WorldWideScience

Sample records for macroscopic length scales

  1. Convergence of macroscopic tongue anatomy in ruminants and scaling relationships with body mass or tongue length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Andrea R; Schmuck, Ute; Meloro, Carlo; Clauss, Marcus; Hofmann, Reinhold R

    2016-03-01

    Various morphological measures demonstrate convergent evolution in ruminants with their natural diet, in particular with respect to the browser/grazer dichotomy. Here, we report quantitative macroanatomical measures of the tongue (length and width of specific parts) of 65 ruminant species and relate them to either body mass (BM) or total tongue length, and to the percentage of grass in the natural diet (%grass). Models without and with accounting for the phylogenetic structures of the dataset were used, and models were ranked using Akaike's Information Criterion. Scaling relationships followed geometric principles, that is, length measures scaled with BM to the power of 0.33. Models that used tongue length rather than BM as a body size proxy were consistently ranked better, indicating that using size proxies that are less susceptible to a wider variety of factors (such as BM that fluctuates with body condition) should be attempted whenever possible. The proportion of the freely mobile tongue tip of the total tongue (and hence also the corpus length) was negatively correlated to %grass, in accordance with concepts that the feeding mechanism of browsers requires more mobile tongues. It should be noted that some nonbrowsers, such as cattle, use a peculiar mechanism for grazing that also requires long, mobile tongues, but they appear to be exceptions. A larger corpus width with increasing %grass corresponds to differences in snout shape with broader snouts in grazers. The Torus linguae is longer with increasing %grass, a finding that still warrants functional interpretation. This study shows that tongue measures covary with diet in ruminants. In contrast, the shape of the tongue (straight or "hourglass-shaped" as measured by the ratio of the widest and smallest corpus width) is unrelated to diet and is influenced strongly by phylogeny. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Length Scales in Bayesian Automatic Adaptive Quadrature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Gh.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Two conceptual developments in the Bayesian automatic adaptive quadrature approach to the numerical solution of one-dimensional Riemann integrals [Gh. Adam, S. Adam, Springer LNCS 7125, 1–16 (2012] are reported. First, it is shown that the numerical quadrature which avoids the overcomputing and minimizes the hidden floating point loss of precision asks for the consideration of three classes of integration domain lengths endowed with specific quadrature sums: microscopic (trapezoidal rule, mesoscopic (Simpson rule, and macroscopic (quadrature sums of high algebraic degrees of precision. Second, sensitive diagnostic tools for the Bayesian inference on macroscopic ranges, coming from the use of Clenshaw-Curtis quadrature, are derived.

  3. Chemical theory and modelling through density across length scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Swapan K.

    2016-01-01

    One of the concepts that has played a major role in the conceptual as well as computational developments covering all the length scales of interest in a number of areas of chemistry, physics, chemical engineering and materials science is the concept of single-particle density. Density functional theory has been a versatile tool for the description of many-particle systems across length scales. Thus, in the microscopic length scale, an electron density based description has played a major role in providing a deeper understanding of chemical binding in atoms, molecules and solids. Density concept has been used in the form of single particle number density in the intermediate mesoscopic length scale to obtain an appropriate picture of the equilibrium and dynamical processes, dealing with a wide class of problems involving interfacial science and soft condensed matter. In the macroscopic length scale, however, matter is usually treated as a continuous medium and a description using local mass density, energy density and other related property density functions has been found to be quite appropriate. The basic ideas underlying the versatile uses of the concept of density in the theory and modelling of materials and phenomena, as visualized across length scales, along with selected illustrative applications to some recent areas of research on hydrogen energy, soft matter, nucleation phenomena, isotope separation, and separation of mixture in condensed phase, will form the subject matter of the talk. (author)

  4. Length scale for configurational entropy in microemulsions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reiss, H.; Kegel, W.K.; Groenewold, J.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we study the length scale that must be used in evaluating the mixing entropy in a microemulsion. The central idea involves the choice of a length scale in configuration space that is consistent with the physical definition of entropy in phase space. We show that this scale may be

  5. Drug delivery across length scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delcassian, Derfogail; Patel, Asha K; Cortinas, Abel B; Langer, Robert

    2018-02-20

    Over the last century, there has been a dramatic change in the nature of therapeutic, biologically active molecules available to treat disease. Therapies have evolved from extracted natural products towards rationally designed biomolecules, including small molecules, engineered proteins and nucleic acids. The use of potent drugs which target specific organs, cells or biochemical pathways, necessitates new tools which can enable controlled delivery and dosing of these therapeutics to their biological targets. Here, we review the miniaturisation of drug delivery systems from the macro to nano-scale, focussing on controlled dosing and controlled targeting as two key parameters in drug delivery device design. We describe how the miniaturisation of these devices enables the move from repeated, systemic dosing, to on-demand, targeted delivery of therapeutic drugs and highlight areas of focus for the future.

  6. Validity of macroscopic concepts for fluids on a microscopic scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alder, B.J.; Alley, W.E.; Pollock, E.L.

    1981-01-01

    By Fourier decomposition of the appropriate fluctuation it is possible within the regime of linear response to extend the concept of both thermodynamic quantities and transport coefficients to their dependence on both wavelength and frequency. Experimentally these generalized macroscopic properties are accessible through neutron diffraction and, as examples, the dependence of the sound speed on wavelength and the diffusion coefficient on time are discussed. Through the molecular dynamics computer method the dependence of the viscosity on wavelength is calculated and applied with spectacular success to predict the dependence of the friction coefficient on the size of a Brownian particle all the way to atomic dimensions. On the other hand, the dielectric constant continuum concept, as applied to a charge or dipole in a cavity, generally fails to predict even the correct field at large distance from the charge. Avoiding the introduction of a cavity cures that problem, but the generalized dielectric constant fails badly in predicting the field at shorter distances from the charge. (orig.)

  7. Minimal Length Scale Scenarios for Quantum Gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossenfelder, Sabine

    2013-01-01

    We review the question of whether the fundamental laws of nature limit our ability to probe arbitrarily short distances. First, we examine what insights can be gained from thought experiments for probes of shortest distances, and summarize what can be learned from different approaches to a theory of quantum gravity. Then we discuss some models that have been developed to implement a minimal length scale in quantum mechanics and quantum field theory. These models have entered the literature as the generalized uncertainty principle or the modified dispersion relation, and have allowed the study of the effects of a minimal length scale in quantum mechanics, quantum electrodynamics, thermodynamics, black-hole physics and cosmology. Finally, we touch upon the question of ways to circumvent the manifestation of a minimal length scale in short-distance physics.

  8. Minimal Length Scale Scenarios for Quantum Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Hossenfelder

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We review the question of whether the fundamental laws of nature limit our ability to probe arbitrarily short distances. First, we examine what insights can be gained from thought experiments for probes of shortest distances, and summarize what can be learned from different approaches to a theory of quantum gravity. Then we discuss some models that have been developed to implement a minimal length scale in quantum mechanics and quantum field theory. These models have entered the literature as the generalized uncertainty principle or the modified dispersion relation, and have allowed the study of the effects of a minimal length scale in quantum mechanics, quantum electrodynamics, thermodynamics, black-hole physics and cosmology. Finally, we touch upon the question of ways to circumvent the manifestation of a minimal length scale in short-distance physics.

  9. Scale Length of the Galactic Thin Disk

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    thin disk density scale length, hR, is rather short (2.7 ± 0.1 kpc). Key words. ... The 2MASS near infrared data provide, for the first time, deep star counts on a ... peaks allows to adjust the spatial extinction law in the model. ... probability that fi.

  10. Density Functional Theory and Materials Modeling at Atomistic Length Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapan K. Ghosh

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: We discuss the basic concepts of density functional theory (DFT as applied to materials modeling in the microscopic, mesoscopic and macroscopic length scales. The picture that emerges is that of a single unified framework for the study of both quantum and classical systems. While for quantum DFT, the central equation is a one-particle Schrodinger-like Kohn-Sham equation, the classical DFT consists of Boltzmann type distributions, both corresponding to a system of noninteracting particles in the field of a density-dependent effective potential, the exact functional form of which is unknown. One therefore approximates the exchange-correlation potential for quantum systems and the excess free energy density functional or the direct correlation functions for classical systems. Illustrative applications of quantum DFT to microscopic modeling of molecular interaction and that of classical DFT to a mesoscopic modeling of soft condensed matter systems are highlighted.

  11. Improved Road-Network-Flow Control Strategy Based on Macroscopic Fundamental Diagrams and Queuing Length in Connected-Vehicle Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui Lin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Connected-vehicles network provides opportunities and conditions for improving traffic signal control, and macroscopic fundamental diagrams (MFD can control the road network at the macrolevel effectively. This paper integrated proposed real-time access to the number of mobile vehicles and the maximum road queuing length in the Connected-vehicles network. Moreover, when implementing a simple control strategy to limit the boundary flow of a road network based on MFD, we determined whether the maximum queuing length of each boundary section exceeds the road-safety queuing length in real-time calculations and timely adjusted the road-network influx rate to avoid the overflow phenomenon in the boundary section. We established a road-network microtraffic simulation model in VISSIM software taking a district as the experimental area, determined MFD of the region based on the number of mobile vehicles, and weighted traffic volume of the road network. When the road network was tending to saturate, we implemented a simple control strategy and our algorithm limits the boundary flow. Finally, we compared the traffic signal control indicators with three strategies: (1 no control strategy, (2 boundary control, and (3 boundary control with limiting queue strategy. The results show that our proposed algorithm is better than the other two.

  12. Evolution of the Contact Area with Normal Load for Rough Surfaces: from Atomic to Macroscopic Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shiping

    2017-11-13

    The evolution of the contact area with normal load for rough surfaces has great fundamental and practical importance, ranging from earthquake dynamics to machine wear. This work bridges the gap between the atomic scale and the macroscopic scale for normal contact behavior. The real contact area, which is formed by a large ensemble of discrete contacts (clusters), is proven to be much smaller than the apparent surface area. The distribution of the discrete contact clusters and the interaction between them are key to revealing the mechanism of the contacting solids. To this end, Green's function molecular dynamics (GFMD) is used to study both how the contact cluster evolves from the atomic scale to the macroscopic scale and the interaction between clusters. It is found that the interaction between clusters has a strong effect on their formation. The formation and distribution of the contact clusters is far more complicated than that predicted by the asperity model. Ignorance of the interaction between them leads to overestimating the contacting force. In real contact, contacting clusters are smaller and more discrete due to the interaction between the asperities. Understanding the exact nature of the contact area with the normal load is essential to the following research on friction.

  13. Neoclassical theory of electromagnetic interactions a single theory for macroscopic and microscopic scales

    CERN Document Server

    Babin, Anatoli

    2016-01-01

    In this monograph, the authors present their recently developed theory of electromagnetic interactions. This neoclassical approach extends the classical electromagnetic theory down to atomic scales and allows the explanation of various non-classical phenomena in the same framework. While the classical Maxwell–Lorentz electromagnetism theory succeeds in describing the physical reality at macroscopic scales, it struggles at atomic scales. Here, quantum mechanics traditionally takes over to describe non-classical phenomena such as the hydrogen spectrum and de Broglie waves. By means of modifying the classical theory, the approach presented here is able to consistently explain quantum-mechanical effects, and while similar to quantum mechanics in some respects, this neoclassical theory also differs markedly from it. In particular, the newly developed framework omits probabilistic interpretations of the wave function and features a new fundamental spatial scale which, at the size of the free electron, is much lar...

  14. Macroscopic High-Temperature Structural Analysis Model of Small-Scale PCHE Prototype (II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Kee Nam; Lee, Heong Yeon; Hong, Sung Deok; Park, Hong Yoon

    2011-01-01

    The IHX (intermediate heat exchanger) of a VHTR (very high-temperature reactor) is a core component that transfers the high heat generated by the VHTR at 950 .deg. C to a hydrogen production plant. Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute manufactured a small-scale prototype of a PCHE (printed circuit heat exchanger) that was being considered as a candidate for the IHX. In this study, as a part of high-temperature structural integrity evaluation of the small-scale PCHE prototype, we carried out high-temperature structural analysis modeling and macroscopic thermal and elastic structural analysis for the small-scale PCHE prototype under small-scale gas-loop test conditions. The modeling and analysis were performed as a precedent study prior to the performance test in the small-scale gas loop. The results obtained in this study will be compared with the test results for the small-scale PCHE. Moreover, these results will be used in the design of a medium-scale PCHE prototype

  15. Size-dependent elastic/inelastic behavior of enamel over millimeter and nanometer length scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Siang Fung; Bortel, Emely L; Swain, Michael V; Klocke, Arndt; Schneider, Gerold A

    2010-03-01

    The microstructure of enamel like most biological tissues has a hierarchical structure which determines their mechanical behavior. However, current studies of the mechanical behavior of enamel lack a systematic investigation of these hierarchical length scales. In this study, we performed macroscopic uni-axial compression tests and the spherical indentation with different indenter radii to probe enamel's elastic/inelastic transition over four hierarchical length scales, namely: 'bulk enamel' (mm), 'multiple-rod' (10's microm), 'intra-rod' (100's nm with multiple crystallites) and finally 'single-crystallite' (10's nm with an area of approximately one hydroxyapatite crystallite). The enamel's elastic/inelastic transitions were observed at 0.4-17 GPa depending on the length scale and were compared with the values of synthetic hydroxyapatite crystallites. The elastic limit of a material is important as it provides insights into the deformability of the material before fracture. At the smallest investigated length scale (contact radius approximately 20 nm), elastic limit is followed by plastic deformation. At the largest investigated length scale (contact size approximately 2 mm), only elastic then micro-crack induced response was observed. A map of elastic/inelastic regions of enamel from millimeter to nanometer length scale is presented. Possible underlying mechanisms are also discussed. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Mesoscopic Length Scale Controls the Rheology of Dense Suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnoit, Claire; Lanuza, Jose; Lindner, Anke; Clement, Eric

    2010-09-01

    From the flow properties of dense granular suspensions on an inclined plane, we identify a mesoscopic length scale strongly increasing with volume fraction. When the flowing layer height is larger than this length scale, a diverging Newtonian viscosity is determined. However, when the flowing layer height drops below this scale, we evidence a nonlocal effective viscosity, decreasing as a power law of the flow height. We establish a scaling relation between this mesoscopic length scale and the suspension viscosity. These results support recent theoretical and numerical results implying collective and clustered granular motion when the jamming point is approached from below.

  17. Exploring the safety in numbers effect for vulnerable road users on a macroscopic scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasic, Ivana; Elvik, Rune; Brewer, Simon

    2017-12-01

    A "Safety in Numbers" effect for a certain group of road users is present if the number of crashes increases at a lower rate than the number of road users. The existence of this effect has been invoked to justify investments in multimodal transportation improvements in order to create more sustainable urban transportation systems by encouraging walking, biking, and transit ridership. The goal of this paper is to explore safety in numbers effect for cyclists and pedestrians in areas with different levels of access to multimodal infrastructure. Data from Chicago served to estimate the expected number of crashes on the census tract level by applying Generalized Additive Models (GAM) to capture spatial dependence in crash data. Measures of trip generation, multimodal infrastructure, network connectivity and completeness, and accessibility were used to model travel exposure in terms of activity, number of trips, trip length, travel opportunities, and conflicts. The results show that a safety in numbers effect exists on a macroscopic level for motor vehicles, pedestrians, and bicyclists. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Multi Length Scale Finite Element Design Framework for Advanced Woven Fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erol, Galip Ozan

    Woven fabrics are integral parts of many engineering applications spanning from personal protective garments to surgical scaffolds. They provide a wide range of opportunities in designing advanced structures because of their high tenacity, flexibility, high strength-to-weight ratios and versatility. These advantages result from their inherent multi scale nature where the filaments are bundled together to create yarns while the yarns are arranged into different weave architectures. Their highly versatile nature opens up potential for a wide range of mechanical properties which can be adjusted based on the application. While woven fabrics are viable options for design of various engineering systems, being able to understand the underlying mechanisms of the deformation and associated highly nonlinear mechanical response is important and necessary. However, the multiscale nature and relationships between these scales make the design process involving woven fabrics a challenging task. The objective of this work is to develop a multiscale numerical design framework using experimentally validated mesoscopic and macroscopic length scale approaches by identifying important deformation mechanisms and recognizing the nonlinear mechanical response of woven fabrics. This framework is exercised by developing mesoscopic length scale constitutive models to investigate plain weave fabric response under a wide range of loading conditions. A hyperelastic transversely isotropic yarn material model with transverse material nonlinearity is developed for woven yarns (commonly used in personal protection garments). The material properties/parameters are determined through an inverse method where unit cell finite element simulations are coupled with experiments. The developed yarn material model is validated by simulating full scale uniaxial tensile, bias extension and indentation experiments, and comparing to experimentally observed mechanical response and deformation mechanisms. Moreover

  19. The alignment of carbon nanotubes: an effective route to extend their excellent properties to macroscopic scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xuemei; Chen, Tao; Yang, Zhibin; Peng, Huisheng

    2013-02-19

    To improve the practical application of carbon nanotubes, it is critically important to extend their physical properties from the nanoscale to the macroscopic scale. Recently, chemists aligned continuous multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) sheets and fibers to produce materials with high mechanical strength and electrical conductivity. This provided an important clue to the use of MWCNTs at macroscopic scale. Researchers have made multiple efforts to optimize this aligned structure and improve the properties of MWCNT sheets and fibers. In this Account, we briefly highlight the new synthetic methods and promising applications of aligned MWCNTs for organic optoelectronic materials and devices. We describe several general methods to prepare both horizontally and perpendicularly aligned MWCNT/polymer composite films, through an easy solution or melting process. The composite films exhibit the combined properties of being flexible, transparent, and electrically conductive. These advances may pave the way to new flexible substrates for organic solar cells, sensing devices, and other related applications. Similarly, we discuss the synthesis of aligned MWCNT/polymer composite fibers with interesting mechanical and electrical properties. Through these methods, we can incorporate a wide variety of soluble or fusible polymers for such composite films and fibers. In addition, we can later introduce functional polymers with conjugated backbones or side chains to improve the properties of these composite materials. In particular, cooperative interactions between aligned MWCNTs and polymers can produce novel properties that do not occur individually. Common examples of this are two types of responsive polymers, photodeformable azobenzene-containing liquid crystalline polymer and chromatic polydiacetylene. Aligning the structure of MWCNTs induces the orientation of azobenzene-containing mesogens, and produces photodeformable polymer elastomers. This strategy also solves the long

  20. Intermediate length scale dynamics of polyisobutylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farago, B.; Arbe, A.; Colmenero, J.; Faust, R.; Buchenau, U.; Richter, D.

    2002-01-01

    We report on a neutron spin echo investigation of the intermediate scale dynamics of polyisobutylene studying both the self-motion and the collective motion. The momentum transfer (Q) dependences of the self-correlation times are found to follow a Q -2/β law in agreement with the picture of Gaussian dynamics. In the full Q range of observation, their temperature dependence is weaker than the rheological shift factor. The same is true for the stress relaxation time as seen in sound wave absorption. The collective times show both temperature dependences; at the structure factor peak, they follow the temperature dependence of the viscosity, but below the peak, one finds the stress relaxation behavior

  1. Scale relativity theory and integrative systems biology: 2. Macroscopic quantum-type mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nottale, Laurent; Auffray, Charles

    2008-05-01

    In these two companion papers, we provide an overview and a brief history of the multiple roots, current developments and recent advances of integrative systems biology and identify multiscale integration as its grand challenge. Then we introduce the fundamental principles and the successive steps that have been followed in the construction of the scale relativity theory, which aims at describing the effects of a non-differentiable and fractal (i.e., explicitly scale dependent) geometry of space-time. The first paper of this series was devoted, in this new framework, to the construction from first principles of scale laws of increasing complexity, and to the discussion of some tentative applications of these laws to biological systems. In this second review and perspective paper, we describe the effects induced by the internal fractal structures of trajectories on motion in standard space. Their main consequence is the transformation of classical dynamics into a generalized, quantum-like self-organized dynamics. A Schrödinger-type equation is derived as an integral of the geodesic equation in a fractal space. We then indicate how gauge fields can be constructed from a geometric re-interpretation of gauge transformations as scale transformations in fractal space-time. Finally, we introduce a new tentative development of the theory, in which quantum laws would hold also in scale space, introducing complexergy as a measure of organizational complexity. Initial possible applications of this extended framework to the processes of morphogenesis and the emergence of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cellular structures are discussed. Having founded elements of the evolutionary, developmental, biochemical and cellular theories on the first principles of scale relativity theory, we introduce proposals for the construction of an integrative theory of life and for the design and implementation of novel macroscopic quantum-type experiments and devices, and discuss their potential

  2. Length scale of secondary stresses in fracture and fatigue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, P.

    2008-01-01

    In an attempt to provide a consistent framework for the analysis and treatment of secondary stresses associated with welding and thermal loading in the context of fracture mechanics, this paper starts with an effective stress characterization procedure by introducing a length-scale concept. With it, a traction-based stress separation procedure is then presented to provide a consistent characterization of stresses from various sources based on their length scale. Their relative contributions to fracture driving force are then quantified in terms of their characteristic length scales. Special attention is given to the implications of the length-scale argument on both analysis and treatment of welding residual stresses in fracture assessment. A series of examples is provided to demonstrate how the present developments can be applied for treating not only secondary stresses but also externally applied stresses, as well as their combined effects on the structural integrity of engineering components

  3. Magnetic behavior of PdFeMn on mesoscopic and macroscopic length scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, V. E-mail: volker.wagner@ptb.de; Ahlers, H.; Axelrod, L.; Gordeev, G.; Zabenkin, V

    2001-05-01

    By 3D neutron depolarization (ND) the magnetization and the domain structure were observed for FC and ZFC samples of (Pd{sub 0.9965}Fe{sub 0.0035}){sub 1-x} Mn{sub x} with x=0.05, showing both an FM and a spin-glass-like transition, and x=0 being ferromagnetic. The evolution of the domain structure along the magnetization/demagnetization process - as seen by depolarization - is strongly asymmetric, with maximum change in the domain structure only after magnetization reversal (typical domain size {delta}{approx}3 {mu}m in the virgin state). Near T{sub c}, the alloy approached the behavior of FM PdFe, showing a symmetric change of domain structure on the applied field.

  4. Length scale hierarchy and spatiotemporal change of alluvial morphologies over the Selenga River delta, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, T. Y.; Nittrouer, J.; McElroy, B. J.; Ma, H.; Czapiga, M. J.; Il'icheva, E.; Pavlov, M.; Parker, G.

    2017-12-01

    The movement of water and sediment in natural channels creates various types of alluvial morphologies that span length scales from dunes to deltas. The behavior of these morphologies is controlled microscopically by hydrodynamic conditions and bed material size, and macroscopically by hydrologic and geological settings. Alluvial morphologies can be modeled as either diffusive or kinematic waves, in accordance with their respective boundary conditions. Recently, it has been shown that the difference between these two dynamic behaviors of alluvial morphologies can be characterized by the backwater number, which is a dimensionless value normalizing the length scale of a morphological feature to its local hydrodynamic condition. Application of the backwater number has proven useful for evaluating the size of morphologies, including deltas (e.g., by assessing the preferential avulsion location of a lobe), and for comparing bedform types across different fluvial systems. Yet two critical questions emerge when applying the backwater number: First, how do different types of alluvial morphologies compare within a single deltaic system, where there is a hydrodynamic transition from uniform to non-uniform flow? Second, how do different types of morphologies evolve temporally within a system as a function of changing water discharge? This study addresses these questions by compiling and analyzing field data from the Selenga River delta, Russia, which include measurements of flow velocity, channel geometry, bed material grain size, and channel slope, as well as length scales of various morphologies, including dunes, island bars, meanders, bifurcations, and delta lobes. Data analyses reveal that the length scale of morphologies decrease and the backwater number increases as flow transitions from uniform to non-uniform conditions progressing downstream. It is shown that the evaluated length scale hierarchy and planform distribution of different morphologies can be used to

  5. Natural Length Scales Shape Liquid Phase Continuity in Unsaturated Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assouline, S.; Lehmann, P. G.; Or, D.

    2015-12-01

    Unsaturated flows supporting soil evaporation and internal drainage play an important role in various hydrologic and climatic processes manifested at a wide range of scales. We study inherent natural length scales that govern these flow processes and constrain the spatial range of their representation by continuum models. These inherent length scales reflect interactions between intrinsic porous medium properties that affect liquid phase continuity, and the interplay among forces that drive and resist unsaturated flow. We have defined an intrinsic length scale for hydraulic continuity based on pore size distribution that controls soil evaporation dynamics (i.e., stage 1 to stage 2 transition). This simple metric may be used to delineate upper bounds for regional evaporative losses or the depth of soil-atmosphere interactions (in the absence of plants). A similar length scale governs the dynamics of internal redistribution towards attainment of field capacity, again through its effect on hydraulic continuity in the draining porous medium. The study provides a framework for guiding numerical and mathematical models for capillary flows across different scales considering the necessary conditions for coexistence of stationarity (REV), hydraulic continuity and intrinsic capillary gradients.

  6. Hydrodynamics of long-scale-length plasmas. Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craxton, R.S.

    1984-01-01

    A summary is given relating to the importance of long-scale-length plasmas to laser fusion. Some experiments are listed in which long-scale-length plasmas have been produced and studied. This talk presents SAGE simulations of most of these experiments with the emphasis being placed on understanding the hydrodynamic conditions rather than the parametric/plasma-physics processes themselves which are not modeled by SAGE. However, interpretation of the experiments can often depend on a good understanding of the hydrodynamics, including optical ray tracing

  7. Maximum length scale in density based topology optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarov, Boyan Stefanov; Wang, Fengwen

    2017-01-01

    The focus of this work is on two new techniques for imposing maximum length scale in topology optimization. Restrictions on the maximum length scale provide designers with full control over the optimized structure and open possibilities to tailor the optimized design for broader range...... of manufacturing processes by fulfilling the associated technological constraints. One of the proposed methods is based on combination of several filters and builds on top of the classical density filtering which can be viewed as a low pass filter applied to the design parametrization. The main idea...

  8. Scaling from single molecule to macroscopic adhesion at polymer/metal interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utzig, Thomas; Raman, Sangeetha; Valtiner, Markus

    2015-03-10

    Understanding the evolution of macroscopic adhesion based on fundamental molecular interactions is crucial to designing strong and smart polymer/metal interfaces that play an important role in many industrial and biomedical applications. Here we show how macroscopic adhesion can be predicted on the basis of single molecular interactions. In particular, we carry out dynamic single molecule-force spectroscopy (SM-AFM) in the framework of Bell-Evans' theory to gain information about the energy barrier between the bound and unbound states of an amine/gold junction. Furthermore, we use Jarzynski's equality to obtain the equilibrium ground-state energy difference of the amine/gold bond from these nonequilibrium force measurements. In addition, we perform surface forces apparatus (SFA) experiments to measure macroscopic adhesion forces at contacts where approximately 10(7) amine/gold bonds are formed simultaneously. The SFA approach provides an amine/gold interaction energy (normalized by the number of interacting molecules) of (36 ± 1)k(B)T, which is in excellent agreement with the interaction free energy of (35 ± 3)k(B)T calculated using Jarzynski's equality and single-molecule AFM experiments. Our results validate Jarzynski's equality for the field of polymer/metal interactions by measuring both sides of the equation. Furthermore, the comparison of SFA and AFM shows how macroscopic interaction energies can be predicted on the basis of single molecular interactions, providing a new strategy to potentially predict adhesive properties of novel glues or coatings as well as bio- and wet adhesion.

  9. Image processing for quantifying fracture orientation and length scale transitions during brittle deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, R. E.; Healy, D.; Farrell, N. J.

    2017-12-01

    We have implemented a novel image processing tool, namely two-dimensional (2D) Morlet wavelet analysis, capable of detecting changes occurring in fracture patterns at different scales of observation, and able of recognising the dominant fracture orientations and the spatial configurations for progressively larger (or smaller) scale of analysis. Because of its inherited anisotropy, the Morlet wavelet is proved to be an excellent choice for detecting directional linear features, i.e. regions where the amplitude of the signal is regular along one direction and has sharp variation along the perpendicular direction. Performances of the Morlet wavelet are tested against the 'classic' Mexican hat wavelet, deploying a complex synthetic fracture network. When applied to a natural fracture network, formed triaxially (σ1>σ2=σ3) deforming a core sample of the Hopeman sandstone, the combination of 2D Morlet wavelet and wavelet coefficient maps allows for the detection of characteristic scale orientation and length transitions, associated with the shifts from distributed damage to the growth of localised macroscopic shear fracture. A complementary outcome arises from the wavelet coefficient maps produced by increasing the wavelet scale parameter. These maps can be used to chart the variations in the spatial distribution of the analysed entities, meaning that it is possible to retrieve information on the density of fracture patterns at specific length scales during deformation.

  10. Length and time scales of atmospheric moisture recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. van der Ent

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available It is difficult to quantify the degree to which terrestrial evaporation supports the occurrence of precipitation within a certain study region (i.e. regional moisture recycling due to the scale- and shape-dependence of regional moisture recycling ratios. In this paper we present a novel approach to quantify the spatial and temporal scale of moisture recycling, independent of the size and shape of the region under study. In contrast to previous studies, which essentially used curve fitting, the scaling laws presented by us follow directly from the process equation. thus allowing a fair comparison between regions and seasons. The calculation is based on ERA-Interim reanalysis data for the period 1999 to 2008. It is shown that in the tropics or in mountainous terrain the length scale of recycling can be as low as 500 to 2000 km. In temperate climates the length scale is typically between 3000 to 5000 km whereas it amounts to more than 7000 km in desert areas. The time scale of recycling ranges from 3 to 20 days, with the exception of deserts, where it is much longer. The most distinct seasonal differences can be observed over the Northern Hemisphere: in winter, moisture recycling is insignificant, whereas in summer it plays a major role in the climate. The length and time scales of atmospheric moisture recycling can be useful metrics to quantify local climatic effects of land use change.

  11. Equation of state, universal profiles, scaling and macroscopic quantum effects in warm dark matter galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega, H.J. de [Sorbonne Universites, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie UPMC Paris VI, LPTHE CNRS UMR 7589, Paris Cedex 05 (France); Sanchez, N.G. [Observatoire de Paris PSL Research University, Sorbonne Universites UPMC Paris VI, Observatoire de Paris, LERMA CNRS UMR 8112, Paris (France)

    2017-02-15

    The Thomas-Fermi approach to galaxy structure determines self-consistently and non-linearly the gravitational potential of the fermionic warm dark matter (WDM) particles given their quantum distribution function f(E). This semiclassical framework accounts for the quantum nature and high number of DM particles, properly describing gravitational bounded and quantum macroscopic systems as neutron stars, white dwarfs and WDM galaxies. We express the main galaxy magnitudes as the halo radius r{sub h}, mass M{sub h}, velocity dispersion and phase space density in terms of the surface density which is important to confront to observations. From these expressions we derive the general equation of state for galaxies, i.e., the relation between pressure and density, and provide its analytic expression. Two regimes clearly show up: (1) Large diluted galaxies for M{sub h} >or similar 2.3 x 10{sup 6} M {sub CircleDot} and effective temperatures T{sub 0} > 0.017 K described by the classical self-gravitating WDM Boltzman gas with a space-dependent perfect gas equation of state, and (2) Compact dwarf galaxies for 1.6 x 10{sup 6} M {sub CircleDot} >or similar M{sub h} >or similar M{sub h,min} ≅ 3.10 x 10{sup 4} (2 keV/m){sup (16)/(5)} M {sub CircleDot}, T{sub 0} < 0.011 K described by the quantum fermionic WDM regime with a steeper equation of state close to the degenerate state. In particular, the T{sub 0} = 0 degenerate or extreme quantum limit yields the most compact and smallest galaxy. In the diluted regime, the halo radius r{sub h}, the squared velocity v{sup 2}(r{sub h}) and the temperature T{sub 0} turn to exhibit square-root of M{sub h} scaling laws. The normalized density profiles ρ(r)/ρ(0) and the normalized velocity profiles v{sup 2}(r)/v{sup 2}(0) are universal functions of r/r{sub h} reflecting the WDM perfect gas behavior in this regime. These theoretical results contrasted to robust and independent sets of galaxy data remarkably reproduce the observations. For

  12. Elliptic Length Scales in Laminar, Two-Dimensional Supersonic Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    sophisticated computational fluid dynamics ( CFD ) methods. Additionally, for 3D interactions, the length scales would require determination in spanwise as well...Manna, M. “Experimental, Analytical, and Computational Methods Applied to Hypersonic Compression Ramp Flows,” AIAA Journal, Vol. 32, No. 2, Feb. 1994

  13. Effective Debye length in closed nanoscopic systems: a competition between two length scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessier, Frédéric; Slater, Gary W

    2006-02-01

    The Poisson-Boltzmann equation (PBE) is widely employed in fields where the thermal motion of free ions is relevant, in particular in situations involving electrolytes in the vicinity of charged surfaces. The applications of this non-linear differential equation usually concern open systems (in osmotic equilibrium with an electrolyte reservoir, a semi-grand canonical ensemble), while solutions for closed systems (where the number of ions is fixed, a canonical ensemble) are either not appropriately distinguished from the former or are dismissed as a numerical calculation exercise. We consider herein the PBE for a confined, symmetric, univalent electrolyte and quantify how, in addition to the Debye length, its solution also depends on a second length scale, which embodies the contribution of ions by the surface (which may be significant in high surface-to-volume ratio micro- or nanofluidic capillaries). We thus establish that there are four distinct regimes for such systems, corresponding to the limits of the two parameters. We also show how the PBE in this case can be formulated in a familiar way by simply replacing the traditional Debye length by an effective Debye length, the value of which is obtained numerically from conservation conditions. But we also show that a simple expression for the value of the effective Debye length, obtained within a crude approximation, remains accurate even as the system size is reduced to nanoscopic dimensions, and well beyond the validity range typically associated with the solution of the PBE.

  14. Progress in Long Scale Length Laser-Plasma Interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glenzer, S H; Arnold, P; Bardsley, G; Berger, R L; Bonanno, G; Borger, T; Bower, D E; Bowers, M; Bryant, R; Buckman, S.; Burkhart, S C; Campbell, K; Chrisp, M P; Cohen, B I; Constantin, G; Cooper, F; Cox, J; Dewald, E; Divol, L; Dixit, S; Duncan, J; Eder, D; Edwards, J; Erbert, G; Felker, B; Fornes, J; Frieders, G; Froula, D H; Gardner, S D; Gates, C; Gonzalez, M; Grace, S; Gregori, G; Greenwood, A; Griffith, R; Hall, T; Hammel, B A; Haynam, C; Heestand, G; Henesian, M; Hermes, G; Hinkel, D; Holder, J; Holdner, F; Holtmeier, G; Hsing, W; Huber, S; James, T; Johnson, S; Jones, O S; Kalantar, D; Kamperschroer, J H; Kauffman, R; Kelleher, T; Knight, J; Kirkwood, R K; Kruer, W L; Labiak, W; Landen, O L; Langdon, A B; Langer, S; Latray, D; Lee, A; Lee, F D; Lund, D; MacGowan, B; Marshall, S; McBride, J; McCarville, T; McGrew, L; Mackinnon, A J; Mahavandi, S; Manes, K; Marshall, C; Mertens, E; Meezan, N; Miller, G; Montelongo, S; Moody, J D; Moses, E; Munro, D; Murray, J; Neumann, J; Newton, M; Ng, E; Niemann, C; Nikitin, A; Opsahl, P; Padilla, E; Parham, T; Parrish, G; Petty, C; Polk, M; Powell, C; Reinbachs, I; Rekow, V; Rinnert, R; Riordan, B; Rhodes, M.

    2003-01-01

    The first experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) have employed the first four beams to measure propagation and laser backscattering losses in large ignition-size plasmas. Gas-filled targets between 2 mm and 7 mm length have been heated from one side by overlapping the focal spots of the four beams from one quad operated at 351 nm (3ω) with a total intensity of 2 x 10 15 W cm -2 . The targets were filled with 1 atm of CO 2 producing of up to 7 mm long homogeneously heated plasmas with densities of n e = 6 x 10 20 cm -3 and temperatures of T e = 2 keV. The high energy in a NIF quad of beams of 16kJ, illuminating the target from one direction, creates unique conditions for the study of laser plasma interactions at scale lengths not previously accessible. The propagation through the large-scale plasma was measured with a gated x-ray imager that was filtered for 3.5 keV x rays. These data indicate that the beams interact with the full length of this ignition-scale plasma during the last ∼1 ns of the experiment. During that time, the full aperture measurements of the stimulated Brillouin scattering and stimulated Raman scattering show scattering into the four focusing lenses of 6% for the smallest length (∼2 mm). increasing to 12% for ∼7 mm. These results demonstrate the NIF experimental capabilities and further provide a benchmark for three-dimensional modeling of the laser-plasma interactions at ignition-size scale lengths

  15. Invariant length scale in relativistic kinematics: lessons from Dirichlet branes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuller, Frederic P.; Pfeiffer, Hendryk

    2004-01-01

    Dirac-Born-Infeld theory is shown to possess a hidden invariance associated with its maximal electric field strength. The local Lorentz symmetry O(1,n) on a Dirichlet-n-brane is thereby enhanced to an O(1,n)xO(1,n) gauge group, encoding both an invariant velocity and acceleration (or length) scale. The presence of this enlarged gauge group predicts consequences for the kinematics of observers on Dirichlet branes, with admissible accelerations being bounded from above. An important lesson is that the introduction of a fundamental length scale into relativistic kinematics does not enforce a deformation of Lorentz boosts, as one might assume naively. The exhibited structures further show that Moffat's non-symmetric gravitational theory qualifies as a candidate for a consistent Born-Infeld type gravity with regulated solutions

  16. The length and time scales of water's glass transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limmer, David T.

    2014-06-01

    Using a general model for the equilibrium dynamics of supercooled liquids, I compute from molecular properties the emergent length and time scales that govern the nonequilibrium relaxation behavior of amorphous ice prepared by rapid cooling. Upon cooling, the liquid water falls out of equilibrium whereby the temperature dependence of its relaxation time is predicted to change from super-Arrhenius to Arrhenius. A consequence of this crossover is that the location of the apparent glass transition temperature depends logarithmically on cooling rate. Accompanying vitrification is the emergence of a dynamical length-scale, the size of which depends on the cooling rate and varies between angstroms and tens of nanometers. While this protocol dependence clarifies a number of previous experimental observations for amorphous ice, the arguments are general and can be extended to other glass forming liquids.

  17. The length and time scales of water's glass transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limmer, David T

    2014-06-07

    Using a general model for the equilibrium dynamics of supercooled liquids, I compute from molecular properties the emergent length and time scales that govern the nonequilibrium relaxation behavior of amorphous ice prepared by rapid cooling. Upon cooling, the liquid water falls out of equilibrium whereby the temperature dependence of its relaxation time is predicted to change from super-Arrhenius to Arrhenius. A consequence of this crossover is that the location of the apparent glass transition temperature depends logarithmically on cooling rate. Accompanying vitrification is the emergence of a dynamical length-scale, the size of which depends on the cooling rate and varies between angstroms and tens of nanometers. While this protocol dependence clarifies a number of previous experimental observations for amorphous ice, the arguments are general and can be extended to other glass forming liquids.

  18. Scattering Length Scaling Laws for Ultracold Three-Body Collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Incao, J.P.; Esry, B.D.

    2005-01-01

    We present a simple and unifying picture that provides the energy and scattering length dependence for all inelastic three-body collision rates in the ultracold regime for three-body systems with short-range two-body interactions. Here, we present the scaling laws for vibrational relaxation, three-body recombination, and collision-induced dissociation for systems that support s-wave two-body collisions. These systems include three identical bosons, two identical bosons, and two identical fermions. Our approach reproduces all previous results, predicts several others, and gives the general form of the scaling laws in all cases

  19. Transition in multiple-scale-lengths turbulence in plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, S.-I.; Yagi, M.; Kawasaki, M.; Kitazawa, A. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics; Itoh, K. [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan)

    2002-02-01

    The statistical theory of strong turbulence in inhomogeneous plasmas is developed for the cases where fluctuations with different scale-lengths coexist. Statistical nonlinear interactions between semi-micro and micro modes are first kept in the analysis as the drag, noise and drive. The nonlinear dynamics determines both the fluctuation levels and the cross field turbulent transport for the fixed global parameters. A quenching or suppressing effect is induced by their nonlinear interplay, even if both modes are unstable when analyzed independently. Influence of the inhomogeneous global radial electric field is discussed. A new insight is given for the physics of internal transport barrier. The thermal fluctuation of the scale length of {lambda}{sub D} is assumed to be statistically independent. The hierarchical structure is constructed according to the scale lengths. Transitions in turbulence are found and phase diagrams with cusp type catastrophe are obtained. Dynamics is followed. Statistical properties of the subcritical excitation are discussed. The probability density function (PDF) and transition probability are obtained. Power-laws are obtained in the PDF as well as in the transition probability. Generalization for the case where turbulence is composed of three-classes of modes is also developed. A new catastrophe of turbulent sates is obtained. (author)

  20. Transition in multiple-scale-lengths turbulence in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, S.-I.; Yagi, M.; Kawasaki, M.; Kitazawa, A.

    2002-02-01

    The statistical theory of strong turbulence in inhomogeneous plasmas is developed for the cases where fluctuations with different scale-lengths coexist. Statistical nonlinear interactions between semi-micro and micro modes are first kept in the analysis as the drag, noise and drive. The nonlinear dynamics determines both the fluctuation levels and the cross field turbulent transport for the fixed global parameters. A quenching or suppressing effect is induced by their nonlinear interplay, even if both modes are unstable when analyzed independently. Influence of the inhomogeneous global radial electric field is discussed. A new insight is given for the physics of internal transport barrier. The thermal fluctuation of the scale length of λ D is assumed to be statistically independent. The hierarchical structure is constructed according to the scale lengths. Transitions in turbulence are found and phase diagrams with cusp type catastrophe are obtained. Dynamics is followed. Statistical properties of the subcritical excitation are discussed. The probability density function (PDF) and transition probability are obtained. Power-laws are obtained in the PDF as well as in the transition probability. Generalization for the case where turbulence is composed of three-classes of modes is also developed. A new catastrophe of turbulent sates is obtained. (author)

  1. Instantaneous equations for multiphase flow in porous media without length-scale restrictions using a non-local averaging volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espinosa-Paredes, Gilberto

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to propose a framework to obtain a new formulation for multiphase flow conservation equations without length-scale restrictions, based on the non-local form of the averaged volume conservation equations. The simplification of the local averaging volume of the conservation equations to obtain practical equations is subject to the following length-scale restrictions: d << l << L, where d is the characteristic length of the dispersed phases, l is the characteristic length of the averaging volume, and L is the characteristic length of the physical system. If the foregoing inequality does not hold, or if the scale of the problem of interest is of the order of l, the averaging technique and therefore, the macroscopic theories of multiphase flow should be modified in order to include appropriate considerations and terms in the corresponding equations. In these cases the local form of the averaged volume conservation equations are not appropriate to describe the multiphase system. As an example of the conservation equations without length-scale restrictions, the natural circulation boiling water reactor was consider to study the non-local effects on the thermal-hydraulic core performance during steady-state and transient behaviors, and the results were compared with the classic local averaging volume conservation equations.

  2. Driving force for hydrophobic interaction at different length scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zangi, Ronen

    2011-03-17

    We study by molecular dynamics simulations the driving force for the hydrophobic interaction between graphene sheets of different sizes down to the atomic scale. Similar to the prediction by Lum, Chandler, and Weeks for hard-sphere solvation [J. Phys. Chem. B 1999, 103, 4570-4577], we find the driving force to be length-scale dependent, despite the fact that our model systems do not exhibit dewetting. For small hydrophobic solutes, the association is purely entropic, while enthalpy favors dissociation. The latter is demonstrated to arise from the enhancement of hydrogen bonding between the water molecules around small hydrophobes. On the other hand, the attraction between large graphene sheets is dominated by enthalpy which mainly originates from direct solute-solute interactions. The crossover length is found to be inside the range of 0.3-1.5 nm(2) of the surface area of the hydrophobe that is eliminated in the association process. In the large-scale regime, different thermodynamic properties are scalable with this change of surface area. In particular, upon dimerization, a total and a water-induced stabilization of approximately 65 and 12 kJ/mol/nm(2) are obtained, respectively, and on average around one hydrogen bond is gained per 1 nm(2) of graphene sheet association. Furthermore, the potential of mean force between the sheets is also scalable except for interplate distances smaller than 0.64 nm which corresponds to the region around the barrier for removing the last layer of water. It turns out that, as the surface area increases, the relative height of the barrier for association decreases and the range of attraction increases. It is also shown that, around small hydrophobic solutes, the lifetime of the hydrogen bonds is longer than in the bulk, while around large hydrophobes it is the same. Nevertheless, the rearrangement of the hydrogen-bond network for both length-scale regimes is slower than in bulk water. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  3. Critical point phenomena: universal physics at large length scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruce, A.; Wallace, D.

    1993-01-01

    This article is concerned with the behaviour of a physical system at, or close to, a critical point (ebullition, ferromagnetism..): study of the phenomena displayed in the critical region (Ising model, order parameter, correlation length); description of the configurations (patterns) formed by the microscopic degrees of freedom near a critical point, essential concepts of the renormalization group (coarse-graining, system flow, fixed-point and scale-invariance); how these concepts knit together to form the renormalization group method; and what kind of problems may be resolved by the renormalization group method. 12 figs., 1 ref

  4. Multi length-scale characterisation inorganic materials series

    CERN Document Server

    Bruce, Duncan W; Walton, Richard I

    2013-01-01

    Whereas the first five volumes in the Inorganic Materials Series focused on particular classes of materials (synthesis, structures, chemistry, and properties), it is now very timely to provide complementary volumes that introduce and review state-of-the-art techniques for materials characterization. This is an important way of emphasizing the interplay of chemical synthesis and physical characterization. The methods reviewed include spectroscopic, diffraction, and surface techniques that examine the structure of materials on all length scales, from local atomic structure to long-range crystall

  5. Cosmogenesis and the origin of the fundamental length scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brout, R.; Englert, F.; Frere, J.M.; Gunzig, E.; Nardone, P.; Truffin, C.

    1980-01-01

    The creation of the universe is regarded as a self-consistent process in which matter is engendered by the space-time varying cosmological gravitational field and vice versa. Abundant production can occur only if the mass of the particles so created is of the order of the Planck mass (= ksup(-1/2)). We conjecture that this is the origin of the fundamental length scale in field theory, as it is encountered, for example, in present efforts towards grand unification. The region of particle production is steady state in character. It ceases when the produced particles decay. The geometry of this steady state is characteristic of a de Sitter space. It permits one to estimate the number of ordinary particles presently observed, N. We find log N = O (mtausub(decay)) = O(g -2 ) = O(10 2 ), with the usual estimate of g = O(10 -1 ) at the Planck length scale. This is not inconsistent with the experimental estimate N approx. = O(10 90 ). After production, cosmological history gives way to the more conventional scheme of free expansion. The present paper is a self-contained account of our view of cosmological history and the production of matter in a varying gravitational field. Special care has been taken to describe the vacuum correctly in the present context and to perform the necessary subtractions of zero-point effects. (orig.)

  6. Investigation of representing hysteresis in macroscopic models of two-phase flow in porous media using intermediate scale experimental data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cihan, Abdullah; Birkholzer, Jens; Trevisan, Luca; Gonzalez-Nicolas, Ana; Illangasekare, Tissa

    2017-01-01

    Incorporating hysteresis into models is important to accurately capture the two phase flow behavior when porous media systems undergo cycles of drainage and imbibition such as in the cases of injection and post-injection redistribution of CO2 during geological CO2 storage (GCS). In the traditional model of two-phase flow, existing constitutive models that parameterize the hysteresis associated with these processes are generally based on the empirical relationships. This manuscript presents development and testing of mathematical hysteretic capillary pressure—saturation—relative permeability models with the objective of more accurately representing the redistribution of the fluids after injection. The constitutive models are developed by relating macroscopic variables to basic physics of two-phase capillary displacements at pore-scale and void space distribution properties. The modeling approach with the developed constitutive models with and without hysteresis as input is tested against some intermediate-scale flow cell experiments to test the ability of the models to represent movement and capillary trapping of immiscible fluids under macroscopically homogeneous and heterogeneous conditions. The hysteretic two-phase flow model predicted the overall plume migration and distribution during and post injection reasonably well and represented the postinjection behavior of the plume more accurately than the nonhysteretic models. Based on the results in this study, neglecting hysteresis in the constitutive models of the traditional two-phase flow theory can seriously overpredict or underpredict the injected fluid distribution during post-injection under both homogeneous and heterogeneous conditions, depending on the selected value of the residual saturation in the nonhysteretic models.

  7. Towards a Unified Formulation of Dynamics and Thermodynamics I. From Microscopic to Macroscopic Time Scales

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Durand, P.; Paidarová, Ivana

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 111, č. 2 (2011), s. 225-236 ISSN 0020-7608 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100400501; GA AV ČR IAA401870702 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : Liouville equation * time scales * chemical kinetics and dynamics Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.357, year: 2011

  8. Development of a scanning tunneling potentiometry system for measurement of electronic transport at short length scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozler, Michael

    It is clear that complete understanding of macroscopic properties of materials is impossible without a thorough knowledge of behavior at the smallest length scales. While the past 25 years have witnessed major advances in a variety of techniques that probe the nanoscale properties of matter, electrical transport measurements -- the heart of condensed matter research -- have lagged behind, never progressing beyond bulk measurements. This thesis describes a scanning tunneling potentiometry (STP) system developed to simultaneously map the transport-related electrochemical potential distribution of a biased sample along with its surface topography, extending electronic transport measurements to the nanoscale. Combining a novel sample biasing technique with a continuous current-nulling feedback scheme pushes the noise performance of the measurement to its fundamental limit - the Johnson noise of the STM tunnel junction. The resulting 130 nV voltage sensitivity allows us to spatially resolve local potentials at scales down to 2 nm, while maintaining atomic scale STM imaging, all at scan sizes of up to 15 microns. A mm-range two-dimensional coarse positioning stage and the ability to operate from liquid helium to room temperature with a fast turn-around time greatly expand the versatility of the instrument. Use of carefully selected model materials, combined with excellent topographic and voltage resolution has allowed us to distinguish measurement artifacts caused by surface roughness from true potentiometric features, a major problem in previous STP measurements. The measurements demonstrate that STP can produce physically meaningful results for homogeneous transport as well as non-uniform conduction dominated by material microstructures. Measurements of several physically interesting materials systems are presented as well, revealing new behaviors at the smallest length sales. The results establish scanning tunneling potentiometry as a useful tool for physics and

  9. Functional inference of complex anatomical tendinous networks at a macroscopic scale via sparse experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Anupam; Lipson, Hod; Valero-Cuevas, Francisco J

    2012-01-01

    In systems and computational biology, much effort is devoted to functional identification of systems and networks at the molecular-or cellular scale. However, similarly important networks exist at anatomical scales such as the tendon network of human fingers: the complex array of collagen fibers that transmits and distributes muscle forces to finger joints. This network is critical to the versatility of the human hand, and its function has been debated since at least the 16(th) century. Here, we experimentally infer the structure (both topology and parameter values) of this network through sparse interrogation with force inputs. A population of models representing this structure co-evolves in simulation with a population of informative future force inputs via the predator-prey estimation-exploration algorithm. Model fitness depends on their ability to explain experimental data, while the fitness of future force inputs depends on causing maximal functional discrepancy among current models. We validate our approach by inferring two known synthetic Latex networks, and one anatomical tendon network harvested from a cadaver's middle finger. We find that functionally similar but structurally diverse models can exist within a narrow range of the training set and cross-validation errors. For the Latex networks, models with low training set error [functional structure of complex anatomical networks. This work expands current bioinformatics inference approaches by demonstrating that sparse, yet informative interrogation of biological specimens holds significant computational advantages in accurate and efficient inference over random testing, or assuming model topology and only inferring parameters values. These findings also hold clues to both our evolutionary history and the development of versatile machines.

  10. Creation and validation of a visual macroscopic hematuria scale for optimal communication and an objective hematuria index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Lih-Ming; Chum, Jia-Min; Maddy, Peter; Chan, Steven T F; Travis, Douglas; Lawrentschuk, Nathan

    2010-07-01

    Macroscopic hematuria is a common symptom and sign that is challenging to quantify and describe. The degree of hematuria communicated is variable due to health worker experience combined with lack of a reliable grading tool. We produced a reliable, standardized visual scale to describe hematuria severity. Our secondary aim was to validate a new laboratory test to quantify hemoglobin in hematuria specimens. Nurses were surveyed to ascertain current hematuria descriptions. Blood and urine were titrated at varying concentrations and digitally photographed in catheter bag tubing. Photos were processed and printed on transparency paper to create a prototype swatch or card showing light, medium, heavy and old hematuria. Using the swatch 60 samples were rated by nurses and laymen. Interobserver variability was reported using the generalized kappa coefficient of agreement. Specimens were analyzed for hemolysis by measuring optical density at oxyhemoglobin absorption peaks. Interobserver agreement between nurses and laymen was good (kappa = 0.51, p visual scale to grade and communicate hematuria with adequate interobserver agreement is feasible. The test for optical density at oxyhemoglobin absorption peaks is a new method, validated in our study, to quantify hemoglobin in a hematuria specimen. Copyright (c) 2010 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Macroscopic magnetic Self assembly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Löthman, Per Arvid

    2018-01-01

    Exploring the macroscopic scale's similarities to the microscale is part and parcel of this thesis as reflected in the research question: what can we learn about the microscopic scale by studying the macroscale? Investigations of the environment in which the self-assembly takes place, and the

  12. Fluctuations in macroscopically agitated plasma:quasiparticles and effective temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sosenko, P.P.; Gresillon, D.

    1994-01-01

    Fluctuations in the plasma, in which macroscopic fluid-like motion is agitated due to large-scale and low-frequency electro-magnetic fields, are studied. Such fields can be produced by external factors or internally, for example due to turbulence. Fluctuation spectral distributions are calculated with regard to the renormalization of the transition probability for a test-particle and of the test-particle shielding. If the correlation length for the random fluid-like motion is large as compared to the fluctuation scale lengths, then the fluctuation spectral distributions can be explained in terms of quasiparticles originating from macroscopic plasma agitation and of an effective temperature

  13. Predicting the influence of long-range molecular interactions on macroscopic-scale diffusion by homogenization of the Smoluchowski equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kekenes-Huskey, P. M., E-mail: pkekeneshuskey@ucsd.edu [Department of Pharmacology, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0636 (United States); Gillette, A. K. [Department of Mathematics, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721-0089 (United States); McCammon, J. A. [Department of Pharmacology, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0636 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0636 (United States)

    2014-05-07

    The macroscopic diffusion constant for a charged diffuser is in part dependent on (1) the volume excluded by solute “obstacles” and (2) long-range interactions between those obstacles and the diffuser. Increasing excluded volume reduces transport of the diffuser, while long-range interactions can either increase or decrease diffusivity, depending on the nature of the potential. We previously demonstrated [P. M. Kekenes-Huskey et al., Biophys. J. 105, 2130 (2013)] using homogenization theory that the configuration of molecular-scale obstacles can both hinder diffusion and induce diffusional anisotropy for small ions. As the density of molecular obstacles increases, van der Waals (vdW) and electrostatic interactions between obstacle and a diffuser become significant and can strongly influence the latter's diffusivity, which was neglected in our original model. Here, we extend this methodology to include a fixed (time-independent) potential of mean force, through homogenization of the Smoluchowski equation. We consider the diffusion of ions in crowded, hydrophilic environments at physiological ionic strengths and find that electrostatic and vdW interactions can enhance or depress effective diffusion rates for attractive or repulsive forces, respectively. Additionally, we show that the observed diffusion rate may be reduced independent of non-specific electrostatic and vdW interactions by treating obstacles that exhibit specific binding interactions as “buffers” that absorb free diffusers. Finally, we demonstrate that effective diffusion rates are sensitive to distribution of surface charge on a globular protein, Troponin C, suggesting that the use of molecular structures with atomistic-scale resolution can account for electrostatic influences on substrate transport. This approach offers new insight into the influence of molecular-scale, long-range interactions on transport of charged species, particularly for diffusion-influenced signaling events

  14. Macroscopic behaviour of a charged Boltzmann gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banyai, L.; Gartner, P.; Protopopescu, V.

    1980-08-01

    We consider a classical charged gas (with self-consistent Coulomb interaction) described by a solvable linearized Boltzman equation with thermaljzation on unifopmly distributed scatterers. It is shown that jf one scales the time t, the reciprocal space coordinate k vector and the Debye length l as lambda 2 t, k vector/lambda, lambda l respectively, in the lambda→infinity limit the charge density is equal to the solution of the corresponding diffusion-conduction (macroscopic) equation. (author)

  15. Macroscopic theory of superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, W.J. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    A macroscopic theory for bulk superconductors is developed in the framework of the theory for other magnetic materials, where ''magnetization'' current is separated from ''free'' current on the basis of scale. This contrasts with the usual separation into equilibrium and nonequilibrium currents. In the present approach magnetization, on a large macroscopic scale, results from the vortex current, while the Meissner current and other surface currents are surface contributions to the Maxwell j. The results are important for the development of thermodynamics in type-II superconductors. The advantage of the description developed here is that magnetization becomes a local concept and its associated magnetic field can be given physical meaning

  16. Multiscale Investigation on Biofilm Distribution and Its Impact on Macroscopic Biogeochemical Reaction Rates: BIOFILM DISTRIBUTION AND RATE SCALING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Zhifeng [Institute of Surface-Earth System Science, Tianjin University, Tianjin China; Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Liu, Chongxuan [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen China; Liu, Yuanyuan [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; School of Earth Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing China; Bailey, Vanessa L. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA

    2017-11-01

    Biofilms are critical locations for biogeochemical reactions in the subsurface environment. The occurrence and distribution of biofilms at microscale as well as their impacts on macroscopic biogeochemical reaction rates are still poorly understood. This paper investigated the formation and distributions of biofilms in heterogeneous sediments using multiscale models, and evaluated the effects of biofilm heterogeneity on local and macroscopic biogeochemical reaction rates. Sediment pore structures derived from X-ray computed tomography were used to simulate the microscale flow dynamics and biofilm distribution in the sediment column. The response of biofilm formation and distribution to the variations in hydraulic and chemical properties was first examined. One representative biofilm distribution was then utilized to evaluate its effects on macroscopic reaction rates using nitrate reduction as an example. The results revealed that microorganisms primarily grew on the surfaces of grains and aggregates near preferential flow paths where both electron donor and acceptor were readily accessible, leading to the heterogeneous distribution of biofilms in the sediments. The heterogeneous biofilm distribution decreased the macroscopic rate of biogeochemical reactions as compared with those in homogeneous cases. Operationally considering the heterogeneous biofilm distribution in macroscopic reactive transport models such as using dual porosity domain concept can significantly improve the prediction of biogeochemical reaction rates. Overall, this study provided important insights into the biofilm formation and distribution in soils and sediments as well as their impacts on the macroscopic manifestation of reaction rates.

  17. Interplay between multiple length and time scales in complex ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Processes in complex chemical systems, such as macromolecules, electrolytes, interfaces, ... by processes operating on a multiplicity of length .... real time. The design and interpretation of femto- second experiments has required considerable ...

  18. Physics on smallest scales. An introduction to minimal length phenomenology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprenger, Martin; Goethe Univ., Frankfurt am Main; Nicolini, Piero; Bleicher, Marcus

    2012-02-01

    Many modern theories which try to unite gravity with the Standard Model of particle physics, as e.g. string theory, propose two key modifications to the commonly known physical theories: - the existence of additional space dimensions - the existence of a minimal length distance or maximal resolution. While extra dimensions have received a wide coverage in publications over the last ten years (especially due to the prediction of micro black hole production at the LHC), the phenomenology of models with a minimal length is still less investigated. In a summer study project for bachelor students in 2010 we have explored some phenomenological implications of the potential existence of a minimal length. In this paper we review the idea and formalism of a quantum gravity induced minimal length in the generalised uncertainty principle framework as well as in the coherent state approach to non- commutative geometry. These approaches are effective models which can make model-independent predictions for experiments and are ideally suited for phenomenological studies. Pedagogical examples are provided to grasp the effects of a quantum gravity induced minimal length. (orig.)

  19. Length Scales of the Neutral Wind Profile over Homogeneous Terrain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pena Diaz, Alfredo; Gryning, Sven-Erik; Mann, Jakob

    2010-01-01

    The wind speed profile for the neutral boundary layer is derived for a number of mixing-length parameterizations, which account for the height of the boundary layer. The wind speed profiles show good agreement with the reanalysis of the Leipzig wind profile (950 m high) and with combined cup–soni...

  20. Length scales for the Navier-Stokes equations on a rotating sphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyrychko, Yuliya N.; Bartuccelli, Michele V.

    2004-01-01

    In this Letter we obtain the dissipative length scale for the Navier-Stokes equations on a two-dimensional rotating sphere S 2 . This system is a fundamental model of the large scale atmospheric dynamics. Using the equations of motion in their vorticity form, we construct the ladder inequalities from which a set of time-averaged length scales is obtained

  1. SPM characterization of next generation solar cells under light irradiation: Optoelectronic study from nano to macroscopic scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Nobuyuki; Fujita, Daisuke

    2014-11-01

    Solar cells (SCs) that contain elaborate nanostructures, such as quantum dots and quantum wells, have been rigorously investigated as a way to harvest a wide range of the solar spectrum [1]. However, the energy conversion efficiency of those SCs still remains low. For the further improvement of the device performance, a much deeper understanding of the role of nanostructures in the photovoltaic conversion process is essential to gain the effective design criteria. To achieve this, local electronic properties including electrical potential, energy states, and charge distribution around the excitation centers have to be characterized under light irradiation since they govern the behavior of excited carriers. These properties have so far been indirectly deduced from macroscopic characterization such as current-voltage (I-V) measurement; however, it is not sufficient to clarify rather complicated roles of the nanostructures [2]. Thus, a direct measurement of those properties with high spatial resolution is required to understand the detailed mechanisms of the photovoltaic conversion process. To this end, we have been developing a platform for performing scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (STM/STS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) working under light irradiation conditions.Here, we outline the characterization of a multiple quantum well (QW) SC based on III-V compounds that is expected to be a potential candidate of intermediate band type SC. First, we show the electrical potential measurements along the p-i-n junction of the SC using KPFM in air. Measurements were performed in open and short circuit configurations under light irradiation conditions [Fig.1]. We demonstrate that the dependence of the open circuit voltage on the intensity of light can be successfully measured by careful interpretation of the KPFM data. Second, we introduce some examples of the atomic scale characterization of the multiple QW using ultrahigh

  2. Macroscopic constraints on string unification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, T.R.

    1989-03-01

    The comparison of sting theory with experiment requires a huge extrapolation from the microscopic distances, of order of the Planck length, up to the macroscopic laboratory distances. The quantum effects give rise to large corrections to the macroscopic predictions of sting unification. I discus the model-independent constraints on the gravitational sector of string theory due to the inevitable existence of universal Fradkin-Tseytlin dilatons. 9 refs

  3. Length scales in glass-forming liquids and related systems: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karmakar, Smarajit; Dasgupta, Chandan; Sastry, Srikanth

    2016-01-01

    The central problem in the study of glass-forming liquids and other glassy systems is the understanding of the complex structural relaxation and rapid growth of relaxation times seen on approaching the glass transition. A central conceptual question is whether one can identify one or more growing length scale(s) associated with this behavior. Given the diversity of molecular glass-formers and a vast body of experimental, computational and theoretical work addressing glassy behavior, a number of ideas and observations pertaining to growing length scales have been presented over the past few decades, but there is as yet no consensus view on this question. In this review, we will summarize the salient results and the state of our understanding of length scales associated with dynamical slow down. After a review of slow dynamics and the glass transition, pertinent theories of the glass transition will be summarized and a survey of ideas relating to length scales in glassy systems will be presented. A number of studies have focused on the emergence of preferred packing arrangements and discussed their role in glassy dynamics. More recently, a central object of attention has been the study of spatially correlated, heterogeneous dynamics and the associated length scale, studied in computer simulations and theoretical analysis such as inhomogeneous mode coupling theory. A number of static length scales have been proposed and studied recently, such as the mosaic length scale discussed in the random first-order transition theory and the related point-to-set correlation length. We will discuss these, elaborating on key results, along with a critical appraisal of the state of the art. Finally we will discuss length scales in driven soft matter, granular fluids and amorphous solids, and give a brief description of length scales in aging systems. Possible relations of these length scales with those in glass-forming liquids will be discussed. (review article)

  4. Superconductivity and macroscopic quantum phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogovin, D.; Scully, M.

    1976-01-01

    It is often asserted that superconducting systems are manifestations of quantum mechanics on a macroscopic scale. In this review article it is demonstrated that this quantum assertion is true within the framework of the microscopic theory of superconductivity. (Auth.)

  5. SQUID magnetometry from nanometer to centimeter length scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatridge, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    The development of Superconducting QUantum Interference Device (SQUID)-based magnetometer for two applications, in vivo prepolarized, ultra-low field MRI of humans and dispersive readout of SQUIDs for micro- and nano-scale magnetometery, are the focus of this thesis.

  6. Length and time scales of atmospheric moisture recycling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Ent, R.J.; Savenije, H.H.G.

    2011-01-01

    It is difficult to quantify the degree to which terrestrial evaporation supports the occurrence of precipitation within a certain study region (i.e. regional moisture recycling) due to the scale- and shape-dependence of regional moisture recycling ratios. In this paper we present a novel approach to

  7. SQUID magnetometry from nanometer to centimeter length scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatridge, Michael J. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2010-06-01

    The development of Superconducting QUantum Interference Device (SQUID)-based magnetometer for two applications, in vivo prepolarized, ultra-low field MRI of humans and dispersive readout of SQUIDs for micro- and nano-scale magnetometery, are the focus of this thesis.

  8. Hydration of swelling clays: multi-scale sequence of hydration and determination of macroscopic energies from microscopic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salles, F.

    2006-10-01

    Smectites have interesting properties which make them potential candidates for engineered barriers in deep geological nuclear waste repository: low permeability, swelling and cations retention. The subject of this thesis consists in the determination of the relationship between hydration properties, swelling properties and cations mobility in relation with confinement properties of clayey materials. The aim is to understand and to predict the behaviour of water in smectites, following two research orientations: the mechanistic aspects and the energetic aspects of the hydration of smectites. We worked on the Na-Ca montmorillonite contained in the MX80 bentonite, with the exchanged homo ionic structure (saturated with alkaline cations and calcium cations). The approach crosses the various scales (microscopic, mesoscopic and macroscopic) and implied the study of the various components of the system (layer-cation-water), by using original experimental methods (thermo-poro-metry and electric conductivity for various relative humidities (RH) and electrostatic calculations. Initially, the dry state is defined by SCTA (scanning calorimetry thermal analysis). Then a classical characterization of the smectite porosity for the dry state is carried out using mercury intrusion and nitrogen adsorption. We evidenced the existence of a meso-porosity which radius varies from 2 to 10 nm depending on the compensating cation. The thermo-poro-metry and conductivity experiments performed at various hydration states made it possible to follow the increase in the pore sizes and the cations mobility as a function of the hydration state. We highlight in particular the existence of an osmotic mesoscopic swelling for low RH (approximately 50-60%RH for Li and Na). By combining the results of thermo-poro-metry, X-ray diffraction and electric conductivity, we are able to propose a complete hydration sequence for each cation, showing the crucial role of the compensating cation in the hydration of

  9. Self-assembling block copolymer systems involving competing length scales : A route toward responsive materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nap, R; Erukhimovich, [No Value; ten Brinke, G; Erukhimovich, Igor

    2004-01-01

    The phase behavior of block copolymers melts involving competing length scales, i.e., able to microphase separate on two different length scales, is theoretically investigated using a self-consistent field approach. The specific block copolymers studied consist of a linear A-block linked to an

  10. Displacement-length scaling of brittle faults in ductile shear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasemann, Bernhard; Exner, Ulrike; Tschegg, Cornelius

    2011-11-01

    Within a low-grade ductile shear zone, we investigated exceptionally well exposed brittle faults, which accumulated antithetic slip and rotated into the shearing direction. The foliation planes of the mylonitic host rock intersect the faults approximately at their centre and exhibit ductile reverse drag. Three types of brittle faults can be distinguished: (i) Faults developing on pre-existing K-feldspar/mica veins that are oblique to the shear direction. These faults have triclinic flanking structures. (ii) Wing cracks opening as mode I fractures at the tips of the triclinic flanking structures, perpendicular to the shear direction. These cracks are reactivated as faults with antithetic shear, extend from the parent K-feldspar/mica veins and form a complex linked flanking structure system. (iii) Joints forming perpendicular to the shearing direction are deformed to form monoclinic flanking structures. Triclinic and monoclinic flanking structures record elliptical displacement-distance profiles with steep displacement gradients at the fault tips by ductile flow in the host rocks, resulting in reverse drag of the foliation planes. These structures record one of the greatest maximum displacement/length ratios reported from natural fault structures. These exceptionally high ratios can be explained by localized antithetic displacement along brittle slip surfaces, which did not propagate during their rotation during surrounding ductile flow.

  11. Displacement–length scaling of brittle faults in ductile shear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasemann, Bernhard; Exner, Ulrike; Tschegg, Cornelius

    2011-01-01

    Within a low-grade ductile shear zone, we investigated exceptionally well exposed brittle faults, which accumulated antithetic slip and rotated into the shearing direction. The foliation planes of the mylonitic host rock intersect the faults approximately at their centre and exhibit ductile reverse drag. Three types of brittle faults can be distinguished: (i) Faults developing on pre-existing K-feldspar/mica veins that are oblique to the shear direction. These faults have triclinic flanking structures. (ii) Wing cracks opening as mode I fractures at the tips of the triclinic flanking structures, perpendicular to the shear direction. These cracks are reactivated as faults with antithetic shear, extend from the parent K-feldspar/mica veins and form a complex linked flanking structure system. (iii) Joints forming perpendicular to the shearing direction are deformed to form monoclinic flanking structures. Triclinic and monoclinic flanking structures record elliptical displacement–distance profiles with steep displacement gradients at the fault tips by ductile flow in the host rocks, resulting in reverse drag of the foliation planes. These structures record one of the greatest maximum displacement/length ratios reported from natural fault structures. These exceptionally high ratios can be explained by localized antithetic displacement along brittle slip surfaces, which did not propagate during their rotation during surrounding ductile flow. PMID:26806996

  12. Determination of Longitudinal Electron Bunch Lengths on Picosecond Time Scales

    CERN Document Server

    Martínez, C; Calviño, F

    1999-01-01

    At CERN (European Laboratory for Particle Physics) the CLIC (Compact Linear Collider) study is pursuing the design of an electron-positron high-energy linear collider using an innovative concept for the RF (Radio Frequency) power production, the socalled two-beam acceleration scheme. In order to keep the length of the collider in a reasonable range while being able of accelerating electrons and positrons up to 5 TeV, the normal-conducting accelerating structures should operate at very high frequency (in this case 30 GHz). The RF power necessary to feed the accelerating cavities is provided by a second electron beam, the drive beam, running parallel to the main beam. The CLIC Test Facility (CTF) was build with the main aim of studying and demonstrating the feasibility of the two beam acceleration scheme and technology. It is composed of two beams, the drive beam that will generate the 30 GHz RF power and the main beam which will be accelerated by this power. In order to have a good efficiency for the power gen...

  13. Length-Scale-Dependent Phase Transformation of LiFePO4 : An In situ and Operando Study Using Micro-Raman Spectroscopy and XRD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddique, N A; Salehi, Amir; Wei, Zi; Liu, Dong; Sajjad, Syed D; Liu, Fuqiang

    2015-08-03

    The charge and discharge of lithium ion batteries are often accompanied by electrochemically driven phase-transformation processes. In this work, two in situ and operando methods, that is, micro-Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD), have been combined to study the phase-transformation process in LiFePO4 at two distinct length scales, namely, particle-level scale (∼1 μm) and macroscopic scale (∼several cm). In situ Raman studies revealed a discrete mode of phase transformation at the particle level. Besides, the preferred electrochemical transport network, particularly the carbon content, was found to govern the sequence of phase transformation among particles. In contrast, at the macroscopic level, studies conducted at four different discharge rates showed a continuous but delayed phase transformation. These findings uncovered the intricate phase transformation in LiFePO4 and potentially offer valuable insights into optimizing the length-scale-dependent properties of battery materials. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Connecting grain-scale physics to macroscopic granular flow behavior using discrete contact-dynamics simulations, centrifuge experiments, and continuum modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, Meredith; Stark, Colin; Hung, Chi-Yao; Smith, Breannan; Grinspin, Eitan; Capart, Herve; Li, Liming; Crone, Timothy; Hsu, Leslie; Ling, Hoe

    2014-05-01

    A complete theoretical understanding of geophysical granular flow is essential to the reliable assessment of landslide and debris flow hazard and for the design of mitigation strategies, but several key challenges remain. Perhaps the most basic is a general treatment of the processes of internal energy dissipation, which dictate the runout velocity and the shape and scale of the affected area. Currently, dissipation is best described by macroscopic, empirical friction coefficients only indirectly related to the grain-scale physics. Another challenge is describing the forces exerted at the boundaries of the flow, which dictate the entrainment of further debris and the erosion of cohesive surfaces. While the granular effects on these boundary forces have been shown to be large compared to predictions from continuum approximations, the link between granular effects and erosion or entrainment rates has not been settled. Here we present preliminary results of a multi-disciplinary study aimed at improving our understanding of granular flow energy dissipation and boundary forces, through an effort to connect grain-scale physics to macroscopic behaviors. Insights into grain-scale force distributions and energy dissipation mechanisms are derived from discrete contact-dynamics simulations. Macroscopic erosion and flow behaviors are documented from a series of granular flow experiments, in which a rotating drum half-filled with grains is placed within a centrifuge payload, in order to drive effective gravity levels up to ~100g and approach the forces present in natural systems. A continuum equation is used to characterize the flowing layer depth and velocity resulting from the force balance between the down-slope pull of gravity and the friction at the walls. In this presentation we will focus on the effect of granular-specific physics such as force chain networks and grain-grain collisions, derived from the contact dynamics simulations. We will describe our efforts to

  15. Non-perturbative gravity at different length scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Folkerts, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis, we investigate different aspects of gravity as an effective field theory. Building on the arguments of self-completeness of Einstein gravity, we argue that any sensible theory, which does not propagate negative-norm states and reduces to General Relativity in the low energy limit is self-complete. Due to black hole formation in high energy scattering experiments, distances smaller than the Planck scale are shielded from any accessibility. Degrees of freedom with masses larger than the Planck mass are mapped to large classical black holes which are described by the already existing infrared theory. Since high energy (UV) modifications of gravity which are ghost-free can only produce stronger gravitational interactions than Einstein gravity, the black hole shielding is even more efficient in such theories. In this light, we argue that conventional attempts of a Wilsonian UV completion are severely constrained. Furthermore, we investigate the quantum picture for black holes which emerges in the low energy description put forward by Dvali and Gomez in which black holes are described as Bose-Einstein condensates of many weakly coupled gravitons. Specifically, we investigate a non-relativistic toy model which mimics certain aspects of the graviton condensate picture. This toy model describes the collapse of a condensate of attractive bosons which emits particles due to incoherent scattering. We show that it is possible that the evolution of the condensate follows the critical point which is accompanied by the appearance of a light mode. Another aspect of gravitational interactions concerns the question whether quantum gravity breaks global symmetries. Arguments relying on the no hair theorem and wormhole solutions suggest that global symmetries can be violated. In this thesis, we parametrize such effects in terms of an effective field theory description of three-form fields. We investigate the possible implications for the axion solution of the strong CP

  16. On the calculation of length scales for turbulent heat transfer correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, M.J.; Hollingsworth, D.K.

    1999-07-01

    Turbulence length scale calculation methods were critically reviewed for their usefulness in boundary layer heat transfer correlations. Merits and deficiencies in each calculation method were presented. A rigorous method for calculating an energy-based integral scale was introduced. The method uses the variance of the streamwise velocity and a measured dissipation spectrum to calculate the length scale. Advantages and disadvantages of the new method were discussed. A principal advantage is the capability to decisively calculate length scales in a low-Reynolds-number turbulent boundary layer. The calculation method was tested with data from grid-generated, free-shear-layer, and wall-bounded turbulence. In each case, the method proved successful. The length scale is well behaved in turbulent boundary layers with momentum thickness Reynolds numbers from 400 to 2,100 and in flows with turbulent Reynolds numbers as low as 90.

  17. Morphology Characterization of PP/Clay Nanocomposites Across the Length Scales of the Structural Architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szazdi, Laszlo; Abranyi, Agnes; Pukansky Jr, Bela; Vancso, Gyula J.; Pukanszky, B.; Pukanszky, Bela

    2006-01-01

    The structure and rheological properties of a large number of layered silicate poly(propylene) nanocomposites were studied with widely varying compositions. Morphology characterization at different length scales was achieved by SEM, TEM, and XRD. Rheological measurements supplied additional

  18. Measurements of Turbulent Flame Speed and Integral Length Scales in a Lean Stationary Premixed Flame

    OpenAIRE

    Klingmann, Jens; Johansson, Bengt

    1998-01-01

    Turbulent premixed natural gas - air flame velocities have been measured in a stationary axi-symmetric burner using LDA. The flame was stabilized by letting the flow retard toward a stagnation plate downstream of the burner exit. Turbulence was generated by letting the flow pass through a plate with drilled holes. Three different hole diameters were used, 3, 6 and 10 mm, in order to achieve different turbulent length scales. Turbulent integral length scales were measured using two-point LD...

  19. Effect of length scale on mechanical properties of Al-Cu eutectic alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwary, C. S.; Roy Mahapatra, D.; Chattopadhyay, K.

    2012-10-01

    This paper attempts a quantitative understanding of the effect of length scale on two phase eutectic structure. We first develop a model that considers both the elastic and plastic properties of the interface. Using Al-Al2Cu lamellar eutectic as model system, the parameters of the model were experimentally determined using indentation technique. The model is further validated using the results of bulk compression testing of the eutectics having different length scales.

  20. High-Temperature Structural Analysis of a Small-Scale Prototype of a Process Heat Exchanger (IV) - Macroscopic High-Temperature Elastic-Plastic Analysis -

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Kee Nam; Hong, Sung Deok; Park, Hong Yoon

    2011-01-01

    A PHE (Process Heat Exchanger) is a key component required to transfer heat energy of 950 .deg. C generated in a VHTR (Very High Temperature Reactor) to a chemical reaction that yields a large quantity of hydrogen. A small-scale PHE prototype made of Hastelloy-X was scheduled for testing in a small-scale gas loop at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute. In this study, as a part of the evaluation of the high-temperature structural integrity of the PHE prototype, high-temperature structural analysis modeling, and macroscopic thermal and elastic-plastic structural analysis of the PHE prototype were carried out under the gas-loop test conditions as a preliminary qwer123$ study before carrying out the performance test in the gas loop. The results obtained in this study will be used to design the performance test setup for the modified PHE prototype

  1. Empirical scaling of the length of the longest increasing subsequences of random walks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, J. Ricardo G.

    2017-02-01

    We provide Monte Carlo estimates of the scaling of the length L n of the longest increasing subsequences of n-step random walks for several different distributions of step lengths, short and heavy-tailed. Our simulations indicate that, barring possible logarithmic corrections, {{L}n}∼ {{n}θ} with the leading scaling exponent 0.60≲ θ ≲ 0.69 for the heavy-tailed distributions of step lengths examined, with values increasing as the distribution becomes more heavy-tailed, and θ ≃ 0.57 for distributions of finite variance, irrespective of the particular distribution. The results are consistent with existing rigorous bounds for θ, although in a somewhat surprising manner. For random walks with step lengths of finite variance, we conjecture that the correct asymptotic behavior of L n is given by \\sqrt{n}\\ln n , and also propose the form for the subleading asymptotics. The distribution of L n was found to follow a simple scaling form with scaling functions that vary with θ. Accordingly, when the step lengths are of finite variance they seem to be universal. The nature of this scaling remains unclear, since we lack a working model, microscopic or hydrodynamic, for the behavior of the length of the longest increasing subsequences of random walks.

  2. Large-scale structure of a network of co-occurring MeSH terms: statistical analysis of macroscopic properties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Kastrin

    Full Text Available Concept associations can be represented by a network that consists of a set of nodes representing concepts and a set of edges representing their relationships. Complex networks exhibit some common topological features including small diameter, high degree of clustering, power-law degree distribution, and modularity. We investigated the topological properties of a network constructed from co-occurrences between MeSH descriptors in the MEDLINE database. We conducted the analysis on two networks, one constructed from all MeSH descriptors and another using only major descriptors. Network reduction was performed using the Pearson's chi-square test for independence. To characterize topological properties of the network we adopted some specific measures, including diameter, average path length, clustering coefficient, and degree distribution. For the full MeSH network the average path length was 1.95 with a diameter of three edges and clustering coefficient of 0.26. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test rejects the power law as a plausible model for degree distribution. For the major MeSH network the average path length was 2.63 edges with a diameter of seven edges and clustering coefficient of 0.15. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test failed to reject the power law as a plausible model. The power-law exponent was 5.07. In both networks it was evident that nodes with a lower degree exhibit higher clustering than those with a higher degree. After simulated attack, where we removed 10% of nodes with the highest degrees, the giant component of each of the two networks contains about 90% of all nodes. Because of small average path length and high degree of clustering the MeSH network is small-world. A power-law distribution is not a plausible model for the degree distribution. The network is highly modular, highly resistant to targeted and random attack and with minimal dissortativity.

  3. Wind direction variations in the natural wind – A new length scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Jens; Christensen, Silas Sverre

    2018-01-01

    During an observation period of e.g. 10min, the wind direction will differ from its mean direction for short periods of time, and a body of air will pass by from that direction before the direction changes once again. The present paper introduces a new length scale which we have labeled the angular...... length scale. This length scale expresses the average size of the body of air passing by from any deviation of wind direction away from the mean direction. Using metrological observations from two different sites under varying conditions we have shown that the size of the body of air relative to the mean...... size decreases linearly with the deviation from the mean wind direction when the deviation is normalized with the standard deviation of the wind direction. It is shown that this linear variation is independent of the standard deviation of the wind direction, and that the two full-scale data sets follow...

  4. Bending of marble with intrinsic length scales: a gradient theory with surface energy and size effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vardoulakis, I.; Kourkoulis, S.K.; Exadaktylos, G.

    1998-01-01

    A gradient bending theory is developed based on a strain energy function that includes the classical Bernoulli-Euler term, the shape correction term (microstructural length scale) introduced by Timoshenko, and a term associated with surface energy (micromaterial length scale) accounting for the bending moment gradient effect. It is shown that the last term is capable to interpret the size effect in three-point bending (3PB), namely the decrease of the failure load with decreasing beam length for the same aspect ratio. This theory is used to describe the mechanical behaviour of Dionysos-Pentelikon marble in 3PB. Series of tests with prismatic marble beams of the same aperture but with different lengths were conducted and it was concluded that the present theory predicts well the size effect. (orig.)

  5. Scaling of localization length of a quasi 1D system with longitudinal boundary roughness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abhijit Kar Gupta; Sen, A.K.

    1994-08-01

    We introduce irregularities on one of the longitudinal boundaries of a quasi 1D strip which has no bulk disorder. We calculate the localization length of such a system within the scope of tight-binding formalism and see how it behaves with the roughness introduced on the boundary and with the strip-width. We find that localization length scales with a composite one parameter. (author). 6 refs, 4 figs

  6. Length-scale effect due to periodic variation of geometrically necessary dislocation densities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oztop, M. S.; Niordson, Christian Frithiof; Kysar, J. W.

    2013-01-01

    Strain gradient plasticity theories have been successful in predicting qualitative aspects of the length scale effect, most notably the increase in yield strength and hardness as the size of the deforming volume decreases. However new experimental methodologies enabled by recent developments...... of high spatial resolution diffraction methods in a scanning electron microscope give a much more quantitative understanding of plastic deformation at small length scales. Specifically, geometrically necessary dislocation densities (GND) can now be measured and provide detailed information about...... the microstructure of deformed metals in addition to the size effect. Recent GND measurements have revealed a distribution of length scales that evolves within a metal undergoing plastic deformation. Furthermore, these experiments have shown an accumulation of GND densities in cell walls as well as a variation...

  7. Natural Length Scales of Ecological Systems: Applications at Community and Ecosystem Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig R. Johnson

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The characteristic, or natural, length scales of a spatially dynamic ecological landscape are the spatial scales at which the deterministic trends in the dynamic are most sharply in focus. Given recent development of techniques to determine the characteristic length scales (CLSs of real ecological systems, I explore the potential for using CLSs to address three important and vexing issues in applied ecology, viz. (i determining the optimum scales to monitor ecological systems, (ii interpreting change in ecological communities, and (iii ascertaining connectivity between species in complex ecologies. In summarizing the concept of characteristic length scales as system-level scaling thresholds, I emphasize that the primary CLS is, by definition, the optimum scale at which to monitor a system if the objective is to observe its deterministic dynamics at a system level. Using several different spatially explicit individual-based models, I then explore predictions of the underlying theory of CLSs in the context of interpreting change and ascertaining connectivity among species in ecological systems. Analysis of these models support predictions that systems with strongly fluctuating community structure, but an otherwise stable long-term dynamic defined by a stationary attractor, indicate an invariant length scale irrespective of community structure at the time of analysis, and irrespective of the species analyzed. In contrast, if changes in the underlying dynamic are forcibly induced, the shift in dynamics is reflected by a change in the primary length scale. Thus, consideration of the magnitude of the CLS through time enables distinguishing between circumstances where there are temporal changes in community structure but not in the long-term dynamic, from that where changes in community structure reflect some kind of fundamental shift in dynamics. In this context, CLSs emerge as a diagnostic tool to identify phase shifts to alternative stable states

  8. Nano-scaled graphene platelets with a high length-to-width aspect ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhamu, Aruna; Guo, Jiusheng; Jang, Bor Z.

    2010-09-07

    This invention provides a nano-scaled graphene platelet (NGP) having a thickness no greater than 100 nm and a length-to-width ratio no less than 3 (preferably greater than 10). The NGP with a high length-to-width ratio can be prepared by using a method comprising (a) intercalating a carbon fiber or graphite fiber with an intercalate to form an intercalated fiber; (b) exfoliating the intercalated fiber to obtain an exfoliated fiber comprising graphene sheets or flakes; and (c) separating the graphene sheets or flakes to obtain nano-scaled graphene platelets. The invention also provides a nanocomposite material comprising an NGP with a high length-to-width ratio. Such a nanocomposite can become electrically conductive with a small weight fraction of NGPs. Conductive composites are particularly useful for shielding of sensitive electronic equipment against electromagnetic interference (EMI) or radio frequency interference (RFI), and for electrostatic charge dissipation.

  9. A multiple length scale description of the mechanism of elastomer stretching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neuefeind, J.; Skov, Anne Ladegaard; Daniels, J. E.

    2016-01-01

    Conventionally, the stretching of rubber is modeled exclusively by rotations of segments of the embedded polymer chains; i.e. changes in entropy. However models have not been tested on all relevant length scales due to a lack of appropriate probes. Here we present a universal X-ray based method f...

  10. Efficient coupling of 527 nm laser beam power to a long scale-length plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moody, J.D.; Divol, L.; Glenzer, S.H.; MacKinnon, A.J.; Froula, D.H.; Gregori, G.; Kruer, W.L.; Meezan, N.B.; Suter, L.J.; Williams, E.A.; Bahr, R.; Seka, W.

    2006-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate that application of laser smoothing schemes including smoothing by spectral dispersion (SSD) and polarization smoothing (PS) increases the intensity range for efficient coupling of frequency doubled (527 nm) laser light to a long scale-length plasma with n e /n cr equals 0.14 and T e equals 2 keV. (authors)

  11. Channel length scaling and the impact of metal gate work function ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    As the channel length is reduced from one transistor generation to the next, ... As CMOS technology continues to scale, metal gate electrodes need to be intro .... in the z-direction, q is the electron charge, h is the Planck's constant, Ψ(x, z) is the.

  12. Length-scale dependent ensemble-averaged conductance of a 1D disordered conductor: Conductance minimum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tit, N.; Kumar, N.; Pradhan, P.

    1993-07-01

    Exact numerical calculation of ensemble averaged length-scale dependent conductance for the 1D Anderson model is shown to support an earlier conjecture for a conductance minimum. Numerical results can be understood in terms of the Thouless expression for the conductance and the Wigner level-spacing statistics. (author). 8 refs, 2 figs

  13. Enhanced Strain in Functional Nanoporous Gold with a Dual Microscopic Length Scale Structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Detsi, Eric; Punzhin, Sergey; Rao, Jiancun; Onck, Patrick R.; De Hosson, Jeff Th. M.

    We have synthesized nanoporous Au with a dual microscopic length scale by exploiting the crystal structure of the alloy precursor. The synthesized mesoscopic material is characterized by stacked Au layers of submicrometer thickness. In addition, each layer displays nanoporosity through the entire

  14. Feasibility analysis of large length-scale thermocapillary flow experiment for the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberts, Samantha J.

    The investigation of microgravity fluid dynamics emerged out of necessity with the advent of space exploration. In particular, capillary research took a leap forward in the 1960s with regards to liquid settling and interfacial dynamics. Due to inherent temperature variations in large spacecraft liquid systems, such as fuel tanks, forces develop on gas-liquid interfaces which induce thermocapillary flows. To date, thermocapillary flows have been studied in small, idealized research geometries usually under terrestrial conditions. The 1 to 3m lengths in current and future large tanks and hardware are designed based on hardware rather than research, which leaves spaceflight systems designers without the technological tools to effectively create safe and efficient designs. This thesis focused on the design and feasibility of a large length-scale thermocapillary flow experiment, which utilizes temperature variations to drive a flow. The design of a helical channel geometry ranging from 1 to 2.5m in length permits a large length-scale thermocapillary flow experiment to fit in a seemingly small International Space Station (ISS) facility such as the Fluids Integrated Rack (FIR). An initial investigation determined the proposed experiment produced measurable data while adhering to the FIR facility limitations. The computational portion of this thesis focused on the investigation of functional geometries of fuel tanks and depots using Surface Evolver. This work outlines the design of a large length-scale thermocapillary flow experiment for the ISS FIR. The results from this work improve the understanding thermocapillary flows and thus improve technological tools for predicting heat and mass transfer in large length-scale thermocapillary flows. Without the tools to understand the thermocapillary flows in these systems, engineers are forced to design larger, heavier vehicles to assure safety and mission success.

  15. Scale and time dependence of serial correlations in word-length time series of written texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, E.; Aguilar-Cornejo, M.; Femat, R.; Alvarez-Ramirez, J.

    2014-11-01

    This work considered the quantitative analysis of large written texts. To this end, the text was converted into a time series by taking the sequence of word lengths. The detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) was used for characterizing long-range serial correlations of the time series. To this end, the DFA was implemented within a rolling window framework for estimating the variations of correlations, quantified in terms of the scaling exponent, strength along the text. Also, a filtering derivative was used to compute the dependence of the scaling exponent relative to the scale. The analysis was applied to three famous English-written literary narrations; namely, Alice in Wonderland (by Lewis Carrol), Dracula (by Bram Stoker) and Sense and Sensibility (by Jane Austen). The results showed that high correlations appear for scales of about 50-200 words, suggesting that at these scales the text contains the stronger coherence. The scaling exponent was not constant along the text, showing important variations with apparent cyclical behavior. An interesting coincidence between the scaling exponent variations and changes in narrative units (e.g., chapters) was found. This suggests that the scaling exponent obtained from the DFA is able to detect changes in narration structure as expressed by the usage of words of different lengths.

  16. Electropolishing effect on roughness metrics of ground stainless steel: a length scale study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakar, Doron; Harel, David; Hirsch, Baruch

    2018-03-01

    Electropolishing is a widely-used electrochemical surface finishing process for metals. The electropolishing of stainless steel has vast commercial application, such as improving corrosion resistance, improving cleanness, and brightening. The surface topography characterization is performed using several techniques with different lateral resolutions and length scales, from atomic force microscopy in the nano-scale (filter are adopted. While the commonly used roughness amplitude parameters (Ra, Rq and Rz) fail to characterize electropolished textures, the root mean square slope (RΔq) is found to better describe the electropolished surfaces and to be insensitive to scale.

  17. Dependence of exponents on text length versus finite-size scaling for word-frequency distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corral, Álvaro; Font-Clos, Francesc

    2017-08-01

    Some authors have recently argued that a finite-size scaling law for the text-length dependence of word-frequency distributions cannot be conceptually valid. Here we give solid quantitative evidence for the validity of this scaling law, using both careful statistical tests and analytical arguments based on the generalized central-limit theorem applied to the moments of the distribution (and obtaining a novel derivation of Heaps' law as a by-product). We also find that the picture of word-frequency distributions with power-law exponents that decrease with text length [X. Yan and P. Minnhagen, Physica A 444, 828 (2016), 10.1016/j.physa.2015.10.082] does not stand with rigorous statistical analysis. Instead, we show that the distributions are perfectly described by power-law tails with stable exponents, whose values are close to 2, in agreement with the classical Zipf's law. Some misconceptions about scaling are also clarified.

  18. Determining the minimal length scale of the generalized uncertainty principle from the entropy-area relationship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Wontae; Oh, John J.

    2008-01-01

    We derive the formula of the black hole entropy with a minimal length of the Planck size by counting quantum modes of scalar fields in the vicinity of the black hole horizon, taking into account the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP). This formula is applied to some intriguing examples of black holes - the Schwarzschild black hole, the Reissner-Nordstrom black hole, and the magnetically charged dilatonic black hole. As a result, it is shown that the GUP parameter can be determined by imposing the black hole entropy-area relationship, which has a Planck length scale and a universal form within the near-horizon expansion

  19. Numerical scalings of the decay lengths in the scrape-off layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Militello, F.; Naulin, V; Nielsen, Anders Henry

    2013-01-01

    Numerical simulations of L-mode turbulence in the scrape-off layer (SOL) are used to construct power scaling laws for the characteristic decay lengths of the temperature, density and heat flux at the outer mid-plane. Most of the results obtained are in qualitative agreement with the experimental...... observations despite the known limitation of the model. Quantitative agreement is also obtained for some exponents. In particular, an almost linear inverse dependence of the heat flux decay length with the plasma current is recovered. The relative simplicity of the theoretical model used allows one to gain...

  20. Scale-lengths and instabilities in magnetized classical and relativistic plasma fluid models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diver, D A; Laing, E W

    2015-01-01

    The validity of the traditional plasma continuum is predicated on a hierarchy of scale-lengths, with the Debye length being considered to be effectively unresolvable in the continuum limit. In this article, we revisit the strong magnetic field case in which the Larmor radius is comparable or smaller than the Debye length in the classical plasma, and also for a relativistic plasma. Fresh insight into the validity of the continuum assumption in each case is offered, including a fluid limit on the Alfvén speed that may impose restrictions on the validity of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) in some solar and fusion contexts. Additional implications concerning the role of the firehose instability are also explored. (paper)

  1. Morphological quantification of hierarchical geomaterials by X-ray nano-CT bridges the gap from nano to micro length scales

    KAUST Repository

    Brisard, S.

    2012-01-30

    Morphological quantification of the complex structure of hierarchical geomaterials is of great relevance for Earth science and environmental engineering, among others. To date, methods that quantify the 3D morphology on length scales ranging from a few tens of nanometers to several hun-dred nanometers have had limited success. We demonstrate, for the first time, that it is possible to go beyond visualization and to extract quantitative morphological information from X-ray images in the aforementioned length scales. As examples, two different hierarchical geomaterials exhibiting complex porous structures ranging from nanometer to macroscopic scale are studied: a flocculated clay water suspension and two hydrated cement pastes. We show that from a single projection image it is possible to perform a direct computation of the ultra-small angle-scattering spectra. The predictions matched very well the experimental data obtained by the best ultra-small angle-scattering experimental setups as observed for the cement paste. In this context, we demonstrate that the structure of flocculated clay suspension exhibit two well-distinct regimes of aggregation, a dense mass fractal aggregation at short distance and a more open structure at large distance, which can be generated by a 3D reaction limited cluster-cluster aggregation process. For the first time, a high-resolution 3D image of fibrillar cement paste cluster was obtained from limited angle nanotomography.

  2. Intraflagellar transport particle size scales inversely with flagellar length: revisiting the balance-point length control model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Benjamin D; Ludington, William B; Marshall, Wallace F

    2009-10-05

    The assembly and maintenance of eukaryotic flagella are regulated by intraflagellar transport (IFT), the bidirectional traffic of IFT particles (recently renamed IFT trains) within the flagellum. We previously proposed the balance-point length control model, which predicted that the frequency of train transport should decrease as a function of flagellar length, thus modulating the length-dependent flagellar assembly rate. However, this model was challenged by the differential interference contrast microscopy observation that IFT frequency is length independent. Using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy to quantify protein traffic during the regeneration of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii flagella, we determined that anterograde IFT trains in short flagella are composed of more kinesin-associated protein and IFT27 proteins than trains in long flagella. This length-dependent remodeling of train size is consistent with the kinetics of flagellar regeneration and supports a revised balance-point model of flagellar length control in which the size of anterograde IFT trains tunes the rate of flagellar assembly.

  3. Stability of icosahedral quasicrystals in a simple model with two-length scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Kai; Zhang, Pingwen; Shi, An-Chang

    2017-01-01

    The phase behaviour of a free energy functional with two length scales is examined by comparing the free energy of different candidate phases including three-dimensional icosahedral quasicrystals. Accurate free energy of the quasicrystals has been obtained using the recently developed projection method. The results reveal that the icosahedral quasicrystal and body-centred-cubic spherical phase are the stable ordered phases of the model. Furthermore, the difference between the results obtained from the projection method and the one-mode approximation has been analyzed in detail. The present study extends previous results on two-dimensional systems, demonstrating that the interactions between density waves at two length scales can stabilize two- and three-dimensional quasicrystals. (paper)

  4. The length-scale dependence of strain in networks by SANS

    CERN Document Server

    Pyckhout-Hintzen, W; Heinrich, M; Richter, D; Westermann, S; Straube, E

    2002-01-01

    We present a SANS study of the length-scale dependence of chain deformation by means of a suitable labeling in dense, cross-linked elastomers of the HDH-type. This length scale is controlled by the size of the label as well as the cross-link density. The results are compared to long homopolymers. The data are analyzed by means of the tube model of topology in rubber elasticity in combination with the random-phase approximation (RPA) to account for interchain correlations. Chain degradation during cross linking is treated by the standard RPA approach for polydisperse multicomponent systems. A transition from locally freely fluctuating to tube-constrained segmental motion was observed. (orig.)

  5. Activity-dependent self-regulation of viscous length scales in biological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, Saroj Kumar

    2018-05-01

    The cellular cortex, which is a highly viscous thin cytoplasmic layer just below the cell membrane, controls the cell's mechanical properties, which can be characterized by a hydrodynamic length scale ℓ . Cells actively regulate ℓ via the activity of force-generating molecules, such as myosin II. Here we develop a general theory for such systems through a coarse-grained hydrodynamic approach including activity in the static description of the system providing an experimentally accessible parameter and elucidate the detailed mechanism of how a living system can actively self-regulate its hydrodynamic length scale, controlling the rigidity of the system. Remarkably, we find that ℓ , as a function of activity, behaves universally and roughly inversely proportional to the activity of the system. Our theory rationalizes a number of experimental findings on diverse systems, and comparison of our theory with existing experimental data shows good agreement.

  6. Optimization of Electrical Methods for Sub -surface Monitoring of Biological Contamination: From Micro-scale to Macroscopic one through Sub-micrometric Topographic and Electrochemical Studies of Oxydation/Reduction Processes Provoked by Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhahri, S.; Marliere, C.

    2012-12-01

    The presence of biological matter (bacteria) in deep geological sites for storage of, for instance, radioactive elements or groundwater in aquifers was clearly proved. That biomass triggers physical and chemical processes which greatly modify the durability and the sustainability of the storage sites. These processes, mainly from oxidative/reductive reactions, are poorly understood. This is mainly due to the fact that former studies were done at the macroscopic level far away from the micrometric scale where relevant processes induced by bacteria take place. Investigations at microscopic level are needed. Thus, we developed an experimental set -up based on the combined use of optical microscopy (epifluorescence and transmission), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electro -chemical microscopy (SECM) in order to get simultaneous information on topographic and electro -chemical processes at different length scales. The first highly sensitive step was to use AFM and optical microscopy with biological samples in liquid environment: We will present a new, non -perturbative method for imaging bacteria in their natural liquid environment using AFM. No immobilization protocol, neither chemical nor mechanical, is needed, contrary to what has been regarded till now as essential. Furthermore we were able to follow the natural gliding movements of bacteria, directly proving their living state during the AFM investigation: we thus directly prove the low impact of these breakthrough AFM observations on the native behavior of the bacteria. The second delicate step was to combine AFM and optical measurements with electrical ones. We mounted a new experimental set-up coupling real -time (i) monitoring of optical properties as the optical density (OD) evolution related to bulk bacterial growth in liquid or as the counting of number of bacteria adhering on the surface of the sample as well and (ii) electrical and electrochemical measurements. We thus will present results on

  7. Hydrological Storage Length Scales Represented by Remote Sensing Estimates of Soil Moisture and Precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbar, Ruzbeh; Short Gianotti, Daniel; McColl, Kaighin A.; Haghighi, Erfan; Salvucci, Guido D.; Entekhabi, Dara

    2018-03-01

    The soil water content profile is often well correlated with the soil moisture state near the surface. They share mutual information such that analysis of surface-only soil moisture is, at times and in conjunction with precipitation information, reflective of deeper soil fluxes and dynamics. This study examines the characteristic length scale, or effective depth Δz, of a simple active hydrological control volume. The volume is described only by precipitation inputs and soil water dynamics evident in surface-only soil moisture observations. To proceed, first an observation-based technique is presented to estimate the soil moisture loss function based on analysis of soil moisture dry-downs and its successive negative increments. Then, the length scale Δz is obtained via an optimization process wherein the root-mean-squared (RMS) differences between surface soil moisture observations and its predictions based on water balance are minimized. The process is entirely observation-driven. The surface soil moisture estimates are obtained from the NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission and precipitation from the gauge-corrected Climate Prediction Center daily global precipitation product. The length scale Δz exhibits a clear east-west gradient across the contiguous United States (CONUS), such that large Δz depths (>200 mm) are estimated in wetter regions with larger mean precipitation. The median Δz across CONUS is 135 mm. The spatial variance of Δz is predominantly explained and influenced by precipitation characteristics. Soil properties, especially texture in the form of sand fraction, as well as the mean soil moisture state have a lesser influence on the length scale.

  8. Temporal and Latitudinal Variations of the Length-Scales and Relative Intensities of the Chromospheric Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, K. P.

    2018-05-01

    The Calcium K spectroheliograms of the Sun from Kodaikanal have a data span of about 100 years and covers over 9 solar cycles. The Ca line is a strong chromospheric line dominated by chromospheric network and plages which are good indicators of solar activity. Length-scales and relative intensities of the chromospheric network have been obtained in the solar latitudes from 50 degree N to 50 degree S from the spectroheliograms. The length-scale was obtained from the half-width of the two-dimensional autocorrelation of the latitude strip which gives a measure of the width of the network boundary. As reported earlier for the transition region extreme ultraviolet (EUV) network, relative intensity and width of the chromospheric network boundary are found to be dependent on the solar cycle. A varying phase difference has been noticed in the quantities in different solar latitudes. A cross-correlation analysis of the quantities from other latitudes with ±30 degree latitude revealed an interesting phase difference pattern indicating flux transfer. Evidence of equatorward flux transfer has been observed. The average equatorward flux transfer was estimated to be 5.8 ms-1. The possible reasons of the drift could be meridional circulation, torsional oscillations, or the bright point migration. Cross-correlation of intensity and length-scale from the same latitude showed increasing phase difference with increasing latitude. We have also obtained the cross correlation of the quantities across the equator to see the possible phase lags in the two hemispheres. Signatures of lags are seen in the length scales of southern hemisphere near the equatorial latitudes, but no such lags in the intensity are observed. The results have important implications on the flux transfer over the solar surface and hence on the solar activity and dynamo.

  9. Cycles, scaling and crossover phenomenon in length of the day (LOD) time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telesca, Luciano

    2007-06-01

    The dynamics of the temporal fluctuations of the length of the day (LOD) time series from January 1, 1962 to November 2, 2006 were investigated. The power spectrum of the whole time series has revealed annual, semi-annual, decadal and daily oscillatory behaviors, correlated with oceanic-atmospheric processes and interactions. The scaling behavior was analyzed by using the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA), which has revealed two different scaling regimes, separated by a crossover timescale at approximately 23 days. Flicker-noise process can describe the dynamics of the LOD time regime involving intermediate and long timescales, while Brownian dynamics characterizes the LOD time series for small timescales.

  10. LPI Thresholds in Longer Scale Length Plasmas Driven by the Nike Laser*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, J.; Oh, J.; Phillips, L.; Afeyan, B.; Seely, J.; Kehne, D.; Brown, C.; Obenschain, S.; Serlin, V.; Schmitt, A. J.; Feldman, U.; Holland, G.; Lehmberg, R. H.; McLean, E.; Manka, C.

    2010-11-01

    The Krypton-Fluoride (KrF) laser is an attractive driver for inertial confinement fusion due to its short wavelength (248nm), large bandwidth (1-3 THz), and beam smoothing by induced spatial incoherence. Experiments with the Nike KrF laser have demonstrated intensity thresholds for laser plasma instabilities (LPI) higher than reported for other high power lasers operating at longer wavelengths (>=351 nm). The previous Nike experiments used short pulses (350 ps FWHM) and small spots (<260 μm FWHM) that created short density scale length plasmas (Ln˜50-70 μm) from planar CH targets and demonstrated the onset of two-plasmon decay (2φp) at laser intensities ˜2x10^15 W/cm^2. This talk will present an overview of the current campaign that uses longer pulses (0.5-4.0 ns) to achieve greater density scale lengths (Ln˜100-200 μm). X-rays, emission near ^1/2φo and ^3/2φo harmonics, and reflected laser light have been monitored for onset of 2φp. The longer density scale lengths will allow better comparison to results from other laser facilities. *Work supported by DoE/NNSA and ONR.

  11. Many-body localization transition: Schmidt gap, entanglement length, and scaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Johnnie; Bose, Sougato; Bayat, Abolfazl

    2018-05-01

    Many-body localization has become an important phenomenon for illuminating a potential rift between nonequilibrium quantum systems and statistical mechanics. However, the nature of the transition between ergodic and localized phases in models displaying many-body localization is not yet well understood. Assuming that this is a continuous transition, analytic results show that the length scale should diverge with a critical exponent ν ≥2 in one-dimensional systems. Interestingly, this is in stark contrast with all exact numerical studies which find ν ˜1 . We introduce the Schmidt gap, new in this context, which scales near the transition with an exponent ν >2 compatible with the analytical bound. We attribute this to an insensitivity to certain finite-size fluctuations, which remain significant in other quantities at the sizes accessible to exact numerical methods. Additionally, we find that a physical manifestation of the diverging length scale is apparent in the entanglement length computed using the logarithmic negativity between disjoint blocks.

  12. Differential scaling patterns of vertebrae and the evolution of neck length in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Patrick; Amson, Eli; Fischer, Martin S

    2017-06-01

    Almost all mammals have seven vertebrae in their cervical spines. This consistency represents one of the most prominent examples of morphological stasis in vertebrae evolution. Hence, the requirements associated with evolutionary modifications of neck length have to be met with a fixed number of vertebrae. It has not been clear whether body size influences the overall length of the cervical spine and its inner organization (i.e., if the mammalian neck is subject to allometry). Here, we provide the first large-scale analysis of the scaling patterns of the cervical spine and its constituting cervical vertebrae. Our findings reveal that the opposite allometric scaling of C1 and C2-C7 accommodate the increase of neck bending moment with body size. The internal organization of the neck skeleton exhibits surprisingly uniformity in the vast majority of mammals. Deviations from this general pattern only occur under extreme loading regimes associated with particular functional and allometric demands. Our results indicate that the main source of variation in the mammalian neck stems from the disparity of overall cervical spine length. The mammalian neck reveals how evolutionary disparity manifests itself in a structure that is otherwise highly restricted by meristic constraints. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  13. Strategies for Directing the Structure and Function of 3D Collagen Biomaterials across Length Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Brandan D.; Stegemann, Jan P.

    2013-01-01

    Collagen type I is a widely used natural biomaterial that has found utility in a variety of biological and medical applications. Its well characterized structure and role as an extracellular matrix protein make it a highly relevant material for controlling cell function and mimicking tissue properties. Collagen type I is abundant in a number of tissues, and can be isolated as a purified protein. This review focuses on hydrogel biomaterials made by reconstituting collagen type I from a solubilized form, with an emphasis on in vitro studies in which collagen structure can be controlled. The hierarchical structure of collagen from the nanoscale to the macroscale is described, with an emphasis on how structure is related to function across scales. Methods of reconstituting collagen into hydrogel materials are presented, including molding of macroscopic constructs, creation of microscale modules, and electrospinning of nanoscale fibers. The modification of collagen biomaterials to achieve desired structures and functions is also addressed, with particular emphasis on mechanical control of collagen structure, creation of collagen composite materials, and crosslinking of collagenous matrices. Biomaterials scientists have made remarkable progress in rationally designing collagen-based biomaterials and in applying them to both the study of biology and for therapeutic benefit. This broad review illustrates recent examples of techniques used to control collagen structure, and to thereby direct its biological and mechanical functions. PMID:24012608

  14. An experimental verification of the compensation of length change of line scales caused by ambient air pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Akira; Miwa, Nobuharu

    2010-01-01

    Line scales are used as a working standard of length for the calibration of optical measuring instruments such as profile projectors, measuring microscopes and video measuring systems. The authors have developed a one-dimensional calibration system for line scales to obtain a lower uncertainty of measurement. The scale calibration system, named Standard Scale Calibrator SSC-05, employs a vacuum interferometer system for length measurement, a 633 nm iodine-stabilized He–Ne laser to calibrate the oscillating frequency of the interferometer laser light source and an Abbe's error compensation structure. To reduce the uncertainty of measurement, the uncertainty factors of the line scale and ambient conditions should not be neglected. Using the length calibration system, the expansion and contraction of a line scale due to changes in ambient air pressure were observed and the measured scale length was corrected into the length under standard atmospheric pressure, 1013.25 hPa. Utilizing a natural rapid change in the air pressure caused by a tropical storm (typhoon), we carried out an experiment on the length measurement of a 1000 mm long line scale made of glass ceramic with a low coefficient of thermal expansion. Using a compensation formula for the length change caused by changes in ambient air pressure, the length change of the 1000 mm long line scale was compensated with a standard deviation of less than 1 nm

  15. The small length scale effect for a non-local cantilever beam: a paradox solved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challamel, N; Wang, C M

    2008-08-27

    Non-local continuum mechanics allows one to account for the small length scale effect that becomes significant when dealing with microstructures or nanostructures. This paper presents some simplified non-local elastic beam models, for the bending analyses of small scale rods. Integral-type or gradient non-local models abandon the classical assumption of locality, and admit that stress depends not only on the strain value at that point but also on the strain values of all points on the body. There is a paradox still unresolved at this stage: some bending solutions of integral-based non-local elastic beams have been found to be identical to the classical (local) solution, i.e. the small scale effect is not present at all. One example is the Euler-Bernoulli cantilever nanobeam model with a point load which has application in microelectromechanical systems and nanoelectromechanical systems as an actuator. In this paper, it will be shown that this paradox may be overcome with a gradient elastic model as well as an integral non-local elastic model that is based on combining the local and the non-local curvatures in the constitutive elastic relation. The latter model comprises the classical gradient model and Eringen's integral model, and its application produces small length scale terms in the non-local elastic cantilever beam solution.

  16. Scaling of the critical free length for progressive unfolding of self-bonded graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwan, Kenny; Cranford, Steven W., E-mail: s.cranford@neu.edu [Laboratory of Nanotechnology in Civil Engineering (NICE), Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Northeastern University, 400 Snell Engineering, 360 Huntington Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States)

    2014-05-19

    Like filled pasta, rolled or folded graphene can form a large nanocapsule surrounding a hollow interior. Use as a molecular carrier, however, requires understanding of the opening of such vessels. Here, we investigate a monolayer sheet of graphene as a theoretical trial platform for such a nanocapsule. The graphene is bonded to itself via aligned disulfide (S-S) bonds. Through theoretical analysis and atomistic modeling, we probe the critical nonbonded length (free length, L{sub crit}) that induces fracture-like progressive unfolding as a function of folding radius (R{sub i}). We show a clear linear scaling relationship between the length and radius, which can be used to determine the necessary bond density to predict mechanical opening/closing. However, stochastic dissipated energy limits any exact elastic formulation, and the required energy far exceeds the dissociation energy of the S-S bond. We account for the necessary dissipated kinetic energy through a simple scaling factor (Ω), which agrees well with computational results.

  17. Lower Length Scale Model Development for Embrittlement of Reactor Presure Vessel Steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yongfeng [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Schwen, Daniel [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Chakraborty, Pritam [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bai, Xianming [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This report summarizes the lower-length-scale effort during FY 2016 in developing mesoscale capabilities for microstructure evolution, plasticity and fracture in reactor pressure vessel steels. During operation, reactor pressure vessels are subject to hardening and embrittlement caused by irradiation induced defect accumulation and irradiation enhanced solute precipitation. Both defect production and solute precipitation start from the atomic scale, and manifest their eventual effects as degradation in engineering scale properties. To predict the property degradation, multiscale modeling and simulation are needed to deal with the microstructure evolution, and to link the microstructure feature to material properties. In this report, the development of mesoscale capabilities for defect accumulation and solute precipitation are summarized. A crystal plasticity model to capture defect-dislocation interaction and a damage model for cleavage micro-crack propagation is also provided.

  18. Nature of the spin-glass phase at experimental length scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez Baños, R; Cruz, A; Fernandez, L A; Gil-Narvion, J M; Gordillo-Guerrero, A; Maiorano, A; Martin-Mayor, V; Monforte-Garcia, J; Perez-Gaviro, S; Ruiz-Lorenzo, J J; Seoane, B; Tarancon, A; Guidetti, M; Mantovani, F; Schifano, S F; Tripiccione, R; Marinari, E; Parisi, G; Muñoz Sudupe, A; Navarro, D

    2010-01-01

    We present a massive equilibrium simulation of the three-dimensional Ising spin glass at low temperatures. The Janus special-purpose computer has allowed us to equilibrate, using parallel tempering, L = 32 lattices down to T ≈ 0.64T c . We demonstrate the relevance of equilibrium finite size simulations to understanding experimental non-equilibrium spin glasses in the thermodynamical limit by establishing a time-length dictionary. We conclude that non-equilibrium experiments performed on a timescale of 1 h can be matched with equilibrium results on L ≈ 110 lattices. A detailed investigation of the probability distribution functions of the spin and link overlap, as well as of their correlation functions, shows that Replica Symmetry Breaking is the appropriate theoretical framework for the physically relevant length scales. Besides, we improve over existing methodologies in ensuring equilibration in parallel tempering simulations

  19. Characteristic length scale of input data in distributed models: implications for modeling grid size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artan, G. A.; Neale, C. M. U.; Tarboton, D. G.

    2000-01-01

    The appropriate spatial scale for a distributed energy balance model was investigated by: (a) determining the scale of variability associated with the remotely sensed and GIS-generated model input data; and (b) examining the effects of input data spatial aggregation on model response. The semi-variogram and the characteristic length calculated from the spatial autocorrelation were used to determine the scale of variability of the remotely sensed and GIS-generated model input data. The data were collected from two hillsides at Upper Sheep Creek, a sub-basin of the Reynolds Creek Experimental Watershed, in southwest Idaho. The data were analyzed in terms of the semivariance and the integral of the autocorrelation. The minimum characteristic length associated with the variability of the data used in the analysis was 15 m. Simulated and observed radiometric surface temperature fields at different spatial resolutions were compared. The correlation between agreement simulated and observed fields sharply declined after a 10×10 m2 modeling grid size. A modeling grid size of about 10×10 m2 was deemed to be the best compromise to achieve: (a) reduction of computation time and the size of the support data; and (b) a reproduction of the observed radiometric surface temperature.

  20. Characteristic length scale of input data in distributed models: implications for modeling grain size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artan, Guleid A.; Neale, C. M. U.; Tarboton, D. G.

    2000-01-01

    The appropriate spatial scale for a distributed energy balance model was investigated by: (a) determining the scale of variability associated with the remotely sensed and GIS-generated model input data; and (b) examining the effects of input data spatial aggregation on model response. The semi-variogram and the characteristic length calculated from the spatial autocorrelation were used to determine the scale of variability of the remotely sensed and GIS-generated model input data. The data were collected from two hillsides at Upper Sheep Creek, a sub-basin of the Reynolds Creek Experimental Watershed, in southwest Idaho. The data were analyzed in terms of the semivariance and the integral of the autocorrelation. The minimum characteristic length associated with the variability of the data used in the analysis was 15 m. Simulated and observed radiometric surface temperature fields at different spatial resolutions were compared. The correlation between agreement simulated and observed fields sharply declined after a 10×10 m2 modeling grid size. A modeling grid size of about 10×10 m2 was deemed to be the best compromise to achieve: (a) reduction of computation time and the size of the support data; and (b) a reproduction of the observed radiometric surface temperature.

  1. Condensation on superhydrophobic surfaces: the role of local energy barriers and structure length scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enright, Ryan; Miljkovic, Nenad; Al-Obeidi, Ahmed; Thompson, Carl V; Wang, Evelyn N

    2012-10-09

    Water condensation on surfaces is a ubiquitous phase-change process that plays a crucial role in nature and across a range of industrial applications, including energy production, desalination, and environmental control. Nanotechnology has created opportunities to manipulate this process through the precise control of surface structure and chemistry, thus enabling the biomimicry of natural surfaces, such as the leaves of certain plant species, to realize superhydrophobic condensation. However, this "bottom-up" wetting process is inadequately described using typical global thermodynamic analyses and remains poorly understood. In this work, we elucidate, through imaging experiments on surfaces with structure length scales ranging from 100 nm to 10 μm and wetting physics, how local energy barriers are essential to understand non-equilibrium condensed droplet morphologies and demonstrate that overcoming these barriers via nucleation-mediated droplet-droplet interactions leads to the emergence of wetting states not predicted by scale-invariant global thermodynamic analysis. This mechanistic understanding offers insight into the role of surface-structure length scale, provides a quantitative basis for designing surfaces optimized for condensation in engineered systems, and promises insight into ice formation on surfaces that initiates with the condensation of subcooled water.

  2. Nano-regime Length Scales Extracted from the First Sharp Diffraction Peak in Non-crystalline SiO2 and Related Materials: Device Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillips James

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper distinguishes between two different scales of medium range order, MRO, in non-crystalline SiO2: (1 the first is ~0.4 to 0.5 nm and is obtained from the position of the first sharp diffraction peak, FSDP, in the X-ray diffraction structure factor, S(Q, and (2 the second is ~1 nm and is calculated from the FSDP full-width-at-half-maximum FWHM. Many-electron calculations yield Si–O third- and O–O fourth-nearest-neighbor bonding distances in the same 0.4–0.5 nm MRO regime. These derive from the availability of empty Si dπ orbitals for back-donation from occupied O pπ orbitals yielding narrow symmetry determined distributions of third neighbor Si–O, and fourth neighbor O–O distances. These are segments of six member rings contributing to connected six-member rings with ~1 nm length scale within the MRO regime. The unique properties of non-crystalline SiO2 are explained by the encapsulation of six-member ring clusters by five- and seven-member rings on average in a compliant hard-soft nano-scaled inhomogeneous network. This network structure minimizes macroscopic strain, reducing intrinsic bonding defects as well as defect precursors. This inhomogeneous CRN is enabling for applications including thermally grown ~1.5 nm SiO2 layers for Si field effect transistor devices to optical components with centimeter dimensions. There are qualitatively similar length scales in nano-crystalline HfO2 and phase separated Hf silicates based on the primitive unit cell, rather than a ring structure. Hf oxide dielectrics have recently been used as replacement dielectrics for a new generation of Si and Si/Ge devices heralding a transition into nano-scale circuits and systems on a Si chip.

  3. Correlation of optical emission and turbulent length scale in a coaxial jet diffusion flame

    OpenAIRE

    松山, 新吾; Matsuyama, Shingo

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates the correlation between optical emission and turbulent length scale in a coaxial jet diffusion flame. To simulate the H2O emission from an H2/O2 diffusion flame, radiative transfer is calculated on flame data obtained by numerical simulation. H2O emission characteristics are examined for a one-dimensional opposed-flow diffusion flame. The results indicate that H2O emission intensity is linearly dependent on flame thickness. The simulation of H2O emission is then exte...

  4. Brief communication: Possible explanation of the values of Hack's drainage basin, river length scaling exponent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Allen G.

    2016-04-01

    Percolation theory can be used to find water flow paths of least resistance. Application of percolation theory to drainage networks allows identification of the range of exponent values that describe the tortuosity of rivers in real river networks, which is then used to generate the observed scaling between drainage basin area and channel length, a relationship known as Hack's law. Such a theoretical basis for Hack's law may allow interpretation of the range of exponent values based on an assessment of the heterogeneity of the substrate.

  5. Explanation of the values of Hack's drainage basin, river length scaling exponent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, A. G.

    2015-08-01

    Percolation theory can be used to find water flow paths of least resistance. The application of percolation theory to drainage networks allows identification of the range of exponent values that describe the tortuosity of rivers in real river networks, which is then used to generate the observed scaling between drainage basin area and channel length, a relationship known as Hack's law. Such a theoretical basis for Hack's law allows interpretation of the range of exponent values based on an assessment of the heterogeneity of the substrate.

  6. Length scale dependence of the dynamic properties of hyaluronic acid solutions in the presence of salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horkay, Ferenc; Falus, Peter; Hecht, Anne-Marie; Geissler, Erik

    2010-12-02

    In solutions of the charged semirigid biopolymer hyaluronic acid in salt-free conditions, the diffusion coefficient D(NSE) measured at high transfer momentum q by neutron spin echo is more than an order of magnitude smaller than that determined by dynamic light scattering, D(DLS). This behavior contrasts with neutral polymer solutions. With increasing salt content, D(DLS) approaches D(NSE), which is independent of ionic strength. Contrary to theoretical expectation, the ion-polymer coupling, which dominates the low q dynamics of polyelectrolyte solutions, already breaks down at distance scales greater than the Debye-Hückel length.

  7. Laser scattering in large-scale-length plasmas relevant to National Ignition Facility hohlraums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacGowan, B.J.; Berger, R.L.; Afeyan, B.B.

    1996-10-01

    We have used homogeneous plasmas of high density (up to 1.3 X 10 21 electrons per cm 3 ) and temperature (∼ 3 keV) with large density scale lengths (∼2 mm) to approximate conditions within National Ignition Facility (NIF) hohlraums. Within these plasmas we have studied the dependence of stimulated Raman (SRS) and Brillouin (SBS) scattering on beam smoothing and plasma conditions at the relevant laser intensity (3ω, 2 X 10 15 Wcm 2 ). Both SBS and SRS are reduced by the use of smoothing by spectral dispersion (SSD)

  8. Lead Selenide Nanostructures Self-Assembled across Multiple Length Scales and Dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan K. Wujcik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A self-assembly approach to lead selenide (PbSe structures that have organized across multiple length scales and multiple dimensions has been achieved. These structures consist of angstrom-scale 0D PbSe crystals, synthesized via a hot solution process, which have stacked into 1D nanorods via aligned dipoles. These 1D nanorods have arranged into nanoscale 2D sheets via directional short-ranged attraction. The nanoscale 2D sheets then further aligned into larger 2D microscale planes. In this study, the authors have characterized the PbSe structures via normal and cryo-TEM and EDX showing that this multiscale multidimensional self-assembled alignment is not due to drying effects. These PbSe structures hold promise for applications in advanced materials—particularly electronic technologies, where alignment can aid in device performance.

  9. Relations between overturning length scales at the Spanish planetary boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Pilar; Cano, José L.

    2016-04-01

    We analyze the behavior of the maximum Thorpe displacement (dT)max and the Thorpe scale LTat the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL), extending previous research with new data and improving our studies related to the novel use of the Thorpe method applied to ABL. The maximum Thorpe displacements vary between -900 m and 950 m for the different field campaigns. The maximum Thorpe displacement is always greater under convective conditions than under stable ones, independently of its sign. The Thorpe scale LT ranges between 0.2 m and 680 m for the different data sets which cover different stratified mixing conditions (turbulence shear-driven and convective regions). The Thorpe scale does not exceed several tens of meters under stable and neutral stratification conditions related to instantaneous density gradients. In contrast, under convective conditions, Thorpe scales are relatively large, they exceed hundreds of meters which may be related to convective bursts. We analyze the relation between (dT)max and the Thorpe scale LT and we deduce that they verify a power law. We also deduce that there is a difference in exponents of the power laws for convective conditions and shear-driven conditions. These different power laws could identify overturns created under different mechanisms. References Cuxart, J., Yagüe, C., Morales, G., Terradellas, E., Orbe, J., Calvo, J., Fernández, A., Soler, M., Infante, C., Buenestado, P., Espinalt, Joergensen, H., Rees, J., Vilà, J., Redondo, J., Cantalapiedra, I. and Conangla, L.: Stable atmospheric boundary-layer experiment in Spain (Sables 98). A report, Boundary-Layer Meteorology, 96, 337-370, 2000. Dillon, T. M.: Vertical Overturns: A Comparison of Thorpe and Ozmidov Length Scales, J. Geophys. Res., 87(C12), 9601-9613, 1982. Itsweire, E. C.: Measurements of vertical overturns in stably stratified turbulent flow, Phys. Fluids, 27(4), 764-766, 1984. Kitade, Y., Matsuyama, M. and Yoshida, J.: Distribution of overturn induced by internal

  10. Collective dynamics of glass-forming polymers at intermediate length scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colmenero, J.; Alvarez, F.; Arbe, A.

    2015-01-01

    Deep understanding of the complex dynamics taking place in glass-forming systems could potentially be gained by exploiting the information provided by the collective response monitored by coherent neutron scattering. We have revisited the question of the characterization of the collective response of polyisobutylene at intermediate length scales observed by neutron spin echo (NSE) experiments. The model, generalized for sub-linear diffusion - as it is the case of glass-forming polymers - has been successfully applied by using the information on the total self-motions available from MD-simulations properly validated by direct comparison with experimental results. From the fits of the coherent NSE data, the collective time at Q → 0 has been extracted that agrees very well with compiled results from different experimental techniques directly accessing such relaxation time. We show that a unique temperature dependence governs both, the Q → 0 and Q → ∞ asymptotic characteristic times. The generalized model also gives account for the modulation of the apparent activation energy of the collective times with the static structure factor. It mainly results from changes of the short-range order at inter-molecular length scales

  11. Dealing with imperfection: quantifying potential length scale artefacts from nominally spherical indenter probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantinides, G; Silva, E C C M; Blackman, G S; Vliet, K J Van

    2007-01-01

    Instrumented nanoindenters are commonly employed to extract elastic, plastic or time-dependent mechanical properties of the indented material surface. In several important cases, accurate determination of the indenter probe radii is essential for the proper analytical interpretation of the experimental response, and it cannot be circumvented by an experimentally determined expression for the contact area as a function of depth. Current approaches quantify the indenter probe radii via inference from a series of indents on a material with known elastic modulus (e.g., fused quartz) or through the fitting of two-dimensional projected images acquired via atomic force microscopy (AFM) or scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images. Here, we propose a more robust methodology, based on concepts of differential geometry, for the accurate determination of three-dimensional indenter probe geometry. The methodology is presented and demonstrated for four conospherical indenters with probe radii of the order of 1-10 μm. The deviation of extracted radii with manufacturer specifications is emphasized and the limits of spherical approximations are presented. All four probes deviate from the assumed spherical geometry, such that the effective radii are not independent of distance from the probe apex. Significant errors in interpretation of material behaviour will result if this deviation is unaccounted for during the analysis of indentation load-depth responses obtained from material surfaces of interest, including observation of an artificial length scale that could be misinterpreted as an effect attributable to material length scales less than tens of nanometres in size or extent

  12. A stochastic immersed boundary method for fluid-structure dynamics at microscopic length scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atzberger, Paul J.; Kramer, Peter R.; Peskin, Charles S.

    2007-01-01

    In modeling many biological systems, it is important to take into account flexible structures which interact with a fluid. At the length scale of cells and cell organelles, thermal fluctuations of the aqueous environment become significant. In this work, it is shown how the immersed boundary method of [C.S. Peskin, The immersed boundary method, Acta Num. 11 (2002) 1-39.] for modeling flexible structures immersed in a fluid can be extended to include thermal fluctuations. A stochastic numerical method is proposed which deals with stiffness in the system of equations by handling systematically the statistical contributions of the fastest dynamics of the fluid and immersed structures over long time steps. An important feature of the numerical method is that time steps can be taken in which the degrees of freedom of the fluid are completely underresolved, partially resolved, or fully resolved while retaining a good level of accuracy. Error estimates in each of these regimes are given for the method. A number of theoretical and numerical checks are furthermore performed to assess its physical fidelity. For a conservative force, the method is found to simulate particles with the correct Boltzmann equilibrium statistics. It is shown in three dimensions that the diffusion of immersed particles simulated with the method has the correct scaling in the physical parameters. The method is also shown to reproduce a well-known hydrodynamic effect of a Brownian particle in which the velocity autocorrelation function exhibits an algebraic (τ -3/2 ) decay for long times [B.J. Alder, T.E. Wainwright, Decay of the Velocity Autocorrelation Function, Phys. Rev. A 1(1) (1970) 18-21]. A few preliminary results are presented for more complex systems which demonstrate some potential application areas of the method. Specifically, we present simulations of osmotic effects of molecular dimers, worm-like chain polymer knots, and a basic model of a molecular motor immersed in fluid subject to a

  13. Variability of interconnected wind plants: correlation length and its dependence on variability time scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Martin, Clara M.; Lundquist, Julie K.; Handschy, Mark A.

    2015-04-01

    The variability in wind-generated electricity complicates the integration of this electricity into the electrical grid. This challenge steepens as the percentage of renewably-generated electricity on the grid grows, but variability can be reduced by exploiting geographic diversity: correlations between wind farms decrease as the separation between wind farms increases. But how far is far enough to reduce variability? Grid management requires balancing production on various timescales, and so consideration of correlations reflective of those timescales can guide the appropriate spatial scales of geographic diversity grid integration. To answer ‘how far is far enough,’ we investigate the universal behavior of geographic diversity by exploring wind-speed correlations using three extensive datasets spanning continents, durations and time resolution. First, one year of five-minute wind power generation data from 29 wind farms span 1270 km across Southeastern Australia (Australian Energy Market Operator). Second, 45 years of hourly 10 m wind-speeds from 117 stations span 5000 km across Canada (National Climate Data Archive of Environment Canada). Finally, four years of five-minute wind-speeds from 14 meteorological towers span 350 km of the Northwestern US (Bonneville Power Administration). After removing diurnal cycles and seasonal trends from all datasets, we investigate dependence of correlation length on time scale by digitally high-pass filtering the data on 0.25-2000 h timescales and calculating correlations between sites for each high-pass filter cut-off. Correlations fall to zero with increasing station separation distance, but the characteristic correlation length varies with the high-pass filter applied: the higher the cut-off frequency, the smaller the station separation required to achieve de-correlation. Remarkable similarities between these three datasets reveal behavior that, if universal, could be particularly useful for grid management. For high

  14. Molecular Precision at Micrometer Length Scales: Hierarchical Assembly of DNA-Protein Nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffels, Daniel; Szalai, Veronika A; Liddle, J Alexander

    2017-07-25

    Robust self-assembly across length scales is a ubiquitous feature of biological systems but remains challenging for synthetic structures. Taking a cue from biology-where disparate molecules work together to produce large, functional assemblies-we demonstrate how to engineer microscale structures with nanoscale features: Our self-assembly approach begins by using DNA polymerase to controllably create double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) sections on a single-stranded template. The single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) sections are then folded into a mechanically flexible skeleton by the origami method. This process simultaneously shapes the structure at the nanoscale and directs the large-scale geometry. The DNA skeleton guides the assembly of RecA protein filaments, which provides rigidity at the micrometer scale. We use our modular design strategy to assemble tetrahedral, rectangular, and linear shapes of defined dimensions. This method enables the robust construction of complex assemblies, greatly extending the range of DNA-based self-assembly methods.

  15. Rank distributions: A panoramic macroscopic outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliazar, Iddo I.; Cohen, Morrel H.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a panoramic macroscopic outlook of rank distributions. We establish a general framework for the analysis of rank distributions, which classifies them into five macroscopic "socioeconomic" states: monarchy, oligarchy-feudalism, criticality, socialism-capitalism, and communism. Oligarchy-feudalism is shown to be characterized by discrete macroscopic rank distributions, and socialism-capitalism is shown to be characterized by continuous macroscopic size distributions. Criticality is a transition state between oligarchy-feudalism and socialism-capitalism, which can manifest allometric scaling with multifractal spectra. Monarchy and communism are extreme forms of oligarchy-feudalism and socialism-capitalism, respectively, in which the intrinsic randomness vanishes. The general framework is applied to three different models of rank distributions—top-down, bottom-up, and global—and unveils each model's macroscopic universality and versatility. The global model yields a macroscopic classification of the generalized Zipf law, an omnipresent form of rank distributions observed across the sciences. An amalgamation of the three models establishes a universal rank-distribution explanation for the macroscopic emergence of a prevalent class of continuous size distributions, ones governed by unimodal densities with both Pareto and inverse-Pareto power-law tails.

  16. Statistical theory and transition in multiple-scale-lengths turbulence in plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, Sanae-I. [Research Institute for Applied Mechanics, Kyushu Univ., Kasuga, Fukuoka (Japan); Itoh, Kimitaka [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan)

    2001-06-01

    The statistical theory of strong turbulence in inhomogeneous plasmas is developed for the cases where fluctuations with different scale-lengths coexist. Nonlinear interactions in the same kind of fluctuations as well as nonlinear interplay between different classes of fluctuations are kept in the analysis. Nonlinear interactions are modelled as turbulent drag, nonlinear noise and nonlinear drive, and a set of Langevin equations is formulated. With the help of an Ansatz of a large number of degrees of freedom with positive Lyapunov number, Langevin equations are solved and the fluctuation dissipation theorem in the presence of strong plasma turbulence has been derived. A case where two driving mechanisms (one for micro mode and the other for semi-micro mode) coexist is investigated. It is found that there are several states of fluctuations: in one state, the micro mode is excited and the semi-micro mode is quenched; in the other state, the semi-micro mode is excited, and the micro mode remains at finite but suppressed level. New type of turbulence transition is obtained, and a cusp type catastrophe is revealed. A phase diagram is drawn for turbulence which is composed of multiple classes of fluctuations. Influence of the inhomogeneous global radial electric field is discussed. A new insight is given for the physics of internal transport barrier. Finally, the nonlocal heat transport due to the long-wave-length fluctuations, which are noise-pumped by shorter-wave-length ones, is analyzed and the impact on transient transport problems is discussed. (author)

  17. Macroscopic sizes of field of superrelativistic charges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strel'tsov, V.N.

    1995-01-01

    Based on the equation of Lienard-Wiechert equipotentials, it is shown that the field of superrelativistic charges reaches macroscopic sizes (e.g., R || = 2 m at E e = 50 GeV). This phenomenon serves an initial cause of the known considerable growth of formation length at high energies. 3 refs., 1 tab

  18. Hierarchical self-assembly of two-length-scale multiblock copolymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brinke, Gerrit ten; Loos, Katja; Vukovic, Ivana; Du Sart, Gerrit Gobius

    2011-01-01

    The self-assembly in diblock copolymer-based supramolecules, obtained by hydrogen bonding short side chains to one of the blocks, as well as in two-length-scale linear terpolymers results in hierarchical structure formation. The orientation of the different domains, e.g. layers in the case of a lamellar-in-lamellar structure, is determined by the molecular architecture, graft-like versus linear, and the relative magnitude of the interactions involved. In both cases parallel and perpendicular arrangements have been observed. The comb-shaped supramolecules approach is ideally suited for the preparation of nanoporous structures. A bicontinuous morphology with the supramolecular comb block forming the channels was finally achieved by extending the original approach to suitable triblock copolymer-based supramolecules.

  19. Advancing the speed, sensitivity and accuracy of biomolecular detection using multi-length-scale engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Shana O.; Mirkin, Chad A.; Walt, David R.; Ismagilov, Rustem F.; Toner, Mehmet; Sargent, Edward H.

    2014-12-01

    Rapid progress in identifying disease biomarkers has increased the importance of creating high-performance detection technologies. Over the last decade, the design of many detection platforms has focused on either the nano or micro length scale. Here, we review recent strategies that combine nano- and microscale materials and devices to produce large improvements in detection sensitivity, speed and accuracy, allowing previously undetectable biomarkers to be identified in clinical samples. Microsensors that incorporate nanoscale features can now rapidly detect disease-related nucleic acids expressed in patient samples. New microdevices that separate large clinical samples into nanocompartments allow precise quantitation of analytes, and microfluidic systems that utilize nanoscale binding events can detect rare cancer cells in the bloodstream more accurately than before. These advances will lead to faster and more reliable clinical diagnostic devices.

  20. Comparison of relativity theories with observer-independent scales of both velocity and length/mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni; Benedetti, Dario; D'Andrea, Francesco; Procaccini, Andrea

    2003-01-01

    We consider the two most studied proposals of relativity theories with observer-independent scales of both velocity and length/mass: the one discussed by Amelino-Camelia as an illustrative example for the original proposal (Preprint gr-qc/0012051) of theories with two relativistic invariants, and an alternative more recently proposed by Magueijo and Smolin (Preprint hep-th/0112090). We show that these two relativistic theories are much more closely connected than it would appear on the basis of a naive analysis of their original formulations. In particular, in spite of adopting a rather different formal description of the deformed boost generators, they end up assigning the same dependence of momentum on rapidity, which can be described as the core feature of these relativistic theories. We show that this observation can be used to clarify the concepts of particle mass, particle velocity and energy-momentum conservation rules in these theories with two relativistic invariants

  1. Temperature gradient scale length measurement: A high accuracy application of electron cyclotron emission without calibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houshmandyar, S., E-mail: houshmandyar@austin.utexas.edu; Phillips, P. E.; Rowan, W. L. [Institute for Fusion Studies, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Yang, Z. J. [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Hubbard, A. E.; Rice, J. E.; Hughes, J. W.; Wolfe, S. M. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02129 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    Calibration is a crucial procedure in electron temperature (T{sub e}) inference from a typical electron cyclotron emission (ECE) diagnostic on tokamaks. Although the calibration provides an important multiplying factor for an individual ECE channel, the parameter ΔT{sub e}/T{sub e} is independent of any calibration. Since an ECE channel measures the cyclotron emission for a particular flux surface, a non-perturbing change in toroidal magnetic field changes the view of that channel. Hence the calibration-free parameter is a measure of T{sub e} gradient. B{sub T}-jog technique is presented here which employs the parameter and the raw ECE signals for direct measurement of electron temperature gradient scale length.

  2. Characteristic Length Scales in Fracture Networks: Hydraulic Connectivity through Periodic Hydraulic Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, M.; Bour, O.; Le Borgne, T.; Longuevergne, L.; Lavenant, N.; Cole, M. C.; Guiheneuf, N.

    2017-12-01

    Determining hydraulic and transport connectivity in fractured bedrock has long been an important objective in contaminant hydrogeology, petroleum engineering, and geothermal operations. A persistent obstacle to making this determination is that the characteristic length scale is nearly impossible to determine in sparsely fractured networks. Both flow and transport occur through an unknown structure of interconnected fracture and/or fracture zones making the actual length that water or solutes travel undetermined. This poses difficulties for flow and transport models. For, example, hydraulic equations require a separation distance between pumping and observation well to determine hydraulic parameters. When wells pairs are close, the structure of the network can influence the interpretation of well separation and the flow dimension of the tested system. This issue is explored using hydraulic tests conducted in a shallow fractured crystalline rock. Periodic (oscillatory) slug tests were performed at the Ploemeur fractured rock test site located in Brittany, France. Hydraulic connectivity was examined between three zones in one well and four zones in another, located 6 m apart in map view. The wells are sufficiently close, however, that the tangential distance between the tested zones ranges between 6 and 30 m. Using standard periodic formulations of radial flow, estimates of storativity scale inversely with the square of the separation distance and hydraulic diffusivity directly with the square of the separation distance. Uncertainty in the connection paths between the two wells leads to an order of magnitude uncertainty in estimates of storativity and hydraulic diffusivity, although estimates of transmissivity are unaffected. The assumed flow dimension results in alternative estimates of hydraulic parameters. In general, one is faced with the prospect of assuming the hydraulic parameter and inverting the separation distance, or vice versa. Similar uncertainties exist

  3. Length-scale dependent mechanical properties of Al-Cu eutectic alloy: Molecular dynamics based model and its experimental verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwary, C. S.; Chakraborty, S.; Mahapatra, D. R.; Chattopadhyay, K.

    2014-05-01

    This paper attempts to gain an understanding of the effect of lamellar length scale on the mechanical properties of two-phase metal-intermetallic eutectic structure. We first develop a molecular dynamics model for the in-situ grown eutectic interface followed by a model of deformation of Al-Al2Cu lamellar eutectic. Leveraging the insights obtained from the simulation on the behaviour of dislocations at different length scales of the eutectic, we present and explain the experimental results on Al-Al2Cu eutectic with various different lamellar spacing. The physics behind the mechanism is further quantified with help of atomic level energy model for different length scale as well as different strain. An atomic level energy partitioning of the lamellae and the interface regions reveals that the energy of the lamellae core are accumulated more due to dislocations irrespective of the length-scale. Whereas the energy of the interface is accumulated more due to dislocations when the length-scale is smaller, but the trend is reversed when the length-scale is large beyond a critical size of about 80 nm.

  4. Scaling behaviour of the correlation length for the two-point correlation function in the random field Ising chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lange, Adrian; Stinchcombe, Robin [Theoretical Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    1996-07-07

    We study the general behaviour of the correlation length {zeta}(kT:h) for two-point correlation function of the local fields in an Ising chain with binary distributed fields. At zero field it is shown that {zeta} is the same as the zero-field correlation length for the spin-spin correlation function. For the field-dominated behaviour of {zeta} we find an exponent for the power-law divergence which is smaller than the exponent for the spin-spin correlation length. The entire behaviour of the correlation length can be described by a single crossover scaling function involving the new critical exponent. (author)

  5. Gradient plasticity for thermo-mechanical processes in metals with length and time scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voyiadjis, George Z.; Faghihi, Danial

    2013-03-01

    A thermodynamically consistent framework is developed in order to characterize the mechanical and thermal behavior of metals in small volume and on the fast transient time. In this regard, an enhanced gradient plasticity theory is coupled with the application of a micromorphic approach to the temperature variable. A physically based yield function based on the concept of thermal activation energy and the dislocation interaction mechanisms including nonlinear hardening is taken into consideration in the derivation. The effect of the material microstructural interface between two materials is also incorporated in the formulation with both temperature and rate effects. In order to accurately address the strengthening and hardening mechanisms, the theory is developed based on the decomposition of the mechanical state variables into energetic and dissipative counterparts which endowed the constitutive equations to have both energetic and dissipative gradient length scales for the bulk material and the interface. Moreover, the microstructural interaction effect in the fast transient process is addressed by incorporating two time scales into the microscopic heat equation. The numerical example of thin film on elastic substrate or a single phase bicrystal under uniform tension is addressed here. The effects of individual counterparts of the framework on the thermal and mechanical responses are investigated. The model is also compared with experimental results.

  6. Turbulent boundary layer over roughness transition with variation in spanwise roughness length scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerweel, Jerry; Tomas, Jasper; Eisma, Jerke; Pourquie, Mathieu; Elsinga, Gerrit; Jonker, Harm

    2016-11-01

    Both large-eddy simulations (LES) and water-tunnel experiments, using simultaneous stereoscopic PIV and LIF were done to investigate pollutant dispersion in a region where the surface changes from rural to urban roughness. This consists of rectangular obstacles where we vary the spanwise aspect ratio of the obstacles. A line source of passive tracer was placed upstream of the roughness transition. The objectives of the study are: (i) to determine the influence of the aspect ratio on the roughness-transition flow, and (ii) to determine the dominant mechanisms of pollutant removal from street canyons in the transition region. It is found that for a spanwise aspect ratio of 2 the drag induced by the roughness is largest of all considered cases, which is caused by a large-scale secondary flow. In the roughness transition the vertical advective pollutant flux is the main ventilation mechanism in the first three streets. Furthermore, by means of linear stochastic estimation the mean flow structure is identied that is responsible for exchange of the fluid between the roughness obstacles and the outer part of the boundary layer. Furthermore, it is found that the vertical length scale of this structure increases with increasing aspect ratio of the obstacles in the roughness region.

  7. Zebrafish brain mapping--standardized spaces, length scales, and the power of N and n.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Paul R; Hendry, Aenea C; Lowe, Andrew S

    2015-06-01

    Mapping anatomical and functional parameters of the zebrafish brain is moving apace. Research communities undertaking such studies are becoming ever larger and more diverse. The unique features, tools, and technologies associated with zebrafish are propelling them as the 21st century model organism for brain mapping. Uniquely positioned as a vertebrate model system, the zebrafish enables imaging of anatomy and function at different length scales from intraneuronal compartments to sparsely distributed whole brain patterns. With a variety of diverse and established statistical modeling and analytic methods available from the wider brain mapping communities, the richness of zebrafish neuroimaging data is being realized. The statistical power of population observations (N) within and across many samples (n) projected onto a standardized space will provide vast databases for data-driven biological approaches. This article reviews key brain mapping initiatives at different levels of scale that highlight the potential of zebrafish brain mapping. By way of introduction to the next wave of brain mappers, an accessible introduction to the key concepts and caveats associated with neuroimaging are outlined and discussed. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Integrating experimental and simulation length and time scales in mechanistic studies of friction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawyer, W G; Perry, S S; Phillpot, S R; Sinnott, S B

    2008-01-01

    Friction is ubiquitous in all aspects of everyday life and has consequently been under study for centuries. Classical theories of friction have been developed and used to successfully solve numerous tribological problems. However, modern applications that involve advanced materials operating under extreme environments can lead to situations where classical theories of friction are insufficient to describe the physical responses of sliding interfaces. Here, we review integrated experimental and computational studies of atomic-scale friction and wear at solid-solid interfaces across length and time scales. The influence of structural orientation in the case of carbon nanotube bundles, and molecular orientation in the case of polymer films of polytetrafluoroethylene and polyethylene, on friction and wear are discussed. In addition, while friction in solids is generally considered to be athermal, under certain conditions thermally activated friction is observed for polymers, carbon nanotubes and graphite. The conditions under which these transitions occur, and their proposed origins, are discussed. Lastly, a discussion of future directions is presented

  9. Quantifying Contributions to Transport in Ionic Polymers Across Multiple Length Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Louis

    Self-organized polymer membranes conduct mobile species (ions, water, alcohols, etc.) according to a hierarchy of structural motifs that span sub-nm to >10 μm in length scale. In order to comprehensively understand such materials, our group combines multiple types of NMR dynamics and transport measurements (spectroscopy, diffusometry, relaxometry, imaging) with structural information from scattering and microscopy as well as with theories of porous media,1 electrolytic transport, and oriented matter.2 In this presentation, I will discuss quantitative separation of the phenomena that govern transport in polymer membranes, from intermolecular interactions (<= 2 nm),3 to locally ordered polymer nanochannels (a few to 10s of nm),2 to larger polymer domain structures (10s of nm and larger).1 Using this multi-scale information, we seek to give informed feedback on the design of polymer membranes for use in, e . g . , efficient batteries, fuel cells, and mechanical actuators. References: [1] J. Hou, J. Li, D. Mountz, M. Hull, and L. A. Madsen. Journal of Membrane Science448, 292-298 (2013). [2] J. Li, J. K. Park, R. B. Moore, and L. A. Madsen. Nature Materials 10, 507-511 (2011). [3] M. D. Lingwood, Z. Zhang, B. E. Kidd, K. B. McCreary, J. Hou, and L. A. Madsen. Chemical Communications 49, 4283 - 4285 (2013).

  10. Macroscopic effects in attosecond pulse generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruchon, T; Varju, K; Mansten, E; Swoboda, M; L'Huillier, A; Hauri, C P; Lopez-Martens, R

    2008-01-01

    We examine how the generation and propagation of high-order harmonics in a partly ionized gas medium affect their strength and synchronization. The temporal properties of the resulting attosecond pulses generated in long gas targets can be significantly influenced by macroscopic effects, in particular by the intensity in the medium and the degree of ionization which control the dispersion. Under some conditions, the use of gas targets longer than the absorption length can lead to the generation of compressed attosecond pulses. We show these macroscopic effects experimentally, using a 6 mm-long argon-filled gas cell as the generating medium

  11. Macroscopic effects in attosecond pulse generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruchon, T; Varju, K; Mansten, E; Swoboda, M; L' Huillier, A [Department of Physics, Lund University, PO Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Hauri, C P; Lopez-Martens, R [Laboratoire d' Optique Appliquee, Ecole Nationale Superieure des Techniques Avancees (ENSTA)-Ecole Polytechnique CNRS UMR 7639, 91761 Palaiseau (France)], E-mail: anne.lhuillier@fysik.lth.se

    2008-02-15

    We examine how the generation and propagation of high-order harmonics in a partly ionized gas medium affect their strength and synchronization. The temporal properties of the resulting attosecond pulses generated in long gas targets can be significantly influenced by macroscopic effects, in particular by the intensity in the medium and the degree of ionization which control the dispersion. Under some conditions, the use of gas targets longer than the absorption length can lead to the generation of compressed attosecond pulses. We show these macroscopic effects experimentally, using a 6 mm-long argon-filled gas cell as the generating medium.

  12. Large-scale parent–child comparison confirms a strong paternal influence on telomere length

    OpenAIRE

    Nordfjäll, Katarina; Svenson, Ulrika; Norrback, Karl-Fredrik; Adolfsson, Rolf; Roos, Göran

    2009-01-01

    Telomere length is documented to have a hereditary component, and both paternal and X-linked inheritance have been proposed. We investigated blood cell telomere length in 962 individuals with an age range between 0 and 102 years. Telomere length correlations were analyzed between parent–child pairs in different age groups and between grandparent–grandchild pairs. A highly significant correlation between the father's and the child's telomere length was observed (r=0.454, P

  13. Tipping the Scale from Disorder to Alpha-helix: Folding of Amphiphilic Peptides in the Presence of Macroscopic and Molecular Interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalgicdir, Cahit; Globisch, Christoph; Peter, Christine; Sayar, Mehmet

    2015-08-01

    Secondary amphiphilicity is inherent to the secondary structural elements of proteins. By forming energetically favorable contacts with each other these amphiphilic building blocks give rise to the formation of a tertiary structure. Small proteins and peptides, on the other hand, are usually too short to form multiple structural elements and cannot stabilize them internally. Therefore, these molecules are often found to be structurally ambiguous up to the point of a large degree of intrinsic disorder in solution. Consequently, their conformational preference is particularly susceptible to environmental conditions such as pH, salts, or presence of interfaces. In this study we use molecular dynamics simulations to analyze the conformational behavior of two synthetic peptides, LKKLLKLLKKLLKL (LK) and EAALAEALAEALAE (EALA), with built-in secondary amphiphilicity upon forming an alpha-helix. We use these model peptides to systematically study their aggregation and the influence of macroscopic and molecular interfaces on their conformational preferences. We show that the peptides are neither random coils in bulk water nor fully formed alpha helices, but adopt multiple conformations and secondary structure elements with short lifetimes. These provide a basis for conformation-selection and population-shift upon environmental changes. Differences in these peptides' response to macroscopic and molecular interfaces (presented by an aggregation partner) can be linked to their inherent alpha-helical tendencies in bulk water. We find that the peptides' aggregation behavior is also strongly affected by presence or absence of an interface, and rather subtly depends on their surface charge and hydrophobicity.

  14. Tipping the Scale from Disorder to Alpha-helix: Folding of Amphiphilic Peptides in the Presence of Macroscopic and Molecular Interfaces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cahit Dalgicdir

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Secondary amphiphilicity is inherent to the secondary structural elements of proteins. By forming energetically favorable contacts with each other these amphiphilic building blocks give rise to the formation of a tertiary structure. Small proteins and peptides, on the other hand, are usually too short to form multiple structural elements and cannot stabilize them internally. Therefore, these molecules are often found to be structurally ambiguous up to the point of a large degree of intrinsic disorder in solution. Consequently, their conformational preference is particularly susceptible to environmental conditions such as pH, salts, or presence of interfaces. In this study we use molecular dynamics simulations to analyze the conformational behavior of two synthetic peptides, LKKLLKLLKKLLKL (LK and EAALAEALAEALAE (EALA, with built-in secondary amphiphilicity upon forming an alpha-helix. We use these model peptides to systematically study their aggregation and the influence of macroscopic and molecular interfaces on their conformational preferences. We show that the peptides are neither random coils in bulk water nor fully formed alpha helices, but adopt multiple conformations and secondary structure elements with short lifetimes. These provide a basis for conformation-selection and population-shift upon environmental changes. Differences in these peptides' response to macroscopic and molecular interfaces (presented by an aggregation partner can be linked to their inherent alpha-helical tendencies in bulk water. We find that the peptides' aggregation behavior is also strongly affected by presence or absence of an interface, and rather subtly depends on their surface charge and hydrophobicity.

  15. Macroscopic Optomechanically Induced Transparency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pate, Jacob; Castelli, Alessandro; Martinez, Luis; Thompson, Johnathon; Chiao, Ray; Sharping, Jay

    Optomechanically induced transparency (OMIT) is an effect wherein the spectrum of a cavity resonance is modified through interference between coupled excitation pathways. In this work we investigate a macroscopic, 3D microwave, superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavity incorporating a niobium-coated, silicon-nitride membrane as the flexible boundary. The boundary supports acoustic vibrational resonances, which lead to coupling with the microwave resonances of the SRF cavity. The theoretical development and physical understanding of OMIT for our macroscopic SRF cavity is the same as that for other recently-reported OMIT systems despite vastly different optomechanical coupling factors and device sizes. Our mechanical oscillator has a coupling factor of g0 = 2 π . 1 ×10-5 Hz and is roughly 38 mm in diameter. The Q = 5 ×107 for the SRF cavity allows probing of optomechanical effects in the resolved sideband regime.

  16. Diagnosis of Weibel instability evolution in the rear surface density scale lengths of laser solid interactions via proton acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, G G; Brenner, C M; Clarke, R J; Green, J S; Heathcote, R I; Rusby, D R; McKenna, P; Neely, D; Bagnoud, V; Zielbauer, B; Gonzalez-Izquierdo, B; Powell, H W

    2017-01-01

    It is shown for the first time that the spatial and temporal distribution of laser accelerated protons can be used as a diagnostic of Weibel instability presence and evolution in the rear surface scale lengths of a solid density target. Numerical modelling shows that when a fast electron beam is injected into a decreasing density gradient on the target rear side, a magnetic instability is seeded with an evolution which is strongly dependent on the density scale length. This is manifested in the acceleration of a filamented proton beam, where the degree of filamentation is also found to be dependent on the target rear scale length. Furthermore, the energy dependent spatial distribution of the accelerated proton beam is shown to provide information on the instability evolution on the picosecond timescale over which the protons are accelerated. Experimentally, this is investigated by using a controlled prepulse to introduce a target rear scale length, which is varied by altering the time delay with respect to the main pulse, and similar trends are measured. This work is particularly pertinent to applications using laser pulse durations of tens of picoseconds, or where a micron level density scale length is present on the rear of a solid target, such as proton-driven fast ignition, as the resultant instability may affect the uniformity of fuel energy coupling. (paper)

  17. Comparison of friction and wear of articular cartilage on different length scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kienle, Sandra; Boettcher, Kathrin; Wiegleb, Lorenz; Urban, Joanna; Burgkart, Rainer; Lieleg, Oliver; Hugel, Thorsten

    2015-09-18

    The exceptional tribological properties of articular cartilage are still far from being fully understood. Articular cartilage is able to withstand high loads and provide exceptionally low friction. Although the regeneration abilities of the tissue are very limited, it can last for many decades. These biomechanical properties are realized by an interplay of different lubrication and wear protection mechanisms. The deterioration of cartilage due to aging or injury leads to the development of osteoarthritis. A current treatment strategy focuses on supplementing the intra-articular fluid with a saline solution containing hyaluronic acid. In the work presented here, we investigated how changing the lubricating fluid affects friction and wear of articular cartilage, focusing on the boundary and mixed lubrication as well as interstitial fluid pressurization mechanisms. Different length and time scales were probed by atomic force microscopy, tribology and profilometry. We compared aqueous solutions with different NaCl concentrations to a viscosupplement containing hyaluronic acid (HA). In particular, we found that the presence of ions changes the frictional behavior and the wear resistance. In contrast, hyaluronic acid showed no significant impact on the friction coefficient, but considerably reduced wear. This study confirms the previous notion that friction and wear are not necessarily correlated in articular cartilage tribology and that the main role of HA might be to provide wear protection for the articular surface. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Low frequency energy scavenging using sub-wave length scale acousto-elastic metamaterial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riaz U. Ahmed

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This letter presents the possibility of energy scavenging (ES utilizing the physics of acousto-elastic metamaterial (AEMM at low frequencies (<∼3KHz. It is proposed to use the AEMM in a dual mode (Acoustic Filter and Energy Harvester, simultaneously. AEMM’s are typically reported for filtering acoustic waves by trapping or guiding the acoustic energy, whereas this letter shows that the dynamic energy trapped inside the soft constituent (matrix of metamaterials can be significantly harvested by strategically embedding piezoelectric wafers in the matrix. With unit cell AEMM model, we experimentally asserted that at lower acoustic frequencies (< ∼3 KHz, maximum power in the micro Watts (∼35µW range can be generated, whereas, recently reported phononic crystal based metamaterials harvested only nano Watt (∼30nW power against 10KΩ resistive load. Efficient energy scavengers at low acoustic frequencies are almost absent due to large required size relevant to the acoustic wavelength. Here we report sub wave length scale energy scavengers utilizing the coupled physics of local, structural and matrix resonances. Upon validation of the argument through analytical, numerical and experimental studies, a multi-frequency energy scavenger (ES with multi-cell model is designed with varying geometrical properties capable of scavenging energy (power output from ∼10µW – ∼90µW between 0.2 KHz and 1.5 KHz acoustic frequencies.

  19. Engineering polyelectrolyte multilayer structure at the nanometer length scale by tuning polymer solution conformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boddohi, Soheil; Killingsworth, Christopher; Kipper, Matt

    2008-03-01

    Chitosan (a weak polycation) and heparin (a strong polyanion) are used to make polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEM). PEM thickness and composition are determined as a function of solution pH (4.6 to 5.8) and ionic strength (0.1 to 0.5 M). Over this range, increasing pH increases the PEM thickness; however, the sensitivity to changes in pH is a strong function of ionic strength. The PEM thickness data are correlated to the polymer conformation in solution. Polyelectrolyte conformation in solution is characterized by gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The highest sensitivity of PEM structure to pH is obtained at intermediate ionic strength. Different interactions govern the conformation and adsorption phenomena at low and high ionic strength, leading to reduced sensitivity to solution pH at extreme ionic strengths. The correspondence between PEM thickness and polymer solution conformation offers opportunities to tune polymer thin film structure at the nanometer length scale by controlling simple, reproducible processing conditions.

  20. Bifurcation and phase diagram of turbulence constituted from three different scale-length modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, S.-I.; Kitazawa, A.; Yagi, M. [Kyushu Univ., Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics, Kasuga, Fukuoka (Japan); Itoh, K. [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan)

    2002-04-01

    Cases where three kinds of fluctuations having the different typical scale-lengths coexist are analyzed, and the statistical theory of strong turbulence in inhomogeneous plasmas is developed. Statistical nonlinear interactions between fluctuations are kept in the analysis as the renormalized drag, statistical noise and the averaged drive. The nonlinear interplay through them induces a quenching or suppressing effect, even if all the modes are unstable when they are analyzed independently. Variety in mode appearance takes place: one mode quenches the other two modes, or one mode is quenched by the other two modes, etc. The bifurcation of turbulence is analyzed and a phase diagram is drawn. Phase diagrams with cusp type catastrophe and butterfly type catastrophe are obtained. The subcritical bifurcation is possible to occur through the nonlinear interplay, even though each one is supercritical turbulence when analyzed independently. Analysis reveals that the nonlinear stability boundary (marginal point) and the amplitude of each mode may substantially shift from the conventional results of independent analyses. (author)

  1. The role of reactant unmixedness, strain rate, and length scale on premixed combustor performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuelsen, S.; LaRue, J.; Vilayanur, S. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    Lean premixed combustion provides a means to reduce pollutant formation and increase combustion efficiency. However, fuel-air mixing is rarely uniform in space and time. This nonuniformity in concentration will lead to relative increases in pollutant formation and decreases in combustion efficiency. The nonuniformity of the concentration at the exit of the premixer has been defined by Lyons (1981) as the {open_quotes}unmixedness.{close_quotes} Although turbulence properties such as length scales and strain rate are known to effect unmixedness, the exact relationship is unknown. Evaluating this relationship and the effect of unmixedness in premixed combustion on pollutant formation and combustion efficiency are an important part of the overall goal of US Department of Energy`s Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) program and are among the goals of the program described herein. The information obtained from ATS is intended to help to develop and commercialize gas turbines which have (1) a wide range of operation/stability, (2) a minimal amount of pollutant formation, and (3) high combustion efficiency. Specifically, with regard to pollutants, the goals are to reduce the NO{sub x} emissions by at least 10%, obtain less than 20 PPM of both CO and UHC, and increase the combustion efficiency by 5%.

  2. Extending the length and time scales of Gram–Schmidt Lyapunov vector computations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Anthony B., E-mail: acosta@northwestern.edu [Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Green, Jason R., E-mail: jason.green@umb.edu [Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Department of Chemistry, University of Massachusetts Boston, Boston, MA 02125 (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Lyapunov vectors have found growing interest recently due to their ability to characterize systems out of thermodynamic equilibrium. The computation of orthogonal Gram–Schmidt vectors requires multiplication and QR decomposition of large matrices, which grow as N{sup 2} (with the particle count). This expense has limited such calculations to relatively small systems and short time scales. Here, we detail two implementations of an algorithm for computing Gram–Schmidt vectors. The first is a distributed-memory message-passing method using Scalapack. The second uses the newly-released MAGMA library for GPUs. We compare the performance of both codes for Lennard–Jones fluids from N=100 to 1300 between Intel Nahalem/Infiniband DDR and NVIDIA C2050 architectures. To our best knowledge, these are the largest systems for which the Gram–Schmidt Lyapunov vectors have been computed, and the first time their calculation has been GPU-accelerated. We conclude that Lyapunov vector calculations can be significantly extended in length and time by leveraging the power of GPU-accelerated linear algebra.

  3. Surface-immobilized hydrogel patterns on length scales from micrometer to nanometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeira, Assaf

    The present work concentrates on the study of pattern generation and transfer processes of monolayer covered surfaces, deriving from the basic working concept of Constructive Lithography. As an advancement of constructive lithography, we developed a direct, one-step printing (contact electrochemical printing, CEP) and replication (contact electrochemical replication, CER) of hydrophilic organic monolayer patterns surrounded by a hydrophobic monolayer background. In addition, we present a process of transfer of metal between two contacting solid surfaces to predefined monolayer template pattern sites (contact electrochemical transfer, CET). This thesis shows that CEP, CER, and CET may be implemented under a variety of different experimental conditions, regardless of whether the initial "master" pattern was created by a parallel (fast) or serial (slow) patterning process. CEP and CER also posses the unique attractive property that each replica may equally function as master stamp in the fabrication of additional replicas. Moreover, due to a mechanism of selfcorrection patterned surfaces produced these process are often free of defects that the initial "master" stamp may had. We finally show that the electrochemical patterning of OTS monolayers on silicon can be further extended to flexible polymeric substrate materials as well as to a variety of chemical manipulations, allowing the fabrication of tridimensional (3D) composite structures made on the basis of readily available OTS compound. The results obtained suggest that such contact electrochemical processes could be used to rapidly generate multiple copies of surface patterns spanning variable length scales, this basic approach being applicable to rigid as well as flexible substrate materials.

  4. Extending the length and time scales of Gram–Schmidt Lyapunov vector computations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Anthony B.; Green, Jason R.

    2013-01-01

    Lyapunov vectors have found growing interest recently due to their ability to characterize systems out of thermodynamic equilibrium. The computation of orthogonal Gram–Schmidt vectors requires multiplication and QR decomposition of large matrices, which grow as N 2 (with the particle count). This expense has limited such calculations to relatively small systems and short time scales. Here, we detail two implementations of an algorithm for computing Gram–Schmidt vectors. The first is a distributed-memory message-passing method using Scalapack. The second uses the newly-released MAGMA library for GPUs. We compare the performance of both codes for Lennard–Jones fluids from N=100 to 1300 between Intel Nahalem/Infiniband DDR and NVIDIA C2050 architectures. To our best knowledge, these are the largest systems for which the Gram–Schmidt Lyapunov vectors have been computed, and the first time their calculation has been GPU-accelerated. We conclude that Lyapunov vector calculations can be significantly extended in length and time by leveraging the power of GPU-accelerated linear algebra

  5. Superposition and macroscopic observation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cartwright, N.D.

    1976-01-01

    The principle of superposition has long plagued the quantum mechanics of macroscopic bodies. In at least one well-known situation - that of measurement - quantum mechanics predicts a superposition. It is customary to try to reconcile macroscopic reality and quantum mechanics by reducing the superposition to a mixture. To establish consistency with quantum mechanics, values for the apparatus after a measurement are to be distributed in the way predicted by the superposition. The distributions observed, however, are those of the mixture. The statistical predictions of quantum mechanics, it appears, are not borne out by observation in macroscopic situations. It has been shown that, insofar as specific ergodic hypotheses apply to the apparatus after the interaction, the superposition which evolves is experimentally indistinguishable from the corresponding mixture. In this paper an idealized model of the measuring situation is presented in which this consistency can be demonstrated. It includes a simplified version of the measurement solution proposed by Daneri, Loinger, and Prosperi (1962). The model should make clear the kind of statistical evidence required to carry of this approach, and the role of the ergodic hypotheses assumed. (Auth.)

  6. Comparison of the Effects of the Different Methods for Computing the Slope Length Factor at a Watershed Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Suhua

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The slope length factor is one of the parameters of the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE and the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE and is sometimes calculated based on a digital elevation model (DEM. The methods for calculating the slope length factor are important because the values obtained may depend on the methods used for calculation. The purpose of this study was to compare the difference in spatial distribution of the slope length factor between the different methods at a watershed scale. One method used the uniform slope length factor equation (USLFE where the effects of slope irregularities (such as slope gradient, etc. on soil erosion by water were not considered. The other method used segmented slope length factor equation(SSLFE which considered the effects of slope irregularities on soil erosion by water. The Arc Macro Language (AML Version 4 program for the revised universal soil loss equation(RUSLE.which uses the USLFE, was chosen to calculate the slope length factor. In a parallel analysis, the AML code of RUSLE Version 4 was modified according to the SSLFE to calculate the slope length factor. Two watersheds with different slope and gully densities were chosen. The results show that the slope length factor and soil loss using the USLFE method were lower than those using the SSLFE method, especially on downslopes watershed with more frequent steep slopes and higher gully densities. In addition, the slope length factor and soil loss calculated by the USLFE showed less spatial variation.

  7. Diffusion effects on volume-selective NMR at small length scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaedke, Achim

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis, the interplay between diffusion and relaxation effects in spatially selective NMR experiments at short length scales is explored. This is especially relevant in the context of both conventional and mechanically detected MRI at (sub)micron resolution in biological specimens. Recent results on selectively excited very thin slices showed an in-slice-magnetization recovery orders of magnitude faster than the longitudinal relaxation time T1. However, those experiments were run on fully relaxed samples while MRI and especially mechanically detected NMR experiments are typically run in a periodic fashion with repetition times far below T1. The main purpose of this work therefore was to extend the study of the interplay between diffusion and longitudinal relaxation to periodic excitations. In some way, this is inverse phenomenon to the DESIRE (Diffusive Enhancement of SIgnal and REsolution) approach, proposed 1992 by Lauterbur. Experiments on periodically excited thin slices were carried out at a dedicated static field gradient cryomagnet with magnetic field gradients up to 180 T/m. In order to obtain plane slices, an appropriate isosurface of the gradient magnet had to be identified. It was found at a field of 3.8 T with a gradient of 73 T/m. In this field, slices down to a thickness of 3.2 μm could be excited. The detection of the NMR signal was done using FIDs instead of echoes as the excitation bandwidth of those thin slices is sufficiently small to observe FIDs which are usually considered to be elusive to detection in such strong static field gradients. A simulation toolbox based on the full Bloch-Torrey-equation was developed to describe the excitation and the formation of NMR signals under those unusual conditions as well as the interplay of diffusion and magnetization recovery. Both the experiments and the simulations indicate that diffusion effects lead to a strongly enhanced magnetization modulation signal also under periodic excitation

  8. In Situ Spatiotemporal Mapping of Flow Fields around Seeded Stem Cells at the Subcellular Length Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Min Jae; Dean, David; Knothe Tate, Melissa L.

    2010-01-01

    A major hurdle to understanding and exploiting interactions between the stem cell and its environment is the lack of a tool for precise delivery of mechanical cues concomitant to observing sub-cellular adaptation of structure. These studies demonstrate the use of microscale particle image velocimetry (μ-PIV) for in situ spatiotemporal mapping of flow fields around mesenchymal stem cells, i.e. murine embryonic multipotent cell line C3H10T1/2, at the subcellular length scale, providing a tool for real time observation and analysis of stem cell adaptation to the prevailing mechanical milieu. In the absence of cells, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) predicts flow regimes within 12% of μ-PIV measures, achieving the technical specifications of the chamber and the flow rates necessary to deliver target shear stresses at a particular height from the base of the flow chamber. However, our μ-PIV studies show that the presence of cells per se as well as the density at which cells are seeded significantly influences local flow fields. Furthermore, for any given cell or cell seeding density, flow regimes vary significantly along the vertical profile of the cell. Hence, the mechanical milieu of the stem cell exposed to shape changing shear stresses, induced by fluid drag, varies with respect to proximity of surrounding cells as well as with respect to apical height. The current study addresses a previously unmet need to predict and observe both flow regimes as well as mechanoadaptation of cells in flow chambers designed to deliver precisely controlled mechanical signals to live cells. An understanding of interactions and adaptation in response to forces at the interface between the surface of the cell and its immediate local environment may be key for de novo engineering of functional tissues from stem cell templates as well as for unraveling the mechanisms underlying multiscale development, growth and adaptation of organisms. PMID:20862249

  9. Quantitative atom probe analysis of nanostructure containing clusters and precipitates with multiple length scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marceau, R.K.W.; Stephenson, L.T.; Hutchinson, C.R.; Ringer, S.P.

    2011-01-01

    A model Al-3Cu-(0.05 Sn) (wt%) alloy containing a bimodal distribution of relatively shear-resistant θ' precipitates and shearable GP zones is considered in this study. It has recently been shown that the addition of the GP zones to such microstructures can lead to significant increases in strength without a decrease in the uniform elongation. In this study, atom probe tomography (APT) has been used to quantitatively characterise the evolution of the GP zones and the solute distribution in the bimodal microstructure as a function of applied plastic strain. Recent nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis has clearly shown strain-induced dissolution of the GP zones, which is supported by the current APT data with additional spatial information. There is significant repartitioning of Cu from the GP zones into the solid solution during deformation. A new approach for cluster finding in APT data has been used to quantitatively characterise the evolution of the sizes and shapes of the Cu containing features in the solid solution solute as a function of applied strain. -- Research highlights: → A new approach for cluster finding in atom probe tomography (APT) data has been used to quantitatively characterise the evolution of the sizes and shapes of the Cu containing features with multiple length scales. → In this study, a model Al-3Cu-(0.05 Sn) (wt%) alloy containing a bimodal distribution of relatively shear-resistant θ' precipitates and shearable GP zones is considered. → APT has been used to quantitatively characterise the evolution of the GP zones and the solute distribution in the bimodal microstructure as a function of applied plastic strain. → It is clearly shown that there is strain-induced dissolution of the GP zones with significant repartitioning of Cu from the GP zones into the solid solution during deformation.

  10. In situ spatiotemporal mapping of flow fields around seeded stem cells at the subcellular length scale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Jae Song

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A major hurdle to understanding and exploiting interactions between the stem cell and its environment is the lack of a tool for precise delivery of mechanical cues concomitant to observing sub-cellular adaptation of structure. These studies demonstrate the use of microscale particle image velocimetry (μ-PIV for in situ spatiotemporal mapping of flow fields around mesenchymal stem cells, i.e. murine embryonic multipotent cell line C3H10T1/2, at the subcellular length scale, providing a tool for real time observation and analysis of stem cell adaptation to the prevailing mechanical milieu. In the absence of cells, computational fluid dynamics (CFD predicts flow regimes within 12% of μ-PIV measures, achieving the technical specifications of the chamber and the flow rates necessary to deliver target shear stresses at a particular height from the base of the flow chamber. However, our μ-PIV studies show that the presence of cells per se as well as the density at which cells are seeded significantly influences local flow fields. Furthermore, for any given cell or cell seeding density, flow regimes vary significantly along the vertical profile of the cell. Hence, the mechanical milieu of the stem cell exposed to shape changing shear stresses, induced by fluid drag, varies with respect to proximity of surrounding cells as well as with respect to apical height. The current study addresses a previously unmet need to predict and observe both flow regimes as well as mechanoadaptation of cells in flow chambers designed to deliver precisely controlled mechanical signals to live cells. An understanding of interactions and adaptation in response to forces at the interface between the surface of the cell and its immediate local environment may be key for de novo engineering of functional tissues from stem cell templates as well as for unraveling the mechanisms underlying multiscale development, growth and adaptation of organisms.

  11. A neutron diffraction study of the crystal of benzoic acid from 6 to 293 K and a macroscopic-scale quantum theory of the lattice of hydrogen-bonded dimers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fillaux, François, E-mail: francois.fillaux@upmc.fr [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 8233, MONARIS, F-7505 Paris (France); Cousson, Alain, E-mail: alain-f.cousson@cea.fr [Laboratoire Léon Brillouin (CEA-CNRS), C.E. Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France)

    2016-11-10

    Highlights: • Proton transfer and tautomerism are revisited from quantum viewpoint. • Neutron-diffraction gives evidence for long-range correlations for protons. • We introduce a decoherence-free macroscopic-scale crystal-state. • All observations accord with the principle of complementarity. • Computational-chemistry models are inappropriate. - Abstract: Measurements via different techniques of the crystal of benzoic acid have led to conflicting conceptions of tautomerism: statistical disorder for diffraction; semiclassical jumps for relaxometry; quantum states for vibrational spectroscopy. We argue that these conflicts follow from the prejudice that nuclear positions and eigenstates are pre-existing to measurements, what is at variance with the principle of complementarity. We propose a self-contained quantum theory. First of all, new single-crystal neutron-diffraction data accord with long-range correlation for proton-site occupancies. Then we introduce a macroscopic-scale quantum-state emerging from phonon condensation, for which nuclear positions and eigenstates are indefinite. As to quantum-measurements, an incoming wave (neutron or photon) entangled with the condensate realizes a transitory state, either in the space of static nuclear-coordinates (diffraction), or in that of the symmetry coordinates (spectroscopy and relaxometry). We derive temperature-laws for proton-site occupancies and for the relaxation rate, which compare favorably with measurements.

  12. Large-scale parent-child comparison confirms a strong paternal influence on telomere length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordfjäll, Katarina; Svenson, Ulrika; Norrback, Karl-Fredrik; Adolfsson, Rolf; Roos, Göran

    2010-03-01

    Telomere length is documented to have a hereditary component, and both paternal and X-linked inheritance have been proposed. We investigated blood cell telomere length in 962 individuals with an age range between 0 and 102 years. Telomere length correlations were analyzed between parent-child pairs in different age groups and between grandparent-grandchild pairs. A highly significant correlation between the father's and the child's telomere length was observed (r=0.454, Pfather-son: r=0.465, Pfather-daughter: r=0.484, Pmothers, the correlations were weaker (mother-child: r=0.148, P=0.098; mother-son: r=0.080, P=0.561; mother-daughter: r=0.297, P=0.013). A positive telomere length correlation was also observed for grandparent-grandchild pairs (r=0.272, P=0.013). Our findings indicate that fathers contribute significantly stronger to the telomere length of the offspring compared with mothers (P=0.012), but we cannot exclude a maternal influence on the daughter's telomeres. Interestingly, the father-child correlations diminished with increasing age (P=0.022), suggesting that nonheritable factors have an impact on telomere length dynamics during life.

  13. Self-organization of Au–CdSe hybrid nanoflowers at different length scales via bi-functional diamine linkers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AbouZeid, Khaled Mohamed [Virginia Commonwealth University, Department of Chemistry (United States); Mohamed, Mona Bakr [Cairo University, National Institute of Laser Enhanced Science (NILES) (Egypt); El-Shall, M. Samy, E-mail: mselshal@vcu.edu [Virginia Commonwealth University, Department of Chemistry (United States)

    2016-01-15

    This work introduces a series of molecular bridging bi-functional linkers to produce laterally self-assembled nanostructures of the Au–CdSe nanoflowers on different length scales ranging from 10 nm to 100 microns. Assembly of Au nanocrystals within amorphous CdSe rods is found in the early stages of the growth of the Au–CdSe nanoflowers. The Au–CdSe nanoflowers are formed through a one-pot low temperature (150 °C) process where CdSe clusters are adsorbed on the surface of the Au cores, and they then start to form multiple arms and branches resulting in flower-shaped hybrid nanostructures. More complex assembly at a micron length scale can be achieved by means of bi-functional capping agents with appropriate alkyl chain lengths, such as 1,12-diaminododecane.

  14. Influence of hydration and experimental length scale on themechanical response of human skin in vivo, using optical coherence tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, F.M.; Brokken, D.; Oomens, C.W.J.; Baaijens, F.P.T.

    2004-01-01

    Human skin is a complex tissue consisting of different layers. To gain better insight into the mechanical behaviour of different skin layers, the mechanical response was studied with experiments of various length scales. Also, the influence of (superficial) hydration on the mechanical response is

  15. Seismic scanning tunneling macroscope - Theory

    KAUST Repository

    Schuster, Gerard T.

    2012-09-01

    We propose a seismic scanning tunneling macroscope (SSTM) that can detect the presence of sub-wavelength scatterers in the near-field of either the source or the receivers. Analytic formulas for the time reverse mirror (TRM) profile associated with a single scatterer model show that the spatial resolution limit to be, unlike the Abbe limit of λ/2, independent of wavelength and linearly proportional to the source-scatterer separation as long as the point scatterer is in the near-field region; if the sub-wavelength scatterer is a spherical impedance discontinuity then the resolution will also be limited by the radius of the sphere. Therefore, superresolution imaging can be achieved as the scatterer approaches the source. This is analogous to an optical scanning tunneling microscope that has sub-wavelength resolution. Scaled to seismic frequencies, it is theoretically possible to extract 100 Hz information from 20 Hz data by imaging of near-field seismic energy.

  16. Seismic scanning tunneling macroscope - Theory

    KAUST Repository

    Schuster, Gerard T.; Hanafy, Sherif M.; Huang, Yunsong

    2012-01-01

    We propose a seismic scanning tunneling macroscope (SSTM) that can detect the presence of sub-wavelength scatterers in the near-field of either the source or the receivers. Analytic formulas for the time reverse mirror (TRM) profile associated with a single scatterer model show that the spatial resolution limit to be, unlike the Abbe limit of λ/2, independent of wavelength and linearly proportional to the source-scatterer separation as long as the point scatterer is in the near-field region; if the sub-wavelength scatterer is a spherical impedance discontinuity then the resolution will also be limited by the radius of the sphere. Therefore, superresolution imaging can be achieved as the scatterer approaches the source. This is analogous to an optical scanning tunneling microscope that has sub-wavelength resolution. Scaled to seismic frequencies, it is theoretically possible to extract 100 Hz information from 20 Hz data by imaging of near-field seismic energy.

  17. Taylor-plasticity-based analysis of length scale effects in void growth

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Junxian

    2014-09-25

    We have studied the void growth problem by employing the Taylor-based strain gradient plasticity theories, from which we have chosen the following three, namely, the mechanism-based strain gradient (MSG) plasticity (Gao et al 1999 J. Mech. Phys. Solids 47 1239, Huang et al 2000 J. Mech. Phys. Solids 48 99-128), the Taylor-based nonlocal theory (TNT; 2001 Gao and Huang 2001 Int. J. Solids Struct. 38 2615) and the conventional theory of MSG (CMSG; Huang et al 2004 Int. J. Plast. 20 753). We have addressed the following three issues which occur when plastic deformation at the void surface is unconstrained. (1) Effects of elastic deformation. Elasticity is essential for cavitation instability. It is therefore important to guarantee that the gradient term entering the Taylor model is the effective plastic strain gradient instead of the total strain gradient. We propose a simple elastic-plastic decomposition method. When the void size approaches the minimum allowable initial void size related to the maximum allowable geometrically necessary dislocation density, overestimation of the flow stress due to the negligence of the elastic strain gradient is on the order of lεY/R0 near the void surface, where l, εY and R0 are, respectively, the intrinsic material length scale, the yield strain and the initial void radius. (2) MSG intrinsic inconsistency, which was initially mentioned in Gao et al (1999 J. Mech. Phys. Solids 47 1239) but has not been the topic of follow-up studies. We realize that MSG higher-order stress arises due to the linear-strain-field approximation within the mesoscale cell with a nonzero size, lε. Simple analysis shows that within an MSG mesoscale cell near the void surface, the difference between microscale and mesoscale strains is on the order of (lε/R0)2, indicating that when lε/R0 ∼ 1.0, the higher-order stress effect can make the MSG result considerably different from the TNT or CMSG results. (3) Critical condition for cavitation instability

  18. Conversion of light into macroscopic helical motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iamsaard, Supitchaya; Aßhoff, Sarah J.; Matt, Benjamin; Kudernac, Tibor; Cornelissen, Jeroen J. L. M.; Fletcher, Stephen P.; Katsonis, Nathalie

    2014-03-01

    A key goal of nanotechnology is the development of artificial machines capable of converting molecular movement into macroscopic work. Although conversion of light into shape changes has been reported and compared to artificial muscles, real applications require work against an external load. Here, we describe the design, synthesis and operation of spring-like materials capable of converting light energy into mechanical work at the macroscopic scale. These versatile materials consist of molecular switches embedded in liquid-crystalline polymer springs. In these springs, molecular movement is converted and amplified into controlled and reversible twisting motions. The springs display complex motion, which includes winding, unwinding and helix inversion, as dictated by their initial shape. Importantly, they can produce work by moving a macroscopic object and mimicking mechanical movements, such as those used by plant tendrils to help the plant access sunlight. These functional materials have potential applications in micromechanical systems, soft robotics and artificial muscles.

  19. Nonequilibrium work relation in a macroscopic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sughiyama, Yuki; Ohzeki, Masayuki

    2013-01-01

    We reconsider a well-known relationship between the fluctuation theorem and the second law of thermodynamics by evaluating stochastic evolution of the density field (probability measure valued process). In order to establish a bridge between microscopic and macroscopic behaviors, we must take the thermodynamic limit of a stochastic dynamical system following the standard procedure in statistical mechanics. The thermodynamic path characterizing a dynamical behavior in the macroscopic scale can be formulated as an infimum of the action functional for the stochastic evolution of the density field. In our formulation, the second law of thermodynamics can be derived only by symmetry of the action functional without recourse to the Jarzynski equality. Our formulation leads to a nontrivial nonequilibrium work relation for metastable (quasi-stationary) states, which are peculiar in the macroscopic system. We propose a prescription for computing the free energy for metastable states based on the resultant work relation. (paper)

  20. Manufacturing test of large scale hollow capsule and long length cladding in the large scale oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) martensitic steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narita, Takeshi; Ukai, Shigeharu; Kaito, Takeji; Ohtsuka, Satoshi; Fujiwara, Masayuki

    2004-04-01

    Mass production capability of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) martensitic steel cladding (9Cr) has being evaluated in the Phase II of the Feasibility Studies on Commercialized Fast Reactor Cycle System. The cost for manufacturing mother tube (raw materials powder production, mechanical alloying (MA) by ball mill, canning, hot extrusion, and machining) is a dominant factor in the total cost for manufacturing ODS ferritic steel cladding. In this study, the large-sale 9Cr-ODS martensitic steel mother tube which is made with a large-scale hollow capsule, and long length claddings were manufactured, and the applicability of these processes was evaluated. Following results were obtained in this study. (1) Manufacturing the large scale mother tube in the dimension of 32 mm OD, 21 mm ID, and 2 m length has been successfully carried out using large scale hollow capsule. This mother tube has a high degree of accuracy in size. (2) The chemical composition and the micro structure of the manufactured mother tube are similar to the existing mother tube manufactured by a small scale can. And the remarkable difference between the bottom and top sides in the manufactured mother tube has not been observed. (3) The long length cladding has been successfully manufactured from the large scale mother tube which was made using a large scale hollow capsule. (4) For reducing the manufacturing cost of the ODS steel claddings, manufacturing process of the mother tubes using a large scale hollow capsules is promising. (author)

  1. A micromechanical approach of suffusion based on a length scale analysis of the grain detachment and grain transport processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wautier, Antoine; Bonelli, Stéphane; Nicot, François

    2017-06-01

    Suffusion is the selective erosion of the finest particles of a soil subjected to an internal flow. Among the four types of internal erosion and piping identified today, suffusion is the least understood. Indeed, there is a lack of micromechanical approaches for identifying the critical microstructural parameters responsible for this process. Based on a discrete element modeling of non cohesive granular assemblies, specific micromechanical tools are developed in a unified framework to account for the two first steps of suffusion, namely the grain detachment and the grain transport processes. Thanks to the use of an enhanced force chain definition and autocorrelation functions the typical lengths scales associated with grain detachment are characterized. From the definition of transport paths based on a graph description of the pore space the typical lengths scales associated with grain transport are recovered. For a uniform grain size distribution, a separation of scales between these two processes exists for the finest particles of a soil

  2. Physics on the smallest scales: an introduction to minimal length phenomenology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprenger, Martin; Nicolini, Piero; Bleicher, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    Many modern theories which try to unify gravity with the Standard Model of particle physics, such as e.g. string theory, propose two key modifications to the commonly known physical theories: the existence of additional space dimensions; the existence of a minimal length distance or maximal resolution. While extra dimensions have received a wide coverage in publications over the last ten years (especially due to the prediction of micro black hole production at the Large Hadron Collider), the phenomenology of models with a minimal length is still less investigated. In a summer study project for bachelor students in 2010, we have explored some phenomenological implications of the potential existence of a minimal length. In this paper, we review the idea and formalism of a quantum gravity-induced minimal length in the generalized uncertainty principle framework as well as in the coherent state approach to non-commutative geometry. These approaches are effective models which can make model-independent predictions for experiments and are ideally suited for phenomenological studies. Pedagogical examples are provided to grasp the effects of a quantum gravity-induced minimal length. This paper is intended for graduate students and non-specialists interested in quantum gravity. (paper)

  3. Nuclear physics: Macroscopic aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swiatecki, W.J.

    1993-12-01

    A systematic macroscopic, leptodermous approach to nuclear statics and dynamics is described, based formally on the assumptions ℎ → 0 and b/R << 1, where b is the surface diffuseness and R the nuclear radius. The resulting static model of shell-corrected nuclear binding energies and deformabilities is accurate to better than 1 part in a thousand and yields a firm determination of the principal properties of the nuclear fluid. As regards dynamics, the above approach suggests that nuclear shape evolutions will often be dominated by dissipation, but quantitative comparisons with experimental data are more difficult than in the case of statics. In its simplest liquid drop version the model exhibits interesting formal connections to the classic astronomical problem of rotating gravitating masses

  4. Pollutant Dispersion in Boundary Layers Exposed to Rural-to-Urban Transitions: Varying the Spanwise Length Scale of the Roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomas, J. M.; Eisma, H. E.; Pourquie, M. J. B. M.; Elsinga, G. E.; Jonker, H. J. J.; Westerweel, J.

    2017-05-01

    Both large-eddy simulations (LES) and water-tunnel experiments, using simultaneous stereoscopic particle image velocimetry and laser-induced fluorescence, have been used to investigate pollutant dispersion mechanisms in regions where the surface changes from rural to urban roughness. The urban roughness was characterized by an array of rectangular obstacles in an in-line arrangement. The streamwise length scale of the roughness was kept constant, while the spanwise length scale was varied by varying the obstacle aspect ratio l / h between 1 and 8, where l is the spanwise dimension of the obstacles and h is the height of the obstacles. Additionally, the case of two-dimensional roughness (riblets) was considered in LES. A smooth-wall turbulent boundary layer of depth 10 h was used as the approaching flow, and a line source of passive tracer was placed 2 h upstream of the urban canopy. The experimental and numerical results show good agreement, while minor discrepancies are readily explained. It is found that for l/h=2 the drag induced by the urban canopy is largest of all considered cases, and is caused by a large-scale secondary flow. In addition, due to the roughness transition the vertical advective pollutant flux is the main ventilation mechanism in the first three streets. Furthermore, by means of linear stochastic estimation the mean flow structure is identified that is responsible for street-canyon ventilation for the sixth street and onwards. Moreover, it is shown that the vertical length scale of this structure increases with increasing aspect ratio of the obstacles in the canopy, while the streamwise length scale does not show a similar trend.

  5. A multi-resolution analysis of lidar-DTMs to identify geomorphic processes from characteristic topographic length scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangireddy, H.; Passalacqua, P.; Stark, C. P.

    2013-12-01

    Characteristic length scales are often present in topography, and they reflect the driving geomorphic processes. The wide availability of high resolution lidar Digital Terrain Models (DTMs) allows us to measure such characteristic scales, but new methods of topographic analysis are needed in order to do so. Here, we explore how transitions in probability distributions (pdfs) of topographic variables such as (log(area/slope)), defined as topoindex by Beven and Kirkby[1979], can be measured by Multi-Resolution Analysis (MRA) of lidar DTMs [Stark and Stark, 2001; Sangireddy et al.,2012] and used to infer dominant geomorphic processes such as non-linear diffusion and critical shear. We show this correlation between dominant geomorphic processes to characteristic length scales by comparing results from a landscape evolution model to natural landscapes. The landscape evolution model MARSSIM Howard[1994] includes components for modeling rock weathering, mass wasting by non-linear creep, detachment-limited channel erosion, and bedload sediment transport. We use MARSSIM to simulate steady state landscapes for a range of hillslope diffusivity and critical shear stresses. Using the MRA approach, we estimate modal values and inter-quartile ranges of slope, curvature, and topoindex as a function of resolution. We also construct pdfs at each resolution and identify and extract characteristic scale breaks. Following the approach of Tucker et al.,[2001], we measure the average length to channel from ridges, within the GeoNet framework developed by Passalacqua et al.,[2010] and compute pdfs for hillslope lengths at each scale defined in the MRA. We compare the hillslope diffusivity used in MARSSIM against inter-quartile ranges of topoindex and hillslope length scales, and observe power law relationships between the compared variables for simulated landscapes at steady state. We plot similar measures for natural landscapes and are able to qualitatively infer the dominant geomorphic

  6. Optical modeling of plasma-deposited ZnO films: Electron scattering at different length scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoops, Harm C. M.; Loo, Bas W. H. van de; Smit, Sjoerd; Ponomarev, Mikhail V.; Weber, Jan-Willem; Sharma, Kashish; Kessels, Wilhelmus M. M.; Creatore, Mariadriana

    2015-01-01

    In this work, an optical modeling study on electron scattering mechanisms in plasma-deposited ZnO layers is presented. Because various applications of ZnO films pose a limit on the electron carrier density due to its effect on the film transmittance, higher electron mobility values are generally preferred instead. Hence, insights into the electron scattering contributions affecting the carrier mobility are required. In optical models, the Drude oscillator is adopted to represent the free-electron contribution and the obtained optical mobility can be then correlated with the macroscopic material properties. However, the influence of scattering phenomena on the optical mobility depends on the considered range of photon energy. For example, the grain-boundary scattering is generally not probed by means of optical measurements and the ionized-impurity scattering contribution decreases toward higher photon energies. To understand this frequency dependence and quantify contributions from different scattering phenomena to the mobility, several case studies were analyzed in this work by means of spectroscopic ellipsometry and Fourier transform infrared (IR) spectroscopy. The obtained electrical parameters were compared to the results inferred by Hall measurements. For intrinsic ZnO (i-ZnO), the in-grain mobility was obtained by fitting reflection data with a normal Drude model in the IR range. For Al-doped ZnO (Al:ZnO), besides a normal Drude fit in the IR range, an Extended Drude fit in the UV-vis range could be used to obtain the in-grain mobility. Scattering mechanisms for a thickness series of Al:ZnO films were discerned using the more intuitive parameter “scattering frequency” instead of the parameter “mobility”. The interaction distance concept was introduced to give a physical interpretation to the frequency dependence of the scattering frequency. This physical interpretation furthermore allows the prediction of which Drude models can be used in a specific

  7. Modelling of multiple short-length-scale stall cells in an axial compressor using evolved GMDH neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amanifard, N.; Nariman-Zadeh, N.; Farahani, M.H.; Khalkhali, A.

    2008-01-01

    Over the past 15 years there have been several research efforts to capture the stall inception nature in axial flow compressors. However previous analytical models could not explain the formation of short-length-scale stall cells. This paper provides a new model based on evolved GMDH neural network for transient evolution of multiple short-length-scale stall cells in an axial compressor. Genetic Algorithms (GAs) are also employed for optimal design of connectivity configuration of such GMDH-type neural networks. In this way, low-pass filter (LPF) pressure trace near the rotor leading edge is modelled with respect to the variation of pressure coefficient, flow rate coefficient, and number of rotor rotations which are defined as inputs

  8. Zonal Articular Cartilage Possesses Complex Mechanical Behavior Spanning Multiple Length Scales: Dependence on Chemical Heterogeneity, Anisotropy, and Microstructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlquist, Joseph A.

    This work focused on characterizing the mechanical behavior of biological material in physiologically relevant conditions and at sub millimeter length scales. Elucidating the time, length scale, and directionally dependent mechanical behavior of cartilage and other biological materials is critical to adequately recapitulate native mechanosensory cues for cells, create computational models that mimic native tissue behavior, and assess disease progression. This work focused on three broad aspects of characterizing the mechanical behavior of articular cartilage. First, we sought to reveal the causes of time-dependent deformation and variation of mechanical properties with distance from the articular surface. Second, we investigated size dependence of mechanical properties. Finally, we examined material anisotropy of both the calcified and uncalcified tissues of the osteochondral interface. This research provides insight into how articular cartilage serves to support physiologic loads and simultaneously sustain chondrocyte viability.

  9. Correlation Lengths for Estimating the Large-Scale Carbon and Heat Content of the Southern Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazloff, M. R.; Cornuelle, B. D.; Gille, S. T.; Verdy, A.

    2018-02-01

    The spatial correlation scales of oceanic dissolved inorganic carbon, heat content, and carbon and heat exchanges with the atmosphere are estimated from a realistic numerical simulation of the Southern Ocean. Biases in the model are assessed by comparing the simulated sea surface height and temperature scales to those derived from optimally interpolated satellite measurements. While these products do not resolve all ocean scales, they are representative of the climate scale variability we aim to estimate. Results show that constraining the carbon and heat inventory between 35°S and 70°S on time-scales longer than 90 days requires approximately 100 optimally spaced measurement platforms: approximately one platform every 20° longitude by 6° latitude. Carbon flux has slightly longer zonal scales, and requires a coverage of approximately 30° by 6°. Heat flux has much longer scales, and thus a platform distribution of approximately 90° by 10° would be sufficient. Fluxes, however, have significant subseasonal variability. For all fields, and especially fluxes, sustained measurements in time are required to prevent aliasing of the eddy signals into the longer climate scale signals. Our results imply a minimum of 100 biogeochemical-Argo floats are required to monitor the Southern Ocean carbon and heat content and air-sea exchanges on time-scales longer than 90 days. However, an estimate of formal mapping error using the current Argo array implies that in practice even an array of 600 floats (a nominal float density of about 1 every 7° longitude by 3° latitude) will result in nonnegligible uncertainty in estimating climate signals.

  10. Hydrodynamic simulations of long-scale-length two-plasmon–decay experiments at the Omega Laser Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, S. X.; Michel, D. T.; Edgell, D. H.; Froula, D. H.; Follett, R. K.; Goncharov, V. N.; Myatt, J. F.; Skupsky, S.; Yaakobi, B.

    2013-01-01

    Direct-drive–ignition designs with plastic CH ablators create plasmas of long density scale lengths (L n ≥ 500 μm) at the quarter-critical density (N qc ) region of the driving laser. The two-plasmon–decay (TPD) instability can exceed its threshold in such long-scale-length plasmas (LSPs). To investigate the scaling of TPD-induced hot electrons to laser intensity and plasma conditions, a series of planar experiments have been conducted at the Omega Laser Facility with 2-ns square pulses at the maximum laser energies available on OMEGA and OMEGA EP. Radiation–hydrodynamic simulations have been performed for these LSP experiments using the two-dimensional hydrocode draco. The simulated hydrodynamic evolution of such long-scale-length plasmas has been validated with the time-resolved full-aperture backscattering and Thomson-scattering measurements. draco simulations for CH ablator indicate that (1) ignition-relevant long-scale-length plasmas of L n approaching ∼400 μm have been created; (2) the density scale length at N qc scales as L n (μm)≃(R DPP ×I 1/4 /2); and (3) the electron temperature T e at N qc scales as T e (keV)≃0.95×√(I), with the incident intensity (I) measured in 10 14 W/cm 2 for plasmas created on both OMEGA and OMEGA EP configurations with different-sized (R DPP ) distributed phase plates. These intensity scalings are in good agreement with the self-similar model predictions. The measured conversion fraction of laser energy into hot electrons f hot is found to have a similar behavior for both configurations: a rapid growth [f hot ≃f c ×(G c /4) 6 for G c hot ≃f c ×(G c /4) 1.2 for G c ≥ 4, with the common wave gain is defined as G c =3 × 10 −2 ×I qc L n λ 0 /T e , where the laser intensity contributing to common-wave gain I qc , L n , T e at N qc , and the laser wavelength λ 0 are, respectively, measured in [10 14 W/cm 2 ], [μm], [keV], and [μm]. The saturation level f c is observed to be f c ≃ 10 –2 at around

  11. Length and time scales of the near-surface axial velocity in a high Reynolds number turbulent boundary layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metzger, M.

    2006-01-01

    Reynolds number effects on relevant length and time scales in the near-wall region of a canonical turbulent boundary layer are investigated. Well resolved measurements in the atmospheric surface layer are compared with existing laboratory data to give a composite Reynolds number range spanning over three orders of magnitude. In the field experiments, a vertical rake of twenty single element hot-wires was used to measure the axial velocity, u, characteristics in the lower log layer region of the atmospheric surface layer that flows over Utah's western desert. Only data acquired under conditions of near-neutral thermal stability are analyzed. The shape of the power spectra of u as a function of distance from the wall, y, and Reynolds number is investigated, with emphasis on the appropriate scaling parameters valid across different wavenumber, k, bands. In particular, distance from the wall is found to scale the region of the u spectra around ky = 1. The presence of a k -1 slope in the spectra is also found to correlate with the Reynolds number dependence in the peak of the root mean square u profile. In addition, Reynolds number trends in the profiles of the Taylor microscales, which represent intermediate length and time scales in the boundary layer, are shown to deviate from classical scaling

  12. Microscopic and macroscopic bell inequalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, E.

    1984-01-01

    The Bell inequalities, being derived for micro-systems, cannot be tested by (macroscopic) experiments without additional assumptions. A macroscopic definition of local realism is proposed which might be the starting point for deriving Bell inequalities testable without auxiliary assumptions. (orig.)

  13. CHANG-ES. IX. Radio scale heights and scale lengths of a consistent sample of 13 spiral galaxies seen edge-on and their correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Marita; Irwin, Judith; Wiegert, Theresa; Miskolczi, Arpad; Damas-Segovia, Ancor; Beck, Rainer; Li, Jiang-Tao; Heald, George; Müller, Peter; Stein, Yelena; Rand, Richard J.; Heesen, Volker; Walterbos, Rene A. M.; Dettmar, Ralf-Jürgen; Vargas, Carlos J.; English, Jayanne; Murphy, Eric J.

    2018-03-01

    Aim. The vertical halo scale height is a crucial parameter to understand the transport of cosmic-ray electrons (CRE) and their energy loss mechanisms in spiral galaxies. Until now, the radio scale height could only be determined for a few edge-on galaxies because of missing sensitivity at high resolution. Methods: We developed a sophisticated method for the scale height determination of edge-on galaxies. With this we determined the scale heights and radial scale lengths for a sample of 13 galaxies from the CHANG-ES radio continuum survey in two frequency bands. Results: The sample average values for the radio scale heights of the halo are 1.1 ± 0.3 kpc in C-band and 1.4 ± 0.7 kpc in L-band. From the frequency dependence analysis of the halo scale heights we found that the wind velocities (estimated using the adiabatic loss time) are above the escape velocity. We found that the halo scale heights increase linearly with the radio diameters. In order to exclude the diameter dependence, we defined a normalized scale height h˜ which is quite similar for all sample galaxies at both frequency bands and does not depend on the star formation rate or the magnetic field strength. However, h˜ shows a tight anticorrelation with the mass surface density. Conclusions: The sample galaxies with smaller scale lengths are more spherical in the radio emission, while those with larger scale lengths are flatter. The radio scale height depends mainly on the radio diameter of the galaxy. The sample galaxies are consistent with an escape-dominated radio halo with convective cosmic ray propagation, indicating that galactic winds are a widespread phenomenon in spiral galaxies. While a higher star formation rate or star formation surface density does not lead to a higher wind velocity, we found for the first time observational evidence of a gravitational deceleration of CRE outflow, e.g. a lowering of the wind velocity from the galactic disk.

  14. On the connection between the macroscopical and microscopical evolution in an exactly soluble hopping model. II. Charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banyai, L.; Gartner, P.

    1979-07-01

    The hopping rate equation for charged particles with self-consistent Coulomb interaction on an arbitrary periodic lattice can be solved exactly. It is shown that if one scales the time t and the distances x (including the characteristic length l as t → lambda 2 t, x → lambda x), then in the lambda → infinity limit the charge density and the potential tend to their macroscopical electrodynamic counterparts faster than lambda sup(-3) and lambda sup(-1) respectively. (author)

  15. Length-scale and strain rate-dependent mechanism of defect formation and fracture in carbon nanotubes under tensile loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Javvaji, Brahmanandam [Indian Institute of Science, Department of Aerospace Engineering (India); Raha, S. [Indian Institute of Science, Department of Computational and Data Sciences (India); Mahapatra, D. Roy, E-mail: droymahapatra@aero.iisc.ernet.in [Indian Institute of Science, Department of Aerospace Engineering (India)

    2017-02-15

    Electromagnetic and thermo-mechanical forces play a major role in nanotube-based materials and devices. Under high-energy electron transport or high current densities, carbon nanotubes fail via sequential fracture. The failure sequence is governed by certain length scale and flow of current. We report a unified phenomenological model derived from molecular dynamic simulation data, which successfully captures the important physics of the complex failure process. Length-scale and strain rate-dependent defect nucleation, growth, and fracture in single-walled carbon nanotubes with diameters in the range of 0.47 to 2.03 nm and length which is about 6.17 to 26.45 nm are simulated. Nanotubes with long length and small diameter show brittle fracture, while those with short length and large diameter show transition from ductile to brittle fracture. In short nanotubes with small diameters, we observe several structural transitions like Stone-Wales defect initiation, its propagation to larger void nucleation, formation of multiple chains of atoms, conversion to monatomic chain of atoms, and finally complete fracture of the carbon nanotube. Hybridization state of carbon-carbon bonds near the end cap evolves, leading to the formation of monatomic chain in short nanotubes with small diameter. Transition from ductile to brittle fracture is also observed when strain rate exceeds a critical value. A generalized analytical model of failure is established, which correlates the defect energy during the formation of atomic chain with aspect ratio of the nanotube and strain rate. Variation in the mechanical properties such as elastic modulus, tensile strength, and fracture strain with the size and strain rate shows important implications in mitigating force fields and ways to enhance the life of electronic devices and nanomaterial conversion via fracture in manufacturing.

  16. Electron critical gradient scale length measurements of ICRF heated L-mode plasmas at Alcator C-Mod tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houshmandyar, S.; Hatch, D. R.; Horton, C. W.; Liao, K. T.; Phillips, P. E.; Rowan, W. L.; Zhao, B.; Cao, N. M.; Ernst, D. R.; Greenwald, M.; Howard, N. T.; Hubbard, A. E.; Hughes, J. W.; Rice, J. E.

    2018-04-01

    A profile for the critical gradient scale length (Lc) has been measured in L-mode discharges at the Alcator C-Mod tokamak, where electrons were heated by an ion cyclotron range of frequency through minority heating with the intention of simultaneously varying the heat flux and changing the local gradient. The electron temperature gradient scale length (LTe-1 = |∇Te|/Te) profile was measured via the BT-jog technique [Houshmandyar et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87, 11E101 (2016)] and it was compared with electron heat flux from power balance (TRANSP) analysis. The Te profiles were found to be very stiff and already above the critical values, however, the stiffness was found to be reduced near the q = 3/2 surface. The measured Lc profile is in agreement with electron temperature gradient (ETG) models which predict the dependence of Lc-1 on local Zeff, Te/Ti, and the ratio of the magnetic shear to the safety factor. The results from linear Gene gyrokinetic simulations suggest ETG to be the dominant mode of turbulence in the electron scale (k⊥ρs > 1), and ion temperature gradient/trapped electron mode modes in the ion scale (k⊥ρs < 1). The measured Lc profile is in agreement with the profile of ETG critical gradients deduced from Gene simulations.

  17. Introduction of the Abbreviated Westmead Post-Traumatic Amnesia Scale and Impact on Length of Stay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Watson, C. E.; Clous, E. A.; Jaeger, M.; D'Amours, S. K.

    2017-01-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury is a common presentation to Emergency Departments. Early identification of patients with cognitive deficits and provision of discharge advice are important. The Abbreviated Westmead Post-traumatic Amnesia Scale provides an early and efficient assessment of post-traumatic

  18. Broadband Structural Dynamics: Understanding the Impulse-Response of Structures Across Multiple Length and Time Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    Spectral domain response calculated • Time domain response obtained through inverse transform Approach 4: WASABI Wavelet Analysis of Structural Anomalies...differences at unity scale! Time Function Transform Apply Spectral Domain Transfer Function Time Function Inverse Transform Transform Transform  mtP

  19. Reduced 3d modeling on injection schemes for laser wakefield acceleration at plasma scale lengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helm, Anton; Vieira, Jorge; Silva, Luis; Fonseca, Ricardo

    2017-10-01

    Current modelling techniques for laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA) are based on particle-in-cell (PIC) codes which are computationally demanding. In PIC simulations the laser wavelength λ0, in μm-range, has to be resolved over the acceleration lengths in meter-range. A promising approach is the ponderomotive guiding center solver (PGC) by only considering the laser envelope for laser pulse propagation. Therefore only the plasma skin depth λp has to be resolved, leading to speedups of (λp /λ0) 2. This allows to perform a wide-range of parameter studies and use it for λ0 Tecnologia (FCT), Portugal, through Grant No. PTDC/FIS-PLA/2940/2014 and PD/BD/105882/2014.

  20. Accurate switching intensities and length scales in quasi-phase-matched materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Ole; Graversen, Torben Winther; Corney, Joel Frederick

    2001-01-01

    We consider unseeded typeI second-harmonic generation in quasi-phase-matched quadratic nonlinear materials and derive an accurate analytical expression for the evolution of the average intensity. The intensity- dependent nonlinear phase mismatch that is due to the cubic nonlinearity induced...... by quasi phase matching is found. The equivalent formula for the intensity of maximum conversion, the crossing of which changes the one-period nonlinear phase shift of the fundamental abruptly by p , corrects earlier estimates [Opt.Lett. 23, 506 (1998)] by a factor of 5.3. We find the crystal lengths...... that are necessary to obtain an optimal flat phase versus intensity response on either side of this separatrix intensity....

  1. The role of discharge variation in scaling of drainage area and food chain length in rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabo, John L.; Finlay, Jacques C.; Kennedy, Theodore A.; Post, David M.

    2010-01-01

    Food chain length (FCL) is a fundamental component of food web structure. Studies in a variety of ecosystems suggest that FCL is determined by energy supply, environmental stability, and/or ecosystem size, but the nature of the relationship between environmental stability and FCL, and the mechanism linking ecosystem size to FCL, remain unclear. Here we show that FCL increases with drainage area and decreases with hydrologic variability and intermittency across 36 North American rivers. Our analysis further suggests that hydrologic variability is the mechanism underlying the correlation between ecosystem size and FCL in rivers. Ecosystem size lengthens river food chains by integrating and attenuating discharge variation through stream networks, thereby enhancing environmental stability in larger river systems.

  2. Gate length scaling trends of drive current enhancement in CMOSFETs with dual stress overlayers and embedded-SiGe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flachowsky, S.; Wei, A.; Herrmann, T.; Illgen, R.; Horstmann, M.; Richter, R.; Salz, H.; Klix, W.; Stenzel, R.

    2008-01-01

    Strain engineering in MOSFETs using tensile nitride overlayer (TOL) films, compressive nitride overlayer (COL) films, and embedded-SiGe (eSiGe) is studied by extensive device experiments and numerical simulations. The scaling behavior was analyzed by gate length reduction down to 40 nm and it was found that drive current strongly depends on the device dimensions. The reduction of drain-current enhancement for short-channel devices can be attributed to two competing factors: shorter gate length devices have increased longitudinal and vertical stress components which should result in improved drain-currents. However, there is a larger degradation from external resistance as the gate length decreases, due to a larger voltage dropped across the external resistance. Adding an eSiGe stressor reduces the external resistance in the p-MOSFET, to the extent that the drive current improvement from COL continues to increase even down the shortest gate length studied. This is due to the reduced resistivity of SiGe itself and the SiGe valence band offset relative to Si, leading to a smaller silicide-active contact resistance. It demonstrates the advantage of combining eSiGe and COL, not only for increased stress, but also for parasitic resistance reduction to enable better COL drive current benefit

  3. Sensitivity of the two-dimensional shearless mixing layer to the initial turbulent kinetic energy and integral length scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathali, M.; Deshiri, M. Khoshnami

    2016-04-01

    The shearless mixing layer is generated from the interaction of two homogeneous isotropic turbulence (HIT) fields with different integral scales ℓ1 and ℓ2 and different turbulent kinetic energies E1 and E2. In this study, the sensitivity of temporal evolutions of two-dimensional, incompressible shearless mixing layers to the parametric variations of ℓ1/ℓ2 and E1/E2 is investigated. The sensitivity methodology is based on the nonintrusive approach; using direct numerical simulation and generalized polynomial chaos expansion. The analysis is carried out at Reℓ 1=90 for the high-energy HIT region and different integral length scale ratios 1 /4 ≤ℓ1/ℓ2≤4 and turbulent kinetic energy ratios 1 ≤E1/E2≤30 . It is found that the most influential parameter on the variability of the mixing layer evolution is the turbulent kinetic energy while variations of the integral length scale show a negligible influence on the flow field variability. A significant level of anisotropy and intermittency is observed in both large and small scales. In particular, it is found that large scales have higher levels of intermittency and sensitivity to the variations of ℓ1/ℓ2 and E1/E2 compared to the small scales. Reconstructed response surfaces of the flow field intermittency and the turbulent penetration depth show monotonic dependence on ℓ1/ℓ2 and E1/E2 . The mixing layer growth rate and the mixing efficiency both show sensitive dependence on the initial condition parameters. However, the probability density function of these quantities shows relatively small solution variations in response to the variations of the initial condition parameters.

  4. The Sensitivity of Income Polarization - Time, length of accounting periods, equivalence scales, and income definitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azhar, Hussain

    This study looks at polarization and its components’ sensitivity to assumptions about equivalence scales, income definition, ethical income distribution parameters, and the income accounting period. A representative sample of Danish individual incomes from 1984 to 2002 is utilised. Results show...... that polarization has increased over time, regardless of the applied measure, when the last part of the period is compared to the first part of the period. Primary causes being increased inequality (alienation) and faster income growth among high incomes relative to those in the middle of the distribution....... Increasing the accounting period confirms the reduction in inequality found for shorter periods, but polarization is virtually unchanged, because income group identification increases. Applying different equivalence scales does not change polarization ranking for different years, but identification ranks...

  5. Quantum equilibria for macroscopic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grib, A; Khrennikov, A; Parfionov, G; Starkov, K

    2006-01-01

    Nash equilibria are found for some quantum games with particles with spin-1/2 for which two spin projections on different directions in space are measured. Examples of macroscopic games with the same equilibria are given. Mixed strategies for participants of these games are calculated using probability amplitudes according to the rules of quantum mechanics in spite of the macroscopic nature of the game and absence of Planck's constant. A possible role of quantum logical lattices for the existence of macroscopic quantum equilibria is discussed. Some examples for spin-1 cases are also considered

  6. Quantum equilibria for macroscopic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grib, A [Department of Theoretical Physics and Astronomy, Russian State Pedagogical University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Khrennikov, A [Centre for Mathematical Modelling in Physics and Cognitive Sciences Vaexjoe University (Sweden); Parfionov, G [Department of Mathematics, St. Petersburg State University of Economics and Finances (Russian Federation); Starkov, K [Department of Mathematics, St. Petersburg State University of Economics and Finances (Russian Federation)

    2006-06-30

    Nash equilibria are found for some quantum games with particles with spin-1/2 for which two spin projections on different directions in space are measured. Examples of macroscopic games with the same equilibria are given. Mixed strategies for participants of these games are calculated using probability amplitudes according to the rules of quantum mechanics in spite of the macroscopic nature of the game and absence of Planck's constant. A possible role of quantum logical lattices for the existence of macroscopic quantum equilibria is discussed. Some examples for spin-1 cases are also considered.

  7. Computational domain length and Reynolds number effects on large-scale coherent motions in turbulent pipe flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldmann, Daniel; Bauer, Christian; Wagner, Claus

    2018-03-01

    We present results from direct numerical simulations (DNS) of turbulent pipe flow at shear Reynolds numbers up to Reτ = 1500 using different computational domains with lengths up to ?. The objectives are to analyse the effect of the finite size of the periodic pipe domain on large flow structures in dependency of Reτ and to assess a minimum ? required for relevant turbulent scales to be captured and a minimum Reτ for very large-scale motions (VLSM) to be analysed. Analysing one-point statistics revealed that the mean velocity profile is invariant for ?. The wall-normal location at which deviations occur in shorter domains changes strongly with increasing Reτ from the near-wall region to the outer layer, where VLSM are believed to live. The root mean square velocity profiles exhibit domain length dependencies for pipes shorter than 14R and 7R depending on Reτ. For all Reτ, the higher-order statistical moments show only weak dependencies and only for the shortest domain considered here. However, the analysis of one- and two-dimensional pre-multiplied energy spectra revealed that even for larger ?, not all physically relevant scales are fully captured, even though the aforementioned statistics are in good agreement with the literature. We found ? to be sufficiently large to capture VLSM-relevant turbulent scales in the considered range of Reτ based on our definition of an integral energy threshold of 10%. The requirement to capture at least 1/10 of the global maximum energy level is justified by a 14% increase of the streamwise turbulence intensity in the outer region between Reτ = 720 and 1500, which can be related to VLSM-relevant length scales. Based on this scaling anomaly, we found Reτ⪆1500 to be a necessary minimum requirement to investigate VLSM-related effects in pipe flow, even though the streamwise energy spectra does not yet indicate sufficient scale separation between the most energetic and the very long motions.

  8. Continuum and crystal strain gradient plasticity with energetic and dissipative length scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghihi, Danial

    This work, standing as an attempt to understand and mathematically model the small scale materials thermal and mechanical responses by the aid of Materials Science fundamentals, Continuum Solid Mechanics, Misro-scale experimental observations, and Numerical methods. Since conventional continuum plasticity and heat transfer theories, based on the local thermodynamic equilibrium, do not account for the microstructural characteristics of materials, they cannot be used to adequately address the observed mechanical and thermal response of the micro-scale metallic structures. Some of these cases, which are considered in this dissertation, include the dependency of thin films strength on the width of the sample and diffusive-ballistic response of temperature in the course of heat transfer. A thermodynamic-based higher order gradient framework is developed in order to characterize the mechanical and thermal behavior of metals in small volume and on the fast transient time. The concept of the thermal activation energy, the dislocations interaction mechanisms, nonlocal energy exchange between energy carriers and phonon-electrons interactions are taken into consideration in proposing the thermodynamic potentials such as Helmholtz free energy and rate of dissipation. The same approach is also adopted to incorporate the effect of the material microstructural interface between two materials (e.g. grain boundary in crystals) into the formulation. The developed grain boundary flow rule accounts for the energy storage at the grain boundary due to the dislocation pile up as well as energy dissipation caused by the dislocation transfer through the grain boundary. Some of the abovementioned responses of small scale metallic compounds are addressed by means of the numerical implementation of the developed framework within the finite element context. In this regard, both displacement and plastic strain fields are independently discretized and the numerical implementation is performed in

  9. Laboratory scale electroplating and processing of long lengths of an in situ Cu-Nb3Sn superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeHuy, H.; Germain, L.; Roberge, R.; Foner, S.; Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge

    1984-01-01

    A laboratory scale continuous tin electroplating system is described and used to evaluate the effect of various parameters of the alkaline and acid baths plating process. Tin electroplating is shown to be simple and reliable. With an 8 m immersion length production speeds of the order of 1 m min -1 are possible in an alkaline bath at 80degC. An acid bath gives satisfactory tinning deposits with a production speed of up to 3 m min -1 at room temperature. (author)

  10. Interpretation of macroscopic quantum phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, K.

    1986-01-01

    It is argued that a quantum theory without observer is required for the interpretation of macroscopic quantum tunnelling. Such a theory is obtained by augmenting QED by the actual electric field in the rest system of the universe. An equation of the motion of this field is formulated form which the correct macroscopic behavior of the universe and the validity of the Born interpretation is derived. Care is taken to use mathematically sound concepts only. (Author)

  11. PIV measurements of the turbulence integral length scale on cold combustion flow field of tangential firing boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Wen-fei; Xie, Jing-xing; Gong, Zhi-jun; Li, Bao-wei [Inner Mongolia Univ. of Science and Technology, Baotou (China). Inner Mongolia Key Lab. for Utilization of Bayan Obo Multi-Metallic Resources: Elected State Key Lab.

    2013-07-01

    The process of the pulverized coal combustion in tangential firing boiler has prominent significance on improving boiler operation efficiency and reducing NO{sub X} emission. This paper aims at researching complex turbulent vortex coherent structure formed by the four corners jets in the burner zone, a cold experimental model of tangential firing boiler has been built. And by employing spatial correlation analysis method and PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) technique, the law of Vortex scale distribution on the three typical horizontal layers of the model based on the turbulent Integral Length Scale (ILS) has been researched. According to the correlation analysis of ILS and the temporal average velocity, it can be seen that the turbulent vortex scale distribution in the burner zone of the model is affected by both jet velocity and the position of wind layers, and is not linear with the variation of jet velocity. The vortex scale distribution of the upper primary air is significantly different from the others. Therefore, studying the ILS of turbulent vortex integral scale is instructive to high efficiency cleaning combustion of pulverized coal in theory.

  12. Characterizing the reinforcement mechanisms in multiwall nanotube/polycarbonate composites across different length and time scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Renee Kelly

    The enthusiasm and interest in the potential properties of nanotube (NT)/polymer composites are based on several factors, including the potential for unsurpassed enhancements in mechanical properties together with electrical, thermal and optical properties. Using multiwall nanotubes (MWNTs) grown to a long aspect ratio, the study found that fragmentation tests can be completed in a similar manner to traditional fiber composites. It was found that the fragmentation length does not depend on the angle of the nanotube to the loading direction hence the ISS does not change with the orientation angle of the nanotube in the composite. A critical aspect ratio of 100 and 300 for untreated nanotubes (ARNT) and treated nanotubes (EPNT), respectively was also measured. For nanotubes that are well dispersed in the polycarbonate, it was observed at a critical angle of 60° that there was a change in failure mechanism from pullout to fracture of the nanotubes due to bending shear. Because the tensile strength of a MWNT is unknown a cumulative distribution was used to characterize the relative interfacial shear strength as a function of nanotube chemical modification. The second goal of this thesis is to use Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analysis (DMTA) with controlled aspect ratios of multiwall nanotubes (MWNT) to isolate and quantify the effects of the interfacial region on modulus enhancements in nanotube-reinforced composites. One major finding of this study was that the shortest aspect ratio showed a significantly broadened relaxation spectrum than the longer aspect ratio nanotubes, despite the longer aspect ratio nanotubes being more percolated at the given weight percent. There is also a direct correlation between the free space parameter of the short aspect ratio nantoubes network and broadening of the relaxation spectrum, concluded to be a result of increased interaction of the interfacial polymer. The study found agreement with the premise that at a constant filler weight

  13. Effects of fracture distribution and length scale on the equivalent continuum elastic compliance of fractured rock masses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marte Gutierrez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Fracture systems have strong influence on the overall mechanical behavior of fractured rock masses due to their relatively lower stiffness and shear strength than those of the rock matrix. Understanding the effects of fracture geometrical distribution, such as length, spacing, persistence and orientation, is important for quantifying the mechanical behavior of fractured rock masses. The relation between fracture geometry and the mechanical characteristics of the fractured rock mass is complicated due to the fact that the fracture geometry and mechanical behaviors of fractured rock mass are strongly dependent on the length scale. In this paper, a comprehensive study was conducted to determine the effects of fracture distribution on the equivalent continuum elastic compliance of fractured rock masses over a wide range of fracture lengths. To account for the stochastic nature of fracture distributions, three different simulation techniques involving Oda's elastic compliance tensor, Monte Carlo simulation (MCS, and suitable probability density functions (PDFs were employed to represent the elastic compliance of fractured rock masses. To yield geologically realistic results, parameters for defining fracture distributions were obtained from different geological fields. The influence of the key fracture parameters and their relations to the overall elastic behavior of the fractured rock mass were studied and discussed. A detailed study was also carried out to investigate the validity of the use of a representative element volume (REV in the equivalent continuum representation of fractured rock masses. A criterion was also proposed to determine the appropriate REV given the fracture distribution of the rock mass.

  14. Confinement and the Glass Transition Temperature in Supported Polymer Films: Molecular Weight, Repeat Unit Modification, and Cooperativity Length Scale Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundra, Manish K.

    2005-03-01

    It is well known that the glass transition temperatures, Tgs, of supported polystyrene (PS) films decrease dramatically with decreasing film thickness below 60-80 nm. However, a detailed understanding of the cause of this effect is lacking. We have investigated the impact of several parameters, including polymer molecular weight (MW), repeat unit structure, and the length scale of cooperatively rearranging regions in bulk. There is no significant effect of PS MW on the Tg-confinement effect over a range of 5,000 to 3,000,000 g/mol. In contrast, the strength of the Tg reduction and the onset of the confinement effect increase dramatically upon changing the polymer from PS to poly(4-tert-butylstyrene) (PTBS), with PTBS exhibiting a Tg reduction relative to bulk at a thickness of 300-400 nm. PTBS also shows a Tg reduction relative to bulk of 47 K in a 21-nm-thick film, more than twice that observed in a PS film of identical thickness. Characterization of the length scale of cooperatively rearranging regions has been done by differential scanning calorimetry but reveals at best a limited correlation with the confinement effect.

  15. Characterization of long-scale-length plasmas produced from plastic foam targets for laser plasma instability (LPI) research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jaechul; Weaver, J. L.; Serlin, V.; Obenschain, S. P.

    2017-10-01

    We report on an experimental effort to produce plasmas with long scale lengths for the study of parametric instabilities, such as two plasmon decay (TPD) and stimulated Raman scattering (SRS), under conditions relevant to fusion plasma. In the current experiment, plasmas are formed from low density (10-100 mg/cc) CH foam targets irradiated by Nike krypton fluoride laser pulses (λ = 248 nm, 1 nsec FWHM) with energies up to 1 kJ. This experiment is conducted with two primary diagnostics: the grid image refractometer (Nike-GIR) to measure electron density and temperature profiles of the coronas, and time-resolved spectrometers with absolute intensity calibration to examine scattered light features of TPD or SRS. Nike-GIR was recently upgraded with a 5th harmonic probe laser (λ = 213 nm) to access plasma regions near quarter critical density of 248 nm light (4.5 ×1021 cm-3). The results will be discussed with data obtained from 120 μm scale-length plasmas created on solid CH targets in previous LPI experiments at Nike. Work supported by DoE/NNSA.

  16. Beam displacement as a function of temperature and turbulence length scale at two different laser radiation wavelengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isterling, William M; Dally, Bassam B; Alwahabi, Zeyad T; Dubovinsky, Miro; Wright, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Narrow laser beams directed from aircraft may at times pass through the exhaust plume of the engines and potentially degrade some of the laser beam characteristics. This paper reports on controlled studies of laser beam deviation arising from propagation through turbulent hot gases, in a well-characterized laboratory burner, with conditions of relevance to aircraft engine exhaust plumes. The impact of the temperature, laser wavelength, and turbulence length scale on the beam deviation has been investigated. It was found that the laser beam displacement increases with the turbulent integral length scale. The effect of temperature on the laser beam angular deviation, σ, using two different laser wavelengths, namely 4.67 μm and 632.8 nm, was recorded. It was found that the beam deviation for both wavelengths may be semiempirically modeled using a single function of the form, σ=a(b+(1/T)(2))(-1), with two parameters only, a and b, where σ is in microradians and T is the temperature in °C. © 2012 Optical Society of America

  17. Modified forest rotation lengths: Long-term effects on landscape-scale habitat availability for specialized species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberge, Jean-Michel; Öhman, Karin; Lämås, Tomas; Felton, Adam; Ranius, Thomas; Lundmark, Tomas; Nordin, Annika

    2018-03-15

    We evaluated the long-term implications from modifying rotation lengths in production forests for four forest-reliant species with different habitat requirements. By combining simulations of forest development with habitat models, and accounting both for stand and landscape scale influences, we projected habitat availability over 150 years in a large Swedish landscape, using rotation lengths which are longer (+22% and +50%) and shorter (-22%) compared to current practices. In terms of mean habitat availability through time, species requiring older forest were affected positively by extended rotations, and negatively by shortened rotations. For example, the mean habitat area for the treecreeper Certhia familiaris (a bird preferring forest with larger trees) increased by 31% when rotations were increased by 22%, at a 5% cost to net present value (NPV) and a 7% decrease in harvested volume. Extending rotation lengths by 50% provided more habitat for this species compared to a 22% extension, but at a much higher marginal cost. In contrast, the beetle Hadreule elongatula, which is dependent on sun-exposed dead wood, benefited from shortened rather than prolonged rotations. Due to an uneven distribution of stand-ages within the landscape, the relative amounts of habitat provided by different rotation length scenarios for a given species were not always consistent through time during the simulation period. If implemented as a conservation measure, prolonging rotations will require long-term strategic planning to avoid future bottlenecks in habitat availability, and will need to be accompanied by complementary measures accounting for the diversity of habitats necessary for the conservation of forest biodiversity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Age-related changes in the plasticity and toughness of human cortical bone at multiple length-scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmermann, Elizabeth A.; Schaible, Eric; Bale, Hrishikesh; Barth, Holly D.; Tang, Simon Y.; Reichert, Peter; Busse, Bjoern; Alliston, Tamara; Ager III, Joel W.; Ritchie, Robert O.

    2011-08-10

    The structure of human cortical bone evolves over multiple length-scales from its basic constituents of collagen and hydroxyapatite at the nanoscale to osteonal structures at nearmillimeter dimensions, which all provide the basis for its mechanical properties. To resist fracture, bone’s toughness is derived intrinsically through plasticity (e.g., fibrillar sliding) at structural-scales typically below a micron and extrinsically (i.e., during crack growth) through mechanisms (e.g., crack deflection/bridging) generated at larger structural-scales. Biological factors such as aging lead to a markedly increased fracture risk, which is often associated with an age-related loss in bone mass (bone quantity). However, we find that age-related structural changes can significantly degrade the fracture resistance (bone quality) over multiple lengthscales. Using in situ small-/wide-angle x-ray scattering/diffraction to characterize sub-micron structural changes and synchrotron x-ray computed tomography and in situ fracture-toughness measurements in the scanning electron microscope to characterize effects at micron-scales, we show how these age-related structural changes at differing size-scales degrade both the intrinsic and extrinsic toughness of bone. Specifically, we attribute the loss in toughness to increased non-enzymatic collagen cross-linking which suppresses plasticity at nanoscale dimensions and to an increased osteonal density which limits the potency of crack-bridging mechanisms at micron-scales. The link between these processes is that the increased stiffness of the cross-linked collagen requires energy to be absorbed by “plastic” deformation at higher structural levels, which occurs by the process of microcracking.

  19. Stability and dewetting of metal nanoparticle filled thin polymer films: control of instability length scale and dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Rabibrata; Das, Soma; Das, Anindya; Sharma, Satinder K; Raychaudhuri, Arup K; Sharma, Ashutosh

    2010-07-27

    We investigate the influence of gold nanoparticle addition on the stability, dewetting, and pattern formation in ultrathin polymer-nanoparticle (NP) composite films by examining the length and time scales of instability, morphology, and dynamics of dewetting. For these 10-50 nm thick (h) polystyrene (PS) thin films containing uncapped gold nanoparticles (diameter approximately 3-4 nm), transitions from complete dewetting to arrested dewetting to absolute stability were observed depending on the concentration of the particles. Experiments show the existence of three distinct stability regimes: regime 1, complete dewetting leading to droplet formation for nanoparticle concentration of 2% (w/w) or below; regime 2, partial dewetting leading to formation of arrested holes for NP concentrations in the range of 3-6%; and regime 3, complete inhibition of dewetting for NP concentrations of 7% and above. Major results are (a) length scale of instability, where lambdaH approximately hn remains unchanged with NP concentration in regime 1 (n approximately 2) but increases in regime 2 with a change in the scaling relation (n approximately 3-3.5); (b) dynamics of instability and dewetting becomes progressively sluggish with an increase in the NP concentration; (c) there are distinct regimes of dewetting velocity at low NP concentrations; (d) force modulation AFM, as well as micro-Raman analysis, shows phase separation and aggregation of the gold nanoparticles within each dewetted polymer droplet leading to the formation of a metal core-polymer shell morphology. The polymer shell could be removed by washing in a selective solvent, thus exposing an array of bare gold nanoparticle aggregates.

  20. Magneto-Induced ac Electrical Permittivity of Metal-Dielectric Composites with a Two Characteristic Length Scales Periodic Microstructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strelniker, Y.M.; Bergman, D.J.

    1998-01-01

    A new effect was recently predicted in conducting composites that have a periodic microstructure: an induced strongly anisotropic dc magneto-resistance. This phenomenon is already verified on high mobility n-GaAs films. Here we discuss the possibility of observing analogous behavior in the ac electric permittivity of a metal-dielectric composite with a periodic microstructure in the presence of a strong magnetic field. We developed new analytical and numerical methods to treat the low-frequency magneto-optical properties in composite media with both disordered and periodic conducting micro-structures. Those methods allow us to study composites with inclusions of arbitrary shape (and arbitrary volume fraction) at arbitrarily strong magnetic field. This is exploited in order to calculate an effective dielectric tensor for this system as a function of applied magnetic field and ac frequency. We show that in a non-dilute metal-dielectric composite medium the magneto-plasma resonance and the cyclotron resonance depend upon both the applied magnetic field as well as on the geometric shape of the inclusion. Near such a resonance, it is possible to achieve large values for the ratio of the off-diagonal-to-diagonal electric permittivity tensor components, ε xy /ε xx , (since ε xx →0, while ε xy ≠0), which is analogous to similar ratio of the resistivity tensor components, ρ xy /ρ xx , in the case of dc magneto-transport problem. Motivated by this observation and by results of previous studies of dc magneto-transport in composite conductors, we then performed a numerical study of the ac magneto-electric properties of a particular metal-dielectric composite film with a periodic columnar microstructure which has a two characteristic length scales. The unit cell of such composite is prepared as follows: We placed the conducting square (in cross section) rods (first characteristic length scale) along the perimeter of the unit cell in order to create a dielectric host

  1. Pathways toward understanding Macroscopic Quantum Phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, B L; Subaşi, Y

    2013-01-01

    Macroscopic quantum phenomena refer to quantum features in objects of 'large' sizes, systems with many components or degrees of freedom, organized in some ways where they can be identified as macroscopic objects. This emerging field is ushered in by several categories of definitive experiments in superconductivity, electromechanical systems, Bose-Einstein condensates and others. Yet this new field which is rich in open issues at the foundation of quantum and statistical physics remains little explored theoretically (with the important exception of the work of A J Leggett [1], while touched upon or implied by several groups of authors represented in this conference. Our attitude differs in that we believe in the full validity of quantum mechanics stretching from the testable micro to meso scales, with no need for the introduction of new laws of physics.) This talk summarizes our thoughts in attempting a systematic investigation into some key foundational issues of quantum macroscopic phenomena, with the goal of ultimately revealing or building a viable theoretical framework. Three major themes discussed in three intended essays are the large N expansion [2], the correlation hierarchy [3] and quantum entanglement [4]. We give a sketch of the first two themes and then discuss several key issues in the consideration of macro and quantum, namely, a) recognition that there exist many levels of structure in a composite body and only by judicious choice of an appropriate set of collective variables can one give the best description of the dynamics of a specific level of structure. Capturing the quantum features of a macroscopic object is greatly facilitated by the existence and functioning of these collective variables; b) quantum entanglement, an exclusively quantum feature [5], is known to persist to high temperatures [6] and large scales [7] under certain conditions, and may actually decrease with increased connectivity in a quantum network [8]. We use entanglement as a

  2. Morphological quantification of hierarchical geomaterials by X-ray nano-CT bridges the gap from nano to micro length scales

    KAUST Repository

    Brisard, S.; Chae, R. S.; Bihannic, I.; Michot, L.; Guttmann, P.; Thieme, J.; Schneider, G.; Monteiro, P. J. M.; Levitz, P.

    2012-01-01

    Morphological quantification of the complex structure of hierarchical geomaterials is of great relevance for Earth science and environmental engineering, among others. To date, methods that quantify the 3D morphology on length scales ranging from a

  3. Global Mechanical Response and Its Relation to Deformation and Failure Modes at Various Length Scales Under Shock Impact in Alumina AD995 Armor Ceramic

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dandekar, D. P; McCauley, J. W; Green, W. H; Bourne, N. K; Chen, M. W

    2008-01-01

    ... maps relating the experimentally measured global mechanical response of a material through matured shock wave diagnostics to the nature of concurrent deformation and damage generated at varying length scales under shock wave loading.

  4. Predicting permeability of regular tissue engineering scaffolds: scaling analysis of pore architecture, scaffold length, and fluid flow rate effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahbari, A; Montazerian, H; Davoodi, E; Homayoonfar, S

    2017-02-01

    The main aim of this research is to numerically obtain the permeability coefficient in the cylindrical scaffolds. For this purpose, a mathematical analysis was performed to derive an equation for desired porosity in terms of morphological parameters. Then, the considered cylindrical geometries were modeled and the permeability coefficient was calculated according to the velocity and pressure drop values based on the Darcy's law. In order to validate the accuracy of the present numerical solution, the obtained permeability coefficient was compared with the published experimental data. It was observed that this model can predict permeability with the utmost accuracy. Then, the effect of geometrical parameters including porosity, scaffold pore structure, unit cell size, and length of the scaffolds as well as entrance mass flow rate on the permeability of porous structures was studied. Furthermore, a parametric study with scaling laws analysis of sample length and mass flow rate effects on the permeability showed good fit to the obtained data. It can be concluded that the sensitivity of permeability is more noticeable at higher porosities. The present approach can be used to characterize and optimize the scaffold microstructure due to the necessity of cell growth and transferring considerations.

  5. Relative strength of second harmonic and 3/2 omega emissions from long-scale-length laser produced plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, B.K.; Kumbhare, S.R.

    1988-01-01

    Experiments were conducted on the planar slab targets of carbon, aluminum, and copper, using a 1.0641 μm laser, at laser intensities varying from 2 x 10/sup 12/ to 1 x 10/sup 14/ W/cm/sup 2/. The laser had a fluorescent linewidth of 4.5 A. Spectral profiles of parametrically modulated second harmonic as well as 3/2/ω/sub 0/ emissions have been measured for the long-scale-length plasmas so generated. Relative strengths of three emissions with respect to peak signal intensity and spectral energy content as a function of laser intensity are graphically reported. Results are discussed on the basis of two plasmon and parametric decay instabilities

  6. Sizing Up the Milky Way: A Bayesian Mixture Model Meta-analysis of Photometric Scale Length Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licquia, Timothy C.; Newman, Jeffrey A.

    2016-11-01

    The exponential scale length (L d ) of the Milky Way’s (MW’s) disk is a critical parameter for describing the global physical size of our Galaxy, important both for interpreting other Galactic measurements and helping us to understand how our Galaxy fits into extragalactic contexts. Unfortunately, current estimates span a wide range of values and are often statistically incompatible with one another. Here, we perform a Bayesian meta-analysis to determine an improved, aggregate estimate for L d , utilizing a mixture-model approach to account for the possibility that any one measurement has not properly accounted for all statistical or systematic errors. Within this machinery, we explore a variety of ways of modeling the nature of problematic measurements, and then employ a Bayesian model averaging technique to derive net posterior distributions that incorporate any model-selection uncertainty. Our meta-analysis combines 29 different (15 visible and 14 infrared) photometric measurements of L d available in the literature; these involve a broad assortment of observational data sets, MW models and assumptions, and methodologies, all tabulated herein. Analyzing the visible and infrared measurements separately yields estimates for L d of {2.71}-0.20+0.22 kpc and {2.51}-0.13+0.15 kpc, respectively, whereas considering them all combined yields 2.64 ± 0.13 kpc. The ratio between the visible and infrared scale lengths determined here is very similar to that measured in external spiral galaxies. We use these results to update the model of the Galactic disk from our previous work, constraining its stellar mass to be {4.8}-1.1+1.5× {10}10 M ⊙, and the MW’s total stellar mass to be {5.7}-1.1+1.5× {10}10 M ⊙.

  7. Length-scales of Slab-induced Asthenospheric Deformation from Geodynamic Modeling, Mantle Deformation Fabric, and Synthetic Shear Wave Splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadamec, M. A.; MacDougall, J.; Fischer, K. M.

    2017-12-01

    The viscosity structure of the Earth's interior is critically important, because it places a first order constraint on plate motion and mantle flow rates. Geodynamic models using a composite viscosity based on experimentally derived flow laws for olivine aggregates show that lateral viscosity variations emerge in the upper mantle due to the subduction dynamics. However, the length-scale of this transition is still not well understood. Two-dimensional numerical models of subduction are presented that investigate the effect of initial slab dip, maximum yield stress (slab strength), and viscosity formulation (Newtonian versus composite) on the emergent lateral viscosity variations in the upper-mantle and magnitude of slab-driven mantle flow velocity. Significant viscosity reductions occur in regions of large flow velocity gradients due to the weakening effect of the dislocation creep deformation mechanism. The dynamic reductions in asthenospheric viscosity (less than 1018 Pa s) occur within approximately 500 km from driving force of the slab, with peak flow velocities occurring in models with a lower yield stress (weaker slab) and higher stress exponent. This leads to a sharper definition of the rheological base of the lithosphere and implies lateral variability in tractions along the base of the lithosphere. As the dislocation creep mechanism also leads to mantle deformation fabric, we then examine the spatial variation in the LPO development in the asthenosphere and calculate synthetic shear wave splitting. The models show that olivine LPO fabric in the asthenosphere generally increases in alignment strength with increased proximity to the slab, but can be transient and spatially variable on small length scales. The vertical flow fields surrounding the slab tip can produce shear-wave splitting variations with back-azimuth that deviate from the predictions of uniform trench-normal anisotropy, a result that bears on the interpretation of complexity in shear

  8. Dynamical fusion thresholds in macroscopic and microscopic theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, K.T.R.; Sierk, A.J.; Nix, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    Macroscopic and microscopic results demonstrating the existence of dynamical fusion thresholds are presented. For macroscopic theories, it is shown that the extra-push dynamics is sensitive to some details of the models used, e.g. the shape parametrization and the type of viscosity. The dependence of the effect upon the charge and angular momentum of the system is also studied. Calculated macroscopic results for mass-symmetric systems are compared to experimental mass-asymmetric results by use of a tentative scaling procedure, which takes into account both the entrance-channel and the saddle-point regions of configuration space. Two types of dynamical fusion thresholds occur in TDHF studies: (1) the microscopic analogue of the macroscopic extra push threshold, and (2) the relatively high energy at which the TDHF angular momentum window opens. Both of these microscopic thresholds are found to be very sensitive to the choice of the effective two-body interaction

  9. Macroscopic models for traffic safety.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oppe, S.

    1988-01-01

    Recently there has been an increased interest in the application of macroscopic models for the description of developments in traffic safety. A discussion was started on the causes of the sudden decrease in the number of fatal and injury accidents after 1974. Before that time these numbers had

  10. Residual stress determination in oxide layers at different length scales combining Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction: Application to chromia-forming metallic alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerain, Mathieu; Grosseau-Poussard, Jean-Luc; Geandier, Guillaume; Panicaud, Benoit; Tamura, Nobumichi; Kunz, Martin; Dejoie, Catherine; Micha, Jean-Sebastien; Thiaudière, Dominique; Goudeau, Philippe

    2017-11-01

    In oxidizing environments, the protection of metals and alloys against further oxidation at high temperature is provided by the oxide film itself. This protection is efficient only if the formed film adheres well to the metal (substrate), i.e., without microcracks and spalls induced by thermomechanical stresses. In this study, the residual stresses at both macroscopic and microscopic scales in the oxide film adhering to the substrate and over the damaged areas have been rigorously determined on the same samples for both techniques. Ni-30Cr and Fe-47Cr alloys have been oxidized together at 900 and 1000 °C, respectively, to create films with a thickness of a few microns. A multi-scale approach was adopted: macroscopic stress was determined by conventional X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy, while microscopic residual stress mappings were performed over different types of bucklings using Raman micro-spectroscopy and synchrotron micro-diffraction. A very good agreement is found at macro- and microscales between the residual stress values obtained with both techniques, giving confidence on the reliability of the measurements. In addition, relevant structural information at the interface between the metallic substrate and the oxide layer was collected by micro-diffraction, a non-destructive technique that allows mapping through the oxide layer, and both the grain size and the crystallographic orientation of the supporting polycrystalline metal located either under a buckling or not were measured.

  11. Genesis of nanostructured, magnetically tunable ceramics from the pyrolysis of cross-linked polyferrocenylsilane networks and formation of shaped macroscopic objects and micron scale patterns by micromolding inside silicon wafers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginzburg, Madlen; MacLachlan, Mark J; Yang, San Ming; Coombs, Neil; Coyle, Thomas W; Raju, Nandyala P; Greedan, John E; Herber, Rolfe H; Ozin, Geoffrey A; Manners, Ian

    2002-03-20

    The ability to form molded or patterned metal-containing ceramics with tunable properties is desirable for many applications. In this paper we describe the evolution of a ceramic from a metal-containing polymer in which the variation of pyrolysis conditions facilitates control of ceramic structure and composition, influencing magnetic and mechanical properties. We have found that pyrolysis under nitrogen of a well-characterized cross-linked polyferrocenylsilane network derived from the ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of a spirocyclic [1]ferrocenophane precursor gives shaped macroscopic magnetic ceramics consisting of alpha-Fe nanoparticles embedded in a SiC/C/Si(3)N(4) matrix in greater than 90% yield up to 1000 degrees C. Variation of the pyrolysis temperature and time permitted control over the nucleation and growth of alpha-Fe particles, which ranged in size from around 15 to 700 A, and the crystallization of the surrounding matrix. The ceramics contained smaller alpha-Fe particles when prepared at temperatures lower than 900 degrees C and displayed superparamagnetic behavior, whereas the materials prepared at 1000 degrees C contained larger alpha-Fe particles and were ferromagnetic. This flexibility may be useful for particular materials applications. In addition, the composition of the ceramic was altered by changing the pyrolysis atmosphere to argon, which yielded ceramics that contain Fe(3)Si(5). The ceramics have been characterized by a combination of physical techniques, including powder X-ray diffraction, TEM, reflectance UV-vis/near-IR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, XPS, SQUID magnetometry, Mössbauer spectroscopy, nanoindentation, and SEM. Micromolding of the spirocyclic [1]ferrocenophane precursor within soft lithographically patterned channels housed inside silicon wafers followed by thermal ROP and pyrolysis enabled the formation of predetermined micron scale designs of the magnetic ceramic.

  12. Application of soft x-ray laser interferometry to study large-scale-length, high-density plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, A.S.; Barbee, T.W., Jr.; Cauble, R.

    1996-01-01

    We have employed a Mach-Zehnder interferometer, using a Ne-like Y x- ray laser at 155 Angstrom as the probe source, to study large-scale- length, high-density colliding plasmas and exploding foils. The measured density profile of counter-streaming high-density colliding plasmas falls in between the calculated profiles using collisionless and fluid approximations with the radiation hydrodynamic code LASNEX. We have also performed simultaneous measured the local gain and electron density of Y x-ray laser amplifier. Measured gains in the amplifier were found to be between 10 and 20 cm -1 , similar to predictions and indicating that refraction is the major cause of signal loss in long line focus lasers. Images showed that high gain was produced in spots with dimensions of ∼ 10 μm, which we believe is caused by intensity variations in the optical drive laser. Measured density variations were smooth on the 10-μm scale so that temperature variations were likely the cause of the localized gain regions. We are now using the interferometry technique as a mechanism to validate and benchmark our numerical codes used for the design and analysis of high-energy-density physics experiments. 11 refs., 6 figs

  13. Collective motion of macroscopic spheres floating on capillary ripples: dynamic heterogeneity and dynamic criticality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanlı, Ceyda; Saitoh, Kuniyasu; Luding, Stefan; van der Meer, Devaraj

    2014-09-01

    When a densely packed monolayer of macroscopic spheres floats on chaotic capillary Faraday waves, a coexistence of large scale convective motion and caging dynamics typical for glassy systems is observed. We subtract the convective mean flow using a coarse graining (homogenization) method and reveal subdiffusion for the caging time scales followed by a diffusive regime at later times. We apply the methods developed to study dynamic heterogeneity and show that the typical time and length scales of the fluctuations due to rearrangements of observed particle groups significantly increase when the system approaches its largest experimentally accessible packing concentration. To connect the system to the dynamic criticality literature, we fit power laws to our results. The resultant critical exponents are consistent with those found in densely packed suspensions of colloids.

  14. Surface physicochemical properties at the micro and nano length scales: role on bacterial adhesion and Xylella fastidiosa biofilm development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorite, Gabriela S; Janissen, Richard; Clerici, João H; Rodrigues, Carolina M; Tomaz, Juarez P; Mizaikoff, Boris; Kranz, Christine; de Souza, Alessandra A; Cotta, Mônica A

    2013-01-01

    The phytopathogen Xylella fastidiosa grows as a biofilm causing vascular occlusion and consequently nutrient and water stress in different plant hosts by adhesion on xylem vessel surfaces composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin and proteins. Understanding the factors which influence bacterial adhesion and biofilm development is a key issue in identifying mechanisms for preventing biofilm formation in infected plants. In this study, we show that X. fastidiosa biofilm development and architecture correlate well with physicochemical surface properties after interaction with the culture medium. Different biotic and abiotic substrates such as silicon (Si) and derivatized cellulose films were studied. Both biofilms and substrates were characterized at the micro- and nanoscale, which corresponds to the actual bacterial cell and membrane/ protein length scales, respectively. Our experimental results clearly indicate that the presence of surfaces with different chemical composition affect X. fastidiosa behavior from the point of view of gene expression and adhesion functionality. Bacterial adhesion is facilitated on more hydrophilic surfaces with higher surface potentials; XadA1 adhesin reveals different strengths of interaction on these surfaces. Nonetheless, despite different architectural biofilm geometries and rates of development, the colonization process occurs on all investigated surfaces. Our results univocally support the hypothesis that different adhesion mechanisms are active along the biofilm life cycle representing an adaptation mechanism for variations on the specific xylem vessel composition, which the bacterium encounters within the infected plant.

  15. Contact damage and fracture micromechanisms of multilayered TiN/CrN coatings at micro- and nano-length scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roa, J.J.; Jiménez-Piqué, E.; Martínez, R.; Ramírez, G.; Tarragó, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, systematic nanomechanical and micromechanical studies have been conducted in three multilayer TiN/CrN systems with different bilayer periods (8, 19 and 25 nm). Additionally, experimental work has been performed on corresponding TiN and CrN single layers, for comparison purposes. The investigation includes the use of different indenter tip geometries as well as contact loading conditions (i.e. indentation/scratch) such to induce different stress field and damage scenarios within the films. The surface and subsurface damage under the different indentation imprints and scratch tracks have been observed by atomic force microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy and focused ion beam. Multilayer TiN/CrN coated systems are found to exhibit higher adhesion strength (under sliding contact load) and cracking resistance (under spherical indentation) than those coated with reference TiN and CrN monolayers. The main reason behind these findings is the effective development of microstructurally-driven deformation and cracking resistant micromechanisms: rotation of columnar grains (and associated distortion of bilayer period) and crack deflection of interlayer thickness length scale, respectively. - Highlights: • Nanomechanical and micromechanical study in TiN/CrN systems • TiN/CrN coated systems exhibit higher adhesion strength and cracking resistance. • Main deformation and cracking micromechanisms: columnar grain rotation and crack deflection

  16. Seeing with the nano-eye: accessing structure, function, and dynamics of matter on its natural length and time scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raschke, Markus

    2015-03-01

    To understand and ultimately control the properties of most functional materials, from molecular soft-matter to quantum materials, requires access to the structure, coupling, and dynamics on the elementary time and length scales that define the microscopic interactions in these materials. To gain the desired nanometer spatial resolution with simultaneous spectroscopic specificity we combine scanning probe microscopy with different optical, including coherent, nonlinear, and ultrafast spectroscopies. The underlying near-field interaction mediated by the atomic-force or scanning tunneling microscope tip provides the desired deep-sub wavelength nano-focusing enabling few-nm spatial resolution. I will introduce our generalization of the approach in terms of the near-field impedance matching to a quantum system based on special optical antenna-tip designs. The resulting enhanced and qualitatively new forms of light-matter interaction enable measurements of quantum dynamics in an interacting environment or to image the electromagnetic local density of states of thermal radiation. Other applications include the inter-molecular coupling and dynamics in soft-matter hetero-structures, surface plasmon interferometry as a probe of electronic structure and dynamics in graphene, and quantum phase transitions in correlated electron materials. These examples highlight the general applicability of the new near-field microscopy approach, complementing emergent X-ray and electron imaging tools, aiming towards the ultimate goal of probing matter on its most elementary spatio-temporal level.

  17. Contact damage and fracture micromechanisms of multilayered TiN/CrN coatings at micro- and nano-length scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roa, J.J., E-mail: joan.josep.roa@upc.edu [CIEFMA — Departament de Ciència dels Materials i Eng. Metallúrgica, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Avda. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); CRnE, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, C. Pasqual i Vila 15, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Jiménez-Piqué, E. [CIEFMA — Departament de Ciència dels Materials i Eng. Metallúrgica, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Avda. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); CRnE, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, C. Pasqual i Vila 15, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Martínez, R. [Centro de Ingeniería Avanzada de Superfícies, Asociación de la Industria Navarra — AIN, Crta. Pamplona, 1, Edificio AIN, 31191 Cordovilla (Spain); Ramírez, G. [CIEFMA — Departament de Ciència dels Materials i Eng. Metallúrgica, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Avda. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Fundació CTM Centre Tecnològic, Avda. Bases de Manresa 1, 08243 Manresa (Spain); Tarragó, J.M. [CIEFMA — Departament de Ciència dels Materials i Eng. Metallúrgica, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Avda. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); CRnE, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, C. Pasqual i Vila 15, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); and others

    2014-11-28

    In this study, systematic nanomechanical and micromechanical studies have been conducted in three multilayer TiN/CrN systems with different bilayer periods (8, 19 and 25 nm). Additionally, experimental work has been performed on corresponding TiN and CrN single layers, for comparison purposes. The investigation includes the use of different indenter tip geometries as well as contact loading conditions (i.e. indentation/scratch) such to induce different stress field and damage scenarios within the films. The surface and subsurface damage under the different indentation imprints and scratch tracks have been observed by atomic force microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy and focused ion beam. Multilayer TiN/CrN coated systems are found to exhibit higher adhesion strength (under sliding contact load) and cracking resistance (under spherical indentation) than those coated with reference TiN and CrN monolayers. The main reason behind these findings is the effective development of microstructurally-driven deformation and cracking resistant micromechanisms: rotation of columnar grains (and associated distortion of bilayer period) and crack deflection of interlayer thickness length scale, respectively. - Highlights: • Nanomechanical and micromechanical study in TiN/CrN systems • TiN/CrN coated systems exhibit higher adhesion strength and cracking resistance. • Main deformation and cracking micromechanisms: columnar grain rotation and crack deflection.

  18. Detection of different-time-scale signals in the length of day variation based on EEMD analysis technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenbin Shen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Scientists pay great attention to different-time-scale signals in the length of day (LOD variations ΔLOD, which provide signatures of the Earth's interior structure, couplings among different layers, and potential excitations of ocean and atmosphere. In this study, based on the ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD, we analyzed the latest time series of ΔLOD data spanning from January 1962 to March 2015. We observed the signals with periods and amplitudes of about 0.5 month and 0.19 ms, 1.0 month and 0.19 ms, 0.5 yr and 0.22 ms, 1.0 yr and 0.18 ms, 2.28 yr and 0.03 ms, 5.48 yr and 0.05 ms, respectively, in coincidence with the results of predecessors. In addition, some signals that were previously not definitely observed by predecessors were detected in this study, with periods and amplitudes of 9.13 d and 0.12 ms, 13.69 yr and 0.10 ms, respectively. The mechanisms of the LOD fluctuations of these two signals are still open.

  19. Quantifying Interfacial pH Variation at Molecular Length Scales Using a Concurrent Non-Faradaic Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Jaeyune; Wuttig, Anna; Surendranath, Yogesh

    2018-05-15

    We quantify changes in the interfacial pH local to the electrochemical double layer during electrocatalysis, using a concurrent non-faradaic probe reaction. In the absence of electrocatalysis, nanostructured Pt/C surfaces mediate the reaction of H2 with cis-2-butene-1,4-diol to form a mixture of 1,4-butanediol and n-butanol with a selectivity that is linearly dependent on the bulk solution pH. We show that kinetic branching occurs from a common surface-bound intermediate, ensuring that this probe reaction is uniquely sensitive to the interfacial pH within molecular length scales of the surface. We use the pH-dependent selectivity of this reaction to track changes in interfacial pH during concurrent hydrogen oxidation electrocatalysis and find that the local pH can vary dramatically, > 3 units, relative to the bulk value even at modest current densities in well-buffered electrolytes. This work highlights the key role that interfacial pH variation plays in modulating inner-sphere electrocatalysis. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Scanning transmission x-ray microscopy of polymer nanoparticles: probing morphology on sub-10 nm length scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Kerry B; Stapleton, Andrew J; Vaughan, Ben; Zhou, Xiaojing; Kilcoyne, A L David; Belcher, Warwick J; Dastoor, Paul C

    2011-07-01

    Water-processable nanoparticle dispersions of semiconducting polymers offer an attractive approach to the fabrication of organic electronic devices since they offer: (1) control of nanoscale morphology and (2) environmentally friendly fabrication. Although the nature of phase segregation in these polymer nanoparticles is critical to device performance, to date there have been no techniques available to directly determine their intra-particle structure, which consequently has been poorly understood. Here, we present scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM) compositional maps for nanoparticles fabricated from poly(9,9-dioctyl-fluorene-2,7-diyl-co-bis-N, N'-(4-butylphenyl)-bis-N, N'-phenyl-1,4-phenylenedi-amine) (PFB) and poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene-2,7-diyl-co-benzothiadiazole) (F8BT) 1:1 blend mixtures. The images show distinct phase segregation within the nanoparticles. The compositional data reveals that, within these nanoparticles, PFB and F8BT segregate into a core-shell morphology, with an F8BT-rich core and a PFB-rich shell. Structural modelling demonstrates that the STXM technique is capable of quantifying morphological features on a sub-10 nm length scale; below the spot size of the incident focused x-ray beam. These results have important implications for the development of water-based 'solar paints' fabricated from microemulsions of semiconducting polymers.

  1. Scanning transmission x-ray microscopy of polymer nanoparticles: probing morphology on sub-10 nm length scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Kerry B.; Stapleton, Andrew J.; Vaughan, Ben; Zhou, Xiaojing; Kilcoyne, A. L. David; Belcher, Warwick J.; Dastoor, Paul C.

    2011-07-01

    Water-processable nanoparticle dispersions of semiconducting polymers offer an attractive approach to the fabrication of organic electronic devices since they offer: (1) control of nanoscale morphology and (2) environmentally friendly fabrication. Although the nature of phase segregation in these polymer nanoparticles is critical to device performance, to date there have been no techniques available to directly determine their intra-particle structure, which consequently has been poorly understood. Here, we present scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM) compositional maps for nanoparticles fabricated from poly(9,9-dioctyl-fluorene-2,7-diyl-co-bis-N, N'-(4-butylphenyl)-bis-N, N'-phenyl-1,4-phenylenedi-amine) (PFB) and poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene-2,7-diyl-co-benzothiadiazole) (F8BT) 1:1 blend mixtures. The images show distinct phase segregation within the nanoparticles. The compositional data reveals that, within these nanoparticles, PFB and F8BT segregate into a core-shell morphology, with an F8BT-rich core and a PFB-rich shell. Structural modelling demonstrates that the STXM technique is capable of quantifying morphological features on a sub-10 nm length scale; below the spot size of the incident focused x-ray beam. These results have important implications for the development of water-based 'solar paints' fabricated from microemulsions of semiconducting polymers.

  2. Scanning transmission x-ray microscopy of polymer nanoparticles: probing morphology on sub-10 nm length scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burke, Kerry B; Stapleton, Andrew J; Vaughan, Ben; Zhou Xiaojing; Belcher, Warwick J; Dastoor, Paul C; Kilcoyne, A L David

    2011-01-01

    Water-processable nanoparticle dispersions of semiconducting polymers offer an attractive approach to the fabrication of organic electronic devices since they offer: (1) control of nanoscale morphology and (2) environmentally friendly fabrication. Although the nature of phase segregation in these polymer nanoparticles is critical to device performance, to date there have been no techniques available to directly determine their intra-particle structure, which consequently has been poorly understood. Here, we present scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM) compositional maps for nanoparticles fabricated from poly(9,9-dioctyl-fluorene-2,7-diyl-co-bis-N, N ' -(4-butylphenyl)-bis-N, N ' -phenyl-1,4-phenylenedi-amine) (PFB) and poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene-2,7-diyl-co-benzothiadiazole) (F8BT) 1:1 blend mixtures. The images show distinct phase segregation within the nanoparticles. The compositional data reveals that, within these nanoparticles, PFB and F8BT segregate into a core-shell morphology, with an F8BT-rich core and a PFB-rich shell. Structural modelling demonstrates that the STXM technique is capable of quantifying morphological features on a sub-10 nm length scale; below the spot size of the incident focused x-ray beam. These results have important implications for the development of water-based 'solar paints' fabricated from microemulsions of semiconducting polymers.

  3. Scanning transmission x-ray microscopy of polymer nanoparticles: probing morphology on sub-10 nm length scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, Kerry B; Stapleton, Andrew J; Vaughan, Ben; Zhou Xiaojing; Belcher, Warwick J; Dastoor, Paul C [Centre for Organic Electronics, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); Kilcoyne, A L David, E-mail: Paul.Dastoor@newcastle.edu.au [Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Water-processable nanoparticle dispersions of semiconducting polymers offer an attractive approach to the fabrication of organic electronic devices since they offer: (1) control of nanoscale morphology and (2) environmentally friendly fabrication. Although the nature of phase segregation in these polymer nanoparticles is critical to device performance, to date there have been no techniques available to directly determine their intra-particle structure, which consequently has been poorly understood. Here, we present scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM) compositional maps for nanoparticles fabricated from poly(9,9-dioctyl-fluorene-2,7-diyl-co-bis-N, N{sup '}-(4-butylphenyl)-bis-N, N{sup '}-phenyl-1,4-phenylenedi-amine) (PFB) and poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene-2,7-diyl-co-benzothiadiazole) (F8BT) 1:1 blend mixtures. The images show distinct phase segregation within the nanoparticles. The compositional data reveals that, within these nanoparticles, PFB and F8BT segregate into a core-shell morphology, with an F8BT-rich core and a PFB-rich shell. Structural modelling demonstrates that the STXM technique is capable of quantifying morphological features on a sub-10 nm length scale; below the spot size of the incident focused x-ray beam. These results have important implications for the development of water-based 'solar paints' fabricated from microemulsions of semiconducting polymers.

  4. Diffusion effects on volume-selective NMR at small length scales; Diffusionseffekte in volumenselektiver NMR auf kleinen Laengenskalen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaedke, Achim

    2009-01-21

    In this thesis, the interplay between diffusion and relaxation effects in spatially selective NMR experiments at short length scales is explored. This is especially relevant in the context of both conventional and mechanically detected MRI at (sub)micron resolution in biological specimens. Recent results on selectively excited very thin slices showed an in-slice-magnetization recovery orders of magnitude faster than the longitudinal relaxation time T1. However, those experiments were run on fully relaxed samples while MRI and especially mechanically detected NMR experiments are typically run in a periodic fashion with repetition times far below T1. The main purpose of this work therefore was to extend the study of the interplay between diffusion and longitudinal relaxation to periodic excitations. In some way, this is inverse phenomenon to the DESIRE (Diffusive Enhancement of SIgnal and REsolution) approach, proposed 1992 by Lauterbur. Experiments on periodically excited thin slices were carried out at a dedicated static field gradient cryomagnet with magnetic field gradients up to 180 T/m. In order to obtain plane slices, an appropriate isosurface of the gradient magnet had to be identified. It was found at a field of 3.8 T with a gradient of 73 T/m. In this field, slices down to a thickness of 3.2 {mu}m could be excited. The detection of the NMR signal was done using FIDs instead of echoes as the excitation bandwidth of those thin slices is sufficiently small to observe FIDs which are usually considered to be elusive to detection in such strong static field gradients. A simulation toolbox based on the full Bloch-Torrey-equation was developed to describe the excitation and the formation of NMR signals under those unusual conditions as well as the interplay of diffusion and magnetization recovery. Both the experiments and the simulations indicate that diffusion effects lead to a strongly enhanced magnetization modulation signal also under periodic excitation

  5. Optimization of Kα bursts for photon energies between 1.7 and 7 keV produced by femtosecond-laser-produced plasmas of different scale length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziener, Ch.; Uschmann, I.; Stobrawa, G.; Reich, Ch.; Gibbon, P.; Feurer, T.; Morak, A.; Duesterer, S.; Schwoerer, H.; Foerster, E.; Sauerbrey, R.

    2002-01-01

    The conversion efficiency of a 90 fs high-power laser pulse focused onto a solid target into x-ray Kα line emission was measured. By using three different elements as target material (Si, Ti, and Co), interesting candidates for fast x-ray diffraction applications were selected. The Kα output was measured with toroidally bent crystal monochromators combined with a GaAsP Schottky diode. Optimization was performed for different laser intensities as well as for different density scale lengths of a preformed plasma. These different scale lengths were realized by prepulses of different intensities and delay times with respect to the main pulse. Whereas the Kα yield varied by a factor of 1.8 for different laser intensities, the variation of the density scale length could provide a gain factor up to 4.6 for the Kα output

  6. Macroscopic effects of the quantum trace anomaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mottola, Emil; Vaulin, Ruslan

    2006-01-01

    The low energy effective action of gravity in any even dimension generally acquires nonlocal terms associated with the trace anomaly, generated by the quantum fluctuations of massless fields. The local auxiliary field description of this effective action in four dimensions requires two additional scalar fields, not contained in classical general relativity, which remain relevant at macroscopic distance scales. The auxiliary scalar fields depend upon boundary conditions for their complete specification, and therefore carry global information about the geometry and macroscopic quantum state of the gravitational field. The scalar potentials also provide coordinate invariant order parameters describing the conformal behavior and divergences of the stress tensor on event horizons. We compute the stress tensor due to the anomaly in terms of its auxiliary scalar potentials in a number of concrete examples, including the Rindler wedge, the Schwarzschild geometry, and de Sitter spacetime. In all of these cases, a small number of classical order parameters completely determine the divergent behaviors allowed on the horizon, and yield qualitatively correct global approximations to the renormalized expectation value of the quantum stress tensor

  7. Toward power scaling in an acetylene mid-infrared hollow-core optical fiber gas laser: effects of pressure, fiber length, and pump power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weerasinghe, H. W. Kushan; Dadashzadeh, Neda; Thirugnanasambandam, Manasadevi P.; Debord, Benoît.; Chafer, Matthieu; Gérôme, Frédéric; Benabid, Fetah; Corwin, Kristan L.; Washburn, Brian R.

    2018-02-01

    The effect of gas pressure, fiber length, and optical pump power on an acetylene mid-infrared hollow-core optical fiber gas laser (HOFGLAS) is experimentally determined in order to scale the laser to higher powers. The absorbed optical power and threshold power are measured for different pressures providing an optimum pressure for a given fiber length. We observe a linear dependence of both absorbed pump energy and lasing threshold for the acetylene HOFGLAS, while maintaining a good mode quality with an M-squared of 1.15. The threshold and mode behavior are encouraging for scaling to higher pressures and pump powers.

  8. From Interfaces to Bulk: Experimental-Computational Studies Across Time and Length Scales of Multi-Functional Ionic Polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perahia, Dvora [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Grest, Gary S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-01-25

    Neutron experiments coupled with computational components have resulted in unprecedented understanding of the factors that impact the behavior of ionic structured polymers. Additionally, new computational tools to study macromolecules, were developed. In parallel, this DOE funding have enabled the education of the next generation of material researchers who are able to take the advantage neutron tools offer to the understanding and design of advanced materials. Our research has provided unprecedented insight into one of the major factors that limits the use of ionizable polymers, combining the macroscopic view obtained from the experimental techniques with molecular insight extracted from computational studies leading to transformative knowledge that will impact the design of nano-structured, materials. With the focus on model systems, of broad interest to the scientific community and to industry, the research addressed challenges that cut across a large number of polymers, independent of the specific chemical structure or the transported species.

  9. Plasmonic direct writing lithography with a macroscopical contact probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuerong; Liu, Ling; Wang, Changtao; Chen, Weidong; Liu, Yunyue; Li, Ling

    2018-05-01

    In this work, we design a plasmonic direct writing lithography system with a macroscopical contact probe to achieve nanometer scale spots. The probe with bowtie-shaped aperture array adopts spring hinge and beam deflection method (BDM) to realize near-field lithography. Lithography results show that a macroscopical plasmonic contact probe can achieve a patterning resolution of around 75 nm at 365 nm wavelength, and demonstrate that the lithography system is promising for practical applications due to beyond the diffraction limit, low cost, and simplification of system configuration. CST calculations provide a guide for the design of recording structure and the arrangement of placing polarizer.

  10. The Scales of Time, Length, Mass, Energy, and Other Fundamental Physical Quantities in the Atomic World and the Use of Atomic Units in Quantum Mechanical Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Boon K.; Li, Wai-Kee

    2011-01-01

    This article is divided into two parts. In the first part, the atomic unit (au) system is introduced and the scales of time, space (length), and speed, as well as those of mass and energy, in the atomic world are discussed. In the second part, the utility of atomic units in quantum mechanical and spectroscopic calculations is illustrated with…

  11. New Approaches in the Engineering and Characterization of Macromolecular Interfaces Across the Length Scales: Applications to Hydrophobic and Stimulus Responsive Polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Song, Jing

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present Thesis is to enhance characterization and surface engineering approaches to test and control physico-chemical changes on modified hydrophobic (LDPE and PDMS) and stimulus-responsive (PFS) polymers across different length scales. [Here LDPE denotes low density polyethylene,

  12. Hydration of swelling clays: multi-scale sequence of hydration and determination of macroscopic energies from microscopic properties; Hydratation des argiles gonflantes: sequence d'hydratation multi-echelle determination des energies macroscopiques a partir des proprietes microscopiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salles, F

    2006-10-15

    Smectites have interesting properties which make them potential candidates for engineered barriers in deep geological nuclear waste repository: low permeability, swelling and cations retention. The subject of this thesis consists in the determination of the relationship between hydration properties, swelling properties and cations mobility in relation with confinement properties of clayey materials. The aim is to understand and to predict the behaviour of water in smectites, following two research orientations: the mechanistic aspects and the energetic aspects of the hydration of smectites. We worked on the Na-Ca montmorillonite contained in the MX80 bentonite, with the exchanged homo ionic structure (saturated with alkaline cations and calcium cations). The approach crosses the various scales (microscopic, mesoscopic and macroscopic) and implied the study of the various components of the system (layer-cation-water), by using original experimental methods (thermo-poro-metry and electric conductivity for various relative humidities (RH) and electrostatic calculations. Initially, the dry state is defined by SCTA (scanning calorimetry thermal analysis). Then a classical characterization of the smectite porosity for the dry state is carried out using mercury intrusion and nitrogen adsorption. We evidenced the existence of a meso-porosity which radius varies from 2 to 10 nm depending on the compensating cation. The thermo-poro-metry and conductivity experiments performed at various hydration states made it possible to follow the increase in the pore sizes and the cations mobility as a function of the hydration state. We highlight in particular the existence of an osmotic mesoscopic swelling for low RH (approximately 50-60%RH for Li and Na). By combining the results of thermo-poro-metry, X-ray diffraction and electric conductivity, we are able to propose a complete hydration sequence for each cation, showing the crucial role of the compensating cation in the hydration of

  13. Gecko toe and lamellar shear adhesion on macroscopic, engineered rough surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, Andrew G; Henry, Amy; Lin, Hauwen; Ren, Angela; Shiuan, Kevin; Fearing, Ronald S; Full, Robert J

    2014-01-15

    The role in adhesion of the toes and lamellae - intermediate-sized structures - found on the gecko foot remains unclear. Insight into the function of these structures can lead to a more general understanding of the hierarchical nature of the gecko adhesive system, but in particular how environmental topology may relate to gecko foot morphology. We sought to discern the mechanics of the toes and lamellae by examining gecko adhesion on controlled, macroscopically rough surfaces. We used live Tokay geckos, Gekko gecko, to observe the maximum shear force a gecko foot can attain on an engineered substrate constructed with sinusoidal patterns of varying amplitudes and wavelengths in sizes similar to the dimensions of the toes and lamellae structures (0.5 to 6 mm). We found shear adhesion was significantly decreased on surfaces that had amplitudes and wavelengths approaching the lamella length and inter-lamella spacing, losing 95% of shear adhesion over the range tested. We discovered that the toes are capable of adhering to surfaces with amplitudes much larger than their dimensions even without engaging claws, maintaining 60% of shear adhesion on surfaces with amplitudes of 3 mm. Gecko adhesion can be predicted by the ratio of the lamella dimensions to surface feature dimensions. In addition to setae, remarkable macroscopic-scale features of gecko toes and lamellae that include compliance and passive conformation are necessary to maintain contact, and consequently, generate shear adhesion on macroscopically rough surfaces. Findings on the larger scale structures in the hierarchy of gecko foot function could provide the biological inspiration to drive the design of more effective and versatile synthetic fibrillar adhesives.

  14. Microscopic and macroscopic models for the onset and progression of Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertsch, Michiel; Franchi, Bruno; Tesi, Maria Carla; Tosin, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    In the first part of this paper we review a mathematical model for the onset and progression of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) that was developed in subsequent steps over several years. The model is meant to describe the evolution of AD in vivo . In Achdou et al (2013 J. Math. Biol . 67 1369–92) we treated the problem at a microscopic scale, where the typical length scale is a multiple of the size of the soma of a single neuron. Subsequently, in Bertsch et al (2017 Math. Med. Biol . 34 193–214) we concentrated on the macroscopic scale, where brain neurons are regarded as a continuous medium, structured by their degree of malfunctioning. In the second part of the paper we consider the relation between the microscopic and the macroscopic models. In particular we show under which assumptions the kinetic transport equation, which in the macroscopic model governs the evolution of the probability measure for the degree of malfunctioning of neurons, can be derived from a particle-based setting. The models are based on aggregation and diffusion equations for β -Amyloid (A β from now on), a protein fragment that healthy brains regularly produce and eliminate. In case of dementia A β monomers are no longer properly washed out and begin to coalesce forming eventually plaques. Two different mechanisms are assumed to be relevant for the temporal evolution of the disease: (i) diffusion and agglomeration of soluble polymers of amyloid, produced by damaged neurons; (ii) neuron-to-neuron prion-like transmission. In the microscopic model we consider mechanism (i), modelling it by a system of Smoluchowski equations for the amyloid concentration (describing the agglomeration phenomenon), with the addition of a diffusion term as well as of a source term on the neuronal membrane. At the macroscopic level instead we model processes (i) and (ii) by a system of Smoluchowski equations for the amyloid concentration, coupled to a kinetic-type transport equation for the distribution

  15. Microscopic and macroscopic models for the onset and progression of Alzheimer's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertsch, Michiel; Franchi, Bruno; Carla Tesi, Maria; Tosin, Andrea

    2017-10-01

    In the first part of this paper we review a mathematical model for the onset and progression of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) that was developed in subsequent steps over several years. The model is meant to describe the evolution of AD in vivo. In Achdou et al (2013 J. Math. Biol. 67 1369-92) we treated the problem at a microscopic scale, where the typical length scale is a multiple of the size of the soma of a single neuron. Subsequently, in Bertsch et al (2017 Math. Med. Biol. 34 193-214) we concentrated on the macroscopic scale, where brain neurons are regarded as a continuous medium, structured by their degree of malfunctioning. In the second part of the paper we consider the relation between the microscopic and the macroscopic models. In particular we show under which assumptions the kinetic transport equation, which in the macroscopic model governs the evolution of the probability measure for the degree of malfunctioning of neurons, can be derived from a particle-based setting. The models are based on aggregation and diffusion equations for β-Amyloid (Aβ from now on), a protein fragment that healthy brains regularly produce and eliminate. In case of dementia Aβ monomers are no longer properly washed out and begin to coalesce forming eventually plaques. Two different mechanisms are assumed to be relevant for the temporal evolution of the disease: (i) diffusion and agglomeration of soluble polymers of amyloid, produced by damaged neurons; (ii) neuron-to-neuron prion-like transmission. In the microscopic model we consider mechanism (i), modelling it by a system of Smoluchowski equations for the amyloid concentration (describing the agglomeration phenomenon), with the addition of a diffusion term as well as of a source term on the neuronal membrane. At the macroscopic level instead we model processes (i) and (ii) by a system of Smoluchowski equations for the amyloid concentration, coupled to a kinetic-type transport equation for the distribution function of the

  16. Development of Lab-to-Fab Production Equipment Across Several Length Scales for Printed Energy Technologies, Including Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hösel, Markus; Dam, Henrik Friis; Krebs, Frederik C

    2015-01-01

    We describe and review how the scaling of printed energy technologies not only requires scaling of the input materials but also the machinery used in the processes. The general consensus that ultrafast processing of technologies with large energy capacity can only be realized using roll-to-roll m...

  17. Characterisation of heat transfer and flame length in a semi-scale industrial furnace equipped with HiTAC burner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, L.; Nehme, W.; Biswas, A.K.; Yang, W.; Blasiak, W.; Bertin, D. [Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2010-09-15

    This paper investigates the effects of multiple burner nozzles on the combustion characteristics, such as flame volume, heat transfer and NOx emission in a high temperature air combustion (HiTAC) industrial furnace. Experiments were carried out in one semi-industrial furnace located in Kungliga Tekniska Hogskolan (Stockholm, Sweden). Three different types of burners were tested, including both regenerative and recuperative types. Variable flame temperature and oxygen concentration were applied in experiments. Heat transfer characteristics of HiTAC are studied in this paper, and the influences of a variety of inertial fuel/air jets are investigated for both flame length and NOx emission. One improved correlation between chemical flame length and flame Froude number is established for HiTAC with manifold nozzles. NOx emission is also correlated to the flame Froude number. The HiTAC recirculation system effects on flame shape, NOx emission and heat transfer were also examined.

  18. Multi-scale modeling strategies in materials science

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The problem of prediction of finite temperature properties of materials poses great computational challenges. The computational treatment of the multitude of length and time scales involved in determining macroscopic properties has been attempted by several workers with varying degrees of success. This paper will review ...

  19. Short Is Beautiful: Dimensionality and Measurement Invariance in Two Length of the Basic Psychological Need Satisfaction at Work Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mårten Eriksson

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Self-determination theory proposes that all humans have three intrinsic psychological needs: the needs for Autonomy, Competence, and Relatedness. These needs take different forms in different areas of life. The present study examines the psychometric properties of a Swedish version of the Basic Psychological Need Satisfaction at Work (BPNS-W scale. The fit of 10-factor structures previously suggested for related versions of the scale were compared. Cross-sectional data from 1,200 participants were examined in a confirmatory factor analysis framework. Both the original 21-item version and a reduced 12-item version of the BPNS-W were examined. The General Health Questionnaire was used for validation. The results supported a three-factor solution with correlated error variances for the reversed items. Invariance testing of the long and short scales gave best support to the short scale, for which partial scalar invariance was achieved. The external validity of the short scale was supported by a hierarchical regression analysis in which each need made a unique contribution in predicting psychological well-being. In conclusion, the results corroborate a three-factor structure of BPNS-W. Although not perfect the short scale should, it is argued, be preferred over the long version. Directions for the future development of the scale are discussed.

  20. Induction of novel macroscopic properties by local symmetry violations in spin-spiral multiferroics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, D.; Leo, N.; Becker, P.; Bohaty, L.; Ramesh, R.; Fiebig, M.

    2011-03-01

    Incommensurate (IC) structures are omnipresent in strongly correlated electron systems as high-TC superconductors, CMR manganites, as well as multiferroics. In each case they are origin of a pronounced symmetry reduction reflecting the complexity of the underlying microscopic interactions. Macroscopically, this can lead to new phases and possibilities to gain control of the host material. Here we report how the IC nature of a spin-spiral multiferroic induces new physical properties by renormalizing the relevant length scales of the system. Local symmetry violations directly manifest in the macroscopic response of the material and co-determine the multiferroic order giving rise to additional domain states. These usually hidden degrees of freedom become visible when non-homogenous fields are applied and condition for instance the second harmonic generation. Our study shows that incommensurabilities play a vital role in the discussion of the physical properties of multiferroics -- they represent a key ingredient for further enhancing the functionality of this class of materials. This work was supported by the DFG through the SFB 608. D.M. thanks the AvH for financial support.

  1. Microstructure and temperature dependence of intergranular strains on diffractometric macroscopic residual stress analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, J.N., E-mail: Julia.Wagner@kit.edu [KNMF, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Hofmann, M. [Forschungs-Neutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz (FRM II), TU München, Lichtenbergstr. 1, 85747 Garching (Germany); Wimpory, R. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie, D-14109 Berlin Wannsee (Germany); Krempaszky, C. [Christian-Doppler-Labor für Werkstoffmechanik von Hochleistungslegierungen, TU München, Boltzmannstr. 15, 85747 Garching (Germany); Lehrstuhl für Werkstoffkunde und Werkstoffmechanik, TU München, Boltzmannstr. 15, 85747 Garching (Germany); Stockinger, M. [Böhler Schmiedetechnik GmbH and Co KG, Mariazeller Straße 25, 8605 Kapfenberg (Austria)

    2014-11-17

    Knowledge of the macroscopic residual stresses in components of complex high performance alloys is crucial when it comes to considering the safety and manufacturing aspects of components. Diffraction experiments are one of the key methods for studying residual stresses. However a component of the residual strain determined by diffraction experiments, known as microstrain or intergranular residual strain, occurs over the length scale of the grains and thus plays only a minor role for the life time of such components. For the reliable determination of macroscopic strains (with the minimum influence of these intergranular residual strains), the ISO standard recommends the use of particular Bragg reflections. Here we compare the build-up of intergranular strain of two different precipitation hardened IN 718 (INCONEL 718) samples, with identical chemical composition. Since intergranular strains are also affected by temperature, results from room temperature measurement are compared to results at T=550 °C. It turned out that microstructural parameters, such as grain size or type of precipitates, have a larger effect on the intergranular strain evolution than the influence of temperature at the measurement temperature of T=550 °C. The results also show that the choice of Bragg reflections for the diffractometric residual stress analysis is dependent not only on its chemical composition, but also on the microstructure of the sample. In addition diffraction elastic constants (DECs) for all measured Bragg reflections are given.

  2. Scaling Effects on Materials Tribology: From Macro to Micro Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoyanov, Pantcho; Chromik, Richard R

    2017-05-18

    The tribological study of materials inherently involves the interaction of surface asperities at the micro to nanoscopic length scales. This is the case for large scale engineering applications with sliding contacts, where the real area of contact is made up of small contacting asperities that make up only a fraction of the apparent area of contact. This is why researchers have sought to create idealized experiments of single asperity contacts in the field of nanotribology. At the same time, small scale engineering structures known as micro- and nano-electromechanical systems (MEMS and NEMS) have been developed, where the apparent area of contact approaches the length scale of the asperities, meaning the real area of contact for these devices may be only a few asperities. This is essentially the field of microtribology, where the contact size and/or forces involved have pushed the nature of the interaction between two surfaces towards the regime where the scale of the interaction approaches that of the natural length scale of the features on the surface. This paper provides a review of microtribology with the purpose to understand how tribological processes are different at the smaller length scales compared to macrotribology. Studies of the interfacial phenomena at the macroscopic length scales (e.g., using in situ tribometry) will be discussed and correlated with new findings and methodologies at the micro-length scale.

  3. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of macroscopic morphology and dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrall, G.A.; Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA

    1995-09-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance techniques are traditionally used to study molecular level structure and dynamics with a noted exception in medically applied NMR imaging (MRI). In this work, new experimental methods and theory are presented relevant to the study of macroscopic morphology and dynamics using NMR field gradient techniques and solid state two-dimensional exchange NMR. The goal in this work is not to take some particular system and study it in great detail, rather it is to show the utility of a number of new and novel techniques using ideal systems primarily as a proof of principle. By taking advantage of the analogy between NMR imaging and diffraction, one may simplify the experiments necessary for characterizing the statistical properties of the sample morphology. For a sample composed of many small features, e.g. a porous medium, the NMR diffraction techniques take advantage of both the narrow spatial range and spatial isotropy of the sample's density autocorrelation function to obtain high resolution structural information in considerably less time than that required by conventional NMR imaging approaches. The time savings of the technique indicates that NMR diffraction is capable of finer spatial resolution than conventional NMR imaging techniques. Radio frequency NMR imaging with a coaxial resonator represents the first use of cylindrically symmetric field gradients in imaging. The apparatus as built has achieved resolution at the micron level for water samples, and has the potential to be very useful in the imaging of circularly symmetric systems. The study of displacement probability densities in flow through a random porous medium has revealed the presence of features related to the interconnectedness of the void volumes. The pulsed gradient techniques used have proven successful at measuring flow properties for time and length scales considerably shorter than those studied by more conventional techniques

  4. Length-scale dependent microalloying effects on precipitation behaviors and mechanical properties of Al–Cu alloys with minor Sc addition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, L.; Li, J.K.; Liu, G.; Wang, R.H.; Chen, B.A.; Zhang, J.Y.; Sun, J.; Yang, M.X.; Yang, G.; Yang, J.; Cao, X.Z.

    2015-01-01

    Heat-treatable Al alloys containing Al–2.5 wt% Cu (Al–Cu) and Al–2.5 wt% Cu–0.3 wt% Sc (Al–Cu–Sc) with different grain length scales, i.e., average grain size >10 μm ( defined coarse grained, CG), 1–2 μm (fine grained, FG), and <1 μm (ultrafine grained, UFG), were prepared by equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP). The length scale and Sc microalloying effects and their interplay on the precipitation behavior and mechanical properties of the Al–Cu alloys were systematically investigated. In the Al–Cu alloys, intergranular θ-Al 2 Cu precipitation gradually dominated by sacrificing the intragranular θ′-Al 2 Cu precipitation with reducing the length scale. Especially in the UFG regime, only intergranular θ-Al 2 Cu particles were precipitated and intragranular θ′-Al 2 Cu precipitation was completely disappeared. This led to a remarkable reduction in yield strength and ductility due to insufficient dislocation storage capacity. The minor Sc addition resulted in a microalloying effect in the Al–Cu alloy, which, however, is strongly dependent on the length scale. The smaller is the grain size, the more active is the microalloying effect that promotes the intragranular precipitation while reduces the intergranular precipitation. Correspondingly, compared with their Sc-free counterparts, the yield strength of post-aged CG, FG, and UFG Al–Cu alloys with Sc addition increased by ~36 MPa, ~56 MPa, and ~150 MPa, simultaneously in tensile elongation by ~20%, ~30%, and 280%, respectively. The grain size-induced evolutions in vacancy concentration/distribution and number density of vacancy-solute/solute–solute clusters and their influences on precipitation nucleation and kinetics have been comprehensively considered to rationalize the length scale-dependent Sc microalloying mechanisms using positron annihilation lifetime spectrum and three dimension atom probe. The increase in ductility was analyzed in the light of Sc microalloying effect and the

  5. Length-scale dependent microalloying effects on precipitation behaviors and mechanical properties of Al–Cu alloys with minor Sc addition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, L.; Li, J.K. [State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Liu, G., E-mail: lgsammer@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Wang, R.H. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Xi' an University of Technology, Xi' an 710048 (China); Chen, B.A.; Zhang, J.Y. [State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Sun, J., E-mail: junsun@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Yang, M.X.; Yang, G. [Central Iron and Steel Research Institute, Beijing 100081 (China); Yang, J.; Cao, X.Z. [Key Laboratory of Nuclear Radiation and Nuclear Energy Technology, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2015-06-18

    Heat-treatable Al alloys containing Al–2.5 wt% Cu (Al–Cu) and Al–2.5 wt% Cu–0.3 wt% Sc (Al–Cu–Sc) with different grain length scales, i.e., average grain size >10 μm ( defined coarse grained, CG), 1–2 μm (fine grained, FG), and <1 μm (ultrafine grained, UFG), were prepared by equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP). The length scale and Sc microalloying effects and their interplay on the precipitation behavior and mechanical properties of the Al–Cu alloys were systematically investigated. In the Al–Cu alloys, intergranular θ-Al{sub 2}Cu precipitation gradually dominated by sacrificing the intragranular θ′-Al{sub 2}Cu precipitation with reducing the length scale. Especially in the UFG regime, only intergranular θ-Al{sub 2}Cu particles were precipitated and intragranular θ′-Al{sub 2}Cu precipitation was completely disappeared. This led to a remarkable reduction in yield strength and ductility due to insufficient dislocation storage capacity. The minor Sc addition resulted in a microalloying effect in the Al–Cu alloy, which, however, is strongly dependent on the length scale. The smaller is the grain size, the more active is the microalloying effect that promotes the intragranular precipitation while reduces the intergranular precipitation. Correspondingly, compared with their Sc-free counterparts, the yield strength of post-aged CG, FG, and UFG Al–Cu alloys with Sc addition increased by ~36 MPa, ~56 MPa, and ~150 MPa, simultaneously in tensile elongation by ~20%, ~30%, and 280%, respectively. The grain size-induced evolutions in vacancy concentration/distribution and number density of vacancy-solute/solute–solute clusters and their influences on precipitation nucleation and kinetics have been comprehensively considered to rationalize the length scale-dependent Sc microalloying mechanisms using positron annihilation lifetime spectrum and three dimension atom probe. The increase in ductility was analyzed in the light of Sc microalloying

  6. Pseudo-Goldstone bosons and new macroscopic forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, C.T.; Ross, G.G.

    1988-01-01

    Pseudoscalar Goldstone bosons may readily be associated with weakly, explicitly broken symmetries giving them mixed CP quantum numbers. In general this leads to scalar couplings to nucleons and leptons, which produces coherent long range forces. This can naturally accommodate detectable long range macroscopic forces mediated by bosons completely consistent with conventional cosmological limits, e.g., new interactions with the range of present 'fifth force' searches which probe a scale of new physics of f ≅ 10 14 GeV. (orig.)

  7. Criterion Noise in Ratings-Based Recognition: Evidence from the Effects of Response Scale Length on Recognition Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Aaron S.; Tullis, Jonathan G.; Lee, Ji Hae

    2013-01-01

    Rating scales are a standard measurement tool in psychological research. However, research has suggested that the cognitive burden involved in maintaining the criteria used to parcel subjective evidence into ratings introduces "decision noise" and affects estimates of performance in the underlying task. There has been debate over whether…

  8. Cloud Macroscopic Organization: Order Emerging from Randomness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Tianle

    2011-01-01

    Clouds play a central role in many aspects of the climate system and their forms and shapes are remarkably diverse. Appropriate representation of clouds in climate models is a major challenge because cloud processes span at least eight orders of magnitude in spatial scales. Here we show that there exists order in cloud size distribution of low-level clouds, and that it follows a power-law distribution with exponent gamma close to 2. gamma is insensitive to yearly variations in environmental conditions, but has regional variations and land-ocean contrasts. More importantly, we demonstrate this self-organizing behavior of clouds emerges naturally from a complex network model with simple, physical organizing principles: random clumping and merging. We also demonstrate symmetry between clear and cloudy skies in terms of macroscopic organization because of similar fundamental underlying organizing principles. The order in the apparently complex cloud-clear field thus has its root in random local interactions. Studying cloud organization with complex network models is an attractive new approach that has wide applications in climate science. We also propose a concept of cloud statistic mechanics approach. This approach is fully complementary to deterministic models, and the two approaches provide a powerful framework to meet the challenge of representing clouds in our climate models when working in tandem.

  9. Searching for the nanoscopic–macroscopic boundary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velásquez, E.A. [GICM and GES Groups, Instituto de Física-FCEN, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21 Medellín (Colombia); Grupo de Investigación en Modelamiento y Simulación Computacional, Universidad de San Buenaventura Sec. Medellín, A.A. 5222, Medellín (Colombia); Altbir, D. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Santiago de Chile (USACH), CEDENNA, Santiago (Chile); Mazo-Zuluaga, J. [GICM and GES Groups, Instituto de Física-FCEN, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21 Medellín (Colombia); Duque, L.F. [GICM and GES Groups, Instituto de Física-FCEN, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21 Medellín (Colombia); Grupo de Física Teórica, Aplicada y Didáctica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Aplicadas Instituto Tecnológico Metropolitano, Medellín (Colombia); Mejía-López, J., E-mail: jmejia@puc.cl [Facultad de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, CEDENNA, Santiago (Chile)

    2013-12-15

    Several studies have focused on the size-dependent properties of elements, looking for a unique definition of the nanoscopic–macroscopic boundary. By using a novel approach consisting of an energy variational method combined with a quantum Heisenberg model, here we address the size at which the ordering temperature of a magnetic nanoparticle reaches its bulk value. We consider samples with sizes in the range 1–500 nm, as well as several geometries and crystalline lattices and observe that, contrarily to what is commonly argued, the nanoscopic-microscopic boundary depends on both factors: shape and crystalline structure. This suggests that the surface-to-volume ratio is not the unique parameter that defines the behavior of a nanometric sample whenever its size increases reaching the bulk dimension. Comparisons reveal very good agreement with experimental evidence with differences less than 2%. Our results have broad implications for practical issues in measurements on systems at the nanometric scale. - Highlights: • A novel quantum-Heisenberg variational energy method is implemented. • The asymptotic behavior toward the thermodynamic limit is explored. • An important dependence of the nano-bulk boundary on the geometry is found. • And also an important dependence on the crystalline lattice. • We obtain a very good agreement with experimental evidence with differences <2%.

  10. The origins of macroscopic quantum coherence in high temperature superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, Philip; Nottale, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We propose a new theoretical approach to superconductivity in p-type cuprates. • Electron pairing mechanisms in the superconducting and pseudogap phases are proposed. • A scale free network of dopants is key to macroscopic quantum coherence. - Abstract: A new, theoretical approach to macroscopic quantum coherence and superconductivity in the p-type (hole doped) cuprates is proposed. The theory includes mechanisms to account for e-pair coupling in the superconducting and pseudogap phases and their inter relations observed in these materials. Electron pair coupling in the superconducting phase is facilitated by local quantum potentials created by static dopants in a mechanism which explains experimentally observed optimal doping levels and the associated peak in critical temperature. By contrast, evidence suggests that electrons contributing to the pseudogap are predominantly coupled by fractal spin waves (fractons) induced by the fractal arrangement of dopants. On another level, the theory offers new insights into the emergence of a macroscopic quantum potential generated by a fractal distribution of dopants. This, in turn, leads to the emergence of coherent, macroscopic spin waves and a second associated macroscopic quantum potential, possibly supported by charge order. These quantum potentials play two key roles. The first involves the transition of an expected diffusive process (normally associated with Anderson localization) in fractal networks, into e-pair coherence. The second involves the facilitation of tunnelling between localized e-pairs. These combined effects lead to the merger of the super conducting and pseudo gap phases into a single coherent condensate at optimal doping. The underlying theory relating to the diffusion to quantum transition is supported by Coherent Random Lasing, which can be explained using an analogous approach. As a final step, an experimental program is outlined to validate the theory and suggests a new

  11. Gate length scaling effect on high-electron mobility transistors devices using AlGaN/GaN and AlInN/AlN/GaN heterostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, S Y; Lu, C C; Chang, T; Huang, C F; Cheng, C H; Chang, L B

    2014-08-01

    Compared to AlGaN/GaN HEMT with 0.15 μm T-gate length, the AlInN/AlN/GaN one exhibits much higher current density and transconductance of 1558 mA/mm at Vd = 2 V and 330 mS/mm, respectively. The high extrinsic ft and fmax of 82 GHz and 70 GHz are extracted from AlInN/AlN/GaN HEMT. Besides, we find that the transconductance roll-off is significant in AlGaN/GaN, but largely improved in AlInN/AlN/GaN HEMT, suggesting that the high carrier density and lattice-matched epitaxial heterostructure is important to reach both large RF output power and high operation frequency, especially for an aggressively gate length scaling.

  12. Conductance fluctuations in a macroscopic 3-dimensional Anderson insulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanquer, M.

    1990-01-01

    We report magnetoconductance experiment on a amorphous Y x -Si 1-x alloy (∼0.3). which is an Anderson insulator where spin-orbit scattering is strong. Two principal and new features emerge from the data: the first one is an halving of the localization length by the application of a magnetic field of about 2.5 Teslas. This effect is predicted by a new approach of transport in Anderson insulators where basic symetry considerations are the most important ingredient. The second one is the observation of reproducible conductance fluctuations at very low temperature in this macroscopic 3 D amorphous material

  13. Macroscopic transport by synthetic molecular machines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berna, J; Leigh, DA; Lubomska, M; Mendoza, SM; Perez, EM; Rudolf, P; Teobaldi, G; Zerbetto, F

    Nature uses molecular motors and machines in virtually every significant biological process, but demonstrating that simpler artificial structures operating through the same gross mechanisms can be interfaced with - and perform physical tasks in - the macroscopic world represents a significant hurdle

  14. Macroscopic quantum waves in non local theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ventura, I.

    1979-01-01

    By means of an expansion in the density, it is shown that Macroscopic Quantum Waves also apear in non local theories. This result reinforces the conjecture that these waves should exist in liquid 4 He. (Author) [pt

  15. Macroscopic quantum waves in non local theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ventura, I.

    1979-01-01

    By means of an expansion in the density, it is shown that Macroscopic Quantum Waves also appear in non local theories. This result reinforces the conjecture that these waves should exist in liquid 4 He [pt

  16. Effects of laser wavelength and density scale length on absorption of ultrashort intense lasers on solid-density targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susumu, Kato; Eiichi, Takahashi; Tatsuya, Aota; Yuji, Matsumoto; Isao, Okuda; Yoshiro, Owadano [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    The interaction of intense laser pulses with overdense plasmas has attracted much interest for the fast igniter concept in inertial fusion energy. Hot electron temperatures and electron energy spectra in the course of interaction between intense laser pulse and overdense plasmas are reexamined from a viewpoint of the difference in laser wavelength. The hot electron temperature measured by a particle-in-cell simulation is scaled by I rather than I{lambda}{sup 2} at the interaction with overdense plasmas with fixed ions, where I and {lambda} are the laser intensity and wavelength, respectively. (authors)

  17. Search for Screened Interactions Associated with Dark Energy below the 100 μm Length Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rider, Alexander D; Moore, David C; Blakemore, Charles P; Louis, Maxime; Lu, Marie; Gratta, Giorgio

    2016-09-02

    We present the results of a search for unknown interactions that couple to mass between an optically levitated microsphere and a gold-coated silicon cantilever. The scale and geometry of the apparatus enable a search for new forces that appear at distances below 100  μm and which would have evaded previous searches due to screening mechanisms. The data are consistent with electrostatic backgrounds and place upper limits on the strength of new interactions at 5.6×10^{4} in the region of parameter space where the self-coupling Λ≳5  meV and the microspheres are not fully screened.

  18. Multi-length-scale Material Model for SiC/SiC Ceramic-Matrix Composites (CMCs): Inclusion of In-Service Environmental Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grujicic, M.; Galgalikar, R.; Snipes, J. S.; Ramaswami, S.

    2016-01-01

    In our recent work, a multi-length-scale room-temperature material model for SiC/SiC ceramic-matrix composites (CMCs) was derived and parameterized. The model was subsequently linked with a finite-element solver so that it could be used in a general room-temperature, structural/damage analysis of gas-turbine engine CMC components. Due to its multi-length-scale character, the material model enabled inclusion of the effects of fiber/tow (e.g., the volume fraction, size, and properties of the fibers; fiber-coating material/thickness; decohesion properties of the coating/matrix interfaces; etc.) and ply/lamina (e.g., the 0°/90° cross-ply versus plain-weave architectures, the extent of tow crimping in the case of the plain-weave plies, cohesive properties of the inter-ply boundaries, etc.) length-scale microstructural/architectural parameters on the mechanical response of the CMCs. One of the major limitations of the model is that it applies to the CMCs in their as-fabricated conditions (i.e., the effect of prolonged in-service environmental exposure and the associated material aging-degradation is not accounted for). In the present work, the model is upgraded to include such in-service environmental-exposure effects. To demonstrate the utility of the upgraded material model, it is used within a finite-element structural/failure analysis involving impact of a toboggan-shaped turbine shroud segment by a foreign object. The results obtained clearly revealed the effects that different aspects of the in-service environmental exposure have on the material degradation and the extent of damage suffered by the impacted CMC toboggan-shaped shroud segment.

  19. Assessments of macroscopicity for quantum optical states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laghaout, Amine; Neergaard-Nielsen, Jonas Schou; Andersen, Ulrik Lund

    2015-01-01

    With the slow but constant progress in the coherent control of quantum systems, it is now possible to create large quantum superpositions. There has therefore been an increased interest in quantifying any claims of macroscopicity. We attempt here to motivate three criteria which we believe should...... enter in the assessment of macroscopic quantumness: The number of quantum fluctuation photons, the purity of the states, and the ease with which the branches making up the state can be distinguished. © 2014....

  20. Nuclear fission as a macroscopic quantum tunneling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takigawa, N.

    1995-01-01

    We discuss nuclear fission from the point of view of a macroscopic quantum tunneling, one of whose major interests is to study the effects of environments on the tunneling rate of a macroscopic variable. We show that a vibrational excitation of the fissioning nucleus significantly enhances the fission rate. We show this effect by two different methods. The one is to treat the vibrational excitation as an environmental degree of freedom, the other treats the fission as a two dimensional quantum tunneling. (author)

  1. Intensity limits for propagation of 0.527 μm laser beams through large-scale-length plasmas for inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemann, C.; Divol, L.; Froula, D.H.; Gregori, G.; Jones, O.; Kirkwood, R.K.; MacKinnon, A.J.; Meezan, N.B.; Moody, J.D.; Sorce, C.; Suter, L.J.; Glenzer, S.H.; Bahr, R.; Seka, W.

    2005-01-01

    We have established the intensity limits for propagation of a frequency-doubled (2ω, 527 nm) high intensity interaction beam through an underdense large-scale-length plasma. We observe good beam transmission at laser intensities at or below 2x10 14 W/cm 2 and a strong reduction at intensities up to 10 15 W/cm 2 due to the onset of parametric scattering instabilities. We show that temporal beam smoothing by spectral dispersion allows a factor of 2 higher intensities while keeping the beam spray constant, which establishes frequency-doubled light as an option for ignition and burn in inertial confinement fusion experiments

  2. Insight into Evolution, Processing and Performance of Multi-length-scale Structures in Planar Heterojunction Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu-Ching; Tsao, Cheng-Si; Cho, Yi-Ju; Chen, Kuan-Chen; Chiang, Kai-Ming; Hsiao, Sheng-Yi; Chen, Chang-Wen; Su, Chun-Jen; Jeng, U-Ser; Lin, Hao-Wu

    2015-09-04

    The structural characterization correlated to the processing control of hierarchical structure of planar heterojunction perovskite layer is still incomplete due to the limitations of conventional microscopy and X-ray diffraction. This present study performed the simultaneously grazing-incidence small-angle scattering and wide-angle scattering (GISAXS/GIWAXS) techniques to quantitatively probe the hierarchical structure of the planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells. The result is complementary to the currently microscopic study. Correlation between the crystallization behavior, crystal orientation, nano- and meso-scale internal structure and surface morphology of perovskite film as functions of various processing control parameters is reported for the first time. The structural transition from the fractal pore network to the surface fractal can be tuned by the chloride percentage. The GISAXS/GIWAXS measurement provides the comprehensive understanding of concurrent evolution of the film morphology and crystallization correlated to the high performance. The result can provide the insight into formation mechanism and rational synthesis design.

  3. Insight into Evolution, Processing and Performance of Multi-length-scale Structures in Planar Heterojunction Perovskite Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu-Ching; Tsao, Cheng-Si; Cho, Yi-Ju; Chen, Kuan-Chen; Chiang, Kai-Ming; Hsiao, Sheng-Yi; Chen, Chang-Wen; Su, Chun-Jen; Jeng, U.-Ser; Lin, Hao-Wu

    2015-09-01

    The structural characterization correlated to the processing control of hierarchical structure of planar heterojunction perovskite layer is still incomplete due to the limitations of conventional microscopy and X-ray diffraction. This present study performed the simultaneously grazing-incidence small-angle scattering and wide-angle scattering (GISAXS/GIWAXS) techniques to quantitatively probe the hierarchical structure of the planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells. The result is complementary to the currently microscopic study. Correlation between the crystallization behavior, crystal orientation, nano- and meso-scale internal structure and surface morphology of perovskite film as functions of various processing control parameters is reported for the first time. The structural transition from the fractal pore network to the surface fractal can be tuned by the chloride percentage. The GISAXS/GIWAXS measurement provides the comprehensive understanding of concurrent evolution of the film morphology and crystallization correlated to the high performance. The result can provide the insight into formation mechanism and rational synthesis design.

  4. The Effect of Map Scale on the Determination of the Coastline Length and the Area of Islands in the Adriatic Sea - the Example of the Island of Rab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Vučetić

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The procedure to determine the coastline length and the area of the island of Rab from the maps at the scales 1:25 000, 1:50 000, 1:100 000, 1:200 000, 1:300 000, 1:500 000, 1:1 000 000 and 1:2 000 000 is described. The map sheets at the scales 1:25 000, 1:100 000 and 1:200 000 were obtained already in a georeferenced raster format, and the others were scanned and georeferenced. This was followed by a manual vectorization of the coastline and a transformation of all coordinates into the 5th zone of the Gauss-Krüger projection. The length of the coastline and the area of the island were calculated in the Gauss-Krüger projection taking into account the deformations of the projection. The results are given in tables and represented graphically.

  5. Phase Behavior of Blends of Linear and Branched Polyethylenes on Micron-Length Scales via Ultra-Small-Angle Neutron Scattering (USANS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agamalian, M.M.; Alamo, R.G.; Londono, J.D.; Mandelkern, L.; Wignall, G.D.

    1999-01-01

    SANS experiments on blends of linear, high density (HD) and long chain branched, low density (LD) polyethylenes indicate that these systems form a one-phase mixture in the melt. However, the maximum spatial resolution of pinhole cameras is approximately equal to 10 3 and it has therefore been suggested that data might also be interpreted as arising from a bi-phasic melt with large a particle size ( 1 m), because most of the scattering from the different phases would not be resolved. We have addressed this hypothesis by means of USANS experiments, which confirm that HDPEILDPE blends are homogenous in the melt on length scales up to 20 m. We have also studied blends of HDPE and short-chain branched linear low density polyethylenes (LLDPEs), which phase separate when the branch content is sufficiently high. LLDPEs prepared with Ziegler-Natta catalysts exhibit a wide distribution of compositions, and may therefore be thought of as a blend of different species. When the composition distribution is broad enough, a fraction of highly branched chains may phase separate on m-length scales, and USANS has also been used to quantify this phenomenon

  6. Stochastic and Macroscopic Thermodynamics of Strongly Coupled Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Jarzynski

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We develop a thermodynamic framework that describes a classical system of interest S that is strongly coupled to its thermal environment E. Within this framework, seven key thermodynamic quantities—internal energy, entropy, volume, enthalpy, Gibbs free energy, heat, and work—are defined microscopically. These quantities obey thermodynamic relations including both the first and second law, and they satisfy nonequilibrium fluctuation theorems. We additionally impose a macroscopic consistency condition: When S is large, the quantities defined within our framework scale up to their macroscopic counterparts. By satisfying this condition, we demonstrate that a unifying framework can be developed, which encompasses both stochastic thermodynamics at one end, and macroscopic thermodynamics at the other. A central element in our approach is a thermodynamic definition of the volume of the system of interest, which converges to the usual geometric definition when S is large. We also sketch an alternative framework that satisfies the same consistency conditions. The dynamics of the system and environment are modeled using Hamilton’s equations in the full phase space.

  7. Macroscopic averages in Qed in material media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutra, S.M.; Furuya, K.

    1997-01-01

    The starting point of macroscopic theories of quantum electrodynamics in material media is usually the classical macroscopic Maxwell equations that are then quantized. Such approach however, is based on the assumption that a macroscopic description is attainable, i.e., it assumes that we can describe the effect of the atoms of material on the field only in terms of a dielectric constant in the regime where the field has to be treated quantum mechanically. The problem we address is whether this assumption is valid at all and if so, under what conditions. We have chosen a simple model, which allows us to start from first principles and determine the validity of these approximations, without simply taking them for granted as in previous papers

  8. Geomagnetic field and length-of-day fluctuations at decadal and subdecadal time scales. A plea for looking beyond the atmosphere for partners in Earth's rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demetrescu, C.; Dobrica, V.; Stefan, C.

    2017-12-01

    A rich scientific literature is linking length-of-day (LOD) fluctuations to geomagnetic field and flow oscillations in the fluid outer core. We demostrate that the temporal evolution of the geomagnetic field shows the existence of several oscillations at decadal, inter-decadal, and sub-centennial time scales that superimpose on a so-called inter-centennial constituent. We show that while the subcentennial oscillations of the geomagnetic field, produced by torsional oscillations in the core, could be linked to oscillations of LOD at a similar time scale, the oscillations at decadal and sub-decadal time scales, of external origin, can be found in LOD too. We discuss these issues from the perspective of long time-span main field models (gufm1 - Jackson et al., 2000; COV-OBS - Gillet et al., 2013) that are used to retrieve time series of geomagnetic elements in a 2.5x2.5° network. The decadal and sub-decadal constituents of the time series of annual values in LOD and geomagnetic field were separated in the cyclic component of a Hodrick-Prescott filtering applied to data, and shown to highly correlate to variations of external sources such as the magnetospheric ring current.

  9. Overview of lower length scale model development for accident tolerant fuels regarding U3Si2 fuel and FeCrAl cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yongfeng

    2016-01-01

    U3Si2 and FeCrAl have been proposed as fuel and cladding concepts, respectively, for accident tolerance fuels with higher tolerance to accident scenarios compared to UO2. However, a lot of key physics and material properties regarding their in-pile performance are yet to be explored. To accelerate the understanding and reduce the cost of experimental studies, multiscale modeling and simulation are used to develop physics-based materials models to assist engineering scale fuel performance modeling. In this report, the lower-length-scale efforts in method and material model development supported by the Accident Tolerance Fuel (ATF) high-impact-problem (HIP) under the NEAMS program are summarized. Significant progresses have been made regarding interatomic potential, phase field models for phase decomposition and gas bubble formation, and thermal conductivity for U3Si2 fuel, and precipitation in FeCrAl cladding. The accomplishments are very useful by providing atomistic and mesoscale tools, improving the current understanding, and delivering engineering scale models for these two ATF concepts.

  10. Overview of lower length scale model development for accident tolerant fuels regarding U3Si2 fuel and FeCrAl cladding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yongfeng [Idaho National Laboratory

    2016-09-01

    U3Si2 and FeCrAl have been proposed as fuel and cladding concepts, respectively, for accident tolerance fuels with higher tolerance to accident scenarios compared to UO2. However, a lot of key physics and material properties regarding their in-pile performance are yet to be explored. To accelerate the understanding and reduce the cost of experimental studies, multiscale modeling and simulation are used to develop physics-based materials models to assist engineering scale fuel performance modeling. In this report, the lower-length-scale efforts in method and material model development supported by the Accident Tolerance Fuel (ATF) high-impact-problem (HIP) under the NEAMS program are summarized. Significant progresses have been made regarding interatomic potential, phase field models for phase decomposition and gas bubble formation, and thermal conductivity for U3Si2 fuel, and precipitation in FeCrAl cladding. The accomplishments are very useful by providing atomistic and mesoscale tools, improving the current understanding, and delivering engineering scale models for these two ATF concepts.

  11. Unifying Pore Network Modeling, Continuous Time Random Walk (CTRW) Theory and Experiment to Describe Impact of Spatial Heterogeneities on Solute Dispersion at Multiple Length-scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijeljic, B.; Blunt, M. J.; Rhodes, M. E.

    2009-04-01

    This talk will describe and highlight the advantages offered by a novel methodology that unifies pore network modeling, CTRW theory and experiment in description of solute dispersion in porous media. Solute transport in a porous medium is characterized by the interplay of advection and diffusion (described by Peclet number, Pe) that cause dispersion of solute particles. Dispersion is traditionally described by dispersion coefficients, D, that are commonly calculated from the spatial moments of the plume. Using a pore-scale network model based on particle tracking, the rich Peclet-number dependence of dispersion coefficient is predicted from first principles and is shown to compare well with experimental data for restricted diffusion, transition, power-law and mechanical dispersion regimes in the asymptotic limit. In the asymptotic limit D is constant and can be used in an averaged advection-dispersion equation. However, it is highly important to recognize that, until the velocity field is fully sampled, the particle transport is non-Gaussian and D possesses temporal or spatial variation. Furthermore, temporal probability density functions (PDF) of tracer particles are studied in pore networks and an excellent agreement for the spectrum of transition times for particles from pore to pore is obtained between network model results and CTRW theory. Based on the truncated power-law interpretation of PDF-s, the physical origin of the power-law scaling of dispersion coefficient vs. Peclet number has been explained for unconsolidated porous media, sands and a number of sandstones, arriving at the same conclusion from numerical network modelling, analytic CTRW theory and experiment. The length traveled by solute plumes before Gaussian behaviour is reached increases with an increase in heterogeneity and/or Pe. This opens up the question on the nature of dispersion in natural systems where the heterogeneities at the larger scales will significantly increase the range of

  12. Nearly constant ratio between the proton inertial scale and the spectrum break length scale in the plasma beta range from 0.2 to 1.4 in the solar wind turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X.; Tu, C. Y.; He, J.; Wang, L.

    2017-12-01

    The spectrum break at the ion scale of the solar wind magnetic fluctuations are considered to give important clue on the turbulence dissipation mechanism. Among several possible mechanisms, the most notable ones are the two mechanisms that related respectively with proton thermal gyro-radius and proton inertial length. However, no definite conclusion has been given for which one is more reasonable because the two parameters have similar values in the normal plasma beta range. Here we do a statistical study for the first time to see if the two mechanism predictions have different dependence on the solar wind velocity and on the plasma beta in the normal plasma beta range in the solar wind at 1 AU. From magnetic measurements by Wind, Ulysses and Messenger, we select 60 data sets with duration longer than 8 hours. We found that the ratio between the proton inertial scale and the spectrum break scale do not change considerably with both varying the solar wind speed from 300km/s to 800km/s and varying the plasma beta from 0.2 to 1.4. The average value of the ratio times 2pi is 0.46 ± 0.08. However, the ratio between the proton gyro-radius and the break scale changes clearly. This new result shows that the proton inertial scale could be a single factor that determines the break length scale and hence gives a strong evidence to support the dissipation mechanism related to it in the normal plasma beta range. The value of the constant ratio may relate with the dissipation mechanism, but it needs further theoretical study to give detailed explanation.

  13. A Review on Macroscopic Pedestrian Flow Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kormanová

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews several various approaches to macroscopic pedestrian modelling. It describes hydrodynamic models based on similarity of pedestrian flow with fluids and gases; first-order flow models that use fundamental diagrams and conservation equation; and a model similar to LWR vehicular traffic model, which allows non-classical shocks. At the end of the paper there is stated a comparison of described models, intended to find appropriate macroscopic model to eventually be a part of a hybrid model. The future work of the author is outlined.

  14. Macroscopic weak superconductivity of an NXN Josephson junction array below the Kosterlitz-Thouless transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shenoy, S.R.; Karlsruhe Univ.

    1983-07-01

    A two-dimensional NXN array of coupled Josephson junctions, each of size tau 0 and Josephson length lambdasub(JO)>>tau 0 , is shown to exhibit macroscopic weak superconductivity. The Josephson phase coherence here extends across the array, vanishing discontinuously at the Kosterlitz-Thouless transition temperature. The transverse size Ntau 0 must be smaller than a few times the effective Josephson screening length lambdasub(J)sup(eff) proportional to lambdasub(JO), for a sharp transition to be seen. (author)

  15. Vortex matter beyond SANS. Neutron studies of vortex structures covering a length scale of 0.01 ti 10 μm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reimann, Tommy

    2017-01-09

    This thesis is concerned with different generic types of vortex matter arising in the intermediate state of the type-I superconductor lead, the intermediate mixed state of the type-II superconductor niobium, and the helimagnetic phase of the compound manganese silicide. It is demonstrated and explained how a combination of i) the radiographic techniques neutron grating interferometry and neutron diffractive imaging with ii) scattering methods such as small-angle-neutron scattering and ultra-small-angle neutron scattering can provide novel insight into the bulk behavior of these vortex systems. By means of the used scattering methods, detailed information on the morphology of the vortex phases covering a length scale of 0.01 to 10 μm are obtained, while the radiographic approaches additionally map the spatial distribution of vortices within the sample. In particular, this thesis focuses on the strong influences of demagnetization, geometric barriers and pinning on the vortex configuration.

  16. The Extended Relativity Theory in Born-Clifford Phase Spaces with a Lower and Upper Length Scales and Clifford Group Geometric Unification

    CERN Document Server

    Castro, C

    2004-01-01

    We construct the Extended Relativity Theory in Born-Clifford-Phase spaces with an upper and lower length scales (infrared/ultraviolet cutoff). The invariance symmetry leads naturally to the real Clifford algebra Cl (2, 6, R ) and complexified Clifford Cl_C ( 4 ) algebra related to Twistors. We proceed with an extensive review of Smith's 8D model based on the Clifford algebra Cl ( 1 ,7) that reproduces at low energies the physics of the Standard Model and Gravity; including the derivation of all the coupling constants, particle masses, mixing angles, ....with high precision. Further results by Smith are discussed pertaining the interplay among Clifford, Jordan, Division and Exceptional Lie algebras within the hierarchy of dimensions D = 26, 27, 28 related to bosonic string, M, F theory. Two Geometric actions are presented like the Clifford-Space extension of Maxwell's Electrodynamics, Brandt's action related the 8D spacetime tangent-bundle involving coordinates and velocities (Finsler geometries) followed by a...

  17. Vortex matter beyond SANS. Neutron studies of vortex structures covering a length scale of 0.01 ti 10 μm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reimann, Tommy

    2017-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with different generic types of vortex matter arising in the intermediate state of the type-I superconductor lead, the intermediate mixed state of the type-II superconductor niobium, and the helimagnetic phase of the compound manganese silicide. It is demonstrated and explained how a combination of i) the radiographic techniques neutron grating interferometry and neutron diffractive imaging with ii) scattering methods such as small-angle-neutron scattering and ultra-small-angle neutron scattering can provide novel insight into the bulk behavior of these vortex systems. By means of the used scattering methods, detailed information on the morphology of the vortex phases covering a length scale of 0.01 to 10 μm are obtained, while the radiographic approaches additionally map the spatial distribution of vortices within the sample. In particular, this thesis focuses on the strong influences of demagnetization, geometric barriers and pinning on the vortex configuration.

  18. Fundamental length and relativistic length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strel'tsov, V.N.

    1988-01-01

    It si noted that the introduction of fundamental length contradicts the conventional representations concerning the contraction of the longitudinal size of fast-moving objects. The use of the concept of relativistic length and the following ''elongation formula'' permits one to solve this problem

  19. Modified Bose-Einstein and Fermi-Dirac statistics if excitations are localized on an intermediate length scale: applications to non-Debye specific heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlin, Ralph V; Davis, Bryce F

    2013-10-01

    Disordered systems show deviations from the standard Debye theory of specific heat at low temperatures. These deviations are often attributed to two-level systems of uncertain origin. We find that a source of excess specific heat comes from correlations between quanta of energy if excitations are localized on an intermediate length scale. We use simulations of a simplified Creutz model for a system of Ising-like spins coupled to a thermal bath of Einstein-like oscillators. One feature of this model is that energy is quantized in both the system and its bath, ensuring conservation of energy at every step. Another feature is that the exact entropies of both the system and its bath are known at every step, so that their temperatures can be determined independently. We find that there is a mismatch in canonical temperature between the system and its bath. In addition to the usual finite-size effects in the Bose-Einstein and Fermi-Dirac distributions, if excitations in the heat bath are localized on an intermediate length scale, this mismatch is independent of system size up to at least 10(6) particles. We use a model for correlations between quanta of energy to adjust the statistical distributions and yield a thermodynamically consistent temperature. The model includes a chemical potential for units of energy, as is often used for other types of particles that are quantized and conserved. Experimental evidence for this model comes from its ability to characterize the excess specific heat of imperfect crystals at low temperatures.

  20. Flame Length

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Flame length was modeled using FlamMap, an interagency fire behavior mapping and analysis program that computes potential fire behavior characteristics. The tool...

  1. Tracer sorption and macroscopic transport in clay nano-pores: a lattice-Boltzmann study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levesque, Maximilien; Rotenberg, Benjamin; Duvail, Magali; Benichou, Olivier; Voituriez, Raphael; Pagonabarraga, Ignacio; Frenkel, Daan

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. The Agence Nationale pour la gestion des Dechets Radioactifs (ANDRA) has been entrusted to find a safe solution for disposing of existing and future nuclear wastes. A prototype site has been considered for the waste disposal in a deep underground sedimentary geological formation. It is composed of clay minerals chosen, among other reasons, for their remarkable ability to limit radionuclide transport. Clay minerals are complex charged porous media characterized by heterogeneities at several length scales. They naturally occur as an assembly of few nano-meter-sized particles connected to form 10 to 100 nm interparticle pores containing water and ions. This intrinsically multi-scale structure, that gives the material its remarkable properties, makes the description of sorption and transport phenomena of transported ions particularly challenging. Experimental studies of water and ion transport through clays mostly consist in evaluating macroscopic effective transport coefficients like permeability or conductivity. They showed that the main transport mechanism is an effective diffusion that not only depends on particle charge but also on its chemical nature, or specificity. The goal of assessing the performance of clays as confinement barriers, particularly in the context of the geological disposal of nuclear waste, requires not only quantitative prediction of the retention and transport of species but also an understanding of the microscopic mechanisms underlying them. A successful approach has been to use numerical simulations via the Lattice-Boltzmann method (LB). It consists in making evolve populations describing the fluid at a level which is consistent with time and length-scales involved in transport properties, while still including a microscopic description of the phenomena. The transport of charged ions at the pore scale has recently been included in LB. In this method, the evolution of a tracer population is

  2. Macroscopic optical response and photonic bands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pérez-Huerta, J S; Luis Mochán, W; Ortiz, Guillermo P; Mendoza, Bernardo S

    2013-01-01

    We develop a formalism for the calculation of the macroscopic dielectric response of composite systems made of particles of one material embedded periodically within a matrix of another material, each of which is characterized by a well-defined dielectric function. The nature of these dielectric functions is arbitrary, and could correspond to dielectric or conducting, transparent or opaque, absorptive and dispersive materials. The geometry of the particles and the Bravais lattice of the composite are also arbitrary. Our formalism goes beyond the long-wavelength approximation as it fully incorporates retardation effects. We test our formalism through the study of the propagation of electromagnetic waves in two-dimensional photonic crystals made of periodic arrays of cylindrical holes in a dispersionless dielectric host. Our macroscopic theory yields a spatially dispersive macroscopic response which allows the calculation of the full photonic band structure of the system, as well as the characterization of its normal modes, upon substitution into the macroscopic field equations. We can also account approximately for the spatial dispersion through a local magnetic permeability and analyze the resulting dispersion relation, obtaining a region of left handedness. (paper)

  3. Berkeley Experiments on Superfluid Macroscopic Quantum Effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Packard, Richard

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides a brief history of the evolution of the Berkeley experiments on macroscopic quantum effects in superfluid helium. The narrative follows the evolution of the experiments proceeding from the detection of single vortex lines to vortex photography to quantized circulation in 3He to Josephson effects and superfluid gyroscopes in both 4He and 3He

  4. On quantum mechanics for macroscopic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primas, H.

    1992-01-01

    The parable of Schroedinger's cat may lead to several up-to date questions: how to treat open systems in quantum theory, how to treat thermodynamically irreversible processes in the quantum mechanics framework, how to explain, following the quantum theory, the existence, phenomenologically evident, of classical observables, what implies the predicted existence by the quantum theory of non localized macroscopic material object ?

  5. Predictors of extended length of stay, discharge to inpatient rehab, and hospital readmission following elective lumbar spine surgery: introduction of the Carolina-Semmes Grading Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGirt, Matthew J; Parker, Scott L; Chotai, Silky; Pfortmiller, Deborah; Sorenson, Jeffrey M; Foley, Kevin; Asher, Anthony L

    2017-10-01

    OBJECTIVE Extended hospital length of stay (LOS), unplanned hospital readmission, and need for inpatient rehabilitation after elective spine surgery contribute significantly to the variation in surgical health care costs. As novel payment models shift the risk of cost overruns from payers to providers, understanding patient-level risk of LOS, readmission, and inpatient rehabilitation is critical. The authors set out to develop a grading scale that effectively stratifies risk of these costly events after elective surgery for degenerative lumbar pathologies. METHODS The Quality and Outcomes Database (QOD) registry prospectively enrolls patients undergoing surgery for degenerative lumbar spine disease. This registry was queried for patients who had undergone elective 1- to 3-level lumbar surgery for degenerative spine pathology. The association between preoperative patient variables and extended postoperative hospital LOS (LOS ≥ 7 days), discharge status (inpatient facility vs home), and 90-day hospital readmission was assessed using stepwise multivariate logistic regression. The Carolina-Semmes grading scale was constructed using the independent predictors for LOS (0-12 points), discharge to inpatient facility (0-18 points), and 90-day readmission (0-6 points), and its performance was assessed using the QOD data set. The performance of the grading scale was then confirmed separately after using it in 2 separate neurosurgery practice sites (Carolina Neurosurgery & Spine Associates [CNSA] and Semmes Murphey Clinic). RESULTS A total of 6921 patients were analyzed. Overall, 290 (4.2%) patients required extended LOS, 654 (9.4%) required inpatient facility care/rehabilitation on hospital discharge, and 474 (6.8%) were readmitted to the hospital within 90 days postdischarge. Variables that remained as independently associated with these unplanned events in multivariate analysis included age ≥ 70 years, American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Classification System

  6. Physically-based modeling of the cyclic macroscopic behaviour of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauzay, M.; Evrard, P.; Steckmeyer, A.; Ferrie, E.

    2010-01-01

    Grain size seems to have only a minor influence on the cyclic strain strain curves (CSSCs) of metallic polycrystals of medium to high stacking fault energy (SFE). That is why many authors tried to deduce the macroscopic CSSCs curves from the single crystals ones. Either crystals oriented for single slip or crystals oriented for multiple slip could be considered. In addition, a scale transition law should be used (from the grain scale to the macroscopic scale). Authors generally used either the Sachs rule (homogeneous single slip) or the Taylor one (homogeneous plastic strain, multiple slip). But the predicted macroscopic CSSCs do not generally agree with the experimental data for metals and alloys, presenting various SFE values. In order to avoid the choice of a particular scale transition rule, many finite element (FE) computations have been carried out using meshes of polycrystals including more than one hundred grains without texture. This allows the study of the influence of the crystalline constitutive laws on the macroscopic CSSCs. Activation of a secondary slip system in grains oriented for single slip is either allowed or hindered (slip planarity), which affects strongly the macroscopic CSSCs. The more planar the slip, the higher the predicted macroscopic stress amplitudes. If grains oriented for single slip obey slip planarity and two crystalline CSSCs are used (one for single slip grains and one for multiple slip grains), then the predicted macroscopic CSSCs agree well with experimental data provided the SFE is not too low (316L, copper, nickel, aluminium). Finally, the incremental self-consistent Hill-Hutchinson homogenization model is used for predicting CSS curves and partially validated with respect to the curves computed by the FE method. (authors)

  7. A study of small-scale foliation in lengths of core enclosing fault zones in borehole WD-3, Permit Area D, Lac du Bonnet Batholith

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ejeckam, R. B.

    1992-12-01

    Small-scale foliation measurements in lengths of core from borehole WD-3 of Permit Area D of the Lac du Bonnet Batholith have defined five major mean orientation sets. They strike NW, N and NE. The orientations (strike to the left of the dip direction/dip) of these sets are as follows: Set I - 028/74 deg; II - 001/66 deg; III - 100/58 deg; IV - 076/83 deg; and V - 210/40 deg. The small-scale foliations were defined by different mineral types such as biotite crystals, plagioclase, mineral banding and quartz lenses. Well-developed biotite foliation is commonly present whenever well-developed plagioclase foliation exists, but as the strength of development weakens, the preferred orientations of plagioclase foliation do not correspond to those of biotite. It is also noted that the foliations appear to strike in directions orthogonal to the fractures in the fracture zones in the same depth interval. No significant change in foliation orientation was observed in Zones I to IV. Set V, however, whose mean orientation is 210/40 deg, is absent from the Zone IV interval, ranging from 872 to 905 m. (auth)

  8. Charge Separation in Intermixed Polymer:PC70BM Photovoltaic Blends: Correlating Structural and Photophysical Length Scales as a Function of Blend Composition

    KAUST Repository

    Utzat, Hendrik

    2017-04-24

    A key challenge in achieving control over photocurrent generation by bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells is understanding how the morphology of the active layer impacts charge separation and in particular the separation dynamics within molecularly intermixed donor-acceptor domains versus the dynamics between phase-segregated domains. This paper addresses this issue by studying blends and devices of the amorphous silicon-indacenodithiophene polymer SiIDT-DTBT and the acceptor PCBM. By changing the blend composition, we modulate the size and density of the pure and intermixed domains on the nanometer length scale. Laser spectroscopic studies show that these changes in morphology correlate quantitatively with the changes in charge separation dynamics on the nanosecond time scale and with device photocurrent densities. At low fullerene compositions, where only a single, molecularly intermixed polymer-fullerene phase is observed, photoexcitation results in a ∼ 30% charge loss from geminate polaron pair recombination, which is further studied via light intensity experiments showing that the radius of the polaron pairs in the intermixed phase is 3-5 nm. At high fullerene compositions (≥67%), where the intermixed domains are 1-3 nm and the pure fullerene phases reach ∼4 nm, the geminate recombination is suppressed by the reduction of the intermixed phase, making the fullerene domains accessible for electron escape.

  9. Fundamental length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradhan, T.

    1975-01-01

    The concept of fundamental length was first put forward by Heisenberg from purely dimensional reasons. From a study of the observed masses of the elementary particles known at that time, it is sumrised that this length should be of the order of magnitude 1 approximately 10 -13 cm. It was Heisenberg's belief that introduction of such a fundamental length would eliminate the divergence difficulties from relativistic quantum field theory by cutting off the high energy regions of the 'proper fields'. Since the divergence difficulties arise primarily due to infinite number of degrees of freedom, one simple remedy would be the introduction of a principle that limits these degrees of freedom by removing the effectiveness of the waves with a frequency exceeding a certain limit without destroying the relativistic invariance of the theory. The principle can be stated as follows: It is in principle impossible to invent an experiment of any kind that will permit a distintion between the positions of two particles at rest, the distance between which is below a certain limit. A more elegant way of introducing fundamental length into quantum theory is through commutation relations between two position operators. In quantum field theory such as quantum electrodynamics, it can be introduced through the commutation relation between two interpolating photon fields (vector potentials). (K.B.)

  10. Laparoscopic vs open total mesorectal excision for rectal cancer: an evaluation of the mesorectum's macroscopic quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breukink, S O; Grond, A J K; Pierie, J P E N; Hoff, C; Wiggers, T; Meijerink, W J H J

    2005-03-01

    Next to surgical margins, yield of lymph nodes, and length of bowel resected, macroscopic completeness of mesorectal excision may serve as another quality control of total mesorectal excision (TME). In this study, the macroscopic completeness of laparoscopic TME was evaluated. A series of 25 patients with rectal cancer were managed laparoscopically (LTME) and included in this study. The pathologic specimens of the LTME group were prospectively examined and matched with a historical group of resection specimens from patients who had undergone open TME (OTME). The two groups were matched for gender and type of resection (low anterior or abdominoperineal resection). Special care was given to the macroscopic judgment concerning the completeness of the mesorectum. A three-grade scoring system showed no differences between the LTME and OTME groups. The current study supports the hypothesis that oncologic resection using laparoscopic TME is feasible and adequate.

  11. Macroscopic and non-linear quantum games

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aerts, D.; D'Hooghe, A.; Posiewnik, A.; Pykacz, J.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: We consider two models of quantum games. The first one is Marinatto and Weber's 'restricted' quantum game in which only the identity and the spin-flip operators are used. We show that this quantum game allows macroscopic mechanistic realization with the use of a version of the 'macroscopic quantum machine' described by Aerts already in 1980s. In the second model we use non-linear quantum state transformations which operate on points of spin-1/2 on the Bloch sphere and which can be used to distinguish optimally between two non-orthogonal states. We show that efficiency of these non-linear strategies out-perform any linear ones. Some hints on the possible theory of non-linear quantum games are given. (author)

  12. Bimodality in macroscopic dynamics of nuclear fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastrukov, S.I.; Salamatin, V.S.; Strteltsova, O.I.; Molodtsova, I.V.; Podgainy, D.V.; )

    2000-01-01

    The elastodynamic collective model of nuclear fission is outlined whose underlying idea is that the stiff structure of nuclear shells imparts to nucleus properties typical of a small piece of an elastic solid. Emphasis is placed on the macroscopic dynamics of nuclear deformations resulting in fission by two energetically different modes. The low-energy S-mode is the fission due to disruption of elongated quadrupole spheroidal shape. The characteristic features of the high-energy T-mode of division by means of torsional shear deformations is the compact scission configuration. Analytic and numerical estimates for the macroscopic fission-barrier heights are presented, followed by discussion of fingerprints of the above dynamical bimodality in the available data [ru

  13. Length Scales and Types of Heterogeneities Along the Deep Subduction Interface: Insights From an Exhumed Subduction Complex on Syros Island, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotowski, A. J.; Behr, W. M.; Tong, X.; Lavier, L.

    2017-12-01

    The rheology of the deep subduction interface strongly influences the occurrence, recurrence, and migration of episodic tremor and slow slip (ETS) events. To better understand the environment of deep ETS, we characterize the length scales and types of rheological heterogeneities that decorate the deep interface using an exhumed subduction complex. The Cycladic Blueschist Unit on Syros, Greece, records Eocene subduction to 60 km, partial exhumation along the top of the slab, and final exhumation along Miocene detachment faults. The CBU reached 450-580˚C and 14-16 kbar, PT conditions similar to where ETS occurs in several modern subduction zones. Rheological heterogeneity is preserved in a range of rock types on Syros, with the most prominent type being brittle pods embedded within a viscous matrix. Prograde, blueschist-facies metabasalts show strong deformation fabrics characteristic of viscous flow; cm- to m-scale eclogitic lenses are embedded within them as massive, veined pods, foliated pods rotated with respect to the blueschist fabric, and attenuated, foliation-parallel lenses. Similar relationships are observed in blueschist-facies metasediments interpreted to have deformed during early exhumation. In these rocks, metabasalts form lenses ranging in size from m- to 10s of m and are distributed at the m-scale throughout the metasedimentary matrix. Several of the metamafic lenses, and the matrix rocks immediately adjacent to them, preserve multiple generations of dilational veins and shear fractures filled with quartz and high pressure minerals. These observations suggest that coupled brittle-viscous deformation under high fluid pressures may characterize the subduction interface in the deep tremor source region. To test this further, we modeled the behavior of an elasto-plastic pod in a viscous shear zone under high fluid pressures. Our models show that local stress concentrations around the pod are large enough to generate transient dilational shear at seismic

  14. Macroscopic Quantum Resonators (MAQRO): 2015 update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaltenbaek, Rainer; Aspelmeyer, Markus; Kiesel, Nikolai; Barker, Peter F.; Bose, Sougato; Bassi, Angelo; Bateman, James; Bongs, Kai; Cruise, Adrian Michael; Braxmaier, Claus; Brukner, Caslav; Christophe, Bruno; Rodrigues, Manuel; Chwalla, Michael; Johann, Ulrich; Cohadon, Pierre-Francois; Heidmann, Antoine; Lambrecht, Astrid; Reynaud, Serge; Curceanu, Catalina; Dholakia, Kishan; Mazilu, Michael; Diosi, Lajos; Doeringshoff, Klaus; Peters, Achim; Ertmer, Wolfgang; Rasel, Ernst M.; Gieseler, Jan; Novotny, Lukas; Rondin, Loic; Guerlebeck, Norman; Herrmann, Sven; Laemmerzahl, Claus; Hechenblaikner, Gerald; Hossenfelder, Sabine; Kim, Myungshik; Milburn, Gerard J.; Mueller, Holger; Paternostro, Mauro; Pikovski, Igor; Pilan Zanoni, Andre; Riedel, Charles Jess; Roura, Albert; Schleich, Wolfgang P.; Schmiedmayer, Joerg; Schuldt, Thilo; Schwab, Keith C.; Tajmar, Martin; Tino, Guglielmo M.; Ulbricht, Hendrik; Ursin, Rupert; Vedral, Vlatko

    2016-01-01

    Do the laws of quantum physics still hold for macroscopic objects - this is at the heart of Schroedinger's cat paradox - or do gravitation or yet unknown effects set a limit for massive particles? What is the fundamental relation between quantum physics and gravity? Ground-based experiments addressing these questions may soon face limitations due to limited free-fall times and the quality of vacuum and microgravity. The proposed mission Macroscopic Quantum Resonators (MAQRO) may overcome these limitations and allow addressing such fundamental questions. MAQRO harnesses recent developments in quantum optomechanics, high-mass matter-wave interferometry as well as state-of-the-art space technology to push macroscopic quantum experiments towards their ultimate performance limits and to open new horizons for applying quantum technology in space. The main scientific goal is to probe the vastly unexplored 'quantum-classical' transition for increasingly massive objects, testing the predictions of quantum theory for objects in a size and mass regime unachievable in ground-based experiments. The hardware will largely be based on available space technology. Here, we present the MAQRO proposal submitted in response to the 4th Cosmic Vision call for a medium-sized mission (M4) in 2014 of the European Space Agency (ESA) with a possible launch in 2025, and we review the progress with respect to the original MAQRO proposal for the 3rd Cosmic Vision call for a medium-sized mission (M3) in 2010. In particular, the updated proposal overcomes several critical issues of the original proposal by relying on established experimental techniques from high-mass matter-wave interferometry and by introducing novel ideas for particle loading and manipulation. Moreover, the mission design was improved to better fulfill the stringent environmental requirements for macroscopic quantum experiments. (orig.)

  15. Macroscopic Quantum Resonators (MAQRO): 2015 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaltenbaek, Rainer [University of Vienna, Vienna Center for Quantum Science and Technology, Vienna (Austria); Aspelmeyer, Markus; Kiesel, Nikolai [University of Vienna, Vienna Center for Quantum Science and Technology, Vienna (Austria); Barker, Peter F.; Bose, Sougato [University College London, Department of Physics and Astronomy, London (United Kingdom); Bassi, Angelo [University of Trieste, Department of Physics, Trieste (Italy); INFN - Trieste Section, Trieste (Italy); Bateman, James [University of Swansea, Department of Physics, College of Science, Swansea (United Kingdom); Bongs, Kai; Cruise, Adrian Michael [University of Birmingham, School of Physics and Astronomy, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Braxmaier, Claus [University of Bremen, Center of Applied Space Technology and Micro Gravity (ZARM), Bremen (Germany); Institute of Space Systems, German Aerospace Center (DLR), Bremen (Germany); Brukner, Caslav [University of Vienna, Vienna Center for Quantum Science and Technology, Vienna (Austria); Austrian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Quantum Optics and Quantum Information (IQOQI), Vienna (Austria); Christophe, Bruno; Rodrigues, Manuel [The French Aerospace Lab, ONERA, Chatillon (France); Chwalla, Michael; Johann, Ulrich [Airbus Defence and Space GmbH, Immenstaad (Germany); Cohadon, Pierre-Francois; Heidmann, Antoine; Lambrecht, Astrid; Reynaud, Serge [ENS-PSL Research University, Laboratoire Kastler Brossel, UPMC-Sorbonne Universites, CNRS, College de France, Paris (France); Curceanu, Catalina [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); Dholakia, Kishan; Mazilu, Michael [University of St. Andrews, School of Physics and Astronomy, St. Andrews (United Kingdom); Diosi, Lajos [Wigner Research Center for Physics, P.O. Box 49, Budapest (Hungary); Doeringshoff, Klaus; Peters, Achim [Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Institut fuer Physik, Berlin (Germany); Ertmer, Wolfgang; Rasel, Ernst M. [Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Hannover (Germany); Gieseler, Jan; Novotny, Lukas; Rondin, Loic [ETH Zuerich, Photonics Laboratory, Zuerich (Switzerland); Guerlebeck, Norman; Herrmann, Sven; Laemmerzahl, Claus [University of Bremen, Center of Applied Space Technology and Micro Gravity (ZARM), Bremen (Germany); Hechenblaikner, Gerald [Airbus Defence and Space GmbH, Immenstaad (Germany); European Southern Observatory (ESO), Garching bei Muenchen (Germany); Hossenfelder, Sabine [KTH Royal Institute of Technology and Stockholm University, Nordita, Stockholm (Sweden); Kim, Myungshik [Imperial College London, QOLS, Blackett Laboratory, London (United Kingdom); Milburn, Gerard J. [University of Queensland, ARC Centre for Engineered Quantum Systems, Brisbane (Australia); Mueller, Holger [University of California, Department of Physics, Berkeley, CA (United States); Paternostro, Mauro [Queen' s University, Centre for Theoretical Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics, School of Mathematics and Physics, Belfast (United Kingdom); Pikovski, Igor [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, ITAMP, Cambridge, MA (United States); Pilan Zanoni, Andre [Airbus Defence and Space GmbH, Immenstaad (Germany); CERN - European Organization for Nuclear Research, EN-STI-TCD, Geneva (Switzerland); Riedel, Charles Jess [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, ON (Canada); Roura, Albert [Universitaet Ulm, Institut fuer Quantenphysik, Ulm (Germany); Schleich, Wolfgang P. [Universitaet Ulm, Institut fuer Quantenphysik, Ulm (Germany); Texas A and M University Institute for Advanced Study (TIAS), Institute for Quantum Science and Engineering (IQSE), and Department of Physics and Astronomy, College Station, TX (United States); Schmiedmayer, Joerg [Vienna University of Technology, Vienna Center for Quantum Science and Technology, Institute of Atomic and Subatomic Physics, Vienna (Austria); Schuldt, Thilo [Institute of Space Systems, German Aerospace Center (DLR), Bremen (Germany); Schwab, Keith C. [California Institute of Technology, Applied Physics, Pasadena, CA (United States); Tajmar, Martin [Technische Universitaet Dresden, Institut fuer Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, Dresden (Germany); Tino, Guglielmo M. [Universita di Firenze, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia and LENS, INFN, Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Ulbricht, Hendrik [University of Southampton, Physics and Astronomy, Southampton (United Kingdom); Ursin, Rupert [Austrian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Quantum Optics and Quantum Information (IQOQI), Vienna (Austria); Vedral, Vlatko [University of Oxford, Atomic and Laser Physics, Clarendon Laboratory, Oxford (United Kingdom); National University of Singapore, Center for Quantum Technologies, Singapore (SG)

    2016-12-15

    Do the laws of quantum physics still hold for macroscopic objects - this is at the heart of Schroedinger's cat paradox - or do gravitation or yet unknown effects set a limit for massive particles? What is the fundamental relation between quantum physics and gravity? Ground-based experiments addressing these questions may soon face limitations due to limited free-fall times and the quality of vacuum and microgravity. The proposed mission Macroscopic Quantum Resonators (MAQRO) may overcome these limitations and allow addressing such fundamental questions. MAQRO harnesses recent developments in quantum optomechanics, high-mass matter-wave interferometry as well as state-of-the-art space technology to push macroscopic quantum experiments towards their ultimate performance limits and to open new horizons for applying quantum technology in space. The main scientific goal is to probe the vastly unexplored 'quantum-classical' transition for increasingly massive objects, testing the predictions of quantum theory for objects in a size and mass regime unachievable in ground-based experiments. The hardware will largely be based on available space technology. Here, we present the MAQRO proposal submitted in response to the 4th Cosmic Vision call for a medium-sized mission (M4) in 2014 of the European Space Agency (ESA) with a possible launch in 2025, and we review the progress with respect to the original MAQRO proposal for the 3rd Cosmic Vision call for a medium-sized mission (M3) in 2010. In particular, the updated proposal overcomes several critical issues of the original proposal by relying on established experimental techniques from high-mass matter-wave interferometry and by introducing novel ideas for particle loading and manipulation. Moreover, the mission design was improved to better fulfill the stringent environmental requirements for macroscopic quantum experiments. (orig.)

  16. Special relativity - the foundation of macroscopic physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, W.G.

    1978-01-01

    This book aims to show that an understanding of the basic laws of macroscopic systems can be gained more easily within relativistic physics than within Newtonian physics. The unity of dynamics, thermodynamics and electromagnetism under the umbrella of special relativity is examined under chapter headings entitled: the physics of space and time, affine spaces in mathematics and physics, foundations of dynamics, relativistic simple fluids, and, electrodynamics of polarizable fluids. (U.K.)

  17. Testing quantum behaviour at the macroscopic level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghirardi, G.C.

    1994-07-01

    We reconsider recent proposals to test macro realism versus quantum mechanics in experiments involving noninvasive measurement processes on a Squid. In spite of the fact that we are able to prove that the proposed experiments do not represent a test of macro realism but simply of macroscopic quantum coherence we call attention to their extreme conceptual relevance. We also discuss some recent criticisms which have been raised against the considered proposal and we show that they are not relevant. (author). 12 refs

  18. Microscopic and macroscopic models for pedestrian crowds

    OpenAIRE

    Makmul, Juntima

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with microscopic and macroscopic models for pedes- trian crowds. In the first chapter, we consider pedestrians exit choices and model human behaviour in an evacuation process. Two microscopic models, discrete and continuous, are studied in this chapter. The former is a cellular automaton model and the latter is a social force model. Different numerical test cases are investigated and their results are compared. In chapter 2, a hierarchy of models for...

  19. Macroscopic acoustoelectric charge transport in graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandhu, L.; Lawton, L. M.; Nash, G. R.

    2013-09-01

    We demonstrate macroscopic acoustoelectric transport in graphene, transferred onto piezoelectric lithium niobate substrates, between electrodes up to 500 μm apart. Using double finger interdigital transducers we have characterised the acoustoelectric current as a function of both surface acoustic wave intensity and frequency. The results are consistent with a relatively simple classical relaxation model, in which the acoustoelectric current is proportional to both the surface acoustic wave intensity and the attenuation of the wave caused by the charge transport.

  20. Thermomechanical macroscopic model of shape memory alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkov, A.E.; Sakharov, V.Yu.

    2003-01-01

    The phenomenological macroscopic model of the mechanical behaviour of the titanium nickelide-type shape memory alloys is proposed. The model contains as a parameter the average phase shear deformation accompanying the martensite formation. It makes i possible to describe correctly a number of functional properties of the shape memory alloys, in particular, the pseudoelasticity ferroplasticity, plasticity transformation and shape memory effects in the stressed and unstressed samples [ru

  1. Active Polar Two-Fluid Macroscopic Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleiner, Harald; Svensek, Daniel; Brand, Helmut R.

    2014-03-01

    We study the dynamics of systems with a polar dynamic preferred direction. Examples include the pattern-forming growth of bacteria (in a solvent, shoals of fish (moving in water currents), flocks of birds and migrating insects (flying in windy air). Because the preferred direction only exists dynamically, but not statically, the macroscopic variable of choice is the macroscopic velocity associated with the motion of the active units. We derive the macroscopic equations for such a system and discuss novel static, reversible and irreversible cross-couplings connected to this second velocity. We find a normal mode structure quite different compared to the static descriptions, as well as linear couplings between (active) flow and e.g. densities and concentrations due to the genuine two-fluid transport derivatives. On the other hand, we get, quite similar to the static case, a direct linear relation between the stress tensor and the structure tensor. This prominent ``active'' term is responsible for many active effects, meaning that our approach can describe those effects as well. In addition, we also deal with explicitly chiral systems, which are important for many active systems. In particular, we find an active flow-induced heat current specific for the dynamic chiral polar order.

  2. Macroscopic nonclassical-state preparation via postselection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenegro, Víctor; Coto, Raúl; Eremeev, Vitalie; Orszag, Miguel

    2017-11-01

    Macroscopic quantum superposition states are fundamental to test the classical-quantum boundary and present suitable candidates for quantum technologies. Although the preparation of such states has already been realized, the existing setups commonly consider external driving and resonant interactions, predominantly by considering Jaynes-Cummings-like and beam-splitter-like interactions, as well as the nonlinear radiation pressure interaction in cavity optomechanics. In contrast to previous works on the matter, we propose a feasible probabilistic scheme to generate a macroscopic mechanical qubit, as well as phononic Schrödinger's cat states with no need of any energy exchange with the macroscopic mechanical oscillator. Essentially, we investigate an open dispersive spin-mechanical system in the absence of any external driving under nonideal conditions, such as the detrimental effects due to the oscillator and spin energy losses in a thermal bath at nonzero temperature. In our work, we show that the procedure to generate the mechanical qubit state is solely based on spin postselection in the weak to moderate coupling regime. Finally, we demonstrate that the mechanical superposition is related to the amplification of the mean values of the mechanical quadratures as they maximize the quantum coherence.

  3. Scanner-based macroscopic color variation estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chunghui; Lai, Di; Zeise, Eric

    2006-01-01

    Flatbed scanners have been adopted successfully in the measurement of microscopic image artifacts, such as granularity and mottle, in print samples because of their capability of providing full color, high resolution images. Accurate macroscopic color measurement relies on the use of colorimeters or spectrophotometers to provide a surrogate for human vision. The very different color response characteristics of flatbed scanners from any standard colorimetric response limits the utility of a flatbed scanner as a macroscopic color measuring device. This metamerism constraint can be significantly relaxed if our objective is mainly to quantify the color variations within a printed page or between pages where a small bias in measured colors can be tolerated as long as the color distributions relative to the individual mean values is similar. Two scenarios when converting color from the device RGB color space to a standardized color space such as CIELab are studied in this paper, blind and semi-blind color transformation, depending on the availability of the black channel information. We will show that both approaches offer satisfactory results in quantifying macroscopic color variation across pages while the semi-blind color transformation further provides fairly accurate color prediction capability.

  4. Macroscopic Floquet topological crystalline steel and superconductor pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Anna M. E. B.; Bugase, Jonas; Fischer, Thomas M.

    2017-08-01

    The transport of a macroscopic steel sphere and a superconducting sphere on top of two-dimensional periodic magnetic patterns is studied experimentally and compared with the theory and with experiments on topological transport of magnetic colloids. Transport of the steel and superconducting sphere is achieved by moving an external permanent magnet on a closed loop around the two-dimensional crystal. The transport is topological, i.e., the spheres are transported by a primitive unit vector of the lattice when the external magnet loop winds around specific directions. We experimentally determine the set of directions the loops must enclose for nontrivial transport of the spheres into various directions. We show that the loops can be used to sort steel and superconducting spheres. We show that the topological transport is robust with respect to the scale of the system and therefore speculate on its down scalability to the molecular scale.

  5. Investigation of the structure of human dental tissue at multiple length scales using high energy synchrotron X-ray SAXS/WAXS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Tan; Landini, Gabriel; Korsunsky, Alexander M.

    2011-10-01

    High energy (>50keV) synchrotron X-ray scattering experiments were carried out on beamline I12 JEEP at the Diamond Light Source (DLS, Oxford, UK). Although a complete human tooth could be studied, in the present study attention was focused on coupons from the region of the Dentin-Enamel Junction (DEJ). Simultaneous high energy SAXS/WAXS measurements were carried out. Quantitative analysis of the results allows multiple length scale characterization of the nano-crystalline structure of dental tissues. SAXS patterns analysis provide insight into the mean thickness and orientation of hydroxyapatite particles, while WAXS (XRD) patterns allow the determination of the crystallographic unit cell parameters of the hydroxyapatite phase. It was found that the average particle thickness determined from SAXS interpretation varies as a function of position in the vicinity of the DEJ. Most mineral particles are randomly orientated within dentin, although preferred orientation emerges and becomes stronger on approach to the enamel. Within the enamel, texture is stronger than anywhere in the dentin, and the determination of lattice parameters can be accomplished by Pawley refinement of the multiple peak diffraction pattern. The results demonstrate the feasibility of using high energy synchrotron X-ray beams for the characterization of human dental tissues. This opens up the opportunity of studying thick samples (e.g., complete teeth) in complex sample environments (e.g., under saline solution). This opens new avenues for the application of high energy synchrotron X-ray scattering to dental research.

  6. Multi-length scale tomography for the determination and optimization of the effective microstructural properties in novel hierarchical solid oxide fuel cell anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xuekun; Taiwo, Oluwadamilola O.; Bertei, Antonio; Li, Tao; Li, Kang; Brett, Dan J. L.; Shearing, Paul R.

    2017-11-01

    Effective microstructural properties are critical in determining the electrochemical performance of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), particularly when operating at high current densities. A novel tubular SOFC anode with a hierarchical microstructure, composed of self-organized micro-channels and sponge-like regions, has been fabricated by a phase inversion technique to mitigate concentration losses. However, since pore sizes span over two orders of magnitude, the determination of the effective transport parameters using image-based techniques remains challenging. Pioneering steps are made in this study to characterize and optimize the microstructure by coupling multi-length scale 3D tomography and modeling. The results conclusively show that embedding finger-like micro-channels into the tubular anode can improve the mass transport by 250% and the permeability by 2-3 orders of magnitude. Our parametric study shows that increasing the porosity in the spongy layer beyond 10% enhances the effective transport parameters of the spongy layer at an exponential rate, but linearly for the full anode. For the first time, local and global mass transport properties are correlated to the microstructure, which is of wide interest for rationalizing the design optimization of SOFC electrodes and more generally for hierarchical materials in batteries and membranes.

  7. Size variation and collapse of emphysema holes at inspiration and expiration CT scan: evaluation with modified length scale method and image co-registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Sang Young; Lee, Minho; Seo, Joon Beom; Kim, Namkug; Lee, Sang Min; Lee, Jae Seung; Oh, Yeon Mok

    2017-01-01

    A novel approach of size-based emphysema clustering has been developed, and the size variation and collapse of holes in emphysema clusters are evaluated at inspiratory and expiratory computed tomography (CT). Thirty patients were visually evaluated for the size-based emphysema clustering technique and a total of 72 patients were evaluated for analyzing collapse of the emphysema hole in this study. A new approach for the size differentiation of emphysema holes was developed using the length scale, Gaussian low-pass filtering, and iteration approach. Then, the volumetric CT results of the emphysema patients were analyzed using the new method, and deformable registration was carried out between inspiratory and expiratory CT. Blind visual evaluations of EI by two readers had significant correlations with the classification using the size-based emphysema clustering method ( r -values of reader 1: 0.186, 0.890, 0.915, and 0.941; reader 2: 0.540, 0.667, 0.919, and 0.942). The results of collapse of emphysema holes using deformable registration were compared with the pulmonary function test (PFT) parameters using the Pearson's correlation test. The mean extents of low-attenuation area (LAA), E1 (holes may be useful for understanding the dynamic collapse of emphysema and its functional relation.

  8. Characteristic length scale of the magnon accumulation in Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/Pt bilayer structures by incoherent thermal excitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anadón, A., E-mail: anadonb@unizar.es; Lucas, I.; Morellón, L. [Instituto de Nanociencia de Aragón, Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Ramos, R. [WPI Advanced Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Spin Quantum Rectification Project, ERATO, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Algarabel, P. A. [Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragón, Universidad de Zaragoza and Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Ibarra, M. R.; Aguirre, M. H. [Instituto de Nanociencia de Aragón, Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Laboratorio de Microscopías avanzadas, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2016-07-04

    The dependence of Spin Seebeck effect (SSE) with the thickness of the magnetic materials is studied by means of incoherent thermal excitation. The SSE voltage signal in Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/Pt bilayer structure increases with the magnetic material thickness up to 100 nm, approximately, showing signs of saturation for larger thickness. This dependence is well described in terms of a spin current pumped in the platinum film by the magnon accumulation in the magnetic material. The spin current is generated by a gradient of temperature in the system and detected by the Pt top contact by means of inverse spin Hall effect. Calculations in the frame of the linear response theory adjust with a high degree of accuracy the experimental data, giving a thermal length scale of the magnon accumulation (Λ) of 17 ± 3 nm at 300 K and Λ = 40 ± 10 nm at 70 K.

  9. Experimental demonstration of macroscopic quantum coherence in Gaussian states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marquardt, C.; Andersen, Ulrik Lund; Leuchs, G.

    2007-01-01

    We witness experimentally the presence of macroscopic coherence in Gaussian quantum states using a recently proposed criterion [E. G. Cavalcanti and M. D. Reid, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97 170405 (2006)]. The macroscopic coherence stems from interference between macroscopically distinct states in phase...

  10. A Macroscopic Multifractal Analysis of Parabolic Stochastic PDEs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshnevisan, Davar; Kim, Kunwoo; Xiao, Yimin

    2018-05-01

    It is generally argued that the solution to a stochastic PDE with multiplicative noise—such as \\dot{u}= 1/2 u''+uξ, where {ξ} denotes space-time white noise—routinely produces exceptionally-large peaks that are "macroscopically multifractal." See, for example, Gibbon and Doering (Arch Ration Mech Anal 177:115-150, 2005), Gibbon and Titi (Proc R Soc A 461:3089-3097, 2005), and Zimmermann et al. (Phys Rev Lett 85(17):3612-3615, 2000). A few years ago, we proved that the spatial peaks of the solution to the mentioned stochastic PDE indeed form a random multifractal in the macroscopic sense of Barlow and Taylor (J Phys A 22(13):2621-2626, 1989; Proc Lond Math Soc (3) 64:125-152, 1992). The main result of the present paper is a proof of a rigorous formulation of the assertion that the spatio-temporal peaks of the solution form infinitely-many different multifractals on infinitely-many different scales, which we sometimes refer to as "stretch factors." A simpler, though still complex, such structure is shown to also exist for the constant-coefficient version of the said stochastic PDE.

  11. Parameterized representation of macroscopic cross section for PWR reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiel, João Cláudio Batista; Carvalho da Silva, Fernando; Senra Martinez, Aquilino; Leal, Luiz C.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • This work describes a parameterized representation of the homogenized macroscopic cross section for PWR reactor. • Parameterization enables a quick determination of problem-dependent cross-sections to be used in few group calculations. • This work allows generating group cross-section data to perform PWR core calculations without computer code calculations. - Abstract: The purpose of this work is to describe, by means of Chebyshev polynomials, a parameterized representation of the homogenized macroscopic cross section for PWR fuel element as a function of soluble boron concentration, moderator temperature, fuel temperature, moderator density and 235 92 U enrichment. The cross-section data analyzed are fission, scattering, total, transport, absorption and capture. The parameterization enables a quick and easy determination of problem-dependent cross-sections to be used in few group calculations. The methodology presented in this paper will allow generation of group cross-section data from stored polynomials to perform PWR core calculations without the need to generate them based on computer code calculations using standard steps. The results obtained by the proposed methodology when compared with results from the SCALE code calculations show very good agreement

  12. A Macroscopic Multifractal Analysis of Parabolic Stochastic PDEs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshnevisan, Davar; Kim, Kunwoo; Xiao, Yimin

    2018-04-01

    It is generally argued that the solution to a stochastic PDE with multiplicative noise—such as \\dot{u}= 1/2 u''+uξ, where {ξ} denotes space-time white noise—routinely produces exceptionally-large peaks that are "macroscopically multifractal." See, for example, Gibbon and Doering (Arch Ration Mech Anal 177:115-150, 2005), Gibbon and Titi (Proc R Soc A 461:3089-3097, 2005), and Zimmermann et al. (Phys Rev Lett 85(17):3612-3615, 2000). A few years ago, we proved that the spatial peaks of the solution to the mentioned stochastic PDE indeed form a random multifractal in the macroscopic sense of Barlow and Taylor (J Phys A 22(13):2621-2626, 1989; Proc Lond Math Soc (3) 64:125-152, 1992). The main result of the present paper is a proof of a rigorous formulation of the assertion that the spatio-temporal peaks of the solution form infinitely-many different multifractals on infinitely-many different scales, which we sometimes refer to as "stretch factors." A simpler, though still complex, such structure is shown to also exist for the constant-coefficient version of the said stochastic PDE.

  13. Evolution of Quantum Systems from Microscopic to Macroscopic Scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ovchinnikov, Sergey Y.; Macek, Joseph H.; Sternberg, James S.; Lee, Teck-Ghee; Schultz, David R.

    2009-01-01

    Even though the static properties of quantum systems have been known since the early days of quantum mechanics, accurate simulation of the dynamical break-up or ionization remains a theoretical challenge despite our complete knowledge of the relevant interactions. Simulations are challenging because of highly oscillatory exponential phase factors in the electronic wave function and the infinitesimally small values of the continuum components of electronic probability density at large times after the collision. The approach we recently developed, the regularized time-dependent Schroedinger equation method, has addressed these difficulties by removing the diverging phase factors and transforming the time-dependent Schroedinger equation to an expanding space. The evolution of the electronic wave function was followed to internuclear distances of R = 100,000 a.u. or 5 microns, which is of the order of the diameter of a human hair. Our calculations also revealed unexpected presence of free vortices in the electronic wave function. The discovered vortices also bring new light on the mechanism of transferring of the angular momentum from an external to internal motion. The connection between the observable momentum distribution and the time-dependent wave function implies that vortices in the wave function at large times are imaged in the momentum distribution.

  14. Size variation and collapse of emphysema holes at inspiration and expiration CT scan: evaluation with modified length scale method and image co-registration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oh SY

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Sang Young Oh,1,* Minho Lee,1,* Joon Beom Seo,1,* Namkug Kim,1,2,* Sang Min Lee,1 Jae Seung Lee,3 Yeon Mok Oh3 1Department of Radiology, 2Department of Convergence Medicine, 3Department of Pulmonology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul, Republic of Korea *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: A novel approach of size-based emphysema clustering has been developed, and the size variation and collapse of holes in emphysema clusters are evaluated at inspiratory and expiratory computed tomography (CT. Thirty patients were visually evaluated for the size-based emphysema clustering technique and a total of 72 patients were evaluated for analyzing collapse of the emphysema hole in this study. A new approach for the size differentiation of emphysema holes was developed using the length scale, Gaussian low-pass filtering, and iteration approach. Then, the volumetric CT results of the emphysema patients were analyzed using the new method, and deformable registration was carried out between inspiratory and expiratory CT. Blind visual evaluations of EI by two readers had significant correlations with the classification using the size-based emphysema clustering method (r-values of reader 1: 0.186, 0.890, 0.915, and 0.941; reader 2: 0.540, 0.667, 0.919, and 0.942. The results of collapse of emphysema holes using deformable registration were compared with the pulmonary function test (PFT parameters using the Pearson’s correlation test. The mean extents of low-attenuation area (LAA, E1 (<1.5 mm, E2 (<7 mm, E3 (<15 mm, and E4 (≥15 mm were 25.9%, 3.0%, 11.4%, 7.6%, and 3.9%, respectively, at the inspiratory CT, and 15.3%, 1.4%, 6.9%, 4.3%, and 2.6%, respectively at the expiratory CT. The extents of LAA, E2, E3, and E4 were found to be significantly correlated with the PFT ­parameters (r=−0.53, −0.43, −0.48, and −0.25, with forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1; −0.81, −0.62, −0.75, and

  15. The macroscopic harmonic oscillator and quantum measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayward, R.W.

    1982-01-01

    A quantum mechanical description of a one-dimensional macroscopic harmonic oscillator interacting with its environment is given. Quasi-coherent states are introduced to serve as convenient basis states for application of a density matrix formalism to characterize the system. Attention is given to the pertinent quantum limits to the precision of measurement of physical observables that may provide some information on the nature of a weak classical force interacting with the oscillator. A number of ''quantum nondemolition'' schemes proposed by various authors are discussed. (Auth.)

  16. Macroscopic quantum tunneling of the magnetic moment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejada, J.; Hernandez, J. M.; del Barco, E.

    1999-05-01

    In this paper we review the work done on magnetic relaxation during the last 10 years on both single-domain particles and magnetic molecules and its contribution to the discovery of quantum tunneling of the magnetic moment (Chudnovsky and Tejada, Macroscopic Quantum tunneling of the Magnetic moment, Cambridge University press, Cambridge, 1998). We present first the theoretical expressions and their connection to quantum relaxation and secondly, we show and discuss the experimental results. Finally, we discuss very recent hysteresis data on Mn 12Ac molecules at extremely large sweeping rate for the external magnetic field which suggest the existence of quantum spin—phonon avalanches.

  17. Compressor Has No Moving Macroscopic Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasser, Max

    1995-01-01

    Compressor containing no moving macroscopic parts functions by alternating piston and valve actions of successive beds of magnetic particles. Fabricated easily because no need for precisely fitting parts rotating or sliding on each other. Also no need for lubricant fluid contaminating fluid to be compressed. Compressor operates continuously, eliminating troublesome on/off cycling of other compressors, and decreasing consumption of energy. Phased cells push fluid from bottom to top, adding increments of pressure. Each cell contains magnetic powder particles loose when electromagnet coil deenergized, but tightly packed when coil energized.

  18. Solid-state electrochemistry on the nanometer and atomic scales: the scanning probe microscopy approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strelcov, Evgheni; Yang, Sang Mo; Jesse, Stephen; Balke, Nina; Vasudevan, Rama K.; Kalinin, Sergei V.

    2016-01-01

    Energy technologies of the 21st century require understanding and precise control over ion transport and electrochemistry at all length scales – from single atoms to macroscopic devices. This short review provides a summary of recent works dedicated to methods of advanced scanning probe microscopy for probing electrochemical transformations in solids at the meso-, nano- and atomic scales. Discussion presents advantages and limitations of several techniques and a wealth of examples highlighting peculiarities of nanoscale electrochemistry. PMID:27146961

  19. A simple three-dimensional macroscopic root water uptake model based on the hydraulic architecture approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Couvreur

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Many hydrological models including root water uptake (RWU do not consider the dimension of root system hydraulic architecture (HA because explicitly solving water flow in such a complex system is too time consuming. However, they might lack process understanding when basing RWU and plant water stress predictions on functions of variables such as the root length density distribution. On the basis of analytical solutions of water flow in a simple HA, we developed an "implicit" model of the root system HA for simulation of RWU distribution (sink term of Richards' equation and plant water stress in three-dimensional soil water flow models. The new model has three macroscopic parameters defined at the soil element scale, or at the plant scale, rather than for each segment of the root system architecture: the standard sink fraction distribution SSF, the root system equivalent conductance Krs and the compensatory RWU conductance Kcomp. It clearly decouples the process of water stress from compensatory RWU, and its structure is appropriate for hydraulic lift simulation. As compared to a model explicitly solving water flow in a realistic maize root system HA, the implicit model showed to be accurate for predicting RWU distribution and plant collar water potential, with one single set of parameters, in dissimilar water dynamics scenarios. For these scenarios, the computing time of the implicit model was a factor 28 to 214 shorter than that of the explicit one. We also provide a new expression for the effective soil water potential sensed by plants in soils with a heterogeneous water potential distribution, which emerged from the implicit model equations. With the proposed implicit model of the root system HA, new concepts are brought which open avenues towards simple and mechanistic RWU models and water stress functions operational for field scale water dynamics simulation.

  20. Collective motion of macroscopic spheres floating on capillary ripples: Dynamic heterogeneity and dynamic criticality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanli, Ceyda; Saitoh, K.; Luding, Stefan; van der Meer, Roger M.

    2014-01-01

    When a densely packed monolayer of macroscopic spheres floats on chaotic capillary Faraday waves, a coexistence of large scale convective motion and caging dynamics typical for glassy systems is observed. We subtract the convective mean flow using a coarse graining (homogenization) method and reveal

  1. Macroscopic networks in the human brain: mapping connectivity in healthy and damaged brains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhuis, E.H.J.

    2013-01-01

    The human brain contains a network of interconnected neurons. Recent advances in functional and structural in-vivo magnetic resonance neuroimaging (MRI) techniques have provided opportunities to model the networks of the human brain on a macroscopic scale. This dissertation investigates the

  2. Departure of microscopic friction from macroscopic drag in molecular fluid dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanasaki, Itsuo [Institute of Engineering, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Naka-cho 2-24-16, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan); Fujiwara, Daiki; Kawano, Satoyuki, E-mail: kawano@me.es.osaka-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, Machikaneyama-cho 1-3, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan)

    2016-03-07

    Friction coefficient of the Langevin equation and drag of spherical macroscopic objects in steady flow at low Reynolds numbers are usually regarded as equivalent. We show that the microscopic friction can be different from the macroscopic drag when the mass is taken into account for particles with comparable scale to the surrounding fluid molecules. We illustrate it numerically by molecular dynamics simulation of chloride ion in water. Friction variation by the atomistic mass effect beyond the Langevin regime can be of use in the drag reduction technology as well as the electro or thermophoresis.

  3. Macroscopic reality and the dynamical reduction program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghirardi, G.C.

    1995-10-01

    With reference to recently proposed theoretical models accounting for reduction in terms of a unified dynamics governing all physical processes, we analyze the problem of working out a worldview accommodating our knowledge about natural phenomena. We stress the relevant conceptual differences between the considered models and standard quantum mechanics. In spite of the fact that both theories describe individual physical systems within a genuine Hilbert space framework, the nice features of spontaneous reduction theories drastically limit the class of states which are dynamically stable. This allows one to work out a description of the world in terms of a mass density function in ordinary configuration space. A topology based on this function and differing radically from the one characterizing the Hilbert space is introduced and in terms of it the idea of similarity of macroscopic situations is made precise. Finally it is shown how the formalism and the proposed interpretation yield a natural criterion for establishing the psychophysical parallelism. The conclusion is that, within the considered theoretical models and at the nonrelativistic level, one can satisfy all sensible requirements for a consistent, unified, and objective description of reality at the macroscopic level. (author). 16 refs

  4. Macroscopic description of isoscalar giant multipole resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nix, J.R.; Sierk, A.J.

    1980-01-01

    On the basis of a simple macroscopic model, we calculate the isoscalar giant-resonance energy as a function of mass number and multipole degree. The restoring force is determined from the distortion of the Fermi surface, and the inertia is determined for the incompressible, irrotational flow of nucleons with unit effective mass. With no adjustable parameters, the resulting closed expression reproduces correctly the available experimental data, namely the magnitude and dependence upon mass number of the giant quadrupole energy and the magnitude of the giant octupole energy for 208 Pb. We also calculate the isoscalar giant-resonance width as a function of mass number and multipole degree for various macroscopic damping mechanisms, including two-body viscosity, one-body dissipation, and modified one-body dissipation. None of these damping mechanisms reproduces correctly all features of the available experimental data, namely the magnitude and dependence upon mass number of the giant quadrupole width and the magnitude of the giant octupole width for 208 Pb

  5. Macroscopic quantum tunneling in Mn12-acetat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beiter, J.; Reissner, M.; Hilscher, G.; Steiner, W.; Pajic, D.; Zadro, K.; Bartel, M.; Linert, W.

    2004-01-01

    Molecules provide the exciting opportunity to study magnetism on the passage from atomic to macroscopic level. One of the most interesting effects in such mesoscopic systems is the appearance of quantum tunnelling of magnetization (MQT) at low temperatures. In the last decade molecular chemistry has had a large impact in this field by providing new single molecule magnets. They consist of small clusters exhibiting superparamagnetic behavior, similar to that of conventional nanomagnetic particles. The advantage of these new materials is that they form macroscopic samples consisting of regularly arranged small identical high-spin clusters which are widely separated by organic molecules. The lack of distributions in size and shape of the magnetic clusters and the very weak intercluster interaction lead in principle to only one barrier for the spin reversal. We present detailed magnetic investigations on a Mn 12 -ac single crystal. In this compound the tetragonal ordered clusters consist of a central tetrahedron of four Mn 4+ (S = 3/2) atoms surrounded by eight Mn 3+ (S = 2) atoms with antiparallel oriented spins, leading to an overall spin moment of S = 10. In the hysteresis loops nine different jumps at regularly spaced fields are identified in the investigated temperature range (1.5 < T < 3 K). At these fields the relaxation of moment due to thermal activation is superimposed by strong quantum tunnelling. In lowering the temperature the time dependence changes from thermally activated to thermally assisted tunnelling. (author)

  6. Measurement contextuality is implied by macroscopic realism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zeqian; Montina, A.

    2011-01-01

    Ontological theories of quantum mechanics provide a realistic description of single systems by means of well-defined quantities conditioning the measurement outcomes. In order to be complete, they should also fulfill the minimal condition of macroscopic realism. Under the assumption of outcome determinism and for Hilbert space dimension greater than 2, they were all proved to be contextual for projective measurements. In recent years a generalized concept of noncontextuality was introduced that applies also to the case of outcome indeterminism and unsharp measurements. It was pointed out that the Beltrametti-Bugajski model is an example of measurement noncontextual indeterminist theory. Here we provide a simple proof that this model is the only one with such a feature for projective measurements and Hilbert space dimension greater than 2. In other words, there is no extension of quantum theory providing more accurate predictions of outcomes and simultaneously preserving the minimal labeling of events through projective operators. As a corollary, noncontextuality for projective measurements implies noncontextuality for unsharp measurements. By noting that the condition of macroscopic realism requires an extension of quantum theory, unless a breaking of unitarity is invoked, we arrive at the conclusion that the only way to solve the measurement problem in the framework of an ontological theory is by relaxing the hypothesis of measurement noncontextuality in its generalized sense.

  7. Macroscopic reality and the dynamical reduction program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghirardi, G C

    1995-10-01

    With reference to recently proposed theoretical models accounting for reduction in terms of a unified dynamics governing all physical processes, we analyze the problem of working out a worldview accommodating our knowledge about natural phenomena. We stress the relevant conceptual differences between the considered models and standard quantum mechanics. In spite of the fact that both theories describe individual physical systems within a genuine Hilbert space framework, the nice features of spontaneous reduction theories drastically limit the class of states which are dynamically stable. This allows one to work out a description of the world in terms of a mass density function in ordinary configuration space. A topology based on this function and differing radically from the one characterizing the Hilbert space is introduced and in terms of it the idea of similarity of macroscopic situations is made precise. Finally it is shown how the formalism and the proposed interpretation yield a natural criterion for establishing the psychophysical parallelism. The conclusion is that, within the considered theoretical models and at the nonrelativistic level, one can satisfy all sensible requirements for a consistent, unified, and objective description of reality at the macroscopic level. (author). 16 refs.

  8. Investigating Darcy-scale assumptions by means of a multiphysics algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomin, Pavel; Lunati, Ivan

    2016-09-01

    Multiphysics (or hybrid) algorithms, which couple Darcy and pore-scale descriptions of flow through porous media in a single numerical framework, are usually employed to decrease the computational cost of full pore-scale simulations or to increase the accuracy of pure Darcy-scale simulations when a simple macroscopic description breaks down. Despite the massive increase in available computational power, the application of these techniques remains limited to core-size problems and upscaling remains crucial for practical large-scale applications. In this context, the Hybrid Multiscale Finite Volume (HMsFV) method, which constructs the macroscopic (Darcy-scale) problem directly by numerical averaging of pore-scale flow, offers not only a flexible framework to efficiently deal with multiphysics problems, but also a tool to investigate the assumptions used to derive macroscopic models and to better understand the relationship between pore-scale quantities and the corresponding macroscale variables. Indeed, by direct comparison of the multiphysics solution with a reference pore-scale simulation, we can assess the validity of the closure assumptions inherent to the multiphysics algorithm and infer the consequences for macroscopic models at the Darcy scale. We show that the definition of the scale ratio based on the geometric properties of the porous medium is well justified only for single-phase flow, whereas in case of unstable multiphase flow the nonlinear interplay between different forces creates complex fluid patterns characterized by new spatial scales, which emerge dynamically and weaken the scale-separation assumption. In general, the multiphysics solution proves very robust even when the characteristic size of the fluid-distribution patterns is comparable with the observation length, provided that all relevant physical processes affecting the fluid distribution are considered. This suggests that macroscopic constitutive relationships (e.g., the relative

  9. Polynomial parameterized representation of macroscopic cross section for PWR reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiel, Joao Claudio B.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to describe, by means of Tchebychev polynomial, a parameterized representation of the homogenized macroscopic cross section for PWR fuel element as a function of soluble boron concentration, moderator temperature, fuel temperature, moderator density and 235 U 92 enrichment. Analyzed cross sections are: fission, scattering, total, transport, absorption and capture. This parameterization enables a quick and easy determination of the problem-dependent cross-sections to be used in few groups calculations. The methodology presented here will enable to provide cross-sections values to perform PWR core calculations without the need to generate them based on computer code calculations using standard steps. The results obtained by parameterized cross-sections functions, when compared with the cross-section generated by SCALE code calculations, or when compared with K inf , generated by MCNPX code calculations, show a difference of less than 0.7 percent. (author)

  10. Macroscopic modeling for heat and water vapor transfer in dry snow by homogenization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calonne, Neige; Geindreau, Christian; Flin, Frédéric

    2014-11-26

    Dry snow metamorphism, involved in several topics related to cryospheric sciences, is mainly linked to heat and water vapor transfers through snow including sublimation and deposition at the ice-pore interface. In this paper, the macroscopic equivalent modeling of heat and water vapor transfers through a snow layer was derived from the physics at the pore scale using the homogenization of multiple scale expansions. The microscopic phenomena under consideration are heat conduction, vapor diffusion, sublimation, and deposition. The obtained macroscopic equivalent model is described by two coupled transient diffusion equations including a source term arising from phase change at the pore scale. By dimensional analysis, it was shown that the influence of such source terms on the overall transfers can generally not be neglected, except typically under small temperature gradients. The precision and the robustness of the proposed macroscopic modeling were illustrated through 2D numerical simulations. Finally, the effective vapor diffusion tensor arising in the macroscopic modeling was computed on 3D images of snow. The self-consistent formula offers a good estimate of the effective diffusion coefficient with respect to the snow density, within an average relative error of 10%. Our results confirm recent work that the effective vapor diffusion is not enhanced in snow.

  11. Mechanical Behavior of UO2 at Sub-grain Length Scales: Quantification of Elastic, Plastic and Creep Properties via Microscale Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peralta, Pedro

    2018-04-16

    concluded successfully, resulting in: 1) the successful fabrication, processing, and characterization of large-grained samples with various orientations (up to and including single crystals) having stoichiometric and hyper-stoichiometric O/U ratios; 2) formulation, calibration, and validation of a crystal plasticity constitutive model to describe the creep deformation of UO2 at the sub-grain length scale (single crystal level) at intermediate temperatures; 3) the successful calibration of a crystal plasticity constitutive model to describe the elasto-plastic deformation of microcantilever beams, also at moderate temperatures. Samples were prepared from natural uranium oxide powder of production-quality provided by Areva. The powder was pressed in a die to a pressure of 100 MPa to produce green pellets with no sintering aids, lubricants, or any other additives. The green pellets were then heated up to 1700 °C under ultra-high purity argon atmosphere (~1 ppm O2). The atmosphere was then changed to 79% Argon, 21% O2 and the temperature was held at 1700 °C for 2 hours to sinter the pellets under oxidative conditions [1] that are known to increase grain growth kinetics in UO2 [2]. Samples were then cooled down under Ar-4%H2 atmosphere to reduce the samples back to stoichiometric UO2. For macro-scale procedures, testing of UO2 samples with large grains was performed at 1200 °C using a modified load frame capable of applying dead-weight loads to ensure constant stress conditions, while displacement of the sample produced by the applied load was measured with high precision micrometers to obtain strains. Stress steps were used during testing and the strains were monitored to measured creep strain rates under steady state for each level of stress used, so that stress exponents could be obtained. The results of the mechanical testing, along with sample geometry and crystal orientation of the grains in the samples, as well as post-test sample characterization were used to formulate

  12. Lifetime and Path Length of the Virtual Particle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyuboshitz, V.L.; Lyuboshitz, V.V.

    2005-01-01

    The concepts of the lifetime and path length of a virtual particle are introduced. It is shown that, near the mass surface of the real particle, these quantities constitute a 4-vector. At very high energies, the virtual particle can propagate over considerable (even macroscopic) distances. The formulas for the lifetime and path length of an ultrarelativistic virtual electron in the process of bremsstrahlung in the Coulomb field of a nucleus are obtained. The lifetime and path length of the virtual photon at its conversion into an electron-positron pair are discussed. The connection between the path length of the virtual particle and the coherence length (formation length) is analyzed

  13. Partitioning a macroscopic system into independent subsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delle Site, Luigi; Ciccotti, Giovanni; Hartmann, Carsten

    2017-08-01

    We discuss the problem of partitioning a macroscopic system into a collection of independent subsystems. The partitioning of a system into replica-like subsystems is nowadays a subject of major interest in several fields of theoretical and applied physics. The thermodynamic approach currently favoured by practitioners is based on a phenomenological definition of an interface energy associated with the partition, due to a lack of easily computable expressions for a microscopic (i.e. particle-based) interface energy. In this article, we outline a general approach to derive sharp and computable bounds for the interface free energy in terms of microscopic statistical quantities. We discuss potential applications in nanothermodynamics and outline possible future directions.

  14. Quantum teleportation between stationary macroscopic objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, Xiao-Hui; Yuan, Zhen-Sheng; Pan, Jian-Wei [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Heidelberg (Germany); Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale, Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei (China); Xu, Xiao-Fan [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Heidelberg (Germany); Li, Che-Ming [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Heidelberg (Germany); Department of Physics, National Center for Theoretical Sciences, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan (China)

    2010-07-01

    Quantum teleportation is a process to transfer a quantum state of an object without transferring the state carrier itself. So far, most of the teleportation experiments realized are within the photonic regime. For the teleportation of stationary states, the largest system reported is a single ion. We are now performing an experiment to teleport the state of an macroscopic atomic cloud which consists about 10{sup 6} single atoms. In our experiment two atomic ensembles are utilized. In the first ensemble A we prepare the collective atomic state to be teleported using the quantum feedback technique. The second ensemble B is utilized to generate entanglement between it collective state with a scattered single-photon. Teleportation is realized by converting the atomic state of A to a single-photon and making a Bell state measurement with the scattered single-photon from ensemble B.

  15. Macroscopic balance model for wave rotors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Gerard E.

    1996-01-01

    A mathematical model for multi-port wave rotors is described. The wave processes that effect energy exchange within the rotor passage are modeled using one-dimensional gas dynamics. Macroscopic mass and energy balances relate volume-averaged thermodynamic properties in the rotor passage control volume to the mass, momentum, and energy fluxes at the ports. Loss models account for entropy production in boundary layers and in separating flows caused by blade-blockage, incidence, and gradual opening and closing of rotor passages. The mathematical model provides a basis for predicting design-point wave rotor performance, port timing, and machine size. Model predictions are evaluated through comparisons with CFD calculations and three-port wave rotor experimental data. A four-port wave rotor design example is provided to demonstrate model applicability. The modeling approach is amenable to wave rotor optimization studies and rapid assessment of the trade-offs associated with integrating wave rotors into gas turbine engine systems.

  16. Macroscopic quantum tunneling in a dc SQUID

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y.C.

    1986-01-01

    The theory of macroscopic quantum tunneling is applied to a current-biased dc SQUID whose dynamics can be described by a two-dimensional mechanical system with a dissipative environment. Based on the phenomenological model proposed by Caldeira and Leggett, the dissipative environment is represented by a set of harmonic oscillators coupling to the system. After integrating out the environmental degrees of freedom, an effective Euclidean action is found for the two-dimensional system. The action is used to provide the quantum tunneling rate formalism for the dc SQUID. Under certain conditions, the tunneling rate reduces to that of a single current-biased Josephson junction with an adjustable effective critical current

  17. Effects of magnetic order on the superconducting length scales and critical fields in single crystal ErNi2B2C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammel, P.L.; Barber, B.P.; Ramirez, A.P.

    1999-01-01

    The flux line form factor in small angle neutron scattering and transport data determines the superconducting length scares and critical fields in single crystal ErNi2B2C. For H parallel to c, the coherence length xi increases and the penetration depth lambda decreases when crossing T-N = 6.0 K......, the Neel transition. The critical fields show corresponding anomalies near T-N. For H perpendicular to c, the fourfold modulation of the upper critical field H-c2 is strongly temperature dependent, changing sign near T-N, and can be modeled using the anisotropy of the sublattice magnetization....

  18. Models for universal reduction of macroscopic quantum fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diosi, L.

    1988-10-01

    If quantum mechanics is universal, then macroscopic bodies would, in principle, possess macroscopic quantum fluctuations (MQF) in their positions, orientations, densities etc. Such MQF, however, are not observed in nature. The hypothesis is adopted that the absence of MQF is due to a certain universal mechanism. Gravitational measures were applied for reducing MQF of the mass density. This model leads to classical trajectories in the macroscopic limit of translational motion. For massive objects, unwanted macroscopic superpositions of quantum states will be destroyed within short times. (R.P.) 34 refs

  19. Feedback Gating Control for Network Based on Macroscopic Fundamental Diagram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YangBeibei Ji

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Empirical data from Yokohama, Japan, showed that a macroscopic fundamental diagram (MFD of urban traffic provides for different network regions a unimodal low-scatter relationship between network vehicle density and network space-mean flow. This provides new tools for network congestion control. Based on MFD, this paper proposed a feedback gating control policy which can be used to mitigate network congestion by adjusting signal timings of gating intersections. The objective of the feedback gating control model is to maximize the outflow and distribute the allowed inflows properly according to external demand and capacity of each gating intersection. An example network is used to test the performance of proposed feedback gating control model. Two types of background signalization types for the intersections within the test network, fixed-time and actuated control, are considered. The results of extensive simulation validate that the proposed feedback gating control model can get a Pareto improvement since the performance of both gating intersections and the whole network can be improved significantly especially under heavy demand situations. The inflows and outflows can be improved to a higher level, and the delay and queue length at all gating intersections are decreased dramatically.

  20. Adiabatic process reversibility: microscopic and macroscopic views

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anacleto, Joaquim; Pereira, Mario G

    2009-01-01

    The reversibility of adiabatic processes was recently addressed by two publications. In the first (Miranda 2008 Eur. J. Phys. 29 937-43), an equation was derived relating the initial and final volumes and temperatures for adiabatic expansions of an ideal gas, using a microscopic approach. In that relation the parameter r accounts for the process reversibility, ranging between 0 and 1, which corresponds to the free and reversible expansion, respectively. In the second (Anacleto and Pereira 2009 Eur. J. Phys. 30 177-83), the authors have shown that thermodynamics can effectively and efficiently be used to obtain the general law for adiabatic processes carried out by an ideal gas, including compressions, for which r≥1. The present work integrates and extends the aforementioned studies, providing thus further insights into the analysis of the adiabatic process. It is shown that Miranda's work is wholly valid for compressions. In addition, it is demonstrated that the adiabatic reversibility coefficient given in terms of the piston velocity and the root mean square velocity of the gas particles is equivalent to the macroscopic description, given just by the quotient between surroundings and system pressure values. (letters and comments)

  1. Theory of superfluidity macroscopic quantum waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ventura, I.

    1978-10-01

    A new description of superfluidity is proposed, based upon the fact that Bogoliubov's theory of superfluidity exhibits some so far unsuspected macroscopic quantum waves (MQWs), which have a topological nature and travel within the fluid at subsonic velocities. To quantize the bounded quasi-particles the field theoretic version of the Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization rule, is employed and also resort to a variational computation. In an instantaneous configuration the MQWs cut the condensate into blocks of phase, providing, by analogy with ferromagnetism, a nice explanation of what could be the lambda-transition. A crude estimate of the critical temperature gives T sub(c) approximately equal to 2-4K. An attempt is made to understand Tisza's two-fluid model in terms of the MQWs, and we rise the conjecture that they play an important role in the motion of second. We present also a qualitative prediction concerning to the behavior of the 'phononroton' peak below 1.0K, and propose two experiments to look for MQWs [pt

  2. Investigation of dissipative forces near macroscopic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, R.S.

    1982-12-01

    The interaction of classical charged particles with the fields they induce in macroscopic dielectric media is investigated. For 10- to 1000-eV electrons, the angular perturbation of the trajectory by the image potential for surface impact parameters of 50 to 100 A is shown to be of the order of 0.001 rads over a distance of 100 A. The energy loss incurred by low-energy particles due to collective excitations such as surface plasmons is shown to be observable with a transition probability of 0.01 to 0.001 (Becker, et al., 1981b). The dispersion of real surface plasmon modes in planar and cylindrical geometries is discussed and is derived for pinhole geometry described in terms of a single-sheeted hyperboloid of revolution. An experimental apparatus for the measurement of collective losses for medium-energy electrons translating close to a dielectric surface is described and discussed. Data showing such losses at electron energies of 500 to 900 eV in silver foils containing many small apertures are presented and shown to be in good agreement with classical stopping power calculations and quantum mechanical calculations carried out in the low-velocity limit. The data and calculations are compared and contrasted with earlier transmission and reflection measurements, and the course of further investigation is discussed

  3. The Proell Effect: A Macroscopic Maxwell's Demon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauen, Kenneth M.

    2011-12-01

    Maxwell's Demon is a legitimate challenge to the Second Law of Thermodynamics when the "demon" is executed via the Proell effect. Thermal energy transfer according to the Kinetic Theory of Heat and Statistical Mechanics that takes place over distances greater than the mean free path of a gas circumvents the microscopic randomness that leads to macroscopic irreversibility. No information is required to sort the particles as no sorting occurs; the entire volume of gas undergoes the same transition. The Proell effect achieves quasi-spontaneous thermal separation without sorting by the perturbation of a heterogeneous constant volume system with displacement and regeneration. The classical analysis of the constant volume process, such as found in the Stirling Cycle, is incomplete and therefore incorrect. There are extra energy flows that classical thermo does not recognize. When a working fluid is displaced across a regenerator with a temperature gradient in a constant volume system, complimentary compression and expansion work takes place that transfers energy between the regenerator and the bulk gas volumes of the hot and cold sides of the constant volume system. Heat capacity at constant pressure applies instead of heat capacity at constant volume. The resultant increase in calculated, recyclable energy allows the Carnot Limit to be exceeded in certain cycles. Super-Carnot heat engines and heat pumps have been designed and a US patent has been awarded.

  4. Classical behaviour of macroscopic bodies and quantum measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghirardi, G.; Rimini, A.; Weber, T.

    1986-01-01

    This report describes a recent attempt of giving a consistent and unified description of microscopic and macroscopic phenomena. The model presented in this paper exhibits the nice features of leaving unaltered the quantum description of microsystems and of accounting for the classical behaviour of the macroscopic objects when their dynamical evolution is consistently deduced from the dynamics of their elementary constituents

  5. Macroscopic quantum tunnelling in a current biased Josephson junction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinis, J.M.; Devoret, M.H.; Clarke, J.; Urbina, C.

    1984-11-01

    We discuss in this work an attempt to answer experimentally the question: do macroscopic variables obey quantum mechanics. More precisely, this experiment deals with the question of quantum-mechanical tunnelling of a macroscopic variable, a subject related to the famous Schrodinger's cat problem in the theory of measurement

  6. Towards a theory of macroscopic gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zalaletdinov, R.M.

    1993-01-01

    By averaging out Cartan's structure equations for a four-dimensional Riemannian space over space regions, the structure equations for the averaged space have been derived with the procedure being valid on an arbitrary Riemannian space. The averaged space is characterized by a metric, Riemannian and non-Riemannian curvature 2-forms, and correlation 2-, 3- and 4-forms, an affine deformation 1-form being due to the non-metricity of one of two connection 1-forms. Using the procedure for the space-time averaging of the Einstein equations produces the averaged ones with the terms of geometric correction by the correlation tensors. The equations of motion for averaged energy momentum, obtained by averaging out the coritracted Bianchi identifies, also include such terms. Considering the gravitational induction tensor to be the Riemannian curvature tensor (the non-Riemannian one is then the field tensor), a theorem is proved which relates the algebraic structure of the averaged microscopic metric to that of the induction tensor. It is shown that the averaged Einstein equations can be put in the form of the Einstein equations with the conserved macroscopic energy-momentum tensor of a definite structure including the correlation functions. By using the high-frequency approximation of Isaacson with second-order correction to the microscopic metric, the self-consistency and compatibility of the equations and relations obtained are shown. Macrovacuum turns out to be Ricci non-flat, the macrovacuum source being defined in terms of the correlation functions. In the high-frequency limit the equations are shown to become Isaacson's ones with the macrovacuum source becoming Isaacson's stress tensor for gravitational waves. 17 refs

  7. On creating macroscopically identical granular systems with different numbers of particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meer, Devaraj; Rivas, Nicolas

    2015-11-01

    One of the fundamental differences between granular and molecular hydrodynamics is the enormous difference in the total number of constituents. The small number of particles implies that the role of fluctuations in granular dynamics is of paramount importance. To obtain more insight in these fluctuations, we investigate to what extent it is possible to create identical granular hydrodynamic states with different number of particles. A definition is given of macroscopically equivalent systems, and the dependency of the conservation equations on the particle size is studied. We show that, in certain cases, and by appropriately scaling the microscopic variables, we are able to compare systems with significantly different number of particles that present the same macroscopic phenomenology. We apply these scalings in simulations of a vertically vibrated system, namely the density inverted granular Leidenfrost state and its transition to a buoyancy-driven convective state.

  8. Reducing the item number to obtain the same-length self-assessment scales: a systematic approach using result of graphical loglinear rasch models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tine; Kreiner, Svend

    2011-01-01

    The Revised Danish Learning Styles Inventory (R-D-LSI) (Nielsen 2005), which is an adaptation of Sternberg- Wagner Thinking Styles Inventory (Sternberg, 1997), comprises 14 subscales, each measuring a separate learning style. Of these 14 subscales, 9 are eight items long and 5 are seven items long...... Inventory (D-SA-LSI) comprising 14 subscales each with an item length of seven. The systematic approach to item reduction based on results of GLLRM will be presented and exemplified by its application to the R-D-LSI....

  9. Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scales are a visible peeling or flaking of outer skin layers. These layers are called the stratum ... Scales may be caused by dry skin, certain inflammatory skin conditions, or infections. Examples of disorders that ...

  10. Local and Macroscopic Properties of Stripe Ordered Conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kivelson, Steven A.

    2011-01-01

    The tendency of many strongly correlated electron systems to form locally inhomogeneous structures is now well established. This introduces new emergent length scales into the electronic structure. In the research supported by this grant, we examined some of the consequences of this new length scale. In particular, we showed that in the limit where the inhomogeneous structures are strong and of certain forms (we considered a checkerboard lattice as a concrete example), it is possible to examine how strong repulsive interactions give rise to a substantial superconducting pairing scale. Interestingly, even though the interactions are purely repulsive, there is a crossover as a function of U, much like the one that occurs in the attractive Hubbard model, from a region with relatively strong pairing, but with a small Tc due to the small superfluid stiffness, to a region with in which Tc tends to zero as the pairing scale vanishes. However, in contrast to the attractive model, in the repulsive checkerboard model, the pairing scale vanishes at a finite critical value of U=Uc, where the superfluid stiffness is largest, and drops with decreasing U. The other point of contrast is that the superconducting state has d-wave symmetry for the repulsive model.

  11. Correlation length estimation in a polycrystalline material model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonovski, I.; Cizelj, L.

    2005-01-01

    This paper deals with the correlation length estimated from a mesoscopic model of a polycrystalline material. The correlation length can be used in some macroscopic material models as a material parameter that describes the internal length. It can be estimated directly from the strain and stress fields calculated from a finite-element model, which explicitly accounts for the selected mesoscopic features such as the random orientation, shape and size of the grains. A crystal plasticity material model was applied in the finite-element analysis. Different correlation lengths were obtained depending on the used set of crystallographic orientations. We determined that the different sets of crystallographic orientations affect the general level of the correlation length, however, as the external load is increased the behaviour of correlation length is similar in all the analyzed cases. The correlation lengths also changed with the macroscopic load. If the load is below the yield strength the correlation lengths are constant, and are slightly higher than the average grain size. The correlation length can therefore be considered as an indicator of first plastic deformations in the material. Increasing the load above the yield strength creates shear bands that temporarily increase the values of the correlation lengths calculated from the strain fields. With a further load increase the correlation lengths decrease slightly but stay above the average grain size. (author)

  12. Large-scale analysis of full-length cDNAs from the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) cultivar Micro-Tom, a reference system for the Solanaceae genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Koh; Yano, Kentaro; Suzuki, Ayako; Kawamura, Shingo; Sakurai, Nozomu; Suda, Kunihiro; Kurabayashi, Atsushi; Suzuki, Tatsuya; Tsugane, Taneaki; Watanabe, Manabu; Ooga, Kazuhide; Torii, Maiko; Narita, Takanori; Shin-I, Tadasu; Kohara, Yuji; Yamamoto, Naoki; Takahashi, Hideki; Watanabe, Yuichiro; Egusa, Mayumi; Kodama, Motoichiro; Ichinose, Yuki; Kikuchi, Mari; Fukushima, Sumire; Okabe, Akiko; Arie, Tsutomu; Sato, Yuko; Yazawa, Katsumi; Satoh, Shinobu; Omura, Toshikazu; Ezura, Hiroshi; Shibata, Daisuke

    2010-03-30

    The Solanaceae family includes several economically important vegetable crops. The tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is regarded as a model plant of the Solanaceae family. Recently, a number of tomato resources have been developed in parallel with the ongoing tomato genome sequencing project. In particular, a miniature cultivar, Micro-Tom, is regarded as a model system in tomato genomics, and a number of genomics resources in the Micro-Tom-background, such as ESTs and mutagenized lines, have been established by an international alliance. To accelerate the progress in tomato genomics, we developed a collection of fully-sequenced 13,227 Micro-Tom full-length cDNAs. By checking redundant sequences, coding sequences, and chimeric sequences, a set of 11,502 non-redundant full-length cDNAs (nrFLcDNAs) was generated. Analysis of untranslated regions demonstrated that tomato has longer 5'- and 3'-untranslated regions than most other plants but rice. Classification of functions of proteins predicted from the coding sequences demonstrated that nrFLcDNAs covered a broad range of functions. A comparison of nrFLcDNAs with genes of sixteen plants facilitated the identification of tomato genes that are not found in other plants, most of which did not have known protein domains. Mapping of the nrFLcDNAs onto currently available tomato genome sequences facilitated prediction of exon-intron structure. Introns of tomato genes were longer than those of Arabidopsis and rice. According to a comparison of exon sequences between the nrFLcDNAs and the tomato genome sequences, the frequency of nucleotide mismatch in exons between Micro-Tom and the genome-sequencing cultivar (Heinz 1706) was estimated to be 0.061%. The collection of Micro-Tom nrFLcDNAs generated in this study will serve as a valuable genomic tool for plant biologists to bridge the gap between basic and applied studies. The nrFLcDNA sequences will help annotation of the tomato whole-genome sequence and aid in tomato functional

  13. Large-scale analysis of full-length cDNAs from the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum cultivar Micro-Tom, a reference system for the Solanaceae genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kikuchi Mari

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Solanaceae family includes several economically important vegetable crops. The tomato (Solanum lycopersicum is regarded as a model plant of the Solanaceae family. Recently, a number of tomato resources have been developed in parallel with the ongoing tomato genome sequencing project. In particular, a miniature cultivar, Micro-Tom, is regarded as a model system in tomato genomics, and a number of genomics resources in the Micro-Tom-background, such as ESTs and mutagenized lines, have been established by an international alliance. Results To accelerate the progress in tomato genomics, we developed a collection of fully-sequenced 13,227 Micro-Tom full-length cDNAs. By checking redundant sequences, coding sequences, and chimeric sequences, a set of 11,502 non-redundant full-length cDNAs (nrFLcDNAs was generated. Analysis of untranslated regions demonstrated that tomato has longer 5'- and 3'-untranslated regions than most other plants but rice. Classification of functions of proteins predicted from the coding sequences demonstrated that nrFLcDNAs covered a broad range of functions. A comparison of nrFLcDNAs with genes of sixteen plants facilitated the identification of tomato genes that are not found in other plants, most of which did not have known protein domains. Mapping of the nrFLcDNAs onto currently available tomato genome sequences facilitated prediction of exon-intron structure. Introns of tomato genes were longer than those of Arabidopsis and rice. According to a comparison of exon sequences between the nrFLcDNAs and the tomato genome sequences, the frequency of nucleotide mismatch in exons between Micro-Tom and the genome-sequencing cultivar (Heinz 1706 was estimated to be 0.061%. Conclusion The collection of Micro-Tom nrFLcDNAs generated in this study will serve as a valuable genomic tool for plant biologists to bridge the gap between basic and applied studies. The nrFLcDNA sequences will help annotation of the

  14. Thermal activation and macroscopic quantum tunneling in a DC SQUID

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharifi, F.; Gavilano, J.L.; VanHarlingen, D.J.

    1989-01-01

    The authors report measurements of the transition rate from metastable minima in the two-dimensional 1 of a dc SQUID as a function of applied flux temperature. The authors observe a crossover from energy-activated escape to macroscopic quantum tunneling at a critical temperature. The macroscopic quantum tunneling rate is substantially reduced by damping, and also broadens the crossover region. Most interestingly, the authors observe thermal rates that are suppressed from those predicted by the two-dimensional thermal activation model. The authors discuss possible explanations for this based on the interaction of the macroscopic degree of freedom in the device and energy level effects

  15. Macroscopic objects in quantum mechanics: A combinatorial approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitowsky, Itamar

    2004-01-01

    Why do we not see large macroscopic objects in entangled states? There are two ways to approach this question. The first is dynamic. The coupling of a large object to its environment cause any entanglement to decrease considerably. The second approach, which is discussed in this paper, puts the stress on the difficulty of observing a large-scale entanglement. As the number of particles n grows we need an ever more precise knowledge of the state and an ever more carefully designed experiment, in order to recognize entanglement. To develop this point we consider a family of observables, called witnesses, which are designed to detect entanglement. A witness W distinguishes all the separable (unentangled) states from some entangled states. If we normalize the witness W to satisfy tr(Wρ)≤1 for all separable states ρ, then the efficiency of W depends on the size of its maximal eigenvalue in absolute value; that is, its operator norm parallel W parallel . It is known that there are witnesses on the space of n qubits for which parallel W parallel is exponential in n. However, we conjecture that for a large majority of n-qubit witnesses parallel W parallel ≤O(√(n log n)). Thus, in a nonideal measurement, which includes errors, the largest eigenvalue of a typical witness lies below the threshold of detection. We prove this conjecture for the family of extremal witnesses introduced by Werner and Wolf [Phys. Rev. A 64, 032112 (2001)

  16. Zero time tunneling: macroscopic experiments with virtual particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nimtz Günter

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Feynman introduced virtual particles in his diagrams as intermediate states of an interaction process. They represent necessary intermediate states between observable real states. Such virtual particles were introduced to describe the interaction process between an electron and a positron and for much more complicated interaction processes. Other candidates for virtual particles are evanescent modes in optics and in elastic fields. Evanescent modes have a purely imaginary wave number, they represent the mathematical analogy of the tunneling solutions of the Schrödinger equation. Evanescent modes exist in the forbidden frequency bands of a photonic lattice and in undersized wave guides, for instance. The most prominent example for the occurrence of evanescent modes is the frustrated total internal reflection (FTIR at double prisms. Evanescent modes and tunneling lie outside the bounds of the special theory of relativity. They can cause faster than light (FTL signal velocities. We present examples of the quantum mechanical behavior of evanescent photons and phonons at a macroscopic scale. The evanescent modes of photons are described by virtual particles as predicted by former QED calculations.

  17. The universe as an ultimate macroscopic quantum phenomenon?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Bei-Lok

    2005-01-01

    Full text: We explore two unconventional proposals on the meaning of quantum gravity and the quantum properties of spacetime. The first is an older proposal of mine that general relativity is the hydrodynamic limit of some fundamental theories of the microscopic structure of spacetime and matter, a more specific derivative of the idea of Sakharov. The latter is a more recent thought of mine on the possibility that spacetime is a condensate (Bose or Fermi). These proposals have implications radically different from the conventional views. For the former, spacetime described by a differentiable manifold is regarded as an emergent entity and the metric or connection forms are collective variables valid only at the low energy, long wavelength limit of the micro-theories of spacetime and matter. This view would render irrelevant the traditional efforts to find ways to quantize general relativity, because it would only give us the equivalent of phonon physics, not a theory of electrons or photons, QED. In the second proposal, even without the knowledge of what the 'atom of spacetime' is, the mere thought that spacetime at all energies below the Planck scale, including today's, is quantum rather than classical, has many challenging consequences. We discuss the implications of this view pertaining to issues in gravitation and cosmology, as well as to macroscopic quantum coherence phenomena. (author)

  18. Theory and feasibility tests for a seismic scanning tunnelling macroscope

    KAUST Repository

    Schuster, Gerard T.

    2012-09-01

    We propose a seismic scanning tunnelling macroscope (SSTM) that can detect subwavelength scatterers in the near-field of either the source or the receivers. Analytic formulas for the time reverse mirror (TRM) profile associated with a single scatterer model show that the spatial resolution limit to be, unlike the Abbe limit of λ/2, independent of wavelength and linearly proportional to the source-scatterer separation as long as the scatterer is in the near-field region. This means that, as the scatterer approaches the source, imaging of the scatterer with super-resolution can be achieved. Acoustic and elastic simulations support this concept, and a seismic experiment in an Arizona tunnel shows a TRM profile with super-resolution adjacent to the fault location. The SSTM is analogous to the optical scanning tunnelling microscopes having subwavelength resolution. Scaled to seismic frequencies, it is theoretically possible to extract 100 Hz information from 20 Hz data by the imaging of near-field seismic energy.

  19. Generation and analysis of large-scale expressed sequence tags (ESTs from a full-length enriched cDNA library of porcine backfat tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Hae-Young

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome research in farm animals will expand our basic knowledge of the genetic control of complex traits, and the results will be applied in the livestock industry to improve meat quality and productivity, as well as to reduce the incidence of disease. A combination of quantitative trait locus mapping and microarray analysis is a useful approach to reduce the overall effort needed to identify genes associated with quantitative traits of interest. Results We constructed a full-length enriched cDNA library from porcine backfat tissue. The estimated average size of the cDNA inserts was 1.7 kb, and the cDNA fullness ratio was 70%. In total, we deposited 16,110 high-quality sequences in the dbEST division of GenBank (accession numbers: DT319652-DT335761. For all the expressed sequence tags (ESTs, approximately 10.9 Mb of porcine sequence were generated with an average length of 674 bp per EST (range: 200–952 bp. Clustering and assembly of these ESTs resulted in a total of 5,008 unique sequences with 1,776 contigs (35.46% and 3,232 singleton (65.54% ESTs. From a total of 5,008 unique sequences, 3,154 (62.98% were similar to other sequences, and 1,854 (37.02% were identified as having no hit or low identity (Sus scrofa. Gene ontology (GO annotation of unique sequences showed that approximately 31.7, 32.3, and 30.8% were assigned molecular function, biological process, and cellular component GO terms, respectively. A total of 1,854 putative novel transcripts resulted after comparison and filtering with the TIGR SsGI; these included a large percentage of singletons (80.64% and a small proportion of contigs (13.36%. Conclusion The sequence data generated in this study will provide valuable information for studying expression profiles using EST-based microarrays and assist in the condensation of current pig TCs into clusters representing longer stretches of cDNA sequences. The isolation of genes expressed in backfat tissue is the

  20. Measurement-Induced Macroscopic Superposition States in Cavity Optomechanics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoff, Ulrich Busk; Kollath-Bönig, Johann; Neergaard-Nielsen, Jonas Schou

    2016-01-01

    A novel protocol for generating quantum superpositions of macroscopically distinct states of a bulk mechanical oscillator is proposed, compatible with existing optomechanical devices operating in the bad-cavity limit. By combining a pulsed optomechanical quantum nondemolition (QND) interaction...

  1. Thermodynamical properties and thermoelastic coupling of complex macroscopic structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabbri, M.; Sacripanti, A.

    1996-11-01

    Gross qualitative/quantitative analysis about thermodynamical properties and thermoelastic coupling (or elastocaloric effect) of complex macroscopic structure (running shoes) is performed by infrared camera. The experimental results showed the achievability of a n industrial research project

  2. Single-Phase Bundle Flows Including Macroscopic Turbulence Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Jun; Yoon, Han Young [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Seok Jong; Cho, Hyoung Kyu [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    To deal with various thermal hydraulic phenomena due to rapid change of fluid properties when an accident happens, securing mechanistic approaches as much as possible may reduce the uncertainty arising from improper applications of the experimental models. In this study, the turbulence mixing model, which is well defined in the subchannel analysis code such as VIPRE, COBRA, and MATRA by experiments, is replaced by a macroscopic k-e turbulence model, which represents the aspect of mathematical derivation. The performance of CUPID with macroscopic turbulence model is validated against several bundle experiments: CNEN 4x4 and PNL 7x7 rod bundle tests. In this study, the macroscopic k-e model has been validated for the application to subchannel analysis. It has been implemented in the CUPID code and validated against CNEN 4x4 and PNL 7x7 rod bundle tests. The results showed that the macroscopic k-e turbulence model can estimate the experiments properly.

  3. A two-dimensional analysis of the sensitivity of a pulse first break to wave speed contrast on a scale below the resolution length of ray tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willey, Carson L; Simonetti, Francesco

    2016-06-01

    Mapping the speed of mechanical waves traveling inside a medium is a topic of great interest across many fields from geoscience to medical diagnostics. Much work has been done to characterize the fidelity with which the geometrical features of the medium can be reconstructed and multiple resolution criteria have been proposed depending on the wave-matter interaction model used to decode the wave speed map from scattering measurements. However, these criteria do not define the accuracy with which the wave speed values can be reconstructed. Using two-dimensional simulations, it is shown that the first-arrival traveltime predicted by ray theory can be an accurate representation of the arrival of a pulse first break even in the presence of diffraction and other phenomena that are not accounted for by ray theory. As a result, ray-based tomographic inversions can yield accurate wave speed estimations also when the size of a sound speed anomaly is smaller than the resolution length of the inversion method provided that traveltimes are estimated from the signal first break. This increased sensitivity however renders the inversion more susceptible to noise since the amplitude of the signal around the first break is typically low especially when three-dimensional anomalies are considered.

  4. Micro- and macroscopic photonic control of matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryabtsev, Anton

    parameters. In order for measurements not to be skewed, these interactions need to be taken into account and mitigated at the time of the experiment or handled later in data analysis and simulations. Experimental results are presented in four chapters. Chapter 2 describes two topics: (1) single-shot real-time monitoring and correction of spectral phase drifts, which commonly originate from temperature and pointing fluctuations inside the laser cavity when the pulses are generated; (2) an all-optical method for controlling the dispersion of femtosecond pulses using other pulses. Chapter 3 focuses on the effects of the propagation media--how intense laser pulses modify media and how, in turn, the media modifies them back--and how these effects can be counteracted. Self-action effects in fused silica are discussed, along with some interesting and unexpected results. A method is then proposed for mitigating self-action processes using binary modulation of the spectral phases of laser pulses. Chapter 4 outlines the design of two laser systems, which are specifically tailored for particular spectroscopic applications and incorporate the comprehensive pulse control described in previous chapters. Chapter 5 shows how control of spatial beam characteristics can be applied to measurements of the mechanical motion of microscale particles and how it can potentially be applied to molecular motion. It also describes an experiment on laser-induced flow in air in which attempts were made to control the macroscopic molecular rotation of gases. My research, with a pulse shaper as the enabling tool, provides important insights into ultrafast scientific studies by making femtosecond laser research more predictable, reliable and practical for measurement and control. In the long term, some of the research methods in this thesis may help the transition of femtosecond lasers from the laboratory environment into clinics, factories, airports, and other everyday settings.

  5. Arsenic distribution and valence state variation studied by fast hierarchical length-scale morphological, compositional, and speciation imaging at the Nanoscopium, Synchrotron Soleil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somogyi, Andrea; Medjoubi, Kadda; Sancho-Tomas, Maria; Visscher, P. T.; Baranton, Gil; Philippot, Pascal

    2017-09-01

    The understanding of real complex geological, environmental and geo-biological processes depends increasingly on in-depth non-invasive study of chemical composition and morphology. In this paper we used scanning hard X-ray nanoprobe techniques in order to study the elemental composition, morphology and As speciation in complex highly heterogeneous geological samples. Multivariate statistical analytical techniques, such as principal component analysis and clustering were used for data interpretation. These measurements revealed the quantitative and valance state inhomogeneity of As and its relation to the total compositional and morphological variation of the sample at sub-μm scales.

  6. Experimental validation of 3D reconstructed pin-power distributions in full-scale BWR fuel assemblies with partial length rods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giust, F. D. [Axpo Kernenergie, Parkstrasse 23, CH-5401 Baden (Switzerland); Swiss Federal Inst. of Technology EPFL, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Grimm, P. [Paul Scherrer Inst., CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Chawla, R. [Paul Scherrer Inst., CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Swiss Federal Inst. of Technology (EPFL), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2012-07-01

    Total fission rate measurements have been performed on full-size BWR fuel assemblies of type SVEA-96 Optima2 in the framework of Phase III of the LWR-PROTEUS experimental program at the Paul Scherrer Inst.. This paper presents comparisons of calculated, nodal reconstructed, pin-wise total-fission rate distributions with experimental results. Radial comparisons have been performed for the three sections of the assembly (96, 92 and 84 fuel pins), while three-dimensional effects have been investigated at pellet-level for the two transition regions, i.e. the tips of the short (1/3) and long (2/3) partial length rods. The test zone has been modeled using two different code systems: HELIOS/PRESTO-2 and CASMO-5/SIMULATE-5. The first is presently used for core monitoring and design at the Leibstadt Nuclear Power Plant (KKL). The second represents the most recent generation of the widely applied CASMO/SIMULATE system. For representing the PROTEUS test-zone boundaries, Partial Current Ratios (PCRs) - derived from a 3D MCNPX model of the entire reactor - have been applied to the PRESTO-2 and SIMULATE-5 models in the form of 2- and 5-group diagonal albedo matrices, respectively. The MCNPX results have also served as a reference, high-order transport solution in the calculation/experiment comparisons. It is shown that the performance of the nodal methodologies in predicting the global distribution of the total-fission rate is very satisfactory. Considering the various radial comparisons, the standard deviations of the calculated/experimental (C/E) distributions do not exceed 1.9% for any of the three methodologies - PRESTO-2, SIMULATE-5 and MCNPX. For the three-dimensional comparisons at pellet-level, the corresponding standard deviations are 2.7%, 2.0% and 2.1%, respectively. (authors)

  7. Telomere Length and Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kimura, Masayuki; Hjelmborg, Jacob V B; Gardner, Jeffrey P

    2008-01-01

    Leukocyte telomere length, representing the mean length of all telomeres in leukocytes, is ostensibly a bioindicator of human aging. The authors hypothesized that shorter telomeres might forecast imminent mortality in elderly people better than leukocyte telomere length. They performed mortality...

  8. Macroscopic Study of the Isthmus of the Thyroid Gland in Bangladeshi People: A Postmortem Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhrul Amin Mohammad Hasanul Banna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The position and size of isthmus of thyroid gland varies considerably in human with age, sex, physiologic state, race and geographical location and sometimes the isthmus may be absent. So this study was designed to find out the macroscopic differences in isthmus of thyroid gland of different age and sex groups in Bangladeshi people. Objective: To record the macroscopic characteristics of isthmus of thyroid gland with advancing age in both sexes with a view to help establishing normal standard of Bangladeshi people. Materials and Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out on 54 autopsied human thyroid glands aged 5 to 65 years. Thyroid glands were collected from unclaimed dead bodies autopsied in the morgue of Sylhet M. A. G. Osmani Medical College, Sylhet. The collected specimens were divided into groups –– A (20 years and below, B (21 to 50 years and C (50 years and above. All specimens were examined morphologically by careful gross dissection method. Results: The isthmus was absent in 5.56% cases. In most of the cases (35.29% it was against the 1st–4th tracheal rings. There was significant difference in length between Group A and Group C (p<0.05 and in breadth between Group A and Group C and between Group B and Group C (p<0.05. No significant difference was found in length, breadth and thickness of isthmus of the thyroid gland between males and females. Conclusion: The presence or absence, positional change and variation in gross dimension of isthmus of thyroid gland were evident in human. The macroscopic difference was found with increasing age but not with sex.

  9. Quantitative macroscopic anatomy of the giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) digestive tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sauer, Cathrine; Bertelsen, Mads Frost; Lund, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative data on digestive anatomy of the world’s largest ruminant, the giraffe, are scarce. Data were collected from a total of 25 wild caught and 13 zoo housed giraffes. Anatomical measures were quantified by dimension, area or weight, and analyzed by allometric regression. The majority...... of measures scaled positively and isometrically to body mass. Giraffes had lower tissue weight of all stomach compartments and longer large intestinal length than cattle. When compared to other ruminants, the giraffe digestive tract showed many of the convergent morphological adaptations attributed...

  10. A comparison of macroscopic models describing the collective response of sedimenting rod-like particles in shear flows

    KAUST Repository

    Helzel, Christiane; Tzavaras, Athanasios

    2016-01-01

    We consider a kinetic model, which describes the sedimentation of rod-like particles in dilute suspensions under the influence of gravity, presented in Helzel and Tzavaras (submitted for publication). Here we restrict our considerations to shear flow and consider a simplified situation, where the particle orientation is restricted to the plane spanned by the direction of shear and the direction of gravity. For this simplified kinetic model we carry out a linear stability analysis and we derive two different nonlinear macroscopic models which describe the formation of clusters of higher particle density. One of these macroscopic models is based on a diffusive scaling, the other one is based on a so-called quasi-dynamic approximation. Numerical computations, which compare the predictions of the macroscopic models with the kinetic model, complete our presentation.

  11. A comparison of macroscopic models describing the collective response of sedimenting rod-like particles in shear flows

    KAUST Repository

    Helzel, Christiane

    2016-07-22

    We consider a kinetic model, which describes the sedimentation of rod-like particles in dilute suspensions under the influence of gravity, presented in Helzel and Tzavaras (submitted for publication). Here we restrict our considerations to shear flow and consider a simplified situation, where the particle orientation is restricted to the plane spanned by the direction of shear and the direction of gravity. For this simplified kinetic model we carry out a linear stability analysis and we derive two different nonlinear macroscopic models which describe the formation of clusters of higher particle density. One of these macroscopic models is based on a diffusive scaling, the other one is based on a so-called quasi-dynamic approximation. Numerical computations, which compare the predictions of the macroscopic models with the kinetic model, complete our presentation.

  12. Telomere length of anterior crucial ligament after rupture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ponsot, Elodie; Langberg, Henning; Krogsgaard, Michael R

    2011-01-01

    The regeneration of ligaments following injury is a slow process compared to the healing of many other tissues and the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the proliferative potential of ligaments by assessing telomere length within three distinct parts...... of human anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) obtained during ACL reconstruction: the macroscopically injured proximal part and macroscopically noninjured mid- and distal portions in eight subjects (age 28 ± 8 years). The mean telomere length in ACL was within normal range of values usually reported for other...... tissues indicating that the endogenous machinery responsible for the proliferative potential of ligament is not implicated in its poor healing capacity. The three ACL parts showed similar mean TRF lengths (distal part: 11.5 ± 0.8 kbp, mid-portion: 11.8 ± 1.2 kbp, proximal part: 11.9 ± 1.6 kbp...

  13. Length of a Hanging Cable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Costello

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The shape of a cable hanging under its own weight and uniform horizontal tension between two power poles is a catenary. The catenary is a curve which has an equation defined by a hyperbolic cosine function and a scaling factor. The scaling factor for power cables hanging under their own weight is equal to the horizontal tension on the cable divided by the weight of the cable. Both of these values are unknown for this problem. Newton's method was used to approximate the scaling factor and the arc length function to determine the length of the cable. A script was written using the Python programming language in order to quickly perform several iterations of Newton's method to get a good approximation for the scaling factor.

  14. Microscopic to macroscopic depletion model development for FORMOSA-P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noh, J.M.; Turinsky, P.J.; Sarsour, H.N.

    1996-01-01

    Microscopic depletion has been gaining popularity with regard to employment in reactor core nodal calculations, mainly attributed to the superiority of microscopic depletion in treating spectral history effects during depletion. Another trend is the employment of loading pattern optimization computer codes in support of reload core design. Use of such optimization codes has significantly reduced design efforts to optimize reload core loading patterns associated with increasingly complicated lattice designs. A microscopic depletion model has been developed for the FORMOSA-P pressurized water reactor (PWR) loading pattern optimization code. This was done for both fidelity improvements and to make FORMOSA-P compatible with microscopic-based nuclear design methods. Needless to say, microscopic depletion requires more computational effort compared with macroscopic depletion. This implies that microscopic depletion may be computationally restrictive if employed during the loading pattern optimization calculation because many loading patterns are examined during the course of an optimization search. Therefore, the microscopic depletion model developed here uses combined models of microscopic and macroscopic depletion. This is done by first performing microscopic depletions for a subset of possible loading patterns from which 'collapsed' macroscopic cross sections are obtained. The collapsed macroscopic cross sections inherently incorporate spectral history effects. Subsequently, the optimization calculations are done using the collapsed macroscopic cross sections. Using this approach allows maintenance of microscopic depletion level accuracy without substantial additional computing resources

  15. A constitutive model and numerical simulation of sintering processes at macroscopic level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wawrzyk, Krzysztof; Kowalczyk, Piotr; Nosewicz, Szymon; Rojek, Jerzy

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents modelling of both single and double-phase powder sintering processes at the macroscopic level. In particular, its constitutive formulation, numerical implementation and numerical tests are described. The macroscopic constitutive model is based on the assumption that the sintered material is a continuous medium. The parameters of the constitutive model for material under sintering are determined by simulation of sintering at the microscopic level using a micro-scale model. Numerical tests were carried out for a cylindrical specimen under hydrostatic and uniaxial pressure. Results of macroscopic analysis are compared against the microscopic model results. Moreover, numerical simulations are validated by comparison with experimental results. The simulations and preparation of the model are carried out by Abaqus FEA - a software for finite element analysis and computer-aided engineering. A mechanical model is defined by the user procedure "Vumat" which is developed by the first author in Fortran programming language. Modelling presented in the paper can be used to optimize and to better understand the process.

  16. Microscopic and Macroscopic Structures of Carbon Nanotubes Produced by Pyrolysis of Iron Phthalocyanine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Shaoming; Dai Liming

    2002-01-01

    By pyrolysis of iron phthalocyanine (FePc), either in a patterned or non-patterned fashion, under an Ar/H 2 atmosphere, we have demonstrated the large-scale production of aligned carbon nanotubes perpendicular to the substrate surface useful for building devices with three-dimensional structures. Depending on the particular pyrolytic conditions used, carbon nanotubes with a wide range of microscopic structures having curved, helical, coiled, branched, and tube-within-tube shapes have also been prepared by the pyrolysis of FePc. This, coupled with several microfabrication methods (photolithography, soft-lithography, self-assembling, micro-contact transfer, etc.), has enabled us to produce carbon nanotube arrays of various macroscopic architectures including polyhedral, flower-like, dendritic, circular, multilayered, and micropatterned geometries. In this article, we summarize our work on the preparation of FePc-generated carbon nanotubes with the large variety of microscopic and macroscopic structures and give a brief overview on the perspectives of making carbon nanotubes with tailor-made microscopic/macroscopic structures, and hence well-defined physicochemical properties, for specific applications

  17. Scaling strength distributions in quasi-brittle materials from micro-to macro-scales: A computational approach to modeling Nature-inspired structural ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genet, Martin; Couegnat, Guillaume; Tomsia, Antoni P.; Ritchie, Robert O.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to predict the strength distribution of quasi-brittle materials across multiple length-scales, with emphasis on Nature-inspired ceramic structures. It permits the computation of the failure probability of any structure under any mechanical load, solely based on considerations of the microstructure and its failure properties by naturally incorporating the statistical and size-dependent aspects of failure. We overcome the intrinsic limitations of single periodic unit-based approaches by computing the successive failures of the material components and associated stress redistributions on arbitrary numbers of periodic units. For large size samples, the microscopic cells are replaced by a homogenized continuum with equivalent stochastic and damaged constitutive behavior. After establishing the predictive capabilities of the method, and illustrating its potential relevance to several engineering problems, we employ it in the study of the shape and scaling of strength distributions across differing length-scales for a particular quasi-brittle system. We find that the strength distributions display a Weibull form for samples of size approaching the periodic unit; however, these distributions become closer to normal with further increase in sample size before finally reverting to a Weibull form for macroscopic sized samples. In terms of scaling, we find that the weakest link scaling applies only to microscopic, and not macroscopic scale, samples. These findings are discussed in relation to failure patterns computed at different size-scales. (authors)

  18. Extended Macroscopic Study of Dilute Gas Flow within a Microcavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Hssikou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The behaviour of monatomic and dilute gas is studied in the slip and early transition regimes using the extended macroscopic theory. The gas is confined within a two-dimensional microcavity where the longitudinal sides are in the opposite motion with constant velocity ±Uw. The microcavity walls are kept at the uniform and reference temperature T0. Thus, the gas flow is transported only by the shear stress induced by the motion of upper and lower walls. From the macroscopic point of view, the regularized 13-moment equations of Grad, R13, are solved numerically. The macroscopic gas proprieties are studied for different values of the so-called Knudsen number (Kn, which gives the gas-rarefaction degree. The results are compared with those obtained using the classical continuum theory of Navier-Stokes and Fourier (NSF.

  19. Bell-inequality tests with macroscopic entangled states of light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stobinska, M. [Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light, Erlangen (Germany); Institute for Theoretical Physics II, Erlangen-Nuernberg University, Erlangen (Germany); Sekatski, P.; Gisin, N. [Group of Applied Physics, University of Geneva, Geneva (Switzerland); Buraczewski, A. [Faculty of Electronics and Information Technology, Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw (Poland); Leuchs, G. [Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light, Erlangen (Germany); Institute for Optics, Information and Photonics, Erlangen-Nuernberg University, Erlangen (Germany)

    2011-09-15

    Quantum correlations may violate the Bell inequalities. Most experimental schemes confirming this prediction have been realized in all-optical Bell tests suffering from the detection loophole. Experiments which simultaneously close this loophole and the locality loophole are highly desirable and remain challenging. An approach to loophole-free Bell tests is based on amplification of the entangled photons (i.e., on macroscopic entanglement), for which an optical signal should be easy to detect. However, the macroscopic states are partially indistinguishable by classical detectors. An interesting idea to overcome these limitations is to replace the postselection by an appropriate preselection immediately after the amplification. This is in the spirit of state preprocessing revealing hidden nonlocality. Here, we examine one of the possible preselections, but the presented tools can be used for analysis of other schemes. Filtering methods making the macroscopic entanglement useful for Bell tests and quantum protocols are the subject of an intensive study in the field nowadays.

  20. Decoherence bypass of macroscopic superpositions in quantum measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spehner, Dominique; Haake, Fritz

    2008-01-01

    We study a class of quantum measurement models. A microscopic object is entangled with a macroscopic pointer such that a distinct pointer position is tied to each eigenvalue of the measured object observable. Those different pointer positions mutually decohere under the influence of an environment. Overcoming limitations of previous approaches we (i) cope with initial correlations between pointer and environment by considering them initially in a metastable local thermal equilibrium, (ii) allow for object-pointer entanglement and environment-induced decoherence of distinct pointer readouts to proceed simultaneously, such that mixtures of macroscopically distinct object-pointer product states arise without intervening macroscopic superpositions, and (iii) go beyond the Markovian treatment of decoherence. (fast track communication)

  1. Macroscopic quantum systems and gravitational phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pikovski, I.

    2014-01-01

    Low-energy quantum systems are studied theoretically in light of possible experiments to test the interplay between quantum theory and general relativity. The research focus in this thesis is on quantum systems which can be controlled with very high precision and which allow for tests of quantum theory at novel scales in terms of mass and size. The pulsed regime of opto-mechanics is explored and it is shown how short optical pulses can be used to prepare and characterize quantum states of a massive mechanical resonator, and how some phenomenological models of quantum gravity can be probed. In addition, quantum interferometry with photons and matter-waves in the presence of gravitational time dilation is considered. It is shown that time dilation causes entanglement between internal states and the center-of-mass position and that it leads to decoherence of all composite quantum systems. The results of the thesis show that the interplay between quantum theory and general relativity affects even low-energy quantum systems and that it offers novel phenomena which can be probed in experiments. (author) [de

  2. Build-up of macroscopic eigenstates in a memory-based constrained system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labousse, M; Perrard, S; Couder, Y; Fort, E

    2014-01-01

    A bouncing drop and its associated accompanying wave forms a walker. Based on previous works, we show in this article that it is possible to formulate a simple theoretical framework for the walker dynamics. It relies on a time scale decomposition corresponding to the effects successively generated when the memory effects increase. While the short time scale effect is simply responsible for the walker's propulsion, the intermediate scale generates spontaneously pivotal structures endowed with angular momentum. At an even larger memory scale, if the walker is spatially confined, the pivots become the building blocks of a self-organization into a global structure. This new theoretical framework is applied in the presence of an external harmonic potential, and reveals the underlying mechanisms leading to the emergence of the macroscopic spatial organization reported by Perrard et al (2014 Nature Commun. 5 3219). (paper)

  3. Time scales of supercooled water and implications for reversible polyamorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limmer, David T.; Chandler, David

    2015-09-01

    Deeply supercooled water exhibits complex dynamics with large density fluctuations, ice coarsening and characteristic time scales extending from picoseconds to milliseconds. Here, we discuss implications of these time scales as they pertain to two-phase coexistence and to molecular simulations of supercooled water. Specifically, we argue that it is possible to discount liquid-liquid criticality because the time scales imply that correlation lengths for such behaviour would be bounded by no more than a few nanometres. Similarly, it is possible to discount two-liquid coexistence because the time scales imply a bounded interfacial free energy that cannot grow in proportion to a macroscopic surface area. From time scales alone, therefore, we see that coexisting domains of differing density in supercooled water can be no more than nanoscale transient fluctuations.

  4. Statistical thermodynamics understanding the properties of macroscopic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Fai, Lukong Cornelius

    2012-01-01

    Basic Principles of Statistical PhysicsMicroscopic and Macroscopic Description of StatesBasic PostulatesGibbs Ergodic AssumptionGibbsian EnsemblesExperimental Basis of Statistical MechanicsDefinition of Expectation ValuesErgodic Principle and Expectation ValuesProperties of Distribution FunctionRelative Fluctuation of an Additive Macroscopic ParameterLiouville TheoremGibbs Microcanonical EnsembleMicrocanonical Distribution in Quantum MechanicsDensity MatrixDensity Matrix in Energy RepresentationEntropyThermodynamic FunctionsTemperatureAdiabatic ProcessesPressureThermodynamic IdentityLaws of Th

  5. Macroscopic and radiographic examination of proximal root surface caries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordenram, G.; Bergvist, A.; Johnson, G.; Henriksen, C.O.; Anneroth, G.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare macroscopic and radiographic examination of proximal root surface caries of extracted teeth from patients aged 65-95 years. Although the study conditions for macroscopic and radiographic diagnosis favored more sensitive evaluations than routine clinical conditions, there was a 24% disagreement in diagnosis. This finding indicates that under routine clinical conditions it is difficult to register with certainty all superficial root carious lesions. Even in the absence of clinically detectable root surface caries, preventive measures should be considered for elderly people with exposed root surfaces

  6. Multi-scale modeling of composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azizi, Reza

    A general method to obtain the homogenized response of metal-matrix composites is developed. It is assumed that the microscopic scale is sufficiently small compared to the macroscopic scale such that the macro response does not affect the micromechanical model. Therefore, the microscopic scale......-Mandel’s energy principle is used to find macroscopic operators based on micro-mechanical analyses using the finite element method under generalized plane strain condition. A phenomenologically macroscopic model for metal matrix composites is developed based on constitutive operators describing the elastic...... to plastic deformation. The macroscopic operators found, can be used to model metal matrix composites on the macroscopic scale using a hierarchical multi-scale approach. Finally, decohesion under tension and shear loading is studied using a cohesive law for the interface between matrix and fiber....

  7. On the inherent self-excited macroscopic randomness of chaotic three-body system

    OpenAIRE

    Liao, Shijun; Li, Xiaoming

    2014-01-01

    What is the origin of macroscopic randomness (uncertainty)? This is one of the most fundamental open questions for human being. In this paper, 10000 samples of reliable (convergent), multiple-scale (from 1.0E-60 to 100) numerical simulations of a chaotic three-body system indicate that, without any external disturbance, the microscopic inherent uncertainty (in the level of 1.0E-60) due to physical fluctuation of initial positions of the three-body system enlarges exponentially into macroscopi...

  8. Chromosome length scaling in haploid, asexual reproduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, P M C de

    2007-01-01

    We study the genetic behaviour of a population formed by haploid individuals which reproduce asexually. The genetic information for each individual is stored along a bit-string (or chromosome) with L bits, where 0-bits represent the wild allele and 1-bits correspond to harmful mutations. Each newborn inherits this chromosome from its parent with a few random mutations: on average a fixed number m of bits are flipped. Selection is implemented according to the number N of 1-bits counted along the individual's chromosome: the smaller N the higher the probability an individual has to survive a new time step. Such a population evolves, with births and deaths, and its genetic distribution becomes stabilized after sufficiently many generations have passed. The question we pose concerns the procedure of increasing L. The aim is to get the same distribution of genetic loads N/L among the equilibrated population, in spite of a larger L. Should we keep the same mutation rate m/L for different values of L? The answer is yes, which intuitively seems to be plausible. However, this conclusion is not trivial, according to our simulation results: the question also involves the population size

  9. Vascular flora and macroscopic fauna on the Fernow Experimental Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darlene M. Madarish; Jane L. Rodrigue; Mary Beth Adams

    2002-01-01

    This report is the first comprehensive inventory of the vascular flora and macroscopic fauna known to occur within the Fernow Experimental Forest in north-central West Virignia. The compendium is based on information obtained from previous surveys, current research, and the personal observations of USDA Forest Service personnel and independent scientists. More than 750...

  10. On the problem of contextuality in macroscopic magnetization measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soeda, Akihito; Kurzyński, Paweł; Ramanathan, Ravishankar; Grudka, Andrzej; Thompson, Jayne; Kaszlikowski, Dagomir

    2013-01-01

    We show that sharp measurements of total magnetization cannot be used to reveal contextuality in macroscopic many-body systems of spins of arbitrary dimension. We decompose each such measurement into set of projectors corresponding to well-defined value of total magnetization. We then show that such sets of projectors are too restricted to construct Kochen–Specker sets.

  11. Photoinduced macroscopic chiral structures in a series of azobenzene copolyesters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedelchev, L.; Nikolova, L.; Matharu, A.

    2002-01-01

    A study of the propagation of elliptically polarized light and the resulting formation of macroscopic chiral structures in a series of azobenzene side-chain copolyesters, in which the morphology is varied from liquid crystalline to amorphous, is reported. Real-time measurements are presented...

  12. Modification of the Charlesby law. Pt. 2. Macroscopic sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiltz, A.; Weil, A.; Paniez, P.

    1984-01-01

    In part II, results are presented showing that for doses below macroscopic sensitivity, Qsub(sm), degradation due to fluence of the particles seems to be non-uniform over the entire area. In the light of this, a modification of the Charlesby's law is proposed providing a solution to the problems considered in part I [fr

  13. Charge of a macroscopic particle in a plasma sheath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samarian, A.A.; Vladimirov, S.V.

    2003-01-01

    Charging of a macroscopic body levitating in a rf plasma sheath is studied experimentally and theoretically. The nonlinear charge vs size dependence is obtained. The observed nonlinearity is explained on the basis of an approach taking into account different plasma conditions for the levitation positions of different particles. The importance of suprathermal electrons' contribution to the charging process is demonstrated

  14. Macroscopic Fundamental Diagram for pedestrian networks : Theory and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogendoorn, S.P.; Daamen, W.; Knoop, V.L.; Steenbakkers, Jeroen; Sarvi, Majid

    2017-01-01

    The Macroscopic Fundamental diagram (MFD) has proven to be a powerful concept in understanding and managing vehicular network dynamics, both from a theoretical angle and from a more application-oriented perspective. In this contribution, we explore the existence and the characteristics of the

  15. Emergence of an urban traffic macroscopic fundamental diagram

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ranjan, Abhishek; Fosgerau, Mogens; Jenelius, Erik

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines mild conditions under which a macroscopic fundamental diagram (MFD) emerges, relating space-averaged speed to occupancy in some area. These conditions are validated against empirical data. We allow local speedoccupancy relationships and, in particular, require no equilibrating...

  16. Stereodynamics: From elementary processes to macroscopic chemical reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasai, Toshio [Department of Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Graduate School of Science, Department of Chemistry, Osaka University, Toyonaka, 560-0043 Osaka (Japan); Che, Dock-Chil [Graduate School of Science, Department of Chemistry, Osaka University, Toyonaka, 560-0043 Osaka (Japan); Tsai, Po-Yu [Department of Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Department of Chemistry, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Lin, King-Chuen [Department of Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Palazzetti, Federico [Scuola Normale Superiore, Pisa (Italy); Dipartimento di Chimica Biologia e Biotecnologie, Università di Perugia, 06123 Perugia (Italy); Aquilanti, Vincenzo [Dipartimento di Chimica Biologia e Biotecnologie, Università di Perugia, 06123 Perugia (Italy); Istituto di Struttura della Materia, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Roma (Italy); Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador (Brazil)

    2015-12-31

    This paper aims at discussing new facets on stereodynamical behaviors in chemical reactions, i.e. the effects of molecular orientation and alignment on reactive processes. Further topics on macroscopic processes involving deviations from Arrhenius behavior in the temperature dependence of chemical reactions and chirality effects in collisions are also discussed.

  17. Macroscopic realism and quantum measurement: measurers as a natural kind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeger, Gregg

    2014-01-01

    The notion of macroscopic realism has been used in attempts to achieve consistency between physics and everyday experience and to locate some boundary between the realms of classical mechanics and quantum meachanics. Its ostensibly underlying conceptual components, realism and macroscopicity, have most often appeared in the foundations of physics in relation to quantum measurement: reality became a prominent topic of discussion in quantum physics after the notion of element of reality was defined and used by Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen in that context, and macroscopicity is often explicitly assumed to be an essential property of any measuring apparatus. However, macroscopicity turns out to be a rather vaguer and less consistently understood notion than typically assumed by physicists who have not explicitly explored the notion themselves. For this reason, it behooves those investigating the foundations of quantum mechanics from a realist perspective to look for alternative notions for grounding quantum measurement. Here, the merits of treating the measuring instrument as a ‘natural kind’ as a means of avoiding anthropocentrism in the foundations of quantum measurement are pointed out as a means of advancing quantum measurement theory. (paper)

  18. Microstructure and macroscopic properties of polydisperse systems of hard spheres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ogarko, V.

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation describes an investigation of systems of polydisperse smooth hard spheres. This includes the development of a fast contact detection algorithm for computer modelling, the development of macroscopic constitutive laws that are based on microscopic features such as the moments of the

  19. Macroscopic domain formation in the platelet plasma membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bali, Rachna; Savino, Laura; Ramirez, Diego A.

    2009-01-01

    There has been ample debate on whether cell membranes can present macroscopic lipid domains as predicted by three-component phase diagrams obtained by fluorescence microscopy. Several groups have argued that membrane proteins and interactions with the cytoskeleton inhibit the formation of large d...

  20. Macroscopic charge quantization in single-electron devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burmistrov, I.S.; Pruisken, A.M.M.

    2010-01-01

    In a recent paper by the authors [I. S. Burmistrov and A. M. M. Pruisken, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 056801 (2008)] it was shown that single-electron devices (single-electron transistor or SET) display "macroscopic charge quantization" which is completely analogous to the quantum Hall effect observed on

  1. Macroscopic and microscopic magnetism of metal-metalloid amorphous alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasconcellos, M.A.Z.; Fichtner, P.F.P.; Livi, F.P.; Costa, M.I. da; Baibich, M.N.

    1984-01-01

    In this paper is investigated the interrelation between macroscopic and microscopic magnetic phenomena using experimetnal data from Moessbauer effect and the magnetization of layers of amorphous (Fe 1-x Ni x ) 80 B 20 . The Moessbauer effect measurement show a distribution of hyperfine fields in Fe site as well as a likely distribution of isomeric shifts (M.W.O.) [pt

  2. Electricity in foams: from one soapy interface to the macroscopic material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biance, Anne-Laure

    2017-11-01

    Liquid foams (a dispersion of gas bubbles in a soapy solution) destabilize with time due to coarsening, coalescence and gravity driven drainage. We propose here to inhibit (or trigger) the foam destabilization by applying an electric field to the material. This effect is investigated at the different scales of the system: one soapy interface, one liquid film, the macroscopic foam. The generation of an electroosmotic flow near a soapy liquid/gas interface raises many issues. How does the flow affect surfactant repartition? Is there a Marangoni stress at the interface? At the scale of one soap film, how the electric field affects the film stability and deformation? In a macroscopic foam, one can wonder whether the electric field can indeed reverse gravity driven drainage and increase foam lifetime? These different issues are considered by developing new experimental techniques allowing us to probe surfactant repartition at liquid interfaces, soap film thicknesses and liquid foam properties when an electric field is applied. The results will be presented together with a comprehensive picture of the mechanisms arising at each scale of the material, to conclude with the potential use of electricity in liquid foams to control destabilization. Collaborators: Baptiste Blanc, Oriane Bonhomme, Laurent Joly, Christophe Ybert.

  3. Macroscopic quantum phenomena from the large N perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, C H; Hu, B L; Subasi, Y

    2011-01-01

    Macroscopic quantum phenomena (MQP) is a relatively new research venue, with exciting ongoing experiments and bright prospects, yet with surprisingly little theoretical activity. What makes MQP intellectually stimulating is because it is counterpoised against the traditional view that macroscopic means classical. This simplistic and hitherto rarely challenged view need be scrutinized anew, perhaps with much of the conventional wisdoms repealed. In this series of papers we report on a systematic investigation into some key foundational issues of MQP, with the hope of constructing a viable theoretical framework for this new endeavour. The three major themes discussed in these three essays are the large N expansion, the correlation hierarchy and quantum entanglement for systems of 'large' sizes, with many components or degrees of freedom. In this paper we use different theories in a variety of contexts to examine the conditions or criteria whereby a macroscopic quantum system may take on classical attributes, and, more interestingly, that it keeps some of its quantum features. The theories we consider here are, the O(N) quantum mechanical model, semiclassical stochastic gravity and gauge / string theories; the contexts include that of a 'quantum roll' in inflationary cosmology, entropy generation in quantum Vlasov equation for plasmas, the leading order and next-to-leading order large N behaviour, and hydrodynamic / thermodynamic limits. The criteria for classicality in our consideration include the use of uncertainty relations, the correlation between classical canonical variables, randomization of quantum phase, environment-induced decoherence, decoherent history of hydrodynamic variables, etc. All this exercise is to ask only one simple question: Is it really so surprising that quantum features can appear in macroscopic objects? By examining different representative systems where detailed theoretical analysis has been carried out, we find that there is no a priori

  4. Linking macroscopic with microscopic neuroanatomy using synthetic neuronal populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Calvin J; Cuntz, Hermann; Soltesz, Ivan

    2014-10-01

    Dendritic morphology has been shown to have a dramatic impact on neuronal function. However, population features such as the inherent variability in dendritic morphology between cells belonging to the same neuronal type are often overlooked when studying computation in neural networks. While detailed models for morphology and electrophysiology exist for many types of single neurons, the role of detailed single cell morphology in the population has not been studied quantitatively or computationally. Here we use the structural context of the neural tissue in which dendritic trees exist to drive their generation in silico. We synthesize the entire population of dentate gyrus granule cells, the most numerous cell type in the hippocampus, by growing their dendritic trees within their characteristic dendritic fields bounded by the realistic structural context of (1) the granule cell layer that contains all somata and (2) the molecular layer that contains the dendritic forest. This process enables branching statistics to be linked to larger scale neuroanatomical features. We find large differences in dendritic total length and individual path length measures as a function of location in the dentate gyrus and of somatic depth in the granule cell layer. We also predict the number of unique granule cell dendrites invading a given volume in the molecular layer. This work enables the complete population-level study of morphological properties and provides a framework to develop complex and realistic neural network models.

  5. Modeling two-stage bunch compression with wakefields: Macroscopic properties and microbunching instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Bosch

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In a two-stage compression and acceleration system, where each stage compresses a chirped bunch in a magnetic chicane, wakefields affect high-current bunches. The longitudinal wakes affect the macroscopic energy and current profiles of the compressed bunch and cause microbunching at short wavelengths. For macroscopic wavelengths, impedance formulas and tracking simulations show that the wakefields can be dominated by the resistive impedance of coherent edge radiation. For this case, we calculate the minimum initial bunch length that can be compressed without producing an upright tail in phase space and associated current spike. Formulas are also obtained for the jitter in the bunch arrival time downstream of the compressors that results from the bunch-to-bunch variation of current, energy, and chirp. Microbunching may occur at short wavelengths where the longitudinal space-charge wakes dominate or at longer wavelengths dominated by edge radiation. We model this range of wavelengths with frequency-dependent impedance before and after each stage of compression. The growth of current and energy modulations is described by analytic gain formulas that agree with simulations.

  6. Impact of small-scale geometric roughness on wetting behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vaibhaw; Errington, Jeffrey R

    2013-09-24

    We examine the extent to which small-scale geometric substrate roughness influences the wetting behavior of fluids at solid surfaces. Molecular simulation is used to construct roughness wetting diagrams wherein the progression of the contact angle is traced from the Cassie to Wenzel to impregnation regime with increasing substrate strength for a collection of systems with rectangularly shaped grooves. We focus on the evolution of these diagrams as the length scale of the substrate features approaches the size of a fluid molecule. When considering a series of wetting diagrams for substrates with fixed shape and variable feature periodicity, we find that the diagrams progressively shift away from a common curve as the substrate features become smaller than approximately 10 fluid diameters. It is at this length scale that the macroscopic models of Cassie and Wenzel become unreliable. Deviations from the macroscopic models are attributed to the manner in which the effective substrate-fluid interaction strength evolves with periodicity and the important role that confinement effects play for substrates with small periodicities.

  7. Macroscopic quantum tunneling of a Bose-Einstein condensate through double Gaussian barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Kenji; Urban, Gregor; Weidemüller, Matthias; Carr, Lincoln D.

    2015-05-01

    Macroscopic quantum tunneling is one of the great manifestations of quantum physics, not only showing passage through a potential barrier but also emerging in a many-body wave function. We study a quasi-1D Bose-Einstein condensate of Lithium, confined by two Gaussian barriers, and show that in an experimentally realistic potential tens of thousands of atoms tunnel on time scales of 10 to 100 ms. Using a combination of variational and WKB approximations based on the Gross-Pitaevskii or nonlinear Schrödinger equation, we show that many unusual tunneling features appear due to the nonlinearity, including the number of trapped atoms exhibiting non-exponential decay, severe distortion of the barriers by the mean field, and even formation of a triple barrier in certain regimes. In the first 10ms, nonlinear many-body effects make the tunneling rates significantly larger than background loss rates, from 10 to 70 Hz. Thus we conclude that macroscopic quantum tunneling can be observed on experimental time scales. Funded by NSF, AFOSR, the Alexander von Humboldt foundation, and the Heidelberg Center for Quantum Dynamics.

  8. Wave speeds in the macroscopic extended model for ultrarelativistic gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borghero, F., E-mail: borghero@unica.it [Dip. Matematica e Informatica, Università di Cagliari, Via Ospedale 72, 09124 Cagliari (Italy); Demontis, F., E-mail: fdemontis@unica.it [Dip. Matematica, Università di Cagliari, Viale Merello 92, 09123 Cagliari (Italy); Pennisi, S., E-mail: spennisi@unica.it [Dip. Matematica, Università di Cagliari, Via Ospedale 72, 09124 Cagliari (Italy)

    2013-11-15

    Equations determining wave speeds for a model of ultrarelativistic gases are investigated. This model is already present in literature; it deals with an arbitrary number of moments and it was proposed in the context of exact macroscopic approaches in Extended Thermodynamics. We find these results: the whole system for the determination of the wave speeds can be divided into independent subsystems which are expressed by linear combinations, through scalar coefficients, of tensors all of the same order; some wave speeds, but not all of them, are expressed by square roots of rational numbers; finally, we prove that these wave speeds for the macroscopic model are the same of those furnished by the kinetic model.

  9. Analysis and Enhancements of a Prolific Macroscopic Model of Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Fietkiewicz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Macroscopic models of epilepsy can deliver surprisingly realistic EEG simulations. In the present study, a prolific series of models is evaluated with regard to theoretical and computational concerns, and enhancements are developed. Specifically, we analyze three aspects of the models: (1 Using dynamical systems analysis, we demonstrate and explain the presence of direct current potentials in the simulated EEG that were previously undocumented. (2 We explain how the system was not ideally formulated for numerical integration of stochastic differential equations. A reformulated system is developed to support proper methodology. (3 We explain an unreported contradiction in the published model specification regarding the use of a mathematical reduction method. We then use the method to reduce the number of equations and further improve the computational efficiency. The intent of our critique is to enhance the evolution of macroscopic modeling of epilepsy and assist others who wish to explore this exciting class of models further.

  10. Problems related to macroscopic electric fields in the magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faelthammar, C.

    1977-01-01

    The macroscopic electric fields in the magnetosphere originate from internal as well as external sources. The fields are intimately coupled with the dynamics of magnetospheric plasma convection. They also depend on the complicated electrical properties of the hot collisionless plasma. Macroscopic electric fields are responsible for some important kinds of energization of charged particles that take place in the magnetosphere and affect not only particles of auroral energy but also, by multistep processes, trapped high-energy particles. A particularly interesting feature of magnetospheric electric fields is that they can have substantial components along the geomagnetic field, as has recently been confirmed by observations. Several physical mechanisms have been identified by which such electric fields can be supported even when collisions between particles are negligible. Comments are made on the magnetic mirror effect, anomalous resistivity, the collisionless thermoelectric effect, and electric double layers, emphasizing key features and differences and their significance in the light of recent observational data

  11. Macroscopic balance equations for two-phase flow models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, E.D.

    1979-01-01

    The macroscopic, or overall, balance equations of mass, momentum, and energy are derived for a two-fluid model of two-phase flows in complex geometries. These equations provide a base for investigating methods of incorporating improved analysis methods into computer programs, such as RETRAN, which are used for transient and steady-state thermal-hydraulic analyses of nuclear steam supply systems. The equations are derived in a very general manner so that three-dimensional, compressible flows can be analysed. The equations obtained supplement the various partial differential equation two-fluid models of two-phase flow which have recently appeared in the literature. The primary objective of the investigation is the macroscopic balance equations. (Auth.)

  12. Macroscopic phase separation in high-temperature superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Hai-Hu

    2000-01-01

    High-temperature superconductivity is recovered by introducing extra holes to the Cu-O planes, which initially are insulating with antiferromagnetism. In this paper I present data to show the macroscopic electronic phase separation that is caused by either mobile doping or electronic instability in the overdoped region. My results clearly demonstrate that the electronic inhomogeneity is probably a general feature of high-temperature superconductors. PMID:11027323

  13. Negative heat capacity at phase-separation in macroscopic systems

    OpenAIRE

    Gross, D. H. E.

    2005-01-01

    Systems with long-range as well with short-range interactions should necessarily have a convex entropy S(E) at proper phase transitions of first order, i.e. when a separation of phases occurs. Here the microcanonical heat capacity c(E)= -\\frac{(\\partial S/\\partial E)^2}{\\partial^2S/\\partial E^2} is negative. This should be observable even in macroscopic systems when energy fluctuations with the surrounding world can be sufficiently suppressed.

  14. Extension of Seismic Scanning Tunneling Macroscope to Elastic Waves

    KAUST Repository

    Tarhini, Ahmad

    2017-11-06

    The theory for the seismic scanning tunneling macroscope is extended from acoustic body waves to elastic body-wave propagation. We show that, similar to the acoustic case, near-field superresolution imaging from elastic body waves results from the O(1/R) term, where R is the distance between the source and near-field scatterer. The higher-order contributions R−n for n>1 are cancelled in the near-field region for a point source with normal stress.

  15. A macroscopic model for magnetic shape-memory single crystals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bessoud, A. L.; Kružík, Martin; Stefanelli, U.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 2 (2013), s. 343-359 ISSN 0044-2275 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100750802; GA ČR GAP201/10/0357 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : magnetostriction * evolution Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.214, year: 2013 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2012/MTR/kruzik-a macroscopic model for magnetic shape- memory single crystals.pdf

  16. Extension of Seismic Scanning Tunneling Macroscope to Elastic Waves

    KAUST Repository

    Tarhini, Ahmad; Guo, Bowen; Dutta, Gaurav; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2017-01-01

    The theory for the seismic scanning tunneling macroscope is extended from acoustic body waves to elastic body-wave propagation. We show that, similar to the acoustic case, near-field superresolution imaging from elastic body waves results from the O(1/R) term, where R is the distance between the source and near-field scatterer. The higher-order contributions R−n for n>1 are cancelled in the near-field region for a point source with normal stress.

  17. Toward a superconducting quantum computer. Harnessing macroscopic quantum coherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jaw-Shen

    2010-01-01

    Intensive research on the construction of superconducting quantum computers has produced numerous important achievements. The quantum bit (qubit), based on the Josephson junction, is at the heart of this research. This macroscopic system has the ability to control quantum coherence. This article reviews the current state of quantum computing as well as its history, and discusses its future. Although progress has been rapid, the field remains beset with unsolved issues, and there are still many new research opportunities open to physicists and engineers.

  18. Macroscopic quantum electrodynamics of high-Q cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khanbekyan, Mikayel

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis macroscopic quantum electrodynamics in linear media was applied in order to develop an universally valid quantum theory for the description of the interaction of the electromagnetic field with atomic sources in high-Q cavities. In this theory a complete description of the characteristics of the emitted radiation is given. The theory allows to show the limits of the applicability of the usually applied theory. In order to establish an as possible generally valid theory first the atom-field interaction was studied in the framework of macroscopic quantum electrodynamics in dispersive and absorptive media. In order to describe the electromagnetic field from Maxwell's equations was started, whereby the noise-current densities, which are connected with the absorption of the medium, were included. The solution of these equations expresses the electromagnetic field variables by the noise-current densities by means of Green's tensor of the macroscopic Maxwell equations. The explicit quantization is performed by means of the noise-current densities, whereby a diagonal Hamiltonian is introduced, which then guarantees the time development according to Maxwell's equation and the fulfillment of the fundamental simultaneous commutation relations of the field variables. In the case of the interaction of the medium-supported field with atoms the Hamiltonian must be extended by atom-field interactions energies, whereby the canonical coupling schemes of the minimal or multipolar coupling can be used. The dieelectric properties of the material bodies as well as their shape are coded in the Green tensor of the macroscopic Maxwell equations. As preparing step first the Green tensor was specified in order to derive three-dimensional input-output relations for the electromagnetic field operators on a plane multilayer structure. Such a general dewscription of the electromagnetic field allows the inclusion both of dispersion and absorption of the media and the possible

  19. Macroscopic quantum mechanics: theory and experimental concepts of optomechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yanbei

    2013-01-01

    Rapid experimental progress has recently allowed the use of light to prepare macroscopic mechanical objects into nearly pure quantum states. This research field of quantum optomechanics opens new doors towards testing quantum mechanics, and possibly other laws of physics, in new regimes. In the first part of this article, I will review a set of techniques of quantum measurement theory that are often used to analyse quantum optomechanical systems. Some of these techniques were originally designed to analyse how a classical driving force passes through a quantum system, and can eventually be detected with an optimal signal-to-noise ratio—while others focus more on the quantum-state evolution of a mechanical object under continuous monitoring. In the second part of this article, I will review a set of experimental concepts that will demonstrate quantum mechanical behaviour of macroscopic objects—quantum entanglement, quantum teleportation and the quantum Zeno effect. Taking the interplay between gravity and quantum mechanics as an example, I will review a set of speculations on how quantum mechanics can be modified for macroscopic objects, and how these speculations—and their generalizations—might be tested by optomechanics. (invited review)

  20. The mirrors model: macroscopic diffusion without noise or chaos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiffaudel, Yann; Lefevere, Raphaël

    2016-01-01

    Before stating our main result, we first clarify through classical examples the status of the laws of macroscopic physics as laws of large numbers. We next consider the mirrors model in a finite d-dimensional domain and connected to particles reservoirs at fixed chemical potentials. The dynamics is purely deterministic and non-ergodic but takes place in a random environment. We study the macroscopic current of particles in the stationary regime. We show first that when the size of the system goes to infinity, the behaviour of the stationary current of particles is governed by the proportion of orbits crossing the system. This allows us to formulate a necessary and sufficient condition on the distribution of the set of orbits that ensures the validity of Fick’s law. Using this approach, we show that Fick’s law relating the stationary macroscopic current of particles to the concentration difference holds in three dimensions and above. The negative correlations between crossing orbits play a key role in the argument. (letter)

  1. Macroscopic phase-resetting curves for spiking neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, Grégory; Ermentrout, G. Bard; Gutkin, Boris

    2017-10-01

    The study of brain rhythms is an open-ended, and challenging, subject of interest in neuroscience. One of the best tools for the understanding of oscillations at the single neuron level is the phase-resetting curve (PRC). Synchronization in networks of neurons, effects of noise on the rhythms, effects of transient stimuli on the ongoing rhythmic activity, and many other features can be understood by the PRC. However, most macroscopic brain rhythms are generated by large populations of neurons, and so far it has been unclear how the PRC formulation can be extended to these more common rhythms. In this paper, we describe a framework to determine a macroscopic PRC (mPRC) for a network of spiking excitatory and inhibitory neurons that generate a macroscopic rhythm. We take advantage of a thermodynamic approach combined with a reduction method to simplify the network description to a small number of ordinary differential equations. From this simplified but exact reduction, we can compute the mPRC via the standard adjoint method. Our theoretical findings are illustrated with and supported by numerical simulations of the full spiking network. Notably our mPRC framework allows us to predict the difference between effects of transient inputs to the excitatory versus the inhibitory neurons in the network.

  2. Macroscopic phase-resetting curves for spiking neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, Grégory; Ermentrout, G Bard; Gutkin, Boris

    2017-10-01

    The study of brain rhythms is an open-ended, and challenging, subject of interest in neuroscience. One of the best tools for the understanding of oscillations at the single neuron level is the phase-resetting curve (PRC). Synchronization in networks of neurons, effects of noise on the rhythms, effects of transient stimuli on the ongoing rhythmic activity, and many other features can be understood by the PRC. However, most macroscopic brain rhythms are generated by large populations of neurons, and so far it has been unclear how the PRC formulation can be extended to these more common rhythms. In this paper, we describe a framework to determine a macroscopic PRC (mPRC) for a network of spiking excitatory and inhibitory neurons that generate a macroscopic rhythm. We take advantage of a thermodynamic approach combined with a reduction method to simplify the network description to a small number of ordinary differential equations. From this simplified but exact reduction, we can compute the mPRC via the standard adjoint method. Our theoretical findings are illustrated with and supported by numerical simulations of the full spiking network. Notably our mPRC framework allows us to predict the difference between effects of transient inputs to the excitatory versus the inhibitory neurons in the network.

  3. Macroscopic description of the limb muscles of Tupinambis merianae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Barbosa Casals

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Tegu lizard (Tupinambis merianae belongs to the Teiidae family. It is distributed throughout the Americas, with many species, including Brazilian ones. They are from the Tupinambis genus, the largest representatives of the Teiidae family. For this study three animals (run over coming from donation were used. The dissected lizards were fixed in 10%, formaldehyde, and the macroscopic analysis was carried out in a detailed and photo documented way, keeping the selected structures “in situ”. This paper had as its main aim contributing to the macroscopic description of the chest myology, as well as the thoracic and pelvic limbs of the lizard T. merianae. The results obtained from this research were compared to authors who have studied animals from the same Reptilia class. Thus, we conclude that our macroscopic results are similar to those already described by the researchers Hildebrand (1995, Moro and Abdala (2004 and Abdala and Diogo (2010. We should highlight that the knowledge on anatomy has importance and applications to various areas within Biology, contributing in a substantial way to the areas of human health and technology.

  4. Photoactuators for Direct Optical-to-Mechanical Energy Conversion: From Nanocomponent Assembly to Macroscopic Deformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ying; Li, Zhe; Lan, Tian; Chen, Wei

    2016-12-01

    Photoactuators with integrated optical-to-mechanical energy conversion capacity have attracted growing research interest in the last few decades due to their unique features of remote control and their wide applications ranging from bionic robots, biomedical devices, and switches to motors. For the photoactuator design, the energy conversion route and structure assembly are two important parts, which directly affect the performance of the photoactuators. In particular, the architectural designs at the molecular, nano-, micro-, and macro- level, are found to play a significant role in accumulating molecular-scale strain/stress to macroscale strain/stress. Here, recent progress on photoactuators based on photochemical and photothermal effects is summarized, followed by a discussion of the important assembly strategies for the amplification of the photoresponsive components at nanoscale to macroscopic scale motions. The application advancement of current photoactuators is also presented. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Metrology at the nano scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheridan, B.; Cumpson, P.; Bailey, M.

    2006-01-01

    Progress in nano technology relies on ever more accurate measurements of quantities such as distance, force and current industry has long depended on accurate measurement. In the 19th century, for example, the performance of steam engines was seriously limited by inaccurately made components, a situation that was transformed by Henry Maudsley's screw micrometer calliper. And early in the 20th century, the development of telegraphy relied on improved standards of electrical resistance. Before this, each country had its own standards and cross border communication was difficult. The same is true today of nano technology if it is to be fully exploited by industry. Principles of measurement that work well at the macroscopic level often become completely unworkable at the nano metre scale - about 100 nm and below. Imaging, for example, is not possible on this scale using optical microscopes, and it is virtually impossible to weigh a nano metre-scale object with any accuracy. In addition to needing more accurate measurements, nano technology also often requires a greater variety of measurements than conventional technology. For example, standard techniques used to make microchips generally need accurate length measurements, but the manufacture of electronics at the molecular scale requires magnetic, electrical, mechanical and chemical measurements as well. (U.K.)

  6. Micromechanical study of macroscopic friction and dissipation in idealised granular materials: the effect of interparticle friction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruyt, Nicolaas P.; Gutkowski, Witold; Rothenburg, L.; Kowalewski, Tomasz A.

    2004-01-01

    Using Discrete Element Method (DEM) simulations with varying interparticle friction coefficient, the relation between interparticle friction coefficient and macroscopic continuum friction and dissipation is investigated. As expected, macroscopic friction and dilatancy increase with interparticle

  7. Solvable Quantum Macroscopic Motions and Decoherence Mechanisms in Quantum Mechanics on Nonstandard Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Tsunehiro

    1996-01-01

    Quantum macroscopic motions are investigated in the scheme consisting of N-number of harmonic oscillators in terms of ultra-power representations of nonstandard analysis. Decoherence is derived from the large internal degrees of freedom of macroscopic matters.

  8. Telomere length analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canela, Andrés; Klatt, Peter; Blasco, María A

    2007-01-01

    Most somatic cells of long-lived species undergo telomere shortening throughout life. Critically short telomeres trigger loss of cell viability in tissues, which has been related to alteration of tissue function and loss of regenerative capabilities in aging and aging-related diseases. Hence, telomere length is an important biomarker for aging and can be used in the prognosis of aging diseases. These facts highlight the importance of developing methods for telomere length determination that can be employed to evaluate telomere length during the human aging process. Telomere length quantification methods have improved greatly in accuracy and sensitivity since the development of the conventional telomeric Southern blot. Here, we describe the different methodologies recently developed for telomere length quantification, as well as their potential applications for human aging studies.

  9. Intense nonneutral beam propagation in a periodic solenoidal field using a macroscopic fluid model with zero thermal emittance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, R.C.; Stoltz, P.; Chen, C.

    1997-08-01

    A macroscopic fluid model is developed to describe the nonlinear dynamics and collective processes in an intense high-current beam propagating in the z-direction through a periodic focusing solenoidal field B z (z + S) = B z (z), where S is the axial periodicity length. The analysis assumes that space-charge effects dominate the effects of thermal beam emittance, Kr b 2 much-gt ε th 2 , and is based on the macroscopic moment-Maxwell equations, truncated by neglecting the pressure tensor and higher-order moments. Assuming a thin beam with r b much-lt S, azimuthally symmetric beam equilibria with ∂/∂t = 0 = ∂/∂θ are investigated. To illustrate the considerable flexibility of the macroscopic formalism, assuming (nearly) uniform axial flow velocity V b over the beam cross section, beam equilibrium properties are calculated for two examples: (a) uniform radial density profile over the interval 0 ≤ r b (z), and (b) an infinitesimally thin annular beam centered at r = r b (z). The analysis generally allows for the azimuthal flow velocity V θb (r,z) to differ from the Larmor frequency, and the model is used to calculate the (leading-order) correction δV zb (r,z) to the axial flow velocity for the step-function density profile in case (a) above

  10. Information, polarization and term length in democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Christian

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers term lengths in a representative democracy where the political issue divides the population on the left-right scale. Parties are ideologically different and better informed about the consequences of policies than voters are. A short term length makes the government more...... accountable, but the re-election incentive leads to policy-distortion as the government seeks to manipulate swing voters' beliefs to make its ideology more popular. This creates a trade-off: A short term length improves accountability but gives distortions. A short term length is best for swing voters when...

  11. In regard to the question of macroscopic differential diagnosis of alcoholic and dilated cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Sokolova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The differential diagnosis of alcoholic and dilated cardiomyopathy according to the macroscopic data is represented in the article. The identity of macroscopic changes of heart, related to alcoholic and dilated cardiomyopathy, cannot diagnose these diseases based on the macroscopic characteristics; especially if there are no other visceral manifestations typical for chronic alcoholism.

  12. Detailed Simulation of Complex Hydraulic Problems with Macroscopic and Mesoscopic Mathematical Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Biscarini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The numerical simulation of fast-moving fronts originating from dam or levee breaches is a challenging task for small scale engineering projects. In this work, the use of fully three-dimensional Navier-Stokes (NS equations and lattice Boltzmann method (LBM is proposed for testing the validity of, respectively, macroscopic and mesoscopic mathematical models. Macroscopic simulations are performed employing an open-source computational fluid dynamics (CFD code that solves the NS combined with the volume of fluid (VOF multiphase method to represent free-surface flows. The mesoscopic model is a front-tracking experimental variant of the LBM. In the proposed LBM the air-gas interface is represented as a surface with zero thickness that handles the passage of the density field from the light to the dense phase and vice versa. A single set of LBM equations represents the liquid phase, while the free surface is characterized by an additional variable, the liquid volume fraction. Case studies show advantages and disadvantages of the proposed LBM and NS with specific regard to the computational efficiency and accuracy in dealing with the simulation of flows through complex geometries. In particular, the validation of the model application is developed by simulating the flow propagating through a synthetic urban setting and comparing results with analytical and experimental laboratory measurements.

  13. Light induced electrical and macroscopic changes in hydrogenated polymorphous silicon solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roca i Cabarrocas P.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We report on light-induced electrical and macroscopic changes in hydrogenated polymorphous silicon (pm-Si:H PIN solar cells. To explain the particular light-soaking behavior of such cells – namely an increase of the open circuit voltage (Voc and a rapid drop of the short circuit current density (Jsc – we correlate these effects to changes in hydrogen incorporation and structural properties in the layers of the cells. Numerous techniques such as current-voltage characteristics, infrared spectroscopy, hydrogen exodiffusion, Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry are used to study the light-induced changes from microscopic to macroscopic scales (up to tens of microns. Such comprehensive use of complementary techniques lead us to suggest that light-soaking produces the diffusion of molecular hydrogen, hydrogen accumulation at p-layer/substrate interface and localized delamination of the interface. Based on these results we propose that light-induced degradation of PIN solar cells has to be addressed from not only as a material issue, but also a device point of view. In particular we bring experimental evidence that localized delamination at the interface between the p-layer and SnO2 substrate by light-induced hydrogen motion causes the rapid drop of Jsc.

  14. Macroscopic polarization in crystalline dielectrics: the geometric phase approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resta, R.

    1994-01-01

    The macroscopic electric polarization of a crystal is often defined as the dipole of a unit cell. In fact, such a dipole moment is ill defined, and the above definition is incorrect. Looking more closely, the quantity generally measured is differential polarization, defined with respect to a ''reference state'' of the same material. Such differential polarizations include either derivatives of the polarization (dielectric permittivity, Born effective charges, piezoelectricity, pyroelectricity) or finite differences (ferroelectricity). On the theoretical side, the differential concept is basic as well. Owing to continuity, a polarization difference is equivalent to a macroscopic current, which is directly accessible to the theory as a bulk property. Polarization is a quantum phenomenon and cannot be treated with a classical model, particularly whenever delocalized valence electrons are present in the dielectric. In a quantum picture, the current is basically a property of the phase of the wave functions, as opposed to the charge, which is a property of their modulus. An elegant and complete theory has recently been developed by King-Smith and Vanderbilt, in which the polarization difference between any two crystal states--in a null electric field--takes the form of a geometric quantum phase. This gives a comprehensive account of this theory, which is relevant for dealing with transverse-optic phonons, piezoelectricity, and ferroelectricity. Its relation to the established concepts of linear-response theory is also discussed. Within the geometric phase approach, the relevant polarization difference occurs as the circuit integral of a Berry connection (or ''vector potential''), while the corresponding curvature (or ''magnetic field'') provides the macroscopic linear response

  15. Macroscopic influence on the spontaneous symmetry breaking in quantum field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirzhnitz, D.A.

    1977-01-01

    Major results of investigations concerning macroscopic influence (heating, compression, external field and current) on elementary particle systems with spontaneous symmetry breaking are briefly reviewed. The study of this problem has been stimulated by recent progress in the unified renormalizable theory of elementary particles. Typically it appears that at some values of external parameters a phase transition with symmetry restoration takes place. There exists a profound and far going analogy with phase transition in many-body physics especially with superconductivity phenomenon. Some applications to cosmology are also considered

  16. Macroscopic relationship in primal-dual portfolio optimization problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinzato, Takashi

    2018-02-01

    In the present paper, using a replica analysis, we examine the portfolio optimization problem handled in previous work and discuss the minimization of investment risk under constraints of budget and expected return for the case that the distribution of the hyperparameters of the mean and variance of the return rate of each asset are not limited to a specific probability family. Findings derived using our proposed method are compared with those in previous work to verify the effectiveness of our proposed method. Further, we derive a Pythagorean theorem of the Sharpe ratio and macroscopic relations of opportunity loss. Using numerical experiments, the effectiveness of our proposed method is demonstrated for a specific situation.

  17. The Two-Time Interpretation and Macroscopic Time-Reversibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakir Aharonov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The two-state vector formalism motivates a time-symmetric interpretation of quantum mechanics that entails a resolution of the measurement problem. We revisit a post-selection-assisted collapse model previously suggested by us, claiming that unlike the thermodynamic arrow of time, it can lead to reversible dynamics at the macroscopic level. In addition, the proposed scheme enables us to characterize the classical-quantum boundary. We discuss the limitations of this approach and its broad implications for other areas of physics.

  18. Seismic scanning tunneling macroscope - Elastic simulations and Arizona mine test

    KAUST Repository

    Hanafy, Sherif M.; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2012-01-01

    Elastic seismic simulations and field data tests are used to validate the theory of a seismic scanning tunneling macroscope (SSTM). For nearfield elastic simulation, the SSTM results show superresolution to be better than λ/8 if the only scattered data are used as input data. If the direct P and S waves are muted then the resolution of the scatterer locations are within about λ/5. Seismic data collected in an Arizona tunnel showed a superresolution limit of at least λ/19. These test results are consistent with the theory of the SSTM and suggest that the SSTM can be a tool used by geophysicists as a probe for near-field scatterers.

  19. GRUCAL, a computer program for calculating macroscopic group constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woll, D.

    1975-06-01

    Nuclear reactor calculations require material- and composition-dependent, energy averaged nuclear data to describe the interaction of neutrons with individual isotopes in material compositions of reactor zones. The code GRUCAL calculates these macroscopic group constants for given compositions from the material-dependent data of the group constant library GRUBA. The instructions for calculating group constants are not fixed in the program, but will be read at the actual execution time from a separate instruction file. This allows to accomodate GRUCAL to various problems or different group constant concepts. (orig.) [de

  20. A simple vibrating sample magnetometer for macroscopic samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Dominguez, V.; Quesada, A.; Guzmán-Mínguez, J. C.; Moreno, L.; Lere, M.; Spottorno, J.; Giacomone, F.; Fernández, J. F.; Hernando, A.; García, M. A.

    2018-03-01

    We here present a simple model of a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The system allows recording magnetization curves at room temperature with a resolution of the order of 0.01 emu and is appropriated for macroscopic samples. The setup can be mounted with different configurations depending on the requirements of the sample to be measured (mass, saturation magnetization, saturation field, etc.). We also include here examples of curves obtained with our setup and comparison curves measured with a standard commercial VSM that confirms the reliability of our device.

  1. Macroscopic lattice Boltzmann model for heat and moisture transfer process with phase transformation in unsaturated porous media during freezing process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Wenyu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the current study, a macroscopic lattice Boltzmann model for simulating the heat and moisture transport phenomenon in unsaturated porous media during the freezing process was proposed. The proposed model adopted percolation threshold to reproduce the extra resistance in frozen fringe during the freezing process. The freezing process in Kanagawa sandy loam soil was demonstrated by the proposed model. The numerical result showed good agreement with the experimental result. The proposed model also offered higher computational efficiency and better agreement with the experimental result than the existing numerical models. Lattice Boltzmann method is suitable for simulating complex heat and mass transfer process in porous media at macroscopic scale under proper dimensionless criterion, which makes it a potentially powerful tool for engineering application.

  2. Telomere length and depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wium-Andersen, Marie Kim; Ørsted, David Dynnes; Rode, Line

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Depression has been cross-sectionally associated with short telomeres as a measure of biological age. However, the direction and nature of the association is currently unclear. AIMS: We examined whether short telomere length is associated with depression cross-sectionally as well...... as prospectively and genetically. METHOD: Telomere length and three polymorphisms, TERT, TERC and OBFC1, were measured in 67 306 individuals aged 20-100 years from the Danish general population and associated with register-based attendance at hospital for depression and purchase of antidepressant medication....... RESULTS: Attendance at hospital for depression was associated with short telomere length cross-sectionally, but not prospectively. Further, purchase of antidepressant medication was not associated with short telomere length cross-sectionally or prospectively. Mean follow-up was 7.6 years (range 0...

  3. Abridgment of nano and micro length scale mechanical properties of novel Mg–9Li–7Al–1Sn and Mg–9Li–5Al–3Sn–1Zn alloys using object oriented finite element modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Ankur [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 208016 (India); Advanced Materials Processing and Analysis Center, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32826 (United States); Kumar, Vinod [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 208016 (India); Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Malaviya National Institute of Technology, Jaipur 302017 (India); Nair, Jitin [Department of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering, National Institute of Foundry and Forge Technology, Ranchi 834003 (India); Bansal, Ankit [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 208016 (India); Tata Steel Ltd., Jamshedpur, Jharkhand 831001 (India); Balani, Kantesh, E-mail: kbalani@iitk.ac.in [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 208016 (India)

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • Dual phase (α + β) Mg–9Li–7Al–1Sn (LAT971) and Mg–9Li–5Al–3Sn–1Zn (LATZ9531) alloys. • Effective elastic modulus estimated from finite element method (FEM). • Correlation of nanoscale mechanical data with microstress distribution. • Precipitates of Mg–Al–Li act as stress relaxer and Mg–Li–Sn as stress concentrator. • Higher local heterogeneous stress distribution (∼0.6–5.7 GPa) in LATZ9531 alloys. - Abstract: In the recent years, magnesium–lithium (Mg–Li) alloys have attracted considerable attention/interest due to their high strength-to-density ratio and damping characteristic; and have found potential use in structural and biomedical applications. Here the mechanical behavior of novel Mg–9 wt.% Li–7 wt.% Al–1 wt.% Sn (LAT971) and Mg–9 wt.% Li–5 wt.% Al–3 wt.% Sn–1 wt.% Zn (LATZ9531) alloys is reported. Both, as cast and thermomechanically processed alloys have been studied which possess dual phase microstructure. Nanoindentation data have been utilized to envisage the elastic modulus of alloy via various micromechanics models (such as rule of mixtures, Voigt–Reuss, Cox model, Halpin–Tsai and Guth model) in order to estimate the elastic modulus. Object oriented finite element modeling (FEM) has been performed to predict stress distribution under tensile and compressive strain state. Close match between Halpin–Tsai model and FEM results show the abridgment of nano length scale property to evolution of microscopic stress distribution in novel LAT971 and LATZ9531 Mg–Li–Al based alloys.

  4. Macroscopic superposition states and decoherence by quantum telegraph noise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abel, Benjamin Simon

    2008-12-19

    In the first part of the present thesis we address the question about the size of superpositions of macroscopically distinct quantum states. We propose a measure for the ''size'' of a Schroedinger cat state, i.e. a quantum superposition of two many-body states with (supposedly) macroscopically distinct properties, by counting how many single-particle operations are needed to map one state onto the other. We apply our measure to a superconducting three-junction flux qubit put into a superposition of clockwise and counterclockwise circulating supercurrent states and find this Schroedinger cat to be surprisingly small. The unavoidable coupling of any quantum system to many environmental degrees of freedom leads to an irreversible loss of information about an initially prepared superposition of quantum states. This phenomenon, commonly referred to as decoherence or dephasing, is the subject of the second part of the thesis. We have studied the time evolution of the reduced density matrix of a two-level system (qubit) subject to quantum telegraph noise which is the major source of decoherence in Josephson charge qubits. We are able to derive an exact expression for the time evolution of the reduced density matrix. (orig.)

  5. An exploration for the macroscopic physical meaning of entropy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The macroscopic physical meaning of entropy is analyzed based on the exergy (availability) of a combined system (a closed system and its environment), which is the maximum amount of useful work obtainable from the system and the environment as the system is brought into equilibrium with the environment. The process the system experiences can be divided in two sequent sub-processes, the process at constant volume, which represents the heat interaction of the system with the environment, and the adiabatic process, which represents the work interaction of the system with the environment. It is shown that the macroscopic physical meaning of entropy is a measure of the unavailable energy of a closed system for doing useful work through heat interaction. This statement is more precise than those reported in prior literature. The unavailability function of a closed system can be defined as T0S and p0V in volume constant process and adiabatic process, respectively. Their changes, that is, AiTgS) and A (p0V) represent the unusable parts of the internal energy of a closed system for doing useful work in corresponding processes. Finally, the relation between Clausius entropy and Boltzmann entropy is discussed based on the comparison of their expressions for absolute entropy.

  6. Estimating minimum polycrystalline aggregate size for macroscopic material homogeneity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovac, M.; Simonovski, I.; Cizelj, L.

    2002-01-01

    During severe accidents the pressure boundary of reactor coolant system can be subjected to extreme loadings, which might cause failure. Reliable estimation of the extreme deformations can be crucial to determine the consequences of severe accidents. Important drawback of classical continuum mechanics is idealization of inhomogenous microstructure of materials. Classical continuum mechanics therefore cannot predict accurately the differences between measured responses of specimens, which are different in size but geometrical similar (size effect). A numerical approach, which models elastic-plastic behavior on mesoscopic level, is proposed to estimate minimum size of polycrystalline aggregate above which it can be considered macroscopically homogeneous. The main idea is to divide continuum into a set of sub-continua. Analysis of macroscopic element is divided into modeling the random grain structure (using Voronoi tessellation and random orientation of crystal lattice) and calculation of strain/stress field. Finite element method is used to obtain numerical solutions of strain and stress fields. The analysis is limited to 2D models.(author)

  7. Macroscopic Theory for Evolving Biological Systems Akin to Thermodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Kunihiko; Furusawa, Chikara

    2018-05-20

    We present a macroscopic theory to characterize the plasticity, robustness, and evolvability of biological responses and their fluctuations. First, linear approximation in intracellular reaction dynamics is used to demonstrate proportional changes in the expression of all cellular components in response to a given environmental stress, with the proportion coefficient determined by the change in growth rate as a consequence of the steady growth of cells. We further demonstrate that this relationship is supported through adaptation experiments of bacteria, perhaps too well as this proportionality is held even across cultures of different types of conditions. On the basis of simulations of cell models, we further show that this global proportionality is a consequence of evolution in which expression changes in response to environmental or genetic perturbations are constrained along a unique one-dimensional curve, which is a result of evolutionary robustness. It then follows that the expression changes induced by environmental changes are proportionally reduced across different components of a cell by evolution, which is akin to the Le Chatelier thermodynamics principle. Finally, with the aid of a fluctuation-response relationship, this proportionality is shown to hold between fluctuations caused by genetic changes and those caused by noise. Overall, these results and support from the theoretical and experimental literature suggest a formulation of cellular systems akin to thermodynamics, in which a macroscopic potential is given by the growth rate (or fitness) represented as a function of environmental and evolutionary changes.

  8. Parametric equations for calculation of macroscopic cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botelho, Mario Hugo; Carvalho, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Neutronic calculations of the core of a nuclear reactor is one thing necessary and important for the design and management of a nuclear reactor in order to prevent accidents and control the reactor efficiently as possible. To perform these calculations a library of nuclear data, including cross sections is required. Currently, to obtain a cross section computer codes are used, which require a large amount of processing time and computer memory. This paper proposes the calculation of macroscopic cross section through the development of parametric equations. The paper illustrates the proposal for the case of macroscopic cross sections of absorption (Σa), which was chosen due to its greater complexity among other cross sections. Parametric equations created enable, quick and dynamic way, the determination of absorption cross sections, enabling the use of them in calculations of reactors. The results show efficient when compared with the absorption cross sections obtained by the ALPHA 8.8.1 code. The differences between the cross sections are less than 2% for group 2 and less than 0.60% for group 1. (author)

  9. Macroscopic Biological Characteristics of Individualized Therapy in Chinese Mongolian Osteopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namula, Zhao; Mei, Wang; Li, Xue-en

    Objective: Chinese Mongolian osteopathy has been passed down from ancient times and includes unique practices and favorable efficacy. In this study, we investigate the macroscopic biological characteristics of individualized Chinese Mongolian osteopathy, in order to provide new principle and methods for the treatment of bone fracture. Method: With a view to provide a vital link between nature and humans, the four stages of Chinese Mongolian osteopathy focus on the unity of the mind and body, the limbs and body organs, the body and its functions, and humans and nature. Results: We discuss the merits of individualized osteopathy in terms of the underlying concepts, and evaluate the approaches and principles of traditional medicine, as well as biomechanics. Conclusions: Individualized Mongolian osteopathy targets macroscopic biological components including dynamic reduction, natural fixation, and functional healing. Chinese Mongolian osteopathy is a natural, ecological and non-invasive osteopathy that values the link between nature and humans, including the unity of mind and body. The biological components not only serve as a foundation for Chinese Mongolian osteopathy but are also important for the future development of modern osteopathy, focusing on individualization, actualization and integration.

  10. Macroscopic superposition states and decoherence by quantum telegraph noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abel, Benjamin Simon

    2008-01-01

    In the first part of the present thesis we address the question about the size of superpositions of macroscopically distinct quantum states. We propose a measure for the ''size'' of a Schroedinger cat state, i.e. a quantum superposition of two many-body states with (supposedly) macroscopically distinct properties, by counting how many single-particle operations are needed to map one state onto the other. We apply our measure to a superconducting three-junction flux qubit put into a superposition of clockwise and counterclockwise circulating supercurrent states and find this Schroedinger cat to be surprisingly small. The unavoidable coupling of any quantum system to many environmental degrees of freedom leads to an irreversible loss of information about an initially prepared superposition of quantum states. This phenomenon, commonly referred to as decoherence or dephasing, is the subject of the second part of the thesis. We have studied the time evolution of the reduced density matrix of a two-level system (qubit) subject to quantum telegraph noise which is the major source of decoherence in Josephson charge qubits. We are able to derive an exact expression for the time evolution of the reduced density matrix. (orig.)

  11. Reversible optical control of macroscopic polarization in ferroelectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Marcos, Fernando; Ochoa, Diego A.; Del Campo, Adolfo; García, Miguel A.; Castro, Germán R.; Fernández, José F.; García, José E.

    2018-01-01

    The optical control of ferroic properties is a subject of fascination for the scientific community, because it involves the establishment of new paradigms for technology1-9. Domains and domain walls are known to have a great impact on the properties of ferroic materials1-24. Progress is currently being made in understanding the behaviour of the ferroelectric domain wall, especially regarding its dynamic control10-12,17,19. New research is being conducted to find effective methodologies capable of modulating ferroelectric domain motion for future electronics. However, the practical use of ferroelectric domain wall motion should be both stable and reversible (rewritable) and, in particular, be able to produce a macroscopic response that can be monitored easily12,17. Here, we show that it is possible to achieve a reversible optical change of ferroelectric domains configuration. This effect leads to the tuning of macroscopic polarization and its related properties by means of polarized light, a non-contact external control. Although this is only the first step, it nevertheless constitutes the most crucial one in the long and complex process of developing the next generation of photo-stimulated ferroelectric devices.

  12. Inverted rank distributions: Macroscopic statistics, universality classes, and critical exponents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliazar, Iddo; Cohen, Morrel H.

    2014-01-01

    An inverted rank distribution is an infinite sequence of positive sizes ordered in a monotone increasing fashion. Interlacing together Lorenzian and oligarchic asymptotic analyses, we establish a macroscopic classification of inverted rank distributions into five “socioeconomic” universality classes: communism, socialism, criticality, feudalism, and absolute monarchy. We further establish that: (i) communism and socialism are analogous to a “disordered phase”, feudalism and absolute monarchy are analogous to an “ordered phase”, and criticality is the “phase transition” between order and disorder; (ii) the universality classes are characterized by two critical exponents, one governing the ordered phase, and the other governing the disordered phase; (iii) communism, criticality, and absolute monarchy are characterized by sharp exponent values, and are inherently deterministic; (iv) socialism is characterized by a continuous exponent range, is inherently stochastic, and is universally governed by continuous power-law statistics; (v) feudalism is characterized by a continuous exponent range, is inherently stochastic, and is universally governed by discrete exponential statistics. The results presented in this paper yield a universal macroscopic socioeconophysical perspective of inverted rank distributions.

  13. Catalytic Growth of Macroscopic Carbon Nanofibers Bodies with Activated Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, N.; Rinaldi, A.; Muhammad, I. S.; Hamid, S. B. Abd.; Su, D. S.; Schlogl, R.

    2009-06-01

    Carbon-carbon composite of activated carbon and carbon nanofibers have been synthesized by growing Carbon nanofiber (CNF) on Palm shell-based Activated carbon (AC) with Ni catalyst. The composites are in an agglomerated shape due to the entanglement of the defective CNF between the AC particles forming a macroscopic body. The macroscopic size will allow the composite to be used as a stabile catalyst support and liquid adsorbent. The preparation of CNT/AC nanocarbon was initiated by pre-treating the activated carbon with nitric acid, followed by impregnation of 1 wt% loading of nickel (II) nitrate solutions in acetone. The catalyst precursor was calcined and reduced at 300° C for an hour in each step. The catalytic growth of nanocarbon in C2H4/H2 was carried out at temperature of 550° C for 2 hrs with different rotating angle in the fluidization system. SEM and N2 isotherms show the level of agglomeration which is a function of growth density and fluidization of the system. The effect of fluidization by rotating the reactor during growth with different speed give a significant impact on the agglomeration of the final CNF/AC composite and thus the amount of CNFs produced. The macrostructure body produced in this work of CNF/AC composite will have advantages in the adsorbent and catalyst support application, due to the mechanical and chemical properties of the material.

  14. Effects of tail docking and docking length on neuroanatomical changes in healed tail tips of pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herskin, M S; Thodberg, K; Jensen, Henrik Elvang

    2015-01-01

    % (n=19); or leaving 25% (n=11) of the tail length on the pigs. The piglets were docked between day 2 and 4 after birth using a gas-heated apparatus, and were kept under conventional conditions until slaughter at 22 weeks of age, where tails were removed and examined macroscopically and histologically...

  15. Non-perturbative study of impurity effects on the Kubo conductivity in macroscopic periodic and quasiperiodic lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sánchez, Vicenta; Ramírez, Carlos; Sánchez, Fernando; Wang, Chumin

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze the effects of site and bond impurities on the electrical conductance of periodic and quasiperiodic systems with macroscopic length by means of a real-space renormalization plus a convolution method developed for the Kubo–Greenwood formula. All analyzed systems are connected to semi-infinite periodic leads. Analytical and numerical conductivity spectra are obtained for one and two site impurities in a periodic chain, where the separation between impurities determines the number of maximums in the spectra. We also found transparent states at the zero chemical potential in Fibonacci chains of every three generations with bond impurities, whose existence was confirmed by an analytical analysis within the Landauer formalism. For many impurities, the spectral average of the conductivity versus the system length reveals a power-law behavior, when the distance between impurities follows the Fibonacci sequence. Finally, we present an analysis of the conductance spectra of segmented periodic and Fibonacci chains and nanowires

  16. Non-perturbative study of impurity effects on the Kubo conductivity in macroscopic periodic and quasiperiodic lattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sánchez, Vicenta; Ramírez, Carlos; Sánchez, Fernando [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 70-542, 04510 México D.F., México (Mexico); Wang, Chumin, E-mail: chumin@unam.mx [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 70-360, 04510 México D.F. (Mexico)

    2014-09-15

    In this paper, we analyze the effects of site and bond impurities on the electrical conductance of periodic and quasiperiodic systems with macroscopic length by means of a real-space renormalization plus a convolution method developed for the Kubo–Greenwood formula. All analyzed systems are connected to semi-infinite periodic leads. Analytical and numerical conductivity spectra are obtained for one and two site impurities in a periodic chain, where the separation between impurities determines the number of maximums in the spectra. We also found transparent states at the zero chemical potential in Fibonacci chains of every three generations with bond impurities, whose existence was confirmed by an analytical analysis within the Landauer formalism. For many impurities, the spectral average of the conductivity versus the system length reveals a power-law behavior, when the distance between impurities follows the Fibonacci sequence. Finally, we present an analysis of the conductance spectra of segmented periodic and Fibonacci chains and nanowires.

  17. Macroscopic Properties of Hollow Cone Spray Using an Outwardly Opening Piezoelectric Injector in GCI Engine

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Penghui

    2016-07-01

    Fuel mixture formation and spray characteristics are crucial for the advancement of Gasoline Compression Ignition (GCI) engine. For investigations of spray characteristics, a high-pressure high-temperature spray chamber with constant volume has been designed, tested and commissioned at CCRC, KAUST. Back light illumination technique has been applied to investigate the macroscopic spray properties of an outwardly opening piezoelec- tric injector. Three parameters including injection pressure, ambient pressure, and ambient temperature have been involved. A total of 18 combinations of experimental conditions were tested under non-reactive conditions. Through qualitative analysis of spray morphology under different operating conditions, an apparent distinction of spray morphology has been noticed. Spray morphology and propagation have shown strong dependencies on ambient pressure and ambient tempera- ture while injection pressure has a negligible effect on spray shape. Increasingly compact and bushier spray patterns were observed in the cases of high ambient pressure due to in- creasing aerodynamic drag force on spray boundary. It should also be noted that ambient temperature plays a fairly important role in fuel evaporation rate. At 200 °C, oscillating and considerably short spray shape was produced. Also, circumferential ring-like vortices and distinctive string-like structures have been identified for the fuel spray exiting this hollow cone injector. It has been observed that high ambient pressure conditions (Pamb = 4 bar and 10.5 bar) are favorable to the vortices generation, which has also been reported in previous literature. The quantitative description of macroscopic spray properties reveals that ambient pres- sure and ambient temperature are found to be the most influential parameters on liquid penetration length. The rise of ambient pressure results in considerably shorter liquid pen- etration length. Ambient temperature also appears to be a very effective

  18. Extended fuel cycle length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruyere, M.; Vallee, A.; Collette, C.

    1986-09-01

    Extended fuel cycle length and burnup are currently offered by Framatome and Fragema in order to satisfy the needs of the utilities in terms of fuel cycle cost and of overall systems cost optimization. We intend to point out the consequences of an increased fuel cycle length and burnup on reactor safety, in order to determine whether the bounding safety analyses presented in the Safety Analysis Report are applicable and to evaluate the effect on plant licensing. This paper presents the results of this examination. The first part indicates the consequences of increased fuel cycle length and burnup on the nuclear data used in the bounding accident analyses. In the second part of this paper, the required safety reanalyses are presented and the impact on the safety margins of different fuel management strategies is examined. In addition, systems modifications which can be required are indicated

  19. Relativistic distances, sizes, lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strel'tsov, V.N.

    1992-01-01

    Such notion as light or retarded distance, field size, formation way, visible size of a body, relativistic or radar length and wave length of light from a moving atom are considered. The relation between these notions is cleared up, their classification is given. It is stressed that the formation way is defined by the field size of a moving particle. In the case of the electromagnetic field, longitudinal sizes increase proportionally γ 2 with growing charge velocity (γ is the Lorentz-factor). 18 refs

  20. Distinct molecular features of different macroscopic subtypes of colorectal neoplasms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenichi Konda

    Full Text Available Colorectal adenoma develops into cancer with the accumulation of genetic and epigenetic changes. We studied the underlying molecular and clinicopathological features to better understand the heterogeneity of colorectal neoplasms (CRNs.We evaluated both genetic (mutations of KRAS, BRAF, TP53, and PIK3CA, and microsatellite instability [MSI] and epigenetic (methylation status of nine genes or sequences, including the CpG island methylator phenotype [CIMP] markers alterations in 158 CRNs including 56 polypoid neoplasms (PNs, 25 granular type laterally spreading tumors (LST-Gs, 48 non-granular type LSTs (LST-NGs, 19 depressed neoplasms (DNs and 10 small flat-elevated neoplasms (S-FNs on the basis of macroscopic appearance.S-FNs showed few molecular changes except SFRP1 methylation. Significant differences in the frequency of KRAS mutations were observed among subtypes (68% for LST-Gs, 36% for PNs, 16% for DNs and 6% for LST-NGs (P<0.001. By contrast, the frequency of TP53 mutation was higher in DNs than PNs or LST-Gs (32% vs. 5% or 0%, respectively (P<0.007. We also observed significant differences in the frequency of CIMP between LST-Gs and LST-NGs or PNs (32% vs. 6% or 5%, respectively (P<0.005. Moreover, the methylation level of LINE-1 was significantly lower in DNs or LST-Gs than in PNs (58.3% or 60.5% vs. 63.2%, P<0.05. PIK3CA mutations were detected only in LSTs. Finally, multivariate analyses showed that macroscopic morphologies were significantly associated with an increased risk of molecular changes (PN or LST-G for KRAS mutation, odds ratio [OR] 9.11; LST-NG or DN for TP53 mutation, OR 5.30; LST-G for PIK3CA mutation, OR 26.53; LST-G or DN for LINE-1 hypomethylation, OR 3.41.We demonstrated that CRNs could be classified into five macroscopic subtypes according to clinicopathological and molecular differences, suggesting that different mechanisms are involved in the pathogenesis of colorectal tumorigenesis.

  1. Diagnosis of bladder tumours in patients with macroscopic haematuria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gandrup, Karen L; Løgager, Vibeke B; Bretlau, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    patients underwent CTU, MRU and flexible cystoscopy. Two uroradiologists individually reviewed the images without any clinical information, using a questionnaire. Patient records and pathology reports were also reviewed. RESULTS: At flexible cystoscopy, MRU and CTU, 32, 19 and 15 bladder lesions were...... identified, respectively. Histopathology showed that 13 of the 29 biopsied lesions were transitional cell carcinomas. Compared with the histopathology, the sensitivity and specificity for detection of tumours by CTU and MRU were 61.5% and 94.9%, and 79.9% and 93.4%, respectively. False-positive detection...... of bladder tumours, compared with histopathology, was reported in seven CTUs and nine MRUs, whereas the number of false-negative findings was five for CTUs and three for MRUs. CONCLUSIONS: Split-bolus CTU or MRU cannot replace cystoscopy in cases of macroscopic haematuria. MRU has a higher sensitivity than...

  2. Macroscopic quantum electrodynamics of high-Q cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khanbekyan, Mikayel

    2009-10-27

    In this thesis macroscopic quantum electrodynamics in linear media was applied in order to develop an universally valid quantum theory for the description of the interaction of the electromagnetic field with atomic sources in high-Q cavities. In this theory a complete description of the characteristics of the emitted radiation is given. The theory allows to show the limits of the applicability of the usually applied theory. In order to establish an as possible generally valid theory first the atom-field interaction was studied in the framework of macroscopic quantum electrodynamics in dispersive and absorptive media. In order to describe the electromagnetic field from Maxwell's equations was started, whereby the noise-current densities, which are connected with the absorption of the medium, were included. The solution of these equations expresses the electromagnetic field variables by the noise-current densities by means of Green's tensor of the macroscopic Maxwell equations. The explicit quantization is performed by means of the noise-current densities, whereby a diagonal Hamiltonian is introduced, which then guarantees the time development according to Maxwell's equation and the fulfillment of the fundamental simultaneous commutation relations of the field variables. In the case of the interaction of the medium-supported field with atoms the Hamiltonian must be extended by atom-field interactions energies, whereby the canonical coupling schemes of the minimal or multipolar coupling can be used. The dieelectric properties of the material bodies as well as their shape are coded in the Green tensor of the macroscopic Maxwell equations. As preparing step first the Green tensor was specified in order to derive three-dimensional input-output relations for the electromagnetic field operators on a plane multilayer structure. Such a general dewscription of the electromagnetic field allows the inclusion both of dispersion and absorption of the media and the

  3. Macroscopic Modeling of Transport Phenomena in Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Anders Christian

    An increasing need for energy efficiency and high energy density has sparked a growing interest in direct methanol fuel cells for portable power applications. This type of fuel cell directly generates electricity from a fuel mixture consisting of methanol and water. Although this technology...... surpasses batteries in important areas, fundamental research is still required to improve durability and performance. Particularly the transport of methanol and water within the cell structure is difficult to study in-situ. A demand therefore exist for the fundamental development of mathematical models...... for studying their transport. In this PhD dissertation the macroscopic transport phenomena governing direct methanol fuel cell operation are analyzed, discussed and modeled using the two-fluid approach in the computational fluid dynamics framework of CFX 14. The overall objective of this work is to extend...

  4. Generation of macroscopic singlet states in atomic ensembles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Géza; Mitchell, Morgan W.

    2010-05-01

    We study squeezing of the spin uncertainties by quantum non-demolition (QND) measurement in non-polarized spin ensembles. Unlike the case of polarized ensembles, the QND measurements can be performed with negligible back-action, which allows, in principle, perfect spin squeezing as quantified by Tóth et al (2007 Phys. Rev. Lett. 99 250405). The generated spin states approach many-body singlet states and contain a macroscopic number of entangled particles even when individual spin is large. We introduce the Gaussian treatment of unpolarized spin states and use it to estimate the achievable spin squeezing for realistic experimental parameters. Our proposal might have applications for magnetometry with a high spatial resolution or quantum memories storing information in decoherence free subspaces.

  5. Fault detection by surface seismic scanning tunneling macroscope: Field test

    KAUST Repository

    Hanafy, Sherif M.

    2014-08-05

    The seismic scanning tunneling macroscope (SSTM) is proposed for detecting the presence of near-surface impedance anomalies and faults. Results with synthetic data are consistent with theory in that scatterers closer to the surface provide brighter SSTM profiles than those that are deeper. The SSTM profiles show superresolution detection if the scatterers are in the near-field region of the recording line. The field data tests near Gulf of Aqaba, Haql, KSA clearly show the presence of the observable fault scarp, and identify the subsurface presence of the hidden faults indicated in the tomograms. Superresolution detection of the fault is achieved, even when the 35 Hz data are lowpass filtered to the 5-10 Hz band.

  6. Macroscopic chirality of a liquid crystal from nonchiral molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakli, A.; Nair, G. G.; Lee, C. K.; Sun, R.; Chien, L. C.

    2001-01-01

    The transfer of chirality from nonchiral polymer networks to the racemic B2 phase of nonchiral banana-shaped molecules is demonstrated. This corresponds to the transfer of chirality from an achiral material to another achiral material. There are two levels of chirality transfers. (a) On a microscopic level the presence of a polymer network (chiral or nonchiral) favors a chiral state over a thermodynamically stable racemic state due to the inversion symmetry breaking at the polymer-liquid crystal interfaces. (b) A macroscopically chiral (enantimerically enriched) sample can be produced if the polymer network has a helical structure, and/or contains chemically chiral groups. The chirality transfer can be locally suppressed by exposing the liquid crystal to a strong electric field treatment

  7. Fault detection by surface seismic scanning tunneling macroscope: Field test

    KAUST Repository

    Hanafy, Sherif M.; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2014-01-01

    The seismic scanning tunneling macroscope (SSTM) is proposed for detecting the presence of near-surface impedance anomalies and faults. Results with synthetic data are consistent with theory in that scatterers closer to the surface provide brighter SSTM profiles than those that are deeper. The SSTM profiles show superresolution detection if the scatterers are in the near-field region of the recording line. The field data tests near Gulf of Aqaba, Haql, KSA clearly show the presence of the observable fault scarp, and identify the subsurface presence of the hidden faults indicated in the tomograms. Superresolution detection of the fault is achieved, even when the 35 Hz data are lowpass filtered to the 5-10 Hz band.

  8. The N-salicylidene aniline mesogen: Microscopic and macroscopic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesrullazade, A.

    2004-01-01

    The vast majority of compounds exhibiting Iiquid crystalline phases may be regarded as having a rigid molecular central group with one or two flexible terminal alkyl or alkyloxy chains. The N-saIicyIidene anilines are very interesting and important materials both from fundamental and application points of view. These materials are on the one hand the ligands used to obtain metal containing complexes and on the other hand they are materials having the thermotropic mesomorphism. In this work we present investigations of microscopic and macroscopic properties of the 4-(Octyloxy)-N-(4-hexylphenyl)-2-hydrobenzaIimine (8SA) compound which was synthesized by our group. The 8SA compound shows the smectic C and nematic mesophases. These mesophases are enantiotropic and display specific confocal and schlieren textures, respectively. Thermotropic and thermodynamical properties of the straight and reverse phase transitions between smectic C and nematic mesophases and between nematic mesophase and isotropic liquid have been investigated

  9. Non-Poissonian photon statistics from macroscopic photon cutting materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Mathijs; Meijerink, Andries; Rabouw, Freddy T

    2017-05-24

    In optical materials energy is usually extracted only from the lowest excited state, resulting in fundamental energy-efficiency limits such as the Shockley-Queisser limit for single-junction solar cells. Photon-cutting materials provide a way around such limits by absorbing high-energy photons and 'cutting' them into multiple low-energy excitations that can subsequently be extracted. The occurrence of photon cutting or quantum cutting has been demonstrated in a variety of materials, including semiconductor quantum dots, lanthanides and organic dyes. Here we show that photon cutting results in bunched photon emission on the timescale of the excited-state lifetime, even when observing a macroscopic number of optical centres. Our theoretical derivation matches well with experimental data on NaLaF 4 :Pr 3+ , a material that can cut deep-ultraviolet photons into two visible photons. This signature of photon cutting can be used to identify and characterize new photon-cutting materials unambiguously.

  10. Modeling Macroscopic Shape Distortions during Sintering of Multi-layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tadesse Molla, Tesfaye

    as to help achieve defect free multi-layer components. The initial thickness ratio between the layers making the multi-layer has also significant effect on the extent of camber evolution depending on the material systems. During sintering of tubular bi-layer structures, tangential (hoop) stresses are very...... large compared to radial stresses. The maximum value of hoop stress, which can generate processing defects such as cracks and coating peel-offs, occurs at the beginning of the sintering cycle. Unlike most of the models defining material properties based on porosity and grain size only, the multi...... (firing). However, unintended features like shape instabilities of samples, cracks or delamination of layers may arise during sintering of multi-layer composites. Among these defects, macroscopic shape distortions in the samples can cause problems in the assembly or performance of the final component...

  11. Electron plasma oscillations at arbitrary Debye lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehnert, B.

    1990-12-01

    A solution is presented for electron plasma oscillation in a thermalized homogeneous plasma, at arbitrary ratios between the Debye length λ D and the perturbation wave length λ. The limit λ D D >> λ corresponds to the free-streaming limit of strong kinetic phase-mixing due to large particle excursions. A strong large Debye distance (LDD) effect already appears when λ D > approx λ. The initial amplitude of the fluid-like contribution to the macroscopic density perturbation then becomes small as compared to the contribution from the free-streaming part. As a consequence, only a small fraction of the density perturbation remains after a limited number of kinetic damping times of the free-streaming part. The analysis further shows that a representation in terms of normal model of the form exp(-iωt) leads to amplitude factors of these modes which are related to each other and which depend on the combined free-streaming and fluid behaviour of the plasma. Consequently, these modes are coupled and cannot be treated as being independent of each other. (au)

  12. Zero-point length from string fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontanini, Michele; Spallucci, Euro; Padmanabhan, T.

    2006-01-01

    One of the leading candidates for quantum gravity, viz. string theory, has the following features incorporated in it. (i) The full spacetime is higher-dimensional, with (possibly) compact extra-dimensions; (ii) there is a natural minimal length below which the concept of continuum spacetime needs to be modified by some deeper concept. On the other hand, the existence of a minimal length (zero-point length) in four-dimensional spacetime, with obvious implications as UV regulator, has been often conjectured as a natural aftermath of any correct quantum theory of gravity. We show that one can incorporate the apparently unrelated pieces of information-zero-point length, extra-dimensions, string T-duality-in a consistent framework. This is done in terms of a modified Kaluza-Klein theory that interpolates between (high-energy) string theory and (low-energy) quantum field theory. In this model, the zero-point length in four dimensions is a 'virtual memory' of the length scale of compact extra-dimensions. Such a scale turns out to be determined by T-duality inherited from the underlying fundamental string theory. From a low energy perspective short distance infinities are cutoff by a minimal length which is proportional to the square root of the string slope, i.e., α ' . Thus, we bridge the gap between the string theory domain and the low energy arena of point-particle quantum field theory

  13. Scaling of cluster growth for coagulating active particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremer, Peet; Löwen, Hartmut

    2014-02-01

    Cluster growth in a coagulating system of active particles (such as microswimmers in a solvent) is studied by theory and simulation. In contrast to passive systems, the net velocity of a cluster can have various scalings dependent on the propulsion mechanism and alignment of individual particles. Additionally, the persistence length of the cluster trajectory typically increases with size. As a consequence, a growing cluster collects neighboring particles in a very efficient way and thus amplifies its growth further. This results in unusual large growth exponents for the scaling of the cluster size with time and, for certain conditions, even leads to "explosive" cluster growth where the cluster becomes macroscopic in a finite amount of time.

  14. Averaging problem in general relativity, macroscopic gravity and using Einstein's equations in cosmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalaletdinov, R. M.

    1998-04-01

    The averaging problem in general relativity is briefly discussed. A new setting of the problem as that of macroscopic description of gravitation is proposed. A covariant space-time averaging procedure is described. The structure of the geometry of macroscopic space-time, which follows from averaging Cartan's structure equations, is described and the correlation tensors present in the theory are discussed. The macroscopic field equations (averaged Einstein's equations) derived in the framework of the approach are presented and their structure is analysed. The correspondence principle for macroscopic gravity is formulated and a definition of the stress-energy tensor for the macroscopic gravitational field is proposed. It is shown that the physical meaning of using Einstein's equations with a hydrodynamic stress-energy tensor in looking for cosmological models means neglecting all gravitational field correlations. The system of macroscopic gravity equations to be solved when the correlations are taken into consideration is given and described.

  15. Pion nucleus scattering lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, W.T.; Levinson, C.A.; Banerjee, M.K.

    1971-09-01

    Soft pion theory and the Fubini-Furlan mass dispersion relations have been used to analyze the pion nucleon scattering lengths and obtain a value for the sigma commutator term. With this value and using the same principles, scattering lengths have been predicted for nuclei with mass number ranging from 6 to 23. Agreement with experiment is very good. For those who believe in the Gell-Mann-Levy sigma model, the evaluation of the commutator yields the value 0.26(m/sub σ//m/sub π/) 2 for the sigma nucleon coupling constant. The large dispersive corrections for the isosymmetric case implies that the basic idea behind many of the soft pion calculations, namely, slow variation of matrix elements from the soft pion limit to the physical pion mass, is not correct. 11 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  16. Gap length distributions by PEPR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warszawer, T.N.

    1980-01-01

    Conditions guaranteeing exponential gap length distributions are formulated and discussed. Exponential gap length distributions of bubble chamber tracks first obtained on a CRT device are presented. Distributions of resulting average gap lengths and their velocity dependence are discussed. (orig.)

  17. Microscopic origin and macroscopic implications of lane formation in mixtures of oppositely driven particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klymko, Katherine; Geissler, Phillip L.; Whitelam, Stephen

    2016-08-01

    Colloidal particles of two types, driven in opposite directions, can segregate into lanes [Vissers et al., Soft Matter 7, 2352 (2011), 10.1039/c0sm01343a]. This phenomenon can be reproduced by two-dimensional Brownian dynamics simulations of model particles [Dzubiella et al., Phys. Rev. E 65, 021402 (2002), 10.1103/PhysRevE.65.021402]. Here we use computer simulation to assess the generality of lane formation with respect to variation of particle type and dynamical protocol. We find that laning results from rectification of diffusion on the scale of a particle diameter: oppositely driven particles must, in the time taken to encounter each other in the direction of the drive, diffuse in the perpendicular direction by about one particle diameter. This geometric constraint implies that the diffusion constant of a particle, in the presence of those of the opposite type, grows approximately linearly with the Péclet number, a prediction confirmed by our numerics over a range of model parameters. Such environment-dependent diffusion is statistically similar to an effective interparticle attraction; consistent with this observation, we find that oppositely driven nonattractive colloids display features characteristic of the simplest model system possessing both interparticle attractions and persistent motion, the driven Ising lattice gas [Katz, Leibowitz, and Spohn, J. Stat. Phys. 34, 497 (1984), 10.1007/BF01018556]. These features include long-ranged correlations in the disordered regime, a critical regime characterized by a change in slope of the particle current with the Péclet number, and fluctuations that grow with system size. By analogy, we suggest that lane formation in the driven colloid system is a phase transition in the macroscopic limit, but that macroscopic phase separation would not occur in finite time upon starting from disordered initial conditions.

  18. The influence of macroscopic texture on biogenically-derived coalbed methane, Huntly coalfield, New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mares, Tennille E. [Department of Geological Sciences, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch (New Zealand); Moore, Tim A. [Department of Geological Sciences, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch (New Zealand); Solid Energy NZ Ltd., P.O. Box 1303, Christchurch (New Zealand)

    2008-10-02

    Secondary biogenic gas content can be related to textural characteristics in Eocene age subbituminous coals from the Huntly coalfield, New Zealand. However, the relationships between the two major coal seams in the basin are considerably different despite their close stratigraphic proximity (less than 25 m). In this study, 163 coal samples were collected and desorbed from eight drill holes. Gas adsorption capacity and proximate analyses were conducted as well as macroscopic logging for coal type and vitrain banding characteristics. Vitrain bands were quantitatively point counted and the longest dimension of the shortest axis measured. Three coal types were recognized: bright luster non-banded, bright moderately banded and bright highly banded. Vitrain band thickness, converted to the phi (- log{sub 2}) scale, was found to increase across the coal types with the thickest bands being associated with the most banded coal type. Overall, when normalized by seam and location, the dataset reveals a relationship between coal type and gas content with the non-banded coal type having the highest gas contents and conversely, the coal types with the most vitrain bands having the lowest gas contents. However, when the seams are considered separately, it can be seen that in the stratigraphically higher Renown coal seam, gas has an indirect association with increasing band thickness, in agreement with the overall trend, while the stratigraphically lower Kupakupa coal seam appears to have a direct relationship. Interestingly the Renown seam, which has a greater percentage of non-banded material, generally has a greater methane adsorption capacity as well as a greater gas content compared to the Kupakupa seam. It is believed these differences are related to macroscopic texture and that the differing proportions of the coal types between the two seams has a fundamental effect on microporosity, ultimately controlling the available surface area for gas adsorption. (author)

  19. Relativistic length agony continued

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redžić D.V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We made an attempt to remedy recent confusing treatments of some basic relativistic concepts and results. Following the argument presented in an earlier paper (Redžić 2008b, we discussed the misconceptions that are recurrent points in the literature devoted to teaching relativity such as: there is no change in the object in Special Relativity, illusory character of relativistic length contraction, stresses and strains induced by Lorentz contraction, and related issues. We gave several examples of the traps of everyday language that lurk in Special Relativity. To remove a possible conceptual and terminological muddle, we made a distinction between the relativistic length reduction and relativistic FitzGerald-Lorentz contraction, corresponding to a passive and an active aspect of length contraction, respectively; we pointed out that both aspects have fundamental dynamical contents. As an illustration of our considerations, we discussed briefly the Dewan-Beran-Bell spaceship paradox and the ‘pole in a barn’ paradox. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 171028

  20. Theory of transport processes in wood below the fiber saturation point. Physical background on the microscale and its macroscopic description

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eitelberger, Johannes; Svensson, Staffan; Hofstetter, Karin

    2011-01-01

    transport when used to describe transient processes. A suitable modeling approach was found by distinguishing between the two phases of water in wood, namely bound water in the cell walls and water vapor in the lumens. Such models are capable of reproducing transient moisture transport processes......, but the physical origin of the coupling between the two phases remains unclear. In this paper, the physical background on the microscale is clarified and transformed into a comprehensive macroscopic description, ending up with a dual-scale model comprising three coupled differential equations for bound water...