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Sample records for macroscopic current-voltage curves

  1. Current-voltage curves of gold quantum point contacts revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, K.; Nielsen, S K.; Brandbyge, Mads

    2000-01-01

    We present measurements of current-voltage (I-V) curves on gold quantum point contacts (QPCs) with a conductance up to 4 G(0) (G(0) = 2e(2)/h is the conductance quantum) and voltages up to 2 V. The QPCs are formed between the gold tip of a scanning tunneling microscope and a Au(110) surface under...

  2. Current-voltage characteristics of bulk heterojunction organic solar cells: connection between light and dark curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boix, Pablo P.; Guerrero, Antonio; Garcia-Belmonte, Germa; Bisquert, Juan [Photovoltaic and Optoelectronic Devices Group, Departament de Fisica, Universitat Jaume I, ES-12071 Castello (Spain); Marchesi, Luis F. [Laboratorio Interdisciplinar de, Eletroquimica e Ceramica (LIEC), Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (Brazil); Photovoltaic and Optoelectronic Devices Group, Departament de Fisica, Universitat Jaume I, ES-12071 Castello (Spain)

    2011-11-15

    A connection is established between recombination and series resistances extracted from impedance spectroscopy and current-voltage curves of polythiophene:fullerene organic solar cells. Recombination is shown to depend exclusively on the (Fermi level) voltage, which allows construction of the current-voltage characteristics in any required conditions based on a restricted set of measurements. The analysis highlights carrier recombination current as the determining mechanism of organic solar cell performance. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. Theoretical Current-Voltage Curve in Low-Pressure Cesium Diode for Electron-Rich Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coldstein, C. M.

    1964-01-01

    Although considerable interest has been shown in the space-charge analysis of low-pressure (collisionless case) thermionic diodes, there is a conspicuous lack in the presentation of results in a way that allows direct comparison with experiment. The current-voltage curve of this report was, therefore, computed for a typical case within the realm of experimental interest. The model employed in this computation is shown in Fig. 1 and is defined by the limiting potential distributions [curves (a) and (b)]. Curve (a) represents the potential V as a monotonic function of position with a slope of zero at the anode; curve (b) is similarly monotonic with a slope of zero at the cathode. It is assumed that by a continuous variation of the anode voltage, the potential distributions vary continuously from one limiting form to the other. Although solutions for infinitely spaced electrodes show that spatically oscillatory potential distributions may exist, they have been neglected in this computation.

  4. Current-voltage curve of sodium channels and concentration dependence of sodium permeability in frog skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuchs, W; Larsen, Erik Hviid; Lindemann, B

    1977-01-01

    1. The inward facing membranes of in vitro frog skin epithelium were depolarized with solutions of high K concentration. The electrical properties of the epithelium are then expected to be governed by the outward facing, Na-selective membrane.2. In this state, the transepithelial voltage (V...... was recorded. This procedure was repeated after blocking the Na channels with amiloride to obtain the current-voltage curve of transmembrane and paracellular shunt pathways. The current-voltage curve of the Na channels was computed by subtracting the shunt current from the total current.4. The instantaneous I...... of the inward facing membranes but reflects the true behaviour of P(Na).6. The steady-state P(Na) at a given (Na)(o) is smaller than the transient P(Na) observed right after a stepwise increase of (Na)(o) to this value. The time constant of P(Na)-relaxation is in the order of seconds.7. In conclusion, Na...

  5. CURRENT-VOLTAGE CURVES FOR TREATING EFFLUENT CONTAINING HEDP: DETERMINATION OF THE LIMITING CURRENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Scarazzato

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Membrane separation techniques have been explored for treating industrial effluents to allow water reuse and component recovery. In an electrodialysis system, concentration polarization causes undesirable alterations in the ionic transportation mechanism. The graphic construction of the current voltage curve is proposed for establishing the value of the limiting current density applied to the cell. The aim of this work was to determine the limiting current density in an electrodialysis bench stack, the function of which was the treatment of an electroplating effluent containing HEDP. For this, a system with five compartments was used with a working solution simulating the rinse waters of HEDP-based baths. The results demonstrated correlation between the regions defined by theory and the experimental data.

  6. Current-voltage curves for molecular junctions computed using all-electron basis sets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W.; Lawson, John W.

    2006-01-01

    We present current-voltage (I-V) curves computed using all-electron basis sets on the conducting molecule. The all-electron results are very similar to previous results obtained using effective core potentials (ECP). A hybrid integration scheme is used that keeps the all-electron calculations cost competitive with respect to the ECP calculations. By neglecting the coupling of states to the contacts below a fixed energy cutoff, the density matrix for the core electrons can be evaluated analytically. The full density matrix is formed by adding this core contribution to the valence part that is evaluated numerically. Expanding the definition of the core in the all-electron calculations significantly reduces the computational effort and, up to biases of about 2 V, the results are very similar to those obtained using more rigorous approaches. The convergence of the I-V curves and transmission coefficients with respect to basis set is discussed. The addition of diffuse functions is critical in approaching basis set completeness

  7. Asymptotic and numerical prediction of current-voltage curves for an organic bilayer solar cell under varying illumination and comparison to the Shockley equivalent circuit

    KAUST Repository

    Foster, J. M.; Kirkpatrick, J.; Richardson, G.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a drift-diffusion model is used to derive the current-voltage curves of an organic bilayer solar cell consisting of slabs of electron acceptor and electron donor materials sandwiched together between current collectors. A simplified

  8. Effects of synchronous irradiance monitoring and correction of current-voltage curves on the outdoor performance measurements of photovoltaic modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hishikawa, Yoshihiro; Doi, Takuya; Higa, Michiya; Ohshima, Hironori; Takenouchi, Takakazu; Yamagoe, Kengo

    2017-08-01

    Precise outdoor measurement of the current-voltage (I-V) curves of photovoltaic (PV) modules is desired for many applications such as low-cost onsite performance measurement, monitoring, and diagnosis. Conventional outdoor measurement technologies have a problem in that their precision is low when the solar irradiance is unstable, hence, limiting the opportunity of precise measurement only on clear sunny days. The purpose of this study is to investigate an outdoor measurement procedure, that can improve both the measurement opportunity and precision. Fast I-V curve measurements within 0.2 s and synchronous measurement of irradiance using a PV module irradiance sensor very effectively improved the precision. A small standard deviation (σ) of the module’s maximum output power (P max) in the range of 0.7-0.9% is demonstrated, based on the basis of a 6 month experiment, that mainly includes partly sunny days and cloudy days, during which the solar irradiance is unstable. The σ was further improved to 0.3-0.5% by correcting the curves for the small variation of irradiance. This indicates that the procedure of this study enables much more reproducible I-V curve measurements than a conventional usual procedure under various climatic conditions. Factors that affect measurement results are discussed, to further improve the precision.

  9. Random instabilities of current-voltage curves of BSCCO-2223/Ag multifilamentary tapes in LN2 at 77 K

    CERN Document Server

    Usak, P

    2003-01-01

    The measurement of the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of BSCCO-2223/Ag multifilamentary tapes in a silver matrix has been performed on short samples (of several centimetres) as well as on long tape (1 m), wound in the form of a helical one-layer coil. Measurements at 77 K and in zero external magnetic field have revealed good reproducibility of the I-V hysteresis in most runs. Nevertheless, strange irregularities have sometimes been observed in the I-V curve behaviour during current ramping up and down. Quasi-reproducible drops from the ascending hysteretic branch in the direction of the descending one have been measured at higher voltage levels (approx 1 mV cm sup - sup 1) on the curve measured on the helical coil. These have recently been explained by a sudden change in the heat transfer coefficient [1]. Rarely and non-reproducibly we have also observed these drops on short samples at E approx 1 x 10 sup - sup 2 V m sup - sup 1 , (and even under 1 x 10 sup - sup 3 V m sup - sup 1). The accidental dro...

  10. Current-voltage curves of atomic-sized transition metal contacts: An explanation of why Au is ohmic and Pt is not

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, S.K.; Brandbyge, Mads; Hansen, K.

    2002-01-01

    We present an experimental study of current-voltage (I-V) curves on atomic-sized Au and Pt contacts formed under cryogenic vacuum (4.2 K). Whereas I-V curves for Au are almost Ohmic, the conductance G=I/V for Pt decreases with increasing voltage, resulting in distinct nonlinear I-V behavior...

  11. Asymptotic and numerical prediction of current-voltage curves for an organic bilayer solar cell under varying illumination and comparison to the Shockley equivalent circuit

    KAUST Repository

    Foster, J. M.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a drift-diffusion model is used to derive the current-voltage curves of an organic bilayer solar cell consisting of slabs of electron acceptor and electron donor materials sandwiched together between current collectors. A simplified version of the standard drift-diffusion equations is employed in which minority carrier densities are neglected. This is justified by the large disparities in electron affinity and ionisation potential between the two materials. The resulting equations are solved (via both asymptotic and numerical techniques) in conjunction with (i) Ohmic boundary conditions on the contacts and (ii) an internal boundary condition, imposed on the interface between the two materials, that accounts for charge pair generation (resulting from the dissociation of excitons) and charge pair recombination. Current-voltage curves are calculated from the solution to this model as a function of the strength of the solar charge generation. In the physically relevant power generating regime, it is shown that these current-voltage curves are well-approximated by a Shockley equivalent circuit model. Furthermore, since our drift-diffusion model is predictive, it can be used to directly calculate equivalent circuit parameters from the material parameters of the device. © 2013 AIP Publishing LLC.

  12. Observation and investigation of a dynamic inflection point in current-voltage curves for roll-to-roll processed polymer photovoltaics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medford, Andrew James; Lilliedal, Mathilde Raad

    2010-01-01

    Inflection point behaviour is often observed in the current-voltage (IV) curve of polymer and organic solar cells. This phenomenon is examined in the context of flexible roll-to-roll (R2R) processed polymer solar cells in a large series of devices with a layer structure of: PET-ITO-ZnO-P3HT...... of this “photo-annealing” behaviour was further investigated by studying the effects of several key factors: temperature, illumination, and atmosphere. The results consistently showed that the inflection point is a dynamic interface phenomenon which can be removed under specific conditions. Subsequently...

  13. Transport current ac losses and current-voltage curves of multifilamentary Bi-2223/Ag tape with artificial defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polak, M.; Jansak, L.

    2000-01-01

    We experimentally studied the effects of a single artificial defect and a linear array of artificial defects on I-V curves, critical currents and transport current ac losses of 55 filament untwisted Bi-2223/Ag tapes. The artificial defect was a small hole drilled into the tape. The reduction in the critical current measured on a 1 cm long section due to one hole of diameter 0.9 mm was 33% and that due to a linear array of seven similar holes was 62%. The slopes of the I-V curves, n, measured in this section were 33, 16 and 5.8 in the original sample, in the sample with one defect and the sample with seven defects, respectively. Both I c and the slope reduction were smaller if the distance between the potential taps was increased. The transport current ac losses at 50 Hz and I rms = 10 A in the sample with one defect measured in a 1 cm long section were practically the same as those in the original sample (4.1x10 -4 W m -1 ), but they increased by 83% in the sample with a linear array of seven defects. The measured increase in losses per unit length was the smaller, the larger the distance between the potential taps. A comparison between the measured and calculated losses revealed that a formal application of the Norris equations for loss calculations in samples with local defects leads to an overestimation of the ac losses. A procedure for the calculation of transport current losses in samples with local defects based on the Norris model is proposed and verified. (author)

  14. Macroscopic phase-resetting curves for spiking neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, Grégory; Ermentrout, G. Bard; Gutkin, Boris

    2017-10-01

    The study of brain rhythms is an open-ended, and challenging, subject of interest in neuroscience. One of the best tools for the understanding of oscillations at the single neuron level is the phase-resetting curve (PRC). Synchronization in networks of neurons, effects of noise on the rhythms, effects of transient stimuli on the ongoing rhythmic activity, and many other features can be understood by the PRC. However, most macroscopic brain rhythms are generated by large populations of neurons, and so far it has been unclear how the PRC formulation can be extended to these more common rhythms. In this paper, we describe a framework to determine a macroscopic PRC (mPRC) for a network of spiking excitatory and inhibitory neurons that generate a macroscopic rhythm. We take advantage of a thermodynamic approach combined with a reduction method to simplify the network description to a small number of ordinary differential equations. From this simplified but exact reduction, we can compute the mPRC via the standard adjoint method. Our theoretical findings are illustrated with and supported by numerical simulations of the full spiking network. Notably our mPRC framework allows us to predict the difference between effects of transient inputs to the excitatory versus the inhibitory neurons in the network.

  15. Macroscopic phase-resetting curves for spiking neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, Grégory; Ermentrout, G Bard; Gutkin, Boris

    2017-10-01

    The study of brain rhythms is an open-ended, and challenging, subject of interest in neuroscience. One of the best tools for the understanding of oscillations at the single neuron level is the phase-resetting curve (PRC). Synchronization in networks of neurons, effects of noise on the rhythms, effects of transient stimuli on the ongoing rhythmic activity, and many other features can be understood by the PRC. However, most macroscopic brain rhythms are generated by large populations of neurons, and so far it has been unclear how the PRC formulation can be extended to these more common rhythms. In this paper, we describe a framework to determine a macroscopic PRC (mPRC) for a network of spiking excitatory and inhibitory neurons that generate a macroscopic rhythm. We take advantage of a thermodynamic approach combined with a reduction method to simplify the network description to a small number of ordinary differential equations. From this simplified but exact reduction, we can compute the mPRC via the standard adjoint method. Our theoretical findings are illustrated with and supported by numerical simulations of the full spiking network. Notably our mPRC framework allows us to predict the difference between effects of transient inputs to the excitatory versus the inhibitory neurons in the network.

  16. Pinning of a curved flux line by macroscopic inclusions in a type II superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shehata, L.N.; Saif, A.G.

    1983-08-01

    The pinning force is calculated as a function of the distance between a curved (or straight) flux line and the centre of a macroscopic superconducting (or normal) ellipsoidal inclusion. When the ellipsoidal tends to a spherical inclusion the results agree with those previously obtained. (author)

  17. Current-voltage characteristic of a resonant tunneling diode under electromagnetic radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Hatefi Kargan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available  In this paper, current-voltage characteristic of a resonant tunneling diode under electromagnetic radiation has been calculated and compared with the results when there is no electromagnetic radiation. For calculating current -voltage characteristic, it is required to calculate the transmission coefficient of electrons from the well and barrier structures of this device. For calculating the transmission coefficient of electrons at the presence of electromagnetic radiation, Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD method has been used and when there is no electromagnetic radiation Transfer Matrix Method (TMM and finite diffirence time domain method have been used. The results show that the presence of electromagnetic radiation causes resonant states other than principal resonant state (without presence of electromagnetic radiation to appear on the transmition coefficient curve where they are in distances from the principal peak and from each other. Also, the presence of electromagnetic radiation causes peaks other than principal peak to appear on the current-voltage characteristics of the device. Under electromagnetic radiation, the number of peaks on the current-voltage curve is smaller than the number of peaks on the current-voltage transmission coefficient. This is due to the fact that current-voltage curve is the result of integration on the energy of electrons, Thus, the sharper and low height peaks on the transmission coefficient do not appear on the current-voltage characteristic curve.

  18. Vortex depinning as a nonequilibrium phase transition phenomenon: Scaling of current-voltage curves near the low and the high critical-current states in 2 H -Nb S2 single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bag, Biplab; Sivananda, Dibya J.; Mandal, Pabitra; Banerjee, S. S.; Sood, A. K.; Grover, A. K.

    2018-04-01

    The vortex depinning phenomenon in single crystals of 2 H -Nb S2 superconductors is used as a prototype for investigating properties of the nonequilibrium (NEQ) depinning phase transition. The 2 H -Nb S2 is a unique system as it exhibits two distinct depinning thresholds, viz., a lower critical current Icl and a higher one Ich. While Icl is related to depinning of a conventional, static (pinned) vortex state, the state with Ich is achieved via a negative differential resistance (NDR) transition where the velocity abruptly drops. Using a generalized finite-temperature scaling ansatz, we study the scaling of current (I)-voltage (V) curves measured across Icl and Ich. Our analysis shows that for I >Icl , the moving vortex state exhibits Arrhenius-like thermally activated flow behavior. This feature persists up to a current value where an inflexion in the IV curves is encountered. While past measurements have often reported similar inflexion, our analysis shows that the inflexion is a signature of a NEQ phase transformation from a thermally activated moving vortex phase to a free flowing phase. Beyond this inflection in IV, a large vortex velocity flow regime is encountered in the 2 H -Nb S2 system, wherein the Bardeen-Stephen flux flow limit is crossed. In this regime the NDR transition is encountered, leading to the high Ich state. The IV curves above Ich we show do not obey the generalized finite-temperature scaling ansatz (as obeyed near Icl). Instead, they scale according to the Fisher's scaling form [Fisher, Phys. Rev. B 31, 1396 (1985), 10.1103/PhysRevB.31.1396] where we show thermal fluctuations do not affect the vortex flow, unlike that found for depinning near Icl.

  19. Current-voltage relation for thin tunnel barriers: Parabolic barrier model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim; Brandbyge, Mads

    2004-01-01

    We derive a simple analytic result for the current-voltage curve for tunneling of electrons through a thin uniform insulating layer modeled by a parabolic barrier. Our model, which goes beyond the Wentzel–Kramers–Brillouin approximation, is applicable also in the limit of highly transparant...

  20. Current-Voltage Characteristics of Quasi-One-Dimensional Superconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vodolazov, D.Y.; Peeters, F.M.; Piraux, L.

    2003-01-01

    The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of quasi-one-dimensional superconductors were discussed. The I-V characteristics exhibited an unusual S behavior. The dynamics of superconducting condensate and the existence of two different critical currents resulted in such an unusual behavior....

  1. Current-voltage model of LED light sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beczkowski, Szymon; Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    2012-01-01

    Amplitude modulation is rarely used for dimming light-emitting diodes in polychromatic luminaires due to big color shifts caused by varying magnitude of LED driving current and nonlinear relationship between intensity of a diode and driving current. Current-voltage empirical model of light...

  2. Current voltage characteristics of composite superconductors with high contact resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhmetov, A.A.; Baev, V.P.

    1984-01-01

    An experimental study has been made of current-voltage characteristics of composite superconductors with contact resistance between superconducting filaments and normal metal with high electrical conductivity. It is shown that stable resistive states exist in such conductors over a wide range of currents. The presence of resistive states is interpreted in terms of the resistive domain concept. The minimum and maximum currents of resistive states are found to be dependent on the electrical resistance of normal metal and magnetic field. (author)

  3. Branching in current-voltage characteristics of intrinsic Josephson junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukrinov, Yu M; Mahfouzi, F

    2007-01-01

    We study branching in the current-voltage characteristics of the intrinsic Josephson junctions of high-temperature superconductors in the framework of the capacitively coupled Josephson junction model with diffusion current. A system of dynamical equations for the gauge-invariant phase differences between superconducting layers for a stack of ten intrinsic junctions has been numerically solved. We have obtained a total branch structure in the current-voltage characteristics. We demonstrate the existence of a 'breakpoint region' on the current-voltage characteristics and explain it as a result of resonance between Josephson and plasma oscillations. The effect of the boundary conditions is investigated. The existence of two outermost branches and correspondingly two breakpoint regions for the periodic boundary conditions is shown. One branch, which is observed only at periodic boundary conditions, corresponds to the propagating of the plasma mode. The second one corresponds to the situation when the charge oscillations on the superconducting layers are absent, excluding the breakpoint. A time dependence of the charge oscillations at breakpoints is presented

  4. Impurity Deionization Effects on Surface Recombination DC Current-Voltage Characteristics in MOS Transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zuhui; Jie Binbin; Sah Chihtang

    2010-01-01

    Impurity deionization on the direct-current current-voltage characteristics from electron-hole recombination (R-DCIV) at SiO 2 /Si interface traps in MOS transistors is analyzed using the steady-state Shockley-Read-Hall recombination kinetics and the Fermi distributions for electrons and holes. Insignificant distortion is observed over 90% of the bell-shaped R-DCIV curves centered at their peaks when impurity deionization is excluded in the theory. This is due to negligible impurity deionization because of the much lower electron and hole concentrations at the interface than the impurity concentration in the 90% range. (invited papers)

  5. Current-voltage characteristics of carbon nanotubes with substitutional nitrogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaun, C.C.; Larade, B.; Mehrez, H.

    2002-01-01

    unit cell generates a metallic transport behavior. Nonlinear I-V characteristics set in at high bias and a negative differential resistance region is observed for the doped tubes. These behaviors can be well understood from the alignment/mis-alignment of the current carrying bands in the nanotube leads......We report ab initio analysis of current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of carbon nanotubes with nitrogen substitution doping. For zigzag semiconducting tubes, doping with a single N impurity increases current flow and, for small radii tubes, narrows the current gap. Doping a N impurity per nanotube...

  6. Nonlinear current-voltage behavior in PZT thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Mi; Zhang, Weikang; Zhang, Zebin; Li, Shida; Zhang, Ping; Lan, Kuibo [Tianjin University, School of Electrical and Information Engineering, Tianjin (China)

    2017-05-15

    In this paper, Pb(Zr{sub 0.52}Ti{sub 0.48})O{sub 3} (PZT) thin films were prepared by sol-gel synthesis and characterized by X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy and current-voltage measurements. Here, we demonstrate that in addition to the outstanding ferroelectric and dielectric properties, the PZT films also have remarkably nonlinear current-voltage characteristics. Considering the contact of semi-conductive grains in the PZT films, a double Schottky barrier (DSB) model may be responsible for such phenomena. The test results show that with the decrease of annealing temperature and the increase of the film thickness, the threshold voltages (V{sub th}) increase obviously. The maximum V{sub th} value of 60.95 V and the minimum value of 6.9 V in our experiments were obtained from the five-layered samples annealed at 600 C and the two-layered samples annealed at 700 C, respectively. As a result, PZT thin film may lead to efficient switching and sensing devices. (orig.)

  7. Current-voltage characteristics of dendrimer light-emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, S G; Samuel, I D W; Staton, S V; Knights, K A; Burn, P L; Williams, J H T; Walker, Alison B

    2010-01-01

    We have investigated current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of unipolar and bipolar organic diodes that use phosphorescent dendrimers as the emissive organic layer. Through simulation of the measured I-V characteristics we were able to determine the device parameters for each device structure studied, leading to a better understanding of injection and transport behaviour in these devices. It was found that the common practice of assuming injection barriers are equal to the difference between bare electrode work functions and molecular orbital levels is unsuitable for the devices considered here, particularly for gold contacts. The studies confirm that different aromatic units in the dendrons can give significant differences in the charge transporting properties of the dendrimers.

  8. Current-voltage characteristics of dendrimer light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, S. G.; Samuel, I. D. W.; Staton, S. V.; Knights, K. A.; Burn, P. L.; Williams, J. H. T.; Walker, Alison B.

    2010-09-01

    We have investigated current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of unipolar and bipolar organic diodes that use phosphorescent dendrimers as the emissive organic layer. Through simulation of the measured I-V characteristics we were able to determine the device parameters for each device structure studied, leading to a better understanding of injection and transport behaviour in these devices. It was found that the common practice of assuming injection barriers are equal to the difference between bare electrode work functions and molecular orbital levels is unsuitable for the devices considered here, particularly for gold contacts. The studies confirm that different aromatic units in the dendrons can give significant differences in the charge transporting properties of the dendrimers.

  9. Current-voltage characteristics of dendrimer light-emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevenson, S G; Samuel, I D W [Organic Semiconductor Centre, SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews, Fife, KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Staton, S V; Knights, K A; Burn, P L [Department of Chemistry, Chemistry Research Laboratory, 12 Mansfield Road, Oxford, OX1 3TA (United Kingdom); Williams, J H T; Walker, Alison B, E-mail: a.b.walker@bath.ac.u [Department of Physics, University of Bath, Bath, BA2 7AY (United Kingdom)

    2010-09-29

    We have investigated current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of unipolar and bipolar organic diodes that use phosphorescent dendrimers as the emissive organic layer. Through simulation of the measured I-V characteristics we were able to determine the device parameters for each device structure studied, leading to a better understanding of injection and transport behaviour in these devices. It was found that the common practice of assuming injection barriers are equal to the difference between bare electrode work functions and molecular orbital levels is unsuitable for the devices considered here, particularly for gold contacts. The studies confirm that different aromatic units in the dendrons can give significant differences in the charge transporting properties of the dendrimers.

  10. Current voltage perspective of an organic electronic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Ayash K.; Kumari, Nikita

    2018-05-01

    Nonlinearity in current (I) - voltage (V) measurement is a well-known attribute of two-terminal organic device, irrespective of the geometrical or structural arrangement of the device. Most of the existing theories that are developed for interpretation of I-V data, either focus current-voltage relationship of charge injection mechanism across the electrode-organic material interface or charge transport mechanism through the organic active material. On the contrary, both the mechanisms work in tandem charge conduction through the device. The transport mechanism is further complicated by incoherent scattering from scattering centres/charge traps that are located at the electrode-organic material interface and in the bulk of organic material. In the present communication, a collective expression has been formulated that comprises of all the transport mechanisms that are occurring at various locations of a planar organic device. The model has been fitted to experimental I-V data of Au/P3HT/Au device with excellent degree of agreement. Certain physical parameters such as the effective area of cross-section and resistance due to charge traps have been extracted from the fit.

  11. Current-voltage-temperature characteristics of DNA origami

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellido, Edson P; Bobadilla, Alfredo D; Rangel, Norma L; Seminario, Jorge M [Department of Chemical Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Zhong Hong; Norton, Michael L [Department of Chemistry, Marshall University, Huntington, WV 25755 (United States); Sinitskii, Alexander [Department of Chemistry, Rice University, Houston, TX 77005 (United States)

    2009-04-29

    The temperature dependences of the current-voltage characteristics of a sample of triangular DNA origami deposited in a 100 nm gap between platinum electrodes are measured using a probe station. Below 240 K, the sample shows high impedance, similar to that of the substrate. Near room temperature the current shows exponential behavior with respect to the inverse of temperature. Sweep times of 1 s do not yield a steady state; however sweep times of 450 s for the bias voltage secure a steady state. The thermionic emission and hopping conduction models yield similar barriers of {approx}0.7 eV at low voltages. For high voltages, the hopping conduction mechanism yields a barrier of 0.9 eV and the thermionic emission yields 1.1 eV. The experimental data set suggests that the dominant conduction mechanism is hopping in the range 280-320 K. The results are consistent with theoretical and experimental estimates of the barrier for related molecules.

  12. Current-voltage-temperature characteristics of DNA origami

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellido, Edson P; Bobadilla, Alfredo D; Rangel, Norma L; Seminario, Jorge M; Zhong Hong; Norton, Michael L; Sinitskii, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    The temperature dependences of the current-voltage characteristics of a sample of triangular DNA origami deposited in a 100 nm gap between platinum electrodes are measured using a probe station. Below 240 K, the sample shows high impedance, similar to that of the substrate. Near room temperature the current shows exponential behavior with respect to the inverse of temperature. Sweep times of 1 s do not yield a steady state; however sweep times of 450 s for the bias voltage secure a steady state. The thermionic emission and hopping conduction models yield similar barriers of ∼0.7 eV at low voltages. For high voltages, the hopping conduction mechanism yields a barrier of 0.9 eV and the thermionic emission yields 1.1 eV. The experimental data set suggests that the dominant conduction mechanism is hopping in the range 280-320 K. The results are consistent with theoretical and experimental estimates of the barrier for related molecules.

  13. Current-Voltage Characteristic of Nanosecond - Duration Relativistic Electron Beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreev, Andrey

    2005-10-01

    The pulsed electron-beam accelerator SINUS-6 was used to measure current-voltage characteristic of nanosecond-duration thin annular relativistic electron beam accelerated in vacuum along axis of a smooth uniform metal tube immersed into strong axial magnetic field. Results of these measurements as well as results of computer simulations performed using 3D MAGIC code show that the electron-beam current dependence on the accelerating voltage at the front of the nanosecond-duration pulse is different from the analogical dependence at the flat part of the pulse. In the steady-state (flat) part of the pulse), the measured electron-beam current is close to Fedosov current [1], which is governed by the conservation law of an electron moment flow for any constant voltage. In the non steady-state part (front) of the pulse, the electron-beam current is higher that the appropriate, for a giving voltage, steady-state (Fedosov) current. [1] A. I. Fedosov, E. A. Litvinov, S. Ya. Belomytsev, and S. P. Bugaev, ``Characteristics of electron beam formed in diodes with magnetic insulation,'' Soviet Physics Journal (A translation of Izvestiya VUZ. Fizika), vol. 20, no. 10, October 1977 (April 20, 1978), pp.1367-1368.

  14. Simulation of forward dark current voltage characteristics of tandem solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubinelli, F.A.

    2012-01-01

    The transport mechanisms tailoring the shape of dark current–voltage characteristics of amorphous and microcrystalline silicon based tandem solar cell structures are explored with numerical simulations. Our input parameters were calibrated by fitting experimental current voltage curves of single and double junction structures measured under dark and illuminated conditions. At low and intermediate forward voltages the dark current–voltage characteristics show one or two regions with a current–voltage exponential dependence. The diode factor is unique in tandem cells with the same material in both intrinsic layers and two dissimilar diode factors are observed in tandem cells with different materials on the top and bottom intrinsic layers. In the exponential regions the current is controlled by recombination through gap states and by free carrier diffusion. At high forward voltages the current grows more slowly with the applied voltage. The current is influenced by the onset of electron space charge limited current (SCLC) in tandem cells where both intrinsic layers are of amorphous silicon and by series resistance of the bottom cell in tandem cells where both intrinsic layers are of microcrystalline silicon. In the micromorph cell the onset of SCLC becomes visible on the amorphous top sub-cell. The dark current also depends on the thermal generation of electron–hole (e–h) pairs present at the tunneling recombination junction. The highest dependence is observed in the tandem structure where both intrinsic layers are of microcrystalline silicon. The prediction of meaningless dark currents at low forward and reverse voltages by our code is discussed and one solution is given. - Highlights: ► Transport mechanisms shaping the dark current-voltage curves of tandem devices. ► The devices are amorphous and microcrystalline based tandem solar cells. ► Two regions with a current-voltage exponential dependence are observed. ► The tandem J-V diode factor is the

  15. Current-voltage relationship in the auroral particle acceleration region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Morooka

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The current-voltage relationship in the auroral particle acceleration region has been studied statistically by the Akebono (EXOS-D satellite in terms of the charge carriers of the upward field-aligned current. The Akebono satellite often observed field-aligned currents which were significantly larger than the model value predicted by Knight (1973. We compared the upward field-aligned current estimated by three different methods, and found that low-energy electrons often play an important role as additional current carriers, together with the high-energy primary electrons which are expected from Knight's relation. Such additional currents have been observed especially at high and middle altitudes of the particle acceleration region. Some particular features of electron distribution functions, such as "cylindrical distribution functions" and "electron conics", have often been observed coinciding with the additional currents. They indicated time variability of the particle acceleration region. Therefore, we have concluded that the low-energy electrons within the "forbidden" region of electron phase space in the stationary model often contribute to charge carriers of the current because of the rapid time variability of the particle acceleration region. "Cylindrical distribution functions" are expected to be found below the time-varying potential difference. We statistically examined the locations of "cylindrical distribution function", and found that their altitudes are related to the location where the additional currents have been observed. This result is consistent with the idea that the low-energy electrons can also carry significant current when the acceleration region changes in time.

  16. On the current-voltage relationship in fluid theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Janhunen

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The kinetic theory of precipitating electrons with Maxwellian source plasma yields the well-known current-voltage relationship (CV-relationship; Knight formula, which can in most cases be accurately approximated by a reduced linear formula. Our question is whether it is possible to obtain this CV-relationship from fluid theory, and if so, to what extent it is physically equivalent with the more accurate kinetic counterpart. An answer to this question is necessary before trying to understand how one could combine time-dependent and transient phenomena such as Alfvénic waves with a slowly evolving background described by the CV-relationship. We first compute the fluid quantity profiles (density, pressure etc. along a flux tube based on kinetic theory solution. A parallel potential drop accumulates plasma (and pressure below it, which explains why the current is linearly proportional to the potential drop in the kinetic theory even though the velocity of the accelerated particles is only proportional to the square root of the accelerating voltage. Electron fluid theory reveals that the kinetic theory results can be reproduced, except for different numerical constants, if and only if the polytropic index γ is equal to three, corresponding to one-dimensional motion. The convective derivative term v·∇v provides the equivalent of the "mirror force" and is therefore important to include in a fluid theory trying to describe a CV-relationship. In one-fluid equations the parallel electric field, at least in its functional form, emerges self-consistently. We find that the electron density enhancement below the potential drop disappears because the magnetospheric ions would be unable to neutralize it, and a square root CV-relationship results, in disagreement with kinetic theory and observations. Also, the potential drop concentrates just above the ionosphere, which is at odds with observations as well. To resolve this puzzle, we show that considering

  17. On the current-voltage relationship in fluid theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Janhunen

    Full Text Available The kinetic theory of precipitating electrons with Maxwellian source plasma yields the well-known current-voltage relationship (CV-relationship; Knight formula, which can in most cases be accurately approximated by a reduced linear formula. Our question is whether it is possible to obtain this CV-relationship from fluid theory, and if so, to what extent it is physically equivalent with the more accurate kinetic counterpart. An answer to this question is necessary before trying to understand how one could combine time-dependent and transient phenomena such as Alfvénic waves with a slowly evolving background described by the CV-relationship. We first compute the fluid quantity profiles (density, pressure etc. along a flux tube based on kinetic theory solution. A parallel potential drop accumulates plasma (and pressure below it, which explains why the current is linearly proportional to the potential drop in the kinetic theory even though the velocity of the accelerated particles is only proportional to the square root of the accelerating voltage. Electron fluid theory reveals that the kinetic theory results can be reproduced, except for different numerical constants, if and only if the polytropic index γ is equal to three, corresponding to one-dimensional motion. The convective derivative term v·∇v provides the equivalent of the "mirror force" and is therefore important to include in a fluid theory trying to describe a CV-relationship. In one-fluid equations the parallel electric field, at least in its functional form, emerges self-consistently. We find that the electron density enhancement below the potential drop disappears because the magnetospheric ions would be unable to neutralize it, and a square root CV-relationship results, in disagreement with kinetic theory and observations. Also, the potential drop concentrates just above the ionosphere, which is at odds with observations as well. To resolve this puzzle, we show that considering

  18. Ab initio and empirical studies on the asymmetry of molecular current-voltage characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoft, R C; Armstrong, N; Ford, M J; Cortie, M B

    2007-01-01

    We perform theoretical calculations of the tunnelling current through various small organic molecules sandwiched between gold electrodes by using both a tunnel barrier model and an ab initio transport code. The height of the tunnelling barrier is taken to be the work function of gold as modified by the adsorbed molecule and calculated from an ab initio electronic structure code. The current-voltage characteristics of these molecules are compared. Asymmetry is introduced into the system in two ways: an asymmetric molecule and a gap between the molecule and the right electrode. The latter is a realistic situation in scanning probe experiments. The asymmetry is also realized in the tunnel barrier model by two distinct work functions on the left and right electrodes. Significant asymmetry is observed in the ab initio i(V) curves. The tunnel barrier i(V) curves show much less pronounced asymmetry. The relative sizes of the currents through the molecules are compared. In addition, the performance of the WKB approximation is compared to the results obtained from the exact Schroedinger solution to the tunnelling barrier problem

  19. The Effect of Image Potential on the Current-Voltage Characteristics of a Ferritin-layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunjung Bang

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Considering for the concept of power storage systems, such as those used to supply power to microelectronic devices, ferritins have aroused a lot of interests for applications in bioelectrochemical devices. And electron transfer rates from the proteins to electrode surface are key determinants of overall performance and efficiency of the ferritin-based devices. Here we have investigated the electron transport mechanism of ferritin layer which was immobilized on an Au electrode. The current-voltage (I-V curves are obtained by a conductive atomic force microscope (c-AFM as a function of contact area between AFM tip and the ferritin layer. In the low voltage region, I-V curves are affected by both Fowler-Nordheim tunneling and image force. On the other hand, the experimental results are consistent with a Simmons model in a high voltage region, indicating that, as the voltage increases, the image potential has a dominant effect on the electron transport mechanism. These results are attributed to the film-like character of the ferritin layer, which generates an image potential to lower the barrier height in proportion to the voltage increment.

  20. Exploring dark current voltage characteristics of micromorph silicon tandem cells with computer simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sturiale, A.; Li, H. B. T.; Rath, J.K.; Schropp, R.E.I.; Rubinelli, F.A.

    2009-01-01

    The transport mechanisms controlling the forward dark current-voltage characteristic of the silicon micromorph tandem solar cell were investigated with numerical modeling techniques. The dark current-voltage characteristics of the micromorph tandem structure at forward voltages show three regions:

  1. Influence of surface losses and the self-pumping effect on current-voltage characteristics of a long Josephson junction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pankratov, A.L.; Sobolev, A.S.; Koshelets, V.P.

    2007-01-01

    We have numerically investigated the dynamics of a long linear Josephson tunnel junction with overlap geometry. Biased by a direct current (dc) and an applied dc magnetic field, the junction has important applications as tunable high frequency oscillator [flux-flow oscillator (FFO......) placed at both ends of the FFO. In our model, the damping parameter depends both on the spatial coordinate and on the amplitude of the ac voltage. In order to find the dc current-voltage curves, the damping parameter has to be calculated self-consistently by successive approximations and time integration...

  2. Morphology and current-voltage characteristics of nanostructured pentacene thin films probed by atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorba, S; Le, Q T; Watkins, N J; Yan, L; Gao, Y

    2001-09-01

    Atomic force microscopy was used to study the growth modes (on SiO2, MoS2, and Au substrates) and the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of organic semiconductor pentacene. Pentacene films grow on SiO2 substrate in a layer-by-layer manner with full coverage at an average thickness of 20 A and have the highest degree of molecular ordering with large dendritic grains among the pentacene films deposited on the three different substrates. Films grown on MoS2 substrate reveal two different growth modes, snowflake-like growth and granular growth, both of which seem to compete with each other. On the other hand, films deposited on Au substrate show granular structure for thinner coverages (no crystal structure) and dendritic growth for higher coverages (crystal structure). I-V measurements were performed with a platinum tip on a pentacene film deposited on a Au substrate. The I-V curves on pentacene film reveal symmetric tunneling type character. The field dependence of the current indicates that the main transport mechanism at high field intensities is hopping (Poole-Frenkel effect). From these measurements, we have estimated a field lowering coefficient of 9.77 x 10(-6) V-1/2 m1/2 and an ideality factor of 18 for pentacene.

  3. Current-voltage characteristics of individual conducting polymer nanotubes and nanowires

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Long Yun-ze; Yin Zhi-Hua; Li Meng-Meng; Gu Chang-Zhi; Duvail Jean-Luc; Jin Ai-zi; Wan Mei-xiang

    2009-01-01

    We report the current-voltage (Ⅰ-Ⅴ) characteristics of individual polypyrrole nanotubes and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) nanowires in a temperature range from 300 K to 2 K. Considering the complex structures of such quasi-one-dimensional systems with an array of ordered conductive regions separated by disordered barriers, we use the extended fluctuation-induced tunneling (FIT) and thermal excitation model (Kaiser expression) to fit the temperature and electric-field dependent Ⅰ-Ⅴ curves. It is found that the Ⅰ-Ⅴ data measured at higher temperatures or higher voltages can be well fitted by the Kaiser expression. However, the low-temperature data around the zero bias clearly deviate from those obtained from this model. The deviation (or zero-bias conductance suppression)could be possibly ascribed to the occurrence of the Coulomb-gap in the density of states near the Femi level and/or the enhancement of electron-electron interaction resulting from nanosize effects, which have been revealed in the previous studies on low-temperature electronic transport in conducting polymer films, pellets and nanostructures. In addition,similar Ⅰ-Ⅴ characteristics and deviation are also observed in an isolated K0.27MnO2 nanowire.

  4. A uniform laminar air plasma plume with large volume excited by an alternating current voltage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuechen; Bao, Wenting; Chu, Jingdi; Zhang, Panpan; Jia, Pengying

    2015-12-01

    Using a plasma jet composed of two needle electrodes, a laminar plasma plume with large volume is generated in air through an alternating current voltage excitation. Based on high-speed photography, a train of filaments is observed to propagate periodically away from their birth place along the gas flow. The laminar plume is in fact a temporal superposition of the arched filament train. The filament consists of a negative glow near the real time cathode, a positive column near the real time anode, and a Faraday dark space between them. It has been found that the propagation velocity of the filament increases with increasing the gas flow rate. Furthermore, the filament lifetime tends to follow a normal distribution (Gaussian distribution). The most probable lifetime decreases with increasing the gas flow rate or decreasing the averaged peak voltage. Results also indicate that the real time peak current decreases and the real time peak voltage increases with the propagation of the filament along the gas flow. The voltage-current curve indicates that, in every discharge cycle, the filament evolves from a Townsend discharge to a glow one and then the discharge quenches. Characteristic regions including a negative glow, a Faraday dark space, and a positive column can be discerned from the discharge filament. Furthermore, the plasma parameters such as the electron density, the vibrational temperature and the gas temperature are investigated based on the optical spectrum emitted from the laminar plume.

  5. Classification of methods for measuring current-voltage characteristics of semiconductor devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iermolenko Ia. O.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that computer systems for measuring current-voltage characteristics are very important for semiconductor devices production. The main criteria of efficiency of such systems are defined. It is shown that efficiency of such systems significantly depends on the methods for measuring current-voltage characteristics of semiconductor devices. The aim of this work is to analyze existing methods for measuring current-voltage characteristics of semiconductor devices and to create the classification of these methods in order to specify the most effective solutions in terms of defined criteria. To achieve this aim, the most common classifications of methods for measuring current-voltage characteristics of semiconductor devices and their main disadvantages are considered. Automated and manual, continuous, pulse, mixed, isothermal and isodynamic methods for measuring current-voltage characteristics are analyzed. As a result of the analysis and generalization of existing methods the next classification criteria are defined: the level of automation, the form of measurement signals, the condition of semiconductor device during the measurements, and the use of mathematical processing of the measurement results. With the use of these criteria the classification scheme of methods for measuring current-voltage characteristics of semiconductor devices is composed and the most effective methods are specified.

  6. Analysis of the current-voltage characteristics lineshapes of resonant tunneling diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera, P.H.; Schulz, P.A.

    1996-01-01

    It is discussed the influence of a two dimensional electron gas at the emitter-barrier interface on the current-voltage characteristics of a Ga As-Al Ga As double-barrier quantum well resonant tunneling diode. This effect is characterized by the modification of the space charge distribution along the structure. Within the framework of a self-consistent calculation we analyse the current-voltage characteristics of the tunneling diodes. This analysis permits us to infer different tunneling ways, related to the formation of confined states in the emitter region, and their signatures in the current-voltage characteristics. We show that varying the spacer layer, together with barrier heights, changes drastically the current density-voltage characteristics lineshapes. We compare our results with a variety of current-voltage characteristics lineshapes. We compare our results with a variety of current-voltage characteristics reported in the literature. The general trend of experimental lineshapes can be reproduced and interpreted with our model. The possibility of tunneling paths is predicted for a range that has not yet been explored experimentally. (author). 12 refs., 4 figs

  7. Observation of unusual irreversible/reversible effects in a macroscopic cylindrical hole drilled in superconducting Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yetis, H.; Kilic, A.; Kilic, K.; Altinkok, A.; Olutas, M.

    2008-01-01

    Current-voltage (I-V) measurements were carried out for different current sweep rates (dI/dt) of transport current at zero magnetic field (H = 0) and H ≠ 0 in a polycrystalline sample of Bi 1.7 Pb 0.3 Sr 2 Ca 2 Cu 3 O x (BSCCO) with a macroscopic cylindrical hole (CH) drilled. Similar measurements were also performed in the same BSCCO sample without CH for a comparison before drilling CH. For the same values of H, T, and dI/dt taken for both samples, it was observed that hysteresis effects appear in I-V curves upon cycling of transport current in upward and downward directions which contain the increasing and decreasing current values, respectively. However these effects which are seen in I-V curves of BSCCO sample with CH is more prominent than that of the BSCCO sample without CH. Further, the irreversibility effects in I-V curves of the BSCCO sample without CH disappears for H ≠ 0 exhibiting nearly a linear behaviour, whereas the hysteretic behaviour in I-V curves of the BSCCO sample with CH is still observed. This interesting behaviour could be evaluated that macroscopic cylindrical hole improves pinning properties of sample acting as a macroscopic flux pinning center for flux lines

  8. Observation of unusual irreversible/reversible effects in a macroscopic cylindrical hole drilled in superconducting Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yetis, H. [Department of Physics, Turgut Gulez Research Laboratory, Abant Izzet Baysal University, 14280 Bolu (Turkey)], E-mail: yetis_h@ibu.edu.tr; Kilic, A.; Kilic, K.; Altinkok, A.; Olutas, M. [Department of Physics, Turgut Gulez Research Laboratory, Abant Izzet Baysal University, 14280 Bolu (Turkey)

    2008-09-15

    Current-voltage (I-V) measurements were carried out for different current sweep rates (dI/dt) of transport current at zero magnetic field (H = 0) and H {ne} 0 in a polycrystalline sample of Bi{sub 1.7}Pb{sub 0.3}Sr{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} (BSCCO) with a macroscopic cylindrical hole (CH) drilled. Similar measurements were also performed in the same BSCCO sample without CH for a comparison before drilling CH. For the same values of H, T, and dI/dt taken for both samples, it was observed that hysteresis effects appear in I-V curves upon cycling of transport current in upward and downward directions which contain the increasing and decreasing current values, respectively. However these effects which are seen in I-V curves of BSCCO sample with CH is more prominent than that of the BSCCO sample without CH. Further, the irreversibility effects in I-V curves of the BSCCO sample without CH disappears for H {ne} 0 exhibiting nearly a linear behaviour, whereas the hysteretic behaviour in I-V curves of the BSCCO sample with CH is still observed. This interesting behaviour could be evaluated that macroscopic cylindrical hole improves pinning properties of sample acting as a macroscopic flux pinning center for flux lines.

  9. Comment on: "Current-voltage characteristics and zero-resistance state in 2DEG"

    OpenAIRE

    Cheremisin, M. V.

    2003-01-01

    We demonstrate that N(S)-shape current-voltage characteristics proposed to explain zero-resistance state in Corbino(Hall bar) geometry 2DEG (cond-mat/0302063, cond-mat/0303530) cannot account essential features of radiation-induced magnetoresistance oscillations experiments.

  10. Module Five: Relationships of Current, Voltage, and Resistance; Basic Electricity and Electronics Individualized Learning System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.

    This module covers the relationships between current and voltage; resistance in a series circuit; how to determine the values of current, voltage, resistance, and power in resistive series circuits; the effects of source internal resistance; and an introduction to the troubleshooting of series circuits. This module is divided into five lessons:…

  11. Current-voltage characteristic of parallel-plane ionization chamber with inhomogeneous ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoyanov, D G

    2007-01-01

    The balances of particles and charges in the volume of parallel-plane ionization chamber are considered. Differential equations describing the distribution of current densities in the chamber volume are obtained. As a result of the differential equations solution an analytical form of the current-voltage characteristic of parallel-plane ionization chamber with inhomogeneous ionization in the volume is obtained

  12. Current-voltage characteristic of parallel-plane ionization chamber with inhomogeneous ionization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoyanov, D G [Faculty of Engineering and Pedagogy in Sliven, Technical University of Sofia, 59, Bourgasko Shaussee Blvd, 8800 Sliven (Bulgaria)

    2007-08-15

    The balances of particles and charges in the volume of parallel-plane ionization chamber are considered. Differential equations describing the distribution of current densities in the chamber volume are obtained. As a result of the differential equations solution an analytical form of the current-voltage characteristic of parallel-plane ionization chamber with inhomogeneous ionization in the volume is obtained.

  13. Bidirectional current-voltage converters based on magnetostrictive/piezoelectric composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jia, Y.; Or, S.W.; Chan, H.L.W.; Jiao, J.; Luo, H.; Van der Zwaag, S.

    2009-01-01

    We report a power supply-free, bidirectional electric current-voltage converter based on a coil-wound laminated composite of magnetostrictive alloy and piezoelectric crystal. An electric current applied to the coil induces a magnetic field, resulting in an electric voltage from the composite due to

  14. Study of current-voltage characteristics in PbTe(Ga) alloys at low temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akimov, B.A.; Albul, A.V.; Bogdanov, E.V.

    1992-01-01

    Results of determining current-voltage characteristics in PbTe(Ga) monocrystals of n- and p-types of conductivity in strong electric fields E ≤ 2 x 10 3 V/Cm at 4.2-77 K are presented. It was established that at helium and nitrogen temperatures, the current-voltage characteristics of PbTe(Ga) alloys, high-ohmic state of which was realized in helium, differed qualitatively from ones, typical for unalloyed PbTe. The superlinear dependence, observed in the fields, beginning from E ≥ 1 V/cm, is explained in the framework of concepts of strong electric field effect on conductivity of impurity states

  15. Current-voltage characteristics of C70 solid near Meyer-Neldel temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishi, Koichi; Sezaimaru, Kouki; Nakashima, Fumihiro; Sun, Yong; Kirimoto, Kenta; Sakaino, Masamichi; Kanemitsu, Shigeru

    2017-06-01

    The current-voltage characteristics of the C70 solid with hexagonal closed-packed structures were measured in the temperature range of 250-450 K. The current-voltage characteristics can be described as a temporary expedient by a cubic polynomial of the voltage, i = a v 3 + b v 2 + c v + d . Moreover, the Meyer-Neldel temperature of the C70 solid was confirmed to be 310 K, at which a linear relationship between the current and voltage was observed. Also, at temperatures below the Meyer-Neldel temperature, the current increases with increasing voltage. On the other hand, at temperatures above the Meyer-Neldel temperature a negative differential conductivity effect was observed at high voltage side. The negative differential conductivity was related to the electric field and temperature effects on the mobility of charge carrier, which involve two variations in the carrier concentration and the activation energy for carrier hopping transport.

  16. Method of controlling illumination device based on current-voltage model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to an illumination device comprising a number of LEDs, means for receiving an input signal, means for generating an activation signal for at least one of the LEDs based on the input signal. The illumination device comprises further means for obtaining the voltage...... and the colorimetric properties of said light emitted by LED. The present invention relates also to a method of controlling and a meted of calibrating such illumination device....... across and current through the LED and the means for generating the activation signal is adapted to generate the activating signal based on the voltage, the current and a current- voltage model related to LED. The current-voltage model defines a relationship between the current, the voltage...

  17. A simple approximation for the current-voltage characteristics of high-power, relativistic diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekdahl, Carl, E-mail: cekdahl@lanl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    2016-06-15

    A simple approximation for the current-voltage characteristics of a relativistic electron diode is presented. The approximation is accurate from non-relativistic through relativistic electron energies. Although it is empirically developed, it has many of the fundamental properties of the exact diode solutions. The approximation is simple enough to be remembered and worked on almost any pocket calculator, so it has proven to be quite useful on the laboratory floor.

  18. Hysteresis and negative differential resistance of the current-voltage characteristic of a water bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshurko, V. B.; Fedorov, A. N.; Ropyanoi, A. A.; Fedosov, M. V.

    2014-06-01

    It is found experimentally that the properties of nanoporous ion-exchange membranes (hysteresis of the current-voltage characteristic in the solution and negative differential resistance), which have been discussed in recent years, are not associated with the properties of the membrane. It is shown that these effects are also observed in a floating water bridge and in water-filled tubes and are apparently determined by the geometrical shape of the liquid conductor. The observed effects are explained qualitatively.

  19. Special features of the current-voltage characteristics of short superconducting bridges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhilinskii, S.; Latyshev, Y.; Nad', F.

    1981-01-01

    A study was made of variable-thickness superconducting bridges made of tin and indium. The current-voltage characteristics were determined for these bridges as a function of their length and width. The characteristics exhibited a linear region as well as an inflection. The temperature of the appearance of such an inflection depended on the length of the bridge but was independent of the bridge material

  20. The dynamic current-voltage characteristic as a powerful tool to analyze fast phenomena in plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivan, L. M.; Mihai-Plugaru, M.; Amarandei, G.; Aflori, M.; Dimitriu, D. G.

    2006-01-01

    The static current-voltage characteristic of an electrode immersed in plasma is obtained by slowly increasing and subsequently decreasing the potential on the electrode with respect to the plasma potential or the ground. This characteristic can give us important information about the phenomena that take place in front of the electrode. Current jumps can be evidenced which were often associated with an hysteresis effect, regions with S-type or N-type negative differential resistance, etc. The method is always used when we investigate the appearance of complex space charge configurations (CSCC) in front of an electrode immersed in plasma. However, to investigate the dynamics of such structures or other fast phenomena (like instabilities) which take place in plasma devices with frequencies of tenth, hundred kHz or more, complex investigation techniques must be used. One of the most efficient methods to investigate fast phenomena in plasma devices is the dynamic current-voltage characteristic. This is obtained by recording the time series of the current collected by the electrode when the voltage applied on it is very fast modified (most likely increased) by using a signal generator. In this way, very fast oscillations of the current can be recorded and new phenomena can be evidenced. We used this technique to study the phenomena which take place at the onset of electrostatic instabilities in Q-machine plasma, namely the potential relaxation instability (PRI) and the electrostatic ion-cyclotron instability (EICI). The obtained experimental results prove that the negative differential resistance region in the static current-voltage characteristic is the result of a nonlinear dynamics of a CSCC in form of a double layer (DL) which takes place just before the onset of the instabilities. In the case of the PRI we emphasized current jumps related with the DL appearance, which are not present in the static current-voltage characteristic at high plasma density. (authors)

  1. Effect of electric and magnetic fields on current-voltage characteristics of a lyotropic liquid crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minasyants, M.Kh.; Badalyan, G. G.; Shahinian, A. A.

    1997-01-01

    The effect of electric and magnetic fields on current-voltage characteristics is studied for the lamellar phase in the lyotropic liquid-crystal sodium pentadecylsulfonate (SPDS)-water and lecithin-water systems. It has been found that the current-voltage characteristics of both systems have hysteresis. In the case of ionogenic SPDS, the hysteresis is formed due to ion current caused by the spatial reorientation of domains consisting of parallel lamellar fragments; in the case of lecithin, whose molecules contain dipoles, the hysteresis is formed due to the spatial reorientation of domains caused by the interaction of the resultant dipole moment of the domains with the electric field. It is shown that the introduction into lamellae of cetylpyridine bromide, which has an intrinsic magnetic moment, changes the resultant magnetic moment of domains and, thus, also the hysteresis loop of the current-voltage characteristic. The systems studied show the 'memory' effect with respect to both the electric and magnetic fields. Field-induced processes of domain reorientation were recorded by the method of small-angle x-ray scattering

  2. Singularities of current-voltage characteristics of GaAs films fabricated by pulsed ions ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabyshev, A.V.; Konusov, F.V.; Lozhnikov, S.N.; Remnev, G.E.; Saltymakov, M.S.

    2009-01-01

    A singularities and advantages of the optical, photoelectric and electrical properties of GaAs in comparison with other available materials for electronics, for example, silicon allow to manufacture on it base the devices having an advanced characteristics. The GaAs for electronics, obtained from the dense ablation plasma, possess some preferences as compared to material manufactured by traditional methods of vacuum deposition. The electrical characteristics of GaAs produced by chemical deposition were extensively studied. Purpose of this work is investigation the current-voltage characteristics of thin films of GaAs, deposited on polycrystalline corundum (polycor) from plasma forming the power ions bunch and determination of the thermal vacuum annealing effect on photoelectric and electrical properties of films. Peculiarities of optical, photoelectric and current-voltage characteristics of films obtained by ions ablation are determined by deposition conditions and resistance of initial target GaAs. The transitions between the states with low- and high conduction were revealed directly after deposition in films having the optical properties similar to amorphous materials and/or after annealing in films with properties similar to initial target GaAs. Behavior of current-voltage characteristics at vacuum annealing correlates with Schottky barrier height and photosensitivity and is accompanies of the transport mechanism change. The stable properties of films are formed at its dark conduction 10 -10 -10 -8 s and after annealing at T an =600-700 K. (authors)

  3. Current-voltage characteristics of carbon nanostructured field emitters in different power supply modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, E. O.; Kolosko, A. G.; Filippov, S. V.; Romanov, P. A.; Terukov, E. I.; Shchegolkov, A. V.; Tkachev, A. G.

    2017-12-01

    We received and compared the current-voltage characteristics of large-area field emitters based on nanocomposites with graphene and nanotubes. The characteristics were measured in two high voltage scanning modes: the "slow" and the "fast". Correlation between two types of hysteresis observed in these regimes was determined. Conditions for transition from "reverse" hysteresis to the "direct" one were experimentally defined. Analysis of the eight-shaped hysteresis was provided with calculation of the effective emission parameters. The phenomenological model of adsorption-desorption processes in the field emission system was proposed.

  4. Current-voltage characterization of individual as-grown nanowires using a scanning tunneling microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timm, Rainer; Persson, Olof; Engberg, David L J; Fian, Alexander; Webb, James L; Wallentin, Jesper; Jönsson, Andreas; Borgström, Magnus T; Samuelson, Lars; Mikkelsen, Anders

    2013-11-13

    Utilizing semiconductor nanowires for (opto)electronics requires exact knowledge of their current-voltage properties. We report accurate on-top imaging and I-V characterization of individual as-grown nanowires, using a subnanometer resolution scanning tunneling microscope with no need for additional microscopy tools, thus allowing versatile application. We form Ohmic contacts to InP and InAs nanowires without any sample processing, followed by quantitative measurements of diameter dependent I-V properties with a very small spread in measured values compared to standard techniques.

  5. Current-voltage characteristic of a Josephson junction with randomly distributed Abrikosov vortices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fistul, M.V.; Giuliani, G.F.

    1997-01-01

    We have developed a theory of the current-voltage characteristic of a Josephson junction in the presence of randomly distributed, pinned misaligned Abrikosov vortices oriented perpendicularly to the junction plane. Under these conditions the Josephson phase difference var-phi acquires an interesting stochastic dependence on the position in the plane of the junction. In this situation it is possible to define an average critical current which is determined by the spatial correlations of this function. Due to the inhomogeneity, we find that for finite voltage bias the electromagnetic waves propagating in the junction display a broad spectrum of wavelengths. This is at variance with the situation encountered in homogeneous junctions. The amplitude of these modes is found to decrease as the bias is increased. We predict that the presence of these excitations is directly related to a remarkable feature in the current-voltage characteristic. The dependence of the position and the magnitude of this feature on the vortex concentration has been determined. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  6. Current-voltage hysteresis and dielectric properties of PVA coated MWCNT film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Amit Kumar; Meikap, Ajit Kumar

    2017-12-01

    In this work, we have prepared polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) coated multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) film by an in situ chemical oxidative preparation technique. The thermogravimetric analysis clearly explains the thermal degradation of pure polymer and polymer nanocomposite film. We have studied the AC electrical transport properties and current-voltage (I-V) characteristic of PVA-MWCNT composites within the temperature range 300 ≤ T ≤ 423 K and frequency range 150 Hz ≤ f ≤ 2 MHz. It is observed that the dielectric constant of the composite film increases significantly. The frequency variation of AC conductivity follows the power law ( ωS ) and a sharp transition from small polaron tunneling to correlated barrier hopping model is found. The imaginary part of electric modulus shows non-Debye type asymmetric behaviour. The impedance spectroscopy shows the negative temperature coefficient of resistance of the composite film. Nyquist plot of the composite film at different temperatures is established from impedance measurement. The current-voltage characteristic (under ± 20 V) shows hysteresis behaviour and field dependent resistance. We simulate the experimentally observed current density-electric field data with the established theory.

  7. Current-voltage hysteresis and dielectric properties of PVA coated MWCNT film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Amit Kumar; Meikap, Ajit Kumar

    2018-06-01

    In this work, we have prepared polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) coated multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) film by an in situ chemical oxidative preparation technique. The thermogravimetric analysis clearly explains the thermal degradation of pure polymer and polymer nanocomposite film. We have studied the AC electrical transport properties and current-voltage (I-V) characteristic of PVA-MWCNT composites within the temperature range 300 ≤ T ≤ 423 K and frequency range 150 Hz ≤ f ≤ 2 MHz. It is observed that the dielectric constant of the composite film increases significantly. The frequency variation of AC conductivity follows the power law ( ωS ) and a sharp transition from small polaron tunneling to correlated barrier hopping model is found. The imaginary part of electric modulus shows non-Debye type asymmetric behaviour. The impedance spectroscopy shows the negative temperature coefficient of resistance of the composite film. Nyquist plot of the composite film at different temperatures is established from impedance measurement. The current-voltage characteristic (under ± 20 V) shows hysteresis behaviour and field dependent resistance. We simulate the experimentally observed current density-electric field data with the established theory.

  8. Influence of coupling parameter on current-voltage characteristics of intrinsic Josephson junctions in high-T c superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukrinov, Yu.M.; Mahfouzi, F.

    2006-01-01

    We study the current-voltage characteristics of intrinsic Josephson junctions in high-T c superconductors by numerical calculations and in framework of capacitively coupled Josephson junctions model we obtain the total number of branches. The influence of the coupling parameter α on the current-voltage characteristics at fixed parameter β (β 2 1/β c , where β c is McCumber parameter) and the influence of α on β-dependence of the current-voltage characteristics are investigated. We obtain the α-dependence of the branch's slopes and branch's endpoints. The presented results show new features of the coupling effect on the scheme of hysteresis jumps in current-voltage characteristics of intrinsic Josephson junctions in high-T c superconductors

  9. An automatic method to analyze the Capacity-Voltage and Current-Voltage curves of a sensor

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2261553

    2017-01-01

    An automatic method to perform Capacity versus voltage analysis for all kind of silicon sensor is provided. It successfully calculates the depletion voltage to unirradiated and irradiated sensors, and with measurements with outliers or reaching breakdown. It is built using C++ and using ROOT trees with an analogous skeleton as TRICS, where the data as well as the results of the ts are saved, to make further analysis.

  10. Effect of localized states on the current-voltage characteristics of metal-semiconductor contacts with thin interfacial layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, P.

    1994-10-01

    The role of discrete localized states on the current-voltage characteristics of metal-semiconductor contact is examined. It is seen that, because of these localized states, the logarithmic current vs voltage characteristics become nonlinear. Such nonlinearity is found sensitive to the temperature, and the energy and density of the localized states. The predicted temperature dependence of barrier height and the current-voltage characteristics are in agreement with the experimental results of Aboelfotoh [ Phys. Rev. B39, 5070 (1989)].

  11. Current-Voltage Characteristics of DC Discharge in Micro Gas Jet Injected into Vacuum Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matra, K; Furuta, H; Hatta, A

    2013-01-01

    A current-voltage characteristic of direct current (DC) gas discharge operated in a micro gas jet injected into a secondary electron microscope (SEM) chamber is presented. Ar gas was injected through a 30 μm orifice gas nozzle (OGN) and was evacuated by an additional pump to keep the high vacuum environment. Gas discharges were ignited between the OGN as anode and a counter electrode of Si wafer. The discharge was self-pulsating in most of the cases while it was stable at lower pressure, larger gap length, and larger time averaged current. The self-pulsating discharge was oscillated by the RC circuit consisting of a stray capacitor and a large ballast resistor. The real time plots of voltage and current during the pulsating was investigated using a discharge model.

  12. Calculation of current-voltage characteristics of electron-capture detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinneburg, D.; Grosse, H.J.; Leonhardt, J.; Popp, P.

    1983-01-01

    Starting from the law of conservation of charge a stationary one-dimensional non-linear differential equation system is derived, which is applied to the direct-current mode of an electron-capture detector with parallel electrode plates. The theory takes into account space-charge, recombination, and inhomogeneous ionization and it deals with three kinds of charge carriers with different mobilities (positive and negative ions, electrons). Terms due to diffusion and gas-flow losses are excluded. The equations so constructed were programmed to get a means of calculating the charge and field distributions and the current-voltage characteristics as functions of various parameters of the detectors, the attaching gas and the ionization. For two cases the results are given. (author)

  13. Nonlinear current-voltage characteristics of WO3-x nano-/micro-rods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zhenguang; Peng, Zhijian; Zhao, Zengying; Fu, Xiuli

    2018-04-01

    A series of crystalline tungsten oxide nano-/micro-rods with different compositions of WO3, WO2.90, W19O55 (WO2.89) and W18O49 (WO2.72) but identical morphology feature were first prepared. Then, various nanoscaled electrical devices were fabricated from them by micro-fabrication through a focused ion beam technique. Interestingly, the devices from the oxygen-deficient WO3-x display significantly nonlinear current-voltage characteristics. The calculated nonlinear coefficients of the WO2.90, WO2.83, and WO2.72 varistors are 2.52, 3.32 and 4.91, respectively. The breakdown voltage of the WO2.90, WO2.83, and WO2.72 varistors are 1.93, 1.28 and 0.93 V, respectively. Such WO3-x nano-varistors might be promising for low-voltage electrical/electronic devices.

  14. Investigation of the double exponential in the current-voltage characteristics of silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, M.; Noel, G. T.; Stirn, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    A theoretical analysis is presented of certain peculiarities of the current-voltage characteristics of silicon solar cells, involving high values of the empirical constant A in the diode equation for a p-n junction. An attempt was made in a lab experiment to demonstrate that the saturation current which is associated with the exponential term qV/A2kT of the I-V characteristic, with A2 roughly equal to 2, originates in the space charge region and that it can be increased, as observed on ATS-1 cells, by the introduction of additional defects through low energy proton irradiation. It was shown that the proton irradiation introduces defects into the space charge region which give rise to a recombination current from this region, although the I-V characteristic is, in this case, dominated by an exponential term which has A = 1.

  15. Autowaves in an active two-wire line with exponential current-voltage characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuravlev, V. M.

    2006-01-01

    Nonlinear wave processes in two-wire lines containing an active element with an exponential current-voltage characteristic (CVC) similar to that of a p-n junction are investigated. These lines are models of systems that are encountered in various physical and biological applications, such as biological membranes and semiconductor devices. It is shown that such systems may operate in different modes each of which has different dispersion and dissipation properties and, as a consequence, is described by autowave processes of different types. The behavior of a system in all basic modes is analyzed. For each mode, exact solutions to relevant equations are found and their differential conservation laws and intrinsic symmetries are investigated. One of common properties of such equations is the presence of a special superposition principle that describes the discrete structure of excitations in a line that consist of individual elementary excitations. It is shown that autopulses may be generated in such systems

  16. Current-Voltage Characteristics of the Composites Based on Epoxy Resin and Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona Pełech

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymer composites based on epoxy resin were prepared. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes synthesized on iron-cobalt catalyst were applied as a filler in a polymer matrix. Chlorine or hydroxyl groups were incorporated on the carbon nanotubes surface via chlorination or chlorination followed by hydroxylation. The effect of functionalized carbon nanotubes on the epoxy resin matrix is discussed in terms of the state of CNTs dispersion in composites as well as electrical properties. For the obtained materials current-voltage characteristics were determined. They had a nonlinear character and were well described by an exponential-type equation. For all the obtained materials the percolation threshold occurred at a concentration of about 1 wt%. At a higher filler concentration >2 wt%, better conductivity was demonstrated by polymer composites with raw carbon nanotubes. At a lower filler concentration <2 wt%, higher values of electrical conductivity were obtained for polymer composites with modified carbon nanotubes.

  17. Manifestation of vortex depinning transition in nonlinear current-voltage characteristics of polycrystalline superconductor Y1-xPrxBa2Cu3O7-δ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera, V.A.G.; Stari, C.; Sergeenkov, S.; Marega, E.; Araujo-Moreira, F.M.

    2008-01-01

    We present our recent results on the temperature dependence of current-voltage characteristics for polycrystalline Y 1-x Pr x Ba 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ superconductors with x=0.0, 0.1 and 0.3. The experimental results are found to be reasonably well fitted for all samples by a power like law of the form V=R(I-I c ) a(T) . Here, we assume that a(T)=1+Φ 0 I C (T)/2πk B T and I C (T)=I C (0)(1-T/T C ) 3/2 for the temperature dependences of the power exponent and critical current, respectively. According to the theoretical interpretation of the obtained results, nonlinear deviation of our current-voltage characteristics curves from Ohmic behavior (with a(T C )=1) below T C is attributed to the manifestation of dissipation processes. They have a characteristic temperature T p defined via the power exponent as a(T p )=2 and are related to the current induced depinning of Abrikosov vortices. Both T C (x) and T p (x) are found to decrease with an increase of Pr concentration x reflecting deterioration of the superconducting properties of the doped samples

  18. Inhomogeneous barrier height effect on the current-voltage characteristics of an Au/n-InP Schottky diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeghdar, Kamal; Dehimi, Lakhdar; Saadoune, Achour; Sengouga, Nouredine

    2015-12-01

    We report the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of the Schottky diode (Au/n-InP) as a function of temperature. The SILVACO-TCAD numerical simulator is used to calculate the I-V characteristic in the temperature range of 280-400 K. This is to study the effect of temperature on the I-V curves and assess the main parameters that characterize the Schottky diode such as the ideality factor, the height of the barrier and the series resistance. The I-V characteristics are analyzed on the basis of standard thermionic emission (TE) theory and the inhomogeneous barrier heights (BHs) assuming a Gaussian distribution. It is shown that the ideality factor decreases while the barrier height increases with increasing temperature, on the basis of TE theory. Furthermore, the homogeneous BH value of approximately 0.524 eV for the device has been obtained from the linear relationship between the temperature-dependent experimentally effective BHs and ideality factors. The modified Richardson plot, according to the inhomogeneity of the BHs, has a good linearity over the temperature range. The evaluated Richardson constant A* was 10.32 A·cm-2·K-2, which is close to the theoretical value of 9.4 A·cm-2·K-2 for n-InP. The temperature dependence of the I-V characteristics of the Au/n-InP Schottky diode have been successfully explained on the basis of the thermionic emission (TE) mechanism with a Gaussian distribution of the Schottky barrier heights (SBHs). Simulated I-V characteristics are in good agreement with the measurements [Korucu D, Mammadov T S. J Optoelectronics Advanced Materials, 2012, 14: 41]. The barrier height obtained using Gaussian Schottky barrier distribution is 0.52 eV, which is about half the band gap of InP.

  19. Understanding S-shaped current-voltage characteristics of organic solar cells: Direct measurement of potential distributions by scanning Kelvin probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saive, Rebecca; Mueller, Christian; Schinke, Janusz; Lovrincic, Robert; Kowalsky, Wolfgang

    2013-12-01

    We present a comparison of the potential distribution along the cross section of bilayer poly(3-hexylthiophene)/1-(3-methoxycarbonyl)propyl-1-phenyl[6,6]C61 (P3HT/PCBM) solar cells, which show normal and anomalous, S-shaped current-voltage (IV) characteristics. We expose the cross sections of the devices with a focussed ion beam and measure them with scanning Kelvin probe microscopy. We find that in the case of S-shaped IV-characteristics, there is a huge potential drop at the PCBM/Al top contact, which does not occur in solar cells with normal IV-characteristics. This behavior confirms the assumption that S-shaped curves are caused by hindered charge transport at interfaces.

  20. Understanding S-shaped current-voltage characteristics of organic solar cells: Direct measurement of potential distributions by scanning Kelvin probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saive, Rebecca; Kowalsky, Wolfgang; Mueller, Christian; Schinke, Janusz; Lovrincic, Robert

    2013-01-01

    We present a comparison of the potential distribution along the cross section of bilayer poly(3-hexylthiophene)/1-(3-methoxycarbonyl)propyl-1-phenyl[6,6]C61 (P3HT/PCBM) solar cells, which show normal and anomalous, S-shaped current-voltage (IV) characteristics. We expose the cross sections of the devices with a focussed ion beam and measure them with scanning Kelvin probe microscopy. We find that in the case of S-shaped IV-characteristics, there is a huge potential drop at the PCBM/Al top contact, which does not occur in solar cells with normal IV-characteristics. This behavior confirms the assumption that S-shaped curves are caused by hindered charge transport at interfaces

  1. Current-voltage temperature characteristics of Au/n-Ge (1 0 0) Schottky diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chawanda, Albert, E-mail: albert.chawanda@up.ac.za [Midlands State University, Bag 9055 Gweru (Zimbabwe); University of Pretoria, 0002 Pretoria (South Africa); Mtangi, Wilbert; Auret, Francois D; Nel, Jacqueline [University of Pretoria, 0002 Pretoria (South Africa); Nyamhere, Cloud [Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth (South Africa); Diale, Mmantsae [University of Pretoria, 0002 Pretoria (South Africa)

    2012-05-15

    The variation in electrical characteristics of Au/n-Ge (1 0 0) Schottky contacts have been systematically investigated as a function of temperature using current-voltage (I-V) measurements in the temperature range 140-300 K. The I-V characteristics of the diodes indicate very strong temperature dependence. While the ideality factor n decreases, the zero-bias Schottky barrier height (SBH) ({Phi}{sub B}) increases with the increasing temperature. The I-V characteristics are analyzed using the thermionic emission (TE) model and the assumption of a Gaussian distribution of the barrier heights due to barrier inhomogeneities at the metal-semiconductor interface. The zero-bias barrier height {Phi}{sub B} vs. 1/2 kT plot has been used to show the evidence of a Gaussian distribution of barrier heights and values of {Phi}{sub B}=0.615 eV and standard deviation {sigma}{sub s0}=0.0858 eV for the mean barrier height and zero-bias standard deviation have been obtained from this plot, respectively. The Richardson constant and the mean barrier height from the modified Richardson plot were obtained as 1.37 A cm{sup -2} K{sup -2} and 0.639 eV, respectively. This Richardson constant is much smaller than the reported of 50 A cm{sup -2} K{sup -2}. This may be due to greater inhomogeneities at the interface.

  2. Hysteretic current-voltage characteristics in RF-sputtered nanocrystalline TiO2 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villafuerte, Manuel; Juarez, Gabriel; Heluani, Silvia P. de; Comedi, David

    2007-01-01

    We have measured the current-voltage characteristics at room temperature of a nanocrystalline TiO 2 thin film fabricated by reactive RF-sputtering deposition and sandwiched between ITO (indium-tin-oxide)-buffered glass substrate and an indium top electrode. The I-V characteristics are ohmic for low voltages and become non-linear, hysteretic and asymmetric as the voltage is increased. The system is shown to be well represented by two distinct resistance states in the non-ohmic region. Current transient evolutions were also measured for constant voltage excitations. The resistance is stable in time for voltages in the ohmic regime. In contrast, for voltages in the non-ohmic regime, the resistance has a small variation for a short period of time (order of tens seconds) and then increases with time. For those transients, long characteristic times (on the order of tens of minutes up to hours) were found. The behavior of the system is discussed on the basis of experimental results reported in the literature for similar systems and existing models for electric-field induced resistive switching

  3. A dynamic Monte Carlo study of anomalous current voltage behaviour in organic solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feron, K.; Fell, C. J.; Zhou, X.; Belcher, W. J.; Dastoor, P. C.

    2014-01-01

    We present a dynamic Monte Carlo (DMC) study of s-shaped current-voltage (I-V) behaviour in organic solar cells. This anomalous behaviour causes a substantial decrease in fill factor and thus power conversion efficiency. We show that this s-shaped behaviour is induced by charge traps that are located at the electrode interface rather than in the bulk of the active layer, and that the anomaly becomes more pronounced with increasing trap depth or density. Furthermore, the s-shape anomaly is correlated with interface recombination, but not bulk recombination, thus highlighting the importance of controlling the electrode interface. While thermal annealing is known to remove the s-shape anomaly, the reason has been not clear, since these treatments induce multiple simultaneous changes to the organic solar cell structure. The DMC modelling indicates that it is the removal of aluminium clusters at the electrode, which act as charge traps, that removes the anomalous I-V behaviour. Finally, this work shows that the s-shape becomes less pronounced with increasing electron-hole recombination rate; suggesting that efficient organic photovoltaic material systems are more susceptible to these electrode interface effects

  4. Observation of dark pulses in 10 nm thick YBCO nanostrips presenting hysteretic current voltage characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejrnaes, M.; Parlato, L.; Arpaia, R.; Bauch, T.; Lombardi, F.; Cristiano, R.; Tafuri, F.; Pepe, G. P.

    2017-12-01

    We have fabricated several 10 nm thick and 65 nm wide YBa2Cu3O7-δ (YBCO) nanostrips. The nanostrips with the highest critical current densities are characterized by hysteretic current voltage characteristics (IVCs) with a direct bistable switch from the zero-voltage to the finite voltage state. The presence of hysteretic IVCs allowed the observation of dark pulses due to fluctuations phenomena. The key role of the bistable behavior is its ability to transform a small disturbance (e.g. an intrinsic fluctuation) into a measurable transient signal, i.e. a dark pulse. On the contrary, in devices characterized by lower critical current density values, the IVCs are non-hysteretic and dark pulses have not been observed. To investigate the physical origin of the dark pulses, we have measured the bias current dependence of the dark pulse rate: the observed exponential increase with the bias current is compatible with mechanisms based on thermal activation of magnetic vortices in the nanostrip. We believe that the successful amplification of small fluctuation events into measurable signals in nanostrips of ultrathin YBCO is a milestone for further investigation of YBCO nanostrips for superconducting nanostrip single photon detectors and other quantum detectors for operation at higher temperatures.

  5. Current-voltage characteristics of a superconducting slab under a superimposed small AC magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsushita, Teruo; Yamafuji, Kaoru; Sakamoto, Nobuyoshi.

    1977-01-01

    In case of applying superconductors to electric machinery or high intensity field magnets for fusion reactors, the superconductors are generally expected to be sensible to small field fluctuation besides DC magnetic field. The behavior of superconductors in DC magnetic field superimposed with small AC magnetic field has been investigated often experimentally, and the result has been obtained that the critical current at which DC flow voltage begins to appear extremely decreased or disappeared. Some theoretical investigations have been carried out on this phenomenon so far, however, their application has been limited to the region where frequency is sufficiently low or which is close to the critical magnetic field. Purpose of this report is to deal with the phenomenon in more unified way by analyzing the behavior of magnetic flux lines in a superconductor under a superimposed small AC field using the criticalstate model including viscous force. In order to solve the fundamental equation in this report, first the solution has been obtained in the quasi-static state neglecting viscous force, then about the cases that current density J is not more than Jc and J is larger than Jc, concerning the deviation from the quasi-static limit by employing successive approximation. Current-voltage characteristics have been determined by utilizing the above results. This method seems to be most promising at present except the case of extremely high frequency. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  6. Fault identification in crystalline silicon PV modules by complementary analysis of the light and dark current-voltage characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spataru, Sergiu; Sera, Dezso; Hacke, Peter

    2016-01-01

    This article proposes a fault identification method, based on the complementary analysis of the light and dark current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of the photovoltaic (PV) module, to distinguish between four important degradation modes that lead to power loss in PV modules: (a) degradation of t...

  7. Fault identification in crystalline silicon PV modules by complementary analysis of the light and dark current-voltage characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spataru, Sergiu; Sera, Dezso; Hacke, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Photovoltaic system (PV) maintenance and diagnostic tools are often based on performance models of the system, complemented with light current-voltage (I-V) measurements, visual inspection and/or thermal imaging. Although these are invaluable tools in diagnosing PV system performance losses and f...

  8. Macroscopic theory of superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, W.J. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    A macroscopic theory for bulk superconductors is developed in the framework of the theory for other magnetic materials, where ''magnetization'' current is separated from ''free'' current on the basis of scale. This contrasts with the usual separation into equilibrium and nonequilibrium currents. In the present approach magnetization, on a large macroscopic scale, results from the vortex current, while the Meissner current and other surface currents are surface contributions to the Maxwell j. The results are important for the development of thermodynamics in type-II superconductors. The advantage of the description developed here is that magnetization becomes a local concept and its associated magnetic field can be given physical meaning

  9. Macroscopic magnetic Self assembly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Löthman, Per Arvid

    2018-01-01

    Exploring the macroscopic scale's similarities to the microscale is part and parcel of this thesis as reflected in the research question: what can we learn about the microscopic scale by studying the macroscale? Investigations of the environment in which the self-assembly takes place, and the

  10. Onset of chaos and dc current-voltage characteristics of rf-driven Josephson junctions in the low-frequency regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chi, C.C.; Vanneste, C.

    1990-01-01

    A comprehensive picture of the dc current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of rf-driven Josephson junctions in the low-frequency regime is presented. The boundary of the low-frequency regime is roughly defined by the junction characteristic frequency for overdamped junctions, and by the inverse of the junction damping time for underdamped junctions. An adiabatic model valid for the low-frequency regime is used to describe the overall shapes of the I-V curves, which is in good agreement with both the numerical simulations and the experimental results. For underdamped junctions, the Shapiro steps are the prominent features on the I-V curves if the rf frequency is sufficiently below the boundary. As the rf frequency is increased towards the boundary, large negatively-going tails on top of the Shapiro steps are observed both experimentally and numerically. Numerical simulations using the resistively- and capacitively-shunted-junction model (RCSJ model) reveal that the negatively-going tail is a signature of the low-frequency boundary of the junction chaotic regime. With use of the adiabatic model and the existence of plasma oscillations for underdamped junctions, the onset of chaos and its effect on the Shapiro steps can be fully explained. The high-frequency limit of the adiabatic model and the chaotic behavior of the Josephson junctions beyond the low-frequency regime are also briefly discussed

  11. Macroscopic Optomechanically Induced Transparency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pate, Jacob; Castelli, Alessandro; Martinez, Luis; Thompson, Johnathon; Chiao, Ray; Sharping, Jay

    Optomechanically induced transparency (OMIT) is an effect wherein the spectrum of a cavity resonance is modified through interference between coupled excitation pathways. In this work we investigate a macroscopic, 3D microwave, superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavity incorporating a niobium-coated, silicon-nitride membrane as the flexible boundary. The boundary supports acoustic vibrational resonances, which lead to coupling with the microwave resonances of the SRF cavity. The theoretical development and physical understanding of OMIT for our macroscopic SRF cavity is the same as that for other recently-reported OMIT systems despite vastly different optomechanical coupling factors and device sizes. Our mechanical oscillator has a coupling factor of g0 = 2 π . 1 ×10-5 Hz and is roughly 38 mm in diameter. The Q = 5 ×107 for the SRF cavity allows probing of optomechanical effects in the resolved sideband regime.

  12. Superposition and macroscopic observation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cartwright, N.D.

    1976-01-01

    The principle of superposition has long plagued the quantum mechanics of macroscopic bodies. In at least one well-known situation - that of measurement - quantum mechanics predicts a superposition. It is customary to try to reconcile macroscopic reality and quantum mechanics by reducing the superposition to a mixture. To establish consistency with quantum mechanics, values for the apparatus after a measurement are to be distributed in the way predicted by the superposition. The distributions observed, however, are those of the mixture. The statistical predictions of quantum mechanics, it appears, are not borne out by observation in macroscopic situations. It has been shown that, insofar as specific ergodic hypotheses apply to the apparatus after the interaction, the superposition which evolves is experimentally indistinguishable from the corresponding mixture. In this paper an idealized model of the measuring situation is presented in which this consistency can be demonstrated. It includes a simplified version of the measurement solution proposed by Daneri, Loinger, and Prosperi (1962). The model should make clear the kind of statistical evidence required to carry of this approach, and the role of the ergodic hypotheses assumed. (Auth.)

  13. Cathode fall model and current-voltage characteristics of field emission driven direct current microplasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkattraman, Ayyaswamy [Department of Applied Mechanics, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India)

    2013-11-15

    The post-breakdown characteristics of field emission driven microplasma are studied theoretically and numerically. A cathode fall model assuming a linearly varying electric field is used to obtain equations governing the operation of steady state field emission driven microplasmas. The results obtained from the model by solving these equations are compared with particle-in-cell with Monte Carlo collisions simulation results for parameters including the plasma potential, cathode fall thickness, ion number density in the cathode fall, and current density vs voltage curves. The model shows good overall agreement with the simulations but results in slightly overpredicted values for the plasma potential and the cathode fall thickness attributed to the assumed electric field profile. The current density vs voltage curves obtained show an arc region characterized by negative slope as well as an abnormal glow discharge characterized by a positive slope in gaps as small as 10 μm operating at atmospheric pressure. The model also retrieves the traditional macroscale current vs voltage theory in the absence of field emission.

  14. Cathode fall model and current-voltage characteristics of field emission driven direct current microplasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkattraman, Ayyaswamy

    2013-01-01

    The post-breakdown characteristics of field emission driven microplasma are studied theoretically and numerically. A cathode fall model assuming a linearly varying electric field is used to obtain equations governing the operation of steady state field emission driven microplasmas. The results obtained from the model by solving these equations are compared with particle-in-cell with Monte Carlo collisions simulation results for parameters including the plasma potential, cathode fall thickness, ion number density in the cathode fall, and current density vs voltage curves. The model shows good overall agreement with the simulations but results in slightly overpredicted values for the plasma potential and the cathode fall thickness attributed to the assumed electric field profile. The current density vs voltage curves obtained show an arc region characterized by negative slope as well as an abnormal glow discharge characterized by a positive slope in gaps as small as 10 μm operating at atmospheric pressure. The model also retrieves the traditional macroscale current vs voltage theory in the absence of field emission

  15. Current-voltage characteristics of the semiconductor nanowires under the metal-semiconductor-metal structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Jing; Zhang, Xitian; Gao, Hong; Wang, Mingjiao

    2013-12-01

    We present a method to calculate the I-V characteristics of semiconductor nanowires under the metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) structure. The carrier concentration as an important parameter is introduced into the expression of the current. The subband structure of the nanowire has been considered for associating it with the position of the Fermi level and circumventing the uncertainties of the contact areas in the contacts. The tunneling and thermionic emission currents in the two Schottky barriers at the two metal-semiconductor contacts are discussed. We find that the two barriers have different influences on the I-V characteristics of the MSM structure, one of which under the forward bias plays the role of threshold voltage if its barrier height is large and the applied voltage is small, and the other under the reverse bias controls the shapes of I-V curves. Our calculations show that the shapes of the I-V curves for the MSM structure are mainly determined by the barrier heights of the contacts and the carrier concentration. The nearly identical I-V characteristics can be obtained by using different values of the barrier heights and carrier concentration, which means that the contact type conversion can be ascribed not only to the changes of the barrier heights but also that of the carrier concentration. We also discuss the mechanisms of the ohmic-Schottky conversions and clarify the ambiguity in the literature. The possibility about the variation of the carrier concentration under the applied fields has been confirmed by experimental results.

  16. Analytical form of current-voltage characteristic of parallel-plane, cylindrical and spherical ionization chambers with homogeneous ionization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoyanov, D G [Faculty of Engineering and Pedagogy in Sliven, Technical University of Sofia, 59, Bourgasko Shaussee Blvd, 8800 Sliven (Bulgaria)

    2007-11-15

    The elementary processes taking place in the formation of charged particles and their flow in parallel-plane, cylindrical and spherical geometry cases of ionization chamber are considered. On the basis of particles and charges balance a differential equation describing the distribution of current densities in the ionization chamber volume is obtained. As a result of the differential equation solution an analytical form of the current-voltage characteristic of an ionization chamber with homogeneous ionization is obtained. For the parallel-plane case comparision with experimental data is performed.

  17. Analytical form of current-voltage characteristic of parallel-plane, cylindrical and spherical ionization chambers with homogeneous ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoyanov, D G

    2007-01-01

    The elementary processes taking place in the formation of charged particles and their flow in parallel-plane, cylindrical and spherical geometry cases of ionization chamber are considered. On the basis of particles and charges balance a differential equation describing the distribution of current densities in the ionization chamber volume is obtained. As a result of the differential equation solution an analytical form of the current-voltage characteristic of an ionization chamber with homogeneous ionization is obtained. For the parallel-plane case comparision with experimental data is performed

  18. Revisiting the role of trap-assisted-tunneling process on current-voltage characteristics in tunnel field-effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omura, Yasuhisa; Mori, Yoshiaki; Sato, Shingo; Mallik, Abhijit

    2018-04-01

    This paper discusses the role of trap-assisted-tunneling process in controlling the ON- and OFF-state current levels and its impacts on the current-voltage characteristics of a tunnel field-effect transistor. Significant impacts of high-density traps in the source region are observed that are discussed in detail. With regard to recent studies on isoelectronic traps, it has been discovered that deep level density must be minimized to suppress the OFF-state leakage current, as is well known, whereas shallow levels can be utilized to control the ON-state current level. A possible mechanism is discussed based on simulation results.

  19. Current-Voltage and Floating-Potential characteristics of cylindrical emissive probes from a full-kinetic model based on the orbital motion theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin; Sánchez-Arriaga, Gonzalo

    2018-02-01

    To model the sheath structure around an emissive probe with cylindrical geometry, the Orbital-Motion theory takes advantage of three conserved quantities (distribution function, transverse energy, and angular momentum) to transform the stationary Vlasov-Poisson system into a single integro-differential equation. For a stationary collisionless unmagnetized plasma, this equation describes self-consistently the probe characteristics. By solving such an equation numerically, parametric analyses for the current-voltage (IV) and floating-potential (FP) characteristics can be performed, which show that: (a) for strong emission, the space-charge effects increase with probe radius; (b) the probe can float at a positive potential relative to the plasma; (c) a smaller probe radius is preferred for the FP method to determine the plasma potential; (d) the work function of the emitting material and the plasma-ion properties do not influence the reliability of the floating-potential method. Analytical analysis demonstrates that the inflection point of an IV curve for non-emitting probes occurs at the plasma potential. The flat potential is not a self-consistent solution for emissive probes.

  20. The effect of applied control strategy on the current-voltage correlation of a solid oxide fuel cell stack during dynamic operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szmyd, Janusz S.; Komatsu, Yosuke; Brus, Grzegorz; Ghigliazza, Francesco; Kimijima, Shinji; Ściążko, Anna

    2014-09-01

    This paper discusses the transient characteristics of the planar type SOFC cell stack, of which the standard output is 300 W. The transient response of the voltage to the manipulation of an electric current was investigated. The effects of the response and of the operating condition determined by the operating temperature of the stack were studied by mapping a current-voltage (I-V) correlation. The current-based fuel control (CBFC) was adopted for keeping the fuel utilization factor at constant while the value of the electric current was ramped at the constant rate. The present experimental study shows that the transient characteristics of the cell voltage are determined by primarily the operating temperature caused by the manipulation of the current. Particularly, the slope of the I-V curve and the overshoot found on the voltage was remarkably influenced by the operating temperature. The different values of the fuel utilization factor influence the height of the settled voltages. The CBFC has significance in determining the slope of the I-V characteristic, but the different values ofthe fuel utilization factor does not affect the slope as the operating temperature does. The CBFC essentially does not alter the amplitude of the overshoot on the voltage response, since this is dominated by the operating temperature and its change is caused by manipulating the current.

  1. The effect of applied control strategy on the current-voltage correlation of a solid oxide fuel cell stack during dynamic operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szmyd Janusz S.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the transient characteristics of the planar type SOFC cell stack, of which the standard output is 300 W. The transient response of the voltage to the manipulation of an electric current was investigated. The effects of the response and of the operating condition determined by the operating temperature of the stack were studied by mapping a current-voltage (I-V correlation. The current-based fuel control (CBFC was adopted for keeping the fuel utilization factor at constant while the value of the electric current was ramped at the constant rate. The present experimental study shows that the transient characteristics of the cell voltage are determined by primarily the operating temperature caused by the manipulation of the current. Particularly, the slope of the I-V curve and the overshoot found on the voltage was remarkably influenced by the operating temperature. The different values of the fuel utilization factor influence the height of the settled voltages. The CBFC has significance in determining the slope of the I-V characteristic, but the different values ofthe fuel utilization factor does not affect the slope as the operating temperature does. The CBFC essentially does not alter the amplitude of the overshoot on the voltage response, since this is dominated by the operating temperature and its change is caused by manipulating the current.

  2. Measurement and statistical analysis of single-molecule current-voltage characteristics, transition voltage spectroscopy, and tunneling barrier height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shaoyin; Hihath, Joshua; Díez-Pérez, Ismael; Tao, Nongjian

    2011-11-30

    We report on the measurement and statistical study of thousands of current-voltage characteristics and transition voltage spectra (TVS) of single-molecule junctions with different contact geometries that are rapidly acquired using a new break junction method at room temperature. This capability allows one to obtain current-voltage, conductance voltage, and transition voltage histograms, thus adding a new dimension to the previous conductance histogram analysis at a fixed low-bias voltage for single molecules. This method confirms the low-bias conductance values of alkanedithiols and biphenyldithiol reported in literature. However, at high biases the current shows large nonlinearity and asymmetry, and TVS allows for the determination of a critically important parameter, the tunneling barrier height or energy level alignment between the molecule and the electrodes of single-molecule junctions. The energy level alignment is found to depend on the molecule and also on the contact geometry, revealing the role of contact geometry in both the contact resistance and energy level alignment of a molecular junction. Detailed statistical analysis further reveals that, despite the dependence of the energy level alignment on contact geometry, the variation in single-molecule conductance is primarily due to contact resistance rather than variations in the energy level alignment.

  3. The current-voltage relation of a pore and its asymptotic behavior in a Nernst-Planck model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Birlea

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A model for current-voltage nonlinearity and asymmetry is a good starting point for explaining the electrical behavior of the nanopores in synthetic or biological membranes. Using a Nernst-Planck model, we found three behaviors for the current density in a membrane's pore as a function of voltage: a quasi-ohmic, slow rising linear current at low voltages, a nonlinear current at intermediate voltages, and a non-ohmic, fast rising linear current at large voltages. The slope of the quasi-ohmic current depends mainly on the height of energy barrier inside the pore, w, through an exponential term, ew. The magnitude of the non-ohmic linear current is controlled by the potential energy gradient at the pore entrance, w/r. The current-voltage relation is asymmetric if the ion's potential energy inside the pore has an asymmetric triangular profile. The model has only two assumed parameters, the energy barrier height, w, and the relative size of the entrance region of the pore, r, which is a useful feature for fitting and interpreting experimental data.

  4. Nuclear physics: Macroscopic aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swiatecki, W.J.

    1993-12-01

    A systematic macroscopic, leptodermous approach to nuclear statics and dynamics is described, based formally on the assumptions ℎ → 0 and b/R << 1, where b is the surface diffuseness and R the nuclear radius. The resulting static model of shell-corrected nuclear binding energies and deformabilities is accurate to better than 1 part in a thousand and yields a firm determination of the principal properties of the nuclear fluid. As regards dynamics, the above approach suggests that nuclear shape evolutions will often be dominated by dissipation, but quantitative comparisons with experimental data are more difficult than in the case of statics. In its simplest liquid drop version the model exhibits interesting formal connections to the classic astronomical problem of rotating gravitating masses

  5. Thermal domains in inhomogeneous current-carrying superconductors. Current-voltage characteriscs and dynamics of domain formation after current jumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezuglyj, A.I.; Shklovskij, V.A.

    1984-01-01

    The static and dynamic behavior of thermal domains in inhomogeneous superconducting films, where the inhomogeneity behaves like a portion of the film with a reduced critical current, have been studied theoretically within the framework of the phenomenological approach, using the heat balance equation and the dependence of the superconductor critical current on temperature. Depending on the size of the inhomogeneity (local or extended) and on the relative values of parameters of the homogeneous and inhomogeneous regions, different types of current-voltage characteristics are obtained. The nonstationary problem of thermal domain formation near the inhomogeneity after a current jump has been solved, and the domain boundary (kink) dynamics at a distance from the inhomogeneity has been analyzed. A combination of the results allows one to describe the whole process of normal phase formation and its spread throughout the superconducting film

  6. Photonic characterization of capacitance-voltage characteristics in MOS capacitors and current-voltage characteristics in MOSFETs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H. C.; Kim, H. T.; Cho, S. D.; Song, S. J.; Kim, Y. C.; Kim, S. K.; Chi, S. S.; Kim, D. J.; Kim, D. M.

    2002-01-01

    Based on the photonic high-frequency capacitance-voltage (HF-CV) response of MOS capacitors, a new characterization method is reported for the analysis of interface states in MOS systems. An optical source with a photonic energy less than the silicon band-gap energy (hv g ) is employed for the photonic HF-CV characterization of interface states distributed in the photoresponsive energy band (E C - hv t C ). If a uniform distribution of trap levels is assumed, the density of interface states (D it ) in the photoresponsive energy band of MOS capacitors, characterized by the new photonic HF-CV method, was observed to be D it = 1 ∼ 5 x 10 11 eV -1 cm -2 . Photonic current-voltage characteristics (I D - V GS , V DS ) of MOSFETs, which are under control of the photoconductive and the photovoltaic effects, are also investigated under optical illumination

  7. Microscopic and macroscopic bell inequalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, E.

    1984-01-01

    The Bell inequalities, being derived for micro-systems, cannot be tested by (macroscopic) experiments without additional assumptions. A macroscopic definition of local realism is proposed which might be the starting point for deriving Bell inequalities testable without auxiliary assumptions. (orig.)

  8. Quantum equilibria for macroscopic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grib, A; Khrennikov, A; Parfionov, G; Starkov, K

    2006-01-01

    Nash equilibria are found for some quantum games with particles with spin-1/2 for which two spin projections on different directions in space are measured. Examples of macroscopic games with the same equilibria are given. Mixed strategies for participants of these games are calculated using probability amplitudes according to the rules of quantum mechanics in spite of the macroscopic nature of the game and absence of Planck's constant. A possible role of quantum logical lattices for the existence of macroscopic quantum equilibria is discussed. Some examples for spin-1 cases are also considered

  9. Quantum equilibria for macroscopic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grib, A [Department of Theoretical Physics and Astronomy, Russian State Pedagogical University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Khrennikov, A [Centre for Mathematical Modelling in Physics and Cognitive Sciences Vaexjoe University (Sweden); Parfionov, G [Department of Mathematics, St. Petersburg State University of Economics and Finances (Russian Federation); Starkov, K [Department of Mathematics, St. Petersburg State University of Economics and Finances (Russian Federation)

    2006-06-30

    Nash equilibria are found for some quantum games with particles with spin-1/2 for which two spin projections on different directions in space are measured. Examples of macroscopic games with the same equilibria are given. Mixed strategies for participants of these games are calculated using probability amplitudes according to the rules of quantum mechanics in spite of the macroscopic nature of the game and absence of Planck's constant. A possible role of quantum logical lattices for the existence of macroscopic quantum equilibria is discussed. Some examples for spin-1 cases are also considered.

  10. Superconductivity and macroscopic quantum phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogovin, D.; Scully, M.

    1976-01-01

    It is often asserted that superconducting systems are manifestations of quantum mechanics on a macroscopic scale. In this review article it is demonstrated that this quantum assertion is true within the framework of the microscopic theory of superconductivity. (Auth.)

  11. Current-voltage characteristics of single-molecule diarylethene junctions measured with adjustable gold electrodes in solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briechle, Bernd M; Kim, Youngsang; Ehrenreich, Philipp; Erbe, Artur; Sysoiev, Dmytro; Huhn, Thomas; Groth, Ulrich; Scheer, Elke

    2012-01-01

    We report on an experimental analysis of the charge transport through sulfur-free photochromic molecular junctions. The conductance of individual molecules contacted with gold electrodes and the current-voltage characteristics of these junctions are measured in a mechanically controlled break-junction system at room temperature and in liquid environment. We compare the transport properties of a series of molecules, labeled TSC, MN, and 4Py, with the same switching core but varying side-arms and end-groups designed for providing the mechanical and electrical contact to the gold electrodes. We perform a detailed analysis of the transport properties of TSC in its open and closed states. We find rather broad distributions of conductance values in both states. The analysis, based on the assumption that the current is carried by a single dominating molecular orbital, reveals distinct differences between both states. We discuss the appearance of diode-like behavior for the particular species 4Py that features end-groups, which preferentially couple to the metal electrode by physisorption. We show that the energetic position of the molecular orbital varies as a function of the transmission. Finally, we show for the species MN that the use of two cyano end-groups on each side considerably enhances the coupling strength compared to the typical behavior of a single cyano group.

  12. An analytic current-voltage model for quasi-ballistic III-nitride high electron mobility transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kexin; Rakheja, Shaloo

    2018-05-01

    We present an analytic model to describe the DC current-voltage (I-V) relationship in scaled III-nitride high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) in which transport within the channel is quasi-ballistic in nature. Following Landauer's transport theory and charge calculation based on two-dimensional electrostatics that incorporates negative momenta states from the drain terminal, an analytic expression for current as a function of terminal voltages is developed. The model interprets the non-linearity of access regions in non-self-aligned HEMTs. Effects of Joule heating with temperature-dependent thermal conductivity are incorporated in the model in a self-consistent manner. With a total of 26 input parameters, the analytic model offers reduced empiricism compared to existing GaN HEMT models. To verify the model, experimental I-V data of InAlN/GaN with InGaN back-barrier HEMTs with channel lengths of 42 and 105 nm are considered. Additionally, the model is validated against numerical I-V data obtained from DC hydrodynamic simulations of an unintentionally doped AlGaN-on-GaN HEMT with 50-nm gate length. The model is also verified against pulsed I-V measurements of a 150-nm T-gate GaN HEMT. Excellent agreement between the model and experimental and numerical results for output current, transconductance, and output conductance is demonstrated over a broad range of bias and temperature conditions.

  13. The current-voltage characteristic and potential oscillations of a double layer in a triple plasma device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, R.T.; Torven, S.

    1986-07-01

    The properties of a strong double layer in a current circuit with a capacitance and an inductance are investigated in a triple plasma device. The double layer gives rise to a region of negative differential resistance in the current-voltage characteristic of the device, and this gives non-linear oscillations in the current and the potential drop over the double layer (PhiDL). For a sufficiently large circuit inductance PhiDL reaches an amplitude given by the induced voltage (-LdI/dt) which is much larger than the circuit EMF due to the rapid current decrease when PhiDL increases. A variable potential minimum exists in the plasma on the low potential side of the double layer, and the depth of the minimum increases when PhiDL increases. An increasing fraction of the electrons incident at the double layer are then reflected, and this is found to be the main process giving rise to the negative differential resistance. A qualitative model for the variation of the minimum potential with PhiDL is also proposed. It is based on the condition that the minimum potential must adjust itself self-consistentely so that quasi-neutrality is maintained in the plasma region where the minimum is assumed. (authors)

  14. Current, voltage and temperature distribution modeling of light-emitting diodes based on electrical and thermal circuit analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, J; Shim, J-I; Shin, D-S

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate a modeling method based on the three-dimensional electrical and thermal circuit analysis to extract current, voltage and temperature distributions of light-emitting diodes (LEDs). In our model, the electrical circuit analysis is performed first to extract the current and voltage distributions in the LED. Utilizing the result obtained from the electrical circuit analysis as distributed heat sources, the thermal circuit is set up by using the duality between Fourier's law and Ohm's law. From the analysis of the thermal circuit, the temperature distribution at each epitaxial film is successfully obtained. Comparisons of experimental and simulation results are made by employing an InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well blue LED. Validity of the electrical circuit analysis is confirmed by comparing the light distribution at the surface. Since the temperature distribution at each epitaxial film cannot be obtained experimentally, the apparent temperature distribution is compared at the surface of the LED chip. Also, experimentally obtained average junction temperature is compared with the value calculated from the modeling, yielding a very good agreement. The analysis method based on the circuit modeling has an advantage of taking distributed heat sources as inputs, which is essential for high-power devices with significant self-heating. (paper)

  15. Current-Voltage Characteristics of the Metal / Organic Semiconductor / Metal Structures: Top and Bottom Contact Configuration Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šarūnas MEŠKINIS

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In present study five synthesized organic semiconductor compounds have been used for fabrication of the planar metal / organic semiconductor / metal structures. Both top electrode and bottom electrode configurations were used. Current-voltage (I-V characteristics of the samples were investigated. Effect of the hysteresis of the I-V characteristics was observed for all the investigated samples. However, strength of the hysteresis was dependent on the organic semiconductor used. Study of I-V characteristics of the top contact Al/AT-RB-1/Al structures revealed, that in (0 – 500 V voltages range average current of the samples measured in air is only slightly higher than current measured in nitrogen ambient. Deposition of the ultra-thin diamond like carbon interlayer resulted in both decrease of the hysteresis of I-V characteristics of top contact Al/AT-RB-1/Al samples. However, decreased current and decreased slope of the I-V characteristics of the samples with diamond like carbon interlayer was observed as well. I-V characteristic hysteresis effect was less pronounced in the case of the bottom contact metal/organic semiconductor/metal samples. I-V characteristics of the bottom contact samples were dependent on electrode metal used.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.19.1.3816

  16. Tunneling effects in the current-voltage characteristics of high-efficiency GaAs solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachare, R.; Anspaugh, B. E.; Garlick, G. F. J.

    1988-01-01

    Evidence is that tunneling via states in the forbidden gap is the dominant source of excess current in the dark current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of high-efficiency DMCVD grown Al(x)Ga(1-x)As/GaAs(x is equal to or greater than 0.85) solar cells. The dark forward and reverse I-V measurements were made on several solar cells, for the first time, at temperatures between 193 and 301 K. Low-voltage reverse-bias I-V data of a number of cells give a thermal activation energy for excess current of 0.026 + or - 0.005 eV, which corresponds to the carbon impurity in GaAs. However, other energy levels between 0.02 eV and 0.04 eV were observed in some cells which may correspond to impurity levels introduced by Cu, Si, Ge, or Cd. The forward-bias excess current is mainly due to carrier tunneling between localized levels created in the space-charge layer by impurities such as carbon, which are incorporated during the solar cell growth process. A model is suggested to explain the results.

  17. Macroscopic constraints on string unification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, T.R.

    1989-03-01

    The comparison of sting theory with experiment requires a huge extrapolation from the microscopic distances, of order of the Planck length, up to the macroscopic laboratory distances. The quantum effects give rise to large corrections to the macroscopic predictions of sting unification. I discus the model-independent constraints on the gravitational sector of string theory due to the inevitable existence of universal Fradkin-Tseytlin dilatons. 9 refs

  18. Interpretation of macroscopic quantum phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, K.

    1986-01-01

    It is argued that a quantum theory without observer is required for the interpretation of macroscopic quantum tunnelling. Such a theory is obtained by augmenting QED by the actual electric field in the rest system of the universe. An equation of the motion of this field is formulated form which the correct macroscopic behavior of the universe and the validity of the Born interpretation is derived. Care is taken to use mathematically sound concepts only. (Author)

  19. Military Curricula for Vocational & Technical Education. Basic Electricity and Electronics Individualized Learning System. CANTRAC A-100-0010. Module Five: Relationships of Current, Voltage, and Resistance. Study Booklet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chief of Naval Education and Training Support, Pensacola, FL.

    This individualized learning module on the relationships of current, voltage, and resistance is one in a series of modules for a course in basic electricity and electronics. The course is one of a number of military-developed curriculum packages selected for adaptaticn to vocational instructional and curriculum development in a civilian setting.…

  20. Magnetic field cycling effect on the non-linear current-voltage characteristics and magnetic field induced negative differential resistance in α-Fe1.64Ga0.36O3 oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhowmik, R. N.; Vijayasri, G.

    2015-06-01

    We have studied current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of α-Fe1.64Ga0.36O3, a typical canted ferromagnetic semiconductor. The sample showed a transformation of the I-V curves from linear to non-linear character with the increase of bias voltage. The I-V curves showed irreversible features with hysteresis loop and bi-stable electronic states for up and down modes of voltage sweep. We report positive magnetoresistance and magnetic field induced negative differential resistance as the first time observed phenomena in metal doped hematite system. The magnitudes of critical voltage at which I-V curve showed peak and corresponding peak current are affected by magnetic field cycling. The shift of the peak voltage with magnetic field showed a step-wise jump between two discrete voltage levels with least gap (ΔVP) 0.345(± 0.001) V. The magnetic spin dependent electronic charge transport in this new class of magnetic semiconductor opens a wide scope for tuning large electroresistance (˜500-700%), magnetoresistance (70-135 %) and charge-spin dependent conductivity under suitable control of electric and magnetic fields. The electric and magnetic field controlled charge-spin transport is interesting for applications of the magnetic materials in spintronics, e.g., magnetic sensor, memory devices and digital switching.

  1. Magnetic field cycling effect on the non-linear current-voltage characteristics and magnetic field induced negative differential resistance in α-Fe{sub 1.64}Ga{sub 0.36}O{sub 3} oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhowmik, R. N., E-mail: rnbhowmik.phy@pondiuni.edu.in; Vijayasri, G. [Department of Physics, Pondicherry University, R.Venkataraman Nagar, Kalapet, Puducherry - 605 014 (India)

    2015-06-15

    We have studied current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of α-Fe{sub 1.64}Ga{sub 0.36}O{sub 3}, a typical canted ferromagnetic semiconductor. The sample showed a transformation of the I-V curves from linear to non-linear character with the increase of bias voltage. The I-V curves showed irreversible features with hysteresis loop and bi-stable electronic states for up and down modes of voltage sweep. We report positive magnetoresistance and magnetic field induced negative differential resistance as the first time observed phenomena in metal doped hematite system. The magnitudes of critical voltage at which I-V curve showed peak and corresponding peak current are affected by magnetic field cycling. The shift of the peak voltage with magnetic field showed a step-wise jump between two discrete voltage levels with least gap (ΔV{sub P}) 0.345(± 0.001) V. The magnetic spin dependent electronic charge transport in this new class of magnetic semiconductor opens a wide scope for tuning large electroresistance (∼500-700%), magnetoresistance (70-135 %) and charge-spin dependent conductivity under suitable control of electric and magnetic fields. The electric and magnetic field controlled charge-spin transport is interesting for applications of the magnetic materials in spintronics, e.g., magnetic sensor, memory devices and digital switching.

  2. Magnetic field cycling effect on the non-linear current-voltage characteristics and magnetic field induced negative differential resistance in α-Fe1.64Ga0.36O3 oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. N. Bhowmik

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We have studied current-voltage (I-V characteristics of α-Fe1.64Ga0.36O3, a typical canted ferromagnetic semiconductor. The sample showed a transformation of the I-V curves from linear to non-linear character with the increase of bias voltage. The I-V curves showed irreversible features with hysteresis loop and bi-stable electronic states for up and down modes of voltage sweep. We report positive magnetoresistance and magnetic field induced negative differential resistance as the first time observed phenomena in metal doped hematite system. The magnitudes of critical voltage at which I-V curve showed peak and corresponding peak current are affected by magnetic field cycling. The shift of the peak voltage with magnetic field showed a step-wise jump between two discrete voltage levels with least gap (ΔVP 0.345(± 0.001 V. The magnetic spin dependent electronic charge transport in this new class of magnetic semiconductor opens a wide scope for tuning large electroresistance (∼500-700%, magnetoresistance (70-135 % and charge-spin dependent conductivity under suitable control of electric and magnetic fields. The electric and magnetic field controlled charge-spin transport is interesting for applications of the magnetic materials in spintronics, e.g., magnetic sensor, memory devices and digital switching.

  3. A simple vibrating sample magnetometer for macroscopic samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Dominguez, V.; Quesada, A.; Guzmán-Mínguez, J. C.; Moreno, L.; Lere, M.; Spottorno, J.; Giacomone, F.; Fernández, J. F.; Hernando, A.; García, M. A.

    2018-03-01

    We here present a simple model of a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The system allows recording magnetization curves at room temperature with a resolution of the order of 0.01 emu and is appropriated for macroscopic samples. The setup can be mounted with different configurations depending on the requirements of the sample to be measured (mass, saturation magnetization, saturation field, etc.). We also include here examples of curves obtained with our setup and comparison curves measured with a standard commercial VSM that confirms the reliability of our device.

  4. A Contribution To The Development And Analysis Of A Combined Current-Voltage Instrument Transformer By Using Modern CAD Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chundeva-Blajer, Marija M.

    2004-01-01

    The principle aim and task of the thesis is the analysis and development of 20 kV combined current-voltage instrument transformer (CCVIT) by using modern CAD techniques. CCVIT is a complex electromagnetic system comprising of four windings and two magnetic cores in one insulation housing for simultaneous transformation of high voltages and currents to measurable signal values by standard instruments. The analytical design methods can be applied on simple electromagnetic configurations, which is not the case with the CCVIT. There is mutual electromagnetic influence between the voltage measurement core (VMC) and the current measurement core (CMC). After the analytical CCVIT design had been done, exact determination of its metrological characteristics has been accomplished by using the numerical finite element method implemented in the FEM-3D program package. The FEM-3D calculation is made in 19 cross-sectional layers of the z-axis of the CCVIT three-dimensional domain. By FEM-3D application the three-dimensional CCVIT magnetic field distribution is derived. This is the basis for calculation of the initial metrological characteristics of the CCVIT (VMC is accuracy class 3 and CMC is accuracy class 1). By using the stochastic optimization technique based on genetic algorithm the CCVIT optimal design is achieved. The objective function is the minimum of the metrological parameters (VIM voltage error and CMC current error). There are I I independent input variables during the optimization process by which the optimal project is derived. The optimal project is adapted for realization of a prototype and the optimized project is derived. Full comparative analysis of the metrological and the electromagnetic characteristics of the three projects is accomplished. By application of the program package MATLAB/SIMULINK the CCVIT transient phenomena is analyzed for different regimes in the three design projects. In the Instrument Transformer Factory of EMO A. D.-Ohrid a CCVIT

  5. Macroscopic models for traffic safety.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oppe, S.

    1988-01-01

    Recently there has been an increased interest in the application of macroscopic models for the description of developments in traffic safety. A discussion was started on the causes of the sudden decrease in the number of fatal and injury accidents after 1974. Before that time these numbers had

  6. Investigation of the double exponential in the current-voltage characteristics of silicon solar cells. [proton irradiation effects on ATS 1 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, M.; Noel, G. T.; Stirn, R. J.

    1977-01-01

    Difficulties in relating observed current-voltage characteristics of individual silicon solar cells to their physical and material parameters were underscored by the unexpected large changes in the current-voltage characteristics telemetered back from solar cells on the ATS-1 spacecraft during their first year in synchronous orbit. Depletion region recombination was studied in cells exhibiting a clear double-exponential dark characteristic by subjecting the cells to proton irradiation. A significant change in the saturation current, an effect included in the Sah, Noyce, Shockley formulation of diode current resulting from recombination in the depletion region, was caused by the introduction of shallow levels in the depletion region by the proton irradiation. This saturation current is not attributable only to diffusion current from outside the depletion region and only its temperature dependence can clarify its origin. The current associated with the introduction of deep-lying levels did not change significantly in these experiments.

  7. Comment on 'Temperature dependence of the current-voltage characteristics of Sn/PANI/p-Si/Al heterojunctions'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pipinys, P; Rimeika, A [Department of Physics, Vilnius Pedagogical University, Studentu 39, LT-08106 Vilnius (Lithuania)], E-mail: ftfdekanas@vpu.lt

    2008-02-27

    Current-voltage characteristics of Sn/PANI/p-Si/Al heterojunctions, measured in the temperature range 140-280 K by Kaya et al (2007 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 19 406205), are reinterpreted in the framework of phonon-assisted tunnelling theory, as a free-charge-carrier generation mechanism in the strong electrical field. It is shown that phonon-assisted tunnelling more adequately describes the peculiarities of the variation of I-V data with temperature in PANI polymers. (comment)

  8. Possible influence of the voltage dependence of the Josephson tunneling current I(V,psi) on the corresponding current-voltage characteristic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahlbohm, H.D.; Luebbig, H.; Luther, H.

    1975-01-01

    Analog computer calculations of the current-voltage characteristic involving the voltage dependence of the amplitudes of the tunneling current equation explicitly, for the case of a current driven tunneling junction at different temperatures are reported on. These studies are based upon the adiabatic representation of the current-phase relation. The influence of retarding effects is not included. Therefore the computational results can lead to practical consequences at best in the range near the transition temperature. (Auth.)

  9. Investigation of disorder and its effect on electrical transport in electrochemically doped polymer devices by current-voltage and impedance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman Khan, Motiur; Anjaneyulu, P.; Koteswara Rao, K. S. R.; Menon, R.

    2017-03-01

    We report on the analysis of temperature-dependent current-voltage characteristics and impedance measurements of electrochemically doped poly(3-methylthiophene) devices at different doping levels. The extent of doping is carefully tailored such that only the bulk-limited transport mechanism prevails. A transition from exponentially distributed trap-limited transport to trap-free space-charge-limited current is observed in current-voltage conduction upon increasing the doping. The obtained trap densities (3.2  ×  1016 cm-3 and 8.6  ×  1015 cm-3) and trap energies (31.7 meV and 16.6 meV) for different devices signify the variation in disorder with doping, which is later supported by impedance measurements. Impedance-frequency data for various devices can not be explained using the parallel resistance-capacitance (RC) model in the equivalent circuit. However, this was established by incorporating a constant phase element Q (CPE) instead of the capacitance parameter. It should be emphasized that low doping devices in particular are best simulated with two CPE elements, while the data related to other devices are fitted well with a single CPE element. It is also observed from evaluated circuit parameters that the spatial inhomogeneity and disorder are the cause of variability in different samples, which has an excellent correlation with the temperature-dependent current-voltage characteristics.

  10. The nonideality coefficient of current-voltage characteristics for p-n junctions in a high ultrahigh-frequency (microwave) field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamirzaev, S. H.; Gulyamov, G.; Dadamirzaev, M. G.; Gulyamov, A. G.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of heating of electrons and holes on the nonideality coefficient of the current-voltage characteristic for a p-n junction in a high microwave field is studied. It is established that the nonideality coefficient for a diode depends on the type of charge carriers that make the major contribution to the current in the p-n junction. It is shown that, in some cases in silicon samples, the nonideality coefficient for the diode is governed by the temperature for holes in spite of the fact that the temperature for electrons is higher than the temperature for holes.

  11. Power series fitting of current-voltage characteristics of Al doped ZnO thin film-Sb doped (Ba{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2})TiO{sub 3} heterojunction diode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirikulrat, N., E-mail: scphi003@chiangmai.ac.th

    2012-02-29

    The current-voltage (I-V) relationship of aluminum doped zinc oxide thin film-antimony doped barium strontium titanate single heterojunction diodes was investigated. The linear I-V characteristics are similar to those of the PN junction diodes. The linear conduction at a low forward bias voltage as predicted by the space charge limited current theory and the trap free square law at a higher forward voltage are observed. The overall current density-voltage (J-V) characteristics of the diodes are found to be well described by the Power Series Equation J= N-Ary-Summation {sub m}C{sub m}V{sup m} where C{sub m} is the leakage constant at particular power m with the best fit for the power m found to be at the fourth and fifth orders for the forward and reverse bias respectively. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The n-n isotype heterojunction diodes of ceramic oxide semiconductors were prepared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The current density-voltage (J-V) curves were analyzed using the Power Series (PS). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The J-V characteristics were found to be well described with PS at low order. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The thermionic emission and diode leakage currents were comparatively discussed.

  12. Room temperature current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of Ag/InGaN/n-Si Schottky barrier diode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdoğan, Erman, E-mail: e.erdogan@alparslan.edu.tr [Department of Physics, Faculty of Art and Science, Muş Alparslan University, Muş 49250 (Turkey); Kundakçı, Mutlu [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Atatürk University, Erzurum 25240 (Turkey)

    2017-02-01

    Metal-semiconductors (MSs) or Schottky barrier diodes (SBDs) have a significant potential in the integrated device technology. In the present paper, electrical characterization of Ag/InGaN/n-Si Schottky diode have been systematically carried out by simple Thermionic method (TE) and Norde function based on the I-V characteristics. Ag ohmic and schottky contacts are deposited on InGaN/n-Si film by thermal evaporation technique under a vacuum pressure of 1×10{sup −5} mbar. Ideality factor, barrier height and series resistance values of this diode are determined from I-V curve. These parameters are calculated by TE and Norde methods and findings are given in a comparetive manner. The results show the consistency for both method and also good agreement with other results obtained in the literature. The value of ideality factor and barrier height have been determined to be 2.84 and 0.78 eV at room temperature using simple TE method. The value of barrier height obtained with Norde method is calculated as 0.79 eV.

  13. Room temperature current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of Ag/InGaN/n-Si Schottky barrier diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdoğan, Erman; Kundakçı, Mutlu

    2017-02-01

    Metal-semiconductors (MSs) or Schottky barrier diodes (SBDs) have a significant potential in the integrated device technology. In the present paper, electrical characterization of Ag/InGaN/n-Si Schottky diode have been systematically carried out by simple Thermionic method (TE) and Norde function based on the I-V characteristics. Ag ohmic and schottky contacts are deposited on InGaN/n-Si film by thermal evaporation technique under a vacuum pressure of 1×10-5 mbar. Ideality factor, barrier height and series resistance values of this diode are determined from I-V curve. These parameters are calculated by TE and Norde methods and findings are given in a comparetive manner. The results show the consistency for both method and also good agreement with other results obtained in the literature. The value of ideality factor and barrier height have been determined to be 2.84 and 0.78 eV at room temperature using simple TE method. The value of barrier height obtained with Norde method is calculated as 0.79 eV.

  14. Current-voltage characterization of Au contact on sol-gel ZnO films with and without conducting polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Yow-Jon; Jheng, Mei-Jyuan; Zeng, Jian-Jhou

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the current density-voltage (J-V) characteristics of Au/n-type ZnO and Au/polyaniline (PANI)/n-type ZnO devices. ZnO films were prepared by the sol-gel method. For Au/n-type ZnO devices, native defects and impurities resident within the ZnO depletion region contribute to barrier thinning of, carrier hopping across, and tunneling through the Schottky barrier. This leads to the formation of nonalloyed ohmic contacts. However, rectifying junctions were formed on n-type ZnO by employing the simple technique of spin-coating PANI to act as the electron-blocking layer. Our present results suggest that the ZnO depletion region at the PANI/n-type ZnO interface is not the origin of the rectifying behavior of Au/PANI/n-type ZnO contact. In addition, the presence of the built-in potential of Au/PANI/n-type ZnO devices could result in the shift of the J-V curve toward negative voltage. Excellent agreement between simulated and measured data was obtained when the built-in potential was taken into account in the J-V relationship.

  15. Seismic scanning tunneling macroscope - Theory

    KAUST Repository

    Schuster, Gerard T.

    2012-09-01

    We propose a seismic scanning tunneling macroscope (SSTM) that can detect the presence of sub-wavelength scatterers in the near-field of either the source or the receivers. Analytic formulas for the time reverse mirror (TRM) profile associated with a single scatterer model show that the spatial resolution limit to be, unlike the Abbe limit of λ/2, independent of wavelength and linearly proportional to the source-scatterer separation as long as the point scatterer is in the near-field region; if the sub-wavelength scatterer is a spherical impedance discontinuity then the resolution will also be limited by the radius of the sphere. Therefore, superresolution imaging can be achieved as the scatterer approaches the source. This is analogous to an optical scanning tunneling microscope that has sub-wavelength resolution. Scaled to seismic frequencies, it is theoretically possible to extract 100 Hz information from 20 Hz data by imaging of near-field seismic energy.

  16. Seismic scanning tunneling macroscope - Theory

    KAUST Repository

    Schuster, Gerard T.; Hanafy, Sherif M.; Huang, Yunsong

    2012-01-01

    We propose a seismic scanning tunneling macroscope (SSTM) that can detect the presence of sub-wavelength scatterers in the near-field of either the source or the receivers. Analytic formulas for the time reverse mirror (TRM) profile associated with a single scatterer model show that the spatial resolution limit to be, unlike the Abbe limit of λ/2, independent of wavelength and linearly proportional to the source-scatterer separation as long as the point scatterer is in the near-field region; if the sub-wavelength scatterer is a spherical impedance discontinuity then the resolution will also be limited by the radius of the sphere. Therefore, superresolution imaging can be achieved as the scatterer approaches the source. This is analogous to an optical scanning tunneling microscope that has sub-wavelength resolution. Scaled to seismic frequencies, it is theoretically possible to extract 100 Hz information from 20 Hz data by imaging of near-field seismic energy.

  17. Photovoltaic characterization of graphene/silicon Schottky junctions from local and macroscopic perspectives

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hájková, Zdeňka; Ledinský, Martin; Vetushka, Aliaksi; Stuchlík, Jiří; Müller, Martin; Fejfar, Antonín; Bouša, Milan; Kalbáč, Martin; Frank, Otakar

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 676, May (2017), s. 82-88 ISSN 0009-2614 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-15357S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61388955 Keywords : CVD graphene * microcrystalline silicon * solar cells * Schottky junctions * current-voltage curves * C-AFM Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism; CG - Electrochemistry (UFCH-W) OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.); Electrochemistry (dry cells, batteries, fuel cells, corrosion metals, electrolysis) (UFCH-W) Impact factor: 1.815, year: 2016

  18. Two opposite hysteresis curves in semiconductors with mobile dopants

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jae Sung; Lee, Shin Buhm; Kahng, Byungnam; Noh, Tae Won

    2012-01-01

    Recent experimental researches on semiconductors with mobile dopants (SMD) have reported unconventional hysteretic current-voltage (I-V) curves, which form dynamically in either one of the two opposite directions, the counter-figure-eight and figure-eight ways. However the fundamental theory for the formation of the two directions is still absent, and this poses a major barrier for researches oriented to applications. Here, we introduce a theoretical model to explain the origin of the two dir...

  19. Physically-based modeling of the cyclic macroscopic behaviour of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauzay, M.; Evrard, P.; Steckmeyer, A.; Ferrie, E.

    2010-01-01

    Grain size seems to have only a minor influence on the cyclic strain strain curves (CSSCs) of metallic polycrystals of medium to high stacking fault energy (SFE). That is why many authors tried to deduce the macroscopic CSSCs curves from the single crystals ones. Either crystals oriented for single slip or crystals oriented for multiple slip could be considered. In addition, a scale transition law should be used (from the grain scale to the macroscopic scale). Authors generally used either the Sachs rule (homogeneous single slip) or the Taylor one (homogeneous plastic strain, multiple slip). But the predicted macroscopic CSSCs do not generally agree with the experimental data for metals and alloys, presenting various SFE values. In order to avoid the choice of a particular scale transition rule, many finite element (FE) computations have been carried out using meshes of polycrystals including more than one hundred grains without texture. This allows the study of the influence of the crystalline constitutive laws on the macroscopic CSSCs. Activation of a secondary slip system in grains oriented for single slip is either allowed or hindered (slip planarity), which affects strongly the macroscopic CSSCs. The more planar the slip, the higher the predicted macroscopic stress amplitudes. If grains oriented for single slip obey slip planarity and two crystalline CSSCs are used (one for single slip grains and one for multiple slip grains), then the predicted macroscopic CSSCs agree well with experimental data provided the SFE is not too low (316L, copper, nickel, aluminium). Finally, the incremental self-consistent Hill-Hutchinson homogenization model is used for predicting CSS curves and partially validated with respect to the curves computed by the FE method. (authors)

  20. Local current-voltage behaviors of preferentially and randomly textured Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin films investigated by conductive atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, R.H.; Jo, W.; Kim, D.W.; Yun, Jae Ho; Ahn, S.

    2011-01-01

    Electrical transport properties on polycrystalline Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 (CIGS) (Ga/(In+Ga) ∼35%) thin films were examined by conductive atomic force microscopy. The CIGS thin films with a (112) preferential or random texture were deposited on Mo-coated glass substrates. Triangular pyramidal grain growths were observed in the CIGS thin films preferentially textured to the (112) planes. Current maps of the CIGS surface were acquired with a zero or non-zero external voltage bias. The contrast of the images on the grain boundaries and intragrains displayed the conduction path in the materials. Local current-voltage measurements were performed to evaluate the charge conduction properties of the CIGS thin films. (orig.)

  1. Radiation effects on the current-voltage and capacitance-voltage characteristics of advanced p-n junction diodes surrounded by shallow trench isolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poyai, A.; Simoen, E.; Claeys, C.; Hayama, K.; Kobayashi, K.; Ohyama, H.

    2002-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of 20 MeV proton irradiation on the current-voltage (I-V) and capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics of different geometry n + -p-well junction diodes surrounded by shallow trench isolation and processed in a 0.18 μm CMOS technology. From I-V characteristics, a higher current damage coefficient was found for the bulk than for the peripheral component. The radiation-induced boron de-activation resulted in a lowering of the p-well doping, which has been derived from high-frequency C-V measurements. This was confirmed by deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) analysis, revealing the presence of interstitial boron related radiation defects. As will be demonstrated for the bulk leakage-current damage coefficient, the electric field enhanced generation rate of charge carriers and the radiation-induced boron de-activation should be accounted for properly

  2. Analysis of high field effects on the steady-state current-voltage response of semi-insulating 4H-SiC for photoconductive switch applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiskumara, R. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia 23529 (United States); Joshi, R. P., E-mail: ravi.joshi@ttu.edu; Mauch, D.; Dickens, J. C.; Neuber, A. A. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409 (United States)

    2015-09-07

    A model-based analysis of the steady-state, current-voltage response of semi-insulating 4H-SiC is carried out to probe the internal mechanisms, focusing on electric field driven effects. Relevant physical processes, such as multiple defects, repulsive potential barriers to electron trapping, band-to-trap impact ionization, and field-dependent detrapping, are comprehensively included. Results of our model match the available experimental data fairly well over orders of magnitude variation in the current density. A number of important parameters are also extracted in the process through comparisons with available data. Finally, based on our analysis, the possible presence of holes in the samples can be discounted up to applied fields as high as ∼275 kV/cm.

  3. Local current-voltage behaviors of preferentially and randomly textured Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} thin films investigated by conductive atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, R.H.; Jo, W. [Ewha Womans University, Department of Physics, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, D.W. [Ewha Womans University, Department of Physics, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ewha Womans University, Department of Chemistry and Nanosciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Jae Ho; Ahn, S. [Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    Electrical transport properties on polycrystalline Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGS) (Ga/(In+Ga) {approx}35%) thin films were examined by conductive atomic force microscopy. The CIGS thin films with a (112) preferential or random texture were deposited on Mo-coated glass substrates. Triangular pyramidal grain growths were observed in the CIGS thin films preferentially textured to the (112) planes. Current maps of the CIGS surface were acquired with a zero or non-zero external voltage bias. The contrast of the images on the grain boundaries and intragrains displayed the conduction path in the materials. Local current-voltage measurements were performed to evaluate the charge conduction properties of the CIGS thin films. (orig.)

  4. Effect of temperature on current voltage characteristics in ZnO/CdS/CuGaSe2 single crystal solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saad, M.; Kassis, A.

    2005-03-01

    Current voltage characteristics of Zn O/CdS/CuGaSe 2 single crystal solar cells, which have gone through repetitive annealing treatment and have been measured at different values of temperature and illumination intensity, were analyzed using the two-diode equation. The analysis revealed that current transport in these cells is governed by two competing transport mechanisms relating strongly to interface states and that both mechanisms are thermally and light activated. These two mechanisms are interface recombination and tunneling enhanced interface recombination. The activation energy values of the saturation current density in both mechanisms were calculated from the temperature dependence of the parameters describing each of them. It was found that these values depend on temperature and illumination intensity. Furthermore, the behavior of the photovoltaic parameters could be explained relying on the results of the analysis. (Authors)

  5. Current-voltage analysis of the record-efficiency CuGaSe2 solar cell: Application of the current separation method and the interface recombination model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saad, M.; Kasis, A.

    2011-01-01

    Current-voltage (j-V) characteristics of the record-efficiency CuGaSe 2 solar cell measured under several illumination levels are analyzed using a two-diode equation for a more accurate description of cell behavior. The contribution of each diode to the total cell j-V characteristic under illumination was estimated using the current separation method presented recently. This is performed in an effort to identify the distinctive features of this record-efficiency cell which have led to the up-to-date highest open circuit voltage of V o c = 946 mV and fill factor of FF = 66.5% for CuGaSe 2 solar cells. Furthermore, the interface recombination component of the cell current under illumination is quantitatively discussed applying the interface recombination model presented earlier. (author)

  6. Thickness dependence of the poling and current-voltage characteristics of paint films made up of lead zirconate titanate ceramic powder and epoxy resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egusa, Shigenori; Iwasawa, Naozumi

    1995-11-01

    A specially prepared paint made up of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramic powder and epoxy resin was coated on an aluminum plate and was cured at room temperature, thus forming the paint film of 25-300 μm thickness with a PZT volume fraction of 53%. The paint film was then poled at room temperature, and the poling behavior was determined by measuring the piezoelectric activity as a function of poling field. The poling behavior shows that the piezoelectric activity obtained at a given poling field increases with an increase in the film thickness from 25 to 300 μm. The current-voltage characteristic of the paint film, on the other hand, shows that the increase in the film thickness leads not only to an increase in the magnitude of the current density at a given electric field but also to an increase in the critical electric field at which the transition from the ohmic to space-charge-limited conduction takes place. This fact indicates that the amount of the space charge of electrons injected into the paint film decreases as the film thickness increases. Furthermore, comparison of the current-voltage characteristic of the paint film with that of a pure epoxy film reveals that the space charge is accumulated largely at the interface between the PZT and epoxy phases in the paint film. On the basis of this finding, a model is developed for the poling behavior of the paint film by taking into account a possible effect of the space-charge accumulation and a broad distribution of the electric field in the PZT phase. This model is shown to give an excellent fit to the experimental data of the piezoelectric activity obtained here as a function of poling field and film thickness.

  7. Macroscopic fundamental strings in cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aharonov, Y; Englert, F; Orloff, J

    1987-12-24

    We show that, when D greater than or equal to 4, theories of closed strings of closed strings in D, non-compact space-time dimensions exhibit a phase transition. The high-temperature phase is characterized by a condensate of arbitrarily long strings with Hausdorff dimension two (area filling curves). We suggest that this stringy phase is the ancestor of the adiabatic era. Fundamental strings could then both drive the inflation and seed, in a way reminiscent of the cosmic string mechanism, the large structures in the universe.

  8. Rank distributions: A panoramic macroscopic outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliazar, Iddo I.; Cohen, Morrel H.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a panoramic macroscopic outlook of rank distributions. We establish a general framework for the analysis of rank distributions, which classifies them into five macroscopic "socioeconomic" states: monarchy, oligarchy-feudalism, criticality, socialism-capitalism, and communism. Oligarchy-feudalism is shown to be characterized by discrete macroscopic rank distributions, and socialism-capitalism is shown to be characterized by continuous macroscopic size distributions. Criticality is a transition state between oligarchy-feudalism and socialism-capitalism, which can manifest allometric scaling with multifractal spectra. Monarchy and communism are extreme forms of oligarchy-feudalism and socialism-capitalism, respectively, in which the intrinsic randomness vanishes. The general framework is applied to three different models of rank distributions—top-down, bottom-up, and global—and unveils each model's macroscopic universality and versatility. The global model yields a macroscopic classification of the generalized Zipf law, an omnipresent form of rank distributions observed across the sciences. An amalgamation of the three models establishes a universal rank-distribution explanation for the macroscopic emergence of a prevalent class of continuous size distributions, ones governed by unimodal densities with both Pareto and inverse-Pareto power-law tails.

  9. Flux dynamics and magnetovoltage measurements in a macroscopic cylindrical hole drilled in BSCCO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yetis, H.; Altinkok, A.; Olutas, M. [Abant Izzet Baysal University, Department of Physics, Turgut Gulez Research Laboratory, 14280 Bolu (Turkey); Kilic, A. [Abant Izzet Baysal University, Department of Physics, Turgut Gulez Research Laboratory, 14280 Bolu (Turkey)], E-mail: kilic_a@ibu.edu.tr; Kilic, K. [Abant Izzet Baysal University, Department of Physics, Turgut Gulez Research Laboratory, 14280 Bolu (Turkey)

    2007-10-01

    Slow transport relaxation measurements (V-t curves) and magnetovoltage measurements (V-H curves) were carried out in a polycrystalline sample of Bi{sub 1.7}Pb{sub 0.3}Sr{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} (BSCCO) with a macroscopic cylindrically drilled hole (CH). The time evolution of quenched state in V-t curves was interpreted in terms of enhancement of the superconducting order parameter and the relaxation of moving entity. Upon cycling of the external magnetic field with different sweep rates, unusual counter clockwise hysteresis effects and asymmetry in V-H curves are observed in BSCCO sample with CH, which can also be correlated to the trapping of the macroscopic flux bundles in CH.

  10. Flux dynamics and magnetovoltage measurements in a macroscopic cylindrical hole drilled in BSCCO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yetis, H.; Altinkok, A.; Olutas, M.; Kilic, A.; Kilic, K.

    2007-01-01

    Slow transport relaxation measurements (V-t curves) and magnetovoltage measurements (V-H curves) were carried out in a polycrystalline sample of Bi 1.7 Pb 0.3 Sr 2 Ca 2 Cu 3 O x (BSCCO) with a macroscopic cylindrically drilled hole (CH). The time evolution of quenched state in V-t curves was interpreted in terms of enhancement of the superconducting order parameter and the relaxation of moving entity. Upon cycling of the external magnetic field with different sweep rates, unusual counter clockwise hysteresis effects and asymmetry in V-H curves are observed in BSCCO sample with CH, which can also be correlated to the trapping of the macroscopic flux bundles in CH

  11. Flux dynamics and magnetovoltage measurements in a macroscopic cylindrical hole drilled in BSCCO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yetiş, H.; Altinkok, A.; Olutaş, M.; Kiliç, A.; Kiliç, K.

    2007-10-01

    Slow transport relaxation measurements (V-t curves) and magnetovoltage measurements (V-H curves) were carried out in a polycrystalline sample of Bi1.7Pb0.3Sr2Ca2Cu3Ox (BSCCO) with a macroscopic cylindrically drilled hole (CH). The time evolution of quenched state in V-t curves was interpreted in terms of enhancement of the superconducting order parameter and the relaxation of moving entity. Upon cycling of the external magnetic field with different sweep rates, unusual counter clockwise hysteresis effects and asymmetry in V-H curves are observed in BSCCO sample with CH, which can also be correlated to the trapping of the macroscopic flux bundles in CH.

  12. Light induced electrical and macroscopic changes in hydrogenated polymorphous silicon solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roca i Cabarrocas P.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We report on light-induced electrical and macroscopic changes in hydrogenated polymorphous silicon (pm-Si:H PIN solar cells. To explain the particular light-soaking behavior of such cells – namely an increase of the open circuit voltage (Voc and a rapid drop of the short circuit current density (Jsc – we correlate these effects to changes in hydrogen incorporation and structural properties in the layers of the cells. Numerous techniques such as current-voltage characteristics, infrared spectroscopy, hydrogen exodiffusion, Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry are used to study the light-induced changes from microscopic to macroscopic scales (up to tens of microns. Such comprehensive use of complementary techniques lead us to suggest that light-soaking produces the diffusion of molecular hydrogen, hydrogen accumulation at p-layer/substrate interface and localized delamination of the interface. Based on these results we propose that light-induced degradation of PIN solar cells has to be addressed from not only as a material issue, but also a device point of view. In particular we bring experimental evidence that localized delamination at the interface between the p-layer and SnO2 substrate by light-induced hydrogen motion causes the rapid drop of Jsc.

  13. Macroscopic (and microscopic massless modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael C. Abbott

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We study certain spinning strings exploring the flat directions of AdS3×S3×S3×S1, the massless sector cousins of su(2 and sl(2 sector spinning strings. We describe these, and their vibrational modes, using the D(2,1;α2 algebraic curve. By exploiting a discrete symmetry of this structure which reverses the direction of motion on the spheres, and alters the masses of the fermionic modes s→κ−s, we find out how to treat the massless fermions which were previously missing from this formalism. We show that folded strings behave as a special case of circular strings, in a sense which includes their mode frequencies, and we are able to recover this fact in the worldsheet formalism. We use these frequencies to calculate one-loop corrections to the energy, with a version of the Beisert–Tseytlin resummation.

  14. Macroscopic transport by synthetic molecular machines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berna, J; Leigh, DA; Lubomska, M; Mendoza, SM; Perez, EM; Rudolf, P; Teobaldi, G; Zerbetto, F

    Nature uses molecular motors and machines in virtually every significant biological process, but demonstrating that simpler artificial structures operating through the same gross mechanisms can be interfaced with - and perform physical tasks in - the macroscopic world represents a significant hurdle

  15. Macroscopic quantum waves in non local theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ventura, I.

    1979-01-01

    By means of an expansion in the density, it is shown that Macroscopic Quantum Waves also apear in non local theories. This result reinforces the conjecture that these waves should exist in liquid 4 He. (Author) [pt

  16. Macroscopic quantum waves in non local theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ventura, I.

    1979-01-01

    By means of an expansion in the density, it is shown that Macroscopic Quantum Waves also appear in non local theories. This result reinforces the conjecture that these waves should exist in liquid 4 He [pt

  17. Analysis of the current–voltage curves and saturation currents in burner-stabilised premixed flames with detailed ion chemistry and transport models

    KAUST Repository

    Belhi, Memdouh; Han, Jie; Casey, Tiernan A.; Chen, Jyh-Yuan; Im, Hong G.; Sarathy, S.  Mani; Bisetti, Fabrizio

    2018-01-01

    Current-voltage, or i–V, curves are used in combustion to characterise the ionic structure of flames. The objective of this paper is to develop a detailed modelling framework for the quantitative prediction of the i–V curves in methane/air flames

  18. Assessments of macroscopicity for quantum optical states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laghaout, Amine; Neergaard-Nielsen, Jonas Schou; Andersen, Ulrik Lund

    2015-01-01

    With the slow but constant progress in the coherent control of quantum systems, it is now possible to create large quantum superpositions. There has therefore been an increased interest in quantifying any claims of macroscopicity. We attempt here to motivate three criteria which we believe should...... enter in the assessment of macroscopic quantumness: The number of quantum fluctuation photons, the purity of the states, and the ease with which the branches making up the state can be distinguished. © 2014....

  19. Nuclear fission as a macroscopic quantum tunneling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takigawa, N.

    1995-01-01

    We discuss nuclear fission from the point of view of a macroscopic quantum tunneling, one of whose major interests is to study the effects of environments on the tunneling rate of a macroscopic variable. We show that a vibrational excitation of the fissioning nucleus significantly enhances the fission rate. We show this effect by two different methods. The one is to treat the vibrational excitation as an environmental degree of freedom, the other treats the fission as a two dimensional quantum tunneling. (author)

  20. Curvature Entropy for Curved Profile Generation

    OpenAIRE

    Ujiie, Yoshiki; Kato, Takeo; Sato, Koichiro; Matsuoka, Yoshiyuki

    2012-01-01

    In a curved surface design, the overall shape features that emerge from combinations of shape elements are important. However, controlling the features of the overall shape in curved profiles is difficult using conventional microscopic shape information such as dimension. Herein two types of macroscopic shape information, curvature entropy and quadrature curvature entropy, quantitatively represent the features of the overall shape. The curvature entropy is calculated by the curvature distribu...

  1. The effects of fabrication temperature on current-voltage characteristics and energy efficiencies of quantum dot sensitized ZnOH-GO hybrid solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, S. M. Z.; Gayen, Taposh; Tint, Naing; Alfano, Robert; Shi, Lingyan; Seredych, Mykola; Bandosz, Teresa J.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of fabrication temperature are investigated on the performance of CdSe quantum dot (QD)-sensitized hybrid solar cells of the composite material of zinc (hydr)oxide (ZnOH-GO)with 2 wt. % graphite oxide. The current-voltage (I-V) and photo-current measurements show that higher fabrication temperatures yield greater photovoltaic power conversion efficiencies that essentially indicate more efficient solar cells. Two Photon Fluorescence images show the effects of temperature on the internal morphologies of the solar devices based on such materials. The CdSe-QD sensitized ZnOH-GO hybrid solar cells fabricated at 450 °C showing conversion of ∼10.60% under a tungsten lamp (12.1 mW/cm 2 ) are reported here, while using potassium iodide as an electrolyte. The output photocurrent, I (μA) with input power, P (mW/cm 2 ) is found to be superlinear, showing a relation of I = P n , where n = 1.4.

  2. Temperature dependent current-voltage characteristics of Au/n-Si Schottky barrier diodes and the effect of transition metal oxides as an interface layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahato, Somnath; Puigdollers, Joaquim

    2018-02-01

    Temperature dependent current-voltage (I‒V) characteristics of Au/n-type silicon (n-Si) Schottky barrier diodes have been investigated. Three transition metal oxides (TMO) are used as an interface layer between gold and silicon. The basic Schottky diode parameters such as ideality factor (n), barrier height (ϕb 0) and series resistance (Rs) are calculated and successfully explained by the thermionic emission (TE) theory. It has been found that ideality factor decreased and barrier height increased with increased of temperature. The conventional Richardson plot of ln(I0/T2) vs. 1000/T is determined the activation energy (Ea) and Richardson constant (A*). Whereas value of 'A*' is much smaller than the known theoretical value of n-type Si. The temperature dependent I-V characteristics obtained the mean value of barrier height (ϕb 0 bar) and standard deviation (σs) from the linear plot of ϕap vs. 1000/T. From the modified Richardson plot of ln(I0/T2) ˗ (qσ)2/2(kT)2 vs. 1000/T gives Richardson constant and homogeneous barrier height of Schottky diodes. Main observation in this present work is the barrier height and ideality factor shows a considerable change but the series resistance value exhibits negligible change due to TMO as an interface layer.

  3. Evaluation of the Electronic Structure of Single-Molecule Junctions Based on Current-Voltage and Thermopower Measurements: Application to C60 Single-Molecule Junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komoto, Yuki; Isshiki, Yuji; Fujii, Shintaro; Nishino, Tomoaki; Kiguchi, Manabu

    2017-02-16

    The electronic structure of molecular junctions has a significant impact on their transport properties. Despite the decisive role of the electronic structure, a complete characterization of the electronic structure remains a challenge. This is because there is no straightforward way of measuring electron spectroscopy for an individual molecule trapped in a nanoscale gap between two metal electrodes. Herein, a comprehensive approach to obtain a detailed description of the electronic structure in single-molecule junctions based on the analysis of current-voltage (I-V) and thermoelectric characteristics is described. It is shown that the electronic structure of the prototypical C 60 single-molecule junction can be resolved by analyzing complementary results of the I-V and thermoelectric measurement. This combined approach confirmed that the C 60 single-molecule junction was highly conductive with molecular electronic conductances of 0.033 and 0.003 G 0 and a molecular Seebeck coefficient of -12 μV K -1 . In addition, we revealed that charge transport was mediated by a LUMO whose energy level was located 0.5≈0.6 eV above the Fermi level of the Au electrode. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Defect States in InP/InGaAs/InP Heterostructures by Current-Voltage Characteristics and Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Thi Kim Oanh; Lee, Kyoung Su; Lee, Sang Jun; Kim, Eun Kyu

    2018-09-01

    We studied defect states in In0.53Ga0.47As/InP heterojunctions with interface control by group V atoms during metalorganic chemical vapor (MOCVD) deposition. From deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) measurements, two defects with activation energies of 0.28 eV (E1) and 0.15 eV (E2) below the conduction band edge, were observed. The defect density of E1 for In0.53Ga0.47As/InP heterojunctions with an addition of As and P atoms was about 1.5 times higher than that of the heterojunction added P atom only. From the temperature dependence of current- voltage characteristics, the thermal activation energies of In0.53Ga0.47As/InP of heterojunctions were estimated to be 0.27 and 0.25 eV, respectively. It appeared that the reverse light current for In0.53Ga0.47As/InP heterojunction added P atom increased only by illumination of a 940 nm-LED light source. These results imply that only the P addition at the interface can enhance the quality of InGaAs/InP heterojunction.

  5. High-temperature performance of MoS{sub 2} thin-film transistors: Direct current and pulse current-voltage characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, C.; Samnakay, R.; Balandin, A. A., E-mail: balandin@ee.ucr.edu [Nano-Device Laboratory (NDL), Department of Electrical Engineering, Bourns College of Engineering, University of California—Riverside, Riverside, California 92521 (United States); Phonon Optimized Engineered Materials (POEM) Center, Materials Science and Engineering Program, University of California—Riverside, Riverside, California 92521 (United States); Rumyantsev, S. L. [Department of Electrical, Computer, and Systems Engineering, Center for Integrated Electronics, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States); Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, St. Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation); Shur, M. S. [Department of Electrical, Computer, and Systems Engineering, Center for Integrated Electronics, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States)

    2015-02-14

    We report on fabrication of MoS{sub 2} thin-film transistors (TFTs) and experimental investigations of their high-temperature current-voltage characteristics. The measurements show that MoS{sub 2} devices remain functional to temperatures of at least as high as 500 K. The temperature increase results in decreased threshold voltage and mobility. The comparison of the direct current (DC) and pulse measurements shows that the direct current sub-linear and super-linear output characteristics of MoS{sub 2} thin-films devices result from the Joule heating and the interplay of the threshold voltage and mobility temperature dependences. At temperatures above 450 K, a kink in the drain current occurs at zero gate voltage irrespective of the threshold voltage value. This intriguing phenomenon, referred to as a “memory step,” was attributed to the slow relaxation processes in thin films similar to those in graphene and electron glasses. The fabricated MoS{sub 2} thin-film transistors demonstrated stable operation after two months of aging. The obtained results suggest new applications for MoS{sub 2} thin-film transistors in extreme-temperature electronics and sensors.

  6. Ozone and dinitrogen monoxide production in atmospheric pressure air dielectric barrier discharge plasma effluent generated by nanosecond pulse superimposed alternating current voltage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takashima, Keisuke; Kaneko, Toshiro

    2017-06-01

    The effects of nanosecond pulse superposition to alternating current voltage (NS + AC) on the generation of an air dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma and reactive species are experimentally studied, along with measurements of ozone (O3) and dinitrogen monoxide (N2O) in the exhausted gas through the air DBD plasma (air plasma effluent). The charge-voltage cycle measurement indicates that the role of nanosecond pulse superposition is to induce electrical charge transport and excess charge accumulation on the dielectric surface following the nanosecond pulses. The densities of O3 and N2O in NS + AC DBD are found to be significantly increased in the plasma effluent, compared to the sum of those densities generated in NS DBD and AC DBD operated individually. The production of O3 and N2O is modulated significantly by the phase in which the nanosecond pulse is superimposed. The density increase and modulation effects by the nanosecond pulse are found to correspond with the electrical charge transport and the excess electrical charge accumulation induced by the nanosecond pulse. It is suggested that the electrical charge transport by the nanosecond pulse might result in the enhancement of the nanosecond pulse current, which may lead to more efficient molecular dissociation, and the excess electrical charge accumulation induced by the nanosecond pulse increases the discharge coupling power which would enhance molecular dissociation.

  7. The role of bulk and interface states on performance of a-Si: H p-i-n solar cells using reverse current-voltage technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmood, S A; Kabir, M Z; Murthy, R V R; Dutta, V

    2009-01-01

    The defect state densities in the bulk of the i-layer and at the p/i interface have been studied in hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si : H) solar cells using reverse current-voltage (J-V) measurements. In this work the cells have been soaked with blue and red lights prior to measurements. The voltage-dependent reverse current has been analysed on the basis of thermal generation of the carriers from midgap states in the i-layer and the carrier injection through the p/i interface. Based on the reverse current behaviour, it has been analysed that at lower reverse bias (reverse voltage, V r r ∼ 25 V) the defect states at the p/i interface are contributing to the reverse currents. The applied reverse bias annealing (RBA) treatment on these cells shows more significant annihilation of defect states at the p/i interface as compared with the bulk of the i-layer. An analytical model is developed to explain the observed behaviour. There is good agreement between the theory and the experimental observations. The fitted defect state densities are 9.1 x 10 15 cm -3 and 8 x 10 18 cm -3 in the bulk of the i-layer and near the p/i interface, respectively. These values decrease to 2.5 x 10 15 cm -3 and 6 x 10 17 cm -3 , respectively, in the samples annealed under reverse bias at 2 V.

  8. Analysis of current-voltage characteristics of Au/pentacene/fluorine polymer/indium zinc oxide diodes by electric-field-induced optical second-harmonic generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishi, Shohei; Taguchi, Dai; Manaka, Takaaki; Iwamoto, Mitsumasa, E-mail: iwamoto@pe.titech.ac.jp [Department of Physical Electronics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 S3-33, O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan)

    2015-06-28

    By using electric-field-induced optical second-harmonic generation measurement coupled with the conventional current-voltage (I-V) measurement, we studied the carrier transport of organic double-layer diodes with a Au/pentacene/fluorine polymer (FP)/indium zinc oxide (IZO) structure. The rectifying I-V characteristics were converted into the I-E characteristics of the FP and pentacene layers. Results suggest a model in which Schottky-type electron injection from the IZO electrode to the FP layer governs the forward electrical conduction (V > 0), where the space charge electric field produced in the FP layer by accumulated holes at the pentacene/FP interface makes a significant contribution. On the other hand, Schottky-type injection by accumulated interface electrons from the pentacene layer to the FP layer governs the backward electrical conduction (V < 0). The electroluminescence generated from the pentacene layer in the region V > 0 verifies the electron transport across the FP layer, and supports the above suggested model.

  9. Analysis of current-voltage characteristics of Au/pentacene/fluorine polymer/indium zinc oxide diodes by electric-field-induced optical second-harmonic generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishi, Shohei; Taguchi, Dai; Manaka, Takaaki; Iwamoto, Mitsumasa

    2015-01-01

    By using electric-field-induced optical second-harmonic generation measurement coupled with the conventional current-voltage (I-V) measurement, we studied the carrier transport of organic double-layer diodes with a Au/pentacene/fluorine polymer (FP)/indium zinc oxide (IZO) structure. The rectifying I-V characteristics were converted into the I-E characteristics of the FP and pentacene layers. Results suggest a model in which Schottky-type electron injection from the IZO electrode to the FP layer governs the forward electrical conduction (V > 0), where the space charge electric field produced in the FP layer by accumulated holes at the pentacene/FP interface makes a significant contribution. On the other hand, Schottky-type injection by accumulated interface electrons from the pentacene layer to the FP layer governs the backward electrical conduction (V < 0). The electroluminescence generated from the pentacene layer in the region V > 0 verifies the electron transport across the FP layer, and supports the above suggested model

  10. Low-temperature current-voltage characteristics of MIS Cu/n-GaAs and inhomogeneous Cu/n-GaAs Schottky diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biber, M

    2003-01-01

    The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of metal-insulating layer-semiconductor Cu/n-GaAs and inhomogeneous Cu/n-GaAs Schottky barrier diodes were determined in the temperature range 80-300 K. The evaluation of the experimental I-V data reveals a nonlinear increase of the zero-bias barrier height (qPHI{sub 0}) for the inhomogeneous Cu/n-GaAs Schottky barrier diodes and a linear increase of the zero-bias barrier height (qPHI{sub 0}) for Cu/n-GaAs Schottky barrier diodes with an interfacial layer. The ideality factor n decreases with increasing temperature for all diodes. Furthermore, the changes in PHI{sub 0} and n become quite significant below 150 K and the plot of ln(I{sub 0}/T{sup 2}) versus 1/T exhibits a non-linearity below 180 K for the inhomogeneous barrier diodes. Such behavior is attributed to barrier inhomogeneities by assuming a Gaussian distribution of barrier heights at the interface. The value of the Richardson constant was found to be 5.033 A/cm{sup 2} K{sup 2}, which is close to the theoretical value of 8.16 A/cm{sup 2} K{sup 2} used for the determination of the zero-bias barrier height.

  11. Macroscopic averages in Qed in material media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutra, S.M.; Furuya, K.

    1997-01-01

    The starting point of macroscopic theories of quantum electrodynamics in material media is usually the classical macroscopic Maxwell equations that are then quantized. Such approach however, is based on the assumption that a macroscopic description is attainable, i.e., it assumes that we can describe the effect of the atoms of material on the field only in terms of a dielectric constant in the regime where the field has to be treated quantum mechanically. The problem we address is whether this assumption is valid at all and if so, under what conditions. We have chosen a simple model, which allows us to start from first principles and determine the validity of these approximations, without simply taking them for granted as in previous papers

  12. Conversion of light into macroscopic helical motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iamsaard, Supitchaya; Aßhoff, Sarah J.; Matt, Benjamin; Kudernac, Tibor; Cornelissen, Jeroen J. L. M.; Fletcher, Stephen P.; Katsonis, Nathalie

    2014-03-01

    A key goal of nanotechnology is the development of artificial machines capable of converting molecular movement into macroscopic work. Although conversion of light into shape changes has been reported and compared to artificial muscles, real applications require work against an external load. Here, we describe the design, synthesis and operation of spring-like materials capable of converting light energy into mechanical work at the macroscopic scale. These versatile materials consist of molecular switches embedded in liquid-crystalline polymer springs. In these springs, molecular movement is converted and amplified into controlled and reversible twisting motions. The springs display complex motion, which includes winding, unwinding and helix inversion, as dictated by their initial shape. Importantly, they can produce work by moving a macroscopic object and mimicking mechanical movements, such as those used by plant tendrils to help the plant access sunlight. These functional materials have potential applications in micromechanical systems, soft robotics and artificial muscles.

  13. Nonequilibrium work relation in a macroscopic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sughiyama, Yuki; Ohzeki, Masayuki

    2013-01-01

    We reconsider a well-known relationship between the fluctuation theorem and the second law of thermodynamics by evaluating stochastic evolution of the density field (probability measure valued process). In order to establish a bridge between microscopic and macroscopic behaviors, we must take the thermodynamic limit of a stochastic dynamical system following the standard procedure in statistical mechanics. The thermodynamic path characterizing a dynamical behavior in the macroscopic scale can be formulated as an infimum of the action functional for the stochastic evolution of the density field. In our formulation, the second law of thermodynamics can be derived only by symmetry of the action functional without recourse to the Jarzynski equality. Our formulation leads to a nontrivial nonequilibrium work relation for metastable (quasi-stationary) states, which are peculiar in the macroscopic system. We propose a prescription for computing the free energy for metastable states based on the resultant work relation. (paper)

  14. Analysis of the current-voltage characteristics of polymer-based organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs deposited by spin coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Vera

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Polymer-based organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs with the structure ITO / PEDOT:PSS / MDMO-PPV / Metal were prepared by spincoating. It is known that electroluminescence of these devices is strongly dependent on the material used as cathode and on the depositionparameters of the polymer electroluminescent layer MDMO-PPV. Objective. In this work the effect of i the frequency of the spin coater(1000-8000 rpm, ii the concentration of the MDMO-PPV: Toluene solution, and iii the material used as cathode (Aluminium or Silveron the electrical response of the devices, was evaluated through current-voltage (I-V measurements. Materials and methods. PEDOT:PPSand MDMO-PPV organic layers were deposited by spin coating on ITO substrates, and the OLED structure was completed with cathodesof aluminium and silver. The electric response of the devices was evaluated based on the I-V characteristics. Results. Diodes prepared withthinner organic films allow higher currents at lower voltages; this can be achieved either by increasing the frequency of the spin coater orby using concentrations of MDMO-PPV: Toluene lower than 2% weight. A fit of the experimental data showed that the diodes have twocontributions to the current. The first one is attributed to parasitic currents between anode and cathode, and the other one is a parallel currentthrough the organic layer, in which the carrier injection mechanism is mediated by thermionic emission. Conclusions. The results of thefitting and the energy level alignment through the whole structure show that PPV-based OLEDs are unipolar devices, with current mainlyattributed to hole transport.

  15. A Review on Macroscopic Pedestrian Flow Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kormanová

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews several various approaches to macroscopic pedestrian modelling. It describes hydrodynamic models based on similarity of pedestrian flow with fluids and gases; first-order flow models that use fundamental diagrams and conservation equation; and a model similar to LWR vehicular traffic model, which allows non-classical shocks. At the end of the paper there is stated a comparison of described models, intended to find appropriate macroscopic model to eventually be a part of a hybrid model. The future work of the author is outlined.

  16. Macroscopic effects in attosecond pulse generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruchon, T; Varju, K; Mansten, E; Swoboda, M; L'Huillier, A; Hauri, C P; Lopez-Martens, R

    2008-01-01

    We examine how the generation and propagation of high-order harmonics in a partly ionized gas medium affect their strength and synchronization. The temporal properties of the resulting attosecond pulses generated in long gas targets can be significantly influenced by macroscopic effects, in particular by the intensity in the medium and the degree of ionization which control the dispersion. Under some conditions, the use of gas targets longer than the absorption length can lead to the generation of compressed attosecond pulses. We show these macroscopic effects experimentally, using a 6 mm-long argon-filled gas cell as the generating medium

  17. Macroscopic effects in attosecond pulse generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruchon, T; Varju, K; Mansten, E; Swoboda, M; L' Huillier, A [Department of Physics, Lund University, PO Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Hauri, C P; Lopez-Martens, R [Laboratoire d' Optique Appliquee, Ecole Nationale Superieure des Techniques Avancees (ENSTA)-Ecole Polytechnique CNRS UMR 7639, 91761 Palaiseau (France)], E-mail: anne.lhuillier@fysik.lth.se

    2008-02-15

    We examine how the generation and propagation of high-order harmonics in a partly ionized gas medium affect their strength and synchronization. The temporal properties of the resulting attosecond pulses generated in long gas targets can be significantly influenced by macroscopic effects, in particular by the intensity in the medium and the degree of ionization which control the dispersion. Under some conditions, the use of gas targets longer than the absorption length can lead to the generation of compressed attosecond pulses. We show these macroscopic effects experimentally, using a 6 mm-long argon-filled gas cell as the generating medium.

  18. Macroscopic Theory for Evolving Biological Systems Akin to Thermodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Kunihiko; Furusawa, Chikara

    2018-05-20

    We present a macroscopic theory to characterize the plasticity, robustness, and evolvability of biological responses and their fluctuations. First, linear approximation in intracellular reaction dynamics is used to demonstrate proportional changes in the expression of all cellular components in response to a given environmental stress, with the proportion coefficient determined by the change in growth rate as a consequence of the steady growth of cells. We further demonstrate that this relationship is supported through adaptation experiments of bacteria, perhaps too well as this proportionality is held even across cultures of different types of conditions. On the basis of simulations of cell models, we further show that this global proportionality is a consequence of evolution in which expression changes in response to environmental or genetic perturbations are constrained along a unique one-dimensional curve, which is a result of evolutionary robustness. It then follows that the expression changes induced by environmental changes are proportionally reduced across different components of a cell by evolution, which is akin to the Le Chatelier thermodynamics principle. Finally, with the aid of a fluctuation-response relationship, this proportionality is shown to hold between fluctuations caused by genetic changes and those caused by noise. Overall, these results and support from the theoretical and experimental literature suggest a formulation of cellular systems akin to thermodynamics, in which a macroscopic potential is given by the growth rate (or fitness) represented as a function of environmental and evolutionary changes.

  19. Macroscopic optical response and photonic bands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pérez-Huerta, J S; Luis Mochán, W; Ortiz, Guillermo P; Mendoza, Bernardo S

    2013-01-01

    We develop a formalism for the calculation of the macroscopic dielectric response of composite systems made of particles of one material embedded periodically within a matrix of another material, each of which is characterized by a well-defined dielectric function. The nature of these dielectric functions is arbitrary, and could correspond to dielectric or conducting, transparent or opaque, absorptive and dispersive materials. The geometry of the particles and the Bravais lattice of the composite are also arbitrary. Our formalism goes beyond the long-wavelength approximation as it fully incorporates retardation effects. We test our formalism through the study of the propagation of electromagnetic waves in two-dimensional photonic crystals made of periodic arrays of cylindrical holes in a dispersionless dielectric host. Our macroscopic theory yields a spatially dispersive macroscopic response which allows the calculation of the full photonic band structure of the system, as well as the characterization of its normal modes, upon substitution into the macroscopic field equations. We can also account approximately for the spatial dispersion through a local magnetic permeability and analyze the resulting dispersion relation, obtaining a region of left handedness. (paper)

  20. Berkeley Experiments on Superfluid Macroscopic Quantum Effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Packard, Richard

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides a brief history of the evolution of the Berkeley experiments on macroscopic quantum effects in superfluid helium. The narrative follows the evolution of the experiments proceeding from the detection of single vortex lines to vortex photography to quantized circulation in 3He to Josephson effects and superfluid gyroscopes in both 4He and 3He

  1. Macroscopic sizes of field of superrelativistic charges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strel'tsov, V.N.

    1995-01-01

    Based on the equation of Lienard-Wiechert equipotentials, it is shown that the field of superrelativistic charges reaches macroscopic sizes (e.g., R || = 2 m at E e = 50 GeV). This phenomenon serves an initial cause of the known considerable growth of formation length at high energies. 3 refs., 1 tab

  2. On quantum mechanics for macroscopic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primas, H.

    1992-01-01

    The parable of Schroedinger's cat may lead to several up-to date questions: how to treat open systems in quantum theory, how to treat thermodynamically irreversible processes in the quantum mechanics framework, how to explain, following the quantum theory, the existence, phenomenologically evident, of classical observables, what implies the predicted existence by the quantum theory of non localized macroscopic material object ?

  3. Macroscopic and non-linear quantum games

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aerts, D.; D'Hooghe, A.; Posiewnik, A.; Pykacz, J.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: We consider two models of quantum games. The first one is Marinatto and Weber's 'restricted' quantum game in which only the identity and the spin-flip operators are used. We show that this quantum game allows macroscopic mechanistic realization with the use of a version of the 'macroscopic quantum machine' described by Aerts already in 1980s. In the second model we use non-linear quantum state transformations which operate on points of spin-1/2 on the Bloch sphere and which can be used to distinguish optimally between two non-orthogonal states. We show that efficiency of these non-linear strategies out-perform any linear ones. Some hints on the possible theory of non-linear quantum games are given. (author)

  4. Bimodality in macroscopic dynamics of nuclear fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastrukov, S.I.; Salamatin, V.S.; Strteltsova, O.I.; Molodtsova, I.V.; Podgainy, D.V.; )

    2000-01-01

    The elastodynamic collective model of nuclear fission is outlined whose underlying idea is that the stiff structure of nuclear shells imparts to nucleus properties typical of a small piece of an elastic solid. Emphasis is placed on the macroscopic dynamics of nuclear deformations resulting in fission by two energetically different modes. The low-energy S-mode is the fission due to disruption of elongated quadrupole spheroidal shape. The characteristic features of the high-energy T-mode of division by means of torsional shear deformations is the compact scission configuration. Analytic and numerical estimates for the macroscopic fission-barrier heights are presented, followed by discussion of fingerprints of the above dynamical bimodality in the available data [ru

  5. Macroscopic Quantum Resonators (MAQRO): 2015 update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaltenbaek, Rainer; Aspelmeyer, Markus; Kiesel, Nikolai; Barker, Peter F.; Bose, Sougato; Bassi, Angelo; Bateman, James; Bongs, Kai; Cruise, Adrian Michael; Braxmaier, Claus; Brukner, Caslav; Christophe, Bruno; Rodrigues, Manuel; Chwalla, Michael; Johann, Ulrich; Cohadon, Pierre-Francois; Heidmann, Antoine; Lambrecht, Astrid; Reynaud, Serge; Curceanu, Catalina; Dholakia, Kishan; Mazilu, Michael; Diosi, Lajos; Doeringshoff, Klaus; Peters, Achim; Ertmer, Wolfgang; Rasel, Ernst M.; Gieseler, Jan; Novotny, Lukas; Rondin, Loic; Guerlebeck, Norman; Herrmann, Sven; Laemmerzahl, Claus; Hechenblaikner, Gerald; Hossenfelder, Sabine; Kim, Myungshik; Milburn, Gerard J.; Mueller, Holger; Paternostro, Mauro; Pikovski, Igor; Pilan Zanoni, Andre; Riedel, Charles Jess; Roura, Albert; Schleich, Wolfgang P.; Schmiedmayer, Joerg; Schuldt, Thilo; Schwab, Keith C.; Tajmar, Martin; Tino, Guglielmo M.; Ulbricht, Hendrik; Ursin, Rupert; Vedral, Vlatko

    2016-01-01

    Do the laws of quantum physics still hold for macroscopic objects - this is at the heart of Schroedinger's cat paradox - or do gravitation or yet unknown effects set a limit for massive particles? What is the fundamental relation between quantum physics and gravity? Ground-based experiments addressing these questions may soon face limitations due to limited free-fall times and the quality of vacuum and microgravity. The proposed mission Macroscopic Quantum Resonators (MAQRO) may overcome these limitations and allow addressing such fundamental questions. MAQRO harnesses recent developments in quantum optomechanics, high-mass matter-wave interferometry as well as state-of-the-art space technology to push macroscopic quantum experiments towards their ultimate performance limits and to open new horizons for applying quantum technology in space. The main scientific goal is to probe the vastly unexplored 'quantum-classical' transition for increasingly massive objects, testing the predictions of quantum theory for objects in a size and mass regime unachievable in ground-based experiments. The hardware will largely be based on available space technology. Here, we present the MAQRO proposal submitted in response to the 4th Cosmic Vision call for a medium-sized mission (M4) in 2014 of the European Space Agency (ESA) with a possible launch in 2025, and we review the progress with respect to the original MAQRO proposal for the 3rd Cosmic Vision call for a medium-sized mission (M3) in 2010. In particular, the updated proposal overcomes several critical issues of the original proposal by relying on established experimental techniques from high-mass matter-wave interferometry and by introducing novel ideas for particle loading and manipulation. Moreover, the mission design was improved to better fulfill the stringent environmental requirements for macroscopic quantum experiments. (orig.)

  6. Macroscopic Quantum Resonators (MAQRO): 2015 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaltenbaek, Rainer [University of Vienna, Vienna Center for Quantum Science and Technology, Vienna (Austria); Aspelmeyer, Markus; Kiesel, Nikolai [University of Vienna, Vienna Center for Quantum Science and Technology, Vienna (Austria); Barker, Peter F.; Bose, Sougato [University College London, Department of Physics and Astronomy, London (United Kingdom); Bassi, Angelo [University of Trieste, Department of Physics, Trieste (Italy); INFN - Trieste Section, Trieste (Italy); Bateman, James [University of Swansea, Department of Physics, College of Science, Swansea (United Kingdom); Bongs, Kai; Cruise, Adrian Michael [University of Birmingham, School of Physics and Astronomy, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Braxmaier, Claus [University of Bremen, Center of Applied Space Technology and Micro Gravity (ZARM), Bremen (Germany); Institute of Space Systems, German Aerospace Center (DLR), Bremen (Germany); Brukner, Caslav [University of Vienna, Vienna Center for Quantum Science and Technology, Vienna (Austria); Austrian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Quantum Optics and Quantum Information (IQOQI), Vienna (Austria); Christophe, Bruno; Rodrigues, Manuel [The French Aerospace Lab, ONERA, Chatillon (France); Chwalla, Michael; Johann, Ulrich [Airbus Defence and Space GmbH, Immenstaad (Germany); Cohadon, Pierre-Francois; Heidmann, Antoine; Lambrecht, Astrid; Reynaud, Serge [ENS-PSL Research University, Laboratoire Kastler Brossel, UPMC-Sorbonne Universites, CNRS, College de France, Paris (France); Curceanu, Catalina [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); Dholakia, Kishan; Mazilu, Michael [University of St. Andrews, School of Physics and Astronomy, St. Andrews (United Kingdom); Diosi, Lajos [Wigner Research Center for Physics, P.O. Box 49, Budapest (Hungary); Doeringshoff, Klaus; Peters, Achim [Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Institut fuer Physik, Berlin (Germany); Ertmer, Wolfgang; Rasel, Ernst M. [Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Hannover (Germany); Gieseler, Jan; Novotny, Lukas; Rondin, Loic [ETH Zuerich, Photonics Laboratory, Zuerich (Switzerland); Guerlebeck, Norman; Herrmann, Sven; Laemmerzahl, Claus [University of Bremen, Center of Applied Space Technology and Micro Gravity (ZARM), Bremen (Germany); Hechenblaikner, Gerald [Airbus Defence and Space GmbH, Immenstaad (Germany); European Southern Observatory (ESO), Garching bei Muenchen (Germany); Hossenfelder, Sabine [KTH Royal Institute of Technology and Stockholm University, Nordita, Stockholm (Sweden); Kim, Myungshik [Imperial College London, QOLS, Blackett Laboratory, London (United Kingdom); Milburn, Gerard J. [University of Queensland, ARC Centre for Engineered Quantum Systems, Brisbane (Australia); Mueller, Holger [University of California, Department of Physics, Berkeley, CA (United States); Paternostro, Mauro [Queen' s University, Centre for Theoretical Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics, School of Mathematics and Physics, Belfast (United Kingdom); Pikovski, Igor [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, ITAMP, Cambridge, MA (United States); Pilan Zanoni, Andre [Airbus Defence and Space GmbH, Immenstaad (Germany); CERN - European Organization for Nuclear Research, EN-STI-TCD, Geneva (Switzerland); Riedel, Charles Jess [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, ON (Canada); Roura, Albert [Universitaet Ulm, Institut fuer Quantenphysik, Ulm (Germany); Schleich, Wolfgang P. [Universitaet Ulm, Institut fuer Quantenphysik, Ulm (Germany); Texas A and M University Institute for Advanced Study (TIAS), Institute for Quantum Science and Engineering (IQSE), and Department of Physics and Astronomy, College Station, TX (United States); Schmiedmayer, Joerg [Vienna University of Technology, Vienna Center for Quantum Science and Technology, Institute of Atomic and Subatomic Physics, Vienna (Austria); Schuldt, Thilo [Institute of Space Systems, German Aerospace Center (DLR), Bremen (Germany); Schwab, Keith C. [California Institute of Technology, Applied Physics, Pasadena, CA (United States); Tajmar, Martin [Technische Universitaet Dresden, Institut fuer Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, Dresden (Germany); Tino, Guglielmo M. [Universita di Firenze, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia and LENS, INFN, Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Ulbricht, Hendrik [University of Southampton, Physics and Astronomy, Southampton (United Kingdom); Ursin, Rupert [Austrian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Quantum Optics and Quantum Information (IQOQI), Vienna (Austria); Vedral, Vlatko [University of Oxford, Atomic and Laser Physics, Clarendon Laboratory, Oxford (United Kingdom); National University of Singapore, Center for Quantum Technologies, Singapore (SG)

    2016-12-15

    Do the laws of quantum physics still hold for macroscopic objects - this is at the heart of Schroedinger's cat paradox - or do gravitation or yet unknown effects set a limit for massive particles? What is the fundamental relation between quantum physics and gravity? Ground-based experiments addressing these questions may soon face limitations due to limited free-fall times and the quality of vacuum and microgravity. The proposed mission Macroscopic Quantum Resonators (MAQRO) may overcome these limitations and allow addressing such fundamental questions. MAQRO harnesses recent developments in quantum optomechanics, high-mass matter-wave interferometry as well as state-of-the-art space technology to push macroscopic quantum experiments towards their ultimate performance limits and to open new horizons for applying quantum technology in space. The main scientific goal is to probe the vastly unexplored 'quantum-classical' transition for increasingly massive objects, testing the predictions of quantum theory for objects in a size and mass regime unachievable in ground-based experiments. The hardware will largely be based on available space technology. Here, we present the MAQRO proposal submitted in response to the 4th Cosmic Vision call for a medium-sized mission (M4) in 2014 of the European Space Agency (ESA) with a possible launch in 2025, and we review the progress with respect to the original MAQRO proposal for the 3rd Cosmic Vision call for a medium-sized mission (M3) in 2010. In particular, the updated proposal overcomes several critical issues of the original proposal by relying on established experimental techniques from high-mass matter-wave interferometry and by introducing novel ideas for particle loading and manipulation. Moreover, the mission design was improved to better fulfill the stringent environmental requirements for macroscopic quantum experiments. (orig.)

  7. Special relativity - the foundation of macroscopic physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, W.G.

    1978-01-01

    This book aims to show that an understanding of the basic laws of macroscopic systems can be gained more easily within relativistic physics than within Newtonian physics. The unity of dynamics, thermodynamics and electromagnetism under the umbrella of special relativity is examined under chapter headings entitled: the physics of space and time, affine spaces in mathematics and physics, foundations of dynamics, relativistic simple fluids, and, electrodynamics of polarizable fluids. (U.K.)

  8. Testing quantum behaviour at the macroscopic level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghirardi, G.C.

    1994-07-01

    We reconsider recent proposals to test macro realism versus quantum mechanics in experiments involving noninvasive measurement processes on a Squid. In spite of the fact that we are able to prove that the proposed experiments do not represent a test of macro realism but simply of macroscopic quantum coherence we call attention to their extreme conceptual relevance. We also discuss some recent criticisms which have been raised against the considered proposal and we show that they are not relevant. (author). 12 refs

  9. Microscopic and macroscopic models for pedestrian crowds

    OpenAIRE

    Makmul, Juntima

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with microscopic and macroscopic models for pedes- trian crowds. In the first chapter, we consider pedestrians exit choices and model human behaviour in an evacuation process. Two microscopic models, discrete and continuous, are studied in this chapter. The former is a cellular automaton model and the latter is a social force model. Different numerical test cases are investigated and their results are compared. In chapter 2, a hierarchy of models for...

  10. Macroscopic acoustoelectric charge transport in graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandhu, L.; Lawton, L. M.; Nash, G. R.

    2013-09-01

    We demonstrate macroscopic acoustoelectric transport in graphene, transferred onto piezoelectric lithium niobate substrates, between electrodes up to 500 μm apart. Using double finger interdigital transducers we have characterised the acoustoelectric current as a function of both surface acoustic wave intensity and frequency. The results are consistent with a relatively simple classical relaxation model, in which the acoustoelectric current is proportional to both the surface acoustic wave intensity and the attenuation of the wave caused by the charge transport.

  11. Thermomechanical macroscopic model of shape memory alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkov, A.E.; Sakharov, V.Yu.

    2003-01-01

    The phenomenological macroscopic model of the mechanical behaviour of the titanium nickelide-type shape memory alloys is proposed. The model contains as a parameter the average phase shear deformation accompanying the martensite formation. It makes i possible to describe correctly a number of functional properties of the shape memory alloys, in particular, the pseudoelasticity ferroplasticity, plasticity transformation and shape memory effects in the stressed and unstressed samples [ru

  12. Macroscopic behaviour of a charged Boltzmann gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banyai, L.; Gartner, P.; Protopopescu, V.

    1980-08-01

    We consider a classical charged gas (with self-consistent Coulomb interaction) described by a solvable linearized Boltzman equation with thermaljzation on unifopmly distributed scatterers. It is shown that jf one scales the time t, the reciprocal space coordinate k vector and the Debye length l as lambda 2 t, k vector/lambda, lambda l respectively, in the lambda→infinity limit the charge density is equal to the solution of the corresponding diffusion-conduction (macroscopic) equation. (author)

  13. Active Polar Two-Fluid Macroscopic Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleiner, Harald; Svensek, Daniel; Brand, Helmut R.

    2014-03-01

    We study the dynamics of systems with a polar dynamic preferred direction. Examples include the pattern-forming growth of bacteria (in a solvent, shoals of fish (moving in water currents), flocks of birds and migrating insects (flying in windy air). Because the preferred direction only exists dynamically, but not statically, the macroscopic variable of choice is the macroscopic velocity associated with the motion of the active units. We derive the macroscopic equations for such a system and discuss novel static, reversible and irreversible cross-couplings connected to this second velocity. We find a normal mode structure quite different compared to the static descriptions, as well as linear couplings between (active) flow and e.g. densities and concentrations due to the genuine two-fluid transport derivatives. On the other hand, we get, quite similar to the static case, a direct linear relation between the stress tensor and the structure tensor. This prominent ``active'' term is responsible for many active effects, meaning that our approach can describe those effects as well. In addition, we also deal with explicitly chiral systems, which are important for many active systems. In particular, we find an active flow-induced heat current specific for the dynamic chiral polar order.

  14. Macroscopic nonclassical-state preparation via postselection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenegro, Víctor; Coto, Raúl; Eremeev, Vitalie; Orszag, Miguel

    2017-11-01

    Macroscopic quantum superposition states are fundamental to test the classical-quantum boundary and present suitable candidates for quantum technologies. Although the preparation of such states has already been realized, the existing setups commonly consider external driving and resonant interactions, predominantly by considering Jaynes-Cummings-like and beam-splitter-like interactions, as well as the nonlinear radiation pressure interaction in cavity optomechanics. In contrast to previous works on the matter, we propose a feasible probabilistic scheme to generate a macroscopic mechanical qubit, as well as phononic Schrödinger's cat states with no need of any energy exchange with the macroscopic mechanical oscillator. Essentially, we investigate an open dispersive spin-mechanical system in the absence of any external driving under nonideal conditions, such as the detrimental effects due to the oscillator and spin energy losses in a thermal bath at nonzero temperature. In our work, we show that the procedure to generate the mechanical qubit state is solely based on spin postselection in the weak to moderate coupling regime. Finally, we demonstrate that the mechanical superposition is related to the amplification of the mean values of the mechanical quadratures as they maximize the quantum coherence.

  15. Scanner-based macroscopic color variation estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chunghui; Lai, Di; Zeise, Eric

    2006-01-01

    Flatbed scanners have been adopted successfully in the measurement of microscopic image artifacts, such as granularity and mottle, in print samples because of their capability of providing full color, high resolution images. Accurate macroscopic color measurement relies on the use of colorimeters or spectrophotometers to provide a surrogate for human vision. The very different color response characteristics of flatbed scanners from any standard colorimetric response limits the utility of a flatbed scanner as a macroscopic color measuring device. This metamerism constraint can be significantly relaxed if our objective is mainly to quantify the color variations within a printed page or between pages where a small bias in measured colors can be tolerated as long as the color distributions relative to the individual mean values is similar. Two scenarios when converting color from the device RGB color space to a standardized color space such as CIELab are studied in this paper, blind and semi-blind color transformation, depending on the availability of the black channel information. We will show that both approaches offer satisfactory results in quantifying macroscopic color variation across pages while the semi-blind color transformation further provides fairly accurate color prediction capability.

  16. Pathways toward understanding Macroscopic Quantum Phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, B L; Subaşi, Y

    2013-01-01

    Macroscopic quantum phenomena refer to quantum features in objects of 'large' sizes, systems with many components or degrees of freedom, organized in some ways where they can be identified as macroscopic objects. This emerging field is ushered in by several categories of definitive experiments in superconductivity, electromechanical systems, Bose-Einstein condensates and others. Yet this new field which is rich in open issues at the foundation of quantum and statistical physics remains little explored theoretically (with the important exception of the work of A J Leggett [1], while touched upon or implied by several groups of authors represented in this conference. Our attitude differs in that we believe in the full validity of quantum mechanics stretching from the testable micro to meso scales, with no need for the introduction of new laws of physics.) This talk summarizes our thoughts in attempting a systematic investigation into some key foundational issues of quantum macroscopic phenomena, with the goal of ultimately revealing or building a viable theoretical framework. Three major themes discussed in three intended essays are the large N expansion [2], the correlation hierarchy [3] and quantum entanglement [4]. We give a sketch of the first two themes and then discuss several key issues in the consideration of macro and quantum, namely, a) recognition that there exist many levels of structure in a composite body and only by judicious choice of an appropriate set of collective variables can one give the best description of the dynamics of a specific level of structure. Capturing the quantum features of a macroscopic object is greatly facilitated by the existence and functioning of these collective variables; b) quantum entanglement, an exclusively quantum feature [5], is known to persist to high temperatures [6] and large scales [7] under certain conditions, and may actually decrease with increased connectivity in a quantum network [8]. We use entanglement as a

  17. Automatic generation and analysis of solar cell IV curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Steven M.; Jones, Jason C.

    2014-06-03

    A photovoltaic system includes multiple strings of solar panels and a device presenting a DC load to the strings of solar panels. Output currents of the strings of solar panels may be sensed and provided to a computer that generates current-voltage (IV) curves of the strings of solar panels. Output voltages of the string of solar panels may be sensed at the string or at the device presenting the DC load. The DC load may be varied. Output currents of the strings of solar panels responsive to the variation of the DC load are sensed to generate IV curves of the strings of solar panels. IV curves may be compared and analyzed to evaluate performance of and detect problems with a string of solar panels.

  18. Experimental demonstration of macroscopic quantum coherence in Gaussian states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marquardt, C.; Andersen, Ulrik Lund; Leuchs, G.

    2007-01-01

    We witness experimentally the presence of macroscopic coherence in Gaussian quantum states using a recently proposed criterion [E. G. Cavalcanti and M. D. Reid, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97 170405 (2006)]. The macroscopic coherence stems from interference between macroscopically distinct states in phase...

  19. The macroscopic harmonic oscillator and quantum measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayward, R.W.

    1982-01-01

    A quantum mechanical description of a one-dimensional macroscopic harmonic oscillator interacting with its environment is given. Quasi-coherent states are introduced to serve as convenient basis states for application of a density matrix formalism to characterize the system. Attention is given to the pertinent quantum limits to the precision of measurement of physical observables that may provide some information on the nature of a weak classical force interacting with the oscillator. A number of ''quantum nondemolition'' schemes proposed by various authors are discussed. (Auth.)

  20. Macroscopic quantum tunneling of the magnetic moment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejada, J.; Hernandez, J. M.; del Barco, E.

    1999-05-01

    In this paper we review the work done on magnetic relaxation during the last 10 years on both single-domain particles and magnetic molecules and its contribution to the discovery of quantum tunneling of the magnetic moment (Chudnovsky and Tejada, Macroscopic Quantum tunneling of the Magnetic moment, Cambridge University press, Cambridge, 1998). We present first the theoretical expressions and their connection to quantum relaxation and secondly, we show and discuss the experimental results. Finally, we discuss very recent hysteresis data on Mn 12Ac molecules at extremely large sweeping rate for the external magnetic field which suggest the existence of quantum spin—phonon avalanches.

  1. Compressor Has No Moving Macroscopic Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasser, Max

    1995-01-01

    Compressor containing no moving macroscopic parts functions by alternating piston and valve actions of successive beds of magnetic particles. Fabricated easily because no need for precisely fitting parts rotating or sliding on each other. Also no need for lubricant fluid contaminating fluid to be compressed. Compressor operates continuously, eliminating troublesome on/off cycling of other compressors, and decreasing consumption of energy. Phased cells push fluid from bottom to top, adding increments of pressure. Each cell contains magnetic powder particles loose when electromagnet coil deenergized, but tightly packed when coil energized.

  2. Macroscopic reality and the dynamical reduction program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghirardi, G.C.

    1995-10-01

    With reference to recently proposed theoretical models accounting for reduction in terms of a unified dynamics governing all physical processes, we analyze the problem of working out a worldview accommodating our knowledge about natural phenomena. We stress the relevant conceptual differences between the considered models and standard quantum mechanics. In spite of the fact that both theories describe individual physical systems within a genuine Hilbert space framework, the nice features of spontaneous reduction theories drastically limit the class of states which are dynamically stable. This allows one to work out a description of the world in terms of a mass density function in ordinary configuration space. A topology based on this function and differing radically from the one characterizing the Hilbert space is introduced and in terms of it the idea of similarity of macroscopic situations is made precise. Finally it is shown how the formalism and the proposed interpretation yield a natural criterion for establishing the psychophysical parallelism. The conclusion is that, within the considered theoretical models and at the nonrelativistic level, one can satisfy all sensible requirements for a consistent, unified, and objective description of reality at the macroscopic level. (author). 16 refs

  3. Macroscopic description of isoscalar giant multipole resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nix, J.R.; Sierk, A.J.

    1980-01-01

    On the basis of a simple macroscopic model, we calculate the isoscalar giant-resonance energy as a function of mass number and multipole degree. The restoring force is determined from the distortion of the Fermi surface, and the inertia is determined for the incompressible, irrotational flow of nucleons with unit effective mass. With no adjustable parameters, the resulting closed expression reproduces correctly the available experimental data, namely the magnitude and dependence upon mass number of the giant quadrupole energy and the magnitude of the giant octupole energy for 208 Pb. We also calculate the isoscalar giant-resonance width as a function of mass number and multipole degree for various macroscopic damping mechanisms, including two-body viscosity, one-body dissipation, and modified one-body dissipation. None of these damping mechanisms reproduces correctly all features of the available experimental data, namely the magnitude and dependence upon mass number of the giant quadrupole width and the magnitude of the giant octupole width for 208 Pb

  4. Macroscopic quantum tunneling in Mn12-acetat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beiter, J.; Reissner, M.; Hilscher, G.; Steiner, W.; Pajic, D.; Zadro, K.; Bartel, M.; Linert, W.

    2004-01-01

    Molecules provide the exciting opportunity to study magnetism on the passage from atomic to macroscopic level. One of the most interesting effects in such mesoscopic systems is the appearance of quantum tunnelling of magnetization (MQT) at low temperatures. In the last decade molecular chemistry has had a large impact in this field by providing new single molecule magnets. They consist of small clusters exhibiting superparamagnetic behavior, similar to that of conventional nanomagnetic particles. The advantage of these new materials is that they form macroscopic samples consisting of regularly arranged small identical high-spin clusters which are widely separated by organic molecules. The lack of distributions in size and shape of the magnetic clusters and the very weak intercluster interaction lead in principle to only one barrier for the spin reversal. We present detailed magnetic investigations on a Mn 12 -ac single crystal. In this compound the tetragonal ordered clusters consist of a central tetrahedron of four Mn 4+ (S = 3/2) atoms surrounded by eight Mn 3+ (S = 2) atoms with antiparallel oriented spins, leading to an overall spin moment of S = 10. In the hysteresis loops nine different jumps at regularly spaced fields are identified in the investigated temperature range (1.5 < T < 3 K). At these fields the relaxation of moment due to thermal activation is superimposed by strong quantum tunnelling. In lowering the temperature the time dependence changes from thermally activated to thermally assisted tunnelling. (author)

  5. Macroscopic effects of the quantum trace anomaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mottola, Emil; Vaulin, Ruslan

    2006-01-01

    The low energy effective action of gravity in any even dimension generally acquires nonlocal terms associated with the trace anomaly, generated by the quantum fluctuations of massless fields. The local auxiliary field description of this effective action in four dimensions requires two additional scalar fields, not contained in classical general relativity, which remain relevant at macroscopic distance scales. The auxiliary scalar fields depend upon boundary conditions for their complete specification, and therefore carry global information about the geometry and macroscopic quantum state of the gravitational field. The scalar potentials also provide coordinate invariant order parameters describing the conformal behavior and divergences of the stress tensor on event horizons. We compute the stress tensor due to the anomaly in terms of its auxiliary scalar potentials in a number of concrete examples, including the Rindler wedge, the Schwarzschild geometry, and de Sitter spacetime. In all of these cases, a small number of classical order parameters completely determine the divergent behaviors allowed on the horizon, and yield qualitatively correct global approximations to the renormalized expectation value of the quantum stress tensor

  6. Measurement contextuality is implied by macroscopic realism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zeqian; Montina, A.

    2011-01-01

    Ontological theories of quantum mechanics provide a realistic description of single systems by means of well-defined quantities conditioning the measurement outcomes. In order to be complete, they should also fulfill the minimal condition of macroscopic realism. Under the assumption of outcome determinism and for Hilbert space dimension greater than 2, they were all proved to be contextual for projective measurements. In recent years a generalized concept of noncontextuality was introduced that applies also to the case of outcome indeterminism and unsharp measurements. It was pointed out that the Beltrametti-Bugajski model is an example of measurement noncontextual indeterminist theory. Here we provide a simple proof that this model is the only one with such a feature for projective measurements and Hilbert space dimension greater than 2. In other words, there is no extension of quantum theory providing more accurate predictions of outcomes and simultaneously preserving the minimal labeling of events through projective operators. As a corollary, noncontextuality for projective measurements implies noncontextuality for unsharp measurements. By noting that the condition of macroscopic realism requires an extension of quantum theory, unless a breaking of unitarity is invoked, we arrive at the conclusion that the only way to solve the measurement problem in the framework of an ontological theory is by relaxing the hypothesis of measurement noncontextuality in its generalized sense.

  7. Macroscopic reality and the dynamical reduction program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghirardi, G C

    1995-10-01

    With reference to recently proposed theoretical models accounting for reduction in terms of a unified dynamics governing all physical processes, we analyze the problem of working out a worldview accommodating our knowledge about natural phenomena. We stress the relevant conceptual differences between the considered models and standard quantum mechanics. In spite of the fact that both theories describe individual physical systems within a genuine Hilbert space framework, the nice features of spontaneous reduction theories drastically limit the class of states which are dynamically stable. This allows one to work out a description of the world in terms of a mass density function in ordinary configuration space. A topology based on this function and differing radically from the one characterizing the Hilbert space is introduced and in terms of it the idea of similarity of macroscopic situations is made precise. Finally it is shown how the formalism and the proposed interpretation yield a natural criterion for establishing the psychophysical parallelism. The conclusion is that, within the considered theoretical models and at the nonrelativistic level, one can satisfy all sensible requirements for a consistent, unified, and objective description of reality at the macroscopic level. (author). 16 refs.

  8. The changes of capacitance-loss and current-voltage characteristics of LaMnO3+δ/SrTiO3:Nb heterojunctions exposed to ambient air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Yimin; Wang Rongming

    2010-01-01

    Effects of moisture absorption on capacitance-loss and current-voltage characteristics of LaMnO 3+δ /SrTiO 3 :Nb heterojunction had been investigated after the heterojunctions were exposed to ambient air. The moisture-absorption-induced increases in loss tangent and breakdown voltage were observed, whereas no changes were found on capacitance and diffusion voltage. These results were discussed by the decrease of oxygen ions in LaMnO 3+δ and the generation of hydroxide ions at grain boundaries. This work will favor both electronic transport analysis and future device applications.

  9. Partitioning a macroscopic system into independent subsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delle Site, Luigi; Ciccotti, Giovanni; Hartmann, Carsten

    2017-08-01

    We discuss the problem of partitioning a macroscopic system into a collection of independent subsystems. The partitioning of a system into replica-like subsystems is nowadays a subject of major interest in several fields of theoretical and applied physics. The thermodynamic approach currently favoured by practitioners is based on a phenomenological definition of an interface energy associated with the partition, due to a lack of easily computable expressions for a microscopic (i.e. particle-based) interface energy. In this article, we outline a general approach to derive sharp and computable bounds for the interface free energy in terms of microscopic statistical quantities. We discuss potential applications in nanothermodynamics and outline possible future directions.

  10. Quantum teleportation between stationary macroscopic objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, Xiao-Hui; Yuan, Zhen-Sheng; Pan, Jian-Wei [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Heidelberg (Germany); Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale, Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei (China); Xu, Xiao-Fan [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Heidelberg (Germany); Li, Che-Ming [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Heidelberg (Germany); Department of Physics, National Center for Theoretical Sciences, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan (China)

    2010-07-01

    Quantum teleportation is a process to transfer a quantum state of an object without transferring the state carrier itself. So far, most of the teleportation experiments realized are within the photonic regime. For the teleportation of stationary states, the largest system reported is a single ion. We are now performing an experiment to teleport the state of an macroscopic atomic cloud which consists about 10{sup 6} single atoms. In our experiment two atomic ensembles are utilized. In the first ensemble A we prepare the collective atomic state to be teleported using the quantum feedback technique. The second ensemble B is utilized to generate entanglement between it collective state with a scattered single-photon. Teleportation is realized by converting the atomic state of A to a single-photon and making a Bell state measurement with the scattered single-photon from ensemble B.

  11. Macroscopic balance model for wave rotors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Gerard E.

    1996-01-01

    A mathematical model for multi-port wave rotors is described. The wave processes that effect energy exchange within the rotor passage are modeled using one-dimensional gas dynamics. Macroscopic mass and energy balances relate volume-averaged thermodynamic properties in the rotor passage control volume to the mass, momentum, and energy fluxes at the ports. Loss models account for entropy production in boundary layers and in separating flows caused by blade-blockage, incidence, and gradual opening and closing of rotor passages. The mathematical model provides a basis for predicting design-point wave rotor performance, port timing, and machine size. Model predictions are evaluated through comparisons with CFD calculations and three-port wave rotor experimental data. A four-port wave rotor design example is provided to demonstrate model applicability. The modeling approach is amenable to wave rotor optimization studies and rapid assessment of the trade-offs associated with integrating wave rotors into gas turbine engine systems.

  12. Macroscopic quantum tunneling in a dc SQUID

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y.C.

    1986-01-01

    The theory of macroscopic quantum tunneling is applied to a current-biased dc SQUID whose dynamics can be described by a two-dimensional mechanical system with a dissipative environment. Based on the phenomenological model proposed by Caldeira and Leggett, the dissipative environment is represented by a set of harmonic oscillators coupling to the system. After integrating out the environmental degrees of freedom, an effective Euclidean action is found for the two-dimensional system. The action is used to provide the quantum tunneling rate formalism for the dc SQUID. Under certain conditions, the tunneling rate reduces to that of a single current-biased Josephson junction with an adjustable effective critical current

  13. Lagrangian Curves on Spectral Curves of Monopoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilfoyle, Brendan; Khalid, Madeeha; Ramon Mari, Jose J.

    2010-01-01

    We study Lagrangian points on smooth holomorphic curves in TP 1 equipped with a natural neutral Kaehler structure, and prove that they must form real curves. By virtue of the identification of TP 1 with the space LE 3 of oriented affine lines in Euclidean 3-space, these Lagrangian curves give rise to ruled surfaces in E 3 , which we prove have zero Gauss curvature. Each ruled surface is shown to be the tangent lines to a curve in E 3 , called the edge of regression of the ruled surface. We give an alternative characterization of these curves as the points in E 3 where the number of oriented lines in the complex curve Σ that pass through the point is less than the degree of Σ. We then apply these results to the spectral curves of certain monopoles and construct the ruled surfaces and edges of regression generated by the Lagrangian curves.

  14. Models for universal reduction of macroscopic quantum fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diosi, L.

    1988-10-01

    If quantum mechanics is universal, then macroscopic bodies would, in principle, possess macroscopic quantum fluctuations (MQF) in their positions, orientations, densities etc. Such MQF, however, are not observed in nature. The hypothesis is adopted that the absence of MQF is due to a certain universal mechanism. Gravitational measures were applied for reducing MQF of the mass density. This model leads to classical trajectories in the macroscopic limit of translational motion. For massive objects, unwanted macroscopic superpositions of quantum states will be destroyed within short times. (R.P.) 34 refs

  15. Modelling of current-voltage characteristics of infrared photo-detectors based on type – II InAs/GaSb super-lattice diodes with unipolar blocking layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishnu Gopal

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that current-voltage characteristics of infrared photo-detectors based on type-II InAs/GaSb super-lattices with uni-polar blocking layers can be modelled similar to a junction diode with a finite series resistance on account of blocking barriers. As an example this paper presents the results of a study of current-voltage characteristics of a type II InAs/GaSb super-lattice diode with PbIbN architecture using a recently proposed [J. Appl. Phys. 116, 084502 (2014] method for modelling of illuminated photovoltaic detectors. The thermal diffusion, generation – recombination (g-r, and ohmic currents are found as principal components besides a component of photocurrent due to background illumination. The experimentally observed reverse bias diode current in excess of thermal current (diffusion + g-r, photo-current and ohmic shunt current is reported to be best described by an exponential function of the type, Iexcess = Ir0 + K1exp(K2 V, where Ir0, K1 and K2 are fitting parameters and V is the applied bias voltage. The present investigations suggest that the exponential growth of excess current with the applied bias voltage may be taking place along the localized regions in the diode. These localized regions are the shunt resistance paths on account of the surface leakage currents and/or defects and dislocations in the base of the diode.

  16. Cloud Macroscopic Organization: Order Emerging from Randomness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Tianle

    2011-01-01

    Clouds play a central role in many aspects of the climate system and their forms and shapes are remarkably diverse. Appropriate representation of clouds in climate models is a major challenge because cloud processes span at least eight orders of magnitude in spatial scales. Here we show that there exists order in cloud size distribution of low-level clouds, and that it follows a power-law distribution with exponent gamma close to 2. gamma is insensitive to yearly variations in environmental conditions, but has regional variations and land-ocean contrasts. More importantly, we demonstrate this self-organizing behavior of clouds emerges naturally from a complex network model with simple, physical organizing principles: random clumping and merging. We also demonstrate symmetry between clear and cloudy skies in terms of macroscopic organization because of similar fundamental underlying organizing principles. The order in the apparently complex cloud-clear field thus has its root in random local interactions. Studying cloud organization with complex network models is an attractive new approach that has wide applications in climate science. We also propose a concept of cloud statistic mechanics approach. This approach is fully complementary to deterministic models, and the two approaches provide a powerful framework to meet the challenge of representing clouds in our climate models when working in tandem.

  17. Searching for the nanoscopic–macroscopic boundary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velásquez, E.A. [GICM and GES Groups, Instituto de Física-FCEN, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21 Medellín (Colombia); Grupo de Investigación en Modelamiento y Simulación Computacional, Universidad de San Buenaventura Sec. Medellín, A.A. 5222, Medellín (Colombia); Altbir, D. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Santiago de Chile (USACH), CEDENNA, Santiago (Chile); Mazo-Zuluaga, J. [GICM and GES Groups, Instituto de Física-FCEN, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21 Medellín (Colombia); Duque, L.F. [GICM and GES Groups, Instituto de Física-FCEN, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21 Medellín (Colombia); Grupo de Física Teórica, Aplicada y Didáctica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Aplicadas Instituto Tecnológico Metropolitano, Medellín (Colombia); Mejía-López, J., E-mail: jmejia@puc.cl [Facultad de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, CEDENNA, Santiago (Chile)

    2013-12-15

    Several studies have focused on the size-dependent properties of elements, looking for a unique definition of the nanoscopic–macroscopic boundary. By using a novel approach consisting of an energy variational method combined with a quantum Heisenberg model, here we address the size at which the ordering temperature of a magnetic nanoparticle reaches its bulk value. We consider samples with sizes in the range 1–500 nm, as well as several geometries and crystalline lattices and observe that, contrarily to what is commonly argued, the nanoscopic-microscopic boundary depends on both factors: shape and crystalline structure. This suggests that the surface-to-volume ratio is not the unique parameter that defines the behavior of a nanometric sample whenever its size increases reaching the bulk dimension. Comparisons reveal very good agreement with experimental evidence with differences less than 2%. Our results have broad implications for practical issues in measurements on systems at the nanometric scale. - Highlights: • A novel quantum-Heisenberg variational energy method is implemented. • The asymptotic behavior toward the thermodynamic limit is explored. • An important dependence of the nano-bulk boundary on the geometry is found. • And also an important dependence on the crystalline lattice. • We obtain a very good agreement with experimental evidence with differences <2%.

  18. Adiabatic process reversibility: microscopic and macroscopic views

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anacleto, Joaquim; Pereira, Mario G

    2009-01-01

    The reversibility of adiabatic processes was recently addressed by two publications. In the first (Miranda 2008 Eur. J. Phys. 29 937-43), an equation was derived relating the initial and final volumes and temperatures for adiabatic expansions of an ideal gas, using a microscopic approach. In that relation the parameter r accounts for the process reversibility, ranging between 0 and 1, which corresponds to the free and reversible expansion, respectively. In the second (Anacleto and Pereira 2009 Eur. J. Phys. 30 177-83), the authors have shown that thermodynamics can effectively and efficiently be used to obtain the general law for adiabatic processes carried out by an ideal gas, including compressions, for which r≥1. The present work integrates and extends the aforementioned studies, providing thus further insights into the analysis of the adiabatic process. It is shown that Miranda's work is wholly valid for compressions. In addition, it is demonstrated that the adiabatic reversibility coefficient given in terms of the piston velocity and the root mean square velocity of the gas particles is equivalent to the macroscopic description, given just by the quotient between surroundings and system pressure values. (letters and comments)

  19. Theory of superfluidity macroscopic quantum waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ventura, I.

    1978-10-01

    A new description of superfluidity is proposed, based upon the fact that Bogoliubov's theory of superfluidity exhibits some so far unsuspected macroscopic quantum waves (MQWs), which have a topological nature and travel within the fluid at subsonic velocities. To quantize the bounded quasi-particles the field theoretic version of the Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization rule, is employed and also resort to a variational computation. In an instantaneous configuration the MQWs cut the condensate into blocks of phase, providing, by analogy with ferromagnetism, a nice explanation of what could be the lambda-transition. A crude estimate of the critical temperature gives T sub(c) approximately equal to 2-4K. An attempt is made to understand Tisza's two-fluid model in terms of the MQWs, and we rise the conjecture that they play an important role in the motion of second. We present also a qualitative prediction concerning to the behavior of the 'phononroton' peak below 1.0K, and propose two experiments to look for MQWs [pt

  20. Investigation of dissipative forces near macroscopic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, R.S.

    1982-12-01

    The interaction of classical charged particles with the fields they induce in macroscopic dielectric media is investigated. For 10- to 1000-eV electrons, the angular perturbation of the trajectory by the image potential for surface impact parameters of 50 to 100 A is shown to be of the order of 0.001 rads over a distance of 100 A. The energy loss incurred by low-energy particles due to collective excitations such as surface plasmons is shown to be observable with a transition probability of 0.01 to 0.001 (Becker, et al., 1981b). The dispersion of real surface plasmon modes in planar and cylindrical geometries is discussed and is derived for pinhole geometry described in terms of a single-sheeted hyperboloid of revolution. An experimental apparatus for the measurement of collective losses for medium-energy electrons translating close to a dielectric surface is described and discussed. Data showing such losses at electron energies of 500 to 900 eV in silver foils containing many small apertures are presented and shown to be in good agreement with classical stopping power calculations and quantum mechanical calculations carried out in the low-velocity limit. The data and calculations are compared and contrasted with earlier transmission and reflection measurements, and the course of further investigation is discussed

  1. The Proell Effect: A Macroscopic Maxwell's Demon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauen, Kenneth M.

    2011-12-01

    Maxwell's Demon is a legitimate challenge to the Second Law of Thermodynamics when the "demon" is executed via the Proell effect. Thermal energy transfer according to the Kinetic Theory of Heat and Statistical Mechanics that takes place over distances greater than the mean free path of a gas circumvents the microscopic randomness that leads to macroscopic irreversibility. No information is required to sort the particles as no sorting occurs; the entire volume of gas undergoes the same transition. The Proell effect achieves quasi-spontaneous thermal separation without sorting by the perturbation of a heterogeneous constant volume system with displacement and regeneration. The classical analysis of the constant volume process, such as found in the Stirling Cycle, is incomplete and therefore incorrect. There are extra energy flows that classical thermo does not recognize. When a working fluid is displaced across a regenerator with a temperature gradient in a constant volume system, complimentary compression and expansion work takes place that transfers energy between the regenerator and the bulk gas volumes of the hot and cold sides of the constant volume system. Heat capacity at constant pressure applies instead of heat capacity at constant volume. The resultant increase in calculated, recyclable energy allows the Carnot Limit to be exceeded in certain cycles. Super-Carnot heat engines and heat pumps have been designed and a US patent has been awarded.

  2. Classical behaviour of macroscopic bodies and quantum measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghirardi, G.; Rimini, A.; Weber, T.

    1986-01-01

    This report describes a recent attempt of giving a consistent and unified description of microscopic and macroscopic phenomena. The model presented in this paper exhibits the nice features of leaving unaltered the quantum description of microsystems and of accounting for the classical behaviour of the macroscopic objects when their dynamical evolution is consistently deduced from the dynamics of their elementary constituents

  3. Macroscopic quantum tunnelling in a current biased Josephson junction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinis, J.M.; Devoret, M.H.; Clarke, J.; Urbina, C.

    1984-11-01

    We discuss in this work an attempt to answer experimentally the question: do macroscopic variables obey quantum mechanics. More precisely, this experiment deals with the question of quantum-mechanical tunnelling of a macroscopic variable, a subject related to the famous Schrodinger's cat problem in the theory of measurement

  4. Towards a theory of macroscopic gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zalaletdinov, R.M.

    1993-01-01

    By averaging out Cartan's structure equations for a four-dimensional Riemannian space over space regions, the structure equations for the averaged space have been derived with the procedure being valid on an arbitrary Riemannian space. The averaged space is characterized by a metric, Riemannian and non-Riemannian curvature 2-forms, and correlation 2-, 3- and 4-forms, an affine deformation 1-form being due to the non-metricity of one of two connection 1-forms. Using the procedure for the space-time averaging of the Einstein equations produces the averaged ones with the terms of geometric correction by the correlation tensors. The equations of motion for averaged energy momentum, obtained by averaging out the coritracted Bianchi identifies, also include such terms. Considering the gravitational induction tensor to be the Riemannian curvature tensor (the non-Riemannian one is then the field tensor), a theorem is proved which relates the algebraic structure of the averaged microscopic metric to that of the induction tensor. It is shown that the averaged Einstein equations can be put in the form of the Einstein equations with the conserved macroscopic energy-momentum tensor of a definite structure including the correlation functions. By using the high-frequency approximation of Isaacson with second-order correction to the microscopic metric, the self-consistency and compatibility of the equations and relations obtained are shown. Macrovacuum turns out to be Ricci non-flat, the macrovacuum source being defined in terms of the correlation functions. In the high-frequency limit the equations are shown to become Isaacson's ones with the macrovacuum source becoming Isaacson's stress tensor for gravitational waves. 17 refs

  5. Microscopic and Macroscopic Structures of Carbon Nanotubes Produced by Pyrolysis of Iron Phthalocyanine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Shaoming; Dai Liming

    2002-01-01

    By pyrolysis of iron phthalocyanine (FePc), either in a patterned or non-patterned fashion, under an Ar/H 2 atmosphere, we have demonstrated the large-scale production of aligned carbon nanotubes perpendicular to the substrate surface useful for building devices with three-dimensional structures. Depending on the particular pyrolytic conditions used, carbon nanotubes with a wide range of microscopic structures having curved, helical, coiled, branched, and tube-within-tube shapes have also been prepared by the pyrolysis of FePc. This, coupled with several microfabrication methods (photolithography, soft-lithography, self-assembling, micro-contact transfer, etc.), has enabled us to produce carbon nanotube arrays of various macroscopic architectures including polyhedral, flower-like, dendritic, circular, multilayered, and micropatterned geometries. In this article, we summarize our work on the preparation of FePc-generated carbon nanotubes with the large variety of microscopic and macroscopic structures and give a brief overview on the perspectives of making carbon nanotubes with tailor-made microscopic/macroscopic structures, and hence well-defined physicochemical properties, for specific applications

  6. ECM using Edwards curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernstein, Daniel J.; Birkner, Peter; Lange, Tanja

    2013-01-01

    -arithmetic level are as follows: (1) use Edwards curves instead of Montgomery curves; (2) use extended Edwards coordinates; (3) use signed-sliding-window addition-subtraction chains; (4) batch primes to increase the window size; (5) choose curves with small parameters and base points; (6) choose curves with large...

  7. Macroscopic flux-creep magnetization of superconductors in applied magnetic field and local change peculiarities of their differential resistivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanovskii, V.R.

    2003-01-01

    The physical peculiarities of the flux-creep dynamics of low- and high-temperature superconductors placed in external varying magnetic field are studied. The flux-creep problem was studied for the partial penetration state. The proposed analysis was based on the macroscopic description of the flux creep by power and exponential equations of current-voltage characteristics of superconductors. It is shown that during flux creep the screening current penetrates into the superconductor at a finite velocity. Therefore, inside the superconductor a moving boundary of a magnetization region appears like in the critical state model. The time-dependent equations of screening current front have been written. However, unlike the critical state model nontrivial conditions are fulfilled at the moving boundary. They describe the smooth transition of the electromagnetic field induced by external perturbation to the undisturbed ones. A flux-creep distribution of the differential resistivity of the superconductor has been discussed. The performed analysis reveals that it monotonically decreases toward the moving boundary and depends on the magnetic ramp rate. In accordance with these flux-creep conditions the energy dissipation in the superconductors and their magnetic moment depend on the propagation law of the screening current moving boundary. The applicability of the Bean model for describing the flux-creep states is investigated

  8. Thermal activation and macroscopic quantum tunneling in a DC SQUID

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharifi, F.; Gavilano, J.L.; VanHarlingen, D.J.

    1989-01-01

    The authors report measurements of the transition rate from metastable minima in the two-dimensional 1 of a dc SQUID as a function of applied flux temperature. The authors observe a crossover from energy-activated escape to macroscopic quantum tunneling at a critical temperature. The macroscopic quantum tunneling rate is substantially reduced by damping, and also broadens the crossover region. Most interestingly, the authors observe thermal rates that are suppressed from those predicted by the two-dimensional thermal activation model. The authors discuss possible explanations for this based on the interaction of the macroscopic degree of freedom in the device and energy level effects

  9. Radionuclides retention: from macroscopic to microscopic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simoni, E.

    2002-01-01

    In order to determine the radionuclides' sorption constants on solid natural minerals, both thermodynamic and structural investigations, using spectroscopic techniques, are presented. The natural clays, that could be used as engineering barriers in the nuclear waste geological repository, are rather complex minerals. Therefore, in order to understand how these natural materials retain the radionuclides, it is necessary first to perform these studies on simple substrates such as single crystal, oxides and silicates, and then extrapolate the obtained results on the natural minerals. We examine in this paper the sorption processes of the hexavalent uranium on zircon (ZrSiO 4 ) and the trivalent curium on a natural clay (bentonite). The corresponding sorption curves are simulated using the results obtained with the following spectroscopic techniques: laser induced spectro-fluorimetry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray absorption spectroscopy (EXAFS), diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT). (authors)

  10. Water Electrolysis at Different Current - Voltage Regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleperis, J.; Blums, J.; Vanags, M.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Electrochemical impedance and volt-amperic methods were used to compare an efficiency of water electrolysis for different materials and different electrode configurations. Two and three electrode measurements were made, using standard calomel reference electrode. Non-standard capacitative electrolysis was analyzed in special cell made from cylindrical steel electrodes. Volt-amperic measurements from - 15V to +15V DC didn't indicated the presence of oxidation - reduction reactions when distilled water was used as electrolyte. Impedance measurements showed unusual frequency behavior when the AC voltage increased till 0.5V. Different nickel and carbon electrodes (plate, porous and textile - type) were used to learn classical Faraday electrolysis in strong alkali solutions. Flying increase of current was indicator of the presence of electrolysis, and characteristic potential was used differ between materials accordingly they effectiveness for usage in an electrolyser device. (Aithors)

  11. Measurement-Induced Macroscopic Superposition States in Cavity Optomechanics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoff, Ulrich Busk; Kollath-Bönig, Johann; Neergaard-Nielsen, Jonas Schou

    2016-01-01

    A novel protocol for generating quantum superpositions of macroscopically distinct states of a bulk mechanical oscillator is proposed, compatible with existing optomechanical devices operating in the bad-cavity limit. By combining a pulsed optomechanical quantum nondemolition (QND) interaction...

  12. Thermodynamical properties and thermoelastic coupling of complex macroscopic structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabbri, M.; Sacripanti, A.

    1996-11-01

    Gross qualitative/quantitative analysis about thermodynamical properties and thermoelastic coupling (or elastocaloric effect) of complex macroscopic structure (running shoes) is performed by infrared camera. The experimental results showed the achievability of a n industrial research project

  13. Single-Phase Bundle Flows Including Macroscopic Turbulence Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Jun; Yoon, Han Young [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Seok Jong; Cho, Hyoung Kyu [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    To deal with various thermal hydraulic phenomena due to rapid change of fluid properties when an accident happens, securing mechanistic approaches as much as possible may reduce the uncertainty arising from improper applications of the experimental models. In this study, the turbulence mixing model, which is well defined in the subchannel analysis code such as VIPRE, COBRA, and MATRA by experiments, is replaced by a macroscopic k-e turbulence model, which represents the aspect of mathematical derivation. The performance of CUPID with macroscopic turbulence model is validated against several bundle experiments: CNEN 4x4 and PNL 7x7 rod bundle tests. In this study, the macroscopic k-e model has been validated for the application to subchannel analysis. It has been implemented in the CUPID code and validated against CNEN 4x4 and PNL 7x7 rod bundle tests. The results showed that the macroscopic k-e turbulence model can estimate the experiments properly.

  14. Dynamical fusion thresholds in macroscopic and microscopic theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, K.T.R.; Sierk, A.J.; Nix, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    Macroscopic and microscopic results demonstrating the existence of dynamical fusion thresholds are presented. For macroscopic theories, it is shown that the extra-push dynamics is sensitive to some details of the models used, e.g. the shape parametrization and the type of viscosity. The dependence of the effect upon the charge and angular momentum of the system is also studied. Calculated macroscopic results for mass-symmetric systems are compared to experimental mass-asymmetric results by use of a tentative scaling procedure, which takes into account both the entrance-channel and the saddle-point regions of configuration space. Two types of dynamical fusion thresholds occur in TDHF studies: (1) the microscopic analogue of the macroscopic extra push threshold, and (2) the relatively high energy at which the TDHF angular momentum window opens. Both of these microscopic thresholds are found to be very sensitive to the choice of the effective two-body interaction

  15. Curvature Entropy for Curved Profile Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichiro Sato

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In a curved surface design, the overall shape features that emerge from combinations of shape elements are important. However, controlling the features of the overall shape in curved profiles is difficult using conventional microscopic shape information such as dimension. Herein two types of macroscopic shape information, curvature entropy and quadrature curvature entropy, quantitatively represent the features of the overall shape. The curvature entropy is calculated by the curvature distribution, and represents the complexity of a shape (one of the overall shape features. The quadrature curvature entropy is an improvement of the curvature entropy by introducing a Markov process to evaluate the continuity of a curvature and to approximate human cognition of the shape. Additionally, a shape generation method using a genetic algorithm as a calculator and the entropy as a shape generation index is presented. Finally, the applicability of the proposed method is demonstrated using the side view of an automobile as a design example.

  16. Micro- and macroscopic photonic control of matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryabtsev, Anton

    parameters. In order for measurements not to be skewed, these interactions need to be taken into account and mitigated at the time of the experiment or handled later in data analysis and simulations. Experimental results are presented in four chapters. Chapter 2 describes two topics: (1) single-shot real-time monitoring and correction of spectral phase drifts, which commonly originate from temperature and pointing fluctuations inside the laser cavity when the pulses are generated; (2) an all-optical method for controlling the dispersion of femtosecond pulses using other pulses. Chapter 3 focuses on the effects of the propagation media--how intense laser pulses modify media and how, in turn, the media modifies them back--and how these effects can be counteracted. Self-action effects in fused silica are discussed, along with some interesting and unexpected results. A method is then proposed for mitigating self-action processes using binary modulation of the spectral phases of laser pulses. Chapter 4 outlines the design of two laser systems, which are specifically tailored for particular spectroscopic applications and incorporate the comprehensive pulse control described in previous chapters. Chapter 5 shows how control of spatial beam characteristics can be applied to measurements of the mechanical motion of microscale particles and how it can potentially be applied to molecular motion. It also describes an experiment on laser-induced flow in air in which attempts were made to control the macroscopic molecular rotation of gases. My research, with a pulse shaper as the enabling tool, provides important insights into ultrafast scientific studies by making femtosecond laser research more predictable, reliable and practical for measurement and control. In the long term, some of the research methods in this thesis may help the transition of femtosecond lasers from the laboratory environment into clinics, factories, airports, and other everyday settings.

  17. Quantifying and Reducing Curve-Fitting Uncertainty in Isc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campanelli, Mark; Duck, Benjamin; Emery, Keith

    2015-06-14

    Current-voltage (I-V) curve measurements of photovoltaic (PV) devices are used to determine performance parameters and to establish traceable calibration chains. Measurement standards specify localized curve fitting methods, e.g., straight-line interpolation/extrapolation of the I-V curve points near short-circuit current, Isc. By considering such fits as statistical linear regressions, uncertainties in the performance parameters are readily quantified. However, the legitimacy of such a computed uncertainty requires that the model be a valid (local) representation of the I-V curve and that the noise be sufficiently well characterized. Using more data points often has the advantage of lowering the uncertainty. However, more data points can make the uncertainty in the fit arbitrarily small, and this fit uncertainty misses the dominant residual uncertainty due to so-called model discrepancy. Using objective Bayesian linear regression for straight-line fits for Isc, we investigate an evidence-based method to automatically choose data windows of I-V points with reduced model discrepancy. We also investigate noise effects. Uncertainties, aligned with the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM), are quantified throughout.

  18. Quantifying and Reducing Curve-Fitting Uncertainty in Isc: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campanelli, Mark; Duck, Benjamin; Emery, Keith

    2015-09-28

    Current-voltage (I-V) curve measurements of photovoltaic (PV) devices are used to determine performance parameters and to establish traceable calibration chains. Measurement standards specify localized curve fitting methods, e.g., straight-line interpolation/extrapolation of the I-V curve points near short-circuit current, Isc. By considering such fits as statistical linear regressions, uncertainties in the performance parameters are readily quantified. However, the legitimacy of such a computed uncertainty requires that the model be a valid (local) representation of the I-V curve and that the noise be sufficiently well characterized. Using more data points often has the advantage of lowering the uncertainty. However, more data points can make the uncertainty in the fit arbitrarily small, and this fit uncertainty misses the dominant residual uncertainty due to so-called model discrepancy. Using objective Bayesian linear regression for straight-line fits for Isc, we investigate an evidence-based method to automatically choose data windows of I-V points with reduced model discrepancy. We also investigate noise effects. Uncertainties, aligned with the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM), are quantified throughout.

  19. Contractibility of curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Charatonik

    1991-11-01

    Full Text Available Results concerning contractibility of curves (equivalently: of dendroids are collected and discussed in the paper. Interrelations tetween various conditions which are either sufficient or necessary for a curve to be contractible are studied.

  20. Monitoring and Fault Detection in Photovoltaic Systems Based On Inverter Measured String I-V Curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spataru, Sergiu; Sera, Dezso; Kerekes, Tamas

    2015-01-01

    Most photovoltaic (PV) string inverters have the hardware capability to measure at least part of the current-voltage (I-V) characteristic curve of the PV strings connected at the input. However, this intrinsic capability of the inverters is not used, since I-V curve measurement and monitoring...... functions are not implemented in the inverter control software. In this paper, we aim to show how such a functionality can be useful for PV system monitoring purposes, to detect the presence and cause of power-loss in the PV strings, be it due to shading, degradation of the PV modules or balance......-of-system components through increased series resistance losses, or shunting of the PV modules. To achieve this, we propose and experimentally demonstrate three complementary PV system monitoring methods that make use of the I-V curve measurement capability of a commercial string inverter. The first method is suitable...

  1. A FAST study of quasi-static structure ("Inverted-V") potential drops and their latitudinal dependence in the premidnight sector and ramifications for the current-voltage relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombeck, J.; Cattell, C.; McFadden, J.

    2013-09-01

    Utilizing FAST satellite electron measurements, we present the first reported investigation of the dependency on latitude of quasi-static structure ("inverted-V") potential drop magnitude (Φ). A trend of lower Φ at lower latitudes in the premidnight sector on field lines with dark foot points was observed. This trend is supported both statistically and in individual satellite crossings. The existence of two distinct peaks in occurrence probability for Φ was also observed: one between ~2 kV and 10 kV and the other at somewhat less than 1 kV. The relative occurrence of structures with Φ in the higher (>2 kV) peak is significantly reduced with decreasing latitude. This partially accounts for the statistical trend of lower potential drop magnitudes at lower latitudes. The two Φ occurrence frequency peaks correspond to two different regimes (one with eΦ/kTe ~ or > 1 and one with eΦ/kTe current-voltage relation where source electron density rather than Φ is most directly controlled by the field-aligned current density. These observations and their ramifications represent a significant step forward in the understanding of field-aligned currents, auroral acceleration, and magnetospheric-ionospheric coupling.

  2. Langmuir probe measurements in a time-fluctuating-highly ionized non-equilibrium cutting arc: Analysis of the electron retarding part of the time-averaged current-voltage characteristic of the probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prevosto, L.; Mancinelli, B.; Kelly, H.

    2013-01-01

    This work describes the application of Langmuir probe diagnostics to the measurement of the electron temperature in a time-fluctuating-highly ionized, non-equilibrium cutting arc. The electron retarding part of the time-averaged current-voltage characteristic of the probe was analysed, assuming that the standard exponential expression describing the electron current to the probe in collision-free plasmas can be applied under the investigated conditions. A procedure is described which allows the determination of the errors introduced in time-averaged probe data due to small-amplitude plasma fluctuations. It was found that the experimental points can be gathered into two well defined groups allowing defining two quite different averaged electron temperature values. In the low-current region the averaged characteristic was not significantly disturbed by the fluctuations and can reliably be used to obtain the actual value of the averaged electron temperature. In particular, an averaged electron temperature of 0.98 ± 0.07 eV (= 11400 ± 800 K) was found for the central core of the arc (30 A) at 3.5 mm downstream from the nozzle exit. This average included not only a time-average over the time fluctuations but also a spatial-average along the probe collecting length. The fitting of the high-current region of the characteristic using such electron temperature value together with the corrections given by the fluctuation analysis showed a relevant departure of local thermal equilibrium in the arc core

  3. Langmuir probe measurements in a time-fluctuating-highly ionized non-equilibrium cutting arc: Analysis of the electron retarding part of the time-averaged current-voltage characteristic of the probe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prevosto, L.; Mancinelli, B. [Grupo de Descargas Eléctricas, Departamento Ing. Electromecánica, Facultad Regional Venado Tuerto (UTN), Laprida 651, Venado Tuerto (2600) Santa Fe (Argentina); Kelly, H. [Grupo de Descargas Eléctricas, Departamento Ing. Electromecánica, Facultad Regional Venado Tuerto (UTN), Laprida 651, Venado Tuerto (2600) Santa Fe (Argentina); Instituto de Física del Plasma (CONICET), Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales (UBA) Ciudad Universitaria Pab. I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2013-12-15

    This work describes the application of Langmuir probe diagnostics to the measurement of the electron temperature in a time-fluctuating-highly ionized, non-equilibrium cutting arc. The electron retarding part of the time-averaged current-voltage characteristic of the probe was analysed, assuming that the standard exponential expression describing the electron current to the probe in collision-free plasmas can be applied under the investigated conditions. A procedure is described which allows the determination of the errors introduced in time-averaged probe data due to small-amplitude plasma fluctuations. It was found that the experimental points can be gathered into two well defined groups allowing defining two quite different averaged electron temperature values. In the low-current region the averaged characteristic was not significantly disturbed by the fluctuations and can reliably be used to obtain the actual value of the averaged electron temperature. In particular, an averaged electron temperature of 0.98 ± 0.07 eV (= 11400 ± 800 K) was found for the central core of the arc (30 A) at 3.5 mm downstream from the nozzle exit. This average included not only a time-average over the time fluctuations but also a spatial-average along the probe collecting length. The fitting of the high-current region of the characteristic using such electron temperature value together with the corrections given by the fluctuation analysis showed a relevant departure of local thermal equilibrium in the arc core.

  4. Depth-resolved ultra-violet spectroscopic photo current-voltage measurements for the analysis of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor epilayer deposited on Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozden, Burcu; Yang, Chungman; Tong, Fei; Khanal, Min P.; Mirkhani, Vahid; Sk, Mobbassar Hassan; Ahyi, Ayayi Claude; Park, Minseo

    2014-01-01

    We have demonstrated that the depth-dependent defect distribution of the deep level traps in the AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) epi-structures can be analyzed by using the depth-resolved ultra-violet (UV) spectroscopic photo current-voltage (IV) (DR-UV-SPIV). It is of great importance to analyze deep level defects in the AlGaN/GaN HEMT structure, since it is recognized that deep level defects are the main source for causing current collapse phenomena leading to reduced device reliability. The AlGaN/GaN HEMT epi-layers were grown on a 6 in. Si wafer by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. The DR-UV-SPIV measurement was performed using a monochromatized UV light illumination from a Xe lamp. The key strength of the DR-UV-SPIV is its ability to provide information on the depth-dependent electrically active defect distribution along the epi-layer growth direction. The DR-UV-SPIV data showed variations in the depth-dependent defect distribution across the wafer. As a result, rapid feedback on the depth-dependent electrical homogeneity of the electrically active defect distribution in the AlGaN/GaN HEMT epi-structure grown on a Si wafer with minimal sample preparation can be elucidated from the DR-UV-SPIV in combination with our previously demonstrated spectroscopic photo-IV measurement with the sub-bandgap excitation.

  5. Depth-resolved ultra-violet spectroscopic photo current-voltage measurements for the analysis of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor epilayer deposited on Si

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozden, Burcu; Yang, Chungman; Tong, Fei; Khanal, Min P.; Mirkhani, Vahid; Sk, Mobbassar Hassan; Ahyi, Ayayi Claude; Park, Minseo, E-mail: park@physics.auburn.edu [Department of Physics, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama 36849 (United States)

    2014-10-27

    We have demonstrated that the depth-dependent defect distribution of the deep level traps in the AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) epi-structures can be analyzed by using the depth-resolved ultra-violet (UV) spectroscopic photo current-voltage (IV) (DR-UV-SPIV). It is of great importance to analyze deep level defects in the AlGaN/GaN HEMT structure, since it is recognized that deep level defects are the main source for causing current collapse phenomena leading to reduced device reliability. The AlGaN/GaN HEMT epi-layers were grown on a 6 in. Si wafer by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. The DR-UV-SPIV measurement was performed using a monochromatized UV light illumination from a Xe lamp. The key strength of the DR-UV-SPIV is its ability to provide information on the depth-dependent electrically active defect distribution along the epi-layer growth direction. The DR-UV-SPIV data showed variations in the depth-dependent defect distribution across the wafer. As a result, rapid feedback on the depth-dependent electrical homogeneity of the electrically active defect distribution in the AlGaN/GaN HEMT epi-structure grown on a Si wafer with minimal sample preparation can be elucidated from the DR-UV-SPIV in combination with our previously demonstrated spectroscopic photo-IV measurement with the sub-bandgap excitation.

  6. Langmuir probe measurements in a time-fluctuating-highly ionized non-equilibrium cutting arc: analysis of the electron retarding part of the time-averaged current-voltage characteristic of the probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevosto, L; Kelly, H; Mancinelli, B

    2013-12-01

    This work describes the application of Langmuir probe diagnostics to the measurement of the electron temperature in a time-fluctuating-highly ionized, non-equilibrium cutting arc. The electron retarding part of the time-averaged current-voltage characteristic of the probe was analysed, assuming that the standard exponential expression describing the electron current to the probe in collision-free plasmas can be applied under the investigated conditions. A procedure is described which allows the determination of the errors introduced in time-averaged probe data due to small-amplitude plasma fluctuations. It was found that the experimental points can be gathered into two well defined groups allowing defining two quite different averaged electron temperature values. In the low-current region the averaged characteristic was not significantly disturbed by the fluctuations and can reliably be used to obtain the actual value of the averaged electron temperature. In particular, an averaged electron temperature of 0.98 ± 0.07 eV (= 11400 ± 800 K) was found for the central core of the arc (30 A) at 3.5 mm downstream from the nozzle exit. This average included not only a time-average over the time fluctuations but also a spatial-average along the probe collecting length. The fitting of the high-current region of the characteristic using such electron temperature value together with the corrections given by the fluctuation analysis showed a relevant departure of local thermal equilibrium in the arc core.

  7. Microscopic to macroscopic depletion model development for FORMOSA-P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noh, J.M.; Turinsky, P.J.; Sarsour, H.N.

    1996-01-01

    Microscopic depletion has been gaining popularity with regard to employment in reactor core nodal calculations, mainly attributed to the superiority of microscopic depletion in treating spectral history effects during depletion. Another trend is the employment of loading pattern optimization computer codes in support of reload core design. Use of such optimization codes has significantly reduced design efforts to optimize reload core loading patterns associated with increasingly complicated lattice designs. A microscopic depletion model has been developed for the FORMOSA-P pressurized water reactor (PWR) loading pattern optimization code. This was done for both fidelity improvements and to make FORMOSA-P compatible with microscopic-based nuclear design methods. Needless to say, microscopic depletion requires more computational effort compared with macroscopic depletion. This implies that microscopic depletion may be computationally restrictive if employed during the loading pattern optimization calculation because many loading patterns are examined during the course of an optimization search. Therefore, the microscopic depletion model developed here uses combined models of microscopic and macroscopic depletion. This is done by first performing microscopic depletions for a subset of possible loading patterns from which 'collapsed' macroscopic cross sections are obtained. The collapsed macroscopic cross sections inherently incorporate spectral history effects. Subsequently, the optimization calculations are done using the collapsed macroscopic cross sections. Using this approach allows maintenance of microscopic depletion level accuracy without substantial additional computing resources

  8. Extended Macroscopic Study of Dilute Gas Flow within a Microcavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Hssikou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The behaviour of monatomic and dilute gas is studied in the slip and early transition regimes using the extended macroscopic theory. The gas is confined within a two-dimensional microcavity where the longitudinal sides are in the opposite motion with constant velocity ±Uw. The microcavity walls are kept at the uniform and reference temperature T0. Thus, the gas flow is transported only by the shear stress induced by the motion of upper and lower walls. From the macroscopic point of view, the regularized 13-moment equations of Grad, R13, are solved numerically. The macroscopic gas proprieties are studied for different values of the so-called Knudsen number (Kn, which gives the gas-rarefaction degree. The results are compared with those obtained using the classical continuum theory of Navier-Stokes and Fourier (NSF.

  9. Bell-inequality tests with macroscopic entangled states of light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stobinska, M. [Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light, Erlangen (Germany); Institute for Theoretical Physics II, Erlangen-Nuernberg University, Erlangen (Germany); Sekatski, P.; Gisin, N. [Group of Applied Physics, University of Geneva, Geneva (Switzerland); Buraczewski, A. [Faculty of Electronics and Information Technology, Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw (Poland); Leuchs, G. [Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light, Erlangen (Germany); Institute for Optics, Information and Photonics, Erlangen-Nuernberg University, Erlangen (Germany)

    2011-09-15

    Quantum correlations may violate the Bell inequalities. Most experimental schemes confirming this prediction have been realized in all-optical Bell tests suffering from the detection loophole. Experiments which simultaneously close this loophole and the locality loophole are highly desirable and remain challenging. An approach to loophole-free Bell tests is based on amplification of the entangled photons (i.e., on macroscopic entanglement), for which an optical signal should be easy to detect. However, the macroscopic states are partially indistinguishable by classical detectors. An interesting idea to overcome these limitations is to replace the postselection by an appropriate preselection immediately after the amplification. This is in the spirit of state preprocessing revealing hidden nonlocality. Here, we examine one of the possible preselections, but the presented tools can be used for analysis of other schemes. Filtering methods making the macroscopic entanglement useful for Bell tests and quantum protocols are the subject of an intensive study in the field nowadays.

  10. Decoherence bypass of macroscopic superpositions in quantum measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spehner, Dominique; Haake, Fritz

    2008-01-01

    We study a class of quantum measurement models. A microscopic object is entangled with a macroscopic pointer such that a distinct pointer position is tied to each eigenvalue of the measured object observable. Those different pointer positions mutually decohere under the influence of an environment. Overcoming limitations of previous approaches we (i) cope with initial correlations between pointer and environment by considering them initially in a metastable local thermal equilibrium, (ii) allow for object-pointer entanglement and environment-induced decoherence of distinct pointer readouts to proceed simultaneously, such that mixtures of macroscopically distinct object-pointer product states arise without intervening macroscopic superpositions, and (iii) go beyond the Markovian treatment of decoherence. (fast track communication)

  11. Macroscopic Modeling of a One-Dimensional Electrochemical Cell using the Poisson-Nernst-Planck Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, David

    the scheme's stability and convergence properties are discussed. While evaluating different methods for discretizing the coupled flux boundary condition, we discover a thresholding behaviour in the adaptive time stepper, and perform additional tests to investigate it. Finally, a method based on ghost points is chosen for its favorable numerical properties compared to the alternatives. With this method, we are able to run simulations with a large range of parameters, including any value of the nondimensionalized Debye length epsilon. The numerical code is first used to run simulations to explore the effects of polarization, surface coverage, and temperature. The code is also used to perform frequency sweeps of input signals in order to mimic impedance spectroscopy experiments. Finally, in Chapter 5, we use our model to apply ramped voltages to electrochemical systems, and show theoretical and simulated current-voltage curves for liquid and solid thin films, cells with blocking (polarized) electrodes, and electrolytes with background charge. Linear sweep and cyclic voltammetry techniques are important tools for electrochemists and have a variety of applications in engineering. Voltammetry has classically been treated with the Randles-Sevcik equation, which assumes an electroneutral supported electrolyte. No general theory of linear-sweep voltammetry is available, however, for unsupported electrolytes and for other situations where diffuse charge effects play a role. We show theoretical and simulated current-voltage curves for liquid and solid thin films, cells with blocking electrodes, and membranes with fixed background charge. The analysis focuses on the coupling of Faradaic reactions and diffuse charge dynamics, but capacitive charging of the double layers is also studied, for early time transients at reactive electrodes and for non-reactive blocking electrodes. The final chapter highlights the role of diffuse charge in the context of voltammetry, and illustrates

  12. JUMPING THE CURVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Pellissier

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the notion ofjump ing the curve,following from Handy 's S-curve onto a new curve with new rules policies and procedures. . It claims that the curve does not generally lie in wait but has to be invented by leadership. The focus of this paper is the identification (mathematically and inferentially ofthat point in time, known as the cusp in catastrophe theory, when it is time to change - pro-actively, pre-actively or reactively. These three scenarios are addressed separately and discussed in terms ofthe relevance ofeach.

  13. Statistical thermodynamics understanding the properties of macroscopic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Fai, Lukong Cornelius

    2012-01-01

    Basic Principles of Statistical PhysicsMicroscopic and Macroscopic Description of StatesBasic PostulatesGibbs Ergodic AssumptionGibbsian EnsemblesExperimental Basis of Statistical MechanicsDefinition of Expectation ValuesErgodic Principle and Expectation ValuesProperties of Distribution FunctionRelative Fluctuation of an Additive Macroscopic ParameterLiouville TheoremGibbs Microcanonical EnsembleMicrocanonical Distribution in Quantum MechanicsDensity MatrixDensity Matrix in Energy RepresentationEntropyThermodynamic FunctionsTemperatureAdiabatic ProcessesPressureThermodynamic IdentityLaws of Th

  14. Plasmonic direct writing lithography with a macroscopical contact probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuerong; Liu, Ling; Wang, Changtao; Chen, Weidong; Liu, Yunyue; Li, Ling

    2018-05-01

    In this work, we design a plasmonic direct writing lithography system with a macroscopical contact probe to achieve nanometer scale spots. The probe with bowtie-shaped aperture array adopts spring hinge and beam deflection method (BDM) to realize near-field lithography. Lithography results show that a macroscopical plasmonic contact probe can achieve a patterning resolution of around 75 nm at 365 nm wavelength, and demonstrate that the lithography system is promising for practical applications due to beyond the diffraction limit, low cost, and simplification of system configuration. CST calculations provide a guide for the design of recording structure and the arrangement of placing polarizer.

  15. Fluctuations in macroscopically agitated plasma:quasiparticles and effective temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sosenko, P.P.; Gresillon, D.

    1994-01-01

    Fluctuations in the plasma, in which macroscopic fluid-like motion is agitated due to large-scale and low-frequency electro-magnetic fields, are studied. Such fields can be produced by external factors or internally, for example due to turbulence. Fluctuation spectral distributions are calculated with regard to the renormalization of the transition probability for a test-particle and of the test-particle shielding. If the correlation length for the random fluid-like motion is large as compared to the fluctuation scale lengths, then the fluctuation spectral distributions can be explained in terms of quasiparticles originating from macroscopic plasma agitation and of an effective temperature

  16. Macroscopic and radiographic examination of proximal root surface caries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordenram, G.; Bergvist, A.; Johnson, G.; Henriksen, C.O.; Anneroth, G.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare macroscopic and radiographic examination of proximal root surface caries of extracted teeth from patients aged 65-95 years. Although the study conditions for macroscopic and radiographic diagnosis favored more sensitive evaluations than routine clinical conditions, there was a 24% disagreement in diagnosis. This finding indicates that under routine clinical conditions it is difficult to register with certainty all superficial root carious lesions. Even in the absence of clinically detectable root surface caries, preventive measures should be considered for elderly people with exposed root surfaces

  17. Fabrication of n-ZnO/ p-Si (100) and n-ZnO:Al/ p-Si (100) Heterostructures and Study of Current-Voltage, Capacitance-Voltage and Room-Temperature Photoluminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, M. A. H.; Khan, M. K. R.; Tanveer Karim, A. M. M.; Rahman, M. M.; Kamruzzaman, M.

    2018-01-01

    Heterojunction diodes of n-ZnO/ p-Si (100) and n-ZnO:Al/ p-Si (100) were fabricated by spray pyrolysis technique. X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) were used to characterize the as-prepared samples. The XRD pattern indicates the hexagonal wurzite structure of zinc oxide (ZnO) and Al-doped ZnO (AZO) thin films grown on Si (100) substrate. The compositional analysis by EDX indicates the presence of Al in the AZO structure. The FESEM image indicates the smooth and compact surface of the heterostructures. The current-voltage characteristics of the heterojunction confirm the rectifying diode behavior at different temperatures and illumination intensities. For low forward bias voltage, the ideality factors were determined to be 1.24 and 1.38 for un-doped and Al-doped heterostructures at room temperature (RT), respectively, which indicates the good diode characteristics. The capacitance-voltage response of the heterojunctions was studied for different oscillation frequencies. From the 1/ C 2- V plot, the junction built-in potentials were found 0.30 V and 0.40 V for un-doped and Al-doped junctions at RT, respectively. The differences in built-in potential for different heterojunctions indicate the different interface state densities of the junctions. From the RT photoluminescence (PL) spectrum of the n-ZnO/ p-Si (100) heterostructure, an intense main peak at near band edge (NBE) 378 nm (3.28 eV) and weak deep-level emissions (DLE) centered at 436 nm (2.84 eV) and 412 nm (3.00 eV) were observed. The NBE emission is attributed to the radiative recombination of the free and bound excitons and the DLE results from the radiative recombination through deep level defects.

  18. Tornado-Shaped Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Sol Sáez; de la Rosa, Félix Martínez; Rojas, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    In Advanced Calculus, our students wonder if it is possible to graphically represent a tornado by means of a three-dimensional curve. In this paper, we show it is possible by providing the parametric equations of such tornado-shaped curves.

  19. Simulating Supernova Light Curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Even, Wesley Paul; Dolence, Joshua C.

    2016-01-01

    This report discusses supernova light simulations. A brief review of supernovae, basics of supernova light curves, simulation tools used at LANL, and supernova results are included. Further, it happens that many of the same methods used to generate simulated supernova light curves can also be used to model the emission from fireballs generated by explosions in the earth's atmosphere.

  20. Simulating Supernova Light Curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Even, Wesley Paul [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dolence, Joshua C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-05

    This report discusses supernova light simulations. A brief review of supernovae, basics of supernova light curves, simulation tools used at LANL, and supernova results are included. Further, it happens that many of the same methods used to generate simulated supernova light curves can also be used to model the emission from fireballs generated by explosions in the earth’s atmosphere.

  1. Image scaling curve generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of generating an image scaling curve, where local saliency is detected in a received image. The detected local saliency is then accumulated in the first direction. A final scaling curve is derived from the detected local saliency and the image is then

  2. Image scaling curve generation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of generating an image scaling curve, where local saliency is detected in a received image. The detected local saliency is then accumulated in the first direction. A final scaling curve is derived from the detected local saliency and the image is then

  3. Tempo curves considered harmful

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Desain, P.; Honing, H.

    1993-01-01

    In the literature of musicology, computer music research and the psychology of music, timing or tempo measurements are mostly presented in the form of continuous curves. The notion of these tempo curves is dangerous, despite its widespread use, because it lulls its users into the false impression

  4. The curve shortening problem

    CERN Document Server

    Chou, Kai-Seng

    2001-01-01

    Although research in curve shortening flow has been very active for nearly 20 years, the results of those efforts have remained scattered throughout the literature. For the first time, The Curve Shortening Problem collects and illuminates those results in a comprehensive, rigorous, and self-contained account of the fundamental results.The authors present a complete treatment of the Gage-Hamilton theorem, a clear, detailed exposition of Grayson''s convexity theorem, a systematic discussion of invariant solutions, applications to the existence of simple closed geodesics on a surface, and a new, almost convexity theorem for the generalized curve shortening problem.Many questions regarding curve shortening remain outstanding. With its careful exposition and complete guide to the literature, The Curve Shortening Problem provides not only an outstanding starting point for graduate students and new investigations, but a superb reference that presents intriguing new results for those already active in the field.

  5. Vascular flora and macroscopic fauna on the Fernow Experimental Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darlene M. Madarish; Jane L. Rodrigue; Mary Beth Adams

    2002-01-01

    This report is the first comprehensive inventory of the vascular flora and macroscopic fauna known to occur within the Fernow Experimental Forest in north-central West Virignia. The compendium is based on information obtained from previous surveys, current research, and the personal observations of USDA Forest Service personnel and independent scientists. More than 750...

  6. On the problem of contextuality in macroscopic magnetization measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soeda, Akihito; Kurzyński, Paweł; Ramanathan, Ravishankar; Grudka, Andrzej; Thompson, Jayne; Kaszlikowski, Dagomir

    2013-01-01

    We show that sharp measurements of total magnetization cannot be used to reveal contextuality in macroscopic many-body systems of spins of arbitrary dimension. We decompose each such measurement into set of projectors corresponding to well-defined value of total magnetization. We then show that such sets of projectors are too restricted to construct Kochen–Specker sets.

  7. Photoinduced macroscopic chiral structures in a series of azobenzene copolyesters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedelchev, L.; Nikolova, L.; Matharu, A.

    2002-01-01

    A study of the propagation of elliptically polarized light and the resulting formation of macroscopic chiral structures in a series of azobenzene side-chain copolyesters, in which the morphology is varied from liquid crystalline to amorphous, is reported. Real-time measurements are presented...

  8. Modification of the Charlesby law. Pt. 2. Macroscopic sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiltz, A.; Weil, A.; Paniez, P.

    1984-01-01

    In part II, results are presented showing that for doses below macroscopic sensitivity, Qsub(sm), degradation due to fluence of the particles seems to be non-uniform over the entire area. In the light of this, a modification of the Charlesby's law is proposed providing a solution to the problems considered in part I [fr

  9. Charge of a macroscopic particle in a plasma sheath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samarian, A.A.; Vladimirov, S.V.

    2003-01-01

    Charging of a macroscopic body levitating in a rf plasma sheath is studied experimentally and theoretically. The nonlinear charge vs size dependence is obtained. The observed nonlinearity is explained on the basis of an approach taking into account different plasma conditions for the levitation positions of different particles. The importance of suprathermal electrons' contribution to the charging process is demonstrated

  10. Macroscopic Fundamental Diagram for pedestrian networks : Theory and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogendoorn, S.P.; Daamen, W.; Knoop, V.L.; Steenbakkers, Jeroen; Sarvi, Majid

    2017-01-01

    The Macroscopic Fundamental diagram (MFD) has proven to be a powerful concept in understanding and managing vehicular network dynamics, both from a theoretical angle and from a more application-oriented perspective. In this contribution, we explore the existence and the characteristics of the

  11. Emergence of an urban traffic macroscopic fundamental diagram

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ranjan, Abhishek; Fosgerau, Mogens; Jenelius, Erik

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines mild conditions under which a macroscopic fundamental diagram (MFD) emerges, relating space-averaged speed to occupancy in some area. These conditions are validated against empirical data. We allow local speedoccupancy relationships and, in particular, require no equilibrating...

  12. Stereodynamics: From elementary processes to macroscopic chemical reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasai, Toshio [Department of Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Graduate School of Science, Department of Chemistry, Osaka University, Toyonaka, 560-0043 Osaka (Japan); Che, Dock-Chil [Graduate School of Science, Department of Chemistry, Osaka University, Toyonaka, 560-0043 Osaka (Japan); Tsai, Po-Yu [Department of Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Department of Chemistry, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Lin, King-Chuen [Department of Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Palazzetti, Federico [Scuola Normale Superiore, Pisa (Italy); Dipartimento di Chimica Biologia e Biotecnologie, Università di Perugia, 06123 Perugia (Italy); Aquilanti, Vincenzo [Dipartimento di Chimica Biologia e Biotecnologie, Università di Perugia, 06123 Perugia (Italy); Istituto di Struttura della Materia, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Roma (Italy); Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador (Brazil)

    2015-12-31

    This paper aims at discussing new facets on stereodynamical behaviors in chemical reactions, i.e. the effects of molecular orientation and alignment on reactive processes. Further topics on macroscopic processes involving deviations from Arrhenius behavior in the temperature dependence of chemical reactions and chirality effects in collisions are also discussed.

  13. Macroscopic realism and quantum measurement: measurers as a natural kind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeger, Gregg

    2014-01-01

    The notion of macroscopic realism has been used in attempts to achieve consistency between physics and everyday experience and to locate some boundary between the realms of classical mechanics and quantum meachanics. Its ostensibly underlying conceptual components, realism and macroscopicity, have most often appeared in the foundations of physics in relation to quantum measurement: reality became a prominent topic of discussion in quantum physics after the notion of element of reality was defined and used by Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen in that context, and macroscopicity is often explicitly assumed to be an essential property of any measuring apparatus. However, macroscopicity turns out to be a rather vaguer and less consistently understood notion than typically assumed by physicists who have not explicitly explored the notion themselves. For this reason, it behooves those investigating the foundations of quantum mechanics from a realist perspective to look for alternative notions for grounding quantum measurement. Here, the merits of treating the measuring instrument as a ‘natural kind’ as a means of avoiding anthropocentrism in the foundations of quantum measurement are pointed out as a means of advancing quantum measurement theory. (paper)

  14. Microstructure and macroscopic properties of polydisperse systems of hard spheres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ogarko, V.

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation describes an investigation of systems of polydisperse smooth hard spheres. This includes the development of a fast contact detection algorithm for computer modelling, the development of macroscopic constitutive laws that are based on microscopic features such as the moments of the

  15. Macroscopic domain formation in the platelet plasma membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bali, Rachna; Savino, Laura; Ramirez, Diego A.

    2009-01-01

    There has been ample debate on whether cell membranes can present macroscopic lipid domains as predicted by three-component phase diagrams obtained by fluorescence microscopy. Several groups have argued that membrane proteins and interactions with the cytoskeleton inhibit the formation of large d...

  16. Macroscopic charge quantization in single-electron devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burmistrov, I.S.; Pruisken, A.M.M.

    2010-01-01

    In a recent paper by the authors [I. S. Burmistrov and A. M. M. Pruisken, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 056801 (2008)] it was shown that single-electron devices (single-electron transistor or SET) display "macroscopic charge quantization" which is completely analogous to the quantum Hall effect observed on

  17. Macroscopic and microscopic magnetism of metal-metalloid amorphous alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasconcellos, M.A.Z.; Fichtner, P.F.P.; Livi, F.P.; Costa, M.I. da; Baibich, M.N.

    1984-01-01

    In this paper is investigated the interrelation between macroscopic and microscopic magnetic phenomena using experimetnal data from Moessbauer effect and the magnetization of layers of amorphous (Fe 1-x Ni x ) 80 B 20 . The Moessbauer effect measurement show a distribution of hyperfine fields in Fe site as well as a likely distribution of isomeric shifts (M.W.O.) [pt

  18. Macroscopic quantum phenomena from the large N perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, C H; Hu, B L; Subasi, Y

    2011-01-01

    Macroscopic quantum phenomena (MQP) is a relatively new research venue, with exciting ongoing experiments and bright prospects, yet with surprisingly little theoretical activity. What makes MQP intellectually stimulating is because it is counterpoised against the traditional view that macroscopic means classical. This simplistic and hitherto rarely challenged view need be scrutinized anew, perhaps with much of the conventional wisdoms repealed. In this series of papers we report on a systematic investigation into some key foundational issues of MQP, with the hope of constructing a viable theoretical framework for this new endeavour. The three major themes discussed in these three essays are the large N expansion, the correlation hierarchy and quantum entanglement for systems of 'large' sizes, with many components or degrees of freedom. In this paper we use different theories in a variety of contexts to examine the conditions or criteria whereby a macroscopic quantum system may take on classical attributes, and, more interestingly, that it keeps some of its quantum features. The theories we consider here are, the O(N) quantum mechanical model, semiclassical stochastic gravity and gauge / string theories; the contexts include that of a 'quantum roll' in inflationary cosmology, entropy generation in quantum Vlasov equation for plasmas, the leading order and next-to-leading order large N behaviour, and hydrodynamic / thermodynamic limits. The criteria for classicality in our consideration include the use of uncertainty relations, the correlation between classical canonical variables, randomization of quantum phase, environment-induced decoherence, decoherent history of hydrodynamic variables, etc. All this exercise is to ask only one simple question: Is it really so surprising that quantum features can appear in macroscopic objects? By examining different representative systems where detailed theoretical analysis has been carried out, we find that there is no a priori

  19. The origins of macroscopic quantum coherence in high temperature superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, Philip; Nottale, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We propose a new theoretical approach to superconductivity in p-type cuprates. • Electron pairing mechanisms in the superconducting and pseudogap phases are proposed. • A scale free network of dopants is key to macroscopic quantum coherence. - Abstract: A new, theoretical approach to macroscopic quantum coherence and superconductivity in the p-type (hole doped) cuprates is proposed. The theory includes mechanisms to account for e-pair coupling in the superconducting and pseudogap phases and their inter relations observed in these materials. Electron pair coupling in the superconducting phase is facilitated by local quantum potentials created by static dopants in a mechanism which explains experimentally observed optimal doping levels and the associated peak in critical temperature. By contrast, evidence suggests that electrons contributing to the pseudogap are predominantly coupled by fractal spin waves (fractons) induced by the fractal arrangement of dopants. On another level, the theory offers new insights into the emergence of a macroscopic quantum potential generated by a fractal distribution of dopants. This, in turn, leads to the emergence of coherent, macroscopic spin waves and a second associated macroscopic quantum potential, possibly supported by charge order. These quantum potentials play two key roles. The first involves the transition of an expected diffusive process (normally associated with Anderson localization) in fractal networks, into e-pair coherence. The second involves the facilitation of tunnelling between localized e-pairs. These combined effects lead to the merger of the super conducting and pseudo gap phases into a single coherent condensate at optimal doping. The underlying theory relating to the diffusion to quantum transition is supported by Coherent Random Lasing, which can be explained using an analogous approach. As a final step, an experimental program is outlined to validate the theory and suggests a new

  20. Learning Curve? Which One?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Prochno

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Learning curves have been studied for a long time. These studies provided strong support to the hypothesis that, as organizations produce more of a product, unit costs of production decrease at a decreasing rate (see Argote, 1999 for a comprehensive review of learning curve studies. But the organizational mechanisms that lead to these results are still underexplored. We know some drivers of learning curves (ADLER; CLARK, 1991; LAPRE et al., 2000, but we still lack a more detailed view of the organizational processes behind those curves. Through an ethnographic study, I bring a comprehensive account of the first year of operations of a new automotive plant, describing what was taking place on in the assembly area during the most relevant shifts of the learning curve. The emphasis is then on how learning occurs in that setting. My analysis suggests that the overall learning curve is in fact the result of an integration process that puts together several individual ongoing learning curves in different areas throughout the organization. In the end, I propose a model to understand the evolution of these learning processes and their supporting organizational mechanisms.

  1. The crime kuznets curve

    OpenAIRE

    Buonanno, Paolo; Fergusson, Leopoldo; Vargas, Juan Fernando

    2014-01-01

    We document the existence of a Crime Kuznets Curve in US states since the 1970s. As income levels have risen, crime has followed an inverted U-shaped pattern, first increasing and then dropping. The Crime Kuznets Curve is not explained by income inequality. In fact, we show that during the sample period inequality has risen monotonically with income, ruling out the traditional Kuznets Curve. Our finding is robust to adding a large set of controls that are used in the literature to explain the...

  2. Bond yield curve construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kožul Nataša

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the broadest sense, yield curve indicates the market's view of the evolution of interest rates over time. However, given that cost of borrowing it closely linked to creditworthiness (ability to repay, different yield curves will apply to different currencies, market sectors, or even individual issuers. As government borrowing is indicative of interest rate levels available to other market players in a particular country, and considering that bond issuance still remains the dominant form of sovereign debt, this paper describes yield curve construction using bonds. The relationship between zero-coupon yield, par yield and yield to maturity is given and their usage in determining curve discount factors is described. Their usage in deriving forward rates and pricing related derivative instruments is also discussed.

  3. SRHA calibration curve

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — an UV calibration curve for SRHA quantitation. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Chang, X., and D. Bouchard. Surfactant-Wrapped Multiwalled...

  4. Bragg Curve Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruhn, C.R.

    1981-05-01

    An alternative utilization is presented for the gaseous ionization chamber in the detection of energetic heavy ions, which is called Bragg Curve Spectroscopy (BCS). Conceptually, BCS involves using the maximum data available from the Bragg curve of the stopping heavy ion (HI) for purposes of identifying the particle and measuring its energy. A detector has been designed that measures the Bragg curve with high precision. From the Bragg curve the range from the length of the track, the total energy from the integral of the specific ionization over the track, the dE/dx from the specific ionization at the beginning of the track, and the Bragg peak from the maximum of the specific ionization of the HI are determined. This last signal measures the atomic number, Z, of the HI unambiguously

  5. ROBUST DECLINE CURVE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutawanir Darwis

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Empirical decline curve analysis of oil production data gives reasonable answer in hyperbolic type curves situations; however the methodology has limitations in fitting real historical production data in present of unusual observations due to the effect of the treatment to the well in order to increase production capacity. The development ofrobust least squares offers new possibilities in better fitting production data using declinecurve analysis by down weighting the unusual observations. This paper proposes a robustleast squares fitting lmRobMM approach to estimate the decline rate of daily production data and compares the results with reservoir simulation results. For case study, we usethe oil production data at TBA Field West Java. The results demonstrated that theapproach is suitable for decline curve fitting and offers a new insight in decline curve analysis in the present of unusual observations.

  6. Power Curve Measurements FGW

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgieva Yankova, Ginka; Federici, Paolo

    This report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given turbine in a chosen period. The measurements are carried out in accordance to IEC 61400-12-1 Ed. 1 and FGW Teil 2.......This report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given turbine in a chosen period. The measurements are carried out in accordance to IEC 61400-12-1 Ed. 1 and FGW Teil 2....

  7. Curves and Abelian varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Alexeev, Valery; Clemens, C Herbert; Beauville, Arnaud

    2008-01-01

    This book is devoted to recent progress in the study of curves and abelian varieties. It discusses both classical aspects of this deep and beautiful subject as well as two important new developments, tropical geometry and the theory of log schemes. In addition to original research articles, this book contains three surveys devoted to singularities of theta divisors, of compactified Jacobians of singular curves, and of "strange duality" among moduli spaces of vector bundles on algebraic varieties.

  8. A macroscopic constitutive model of temperature-induced phase transition of polycrystalline Ni2MnGa by directional solidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Yuping; Gu, Yunling; Liu, Hongguang

    2015-01-01

    Directional solidification technology has been widely used to improve the properties of polycrystalline Ni 2 MnGa materials. Mechanical training can adjust the internal organizational structures of the materials, reduce the stress of twin boundaries motion, and then result in larger strain at lower outfield levels. In this paper, we test the microscopic structure of Ni 2 MnGa polycrystalline ferromagnetic shape memory alloy produced by directional solidification and compress it along two axes successively for mechanical training. The influences of pre-compressive stresses on the temperature-induced strains are analyzed. The macroscopic mechanical behaviors show anisotropy. According to the generating mechanism of the macroscopic strain, a three-dimensional constitutive model is established. Based on thermodynamic method, the kinetic equations of the martensitic transformation and inverse transformation are presented considering the driving force and energy dissipation. The prediction curves of temperature-induce strains along two different directions are investigated. And the results coincide well with the experiment data. It well explains the macroscopic anisotropy mechanical behaviors and fits for using in engineering

  9. Wave speeds in the macroscopic extended model for ultrarelativistic gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borghero, F., E-mail: borghero@unica.it [Dip. Matematica e Informatica, Università di Cagliari, Via Ospedale 72, 09124 Cagliari (Italy); Demontis, F., E-mail: fdemontis@unica.it [Dip. Matematica, Università di Cagliari, Viale Merello 92, 09123 Cagliari (Italy); Pennisi, S., E-mail: spennisi@unica.it [Dip. Matematica, Università di Cagliari, Via Ospedale 72, 09124 Cagliari (Italy)

    2013-11-15

    Equations determining wave speeds for a model of ultrarelativistic gases are investigated. This model is already present in literature; it deals with an arbitrary number of moments and it was proposed in the context of exact macroscopic approaches in Extended Thermodynamics. We find these results: the whole system for the determination of the wave speeds can be divided into independent subsystems which are expressed by linear combinations, through scalar coefficients, of tensors all of the same order; some wave speeds, but not all of them, are expressed by square roots of rational numbers; finally, we prove that these wave speeds for the macroscopic model are the same of those furnished by the kinetic model.

  10. Analysis and Enhancements of a Prolific Macroscopic Model of Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Fietkiewicz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Macroscopic models of epilepsy can deliver surprisingly realistic EEG simulations. In the present study, a prolific series of models is evaluated with regard to theoretical and computational concerns, and enhancements are developed. Specifically, we analyze three aspects of the models: (1 Using dynamical systems analysis, we demonstrate and explain the presence of direct current potentials in the simulated EEG that were previously undocumented. (2 We explain how the system was not ideally formulated for numerical integration of stochastic differential equations. A reformulated system is developed to support proper methodology. (3 We explain an unreported contradiction in the published model specification regarding the use of a mathematical reduction method. We then use the method to reduce the number of equations and further improve the computational efficiency. The intent of our critique is to enhance the evolution of macroscopic modeling of epilepsy and assist others who wish to explore this exciting class of models further.

  11. Problems related to macroscopic electric fields in the magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faelthammar, C.

    1977-01-01

    The macroscopic electric fields in the magnetosphere originate from internal as well as external sources. The fields are intimately coupled with the dynamics of magnetospheric plasma convection. They also depend on the complicated electrical properties of the hot collisionless plasma. Macroscopic electric fields are responsible for some important kinds of energization of charged particles that take place in the magnetosphere and affect not only particles of auroral energy but also, by multistep processes, trapped high-energy particles. A particularly interesting feature of magnetospheric electric fields is that they can have substantial components along the geomagnetic field, as has recently been confirmed by observations. Several physical mechanisms have been identified by which such electric fields can be supported even when collisions between particles are negligible. Comments are made on the magnetic mirror effect, anomalous resistivity, the collisionless thermoelectric effect, and electric double layers, emphasizing key features and differences and their significance in the light of recent observational data

  12. Macroscopic balance equations for two-phase flow models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, E.D.

    1979-01-01

    The macroscopic, or overall, balance equations of mass, momentum, and energy are derived for a two-fluid model of two-phase flows in complex geometries. These equations provide a base for investigating methods of incorporating improved analysis methods into computer programs, such as RETRAN, which are used for transient and steady-state thermal-hydraulic analyses of nuclear steam supply systems. The equations are derived in a very general manner so that three-dimensional, compressible flows can be analysed. The equations obtained supplement the various partial differential equation two-fluid models of two-phase flow which have recently appeared in the literature. The primary objective of the investigation is the macroscopic balance equations. (Auth.)

  13. Macroscopic phase separation in high-temperature superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Hai-Hu

    2000-01-01

    High-temperature superconductivity is recovered by introducing extra holes to the Cu-O planes, which initially are insulating with antiferromagnetism. In this paper I present data to show the macroscopic electronic phase separation that is caused by either mobile doping or electronic instability in the overdoped region. My results clearly demonstrate that the electronic inhomogeneity is probably a general feature of high-temperature superconductors. PMID:11027323

  14. Negative heat capacity at phase-separation in macroscopic systems

    OpenAIRE

    Gross, D. H. E.

    2005-01-01

    Systems with long-range as well with short-range interactions should necessarily have a convex entropy S(E) at proper phase transitions of first order, i.e. when a separation of phases occurs. Here the microcanonical heat capacity c(E)= -\\frac{(\\partial S/\\partial E)^2}{\\partial^2S/\\partial E^2} is negative. This should be observable even in macroscopic systems when energy fluctuations with the surrounding world can be sufficiently suppressed.

  15. Extension of Seismic Scanning Tunneling Macroscope to Elastic Waves

    KAUST Repository

    Tarhini, Ahmad

    2017-11-06

    The theory for the seismic scanning tunneling macroscope is extended from acoustic body waves to elastic body-wave propagation. We show that, similar to the acoustic case, near-field superresolution imaging from elastic body waves results from the O(1/R) term, where R is the distance between the source and near-field scatterer. The higher-order contributions R−n for n>1 are cancelled in the near-field region for a point source with normal stress.

  16. A macroscopic model for magnetic shape-memory single crystals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bessoud, A. L.; Kružík, Martin; Stefanelli, U.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 2 (2013), s. 343-359 ISSN 0044-2275 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100750802; GA ČR GAP201/10/0357 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : magnetostriction * evolution Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.214, year: 2013 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2012/MTR/kruzik-a macroscopic model for magnetic shape- memory single crystals.pdf

  17. Extension of Seismic Scanning Tunneling Macroscope to Elastic Waves

    KAUST Repository

    Tarhini, Ahmad; Guo, Bowen; Dutta, Gaurav; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2017-01-01

    The theory for the seismic scanning tunneling macroscope is extended from acoustic body waves to elastic body-wave propagation. We show that, similar to the acoustic case, near-field superresolution imaging from elastic body waves results from the O(1/R) term, where R is the distance between the source and near-field scatterer. The higher-order contributions R−n for n>1 are cancelled in the near-field region for a point source with normal stress.

  18. Toward a superconducting quantum computer. Harnessing macroscopic quantum coherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jaw-Shen

    2010-01-01

    Intensive research on the construction of superconducting quantum computers has produced numerous important achievements. The quantum bit (qubit), based on the Josephson junction, is at the heart of this research. This macroscopic system has the ability to control quantum coherence. This article reviews the current state of quantum computing as well as its history, and discusses its future. Although progress has been rapid, the field remains beset with unsolved issues, and there are still many new research opportunities open to physicists and engineers.

  19. Pseudo-Goldstone bosons and new macroscopic forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, C.T.; Ross, G.G.

    1988-01-01

    Pseudoscalar Goldstone bosons may readily be associated with weakly, explicitly broken symmetries giving them mixed CP quantum numbers. In general this leads to scalar couplings to nucleons and leptons, which produces coherent long range forces. This can naturally accommodate detectable long range macroscopic forces mediated by bosons completely consistent with conventional cosmological limits, e.g., new interactions with the range of present 'fifth force' searches which probe a scale of new physics of f ≅ 10 14 GeV. (orig.)

  20. Macroscopic quantum electrodynamics of high-Q cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khanbekyan, Mikayel

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis macroscopic quantum electrodynamics in linear media was applied in order to develop an universally valid quantum theory for the description of the interaction of the electromagnetic field with atomic sources in high-Q cavities. In this theory a complete description of the characteristics of the emitted radiation is given. The theory allows to show the limits of the applicability of the usually applied theory. In order to establish an as possible generally valid theory first the atom-field interaction was studied in the framework of macroscopic quantum electrodynamics in dispersive and absorptive media. In order to describe the electromagnetic field from Maxwell's equations was started, whereby the noise-current densities, which are connected with the absorption of the medium, were included. The solution of these equations expresses the electromagnetic field variables by the noise-current densities by means of Green's tensor of the macroscopic Maxwell equations. The explicit quantization is performed by means of the noise-current densities, whereby a diagonal Hamiltonian is introduced, which then guarantees the time development according to Maxwell's equation and the fulfillment of the fundamental simultaneous commutation relations of the field variables. In the case of the interaction of the medium-supported field with atoms the Hamiltonian must be extended by atom-field interactions energies, whereby the canonical coupling schemes of the minimal or multipolar coupling can be used. The dieelectric properties of the material bodies as well as their shape are coded in the Green tensor of the macroscopic Maxwell equations. As preparing step first the Green tensor was specified in order to derive three-dimensional input-output relations for the electromagnetic field operators on a plane multilayer structure. Such a general dewscription of the electromagnetic field allows the inclusion both of dispersion and absorption of the media and the possible

  1. Macroscopic quantum mechanics: theory and experimental concepts of optomechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yanbei

    2013-01-01

    Rapid experimental progress has recently allowed the use of light to prepare macroscopic mechanical objects into nearly pure quantum states. This research field of quantum optomechanics opens new doors towards testing quantum mechanics, and possibly other laws of physics, in new regimes. In the first part of this article, I will review a set of techniques of quantum measurement theory that are often used to analyse quantum optomechanical systems. Some of these techniques were originally designed to analyse how a classical driving force passes through a quantum system, and can eventually be detected with an optimal signal-to-noise ratio—while others focus more on the quantum-state evolution of a mechanical object under continuous monitoring. In the second part of this article, I will review a set of experimental concepts that will demonstrate quantum mechanical behaviour of macroscopic objects—quantum entanglement, quantum teleportation and the quantum Zeno effect. Taking the interplay between gravity and quantum mechanics as an example, I will review a set of speculations on how quantum mechanics can be modified for macroscopic objects, and how these speculations—and their generalizations—might be tested by optomechanics. (invited review)

  2. The mirrors model: macroscopic diffusion without noise or chaos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiffaudel, Yann; Lefevere, Raphaël

    2016-01-01

    Before stating our main result, we first clarify through classical examples the status of the laws of macroscopic physics as laws of large numbers. We next consider the mirrors model in a finite d-dimensional domain and connected to particles reservoirs at fixed chemical potentials. The dynamics is purely deterministic and non-ergodic but takes place in a random environment. We study the macroscopic current of particles in the stationary regime. We show first that when the size of the system goes to infinity, the behaviour of the stationary current of particles is governed by the proportion of orbits crossing the system. This allows us to formulate a necessary and sufficient condition on the distribution of the set of orbits that ensures the validity of Fick’s law. Using this approach, we show that Fick’s law relating the stationary macroscopic current of particles to the concentration difference holds in three dimensions and above. The negative correlations between crossing orbits play a key role in the argument. (letter)

  3. Stochastic and Macroscopic Thermodynamics of Strongly Coupled Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Jarzynski

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We develop a thermodynamic framework that describes a classical system of interest S that is strongly coupled to its thermal environment E. Within this framework, seven key thermodynamic quantities—internal energy, entropy, volume, enthalpy, Gibbs free energy, heat, and work—are defined microscopically. These quantities obey thermodynamic relations including both the first and second law, and they satisfy nonequilibrium fluctuation theorems. We additionally impose a macroscopic consistency condition: When S is large, the quantities defined within our framework scale up to their macroscopic counterparts. By satisfying this condition, we demonstrate that a unifying framework can be developed, which encompasses both stochastic thermodynamics at one end, and macroscopic thermodynamics at the other. A central element in our approach is a thermodynamic definition of the volume of the system of interest, which converges to the usual geometric definition when S is large. We also sketch an alternative framework that satisfies the same consistency conditions. The dynamics of the system and environment are modeled using Hamilton’s equations in the full phase space.

  4. Macroscopic description of the limb muscles of Tupinambis merianae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Barbosa Casals

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Tegu lizard (Tupinambis merianae belongs to the Teiidae family. It is distributed throughout the Americas, with many species, including Brazilian ones. They are from the Tupinambis genus, the largest representatives of the Teiidae family. For this study three animals (run over coming from donation were used. The dissected lizards were fixed in 10%, formaldehyde, and the macroscopic analysis was carried out in a detailed and photo documented way, keeping the selected structures “in situ”. This paper had as its main aim contributing to the macroscopic description of the chest myology, as well as the thoracic and pelvic limbs of the lizard T. merianae. The results obtained from this research were compared to authors who have studied animals from the same Reptilia class. Thus, we conclude that our macroscopic results are similar to those already described by the researchers Hildebrand (1995, Moro and Abdala (2004 and Abdala and Diogo (2010. We should highlight that the knowledge on anatomy has importance and applications to various areas within Biology, contributing in a substantial way to the areas of human health and technology.

  5. Approximation by planar elastic curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brander, David; Gravesen, Jens; Nørbjerg, Toke Bjerge

    2016-01-01

    We give an algorithm for approximating a given plane curve segment by a planar elastic curve. The method depends on an analytic representation of the space of elastic curve segments, together with a geometric method for obtaining a good initial guess for the approximating curve. A gradient......-driven optimization is then used to find the approximating elastic curve....

  6. Micromechanical study of macroscopic friction and dissipation in idealised granular materials: the effect of interparticle friction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruyt, Nicolaas P.; Gutkowski, Witold; Rothenburg, L.; Kowalewski, Tomasz A.

    2004-01-01

    Using Discrete Element Method (DEM) simulations with varying interparticle friction coefficient, the relation between interparticle friction coefficient and macroscopic continuum friction and dissipation is investigated. As expected, macroscopic friction and dilatancy increase with interparticle

  7. Solvable Quantum Macroscopic Motions and Decoherence Mechanisms in Quantum Mechanics on Nonstandard Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Tsunehiro

    1996-01-01

    Quantum macroscopic motions are investigated in the scheme consisting of N-number of harmonic oscillators in terms of ultra-power representations of nonstandard analysis. Decoherence is derived from the large internal degrees of freedom of macroscopic matters.

  8. Power Curve Measurements REWS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Arranz, Paula; Vesth, Allan

    This report describes the power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine in a chosen period. The measurements were carried out following the measurement procedure in the draft of IEC 61400-12-1 Ed.2 [1], with some deviations mostly regarding uncertainty calculation. Here, the refere......This report describes the power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine in a chosen period. The measurements were carried out following the measurement procedure in the draft of IEC 61400-12-1 Ed.2 [1], with some deviations mostly regarding uncertainty calculation. Here......, the reference wind speed used in the power curve is the equivalent wind speed obtained from lidar measurements at several heights between lower and upper blade tip, in combination with a hub height meteorological mast. The measurements have been performed using DTU’s measurement equipment, the analysis...

  9. Curved electromagnetic missiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, J.M.; Shen, H.M.; Wu, T.T.

    1989-01-01

    Transient electromagnetic fields can exhibit interesting behavior in the limit of great distances from their sources. In situations of finite total radiated energy, the energy reaching a distant receiver can decrease with distance much more slowly than the usual r - 2 . Cases of such slow decrease have been referred to as electromagnetic missiles. All of the wide variety of known missiles propagate in essentially straight lines. A sketch is presented here of a missile that can follow a path that is strongly curved. An example of a curved electromagnetic missile is explicitly constructed and some of its properties are discussed. References to details available elsewhere are given

  10. Algebraic curves and cryptography

    CERN Document Server

    Murty, V Kumar

    2010-01-01

    It is by now a well-known paradigm that public-key cryptosystems can be built using finite Abelian groups and that algebraic geometry provides a supply of such groups through Abelian varieties over finite fields. Of special interest are the Abelian varieties that are Jacobians of algebraic curves. All of the articles in this volume are centered on the theme of point counting and explicit arithmetic on the Jacobians of curves over finite fields. The topics covered include Schoof's \\ell-adic point counting algorithm, the p-adic algorithms of Kedlaya and Denef-Vercauteren, explicit arithmetic on

  11. IGMtransmission: Transmission curve computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Christopher M.; Meiksin, Avery; Stock, David

    2015-04-01

    IGMtransmission is a Java graphical user interface that implements Monte Carlo simulations to compute the corrections to colors of high-redshift galaxies due to intergalactic attenuation based on current models of the Intergalactic Medium. The effects of absorption due to neutral hydrogen are considered, with particular attention to the stochastic effects of Lyman Limit Systems. Attenuation curves are produced, as well as colors for a wide range of filter responses and model galaxy spectra. Photometric filters are included for the Hubble Space Telescope, the Keck telescope, the Mt. Palomar 200-inch, the SUBARU telescope and UKIRT; alternative filter response curves and spectra may be readily uploaded.

  12. Charge carrier transport in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin-film solar-cells studied by electron beam induced current and temperature and illumination dependent current voltage analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichterwitz, Melanie

    2012-01-01

    This work contributes to the understanding of generation dependent charge-carrier transport properties in Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 (CIGSe)/ CdS/ ZnO solar cells and a consistent model for the electronic band diagram of the heterojunction region of the device is developed. Cross section electron-beam induced current (EBIC) and temperature and illumination dependent current voltage (IV) measurements are performed on CIGSe solar cells with varying absorber layer compositions and CdS thickness. For a better understanding of possibilities and limitations of EBIC measurements applied on CIGSe solar cells, detailed numerical simulations of cross section EBIC profiles for varying electron beam and solar cell parameters are performed and compared to profiles obtained from an analytical description. Especially the effects of high injection conditions are considered. Even though the collection function of the solar cell is not independent of the generation function of the electron beam, the local electron diffusion length in CIGSe can still be extracted. Grain specific values ranging from (480±70) nm to (2.3±0.2) μm are determined for a CuInSe 2 absorber layer and a value of (2.8±0.3) μm for CIGSe with a Ga-content of 0.3. There are several models discussed in literature to explain generation dependent charge carrier transport, all assuming a high acceptor density either located in the CIGSe layer close to the CIGSe/CdS interface (p + layer), within the CdS layer or at the CdS/ZnO interface. In all models, a change in charge carrier collection properties is caused by a generation dependent occupation probability of the acceptor type defect state and the resulting potential distribution throughout the device. Numerical simulations of EBIC and IV data are performed with parameters according to these models. The model that explains the experimental data best is that of a p + layer at the CIGSe/CdS interface and acceptor type defect states at the CdS/ZnO interface. The p + layer leads

  13. In regard to the question of macroscopic differential diagnosis of alcoholic and dilated cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Sokolova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The differential diagnosis of alcoholic and dilated cardiomyopathy according to the macroscopic data is represented in the article. The identity of macroscopic changes of heart, related to alcoholic and dilated cardiomyopathy, cannot diagnose these diseases based on the macroscopic characteristics; especially if there are no other visceral manifestations typical for chronic alcoholism.

  14. Learning from uncertain curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mallasto, Anton; Feragen, Aasa

    2017-01-01

    We introduce a novel framework for statistical analysis of populations of nondegenerate Gaussian processes (GPs), which are natural representations of uncertain curves. This allows inherent variation or uncertainty in function-valued data to be properly incorporated in the population analysis. Us...

  15. Power Curve Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Federici, Paolo; Kock, Carsten Weber

    This report describes the power curve measurements performed with a nacelle LIDAR on a given wind turbine in a wind farm and during a chosen measurement period. The measurements and analysis are carried out in accordance to the guidelines in the procedure “DTU Wind Energy-E-0019” [1]. The reporting...

  16. Power Curve Measurements, FGW

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesth, Allan; Kock, Carsten Weber

    The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A site calibration has been carried out; see Ref. [2], and the measured flow correction factors for different wind directions are used in the present...... analyze of power performance of the turbine....

  17. Power Curve Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Federici, Paolo; Vesth, Allan

    The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A site calibration has been carried out; see Ref. [2], and the measured flow correction factors for different wind directions are used in the present...... analyze of power performance of the turbine....

  18. Power Curve Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva, Héctor; Gómez Arranz, Paula

    The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A site calibration has been carried out; see Ref. [2], and the measured flow correction factors for different wind directions are used in the present...... analyze of power performance of the turbine...

  19. Carbon Lorenz Curves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, L.F.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073642398

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, it exhibits that standard tools in the measurement of income inequality, such as the Lorenz curve and the Gini-index, can successfully be applied to the issues of inequality measurement of carbon emissions and the equity of abatement policies across

  20. The Axial Curve Rotator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Walter M.

    This document contains detailed directions for constructing a device that mechanically produces the three-dimensional shape resulting from the rotation of any algebraic line or curve around either axis on the coordinate plant. The device was developed in response to student difficulty in visualizing, and thus grasping the mathematical principles…

  1. Nacelle lidar power curve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Arranz, Paula; Wagner, Rozenn

    This report describes the power curve measurements performed with a nacelle LIDAR on a given wind turbine in a wind farm and during a chosen measurement period. The measurements and analysis are carried out in accordance to the guidelines in the procedure “DTU Wind Energy-E-0019” [1]. The reporting...

  2. Power curve report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesth, Allan; Kock, Carsten Weber

    The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A site calibration has been carried out; see Ref. [2], and the measured flow correction factors for different wind directions are used in the present...

  3. Textbook Factor Demand Curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Joe C.

    1994-01-01

    Maintains that teachers and textbook graphics follow the same basic pattern in illustrating changes in demand curves when product prices increase. Asserts that the use of computer graphics will enable teachers to be more precise in their graphic presentation of price elasticity. (CFR)

  4. ECM using Edwards curves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernstein, D.J.; Birkner, P.; Lange, T.; Peters, C.P.

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces EECM-MPFQ, a fast implementation of the elliptic-curve method of factoring integers. EECM-MPFQ uses fewer modular multiplications than the well-known GMP-ECM software, takes less time than GMP-ECM, and finds more primes than GMP-ECM. The main improvements above the

  5. Power Curve Measurements FGW

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Federici, Paolo; Kock, Carsten Weber

    The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A site calibration has been carried out; see Ref. [2], and the measured flow correction factors for different wind directions are used in the present...... analyze of power performance of the turbine...

  6. Macroscopic polarization in crystalline dielectrics: the geometric phase approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resta, R.

    1994-01-01

    The macroscopic electric polarization of a crystal is often defined as the dipole of a unit cell. In fact, such a dipole moment is ill defined, and the above definition is incorrect. Looking more closely, the quantity generally measured is differential polarization, defined with respect to a ''reference state'' of the same material. Such differential polarizations include either derivatives of the polarization (dielectric permittivity, Born effective charges, piezoelectricity, pyroelectricity) or finite differences (ferroelectricity). On the theoretical side, the differential concept is basic as well. Owing to continuity, a polarization difference is equivalent to a macroscopic current, which is directly accessible to the theory as a bulk property. Polarization is a quantum phenomenon and cannot be treated with a classical model, particularly whenever delocalized valence electrons are present in the dielectric. In a quantum picture, the current is basically a property of the phase of the wave functions, as opposed to the charge, which is a property of their modulus. An elegant and complete theory has recently been developed by King-Smith and Vanderbilt, in which the polarization difference between any two crystal states--in a null electric field--takes the form of a geometric quantum phase. This gives a comprehensive account of this theory, which is relevant for dealing with transverse-optic phonons, piezoelectricity, and ferroelectricity. Its relation to the established concepts of linear-response theory is also discussed. Within the geometric phase approach, the relevant polarization difference occurs as the circuit integral of a Berry connection (or ''vector potential''), while the corresponding curvature (or ''magnetic field'') provides the macroscopic linear response

  7. Macroscopic influence on the spontaneous symmetry breaking in quantum field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirzhnitz, D.A.

    1977-01-01

    Major results of investigations concerning macroscopic influence (heating, compression, external field and current) on elementary particle systems with spontaneous symmetry breaking are briefly reviewed. The study of this problem has been stimulated by recent progress in the unified renormalizable theory of elementary particles. Typically it appears that at some values of external parameters a phase transition with symmetry restoration takes place. There exists a profound and far going analogy with phase transition in many-body physics especially with superconductivity phenomenon. Some applications to cosmology are also considered

  8. Macroscopic relationship in primal-dual portfolio optimization problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinzato, Takashi

    2018-02-01

    In the present paper, using a replica analysis, we examine the portfolio optimization problem handled in previous work and discuss the minimization of investment risk under constraints of budget and expected return for the case that the distribution of the hyperparameters of the mean and variance of the return rate of each asset are not limited to a specific probability family. Findings derived using our proposed method are compared with those in previous work to verify the effectiveness of our proposed method. Further, we derive a Pythagorean theorem of the Sharpe ratio and macroscopic relations of opportunity loss. Using numerical experiments, the effectiveness of our proposed method is demonstrated for a specific situation.

  9. The Two-Time Interpretation and Macroscopic Time-Reversibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakir Aharonov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The two-state vector formalism motivates a time-symmetric interpretation of quantum mechanics that entails a resolution of the measurement problem. We revisit a post-selection-assisted collapse model previously suggested by us, claiming that unlike the thermodynamic arrow of time, it can lead to reversible dynamics at the macroscopic level. In addition, the proposed scheme enables us to characterize the classical-quantum boundary. We discuss the limitations of this approach and its broad implications for other areas of physics.

  10. Seismic scanning tunneling macroscope - Elastic simulations and Arizona mine test

    KAUST Repository

    Hanafy, Sherif M.; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2012-01-01

    Elastic seismic simulations and field data tests are used to validate the theory of a seismic scanning tunneling macroscope (SSTM). For nearfield elastic simulation, the SSTM results show superresolution to be better than λ/8 if the only scattered data are used as input data. If the direct P and S waves are muted then the resolution of the scatterer locations are within about λ/5. Seismic data collected in an Arizona tunnel showed a superresolution limit of at least λ/19. These test results are consistent with the theory of the SSTM and suggest that the SSTM can be a tool used by geophysicists as a probe for near-field scatterers.

  11. GRUCAL, a computer program for calculating macroscopic group constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woll, D.

    1975-06-01

    Nuclear reactor calculations require material- and composition-dependent, energy averaged nuclear data to describe the interaction of neutrons with individual isotopes in material compositions of reactor zones. The code GRUCAL calculates these macroscopic group constants for given compositions from the material-dependent data of the group constant library GRUBA. The instructions for calculating group constants are not fixed in the program, but will be read at the actual execution time from a separate instruction file. This allows to accomodate GRUCAL to various problems or different group constant concepts. (orig.) [de

  12. Conductance fluctuations in a macroscopic 3-dimensional Anderson insulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanquer, M.

    1990-01-01

    We report magnetoconductance experiment on a amorphous Y x -Si 1-x alloy (∼0.3). which is an Anderson insulator where spin-orbit scattering is strong. Two principal and new features emerge from the data: the first one is an halving of the localization length by the application of a magnetic field of about 2.5 Teslas. This effect is predicted by a new approach of transport in Anderson insulators where basic symetry considerations are the most important ingredient. The second one is the observation of reproducible conductance fluctuations at very low temperature in this macroscopic 3 D amorphous material

  13. Codes and curves

    CERN Document Server

    Walker, Judy L

    2000-01-01

    When information is transmitted, errors are likely to occur. Coding theory examines efficient ways of packaging data so that these errors can be detected, or even corrected. The traditional tools of coding theory have come from combinatorics and group theory. Lately, however, coding theorists have added techniques from algebraic geometry to their toolboxes. In particular, by re-interpreting the Reed-Solomon codes, one can see how to define new codes based on divisors on algebraic curves. For instance, using modular curves over finite fields, Tsfasman, Vladut, and Zink showed that one can define a sequence of codes with asymptotically better parameters than any previously known codes. This monograph is based on a series of lectures the author gave as part of the IAS/PCMI program on arithmetic algebraic geometry. Here, the reader is introduced to the exciting field of algebraic geometric coding theory. Presenting the material in the same conversational tone of the lectures, the author covers linear codes, inclu...

  14. Carbon Lorenz Curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groot, L. [Utrecht University, Utrecht School of Economics, Janskerkhof 12, 3512 BL Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2008-11-15

    The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, it exhibits that standard tools in the measurement of income inequality, such as the Lorenz curve and the Gini-index, can successfully be applied to the issues of inequality measurement of carbon emissions and the equity of abatement policies across countries. These tools allow policy-makers and the general public to grasp at a single glance the impact of conventional distribution rules such as equal caps or grandfathering, or more sophisticated ones, on the distribution of greenhouse gas emissions. Second, using the Samuelson rule for the optimal provision of a public good, the Pareto-optimal distribution of carbon emissions is compared with the distribution that follows if countries follow Nash-Cournot abatement strategies. It is shown that the Pareto-optimal distribution under the Samuelson rule can be approximated by the equal cap division, represented by the diagonal in the Lorenz curve diagram.

  15. Dynamics of curved fronts

    CERN Document Server

    Pelce, Pierre

    1989-01-01

    In recent years, much progress has been made in the understanding of interface dynamics of various systems: hydrodynamics, crystal growth, chemical reactions, and combustion. Dynamics of Curved Fronts is an important contribution to this field and will be an indispensable reference work for researchers and graduate students in physics, applied mathematics, and chemical engineering. The book consist of a 100 page introduction by the editor and 33 seminal articles from various disciplines.

  16. International Wage Curves

    OpenAIRE

    David G. Blanchflower; Andrew J. Oswald

    1992-01-01

    The paper provides evidence for the existence of a negatively sloped locus linking the level of pay to the rate of regional (or industry) unemployment. This "wage curve" is estimated using microeconomic data for Britain, the US, Canada, Korea, Austria, Italy, Holland, Switzerland, Norway, and Germany, The average unemployment elasticity of pay is approximately -0.1. The paper sets out a multi-region efficiency wage model and argues that its predictions are consistent with the data.

  17. Anatomical curve identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Adrian W.; Katina, Stanislav; Smith, Joanna; Brown, Denise

    2015-01-01

    Methods for capturing images in three dimensions are now widely available, with stereo-photogrammetry and laser scanning being two common approaches. In anatomical studies, a number of landmarks are usually identified manually from each of these images and these form the basis of subsequent statistical analysis. However, landmarks express only a very small proportion of the information available from the images. Anatomically defined curves have the advantage of providing a much richer expression of shape. This is explored in the context of identifying the boundary of breasts from an image of the female torso and the boundary of the lips from a facial image. The curves of interest are characterised by ridges or valleys. Key issues in estimation are the ability to navigate across the anatomical surface in three-dimensions, the ability to recognise the relevant boundary and the need to assess the evidence for the presence of the surface feature of interest. The first issue is addressed by the use of principal curves, as an extension of principal components, the second by suitable assessment of curvature and the third by change-point detection. P-spline smoothing is used as an integral part of the methods but adaptations are made to the specific anatomical features of interest. After estimation of the boundary curves, the intermediate surfaces of the anatomical feature of interest can be characterised by surface interpolation. This allows shape variation to be explored using standard methods such as principal components. These tools are applied to a collection of images of women where one breast has been reconstructed after mastectomy and where interest lies in shape differences between the reconstructed and unreconstructed breasts. They are also applied to a collection of lip images where possible differences in shape between males and females are of interest. PMID:26041943

  18. Estimating Corporate Yield Curves

    OpenAIRE

    Antionio Diaz; Frank Skinner

    2001-01-01

    This paper represents the first study of retail deposit spreads of UK financial institutions using stochastic interest rate modelling and the market comparable approach. By replicating quoted fixed deposit rates using the Black Derman and Toy (1990) stochastic interest rate model, we find that the spread between fixed and variable rates of interest can be modeled (and priced) using an interest rate swap analogy. We also find that we can estimate an individual bank deposit yield curve as a spr...

  19. LCC: Light Curves Classifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Martin

    2017-08-01

    Light Curves Classifier uses data mining and machine learning to obtain and classify desired objects. This task can be accomplished by attributes of light curves or any time series, including shapes, histograms, or variograms, or by other available information about the inspected objects, such as color indices, temperatures, and abundances. After specifying features which describe the objects to be searched, the software trains on a given training sample, and can then be used for unsupervised clustering for visualizing the natural separation of the sample. The package can be also used for automatic tuning parameters of used methods (for example, number of hidden neurons or binning ratio). Trained classifiers can be used for filtering outputs from astronomical databases or data stored locally. The Light Curve Classifier can also be used for simple downloading of light curves and all available information of queried stars. It natively can connect to OgleII, OgleIII, ASAS, CoRoT, Kepler, Catalina and MACHO, and new connectors or descriptors can be implemented. In addition to direct usage of the package and command line UI, the program can be used through a web interface. Users can create jobs for ”training” methods on given objects, querying databases and filtering outputs by trained filters. Preimplemented descriptors, classifier and connectors can be picked by simple clicks and their parameters can be tuned by giving ranges of these values. All combinations are then calculated and the best one is used for creating the filter. Natural separation of the data can be visualized by unsupervised clustering.

  20. Macroscopic superposition states and decoherence by quantum telegraph noise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abel, Benjamin Simon

    2008-12-19

    In the first part of the present thesis we address the question about the size of superpositions of macroscopically distinct quantum states. We propose a measure for the ''size'' of a Schroedinger cat state, i.e. a quantum superposition of two many-body states with (supposedly) macroscopically distinct properties, by counting how many single-particle operations are needed to map one state onto the other. We apply our measure to a superconducting three-junction flux qubit put into a superposition of clockwise and counterclockwise circulating supercurrent states and find this Schroedinger cat to be surprisingly small. The unavoidable coupling of any quantum system to many environmental degrees of freedom leads to an irreversible loss of information about an initially prepared superposition of quantum states. This phenomenon, commonly referred to as decoherence or dephasing, is the subject of the second part of the thesis. We have studied the time evolution of the reduced density matrix of a two-level system (qubit) subject to quantum telegraph noise which is the major source of decoherence in Josephson charge qubits. We are able to derive an exact expression for the time evolution of the reduced density matrix. (orig.)

  1. An exploration for the macroscopic physical meaning of entropy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The macroscopic physical meaning of entropy is analyzed based on the exergy (availability) of a combined system (a closed system and its environment), which is the maximum amount of useful work obtainable from the system and the environment as the system is brought into equilibrium with the environment. The process the system experiences can be divided in two sequent sub-processes, the process at constant volume, which represents the heat interaction of the system with the environment, and the adiabatic process, which represents the work interaction of the system with the environment. It is shown that the macroscopic physical meaning of entropy is a measure of the unavailable energy of a closed system for doing useful work through heat interaction. This statement is more precise than those reported in prior literature. The unavailability function of a closed system can be defined as T0S and p0V in volume constant process and adiabatic process, respectively. Their changes, that is, AiTgS) and A (p0V) represent the unusable parts of the internal energy of a closed system for doing useful work in corresponding processes. Finally, the relation between Clausius entropy and Boltzmann entropy is discussed based on the comparison of their expressions for absolute entropy.

  2. Estimating minimum polycrystalline aggregate size for macroscopic material homogeneity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovac, M.; Simonovski, I.; Cizelj, L.

    2002-01-01

    During severe accidents the pressure boundary of reactor coolant system can be subjected to extreme loadings, which might cause failure. Reliable estimation of the extreme deformations can be crucial to determine the consequences of severe accidents. Important drawback of classical continuum mechanics is idealization of inhomogenous microstructure of materials. Classical continuum mechanics therefore cannot predict accurately the differences between measured responses of specimens, which are different in size but geometrical similar (size effect). A numerical approach, which models elastic-plastic behavior on mesoscopic level, is proposed to estimate minimum size of polycrystalline aggregate above which it can be considered macroscopically homogeneous. The main idea is to divide continuum into a set of sub-continua. Analysis of macroscopic element is divided into modeling the random grain structure (using Voronoi tessellation and random orientation of crystal lattice) and calculation of strain/stress field. Finite element method is used to obtain numerical solutions of strain and stress fields. The analysis is limited to 2D models.(author)

  3. Parametric equations for calculation of macroscopic cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botelho, Mario Hugo; Carvalho, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Neutronic calculations of the core of a nuclear reactor is one thing necessary and important for the design and management of a nuclear reactor in order to prevent accidents and control the reactor efficiently as possible. To perform these calculations a library of nuclear data, including cross sections is required. Currently, to obtain a cross section computer codes are used, which require a large amount of processing time and computer memory. This paper proposes the calculation of macroscopic cross section through the development of parametric equations. The paper illustrates the proposal for the case of macroscopic cross sections of absorption (Σa), which was chosen due to its greater complexity among other cross sections. Parametric equations created enable, quick and dynamic way, the determination of absorption cross sections, enabling the use of them in calculations of reactors. The results show efficient when compared with the absorption cross sections obtained by the ALPHA 8.8.1 code. The differences between the cross sections are less than 2% for group 2 and less than 0.60% for group 1. (author)

  4. A Macroscopic Multifractal Analysis of Parabolic Stochastic PDEs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshnevisan, Davar; Kim, Kunwoo; Xiao, Yimin

    2018-05-01

    It is generally argued that the solution to a stochastic PDE with multiplicative noise—such as \\dot{u}= 1/2 u''+uξ, where {ξ} denotes space-time white noise—routinely produces exceptionally-large peaks that are "macroscopically multifractal." See, for example, Gibbon and Doering (Arch Ration Mech Anal 177:115-150, 2005), Gibbon and Titi (Proc R Soc A 461:3089-3097, 2005), and Zimmermann et al. (Phys Rev Lett 85(17):3612-3615, 2000). A few years ago, we proved that the spatial peaks of the solution to the mentioned stochastic PDE indeed form a random multifractal in the macroscopic sense of Barlow and Taylor (J Phys A 22(13):2621-2626, 1989; Proc Lond Math Soc (3) 64:125-152, 1992). The main result of the present paper is a proof of a rigorous formulation of the assertion that the spatio-temporal peaks of the solution form infinitely-many different multifractals on infinitely-many different scales, which we sometimes refer to as "stretch factors." A simpler, though still complex, such structure is shown to also exist for the constant-coefficient version of the said stochastic PDE.

  5. Parameterized representation of macroscopic cross section for PWR reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiel, João Cláudio Batista; Carvalho da Silva, Fernando; Senra Martinez, Aquilino; Leal, Luiz C.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • This work describes a parameterized representation of the homogenized macroscopic cross section for PWR reactor. • Parameterization enables a quick determination of problem-dependent cross-sections to be used in few group calculations. • This work allows generating group cross-section data to perform PWR core calculations without computer code calculations. - Abstract: The purpose of this work is to describe, by means of Chebyshev polynomials, a parameterized representation of the homogenized macroscopic cross section for PWR fuel element as a function of soluble boron concentration, moderator temperature, fuel temperature, moderator density and 235 92 U enrichment. The cross-section data analyzed are fission, scattering, total, transport, absorption and capture. The parameterization enables a quick and easy determination of problem-dependent cross-sections to be used in few group calculations. The methodology presented in this paper will allow generation of group cross-section data from stored polynomials to perform PWR core calculations without the need to generate them based on computer code calculations using standard steps. The results obtained by the proposed methodology when compared with results from the SCALE code calculations show very good agreement

  6. Macroscopic Biological Characteristics of Individualized Therapy in Chinese Mongolian Osteopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namula, Zhao; Mei, Wang; Li, Xue-en

    Objective: Chinese Mongolian osteopathy has been passed down from ancient times and includes unique practices and favorable efficacy. In this study, we investigate the macroscopic biological characteristics of individualized Chinese Mongolian osteopathy, in order to provide new principle and methods for the treatment of bone fracture. Method: With a view to provide a vital link between nature and humans, the four stages of Chinese Mongolian osteopathy focus on the unity of the mind and body, the limbs and body organs, the body and its functions, and humans and nature. Results: We discuss the merits of individualized osteopathy in terms of the underlying concepts, and evaluate the approaches and principles of traditional medicine, as well as biomechanics. Conclusions: Individualized Mongolian osteopathy targets macroscopic biological components including dynamic reduction, natural fixation, and functional healing. Chinese Mongolian osteopathy is a natural, ecological and non-invasive osteopathy that values the link between nature and humans, including the unity of mind and body. The biological components not only serve as a foundation for Chinese Mongolian osteopathy but are also important for the future development of modern osteopathy, focusing on individualization, actualization and integration.

  7. Macroscopic superposition states and decoherence by quantum telegraph noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abel, Benjamin Simon

    2008-01-01

    In the first part of the present thesis we address the question about the size of superpositions of macroscopically distinct quantum states. We propose a measure for the ''size'' of a Schroedinger cat state, i.e. a quantum superposition of two many-body states with (supposedly) macroscopically distinct properties, by counting how many single-particle operations are needed to map one state onto the other. We apply our measure to a superconducting three-junction flux qubit put into a superposition of clockwise and counterclockwise circulating supercurrent states and find this Schroedinger cat to be surprisingly small. The unavoidable coupling of any quantum system to many environmental degrees of freedom leads to an irreversible loss of information about an initially prepared superposition of quantum states. This phenomenon, commonly referred to as decoherence or dephasing, is the subject of the second part of the thesis. We have studied the time evolution of the reduced density matrix of a two-level system (qubit) subject to quantum telegraph noise which is the major source of decoherence in Josephson charge qubits. We are able to derive an exact expression for the time evolution of the reduced density matrix. (orig.)

  8. Reversible optical control of macroscopic polarization in ferroelectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Marcos, Fernando; Ochoa, Diego A.; Del Campo, Adolfo; García, Miguel A.; Castro, Germán R.; Fernández, José F.; García, José E.

    2018-01-01

    The optical control of ferroic properties is a subject of fascination for the scientific community, because it involves the establishment of new paradigms for technology1-9. Domains and domain walls are known to have a great impact on the properties of ferroic materials1-24. Progress is currently being made in understanding the behaviour of the ferroelectric domain wall, especially regarding its dynamic control10-12,17,19. New research is being conducted to find effective methodologies capable of modulating ferroelectric domain motion for future electronics. However, the practical use of ferroelectric domain wall motion should be both stable and reversible (rewritable) and, in particular, be able to produce a macroscopic response that can be monitored easily12,17. Here, we show that it is possible to achieve a reversible optical change of ferroelectric domains configuration. This effect leads to the tuning of macroscopic polarization and its related properties by means of polarized light, a non-contact external control. Although this is only the first step, it nevertheless constitutes the most crucial one in the long and complex process of developing the next generation of photo-stimulated ferroelectric devices.

  9. Inverted rank distributions: Macroscopic statistics, universality classes, and critical exponents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliazar, Iddo; Cohen, Morrel H.

    2014-01-01

    An inverted rank distribution is an infinite sequence of positive sizes ordered in a monotone increasing fashion. Interlacing together Lorenzian and oligarchic asymptotic analyses, we establish a macroscopic classification of inverted rank distributions into five “socioeconomic” universality classes: communism, socialism, criticality, feudalism, and absolute monarchy. We further establish that: (i) communism and socialism are analogous to a “disordered phase”, feudalism and absolute monarchy are analogous to an “ordered phase”, and criticality is the “phase transition” between order and disorder; (ii) the universality classes are characterized by two critical exponents, one governing the ordered phase, and the other governing the disordered phase; (iii) communism, criticality, and absolute monarchy are characterized by sharp exponent values, and are inherently deterministic; (iv) socialism is characterized by a continuous exponent range, is inherently stochastic, and is universally governed by continuous power-law statistics; (v) feudalism is characterized by a continuous exponent range, is inherently stochastic, and is universally governed by discrete exponential statistics. The results presented in this paper yield a universal macroscopic socioeconophysical perspective of inverted rank distributions.

  10. A Macroscopic Multifractal Analysis of Parabolic Stochastic PDEs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshnevisan, Davar; Kim, Kunwoo; Xiao, Yimin

    2018-04-01

    It is generally argued that the solution to a stochastic PDE with multiplicative noise—such as \\dot{u}= 1/2 u''+uξ, where {ξ} denotes space-time white noise—routinely produces exceptionally-large peaks that are "macroscopically multifractal." See, for example, Gibbon and Doering (Arch Ration Mech Anal 177:115-150, 2005), Gibbon and Titi (Proc R Soc A 461:3089-3097, 2005), and Zimmermann et al. (Phys Rev Lett 85(17):3612-3615, 2000). A few years ago, we proved that the spatial peaks of the solution to the mentioned stochastic PDE indeed form a random multifractal in the macroscopic sense of Barlow and Taylor (J Phys A 22(13):2621-2626, 1989; Proc Lond Math Soc (3) 64:125-152, 1992). The main result of the present paper is a proof of a rigorous formulation of the assertion that the spatio-temporal peaks of the solution form infinitely-many different multifractals on infinitely-many different scales, which we sometimes refer to as "stretch factors." A simpler, though still complex, such structure is shown to also exist for the constant-coefficient version of the said stochastic PDE.

  11. Catalytic Growth of Macroscopic Carbon Nanofibers Bodies with Activated Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, N.; Rinaldi, A.; Muhammad, I. S.; Hamid, S. B. Abd.; Su, D. S.; Schlogl, R.

    2009-06-01

    Carbon-carbon composite of activated carbon and carbon nanofibers have been synthesized by growing Carbon nanofiber (CNF) on Palm shell-based Activated carbon (AC) with Ni catalyst. The composites are in an agglomerated shape due to the entanglement of the defective CNF between the AC particles forming a macroscopic body. The macroscopic size will allow the composite to be used as a stabile catalyst support and liquid adsorbent. The preparation of CNT/AC nanocarbon was initiated by pre-treating the activated carbon with nitric acid, followed by impregnation of 1 wt% loading of nickel (II) nitrate solutions in acetone. The catalyst precursor was calcined and reduced at 300° C for an hour in each step. The catalytic growth of nanocarbon in C2H4/H2 was carried out at temperature of 550° C for 2 hrs with different rotating angle in the fluidization system. SEM and N2 isotherms show the level of agglomeration which is a function of growth density and fluidization of the system. The effect of fluidization by rotating the reactor during growth with different speed give a significant impact on the agglomeration of the final CNF/AC composite and thus the amount of CNFs produced. The macrostructure body produced in this work of CNF/AC composite will have advantages in the adsorbent and catalyst support application, due to the mechanical and chemical properties of the material.

  12. Uniformization of elliptic curves

    OpenAIRE

    Ülkem, Özge; Ulkem, Ozge

    2015-01-01

    Every elliptic curve E defined over C is analytically isomorphic to C*=qZ for some q ∊ C*. Similarly, Tate has shown that if E is defined over a p-adic field K, then E is analytically isomorphic to K*=qZ for some q ∊ K . Further the isomorphism E(K) ≅ K*/qZ respects the action of the Galois group GK/K, where K is the algebraic closure of K. I will explain the construction of this isomorphism.

  13. Distinct molecular features of different macroscopic subtypes of colorectal neoplasms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenichi Konda

    Full Text Available Colorectal adenoma develops into cancer with the accumulation of genetic and epigenetic changes. We studied the underlying molecular and clinicopathological features to better understand the heterogeneity of colorectal neoplasms (CRNs.We evaluated both genetic (mutations of KRAS, BRAF, TP53, and PIK3CA, and microsatellite instability [MSI] and epigenetic (methylation status of nine genes or sequences, including the CpG island methylator phenotype [CIMP] markers alterations in 158 CRNs including 56 polypoid neoplasms (PNs, 25 granular type laterally spreading tumors (LST-Gs, 48 non-granular type LSTs (LST-NGs, 19 depressed neoplasms (DNs and 10 small flat-elevated neoplasms (S-FNs on the basis of macroscopic appearance.S-FNs showed few molecular changes except SFRP1 methylation. Significant differences in the frequency of KRAS mutations were observed among subtypes (68% for LST-Gs, 36% for PNs, 16% for DNs and 6% for LST-NGs (P<0.001. By contrast, the frequency of TP53 mutation was higher in DNs than PNs or LST-Gs (32% vs. 5% or 0%, respectively (P<0.007. We also observed significant differences in the frequency of CIMP between LST-Gs and LST-NGs or PNs (32% vs. 6% or 5%, respectively (P<0.005. Moreover, the methylation level of LINE-1 was significantly lower in DNs or LST-Gs than in PNs (58.3% or 60.5% vs. 63.2%, P<0.05. PIK3CA mutations were detected only in LSTs. Finally, multivariate analyses showed that macroscopic morphologies were significantly associated with an increased risk of molecular changes (PN or LST-G for KRAS mutation, odds ratio [OR] 9.11; LST-NG or DN for TP53 mutation, OR 5.30; LST-G for PIK3CA mutation, OR 26.53; LST-G or DN for LINE-1 hypomethylation, OR 3.41.We demonstrated that CRNs could be classified into five macroscopic subtypes according to clinicopathological and molecular differences, suggesting that different mechanisms are involved in the pathogenesis of colorectal tumorigenesis.

  14. SPM characterization of next generation solar cells under light irradiation: Optoelectronic study from nano to macroscopic scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Nobuyuki; Fujita, Daisuke

    2014-11-01

    Solar cells (SCs) that contain elaborate nanostructures, such as quantum dots and quantum wells, have been rigorously investigated as a way to harvest a wide range of the solar spectrum [1]. However, the energy conversion efficiency of those SCs still remains low. For the further improvement of the device performance, a much deeper understanding of the role of nanostructures in the photovoltaic conversion process is essential to gain the effective design criteria. To achieve this, local electronic properties including electrical potential, energy states, and charge distribution around the excitation centers have to be characterized under light irradiation since they govern the behavior of excited carriers. These properties have so far been indirectly deduced from macroscopic characterization such as current-voltage (I-V) measurement; however, it is not sufficient to clarify rather complicated roles of the nanostructures [2]. Thus, a direct measurement of those properties with high spatial resolution is required to understand the detailed mechanisms of the photovoltaic conversion process. To this end, we have been developing a platform for performing scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (STM/STS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) working under light irradiation conditions.Here, we outline the characterization of a multiple quantum well (QW) SC based on III-V compounds that is expected to be a potential candidate of intermediate band type SC. First, we show the electrical potential measurements along the p-i-n junction of the SC using KPFM in air. Measurements were performed in open and short circuit configurations under light irradiation conditions [Fig.1]. We demonstrate that the dependence of the open circuit voltage on the intensity of light can be successfully measured by careful interpretation of the KPFM data. Second, we introduce some examples of the atomic scale characterization of the multiple QW using ultrahigh

  15. Roc curves for continuous data

    CERN Document Server

    Krzanowski, Wojtek J

    2009-01-01

    Since ROC curves have become ubiquitous in many application areas, the various advances have been scattered across disparate articles and texts. ROC Curves for Continuous Data is the first book solely devoted to the subject, bringing together all the relevant material to provide a clear understanding of how to analyze ROC curves.The fundamental theory of ROC curvesThe book first discusses the relationship between the ROC curve and numerous performance measures and then extends the theory into practice by describing how ROC curves are estimated. Further building on the theory, the authors prese

  16. Diagnosis of bladder tumours in patients with macroscopic haematuria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gandrup, Karen L; Løgager, Vibeke B; Bretlau, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    patients underwent CTU, MRU and flexible cystoscopy. Two uroradiologists individually reviewed the images without any clinical information, using a questionnaire. Patient records and pathology reports were also reviewed. RESULTS: At flexible cystoscopy, MRU and CTU, 32, 19 and 15 bladder lesions were...... identified, respectively. Histopathology showed that 13 of the 29 biopsied lesions were transitional cell carcinomas. Compared with the histopathology, the sensitivity and specificity for detection of tumours by CTU and MRU were 61.5% and 94.9%, and 79.9% and 93.4%, respectively. False-positive detection...... of bladder tumours, compared with histopathology, was reported in seven CTUs and nine MRUs, whereas the number of false-negative findings was five for CTUs and three for MRUs. CONCLUSIONS: Split-bolus CTU or MRU cannot replace cystoscopy in cases of macroscopic haematuria. MRU has a higher sensitivity than...

  17. Polynomial parameterized representation of macroscopic cross section for PWR reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiel, Joao Claudio B.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to describe, by means of Tchebychev polynomial, a parameterized representation of the homogenized macroscopic cross section for PWR fuel element as a function of soluble boron concentration, moderator temperature, fuel temperature, moderator density and 235 U 92 enrichment. Analyzed cross sections are: fission, scattering, total, transport, absorption and capture. This parameterization enables a quick and easy determination of the problem-dependent cross-sections to be used in few groups calculations. The methodology presented here will enable to provide cross-sections values to perform PWR core calculations without the need to generate them based on computer code calculations using standard steps. The results obtained by parameterized cross-sections functions, when compared with the cross-section generated by SCALE code calculations, or when compared with K inf , generated by MCNPX code calculations, show a difference of less than 0.7 percent. (author)

  18. Macroscopic quantum electrodynamics of high-Q cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khanbekyan, Mikayel

    2009-10-27

    In this thesis macroscopic quantum electrodynamics in linear media was applied in order to develop an universally valid quantum theory for the description of the interaction of the electromagnetic field with atomic sources in high-Q cavities. In this theory a complete description of the characteristics of the emitted radiation is given. The theory allows to show the limits of the applicability of the usually applied theory. In order to establish an as possible generally valid theory first the atom-field interaction was studied in the framework of macroscopic quantum electrodynamics in dispersive and absorptive media. In order to describe the electromagnetic field from Maxwell's equations was started, whereby the noise-current densities, which are connected with the absorption of the medium, were included. The solution of these equations expresses the electromagnetic field variables by the noise-current densities by means of Green's tensor of the macroscopic Maxwell equations. The explicit quantization is performed by means of the noise-current densities, whereby a diagonal Hamiltonian is introduced, which then guarantees the time development according to Maxwell's equation and the fulfillment of the fundamental simultaneous commutation relations of the field variables. In the case of the interaction of the medium-supported field with atoms the Hamiltonian must be extended by atom-field interactions energies, whereby the canonical coupling schemes of the minimal or multipolar coupling can be used. The dieelectric properties of the material bodies as well as their shape are coded in the Green tensor of the macroscopic Maxwell equations. As preparing step first the Green tensor was specified in order to derive three-dimensional input-output relations for the electromagnetic field operators on a plane multilayer structure. Such a general dewscription of the electromagnetic field allows the inclusion both of dispersion and absorption of the media and the

  19. Macroscopic Modeling of Transport Phenomena in Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Anders Christian

    An increasing need for energy efficiency and high energy density has sparked a growing interest in direct methanol fuel cells for portable power applications. This type of fuel cell directly generates electricity from a fuel mixture consisting of methanol and water. Although this technology...... surpasses batteries in important areas, fundamental research is still required to improve durability and performance. Particularly the transport of methanol and water within the cell structure is difficult to study in-situ. A demand therefore exist for the fundamental development of mathematical models...... for studying their transport. In this PhD dissertation the macroscopic transport phenomena governing direct methanol fuel cell operation are analyzed, discussed and modeled using the two-fluid approach in the computational fluid dynamics framework of CFX 14. The overall objective of this work is to extend...

  20. Macroscopic Floquet topological crystalline steel and superconductor pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Anna M. E. B.; Bugase, Jonas; Fischer, Thomas M.

    2017-08-01

    The transport of a macroscopic steel sphere and a superconducting sphere on top of two-dimensional periodic magnetic patterns is studied experimentally and compared with the theory and with experiments on topological transport of magnetic colloids. Transport of the steel and superconducting sphere is achieved by moving an external permanent magnet on a closed loop around the two-dimensional crystal. The transport is topological, i.e., the spheres are transported by a primitive unit vector of the lattice when the external magnet loop winds around specific directions. We experimentally determine the set of directions the loops must enclose for nontrivial transport of the spheres into various directions. We show that the loops can be used to sort steel and superconducting spheres. We show that the topological transport is robust with respect to the scale of the system and therefore speculate on its down scalability to the molecular scale.

  1. Generation of macroscopic singlet states in atomic ensembles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Géza; Mitchell, Morgan W.

    2010-05-01

    We study squeezing of the spin uncertainties by quantum non-demolition (QND) measurement in non-polarized spin ensembles. Unlike the case of polarized ensembles, the QND measurements can be performed with negligible back-action, which allows, in principle, perfect spin squeezing as quantified by Tóth et al (2007 Phys. Rev. Lett. 99 250405). The generated spin states approach many-body singlet states and contain a macroscopic number of entangled particles even when individual spin is large. We introduce the Gaussian treatment of unpolarized spin states and use it to estimate the achievable spin squeezing for realistic experimental parameters. Our proposal might have applications for magnetometry with a high spatial resolution or quantum memories storing information in decoherence free subspaces.

  2. Fault detection by surface seismic scanning tunneling macroscope: Field test

    KAUST Repository

    Hanafy, Sherif M.

    2014-08-05

    The seismic scanning tunneling macroscope (SSTM) is proposed for detecting the presence of near-surface impedance anomalies and faults. Results with synthetic data are consistent with theory in that scatterers closer to the surface provide brighter SSTM profiles than those that are deeper. The SSTM profiles show superresolution detection if the scatterers are in the near-field region of the recording line. The field data tests near Gulf of Aqaba, Haql, KSA clearly show the presence of the observable fault scarp, and identify the subsurface presence of the hidden faults indicated in the tomograms. Superresolution detection of the fault is achieved, even when the 35 Hz data are lowpass filtered to the 5-10 Hz band.

  3. Macroscopic chirality of a liquid crystal from nonchiral molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakli, A.; Nair, G. G.; Lee, C. K.; Sun, R.; Chien, L. C.

    2001-01-01

    The transfer of chirality from nonchiral polymer networks to the racemic B2 phase of nonchiral banana-shaped molecules is demonstrated. This corresponds to the transfer of chirality from an achiral material to another achiral material. There are two levels of chirality transfers. (a) On a microscopic level the presence of a polymer network (chiral or nonchiral) favors a chiral state over a thermodynamically stable racemic state due to the inversion symmetry breaking at the polymer-liquid crystal interfaces. (b) A macroscopically chiral (enantimerically enriched) sample can be produced if the polymer network has a helical structure, and/or contains chemically chiral groups. The chirality transfer can be locally suppressed by exposing the liquid crystal to a strong electric field treatment

  4. Fault detection by surface seismic scanning tunneling macroscope: Field test

    KAUST Repository

    Hanafy, Sherif M.; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2014-01-01

    The seismic scanning tunneling macroscope (SSTM) is proposed for detecting the presence of near-surface impedance anomalies and faults. Results with synthetic data are consistent with theory in that scatterers closer to the surface provide brighter SSTM profiles than those that are deeper. The SSTM profiles show superresolution detection if the scatterers are in the near-field region of the recording line. The field data tests near Gulf of Aqaba, Haql, KSA clearly show the presence of the observable fault scarp, and identify the subsurface presence of the hidden faults indicated in the tomograms. Superresolution detection of the fault is achieved, even when the 35 Hz data are lowpass filtered to the 5-10 Hz band.

  5. The N-salicylidene aniline mesogen: Microscopic and macroscopic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesrullazade, A.

    2004-01-01

    The vast majority of compounds exhibiting Iiquid crystalline phases may be regarded as having a rigid molecular central group with one or two flexible terminal alkyl or alkyloxy chains. The N-saIicyIidene anilines are very interesting and important materials both from fundamental and application points of view. These materials are on the one hand the ligands used to obtain metal containing complexes and on the other hand they are materials having the thermotropic mesomorphism. In this work we present investigations of microscopic and macroscopic properties of the 4-(Octyloxy)-N-(4-hexylphenyl)-2-hydrobenzaIimine (8SA) compound which was synthesized by our group. The 8SA compound shows the smectic C and nematic mesophases. These mesophases are enantiotropic and display specific confocal and schlieren textures, respectively. Thermotropic and thermodynamical properties of the straight and reverse phase transitions between smectic C and nematic mesophases and between nematic mesophase and isotropic liquid have been investigated

  6. Non-Poissonian photon statistics from macroscopic photon cutting materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Mathijs; Meijerink, Andries; Rabouw, Freddy T

    2017-05-24

    In optical materials energy is usually extracted only from the lowest excited state, resulting in fundamental energy-efficiency limits such as the Shockley-Queisser limit for single-junction solar cells. Photon-cutting materials provide a way around such limits by absorbing high-energy photons and 'cutting' them into multiple low-energy excitations that can subsequently be extracted. The occurrence of photon cutting or quantum cutting has been demonstrated in a variety of materials, including semiconductor quantum dots, lanthanides and organic dyes. Here we show that photon cutting results in bunched photon emission on the timescale of the excited-state lifetime, even when observing a macroscopic number of optical centres. Our theoretical derivation matches well with experimental data on NaLaF 4 :Pr 3+ , a material that can cut deep-ultraviolet photons into two visible photons. This signature of photon cutting can be used to identify and characterize new photon-cutting materials unambiguously.

  7. Modeling Macroscopic Shape Distortions during Sintering of Multi-layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tadesse Molla, Tesfaye

    as to help achieve defect free multi-layer components. The initial thickness ratio between the layers making the multi-layer has also significant effect on the extent of camber evolution depending on the material systems. During sintering of tubular bi-layer structures, tangential (hoop) stresses are very...... large compared to radial stresses. The maximum value of hoop stress, which can generate processing defects such as cracks and coating peel-offs, occurs at the beginning of the sintering cycle. Unlike most of the models defining material properties based on porosity and grain size only, the multi...... (firing). However, unintended features like shape instabilities of samples, cracks or delamination of layers may arise during sintering of multi-layer composites. Among these defects, macroscopic shape distortions in the samples can cause problems in the assembly or performance of the final component...

  8. Two-dimensional macroscopic quantum tunneling in multi-gap superconductor Josephson junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asai, Hidehiro; Kawabata, Shiro; Ota, Yukihiro; Machida, Masahiko

    2014-01-01

    Low-temperature characters of superconducting devices yield definite probes for different superconducting phenomena. We study the macroscopic quantum tunneling (MQT) in a Josephson junction, composed of a single-gap superconductor and a two-gap superconductor. Since this junction has two kinds to the superconducting phase differences, calculating the MQT escape rate requires the analysis of quantum tunneling in a multi-dimensional configuration space. Our approach is the semi-classical approximation along a 1D curve in a 2D potential- energy landscape, connecting two adjacent potential (local) minimums through a saddle point. We find that this system has two plausible tunneling paths; an in-phase path and an out-of-phase path. The former is characterized by the Josephson-plasma frequency, whereas the latter is by the frequency of the characteristic collective mode in a two-band superconductor, Josephson- Leggett mode. Depending on external bias current and inter-band Josephson-coupling energy, one of them mainly contributes to the MQT. Our numerical calculations show that the difference between the in-phase path and the out-of-phase path is manifest, with respect to the bias- current-dependence of the MQT escape rate. This result suggests that our MQT setting be an indicator of the Josephson-Leggett mode

  9. Current density and polarization curves for radial flow field patterns applied to PEMFCs (Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cano-Andrade, S.; Hernandez-Guerrero, A.; Spakovsky, M.R. von; Damian-Ascencio, C.E.; Rubio-Arana, J.C.

    2010-01-01

    A numerical solution of the current density and velocity fields of a 3-D PEM radial configuration fuel cell is presented. The energy, momentum and electrochemical equations are solved using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code based on a finite volume scheme. There are three cases of principal interest for this radial model: four channels, eight channels and twelve channels placed in a symmetrical path over the flow field plate. The figures for the current-voltage curves for the three models proposed are presented, and the main factors that affect the behavior of each of the curves are discussed. Velocity contours are presented for the three different models, showing how the fuel cell behavior is affected by the velocity variations in the radial configuration. All these results are presented for the case of high relative humidity. The favorable results obtained for this unconventional geometry seems to indicate that this geometry could replace the conventional commercial geometries currently in use.

  10. Averaging problem in general relativity, macroscopic gravity and using Einstein's equations in cosmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalaletdinov, R. M.

    1998-04-01

    The averaging problem in general relativity is briefly discussed. A new setting of the problem as that of macroscopic description of gravitation is proposed. A covariant space-time averaging procedure is described. The structure of the geometry of macroscopic space-time, which follows from averaging Cartan's structure equations, is described and the correlation tensors present in the theory are discussed. The macroscopic field equations (averaged Einstein's equations) derived in the framework of the approach are presented and their structure is analysed. The correspondence principle for macroscopic gravity is formulated and a definition of the stress-energy tensor for the macroscopic gravitational field is proposed. It is shown that the physical meaning of using Einstein's equations with a hydrodynamic stress-energy tensor in looking for cosmological models means neglecting all gravitational field correlations. The system of macroscopic gravity equations to be solved when the correlations are taken into consideration is given and described.

  11. Curved Josephson junction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrowolski, Tomasz

    2012-01-01

    The constant curvature one and quasi-one dimensional Josephson junction is considered. On the base of Maxwell equations, the sine–Gordon equation that describes an influence of curvature on the kink motion was obtained. It is showed that the method of geometrical reduction of the sine–Gordon model from three to lower dimensional manifold leads to an identical form of the sine–Gordon equation. - Highlights: ► The research on dynamics of the phase in a curved Josephson junction is performed. ► The geometrical reduction is applied to the sine–Gordon model. ► The results of geometrical reduction and the fundamental research are compared.

  12. Curved-Duct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Je Hyun Baekt

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerical study is conducted on the fully-developed laminar flow of an incompressible viscous fluid in a square duct rotating about a perpendicular axis to the axial direction of the duct. At the straight duct, the rotation produces vortices due to the Coriolis force. Generally two vortex cells are formed and the axial velocity distribution is distorted by the effect of this Coriolis force. When a convective force is weak, two counter-rotating vortices are shown with a quasi-parabolic axial velocity profile for weak rotation rates. As the rotation rate increases, the axial velocity on the vertical centreline of the duct begins to flatten and the location of vorticity center is moved near to wall by the effect of the Coriolis force. When the convective inertia force is strong, a double-vortex secondary flow appears in the transverse planes of the duct for weak rotation rates but as the speed of rotation increases the secondary flow is shown to split into an asymmetric configuration of four counter-rotating vortices. If the rotation rates are increased further, the secondary flow restabilizes to a slightly asymmetric double-vortex configuration. Also, a numerical study is conducted on the laminar flow of an incompressible viscous fluid in a 90°-bend square duct that rotates about axis parallel to the axial direction of the inlet. At a 90°-bend square duct, the feature of flow by the effect of a Coriolis force and a centrifugal force, namely a secondary flow by the centrifugal force in the curved region and the Coriolis force in the downstream region, is shown since the centrifugal force in curved region and the Coriolis force in downstream region are dominant respectively.

  13. Elliptic curves for applications (Tutorial)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, T.; Bernstein, D.J.; Chatterjee, S.

    2011-01-01

    More than 25 years ago, elliptic curves over finite fields were suggested as a group in which the Discrete Logarithm Problem (DLP) can be hard. Since then many researchers have scrutinized the security of the DLP on elliptic curves with the result that for suitably chosen curves only exponential

  14. Titration Curves: Fact and Fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, John

    1997-01-01

    Discusses ways in which datalogging equipment can enable titration curves to be measured accurately and how computing power can be used to predict the shape of curves. Highlights include sources of error, use of spreadsheets to generate titration curves, titration of a weak acid with a strong alkali, dibasic acids, weak acid and weak base, and…

  15. A Journey Between Two Curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey A. Cherkis

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A typical solution of an integrable system is described in terms of a holomorphic curve and a line bundle over it. The curve provides the action variables while the time evolution is a linear flow on the curve's Jacobian. Even though the system of Nahm equations is closely related to the Hitchin system, the curves appearing in these two cases have very different nature. The former can be described in terms of some classical scattering problem while the latter provides a solution to some Seiberg-Witten gauge theory. This note identifies the setup in which one can formulate the question of relating the two curves.

  16. Investigation into macroscopic and microscopic behaviors of wet granular soils using discrete element method and X-ray computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Than, Vinh-Du; Tang, Anh-Minh; Roux, Jean-Noël; Pereira, Jean-Michel; Aimedieu, Patrick; Bornert, Michel

    2017-06-01

    We present an investigation into macroscopic and microscopic behaviors of wet granular soils using the discrete element method (DEM) and the X-ray Computed Tomography (XRCT) observations. The specimens are first prepared in very loose states, with frictional spherical grains in the presence of a small amount of an interstitial liquid. Experimental oedometric tests are carried out with small glass beads, while DEM simulations implement a model of spherical grains joined by menisci. Both in experiments and in simulations, loose configurations with solid fraction as low as 0.30 are prepared under low stress, and undergo a gradual collapse in compression, until the solid fraction of cohesionless bead packs (0.58 to 0.6) is obtained. In the XRCT tests, four 3D tomography images corresponding to different typical stages of the compression curve are used to characterize the microstructure.

  17. Soil Water Retention Curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, L. E.; Kim, J.; Cifelli, R.; Chandra, C. V.

    2016-12-01

    Potential water retention, S, is one of parameters commonly used in hydrologic modeling for soil moisture accounting. Physically, S indicates total amount of water which can be stored in soil and is expressed in units of depth. S can be represented as a change of soil moisture content and in this context is commonly used to estimate direct runoff, especially in the Soil Conservation Service (SCS) curve number (CN) method. Generally, the lumped and the distributed hydrologic models can easily use the SCS-CN method to estimate direct runoff. Changes in potential water retention have been used in previous SCS-CN studies; however, these studies have focused on long-term hydrologic simulations where S is allowed to vary at the daily time scale. While useful for hydrologic events that span multiple days, the resolution is too coarse for short-term applications such as flash flood events where S may not recover its full potential. In this study, a new method for estimating a time-variable potential water retention at hourly time-scales is presented. The methodology is applied for the Napa River basin, California. The streamflow gage at St Helena, located in the upper reaches of the basin, is used as the control gage site to evaluate the model performance as it is has minimal influences by reservoirs and diversions. Rainfall events from 2011 to 2012 are used for estimating the event-based SCS CN to transfer to S. As a result, we have derived the potential water retention curve and it is classified into three sections depending on the relative change in S. The first is a negative slope section arising from the difference in the rate of moving water through the soil column, the second is a zero change section representing the initial recovery the potential water retention, and the third is a positive change section representing the full recovery of the potential water retention. Also, we found that the soil water moving has traffic jam within 24 hours after finished first

  18. Analysis of the current–voltage curves and saturation currents in burner-stabilised premixed flames with detailed ion chemistry and transport models

    KAUST Repository

    Belhi, Memdouh

    2018-05-22

    Current-voltage, or i–V, curves are used in combustion to characterise the ionic structure of flames. The objective of this paper is to develop a detailed modelling framework for the quantitative prediction of the i–V curves in methane/air flames. Ion and electron transport coefficients were described using methods appropriate for charged species interactions. An ionic reaction mechanism involving cations, anions and free electrons was used, together with up-to-date rate coefficients and thermodynamic data. Because of the important role of neutral species in the ion production process, its prediction by the detailed AramcoMech 1.4 mechanism was optimised by using available experimental measurements. Model predictions were evaluated by comparing to i–V curves measured in atmospheric-pressure, premixed, burner-stabilised flames. A detailed evaluation of the reliability of ion kinetic and transport parameters adopted was performed. The model provides good quantitative agreement with experimental data for various conditions.

  19. Fermions in curved spacetimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lippoldt, Stefan

    2016-01-21

    In this thesis we study a formulation of Dirac fermions in curved spacetime that respects general coordinate invariance as well as invariance under local spin base transformations. We emphasize the advantages of the spin base invariant formalism both from a conceptual as well as from a practical viewpoint. This suggests that local spin base invariance should be added to the list of (effective) properties of (quantum) gravity theories. We find support for this viewpoint by the explicit construction of a global realization of the Clifford algebra on a 2-sphere which is impossible in the spin-base non-invariant vielbein formalism. The natural variables for this formulation are spacetime-dependent Dirac matrices subject to the Clifford-algebra constraint. In particular, a coframe, i.e. vielbein field is not required. We disclose the hidden spin base invariance of the vielbein formalism. Explicit formulas for the spin connection as a function of the Dirac matrices are found. This connection consists of a canonical part that is completely fixed in terms of the Dirac matrices and a free part that can be interpreted as spin torsion. The common Lorentz symmetric gauge for the vielbein is constructed for the Dirac matrices, even for metrics which are not linearly connected. Under certain criteria, it constitutes the simplest possible gauge, demonstrating why this gauge is so useful. Using the spin base formulation for building a field theory of quantized gravity and matter fields, we show that it suffices to quantize the metric and the matter fields. This observation is of particular relevance for field theory approaches to quantum gravity, as it can serve for a purely metric-based quantization scheme for gravity even in the presence of fermions. Hence, in the second part of this thesis we critically examine the gauge, and the field-parametrization dependence of renormalization group flows in the vicinity of non-Gaussian fixed points in quantum gravity. While physical

  20. Macroscopic objects in quantum mechanics: A combinatorial approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitowsky, Itamar

    2004-01-01

    Why do we not see large macroscopic objects in entangled states? There are two ways to approach this question. The first is dynamic. The coupling of a large object to its environment cause any entanglement to decrease considerably. The second approach, which is discussed in this paper, puts the stress on the difficulty of observing a large-scale entanglement. As the number of particles n grows we need an ever more precise knowledge of the state and an ever more carefully designed experiment, in order to recognize entanglement. To develop this point we consider a family of observables, called witnesses, which are designed to detect entanglement. A witness W distinguishes all the separable (unentangled) states from some entangled states. If we normalize the witness W to satisfy tr(Wρ)≤1 for all separable states ρ, then the efficiency of W depends on the size of its maximal eigenvalue in absolute value; that is, its operator norm parallel W parallel . It is known that there are witnesses on the space of n qubits for which parallel W parallel is exponential in n. However, we conjecture that for a large majority of n-qubit witnesses parallel W parallel ≤O(√(n log n)). Thus, in a nonideal measurement, which includes errors, the largest eigenvalue of a typical witness lies below the threshold of detection. We prove this conjecture for the family of extremal witnesses introduced by Werner and Wolf [Phys. Rev. A 64, 032112 (2001)

  1. Feedback Gating Control for Network Based on Macroscopic Fundamental Diagram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YangBeibei Ji

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Empirical data from Yokohama, Japan, showed that a macroscopic fundamental diagram (MFD of urban traffic provides for different network regions a unimodal low-scatter relationship between network vehicle density and network space-mean flow. This provides new tools for network congestion control. Based on MFD, this paper proposed a feedback gating control policy which can be used to mitigate network congestion by adjusting signal timings of gating intersections. The objective of the feedback gating control model is to maximize the outflow and distribute the allowed inflows properly according to external demand and capacity of each gating intersection. An example network is used to test the performance of proposed feedback gating control model. Two types of background signalization types for the intersections within the test network, fixed-time and actuated control, are considered. The results of extensive simulation validate that the proposed feedback gating control model can get a Pareto improvement since the performance of both gating intersections and the whole network can be improved significantly especially under heavy demand situations. The inflows and outflows can be improved to a higher level, and the delay and queue length at all gating intersections are decreased dramatically.

  2. Communication: On the diffusion tensor in macroscopic theory of cavitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shneidman, Vitaly A.

    2017-08-01

    The classical description of nucleation of cavities in a stretched fluid relies on a one-dimensional Fokker-Planck equation (FPE) in the space of their sizes r, with the diffusion coefficient D(r) constructed for all r from macroscopic hydrodynamics and thermodynamics, as shown by Zeldovich. When additional variables (e.g., vapor pressure) are required to describe the state of a bubble, a similar approach to construct a diffusion tensor D ^ generally works only in the direct vicinity of the thermodynamic saddle point corresponding to the critical nucleus. It is shown, nevertheless, that "proper" kinetic variables to describe a cavity can be selected, allowing to introduce D ^ in the entire domain of parameters. In this way, for the first time, complete FPE's are constructed for viscous volatile and inertial fluids. In the former case, the FPE with symmetric D ^ is solved numerically. Alternatively, in the case of an inertial fluid, an equivalent Langevin equation is considered; results are compared with analytics. The suggested approach is quite general and can be applied beyond the cavitation problem.

  3. Macroscopic multigroup constants for accelerator driven system core calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heimlich, Adino; Santos, Rubens Souza dos

    2011-01-01

    The high-level wastes stored in facilities above ground or shallow repositories, in close connection with its nuclear power plant, can take almost 106 years before the radiotoxicity became of the order of the background. While the disposal issue is not urgent from a technical viewpoint, it is recognized that extended storage in the facilities is not acceptable since these ones cannot provide sufficient isolation in the long term and neither is it ethical to leave the waste problem to future generations. A technique to diminish this time is to transmute these long-lived elements into short-lived elements. The approach is to use an Accelerator Driven System (ADS), a sub-critical arrangement which uses a Spallation Neutron Source (SNS), after separation the minor actinides and the long-lived fission products (LLFP), to convert them to short-lived isotopes. As an advanced reactor fuel, still today, there is a few data around these type of core systems. In this paper we generate macroscopic multigroup constants for use in calculations of a typical ADS fuel, take into consideration, the ENDF/BVI data file. Four energy groups are chosen to collapse the data from ENDF/B-VI data file by PREPRO code. A typical MOX fuel cell is used to validate the methodology. The results are used to calculate one typical subcritical ADS core. (author)

  4. Gravitational wave echoes from macroscopic quantum gravity effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barceló, Carlos [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (IAA-CSIC),Glorieta de la Astronomía, 18008 Granada (Spain); Carballo-Rubio, Raúl [The Cosmology & Gravity Group and the Laboratory for Quantum Gravity & Strings,Department of Mathematics & Applied Mathematics, University of Cape Town,Private Bag, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Garay, Luis J. [Departamento de Física Teórica II,Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Estructura de la Materia (IEM-CSIC),Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2017-05-10

    New theoretical approaches developed in the last years predict that macroscopic quantum gravity effects in black holes should lead to modifications of the gravitational wave signals expected in the framework of classical general relativity, with these modifications being characterized in certain scenarios by the existence of dampened repetitions of the primary signal. Here we use the fact that non-perturbative corrections to the near-horizon external geometry of black holes are necessary for these modifications to exist, in order to classify different proposals and paradigms with respect to this criterion and study in a neat and systematic way their phenomenology. Proposals that lead naturally to the existence of echoes in the late-time ringdown of gravitational wave signals from black hole mergers must share the replacement of black holes by horizonless configurations with a physical surface showing reflective properties in the relevant range of frequencies. On the other hand, proposals or paradigms that restrict quantum gravity effects on the external geometry to be perturbative, such as black hole complementarity or the closely related firewall proposal, do not display echoes. For the sake of completeness we exploit the interplay between the timescales associated with the formation of firewalls and the mechanism behind the existence of echoes in order to conclude that even unconventional distortions of the firewall concept (such as naked firewalls) do not lead to this phenomenon.

  5. Zero time tunneling: macroscopic experiments with virtual particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nimtz Günter

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Feynman introduced virtual particles in his diagrams as intermediate states of an interaction process. They represent necessary intermediate states between observable real states. Such virtual particles were introduced to describe the interaction process between an electron and a positron and for much more complicated interaction processes. Other candidates for virtual particles are evanescent modes in optics and in elastic fields. Evanescent modes have a purely imaginary wave number, they represent the mathematical analogy of the tunneling solutions of the Schrödinger equation. Evanescent modes exist in the forbidden frequency bands of a photonic lattice and in undersized wave guides, for instance. The most prominent example for the occurrence of evanescent modes is the frustrated total internal reflection (FTIR at double prisms. Evanescent modes and tunneling lie outside the bounds of the special theory of relativity. They can cause faster than light (FTL signal velocities. We present examples of the quantum mechanical behavior of evanescent photons and phonons at a macroscopic scale. The evanescent modes of photons are described by virtual particles as predicted by former QED calculations.

  6. The universe as an ultimate macroscopic quantum phenomenon?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Bei-Lok

    2005-01-01

    Full text: We explore two unconventional proposals on the meaning of quantum gravity and the quantum properties of spacetime. The first is an older proposal of mine that general relativity is the hydrodynamic limit of some fundamental theories of the microscopic structure of spacetime and matter, a more specific derivative of the idea of Sakharov. The latter is a more recent thought of mine on the possibility that spacetime is a condensate (Bose or Fermi). These proposals have implications radically different from the conventional views. For the former, spacetime described by a differentiable manifold is regarded as an emergent entity and the metric or connection forms are collective variables valid only at the low energy, long wavelength limit of the micro-theories of spacetime and matter. This view would render irrelevant the traditional efforts to find ways to quantize general relativity, because it would only give us the equivalent of phonon physics, not a theory of electrons or photons, QED. In the second proposal, even without the knowledge of what the 'atom of spacetime' is, the mere thought that spacetime at all energies below the Planck scale, including today's, is quantum rather than classical, has many challenging consequences. We discuss the implications of this view pertaining to issues in gravitation and cosmology, as well as to macroscopic quantum coherence phenomena. (author)

  7. Quantum-limited heat conduction over macroscopic distances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partanen, Matti; Tan, Kuan Yen; Govenius, Joonas; Lake, Russell E.; Mäkelä, Miika K.; Tanttu, Tuomo; Möttönen, Mikko

    2016-05-01

    The emerging quantum technological apparatuses, such as the quantum computer, call for extreme performance in thermal engineering. Cold distant heat sinks are needed for the quantized electric degrees of freedom owing to the increasing packaging density and heat dissipation. Importantly, quantum mechanics sets a fundamental upper limit for the flow of information and heat, which is quantified by the quantum of thermal conductance. However, the short distance between the heat-exchanging bodies in the previous experiments hinders their applicability in quantum technology. Here, we present experimental observations of quantum-limited heat conduction over macroscopic distances extending to a metre. We achieved this improvement of four orders of magnitude in the distance by utilizing microwave photons travelling in superconducting transmission lines. Thus, it seems that quantum-limited heat conduction has no fundamental distance cutoff. This work establishes the integration of normal-metal components into the framework of circuit quantum electrodynamics, which provides a basis for the superconducting quantum computer. Especially, our results facilitate remote cooling of nanoelectronic devices using faraway in situ-tunable heat sinks. Furthermore, quantum-limited heat conduction is important in contemporary thermodynamics. Here, the long distance may lead to ultimately efficient mesoscopic heat engines with promising practical applications.

  8. Macroscopic local-field effects on photoabsorption processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Xiaoguang; Gong Yubing; Wang Meishan; Wang Dehua

    2008-01-01

    The influence of the local-field effect on the photoabsorption cross sections of the atoms which are embedded in the macroscopic medium has been studied by a set of alternative expressions in detail. Some notes on the validity of some different local-field models used to study the photoabsorption cross sections of atoms in condensed matter have been given for the first time. Our results indicate that the local fields can have substantial and different influence on the photoabsorption cross section of atoms in condensed matter for different models. Clausius-Mossotti model and Onsager model have proved to be more reasonable to describe the local field in gas, liquid, or even some simple solid, while Glauber-Lewenstein model probably is wrong in these conditions except for the ideal gas. A procedure which can avoid the errors introduced by Kramers-Kronig transformation has been implemented in this work. This procedure can guarantee that the theoretical studies on the local field effects will not be influenced by the integral instability of the Kramers-Kronig transformation

  9. Theory and feasibility tests for a seismic scanning tunnelling macroscope

    KAUST Repository

    Schuster, Gerard T.

    2012-09-01

    We propose a seismic scanning tunnelling macroscope (SSTM) that can detect subwavelength scatterers in the near-field of either the source or the receivers. Analytic formulas for the time reverse mirror (TRM) profile associated with a single scatterer model show that the spatial resolution limit to be, unlike the Abbe limit of λ/2, independent of wavelength and linearly proportional to the source-scatterer separation as long as the scatterer is in the near-field region. This means that, as the scatterer approaches the source, imaging of the scatterer with super-resolution can be achieved. Acoustic and elastic simulations support this concept, and a seismic experiment in an Arizona tunnel shows a TRM profile with super-resolution adjacent to the fault location. The SSTM is analogous to the optical scanning tunnelling microscopes having subwavelength resolution. Scaled to seismic frequencies, it is theoretically possible to extract 100 Hz information from 20 Hz data by the imaging of near-field seismic energy.

  10. Three lectures on macroscopic aspects of nuclear dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swiatecki, W.J.

    1979-03-01

    These lectures concentrate on macroscopic aspects of nuclear dynamics, those aspects that come into prominence when the number of nucleons, A, is large, A >> 1. An attempt is made to set up a theory of the dynamics of nuclear shape changes, for small (sub-sonic) collective velocities. To set up the equations of motion one needs three forces: conservative, dissipative, and inertial. The first lecture deals with statics, i.e., it discusses methods of treating the Potential Energy Function of nuclear systems. From the Potential Energy the conservative forces that drive the time evolution of a nuclear configuration can be deduced. The division of the underlying potential energy into Local, Proximity, and Global terms is stressed. The second lecture deals with dynamical aspects, especially with the nuclear Dissipation Function, which describes how dissipative frictional forces oppose the conservative driving forces. The underlying physics is the approximate validity of the Independent-Particle model. This, combined with the Randomization Hypothesis, leads to simple formulas that suggest that dissipative forces may often overshadow the inertial forces. The third lecture outlines the kind of dynamics that results from the balance of these forces, and describes a number of applications to nuclear fission and heavy-ion collisions of this New Dynamics. Particularly simple equations of motion are set up, and some of the consequences are explored. 18 references, 31 figures, 3 tables

  11. Validity of macroscopic concepts for fluids on a microscopic scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alder, B.J.; Alley, W.E.; Pollock, E.L.

    1981-01-01

    By Fourier decomposition of the appropriate fluctuation it is possible within the regime of linear response to extend the concept of both thermodynamic quantities and transport coefficients to their dependence on both wavelength and frequency. Experimentally these generalized macroscopic properties are accessible through neutron diffraction and, as examples, the dependence of the sound speed on wavelength and the diffusion coefficient on time are discussed. Through the molecular dynamics computer method the dependence of the viscosity on wavelength is calculated and applied with spectacular success to predict the dependence of the friction coefficient on the size of a Brownian particle all the way to atomic dimensions. On the other hand, the dielectric constant continuum concept, as applied to a charge or dipole in a cavity, generally fails to predict even the correct field at large distance from the charge. Avoiding the introduction of a cavity cures that problem, but the generalized dielectric constant fails badly in predicting the field at shorter distances from the charge. (orig.)

  12. Grasping the Second Law of Thermodynamics at University: The Consistency of Macroscopic and Microscopic Explanations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinonen, Risto; Asikainen, Mervi A.; Hirvonen, Pekka E.

    2015-01-01

    This study concentrates on evaluating the consistency of upper-division students' use of the second law of thermodynamics at macroscopic and microscopic levels. Data were collected by means of a paper and pencil test (N = 48) focusing on the macroscopic and microscopic features of the second law concerned with heat transfer processes. The data…

  13. Quantum mechanics versus macroscopic realism: Is the flux there when nobody looks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leggett, A.J.; Garg, A.

    1985-01-01

    It is shown that, in the contect of an idealized ''macroscopic quantum coherence'' experiment, the prediction of quantum mechanics are incompattible with the conjunction of two general assimptions which are designated ''macroscopic realism'' and ''noninvasive measurability at the macroscopiclevel.'' The conditions under which quantum mechanics can be tested against these assumptions in a realistic experiment are discussed

  14. Role of stochastic fluctuations in the charge on macroscopic particles in dusty plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaulina, O.S.; Nefedov, A.P.; Petrov, O.F.; Khrapak, S.A.

    1999-01-01

    The currents which charge a macroscopic particle placed in a plasma consist of discrete charges; hence, the charge can undergo random fluctuations about its equilibrium value. These random fluctuations can be described by a simple model which, if the mechanisms for charging of macroscopic particles are known, makes it possible to determine the dependence of the temporal and amplitude characteristics of the fluctuations on the plasma parameters. This model can be used to study the effect of charge fluctuations on the dynamics of the macroscopic particles. The case of so-called plasma-dust crystals (i.e., highly ordered structures which develop because of strong interactions among macroscopic particles) in laboratory gaseous discharge plasmas is considered as an example. The molecular dynamics method shows that, under certain conditions, random fluctuations in the charge can effectively heat a system of macroscopic particles, thereby impeding the ordering process

  15. Macroscopic erosion of divertor and first wall armour in future tokamaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Würz, H.; Bazylev, B.; Landman, I.; Pestchanyi, S.; Safronov, V.

    2002-12-01

    Sputtering, evaporation and macroscopic erosion determine the lifetime of the 'in vessel' armour materials CFC, tungsten and beryllium presently under discussion for future tokamaks. For CFC armour macroscopic erosion means brittle destruction and dust formation whereas for metallic armour melt layer erosion by melt motion and droplet splashing. Available results on macroscopic erosion from hot plasma and e-beam simulation experiments and from tokamaks are critically evaluated and a comprehensive discussion of experimental and numerical macroscopic erosion and its extrapolation to future tokamaks is given. Shielding of divertor armour materials by their own vapor exists during plasma disruptions. The evolving plasma shield protects the armour from high heat loads, absorbs the incoming energy and reradiates it volumetrically thus reducing drastically the deposited energy. As a result, vertical target erosion by vaporization turns out to be of the order of a few microns per disruption event and macroscopic erosion becomes the dominant erosion source.

  16. Macroscopic erosion of divertor and first wall armour in future tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuerz, H.; Bazylev, B.; Landman, I.; Pestchanyi, S.; Safronov, V.

    2002-01-01

    Sputtering, evaporation and macroscopic erosion determine the lifetime of the 'in vessel' armour materials CFC, tungsten and beryllium presently under discussion for future tokamaks. For CFC armour macroscopic erosion means brittle destruction and dust formation whereas for metallic armour melt layer erosion by melt motion and droplet splashing. Available results on macroscopic erosion from hot plasma and e-beam simulation experiments and from tokamaks are critically evaluated and a comprehensive discussion of experimental and numerical macroscopic erosion and its extrapolation to future tokamaks is given. Shielding of divertor armour materials by their own vapor exists during plasma disruptions. The evolving plasma shield protects the armour from high heat loads, absorbs the incoming energy and reradiates it volumetrically thus reducing drastically the deposited energy. As a result, vertical target erosion by vaporization turns out to be of the order of a few microns per disruption event and macroscopic erosion becomes the dominant erosion source

  17. Models of genus one curves

    OpenAIRE

    Sadek, Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis we give insight into the minimisation problem of genus one curves defined by equations other than Weierstrass equations. We are interested in genus one curves given as double covers of P1, plane cubics, or complete intersections of two quadrics in P3. By minimising such a curve we mean making the invariants associated to its defining equations as small as possible using a suitable change of coordinates. We study the non-uniqueness of minimisations of the genus one curves des...

  18. Macroscopic behavior and microscopic magnetic properties of nanocarbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lähderanta, E., E-mail: Erkki.Lahderanta@lut.fi [Lappeenranta University of Technology, PO Box 20, FIN-53851 Lappeenranta (Finland); Ryzhov, V.A. [Lappeenranta University of Technology, PO Box 20, FIN-53851 Lappeenranta (Finland); Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, NRC “Kurchatov Institute”, Orlova Coppice, Gatchina, Leningrad province 188300 (Russian Federation); Lashkul, A.V. [Lappeenranta University of Technology, PO Box 20, FIN-53851 Lappeenranta (Finland); Galimov, D.M. [Lappeenranta University of Technology, PO Box 20, FIN-53851 Lappeenranta (Finland); South Ural State University, 454080 Chelyabinsk (Russian Federation); Titkov, A.N. [Lappeenranta University of Technology, PO Box 20, FIN-53851 Lappeenranta (Finland); A. F. Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Matveev, V.V. [Lappeenranta University of Technology, PO Box 20, FIN-53851 Lappeenranta (Finland); Saint-Petersburg State University, Saint-Petersburg 198504 (Russian Federation); Mokeev, M.V. [Institute of Macromolecular Compounds, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Kurbakov, A.I. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, NRC “Kurchatov Institute”, Orlova Coppice, Gatchina, Leningrad province 188300 (Russian Federation); Lisunov, K.G. [Lappeenranta University of Technology, PO Box 20, FIN-53851 Lappeenranta (Finland); Institute of Applied Physics ASM, Academiei Str., 5, MD 2028 Kishinev (Moldova, Republic of)

    2015-06-01

    Here are presented investigations of powder and glass-like samples containing carbon nanoparticles, not intentionally doped and doped with Ag, Au and Co. The neutron diffraction study reveals an amorphous structure of the samples doped with Au and Co, as well as the magnetic scattering due to a long-range FM order in the Co-doped sample. The composition and molecular structure of the sample doped with Au is clarified with the NMR investigations. The temperature dependence of the magnetization, M (T), exhibits large irreversibility in low fields of B=1–7 mT. M (B) saturates already above 2 T at high temperatures, but deviates from the saturation behavior below ~50 (150 K). Magnetic hysteresis is observed already at 300 K and exhibits a power-law temperature decay of the coercive field, B{sub c} (T). The macroscopic behavior above is typical of an assembly of partially blocked magnetic nanoparticles. The values of the saturation magnetization, M{sub s}, and the blocking temperature, T{sub b}, are obtained as well. However, the hysteresis loop in the Co-doped sample differs from that in other samples, and the values of B{sub c} and M{sub s} are noticeably increased. - Highlights: • We have investigated powder and glassy samples with carbon nanoparticles. • They include an undoped sample and those doped with Ag, Au and Co. • Neutron diffraction study reveals amorphous structure of Au- and Co-doped samples. • Composition and molecular structure of Au-doped sample was investigated with NMR. • Magnetic behavior is typical of an assembly of partially blocked magnetic nanoparticles.

  19. Macroscopic behavior and microscopic magnetic properties of nanocarbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lähderanta, E.; Ryzhov, V.A.; Lashkul, A.V.; Galimov, D.M.; Titkov, A.N.; Matveev, V.V.; Mokeev, M.V.; Kurbakov, A.I.; Lisunov, K.G.

    2015-01-01

    Here are presented investigations of powder and glass-like samples containing carbon nanoparticles, not intentionally doped and doped with Ag, Au and Co. The neutron diffraction study reveals an amorphous structure of the samples doped with Au and Co, as well as the magnetic scattering due to a long-range FM order in the Co-doped sample. The composition and molecular structure of the sample doped with Au is clarified with the NMR investigations. The temperature dependence of the magnetization, M (T), exhibits large irreversibility in low fields of B=1–7 mT. M (B) saturates already above 2 T at high temperatures, but deviates from the saturation behavior below ~50 (150 K). Magnetic hysteresis is observed already at 300 K and exhibits a power-law temperature decay of the coercive field, B c (T). The macroscopic behavior above is typical of an assembly of partially blocked magnetic nanoparticles. The values of the saturation magnetization, M s , and the blocking temperature, T b , are obtained as well. However, the hysteresis loop in the Co-doped sample differs from that in other samples, and the values of B c and M s are noticeably increased. - Highlights: • We have investigated powder and glassy samples with carbon nanoparticles. • They include an undoped sample and those doped with Ag, Au and Co. • Neutron diffraction study reveals amorphous structure of Au- and Co-doped samples. • Composition and molecular structure of Au-doped sample was investigated with NMR. • Magnetic behavior is typical of an assembly of partially blocked magnetic nanoparticles

  20. Proton irradiation effects on beryllium – A macroscopic assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simos, Nikolaos, E-mail: simos@bnl.gov [Nuclear Sciences & Technology Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY, 11973 (United States); Elbakhshwan, Mohamed [Nuclear Sciences & Technology Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY, 11973 (United States); Zhong, Zhong [Photon Sciences, NSLS II, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY, 11973 (United States); Camino, Fernando [Center for Functional Nanomaterials, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY, 11973 (United States)

    2016-10-15

    Beryllium, due to its excellent neutron multiplication and moderation properties, in conjunction with its good thermal properties, is under consideration for use as plasma facing material in fusion reactors and as a very effective neutron reflector in fission reactors. While it is characterized by unique combination of structural, chemical, atomic number, and neutron absorption cross section it suffers, however, from irradiation generated transmutation gases such as helium and tritium which exhibit low solubility leading to supersaturation of the Be matrix and tend to precipitate into bubbles that coalesce and induce swelling and embrittlement thus degrading the metal and limiting its lifetime. Utilization of beryllium as a pion production low-Z target in high power proton accelerators has been sought both for its low Z and good thermal properties in an effort to mitigate thermos-mechanical shock that is expected to be induced under the multi-MW power demand. To assess irradiation-induced changes in the thermal and mechanical properties of Beryllium, a study focusing on proton irradiation damage effects has been undertaken using 200 MeV protons from the Brookhaven National Laboratory Linac and followed by a multi-faceted post-irradiation analysis that included the thermal and volumetric stability of irradiated beryllium, the stress-strain behavior and its ductility loss as a function of proton fluence and the effects of proton irradiation on the microstructure using synchrotron X-ray diffraction. The mimicking of high temperature irradiation of Beryllium via high temperature annealing schemes has been conducted as part of the post-irradiation study. This paper focuses on the thermal stability and mechanical property changes of the proton irradiated beryllium and presents results of the macroscopic property changes of Beryllium deduced from thermal and mechanical tests.

  1. Innovations in macroscopic evaluation of pancreatic specimens and radiologic correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charikleia Triantopoulou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of a novel dissection technique of surgical specimens in different cases of pancreatic tumors and provide a radiologic pathologic correlation. In our hospital, that is a referral center for pancreatic diseases, the macroscopic evaluation of the pancreatectomy specimens is performed by the pathologists using the axial slicing technique (instead of the traditional procedure with longitudinal opening of the main pancreatic and/or common bile duct and slicing along the plane defined by both ducts. The specimen is sliced in an axial plane that is perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the descending duodenum. The procedure results in a large number of thin slices (3–4 mm. This plane is identical to that of CT or MRI and correlation between pathology and imaging is straightforward. We studied 70 cases of suspected different solid and cystic pancreatic tumors and we correlated the tumor size and location, the structure—consistency (areas of necrosis—hemorrhage—fibrosis—inflammation, the degree of vessels’ infiltration, the size of pancreatic and common bile duct and the distance from resection margins. Missed findings by imaging or pitfalls were recorded and we tried to explain all discrepancies between radiology evaluation and the histopathological findings. Radiologic-pathologic correlation is extremely important, adding crucial information on imaging limitations and enabling quality assessment of surgical specimens. The deep knowledge of different pancreatic tumors’ consistency and way of extension helps to improve radiologists’ diagnostic accuracy and minimize the radiological-surgical mismatching, preventing patients from unnecessary surgery.

  2. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of macroscopic morphology and dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrall, G.A.; Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA

    1995-09-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance techniques are traditionally used to study molecular level structure and dynamics with a noted exception in medically applied NMR imaging (MRI). In this work, new experimental methods and theory are presented relevant to the study of macroscopic morphology and dynamics using NMR field gradient techniques and solid state two-dimensional exchange NMR. The goal in this work is not to take some particular system and study it in great detail, rather it is to show the utility of a number of new and novel techniques using ideal systems primarily as a proof of principle. By taking advantage of the analogy between NMR imaging and diffraction, one may simplify the experiments necessary for characterizing the statistical properties of the sample morphology. For a sample composed of many small features, e.g. a porous medium, the NMR diffraction techniques take advantage of both the narrow spatial range and spatial isotropy of the sample's density autocorrelation function to obtain high resolution structural information in considerably less time than that required by conventional NMR imaging approaches. The time savings of the technique indicates that NMR diffraction is capable of finer spatial resolution than conventional NMR imaging techniques. Radio frequency NMR imaging with a coaxial resonator represents the first use of cylindrically symmetric field gradients in imaging. The apparatus as built has achieved resolution at the micron level for water samples, and has the potential to be very useful in the imaging of circularly symmetric systems. The study of displacement probability densities in flow through a random porous medium has revealed the presence of features related to the interconnectedness of the void volumes. The pulsed gradient techniques used have proven successful at measuring flow properties for time and length scales considerably shorter than those studied by more conventional techniques

  3. NMR studies of macroscopic and microscopic properties of liquid crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, J.R.

    1998-03-01

    The work presented is concerned with studies of orientational order in liquid crystals and the behaviour of certain mesophases. The experimental technique used in common with all the work is deuterium NMR spectroscopy. Much of the work involves studies of the orientational order of deuteriated solute molecules dissolved in liquid crystal solvents. Chapter 1 gives an introduction to liquid crystals followed by a quantitative description of orientational order. Deuterium NMR in liquid crystals is described and an outline of the molecular field theory behind the orientational order of a rigid, biaxial solute in a uniaxial mesophase is given. In Chapter 2 a novel type of mesophase induction is studied using NMR, where a solute induces up to two extra phases in a discotic mesogen depending on its concentration. The purpose of this work is to try to gain an understanding into the mechanism of the phase induction involved. Chapter 3 is concerned primarily with the macroscopic behaviour of the nematic phase formed by a semi-rigid main-chain polymer in solution. Of particular interest is the study of the reorientation of the monodomain, once the director has been rotated with respect to the magnetic field of the NMR spectrometer. A mesogen which has been claimed to exhibit a biaxial nematic phase is studied in Chapter 4, in order to determine the symmetry of the phase using NMR. Finally, Chapter 5 deals with the differing behaviour of a liquid crystal monomer and its dimer dissolved in common nematic solvents in order to determine whether this agrees with molecular field theory. (author)

  4. Macroscopic observation of thermal behavior of concentrated solution of coal extracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masao Suzuki; Koyo Norinaga; Masashi Iino [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials

    2004-11-01

    The solvent extracts of Upper Freeport and Illinois No.6 coals were mixed with N-methyl-2-pyrolidinone (NMP) and annealed at 353 K to produce the gelatinous materials. Differential scanning calorimetric measurements revealed that the materials can hold significant amounts of nonfreezable NMP (as much as 3 g NMP per 1 g coal extracts) which disperse in the materials on a molecular scale, indicating the materials are not phase separated. The thermal behaviors were measured macroscopically as a function of the extract concentration using a needle penetrometer during heating from 223 to 360 K. The penetration-temperature curves were analyzed to estimate the apparent viscosity ({eta}{sub a}). During the penetrations, {eta}{sub a} was decreased very rapidly, approximately four orders of the magnitude by a temperature increase of 20 K, suggesting that the coal extracts-NMP mixtures undergoes a gel to sol transition. The heats of dissociation of crosslinks ({Delta}H{sub m}) were estimated by applying Eldridge-Ferry equation. The {Delta}H{sub m} of coal extracts-NMP mixtures was relatively small, i.e. approximately 10 kJ/mol, whereas the ?Hm of polyvinyl alcohol-NMP gel in which the hydrogen bonds contribute the formation of the physical network structures, was about 65 kJ/mol. Not the specific interaction such as hydrogen bonds, but weak interactions such as van der Waals force were likely to contribute the formation of the coal extracts-NMP gel. 28 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. A macroscopic constitutive model of temperature-induced phase transition of polycrystalline Ni{sub 2}MnGa by directional solidification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Yuping, E-mail: zhuyuping@126.com; Gu, Yunling; Liu, Hongguang

    2015-02-25

    Directional solidification technology has been widely used to improve the properties of polycrystalline Ni{sub 2}MnGa materials. Mechanical training can adjust the internal organizational structures of the materials, reduce the stress of twin boundaries motion, and then result in larger strain at lower outfield levels. In this paper, we test the microscopic structure of Ni{sub 2}MnGa polycrystalline ferromagnetic shape memory alloy produced by directional solidification and compress it along two axes successively for mechanical training. The influences of pre-compressive stresses on the temperature-induced strains are analyzed. The macroscopic mechanical behaviors show anisotropy. According to the generating mechanism of the macroscopic strain, a three-dimensional constitutive model is established. Based on thermodynamic method, the kinetic equations of the martensitic transformation and inverse transformation are presented considering the driving force and energy dissipation. The prediction curves of temperature-induce strains along two different directions are investigated. And the results coincide well with the experiment data. It well explains the macroscopic anisotropy mechanical behaviors and fits for using in engineering.

  6. Quantum fields in curved space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birrell, N.D.; Davies, P.C.W.

    1982-01-01

    The book presents a comprehensive review of the subject of gravitational effects in quantum field theory. Quantum field theory in Minkowski space, quantum field theory in curved spacetime, flat spacetime examples, curved spacetime examples, stress-tensor renormalization, applications of renormalization techniques, quantum black holes and interacting fields are all discussed in detail. (U.K.)

  7. Extended analysis of cooling curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djurdjevic, M.B.; Kierkus, W.T.; Liliac, R.E.; Sokolowski, J.H.

    2002-01-01

    Thermal Analysis (TA) is the measurement of changes in a physical property of a material that is heated through a phase transformation temperature range. The temperature changes in the material are recorded as a function of the heating or cooling time in such a manner that allows for the detection of phase transformations. In order to increase accuracy, characteristic points on the cooling curve have been identified using the first derivative curve plotted versus time. In this paper, an alternative approach to the analysis of the cooling curve has been proposed. The first derivative curve has been plotted versus temperature and all characteristic points have been identified with the same accuracy achieved using the traditional method. The new cooling curve analysis also enables the Dendrite Coherency Point (DCP) to be detected using only one thermocouple. (author)

  8. Structured pathology reporting improves the macroscopic assessment of rectal tumour resection specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Simon; Dimech, Margaret; Johnstone, Susan

    2016-06-01

    We examined whether introduction of a structured macroscopic reporting template for rectal tumour resection specimens improved the completeness and efficiency in collecting key macroscopic data elements. Fifty free text (narrative) macroscopic reports retrieved from 2012 to 2014 were compared with 50 structured macroscopic reports from 2013 to 2015, all of which were generated at John Hunter Hospital, Newcastle, NSW. The six standard macroscopic data elements examined in this study were reported in all 50 anatomical pathology reports using a structured macroscopic reporting dictation template. Free text reports demonstrated significantly impaired data collection when recording intactness of mesorectum (p<0.001), relationship to anterior peritoneal reflection (p=0.028) and distance of tumour to the non-peritonealised circumferential margin (p<0.001). The number of words used was also significantly (p<0.001) reduced using pre-formatted structured reports compared to free text reports. The introduction of a structured reporting dictation template improves data collection and may reduce the subsequent administrative burden when macroscopically evaluating rectal resections. Copyright © 2016 Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Innovations in macroscopic evaluation of pancreatic specimens and radiologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triantopoulou, Charikleia; Papaparaskeva, Kleo; Agalianos, Christos; Dervenis, Christos

    2016-01-01

    •The axial slicing technique offers many advantages in accurate estimation of tumors extend and staging.•Cross-sectional axial imaging is the best technique for accurate radiologic-pathologic correlation.•Correlation may explain any discrepancies between radiological and histopathological findings.•Pathology correlation may offer a better understanding of the missed findings by imaging or pitfalls The axial slicing technique offers many advantages in accurate estimation of tumors extend and staging. Cross-sectional axial imaging is the best technique for accurate radiologic-pathologic correlation. Correlation may explain any discrepancies between radiological and histopathological findings. Pathology correlation may offer a better understanding of the missed findings by imaging or pitfalls The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of a novel dissection technique of surgical specimens in different cases of pancreatic tumors and provide a radiologic pathologic correlation. In our hospital, that is a referral center for pancreatic diseases, the macroscopic evaluation of the pancreatectomy specimens is performed by the pathologists using the axial slicing technique (instead of the traditional procedure with longitudinal opening of the main pancreatic and/or common bile duct and slicing along the plane defined by both ducts). The specimen is sliced in an axial plane that is perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the descending duodenum. The procedure results in a large number of thin slices (3–4 mm). This plane is identical to that of CT or MRI and correlation between pathology and imaging is straightforward. We studied 70 cases of suspected different solid and cystic pancreatic tumors and we correlated the tumor size and location, the structure—consistency (areas of necrosis—hemorrhage—fibrosis—inflammation), the degree of vessels’ infiltration, the size of pancreatic and common bile duct and the distance from resection margins

  10. On quantum effects in the dynamics of macroscopic test masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller-Ebhardt, Helge

    2009-01-01

    This thesis provides theoretically a link between the increase of the sensitivity of gravitational-wave detectors and the possibility of preparing macroscopic quantum states in such detectors. In the first part of this thesis, we theoretically explore the quantum measurement noise of an optical speed meter topology, the Sagnac interferometer, equipped with an additional detuned cavity at the output port. This detuned signal-recycling technique was already investigated when applying it to a Michelson interferometer and is used in the gravitational-wave detector GEO600. Together with the quantum noise analysis of the simple Sagnac interferometer, it is the basis of our study: we optimize the Sagnac interferometer's sensitivity towards the detection of a certain gravitational-wave source in the vicinity of a realistic classical noise environment. Motivated by the fact that the Michelson interferometer, as a position meter, with detuned signal-recycling can transduce the gravitational-wave strain into real mirror motion, we compare the transducer effect in a speed and in a position meter. Furthermore, we theoretically investigate the conditional output squeezing of a cavity which is detuned with respect to its carrier and its subcarrier. Therewith we pursue the theoretical analysis of the ponderomotive squeezer. With the knowledge gained in the first part about the quantum measurement process in laser interferometers, the second part of this thesis comprises a theoretical analysis of the conditonal state in positon and momentum of the interferometer's test masses. We motivate not to obtain the conditional states from a stochastic master equation but with the help of the so-called Wiener filtering method. Using this method, we calculate the most general expression for the conditional covariance matrix of the Gaussian state of a test mass under any linear Markovian measurement process. Then we specify to the interferometry and theoretically show under which circumstances

  11. Polymorphic phase transitions: Macroscopic theory and molecular simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, Jamshed; Zahn, Dirk

    2017-08-01

    Transformations in the solid state are of considerable interest, both for fundamental reasons and because they underpin important technological applications. The interest spans a wide spectrum of disciplines and application domains. For pharmaceuticals, a common issue is unexpected polymorphic transformation of the drug or excipient during processing or on storage, which can result in product failure. A more ambitious goal is that of exploiting the advantages of metastable polymorphs (e.g. higher solubility and dissolution rate) while ensuring their stability with respect to solid state transformation. To address these issues and to advance technology, there is an urgent need for significant insights that can only come from a detailed molecular level understanding of the involved processes. Whilst experimental approaches at best yield time- and space-averaged structural information, molecular simulation offers unprecedented, time-resolved molecular-level resolution of the processes taking place. This review aims to provide a comprehensive and critical account of state-of-the-art methods for modelling polymorph stability and transitions between solid phases. This is flanked by revisiting the associated macroscopic theoretical framework for phase transitions, including their classification, proposed molecular mechanisms, and kinetics. The simulation methods are presented in tutorial form, focusing on their application to phase transition phenomena. We describe molecular simulation studies for crystal structure prediction and polymorph screening, phase coexistence and phase diagrams, simulations of crystal-crystal transitions of various types (displacive/martensitic, reconstructive and diffusive), effects of defects, and phase stability and transitions at the nanoscale. Our selection of literature is intended to illustrate significant insights, concepts and understanding, as well as the current scope of using molecular simulations for understanding polymorphic

  12. Usefulness of combining gadolinium-ethoxybenzyl-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging and contrast-enhanced ultrasound for diagnosing the macroscopic classification of small hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Tomoki; Aikata, Hiroshi; Hatooka, Masahiro; Morio, Kei; Morio, Reona; Kan, Hiromi; Fujino, Hatsue; Fukuhara, Takayuki; Masaki, Keiichi; Ohno, Atsushi; Naeshiro, Noriaki; Nakahara, Takashi; Honda, Yohji; Murakami, Eisuke; Kawaoka, Tomokazu; Tsuge, Masataka; Hiramatsu, Akira; Imamura, Michio; Kawakami, Yoshiiku; Hyogo, Hideyuki; Takahashi, Shoichi; Chayama, Kazuaki

    2015-11-01

    Non-simple nodules in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) correlate with poor prognosis. Therefore, we examined the diagnostic ability of gadolinium-ethoxybenzyl-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (EOB-MRI) and contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) for diagnosing the macroscopic classification of small HCCs. A total of 85 surgically resected nodules (≤30 mm) were analyzed. HCCs were pathologically classified as simple nodular (SN) and non-SN. By evaluating hepatobiliary phase (HBP) of EOB-MRI and Kupffer phase of CEUS, the diagnostic abilities of both modalities to correctly distinguish between SN and non-SN were compared. Forty-six nodules were diagnosed as SN and the remaining 39 nodules as non-SN. The area under the ROC curve (AUROCs, 95% confidence interval) for the diagnosis of non-SN were EOB-MRI, 0.786 (0.682-0.890): CEUS, 0.784 (0.679-0.889), in combination, 0.876 (0.792-0.959). The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 64.1%, 95.7%, and 81.2% in EOB-MRI, 56.4%, 97.8%, and 78.8% in CEUS, and 84.6%, 95.7%, and 90.6% in combination, respectively. High diagnostic ability was obtained when diagnosed in both modalities combined. The sensitivity was especially statistically significant compared to CEUS. Combined diagnosis by EOB-MRI and CEUS can provide high-quality imaging assessment for determining non-SN in small HCCs. • Non-SN has a higher frequency of MVI and intrahepatic metastasis than SN. • Macroscopic classification is useful to choose the treatment strategy for small HCCs. • Diagnostic ability for macroscopic findings of EOB-MRI and CEUS were statistically equal. • The diagnosis of macroscopic findings by individual modality has limitations. • Combined diagnosis of EOB-MRI and CEUS provides high diagnostic ability.

  13. Observation of squeezed light and quantum description of the macroscopical body movement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bykov, V.P.

    1992-01-01

    The possibility of a nondemolition measurement (observation) of macroscopical objects in widely distributed quantum mechanical states arises from the fact of the squezzed light observation. Macroscopical bodies -bodies of classical mechanics - are usually in states with narrow wave packets. It is shown that the absence of macroscopical bodies in widely distributed states is due to the focusing influence of the body's gravity field on its wave packet. An evidence that the gravity is essential in the classic limit of quantum mechanics is given. (author). 14 refs, 7 figs

  14. Neurovascular Structures at Risk With Curved Retrograde TTC Fusion Nails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Cesar Netto, Cesar; Johannesmeyer, David; Cone, Brent; Araoye, Ibukunoluwa; Hudson, Parke William; Sahranavard, Bahman; Johnson, Michael; Shah, Ashish

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the risk of iatrogenic injury to plantar neurovascular structures of the foot during insertion of a curved retrograde tibiotalocalcaneal (TTC) fusion nail. Ten below-knee thawed fresh-frozen cadaveric specimens underwent curved retrograde nailing of the ankle. The shortest distance between the nail and the main plantar neurovascular branches and injured structures were recorded during dissection. We also evaluated the relative position of these structures along 2 lines (AB, connecting the calcaneus to the first metatarsal, and BC, connecting the first and fifth metatarsal). The lateral plantar artery was found to be in direct contact with the nail 70% of the time, with a macroscopic laceration 30% of the time. The Baxter nerve was injured 20% of the time, as was the lateral plantar nerve. The medial plantar artery and nerve were never injured. The most proximal structure to cross line AB was the Baxter nerve followed by the lateral plantar artery, the nail, the lateral plantar nerve, and the medial plantar nerve. Our cadaveric anatomic study found that the most common structures at risk for iatrogenic injury by lateral curved retrograde TTC fusion nails were the lateral plantar artery and nerve, and the Baxter nerve. Determination of a true neurovascular safe zone is challenging and therefore warrants careful operative dissection to minimize neurovascular injuries.

  15. Computational aspects of algebraic curves

    CERN Document Server

    Shaska, Tanush

    2005-01-01

    The development of new computational techniques and better computing power has made it possible to attack some classical problems of algebraic geometry. The main goal of this book is to highlight such computational techniques related to algebraic curves. The area of research in algebraic curves is receiving more interest not only from the mathematics community, but also from engineers and computer scientists, because of the importance of algebraic curves in applications including cryptography, coding theory, error-correcting codes, digital imaging, computer vision, and many more.This book cove

  16. From microscopic taxation and redistribution models to macroscopic income distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertotti, Maria Letizia; Modanese, Giovanni

    2011-10-01

    We present here a general framework, expressed by a system of nonlinear differential equations, suitable for the modeling of taxation and redistribution in a closed society. This framework allows one to describe the evolution of income distribution over the population and to explain the emergence of collective features based on knowledge of the individual interactions. By making different choices of the framework parameters, we construct different models, whose long-time behavior is then investigated. Asymptotic stationary distributions are found, which enjoy similar properties as those observed in empirical distributions. In particular, they exhibit power law tails of Pareto type and their Lorenz curves and Gini indices are consistent with some real world ones.

  17. Observation of linear I-V curves on vertical GaAs nanowires with atomic force microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geydt, P.; Alekseev, P. A.; Dunaevskiy, M.; Lähderanta, E.; Haggrén, T.; Kakko, J.-P.; Lipsanen, H.

    2015-12-01

    In this work we demonstrate the possibility of studying the current-voltage characteristics for single vertically standing semiconductor nanowires on standard AFM equipped by current measuring module in PeakForce Tapping mode. On the basis of research of eight different samples of p-doped GaAs nanowires grown on different GaAs substrates, peculiar electrical effects were revealed. It was found how covering of substrate surface by SiOx layer increases the current, as well as phosphorous passivation of the grown nanowires. Elimination of the Schottky barrier between golden cap and the top parts of nanowires was observed. It was additionally studied that charge accumulation on the shell of single nanowires affects its resistivity and causes the hysteresis loops on I-V curves.

  18. From Microscopic to Macroscopic Descriptions of Cell Migration on Growing Domains

    KAUST Repository

    Baker, Ruth E.; Yates, Christian A.; Erban, Radek

    2009-01-01

    are studied, and correspondence with a macroscopic-level PDE describing the evolution of cell density is demonstrated. The individual-based models are formulated in terms of random walkers on a lattice. Domain growth provides an extra mathematical challenge

  19. New nuclear data set ABBN-90 and its testing on macroscopic experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosh'cheev, V.N.; Manturov, G.N.; Nikolaev, M.N.; Rineyskiy, A.A.; Sinitsa, V.V.; Tsyboolya, A.M.; Zabrodskaya, S.V.

    1993-01-01

    The new group constant set ABBN-90 is developed now. It based on the FOND-2 evaluated neutron data library processed with the code GRUCON. Some results of the testing ABBN-90 set in different macroscopic experiments are presented. (author)

  20. Relationship Between Filler-Matrix Interface and Macroscopical Properties of Polymer Nanocomposites

    KAUST Repository

    Ventura, Isaac Aguilar

    2017-01-01

    The macroscopic properties of Multiwall Carbon Nanotube (MWCNT) polymer nano-composites and multiscale composites have been studied from a multifunctional standpoint. The objective is to understand and correlate the mechanisms in which the addition

  1. Equation-Free Analysis of Macroscopic Behavior in Traffic and Pedestrian Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marschler, Christian; Sieber, Jan; Hjorth, Poul G.

    2014-01-01

    Equation-free methods make possible an analysis of the evolution of a few coarse-grained or macroscopic quantities for a detailed and realistic model with a large number of fine-grained or microscopic variables, even though no equations are explicitly given on the macroscopic level. This will fac......Equation-free methods make possible an analysis of the evolution of a few coarse-grained or macroscopic quantities for a detailed and realistic model with a large number of fine-grained or microscopic variables, even though no equations are explicitly given on the macroscopic level....... This will facilitate a study of how the model behavior depends on parameter values including an understanding of transitions between different types of qualitative behavior. These methods are introduced and explained for traffic jam formation and emergence of oscillatory pedestrian counter flow in a corridor...

  2. 51Cr - erythrocyte survival curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paiva Costa, J. de.

    1982-07-01

    Sixteen patients were studied, being fifteen patients in hemolytic state, and a normal individual as a witness. The aim was to obtain better techniques for the analysis of the erythrocytes, survival curves, according to the recommendations of the International Committee of Hematology. It was used the radiochromatic method as a tracer. Previously a revisional study of the International Literature was made in its aspects inherent to the work in execution, rendering possible to establish comparisons and clarify phonomena observed in cur investigation. Several parameters were considered in this study, hindering both the exponential and the linear curves. The analysis of the survival curves of the erythrocytes in the studied group, revealed that the elution factor did not present a homogeneous answer quantitatively to all, though, the result of the analysis of these curves have been established, through listed programs in the electronic calculator. (Author) [pt

  3. Melting curves of gammairradiated DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofer, H.; Altmann, H.; Kehrer, M.

    1978-08-01

    Melting curves of gammairradiated DNA and data derived of them, are reported. The diminished stability is explained by basedestruction. DNA denatures completely at room temperature, if at least every fifth basepair is broken or weakened by irradiation. (author)

  4. Management of the learning curve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Peter-Christian; Slepniov, Dmitrij

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – This paper focuses on the management of the learning curve in overseas capacity expansions. The purpose of this paper is to unravel the direct as well as indirect influences on the learning curve and to advance the understanding of how these affect its management. Design...... the dimensions of the learning process involved in a capacity expansion project and identified the direct and indirect labour influences on the production learning curve. On this basis, the study proposes solutions to managing learning curves in overseas capacity expansions. Furthermore, the paper concludes...... with measures that have the potential to significantly reduce the non-value-added time when establishing new capacities overseas. Originality/value – The paper uses a longitudinal in-depth case study of a Danish wind turbine manufacturer and goes beyond a simplistic treatment of the lead time and learning...

  5. Polyelectrolyte surfactant aggregates and their deposition on macroscopic surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voisin, David

    2002-01-01

    cationically modified guar gums (of varying charge density) with two anionic surfactants: sodium lauryl (or dodecyl) ether sulfate [SLES] and sodium dodecyl sulfate [SDS], for various concentrations of the polyelectrolyte and added sodium chloride, at room temperature. The addition of sodium chloride has only a minor net effect on the CFC, but increases the CSC significantly. The interactions between the cationic polyelectrolyte and the surfactant have been studied in the one-phase regions, i.e. below the CFC and above the CSC, using different techniques. Surface tension, electrophoresis, light scattering and viscosimetry have been employed. In the two-phase region, the sedimented floe phase has been analysed and the flocculation has been investigated. Rheology of the floe phase has been studied, after a mild compression by centrifugation. The initial rate of flocculation has been determined, using stop-flow equipment. The growth and the structure of the flocs have been investigated by light scattering. The open-network flocs of polyelectrolyte-surfactant particles grow to ∼10's μm in size, prior to their eventual settling out. Other colloidal particles can be trapped within these large flocs, and the flocs can be used to transport these particles to a macroscopic surface. The deposition and the removal of such composite flocs on glass surfaces, under flow, have been studied using a flow cell device coupled with an optical microscope. Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy have also been employed. (author)

  6. Polyelectrolyte surfactant aggregates and their deposition on macroscopic surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voisin, David

    2002-07-01

    the CSC have been determined for mixtures of cationically modified guar gums (of varying charge density) with two anionic surfactants: sodium lauryl (or dodecyl) ether sulfate [SLES] and sodium dodecyl sulfate [SDS], for various concentrations of the polyelectrolyte and added sodium chloride, at room temperature. The addition of sodium chloride has only a minor net effect on the CFC, but increases the CSC significantly. The interactions between the cationic polyelectrolyte and the surfactant have been studied in the one-phase regions, i.e. below the CFC and above the CSC, using different techniques. Surface tension, electrophoresis, light scattering and viscosimetry have been employed. In the two-phase region, the sedimented floe phase has been analysed and the flocculation has been investigated. Rheology of the floe phase has been studied, after a mild compression by centrifugation. The initial rate of flocculation has been determined, using stop-flow equipment. The growth and the structure of the flocs have been investigated by light scattering. The open-network flocs of polyelectrolyte-surfactant particles grow to {approx}10's {mu}m in size, prior to their eventual settling out. Other colloidal particles can be trapped within these large flocs, and the flocs can be used to transport these particles to a macroscopic surface. The deposition and the removal of such composite flocs on glass surfaces, under flow, have been studied using a flow cell device coupled with an optical microscope. Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy have also been employed. (author)

  7. Growth curves for Laron syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Laron, Z; Lilos, P; Klinger, B

    1993-01-01

    Growth curves for children with Laron syndrome were constructed on the basis of repeated measurements made throughout infancy, childhood, and puberty in 24 (10 boys, 14 girls) of the 41 patients with this syndrome investigated in our clinic. Growth retardation was already noted at birth, the birth length ranging from 42 to 46 cm in the 12/20 available measurements. The postnatal growth curves deviated sharply from the normal from infancy on. Both sexes showed no clear pubertal spurt. Girls co...

  8. Flow over riblet curved surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loureiro, J B R; Freire, A P Silva, E-mail: atila@mecanica.ufrj.br [Mechanical Engineering Program, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (COPPE/UFRJ), C.P. 68503, 21.941-972, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-12-22

    The present work studies the mechanics of turbulent drag reduction over curved surfaces by riblets. The effects of surface modification on flow separation over steep and smooth curved surfaces are investigated. Four types of two-dimensional surfaces are studied based on the morphometric parameters that describe the body of a blue whale. Local measurements of mean velocity and turbulence profiles are obtained through laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) and particle image velocimetry (PIV).

  9. Effect of isovector coupling channel on the macroscopic part of the nuclear binding energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haddad, S.

    2011-04-01

    The effect of the isovector coupling channel on the macroscopic part of the nuclear binding energy is determined utilizing the relativistic density dependent Thomas-Fermi approach for the calculation of the macroscopic part of the nuclear binding energy, and the dependency of this effect on the numbers of neutrons and protons is studied. The isovector coupling channel leads to increased nuclear binding energy, and this effect sharpens with growing excess of the number of neutrons on the number of protons. (author)

  10. Experimental observation of the quantum behavior of a macroscopic degree of freedom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devoret, M.H.; Martinis, J.M.; Esteve, D.

    1986-08-01

    At Berkeley a series of experiments have been performed, that demonstrates the quantum behavior of one macroscopic degree of freedom, namely the phase difference across a current biased Josephson junction. Here we will focus on the praticalities involved in such a demonstration. The emphasis is put on the particular procedures used to solve the two problems of noise shielding and parameter determination. To begin, a short description of the macroscopic system investigated, the current biased Josephson junction is given

  11. Intersection numbers of spectral curves

    CERN Document Server

    Eynard, B.

    2011-01-01

    We compute the symplectic invariants of an arbitrary spectral curve with only 1 branchpoint in terms of integrals of characteristic classes in the moduli space of curves. Our formula associates to any spectral curve, a characteristic class, which is determined by the laplace transform of the spectral curve. This is a hint to the key role of Laplace transform in mirror symmetry. When the spectral curve is y=\\sqrt{x}, the formula gives Kontsevich--Witten intersection numbers, when the spectral curve is chosen to be the Lambert function \\exp{x}=y\\exp{-y}, the formula gives the ELSV formula for Hurwitz numbers, and when one chooses the mirror of C^3 with framing f, i.e. \\exp{-x}=\\exp{-yf}(1-\\exp{-y}), the formula gives the Marino-Vafa formula, i.e. the generating function of Gromov-Witten invariants of C^3. In some sense this formula generalizes ELSV, Marino-Vafa formula, and Mumford formula.

  12. Dissolution glow curve in LLD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haverkamp, U.; Wiezorek, C.; Poetter, R.

    1990-01-01

    Lyoluminescence dosimetry is based upon light emission during dissolution of previously irradiated dosimetric materials. The lyoluminescence signal is expressed in the dissolution glow curve. These curves begin, depending on the dissolution system, with a high peak followed by an exponentially decreasing intensity. System parameters that influence the graph of the dissolution glow curve, are, for example, injection speed, temperature and pH value of the solution and the design of the dissolution cell. The initial peak does not significantly correlate with the absorbed dose, it is mainly an effect of the injection. The decay of the curve consists of two exponential components: one fast and one slow. The components depend on the absorbed dose and the dosimetric materials used. In particular, the slow component correlates with the absorbed dose. In contrast to the fast component the argument of the exponential function of the slow component is independent of the dosimetric materials investigated: trehalose, glucose and mannitol. The maximum value, following the peak of the curve, and the integral light output are a measure of the absorbed dose. The reason for the different light outputs of various dosimetric materials after irradiation with the same dose is the differing solubility. The character of the dissolution glow curves is the same following irradiation with photons, electrons or neutrons. (author)

  13. Multiscale Investigation on Biofilm Distribution and Its Impact on Macroscopic Biogeochemical Reaction Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhifeng; Liu, Chongxuan; Liu, Yuanyuan; Bailey, Vanessa L.

    2017-11-01

    Biofilms are critical locations for biogeochemical reactions in the subsurface environment. The occurrence and distribution of biofilms at microscale as well as their impacts on macroscopic biogeochemical reaction rates are still poorly understood. This paper investigated the formation and distributions of biofilms in heterogeneous sediments using multiscale models and evaluated the effects of biofilm heterogeneity on local and macroscopic biogeochemical reaction rates. Sediment pore structures derived from X-ray computed tomography were used to simulate the microscale flow dynamics and biofilm distribution in the sediment column. The response of biofilm formation and distribution to the variations in hydraulic and chemical properties was first examined. One representative biofilm distribution was then utilized to evaluate its effects on macroscopic reaction rates using nitrate reduction as an example. The results revealed that microorganisms primarily grew on the surfaces of grains and aggregates near preferential flow paths where both electron donor and acceptor were readily accessible, leading to the heterogeneous distribution of biofilms in the sediments. The heterogeneous biofilm distribution decreased the macroscopic rate of biogeochemical reactions as compared with those in homogeneous cases. Operationally considering the heterogeneous biofilm distribution in macroscopic reactive transport models such as using dual porosity domain concept can significantly improve the prediction of biogeochemical reaction rates. Overall, this study provided important insights into the biofilm formation and distribution in soils and sediments as well as their impacts on the macroscopic manifestation of reaction rates.

  14. Curve Boxplot: Generalization of Boxplot for Ensembles of Curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzargar, Mahsa; Whitaker, Ross T; Kirby, Robert M

    2014-12-01

    In simulation science, computational scientists often study the behavior of their simulations by repeated solutions with variations in parameters and/or boundary values or initial conditions. Through such simulation ensembles, one can try to understand or quantify the variability or uncertainty in a solution as a function of the various inputs or model assumptions. In response to a growing interest in simulation ensembles, the visualization community has developed a suite of methods for allowing users to observe and understand the properties of these ensembles in an efficient and effective manner. An important aspect of visualizing simulations is the analysis of derived features, often represented as points, surfaces, or curves. In this paper, we present a novel, nonparametric method for summarizing ensembles of 2D and 3D curves. We propose an extension of a method from descriptive statistics, data depth, to curves. We also demonstrate a set of rendering and visualization strategies for showing rank statistics of an ensemble of curves, which is a generalization of traditional whisker plots or boxplots to multidimensional curves. Results are presented for applications in neuroimaging, hurricane forecasting and fluid dynamics.

  15. Current-voltage characteristics of porous-silicon structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diligenti, A.; Nannini, A.; Pennelli, G.; Pieri, F.; Fuso, F.; Allegrini, M.

    1996-01-01

    I-V DC characteristics have been measured on metal/porous-silicon structures. In particular, the measurements on metal/free-standing porous-silicon film/metal devices confirmed the result, already obtained, that the metal/porous-silicon interface plays a crucial role in the transport of any device. Four-contacts measurements on free-standing layers showed that the current linearly depends on the voltage and that the conduction process is thermally activated, the activation energy depending on the porous silicon film production parameters. Finally, annealing experiments performed in order to improve the conduction of rectifying contacts, are described

  16. Considerations for reference pump curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stockton, N.B.

    1992-01-01

    This paper examines problems associated with inservice testing (IST) of pumps to assess their hydraulic performance using reference pump curves to establish acceptance criteria. Safety-related pumps at nuclear power plants are tested under the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (the Code), Section 11. The Code requires testing pumps at specific reference points of differential pressure or flow rate that can be readily duplicated during subsequent tests. There are many cases where test conditions cannot be duplicated. For some pumps, such as service water or component cooling pumps, the flow rate at any time depends on plant conditions and the arrangement of multiple independent and constantly changing loads. System conditions cannot be controlled to duplicate a specific reference value. In these cases, utilities frequently request to use pump curves for comparison of test data for acceptance. There is no prescribed method for developing a pump reference curve. The methods vary and may yield substantially different results. Some results are conservative when compared to the Code requirements; some are not. The errors associated with different curve testing techniques should be understood and controlled within reasonable bounds. Manufacturer's pump curves, in general, are not sufficiently accurate to use as reference pump curves for IST. Testing using reference curves generated with polynomial least squares fits over limited ranges of pump operation, cubic spline interpolation, or cubic spline least squares fits can provide a measure of pump hydraulic performance that is at least as accurate as the Code required method. Regardless of the test method, error can be reduced by using more accurate instruments, by correcting for systematic errors, by increasing the number of data points, and by taking repetitive measurements at each data point

  17. Curve Digitizer – A software for multiple curves digitizing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentin ŞPERLEA

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The Curve Digitizer is software that extracts data from an image file representing a graphicand returns them as pairs of numbers which can then be used for further analysis and applications.Numbers can be read on a computer screen stored in files or copied on paper. The final result is adata set that can be used with other tools such as MSEXCEL. Curve Digitizer provides a useful toolfor any researcher or engineer interested in quantifying the data displayed graphically. The image filecan be obtained by scanning a document

  18. Simulating Air-Entrapment in Low Permeability Mudrocks using a Macroscopic Invasion Percolation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, A.; Holt, R. M.; Ramarao, B.; Clemo, T.

    2011-12-01

    Three radioactive waste disposal landfills at the Waste Control Specialists (WCS) facility in Andrews County, Texas are constructed below grade, within the low-permeability Dockum Group mudrocks (Cooper Canyon Formation) of Triassic age. Recent site investigations at the WCS disposal facilities indicate the presence of a trapped and compressed gas phase in the mudrocks. The Dockum is a low-permeability medium with vertical and horizontal effective hydraulic conductivities of 1.2E-9 cm/s and 2.9E-7 cm/s. The upper 300+ feet of the Dockum is in the unsaturated zone, with an average saturation of 0.87 and average capillary pressure of 2.8 MPa determined from core samples. Air entry pressures on core samples range from from 0.016 to 9.8 MPa, with a mean of 1.0 MPa. Heat dissipation sensors, thermocouple psychrometers, and advanced tensiometers installed in Dockum borehole arrays generally show capillary pressures one order of magnitude less than those measured on core samples. These differences with core data are attributed to the presence of a trapped and compressed gas phase within Dockum materials. In the vicinity of an instrumented borehole, the gas phase pressure equilibrates with atmospheric pressure, lowering the capillary pressure. We have developed a new macroscopic invasion percolation (MIP) model to illustrate the origin of the trapped gas phase in the Dockum rocks. An MIP model differs from invasion percolation (IP) through the definition of macro-scale capillarity. Individual pore throats and necks are not considered. Instead, a near pore-scale block is defined and characterized by a local threshold spanning pressure (a local block-scale breakthrough pressure) that represents the behavior of the subscale network. The model domain is discretized into an array of grid blocks with assigned spanning pressures. An invasion pressure for each block is then determined by the sum of spanning pressure, buoyance forces, and viscous forces. An IP algorithm sorts the

  19. Calibration curves for biological dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrero C, C.; Brena V, M. . E-mail cgc@nuclear.inin.mx

    2004-01-01

    The generated information by the investigations in different laboratories of the world, included the ININ, in which settles down that certain class of chromosomal leisure it increases in function of the dose and radiation type, has given by result the obtaining of calibrated curves that are applied in the well-known technique as biological dosimetry. In this work is presented a summary of the work made in the laboratory that includes the calibrated curves for gamma radiation of 60 Cobalt and X rays of 250 k Vp, examples of presumed exposure to ionizing radiation, resolved by means of aberration analysis and the corresponding dose estimate through the equations of the respective curves and finally a comparison among the dose calculations in those people affected by the accident of Ciudad Juarez, carried out by the group of Oak Ridge, USA and those obtained in this laboratory. (Author)

  20. Vertex algebras and algebraic curves

    CERN Document Server

    Frenkel, Edward

    2004-01-01

    Vertex algebras are algebraic objects that encapsulate the concept of operator product expansion from two-dimensional conformal field theory. Vertex algebras are fast becoming ubiquitous in many areas of modern mathematics, with applications to representation theory, algebraic geometry, the theory of finite groups, modular functions, topology, integrable systems, and combinatorics. This book is an introduction to the theory of vertex algebras with a particular emphasis on the relationship with the geometry of algebraic curves. The notion of a vertex algebra is introduced in a coordinate-independent way, so that vertex operators become well defined on arbitrary smooth algebraic curves, possibly equipped with additional data, such as a vector bundle. Vertex algebras then appear as the algebraic objects encoding the geometric structure of various moduli spaces associated with algebraic curves. Therefore they may be used to give a geometric interpretation of various questions of representation theory. The book co...

  1. Curve collection, extension of databases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillemot, F.

    1992-01-01

    Full text: Databases: generally calculated data only. The original measurements: diagrams. Information loss between them Expensive research eg. irradiation, aging, creep etc. Original curves should be stored for reanalysing. The format of the stored curves: a. Data in ASCII files, only numbers b. Other information in strings in a second file Same name, but different extension. Extensions shows the type of the test and the type of the file. EXAMPLES. TEN is tensile information, TED is tensile data, CHN is Charpy informations, CHD is Charpy data. Storing techniques: digitalised measurements, digitalising old curves stored on paper. Use: making catalogues, reanalysing, comparison with new data. Tools: mathematical software packages like quattro, genplot, exel, mathcad, qbasic, pascal, fortran, mathlab, grapher etc. (author)

  2. Rational points on elliptic curves

    CERN Document Server

    Silverman, Joseph H

    2015-01-01

    The theory of elliptic curves involves a pleasing blend of algebra, geometry, analysis, and number theory. This book stresses this interplay as it develops the basic theory, thereby providing an opportunity for advanced undergraduates to appreciate the unity of modern mathematics. At the same time, every effort has been made to use only methods and results commonly included in the undergraduate curriculum. This accessibility, the informal writing style, and a wealth of exercises make Rational Points on Elliptic Curves an ideal introduction for students at all levels who are interested in learning about Diophantine equations and arithmetic geometry. Most concretely, an elliptic curve is the set of zeroes of a cubic polynomial in two variables. If the polynomial has rational coefficients, then one can ask for a description of those zeroes whose coordinates are either integers or rational numbers. It is this number theoretic question that is the main subject of this book. Topics covered include the geometry and ...

  3. Theoretical melting curve of caesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simozar, S.; Girifalco, L.A.; Pennsylvania Univ., Philadelphia

    1983-01-01

    A statistical-mechanical model is developed to account for the complex melting curve of caesium. The model assumes the existence of three different species of caesium defined by three different electronic states. On the basis of this model, the free energy of melting and the melting curve are computed up to 60 kbar, using the solid-state data and the initial slope of the fusion curve as input parameters. The calculated phase diagram agrees with experiment to within the experimental error. Other thermodynamic properties including the entropy and volume of melting were also computed, and they agree with experiment. Since the theory requires only one adjustable constant, this is taken as strong evidence that the three-species model is satisfactory for caesium. (author)

  4. Migration and the Wage Curve:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brücker, Herbert; Jahn, Elke J.

    in a general equilibrium framework. For the empirical analysis we employ the IABS, a two percent sample of the German labor force. We find that the elasticity of the wage curve is particularly high for young workers and workers with a university degree, while it is low for older workers and workers......  Based on a wage curve approach we examine the labor market effects of migration in Germany. The wage curve relies on the assumption that wages respond to a change in the unemployment rate, albeit imperfectly. This allows one to derive the wage and employment effects of migration simultaneously...... with a vocational degree. The wage and employment effects of migration are moderate: a 1 percent increase in the German labor force through immigration increases the aggregate unemployment rate by less than 0.1 percentage points and reduces average wages by less 0.1 percent. While native workers benefit from...

  5. Laffer Curves and Home Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotamäki Mauri

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the earlier related literature, consumption tax rate Laffer curve is found to be strictly increasing (see Trabandt and Uhlig (2011. In this paper, a general equilibrium macro model is augmented by introducing a substitute for private consumption in the form of home production. The introduction of home production brings about an additional margin of adjustment – an increase in consumption tax rate not only decreases labor supply and reduces the consumption tax base but also allows a substitution of market goods with home-produced goods. The main objective of this paper is to show that, after the introduction of home production, the consumption tax Laffer curve exhibits an inverse U-shape. Also the income tax Laffer curves are significantly altered. The result shown in this paper casts doubt on some of the earlier results in the literature.

  6. Complexity of Curved Glass Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosić, T.; Svetel, I.; Cekić, Z.

    2017-11-01

    Despite the increasing number of research on the architectural structures of curvilinear forms and technological and practical improvement of the glass production observed over recent years, there is still a lack of comprehensive codes and standards, recommendations and experience data linked to real-life curved glass structures applications regarding design, manufacture, use, performance and economy. However, more and more complex buildings and structures with the large areas of glass envelope geometrically complex shape are built every year. The aim of the presented research is to collect data on the existing design philosophy on curved glass structure cases. The investigation includes a survey about how architects and engineers deal with different design aspects of curved glass structures with a special focus on the design and construction process, glass types and structural and fixing systems. The current paper gives a brief overview of the survey findings.

  7. Optimization on Spaces of Curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller-Andersen, Jakob

    in Rd, and methods to solve the initial and boundary value problem for geodesics allowing us to compute the Karcher mean and principal components analysis of data of curves. We apply the methods to study shape variation in synthetic data in the Kimia shape database, in HeLa cell nuclei and cycles...... of cardiac deformations. Finally we investigate a new application of Riemannian shape analysis in shape optimization. We setup a simple elliptic model problem, and describe how to apply shape calculus to obtain directional derivatives in the manifold of planar curves. We present an implementation based...

  8. Tracing a planar algebraic curve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Falai; Kozak, J.

    1994-09-01

    In this paper, an algorithm that determines a real algebraic curve is outlined. Its basic step is to divide the plane into subdomains that include only simple branches of the algebraic curve without singular points. Each of the branches is then stably and efficiently traced in the particular subdomain. Except for the tracing, the algorithm requires only a couple of simple operations on polynomials that can be carried out exactly if the coefficients are rational, and the determination of zeros of several polynomials of one variable. (author). 5 refs, 4 figs

  9. The New Keynesian Phillips Curve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ólafsson, Tjörvi

    This paper provides a survey on the recent literature on the new Keynesian Phillips curve: the controversies surrounding its microfoundation and estimation, the approaches that have been tried to improve its empirical fit and the challenges it faces adapting to the open-economy framework. The new......, learning or state-dependant pricing. The introduction of openeconomy factors into the new Keynesian Phillips curve complicate matters further as it must capture the nexus between price setting, inflation and the exchange rate. This is nevertheless a crucial feature for any model to be used for inflation...... forecasting in a small open economy like Iceland....

  10. Signature Curves Statistics of DNA Supercoils

    OpenAIRE

    Shakiban, Cheri; Lloyd, Peter

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we describe the Euclidean signature curves for two dimensional closed curves in the plane and their generalization to closed space curves. The focus will be on discrete numerical methods for approximating such curves. Further we will apply these numerical methods to plot the signature curves related to three-dimensional simulated DNA supercoils. Our primary focus will be on statistical analysis of the data generated for the signature curves of the supercoils. We will try to esta...

  11. Dual Smarandache Curves of a Timelike Curve lying on Unit dual Lorentzian Sphere

    OpenAIRE

    Kahraman, Tanju; Hüseyin Ugurlu, Hasan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we give Darboux approximation for dual Smarandache curves of time like curve on unit dual Lorentzian sphere. Firstly, we define the four types of dual Smarandache curves of a timelike curve lying on dual Lorentzian sphere.

  12. Electro-Mechanical Resonance Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    2018-01-01

    Recently I have been investigating the frequency response of galvanometers. These are direct-current devices used to measure small currents. By using a low-frequency function generator to supply the alternating-current signal and a stopwatch smartphone app to measure the period, I was able to take data to allow a resonance curve to be drawn. This…

  13. Texas curve margin of safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    This software can be used to assist with the assessment of margin of safety for a horizontal curve. It is intended for use by engineers and technicians responsible for safety analysis or management of rural highway pavement or traffic control devices...

  14. Principal Curves on Riemannian Manifolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauberg, Soren

    2016-09-01

    Euclidean statistics are often generalized to Riemannian manifolds by replacing straight-line interpolations with geodesic ones. While these Riemannian models are familiar-looking, they are restricted by the inflexibility of geodesics, and they rely on constructions which are optimal only in Euclidean domains. We consider extensions of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to Riemannian manifolds. Classic Riemannian approaches seek a geodesic curve passing through the mean that optimizes a criteria of interest. The requirements that the solution both is geodesic and must pass through the mean tend to imply that the methods only work well when the manifold is mostly flat within the support of the generating distribution. We argue that instead of generalizing linear Euclidean models, it is more fruitful to generalize non-linear Euclidean models. Specifically, we extend the classic Principal Curves from Hastie & Stuetzle to data residing on a complete Riemannian manifold. We show that for elliptical distributions in the tangent of spaces of constant curvature, the standard principal geodesic is a principal curve. The proposed model is simple to compute and avoids many of the pitfalls of traditional geodesic approaches. We empirically demonstrate the effectiveness of the Riemannian principal curves on several manifolds and datasets.

  15. Elliptic curves and primality proving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkin, A. O. L.; Morain, F.

    1993-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe the theory and implementation of the Elliptic Curve Primality Proving algorithm. Problema, numeros primos a compositis dignoscendi, hosque in factores suos primos resolvendi, ad gravissima ac utilissima totius arithmeticae pertinere, et geometrarum tum veterum tum recentiorum industriam ac sagacitatem occupavisse, tam notum est, ut de hac re copiose loqui superfluum foret.

  16. A Curve for all Reasons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    from biology, feel that every pattern in the living world, ranging from the folding of ... curves band c have the same rate of increase but reach different asymptotes. If these .... not at x = 0, but at xo' which is the minimum size at birth that will permit ...

  17. Survival curves for irradiated cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, D.K.

    1975-01-01

    The subject of the lecture is the probability of survival of biological cells which have been subjected to ionising radiation. The basic mathematical theories of cell survival as a function of radiation dose are developed. A brief comparison with observed survival curves is made. (author)

  18. Mentorship, learning curves, and balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Meryl S; Jacobs, Jeffrey P; Quintessenza, James A; Chai, Paul J; Lindberg, Harald L; Dickey, Jamie; Ungerleider, Ross M

    2007-09-01

    Professionals working in the arena of health care face a variety of challenges as their careers evolve and develop. In this review, we analyze the role of mentorship, learning curves, and balance in overcoming challenges that all such professionals are likely to encounter. These challenges can exist both in professional and personal life. As any professional involved in health care matures, complex professional skills must be mastered, and new professional skills must be acquired. These skills are both technical and judgmental. In most circumstances, these skills must be learned. In 2007, despite the continued need for obtaining new knowledge and learning new skills, the professional and public tolerance for a "learning curve" is much less than in previous decades. Mentorship is the key to success in these endeavours. The success of mentorship is two-sided, with responsibilities for both the mentor and the mentee. The benefits of this relationship must be bidirectional. It is the responsibility of both the student and the mentor to assure this bidirectional exchange of benefit. This relationship requires time, patience, dedication, and to some degree selflessness. This mentorship will ultimately be the best tool for mastering complex professional skills and maturing through various learning curves. Professional mentorship also requires that mentors identify and explicitly teach their mentees the relational skills and abilities inherent in learning the management of the triad of self, relationships with others, and professional responsibilities.Up to two decades ago, a learning curve was tolerated, and even expected, while professionals involved in healthcare developed the techniques that allowed for the treatment of previously untreatable diseases. Outcomes have now improved to the point that this type of learning curve is no longer acceptable to the public. Still, professionals must learn to perform and develop independence and confidence. The responsibility to

  19. Analysis of the clinical benefit of intraoperative radiotherapy in patients undergoing macroscopically curative resection for pancreatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kokubo, Masaki; Nishimura, Yasumasa; Shibamoto, Yuta; Sasai, Keisuke; Kanamori, Shuichi; Hosotani, Ryo; Imamura, Masayuki; Hiraoka, Masahiro

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the survival of pancreatic cancer patients treated with intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) and/or external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) following macroscopically curative resection. Methods and Materials: One hundred and thirty-eight patients with pancreatic cancer who had undergone potentially curative total or regional pancreatectomy between 1980 and 1997 were retrospectively analyzed. Among the 138 patients, 98 had a pathologically negative surgical margin and the remaining 40 patients had a positive surgical margin. The usual EBRT dose was 45-55 Gy with a daily fraction of 1.5-2.0 Gy. The median IORT dose was 25 Gy in a single fraction. Results: The 2-year cause-specific survival rate of patients with pathologically negative surgical margins was 19%, and that of patients with positive margins was 4% (p < 0.005). Although the median survival time (MST) of patients with negative margins treated with IORT and EBRT was significantly longer than that of those treated with operation alone (17 vs. 11 months), no significant difference in survival curves was observed. In patients with positive surgical margins in peripancreatic soft tissue, the difference between the survival curve of patients treated with surgery alone and that of those treated with surgery and radiation therapy was borderline significant (p < 0.10). Patients receiving intraarterial or intraportal infusion chemotherapy had significantly improved survival rates compared with those who did not receive it (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Although the MST was longer in patients with negative margins receiving IORT and EBRT than in those receiving no radiation, improved long-term survival by IORT and/or EBRT was not suggested. In patients with positive margins, our results obtained by IORT/EBRT were encouraging. Randomized studies with much higher patient numbers are necessary to define the role of IORT in curatively resected pancreatic cancer

  20. Coherent oscillations between two weakly coupled Bose-Einstein condensates: Josephson effects, π oscillations, and macroscopic quantum self-trapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghavan, S.; Smerzi, A.; Fantoni, S.; Shenoy, S.R.

    2001-03-01

    We discuss the coherent atomic oscillations between two weakly coupled Bose-Einstein condensates. The weak link is provided by a laser barrier in a (possibly asymmetric) double-well trap or by Raman coupling between two condensates in different hyperfine levels. The boson Josephson junction (BJJ) dynamics is described by the two-mode nonlinear Gross-Pitaevskii equation that is solved analytically in terms of elliptic functions. The BJJ, being a neutral, isolated system, allows the investigations of dynamical regimes for the phase difference across the junction and for the population imbalance that are not accessible with superconductor Josephson junctions (SJJ's). These include oscillations with either or both of the following properties: (i) the time-averaged value of the phase is equal to π (π-phase oscillations); (ii) the average population imbalance is nonzero, in states with macroscopic quantum self-trapping. The (nonsinusoidal) generalization of the SJJ ac and plasma oscillations and the Shapiro resonance can also be observed. We predict the collapse of experimental data (corresponding to different trap geometries and the total number of condensate atoms) onto a single universal curve for the inverse period of oscillations. Analogies with Josephson oscillations between two weakly coupled reservoirs of 3 He-B and the internal Josephson effect in 3 He-A are also discussed. (author)

  1. Laparoscopic vs open total mesorectal excision for rectal cancer: an evaluation of the mesorectum's macroscopic quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breukink, S O; Grond, A J K; Pierie, J P E N; Hoff, C; Wiggers, T; Meijerink, W J H J

    2005-03-01

    Next to surgical margins, yield of lymph nodes, and length of bowel resected, macroscopic completeness of mesorectal excision may serve as another quality control of total mesorectal excision (TME). In this study, the macroscopic completeness of laparoscopic TME was evaluated. A series of 25 patients with rectal cancer were managed laparoscopically (LTME) and included in this study. The pathologic specimens of the LTME group were prospectively examined and matched with a historical group of resection specimens from patients who had undergone open TME (OTME). The two groups were matched for gender and type of resection (low anterior or abdominoperineal resection). Special care was given to the macroscopic judgment concerning the completeness of the mesorectum. A three-grade scoring system showed no differences between the LTME and OTME groups. The current study supports the hypothesis that oncologic resection using laparoscopic TME is feasible and adequate.

  2. The effect of interlayer adhesion on the mechanical behaviors of macroscopic graphene oxide papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yun; Liu, Lu-Qi; Zu, Sheng-Zhen; Peng, Ke; Zhou, Ding; Han, Bao-Hang; Zhang, Zhong

    2011-03-22

    High mechanical performances of macroscopic graphene oxide (GO) papers are attracting great interest owing to their merits of lightweight and multiple functionalities. However, the loading role of individual nanosheets and its effect on the mechanical properties of the macroscopic GO papers are not yet well understood. Herein, we effectively tailored the interlayer adhesions of the GO papers by introducing small molecules, that is, glutaraldehyde (GA) and water molecules, into the gallery regions. With the help of in situ Raman spectroscopy, we compared the varied load-reinforcing roles of nanosheets, and further predicted the Young's moduli of the GO papers. Systematic mechanical tests have proven that the enhancement of the tensile modulus and strength of the GA-treated GO paper arose from the improved load-bearing capability of the nanosheets. On the basis of Raman and macroscopic mechanical tests, the influences of interlayer adhesions on the fracture mechanisms of the strained GO papers were inferred.

  3. Preparation of rock samples for measurement of the thermal neutron macroscopic absorption cross-section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czubek, J.A.; Burda, J.; Drozdowicz, K.; Igielski, A.; Kowalik, W.; Krynicka-Drozdowicz, E.; Woznicka, U.

    1986-03-01

    Preparation of rock samples for the measurement of the thermal neutron macroscopic absorption cross-section in small cylindrical two-region systems by a pulsed technique is presented. Requirements which should be fulfilled during the preparation of the samples due to physical assumptions of the method are given. A cylindrical vessel is filled with crushed rock and saturated with a medium strongly absorbing thermal neutrons. Water solutions of boric acid of well-known macroscopic absorption cross-section are used. Mass contributions of the components in the sample are specified. This is necessary for the calculation of the thermal neutron macroscopic absorption cross-section of the rock matrix. The conditions necessary for assuring the required accuracy of the measurement are given and the detailed procedure of preparation of the rock sample is described. (author)

  4. Mechanical Behaviour of Materials Volume 1 Micro- and Macroscopic Constitutive Behaviour

    CERN Document Server

    François, Dominique; Zaoui, André

    2012-01-01

    Advances in technology are demanding ever-increasing mastery over the materials being used: the challenge is to gain a better understanding of their behaviour, and more particularly of the relations between their microstructure and their macroscopic properties.   This work, of which this is the first volume, aims to provide the means by which this challenge may be met. Starting from the mechanics of deformation, it develops the laws governing macroscopic behaviour – expressed as the constitutive equations – always taking account of the physical phenomena which underlie rheological behaviour. The most recent developments are presented, in particular those concerning heterogeneous materials such as metallic alloys, polymers and composites. Each chapter is devoted to one of the major classes of material behaviour.   As the subtitles indicate, Volume 1 deals with micro- and macroscopic constitutive behaviour and Volume 2 with damage and fracture mechanics. A third volume will be devoted to exercises and the...

  5. Estimation of macroscopic elastic characteristics for hierarchical anisotropic solids based on probabilistic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolina, Irina Yu.

    2015-10-01

    Mechanical properties of a cable are of great importance in design and strength calculation of flexible cables. The problem of determination of elastic properties and rigidity characteristics of a cable modeled by anisotropic helical elastic rod is considered. These characteristics are calculated indirectly by means of the parameters received from statistical processing of experimental data. These parameters are considered as random quantities. With taking into account probable nature of these parameters the formulas for estimation of the macroscopic elastic moduli of a cable are obtained. The calculating expressions for macroscopic flexural rigidity, shear rigidity and torsion rigidity using the macroscopic elastic characteristics obtained before are presented. Statistical estimations of the rigidity characteristics of some cable grades are adduced. A comparison with those characteristics received on the basis of deterministic approach is given.

  6. Hybrid methods for witnessing entanglement in a microscopic-macroscopic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spagnolo, Nicolo; Vitelli, Chiara; Paternostro, Mauro; De Martini, Francesco; Sciarrino, Fabio

    2011-01-01

    We propose a hybrid approach to the experimental assessment of the genuine quantum features of a general system consisting of microscopic and macroscopic parts. We infer entanglement by combining dichotomic measurements on a bidimensional system and phase-space inference through the Wigner distribution associated with the macroscopic component of the state. As a benchmark, we investigate the feasibility of our proposal in a bipartite-entangled state composed of a single-photon and a multiphoton field. Our analysis shows that, under ideal conditions, maximal violation of a Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt-based inequality is achievable regardless of the number of photons in the macroscopic part of the state. The difficulty in observing entanglement when losses and detection inefficiency are included can be overcome by using a hybrid entanglement witness that allows efficient correction for losses in the few-photon regime.

  7. Hybrid methods for witnessing entanglement in a microscopic-macroscopic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spagnolo, Nicolo [Dipartimento di Fisica, Sapienza Universita di Roma, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, I-00185 Roma (Italy); Consorzio Nazionale Interuniversitario per le Scienze Fisiche della Materia, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, I-00185 Roma (Italy); Vitelli, Chiara [Dipartimento di Fisica, Sapienza Universita di Roma, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, I-00185 Roma (Italy); Paternostro, Mauro [School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen' s University, BT 7 1NN Belfast (United Kingdom); De Martini, Francesco [Dipartimento di Fisica, Sapienza Universita di Roma, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, I-00185 Roma (Italy); Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei, via della Lungara 10, I-00165 Roma (Italy); Sciarrino, Fabio [Dipartimento di Fisica, Sapienza Universita di Roma, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, I-00185 Roma (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Ottica, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (INO-CNR), largo E. Fermi 6, I-50125 Firenze (Italy)

    2011-09-15

    We propose a hybrid approach to the experimental assessment of the genuine quantum features of a general system consisting of microscopic and macroscopic parts. We infer entanglement by combining dichotomic measurements on a bidimensional system and phase-space inference through the Wigner distribution associated with the macroscopic component of the state. As a benchmark, we investigate the feasibility of our proposal in a bipartite-entangled state composed of a single-photon and a multiphoton field. Our analysis shows that, under ideal conditions, maximal violation of a Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt-based inequality is achievable regardless of the number of photons in the macroscopic part of the state. The difficulty in observing entanglement when losses and detection inefficiency are included can be overcome by using a hybrid entanglement witness that allows efficient correction for losses in the few-photon regime.

  8. A strict experimental test of macroscopic realism in a superconducting flux qubit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knee, George C; Kakuyanagi, Kosuke; Yeh, Mao-Chuang; Matsuzaki, Yuichiro; Toida, Hiraku; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Saito, Shiro; Leggett, Anthony J; Munro, William J

    2016-11-04

    Macroscopic realism is the name for a class of modifications to quantum theory that allow macroscopic objects to be described in a measurement-independent manner, while largely preserving a fully quantum mechanical description of the microscopic world. Objective collapse theories are examples which aim to solve the quantum measurement problem through modified dynamical laws. Whether such theories describe nature, however, is not known. Here we describe and implement an experimental protocol capable of constraining theories of this class, that is more noise tolerant and conceptually transparent than the original Leggett-Garg test. We implement the protocol in a superconducting flux qubit, and rule out (by ∼84 s.d.) those theories which would deny coherent superpositions of 170 nA currents over a ∼10 ns timescale. Further, we address the 'clumsiness loophole' by determining classical disturbance with control experiments. Our results constitute strong evidence for the superposition of states of nontrivial macroscopic distinctness.

  9. Macroscopic sessile tumor architecture is a pathologic feature of biologically aggressive upper tract urothelial carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritsche, Hans-Martin; Novara, Giacomo; Burger, Maximilian; Gupta, Amit; Matsumoto, Kazumasa; Kassouf, Wassim; Sircar, Kanishka; Zattoni, Filiberto; Walton, Tom; Tritschler, Stefan; Baba, Shiro; Bastian, Patrick J; Martínez-Salamanca, Juan I; Seitz, Christian; Otto, Wolfgang; Wieland, Wolf Ferdinand; Karakiewicz, Pierre I; Ficarra, Vincenzo; Hartmann, Arndt; Shariat, Shahrokh F

    2012-09-01

    Macroscopic sessile tumor architecture was associated with adverse outcomes after radical nephroureterectomy (RNU) for upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC). Before inclusion in daily clinical decision-making, the prognostic value of tumor architecture needs to be validated in an independent, external dataset. We tested whether macroscopic tumor architecture improves outcome prediction in an international cohort of patients. We retrospectively studied 754 patients treated with RNU for UTUC without neoadjuvant chemotherapy at 9 centers located in Asia, Canada, and Europe. Tumor architecture was macroscopically categorized as either papillary or sessile. Univariable and multivariable Cox regression analyses were used to address recurrence-free (RFS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS) estimates. Macroscopic sessile architecture was present in 20% of the patients. Its prevalence increased with advancing pathologic stage and it was significantly associated with established features of biologically aggressive UTUC, such as tumor grade, lymph node metastasis, lymphovascular invasion, and concomitant CIS (all P values architecture were 85% and 90%, compared with 58% and 66% for those with macroscopic sessile architecture, respectively (P values architecture was an independent predictor of both RFS (hazard ratio {HR}: 1.5; P = 0.036) and CSS (HR: 1.5; P = 0.03). We confirmed the independent prognostic value of macroscopic tumor architecture in a large, independent, multicenter UTUC cohort. It should be reported in every pathology report and included in post-RNU predictive models in order to refine current clinical decision making regarding follow-up protocol and adjuvant therapy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Departure of microscopic friction from macroscopic drag in molecular fluid dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanasaki, Itsuo [Institute of Engineering, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Naka-cho 2-24-16, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan); Fujiwara, Daiki; Kawano, Satoyuki, E-mail: kawano@me.es.osaka-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, Machikaneyama-cho 1-3, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan)

    2016-03-07

    Friction coefficient of the Langevin equation and drag of spherical macroscopic objects in steady flow at low Reynolds numbers are usually regarded as equivalent. We show that the microscopic friction can be different from the macroscopic drag when the mass is taken into account for particles with comparable scale to the surrounding fluid molecules. We illustrate it numerically by molecular dynamics simulation of chloride ion in water. Friction variation by the atomistic mass effect beyond the Langevin regime can be of use in the drag reduction technology as well as the electro or thermophoresis.

  11. Macroscopic behavior of fast reactor fuel subjected to simulated thermal transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenske, G.R.; Emerson, J.E.; Savoie, F.E.

    1983-06-01

    High-speed cinematography has been used to characterize the macroscopic behavior of irradiated and unirradiated fuel subjected to thermal transients prototypical of fast reactor transients. The results demonstrate that as the cladding melts, the fuel can disperse via spallation if the fuel contains in excess of approx. 16 μmoles/gm of fission gas. Once the cladding has melted, the macroscopic behavior (time to failure and dispersive nature) was strongly influenced by the presence of volatile fission products and the heating rate

  12. Generating macroscopic chaos in a network of globally coupled phase oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Paul; Barreto, Ernest

    2011-01-01

    We consider an infinite network of globally coupled phase oscillators in which the natural frequencies of the oscillators are drawn from a symmetric bimodal distribution. We demonstrate that macroscopic chaos can occur in this system when the coupling strength varies periodically in time. We identify period-doubling cascades to chaos, attractor crises, and horseshoe dynamics for the macroscopic mean field. Based on recent work that clarified the bifurcation structure of the static bimodal Kuramoto system, we qualitatively describe the mechanism for the generation of such complicated behavior in the time varying case. PMID:21974662

  13. A catalog of special plane curves

    CERN Document Server

    Lawrence, J Dennis

    2014-01-01

    Among the largest, finest collections available-illustrated not only once for each curve, but also for various values of any parameters present. Covers general properties of curves and types of derived curves. Curves illustrated by a CalComp digital incremental plotter. 12 illustrations.

  14. Computation of undulator tuning curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dejus, Roger J.

    1997-01-01

    Computer codes for fast computation of on-axis brilliance tuning curves and flux tuning curves have been developed. They are valid for an ideal device (regular planar device or a helical device) using the Bessel function formalism. The effects of the particle beam emittance and the beam energy spread on the spectrum are taken into account. The applicability of the codes and the importance of magnetic field errors of real insertion devices are addressed. The validity of the codes has been experimentally verified at the APS and observed discrepancies are in agreement with predicted reduction of intensities due to magnetic field errors. The codes are distributed as part of the graphical user interface XOP (X-ray OPtics utilities), which simplifies execution and viewing of the results

  15. Curved canals: Ancestral files revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain Nidhi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to provide an insight into different techniques of cleaning and shaping of curved root canals with hand instruments. Although a plethora of root canal instruments like ProFile, ProTaper, LightSpeed ® etc dominate the current scenario, the inexpensive conventional root canal hand files such as K-files and flexible files can be used to get optimum results when handled meticulously. Special emphasis has been put on the modifications in biomechanical canal preparation in a variety of curved canal cases. This article compiles a series of clinical cases of root canals with curvatures in the middle and apical third and with S-shaped curvatures that were successfully completed by employing only conventional root canal hand instruments.

  16. Invariance for Single Curved Manifold

    KAUST Repository

    Castro, Pedro Machado Manhaes de

    2012-01-01

    Recently, it has been shown that, for Lambert illumination model, solely scenes composed by developable objects with a very particular albedo distribution produce an (2D) image with isolines that are (almost) invariant to light direction change. In this work, we provide and investigate a more general framework, and we show that, in general, the requirement for such in variances is quite strong, and is related to the differential geometry of the objects. More precisely, it is proved that single curved manifolds, i.e., manifolds such that at each point there is at most one principal curvature direction, produce invariant is surfaces for a certain relevant family of energy functions. In the three-dimensional case, the associated energy function corresponds to the classical Lambert illumination model with albedo. This result is also extended for finite-dimensional scenes composed by single curved objects. © 2012 IEEE.

  17. Invariance for Single Curved Manifold

    KAUST Repository

    Castro, Pedro Machado Manhaes de

    2012-08-01

    Recently, it has been shown that, for Lambert illumination model, solely scenes composed by developable objects with a very particular albedo distribution produce an (2D) image with isolines that are (almost) invariant to light direction change. In this work, we provide and investigate a more general framework, and we show that, in general, the requirement for such in variances is quite strong, and is related to the differential geometry of the objects. More precisely, it is proved that single curved manifolds, i.e., manifolds such that at each point there is at most one principal curvature direction, produce invariant is surfaces for a certain relevant family of energy functions. In the three-dimensional case, the associated energy function corresponds to the classical Lambert illumination model with albedo. This result is also extended for finite-dimensional scenes composed by single curved objects. © 2012 IEEE.

  18. Curved Folded Plate Timber Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Buri, Hans Ulrich; Stotz, Ivo; Weinand, Yves

    2011-01-01

    This work investigates the development of a Curved Origami Prototype made with timber panels. In the last fifteen years the timber industry has developed new, large size, timber panels. Composition and dimensions of these panels and the possibility of milling them with Computer Numerical Controlled machines shows great potential for folded plate structures. To generate the form of these structures we were inspired by Origami, the Japanese art of paper folding. Common paper tessellations are c...

  19. Projection-based curve clustering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auder, Benjamin; Fischer, Aurelie

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on unsupervised curve classification in the context of nuclear industry. At the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA), Cadarache (France), the thermal-hydraulic computer code CATHARE is used to study the reliability of reactor vessels. The code inputs are physical parameters and the outputs are time evolution curves of a few other physical quantities. As the CATHARE code is quite complex and CPU time-consuming, it has to be approximated by a regression model. This regression process involves a clustering step. In the present paper, the CATHARE output curves are clustered using a k-means scheme, with a projection onto a lower dimensional space. We study the properties of the empirically optimal cluster centres found by the clustering method based on projections, compared with the 'true' ones. The choice of the projection basis is discussed, and an algorithm is implemented to select the best projection basis among a library of orthonormal bases. The approach is illustrated on a simulated example and then applied to the industrial problem. (authors)

  20. Growth curves for Laron syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laron, Z; Lilos, P; Klinger, B

    1993-01-01

    Growth curves for children with Laron syndrome were constructed on the basis of repeated measurements made throughout infancy, childhood, and puberty in 24 (10 boys, 14 girls) of the 41 patients with this syndrome investigated in our clinic. Growth retardation was already noted at birth, the birth length ranging from 42 to 46 cm in the 12/20 available measurements. The postnatal growth curves deviated sharply from the normal from infancy on. Both sexes showed no clear pubertal spurt. Girls completed their growth between the age of 16-19 years to a final mean (SD) height of 119 (8.5) cm whereas the boys continued growing beyond the age of 20 years, achieving a final height of 124 (8.5) cm. At all ages the upper to lower body segment ratio was more than 2 SD above the normal mean. These growth curves constitute a model not only for primary, hereditary insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) deficiency (Laron syndrome) but also for untreated secondary IGF-I deficiencies such as growth hormone gene deletion and idiopathic congenital isolated growth hormone deficiency. They should also be useful in the follow up of children with Laron syndrome treated with biosynthetic recombinant IGF-I. PMID:8333769

  1. Elementary particles in curved spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazanu, I.

    2004-01-01

    The theories in particle physics are developed currently, in Minkowski space-time starting from the Poincare group. A physical theory in flat space can be seen as the limit of a more general physical theory in a curved space. At the present time, a theory of particles in curved space does not exist, and thus the only possibility is to extend the existent theories in these spaces. A formidable obstacle to the extension of physical models is the absence of groups of motion in more general Riemann spaces. A space of constant curvature has a group of motion that, although differs from that of a flat space, has the same number of parameters and could permit some generalisations. In this contribution we try to investigate some physical implications of the presumable existence of elementary particles in curved space. In de Sitter space (dS) the invariant rest mass is a combination of the Poincare rest mass and the generalised angular momentum of a particle and it permits to establish a correlation with the vacuum energy and with the cosmological constant. The consequences are significant because in an experiment the local structure of space-time departs from the Minkowski space and becomes a dS or AdS space-time. Discrete symmetry characteristics of the dS/AdS group suggest some arguments for the possible existence of the 'mirror matter'. (author)

  2. Dual Smarandache Curves and Smarandache Ruled Surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Tanju KAHRAMAN; Mehmet ÖNDER; H. Hüseyin UGURLU

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, by considering dual geodesic trihedron (dual Darboux frame) we define dual Smarandache curves lying fully on dual unit sphere S^2 and corresponding to ruled surfaces. We obtain the relationships between the elements of curvature of dual spherical curve (ruled surface) x(s) and its dual Smarandache curve (Smarandache ruled surface) x1(s) and we give an example for dual Smarandache curves of a dual spherical curve.

  3. Macroscopic treatment of radio emission from cosmic ray air showers based on shower simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werner, Klaus; Scholten, Olaf

    We present a macroscopic calculation of coherent electro-magnetic radiation from air showers initiated by ultra-high energy cosmic rays, based on currents obtained from Monte Carlo simulations of air showers in a realistic geo-magnetic field. We can clearly relate the time signal to the time

  4. Macroscopic Description of Pressure-anisotropy-driven Collective Instability in Intense Charged Particle Beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strasburg, Sean; Davidson, Ronald C.

    2000-01-01

    The macroscopic warm-fluid model developed by Lund and Davidson [Phys.Plasmas 5, 3028 (1998)] is used in the smooth-focusing approximation to investigate detailed stability properties of an intense charged particle beam with pressure anisotropy, assuming small-amplitude electrostatic perturbations about a waterbag equilibrium

  5. Effect of the isovector coupling channel on the macroscopic part of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Physics Department, Atomic Energy Commission of Syria, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus, Syria. E-mail: pscientific@aec.org.sy. MS received 10 June 2012; revised 18 October 2012; accepted 12 December 2012. Abstract. The effect of isovector coupling channel on the macroscopic part of the nuclear binding energy is studied ...

  6. Energetic macroscopic representation and inversion-based control of a CVT-based HEV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chouhou, M.; Grée, F.; Jivan, C.; Bouscayrol, A.; Hofman, T.

    2014-01-01

    A Continuous Variable Transmission (CVT) is introduced in the simulation model of a Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV). The CVT-based vehicle simulation and its control are deduced from the Energetic Macroscopic Representation (EMR). Simulations are provided to show the interest of the CVT in term of

  7. Energetic macroscopic representation and inversion- based control of a CVT-based HEV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chouhou, M.; Grée, F.; Jivan, C.; Bouscayrol, A.; Hofman, T.

    2013-01-01

    A Continuous Variable Transmission (CVT) is introduced in the simulation model of a Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV). The CVT-based vehicle simulation and its control are deduced from the Energetic Macroscopic Representation (EMR). Simulations are provided to show the interest of the CVT in term of

  8. On the inclusion of macroscopic theory in Monte Carlo simulation using game theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatarkiewicz, J.

    1980-01-01

    This paper presents the inclusion of macroscopic damage theory into Monte Carlo particle-range simulation using game theory. A new computer code called RADDI was developed on the basis of this inclusion. Results of Monte Carlo damage simulation after 6.3 MeV proton bombardment of silicon are compared with experimental data of Bulgakov et al. (orig.)

  9. Study using macroscopic autoradiography of the distribution of vanadium 48 in the rat and mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serhrouchni, M.

    1982-07-01

    Study of vanadium 48 distribution in the laboratory animal by macroscopic autoradiography. Vanadium 48 bioavailability is zero after oral administration and good after pulmonary administration. It is distributed throughout the body with a particular affinity for bone and teeth. Study of perinatal metabolism [fr

  10. Macroscopic modeling for heat and water vapor transfer in dry snow by homogenization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calonne, Neige; Geindreau, Christian; Flin, Frédéric

    2014-11-26

    Dry snow metamorphism, involved in several topics related to cryospheric sciences, is mainly linked to heat and water vapor transfers through snow including sublimation and deposition at the ice-pore interface. In this paper, the macroscopic equivalent modeling of heat and water vapor transfers through a snow layer was derived from the physics at the pore scale using the homogenization of multiple scale expansions. The microscopic phenomena under consideration are heat conduction, vapor diffusion, sublimation, and deposition. The obtained macroscopic equivalent model is described by two coupled transient diffusion equations including a source term arising from phase change at the pore scale. By dimensional analysis, it was shown that the influence of such source terms on the overall transfers can generally not be neglected, except typically under small temperature gradients. The precision and the robustness of the proposed macroscopic modeling were illustrated through 2D numerical simulations. Finally, the effective vapor diffusion tensor arising in the macroscopic modeling was computed on 3D images of snow. The self-consistent formula offers a good estimate of the effective diffusion coefficient with respect to the snow density, within an average relative error of 10%. Our results confirm recent work that the effective vapor diffusion is not enhanced in snow.

  11. How can macroscopically normal peritoneum contribute to the pathogenesis of endometriosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassbender, Amelie; Overbergh, Lut; Verdrengh, Eefje; Kyama, Cleophas M; Vodolazakaia, Alexandra; Bokor, Attila; Meuleman, Christel; Peeraer, Karen; Tomassetti, Carla; Waelkens, Etienne; Mathieu, Chantal; D'Hooghe, Thomas

    2011-09-01

    This study indicates that the immunobiology of macroscopically normal peritoneum is relevant to understand the pathogenesis of endometriosis. Peritoneal interleukin 6, interleukin 12, and ferritin were differentially expressed in women with and without endometriosis. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Macroscopic quantum coherence in a magnetic nanoparticle above the surface of a superconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudnovsky; Friedman

    2000-12-11

    We study macroscopic quantum tunneling of the magnetic moment in a single-domain particle placed above the surface of a superconductor. Such a setup allows one to manipulate the height of the energy barrier, preserving the degeneracy of the ground state. The tunneling amplitude and the effect of the dissipation in the superconductor are computed.

  13. Macroscopic Quantum Coherence in a Magnetic Nanoparticle Above the Surface of a Superconductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chudnovsky, Eugene M.; Friedman, Jonathan R.

    2000-12-11

    We study macroscopic quantum tunneling of the magnetic moment in a single-domain particle placed above the surface of a superconductor. Such a setup allows one to manipulate the height of the energy barrier, preserving the degeneracy of the ground state. The tunneling amplitude and the effect of the dissipation in the superconductor are computed.

  14. Macroscopic Quantum Coherence in a Magnetic Nanoparticle Above the Surface of a Superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chudnovsky, Eugene M.; Friedman, Jonathan R.

    2000-01-01

    We study macroscopic quantum tunneling of the magnetic moment in a single-domain particle placed above the surface of a superconductor. Such a setup allows one to manipulate the height of the energy barrier, preserving the degeneracy of the ground state. The tunneling amplitude and the effect of the dissipation in the superconductor are computed

  15. Experimental determination of neutron lifetimes through macroscopic neutron noise in the IPEN/MB-01 reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonnelli, Eduardo; Diniz, Ricardo [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares - IPEN/CNEN-SP Travessa R-400, 05508-900, Cidade Universitaria, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2013-05-06

    The neutron lifetimes of the core, reflector, and global were experimentally obtained through macroscopic neutron noise in the IPEN/MB-01 reactor for five levels of subcriticality. The theoretical Auto Power Spectral Densities were derived by point kinetic equations taking the reflector effect into account, and one of the approaches consider an additional group of delayed neutrons.

  16. Bilateral subacromial bursitis with macroscopic rice bodies: Ultrasound, CT and MR appearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Law, T.C.; Chong, S.F.; Lu, P.P.; Mak, K.H.

    1998-01-01

    The radiological findings of ultrasound, CT and MR of a case of bilateral subacromial bursitis with macroscopic rice bodies is described. MRI is the investigation of choice and the intravenous gadolinium-enhanced usefulness was noted. The previous literature is also reviewed. Copyright (1998) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  17. Bilateral subacromial bursitis with macroscopic rice bodies: Ultrasound, CT and MR appearance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Law, T.C.; Chong, S.F.; Lu, P.P. [Kwong Wah Hospital (Hong Kong). Department of Radiology; Mak, K.H. [Kwong Wah Hospital (Hong Kong). Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology

    1998-05-01

    The radiological findings of ultrasound, CT and MR of a case of bilateral subacromial bursitis with macroscopic rice bodies is described. MRI is the investigation of choice and the intravenous gadolinium-enhanced usefulness was noted. The previous literature is also reviewed. Copyright (1998) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd 5 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

  18. Collective motion of macroscopic spheres floating on capillary ripples: Dynamic heterogeneity and dynamic criticality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanli, Ceyda; Saitoh, K.; Luding, Stefan; van der Meer, Roger M.

    2014-01-01

    When a densely packed monolayer of macroscopic spheres floats on chaotic capillary Faraday waves, a coexistence of large scale convective motion and caging dynamics typical for glassy systems is observed. We subtract the convective mean flow using a coarse graining (homogenization) method and reveal

  19. Self-similar drag reduction in plug-flow of suspensions of macroscopic fibers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gillissen, J.J.J.; Hoving, J.P.

    2012-01-01

    Pipe flow experiments show that turbulent drag reduction in plug-flow of concentrated suspensions of macroscopic fibers is a self-similar function of the wall shear stress over the fiber network yield stress. We model the experimental observations, by assuming a central fiber network plug, whose

  20. Analysis of macroscopic and microscopic rotating motions in rotating jets: A direct numerical simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingtuan Yang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A direct numerical simulation study of the characteristics of macroscopic and microscopic rotating motions in swirling jets confined in a rectangular flow domain is carried out. The different structures of vortex cores for different swirl levels are illustrated. It is found that the vortex cores of low swirl flows are of regular cylindrical-helix patterns, whereas those of the high swirl flows are characterized by the formation of the bubble-type vortex breakdown followed by the radiant processing vortex cores. The results of mean velocity fields show the general procedures of vortex origination. Moreover, the effects of macroscopic and microscopic rotating motions with respect to the mean and fluctuation fields of the swirling flows are evaluated. The microscopic rotating effects, especially the effects with respect to the turbulent fluctuation motion, are increasingly intermittent with the increase in the swirl levels. In contrast, the maximum value of the probability density functions with respect to the macroscopic rotating effects of the fluctuation motion occurs at moderate swirl levels since the macroscopic rotating effects are attenuated by the formation of the bubble vortex breakdown with a region of stagnant fluids at supercritical swirl levels.