inoculate the nutrient with a bacteria sample, measures the electrical potential difference produced by the cell, and measures the time of detection from inoculation.

  14. Apparatus to detect stable fractional charges on matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanderspek, R.

    1980-04-01

    The construction of an apparatus designed to detect stable fractional charges on matter, if they exist, to the level of 10/sup -24/ per nucleon is reported and discussed. The charges on a stream of highly consistent droplets produced by the apparatus are determined by accurate measurement of the deflection of the droplets in falling through a static electric field. Maintenance of certain parameters of operation calculated to limit the random effects of electrical and aerodynamical disturbances on the droplets indicate a precision in the measurement of the charge on a droplet of 0.02e can be attained. 7 figures.

  15. Waste Water Treatment Apparatus and Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littman, Howard (Inventor); Plawsky, Joel L. (Inventor); Paccione, John D. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    An improved draft tube spout fluid bed (DTSFB) mixing, handling, conveying, and treating apparatus and systems, and methods for operating are provided. The apparatus and systems can accept particulate material and pneumatically or hydraulically conveying the material to mix and/or treat the material. In addition to conveying apparatus, a collection and separation apparatus adapted to receive the conveyed particulate material is also provided. The collection apparatus may include an impaction plate against which the conveyed material is directed to improve mixing and/or treatment. The improved apparatus are characterized by means of controlling the operation of the pneumatic or hydraulic transfer to enhance the mixing and/or reacting by controlling the flow of fluids, for example, air, into and out of the apparatus. The disclosed apparatus may be used to mix particulate material, for example, mortar; react fluids with particulate material; coat particulate material, or simply convey particulate material.

  16. Experiments with Coler magnetic current apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, T.

    Experiments with a replica of the famous Coler "Magnetstromapparat" (magnetic current apparatus) were conducted. The replica was built at the same institute at the Technical University of Berlin where the original was tested by Prof. Kloss in 1925. The details of the setup will be presented in this paper. The investigation of the Coler device was done with modern methods. The output was measured with a digital multi meter (DMM) and a digital storage oscilloscope (DSO). The results of the measurements will be presented. Did Coler convert vacuum fluctuations via magnetic, electric and acoustic resonance into electricity? There is a strong connection between magnetism and quantum field radiation energy. The magnetic moment of the electron is in part an energy exchange with the radiation field. The energy output of the Coler apparatus is measured. Furthermore the dynamics of the ferromagnetic magnets that Coler reported as the working principle of his device was investigated with magnetic force microscopy (MFM) and the spectroscopy mode of an atomic force microscope (AFM). The magnetic and acoustic resonance was investigated with magnetic force microscopy (MFM). The connection between ZPE and magnetism will be discussed as well as the perspective of using magnetic systems as a means to convert vacuum fluctuations into usable electricity.

  17. Detecting Current Noise with a Josephson Junction in the Macroscopic Quantum Tunneling Regime

    OpenAIRE

    Peltonen, J. T.; Timofeev, A. V.; Meschke, M.; Pekola, J.P.

    2006-01-01

    We discuss the use of a hysteretic Josephson junction to detect current fluctuations with frequencies below the plasma frequency of the junction. These adiabatic fluctuations are probed by switching measurements observing the noise-affected average rate of macroscopic quantum tunneling of the detector junction out of its zero-voltage state. In a proposed experimental scheme, frequencies of the noise are limited by an on-chip filtering circuit. The third cumulant of current fluctuations at the...

  18. Apparatus for Teaching Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnix, Richard B.; Carpenter, D. Rae, Jr., Eds.

    1982-01-01

    Thirteen demonstrations using a capacitor-start induction motor fitted with an aluminum disk are described. Demonstrations illustrate principles from mechanics, fluids (Bernoulli's principle), waves (chladni patterns and doppler effect), magnetism, electricity, and light (mechanical color mixing). In addition, the instrument can measure friction…

  19. Apparatus for Assisting Childbirth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeltzer, Stanley S., III (Inventor); Lawson, Seth W. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    The invention consists of novel, scissors-like forceps in combination with optical monitoring hardware for measuring the extraction forces on a fetal head. The novel features of the forceps together with knowledge of real time forces on the fetal head enable a user to make a much safer delivery for mother and baby.

  20. The Q_weak Experimental Apparatus

    CERN Document Server

    Allison, T; Androic, D; Armstrong, D S; Asaturyan, A; Averett, T D; Averill, R; Balewski, J; Beaufait, J; Beminiwattha, R S; Benesch, J; Benmokhtar, F; Bessuille, J; Birchall, J; Bonnell, E; Bowman, J; Brindza, P; Brown, D B; Carlini, R D; Cates, G D; Cavness, B; Clark, G; Cornejo, J C; Dusa, S Covrig; Dalton, M M; Davis, C A; Dean, D C; Deconinck, W; Diefenbach, J; Dow, K; Dowd, J F; Dunne, J A; Dutta, D; Duvall, W S; Echols, J R; Elaasar, M; Falk, W R; Finelli, K D; Finn, J M; Gaskell, D; Gericke, M T W; Grames, J; Gray, V M; Grimm, K; Guo, F; Hansknecht, J; Harrison, D J; Henderson, E; Hoskins, J R; Ihloff, E; Johnston, K; Jones, D; Jones, M; Jones, R; Kargiantoulakis, M; Kelsey, J; Khan, N; King, P M; Korkmaz, E; Kowalski, S; Kubera, A; Leacock, J; Leckey, J P; Lee, A R; Lee, J H; Lee, L; Liang, Y; MacEwan, S; Mack, D; Magee, J A; Mahurin, R; Mammei, J; Martin, J W; McCreary, A; McDonald, M H; McHugh, M J; Medeiros, P; Meekins, D; Mei, J; Michaels, R; Micherdzinska, A; Mkrtchyan, A; Mkrtchyan, H; Morgan, N; Musson, J; Mesick, K E; Narayan, A; Ndukum, L Z; Nelyubin, V; Nuruzzaman,; van Oers, W T H; Opper, A K; Page, S A; Pan, J; Paschke, K D; Phillips, S K; Pitt, M L; Poelker, M; Rajotte, J F; Ramsay, W D; Roberts, W R; Roche, J; Rose, P W; Sawatzky, B; Seva, T; Shabestari, M H; Silwal, R; Simicevic, N; Smith, G R; Sobczynski, S; Solvignon, P; Spayde, D T; Stokes, B; Storey, D W; Subedi, A; Subedi, R; Suleiman, R; Tadevosyan, V; Tobias, W A; Tvaskis, V; Urban, E; Waidyawansa, B; Wang, P; Wells, S P; Wood, S A; Yang, S; Zhamkochyan, S; Zielinski, R B

    2014-01-01

    The Jefferson Lab Q_weak experiment determined the weak charge of the proton by measuring the parity-violating elastic scattering asymmetry of longitudinally polarized electrons from an unpolarized liquid hydrogen target at small momentum transfer. A custom apparatus was designed for this experiment to meet the technical challenges presented by the smallest and most precise ${\\vec{e}}$p asymmetry ever measured. Technical milestones were achieved at Jefferson Lab in target power, beam current, beam helicity reversal rate, polarimetry, detected rates, and control of helicity-correlated beam properties. The experiment employed 180 microA of 89% longitudinally polarized electrons whose helicity was reversed 960 times per second. The electrons were accelerated to 1.16 GeV and directed to a beamline with extensive instrumentation to measure helicity-correlated beam properties that can induce false asymmetries. Moller and Compton polarimetry were used to measure the electron beam polarization to better than 1%. The ...

  1. Quantum Measurement and Extended Feynman Path Integral

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文伟; 白彦魁

    2012-01-01

    Quantum measurement problem has existed many years and inspired a large of literature in both physics and philosophy, but there is still no conclusion and consensus on it. We show it can be subsumed into the quantum theory if we extend the Feynman path integral by considering the relativistic effect of Feynman paths. According to this extended theory, we deduce not only the Klein-Gordon equation, but also the wave-function-collapse equation. It is shown that the stochastic and instantaneous collapse of the quantum measurement is due to the "potential noise" of the apparatus or environment and "inner correlation" of wave function respectively. Therefore, the definite-status of the macroscopic matter is due to itself and this does not disobey the quantum mechanics. This work will give a new recognition for the measurement problem.

  2. Macroscopic pair correlation of the Riemann zeroes for smooth test functions

    CERN Document Server

    Rodgers, Brad

    2012-01-01

    On the assumption of the Riemann hypothesis, we show that over a class of sufficiently smooth test functions, a measure conjectured by Bogolomony and Keating coincides to a very small error with the actual pair correlation measure for zeroes of the Riemann zeta function. Our result extends the well known result of Montgomery that over the same class of test functions the pair correlation measure coincides (to a larger error term) with that of the Gaussian Unitary Ensemble (GUE). The restriction of test functions remains stringent, but we are nonetheless able to detect, at a microscopically blurred resolution, macroscopic troughs in the pair correlation measure.

  3. Apparatus for assembly of microelectronic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okandan, Murat; Nielson, Gregory N.; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Lavin, Judith Maria; Resnick, Paul J.

    2017-09-12

    An apparatus including a carrier substrate configured to move a microelectronic device. The apparatus further includes a rotatable body configured to receive the microelectronic device. Additionally, the apparatus includes a second substrate configured to receive the microelectronic device from the rotatable body.

  4. 49 CFR 236.590 - Pneumatic apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pneumatic apparatus. 236.590 Section 236.590..., Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Inspection and Tests; Locomotive § 236.590 Pneumatic apparatus. Automatic train stop, train control, or cab signal pneumatic apparatus shall be inspected, cleaned, and the...

  5. Design of dielectric loss factor measurement with DSP for high voltage capacitive apparatus%基于DSP的高压容型电气设备介质损耗测量仪设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖建庆

    2012-01-01

    针对电气设备易受电网频率波动和非整周期采样的影响,造成介质损耗因数tan δ测量精度和分辨率偏低的问题,提出一种基于DSP的高压电气设备介质损耗因数测量仪设计方案.将归一化工频电压信号和电流信号分别移相90°构成Hilbert变换对,再将两组复信号构造新的复三角信号模型实现对采样信号的去角频率处理.介绍了tanδ测量原理,给出了硬件各主要模块和系统软件实现方案.试验结果表明:该测量装置有效地解决了由于频率波动引起的非同步采样和非整周期截断问题,tan δ实际测量的绝对误差小于0.000 1,具有一定的实际推广价值.%Electrical equipment is vulnerable to fluctuations in the network frequency and non-integral period truncation conditions, and caused the dielectric loss factor measurement accuracy and resolution is low. An approach of dielectric loss factor measurement with DSP for high voltage capacitive apparatus is proposed. A Hilbert transform is build through moving voltage or current signals to 90 rad. The two signals are constructed a new complex triangle signal model. Introduced the dielectric loss factor measuring principle . The main modules and hardware system software scheme was given. Simulation and test results show that this algorithm reduced influence of non-synchronized sampling and non-integral period truncation caused by fluctuations in the network frequency. The absolute error of the dielectric loss factor is less than 0. 000 1. It has practical application value.

  6. Extended Macroscopic Study of Dilute Gas Flow within a Microcavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Hssikou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The behaviour of monatomic and dilute gas is studied in the slip and early transition regimes using the extended macroscopic theory. The gas is confined within a two-dimensional microcavity where the longitudinal sides are in the opposite motion with constant velocity ±Uw. The microcavity walls are kept at the uniform and reference temperature T0. Thus, the gas flow is transported only by the shear stress induced by the motion of upper and lower walls. From the macroscopic point of view, the regularized 13-moment equations of Grad, R13, are solved numerically. The macroscopic gas proprieties are studied for different values of the so-called Knudsen number (Kn, which gives the gas-rarefaction degree. The results are compared with those obtained using the classical continuum theory of Navier-Stokes and Fourier (NSF.

  7. The quantum interaction of macroscopic objects and gravitons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piran, Tsvi

    2016-09-01

    Copious production of gravitational radiation requires a compact source that moves relativistically. Such sources are rare and are found only in extreme cases such as the formation of a black hole in either via a gravitational collapse or via a merger. Noncompact, nonrelativistic objects emit gravitational radiation, however, this emission is extremely weak due to very large value of the Planck energy. The quantum nature of gravitons, namely the fact that a single graviton carries energy of order ℏω implies that macroscopic objects whose kinetic energy is less than the Planck energy emit gravitons quantum mechanically, emitting a single graviton at a time. This is a unique situation in which a macroscopic object behaves quantum mechanically. While it is impossible to check experimentally this quantum gravitational effect, it might be possible to carry out analogous electromagnetic experiments that will shed light on this macroscopic quantum mechanical behavior.

  8. Geometric aspects of Schnakenberg's network theory of macroscopic nonequilibrium observables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polettini, M.

    2011-03-01

    Schnakenberg's network theory deals with macroscopic thermodynamical observables (forces, currents and entropy production) associated to the steady states of diffusions on generic graphs. Using results from graph theory and from the theory of discrete differential forms we recast Schnakenberg's treatment in the form of a simple discrete gauge theory, which allows to interpret macroscopic forces as the Wilson loops of a real connection. We discuss the geometric properties of transient states, showing that heat fluxes allow for a notion of duality of macroscopic observables which interchanges the role of the environment and that of the system. We discuss possible generalizations to less trivial gauge groups and the relevance for nonequilibrium fluctuation theorems. Based on work in collaboration with professor A. Maritan, University of Padua, to be published.

  9. Broadband Macroscopic Cortical Oscillations Emerge from Intrinsic Neuronal Response Failures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir eGoldental

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Broadband spontaneous macroscopic neural oscillations are rhythmic cortical firing which was extensively examined during the last century, however, their possible origination is still controversial. In this work we show how macroscopic oscillations emerge in solely excitatory random networks and without topological constraints. We experimentally and theoretically show that these oscillations stem from the counterintuitive underlying mechanism - the intrinsic stochastic neuronal response failures. These neuronal response failures, which are characterized by short-term memory, lead to cooperation among neurons, resulting in sub- or several- Hertz macroscopic oscillations which coexist with high frequency gamma oscillations. A quantitative interplay between the statistical network properties and the emerging oscillations is supported by simulations of large networks based on single-neuron in-vitro experiments and a Langevin equation describing the network dynamics. Results call for the examination of these oscillations in the presence of inhibition and external drives.

  10. Reconciling power laws in microscopic and macroscopic neural recordings

    CERN Document Server

    Pettersen, Klas H; Tetzlaff, Tom; Einevoll, Gaute T

    2013-01-01

    Power laws, characterized by quantities following 1/x^\\alpha{} distributions, are commonly reported when observing nature or society, and the question of their origin has for a long time intrigued physicists. Power laws have also been observed in neural recordings, both at the macroscopic and microscopic levels: at the macroscopic level, the power spectral density (PSD) of the electroencephalogram (EEG) has been seen to follow 1/f^\\alpha{} distributions; at the microscopic level similar power laws have been observed in single-neuron recordings of the neuronal soma potential and soma current, yet with different values of the power-law exponent \\alpha. In this theoretical study we find that these observed macroscopic and microscopic power laws may, despite the widely different spatial scales and different exponents, have the same source. By a combination of simulation on a biophysical detailed, pyramidal neuron model and analytical investigations of a simplified ball and stick neuron, we find that the transfer ...

  11. Microscopic and macroscopic infarct complicating pediatric epilepsy surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinger, Luc; Hazrati, Lili-Naz; Ahmed, Raheel; Rutka, James; Snead, Carter; Widjaja, Elysa

    2017-03-01

    There is some suggestion that microscopic infarct could be associated with invasive monitoring, but it is unclear if the microscopic infarct is also visible on imaging and associated with neurologic deficits. The aims of this study were to assess the rates of microscopic and macroscopic infarct and other major complications of pediatric epilepsy surgery, and to determine if these complications were higher following invasive monitoring. We reviewed the epilepsy surgery data from a tertiary pediatric center, and collected data on microscopic infarct on histology and macroscopic infarct on postoperative computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) done one day after surgery and major complications. Three hundred fifty-two patients underwent surgical resection and there was one death. Forty-two percent had invasive monitoring. Thirty patients (9%) had microscopic infarct. Univariable analyses showed that microscopic infarct was higher among patients with invasive monitoring relative to no invasive monitoring (20% vs. 0.5%, respectively, p microscopic infarct had transient right hemiparesis, and two with both macroscopic and microscopic infarct had unexpected persistent neurologic deficits. Thirty-two major complications (9.1%) were reported, with no difference in major complications between invasive monitoring and no invasive monitoring (10% vs. 7%, p = 0.446). In the multivariable analysis, invasive monitoring increased the odds of microscopic infarct (odds ratio [OR] 15.87, p = 0.009), but not macroscopic infarct (OR 2.6, p = 0.173) or major complications (OR 1.4, p = 0.500), after adjusting for age at surgery, sex, age at seizure onset, operative type, and operative location. Microscopic infarct was associated with invasive monitoring, and none of the patients had permanent neurologic deficits. Macroscopic infarct was not associated with invasive monitoring, and two patients with macroscopic infarct had persistent neurologic deficits. Wiley

  12. Determination of crystallographic and macroscopic orientation of planar structures in TEM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, X.; Liu, Q.

    1998-01-01

    With the aid of a double-tilt holder in a transmission electron microscope (TEM), simple methods are described for determination of the crystallographic orientation of a planar structure and for calculation of the macroscopic orientation of the planar structure. The correlation between a planar s...... taken at tilted positions, can be transformed to the real macroscopic orientation of the planar structures with estimated error of about +/- 2 degrees. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....... structure and a crystallographic plane can be found by comparing the differences in their trace directions on the projection plane and inclination angles with respect to that plane. The angles between the traces of planar structures and the sample axis measured from the TEM micrographs, which have been...

  13. A New Cost-Effective Diode Laser Polarimeter Apparatus Constructed by Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisboa, Pedro; Sotomayor, Joo; Ribeiro, Paulo

    2010-01-01

    The construction of a diode laser polarimeter apparatus by undergraduate students is described. The construction of the modular apparatus by undergraduate students gives them an insight into how it works and how the measurement of a physical or chemical property is conducted. The students use the polarimeter to obtain rotation angle values for the…

  14. Electrochemical apparatus comprising modified disposable rectangular cuvette

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dattelbaum, Andrew M; Gupta, Gautam; Morris, David E

    2013-09-10

    Electrochemical apparatus includes a disposable rectangular cuvette modified with at least one hole through a side and/or the bottom. Apparatus may include more than one cuvette, which in practice is a disposable rectangular glass or plastic cuvette modified by drilling the hole(s) through. The apparatus include two plates and some means of fastening one plate to the other. The apparatus may be interfaced with a fiber optic or microscope objective, and a spectrometer for spectroscopic studies. The apparatus are suitable for a variety of electrochemical experiments, including surface electrochemistry, bulk electrolysis, and flow cell experiments.

  15. Monitoring road traffic congestion using a macroscopic traffic model and a statistical monitoring scheme

    KAUST Repository

    Zeroual, Abdelhafid

    2017-08-19

    Monitoring vehicle traffic flow plays a central role in enhancing traffic management, transportation safety and cost savings. In this paper, we propose an innovative approach for detection of traffic congestion. Specifically, we combine the flexibility and simplicity of a piecewise switched linear (PWSL) macroscopic traffic model and the greater capacity of the exponentially-weighted moving average (EWMA) monitoring chart. Macroscopic models, which have few, easily calibrated parameters, are employed to describe a free traffic flow at the macroscopic level. Then, we apply the EWMA monitoring chart to the uncorrelated residuals obtained from the constructed PWSL model to detect congested situations. In this strategy, wavelet-based multiscale filtering of data has been used before the application of the EWMA scheme to improve further the robustness of this method to measurement noise and reduce the false alarms due to modeling errors. The performance of the PWSL-EWMA approach is successfully tested on traffic data from the three lane highway portion of the Interstate 210 (I-210) highway of the west of California and the four lane highway portion of the State Route 60 (SR60) highway from the east of California, provided by the Caltrans Performance Measurement System (PeMS). Results show the ability of the PWSL-EWMA approach to monitor vehicle traffic, confirming the promising application of this statistical tool to the supervision of traffic flow congestion.

  16. Transrectal implantation and stability of gold markers in prostate bed for salvage radiotherapy of macroscopic recurrences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakir, Shakir I; Udrescu, Corina; Enachescu, Ciprian; Rouviere, Olivier; Arion, Simona; Caraivan, Ionela; Chapet, Olivier

    2016-11-01

    The objective of the study was to verify the stability of gold markers in the prostatic bed (PB) during salvage radiotherapy. Seven patients, diagnosed with a macroscopic nodule visible on MRI, underwent targeted MRI-guided biopsies. Three gold markers were implanted into the PB close to the relapsing nodule for CT/MRI fusion. A dose of 60Gy was delivered using IMRT to the PB followed by a dose escalation up to 72Gy to the macroscopic nodule. Daily anterior and left-lateral kV-images were acquired for repositioning. The coordinates of the center of each marker were measured on the two kV-images. The distance variations (Dvar) of the markers in the first session and the subsequent ones were compared. No marker was lost during treatment. The average distance between markers was 7.8mm. The average Dvar was 0.8mm, in absolute value. A total of 380/528 (72%) Dvar were ⩽1mm. A Dvar greater than 2mm was observed in 5.7% of measurements, with a maximum value of 4.8mm. Despite the absence of the prostate, the implantation of gold markers in the PB remains feasible, with Dvar often less than 2mm, and could be used to develop new approaches of salvage focal radiotherapy on the macroscopic relapse after prostatectomy. Copyright © 2016 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Macroscopic Simulation of Isotropic Permanent Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Bruckner, Florian; Vogler, Christoph; Heinrichs, Frank; Satz, Armin; Ausserlechner, Udo; Binder, Gernot; Koeck, Helmut; Suess, Dieter

    2015-01-01

    Accurate simulations of isotropic permanent magnets require to take the magnetization process into account and consider the anisotropic, nonlinear, and hysteretic material behaviour near the saturation configuration. An efficient method for the solution of the magnetostatic Maxwell equations including the description of isotropic permanent magnets is presented. The algorithm can easily be implemented on top of existing finite element methods and does not require a full characterization of the hysteresis of the magnetic material. Strayfield measurements of an isotropic permanent magnet and simulation results are in good agreement and highlight the importance of a proper description of the isotropic material.

  18. Macroscopic simulation of isotropic permanent magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckner, Florian; Abert, Claas; Vogler, Christoph; Heinrichs, Frank; Satz, Armin; Ausserlechner, Udo; Binder, Gernot; Koeck, Helmut; Suess, Dieter

    2016-03-01

    Accurate simulations of isotropic permanent magnets require to take the magnetization process into account and consider the anisotropic, nonlinear, and hysteretic material behaviour near the saturation configuration. An efficient method for the solution of the magnetostatic Maxwell equations including the description of isotropic permanent magnets is presented. The algorithm can easily be implemented on top of existing finite element methods and does not require a full characterization of the hysteresis of the magnetic material. Strayfield measurements of an isotropic permanent magnet and simulation results are in good agreement and highlight the importance of a proper description of the isotropic material.

  19. Approximating macroscopic observables in quantum spin systems with commuting matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Ogata, Yoshiko

    2011-01-01

    Macroscopic observables in a quantum spin system are given by sequences of spatial means of local elements $\\frac{1}{2n+1}\\sum_{j=-n}^n\\gamma_j(A_{i}), \\; n\\in{\\mathbb N},\\; i=1,...,m$ in a UHF algebra. One of their properties is that they commute asymptotically, as $n$ goes to infinity. It is not true that any given set of asymptotically commuting matrices can be approximated by commuting ones in the norm topology. In this paper, we show that for macroscopic observables, this is true.

  20. Stimuli-deformable graphene materials: from nanosheet to macroscopic assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Zhao

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Stimulus-induced deformation (SID of graphene-based materials has triggered rapidly increasing research interest due to the spontaneous response to external stimulations, which enables precise configurational regulation of single graphene nanosheets (GNSs through control over the environmental conditions. While the micro-strain of GNS is barely visible, the deformation of graphene-based macroscopic assemblies (GMAs is remarkable, thereby presenting significant potential for future application in smart devices. This review presents the current progress of SID of graphene in the manner of nanosheets and macroscopic assemblies in both the experimental and theoretical fronts, and summarizes recent advancements of SID of graphene for applications in smart systems.

  1. Statistical thermodynamics understanding the properties of macroscopic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Fai, Lukong Cornelius

    2012-01-01

    Basic Principles of Statistical PhysicsMicroscopic and Macroscopic Description of StatesBasic PostulatesGibbs Ergodic AssumptionGibbsian EnsemblesExperimental Basis of Statistical MechanicsDefinition of Expectation ValuesErgodic Principle and Expectation ValuesProperties of Distribution FunctionRelative Fluctuation of an Additive Macroscopic ParameterLiouville TheoremGibbs Microcanonical EnsembleMicrocanonical Distribution in Quantum MechanicsDensity MatrixDensity Matrix in Energy RepresentationEntropyThermodynamic FunctionsTemperatureAdiabatic ProcessesPressureThermodynamic IdentityLaws of Th

  2. In-situ sputtering apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Mark R.; Poole, Henry J.; Custer, III, Arthur W.; Hershcovitch, Ady

    2015-06-09

    A sputtering apparatus that includes at least a target presented as an inner surface of a confinement structure, the inner surface of the confinement structure is preferably an internal wall of a circular tube. A cathode is disposed adjacent the internal wall of the circular tube. The cathode preferably provides a hollow core, within which a magnetron is disposed. Preferably, an actuator is attached to the magnetron, wherein a position of the magnetron within the hollow core is altered upon activation of the actuator. Additionally, a carriage supporting the cathode and communicating with the target is preferably provided, and a cable bundle interacting with the cathode and linked to a cable bundle take up mechanism provided power and coolant to the cathode, magnetron, actuator and an anode of the sputtering apparatus.

  3. APPARATUS FOR CONDENSATION AND SUBLIMATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, R.J.; Fuis, F. Jr.

    1958-10-01

    An apparatus is presented for the sublimation and condensation of uranium compounds in order to obtain an improved crystalline structure of this material. The apparatus comprises a vaporizing chamber and condensing structure connected thereto. There condenser is fitted with a removable liner having a demountable baffle attached to the liner by means of brackets and a removable pin. The baffle is of spiral cross-section and is provided with cooling coils disposed between the surfaces of the baffle for circulation of a temperature controlling liquid within the baffle. The cooling coll provides for controlllng the temperature of the baffle to insure formatlon of a satisfactory condensate, and the removable liner facilitates the removal of condensate formed during tbe sublimation process.

  4. X-Ray Diffraction Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, David F. (Inventor); Bryson, Charles (Inventor); Freund, Friedmann (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    An x-ray diffraction apparatus for use in analyzing the x-ray diffraction pattern of a sample is introduced. The apparatus includes a beam source for generating a collimated x-ray beam having one or more discrete x-ray energies, a holder for holding the sample to be analyzed in the path of the beam, and a charge-coupled device having an array of pixels for detecting, in one or more selected photon energy ranges, x-ray diffraction photons produced by irradiating such a sample with said beam. The CCD is coupled to an output unit which receives input information relating to the energies of photons striking each pixel in the CCD, and constructs the diffraction pattern of photons within a selected energy range striking the CCD.

  5. Synthesis gas method and apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Sean M.; Kromer, Brian R.; Litwin, Michael M.; Rosen, Lee J.; Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Wilson, Jamie; Kosowski, Lawrence W; Robinson, Charles

    2015-11-06

    A method and apparatus for producing a synthesis gas product having one or more oxygen transport membrane elements thermally coupled to one or more catalytic reactors such that heat generated from the oxygen transport membrane element supplies endothermic heating requirements for steam methane reforming reactions occurring within the catalytic reactor through radiation and convention heat transfer. A hydrogen containing stream containing no more than 20 percent methane is combusted within the oxygen transport membrane element to produce the heat and a heated combustion product stream. The heated combustion product stream is combined with a reactant stream to form a combined stream that is subjected to the reforming within the catalytic reactor. The apparatus may include modules in which tubular membrane elements surround a central reactor tube.

  6. Method and apparatus for calibrating a linear variable differential transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokrywka, Robert J.

    2005-01-18

    A calibration apparatus for calibrating a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) having an armature positioned in au LVDT armature orifice, and the armature able to move along an axis of movement. The calibration apparatus includes a heating mechanism with an internal chamber, a temperature measuring mechanism for measuring the temperature of the LVDT, a fixture mechanism with an internal chamber for at least partially accepting the LVDT and for securing the LVDT within the heating mechanism internal chamber, a moving mechanism for moving the armature, a position measurement mechanism for measuring the position of the armature, and an output voltage measurement mechanism. A method for calibrating an LVDT, including the steps of: powering the LVDT; heating the LVDT to a desired temperature; measuring the position of the armature with respect to the armature orifice; and measuring the output voltage of the LVDT.

  7. Nanostructure surveys of macroscopic specimens by small-angle scattering tensor tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebi, Marianne; Georgiadis, Marios; Menzel, Andreas; Schneider, Philipp; Kohlbrecher, Joachim; Bunk, Oliver; Guizar-Sicairos, Manuel

    2015-11-19

    The mechanical properties of many materials are based on the macroscopic arrangement and orientation of their nanostructure. This nanostructure can be ordered over a range of length scales. In biology, the principle of hierarchical ordering is often used to maximize functionality, such as strength and robustness of the material, while minimizing weight and energy cost. Methods for nanoscale imaging provide direct visual access to the ultrastructure (nanoscale structure that is too small to be imaged using light microscopy), but the field of view is limited and does not easily allow a full correlative study of changes in the ultrastructure over a macroscopic sample. Other methods of probing ultrastructure ordering, such as small-angle scattering of X-rays or neutrons, can be applied to macroscopic samples; however, these scattering methods remain constrained to two-dimensional specimens or to isotropically oriented ultrastructures. These constraints limit the use of these methods for studying nanostructures with more complex orientation patterns, which are abundant in nature and materials science. Here, we introduce an imaging method that combines small-angle scattering with tensor tomography to probe nanoscale structures in three-dimensional macroscopic samples in a non-destructive way. We demonstrate the method by measuring the main orientation and the degree of orientation of nanoscale mineralized collagen fibrils in a human trabecula bone sample with a spatial resolution of 25 micrometres. Symmetries within the sample, such as the cylindrical symmetry commonly observed for mineralized collagen fibrils in bone, allow for tractable sampling requirements and numerical efficiency. Small-angle scattering tensor tomography is applicable to both biological and materials science specimens, and may be useful for understanding and characterizing smart or bio-inspired materials. Moreover, because the method is non-destructive, it is appropriate for in situ measurements and

  8. Nanostructure surveys of macroscopic specimens by small-angle scattering tensor tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebi, Marianne; Georgiadis, Marios; Menzel, Andreas; Schneider, Philipp; Kohlbrecher, Joachim; Bunk, Oliver; Guizar-Sicairos, Manuel

    2015-11-01

    The mechanical properties of many materials are based on the macroscopic arrangement and orientation of their nanostructure. This nanostructure can be ordered over a range of length scales. In biology, the principle of hierarchical ordering is often used to maximize functionality, such as strength and robustness of the material, while minimizing weight and energy cost. Methods for nanoscale imaging provide direct visual access to the ultrastructure (nanoscale structure that is too small to be imaged using light microscopy), but the field of view is limited and does not easily allow a full correlative study of changes in the ultrastructure over a macroscopic sample. Other methods of probing ultrastructure ordering, such as small-angle scattering of X-rays or neutrons, can be applied to macroscopic samples; however, these scattering methods remain constrained to two-dimensional specimens or to isotropically oriented ultrastructures. These constraints limit the use of these methods for studying nanostructures with more complex orientation patterns, which are abundant in nature and materials science. Here, we introduce an imaging method that combines small-angle scattering with tensor tomography to probe nanoscale structures in three-dimensional macroscopic samples in a non-destructive way. We demonstrate the method by measuring the main orientation and the degree of orientation of nanoscale mineralized collagen fibrils in a human trabecula bone sample with a spatial resolution of 25 micrometres. Symmetries within the sample, such as the cylindrical symmetry commonly observed for mineralized collagen fibrils in bone, allow for tractable sampling requirements and numerical efficiency. Small-angle scattering tensor tomography is applicable to both biological and materials science specimens, and may be useful for understanding and characterizing smart or bio-inspired materials. Moreover, because the method is non-destructive, it is appropriate for in situ measurements and

  9. Microwave sterilization method and apparatus

    OpenAIRE

    V. N. Vasilenko; Minuhin, V. V.; Podorozhnyak, A. A.; Trubaev, S. I.

    1995-01-01

    Experience of industrially developed countries in utilization of microwave radiation has been analyzed. Apparatus for realization of microwave method of sterilization has been designed. A number of experiments for the estimation of bactericidal, sporacidal, and virusidal properties of microwave radiation action has been carried out in 3 to 13 cm wavelength band. B. Lycheniform shtumm G., B. Subtilis ATTC 6633, E. Coli ATTC 25922 and bacterial virus FX 174 were used as test microbes. Effect of...

  10. Thermoplastic welding apparatus and method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsen, Marc R.; Negley, Mark A.; Geren, William Preston; Miller, Robert James

    2017-03-07

    A thermoplastic welding apparatus includes a thermoplastic welding tool, at least one tooling surface in the thermoplastic welding tool, a magnetic induction coil in the thermoplastic welding tool and generally encircling the at least one tooling surface and at least one smart susceptor in the thermoplastic welding tool at the at least one tooling surface. The magnetic induction coil is adapted to generate a magnetic flux field oriented generally parallel to a plane of the at least one smart susceptor.

  11. The sampling apparatus of volatile organic compounds for wood composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHENJun; ZHAOLin-bo; LIUYu

    2005-01-01

    Terpenes, aldehydes, ketones, benzene, and toluene are the important volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from wood composites. A sampling apparatus of VOCs for wood composites was designed and manufactured by Northeast Forestry University in China.The concentration of VOCs derived from wood based materials, such as flooring, panel wall, finishing, and furniture can be sampled in a small stainless steel chambers. A protocol is also developed in this study to sample and measure the new and representative specimens. Preliminary research showed that the properties of the equipment have good stability. The sort and the amount of different components can be detected from it. The apparatus is practicable.

  12. THE CALIBRATION OF ULTRALOW PERMEABILITY MEASUREMENT APPARATUS AND PRELIMINARY EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS%超低渗透率测量仪的测试标定及初步测量结果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴曼; 杨晓松; 陈建业

    2011-01-01

    低渗-超低渗透率测量是流体渗流力学和岩石物理学研究领域的热点问题.断层带流体输运的定量化研究对于了解断层的力学性质和预测地下流体的流动具有重要意义.文中介绍了新研制的超低渗透率测量系统和工作原理.这套设备使用稳态法和目前逐渐流行的孔隙压力振荡法进行测量,其孔隙流体为蒸馏水和氮气,最高围压可达200M Pa,孔隙压上限为40MPa.对该测量系统进行了参数标定,并给出了循环加载条件下典型砂岩的渗透率测量结果.对比了2种测量方法得到的结果,分析了产生差异的原因,比较了2种方法的特点和适用条件.探讨了孔隙压力变化对实验结果的影响,按照加载间隔计算了有效压力系数.结果发现有效压力系数依赖于加载路径.使用最小二乘法对所有数据进行拟合,求出了最优有效压力系数并获得渗透率和有效压力函数关系,为分析围压和孔隙压对渗透率的影响提供了依据.%The low-ultralow permeability measurement is one of the most important research topics in fluid mechanics and rock physics. Quantification of fluid transport through fault zones is critical for the understanding of fault mechanics and prediction of subsurface fluid flow. In order to obtain the information about the fluid-flow processes in seismogenic regions,we have designed and constructed a distilled water/gas-medium permeability measurement apparatus capable of achieving ultralow permeability. The new measurement apparatus has used steady-state method and pore pressure oscillation method, which has become very popular recently because of its continuous measurement during processes that might alter the pore space of rocks and can measure samples with different permeability magnitude fast and precisely, thus producing a basic environment in which the confining pressure reaches 200MPa by water, pore pressure reaches 40MPa either by water or gas at room

  13. Method and apparatus for atomic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldin, Dilano K.; de Andres Rodriquez, Pedro L.

    1993-01-01

    A method and apparatus for three dimensional imaging of the atomic environment of disordered adsorbate atoms are disclosed. The method includes detecting and measuring the intensity of a diffuse low energy electron diffraction pattern formed by directing a beam of low energy electrons against the surface of a crystal. Data corresponding to reconstructed amplitudes of a wave form is generated by operating on the intensity data. The data corresponding to the reconstructed amplitudes is capable of being displayed as a three dimensional image of an adsorbate atom. The apparatus includes a source of a beam of low energy electrons and a detector for detecting the intensity distribution of a DLEED pattern formed at the detector when the beam of low energy electrons is directed onto the surface of a crystal. A device responsive to the intensity distribution generates a signal corresponding to the distribution which represents a reconstructed amplitude of a wave form and is capable of being converted into a three dimensional image of the atomic environment of an adsorbate atom on the crystal surface.

  14. Quantum statistical derivation of the macroscopic Maxwell equations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schram, K.

    1960-01-01

    The macroscopic Maxwell equations in matter are derived on a quantum statistical basis from the microscopic equations for the field operators. Both the density operator formalism and the Wigner distribution function method are discussed. By both methods it can be proved that the quantum statistical

  15. Macroscopic and Microscopic Gradient Structures of Bamboo Culms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suwat SUTNAUN

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This work studied the structure of bamboo culms which is naturally designed to retard the bending stress caused by a wind load. A macroscopic gradient structure (diameter, thickness and internodal length and a microscopic one (distribution of fiber of three sympodial bamboo species i.e. Tong bamboo (Dendrocalamus asper Backer., Pah bamboo (Gigantochloa bambos and Pak bamboo (Gigantochloa hasskarliana were examined. From the macroscopic point of view, the wind-load generated bending stress for the tapered hollow tube of bamboo was found to vary uniformly with height, especially at the middle of the culms. Furthermore, the macroscopic shape of bamboo culm is about 2-6 times stiffer in bending mode than one with a solid circular section for the same amount of wood material. Microscopically, the distribution of fiber in the radial direction linearly decreases from the outer surface to the inner surface in the same manner as that of the distribution of the bending stress in the radial direction. Distribution of fiber along the vertical length of bamboos at each height is proportional to the level of bending stress generated by the wind load. Both macroscopic and microscopic gradient structures of sympodial type bamboos were found to be less effective to retard the bending stress than those of monopodial type bamboo.

  16. Microstructure and macroscopic properties of polydisperse systems of hard spheres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ogarko, Vitaliy Anatolyevich

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation describes an investigation of systems of polydisperse smooth hard spheres. This includes the development of a fast contact detection algorithm for computer modelling, the development of macroscopic constitutive laws that are based on microscopic features such as the moments of the

  17. [Macroscopic observations on corneal epithelial wound healing in the rabbit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, K

    1991-02-01

    A newly-developed macroscope was applied to observe the healing process of corneal epithelial wound in vivo. After removing epithelium of the central cornea, the changes of the corneal surface were observed with the macroscope and the findings were compared with histological examinations. At 12 hours after abrasion, areas unstained with Richardson's staining (R staining) appeared. In the histological section, a single layer of regenerating epithelial cells covered the same area. At 24 and 36 hours after abrasion, the epithelial defects became smaller but surrounding epithelium was rough and showed dot-like staining with R solution. By 2 days, the epithelial defects disappeared. On macroscopic observation, the central corneal surface showed a pavement-like appearance. Histology revealed that the regenerating epithelium still consisted of one or two layers. At 3 days, dot-like stainings were present only in the center and the corneal surface appeared considerably smooth. Histology also showed that regenerating epithelium became columnar and multilayered, thereby suggesting stratification. By 7 days, the abraded corneal surface had recovered its smooth appearance. Histologic sections also demonstrated that the epithelium had regained its normal structure. Thus, using this macroscope, findings suggesting the process of epithelial migration and proliferation could be observed.

  18. The black hole information paradox and macroscopic superpositions

    CERN Document Server

    Hsu, Stephen D H

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the experimental capabilities required to test whether black holes destroy information. We show that an experiment capable of illuminating the information puzzle must necessarily be able to detect or manipulate macroscopic superpositions (i.e., Everett branches). Hence, it could also address the fundamental question of decoherence versus wavefunction collapse.

  19. Macroscopic domain formation in the platelet plasma membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bali, Rachna; Savino, Laura; Ramirez, Diego A.;

    2009-01-01

    There has been ample debate on whether cell membranes can present macroscopic lipid domains as predicted by three-component phase diagrams obtained by fluorescence microscopy. Several groups have argued that membrane proteins and interactions with the cytoskeleton inhibit the formation of large d...

  20. A Macroscopic Analogue of the Nuclear Pairing Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    A macroscopic system involving permanent magnets is used as an analogue to nucleons in a nucleus to illustrate the significance of the pairing interaction. This illustrates that the view of the total nuclear energy based only on the nucleon occupancy of the energy levels can yield erroneous results and it is only when the pairing interaction is…

  1. Data requirements for traffic control on a macroscopic level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoop, V.L.; Van Lint, J.W.C.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.

    2011-01-01

    With current techniques, traffic monitoring and control is a data intensive process. Network control on a higher level, using high level variables, can make this process less data demanding. The macroscopic fundamental diagram relates accumulation, i.e. the number of vehicles in an area, to the netw

  2. Stereodynamics: From elementary processes to macroscopic chemical reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasai, Toshio [Department of Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Graduate School of Science, Department of Chemistry, Osaka University, Toyonaka, 560-0043 Osaka (Japan); Che, Dock-Chil [Graduate School of Science, Department of Chemistry, Osaka University, Toyonaka, 560-0043 Osaka (Japan); Tsai, Po-Yu [Department of Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Department of Chemistry, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Lin, King-Chuen [Department of Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Palazzetti, Federico [Scuola Normale Superiore, Pisa (Italy); Dipartimento di Chimica Biologia e Biotecnologie, Università di Perugia, 06123 Perugia (Italy); Aquilanti, Vincenzo [Dipartimento di Chimica Biologia e Biotecnologie, Università di Perugia, 06123 Perugia (Italy); Istituto di Struttura della Materia, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Roma (Italy); Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador (Brazil)

    2015-12-31

    This paper aims at discussing new facets on stereodynamical behaviors in chemical reactions, i.e. the effects of molecular orientation and alignment on reactive processes. Further topics on macroscopic processes involving deviations from Arrhenius behavior in the temperature dependence of chemical reactions and chirality effects in collisions are also discussed.

  3. Mesoscopic kinetic basis of macroscopic chemical thermodynamics: A mathematical theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Hao; Qian, Hong

    2016-11-01

    Gibbs' macroscopic chemical thermodynamics is one of the most important theories in chemistry. Generalizing it to mesoscaled nonequilibrium systems is essential to biophysics. The nonequilibrium stochastic thermodynamics of chemical reaction kinetics suggested a free energy balance equation dF^{(meso)}/dt=E_{in}-e_{p} in which the free energy input rate E_{in} and dissipation rate e_{p} are both non-negative, and E_{in}≤e_{p}. We prove that in the macroscopic limit by merely allowing the molecular numbers to be infinite, the generalized mesoscopic free energy F^{(meso)} converges to φ^{ss}, the large deviation rate function for the stationary distributions. This generalized macroscopic free energy φ^{ss} now satisfies a balance equation dφ^{ss}(x)/dt=cmf(x)-σ(x), in which x represents chemical concentration. The chemical motive force cmf(x) and entropy production rate σ(x) are both non-negative, and cmf(x)≤σ(x). The balance equation is valid generally in isothermal driven systems and is different from mechanical energy conservation and the first law; it is actually an unknown form of the second law. Consequences of the emergent thermodynamic quantities and equalities are further discussed. The emergent "law" is independent of underlying kinetic details. Our theory provides an example showing how a macroscopic law emerges from a level below.

  4. Diagnosis of bladder tumours in patients with macroscopic haematuria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gandrup, Karen L; Løgager, Vibeke B; Bretlau, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare split-bolus computed tomography urography (CTU), magnetic resonance urography (MRU) and flexible cystoscopy in patients with macroscopic haematuria regarding the diagnosis of bladder tumours. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this prospective study, 150...

  5. Microstructure and macroscopic properties of polydisperse systems of hard spheres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ogarko, V.

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation describes an investigation of systems of polydisperse smooth hard spheres. This includes the development of a fast contact detection algorithm for computer modelling, the development of macroscopic constitutive laws that are based on microscopic features such as the moments of the

  6. Integrating a macro emission model with a macroscopic traffic model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klunder, G.A.; Stelwagen, U.; Taale, H.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a macro emission module for macroscopic traffic models to be used for assessment of ITS and traffic management. It especially focuses on emission estimates for different intersection types. It provides emission values for CO, CO2, HC, NOx, and PM10. It is applied and validated fo

  7. From 1D to 3D - macroscopic nanowire aerogel monoliths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Wei; Rechberger, Felix; Niederberger, Markus

    2016-08-01

    Here we present a strategy to assemble one-dimensional nanostructures into a three-dimensional architecture with macroscopic size. With the assistance of centrifugation, we successfully gel ultrathin W18O49 nanowires with diameters of 1 to 2 nm and aspect ratios larger than 100 into 3D networks, which are transformed into monolithic aerogels by supercritical drying.

  8. Numerical solutions of a generalized theory for macroscopic capillarity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doster, F.; Zegeling, P.A.; Hilfer, R.

    2010-01-01

    A recent macroscopic theory of biphasic flow in porous media [R. Hilfer, Phys. Rev. E 73, 016307 (2006)] has proposed to treat microscopically percolating fluid regions differently from microscopically nonpercolating regions. Even in one dimension the theory reduces to an analytically intractable se

  9. The fundamental diagram : a macroscopic traffic flow model.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botma, H.

    1976-01-01

    In models of traffic flow, the interactions between vehicles are of prime interest, and are based on characteristics of the drivers, road and vehicles. The fundamental diagram is a representation of a relationship on a macroscopic level in the steady state between the quantity of traffic and a chara

  10. Charge accumulation in DC cables: a macroscopic approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAllister, Iain Wilson; Crichton, George C; Pedersen, Aage

    1994-01-01

    The accumulation of space charge in solid dielectrics is examined from the macroscopic point of view using electromagnetic field theory. For practical dielectrics, it is shown that the occurrence of such charges is an inherent consequence of a non-uniform conductivity. The influence of both tempe...

  11. Mesoscopic kinetic basis of macroscopic chemical thermodynamics: A mathematical theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Hao; Qian, Hong

    2016-11-01

    Gibbs' macroscopic chemical thermodynamics is one of the most important theories in chemistry. Generalizing it to mesoscaled nonequilibrium systems is essential to biophysics. The nonequilibrium stochastic thermodynamics of chemical reaction kinetics suggested a free energy balance equation d F(meso)/d t =Ein-ep in which the free energy input rate Ein and dissipation rate ep are both non-negative, and Ein≤ep . We prove that in the macroscopic limit by merely allowing the molecular numbers to be infinite, the generalized mesoscopic free energy F(meso) converges to φss, the large deviation rate function for the stationary distributions. This generalized macroscopic free energy φss now satisfies a balance equation d φss(x ) /d t =cmf(x ) -σ (x ) , in which x represents chemical concentration. The chemical motive force cmf(x ) and entropy production rate σ (x ) are both non-negative, and cmf(x )≤σ (x ) . The balance equation is valid generally in isothermal driven systems and is different from mechanical energy conservation and the first law; it is actually an unknown form of the second law. Consequences of the emergent thermodynamic quantities and equalities are further discussed. The emergent "law" is independent of underlying kinetic details. Our theory provides an example showing how a macroscopic law emerges from a level below.

  12. Characterization of Mangifera indica cultivars in Thailand based on macroscopic, microscopic, and genetic characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aunyachulee Ganogpichayagrai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Thai mango cultivars are classified into six groups plus one miscellaneous group according to germplasm database for mango. Characterization is important for conservation and the development of Thai mango cultivars. This study investigated macroscopic, microscopic leaf characteristics, and genetic relationship among 17 cultivars selected from six groups of mango in Thailand. Selected mango samples were obtained from three different locations in Thailand (n = 57. They were observed for their leaf and fruit macroscopic characteristics. Leaf measurement for the stomatal number, veinlet termination number, and palisade ratio was evaluated under a microscope attached with digital camera. DNA fingerprint was performed using CTAB extraction of DNA and inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR amplification. Forty-five primers were screened; then, seven primers that amplified the reproducible band patterns were selected to amplified and generate dendrogram by Unweighted Pair-Group Method with Arithmetic Average. These selected 17 Thai mango cultivars had individually macroscopic characteristics based on fruits and leaves. For microscopic characteristics, the stomatal number, veinlet termination number, and palisade ratio were slightly differentiable. For genetic identification, 78 bands of 190-2660 bps were amplified, of which 82.05% were polymorphic. The genetic relationship among these cultivars was demonstrated and categorized into two main clusters. It was shown that ISSR markers could be useful for Thai mango cultivar identification.

  13. Thermophoresis of dissolved molecules and polymers: Consideration of the temperature-induced macroscopic pressure gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenov, Semen; Schimpf, Martin

    2004-01-01

    The movement of molecules and homopolymer chains dissolved in a nonelectrolyte solvent in response to a temperature gradient is considered a consequence of temperature-induced pressure gradients in the solvent layer surrounding the solute molecules. Local pressure gradients are produced by nonuniform London-van der Waals interactions, established by gradients in the concentration (density) of solvent molecules. The density gradient is produced by variations in solvent thermal expansion within the nonuniform temperature field. The resulting expression for the velocity of the solute contains the Hamaker constants for solute-solvent and solute-solute interactions, the radius of the solute molecule, and the viscosity and cubic coefficient of thermal expansion of the solvent. In this paper we consider an additional force that arises from directional asymmetry in the interaction between solvent molecules. In a closed cell, the resulting macroscopic pressure gradient gives rise to a volume force that affects the motion of dissolved solutes. An expression for this macroscopic pressure gradient is derived and the resulting force is incorporated into the expression for the solute velocity. The expression is used to calculate thermodiffusion coefficients for polystyrene in several organic solvents. When these values are compared to those measured in the laboratory, the consistency is better than that found in previous reports, which did not consider the macroscopic pressure gradient that arises in a closed thermodiffusion cell. The model also allows for the movement of solute in either direction, depending on the relative values of the solvent and solute Hamaker constants.

  14. How can macroscopic models reveal self-organization in traffic flow?

    CERN Document Server

    Cristiani, Emiliano; Tosin, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we propose a new modeling technique for vehicular traffic flow, designed for capturing at a macroscopic level some effects, due to the microscopic granularity of the flow of cars, which would be lost with a purely continuous approach. The starting point is a multiscale method for pedestrian modeling, recently introduced in Cristiani et al., Multiscale Model. Simul., 2011, in which measure-theoretic tools are used to manage the microscopic and the macroscopic scales under a unique framework. In the resulting coupled model the two scales coexist and share information, in the sense that the same system is simultaneously described from both a discrete (microscopic) and a continuous (macroscopic) perspective. This way it is possible to perform numerical simulations in which the single trajectories and the average density of the moving agents affect each other. Such a method is here revisited in order to deal with multi-population traffic flow on networks. For illustrative purposes, we focus on the si...

  15. Time-dependent mechanical behavior of human amnion: macroscopic and microscopic characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauri, Arabella; Perrini, Michela; Ehret, Alexander E; De Focatiis, Davide S A; Mazza, Edoardo

    2015-01-01

    Characterizing the mechanical response of the human amnion is essential to understand and to eventually prevent premature rupture of fetal membranes. In this study, a large set of macroscopic and microscopic mechanical tests have been carried out on fresh unfixed amnion to gain insight into the time-dependent material response and the underlying mechanisms. Creep and relaxation responses of amnion were characterized in macroscopic uniaxial tension, biaxial tension and inflation configurations. For the first time, these experiments were complemented by microstructural information from nonlinear laser scanning microscopy performed during in situ uniaxial relaxation tests. The amnion showed large tension reduction during relaxation and small inelastic strain accumulation in creep. The short-term relaxation response was related to a concomitant in-plane and out-of-plane contraction, and was dependent on the testing configuration. The microscopic investigation revealed a large volume reduction at the beginning, but no change of volume was measured long-term during relaxation. Tension-strain curves normalized with respect to the maximum strain were highly repeatable in all configurations and allowed the quantification of corresponding characteristic parameters. The present data indicate that dissipative behavior of human amnion is related to two mechanisms: (i) volume reduction due to water outflow (up to ∼20 s) and (ii) long-term dissipative behavior without macroscopic deformation and no systematic global reorientation of collagen fibers.

  16. Characterization of Mangifera indica cultivars in Thailand based on macroscopic, microscopic, and genetic characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganogpichayagrai, Aunyachulee; Rungsihirunrat, Kanchana; Palanuvej, Chanida; Ruangrungsi, Nijsiri

    2016-01-01

    Thai mango cultivars are classified into six groups plus one miscellaneous group according to germplasm database for mango. Characterization is important for conservation and the development of Thai mango cultivars. This study investigated macroscopic, microscopic leaf characteristics, and genetic relationship among 17 cultivars selected from six groups of mango in Thailand. Selected mango samples were obtained from three different locations in Thailand (n = 57). They were observed for their leaf and fruit macroscopic characteristics. Leaf measurement for the stomatal number, veinlet termination number, and palisade ratio was evaluated under a microscope attached with digital camera. DNA fingerprint was performed using CTAB extraction of DNA and inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) amplification. Forty-five primers were screened; then, seven primers that amplified the reproducible band patterns were selected to amplified and generate dendrogram by Unweighted Pair-Group Method with Arithmetic Average. These selected 17 Thai mango cultivars had individually macroscopic characteristics based on fruits and leaves. For microscopic characteristics, the stomatal number, veinlet termination number, and palisade ratio were slightly differentiable. For genetic identification, 78 bands of 190-2660 bps were amplified, of which 82.05% were polymorphic. The genetic relationship among these cultivars was demonstrated and categorized into two main clusters. It was shown that ISSR markers could be useful for Thai mango cultivar identification. PMID:27833891

  17. Macroscopic quantum phenomena from the large N perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, C. H.; Hu, B. L.; Subaşi, Y.

    2011-07-01

    Macroscopic quantum phenomena (MQP) is a relatively new research venue, with exciting ongoing experiments and bright prospects, yet with surprisingly little theoretical activity. What makes MQP intellectually stimulating is because it is counterpoised against the traditional view that macroscopic means classical. This simplistic and hitherto rarely challenged view need be scrutinized anew, perhaps with much of the conventional wisdoms repealed. In this series of papers we report on a systematic investigation into some key foundational issues of MQP, with the hope of constructing a viable theoretical framework for this new endeavour. The three major themes discussed in these three essays are the large N expansion, the correlation hierarchy and quantum entanglement for systems of 'large' sizes, with many components or degrees of freedom. In this paper we use different theories in a variety of contexts to examine the conditions or criteria whereby a macroscopic quantum system may take on classical attributes, and, more interestingly, that it keeps some of its quantum features. The theories we consider here are, the O(N) quantum mechanical model, semiclassical stochastic gravity and gauge / string theories; the contexts include that of a 'quantum roll' in inflationary cosmology, entropy generation in quantum Vlasov equation for plasmas, the leading order and next-to-leading order large N behaviour, and hydrodynamic / thermodynamic limits. The criteria for classicality in our consideration include the use of uncertainty relations, the correlation between classical canonical variables, randomization of quantum phase, environment-induced decoherence, decoherent history of hydrodynamic variables, etc. All this exercise is to ask only one simple question: Is it really so surprising that quantum features can appear in macroscopic objects? By examining different representative systems where detailed theoretical analysis has been carried out, we find that there is no a priori

  18. The origins of macroscopic quantum coherence in high temperature superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, Philip, E-mail: ph.turner@napier.ac.uk [Edinburgh Napier University, 10 Colinton Road, Edinburgh EH10 5DT (United Kingdom); Nottale, Laurent, E-mail: laurent.nottale@obspm.fr [CNRS, LUTH, Observatoire de Paris-Meudon, 5 Place Janssen, 92190 Meudon (France)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • We propose a new theoretical approach to superconductivity in p-type cuprates. • Electron pairing mechanisms in the superconducting and pseudogap phases are proposed. • A scale free network of dopants is key to macroscopic quantum coherence. - Abstract: A new, theoretical approach to macroscopic quantum coherence and superconductivity in the p-type (hole doped) cuprates is proposed. The theory includes mechanisms to account for e-pair coupling in the superconducting and pseudogap phases and their inter relations observed in these materials. Electron pair coupling in the superconducting phase is facilitated by local quantum potentials created by static dopants in a mechanism which explains experimentally observed optimal doping levels and the associated peak in critical temperature. By contrast, evidence suggests that electrons contributing to the pseudogap are predominantly coupled by fractal spin waves (fractons) induced by the fractal arrangement of dopants. On another level, the theory offers new insights into the emergence of a macroscopic quantum potential generated by a fractal distribution of dopants. This, in turn, leads to the emergence of coherent, macroscopic spin waves and a second associated macroscopic quantum potential, possibly supported by charge order. These quantum potentials play two key roles. The first involves the transition of an expected diffusive process (normally associated with Anderson localization) in fractal networks, into e-pair coherence. The second involves the facilitation of tunnelling between localized e-pairs. These combined effects lead to the merger of the super conducting and pseudo gap phases into a single coherent condensate at optimal doping. The underlying theory relating to the diffusion to quantum transition is supported by Coherent Random Lasing, which can be explained using an analogous approach. As a final step, an experimental program is outlined to validate the theory and suggests a new

  19. Macroscopic quantum phenomena from the large N perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, C H [department of Physics, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan 701 (China) and National Center for Theoretical Sciences (South), Tainan, Taiwan 701 (China); Hu, B L; Subasi, Y, E-mail: hubeilok@gmail.com [Joint Quantum Institute and Maryland Center for Fundamental Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)

    2011-07-08

    Macroscopic quantum phenomena (MQP) is a relatively new research venue, with exciting ongoing experiments and bright prospects, yet with surprisingly little theoretical activity. What makes MQP intellectually stimulating is because it is counterpoised against the traditional view that macroscopic means classical. This simplistic and hitherto rarely challenged view need be scrutinized anew, perhaps with much of the conventional wisdoms repealed. In this series of papers we report on a systematic investigation into some key foundational issues of MQP, with the hope of constructing a viable theoretical framework for this new endeavour. The three major themes discussed in these three essays are the large N expansion, the correlation hierarchy and quantum entanglement for systems of 'large' sizes, with many components or degrees of freedom. In this paper we use different theories in a variety of contexts to examine the conditions or criteria whereby a macroscopic quantum system may take on classical attributes, and, more interestingly, that it keeps some of its quantum features. The theories we consider here are, the O(N) quantum mechanical model, semiclassical stochastic gravity and gauge / string theories; the contexts include that of a 'quantum roll' in inflationary cosmology, entropy generation in quantum Vlasov equation for plasmas, the leading order and next-to-leading order large N behaviour, and hydrodynamic / thermodynamic limits. The criteria for classicality in our consideration include the use of uncertainty relations, the correlation between classical canonical variables, randomization of quantum phase, environment-induced decoherence, decoherent history of hydrodynamic variables, etc. All this exercise is to ask only one simple question: Is it really so surprising that quantum features can appear in macroscopic objects? By examining different representative systems where detailed theoretical analysis has been carried out, we find that

  20. Apparatuses And Systems For Embedded Thermoelectric Generators

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad M.

    2013-08-08

    An apparatus and a system for embedded thermoelectric generators are disclosed. In one embodiment, the apparatus is embedded in an interface where the ambient temperatures on two sides of the interface are different. In one embodiment, the apparatus is fabricated with the interface in integrity as a unitary piece. In one embodiment, the apparatus includes a first thermoelectric material embedded through the interface. The apparatus further includes a second thermoelectric material embedded through the interface. The first thermoelectric material is electrically coupled to the second thermoelectric material. In one embodiment, the apparatus further includes an output structure coupled to the first thermoelectric material and the second thermoelectric material and configured to output a voltage.

  1. Cluster Implantation and Deposition Apparatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanif, Muhammad; Popok, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    In the current report, a design and capabilities of a cluster implantation and deposition apparatus (CIDA) involving two different cluster sources are described. The clusters produced from gas precursors (Ar, N etc.) by PuCluS-2 can be used to study cluster ion implantation in order to develop...... contributions to the theory of cluster stopping in matter as well as for practical applications requiring ultra-shallow implantation and modification of surfaces on the nanoscale. Metal clusters from the magnetron cluster source are of interest for the production of optical sensors to detect specific biological...

  2. Lateral Ignition and Flame Spread Apparatus

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description: This apparatus, developed at EL, determines material properties related to piloted ignition of a vertically oriented sample under constant and uniform...

  3. Versatile apparatus for thermoelectric characterization of oxides at high temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrade, Matthias; Fjeld, Harald; Norby, Truls; Finstad, Terje G

    2014-10-01

    An apparatus for measuring the Seebeck coefficient and electrical conductivity is presented and characterized. The device can be used in a wide temperature range from room temperature to 1050 °C and in all common atmospheres, including oxidizing, reducing, humid, and inert. The apparatus is suitable for samples with different geometries (disk-, bar-shaped), allowing a complete thermoelectric characterization (including thermal conductivity) on a single sample. The Seebeck coefficient α can be measured in both sample directions (in-plane and cross-plane) simultaneously. Electrical conductivity is measured via the van der Pauw method. Perovskite-type CaMnO3 and the misfit cobalt oxide (Ca2CoO3)q(CoO2) are studied to demonstrate the temperature range and to investigate the variation of the electrical properties as a function of the measurement atmosphere.

  4. Apparatus for Precise Indium-Bump Bonding of Microchips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Larry; Mulder, Jerry; Alvarado, Nicholas

    2005-01-01

    improved apparatus, the bonding tip and the components that hold the substrate and the microchip are more rigid and precise than in the prior apparatus, so as to ensure less deviation from parallelarity of the bonding-tip and substrate surfaces, thereby ensuring more nearly uniform distribution of bonding force over the area of the microchip. The bonding force is now applied through, and measured by, a load cell that makes it possible to exert finer control over the force. The force can be set at any value between 0 and the weight of 800 g in increments of 0.2 g.

  5. Master-slave micromanipulator apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Alan K.; Kozlowski, David M.; Charles, Steven T.; Spalding, James A.

    1999-01-01

    An apparatus based on precision X-Y stages that are stacked. Attached to arms projecting from each X-Y stage are a set of two axis gimbals. Attached to the gimbals is a rod, which provides motion along the axis of the rod and rotation around its axis. A dual-planar apparatus that provides six degrees of freedom of motion precise to within microns of motion. Precision linear stages along with precision linear motors, encoders, and controls provide a robotics system. The motors can be positioned in a remote location by incorporating a set of bellows on the motors and can be connected through a computer controller that will allow one to be a master and the other one to be a slave. Position information from the master can be used to control the slave. Forces of interaction of the slave with its environment can be reflected back to the motor control of the master to provide a sense of force sensed by the slave. Forces import onto the master by the operator can be fed back into the control of the slave to reduce the forces required to move it.

  6. Apparatus for incinerating hazardous waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, R.C.W.

    1994-12-20

    An apparatus is described for incinerating wastes, including an incinerator having a combustion chamber, a fluid-tight shell enclosing the combustion chamber, an afterburner, an off-gas particulate removal system and an emergency off-gas cooling system. The region between the inner surface of the shell and the outer surface of the combustion chamber forms a cavity. Air is supplied to the cavity and heated as it passes over the outer surface of the combustion chamber. Heated air is drawn from the cavity and mixed with fuel for input into the combustion chamber. The pressure in the cavity is maintained at least approximately 2.5 cm WC higher than the pressure in the combustion chamber. Gases cannot leak from the combustion chamber since the pressure outside the chamber (inside the cavity) is higher than the pressure inside the chamber. The apparatus can be used to treat any combustible wastes, including biological wastes, toxic materials, low level radioactive wastes, and mixed hazardous and low level transuranic wastes. 1 figure.

  7. Development of a Compact Snow Crystal Formation Apparatus Based on a Diffusion Method Using a Peltier Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Shinsuke; Endo, Hiroshi; Seki, Mitsuo

    We developed a compact snow crystal formation apparatus based on a diffusion method using a Peltier device. This apparatus does not need an assemblage and is small enough to be operated on a desk. Anyone can easily observe snow crystal formation in a normal temperature room. We adopted a diffusion method because the shape enable that several people can simultaneously observe the snow crystal formation from above. To estimate a performance of the apparatus, we investigated temperature profiles in the apparatus by measurement and simulations with (Case 1) and without (Case 2) natural convection. As results of the simulations, Case 1 and Case 2 reached a steady state. In each case, temperature stratification condition was formed in lower part of the apparatus. From the comparison of the results of measurement and simulations, finally, it is concluded that there is a natural convection, but the air current is not so strong as disturbing the temperature stratification condition in the apparatus.

  8. Investigating the mechanics of earthquakes using macroscopic seismic parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkataraman, Anupama

    2002-09-01

    To understand the physics of earthquake rupture mechanics, we have to relate seismologically observable parameters to the dynamics of faulting. One of the key seismological parameters that will help us achieve this objective is the energy radiated by seismic waves. In this work, we develop a new method of estimating radiated energy from regional data using an empirical Green's function method; we also modify existing methods of estimating radiated energy from teleseismic data by improving the corrections applied to the observed seismic data for attenuation and directivity effects. We compute teleseismic estimates of radiated energy for 23 large subduction zone earthquakes recorded between 1992 and 2001; most of these earthquakes have a magnitude Mw > 7.5, but we also include some smaller (Mw ˜ 6.7) well-studied subduction zone earthquakes and 6 crustal earthquakes. We compile the static stress drop estimates for these 29 earthquakes from published literature. We then determine radiation efficiency of these earthquakes using a stress relaxation model that relates measurable and macroscopic seismological parameters to the physical processes on the fault zone via fracture energy. We also determine the rupture velocity of these earthquakes from published literature. A comparison of radiation efficiencies and rupture velocities of these earthquakes with the expected theoretical values for different modes crack propagation validates the use of the stress relaxation model to understand earthquake rupture mechanics. From our calculations, we observe that most earthquakes have radiation efficiencies between 0.25 and 1 and are hence efficient in generating seismic waves, but tsunami earthquakes and two deep earthquakes, the 1994 deep earthquake that occurred in Bolivia and the 1999 Russia-China border earthquake, have very small radiation efficiencies (<0.25) and hence dissipate a large amount of energy on the fault plane. We suggest that the difference in the radiation

  9. Wave speeds in the macroscopic extended model for ultrarelativistic gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borghero, F., E-mail: borghero@unica.it [Dip. Matematica e Informatica, Università di Cagliari, Via Ospedale 72, 09124 Cagliari (Italy); Demontis, F., E-mail: fdemontis@unica.it [Dip. Matematica, Università di Cagliari, Viale Merello 92, 09123 Cagliari (Italy); Pennisi, S., E-mail: spennisi@unica.it [Dip. Matematica, Università di Cagliari, Via Ospedale 72, 09124 Cagliari (Italy)

    2013-11-15

    Equations determining wave speeds for a model of ultrarelativistic gases are investigated. This model is already present in literature; it deals with an arbitrary number of moments and it was proposed in the context of exact macroscopic approaches in Extended Thermodynamics. We find these results: the whole system for the determination of the wave speeds can be divided into independent subsystems which are expressed by linear combinations, through scalar coefficients, of tensors all of the same order; some wave speeds, but not all of them, are expressed by square roots of rational numbers; finally, we prove that these wave speeds for the macroscopic model are the same of those furnished by the kinetic model.

  10. From 1D to 3D - macroscopic nanowire aerogel monoliths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Wei; Rechberger, Felix; Niederberger, Markus

    2016-07-01

    Here we present a strategy to assemble one-dimensional nanostructures into a three-dimensional architecture with macroscopic size. With the assistance of centrifugation, we successfully gel ultrathin W18O49 nanowires with diameters of 1 to 2 nm and aspect ratios larger than 100 into 3D networks, which are transformed into monolithic aerogels by supercritical drying.Here we present a strategy to assemble one-dimensional nanostructures into a three-dimensional architecture with macroscopic size. With the assistance of centrifugation, we successfully gel ultrathin W18O49 nanowires with diameters of 1 to 2 nm and aspect ratios larger than 100 into 3D networks, which are transformed into monolithic aerogels by supercritical drying. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details, SEM and TEM images, and digital photographs. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr04429h

  11. Microscopic versus macroscopic approaches to non-equilibrium systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derrida, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    The one-dimensional symmetric simple exclusion process (SSEP) is one of the very few exactly soluble models of non-equilibrium statistical physics. It describes a system of particles which diffuse with hard core repulsion on a one-dimensional lattice in contact with two reservoirs of particles at unequal densities. The goal of this paper is to review the two main approaches which lead to the exact expression of the large deviation functional of the density of the SSEP in its steady state: a microscopic approach (based on the matrix product ansatz and an additivity property) and a macroscopic approach (based on the macroscopic fluctuation theory of Bertini, De Sole, Gabrielli, Jona-Lasinio and Landim).

  12. Wave speeds in the macroscopic extended model for ultrarelativistic gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borghero, F., E-mail: borghero@unica.it [Dip. Matematica e Informatica, Università di Cagliari, Via Ospedale 72, 09124 Cagliari (Italy); Demontis, F., E-mail: fdemontis@unica.it [Dip. Matematica, Università di Cagliari, Viale Merello 92, 09123 Cagliari (Italy); Pennisi, S., E-mail: spennisi@unica.it [Dip. Matematica, Università di Cagliari, Via Ospedale 72, 09124 Cagliari (Italy)

    2013-11-15

    Equations determining wave speeds for a model of ultrarelativistic gases are investigated. This model is already present in literature; it deals with an arbitrary number of moments and it was proposed in the context of exact macroscopic approaches in Extended Thermodynamics. We find these results: the whole system for the determination of the wave speeds can be divided into independent subsystems which are expressed by linear combinations, through scalar coefficients, of tensors all of the same order; some wave speeds, but not all of them, are expressed by square roots of rational numbers; finally, we prove that these wave speeds for the macroscopic model are the same of those furnished by the kinetic model.

  13. Applying quantum mechanics to macroscopic and mesoscopic systems

    CERN Document Server

    T., N Poveda

    2012-01-01

    There exists a paradigm in which Quantum Mechanics is an exclusively developed theory to explain phenomena on a microscopic scale. As the Planck's constant is extremely small, $h\\sim10^{-34}{J.s}$, and as in the relation of de Broglie the wavelength is inversely proportional to the momentum; for a mesoscopic or macroscopic object the Broglie wavelength is very small, and consequently the undulatory behavior of this object is undetectable. In this paper we show that with a particle oscillating around its classical trajectory, the action is an integer multiple of a quantum of action, $S = nh_{o}$. The quantum of action, $h_{o}$, which plays a role equivalent to Planck's constant, is a free parameter that must be determined and depends on the physical system considered. For a mesoscopic and macroscopic system: $h_{o}\\gg h$, this allows us to describe these systems with the formalism of quantum mechanics.

  14. Analysis and Enhancements of a Prolific Macroscopic Model of Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Fietkiewicz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Macroscopic models of epilepsy can deliver surprisingly realistic EEG simulations. In the present study, a prolific series of models is evaluated with regard to theoretical and computational concerns, and enhancements are developed. Specifically, we analyze three aspects of the models: (1 Using dynamical systems analysis, we demonstrate and explain the presence of direct current potentials in the simulated EEG that were previously undocumented. (2 We explain how the system was not ideally formulated for numerical integration of stochastic differential equations. A reformulated system is developed to support proper methodology. (3 We explain an unreported contradiction in the published model specification regarding the use of a mathematical reduction method. We then use the method to reduce the number of equations and further improve the computational efficiency. The intent of our critique is to enhance the evolution of macroscopic modeling of epilepsy and assist others who wish to explore this exciting class of models further.

  15. Optomechanical entanglement of a macroscopic oscillator by quantum feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, E.; Li, Fengzhi; Zhang, Xuefeng; Ma, Yonghong

    2016-07-01

    We propose a scheme to generate the case of macroscopic entanglement in the optomechanical system, which consist of Fabry-Perot cavity and a mechanical oscillator by applying a homodyne-mediated quantum feedback. We explore the effect of feedback on the entanglement in vacuum and coherent state, respectively. The results show that the introduction of quantum feedback can increase the entanglement effectively between the cavity mode and the oscillator mode.

  16. Identification of Bodies Exposed to High Temperatures Based on Macroscopic...

    OpenAIRE

    Barraza Salcedo, María del Socorro; Universidad Metropolitana de Barranquilla. Barranquilla; Rebolledo Cobos, Martha Leonor; Universidad Metropolitana de Barranquilla

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT. Background: Forensic dentistry in cases of incineration provides scientific elements that allow the identification of bodies, by analyzing dental organs, through the isolation of DNA obtained from the pulp as an alternative to confirm the identity of the victim. When the degree of temperature is highly elevated, dental tissues are vulnerable and therefore the DNA pulp is not salvageable, wasting resources and time by lack of standards to identify macroscopic characteristics that ind...

  17. CONTRIBUTION OF MACROSCOPIC DIMENSION EFFECT TO PIEZOELFCTRICITY IN POLYVINYLIDENE FLUORIDE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Jianxun; TAKEO FURUKAWA

    1987-01-01

    In this paper, we have studied the piezoelectricity in the poled uniaxially drawn polyvinylidene fluoride. The piezoelectric constants d31, d32, da33 and Young's moduli 1/s11 and 1/s22 have been determined as a function of the remanent polarization Pr. The piezoelectric constants of the samples show a strong in-plane anisotropy. Such an anisotropy is mostly attributable to different Poisson's ratio. It is found that the piezoelectric activity mainly arises from macroscopic dimensional change.

  18. Toward a superconducting quantum computer. Harnessing macroscopic quantum coherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jaw-Shen

    2010-01-01

    Intensive research on the construction of superconducting quantum computers has produced numerous important achievements. The quantum bit (qubit), based on the Josephson junction, is at the heart of this research. This macroscopic system has the ability to control quantum coherence. This article reviews the current state of quantum computing as well as its history, and discusses its future. Although progress has been rapid, the field remains beset with unsolved issues, and there are still many new research opportunities open to physicists and engineers.

  19. Stochastic and Macroscopic Thermodynamics of Strongly Coupled Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarzynski, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    We develop a thermodynamic framework that describes a classical system of interest S that is strongly coupled to its thermal environment E . Within this framework, seven key thermodynamic quantities—internal energy, entropy, volume, enthalpy, Gibbs free energy, heat, and work—are defined microscopically. These quantities obey thermodynamic relations including both the first and second law, and they satisfy nonequilibrium fluctuation theorems. We additionally impose a macroscopic consistency condition: When S is large, the quantities defined within our framework scale up to their macroscopic counterparts. By satisfying this condition, we demonstrate that a unifying framework can be developed, which encompasses both stochastic thermodynamics at one end, and macroscopic thermodynamics at the other. A central element in our approach is a thermodynamic definition of the volume of the system of interest, which converges to the usual geometric definition when S is large. We also sketch an alternative framework that satisfies the same consistency conditions. The dynamics of the system and environment are modeled using Hamilton's equations in the full phase space.

  20. Macroscopic quantum oscillator based on a flux qubit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Mandip, E-mail: mandip@iisermohali.ac.in

    2015-09-25

    In this paper a macroscopic quantum oscillator is proposed, which consists of a flux-qubit in the form of a cantilever. The net magnetic flux threading through the flux-qubit and the mechanical degrees of freedom of the cantilever are naturally coupled. The coupling between the cantilever and the magnetic flux is controlled through an external magnetic field. The ground state of the flux-qubit-cantilever turns out to be an entangled quantum state, where the cantilever deflection and the magnetic flux are the entangled degrees of freedom. A variant, which is a special case of the flux-qubit-cantilever without a Josephson junction, is also discussed. - Highlights: • In this paper a flux-qubit-cantilever is proposed. • Coupling can be varied by an external magnetic field. • Ground state is a macroscopic entangled quantum state. • Ground state of the superconducting-loop-oscillator is a macroscopic quantum superposition. • Proposed scheme is based on a generalized quantum approach.

  1. Macroscopic description of the limb muscles of Tupinambis merianae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Barbosa Casals

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Tegu lizard (Tupinambis merianae belongs to the Teiidae family. It is distributed throughout the Americas, with many species, including Brazilian ones. They are from the Tupinambis genus, the largest representatives of the Teiidae family. For this study three animals (run over coming from donation were used. The dissected lizards were fixed in 10%, formaldehyde, and the macroscopic analysis was carried out in a detailed and photo documented way, keeping the selected structures “in situ”. This paper had as its main aim contributing to the macroscopic description of the chest myology, as well as the thoracic and pelvic limbs of the lizard T. merianae. The results obtained from this research were compared to authors who have studied animals from the same Reptilia class. Thus, we conclude that our macroscopic results are similar to those already described by the researchers Hildebrand (1995, Moro and Abdala (2004 and Abdala and Diogo (2010. We should highlight that the knowledge on anatomy has importance and applications to various areas within Biology, contributing in a substantial way to the areas of human health and technology.

  2. Mesoscopic Kinetic Basis of Macroscopic Chemical Thermodynamics: A Mathematical Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Ge, Hao

    2016-01-01

    From a mathematical model that describes a complex chemical kinetic system of $N$ species and $M$ elementrary reactions in a rapidly stirred vessel of size $V$ as a Markov process, we show that a macroscopic chemical thermodynamics emerges as $V\\rightarrow\\infty$. The theory is applicable to linear and nonlinear reactions, closed systems reaching chemical equilibrium, or open, driven systems approaching to nonequilibrium steady states. A generalized mesoscopic free energy gives rise to a macroscopic chemical energy function $\\varphi^{ss}(\\vx)$ where $\\vx=(x_1,\\cdots,x_N)$ are the concentrations of the $N$ chemical species. The macroscopic chemical dynamics $\\vx(t)$ satisfies two emergent laws: (1) $(\\rd/\\rd t)\\varphi^{ss}[\\vx(t)]\\le 0$, and (2)$(\\rd/\\rd t)\\varphi^{ss}[\\vx(t)]=\\text{cmf}(\\vx)-\\sigma(\\vx)$ where entropy production rate $\\sigma\\ge 0$ represents the sink for the chemical energy, and chemical motive force $\\text{cmf}\\ge 0$ is non-zero if the system is driven under a sustained nonequilibrium chemos...

  3. Noise-driven interfaces and their macroscopic representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dentz, Marco; Neuweiler, Insa; Méheust, Yves; Tartakovsky, Daniel M.

    2016-11-01

    We study the macroscopic representation of noise-driven interfaces in stochastic interface growth models in (1 +1 ) dimensions. The interface is characterized macroscopically by saturation, which represents the fluctuating sharp interface by a smoothly varying phase field with values between 0 and 1. We determine the one-point interface height statistics for the Edwards-Wilkinson (EW) and Kadar-Paris-Zhang (KPZ) models in order to determine explicit deterministic equations for the phase saturation for each of them. While we obtain exact results for the EW model, we develop a Gaussian closure approximation for the KPZ model. We identify an interface compression term, which is related to mass transfer perpendicular to the growth direction, and a diffusion term that tends to increase the interface width. The interface compression rate depends on the mesoscopic mass transfer process along the interface and in this sense provides a relation between meso- and macroscopic interface dynamics. These results shed light on the relation between mesoscale and macroscale interface models, and provide a systematic framework for the upscaling of stochastic interface dynamics.

  4. [Membrana interossea antebrachii--a common ligament of the radius-ulna joint. I: Macroscopic structure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küsswetter, W

    1979-10-01

    In 64 cadaveric forearm-specimens of different donorage the membrana interossea antebrachii was investigated macroscopically. The extension of the membrana interossea at the forearm was measured as well as its thickness. The direction of its fibers was also determinated in its different sections and prevalent fibrous structures reinforcing the membrana interossea were investigated. The results characterize the membrana interossea in its middle and proximal section as a taut, strong ligament, which stabilizes the forearm and coordinates pronation and supination in both radioulnar joints.

  5. Ballistic and diffusive dynamics in a two-dimensional ideal gas of macroscopic chaotic Faraday waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Kyle J; Hastings-Hauss, Isaac; Parthasarathy, Raghuveer; Corwin, Eric I

    2014-04-01

    We have constructed a macroscopic driven system of chaotic Faraday waves whose statistical mechanics, we find, are surprisingly simple, mimicking those of a thermal gas. We use real-time tracking of a single floating probe, energy equipartition, and the Stokes-Einstein relation to define and measure a pseudotemperature and diffusion constant and then self-consistently determine a coefficient of viscous friction for a test particle in this pseudothermal gas. Because of its simplicity, this system can serve as a model for direct experimental investigation of nonequilibrium statistical mechanics, much as the ideal gas epitomizes equilibrium statistical mechanics.

  6. Macroscopic states induced in superconducting media by a transport current under flux creep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanovskii, V. R.

    2016-08-01

    The physical features of the formation of macroscopic states of superconducting composites consisting of a superconductor and a coating under flux creep are discussed. It is demonstrated that there exist characteristic electric field strengths depending on the properties of the superconductor, cooling conditions, and characteristics of the stabilizing coating, which affect the intensity of the E-I characteristics of the superconducting composites. Analysis shows that the measurements of the critical properties of superconductors can be accompanied by a nonuniform electric field distribution over the composite cross section and high stable superheating of the superconductor, which do not lead to superconductivity breaking.

  7. Micromechanical study of macroscopic friction and dissipation in idealised granular materials: the effect of interparticle friction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruyt, N.P.; Rothenburg, L.; Gutkowski, Witold; Kowalewski, Tomasz A.

    2004-01-01

    Using Discrete Element Method (DEM) simulations with varying interparticle friction coefficient, the relation between interparticle friction coefficient and macroscopic continuum friction and dissipation is investigated. As expected, macroscopic friction and dilatancy increase with interparticle fri

  8. Solvable Quantum Macroscopic Motions and Decoherence Mechanisms in Quantum Mechanics on Nonstandard Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Tsunehiro

    1996-01-01

    Quantum macroscopic motions are investigated in the scheme consisting of N-number of harmonic oscillators in terms of ultra-power representations of nonstandard analysis. Decoherence is derived from the large internal degrees of freedom of macroscopic matters.

  9. Refrigerant recycling apparatus, method and system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, J.P.; Gordon, R.F.

    1993-07-13

    A refrigerant recycling apparatus for recovery and purification of refrigerant is described comprising: (a) an input conduit system for connecting a refrigerant source to the refrigerant recycling apparatus; (b) a first disposable filter capable of removing moisture and particulates from the refrigerant, said disposable filter being located such that the filter is easily accessible for service; (c) a primary heat exchanger configured so as to provide heat to the refrigerant thereby causing the refrigerant to be vaporized; (d) a secondary heat exchanger for further heating of the refrigerant to further assist in vaporization of the refrigerant; (e) an expansion valve located prior in line to said primary and secondary heat exchangers for controlling the flow of the refrigerant and reducing the pressure of the refrigerant, thereby allowing the refrigerant to expand to a predominantly gaseous state; (f) a separator for removing oil from the refrigerant; (g) a compressor pump having a vacuum producing inlet and a pressure producing outlet, the pump being a hermetically sealed, lubricated-for-life positive displacement pump; (h) a condenser for cooling the refrigerant; (i) a second disposable filter for removing moisture, acids, and other particulates from the refrigerant passing there through, said disposable filter being located in an area easily accessible for servicing; (j) an interconnecting conduit system for interconnecting the input conduit system, the first and second disposable filters, the heat exchangers, the compressor pump, the condenser, the expansion valve, and the refrigerant source; (k) a moisture indicator located after the second disposable filter, for measuring the degree of moisture present within the refrigerant after the refrigerant has flowed through the second disposable filter.

  10. Apparatus Named After Our Academic Ancestors, III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, Thomas B.

    2014-09-01

    My academic ancestors in physics have called on me once more to tell you about the apparatus that they devised, and that many of you have used in your demonstrations and labs. This article is about apparatus named after François Arago, Heinrich Helmholtz, Leon Foucault, and James Watt.

  11. On an Actual Apparatus for Conceptual Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macbeth, Douglas

    2000-01-01

    Organizes a reading of the conceptual change literature that brings into view a collection of design specifications for a conceptual change apparatus. Analyzes one such apparatus in the particulars of a science education demonstration program produced by the Harvard-Smithsonian Private Universe Project. (Contains 114 references.) (Author/WRM)

  12. Apparatus Named after Our Academic Ancestors, III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    My academic ancestors in physics have called on me once more to tell you about the apparatus that they devised, and that many of you have used in your demonstrations and labs. This article is about apparatus named after François Arago, Heinrich Helmholtz, Leon Foucault, and James Watt.

  13. Method of magnetic separation and apparatus therefore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oder, Robin R. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    An apparatus for magnetically separating and collecting particulate matter fractions of a raw sample according to relative magnetic susceptibilities of each fraction so collected is disclosed. The separation apparatus includes a splitter which is used in conjunction with a magnetic separator for achieving the desired fractionation.

  14. Modeling of column apparatus processes

    CERN Document Server

    Boyadjiev, Christo; Boyadjiev, Boyan; Popova-Krumova, Petya

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a new approach for the modeling of chemical and interphase mass transfer processes in industrial column apparatuses, using convection-diffusion and average-concentration models. The convection-diffusion type models are used for a qualitative analysis of the processes and to assess the main, small and slight physical effects, and then reject the slight effects. As a result, the process mechanism can be identified. It also introduces average concentration models for quantitative analysis, which use the average values of the velocity and concentration over the cross-sectional area of the column. The new models are used to analyze different processes (simple and complex chemical reactions, absorption, adsorption and catalytic reactions), and make it possible to model the processes of gas purification with sulfur dioxide, which form the basis of several patents.

  15. Apparatus for solar coal gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, D.W.

    Apparatus for using focused solar radiation to gasify coal and other carbonaceous materials is described. Incident solar radiation is focused from an array of heliostats onto a tower-mounted secondary mirror which redirects the focused solar radiation down through a window onto the surface of a vertically-moving bed of coal, or a fluidized bed of coal, contained within a gasification reactor. The reactor is designed to minimize contact between the window and solids in the reactor. Steam introduced into the gasification reactor reacts with the heated coal to produce gas consisting mainly of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, commonly called synthesis gas, which can be converted to methane, methanol, gasoline, and other useful products. One of the novel features of the invention is the generation of process steam at the rear surface of the secondary mirror.

  16. Apparatuses to support photovoltaic modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciasulli, John; Jones, Jason

    2017-08-22

    Methods and apparatuses to support photovoltaic ("PV") modules are described. A saddle bracket has a mounting surface to support one or more PV modules over a tube, a gusset coupled to the mounting surface, and a mounting feature coupled to the gusset to couple to the tube. A grounding washer has a first portion to couple to a support; and a second portion coupled to the first portion to provide a ground path to a PV module. A PV system has a saddle bracket; a PV module over the saddle bracket; and a grounding washer coupled to the saddle bracket and the PV module. Saddle brackets can be coupled to a torque tube at predetermined locations. PV modules can be coupled to the saddle brackets.

  17. APPARATUS FOR LIQUID PHASE EXTRACTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, T.R.; Lehman, H.R.; Rubin, B.

    1958-09-16

    operation is described. It comprises a tubular colunm having upper and lower enlarged terminal portions, and a constricted central section containing fluid dispersal packing. Pulsing means are coupled to the upper portion of the column. The inlet for the less dense phase is located above the inlet for the denser phase and both are positioned so that liquids enter the constricted packingfilled central section. The apparatos also includes an interfacing level control, and means fer sensing the level of the interface actuate apparatus for controlling the rate of flow of input or discharge. The outlet for the less dense phase is located in the upper packing free portion of the colunm and that of the denser phase in the lower portion.

  18. On monogamy of non-locality and macroscopic averages: examples and preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Soares Barbosa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We explore a connection between monogamy of non-locality and a weak macroscopic locality condition: the locality of the average behaviour. These are revealed by our analysis as being two sides of the same coin. Moreover, we exhibit a structural reason for both in the case of Bell-type multipartite scenarios, shedding light on but also generalising the results in the literature [Ramanathan et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 060405 (2001; Pawlowski & Brukner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 030403 (2009]. More specifically, we show that, provided the number of particles in each site is large enough compared to the number of allowed measurement settings, and whatever the microscopic state of the system, the macroscopic average behaviour is local realistic, or equivalently, general multipartite monogamy relations hold. This result relies on a classical mathematical theorem by Vorob'ev [Theory Probab. Appl. 7(2, 147-163 (1962] about extending compatible families of probability distributions defined on the faces of a simplicial complex – in the language of the sheaf-theoretic framework of Abramsky & Brandenburger [New J. Phys. 13, 113036 (2011], such families correspond to no-signalling empirical models, and the existence of an extension corresponds to locality or non-contextuality. Since Vorob'ev's theorem depends solely on the structure of the simplicial complex, which encodes the compatibility of the measurements, and not on the specific probability distributions (i.e. the empirical models, our result about monogamy relations and locality of macroscopic averages holds not just for quantum theory, but for any empirical model satisfying the no-signalling condition. In this extended abstract, we illustrate our approach by working out a couple of examples, which convey the intuition behind our analysis while keeping the discussion at an elementary level.

  19. Microstructure and temperature dependence of intergranular strains on diffractometric macroscopic residual stress analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, J.N., E-mail: Julia.Wagner@kit.edu [KNMF, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Hofmann, M. [Forschungs-Neutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz (FRM II), TU München, Lichtenbergstr. 1, 85747 Garching (Germany); Wimpory, R. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie, D-14109 Berlin Wannsee (Germany); Krempaszky, C. [Christian-Doppler-Labor für Werkstoffmechanik von Hochleistungslegierungen, TU München, Boltzmannstr. 15, 85747 Garching (Germany); Lehrstuhl für Werkstoffkunde und Werkstoffmechanik, TU München, Boltzmannstr. 15, 85747 Garching (Germany); Stockinger, M. [Böhler Schmiedetechnik GmbH and Co KG, Mariazeller Straße 25, 8605 Kapfenberg (Austria)

    2014-11-17

    Knowledge of the macroscopic residual stresses in components of complex high performance alloys is crucial when it comes to considering the safety and manufacturing aspects of components. Diffraction experiments are one of the key methods for studying residual stresses. However a component of the residual strain determined by diffraction experiments, known as microstrain or intergranular residual strain, occurs over the length scale of the grains and thus plays only a minor role for the life time of such components. For the reliable determination of macroscopic strains (with the minimum influence of these intergranular residual strains), the ISO standard recommends the use of particular Bragg reflections. Here we compare the build-up of intergranular strain of two different precipitation hardened IN 718 (INCONEL 718) samples, with identical chemical composition. Since intergranular strains are also affected by temperature, results from room temperature measurement are compared to results at T=550 °C. It turned out that microstructural parameters, such as grain size or type of precipitates, have a larger effect on the intergranular strain evolution than the influence of temperature at the measurement temperature of T=550 °C. The results also show that the choice of Bragg reflections for the diffractometric residual stress analysis is dependent not only on its chemical composition, but also on the microstructure of the sample. In addition diffraction elastic constants (DECs) for all measured Bragg reflections are given.

  20. Design of a vapor-liquid-equilibrium, surface tension, and density apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holcomb, C.D.; Outcalt, S.L. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The design and performance of a unique vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) apparatus with density and surface tension capabilities is presented. The apparatus operates at temperatures ranging from 218 to 423 K, at pressures to 17 MPa, at densities to 1100 kg/m{sup 3}, and at surface tensions ranging from 0.1 to 75 mN/m. Temperatures are measured with a precision of {+-}0.02 K, pressures with a precision of {+-}0.1% of full scale, densities with a precision of {+-}0.5 kg/m{sup 3}, surface tensions with a precision of {+-}0.2 mN/m, and compositions with a precision of {+-}0.005 mole fraction. The apparatus is designed to be both accurate and versatile. Capabilities include: (1) the ability to operate the apparatus as a bubble point pressure or an isothermal pressure-volume-temperature (PVT) apparatus, (2) the ability to measure densities and surface tensions of the coexisting phases, and (3) the ability for either trapped or capillary sampling. We can validate our VLE and density data by measuring PVT or bubble point pressures in the apparatus. The use of the apparatus for measurements of VLE, densities, and surface tensions over wide ranges of temperature and pressure is important in equation of state and transport property model development. The use of different sampling procedures allows measurement of a wider variety of fluid mixtures. VLE measurements on the alternative refrigerant system R32/134a are presented and compared to literature results to verify the performance of the apparatus.

  1. Apparatus and method for mapping an area of interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staab, Torsten A. Cohen, Daniel L.; Feller, Samuel

    2009-12-01

    An apparatus and method are provided for mapping an area of interest using polar coordinates or Cartesian coordinates. The apparatus includes a range finder, an azimuth angle measuring device to provide a heading and an inclinometer to provide an angle of inclination of the range finder as it relates to primary reference points and points of interest. A computer is provided to receive signals from the range finder, inclinometer and azimuth angle measurer to record location data and calculate relative locations between one or more points of interest and one or more primary reference points. The method includes mapping of an area of interest to locate points of interest relative to one or more primary reference points and to store the information in the desired manner. The device may optionally also include an illuminator which can be utilized to paint the area of interest to indicate both points of interest and primary points of reference during and/or after data acquisition.

  2. Ultrasonic Apparatus and Method to Assess Compartment Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yost, William T. (Inventor); Ueno, Toshiaki (Inventor); Hargens, Alan R. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A process and apparatus for measuring pressure buildup in a body compartment that encases muscular tissue. The method includes assessing the body compartment configuration and identifying the effect of pulsatible components on compartment dimensions and muscle tissue characteristics. This process is used in preventing tissue necrosis, and in decisions of whether to perform surgery on the body compartment for prevention of Compartment Syndrome. An apparatus is used for measuring pressure build-up in the body compartment having components for imparting ultrasonic waves such as a transducer, placing the transducer to impart the ultrasonic waves, capturing the imparted ultrasonic waves, mathematically manipulating the captured ultrasonic waves and categorizing pressure build-up in the body compartment from the mathematical manipulations.

  3. Pulse radiolysis apparatus for monitoring at 2000 Å

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, H.C.; Nilsson, G.; Pagsberg, Palle Bjørn

    1969-01-01

    A pulse radiolysis apparatus with photometric monitoring has been built around an 11 MeV, 250 mA peak current, linac that delivers single 0.25 to 4 μsec pulses. The novel features of the apparatus include (1) a 450 W xenon lamp as the analyzing light source which in pulsed operation had a 25 times...... increased luminance; (2) a fast electronic switch that cut out the signal due to the Cerenkov radiation; (3) a secondary emission chamber that allowed the simultaneous measurement of the current and the direction of the pulsed electron beam; and (4) a system for remote controlled change of liquid samples...... stored in glass syringes. Reliable measurements of optical transmission could be made starting 0.2 μsec after the electron pulse at wavelengths down to 2000 Å on transient species having products of yield and absorptivity G×ε>500 mole (100 eV)-1.liter-1.cm-1...

  4. Micro and macroscopic investigation to quantify tillage impact on soil hydrodynamic behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckers, E.; Roisin, C.; Plougonven, E.; Deraedt, D.; Léonard, A.; Degré, A.

    2012-04-01

    Nowadays, tillage simplification is an increasing practice. Many advantages are cited in the literature, such as energy saving, soil conservation etc. Agricultural management practices influence soil structure, but consequent changes in soil hydrodynamic behaviour at the field scale are still not well understood. Many studies focus only on macroscopic measurements which do not provide mechanistic explanations. Moreover, research shows divergent conclusions over structure modification. The aim of this work is to fill this gap by quantifying soil structure modification depending on tillage intensity through both macroscopic and microscopic measurements, the latter improving our comprehension of the fundamental mechanisms involved. Our experiment takes place in Gentinnes (Walloon Brabant, Belgium), on a field organized in a Latin square scheme. Since 2004, plots have been cultivated in conventional tillage (CT) or in reduced tillage (RT). The latter consists in sowing after stubble ploughing of about 10cm. The crop rotation is sugar beet followed by winter wheat. The soil is mainly composed of silt loam and can be classified as a Luvisol. Macroscopic investigations consist in establishing pF and K(h) curves and 3D soil strength profiles. At the microscale, 3D morphologic parameters are measured using X-ray microtomography. Because of the variation of working depth between management practices (10cm for RT vs. 25cm for CT), two horizons were investigated: H1 between 0-10cm and H2 between 12-25cm. 3D soil strength profiles were established thanks to a fully automated penetrometer (30° angle cone with a base area of 10mm2) which covered a 160 × 80cm2 area with 5cm spacing between neighbouring points. At each node, penetration was performed and soil strength measurements were collected every 1cm from 5 to 55cm depth. K(h) curves were provided by 20cm diameter tension-infiltrometer measurements (Eijkelkamp Agrisearch Equipment). Undisturbed soil samples were removed from

  5. An apparatus to load gaseous materials to the diamond-anvil cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi, Takehiko; Yusa, Hitoshi; Yamakata, Masa-aki

    1996-08-01

    An apparatus to load gases to the sample chamber of the diamond-anvil cell has been devised. The apparatus is driven by a conventional 50 ton hydraulic press and no gas compressor is required. The gas from a commercial gas bomb is compressed to 150 MPa and loaded into the diamond-anvil cell sample chamber. After loading, the pressure of the diamond-anvil cell is increased further using the lever and spring mechanism. This kind of gas loading apparatus will become indispensable not only for studying gaseous materials themselves, but also for making precision measurements at high pressures and high temperatures under hydrostatic conditions.

  6. Design and performance of a cryogenic apparatus for magnetically trapping ultracold neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, P. R.; Coakley, K. J.; Doyle, J. M.; Huffer, C. R.; Mumm, H. P.; O'Shaughnessy, C. M.; Schelhammer, K. W.; Seo, P.-N.; Yang, L.

    2014-11-01

    The cryogenic design and performance of an apparatus used to magnetically confine ultracold neutrons (UCN) is presented. The apparatus is part of an effort to measure the beta-decay lifetime of the free neutron and is comprised of a high-current superconducting magnetic trap that surrounds ∼21 l of isotopically pure 4He cooled to approximately 250 mK. A 0.89 nm neutron beam can enter the apparatus from one end of the magnetic trap and a light collection system allows visible light generated within the helium by decays to be transported to detectors at room temperature. Two cryocoolers are incorporated to reduce liquid helium consumption.

  7. An experimental apparatus for study of direct {\\beta}-radiation conversion for energy harvesting

    CERN Document Server

    Haim, Y; deBotton, G

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces the development and testing of an experimental apparatus for characterization of a direct charging nuclear battery. The battery consists of a parallel-plates capacitor which is charged in a vacuum by the current of {\\beta}-radiation particles (electrons) emitted from a radioisotope. A 63Ni radioisotope with an activity of 15mCi that produces a 20pA current was selected as the radiation source. The apparatus is unique in its design, having ultra-low leakage current and a few options for charge measurements. Preliminary results of a few tests are presented to demonstrate the capabilities of the apparatus.

  8. Understanding the Pulsar High Energy Emission: Macroscopic and Kinetic Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalapotharakos, Constantinos; Brambilla, Gabriele; Timokhin, Andrey; Kust Harding, Alice; Kazanas, Demos

    2017-08-01

    Pulsars are extraordinary objects powered by the rotation of magnetic fields of order 10^8, 10^12G anchored onto neutron stars and rotating with periods 10^(-3)-10s. These fields mediate the conversion of their rotational energy into MHD winds and at the same time accelerate particles to energies sufficiently high to produce GeV photons. Fermi, since its launch in 2008, has established several trends among the observed gamma-ray pulsar properties playing a catalytic role in the current modeling of the high energy emission in pulsar magnetospheres. We judiciously use the guidance provided by the Fermi data to yield meaningful constraints on the macroscopic parameters of our global dissipative pulsar magnetosphere models. Our FIDO (Force-Free Inside, Dissipative Outside) models indicate that the dissipative regions lie outside the light cylinder near the equatorial current sheet. Our models reproduce the light-curve phenomenology while a detailed comparison of the model spectral properties with those observed by Fermi reveals the dependence of the macroscopic conductivity parameter on the spin-down rate providing a unique insight into the understanding of the physical mechanisms behind the high-energy emission in pulsar magnetospheres. Finally, we further exploit these important results by building self-consistent 3D global kinetic particle-in-cell (PIC) models which, eventually, provide the dependence of the macroscopic parameter behavior (e.g. conductivity) on the microphysical properties (e.g. particle multiplicities, particle injection rates). Our PIC models provide field structures and particle distributions that are not only consistent with each other but also able to reproduce a broad range of the observed gamma-ray phenomenology (light curves and spectral properties) of both young and millisecond pulsars.

  9. Apparatus and method for velocity estimation in synthetic aperture imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    The invention relates to an apparatus for flow estimation using synthetic aperture imaging. The method uses a Synthetic Transmit Aperture, but unlike previous approaches a new frame is created after every pulse emission. In receive mode parallel beam forming is implemented. The beam formed RF data......). The update signals are used in the velocity estimation processor (8) to correlate the individual measurements to obtain the displacement between high-resolution images and thereby determine the velocity....

  10. EXPERIMENTAL APPARATUS FOR EXAMINATION OF MAGNETIC FLUID LUBRICATED THURST BEARING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józef SALWIŃSKI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been development of the structure of thrust bearing with magnetic fluids . The essence of this type of bearing is to maintain a liquid lubricant in a very narrow gap with magnetic fluid by a magnetic field. Such systems can act as the bearing lubrication and sealing. This paper presents description of the experimental apparatus for examination magnetic fluid lubricated thrust bearing. Description of the construction and characteristics of the measuring possibilities ware presented.

  11. An apparatus for determining water vapour permeability of fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. L. Saksena

    1955-04-01

    Full Text Available An apparatus for the determination of water vapour permeability (W.V.P. of fabrics is described. The fabric partitions a closed space into two compartments in which are circulated air streams having high and low water vapour pressure respectively, without any overall pressure or temperature difference. The transfer of moisture from the high to the low humidity side of the fabric is gravimetrically measured. Results of tests are given.

  12. Self-Feeding Turbulent Magnetic Reconnection on Macroscopic Scales

    CERN Document Server

    Lapenta, Giovanni

    2008-01-01

    Within a MHD approach we find magnetic reconnection to progress in two entirely different ways. The first is well-known: the laminar Sweet-Parker process. But a second, completely different and chaotic reconnection process is possible. This regime has properties of immediate practical relevance: i) it is much faster, developing on scales of the order of the Alfv\\'en time, and ii) the areas of reconnection become distributed chaotically over a macroscopic region. The onset of the faster process is the formation of closed circulation patterns where the jets going out of the reconnection regions turn around and forces their way back in, carrying along copious amounts of magnetic flux.

  13. Single-atom quantum control of macroscopic mechanical oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bariani, F.; Otterbach, J.; Tan, Huatang; Meystre, P.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate a hybrid electromechanical system consisting of a pair of charged macroscopic mechanical oscillators coupled to a small ensemble of Rydberg atoms. The resonant dipole-dipole coupling between an internal atomic Rydberg transition and the mechanics allows cooling to its motional ground state with a single atom despite the considerable mass imbalance between the two subsystems. We show that the rich electronic spectrum of Rydberg atoms, combined with their high degree of optical control, paves the way towards implementing various quantum-control protocols for the mechanical oscillators.

  14. Emergence of an urban traffic macroscopic fundamental diagram

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ranjan, Abhishek; Fosgerau, Mogens; Jenelius, Erik

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines mild conditions under which a macroscopic fundamental diagram (MFD) emerges, relating space-averaged speed to occupancy in some area. These conditions are validated against empirical data. We allow local speedoccupancy relationships and, in particular, require no equilibrating...... process to be in operation. This means that merely observing the stable relationship between the space-averages of speed, flow and occupancy are not sufficient to infer a robust relationship and the emerging MFD cannot be guaranteed to be stable if traffic interventions are implemented....

  15. Seismic scanning tunneling macroscope - Elastic simulations and Arizona mine test

    KAUST Repository

    Hanafy, Sherif M.

    2012-01-01

    Elastic seismic simulations and field data tests are used to validate the theory of a seismic scanning tunneling macroscope (SSTM). For nearfield elastic simulation, the SSTM results show superresolution to be better than λ/8 if the only scattered data are used as input data. If the direct P and S waves are muted then the resolution of the scatterer locations are within about λ/5. Seismic data collected in an Arizona tunnel showed a superresolution limit of at least λ/19. These test results are consistent with the theory of the SSTM and suggest that the SSTM can be a tool used by geophysicists as a probe for near-field scatterers.

  16. Macroscopic description of teeth of Azara's agouti (Dasyprocta azarae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício S. Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The teeth of Azara's agouti (Dasyprocta azarae were described macroscopically in order to provide biological data on one of the largest wild rodents of the Americas. Radiography was taken on six heads and the teeth were described. Enamel surrounds the coronal dentin, projects to the roots and is present as parallel inner laminae in buccolingual direction. The dentin is located among the enamel laminae and surrounds the pulp horns. The cementum is located internally to the enamel laminae. On the lingual surface, the cementum and dentin are the outer elements.

  17. An investigation into why macroscopic systems behave classically

    OpenAIRE

    Hallwood, David W.; Burnett, Keith; Dunningham, Jacob

    2006-01-01

    We study why it is quite so hard to make a superposition of superfluid flows in a Bose-Einstein condensate. To do this we initially investigate the quantum states of $N$ atoms trapped in a 1D ring with a barrier at one position and a phase applied around it. We show how macroscopic superpositions can in principle be produced and investigate factors which affect the superposition. We then use the Bose-Hubbard model to study an array of Bose-Einstein condensates trapped in optical potentials an...

  18. Flagella bending affects macroscopic properties of bacterial suspensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potomkin, M.; Tournus, M.; Berlyand, L. V.; Aranson, I. S.

    2017-05-01

    To survive in harsh conditions, motile bacteria swim in complex environments and respond to the surrounding flow. Here, we develop a mathematical model describing how flagella bending affects macroscopic properties of bacterial suspensions. First, we show how the flagella bending contributes to the decrease in the effective viscosity observed in dilute suspension. Our results do not impose tumbling (random reorientation) as was previously done to explain the viscosity reduction. Second, we demonstrate how a bacterium escapes from wall entrapment due to the self-induced buckling of flagella. Our results shed light on the role of flexible bacterial flagella in interactions of bacteria with shear flow and walls or obstacles.

  19. Modelling and simulations of macroscopic multi-group pedestrian flow

    CERN Document Server

    Mahato, Naveen K; Tiwari, Sudarshan

    2016-01-01

    We consider a multi-group microscopic model for pedestrian flow describing the behaviour of large groups. It is based on an interacting particle system coupled to an eikonal equation. Hydrodynamic multi-group models are derived from the underlying particle system as well as scalar multi-group models. The eikonal equation is used to compute optimal paths for the pedestrians. Particle methods are used to solve the macroscopic equations. Numerical test cases are investigated and the models and, in particular, the resulting evacuation times are compared for a wide range of different parameters.

  20. Macroscopic modeling for traffic flow on three-lane highways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianzhong; Fang, Yuan

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, a macroscopic traffic flow model for three-lane highways is proposed. The model is an extension of the speed gradient model by taking into account the lane changing. The new source and sink terms of lane change rate are added into the continuity equations and the speed dynamic equations to describe the lane-changing behavior. The result of the steady state analysis shows that our model can describe the lane usage inversion phenomenon. The numerical results demonstrate that the present model effectively reproduces several traffic phenomena observed in real traffic such as shock and rarefaction waves, stop-and-go waves and local clusters.