Searching for the nanoscopic–macroscopic boundary
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Velásquez, E.A. [GICM and GES Groups, Instituto de Física-FCEN, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21 Medellín (Colombia); Grupo de Investigación en Modelamiento y Simulación Computacional, Universidad de San Buenaventura Sec. Medellín, A.A. 5222, Medellín (Colombia); Altbir, D. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Santiago de Chile (USACH), CEDENNA, Santiago (Chile); Mazo-Zuluaga, J. [GICM and GES Groups, Instituto de Física-FCEN, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21 Medellín (Colombia); Duque, L.F. [GICM and GES Groups, Instituto de Física-FCEN, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21 Medellín (Colombia); Grupo de Física Teórica, Aplicada y Didáctica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Aplicadas Instituto Tecnológico Metropolitano, Medellín (Colombia); Mejía-López, J., E-mail: jmejia@puc.cl [Facultad de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, CEDENNA, Santiago (Chile)
2013-12-15
Several studies have focused on the size-dependent properties of elements, looking for a unique definition of the nanoscopic–macroscopic boundary. By using a novel approach consisting of an energy variational method combined with a quantum Heisenberg model, here we address the size at which the ordering temperature of a magnetic nanoparticle reaches its bulk value. We consider samples with sizes in the range 1–500 nm, as well as several geometries and crystalline lattices and observe that, contrarily to what is commonly argued, the nanoscopic-microscopic boundary depends on both factors: shape and crystalline structure. This suggests that the surface-to-volume ratio is not the unique parameter that defines the behavior of a nanometric sample whenever its size increases reaching the bulk dimension. Comparisons reveal very good agreement with experimental evidence with differences less than 2%. Our results have broad implications for practical issues in measurements on systems at the nanometric scale. - Highlights: • A novel quantum-Heisenberg variational energy method is implemented. • The asymptotic behavior toward the thermodynamic limit is explored. • An important dependence of the nano-bulk boundary on the geometry is found. • And also an important dependence on the crystalline lattice. • We obtain a very good agreement with experimental evidence with differences <2%.
Nucleation of small angle boundaries
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Nabarro, FRN
1996-12-01
Full Text Available The internal stresses induced by the strain gradients in an array of lattice cells delineated by low-angle dislocation boundaries are partially relieved by the creation of new low-angle boundaries. This is shown to be a first-order transition...
Cyclically induced softening due to low-angle boundary annihilation in a martensitic steel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sauzay, Maxime; Brillet, Helene; Monnet, Isabelle; Mottot, Michel; Barcelo, Francoise; Fournier, Benjamin; Pineau, Andre
2005-01-01
Martensitic steels are known for their softening during cyclic tests carried out at high temperature. The softening has been at least partially explained by lath and sub-grain boundary elimination. This article is dedicated to an attempt at modelling both phenomena. Thanks to mechanical tests it is shown that the softening is mainly due to a decrease of the backstress. Transmission electron microscopy allows us to propose a mechanism of low-angle boundary elimination. Annihilation between dislocations of low-angle boundaries and incident mobile dislocations is modelled. The macroscopic backstress is finally computed using a Hall-Petch law and the Taylor model
Tieleman, D.P; Berendsen, H.J.C.
1996-01-01
We compared molecular dynamics simulations of a bilayer of 128 fully hydrated phospholipid (DPPC) molecules, using different parameters and macroscopic boundary conditions. The same system was studied under constant pressure, constant volume, and constant surface tension boundary conditions, with
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Simonovski, Igor; Cizelj, Leon; Garrido, Oriol Costa
2013-01-01
Highlights: ► Grain boundary stiffness should be at least 1.5× higher that the stiffness of bulk grains. ► The ratio δ n pl /δ n el should be at least 400. ► Simultaneous increase of δ n el and δ n pl at constant grain boundary strength increases numerical stability but results in high percentage of damage grain boundary area. ► Shear contributes significantly to damage initialization. -- Abstract: In this work a model, based on a X-ray diffraction contrast tomography data of a stainless steel wire with a diameter of 0.4 mm is presented. As measured 3D grain geometry and crystallographic orientation of individual grains are directly transferred into a finite element model. Anisotropic elasticity and crystal plasticity constitutive laws are used for the bulk grain material while the grain boundaries are explicitly modeled using the cohesive zone approach. A parametric study on the effects of the grain boundary strength and other cohesive zone parameters on the macroscopic response and damaged grain boundary area of a polycrystalline aggregate is presented. Recommendations for the cohesive zone parameters values aimed at achieving low damaged grain boundary area during numerical tensile tests are given while at the same time taking into account the numerical stability of the simulations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Simonovski, Igor, E-mail: Igor.Simonovski@ec.europa.eu [European Commission, DG-JRC, Institute for Energy and Transport, P.O. Box 2, NL-1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Cizelj, Leon, E-mail: Leon.Cizelj@ijs.si [Jožef Stefan Institute, Reactor Engineering Division, Jamova Cesta 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Garrido, Oriol Costa, E-mail: Oriol.Costa@ijs.si [Jožef Stefan Institute, Reactor Engineering Division, Jamova Cesta 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)
2013-08-15
Highlights: ► Grain boundary stiffness should be at least 1.5× higher that the stiffness of bulk grains. ► The ratio δ{sub n}{sup pl}/δ{sub n}{sup el} should be at least 400. ► Simultaneous increase of δ{sub n}{sup el} and δ{sub n}{sup pl} at constant grain boundary strength increases numerical stability but results in high percentage of damage grain boundary area. ► Shear contributes significantly to damage initialization. -- Abstract: In this work a model, based on a X-ray diffraction contrast tomography data of a stainless steel wire with a diameter of 0.4 mm is presented. As measured 3D grain geometry and crystallographic orientation of individual grains are directly transferred into a finite element model. Anisotropic elasticity and crystal plasticity constitutive laws are used for the bulk grain material while the grain boundaries are explicitly modeled using the cohesive zone approach. A parametric study on the effects of the grain boundary strength and other cohesive zone parameters on the macroscopic response and damaged grain boundary area of a polycrystalline aggregate is presented. Recommendations for the cohesive zone parameters values aimed at achieving low damaged grain boundary area during numerical tensile tests are given while at the same time taking into account the numerical stability of the simulations.
Ultra-low-angle boundary networks within recrystallizing grains
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ahl, Sonja Rosenlund; Simons, Hugh; Zhang, Yubin
2017-01-01
We present direct evidence of a network of well-defined ultra-low-angle boundaries in bulk recrystallizing grains of 99.5% pure aluminium (AA1050) by means of a new, three-dimensional X-ray mapping technique; dark-field X-ray microscopy. These boundaries separate lattice orientation differences o...
Wave dynamics in an extended macroscopic traffic flow model with periodic boundaries
Wang, Yu-Qing; Chu, Xing-Jian; Zhou, Chao-Fan; Yan, Bo-Wen; Jia, Bin; Fang, Chen-Hao
2018-06-01
Motivated by the previous traffic flow model considering the real-time traffic state, a modified macroscopic traffic flow model is established. The periodic boundary condition is applied to the car-following model. Besides, the traffic state factor R is defined in order to correct the real traffic conditions in a more reasonable way. It is a key step that we introduce the relaxation time as a density-dependent function and provide corresponding evolvement of traffic flow. Three different typical initial densities, namely the high density, the medium one and the low one, are intensively investigated. It can be found that the hysteresis loop exists in the proposed periodic-boundary system. Furthermore, the linear and nonlinear stability analyses are performed in order to test the robustness of the system.
Micciché, Maurizio; Arzt, Eduard; Kroner, Elmar
2014-05-28
The goal of our study is to better understand the design parameters of bioinspired dry adhesives inspired by geckos. For this, we fabricated single macroscopic pillars of 400 μm diameter with different aspect ratios and different tip shapes (i.e., flat tips, spherical tips with different radii, and mushroom tips with different diameters). Tilt-angle-dependent adhesion measurements showed that although the tip shape of the pillars strongly influences the pull-off force, the pull-off strength is similar for flat and mushroom-shaped tips. We found no tilt-angle dependency of adhesion for spherical tip structures and, except for high tilt angle and low preload experiments, no tilt-angle effect for mushroom-tip pillars. For flat-tip pillars, we found a strong influence of tilt angle on adhesion, which decreased linearly with increasing aspect ratio. The experiments show that for the tested aspect ratios between 1 and 5, a linear decrease of tilt-angle dependency is found. The results of our studies will help to design bioinspired adhesives for application on smooth and rough surfaces.
The Trapping of Helium at a Low Angle Tilt Boundary in Molybdenum
Evans, J.H.; Veen, A. van; Hosson, J.Th.M. De; Bullough, R.; Willis, J.R.
1984-01-01
This paper presents experimental evidence of helium trapping at a set of b = [100] edge dislocations defining a low angle tilt boundary in molybdenum together with theoretical results on two aspects of helium-dislocation behaviour. The low angle boundary, with a misfit angle of ≈1/5 °, was found
Accurate electron channeling contrast analysis of a low angle sub-grain boundary
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mansour, H.; Crimp, M.A.; Gey, N.; Maloufi, N.
2015-01-01
High resolution selected area channeling pattern (HR-SACP) assisted accurate electron channeling contrast imaging (A-ECCI) was used to unambiguously characterize the structure of a low angle grain boundary in an interstitial-free-steel. The boundary dislocations were characterized using TEM-style contrast analysis. The boundary was determined to be tilt in nature with a misorientation angle of 0.13° consistent with the HR-SACP measurements. The results were verified using high accuracy electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), confirming the approach as a discriminating tool for assessing low angle boundaries
High angle grain boundaries as sources or sinks for point defects
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Balluffi, R.W.
1979-09-01
A secondary grain boundary dislocation climb model for high angle grain boundaries as sources/sinks for point defects is described in the light of recent advances in our knowledge of grain boundary structure. Experimental results are reviewed and are then compared with the expected behavior of the proposed model. Reasonably good consistency is found at the level of our present understanding of the subject. However, several gaps in our present knowledge still exist, and these are identified and discussed briefly.
Analysis of Windward Side Hypersonic Boundary Layer Transition on Blunted Cones at Angle of Attack
2017-01-09
correlated with PSE/LST N-Factors. 15. SUBJECT TERMS boundary layer transition, hypersonic, ground test 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION ...Maccoll) solution e condition at boundary layer edge w condition at wall, viscous ∞ condition in freestream Conventions LST Linear Stability Theory PSE...STATES AIR FORCE AFRL-RQ-WP-TP-2017-0169 ANALYSIS OF WINDWARD SIDE HYPERSONIC BOUNDARY LAYER TRANSITION ON BLUNTED CONES AT ANGLE OF ATTACK Roger
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sun, Ling; Laustsen, Milan; Mandsberg, Nikolaj
2016-01-01
We discuss the influence of surface structure, namely the height and opening angles of nano-and microcones on the surface wettability. We show experimental evidence that the opening angle of the cones is the critical parameter on sample superhydrophobicity, namely static contact angles and roll......-off angles. The textured surfaces are fabricated on silicon wafers by using a simple one-step method of reactive ion etching at different processing time and gas flow rates. By using hydrophobic coating or hydrophilic surface treatment, we are able to switch the surface wettability from superhydrophilic...
Schneider, Ling; Laustsen, Milan; Mandsberg, Nikolaj; Taboryski, Rafael
2016-01-01
We discuss the influence of surface structure, namely the height and opening angles of nano- and microcones on the surface wettability. We show experimental evidence that the opening angle of the cones is the critical parameter on sample superhydrophobicity, namely static contact angles and roll-off angles. The textured surfaces are fabricated on silicon wafers by using a simple one-step method of reactive ion etching at different processing time and gas flow rates. By using hydrophobic coating or hydrophilic surface treatment, we are able to switch the surface wettability from superhydrophilic to superhydrophobic without altering surface structures. In addition, we show examples of polymer replicas (polypropylene and poly(methyl methacrylate) with different wettability, fabricated by injection moulding using templates of the silicon cone-structures. PMID:26892169
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Viswanathan, K. K.; Aziz, Z. A.; Javed, Saira; Yaacob, Y. [Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor Bahru (Malaysia); Pullepu, Babuji [S R M University, Chennai (India)
2015-05-15
Free vibration of symmetric angle-ply laminated truncated conical shell is analyzed to determine the effects of frequency parameter and angular frequencies under different boundary condition, ply angles, different material properties and other parameters. The governing equations of motion for truncated conical shell are obtained in terms of displacement functions. The displacement functions are approximated by cubic and quintic splines resulting into a generalized eigenvalue problem. The parametric studies have been made and discussed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Viswanathan, K. K.; Aziz, Z. A.; Javed, Saira; Yaacob, Y.; Pullepu, Babuji
2015-01-01
Free vibration of symmetric angle-ply laminated truncated conical shell is analyzed to determine the effects of frequency parameter and angular frequencies under different boundary condition, ply angles, different material properties and other parameters. The governing equations of motion for truncated conical shell are obtained in terms of displacement functions. The displacement functions are approximated by cubic and quintic splines resulting into a generalized eigenvalue problem. The parametric studies have been made and discussed.
The fermion boundary condition and the THETA-angle in QED2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hrasko, P.
1983-09-01
The order parameter of the Schwinger model is calculated in the Euclidean functional integral approach. It is shown that the symmetry breaking angle THETA is intimately connected to the boundary condition imposed on the fermions. The transition to the Euclidean description involves both imaginary time and imaginary THETA. (author)
Stability Analysis of Hypersonic Boundary Layer over a Cone at Small Angle of Attack
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Feng Ji
2014-04-01
Full Text Available An investigation on the stability of hypersonic boundary layer over a cone at small angle of attack has been performed. After obtaining the steady base flow, linear stability theory (LST analysis has been made with local parallel assumption. The growth rates of the first mode and second mode waves at different streamwise locations and different azimuthal angles are obtained. The results show that the boundary layer stability was greatly influenced by small angles of attack. The maximum growth rate of the most unstable wave on the leeward is larger than that on the windward. Moreover, dominating second mode wave starts earlier on the leeward than that on the windward. The LST result also shows that there is a “valley” region around 120°~150° meridian in the maximum growth rates curve.
Influence of Contact Angle Boundary Condition on CFD Simulation of T-Junction
Arias, S.; Montlaur, A.
2018-03-01
In this work, we study the influence of the contact angle boundary condition on 3D CFD simulations of the bubble generation process occurring in a capillary T-junction. Numerical simulations have been performed with the commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics solver ANSYS Fluent v15.0.7. Experimental results serve as a reference to validate numerical results for four independent parameters: the bubble generation frequency, volume, velocity and length. CFD simulations accurately reproduce experimental results both from qualitative and quantitative points of view. Numerical results are very sensitive to the gas-liquid-wall contact angle boundary conditions, confirming that this is a fundamental parameter to obtain accurate CFD results for simulations of this kind of problems.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jones, A.R.; Hansen, Niels
1981-01-01
Certain quantitative and qualitative aspects both of subgrain growth and of the interaction between particles and low angle grain boundaries during recovery have been investigated in two aluminium alloys containing low volume fractions of small alumina particles. Quantitative data have been...... pinning. The discrepancies between the experimental and theoretical results can be rationalised in terms of the limited nature of the physical effects modelled in the Zener analysis....
Serpieri, Roberto; Travascio, Francesco
2016-03-01
In poroelasticity, the effective stress law relates the external stress applied to the medium to the macroscopic strain of the solid phase and the interstitial pressure of the fluid saturating the mixture. Such relationship has been formerly introduced by Terzaghi in form of a principle. To date, no poroelastic theory is capable of recovering a stress partitioning law in agreement with Terzaghi's postulated one in the absence of ad hoc constitutive assumptions on the medium. We recently proposed a variational macroscopic continuum description of two-phase poroelasticity to derive a general biphasic formulation at finite deformations, termed variational macroscopic theory of porous media (VMTPM). Such approach proceeds from the inclusion of the intrinsic volumetric strain among the kinematic descriptors aside to macroscopic displacements, and as a variational theory, uses the Hamilton least-action principle as the unique primitive concept of mechanics invoked to derive momentum balance equations. In a previous related work it was shown that, for the subclass of undrained problems, VMTPM predicts that stress is partitioned in the two phases in strict compliance with Terzaghi's law, irrespective of the microstructural and constitutive features of a given medium. In the present contribution, we further develop the linearized framework of VMTPM to arrive at a general operative formula that allows the quantitative determination of stress partitioning in a jacketed test over a generic isotropic biphasic specimen. This formula is quantitative and general, in that it relates the partial phase stresses to the externally applied stress as function of partitioning coefficients that are all derived by strictly following a purely variational and purely macroscopic approach, and in the absence of any specific hypothesis on the microstructural or constitutive features of a given medium. To achieve this result, the stiffness coefficients of the theory are derived by using
Importance of low-angle grain boundaries in YBa2Cu3O7-δ coated conductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Durrell, J H; Rutter, N A
2009-01-01
Over the past ten years the perception of grain boundaries in YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ conductors has changed greatly. They are now not a problem to be eliminated, but an inevitable and potentially favourable part of the material. This change has arisen as a consequence of new manufacturing techniques which result in excellent grain alignment, reducing the spread of grain boundary misorientation angles. At the same time there is considerable recent evidence which indicates that the variation of properties of grain boundaries with mismatch angle is more complex than a simple exponential decrease in critical current. This is due to the fact that low-angle grain boundaries represent a qualitatively different system to high-angle boundaries. The time is therefore right for a targeted review of research into low-angle YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ grain boundaries. This article does not purport to be a comprehensive review of the physics of grain boundaries as found in YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ in general; for a broader overview we would recommend that the reader consult the comprehensive review of Hilgenkamp and Mannhart (2002 Rev. Mod. Phys. 74 485). The purpose of this article is to review the origin and properties of the low-angle grain boundaries found in YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ coated conductors both individually and as a collective system. (topical review)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhan, Shuyue; Wang, Xiaoping; Liu, Yuling
2011-01-01
To simplify the algorithm for determining the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) angle for special applications and development trends, a fast method for determining an SPR angle, called the fixed-boundary centroid algorithm, has been proposed. Two experiments were conducted to compare three centroid algorithms from the aspects of the operation time, sensitivity to shot noise, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), resolution, and measurement range. Although the measurement range of this method was narrower, the other performance indices were all better than the other two centroid methods. This method has outstanding performance, high speed, good conformity, low error and a high SNR and resolution. It thus has the potential to be widely adopted
Gap States at Low-Angle Grain Boundaries in Monolayer Tungsten Diselenide
Huang, Yu Li; Ding, Zijing; Zhang, Wenjing; Chang, Yung-Huang; Shi, Yumeng; Li, Lain-Jong; Song, Zhibo; Zheng, Yu Jie; Chi, Dongzhi; Quek, Su Ying; Wee, Andrew T. S.
2016-01-01
Two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have revealed many novel properties of interest to future device applications. In particular, the presence of grain boundaries (GBs) can significantly influence the material properties of 2D TMDs. However, direct characterization of the electronic properties of the GB defects at the atomic scale remains extremely challenging. In this study, we employ scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy to investigate the atomic and electronic structure of low-angle GBs of monolayer tungsten diselenide (WSe2) with misorientation angles of 3-6°. Butterfly features are observed along the GBs, with the periodicity depending on the misorientation angle. Density functional theory calculations show that these butterfly features correspond to gap states that arise in tetragonal dislocation cores and extend to distorted six-membered rings around the dislocation core. Understanding the nature of GB defects and their influence on transport and other device properties highlights the importance of defect engineering in future 2D device fabrication. © 2016 American Chemical Society.
Gap States at Low-Angle Grain Boundaries in Monolayer Tungsten Diselenide
Huang, Yu Li
2016-05-03
Two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have revealed many novel properties of interest to future device applications. In particular, the presence of grain boundaries (GBs) can significantly influence the material properties of 2D TMDs. However, direct characterization of the electronic properties of the GB defects at the atomic scale remains extremely challenging. In this study, we employ scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy to investigate the atomic and electronic structure of low-angle GBs of monolayer tungsten diselenide (WSe2) with misorientation angles of 3-6°. Butterfly features are observed along the GBs, with the periodicity depending on the misorientation angle. Density functional theory calculations show that these butterfly features correspond to gap states that arise in tetragonal dislocation cores and extend to distorted six-membered rings around the dislocation core. Understanding the nature of GB defects and their influence on transport and other device properties highlights the importance of defect engineering in future 2D device fabrication. © 2016 American Chemical Society.
Electron-beam-induced current study of small-angle grain boundaries in multicrystalline silicon
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, J.; Sekiguchi, T.; Xie, R.; Ahmet, P.; Chikyo, T.; Yang, D.; Ito, S.; Yin, F.
2005-01-01
Recombination activity of small-angle grain boundaries (SA GBs) in multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si) was studied by means of electron-beam-induced current (EBIC) technique. In the as-grown mc-Si, the EBIC contrasts of special Σ and random GBs were weak at both 300 and 100 K, whereas those of SA GBs were weak (<3%) at 300 K and strong (30-40%) at 100 K. In the contaminated mc-Si, SA GBs showed stronger EBIC contrast than Σ and R GBs at 300 K. It is indicated that SA GBs possess high density of shallow levels and are easily contaminated with Fe compared to other GBs
Free Vibration Study of Anti-Symmetric Angle-Ply Laminated Plates under Clamped Boundary Conditions
Viswanathan, K. K.; Karthik, K.; Sanyasiraju, Y. V. S. S.; Aziz, Z. A.
2016-11-01
Two type of numerical approach namely, Radial Basis Function and Spline approximation, used to analyse the free vibration of anti-symmetric angle-ply laminated plates under clamped boundary conditions. The equations of motion are derived using YNS theory under first order shear deformation. By assuming the solution in separable form, coupled differential equations obtained in term of mid-plane displacement and rotational functions. The coupled differential is then approximated using Spline function and radial basis function to obtain the generalize eigenvalue problem and parametric studies are made to investigate the effect of aspect ratio, length-to-thickness ratio, number of layers, fibre orientation and material properties with respect to the frequency parameter. Some results are compared with the existing literature and other new results are given in tables and graphs.
Lee, Stephanie S; Mativetsky, Jeffrey M; Loth, Marsha A; Anthony, John E; Loo, Yueh-Lin
2012-11-27
The nanoscale boundaries formed when neighboring spherulites impinge in polycrystalline, solution-processed organic semiconductor thin films act as bottlenecks to charge transport, significantly reducing organic thin-film transistor mobility in devices comprising spherulitic thin films as the active layers. These interspherulite boundaries (ISBs) are structurally complex, with varying angles of molecular orientation mismatch along their lengths. We have successfully engineered exclusively low- and exclusively high-angle ISBs to elucidate how the angle of molecular orientation mismatch at ISBs affects their resistivities in triethylsilylethynyl anthradithiophene thin films. Conductive AFM and four-probe measurements reveal that current flow is unaffected by the presence of low-angle ISBs, whereas current flow is significantly disrupted across high-angle ISBs. In the latter case, we estimate the resistivity to be 22 MΩμm(2)/width of the ISB, only less than a quarter of the resistivity measured across low-angle grain boundaries in thermally evaporated sexithiophene thin films. This discrepancy in resistivities across ISBs in solution-processed organic semiconductor thin films and grain boundaries in thermally evaporated organic semiconductor thin films likely arises from inherent differences in the nature of film formation in the respective systems.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
QIN Jianchao
2017-06-01
Full Text Available The effects of low angle grain boundaries on the mechanical properties of second generation single crystal superalloy DD5 were investigated and the test specimens were prepared by using seeds. The results show that at 870 ℃, the yield strength and breaking strength showed no difference when the angle is below 16.1°. The elongation is higher than 15% when the angle is below 11.4°, but the elongation decreases quickly when angle is above 11.4°. At 980 ℃/250 MPa, the rupture life is higher than 130 h when the angle is below 5.1°, and decreased slowly when the angle is above 5.1°. The rupture life still remaines 85% when the angle is 14.8°. But the rupture life decreases quickly when the angle is above 14.8°.At 1093 ℃/158 MPa, the rupture life is higher than 30 h when the angle is below 5.1°, and decreases when the angle is above 5.1°.
Macroscopic Optomechanically Induced Transparency
Pate, Jacob; Castelli, Alessandro; Martinez, Luis; Thompson, Johnathon; Chiao, Ray; Sharping, Jay
Optomechanically induced transparency (OMIT) is an effect wherein the spectrum of a cavity resonance is modified through interference between coupled excitation pathways. In this work we investigate a macroscopic, 3D microwave, superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavity incorporating a niobium-coated, silicon-nitride membrane as the flexible boundary. The boundary supports acoustic vibrational resonances, which lead to coupling with the microwave resonances of the SRF cavity. The theoretical development and physical understanding of OMIT for our macroscopic SRF cavity is the same as that for other recently-reported OMIT systems despite vastly different optomechanical coupling factors and device sizes. Our mechanical oscillator has a coupling factor of g0 = 2 π . 1 ×10-5 Hz and is roughly 38 mm in diameter. The Q = 5 ×107 for the SRF cavity allows probing of optomechanical effects in the resolved sideband regime.
Shishkina, Olga; Wagner, Sebastian; Horn, Susanne
2014-03-01
We derive the asymptotes for the ratio of the thermal to viscous boundary layer thicknesses for infinite and infinitesimal Prandtl numbers Pr as functions of the angle β between the large-scale circulation and an isothermal heated or cooled surface for the case of turbulent thermal convection with laminar-like boundary layers. For this purpose, we apply the Falkner-Skan ansatz, which is a generalization of the Prandtl-Blasius one to a nonhorizontal free-stream flow above the viscous boundary layer. Based on our direct numerical simulations (DNS) of turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection for Pr=0.1, 1, and 10 and moderate Rayleigh numbers up to 108 we evaluate the value of β that is found to be around 0.7π for all investigated cases. Our theoretical predictions for the boundary layer thicknesses for this β and the considered Pr are in good agreement with the DNS results.
Petruccelli, Jonathan C; Alonso, Miguel A
2007-09-01
We examine the angle-impact Wigner function (AIW) as a computational tool for the propagation of nonparaxial quasi-monochromatic light of any degree of coherence past a planar boundary between two homogeneous media. The AIWs of the reflected and transmitted fields in two dimensions are shown to be given by a simple ray-optical transformation of the incident AIW plus a series of corrections in the form of differential operators. The radiometric and leading six correction terms are studied for Gaussian Schell-model fields of varying transverse width, transverse coherence, and angle of incidence.
Boltz, Frederick W.; Kenyon, George C.; Allen, Clyde Q.
1960-01-01
An investigation was conducted in the Ames 12-Foot Low-Turbulence Pressure Tunnel to determine the effects of sweep on the boundary-layer stability characteristics of an untapered variable-sweep wing having an NACA 64(2)A015 section normal to the leading edge. Pressure distribution and transition were measured on the wing at low speeds at sweep angles of 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 deg. and at angles of attack from -3 to 3 deg. The investigation also included flow-visualization studies on the surface at sweep angles from 0 to 50 deg. and total pressure surveys in the boundary layer at a sweep angle of 30 deg. for angles of attack from -12 to 0 deg. It was found that sweep caused premature transition on the wing under certain conditions. This effect resulted from the formation of vortices in the boundary layer when a critical combination of sweep angle, pressure gradient, and stream Reynolds number was attained. A useful parameter in indicating the combined effect of these flow variables on vortex formation and on beginning transition is the crossflow Reynolds number. The critical values of crossflow Reynolds number for vortex formation found in this investigation range from about 135 to 190 and are in good agreement with those reported in previous investigations. The values of crossflow Reynolds number for beginning transitions were found to be between 190 and 260. For each condition (i.e., development of vortices and initiation of transition at a given location) the lower values in the specified ranges were obtained with a light coating of flow-visualization material on the surface. A method is presented for the rapid computation of crossflow Reynolds number on any swept surface for which the pressure distribution is known. From calculations based on this method, it was found that the maximum values of crossflow Reynolds number are attained under conditions of a strong pressure gradient and at a sweep angle of about 50 deg. Due to the primary dependence on pressure
Frank, Florian; Liu, Chen; Scanziani, Alessio; Alpak, Faruk O; Riviere, Beatrice
2018-08-01
We consider an energy-based boundary condition to impose an equilibrium wetting angle for the Cahn-Hilliard-Navier-Stokes phase-field model on voxel-set-type computational domains. These domains typically stem from μCT (micro computed tomography) imaging of porous rock and approximate a (on μm scale) smooth domain with a certain resolution. Planar surfaces that are perpendicular to the main axes are naturally approximated by a layer of voxels. However, planar surfaces in any other directions and curved surfaces yield a jagged/topologically rough surface approximation by voxels. For the standard Cahn-Hilliard formulation, where the contact angle between the diffuse interface and the domain boundary (fluid-solid interface/wall) is 90°, jagged surfaces have no impact on the contact angle. However, a prescribed contact angle smaller or larger than 90° on jagged voxel surfaces is amplified. As a remedy, we propose the introduction of surface energy correction factors for each fluid-solid voxel face that counterbalance the difference of the voxel-set surface area with the underlying smooth one. The discretization of the model equations is performed with the discontinuous Galerkin method. However, the presented semi-analytical approach of correcting the surface energy is equally applicable to other direct numerical methods such as finite elements, finite volumes, or finite differences, since the correction factors appear in the strong formulation of the model. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The Pinning by Particles of Low and High Angle Grain Boundaries during Grain Growth
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tweed, C.J.; Ralph, B.; Hansen, Niels
1984-01-01
A study has been made using transmission electron microscopy of the pinning of grain boundaries in aluminium during grain growth by fine dispersions of alumina particles. The boundary parameters have been determined with precision and the pinning effects measured using an approach due to Ashby...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fitzsimmons, M.R.; Sass, S.L.
1988-01-01
Quantitative X-ray diffraction techniques have been used to determine the atomic structure of the Σ = 5 and 13 [001] twist boundaries in Au with a resolution of 0.09 Angstrom or better. The reciprocal lattices of these boundaries were mapped out using synchrotron radiation. The atomic structures were obtained by testing model structures against the intensity observations with a chi square analysis. The boundary structure were modeled using polyhedra, including octahedra, special configurations of tetrahedra and Archimedian anti-prisms, interwoven together by the boundary symmetry. The results of this work point to the possibility of obtaining general rules for grain boundary structure based on X-ray diffraction observations that give the atomic positions with high resolution
Marek, Lindsay C.
2011-01-01
Boundary layer stability was analyzed for the HIFiRE-1 flight vehicle geometry for ground tests conducted at the CUBRC LENS I hypersonic shock test facility and the Langley Research Center (LaRC) 20- inch Mach 6 Tunnel. Boundary layer stability results were compared to transition onset location obtained from discrete heat transfer measurements from thin film gauges during the CUBRC test and spatially continuous heat transfer measurements from thermal phosphor paint data during the LaRC test. The focus of this analysis was on conditions at non-zero angles of attack as stability analysis has already been performed at zero degrees angle of attack. Also, the transition onset data obtained during flight testing was at nonzero angles of attack, so this analysis could be expanded in the future to include the results of the flight test data. Stability analysis was performed using the 2D parabolized stability software suite STABL (Stability and Transition Analysis for Hypersonic Boundary Layers) developed at the University of Minnesota and the mean flow solutions were computed using the DPLR finite volume Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solver. A center line slice of the 3D mean flow solution was used for the stability analysis to incorporate the angle of attack effects while still taking advantage of the 2D STABL software suite. The N-factors at transition onset and the value of Re(sub theta)/M(sub e), commonly used to predict boundary layer transition onset, were compared for all conditions analyzed. Ground test data was analyzed at Mach 7.2 and Mach 6.0 and angles of attack of 1deg, 3deg and 5deg. At these conditions, the flow was found to be second mode dominant for the HIFiRE-1 slender cone geometry. On the leeward side of the vehicle, a strong trend of transition onset location with angle of attack was observed as the boundary layer on the leeward side of the vehicle developed inflection points at streamwise positions on the vehicle that correlated to
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sargent, G A; Lih-Ren Chao, J; Freeman, G B
1981-01-01
The sulfur poisoning of a Ni(111) crystal with small angle boundaries (SAB) and its effect on CO adsorption were studied using the techniques of low energy electron diffraction (LEED) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). The sulfur poisoned Ni(111)-SAB surface was prepared by heating the crystal to 850/sup 0/C for 20 min. The bulk sulfur impurity was diffused to the surface. The sulfur Auger peak intensities taken at and between boundary lines, show that sulfur distribution is uniform on the Ni(111)-SAB surface. No LEED pattern due to sulfur presence was observed. Sulfur atoms do not form an ordered structure in the Ni(111)-SAB surface. The Auger spectra showed that the boundary lines at the sulfur-free crystal surface provide favorable sites for the adsorbed CO to dissociate at temperatures as low as 25/sup 0/C. After sulfur is diffused to the surface, it blocks the active sites as well as the boundary sites. The boundary line enhanced dissociation of CO is no longer seen. Sulfur and nickel Auger intensities were taken during the CO adsorption. From the change of the intensities, sulfur only interacts with nickel and physically inhibits the CO adsorption and, thereby, further CO dissociation.
Boundary attenuation angles for inhomogeneous plane waves in anisotropic dissipative media
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Červený, V.; Pšenčík, Ivan
2011-01-01
Roč. 76, č. 3 (2011), WA51-WA62 ISSN 0016-8033 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP210/11/0117 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : attenuation angles * seismic waves * seismic anisotropy Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 1.418, year: 2011
Simulation of the structure of vacancies in high angle grain boundaries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bristowe, P.D.; Brokman, A.; Spaepen, F.; Balluffi, R.W.
1980-06-01
Since the modeling approach used in an earlier work is used at an atomic level, this is the most appropriate and reliable technique available. To complement this study, however, we have also employed a hard sphere dynamic model and a bubble raft model because in the past they have provided useful qualitative insight into the structure of a variety of defects in two-dimensional crystalline and amorphous systems. The computed results form part of a wider investigation of vacancies and interstitials in various grain boundaries in which the binding energies are analyzed and related to the defect structure and form of the interatomic potential
Sung, Z.-H.; Wang, M.; Polyanskii, A. A.; Santosh, C.; Balachandran, S.; Compton, C.; Larbalestier, D. C.; Bieler, T. R.; Lee, P. J.
2017-05-01
This study shows that low angle grain boundaries (LAGBs) can be created by small 5% strains in high purity (residual resistivity ratio ≥ 200) superconducting radio frequency (SRF)-grade single crystalline niobium (Nb) and that these boundaries act as hydrogen traps as indicated by the distribution of niobium hydrides (Nb1-xHx). Nb1-xHx is detrimental to SRF Nb cavities due to its normal conducting properties at cavity operating temperatures. By designing a single crystal tensile sample extracted from a large grain (>5 cm) Nb ingot slice for preferred slip on one slip plane, LAGBs and dense dislocation boundaries developed. With chemical surface treatments following standard SRF cavity fabrication practice, Nb1-xHx phases were densely precipitated at the LAGBs upon cryogenic cooling (8-10 K/min). Micro-crystallographic analysis confirmed heterogeneous hydride precipitation, which included significant hydrogen atom accumulation in LAGBs. Magneto-optical imaging analysis showed that these sites can then act as sites for both premature flux penetration and eventually flux trapping. However, this hydrogen related degradation at LAGBs did not completely disappear even after an 800 °C/2 h anneal typically used for hydrogen removal in SRF Nb cavities. These findings suggest that hydride precipitation at an LAGB is facilitated by a non-equilibrium concentration of vacancy-hydrogen (H) complexes aided by mechanical deformation and the hydride phase interferes with the recovery process under 800 °C annealing.
Effect of Boundary-Layer Bleed Hole Inclination Angle and Scaling on Flow Coefficient Behavior
Eichorn, Michael B.; Barnhart, Paul J.; Davis, David O.; Vyas, Manan A.; Slater, John W.
2013-01-01
Phase II data results of the Fundamental Inlet Bleed Experiments study at NASA Glenn Research Center are presented which include flow coefficient behavior for 21 bleed hole configurations. The bleed configurations are all round holes with hole diameters ranging from 0.795 to 6.35 mm, hole inclination angles from 20deg to 90deg, and thickness-to-diameter ratios from 0.25 to 2.0. All configurations were tested at a unit Reynolds number of 2.46 10(exp 7)/m and at discrete local Mach numbers of 1.33, 1.62, 1.98, 2.46, and 2.92. Interactions between the design parameters of hole diameter, hole inclination angle, and thickness-to-diameter as well as the interactions between the flow parameters of pressure ratio and Mach number upon the flow coefficient are examined, and a preliminary statistical model is proposed. An existing correlation is also examined with respect to this data.
Albrecht, J.; Leonhardt, S.; Kronmüller, H.
2001-01-01
Low-angle grain boundaries with misorientation angles θ<5° in optimally doped thin films of YBa2Cu3O7-δ are investigated by magneto-optical imaging. By using a numerical inversion scheme of Biot-Savart's law, the critical current density across the grain boundary can be determined with a spatial resolution of about 5μm. Detailed investigation of the spatially resolved flux density and current density data shows that the current density across the boundary varies with varying local flux density. Combining the corresponding flux and current pattern, it is found that there exists a universal dependency of the grain boundary current on the local flux density. Considering the magnetic vortex-vortex interaction in and in the vicinity of the grain boundary, a model is developed that is able to describe the experimental data.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Golovchanskiy, I.A.; Pan, A.V.; Fedoseev, S.A.; Shcherbakova, O.V.; Dou, S.X.
2012-01-01
A pinning potential for vortices was introduced assuming plastic pinning of vortex lattice on chains of out-of-plane individual edge dislocations that form low-angle domain boundaries in high quality YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 thin films. Using this pinning potential with the classical Kim-Anderson vortex creep approach a model for critical current dependence on field has been successfully developed. The model shows a plausible description of J c (B a ) over the entire field range. Electrical field criterion is incorporated providing the ability to compare measurements made with different criteria (including different measurement techniques). Applicability of this model has been verified by experimental data obtained by direct transport and magnetisation measurements on high quality films grown by pulsed laser deposition. Pinning potential obtained from the fitting procedure is consistent with theoretical predictions. The model showed that the effective pinning landscape changes under influence of external conditions.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yuan, Lin, E-mail: yuanlin@hit.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); National Key Laboratory for Precision Hot Processing of Metals, Harbin 150001 (China); Jing, Peng; Shan, Debin; Guo, Bin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); National Key Laboratory for Precision Hot Processing of Metals, Harbin 150001 (China)
2017-01-15
Atomistic simulations were used to investigate the plastic deformation behavior of bicrystalline silver nanowires with Σ3 asymmetric tilt grain boundaries at 0.1 K. The calculated grain boundary energies of Σ3 asymmetric tilt grain boundaries corresponded well with the energies measured in experiments and predicted by the theoretical description. The Σ3 asymmetric tilt grain boundaries with low inclination angles were composed of a replication of twin boundary segments separated by small ledges. The results demonstrated that the combination effect of Schmid factor and non-Schmid factors could explain dislocations emission into grain 1 only in models with low inclination angles (< 64.76°). At the latter stage of plastic deformation, free surfaces served as additional dislocation sources. Parallelly arranged operative slip systems were the fundamental features of plastic deformation. In addition, a number of stacking faults and multiple stacking faults were formed during plastic deformation. The hindrance of stacking faults to dislocation motion and the interactions between dislocations leaded to the observed strain hardening in nanowires with inclination angles at and above 29.50°. The low stacking fault energy of silver was responsible for the appearance of strain hardening. Dislocations emitted from grain 2 interacted with each other contributing to the observed strain hardening. Grain boundaries were completely eliminated by successive emission of dislocations from grain boundaries in nanowires with an inclination angle of 35.26° and 54.74°. A detailed understanding of the relationship between strength and grain boundary structures as well as specific plastic deformation would push forward the application of nanocrystalline materials and provide insights into the synthesis of nanocrystalline materials with superior strength and ductility.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sargent, G A; Freeman, G B; Chao, J L.R.
1980-01-01
A Ni(111) crystal with small angle boundaries was used to examine the adsorption of CO. The adsorption of CO on a perfect Ni(111) single crystal was used for reference. Auger spectra show that the boundary lines on the sample surface provide favorable sites for the adsorbed CO to dissociate at temperatures as low as 25/sup 0/C. The post-dissociation carbon appears mostly in the form of a nickel carbide on the surface. After heating the crystal to 850/sup 0/C, sulfur diffused to the surface and blocked the surface adsorption sites uniformly. The boundary-enhanced dissociation of absorbed CO is no longer observed after the diffusion of sulfur to the crystal surface. AES depth profiling of sulfur concentration at different positions on the crystal with respect to the boundary lines show no evidence that the boundary lines provide an enhanced path for sulfur diffusion. 7 figures.
Zhang, Yumeng; Fan, Baolu; Wu, Wenhui; Fan, Jiyang
2017-05-01
Metal-semiconductor heteronanostructures are crucial building blocks of nanoscale electronic and optoelectronic devices. However, the lattice misfit remains a challenge in constructing heteronanostructures. Perovskite nanocrystals are superior candidates for constructing nanodevices owing to excellent optical, ferroelectric, and superconducting properties. We report the epitaxial growth of lattice-matched Cs/CsPbBr3 metal-semiconductor heteronanocrystals in a liquid medium. The well-crystallized ultrathin Cs layers grow epitaxially on the surfaces of colloidal CsPbBr3 nanocrystals, forming heteronanocrystals with interface diameters of several nanometers. Most of them are pseudomorphic with coherent interfaces free from dislocations, and the others exhibit discrete high-angle grain boundaries. The model based on the calculation of the elastic potential energy of the epilayer and analysis of the near-coincidence sites explains well the experimental result. The analysis shows that the excellent lattice match between the metal and the semiconductor ensures the ideal epitaxial-growth of both Cs/CsPbBr3 and Cs/CsPbCl3 heteronanocrystals. Such metal/semiconductor heteronanocrystals pave the way for developing perovskite-based nanodevices.
Lukashevich, S. V.; Morozov, S. O.; Shiplyuk, A. N.
2018-03-01
Experimental investigations are performed to determine the effect of the passive porous coating on the stability of the hypersonic boundary layer on the cone at small angles of attack. Measurements of the pressure disturbances on the cone surface showed that, the increase of the angle of attack leads to decrease of the second-mode amplitude, when the smooth cone side is the windward side. On the leeward side the amplitude of the disturbances increase with the angle of attack until the boundary layer is laminar. It was found that the ultrasonically absorptive coating leads to the energy decrease of the second-mode disturbances on both leeward and windward side of the sharp cone.
Flow stress anisotropy caused by geometrically necessary boundaries
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, N.; Juul Jensen, D.
1992-01-01
of dislocations. A model has been proposed for this microstructural anisotropy based on the assumptions that (i) the average slip plane is at an angle of 45-degrees to the direction of the applied stress and that (ii) a strengthening parameter is the mean distance in the slip plane between the geometrically...... necessary boundaries. For different macroscopic arrangements of such boundaries, the model predictions are in good qualitative and quantitative agreement with experiments....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goyal, A.; Specht, E.D.; Kroeger, D.M.; Mason, T.A.
1996-01-01
Computer simulations were performed to determine the most probable grain boundary misorientation distribution (GBMD) in model polycrystalline superconductors. GBMDs in polycrystalline superconductors can be expected to dictate the macroscopic transport critical current density, J c . Calculations were performed by simulating model polycrystals and then determining the GBMD. Such distributions were calculated for random materials having cubic, tetragonal, and orthorhombic crystal symmetry. In addition, since most high temperature superconductors are tetragonal or pseudotetragonal, the effect of macroscopic uniaxial and biaxial grain orientation texture on the GBMD was determined for tetragonal materials. It is found that macroscopic texture drastically alters the grain boundary misorientation distribution. The fraction of low angle boundaries increases significantly with uniaxial and biaxial texture. The results of this study are important in correlating the macroscopic transport J c with the measured grain orientation texture as determined by x-ray diffraction copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Amirkhanlou, Sajjad, E-mail: s.amirkhanlou@aut.ac.ir [Young Researchers and Elite Club, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Najafabad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ketabchi, Mostafa; Parvin, Nader; Askarian, Masoomeh [Department of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Carreño, Fernando [Department of Physical Metallurgy, CENIM-CSIC, Av. Gregorio del Amo 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain)
2015-03-11
Aluminum matrix nanocomposites with 2 vol% ZnO nanoparticles were produced using accumulative press bonding (APB) as a very effective and novel severe plastic deformation process. Microstructural evaluation and mechanical properties of specimens were characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and tensile test. Microstructure of AA1050/ZnO nanocomposite showed a uniform distribution of ZnO nanoparticles throughout the aluminum matrix. STEM and EBSD observations revealed that ultrafine-grained Al/ZnO nanocomposite with the average grain size of <500 nm and well-developed high angle grain boundaries (80% high angle boundaries and 37° average misorientation angle) was successfully obtained by performing 14 cycles of the APB process. When the number of APB cycles increased the tensile strength of Al/ZnO nanocomposite improved and reached 228 MPa after 14 cycles, which was 2.6 and 1.3 times greater than the obtained values for annealed (raw material, 88 MPa) and monolithic aluminum (180 MPa), respectively.
Variable field-to-normal angles in the shock foreshock boundary observed by ISEE 1 and 2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Greenstadt, E.W.; Mellot, M.M.
1985-01-01
Saturated ULF waves in the foreshock, with amplitudes comparable to the magnitude of the average field, are convected by the solar wind to the quasi-parallel shock where the average field-normal angle is less than, or about, 45 0 . Several examples from ISEE 1 and 2 magnetometer data show waves that defined local, instantaneous field-normal angles very different periodically from the average. Local geometric conditions at the nominally quasi-parallel shock varied from nearly parallel to nearly perpendicular, at the periods of typical upstream waves. Clear magnetic shock transitions occurred under temporarily quasi-perpendicular geometry
Macroscopic theory of superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carr, W.J. Jr.
1981-01-01
A macroscopic theory for bulk superconductors is developed in the framework of the theory for other magnetic materials, where ''magnetization'' current is separated from ''free'' current on the basis of scale. This contrasts with the usual separation into equilibrium and nonequilibrium currents. In the present approach magnetization, on a large macroscopic scale, results from the vortex current, while the Meissner current and other surface currents are surface contributions to the Maxwell j. The results are important for the development of thermodynamics in type-II superconductors. The advantage of the description developed here is that magnetization becomes a local concept and its associated magnetic field can be given physical meaning
Macroscopic magnetic Self assembly
Löthman, Per Arvid
2018-01-01
Exploring the macroscopic scale's similarities to the microscale is part and parcel of this thesis as reflected in the research question: what can we learn about the microscopic scale by studying the macroscale? Investigations of the environment in which the self-assembly takes place, and the
Superposition and macroscopic observation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cartwright, N.D.
1976-01-01
The principle of superposition has long plagued the quantum mechanics of macroscopic bodies. In at least one well-known situation - that of measurement - quantum mechanics predicts a superposition. It is customary to try to reconcile macroscopic reality and quantum mechanics by reducing the superposition to a mixture. To establish consistency with quantum mechanics, values for the apparatus after a measurement are to be distributed in the way predicted by the superposition. The distributions observed, however, are those of the mixture. The statistical predictions of quantum mechanics, it appears, are not borne out by observation in macroscopic situations. It has been shown that, insofar as specific ergodic hypotheses apply to the apparatus after the interaction, the superposition which evolves is experimentally indistinguishable from the corresponding mixture. In this paper an idealized model of the measuring situation is presented in which this consistency can be demonstrated. It includes a simplified version of the measurement solution proposed by Daneri, Loinger, and Prosperi (1962). The model should make clear the kind of statistical evidence required to carry of this approach, and the role of the ergodic hypotheses assumed. (Auth.)
Nuclear physics: Macroscopic aspects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Swiatecki, W.J.
1993-12-01
A systematic macroscopic, leptodermous approach to nuclear statics and dynamics is described, based formally on the assumptions ℎ → 0 and b/R << 1, where b is the surface diffuseness and R the nuclear radius. The resulting static model of shell-corrected nuclear binding energies and deformabilities is accurate to better than 1 part in a thousand and yields a firm determination of the principal properties of the nuclear fluid. As regards dynamics, the above approach suggests that nuclear shape evolutions will often be dominated by dissipation, but quantitative comparisons with experimental data are more difficult than in the case of statics. In its simplest liquid drop version the model exhibits interesting formal connections to the classic astronomical problem of rotating gravitating masses
Microscopic and macroscopic bell inequalities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Santos, E.
1984-01-01
The Bell inequalities, being derived for micro-systems, cannot be tested by (macroscopic) experiments without additional assumptions. A macroscopic definition of local realism is proposed which might be the starting point for deriving Bell inequalities testable without auxiliary assumptions. (orig.)
Macroscopic nonclassical-state preparation via postselection
Montenegro, Víctor; Coto, Raúl; Eremeev, Vitalie; Orszag, Miguel
2017-11-01
Macroscopic quantum superposition states are fundamental to test the classical-quantum boundary and present suitable candidates for quantum technologies. Although the preparation of such states has already been realized, the existing setups commonly consider external driving and resonant interactions, predominantly by considering Jaynes-Cummings-like and beam-splitter-like interactions, as well as the nonlinear radiation pressure interaction in cavity optomechanics. In contrast to previous works on the matter, we propose a feasible probabilistic scheme to generate a macroscopic mechanical qubit, as well as phononic Schrödinger's cat states with no need of any energy exchange with the macroscopic mechanical oscillator. Essentially, we investigate an open dispersive spin-mechanical system in the absence of any external driving under nonideal conditions, such as the detrimental effects due to the oscillator and spin energy losses in a thermal bath at nonzero temperature. In our work, we show that the procedure to generate the mechanical qubit state is solely based on spin postselection in the weak to moderate coupling regime. Finally, we demonstrate that the mechanical superposition is related to the amplification of the mean values of the mechanical quadratures as they maximize the quantum coherence.
Quantum equilibria for macroscopic systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grib, A; Khrennikov, A; Parfionov, G; Starkov, K
2006-01-01
Nash equilibria are found for some quantum games with particles with spin-1/2 for which two spin projections on different directions in space are measured. Examples of macroscopic games with the same equilibria are given. Mixed strategies for participants of these games are calculated using probability amplitudes according to the rules of quantum mechanics in spite of the macroscopic nature of the game and absence of Planck's constant. A possible role of quantum logical lattices for the existence of macroscopic quantum equilibria is discussed. Some examples for spin-1 cases are also considered
Quantum equilibria for macroscopic systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Grib, A [Department of Theoretical Physics and Astronomy, Russian State Pedagogical University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Khrennikov, A [Centre for Mathematical Modelling in Physics and Cognitive Sciences Vaexjoe University (Sweden); Parfionov, G [Department of Mathematics, St. Petersburg State University of Economics and Finances (Russian Federation); Starkov, K [Department of Mathematics, St. Petersburg State University of Economics and Finances (Russian Federation)
2006-06-30
Nash equilibria are found for some quantum games with particles with spin-1/2 for which two spin projections on different directions in space are measured. Examples of macroscopic games with the same equilibria are given. Mixed strategies for participants of these games are calculated using probability amplitudes according to the rules of quantum mechanics in spite of the macroscopic nature of the game and absence of Planck's constant. A possible role of quantum logical lattices for the existence of macroscopic quantum equilibria is discussed. Some examples for spin-1 cases are also considered.
Macroscopic Fundamental Diagram for pedestrian networks : Theory and applications
Hoogendoorn, S.P.; Daamen, W.; Knoop, V.L.; Steenbakkers, Jeroen; Sarvi, Majid
2017-01-01
The Macroscopic Fundamental diagram (MFD) has proven to be a powerful concept in understanding and managing vehicular network dynamics, both from a theoretical angle and from a more application-oriented perspective. In this contribution, we explore the existence and the characteristics of the
Restrepo, Oscar A.; Mousseau, Normand; Trochet, Mickaël; El-Mellouhi, Fedwa; Bouhali, Othmane; Becquart, Charlotte S.
2018-02-01
Carbon diffusion and segregation in iron is fundamental to steel production but is also associated with corrosion. Using the kinetic activation-relaxation technique (k-ART), a kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) algorithm with an on-the-fly catalog that allows to obtain diffusion properties over large time scales taking into account long-range elastic effects coupled with an EAM force field, we study the motion of a carbon impurity in four Fe systems with high-angle grain boundaries (GB), focusing on the impact of these extended defects on the long-time diffusion of C. Short and long-time stability of the various GBs is first analyzed, which allows us to conclude that the Σ 3 (1 1 1 ) θ =109 .53∘ GB is unstable, with Fe migration barriers of ˜0.1 eV or less, and C acts as a pinning center. Focusing on three stable GBs, in all cases, these extended defects trap C in energy states lower than found in the crystal. Yet, contrary to general understanding, we show, through simulations extending to 0.1 s, that even tough C diffusion takes place predominantly in the GB, it is not necessarily faster than in the bulk and can even be slower by one to two orders of magnitude depending on the GB type. Analysis of the energy landscape provided by k-ART also shows that the free cavity volume around the impurity is not a strong predictor of diffusion barrier height. Overall, results show rather complex diffusion kinetics intimately dependent on the local environment.
Superconductivity and macroscopic quantum phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rogovin, D.; Scully, M.
1976-01-01
It is often asserted that superconducting systems are manifestations of quantum mechanics on a macroscopic scale. In this review article it is demonstrated that this quantum assertion is true within the framework of the microscopic theory of superconductivity. (Auth.)
Macroscopic constraints on string unification
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Taylor, T.R.
1989-03-01
The comparison of sting theory with experiment requires a huge extrapolation from the microscopic distances, of order of the Planck length, up to the macroscopic laboratory distances. The quantum effects give rise to large corrections to the macroscopic predictions of sting unification. I discus the model-independent constraints on the gravitational sector of string theory due to the inevitable existence of universal Fradkin-Tseytlin dilatons. 9 refs
Interpretation of macroscopic quantum phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baumann, K.
1986-01-01
It is argued that a quantum theory without observer is required for the interpretation of macroscopic quantum tunnelling. Such a theory is obtained by augmenting QED by the actual electric field in the rest system of the universe. An equation of the motion of this field is formulated form which the correct macroscopic behavior of the universe and the validity of the Born interpretation is derived. Care is taken to use mathematically sound concepts only. (Author)
Large Tc depression at low angle [100] tilt grain boundaries in bulk Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ bicrystals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, Q.; Tsay, Y.N.; Zhu, Y.; Suenaga, M.; Gu, G.D.; Koshizuka, N.
1997-01-01
Large depression of T c at 7 degree [100] tilt grain boundaries was observed in bulk Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8+δ (Bi2212) bicrystals by measuring the zero-field electrical transport properties of the grain boundaries and the constituent single crystals over an extended range of currents and voltages. The T c -depressed region was determined to be around 20 nm, comparable to the width of the strain field associated with the observed array of grain-boundary dislocations. Superconducting coupling of the grain boundaries increases sharply as temperature decreases below the grain-boundary T c congruent 68 K. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics
Macroscopic effects of the quantum trace anomaly
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mottola, Emil; Vaulin, Ruslan
2006-01-01
The low energy effective action of gravity in any even dimension generally acquires nonlocal terms associated with the trace anomaly, generated by the quantum fluctuations of massless fields. The local auxiliary field description of this effective action in four dimensions requires two additional scalar fields, not contained in classical general relativity, which remain relevant at macroscopic distance scales. The auxiliary scalar fields depend upon boundary conditions for their complete specification, and therefore carry global information about the geometry and macroscopic quantum state of the gravitational field. The scalar potentials also provide coordinate invariant order parameters describing the conformal behavior and divergences of the stress tensor on event horizons. We compute the stress tensor due to the anomaly in terms of its auxiliary scalar potentials in a number of concrete examples, including the Rindler wedge, the Schwarzschild geometry, and de Sitter spacetime. In all of these cases, a small number of classical order parameters completely determine the divergent behaviors allowed on the horizon, and yield qualitatively correct global approximations to the renormalized expectation value of the quantum stress tensor
Macroscopic balance model for wave rotors
Welch, Gerard E.
1996-01-01
A mathematical model for multi-port wave rotors is described. The wave processes that effect energy exchange within the rotor passage are modeled using one-dimensional gas dynamics. Macroscopic mass and energy balances relate volume-averaged thermodynamic properties in the rotor passage control volume to the mass, momentum, and energy fluxes at the ports. Loss models account for entropy production in boundary layers and in separating flows caused by blade-blockage, incidence, and gradual opening and closing of rotor passages. The mathematical model provides a basis for predicting design-point wave rotor performance, port timing, and machine size. Model predictions are evaluated through comparisons with CFD calculations and three-port wave rotor experimental data. A four-port wave rotor design example is provided to demonstrate model applicability. The modeling approach is amenable to wave rotor optimization studies and rapid assessment of the trade-offs associated with integrating wave rotors into gas turbine engine systems.
Macroscopic models for traffic safety.
Oppe, S.
1988-01-01
Recently there has been an increased interest in the application of macroscopic models for the description of developments in traffic safety. A discussion was started on the causes of the sudden decrease in the number of fatal and injury accidents after 1974. Before that time these numbers had
Lu, L.; McKenna-Lawlor, S.; Barabash, S.; Liu, Z.; Balaz, J.; Brinkfeldt, K.; Strhansky, I.; Shen, C.; Shi, J.; Cao, J.; Pu, Z.; Fu, S.; Gunell, H.; Kudela, K.; Roelof, E. C.; Brandt, P. C.; Dandouras, I.; Zhang, T.; Carr, C.; Fazakerley, A.
2005-12-01
During the first on orbit commission, with the deflection high voltage zero, the NUADU (NeUtral Atom Detector Unit) instrument aboard TC-2, with its high temporal-spatial resolution recorded 4d solid angle images of energetic particles spiraling around the geomagnetic field lines with different configuration at high northern magnetic latitude L>10. The ambient magnetic field and particles in different energy spectrum were simultaneously measured by the magnetometer experiment (FGM), the plasma electron and current experiment (PEACE), the low energy ion detector (LEID), and the high energy electron detector (HEED). The up-flowing electron beams made the pitch angle distribution (PAD) ring like configuration, and even concentrated toward the field lines to form a dumbbell-type PAD. In integration of the variations of ambient magnetic field and particles in different energy spectrums, a temporal string magnetic bottle model was proposed which might be formed by the disturbance of the magnetic pulse. Changes in the particle pitch angle diffusion may be associated with electron acceleration along the geomagnetic field lines.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
L. Lu
2005-11-01
Full Text Available The NUADU (NeUtral Atom Detector Unit experiment aboard TC-2 recorded, with high temporal and spatial resolution, 4π solid angle images of electrons (~50-125 keV spiraling around geomagnetic field lines at high northern magnetic latitudes (L>10, during its in-orbit commissioning phase (September 2004. The ambient magnetic field, as well as electrons in other energy ranges, were simultaneously measured by the TC-2 magnetometer (FGM, the plasma electron and current experiment (PEACE, the low energy ion detector (LEID and the high energy electron detector (HEED. The NUADU data showed that up-flowing electron beams could form "ring-like" and "dumbbell-type" pitch angle distributions (PADs in the region sampled. Changes in these pitch angle distributions due to transient magnetic variations are suggested to have been associated with electron acceleration along the geomagnetic field lines. A nested magnetic bottle configuration that formed due to the propagation towards the Earth of a magnetic pulse, is proposed to have been associated with this process.
Macroscopic realism and quantum measurement: measurers as a natural kind
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jaeger, Gregg
2014-01-01
The notion of macroscopic realism has been used in attempts to achieve consistency between physics and everyday experience and to locate some boundary between the realms of classical mechanics and quantum meachanics. Its ostensibly underlying conceptual components, realism and macroscopicity, have most often appeared in the foundations of physics in relation to quantum measurement: reality became a prominent topic of discussion in quantum physics after the notion of element of reality was defined and used by Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen in that context, and macroscopicity is often explicitly assumed to be an essential property of any measuring apparatus. However, macroscopicity turns out to be a rather vaguer and less consistently understood notion than typically assumed by physicists who have not explicitly explored the notion themselves. For this reason, it behooves those investigating the foundations of quantum mechanics from a realist perspective to look for alternative notions for grounding quantum measurement. Here, the merits of treating the measuring instrument as a ‘natural kind’ as a means of avoiding anthropocentrism in the foundations of quantum measurement are pointed out as a means of advancing quantum measurement theory. (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Merkle, K.L.; Huang, Y.
1998-01-01
The electric transport of high-temperature superconductors, such as YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x (YBCO), can be strongly restricted by the presence of high-angle grain boundaries (GB). This weak-link behavior is governed by the macroscopic GB geometry and the microscopic grain boundary structure and composition at the atomic level. Whereas grain boundaries present a considerable impediment to high current applications of high T c materials, there is considerable commercial interest in exploiting the weak-link-nature of grain boundaries for the design of microelectronic devices, such as superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs). The Josephson junctions which form the basis of this technology can also be formed by introducing artificial barriers into the superconductor. The authors have examined both types of Josephson junctions by EM techniques in an effort to understand the connection between microstructure/chemistry and electrical transport properties. This knowledge is a valuable resource for the design and production of improved devices
Miller, J
1991-03-01
When subjects must respond to a relevant center letter and ignore irrelevant flanking letters, the identities of the flankers produce a response compatibility effect, indicating that they are processed semantically at least to some extent. Because this effect decreases as the separation between target and flankers increases, the effect appears to result from imperfect early selection (attenuation). In the present experiments, several features of the focused attention paradigm were examined, in order to determine whether they might produce the flanker compatibility effect by interfering with the operation of an early selective mechanism. Specifically, the effect might be produced because the paradigm requires subjects to (1) attend exclusively to stimuli within a very small visual angle, (2) maintain a long-term attentional focus on a constant display location, (3) focus attention on an empty display location, (4) exclude onset-transient flankers from semantic processing, or (5) ignore some of the few stimuli in an impoverished visual field. The results indicate that none of these task features is required for semantic processing of unattended stimuli to occur. In fact, visual angle is the only one of the task features that clearly has a strong influence on the size of the flanker compatibility effect. The invariance of the flanker compatibility effect across these conditions suggests that the mechanism for early selection rarely, if ever, completely excludes unattended stimuli from semantic analysis. In addition, it shows that selective mechanisms are relatively insensitive to several factors that might be expected to influence them, thereby supporting the view that spatial separation has a special status for visual selective attention.
Seismic scanning tunneling macroscope - Theory
Schuster, Gerard T.
2012-09-01
We propose a seismic scanning tunneling macroscope (SSTM) that can detect the presence of sub-wavelength scatterers in the near-field of either the source or the receivers. Analytic formulas for the time reverse mirror (TRM) profile associated with a single scatterer model show that the spatial resolution limit to be, unlike the Abbe limit of λ/2, independent of wavelength and linearly proportional to the source-scatterer separation as long as the point scatterer is in the near-field region; if the sub-wavelength scatterer is a spherical impedance discontinuity then the resolution will also be limited by the radius of the sphere. Therefore, superresolution imaging can be achieved as the scatterer approaches the source. This is analogous to an optical scanning tunneling microscope that has sub-wavelength resolution. Scaled to seismic frequencies, it is theoretically possible to extract 100 Hz information from 20 Hz data by imaging of near-field seismic energy.
Seismic scanning tunneling macroscope - Theory
Schuster, Gerard T.; Hanafy, Sherif M.; Huang, Yunsong
2012-01-01
We propose a seismic scanning tunneling macroscope (SSTM) that can detect the presence of sub-wavelength scatterers in the near-field of either the source or the receivers. Analytic formulas for the time reverse mirror (TRM) profile associated with a single scatterer model show that the spatial resolution limit to be, unlike the Abbe limit of λ/2, independent of wavelength and linearly proportional to the source-scatterer separation as long as the point scatterer is in the near-field region; if the sub-wavelength scatterer is a spherical impedance discontinuity then the resolution will also be limited by the radius of the sphere. Therefore, superresolution imaging can be achieved as the scatterer approaches the source. This is analogous to an optical scanning tunneling microscope that has sub-wavelength resolution. Scaled to seismic frequencies, it is theoretically possible to extract 100 Hz information from 20 Hz data by imaging of near-field seismic energy.
Slip patterns and preferred dislocation boundary planes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Winther, G.
2003-01-01
The planes of deformation induced extended planar dislocation boundaries are analysed in two different co-ordinate systems, namely the macroscopic system defined by the deformation axes and the crystallographic system given by the crystallographic lattice. The analysis covers single and polycryst......The planes of deformation induced extended planar dislocation boundaries are analysed in two different co-ordinate systems, namely the macroscopic system defined by the deformation axes and the crystallographic system given by the crystallographic lattice. The analysis covers single...... and polycrystals of fcc metals in three deformation modes (rolling, tension and torsion). In the macroscopic system, boundaries lie close to the macroscopically most stressed planes. In the crystallographic system, the boundary plane depends on the grain/crystal orientation. The boundary planes in both co......-ordinate systems are rationalised based on the slip. The more the slip is concentrated on a slip plane, the closer the boundaries lie to this. The macroscopic preference arises from the macroscopic directionality of the slip. The established relations are applied to (a) prediction of boundary planes from slip...
The Two-Time Interpretation and Macroscopic Time-Reversibility
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yakir Aharonov
2017-03-01
Full Text Available The two-state vector formalism motivates a time-symmetric interpretation of quantum mechanics that entails a resolution of the measurement problem. We revisit a post-selection-assisted collapse model previously suggested by us, claiming that unlike the thermodynamic arrow of time, it can lead to reversible dynamics at the macroscopic level. In addition, the proposed scheme enables us to characterize the classical-quantum boundary. We discuss the limitations of this approach and its broad implications for other areas of physics.
Rank distributions: A panoramic macroscopic outlook
Eliazar, Iddo I.; Cohen, Morrel H.
2014-01-01
This paper presents a panoramic macroscopic outlook of rank distributions. We establish a general framework for the analysis of rank distributions, which classifies them into five macroscopic "socioeconomic" states: monarchy, oligarchy-feudalism, criticality, socialism-capitalism, and communism. Oligarchy-feudalism is shown to be characterized by discrete macroscopic rank distributions, and socialism-capitalism is shown to be characterized by continuous macroscopic size distributions. Criticality is a transition state between oligarchy-feudalism and socialism-capitalism, which can manifest allometric scaling with multifractal spectra. Monarchy and communism are extreme forms of oligarchy-feudalism and socialism-capitalism, respectively, in which the intrinsic randomness vanishes. The general framework is applied to three different models of rank distributions—top-down, bottom-up, and global—and unveils each model's macroscopic universality and versatility. The global model yields a macroscopic classification of the generalized Zipf law, an omnipresent form of rank distributions observed across the sciences. An amalgamation of the three models establishes a universal rank-distribution explanation for the macroscopic emergence of a prevalent class of continuous size distributions, ones governed by unimodal densities with both Pareto and inverse-Pareto power-law tails.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marklund, T.
1978-01-01
The most commonly used methods of assessing the scoliotic deviation measure angles that are not clearly defined in relation to the anatomy of the patient. In order to give an anatomic basis for such measurements it is proposed to define the scoliotic deviation as the deviation the vertebral column makes with the sagittal plane. Both the Cobb and the Ferguson angles may be based on this definition. The present methods of measurement are then attempts to measure these angles. If the plane of these angles is parallel to the film, the measurement will be correct. Errors in the measurements may be incurred by the projection. A hypothetical projection, called a 'rectified orthogonal projection', is presented, which correctly represents all scoliotic angles in accordance with these principles. It can be constructed in practice with the aid of a computer and by performing measurements on two projections of the vertebral column; a scoliotic curve can be represented independent of the kyphosis and lordosis. (Auth.)
Macroscopic transport by synthetic molecular machines
Berna, J; Leigh, DA; Lubomska, M; Mendoza, SM; Perez, EM; Rudolf, P; Teobaldi, G; Zerbetto, F
Nature uses molecular motors and machines in virtually every significant biological process, but demonstrating that simpler artificial structures operating through the same gross mechanisms can be interfaced with - and perform physical tasks in - the macroscopic world represents a significant hurdle
Macroscopic quantum waves in non local theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ventura, I.
1979-01-01
By means of an expansion in the density, it is shown that Macroscopic Quantum Waves also apear in non local theories. This result reinforces the conjecture that these waves should exist in liquid 4 He. (Author) [pt
Macroscopic quantum waves in non local theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ventura, I.
1979-01-01
By means of an expansion in the density, it is shown that Macroscopic Quantum Waves also appear in non local theories. This result reinforces the conjecture that these waves should exist in liquid 4 He [pt
Assessments of macroscopicity for quantum optical states
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Laghaout, Amine; Neergaard-Nielsen, Jonas Schou; Andersen, Ulrik Lund
2015-01-01
With the slow but constant progress in the coherent control of quantum systems, it is now possible to create large quantum superpositions. There has therefore been an increased interest in quantifying any claims of macroscopicity. We attempt here to motivate three criteria which we believe should...... enter in the assessment of macroscopic quantumness: The number of quantum fluctuation photons, the purity of the states, and the ease with which the branches making up the state can be distinguished. © 2014....
Nuclear fission as a macroscopic quantum tunneling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takigawa, N.
1995-01-01
We discuss nuclear fission from the point of view of a macroscopic quantum tunneling, one of whose major interests is to study the effects of environments on the tunneling rate of a macroscopic variable. We show that a vibrational excitation of the fissioning nucleus significantly enhances the fission rate. We show this effect by two different methods. The one is to treat the vibrational excitation as an environmental degree of freedom, the other treats the fission as a two dimensional quantum tunneling. (author)
Macroscopic averages in Qed in material media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dutra, S.M.; Furuya, K.
1997-01-01
The starting point of macroscopic theories of quantum electrodynamics in material media is usually the classical macroscopic Maxwell equations that are then quantized. Such approach however, is based on the assumption that a macroscopic description is attainable, i.e., it assumes that we can describe the effect of the atoms of material on the field only in terms of a dielectric constant in the regime where the field has to be treated quantum mechanically. The problem we address is whether this assumption is valid at all and if so, under what conditions. We have chosen a simple model, which allows us to start from first principles and determine the validity of these approximations, without simply taking them for granted as in previous papers
Conversion of light into macroscopic helical motion
Iamsaard, Supitchaya; Aßhoff, Sarah J.; Matt, Benjamin; Kudernac, Tibor; Cornelissen, Jeroen J. L. M.; Fletcher, Stephen P.; Katsonis, Nathalie
2014-03-01
A key goal of nanotechnology is the development of artificial machines capable of converting molecular movement into macroscopic work. Although conversion of light into shape changes has been reported and compared to artificial muscles, real applications require work against an external load. Here, we describe the design, synthesis and operation of spring-like materials capable of converting light energy into mechanical work at the macroscopic scale. These versatile materials consist of molecular switches embedded in liquid-crystalline polymer springs. In these springs, molecular movement is converted and amplified into controlled and reversible twisting motions. The springs display complex motion, which includes winding, unwinding and helix inversion, as dictated by their initial shape. Importantly, they can produce work by moving a macroscopic object and mimicking mechanical movements, such as those used by plant tendrils to help the plant access sunlight. These functional materials have potential applications in micromechanical systems, soft robotics and artificial muscles.
Nonequilibrium work relation in a macroscopic system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sughiyama, Yuki; Ohzeki, Masayuki
2013-01-01
We reconsider a well-known relationship between the fluctuation theorem and the second law of thermodynamics by evaluating stochastic evolution of the density field (probability measure valued process). In order to establish a bridge between microscopic and macroscopic behaviors, we must take the thermodynamic limit of a stochastic dynamical system following the standard procedure in statistical mechanics. The thermodynamic path characterizing a dynamical behavior in the macroscopic scale can be formulated as an infimum of the action functional for the stochastic evolution of the density field. In our formulation, the second law of thermodynamics can be derived only by symmetry of the action functional without recourse to the Jarzynski equality. Our formulation leads to a nontrivial nonequilibrium work relation for metastable (quasi-stationary) states, which are peculiar in the macroscopic system. We propose a prescription for computing the free energy for metastable states based on the resultant work relation. (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cherkashin, N.; Kononchuk, O.; Reboh, S.; Hÿtch, M.
2012-01-01
This work presents an experimental and theoretical identification of defects and morphologies of a high-angle near-90° tilt Si (1 ¯ 10)//(001) boundary created by direct wafer bonding. Two samples with different twist misorientations, between the (1 ¯ 10) layer and the (0 0 1) substrate, were studied using conventional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and geometric phase analysis of high-resolution TEM images. The O-lattice theory was used for atom reconstruction of the interface along the [11 ¯ 0] sub //[001] lay direction. It is demonstrated that to preserve covalent bonding across the interface, it should consist of {11 ¯ 1} sub,lay //{1 ¯ 12} lay,sub facets intersected by maximum of six {11 ¯ 1} lay,sub planes with three 90° Shockley dislocations per facet. It is shown that a particular atom reconstruction is needed at transition points from one facet to another. The presence or absence of deviation from exact 90° tilt of the layer with respect to the substrate is shown to be related directly to the undulations of the interface. It is demonstrated that the latter has an influence on the Burgers vector of the dislocations adjusting in-plane twist misorientation. A general model for cubic face-centered materials for an arbitrary 〈1 1 0〉 sub,lay tilt interface is proposed, which predicts the net Burgers vector and the spacing between dislocations necessary to realize transition from the lattice of the substrate (layer) to the layer (substrate).
Cheng, Penghui
2016-07-01
Fuel mixture formation and spray characteristics are crucial for the advancement of Gasoline Compression Ignition (GCI) engine. For investigations of spray characteristics, a high-pressure high-temperature spray chamber with constant volume has been designed, tested and commissioned at CCRC, KAUST. Back light illumination technique has been applied to investigate the macroscopic spray properties of an outwardly opening piezoelec- tric injector. Three parameters including injection pressure, ambient pressure, and ambient temperature have been involved. A total of 18 combinations of experimental conditions were tested under non-reactive conditions. Through qualitative analysis of spray morphology under different operating conditions, an apparent distinction of spray morphology has been noticed. Spray morphology and propagation have shown strong dependencies on ambient pressure and ambient tempera- ture while injection pressure has a negligible effect on spray shape. Increasingly compact and bushier spray patterns were observed in the cases of high ambient pressure due to in- creasing aerodynamic drag force on spray boundary. It should also be noted that ambient temperature plays a fairly important role in fuel evaporation rate. At 200 °C, oscillating and considerably short spray shape was produced. Also, circumferential ring-like vortices and distinctive string-like structures have been identified for the fuel spray exiting this hollow cone injector. It has been observed that high ambient pressure conditions (Pamb = 4 bar and 10.5 bar) are favorable to the vortices generation, which has also been reported in previous literature. The quantitative description of macroscopic spray properties reveals that ambient pres- sure and ambient temperature are found to be the most influential parameters on liquid penetration length. The rise of ambient pressure results in considerably shorter liquid pen- etration length. Ambient temperature also appears to be a very effective
A Review on Macroscopic Pedestrian Flow Modelling
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anna Kormanová
2013-12-01
Full Text Available This paper reviews several various approaches to macroscopic pedestrian modelling. It describes hydrodynamic models based on similarity of pedestrian flow with fluids and gases; first-order flow models that use fundamental diagrams and conservation equation; and a model similar to LWR vehicular traffic model, which allows non-classical shocks. At the end of the paper there is stated a comparison of described models, intended to find appropriate macroscopic model to eventually be a part of a hybrid model. The future work of the author is outlined.
Macroscopic effects in attosecond pulse generation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ruchon, T; Varju, K; Mansten, E; Swoboda, M; L'Huillier, A; Hauri, C P; Lopez-Martens, R
2008-01-01
We examine how the generation and propagation of high-order harmonics in a partly ionized gas medium affect their strength and synchronization. The temporal properties of the resulting attosecond pulses generated in long gas targets can be significantly influenced by macroscopic effects, in particular by the intensity in the medium and the degree of ionization which control the dispersion. Under some conditions, the use of gas targets longer than the absorption length can lead to the generation of compressed attosecond pulses. We show these macroscopic effects experimentally, using a 6 mm-long argon-filled gas cell as the generating medium
Macroscopic effects in attosecond pulse generation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ruchon, T; Varju, K; Mansten, E; Swoboda, M; L' Huillier, A [Department of Physics, Lund University, PO Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Hauri, C P; Lopez-Martens, R [Laboratoire d' Optique Appliquee, Ecole Nationale Superieure des Techniques Avancees (ENSTA)-Ecole Polytechnique CNRS UMR 7639, 91761 Palaiseau (France)], E-mail: anne.lhuillier@fysik.lth.se
2008-02-15
We examine how the generation and propagation of high-order harmonics in a partly ionized gas medium affect their strength and synchronization. The temporal properties of the resulting attosecond pulses generated in long gas targets can be significantly influenced by macroscopic effects, in particular by the intensity in the medium and the degree of ionization which control the dispersion. Under some conditions, the use of gas targets longer than the absorption length can lead to the generation of compressed attosecond pulses. We show these macroscopic effects experimentally, using a 6 mm-long argon-filled gas cell as the generating medium.
Catalytic Growth of Macroscopic Carbon Nanofibers Bodies with Activated Carbon
Abdullah, N.; Rinaldi, A.; Muhammad, I. S.; Hamid, S. B. Abd.; Su, D. S.; Schlogl, R.
2009-06-01
Carbon-carbon composite of activated carbon and carbon nanofibers have been synthesized by growing Carbon nanofiber (CNF) on Palm shell-based Activated carbon (AC) with Ni catalyst. The composites are in an agglomerated shape due to the entanglement of the defective CNF between the AC particles forming a macroscopic body. The macroscopic size will allow the composite to be used as a stabile catalyst support and liquid adsorbent. The preparation of CNT/AC nanocarbon was initiated by pre-treating the activated carbon with nitric acid, followed by impregnation of 1 wt% loading of nickel (II) nitrate solutions in acetone. The catalyst precursor was calcined and reduced at 300° C for an hour in each step. The catalytic growth of nanocarbon in C2H4/H2 was carried out at temperature of 550° C for 2 hrs with different rotating angle in the fluidization system. SEM and N2 isotherms show the level of agglomeration which is a function of growth density and fluidization of the system. The effect of fluidization by rotating the reactor during growth with different speed give a significant impact on the agglomeration of the final CNF/AC composite and thus the amount of CNFs produced. The macrostructure body produced in this work of CNF/AC composite will have advantages in the adsorbent and catalyst support application, due to the mechanical and chemical properties of the material.
Estimating minimum polycrystalline aggregate size for macroscopic material homogeneity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kovac, M.; Simonovski, I.; Cizelj, L.
2002-01-01
During severe accidents the pressure boundary of reactor coolant system can be subjected to extreme loadings, which might cause failure. Reliable estimation of the extreme deformations can be crucial to determine the consequences of severe accidents. Important drawback of classical continuum mechanics is idealization of inhomogenous microstructure of materials. Classical continuum mechanics therefore cannot predict accurately the differences between measured responses of specimens, which are different in size but geometrical similar (size effect). A numerical approach, which models elastic-plastic behavior on mesoscopic level, is proposed to estimate minimum size of polycrystalline aggregate above which it can be considered macroscopically homogeneous. The main idea is to divide continuum into a set of sub-continua. Analysis of macroscopic element is divided into modeling the random grain structure (using Voronoi tessellation and random orientation of crystal lattice) and calculation of strain/stress field. Finite element method is used to obtain numerical solutions of strain and stress fields. The analysis is limited to 2D models.(author)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Svec, Oldrich; Skoček, Jan
2013-01-01
The ability of the Lattice Boltzmann method, as the fluid dynamics solver, to properly simulate macroscopic Navier’s slip boundary condition is investigated. An approximate equation relating the Lattice Boltzmann variable slip boundary condition with the macroscopic Navier’s slip boundary condition...
Macroscopic optical response and photonic bands
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pérez-Huerta, J S; Luis Mochán, W; Ortiz, Guillermo P; Mendoza, Bernardo S
2013-01-01
We develop a formalism for the calculation of the macroscopic dielectric response of composite systems made of particles of one material embedded periodically within a matrix of another material, each of which is characterized by a well-defined dielectric function. The nature of these dielectric functions is arbitrary, and could correspond to dielectric or conducting, transparent or opaque, absorptive and dispersive materials. The geometry of the particles and the Bravais lattice of the composite are also arbitrary. Our formalism goes beyond the long-wavelength approximation as it fully incorporates retardation effects. We test our formalism through the study of the propagation of electromagnetic waves in two-dimensional photonic crystals made of periodic arrays of cylindrical holes in a dispersionless dielectric host. Our macroscopic theory yields a spatially dispersive macroscopic response which allows the calculation of the full photonic band structure of the system, as well as the characterization of its normal modes, upon substitution into the macroscopic field equations. We can also account approximately for the spatial dispersion through a local magnetic permeability and analyze the resulting dispersion relation, obtaining a region of left handedness. (paper)
Berkeley Experiments on Superfluid Macroscopic Quantum Effects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Packard, Richard
2006-01-01
This paper provides a brief history of the evolution of the Berkeley experiments on macroscopic quantum effects in superfluid helium. The narrative follows the evolution of the experiments proceeding from the detection of single vortex lines to vortex photography to quantized circulation in 3He to Josephson effects and superfluid gyroscopes in both 4He and 3He
Macroscopic sizes of field of superrelativistic charges
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Strel'tsov, V.N.
1995-01-01
Based on the equation of Lienard-Wiechert equipotentials, it is shown that the field of superrelativistic charges reaches macroscopic sizes (e.g., R || = 2 m at E e = 50 GeV). This phenomenon serves an initial cause of the known considerable growth of formation length at high energies. 3 refs., 1 tab
On quantum mechanics for macroscopic systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Primas, H.
1992-01-01
The parable of Schroedinger's cat may lead to several up-to date questions: how to treat open systems in quantum theory, how to treat thermodynamically irreversible processes in the quantum mechanics framework, how to explain, following the quantum theory, the existence, phenomenologically evident, of classical observables, what implies the predicted existence by the quantum theory of non localized macroscopic material object ?
Deformation induced dislocation boundaries: Alignment and effect on mechanical properties
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Winther, G.; Juul Jensen, D.
1997-01-01
The dislocation boundaries formed during cold-rolling of FCC metals have been reported to have a preferred macroscopic direction with respect to the sample axes. However, boundaries have also been reported to form on crystallographic slip planes. The directions of the boundaries formed on crystal...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kung, H.; Sass, S.L.
1992-01-01
This paper discusses the dislocation structure of small angle tilt and twist boundaries in ordered Ni 3 Al, with and without boron, investigated using transmission electron microscopy. Dislocation with Burgers vectors that correspond to anti-phase boundary (APB)-coupled superpartials were found in small angle twist boundaries in both boron-free and boron-doped Ni 3 Al, and a small angle tilt boundary in boron-doped Ni 3 Al. The boundary structures are in agreement with theoretical models proposed by Marcinkowski and co-workers. The APB energy determined from the dissociation of the grain boundary dislocations was lower than values reported for isolated APBs in Ni 3 Al. For small angle twist boundaries the presence of boron reduced the APB energy at the interface until it approached zero. This is consistent with the structure of these boundaries containing small regions of increased compositional disorder in the first atomic plane next to the interface
Macroscopic and non-linear quantum games
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aerts, D.; D'Hooghe, A.; Posiewnik, A.; Pykacz, J.
2005-01-01
Full text: We consider two models of quantum games. The first one is Marinatto and Weber's 'restricted' quantum game in which only the identity and the spin-flip operators are used. We show that this quantum game allows macroscopic mechanistic realization with the use of a version of the 'macroscopic quantum machine' described by Aerts already in 1980s. In the second model we use non-linear quantum state transformations which operate on points of spin-1/2 on the Bloch sphere and which can be used to distinguish optimally between two non-orthogonal states. We show that efficiency of these non-linear strategies out-perform any linear ones. Some hints on the possible theory of non-linear quantum games are given. (author)
Bimodality in macroscopic dynamics of nuclear fission
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bastrukov, S.I.; Salamatin, V.S.; Strteltsova, O.I.; Molodtsova, I.V.; Podgainy, D.V.; )
2000-01-01
The elastodynamic collective model of nuclear fission is outlined whose underlying idea is that the stiff structure of nuclear shells imparts to nucleus properties typical of a small piece of an elastic solid. Emphasis is placed on the macroscopic dynamics of nuclear deformations resulting in fission by two energetically different modes. The low-energy S-mode is the fission due to disruption of elongated quadrupole spheroidal shape. The characteristic features of the high-energy T-mode of division by means of torsional shear deformations is the compact scission configuration. Analytic and numerical estimates for the macroscopic fission-barrier heights are presented, followed by discussion of fingerprints of the above dynamical bimodality in the available data [ru
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Aixia; Xue Jukui
2012-01-01
We propose a scheme to reveal the interplay between dipole–dipole interaction (DDI), inter-level coupling and macroscopic phase transitions in dipolar condensates. By considering a macroscopic sample of dipolar bosons in triple-well potentials, DDI-induced coupling between the inter-level physics and the macroscopic phase transitions is presented. When the DDI exceeds certain thresholds, the degeneracy of the two lowest energy levels and the excitation of new eigenstates occur, respectively. Interestingly, these thresholds give the boundaries of various quantum phase transitions. That is, the quantum phase transitions are the consequence of the levels' degeneracy and the new eigenstates' excitation. Furthermore, DDI-induced long-range macroscopic Josephson oscillations are observed and long-range coherent quantum transportation is achieved. Our results give clear proof of the interplay between the multi-level physics and quantum phase transitions, and also provide a way for designing the long-range coherent quantum transportation. (paper)
Macroscopic Quantum Resonators (MAQRO): 2015 update
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaltenbaek, Rainer; Aspelmeyer, Markus; Kiesel, Nikolai; Barker, Peter F.; Bose, Sougato; Bassi, Angelo; Bateman, James; Bongs, Kai; Cruise, Adrian Michael; Braxmaier, Claus; Brukner, Caslav; Christophe, Bruno; Rodrigues, Manuel; Chwalla, Michael; Johann, Ulrich; Cohadon, Pierre-Francois; Heidmann, Antoine; Lambrecht, Astrid; Reynaud, Serge; Curceanu, Catalina; Dholakia, Kishan; Mazilu, Michael; Diosi, Lajos; Doeringshoff, Klaus; Peters, Achim; Ertmer, Wolfgang; Rasel, Ernst M.; Gieseler, Jan; Novotny, Lukas; Rondin, Loic; Guerlebeck, Norman; Herrmann, Sven; Laemmerzahl, Claus; Hechenblaikner, Gerald; Hossenfelder, Sabine; Kim, Myungshik; Milburn, Gerard J.; Mueller, Holger; Paternostro, Mauro; Pikovski, Igor; Pilan Zanoni, Andre; Riedel, Charles Jess; Roura, Albert; Schleich, Wolfgang P.; Schmiedmayer, Joerg; Schuldt, Thilo; Schwab, Keith C.; Tajmar, Martin; Tino, Guglielmo M.; Ulbricht, Hendrik; Ursin, Rupert; Vedral, Vlatko
2016-01-01
Do the laws of quantum physics still hold for macroscopic objects - this is at the heart of Schroedinger's cat paradox - or do gravitation or yet unknown effects set a limit for massive particles? What is the fundamental relation between quantum physics and gravity? Ground-based experiments addressing these questions may soon face limitations due to limited free-fall times and the quality of vacuum and microgravity. The proposed mission Macroscopic Quantum Resonators (MAQRO) may overcome these limitations and allow addressing such fundamental questions. MAQRO harnesses recent developments in quantum optomechanics, high-mass matter-wave interferometry as well as state-of-the-art space technology to push macroscopic quantum experiments towards their ultimate performance limits and to open new horizons for applying quantum technology in space. The main scientific goal is to probe the vastly unexplored 'quantum-classical' transition for increasingly massive objects, testing the predictions of quantum theory for objects in a size and mass regime unachievable in ground-based experiments. The hardware will largely be based on available space technology. Here, we present the MAQRO proposal submitted in response to the 4th Cosmic Vision call for a medium-sized mission (M4) in 2014 of the European Space Agency (ESA) with a possible launch in 2025, and we review the progress with respect to the original MAQRO proposal for the 3rd Cosmic Vision call for a medium-sized mission (M3) in 2010. In particular, the updated proposal overcomes several critical issues of the original proposal by relying on established experimental techniques from high-mass matter-wave interferometry and by introducing novel ideas for particle loading and manipulation. Moreover, the mission design was improved to better fulfill the stringent environmental requirements for macroscopic quantum experiments. (orig.)
Macroscopic Quantum Resonators (MAQRO): 2015 update
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kaltenbaek, Rainer [University of Vienna, Vienna Center for Quantum Science and Technology, Vienna (Austria); Aspelmeyer, Markus; Kiesel, Nikolai [University of Vienna, Vienna Center for Quantum Science and Technology, Vienna (Austria); Barker, Peter F.; Bose, Sougato [University College London, Department of Physics and Astronomy, London (United Kingdom); Bassi, Angelo [University of Trieste, Department of Physics, Trieste (Italy); INFN - Trieste Section, Trieste (Italy); Bateman, James [University of Swansea, Department of Physics, College of Science, Swansea (United Kingdom); Bongs, Kai; Cruise, Adrian Michael [University of Birmingham, School of Physics and Astronomy, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Braxmaier, Claus [University of Bremen, Center of Applied Space Technology and Micro Gravity (ZARM), Bremen (Germany); Institute of Space Systems, German Aerospace Center (DLR), Bremen (Germany); Brukner, Caslav [University of Vienna, Vienna Center for Quantum Science and Technology, Vienna (Austria); Austrian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Quantum Optics and Quantum Information (IQOQI), Vienna (Austria); Christophe, Bruno; Rodrigues, Manuel [The French Aerospace Lab, ONERA, Chatillon (France); Chwalla, Michael; Johann, Ulrich [Airbus Defence and Space GmbH, Immenstaad (Germany); Cohadon, Pierre-Francois; Heidmann, Antoine; Lambrecht, Astrid; Reynaud, Serge [ENS-PSL Research University, Laboratoire Kastler Brossel, UPMC-Sorbonne Universites, CNRS, College de France, Paris (France); Curceanu, Catalina [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); Dholakia, Kishan; Mazilu, Michael [University of St. Andrews, School of Physics and Astronomy, St. Andrews (United Kingdom); Diosi, Lajos [Wigner Research Center for Physics, P.O. Box 49, Budapest (Hungary); Doeringshoff, Klaus; Peters, Achim [Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Institut fuer Physik, Berlin (Germany); Ertmer, Wolfgang; Rasel, Ernst M. [Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Hannover (Germany); Gieseler, Jan; Novotny, Lukas; Rondin, Loic [ETH Zuerich, Photonics Laboratory, Zuerich (Switzerland); Guerlebeck, Norman; Herrmann, Sven; Laemmerzahl, Claus [University of Bremen, Center of Applied Space Technology and Micro Gravity (ZARM), Bremen (Germany); Hechenblaikner, Gerald [Airbus Defence and Space GmbH, Immenstaad (Germany); European Southern Observatory (ESO), Garching bei Muenchen (Germany); Hossenfelder, Sabine [KTH Royal Institute of Technology and Stockholm University, Nordita, Stockholm (Sweden); Kim, Myungshik [Imperial College London, QOLS, Blackett Laboratory, London (United Kingdom); Milburn, Gerard J. [University of Queensland, ARC Centre for Engineered Quantum Systems, Brisbane (Australia); Mueller, Holger [University of California, Department of Physics, Berkeley, CA (United States); Paternostro, Mauro [Queen' s University, Centre for Theoretical Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics, School of Mathematics and Physics, Belfast (United Kingdom); Pikovski, Igor [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, ITAMP, Cambridge, MA (United States); Pilan Zanoni, Andre [Airbus Defence and Space GmbH, Immenstaad (Germany); CERN - European Organization for Nuclear Research, EN-STI-TCD, Geneva (Switzerland); Riedel, Charles Jess [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, ON (Canada); Roura, Albert [Universitaet Ulm, Institut fuer Quantenphysik, Ulm (Germany); Schleich, Wolfgang P. [Universitaet Ulm, Institut fuer Quantenphysik, Ulm (Germany); Texas A and M University Institute for Advanced Study (TIAS), Institute for Quantum Science and Engineering (IQSE), and Department of Physics and Astronomy, College Station, TX (United States); Schmiedmayer, Joerg [Vienna University of Technology, Vienna Center for Quantum Science and Technology, Institute of Atomic and Subatomic Physics, Vienna (Austria); Schuldt, Thilo [Institute of Space Systems, German Aerospace Center (DLR), Bremen (Germany); Schwab, Keith C. [California Institute of Technology, Applied Physics, Pasadena, CA (United States); Tajmar, Martin [Technische Universitaet Dresden, Institut fuer Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, Dresden (Germany); Tino, Guglielmo M. [Universita di Firenze, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia and LENS, INFN, Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Ulbricht, Hendrik [University of Southampton, Physics and Astronomy, Southampton (United Kingdom); Ursin, Rupert [Austrian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Quantum Optics and Quantum Information (IQOQI), Vienna (Austria); Vedral, Vlatko [University of Oxford, Atomic and Laser Physics, Clarendon Laboratory, Oxford (United Kingdom); National University of Singapore, Center for Quantum Technologies, Singapore (SG)
2016-12-15
Do the laws of quantum physics still hold for macroscopic objects - this is at the heart of Schroedinger's cat paradox - or do gravitation or yet unknown effects set a limit for massive particles? What is the fundamental relation between quantum physics and gravity? Ground-based experiments addressing these questions may soon face limitations due to limited free-fall times and the quality of vacuum and microgravity. The proposed mission Macroscopic Quantum Resonators (MAQRO) may overcome these limitations and allow addressing such fundamental questions. MAQRO harnesses recent developments in quantum optomechanics, high-mass matter-wave interferometry as well as state-of-the-art space technology to push macroscopic quantum experiments towards their ultimate performance limits and to open new horizons for applying quantum technology in space. The main scientific goal is to probe the vastly unexplored 'quantum-classical' transition for increasingly massive objects, testing the predictions of quantum theory for objects in a size and mass regime unachievable in ground-based experiments. The hardware will largely be based on available space technology. Here, we present the MAQRO proposal submitted in response to the 4th Cosmic Vision call for a medium-sized mission (M4) in 2014 of the European Space Agency (ESA) with a possible launch in 2025, and we review the progress with respect to the original MAQRO proposal for the 3rd Cosmic Vision call for a medium-sized mission (M3) in 2010. In particular, the updated proposal overcomes several critical issues of the original proposal by relying on established experimental techniques from high-mass matter-wave interferometry and by introducing novel ideas for particle loading and manipulation. Moreover, the mission design was improved to better fulfill the stringent environmental requirements for macroscopic quantum experiments. (orig.)
Special relativity - the foundation of macroscopic physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dixon, W.G.
1978-01-01
This book aims to show that an understanding of the basic laws of macroscopic systems can be gained more easily within relativistic physics than within Newtonian physics. The unity of dynamics, thermodynamics and electromagnetism under the umbrella of special relativity is examined under chapter headings entitled: the physics of space and time, affine spaces in mathematics and physics, foundations of dynamics, relativistic simple fluids, and, electrodynamics of polarizable fluids. (U.K.)
Testing quantum behaviour at the macroscopic level
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ghirardi, G.C.
1994-07-01
We reconsider recent proposals to test macro realism versus quantum mechanics in experiments involving noninvasive measurement processes on a Squid. In spite of the fact that we are able to prove that the proposed experiments do not represent a test of macro realism but simply of macroscopic quantum coherence we call attention to their extreme conceptual relevance. We also discuss some recent criticisms which have been raised against the considered proposal and we show that they are not relevant. (author). 12 refs
Microscopic and macroscopic models for pedestrian crowds
Makmul, Juntima
2016-01-01
This thesis is concerned with microscopic and macroscopic models for pedes- trian crowds. In the first chapter, we consider pedestrians exit choices and model human behaviour in an evacuation process. Two microscopic models, discrete and continuous, are studied in this chapter. The former is a cellular automaton model and the latter is a social force model. Different numerical test cases are investigated and their results are compared. In chapter 2, a hierarchy of models for...
Macroscopic acoustoelectric charge transport in graphene
Bandhu, L.; Lawton, L. M.; Nash, G. R.
2013-09-01
We demonstrate macroscopic acoustoelectric transport in graphene, transferred onto piezoelectric lithium niobate substrates, between electrodes up to 500 μm apart. Using double finger interdigital transducers we have characterised the acoustoelectric current as a function of both surface acoustic wave intensity and frequency. The results are consistent with a relatively simple classical relaxation model, in which the acoustoelectric current is proportional to both the surface acoustic wave intensity and the attenuation of the wave caused by the charge transport.
Thermomechanical macroscopic model of shape memory alloys
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Volkov, A.E.; Sakharov, V.Yu.
2003-01-01
The phenomenological macroscopic model of the mechanical behaviour of the titanium nickelide-type shape memory alloys is proposed. The model contains as a parameter the average phase shear deformation accompanying the martensite formation. It makes i possible to describe correctly a number of functional properties of the shape memory alloys, in particular, the pseudoelasticity ferroplasticity, plasticity transformation and shape memory effects in the stressed and unstressed samples [ru
Macroscopic behaviour of a charged Boltzmann gas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Banyai, L.; Gartner, P.; Protopopescu, V.
1980-08-01
We consider a classical charged gas (with self-consistent Coulomb interaction) described by a solvable linearized Boltzman equation with thermaljzation on unifopmly distributed scatterers. It is shown that jf one scales the time t, the reciprocal space coordinate k vector and the Debye length l as lambda 2 t, k vector/lambda, lambda l respectively, in the lambda→infinity limit the charge density is equal to the solution of the corresponding diffusion-conduction (macroscopic) equation. (author)
Active Polar Two-Fluid Macroscopic Dynamics
Pleiner, Harald; Svensek, Daniel; Brand, Helmut R.
2014-03-01
We study the dynamics of systems with a polar dynamic preferred direction. Examples include the pattern-forming growth of bacteria (in a solvent, shoals of fish (moving in water currents), flocks of birds and migrating insects (flying in windy air). Because the preferred direction only exists dynamically, but not statically, the macroscopic variable of choice is the macroscopic velocity associated with the motion of the active units. We derive the macroscopic equations for such a system and discuss novel static, reversible and irreversible cross-couplings connected to this second velocity. We find a normal mode structure quite different compared to the static descriptions, as well as linear couplings between (active) flow and e.g. densities and concentrations due to the genuine two-fluid transport derivatives. On the other hand, we get, quite similar to the static case, a direct linear relation between the stress tensor and the structure tensor. This prominent ``active'' term is responsible for many active effects, meaning that our approach can describe those effects as well. In addition, we also deal with explicitly chiral systems, which are important for many active systems. In particular, we find an active flow-induced heat current specific for the dynamic chiral polar order.
Scanner-based macroscopic color variation estimation
Kuo, Chunghui; Lai, Di; Zeise, Eric
2006-01-01
Flatbed scanners have been adopted successfully in the measurement of microscopic image artifacts, such as granularity and mottle, in print samples because of their capability of providing full color, high resolution images. Accurate macroscopic color measurement relies on the use of colorimeters or spectrophotometers to provide a surrogate for human vision. The very different color response characteristics of flatbed scanners from any standard colorimetric response limits the utility of a flatbed scanner as a macroscopic color measuring device. This metamerism constraint can be significantly relaxed if our objective is mainly to quantify the color variations within a printed page or between pages where a small bias in measured colors can be tolerated as long as the color distributions relative to the individual mean values is similar. Two scenarios when converting color from the device RGB color space to a standardized color space such as CIELab are studied in this paper, blind and semi-blind color transformation, depending on the availability of the black channel information. We will show that both approaches offer satisfactory results in quantifying macroscopic color variation across pages while the semi-blind color transformation further provides fairly accurate color prediction capability.
Determination of crystallographic and macroscopic orientation of planar structures in TEM
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Huang, X.; Liu, Q.
1998-01-01
With the aid of a double-tilt holder in a transmission electron microscope (TEM), simple methods are described for determination of the crystallographic orientation of a planar structure and for calculation of the macroscopic orientation of the planar structure. The correlation between a planar...... structure and a crystallographic plane can be found by comparing the differences in their trace directions on the projection plane and inclination angles with respect to that plane. The angles between the traces of planar structures and the sample axis measured from the TEM micrographs, which have been...
Pathways toward understanding Macroscopic Quantum Phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hu, B L; Subaşi, Y
2013-01-01
Macroscopic quantum phenomena refer to quantum features in objects of 'large' sizes, systems with many components or degrees of freedom, organized in some ways where they can be identified as macroscopic objects. This emerging field is ushered in by several categories of definitive experiments in superconductivity, electromechanical systems, Bose-Einstein condensates and others. Yet this new field which is rich in open issues at the foundation of quantum and statistical physics remains little explored theoretically (with the important exception of the work of A J Leggett [1], while touched upon or implied by several groups of authors represented in this conference. Our attitude differs in that we believe in the full validity of quantum mechanics stretching from the testable micro to meso scales, with no need for the introduction of new laws of physics.) This talk summarizes our thoughts in attempting a systematic investigation into some key foundational issues of quantum macroscopic phenomena, with the goal of ultimately revealing or building a viable theoretical framework. Three major themes discussed in three intended essays are the large N expansion [2], the correlation hierarchy [3] and quantum entanglement [4]. We give a sketch of the first two themes and then discuss several key issues in the consideration of macro and quantum, namely, a) recognition that there exist many levels of structure in a composite body and only by judicious choice of an appropriate set of collective variables can one give the best description of the dynamics of a specific level of structure. Capturing the quantum features of a macroscopic object is greatly facilitated by the existence and functioning of these collective variables; b) quantum entanglement, an exclusively quantum feature [5], is known to persist to high temperatures [6] and large scales [7] under certain conditions, and may actually decrease with increased connectivity in a quantum network [8]. We use entanglement as a
Experimental demonstration of macroscopic quantum coherence in Gaussian states
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Marquardt, C.; Andersen, Ulrik Lund; Leuchs, G.
2007-01-01
We witness experimentally the presence of macroscopic coherence in Gaussian quantum states using a recently proposed criterion [E. G. Cavalcanti and M. D. Reid, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97 170405 (2006)]. The macroscopic coherence stems from interference between macroscopically distinct states in phase...
Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Grain Boundary and Bulk Diffusion in Metals.
Plimpton, Steven James
Diffusion is a microscopic mass transport mechanism that underlies many important macroscopic phenomena affecting the structural, electrical, and mechanical properties of metals. This thesis presents results from atomistic simulation studies of diffusion both in bulk and in the fast diffusion paths known as grain boundaries. Using the principles of molecular dynamics single boundaries are studied and their structure and dynamic properties characterized. In particular, tilt boundary bicrystal and bulk models of fcc Al and bcc alpha-Fe are simulated. Diffusion coefficients and activation energies for atomic motion are calculated for both models and compared to experimental data. The influence of the interatomic pair potential on the diffusion is studied in detail. A universal relation between the melting temperature that a pair potential induces in a simulated bulk model and the potential energy barrier height for atomic hopping is derived and used to correlate results for a wide variety of pair potentials. Using these techniques grain boundary and bulk diffusion coefficients for any fcc material can be estimated from simple static calculations without the need to perform more time-consuming dynamic simulations. The influences of two other factors on grain boundary diffusion are also studied because of the interest of the microelectronics industry in the diffusion related reliability problem known as electromigration. The first factor, known to affect the self diffusion rate of Al, is the presence of Cu impurity atoms in Al tilt boundaries. The bicrystal model for Al is seeded randomly with Cu atoms and a simple hybrid Morse potential used to model the Al-Cu interaction. While some effect due to the Cu is noted, it is concluded that pair potentials are likely an inadequate approximation for the alloy system. The second factor studied is the effect of the boundary orientation angle on the diffusion rate. Symmetric bcc Fe boundaries are relaxed to find optimal
The macroscopic harmonic oscillator and quantum measurements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hayward, R.W.
1982-01-01
A quantum mechanical description of a one-dimensional macroscopic harmonic oscillator interacting with its environment is given. Quasi-coherent states are introduced to serve as convenient basis states for application of a density matrix formalism to characterize the system. Attention is given to the pertinent quantum limits to the precision of measurement of physical observables that may provide some information on the nature of a weak classical force interacting with the oscillator. A number of ''quantum nondemolition'' schemes proposed by various authors are discussed. (Auth.)
Macroscopic quantum tunneling of the magnetic moment
Tejada, J.; Hernandez, J. M.; del Barco, E.
1999-05-01
In this paper we review the work done on magnetic relaxation during the last 10 years on both single-domain particles and magnetic molecules and its contribution to the discovery of quantum tunneling of the magnetic moment (Chudnovsky and Tejada, Macroscopic Quantum tunneling of the Magnetic moment, Cambridge University press, Cambridge, 1998). We present first the theoretical expressions and their connection to quantum relaxation and secondly, we show and discuss the experimental results. Finally, we discuss very recent hysteresis data on Mn 12Ac molecules at extremely large sweeping rate for the external magnetic field which suggest the existence of quantum spin—phonon avalanches.
Compressor Has No Moving Macroscopic Parts
Gasser, Max
1995-01-01
Compressor containing no moving macroscopic parts functions by alternating piston and valve actions of successive beds of magnetic particles. Fabricated easily because no need for precisely fitting parts rotating or sliding on each other. Also no need for lubricant fluid contaminating fluid to be compressed. Compressor operates continuously, eliminating troublesome on/off cycling of other compressors, and decreasing consumption of energy. Phased cells push fluid from bottom to top, adding increments of pressure. Each cell contains magnetic powder particles loose when electromagnet coil deenergized, but tightly packed when coil energized.
Macroscopic reality and the dynamical reduction program
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ghirardi, G.C.
1995-10-01
With reference to recently proposed theoretical models accounting for reduction in terms of a unified dynamics governing all physical processes, we analyze the problem of working out a worldview accommodating our knowledge about natural phenomena. We stress the relevant conceptual differences between the considered models and standard quantum mechanics. In spite of the fact that both theories describe individual physical systems within a genuine Hilbert space framework, the nice features of spontaneous reduction theories drastically limit the class of states which are dynamically stable. This allows one to work out a description of the world in terms of a mass density function in ordinary configuration space. A topology based on this function and differing radically from the one characterizing the Hilbert space is introduced and in terms of it the idea of similarity of macroscopic situations is made precise. Finally it is shown how the formalism and the proposed interpretation yield a natural criterion for establishing the psychophysical parallelism. The conclusion is that, within the considered theoretical models and at the nonrelativistic level, one can satisfy all sensible requirements for a consistent, unified, and objective description of reality at the macroscopic level. (author). 16 refs
Macroscopic description of isoscalar giant multipole resonances
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nix, J.R.; Sierk, A.J.
1980-01-01
On the basis of a simple macroscopic model, we calculate the isoscalar giant-resonance energy as a function of mass number and multipole degree. The restoring force is determined from the distortion of the Fermi surface, and the inertia is determined for the incompressible, irrotational flow of nucleons with unit effective mass. With no adjustable parameters, the resulting closed expression reproduces correctly the available experimental data, namely the magnitude and dependence upon mass number of the giant quadrupole energy and the magnitude of the giant octupole energy for 208 Pb. We also calculate the isoscalar giant-resonance width as a function of mass number and multipole degree for various macroscopic damping mechanisms, including two-body viscosity, one-body dissipation, and modified one-body dissipation. None of these damping mechanisms reproduces correctly all features of the available experimental data, namely the magnitude and dependence upon mass number of the giant quadrupole width and the magnitude of the giant octupole width for 208 Pb
Macroscopic quantum tunneling in Mn12-acetat
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Beiter, J.; Reissner, M.; Hilscher, G.; Steiner, W.; Pajic, D.; Zadro, K.; Bartel, M.; Linert, W.
2004-01-01
Molecules provide the exciting opportunity to study magnetism on the passage from atomic to macroscopic level. One of the most interesting effects in such mesoscopic systems is the appearance of quantum tunnelling of magnetization (MQT) at low temperatures. In the last decade molecular chemistry has had a large impact in this field by providing new single molecule magnets. They consist of small clusters exhibiting superparamagnetic behavior, similar to that of conventional nanomagnetic particles. The advantage of these new materials is that they form macroscopic samples consisting of regularly arranged small identical high-spin clusters which are widely separated by organic molecules. The lack of distributions in size and shape of the magnetic clusters and the very weak intercluster interaction lead in principle to only one barrier for the spin reversal. We present detailed magnetic investigations on a Mn 12 -ac single crystal. In this compound the tetragonal ordered clusters consist of a central tetrahedron of four Mn 4+ (S = 3/2) atoms surrounded by eight Mn 3+ (S = 2) atoms with antiparallel oriented spins, leading to an overall spin moment of S = 10. In the hysteresis loops nine different jumps at regularly spaced fields are identified in the investigated temperature range (1.5 < T < 3 K). At these fields the relaxation of moment due to thermal activation is superimposed by strong quantum tunnelling. In lowering the temperature the time dependence changes from thermally activated to thermally assisted tunnelling. (author)
Measurement contextuality is implied by macroscopic realism
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen Zeqian; Montina, A.
2011-01-01
Ontological theories of quantum mechanics provide a realistic description of single systems by means of well-defined quantities conditioning the measurement outcomes. In order to be complete, they should also fulfill the minimal condition of macroscopic realism. Under the assumption of outcome determinism and for Hilbert space dimension greater than 2, they were all proved to be contextual for projective measurements. In recent years a generalized concept of noncontextuality was introduced that applies also to the case of outcome indeterminism and unsharp measurements. It was pointed out that the Beltrametti-Bugajski model is an example of measurement noncontextual indeterminist theory. Here we provide a simple proof that this model is the only one with such a feature for projective measurements and Hilbert space dimension greater than 2. In other words, there is no extension of quantum theory providing more accurate predictions of outcomes and simultaneously preserving the minimal labeling of events through projective operators. As a corollary, noncontextuality for projective measurements implies noncontextuality for unsharp measurements. By noting that the condition of macroscopic realism requires an extension of quantum theory, unless a breaking of unitarity is invoked, we arrive at the conclusion that the only way to solve the measurement problem in the framework of an ontological theory is by relaxing the hypothesis of measurement noncontextuality in its generalized sense.
Macroscopic reality and the dynamical reduction program
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ghirardi, G C
1995-10-01
With reference to recently proposed theoretical models accounting for reduction in terms of a unified dynamics governing all physical processes, we analyze the problem of working out a worldview accommodating our knowledge about natural phenomena. We stress the relevant conceptual differences between the considered models and standard quantum mechanics. In spite of the fact that both theories describe individual physical systems within a genuine Hilbert space framework, the nice features of spontaneous reduction theories drastically limit the class of states which are dynamically stable. This allows one to work out a description of the world in terms of a mass density function in ordinary configuration space. A topology based on this function and differing radically from the one characterizing the Hilbert space is introduced and in terms of it the idea of similarity of macroscopic situations is made precise. Finally it is shown how the formalism and the proposed interpretation yield a natural criterion for establishing the psychophysical parallelism. The conclusion is that, within the considered theoretical models and at the nonrelativistic level, one can satisfy all sensible requirements for a consistent, unified, and objective description of reality at the macroscopic level. (author). 16 refs.
Boundaries immersed in a scalar quantum field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Actor, A.A.; Bender, I.
1996-01-01
We study the interaction between a scalar quantum field φ(x), and many different boundary configurations constructed from (parallel and orthogonal) thin planar surfaces on which φ(x) is constrained to vanish, or to satisfy Neumann conditions. For most of these boundaries the Casimir problem has not previously been investigated. We calculate the canonical and improved vacuum stress tensors left angle T μv (x) right angle and left angle direct difference μv (x) right angle of φ(x) for each example. From these we obtain the local Casimir forces on all boundary planes. For massless fields, both vacuum stress tensors yield identical attractive local Casimir forces in all Dirichlet examples considered. This desirable outcome is not a priori obvious, given the quite different features of left angle T μv (x) right angle and left angle direct difference μv (x) right angle. For Neumann conditions, left angle T μv (x) right angle and left angle direct difference μv (x) right angle lead to attractive Casimir stresses which are not always the same. We also consider Dirichlet and Neumann boundaries immersed in a common scalar quantum field, and find that these repel. The extensive catalogue of worked examples presented here belongs to a large class of completely solvable Casimir problems. Casimir forces previously unknown are predicted, among them ones which might be measurable. (orig.)
Partitioning a macroscopic system into independent subsystems
Delle Site, Luigi; Ciccotti, Giovanni; Hartmann, Carsten
2017-08-01
We discuss the problem of partitioning a macroscopic system into a collection of independent subsystems. The partitioning of a system into replica-like subsystems is nowadays a subject of major interest in several fields of theoretical and applied physics. The thermodynamic approach currently favoured by practitioners is based on a phenomenological definition of an interface energy associated with the partition, due to a lack of easily computable expressions for a microscopic (i.e. particle-based) interface energy. In this article, we outline a general approach to derive sharp and computable bounds for the interface free energy in terms of microscopic statistical quantities. We discuss potential applications in nanothermodynamics and outline possible future directions.
Quantum teleportation between stationary macroscopic objects
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bao, Xiao-Hui; Yuan, Zhen-Sheng; Pan, Jian-Wei [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Heidelberg (Germany); Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale, Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei (China); Xu, Xiao-Fan [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Heidelberg (Germany); Li, Che-Ming [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Heidelberg (Germany); Department of Physics, National Center for Theoretical Sciences, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan (China)
2010-07-01
Quantum teleportation is a process to transfer a quantum state of an object without transferring the state carrier itself. So far, most of the teleportation experiments realized are within the photonic regime. For the teleportation of stationary states, the largest system reported is a single ion. We are now performing an experiment to teleport the state of an macroscopic atomic cloud which consists about 10{sup 6} single atoms. In our experiment two atomic ensembles are utilized. In the first ensemble A we prepare the collective atomic state to be teleported using the quantum feedback technique. The second ensemble B is utilized to generate entanglement between it collective state with a scattered single-photon. Teleportation is realized by converting the atomic state of A to a single-photon and making a Bell state measurement with the scattered single-photon from ensemble B.
Macroscopic quantum tunneling in a dc SQUID
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, Y.C.
1986-01-01
The theory of macroscopic quantum tunneling is applied to a current-biased dc SQUID whose dynamics can be described by a two-dimensional mechanical system with a dissipative environment. Based on the phenomenological model proposed by Caldeira and Leggett, the dissipative environment is represented by a set of harmonic oscillators coupling to the system. After integrating out the environmental degrees of freedom, an effective Euclidean action is found for the two-dimensional system. The action is used to provide the quantum tunneling rate formalism for the dc SQUID. Under certain conditions, the tunneling rate reduces to that of a single current-biased Josephson junction with an adjustable effective critical current
Models for universal reduction of macroscopic quantum fluctuations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Diosi, L.
1988-10-01
If quantum mechanics is universal, then macroscopic bodies would, in principle, possess macroscopic quantum fluctuations (MQF) in their positions, orientations, densities etc. Such MQF, however, are not observed in nature. The hypothesis is adopted that the absence of MQF is due to a certain universal mechanism. Gravitational measures were applied for reducing MQF of the mass density. This model leads to classical trajectories in the macroscopic limit of translational motion. For massive objects, unwanted macroscopic superpositions of quantum states will be destroyed within short times. (R.P.) 34 refs
Ferroelectric domain continuity over grain boundaries
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mantri, Sukriti; Oddershede, Jette; Damjanovic, Dragan
2017-01-01
Formation and mobility of domain walls in ferroelectric materials is responsible for many of their electrical and mechanical properties. Domain wall continuity across grain boundaries has been observed since the 1950's and is speculated to affect the grain boundary-domain interactions, thereby...... impacting macroscopic ferroelectric properties in polycrystalline systems. However detailed studies of such correlated domain structures across grain boundaries are limited. In this work, we have developed the mathematical requirements for domain wall plane matching at grain boundaries of any given...... orientation. We have also incorporated the effect of grain boundary ferroelectric polarization charge created when any two domains meet at the grain boundary plane. The probability of domain wall continuity for three specific grain misorientations is studied. Use of this knowledge to optimize processing...
Cloud Macroscopic Organization: Order Emerging from Randomness
Yuan, Tianle
2011-01-01
Clouds play a central role in many aspects of the climate system and their forms and shapes are remarkably diverse. Appropriate representation of clouds in climate models is a major challenge because cloud processes span at least eight orders of magnitude in spatial scales. Here we show that there exists order in cloud size distribution of low-level clouds, and that it follows a power-law distribution with exponent gamma close to 2. gamma is insensitive to yearly variations in environmental conditions, but has regional variations and land-ocean contrasts. More importantly, we demonstrate this self-organizing behavior of clouds emerges naturally from a complex network model with simple, physical organizing principles: random clumping and merging. We also demonstrate symmetry between clear and cloudy skies in terms of macroscopic organization because of similar fundamental underlying organizing principles. The order in the apparently complex cloud-clear field thus has its root in random local interactions. Studying cloud organization with complex network models is an attractive new approach that has wide applications in climate science. We also propose a concept of cloud statistic mechanics approach. This approach is fully complementary to deterministic models, and the two approaches provide a powerful framework to meet the challenge of representing clouds in our climate models when working in tandem.
Adiabatic process reversibility: microscopic and macroscopic views
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anacleto, Joaquim; Pereira, Mario G
2009-01-01
The reversibility of adiabatic processes was recently addressed by two publications. In the first (Miranda 2008 Eur. J. Phys. 29 937-43), an equation was derived relating the initial and final volumes and temperatures for adiabatic expansions of an ideal gas, using a microscopic approach. In that relation the parameter r accounts for the process reversibility, ranging between 0 and 1, which corresponds to the free and reversible expansion, respectively. In the second (Anacleto and Pereira 2009 Eur. J. Phys. 30 177-83), the authors have shown that thermodynamics can effectively and efficiently be used to obtain the general law for adiabatic processes carried out by an ideal gas, including compressions, for which r≥1. The present work integrates and extends the aforementioned studies, providing thus further insights into the analysis of the adiabatic process. It is shown that Miranda's work is wholly valid for compressions. In addition, it is demonstrated that the adiabatic reversibility coefficient given in terms of the piston velocity and the root mean square velocity of the gas particles is equivalent to the macroscopic description, given just by the quotient between surroundings and system pressure values. (letters and comments)
Theory of superfluidity macroscopic quantum waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ventura, I.
1978-10-01
A new description of superfluidity is proposed, based upon the fact that Bogoliubov's theory of superfluidity exhibits some so far unsuspected macroscopic quantum waves (MQWs), which have a topological nature and travel within the fluid at subsonic velocities. To quantize the bounded quasi-particles the field theoretic version of the Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization rule, is employed and also resort to a variational computation. In an instantaneous configuration the MQWs cut the condensate into blocks of phase, providing, by analogy with ferromagnetism, a nice explanation of what could be the lambda-transition. A crude estimate of the critical temperature gives T sub(c) approximately equal to 2-4K. An attempt is made to understand Tisza's two-fluid model in terms of the MQWs, and we rise the conjecture that they play an important role in the motion of second. We present also a qualitative prediction concerning to the behavior of the 'phononroton' peak below 1.0K, and propose two experiments to look for MQWs [pt
Investigation of dissipative forces near macroscopic media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Becker, R.S.
1982-12-01
The interaction of classical charged particles with the fields they induce in macroscopic dielectric media is investigated. For 10- to 1000-eV electrons, the angular perturbation of the trajectory by the image potential for surface impact parameters of 50 to 100 A is shown to be of the order of 0.001 rads over a distance of 100 A. The energy loss incurred by low-energy particles due to collective excitations such as surface plasmons is shown to be observable with a transition probability of 0.01 to 0.001 (Becker, et al., 1981b). The dispersion of real surface plasmon modes in planar and cylindrical geometries is discussed and is derived for pinhole geometry described in terms of a single-sheeted hyperboloid of revolution. An experimental apparatus for the measurement of collective losses for medium-energy electrons translating close to a dielectric surface is described and discussed. Data showing such losses at electron energies of 500 to 900 eV in silver foils containing many small apertures are presented and shown to be in good agreement with classical stopping power calculations and quantum mechanical calculations carried out in the low-velocity limit. The data and calculations are compared and contrasted with earlier transmission and reflection measurements, and the course of further investigation is discussed
The Proell Effect: A Macroscopic Maxwell's Demon
Rauen, Kenneth M.
2011-12-01
Maxwell's Demon is a legitimate challenge to the Second Law of Thermodynamics when the "demon" is executed via the Proell effect. Thermal energy transfer according to the Kinetic Theory of Heat and Statistical Mechanics that takes place over distances greater than the mean free path of a gas circumvents the microscopic randomness that leads to macroscopic irreversibility. No information is required to sort the particles as no sorting occurs; the entire volume of gas undergoes the same transition. The Proell effect achieves quasi-spontaneous thermal separation without sorting by the perturbation of a heterogeneous constant volume system with displacement and regeneration. The classical analysis of the constant volume process, such as found in the Stirling Cycle, is incomplete and therefore incorrect. There are extra energy flows that classical thermo does not recognize. When a working fluid is displaced across a regenerator with a temperature gradient in a constant volume system, complimentary compression and expansion work takes place that transfers energy between the regenerator and the bulk gas volumes of the hot and cold sides of the constant volume system. Heat capacity at constant pressure applies instead of heat capacity at constant volume. The resultant increase in calculated, recyclable energy allows the Carnot Limit to be exceeded in certain cycles. Super-Carnot heat engines and heat pumps have been designed and a US patent has been awarded.
Macroscopic plasma properties and stability theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sakanaka, P.H.
1981-01-01
1. Two-fluid equations: (a) Boltzmann equation: complete set of equations; collision models - Vlasov, BGK, Fokker-Planck-Landau, Boltzmann. (b) Moments of the Boltzmann equation: problem of closure. (c) Two-fluid equations. 2. One-fluid equation: (a) One-fluid variables. (b) One-fluid equations: quasi-neutrality. (c) Resistive MHD equations. (d) Ideal MHD equations: one-adiabatic approximation; double-adiabatic approximation - CGL. 3. MHD stability problem - energy principle: (a) Linearized ideal MHD equations: force-operator equation. (b) Boundary conditions. (c) Self-adjointness of force operator. (d) The energy principle. 4. Stability problems: application of the energy principle; stability of sharp-boundary plasmas. 5. Thermodynamic approach for stability of plasmas: Newcomb and Rosenbluth's stability criteria. (author)
Classical behaviour of macroscopic bodies and quantum measurements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ghirardi, G.; Rimini, A.; Weber, T.
1986-01-01
This report describes a recent attempt of giving a consistent and unified description of microscopic and macroscopic phenomena. The model presented in this paper exhibits the nice features of leaving unaltered the quantum description of microsystems and of accounting for the classical behaviour of the macroscopic objects when their dynamical evolution is consistently deduced from the dynamics of their elementary constituents
Macroscopic quantum tunnelling in a current biased Josephson junction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martinis, J.M.; Devoret, M.H.; Clarke, J.; Urbina, C.
1984-11-01
We discuss in this work an attempt to answer experimentally the question: do macroscopic variables obey quantum mechanics. More precisely, this experiment deals with the question of quantum-mechanical tunnelling of a macroscopic variable, a subject related to the famous Schrodinger's cat problem in the theory of measurement
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Løvschal, Mette
2014-01-01
of temporal and material variables have been applied as a means of exploring the processes leading to their socioconceptual anchorage. The outcome of this analysis is a series of interrelated, generative boundary principles, including boundaries as markers, articulations, process-related devices, and fixation...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brodkin, Evelyn; Larsen, Flemming
2013-01-01
project that is altering the boundary between the democratic welfare state and the market economy. We see workfare policies as boundary-changing with potentially profound implications both for individuals disadvantaged by market arrangements and for societies seeking to grapple with the increasing...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Aarhus, Rikke; Ballegaard, Stinne Aaløkke
2010-01-01
to maintain the order of the home when managing disease and adopting new healthcare technology. In our analysis we relate this boundary work to two continuums of visibility-invisibility and integration-segmentation in disease management. We explore five factors that affect the boundary work: objects......, activities, places, character of disease, and collaboration. Furthermore, the processes are explored of how boundary objects move between social worlds pushing and shaping boundaries. From this we discuss design implications for future healthcare technologies for the home.......To move treatment successfully from the hospital to that of technology assisted self-care at home, it is vital in the design of such technologies to understand the setting in which the health IT should be used. Based on qualitative studies we find that people engage in elaborate boundary work...
Plasma transport through magnetic boundaries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Treumann, R.A.
1992-01-01
We examine the overall plasma diffusion processes across tangential discontinuities of which the best known example is the Earth's magnetopause during northward interplanetary magnetic field conditions. The existence of the low latitude boundary layer (LLBL) adjacent to the magnetopause during those periods is ample evidence for the presence of so far poorly defined and understood entry processes acting at the magnetopause. We conclude that microscopic instabilities are probably not efficient enough to account for the LLBL. They affect only a small number of resonant particles. It is argued that macroscopic nonresonant turbulence is the most probable mechanism for plasma transport
Towards a theory of macroscopic gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zalaletdinov, R.M.
1993-01-01
By averaging out Cartan's structure equations for a four-dimensional Riemannian space over space regions, the structure equations for the averaged space have been derived with the procedure being valid on an arbitrary Riemannian space. The averaged space is characterized by a metric, Riemannian and non-Riemannian curvature 2-forms, and correlation 2-, 3- and 4-forms, an affine deformation 1-form being due to the non-metricity of one of two connection 1-forms. Using the procedure for the space-time averaging of the Einstein equations produces the averaged ones with the terms of geometric correction by the correlation tensors. The equations of motion for averaged energy momentum, obtained by averaging out the coritracted Bianchi identifies, also include such terms. Considering the gravitational induction tensor to be the Riemannian curvature tensor (the non-Riemannian one is then the field tensor), a theorem is proved which relates the algebraic structure of the averaged microscopic metric to that of the induction tensor. It is shown that the averaged Einstein equations can be put in the form of the Einstein equations with the conserved macroscopic energy-momentum tensor of a definite structure including the correlation functions. By using the high-frequency approximation of Isaacson with second-order correction to the microscopic metric, the self-consistency and compatibility of the equations and relations obtained are shown. Macrovacuum turns out to be Ricci non-flat, the macrovacuum source being defined in terms of the correlation functions. In the high-frequency limit the equations are shown to become Isaacson's ones with the macrovacuum source becoming Isaacson's stress tensor for gravitational waves. 17 refs
Measurement of Critical Contact Angle in a Microgravity Space Experiment
Concus, P.; Finn, R.; Weislogel, M.
1998-01-01
Mathematical theory predicts that small changes in container shape or in contact angle can give rise to large shifts of liquid in a microgravity environment. This phenomenon was investigated in the Interface Configuration Experiment on board the USMT,2 Space Shuttle flight. The experiment's "double proboscis" containers were designed to strike a balance between conflicting requirements of sizable volume of liquid shift (for ease of observation) and abruptness of the shift (for accurate determination of critical contact angle). The experimental results support the classical concept of macroscopic contact angle and demonstrate the role of hysteresis in impeding orientation toward equilibrium.
... Home » Statistics and Data » Glaucoma, Open-angle Listen Glaucoma, Open-angle Open-angle Glaucoma Defined In open-angle glaucoma, the fluid passes ... 2010 2010 U.S. Age-Specific Prevalence Rates for Glaucoma by Age and Race/Ethnicity The prevalence of ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miyazaki, T.; Koyama, T.; Kobayashi, S.
1996-01-01
A new experimental method to determine the phase boundary and phase equilibrium is accomplished by - means of analytical transmission electron microscopy for alloys with a macroscopic composition gradient. The various phase boundaries, i.e. the coherent binodal and spinodal lines, incoherent binodal line and order/disorder transformation line are distinctly determined for the Cu-Ti alloy and the other alloy systems. Furthermore, the equilibrium compositions at the interface of precipitate/matrix can experimentally be obtained for various particle sizes, and thus the Gibbs-Thomson's relation is verified. It is expected that the composition gradient method proposed in the present will become an important experimental method of the microstructural characterization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zølner, Mette
The paper explores how locals span boundaries between corporate and local levels. The aim is to better comprehend potentialities and challenges when MNCs draws on locals’ culture specific knowledge. The study is based on an in-depth, interpretive case study of boundary spanning by local actors in...... approach with pattern matching is a way to shed light on the tacit local knowledge that organizational actors cannot articulate and that an exclusively inductive research is not likely to unveil....
Thermal activation and macroscopic quantum tunneling in a DC SQUID
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sharifi, F.; Gavilano, J.L.; VanHarlingen, D.J.
1989-01-01
The authors report measurements of the transition rate from metastable minima in the two-dimensional 1 of a dc SQUID as a function of applied flux temperature. The authors observe a crossover from energy-activated escape to macroscopic quantum tunneling at a critical temperature. The macroscopic quantum tunneling rate is substantially reduced by damping, and also broadens the crossover region. Most interestingly, the authors observe thermal rates that are suppressed from those predicted by the two-dimensional thermal activation model. The authors discuss possible explanations for this based on the interaction of the macroscopic degree of freedom in the device and energy level effects
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jespersen, Søren Kragh; Wilhjelm, Jens Erik; Sillesen, Henrik
1998-01-01
This paper reports on a scanning technique, denoted multi-angle compound imaging (MACI), using spatial compounding. The MACI method also contains elements of frequency compounding, as the transmit frequency is lowered for the highest beam angles in order to reduce grating lobes. Compared to conve......This paper reports on a scanning technique, denoted multi-angle compound imaging (MACI), using spatial compounding. The MACI method also contains elements of frequency compounding, as the transmit frequency is lowered for the highest beam angles in order to reduce grating lobes. Compared...... to conventional B-mode imaging MACI offers better defined tissue boundaries and lower variance of the speckle pattern, resulting in an image with reduced random variations. Design and implementation of a compound imaging system is described, images of rubber tubes and porcine aorta are shown and effects...... on visualization are discussed. The speckle reduction is analyzed numerically and the results are found to be in excellent agreement with existing theory. An investigation of detectability of low-contrast lesions shows significant improvements compared to conventional imaging. Finally, possibilities for improving...
A review of macroscopic ductile failure criteria.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Corona, Edmundo; Reedlunn, Benjamin
2013-09-01
The objective of this work was to describe several of the ductile failure criteria com- monly used to solve practical problems. The following failure models were considered: equivalent plastic strain, equivalent plastic strain in tension, maximum shear, Mohr- Coulomb, Wellman's tearing parameter, Johnson-Cook and BCJ MEM. The document presents the main characteristics of each failure model as well as sample failure predic- tions for simple proportional loading stress histories in three dimensions and in plane stress. Plasticity calculations prior to failure were conducted with a simple, linear hardening, J2 plasticity model. The resulting failure envelopes were plotted in prin- cipal stress space and plastic strain space, where the dependence on stress triaxiality and Lode angle are clearly visible. This information may help analysts select a ductile fracture model for a practical problem and help interpret analysis results.
Granular Gases: Probing the Boundaries of Hydrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goldhirsch, I.
1999-01-01
The dissipative nature of the particle interactions in granular systems renders granular gases mesoscopic and bearing some similarities to regular gases in the ''continuum transition regime'' where shear rates and/or thermal gradients are very large). The following properties of granular gases support the above claim: (i). Mean free times are of the same order as macroscopic time scales (inverse shear rates); (ii). Mean free paths can be macroscopic and comparable to the system's dimensions; (iii). Typical flows are supersonic; (iv). Shear rates are typically ''large''; (v). Stress fields are scale (resolution) dependent; (vi). Burnett and super-Burnett corrections to both the constitutive relations and the boundary conditions are of importance; (vii). Single particle distribution functions can be far from Gaussian. It is concluded that while hydrodynamic descriptions of granular gases are relevant, they are probing the boundaries of applicability of hydrodynamics and perhaps slightly beyond
Measurement-Induced Macroscopic Superposition States in Cavity Optomechanics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hoff, Ulrich Busk; Kollath-Bönig, Johann; Neergaard-Nielsen, Jonas Schou
2016-01-01
A novel protocol for generating quantum superpositions of macroscopically distinct states of a bulk mechanical oscillator is proposed, compatible with existing optomechanical devices operating in the bad-cavity limit. By combining a pulsed optomechanical quantum nondemolition (QND) interaction...
Thermodynamical properties and thermoelastic coupling of complex macroscopic structure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fabbri, M.; Sacripanti, A.
1996-11-01
Gross qualitative/quantitative analysis about thermodynamical properties and thermoelastic coupling (or elastocaloric effect) of complex macroscopic structure (running shoes) is performed by infrared camera. The experimental results showed the achievability of a n industrial research project
Single-Phase Bundle Flows Including Macroscopic Turbulence Model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Seung Jun; Yoon, Han Young [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Seok Jong; Cho, Hyoung Kyu [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2016-05-15
To deal with various thermal hydraulic phenomena due to rapid change of fluid properties when an accident happens, securing mechanistic approaches as much as possible may reduce the uncertainty arising from improper applications of the experimental models. In this study, the turbulence mixing model, which is well defined in the subchannel analysis code such as VIPRE, COBRA, and MATRA by experiments, is replaced by a macroscopic k-e turbulence model, which represents the aspect of mathematical derivation. The performance of CUPID with macroscopic turbulence model is validated against several bundle experiments: CNEN 4x4 and PNL 7x7 rod bundle tests. In this study, the macroscopic k-e model has been validated for the application to subchannel analysis. It has been implemented in the CUPID code and validated against CNEN 4x4 and PNL 7x7 rod bundle tests. The results showed that the macroscopic k-e turbulence model can estimate the experiments properly.
Dynamical fusion thresholds in macroscopic and microscopic theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Davies, K.T.R.; Sierk, A.J.; Nix, J.R.
1983-01-01
Macroscopic and microscopic results demonstrating the existence of dynamical fusion thresholds are presented. For macroscopic theories, it is shown that the extra-push dynamics is sensitive to some details of the models used, e.g. the shape parametrization and the type of viscosity. The dependence of the effect upon the charge and angular momentum of the system is also studied. Calculated macroscopic results for mass-symmetric systems are compared to experimental mass-asymmetric results by use of a tentative scaling procedure, which takes into account both the entrance-channel and the saddle-point regions of configuration space. Two types of dynamical fusion thresholds occur in TDHF studies: (1) the microscopic analogue of the macroscopic extra push threshold, and (2) the relatively high energy at which the TDHF angular momentum window opens. Both of these microscopic thresholds are found to be very sensitive to the choice of the effective two-body interaction
Micro- and macroscopic photonic control of matter
Ryabtsev, Anton
parameters. In order for measurements not to be skewed, these interactions need to be taken into account and mitigated at the time of the experiment or handled later in data analysis and simulations. Experimental results are presented in four chapters. Chapter 2 describes two topics: (1) single-shot real-time monitoring and correction of spectral phase drifts, which commonly originate from temperature and pointing fluctuations inside the laser cavity when the pulses are generated; (2) an all-optical method for controlling the dispersion of femtosecond pulses using other pulses. Chapter 3 focuses on the effects of the propagation media--how intense laser pulses modify media and how, in turn, the media modifies them back--and how these effects can be counteracted. Self-action effects in fused silica are discussed, along with some interesting and unexpected results. A method is then proposed for mitigating self-action processes using binary modulation of the spectral phases of laser pulses. Chapter 4 outlines the design of two laser systems, which are specifically tailored for particular spectroscopic applications and incorporate the comprehensive pulse control described in previous chapters. Chapter 5 shows how control of spatial beam characteristics can be applied to measurements of the mechanical motion of microscale particles and how it can potentially be applied to molecular motion. It also describes an experiment on laser-induced flow in air in which attempts were made to control the macroscopic molecular rotation of gases. My research, with a pulse shaper as the enabling tool, provides important insights into ultrafast scientific studies by making femtosecond laser research more predictable, reliable and practical for measurement and control. In the long term, some of the research methods in this thesis may help the transition of femtosecond lasers from the laboratory environment into clinics, factories, airports, and other everyday settings.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Neergaard, Ulla; Nielsen, Ruth
2010-01-01
of welfare functions into EU law both from an internal market law and a constitutional law perspective. The main problem areas covered by the Blurring Boundaries project were studied in sub-projects on: 1) Internal market law and welfare services; 2) Fundamental rights and non-discrimination law aspects......; and 3) Services of general interest. In the Blurring Boundaries project, three aspects of the European Social Model have been particularly highlighted: the constitutionalisation of the European Social Model, its multi-level legal character, and the clash between market access justice at EU level...... and distributive justice at national level....
Small angle spectrometers: Summary
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Courant, E.; Foley, K.J.; Schlein, P.E.
1986-01-01
Aspects of experiments at small angles at the Superconducting Super Collider are considered. Topics summarized include a small angle spectrometer, a high contingency spectrometer, dipole and toroid spectrometers, and magnet choices
Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description:The FTA32 goniometer provides video-based contact angle and surface tension measurement. Contact angles are measured by fitting a mathematical expression...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Beladi, Hossein; Rohrer, Gregory S.; Rollett, Anthony D.; Tari, Vahid; Hodgson, Peter D.
2014-01-01
Electron backscatter diffraction analysis was employed to compute the closest orientation relationship and the distribution of intervariant boundary character in a lath martensitic microstructure. The misorientations were close to the Kurdjumov–Sachs orientation relationship. The intervariant crystallographic plane distribution exhibited a relatively high anisotropy with a tendency for the lath interfaces to terminate on (1 1 0) planes. This results from the crystallographic constraints associated with the shear transformation rather than a low energy interface configuration. The lath martensite habit plane was determined to be mostly (1 1 0) or near (1 1 0). The relative populations of boundaries with [1 1 1] and [1 1 0] misorientations were greater than other high index misorientations, mostly characterized as (1 1 0) symmetric tilt and (1 1 0) twist boundary types, respectively. Analysis with homology metrics of the connectivity in the lath martensitic microstructure revealed the connectivity dominated by population of misorientation angle and boundary plane type
Crystalline misfit-angle implications for solid sliding
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Manini, Nicola; Braun, O.M.
2011-01-01
For the contact of two finite portions of interacting rigid crystalline surfaces, we compute the pinning energy barrier dependency on the misfit angle and contact area. This simple model allows us to investigate a broad contact-size and angular range, thus obtaining the statistical properties of the energy barriers opposing sliding for a single asperity. These data are used to generate the distribution of static frictional thresholds for the contact of polycrystals, as in dry or even lubricated friction. This distribution is used as the input of a master equation to predict the sliding properties of macroscopic contacts. -- Highlights: → The pinning energy barrier depends on the misfit angle and contact area. → We compute this dependence for a idealized rigid model. → We obtain a distribution of static frictional thresholds. → It is used as input of a master-equation model for macroscopic surfaces in contact. → Overall we predict a transition from stick-slip to smooth sliding.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dherbey, Francine
2000-01-01
The improvement of nuclear fuels performances in PWR requires in particular an enhancement of creep ability of uranium dioxide in order to minimise rupture risks of the cladding material during interactions between pellets and cladding. The aim of this study is to investigate the link between the ceramic macroscopic thermo-mechanical behaviour and the changes in the fuel microstructure during deformation. Stoichiometric UO 2 pellets with various grains sizes from 9 pm to 36 μm have been deformed by compression at intermediate temperatures, i.e. near T M /2, and quenched under stress. The damage is characterised by the presence of cavities at low stresses and cracks at high stresses, both along grain boundaries parallel to the compression axis. Inside grains, dislocations organise themselves into cellular substructures in which sub-boundaries are made of dislocation hexagonal networks. In these conditions, uranium dioxide deformation is described by grain boundary sliding, which is the main origin of material damage, partially accommodated by dislocational creep inside grains. A steady-state creep model is proposed on a physical basis. It accounts for the almost similar contributions of two mechanisms which are grain boundaries sliding and intragranular creep, and takes into account the grain boundary roughness. In contrast with phenomenological descriptions used up to now, this picture leads to a unique creep law on the whole range of stresses explored here, from 10 MPa to 80 MPa. The creep rate controlling mechanism seems to be the migration of sub-boundaries. The deformation at constant strain rate is controlled by the same mechanisms as creep. (author) [fr
Microscopic to macroscopic depletion model development for FORMOSA-P
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Noh, J.M.; Turinsky, P.J.; Sarsour, H.N.
1996-01-01
Microscopic depletion has been gaining popularity with regard to employment in reactor core nodal calculations, mainly attributed to the superiority of microscopic depletion in treating spectral history effects during depletion. Another trend is the employment of loading pattern optimization computer codes in support of reload core design. Use of such optimization codes has significantly reduced design efforts to optimize reload core loading patterns associated with increasingly complicated lattice designs. A microscopic depletion model has been developed for the FORMOSA-P pressurized water reactor (PWR) loading pattern optimization code. This was done for both fidelity improvements and to make FORMOSA-P compatible with microscopic-based nuclear design methods. Needless to say, microscopic depletion requires more computational effort compared with macroscopic depletion. This implies that microscopic depletion may be computationally restrictive if employed during the loading pattern optimization calculation because many loading patterns are examined during the course of an optimization search. Therefore, the microscopic depletion model developed here uses combined models of microscopic and macroscopic depletion. This is done by first performing microscopic depletions for a subset of possible loading patterns from which 'collapsed' macroscopic cross sections are obtained. The collapsed macroscopic cross sections inherently incorporate spectral history effects. Subsequently, the optimization calculations are done using the collapsed macroscopic cross sections. Using this approach allows maintenance of microscopic depletion level accuracy without substantial additional computing resources
Classical system boundaries cannot be determined within quantum Darwinism
Fields, Chris
Multiple observers who interact with environmental encodings of the states of a macroscopic quantum system S as required by quantum Darwinism cannot demonstrate that they are jointly observing S without a joint a priori assumption of a classical boundary separating S from its environment E. Quantum Darwinism cannot, therefore, be regarded as providing a purely quantum-mechanical explanation of the "emergence" of classicality.
Extended Macroscopic Study of Dilute Gas Flow within a Microcavity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohamed Hssikou
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The behaviour of monatomic and dilute gas is studied in the slip and early transition regimes using the extended macroscopic theory. The gas is confined within a two-dimensional microcavity where the longitudinal sides are in the opposite motion with constant velocity ±Uw. The microcavity walls are kept at the uniform and reference temperature T0. Thus, the gas flow is transported only by the shear stress induced by the motion of upper and lower walls. From the macroscopic point of view, the regularized 13-moment equations of Grad, R13, are solved numerically. The macroscopic gas proprieties are studied for different values of the so-called Knudsen number (Kn, which gives the gas-rarefaction degree. The results are compared with those obtained using the classical continuum theory of Navier-Stokes and Fourier (NSF.
Bell-inequality tests with macroscopic entangled states of light
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stobinska, M. [Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light, Erlangen (Germany); Institute for Theoretical Physics II, Erlangen-Nuernberg University, Erlangen (Germany); Sekatski, P.; Gisin, N. [Group of Applied Physics, University of Geneva, Geneva (Switzerland); Buraczewski, A. [Faculty of Electronics and Information Technology, Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw (Poland); Leuchs, G. [Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light, Erlangen (Germany); Institute for Optics, Information and Photonics, Erlangen-Nuernberg University, Erlangen (Germany)
2011-09-15
Quantum correlations may violate the Bell inequalities. Most experimental schemes confirming this prediction have been realized in all-optical Bell tests suffering from the detection loophole. Experiments which simultaneously close this loophole and the locality loophole are highly desirable and remain challenging. An approach to loophole-free Bell tests is based on amplification of the entangled photons (i.e., on macroscopic entanglement), for which an optical signal should be easy to detect. However, the macroscopic states are partially indistinguishable by classical detectors. An interesting idea to overcome these limitations is to replace the postselection by an appropriate preselection immediately after the amplification. This is in the spirit of state preprocessing revealing hidden nonlocality. Here, we examine one of the possible preselections, but the presented tools can be used for analysis of other schemes. Filtering methods making the macroscopic entanglement useful for Bell tests and quantum protocols are the subject of an intensive study in the field nowadays.
Decoherence bypass of macroscopic superpositions in quantum measurement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Spehner, Dominique; Haake, Fritz
2008-01-01
We study a class of quantum measurement models. A microscopic object is entangled with a macroscopic pointer such that a distinct pointer position is tied to each eigenvalue of the measured object observable. Those different pointer positions mutually decohere under the influence of an environment. Overcoming limitations of previous approaches we (i) cope with initial correlations between pointer and environment by considering them initially in a metastable local thermal equilibrium, (ii) allow for object-pointer entanglement and environment-induced decoherence of distinct pointer readouts to proceed simultaneously, such that mixtures of macroscopically distinct object-pointer product states arise without intervening macroscopic superpositions, and (iii) go beyond the Markovian treatment of decoherence. (fast track communication)
Maximum Entropy Methods as the Bridge Between Microscopic and Macroscopic Theory
Taylor, Jamie M.
2016-09-01
This paper is concerned with an investigation into a function of macroscopic variables known as the singular potential, building on previous work by Ball and Majumdar. The singular potential is a function of the admissible statistical averages of probability distributions on a state space, defined so that it corresponds to the maximum possible entropy given known observed statistical averages, although non-classical entropy-like objective functions will also be considered. First the set of admissible moments must be established, and under the conditions presented in this work the set is open, bounded and convex allowing a description in terms of supporting hyperplanes, which provides estimates on the development of singularities for related probability distributions. Under appropriate conditions it is shown that the singular potential is strictly convex, as differentiable as the microscopic entropy, and blows up uniformly as the macroscopic variable tends to the boundary of the set of admissible moments. Applications of the singular potential are then discussed, and particular consideration will be given to certain free-energy functionals typical in mean-field theory, demonstrating an equivalence between certain microscopic and macroscopic free-energy functionals. This allows statements about L^1-local minimisers of Onsager's free energy to be obtained which cannot be given by two-sided variations, and overcomes the need to ensure local minimisers are bounded away from zero and +∞ before taking L^∞ variations. The analysis also permits the definition of a dual order parameter for which Onsager's free energy allows an explicit representation. Also, the difficulties in approximating the singular potential by everywhere defined functions, in particular by polynomial functions, are addressed, with examples demonstrating the failure of the Taylor approximation to preserve relevant shape properties of the singular potential.
Mathematical simulation of point defect interaction with grain boundaries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bojko, V.S.
1987-01-01
Published works, where the interaction of point defects and grain boundaries was studied by mathematical simulation methods, have been analysed. Energetics of the vacancy formation both in nuclei of large-angle special grain boundaries and in lattice regions adjoining them has been considered. The data obtained permit to explain specific features of grain-boundary diffusion processes. Results of mathematical simulation of the interaction of impurity atoms and boundaries have been considered. Specific features of the helium atom interaction with large-angle grain boundaries are analysed as well
Statistical thermodynamics understanding the properties of macroscopic systems
Fai, Lukong Cornelius
2012-01-01
Basic Principles of Statistical PhysicsMicroscopic and Macroscopic Description of StatesBasic PostulatesGibbs Ergodic AssumptionGibbsian EnsemblesExperimental Basis of Statistical MechanicsDefinition of Expectation ValuesErgodic Principle and Expectation ValuesProperties of Distribution FunctionRelative Fluctuation of an Additive Macroscopic ParameterLiouville TheoremGibbs Microcanonical EnsembleMicrocanonical Distribution in Quantum MechanicsDensity MatrixDensity Matrix in Energy RepresentationEntropyThermodynamic FunctionsTemperatureAdiabatic ProcessesPressureThermodynamic IdentityLaws of Th
Plasmonic direct writing lithography with a macroscopical contact probe
Huang, Yuerong; Liu, Ling; Wang, Changtao; Chen, Weidong; Liu, Yunyue; Li, Ling
2018-05-01
In this work, we design a plasmonic direct writing lithography system with a macroscopical contact probe to achieve nanometer scale spots. The probe with bowtie-shaped aperture array adopts spring hinge and beam deflection method (BDM) to realize near-field lithography. Lithography results show that a macroscopical plasmonic contact probe can achieve a patterning resolution of around 75 nm at 365 nm wavelength, and demonstrate that the lithography system is promising for practical applications due to beyond the diffraction limit, low cost, and simplification of system configuration. CST calculations provide a guide for the design of recording structure and the arrangement of placing polarizer.
Fluctuations in macroscopically agitated plasma:quasiparticles and effective temperature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sosenko, P.P.; Gresillon, D.
1994-01-01
Fluctuations in the plasma, in which macroscopic fluid-like motion is agitated due to large-scale and low-frequency electro-magnetic fields, are studied. Such fields can be produced by external factors or internally, for example due to turbulence. Fluctuation spectral distributions are calculated with regard to the renormalization of the transition probability for a test-particle and of the test-particle shielding. If the correlation length for the random fluid-like motion is large as compared to the fluctuation scale lengths, then the fluctuation spectral distributions can be explained in terms of quasiparticles originating from macroscopic plasma agitation and of an effective temperature
Macroscopic and radiographic examination of proximal root surface caries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nordenram, G.; Bergvist, A.; Johnson, G.; Henriksen, C.O.; Anneroth, G.
1988-01-01
The purpose of the study was to compare macroscopic and radiographic examination of proximal root surface caries of extracted teeth from patients aged 65-95 years. Although the study conditions for macroscopic and radiographic diagnosis favored more sensitive evaluations than routine clinical conditions, there was a 24% disagreement in diagnosis. This finding indicates that under routine clinical conditions it is difficult to register with certainty all superficial root carious lesions. Even in the absence of clinically detectable root surface caries, preventive measures should be considered for elderly people with exposed root surfaces
Time-dependent entropy evolution in microscopic and macroscopic electromagnetic relaxation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baker-Jarvis, James
2005-01-01
This paper is a study of entropy and its evolution in the time and frequency domains upon application of electromagnetic fields to materials. An understanding of entropy and its evolution in electromagnetic interactions bridges the boundaries between electromagnetism and thermodynamics. The approach used here is a Liouville-based statistical-mechanical theory. I show that the microscopic entropy is reversible and the macroscopic entropy satisfies an H theorem. The spectral entropy development can be very useful for studying the frequency response of materials. Using a projection-operator based nonequilibrium entropy, different equations are derived for the entropy and entropy production and are applied to the polarization, magnetization, and macroscopic fields. I begin by proving an exact H theorem for the entropy, progress to application of time-dependent entropy in electromagnetics, and then apply the theory to relevant applications in electromagnetics. The paper concludes with a discussion of the relationship of the frequency-domain form of the entropy to the permittivity, permeability, and impedance
Sibley, David; Nold, Andreas; Kalliadasis, Serafim
2015-11-01
Density Functional Theory (DFT), a statistical mechanics of fluids approach, captures microscopic details of the fluid density structure in the vicinity of contact lines, as seen in computations in our recent study. Contact lines describe the location where interfaces between two fluids meet solid substrates, and have stimulated a wealth of research due to both their ubiquity in nature and technological applications and also due to their rich multiscale behaviour. Whilst progress can be made computationally to capture the microscopic to mesoscopic structure from DFT, complete analytical results to fully bridge to the macroscale are lacking. In this work, we describe our efforts to bring asymptotic methods to DFT to obtain results for contact angles and other macroscopic quantities in various parameter regimes. We acknowledge financial support from European Research Council via Advanced Grant No. 247031.
Dynamic Chiral Magnetic Effect and Faraday Rotation in Macroscopically Disordered Helical Metals.
Ma, J; Pesin, D A
2017-03-10
We develop an effective medium theory for electromagnetic wave propagation through gapless nonuniform systems with a dynamic chiral magnetic effect. The theory allows us to calculate macroscopic-disorder-induced corrections to the values of optical, as well as chiral magnetic conductivities. In particular, we show that spatial fluctuations of the optical conductivity induce corrections to the effective value of the chiral magnetic conductivity. The absolute value of the effect varies strongly depending on the system parameters, but yields the leading frequency dependence of the polarization rotation and circular dichroism signals. Experimentally, these corrections can be observed as features in the Faraday rotation angle near frequencies that correspond to the bulk plasmon resonances of a material. Such features are not expected to be present in single-crystal samples.
Townsend, Alan R.; Porder, Stephen
2011-03-01
What is our point of no return? Caesar proclaimed 'the die is cast' while crossing the Rubicon, but rarely does modern society find so visible a threshold in our continued degradation of ecosystems and the services they provide. Humans have always used their surroundings to make a living— sometimes successfully, sometimes not (Diamond 2005)—and we intuitively know that there are boundaries to our exploitation. But defining these boundaries has been a challenge since Malthus first prophesied that nature would limit the human population (Malthus 1798). In 2009, Rockström and colleagues tried to quantify what the 6.8 billion (and counting) of us could continue to get away with, and what we couldn't (Rockström et al 2009). In selecting ten 'planetary boundaries', the authors contend that a sustainable human enterprise requires treating a number of environmental thresholds as points of no return. They suggest we breach these Rubicons at our own peril, and that we've already crossed three: biodiversity loss, atmospheric CO2, and disruption of the global nitrogen (N) cycle. As they clearly hoped, the very act of setting targets has provoked scientific inquiry about their accuracy, and about the value of hard targets in the first place (Schlesinger 2009). Such debate is a good thing. Despite recent emphasis on the science of human-ecosystem interactions, understanding of our planetary boundaries is still in its infancy, and controversy can speed scientific progress (Engelhardt and Caplan 1987). A few weeks ago in this journal, Carpenter and Bennett (2011) took aim at one of the more controversial boundaries in the Rockström analysis: that for human alteration of the global phosphorus (P) cycle. Rockström's group chose riverine P export as the key indicator, suggesting that humans should not exceed a value that could trigger widespread marine anoxic events—and asserting that we have not yet crossed this threshold. There are defensible reasons for a marine
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mehmet Camurdan
1998-01-01
are coupled by appropriate trace operators. This overall model differs from those previously studied in the literature in that the elastic chamber floor is here more realistically modeled by a hyperbolic Kirchoff equation, rather than by a parabolic Euler-Bernoulli equation with Kelvin-Voight structural damping, as in past literature. Thus, the hyperbolic/parabolic coupled system of past literature is replaced here by a hyperbolic/hyperbolic coupled model. The main result of this paper is a uniform stabilization of the coupled PDE system by a (physically appealing boundary dissipation.
Vascular flora and macroscopic fauna on the Fernow Experimental Forest
Darlene M. Madarish; Jane L. Rodrigue; Mary Beth Adams
2002-01-01
This report is the first comprehensive inventory of the vascular flora and macroscopic fauna known to occur within the Fernow Experimental Forest in north-central West Virignia. The compendium is based on information obtained from previous surveys, current research, and the personal observations of USDA Forest Service personnel and independent scientists. More than 750...
On the problem of contextuality in macroscopic magnetization measurements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Soeda, Akihito; Kurzyński, Paweł; Ramanathan, Ravishankar; Grudka, Andrzej; Thompson, Jayne; Kaszlikowski, Dagomir
2013-01-01
We show that sharp measurements of total magnetization cannot be used to reveal contextuality in macroscopic many-body systems of spins of arbitrary dimension. We decompose each such measurement into set of projectors corresponding to well-defined value of total magnetization. We then show that such sets of projectors are too restricted to construct Kochen–Specker sets.
Photoinduced macroscopic chiral structures in a series of azobenzene copolyesters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nedelchev, L.; Nikolova, L.; Matharu, A.
2002-01-01
A study of the propagation of elliptically polarized light and the resulting formation of macroscopic chiral structures in a series of azobenzene side-chain copolyesters, in which the morphology is varied from liquid crystalline to amorphous, is reported. Real-time measurements are presented...
Modification of the Charlesby law. Pt. 2. Macroscopic sensitivity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schiltz, A.; Weil, A.; Paniez, P.
1984-01-01
In part II, results are presented showing that for doses below macroscopic sensitivity, Qsub(sm), degradation due to fluence of the particles seems to be non-uniform over the entire area. In the light of this, a modification of the Charlesby's law is proposed providing a solution to the problems considered in part I [fr
Charge of a macroscopic particle in a plasma sheath
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Samarian, A.A.; Vladimirov, S.V.
2003-01-01
Charging of a macroscopic body levitating in a rf plasma sheath is studied experimentally and theoretically. The nonlinear charge vs size dependence is obtained. The observed nonlinearity is explained on the basis of an approach taking into account different plasma conditions for the levitation positions of different particles. The importance of suprathermal electrons' contribution to the charging process is demonstrated
Emergence of an urban traffic macroscopic fundamental diagram
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ranjan, Abhishek; Fosgerau, Mogens; Jenelius, Erik
2016-01-01
This paper examines mild conditions under which a macroscopic fundamental diagram (MFD) emerges, relating space-averaged speed to occupancy in some area. These conditions are validated against empirical data. We allow local speedoccupancy relationships and, in particular, require no equilibrating...
Stereodynamics: From elementary processes to macroscopic chemical reactions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kasai, Toshio [Department of Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Graduate School of Science, Department of Chemistry, Osaka University, Toyonaka, 560-0043 Osaka (Japan); Che, Dock-Chil [Graduate School of Science, Department of Chemistry, Osaka University, Toyonaka, 560-0043 Osaka (Japan); Tsai, Po-Yu [Department of Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Department of Chemistry, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Lin, King-Chuen [Department of Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Palazzetti, Federico [Scuola Normale Superiore, Pisa (Italy); Dipartimento di Chimica Biologia e Biotecnologie, Università di Perugia, 06123 Perugia (Italy); Aquilanti, Vincenzo [Dipartimento di Chimica Biologia e Biotecnologie, Università di Perugia, 06123 Perugia (Italy); Istituto di Struttura della Materia, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Roma (Italy); Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador (Brazil)
2015-12-31
This paper aims at discussing new facets on stereodynamical behaviors in chemical reactions, i.e. the effects of molecular orientation and alignment on reactive processes. Further topics on macroscopic processes involving deviations from Arrhenius behavior in the temperature dependence of chemical reactions and chirality effects in collisions are also discussed.
Microstructure and macroscopic properties of polydisperse systems of hard spheres
Ogarko, V.
2014-01-01
This dissertation describes an investigation of systems of polydisperse smooth hard spheres. This includes the development of a fast contact detection algorithm for computer modelling, the development of macroscopic constitutive laws that are based on microscopic features such as the moments of the
Macroscopic domain formation in the platelet plasma membrane
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bali, Rachna; Savino, Laura; Ramirez, Diego A.
2009-01-01
There has been ample debate on whether cell membranes can present macroscopic lipid domains as predicted by three-component phase diagrams obtained by fluorescence microscopy. Several groups have argued that membrane proteins and interactions with the cytoskeleton inhibit the formation of large d...
Macroscopic charge quantization in single-electron devices
Burmistrov, I.S.; Pruisken, A.M.M.
2010-01-01
In a recent paper by the authors [I. S. Burmistrov and A. M. M. Pruisken, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 056801 (2008)] it was shown that single-electron devices (single-electron transistor or SET) display "macroscopic charge quantization" which is completely analogous to the quantum Hall effect observed on
Macroscopic and microscopic magnetism of metal-metalloid amorphous alloys
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vasconcellos, M.A.Z.; Fichtner, P.F.P.; Livi, F.P.; Costa, M.I. da; Baibich, M.N.
1984-01-01
In this paper is investigated the interrelation between macroscopic and microscopic magnetic phenomena using experimetnal data from Moessbauer effect and the magnetization of layers of amorphous (Fe 1-x Ni x ) 80 B 20 . The Moessbauer effect measurement show a distribution of hyperfine fields in Fe site as well as a likely distribution of isomeric shifts (M.W.O.) [pt
Diffusion mechanisms in grain boundaries in solids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peterson, N.L.
1982-01-01
A critical review is given of our current knowledge of grain-boundary diffusion in solids. A pipe mechanism of diffusion based on the well-established dislocation model seems most appropriate for small-angle boundaries. Open channels, which have atomic configurations somewhat like dislocation cores, probably play a major role in large-angle grain-boundary diffusion. Dissociated dislocations and stacking faults are not efficient paths for grain-boundary diffusion. The diffusion and computer modeling experiments are consistent with a vacancy mechanism of diffusion by a rather well-localized vacancy. The effective width of a boundary for grain-boundary diffusion is about two atomic planes. These general features of grain-boundary diffusion, deduced primarily from experiments on metals, are thought to be equally applicable for pure ceramic solids. The ionic character of many ceramic oxides may cause some differences in grain-boundary structure from that observed in metals, resulting in changes in grain-boundary diffusion behavior. 72 references, 5 figures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cook, G.O. Jr.; Knight, L.
1979-07-01
The question of optimal projection angles has recently become of interest in the field of reconstruction from projections. Here, studies are concentrated on the n x n pixel space, where literative algorithms such as ART and direct matrix techniques due to Katz are considered. The best angles are determined in a Gauss--Markov statistical sense as well as with respect to a function-theoretical error bound. The possibility of making photon intensity a function of angle is also examined. Finally, the best angles to use in an ART-like algorithm are studied. A certain set of unequally spaced angles was found to be preferred in several contexts. 15 figures, 6 tables
Macroscopic quantum phenomena from the large N perspective
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chou, C H; Hu, B L; Subasi, Y
2011-01-01
Macroscopic quantum phenomena (MQP) is a relatively new research venue, with exciting ongoing experiments and bright prospects, yet with surprisingly little theoretical activity. What makes MQP intellectually stimulating is because it is counterpoised against the traditional view that macroscopic means classical. This simplistic and hitherto rarely challenged view need be scrutinized anew, perhaps with much of the conventional wisdoms repealed. In this series of papers we report on a systematic investigation into some key foundational issues of MQP, with the hope of constructing a viable theoretical framework for this new endeavour. The three major themes discussed in these three essays are the large N expansion, the correlation hierarchy and quantum entanglement for systems of 'large' sizes, with many components or degrees of freedom. In this paper we use different theories in a variety of contexts to examine the conditions or criteria whereby a macroscopic quantum system may take on classical attributes, and, more interestingly, that it keeps some of its quantum features. The theories we consider here are, the O(N) quantum mechanical model, semiclassical stochastic gravity and gauge / string theories; the contexts include that of a 'quantum roll' in inflationary cosmology, entropy generation in quantum Vlasov equation for plasmas, the leading order and next-to-leading order large N behaviour, and hydrodynamic / thermodynamic limits. The criteria for classicality in our consideration include the use of uncertainty relations, the correlation between classical canonical variables, randomization of quantum phase, environment-induced decoherence, decoherent history of hydrodynamic variables, etc. All this exercise is to ask only one simple question: Is it really so surprising that quantum features can appear in macroscopic objects? By examining different representative systems where detailed theoretical analysis has been carried out, we find that there is no a priori
The origins of macroscopic quantum coherence in high temperature superconductivity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Turner, Philip; Nottale, Laurent
2015-01-01
Highlights: • We propose a new theoretical approach to superconductivity in p-type cuprates. • Electron pairing mechanisms in the superconducting and pseudogap phases are proposed. • A scale free network of dopants is key to macroscopic quantum coherence. - Abstract: A new, theoretical approach to macroscopic quantum coherence and superconductivity in the p-type (hole doped) cuprates is proposed. The theory includes mechanisms to account for e-pair coupling in the superconducting and pseudogap phases and their inter relations observed in these materials. Electron pair coupling in the superconducting phase is facilitated by local quantum potentials created by static dopants in a mechanism which explains experimentally observed optimal doping levels and the associated peak in critical temperature. By contrast, evidence suggests that electrons contributing to the pseudogap are predominantly coupled by fractal spin waves (fractons) induced by the fractal arrangement of dopants. On another level, the theory offers new insights into the emergence of a macroscopic quantum potential generated by a fractal distribution of dopants. This, in turn, leads to the emergence of coherent, macroscopic spin waves and a second associated macroscopic quantum potential, possibly supported by charge order. These quantum potentials play two key roles. The first involves the transition of an expected diffusive process (normally associated with Anderson localization) in fractal networks, into e-pair coherence. The second involves the facilitation of tunnelling between localized e-pairs. These combined effects lead to the merger of the super conducting and pseudo gap phases into a single coherent condensate at optimal doping. The underlying theory relating to the diffusion to quantum transition is supported by Coherent Random Lasing, which can be explained using an analogous approach. As a final step, an experimental program is outlined to validate the theory and suggests a new
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiaohui Lin
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Connected-vehicles network provides opportunities and conditions for improving traffic signal control, and macroscopic fundamental diagrams (MFD can control the road network at the macrolevel effectively. This paper integrated proposed real-time access to the number of mobile vehicles and the maximum road queuing length in the Connected-vehicles network. Moreover, when implementing a simple control strategy to limit the boundary flow of a road network based on MFD, we determined whether the maximum queuing length of each boundary section exceeds the road-safety queuing length in real-time calculations and timely adjusted the road-network influx rate to avoid the overflow phenomenon in the boundary section. We established a road-network microtraffic simulation model in VISSIM software taking a district as the experimental area, determined MFD of the region based on the number of mobile vehicles, and weighted traffic volume of the road network. When the road network was tending to saturate, we implemented a simple control strategy and our algorithm limits the boundary flow. Finally, we compared the traffic signal control indicators with three strategies: (1 no control strategy, (2 boundary control, and (3 boundary control with limiting queue strategy. The results show that our proposed algorithm is better than the other two.
left-angle 100 right-angle Burgers vector in single phase γ' material verified by image simulation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Link, T.; Knobloch, C.; Glatzel, U.
1998-01-01
The deformation mechanisms of Ni 3 Al, an ordered L1 2 or γ' phase, is under intense research since Westbrook showed the increase of its hardness with temperature in 1957. The super dislocations of this ordered phase normally have Burgers vectors rvec b = a left-angle 110 right-angle, disassociated in either two a/2 left-angle 110 right-angle or two rvec b = a/3 left-angle 112 right-angle, depending on deformation temperature and rate. Recent observations in [111] oriented γ' specimens suggest that additional dislocations with the shorter Burgers vector rvec b = a left-angle 100 right-angle might be active. Dislocations with rvec b = a left-angle 110 right-angle on cube glide planes have a Schmidt factor of 0.47 and on octahedral planes of 0.27. Dislocations with rvec b = a left-angle 100 right-angle have a Schmidt factor of 0.47 for {110} glide planes and 0.33 for cube glide planes. The a left-angle 100 right-angle Burgers vector is the shortest of all complete dislocations of the L1 2 structure and creates no planar fault like antiphase boundaries or stacking faults. Due to the [111] oriented stress axis, which is used in this contribution, plastic deformation by a left-angle 100 right-angle dislocations as well as cube glide planes for left-angle 110 right-angle dislocations is encouraged. These dislocations could be reaction products, but will soon after contribute to deformation
Fluid-solid boundary conditions for multiparticle collision dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Whitmer, Jonathan K; Luijten, Erik
2010-01-01
The simulation of colloidal particles suspended in solvent requires an accurate representation of the interactions between the colloids and the solvent molecules. Using the multiparticle collision dynamics method, we examine several proposals for stick boundary conditions, studying their properties in both plane Poiseuille flow (where fluid interacts with the boundary of a stationary macroscopic solid) and particle-based colloid simulations (where the boundaries are thermally affected and in motion). In addition, our simulations compare various collision rules designed to remove spurious slip near solid surfaces, and the effects of these rules on the thermal motion of colloidal particles. Furthermore, we demonstrate that stochastic reflection of the fluid at solid boundaries fails to faithfully represent stick boundary conditions, and conclude that bounce-back conditions should be applied at both mobile and stationary surfaces. Finally, we generalize these ideas to create partial slip boundary conditions at both stationary and mobile surfaces.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Azizi, Reza; Legarth, Brian Nyvang; Niordson, Christian Frithiof
2013-01-01
Metal matrix composites with long aligned elastic fibers are studied using an energetic rate independent strain gradient plasticity theory with an isotropic pressure independent yield function at the microscale. The material response is homogenized to obtain a conventional macroscopic model...... is investigated numerically using a unit cell model with periodic boundary conditions containing a single fiber deformed under generalized plane strain conditions. The homogenized response can be modeled by conventional plasticity with an anisotropic yield surface and a free energy depending on plastic strain...
Flow tilt angles near forest edges - Part 1: Sonic anemometry
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dellwik, Ebba; Mann, Jakob; Larsen, Klaus Steenberg
2010-01-01
distortion and vertical alignment, it was only possible to a limited extent to relate sonic anemometer flow tilt angles to upwind forest edges, but the results by the lidar indicated that an internal boundary layer affect flow tilt angles at 21m above the forest. This is in accordance with earlier studies......-flow angles were assumed for neutral flow, the data was interpreted in relation to upstream and downstream forest edges. Uncertainties caused by flow distortion, vertical misalignment and limited sampling time (statistical uncertainty) were evaluated and found to be highly significant. Since the attack angle...... balance, unless all terms in the carbon dioxide conservation equation can be precisely estimated....
Large-angle adjustable coherent atomic beam splitter by Bragg scattering
Koolen, A.E.A.; Jansen, G.T.; Domen, K.F.E.M.; Beijerinck, H.C.W.; Leeuwen, van K.A.H.
2002-01-01
Using a "monochromatic" (single-axial-velocity) and slow (250 m/s) beam of metastable helium atoms, we realize up to eighth-order Bragg scattering and obtain a splitting angle of 6 mrad at low laser power (3 mW). This corresponds to a truly macroscopic separation of 12 mm on the detector. For
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Risager, Morten S.; Södergren, Carl Anders
2017-01-01
It is well known that the angles in a lattice acting on hyperbolic n -space become equidistributed. In this paper we determine a formula for the pair correlation density for angles in such hyperbolic lattices. Using this formula we determine, among other things, the asymptotic behavior of the den......It is well known that the angles in a lattice acting on hyperbolic n -space become equidistributed. In this paper we determine a formula for the pair correlation density for angles in such hyperbolic lattices. Using this formula we determine, among other things, the asymptotic behavior...... of the density function in both the small and large variable limits. This extends earlier results by Boca, Pasol, Popa and Zaharescu and Kelmer and Kontorovich in dimension 2 to general dimension n . Our proofs use the decay of matrix coefficients together with a number of careful estimates, and lead...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhu, Yuping; Gu, Yunling; Liu, Hongguang
2015-01-01
Directional solidification technology has been widely used to improve the properties of polycrystalline Ni 2 MnGa materials. Mechanical training can adjust the internal organizational structures of the materials, reduce the stress of twin boundaries motion, and then result in larger strain at lower outfield levels. In this paper, we test the microscopic structure of Ni 2 MnGa polycrystalline ferromagnetic shape memory alloy produced by directional solidification and compress it along two axes successively for mechanical training. The influences of pre-compressive stresses on the temperature-induced strains are analyzed. The macroscopic mechanical behaviors show anisotropy. According to the generating mechanism of the macroscopic strain, a three-dimensional constitutive model is established. Based on thermodynamic method, the kinetic equations of the martensitic transformation and inverse transformation are presented considering the driving force and energy dissipation. The prediction curves of temperature-induce strains along two different directions are investigated. And the results coincide well with the experiment data. It well explains the macroscopic anisotropy mechanical behaviors and fits for using in engineering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yamane, Tsuyoshi; Tsuchihashi, Keichiro
1999-03-01
A code CVTRAN provides the macroscopic cross-sections in the format of XSLIB file which is one of Standard interface files for a two-dimensional Sn transport code TWODANT by reading a macroscopic cross section file in the PDS format which is prepared by SRAC execution. While a two-dimensional Sn transport code TWOTRAN published by LANL is installed as a module in the SRAC code system, several functions such as alpha search, concentration search, zone thickness search and various edits are suppressed. Since the TWODANT code was released from LANL, its short running time, stable convergence and plenty of edits have attracted many users. The code CVTRAN makes the TWODANT available to the SRAC user by providing the macroscopic cross-sections on a card-image file XSLIB. The CVTRAN also provides material dependent fission spectra into a card-image format file CVLIB, together with group velocities, group boundary energies and material names. The user can feed them into the TWODANT input, if necessary, by cut-and-paste command. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hongzhan Xie
2015-06-01
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the macroscopic spray characteristics of different 0%–100% blends of biodiesel derived from drainage oil and diesel (BD0, BD20, BD50, BD80, BD100, such as spray tip penetration, average tip velocity at penetration, spray angle, average spray angle, spray evolution process, spray area and spray volume under different injection pressures (60, 70, 80, 90, 100 MPa and ambient pressures (0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, 0.9 MPa using a common rail system equipped with a constant volume chamber. The characteristic data was extracted from spray images grabbed by a high speed visualization system. The results showed that the ambient pressure and injection pressure had significant effects on the spray characteristics. As the ambient pressure increased, the spray angle increased, while the spray tip penetration and the peak of average tip velocity decreased. As the injection pressure increased, the spray tip penetration, spray angle, spray area and spray volume increased. The increasing blend ratio of biodiesel brought about a shorter spray tip penetration and a smaller spray angle compared with those of diesel. This is due to the comparatively higher viscosity and surface tension of biodiesel, which enhanced the friction effect between fuel and the injector nozzle surface and inhibited the breakup of the liquid jet.
Wave speeds in the macroscopic extended model for ultrarelativistic gases
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Borghero, F., E-mail: borghero@unica.it [Dip. Matematica e Informatica, Università di Cagliari, Via Ospedale 72, 09124 Cagliari (Italy); Demontis, F., E-mail: fdemontis@unica.it [Dip. Matematica, Università di Cagliari, Viale Merello 92, 09123 Cagliari (Italy); Pennisi, S., E-mail: spennisi@unica.it [Dip. Matematica, Università di Cagliari, Via Ospedale 72, 09124 Cagliari (Italy)
2013-11-15
Equations determining wave speeds for a model of ultrarelativistic gases are investigated. This model is already present in literature; it deals with an arbitrary number of moments and it was proposed in the context of exact macroscopic approaches in Extended Thermodynamics. We find these results: the whole system for the determination of the wave speeds can be divided into independent subsystems which are expressed by linear combinations, through scalar coefficients, of tensors all of the same order; some wave speeds, but not all of them, are expressed by square roots of rational numbers; finally, we prove that these wave speeds for the macroscopic model are the same of those furnished by the kinetic model.
Analysis and Enhancements of a Prolific Macroscopic Model of Epilepsy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Christopher Fietkiewicz
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Macroscopic models of epilepsy can deliver surprisingly realistic EEG simulations. In the present study, a prolific series of models is evaluated with regard to theoretical and computational concerns, and enhancements are developed. Specifically, we analyze three aspects of the models: (1 Using dynamical systems analysis, we demonstrate and explain the presence of direct current potentials in the simulated EEG that were previously undocumented. (2 We explain how the system was not ideally formulated for numerical integration of stochastic differential equations. A reformulated system is developed to support proper methodology. (3 We explain an unreported contradiction in the published model specification regarding the use of a mathematical reduction method. We then use the method to reduce the number of equations and further improve the computational efficiency. The intent of our critique is to enhance the evolution of macroscopic modeling of epilepsy and assist others who wish to explore this exciting class of models further.
Problems related to macroscopic electric fields in the magnetosphere
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Faelthammar, C.
1977-01-01
The macroscopic electric fields in the magnetosphere originate from internal as well as external sources. The fields are intimately coupled with the dynamics of magnetospheric plasma convection. They also depend on the complicated electrical properties of the hot collisionless plasma. Macroscopic electric fields are responsible for some important kinds of energization of charged particles that take place in the magnetosphere and affect not only particles of auroral energy but also, by multistep processes, trapped high-energy particles. A particularly interesting feature of magnetospheric electric fields is that they can have substantial components along the geomagnetic field, as has recently been confirmed by observations. Several physical mechanisms have been identified by which such electric fields can be supported even when collisions between particles are negligible. Comments are made on the magnetic mirror effect, anomalous resistivity, the collisionless thermoelectric effect, and electric double layers, emphasizing key features and differences and their significance in the light of recent observational data
Macroscopic balance equations for two-phase flow models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hughes, E.D.
1979-01-01
The macroscopic, or overall, balance equations of mass, momentum, and energy are derived for a two-fluid model of two-phase flows in complex geometries. These equations provide a base for investigating methods of incorporating improved analysis methods into computer programs, such as RETRAN, which are used for transient and steady-state thermal-hydraulic analyses of nuclear steam supply systems. The equations are derived in a very general manner so that three-dimensional, compressible flows can be analysed. The equations obtained supplement the various partial differential equation two-fluid models of two-phase flow which have recently appeared in the literature. The primary objective of the investigation is the macroscopic balance equations. (Auth.)
Theory of macroscopic quantum tunneling in high-T c cuprate
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kawabata, Shiro; Tanaka, Yukio; Kashiwaya, Satoshi; Asano, Yasuhiro
2006-01-01
To reveal macroscopic quantum tunneling (MQT) in high-T c superconductor Josephson junctions is an important issue since there is a possibility to fabricate a superconducting quantum bit by use of high T c junctions. Using the functional integral and the instanton theory, we analytically obtain the MQT rate (the inverse lifetime of the metastable state) for the c-axis twist Josephson junctions. In the case of the zero twist angle, the system shows the super-Ohmic dissipation due to the presence of the nodal quasiparticle tunneling. Therefore, the MQT rate is suppressed compared with the finite twist angle cases. Furthermore, the effect of the zero energy bound states (ZES) on the MQT in the in-plane junctions is theoretically investigated. We obtained the analytical formula of the MQT rate and showed that the presence of the ZES at the normal/superconductor interface leads to a strong Ohmic quasiparticle dissipation. Therefore, the MQT rate is noticeably inhibited compared with the c-axis junctions in which the ZES are completely absent
Macroscopic phase separation in high-temperature superconductors
Wen, Hai-Hu
2000-01-01
High-temperature superconductivity is recovered by introducing extra holes to the Cu-O planes, which initially are insulating with antiferromagnetism. In this paper I present data to show the macroscopic electronic phase separation that is caused by either mobile doping or electronic instability in the overdoped region. My results clearly demonstrate that the electronic inhomogeneity is probably a general feature of high-temperature superconductors. PMID:11027323
Negative heat capacity at phase-separation in macroscopic systems
Gross, D. H. E.
2005-01-01
Systems with long-range as well with short-range interactions should necessarily have a convex entropy S(E) at proper phase transitions of first order, i.e. when a separation of phases occurs. Here the microcanonical heat capacity c(E)= -\\frac{(\\partial S/\\partial E)^2}{\\partial^2S/\\partial E^2} is negative. This should be observable even in macroscopic systems when energy fluctuations with the surrounding world can be sufficiently suppressed.
Extension of Seismic Scanning Tunneling Macroscope to Elastic Waves
Tarhini, Ahmad
2017-11-06
The theory for the seismic scanning tunneling macroscope is extended from acoustic body waves to elastic body-wave propagation. We show that, similar to the acoustic case, near-field superresolution imaging from elastic body waves results from the O(1/R) term, where R is the distance between the source and near-field scatterer. The higher-order contributions R−n for n>1 are cancelled in the near-field region for a point source with normal stress.
A macroscopic model for magnetic shape-memory single crystals
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Bessoud, A. L.; Kružík, Martin; Stefanelli, U.
2013-01-01
Roč. 64, č. 2 (2013), s. 343-359 ISSN 0044-2275 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100750802; GA ČR GAP201/10/0357 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : magnetostriction * evolution Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.214, year: 2013 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2012/MTR/kruzik-a macroscopic model for magnetic shape- memory single crystals.pdf
Extension of Seismic Scanning Tunneling Macroscope to Elastic Waves
Tarhini, Ahmad; Guo, Bowen; Dutta, Gaurav; Schuster, Gerard T.
2017-01-01
The theory for the seismic scanning tunneling macroscope is extended from acoustic body waves to elastic body-wave propagation. We show that, similar to the acoustic case, near-field superresolution imaging from elastic body waves results from the O(1/R) term, where R is the distance between the source and near-field scatterer. The higher-order contributions R−n for n>1 are cancelled in the near-field region for a point source with normal stress.
Toward a superconducting quantum computer. Harnessing macroscopic quantum coherence.
Tsai, Jaw-Shen
2010-01-01
Intensive research on the construction of superconducting quantum computers has produced numerous important achievements. The quantum bit (qubit), based on the Josephson junction, is at the heart of this research. This macroscopic system has the ability to control quantum coherence. This article reviews the current state of quantum computing as well as its history, and discusses its future. Although progress has been rapid, the field remains beset with unsolved issues, and there are still many new research opportunities open to physicists and engineers.
Pseudo-Goldstone bosons and new macroscopic forces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hill, C.T.; Ross, G.G.
1988-01-01
Pseudoscalar Goldstone bosons may readily be associated with weakly, explicitly broken symmetries giving them mixed CP quantum numbers. In general this leads to scalar couplings to nucleons and leptons, which produces coherent long range forces. This can naturally accommodate detectable long range macroscopic forces mediated by bosons completely consistent with conventional cosmological limits, e.g., new interactions with the range of present 'fifth force' searches which probe a scale of new physics of f ≅ 10 14 GeV. (orig.)
Macroscopic quantum electrodynamics of high-Q cavities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khanbekyan, Mikayel
2009-01-01
In this thesis macroscopic quantum electrodynamics in linear media was applied in order to develop an universally valid quantum theory for the description of the interaction of the electromagnetic field with atomic sources in high-Q cavities. In this theory a complete description of the characteristics of the emitted radiation is given. The theory allows to show the limits of the applicability of the usually applied theory. In order to establish an as possible generally valid theory first the atom-field interaction was studied in the framework of macroscopic quantum electrodynamics in dispersive and absorptive media. In order to describe the electromagnetic field from Maxwell's equations was started, whereby the noise-current densities, which are connected with the absorption of the medium, were included. The solution of these equations expresses the electromagnetic field variables by the noise-current densities by means of Green's tensor of the macroscopic Maxwell equations. The explicit quantization is performed by means of the noise-current densities, whereby a diagonal Hamiltonian is introduced, which then guarantees the time development according to Maxwell's equation and the fulfillment of the fundamental simultaneous commutation relations of the field variables. In the case of the interaction of the medium-supported field with atoms the Hamiltonian must be extended by atom-field interactions energies, whereby the canonical coupling schemes of the minimal or multipolar coupling can be used. The dieelectric properties of the material bodies as well as their shape are coded in the Green tensor of the macroscopic Maxwell equations. As preparing step first the Green tensor was specified in order to derive three-dimensional input-output relations for the electromagnetic field operators on a plane multilayer structure. Such a general dewscription of the electromagnetic field allows the inclusion both of dispersion and absorption of the media and the possible
Structure of grain boundaries in hexagonal materials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sarrazit, F.
1998-05-01
The work presented in this thesis describes experimental and theoretical aspects associated with the structure of grain boundaries in hexagonal materials. It has been found useful to classify grain boundaries as low-angle, special or general on the basis of their structure. High-angle grain boundaries were investigated in tungsten carbide (WC) using conventional electron microscopy techniques, and three examples characteristic of the interfaces observed in this material were studied extensively. Three-dimensionally periodic patterns are proposed as plausible reference configurations, and the Burgers vectors of observed interfacial dislocations were predicted using a theory developed recently. The comparison of experimental observations with theoretical predictions proved to be difficult as contrast simulation techniques require further development for analysis to be completed confidently. Another part of this work involves the characterisation of high-angle grain boundaries in zinc oxide (ZnO) using circuit mapping. Two boundaries displayed structural features characteristic of the 'special' category, however, one boundary presented features which did not conform to this model. It is proposed that the latter observation shows a structural transition from the special to a more general type. Material fluxes involved in defect interactions were considered using the topological framework described in this work. A genera) expression was derived for the total flux arising which allows the behaviour of line-defects to be studied in complex interfacial processes. (author)
Macroscopic quantum mechanics: theory and experimental concepts of optomechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen Yanbei
2013-01-01
Rapid experimental progress has recently allowed the use of light to prepare macroscopic mechanical objects into nearly pure quantum states. This research field of quantum optomechanics opens new doors towards testing quantum mechanics, and possibly other laws of physics, in new regimes. In the first part of this article, I will review a set of techniques of quantum measurement theory that are often used to analyse quantum optomechanical systems. Some of these techniques were originally designed to analyse how a classical driving force passes through a quantum system, and can eventually be detected with an optimal signal-to-noise ratio—while others focus more on the quantum-state evolution of a mechanical object under continuous monitoring. In the second part of this article, I will review a set of experimental concepts that will demonstrate quantum mechanical behaviour of macroscopic objects—quantum entanglement, quantum teleportation and the quantum Zeno effect. Taking the interplay between gravity and quantum mechanics as an example, I will review a set of speculations on how quantum mechanics can be modified for macroscopic objects, and how these speculations—and their generalizations—might be tested by optomechanics. (invited review)
The mirrors model: macroscopic diffusion without noise or chaos
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chiffaudel, Yann; Lefevere, Raphaël
2016-01-01
Before stating our main result, we first clarify through classical examples the status of the laws of macroscopic physics as laws of large numbers. We next consider the mirrors model in a finite d-dimensional domain and connected to particles reservoirs at fixed chemical potentials. The dynamics is purely deterministic and non-ergodic but takes place in a random environment. We study the macroscopic current of particles in the stationary regime. We show first that when the size of the system goes to infinity, the behaviour of the stationary current of particles is governed by the proportion of orbits crossing the system. This allows us to formulate a necessary and sufficient condition on the distribution of the set of orbits that ensures the validity of Fick’s law. Using this approach, we show that Fick’s law relating the stationary macroscopic current of particles to the concentration difference holds in three dimensions and above. The negative correlations between crossing orbits play a key role in the argument. (letter)
Macroscopic phase-resetting curves for spiking neural networks
Dumont, Grégory; Ermentrout, G. Bard; Gutkin, Boris
2017-10-01
The study of brain rhythms is an open-ended, and challenging, subject of interest in neuroscience. One of the best tools for the understanding of oscillations at the single neuron level is the phase-resetting curve (PRC). Synchronization in networks of neurons, effects of noise on the rhythms, effects of transient stimuli on the ongoing rhythmic activity, and many other features can be understood by the PRC. However, most macroscopic brain rhythms are generated by large populations of neurons, and so far it has been unclear how the PRC formulation can be extended to these more common rhythms. In this paper, we describe a framework to determine a macroscopic PRC (mPRC) for a network of spiking excitatory and inhibitory neurons that generate a macroscopic rhythm. We take advantage of a thermodynamic approach combined with a reduction method to simplify the network description to a small number of ordinary differential equations. From this simplified but exact reduction, we can compute the mPRC via the standard adjoint method. Our theoretical findings are illustrated with and supported by numerical simulations of the full spiking network. Notably our mPRC framework allows us to predict the difference between effects of transient inputs to the excitatory versus the inhibitory neurons in the network.
Macroscopic phase-resetting curves for spiking neural networks.
Dumont, Grégory; Ermentrout, G Bard; Gutkin, Boris
2017-10-01
The study of brain rhythms is an open-ended, and challenging, subject of interest in neuroscience. One of the best tools for the understanding of oscillations at the single neuron level is the phase-resetting curve (PRC). Synchronization in networks of neurons, effects of noise on the rhythms, effects of transient stimuli on the ongoing rhythmic activity, and many other features can be understood by the PRC. However, most macroscopic brain rhythms are generated by large populations of neurons, and so far it has been unclear how the PRC formulation can be extended to these more common rhythms. In this paper, we describe a framework to determine a macroscopic PRC (mPRC) for a network of spiking excitatory and inhibitory neurons that generate a macroscopic rhythm. We take advantage of a thermodynamic approach combined with a reduction method to simplify the network description to a small number of ordinary differential equations. From this simplified but exact reduction, we can compute the mPRC via the standard adjoint method. Our theoretical findings are illustrated with and supported by numerical simulations of the full spiking network. Notably our mPRC framework allows us to predict the difference between effects of transient inputs to the excitatory versus the inhibitory neurons in the network.
Stochastic and Macroscopic Thermodynamics of Strongly Coupled Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Christopher Jarzynski
2017-01-01
Full Text Available We develop a thermodynamic framework that describes a classical system of interest S that is strongly coupled to its thermal environment E. Within this framework, seven key thermodynamic quantities—internal energy, entropy, volume, enthalpy, Gibbs free energy, heat, and work—are defined microscopically. These quantities obey thermodynamic relations including both the first and second law, and they satisfy nonequilibrium fluctuation theorems. We additionally impose a macroscopic consistency condition: When S is large, the quantities defined within our framework scale up to their macroscopic counterparts. By satisfying this condition, we demonstrate that a unifying framework can be developed, which encompasses both stochastic thermodynamics at one end, and macroscopic thermodynamics at the other. A central element in our approach is a thermodynamic definition of the volume of the system of interest, which converges to the usual geometric definition when S is large. We also sketch an alternative framework that satisfies the same consistency conditions. The dynamics of the system and environment are modeled using Hamilton’s equations in the full phase space.
Macroscopic description of the limb muscles of Tupinambis merianae
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Juliana Barbosa Casals
2012-03-01
Full Text Available Tegu lizard (Tupinambis merianae belongs to the Teiidae family. It is distributed throughout the Americas, with many species, including Brazilian ones. They are from the Tupinambis genus, the largest representatives of the Teiidae family. For this study three animals (run over coming from donation were used. The dissected lizards were fixed in 10%, formaldehyde, and the macroscopic analysis was carried out in a detailed and photo documented way, keeping the selected structures “in situ”. This paper had as its main aim contributing to the macroscopic description of the chest myology, as well as the thoracic and pelvic limbs of the lizard T. merianae. The results obtained from this research were compared to authors who have studied animals from the same Reptilia class. Thus, we conclude that our macroscopic results are similar to those already described by the researchers Hildebrand (1995, Moro and Abdala (2004 and Abdala and Diogo (2010. We should highlight that the knowledge on anatomy has importance and applications to various areas within Biology, contributing in a substantial way to the areas of human health and technology.
Kruyt, Nicolaas P.; Gutkowski, Witold; Rothenburg, L.; Kowalewski, Tomasz A.
2004-01-01
Using Discrete Element Method (DEM) simulations with varying interparticle friction coefficient, the relation between interparticle friction coefficient and macroscopic continuum friction and dissipation is investigated. As expected, macroscopic friction and dilatancy increase with interparticle
Kobayashi, Tsunehiro
1996-01-01
Quantum macroscopic motions are investigated in the scheme consisting of N-number of harmonic oscillators in terms of ultra-power representations of nonstandard analysis. Decoherence is derived from the large internal degrees of freedom of macroscopic matters.
Steering Angle Function Algorithm of Morphing of Residential Area
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
XIE Tian
2015-07-01
Full Text Available A residential area feature morphing method based on steering angle function is presented. To residential area with the same representation under two different scales,transforming the representation of the residential area polygon from vector coordinates to steering angle function,then using the steering angle function to match,and finding out the similarity and the differences between the residential areas under different scale to get the steering angle function of the the residential areas under any middle scale,the final,transforming the middle scale steering angle function to vector coordinates form,and get the middle shape interpolation of the the residential area polygon.Experimental results show:the residential area morphing method by using steering angle function presented can realize the continuous multi-scale representation under the premise of keeping in shape for the residential area with the rectangular boundary features.
Measurements in a synthetic turbulent boundary layer
Arakeri, J. H.; Coles, D. E.
Some measurements in a synthetic turbulent boundary layer (SBL) are reported. The main diagnostic tool is an X-wire probe. The velocity of the large eddies is determined to be 0.842 times the freestream velocity. The mean properties of the SBL are reasonably close to those of a natural turbulent boundary layer. The large eddy in the SBL appears to be a pair of counterrotating eddies in the stream direction, inclined at a shallow angle and occupying much of the boundary-layer thickness.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bødker, Susanne; Kristensen, Jannie Friis; Nielsen, Christina
2003-01-01
.After analysing the history and the current boundary work, the paper will propose new technological support for boundary work. In particular the paper will suggest means of supporting boundaries when these are productive and for changing boundaries when this seems more appropriate. In total, flexible technologies......This paper presents a study of an organisation, which is undergoing a process transforming organisational and technological boundaries. In particular, we shall look at three kinds of boundaries: the work to maintain and change the boundary between the organisation and its customers; boundaries...... seem a core issue when dealing with technology for boundaries....
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
O. V. Sokolova
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The differential diagnosis of alcoholic and dilated cardiomyopathy according to the macroscopic data is represented in the article. The identity of macroscopic changes of heart, related to alcoholic and dilated cardiomyopathy, cannot diagnose these diseases based on the macroscopic characteristics; especially if there are no other visceral manifestations typical for chronic alcoholism.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Miles, James Edward; Frederiksen, Jane V.; Jensen, Bente Rona
2012-01-01
: Pelvic limbs from red foxes (Vulpes vulpes). METHODS: Q angles were measured on hip dysplasia (HD) and whole limb (WL) view radiographs of each limb between the acetabular rim, mid-point (Q1: patellar center, Q2: femoral trochlea), and tibial tuberosity. Errors of 0.5-2.0 mm at measurement landmarks...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
there is a build up of pressure due to poor outflow of aqueous humor. The outflow obstruction could occur at the trabecular meshwork of the anterior chamber angle or subsequently in the episcleral vein due to raised venous pressure. Such build up of pressure results in glaucoma . Elevated intraocular pressure remains the ...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Morgan, Jeannie; Lynnerup, Niels; Hoppa, R.D.
2013-01-01
measurements taken from computed tomography (CT) scans. Previous reports have observed that the lateral angle size in females is significantly larger than in males. The method was applied to an independent series of 77 postmortem CT scans (42 males, 35 females) to validate its accuracy and reliability...... method appears to be of minimal practical use in forensic anthropology and archeology....
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 17; Issue 9. At Right Angles. Shailesh A Shirali. Information and Announcements Volume 17 Issue 9 September 2012 pp 920-920. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/017/09/0920-0920 ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kantrowitz, A.
1976-01-01
A method and apparatus is described for particle separation. The method uses a wide angle radially expanding vapor of a particle mixture. In particular, selective ionization of one isotope type in the particle mixture is produced in a multichamber separator and the ionized isotope type is accelerated out of the path of the vapor expansion for separate collection
Macroscopic polarization in crystalline dielectrics: the geometric phase approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Resta, R.
1994-01-01
The macroscopic electric polarization of a crystal is often defined as the dipole of a unit cell. In fact, such a dipole moment is ill defined, and the above definition is incorrect. Looking more closely, the quantity generally measured is differential polarization, defined with respect to a ''reference state'' of the same material. Such differential polarizations include either derivatives of the polarization (dielectric permittivity, Born effective charges, piezoelectricity, pyroelectricity) or finite differences (ferroelectricity). On the theoretical side, the differential concept is basic as well. Owing to continuity, a polarization difference is equivalent to a macroscopic current, which is directly accessible to the theory as a bulk property. Polarization is a quantum phenomenon and cannot be treated with a classical model, particularly whenever delocalized valence electrons are present in the dielectric. In a quantum picture, the current is basically a property of the phase of the wave functions, as opposed to the charge, which is a property of their modulus. An elegant and complete theory has recently been developed by King-Smith and Vanderbilt, in which the polarization difference between any two crystal states--in a null electric field--takes the form of a geometric quantum phase. This gives a comprehensive account of this theory, which is relevant for dealing with transverse-optic phonons, piezoelectricity, and ferroelectricity. Its relation to the established concepts of linear-response theory is also discussed. Within the geometric phase approach, the relevant polarization difference occurs as the circuit integral of a Berry connection (or ''vector potential''), while the corresponding curvature (or ''magnetic field'') provides the macroscopic linear response
Macroscopic influence on the spontaneous symmetry breaking in quantum field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kirzhnitz, D.A.
1977-01-01
Major results of investigations concerning macroscopic influence (heating, compression, external field and current) on elementary particle systems with spontaneous symmetry breaking are briefly reviewed. The study of this problem has been stimulated by recent progress in the unified renormalizable theory of elementary particles. Typically it appears that at some values of external parameters a phase transition with symmetry restoration takes place. There exists a profound and far going analogy with phase transition in many-body physics especially with superconductivity phenomenon. Some applications to cosmology are also considered
Macroscopic relationship in primal-dual portfolio optimization problem
Shinzato, Takashi
2018-02-01
In the present paper, using a replica analysis, we examine the portfolio optimization problem handled in previous work and discuss the minimization of investment risk under constraints of budget and expected return for the case that the distribution of the hyperparameters of the mean and variance of the return rate of each asset are not limited to a specific probability family. Findings derived using our proposed method are compared with those in previous work to verify the effectiveness of our proposed method. Further, we derive a Pythagorean theorem of the Sharpe ratio and macroscopic relations of opportunity loss. Using numerical experiments, the effectiveness of our proposed method is demonstrated for a specific situation.
Seismic scanning tunneling macroscope - Elastic simulations and Arizona mine test
Hanafy, Sherif M.; Schuster, Gerard T.
2012-01-01
Elastic seismic simulations and field data tests are used to validate the theory of a seismic scanning tunneling macroscope (SSTM). For nearfield elastic simulation, the SSTM results show superresolution to be better than λ/8 if the only scattered data are used as input data. If the direct P and S waves are muted then the resolution of the scatterer locations are within about λ/5. Seismic data collected in an Arizona tunnel showed a superresolution limit of at least λ/19. These test results are consistent with the theory of the SSTM and suggest that the SSTM can be a tool used by geophysicists as a probe for near-field scatterers.
GRUCAL, a computer program for calculating macroscopic group constants
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Woll, D.
1975-06-01
Nuclear reactor calculations require material- and composition-dependent, energy averaged nuclear data to describe the interaction of neutrons with individual isotopes in material compositions of reactor zones. The code GRUCAL calculates these macroscopic group constants for given compositions from the material-dependent data of the group constant library GRUBA. The instructions for calculating group constants are not fixed in the program, but will be read at the actual execution time from a separate instruction file. This allows to accomodate GRUCAL to various problems or different group constant concepts. (orig.) [de
Conductance fluctuations in a macroscopic 3-dimensional Anderson insulator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sanquer, M.
1990-01-01
We report magnetoconductance experiment on a amorphous Y x -Si 1-x alloy (∼0.3). which is an Anderson insulator where spin-orbit scattering is strong. Two principal and new features emerge from the data: the first one is an halving of the localization length by the application of a magnetic field of about 2.5 Teslas. This effect is predicted by a new approach of transport in Anderson insulators where basic symetry considerations are the most important ingredient. The second one is the observation of reproducible conductance fluctuations at very low temperature in this macroscopic 3 D amorphous material
A simple vibrating sample magnetometer for macroscopic samples
Lopez-Dominguez, V.; Quesada, A.; Guzmán-Mínguez, J. C.; Moreno, L.; Lere, M.; Spottorno, J.; Giacomone, F.; Fernández, J. F.; Hernando, A.; García, M. A.
2018-03-01
We here present a simple model of a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The system allows recording magnetization curves at room temperature with a resolution of the order of 0.01 emu and is appropriated for macroscopic samples. The setup can be mounted with different configurations depending on the requirements of the sample to be measured (mass, saturation magnetization, saturation field, etc.). We also include here examples of curves obtained with our setup and comparison curves measured with a standard commercial VSM that confirms the reliability of our device.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Romanovskii, V.R.
2003-01-01
The physical peculiarities of the flux-creep dynamics of low- and high-temperature superconductors placed in external varying magnetic field are studied. The flux-creep problem was studied for the partial penetration state. The proposed analysis was based on the macroscopic description of the flux creep by power and exponential equations of current-voltage characteristics of superconductors. It is shown that during flux creep the screening current penetrates into the superconductor at a finite velocity. Therefore, inside the superconductor a moving boundary of a magnetization region appears like in the critical state model. The time-dependent equations of screening current front have been written. However, unlike the critical state model nontrivial conditions are fulfilled at the moving boundary. They describe the smooth transition of the electromagnetic field induced by external perturbation to the undisturbed ones. A flux-creep distribution of the differential resistivity of the superconductor has been discussed. The performed analysis reveals that it monotonically decreases toward the moving boundary and depends on the magnetic ramp rate. In accordance with these flux-creep conditions the energy dissipation in the superconductors and their magnetic moment depend on the propagation law of the screening current moving boundary. The applicability of the Bean model for describing the flux-creep states is investigated
Macroscopic superposition states and decoherence by quantum telegraph noise
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abel, Benjamin Simon
2008-12-19
In the first part of the present thesis we address the question about the size of superpositions of macroscopically distinct quantum states. We propose a measure for the ''size'' of a Schroedinger cat state, i.e. a quantum superposition of two many-body states with (supposedly) macroscopically distinct properties, by counting how many single-particle operations are needed to map one state onto the other. We apply our measure to a superconducting three-junction flux qubit put into a superposition of clockwise and counterclockwise circulating supercurrent states and find this Schroedinger cat to be surprisingly small. The unavoidable coupling of any quantum system to many environmental degrees of freedom leads to an irreversible loss of information about an initially prepared superposition of quantum states. This phenomenon, commonly referred to as decoherence or dephasing, is the subject of the second part of the thesis. We have studied the time evolution of the reduced density matrix of a two-level system (qubit) subject to quantum telegraph noise which is the major source of decoherence in Josephson charge qubits. We are able to derive an exact expression for the time evolution of the reduced density matrix. (orig.)
An exploration for the macroscopic physical meaning of entropy
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2010-01-01
The macroscopic physical meaning of entropy is analyzed based on the exergy (availability) of a combined system (a closed system and its environment), which is the maximum amount of useful work obtainable from the system and the environment as the system is brought into equilibrium with the environment. The process the system experiences can be divided in two sequent sub-processes, the process at constant volume, which represents the heat interaction of the system with the environment, and the adiabatic process, which represents the work interaction of the system with the environment. It is shown that the macroscopic physical meaning of entropy is a measure of the unavailable energy of a closed system for doing useful work through heat interaction. This statement is more precise than those reported in prior literature. The unavailability function of a closed system can be defined as T0S and p0V in volume constant process and adiabatic process, respectively. Their changes, that is, AiTgS) and A (p0V) represent the unusable parts of the internal energy of a closed system for doing useful work in corresponding processes. Finally, the relation between Clausius entropy and Boltzmann entropy is discussed based on the comparison of their expressions for absolute entropy.
Macroscopic Theory for Evolving Biological Systems Akin to Thermodynamics.
Kaneko, Kunihiko; Furusawa, Chikara
2018-05-20
We present a macroscopic theory to characterize the plasticity, robustness, and evolvability of biological responses and their fluctuations. First, linear approximation in intracellular reaction dynamics is used to demonstrate proportional changes in the expression of all cellular components in response to a given environmental stress, with the proportion coefficient determined by the change in growth rate as a consequence of the steady growth of cells. We further demonstrate that this relationship is supported through adaptation experiments of bacteria, perhaps too well as this proportionality is held even across cultures of different types of conditions. On the basis of simulations of cell models, we further show that this global proportionality is a consequence of evolution in which expression changes in response to environmental or genetic perturbations are constrained along a unique one-dimensional curve, which is a result of evolutionary robustness. It then follows that the expression changes induced by environmental changes are proportionally reduced across different components of a cell by evolution, which is akin to the Le Chatelier thermodynamics principle. Finally, with the aid of a fluctuation-response relationship, this proportionality is shown to hold between fluctuations caused by genetic changes and those caused by noise. Overall, these results and support from the theoretical and experimental literature suggest a formulation of cellular systems akin to thermodynamics, in which a macroscopic potential is given by the growth rate (or fitness) represented as a function of environmental and evolutionary changes.
Parametric equations for calculation of macroscopic cross sections
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Botelho, Mario Hugo; Carvalho, Fernando
2015-01-01
Neutronic calculations of the core of a nuclear reactor is one thing necessary and important for the design and management of a nuclear reactor in order to prevent accidents and control the reactor efficiently as possible. To perform these calculations a library of nuclear data, including cross sections is required. Currently, to obtain a cross section computer codes are used, which require a large amount of processing time and computer memory. This paper proposes the calculation of macroscopic cross section through the development of parametric equations. The paper illustrates the proposal for the case of macroscopic cross sections of absorption (Σa), which was chosen due to its greater complexity among other cross sections. Parametric equations created enable, quick and dynamic way, the determination of absorption cross sections, enabling the use of them in calculations of reactors. The results show efficient when compared with the absorption cross sections obtained by the ALPHA 8.8.1 code. The differences between the cross sections are less than 2% for group 2 and less than 0.60% for group 1. (author)
A Macroscopic Multifractal Analysis of Parabolic Stochastic PDEs
Khoshnevisan, Davar; Kim, Kunwoo; Xiao, Yimin
2018-05-01
It is generally argued that the solution to a stochastic PDE with multiplicative noise—such as \\dot{u}= 1/2 u''+uξ, where {ξ} denotes space-time white noise—routinely produces exceptionally-large peaks that are "macroscopically multifractal." See, for example, Gibbon and Doering (Arch Ration Mech Anal 177:115-150, 2005), Gibbon and Titi (Proc R Soc A 461:3089-3097, 2005), and Zimmermann et al. (Phys Rev Lett 85(17):3612-3615, 2000). A few years ago, we proved that the spatial peaks of the solution to the mentioned stochastic PDE indeed form a random multifractal in the macroscopic sense of Barlow and Taylor (J Phys A 22(13):2621-2626, 1989; Proc Lond Math Soc (3) 64:125-152, 1992). The main result of the present paper is a proof of a rigorous formulation of the assertion that the spatio-temporal peaks of the solution form infinitely-many different multifractals on infinitely-many different scales, which we sometimes refer to as "stretch factors." A simpler, though still complex, such structure is shown to also exist for the constant-coefficient version of the said stochastic PDE.
Parameterized representation of macroscopic cross section for PWR reactor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fiel, João Cláudio Batista; Carvalho da Silva, Fernando; Senra Martinez, Aquilino; Leal, Luiz C.
2015-01-01
Highlights: • This work describes a parameterized representation of the homogenized macroscopic cross section for PWR reactor. • Parameterization enables a quick determination of problem-dependent cross-sections to be used in few group calculations. • This work allows generating group cross-section data to perform PWR core calculations without computer code calculations. - Abstract: The purpose of this work is to describe, by means of Chebyshev polynomials, a parameterized representation of the homogenized macroscopic cross section for PWR fuel element as a function of soluble boron concentration, moderator temperature, fuel temperature, moderator density and 235 92 U enrichment. The cross-section data analyzed are fission, scattering, total, transport, absorption and capture. The parameterization enables a quick and easy determination of problem-dependent cross-sections to be used in few group calculations. The methodology presented in this paper will allow generation of group cross-section data from stored polynomials to perform PWR core calculations without the need to generate them based on computer code calculations using standard steps. The results obtained by the proposed methodology when compared with results from the SCALE code calculations show very good agreement
Macroscopic Biological Characteristics of Individualized Therapy in Chinese Mongolian Osteopathy
Namula, Zhao; Mei, Wang; Li, Xue-en
Objective: Chinese Mongolian osteopathy has been passed down from ancient times and includes unique practices and favorable efficacy. In this study, we investigate the macroscopic biological characteristics of individualized Chinese Mongolian osteopathy, in order to provide new principle and methods for the treatment of bone fracture. Method: With a view to provide a vital link between nature and humans, the four stages of Chinese Mongolian osteopathy focus on the unity of the mind and body, the limbs and body organs, the body and its functions, and humans and nature. Results: We discuss the merits of individualized osteopathy in terms of the underlying concepts, and evaluate the approaches and principles of traditional medicine, as well as biomechanics. Conclusions: Individualized Mongolian osteopathy targets macroscopic biological components including dynamic reduction, natural fixation, and functional healing. Chinese Mongolian osteopathy is a natural, ecological and non-invasive osteopathy that values the link between nature and humans, including the unity of mind and body. The biological components not only serve as a foundation for Chinese Mongolian osteopathy but are also important for the future development of modern osteopathy, focusing on individualization, actualization and integration.
Macroscopic superposition states and decoherence by quantum telegraph noise
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abel, Benjamin Simon
2008-01-01
In the first part of the present thesis we address the question about the size of superpositions of macroscopically distinct quantum states. We propose a measure for the ''size'' of a Schroedinger cat state, i.e. a quantum superposition of two many-body states with (supposedly) macroscopically distinct properties, by counting how many single-particle operations are needed to map one state onto the other. We apply our measure to a superconducting three-junction flux qubit put into a superposition of clockwise and counterclockwise circulating supercurrent states and find this Schroedinger cat to be surprisingly small. The unavoidable coupling of any quantum system to many environmental degrees of freedom leads to an irreversible loss of information about an initially prepared superposition of quantum states. This phenomenon, commonly referred to as decoherence or dephasing, is the subject of the second part of the thesis. We have studied the time evolution of the reduced density matrix of a two-level system (qubit) subject to quantum telegraph noise which is the major source of decoherence in Josephson charge qubits. We are able to derive an exact expression for the time evolution of the reduced density matrix. (orig.)
Reversible optical control of macroscopic polarization in ferroelectrics
Rubio-Marcos, Fernando; Ochoa, Diego A.; Del Campo, Adolfo; García, Miguel A.; Castro, Germán R.; Fernández, José F.; García, José E.
2018-01-01
The optical control of ferroic properties is a subject of fascination for the scientific community, because it involves the establishment of new paradigms for technology1-9. Domains and domain walls are known to have a great impact on the properties of ferroic materials1-24. Progress is currently being made in understanding the behaviour of the ferroelectric domain wall, especially regarding its dynamic control10-12,17,19. New research is being conducted to find effective methodologies capable of modulating ferroelectric domain motion for future electronics. However, the practical use of ferroelectric domain wall motion should be both stable and reversible (rewritable) and, in particular, be able to produce a macroscopic response that can be monitored easily12,17. Here, we show that it is possible to achieve a reversible optical change of ferroelectric domains configuration. This effect leads to the tuning of macroscopic polarization and its related properties by means of polarized light, a non-contact external control. Although this is only the first step, it nevertheless constitutes the most crucial one in the long and complex process of developing the next generation of photo-stimulated ferroelectric devices.
Inverted rank distributions: Macroscopic statistics, universality classes, and critical exponents
Eliazar, Iddo; Cohen, Morrel H.
2014-01-01
An inverted rank distribution is an infinite sequence of positive sizes ordered in a monotone increasing fashion. Interlacing together Lorenzian and oligarchic asymptotic analyses, we establish a macroscopic classification of inverted rank distributions into five “socioeconomic” universality classes: communism, socialism, criticality, feudalism, and absolute monarchy. We further establish that: (i) communism and socialism are analogous to a “disordered phase”, feudalism and absolute monarchy are analogous to an “ordered phase”, and criticality is the “phase transition” between order and disorder; (ii) the universality classes are characterized by two critical exponents, one governing the ordered phase, and the other governing the disordered phase; (iii) communism, criticality, and absolute monarchy are characterized by sharp exponent values, and are inherently deterministic; (iv) socialism is characterized by a continuous exponent range, is inherently stochastic, and is universally governed by continuous power-law statistics; (v) feudalism is characterized by a continuous exponent range, is inherently stochastic, and is universally governed by discrete exponential statistics. The results presented in this paper yield a universal macroscopic socioeconophysical perspective of inverted rank distributions.
A Macroscopic Multifractal Analysis of Parabolic Stochastic PDEs
Khoshnevisan, Davar; Kim, Kunwoo; Xiao, Yimin
2018-04-01
It is generally argued that the solution to a stochastic PDE with multiplicative noise—such as \\dot{u}= 1/2 u''+uξ, where {ξ} denotes space-time white noise—routinely produces exceptionally-large peaks that are "macroscopically multifractal." See, for example, Gibbon and Doering (Arch Ration Mech Anal 177:115-150, 2005), Gibbon and Titi (Proc R Soc A 461:3089-3097, 2005), and Zimmermann et al. (Phys Rev Lett 85(17):3612-3615, 2000). A few years ago, we proved that the spatial peaks of the solution to the mentioned stochastic PDE indeed form a random multifractal in the macroscopic sense of Barlow and Taylor (J Phys A 22(13):2621-2626, 1989; Proc Lond Math Soc (3) 64:125-152, 1992). The main result of the present paper is a proof of a rigorous formulation of the assertion that the spatio-temporal peaks of the solution form infinitely-many different multifractals on infinitely-many different scales, which we sometimes refer to as "stretch factors." A simpler, though still complex, such structure is shown to also exist for the constant-coefficient version of the said stochastic PDE.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miller, D. J.
1998-01-01
We have used studies of single grain boundaries in YBCO thin films and bulk bicrystals to study the influence of vortex pinning along a grain boundary on dissipation. The critical current density for transport across grain boundaries in thin films is typically more than an order of magnitude larger than that measured for transport across grain boundaries in bulk samples. For low disorientation angles, the difference in critical current density within the grains that form the boundary can contribute to the substantial differences in current density measured across the boundary. However, substantial differences exist in the critical current density across boundaries in thin film compared to bulk bicrystals even in the higher angle regime in which grain boundary dissipation dominates. The differences in critical current density in this regime can be understood on the basis of vortex pinning along the boundary
Small angle neutron scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bernardini, G.; Cherubini, G.; Fioravanti, A.; Olivi, A.
1976-09-01
A method for the analysis of the data derived from neutron small angle scattering measurements has been accomplished in the case of homogeneous particles, starting from the basic theory without making any assumption on the form of particle size distribution function. The experimental scattering curves are interpreted with the aid the computer by means of a proper routine. The parameters obtained are compared with the corresponding ones derived from observations at the transmission electron microscope
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Qiu, S.; Amano, H.; Kasai, A.
1988-01-01
The solid angle in extended alpha source measurement for a series of counting geometries has been obtained by two methods: (1) calculated by means of the Nelson Blachmen series; (2) interpolated from the data table given by Gardner. A particular consequence of the application of the Nelson Blachmen series was deduced which was different from that given by the original author. The applicability of these two methods, as well as an experimentally measured method, is also evaluated. (author)
Electromagnetic stress at the boundary: Photon pressure or tension?
Wang, Shubo; Ng, Jack; Xiao, Meng; Chan, Che Ting
2016-03-01
It is well known that incident photons carrying momentum ℏk exert a positive photon pressure. But if light is impinging from a negative refractive medium in which ℏk is directed toward the source of radiation, should light exert a photon "tension" instead of a photon pressure? Using an ab initio method that takes the underlying microstructure of a material into account, we find that when an electromagnetic wave propagates from one material into another, the electromagnetic stress at the boundary is, in fact, indeterminate if only the macroscopic parameters are specified. Light can either pull or push the boundary, depending not only on the macroscopic parameters but also on the microscopic lattice structure of the polarizable units that constitute the medium. Within the context of an effective-medium approach, the lattice effect is attributed to electrostriction and magnetostriction, which can be accounted for by the Helmholtz stress tensor if we use the macroscopic fields to calculate the boundary optical stress.
Rigid supersymmetry with boundaries
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Belyaev, D.V. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Van Nieuwenhuizen, P. [State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States). C.N. Yang Inst. for Theoretical Physics
2008-01-15
We construct rigidly supersymmetric bulk-plus-boundary actions, both in x-space and in superspace. For each standard supersymmetric bulk action a minimal supersymmetric bulk-plus-boundary action follows from an extended F- or D-term formula. Additional separately supersymmetric boundary actions can be systematically constructed using co-dimension one multiplets (boundary superfields). We also discuss the orbit of boundary conditions which follow from the Euler-Lagrange variational principle. (orig.)
Determination of the Contact Angle Based on the Casimir Effect
Mazuruk, Konstantin; Volz, Martin P.
2015-01-01
On a macroscopic scale, a nonreactive liquid partially covering a homogeneous solid surface will intersect the solid at an angle called the contact angle. For molten metals and semiconductors, the contact angle is materially dependent upon both the solid and liquid and typical values fall in the range 80-170 deg, depending on the crucible material. On a microscopic scale, there does not exist a precise and sharp contact angle but rather the liquid and solid surfaces merge smoothly and continuously. Consider the example of the so called detached Bridgman crystal growth process. In this technique, a small gap is formed between the growing crystal and the crucible. At the crystal/melt interface, a meniscus ring is formed. Its width can be in the range of a few micrometers, approaching a microscopic scale. It then becomes questionable to describe the shape of this meniscus by the contact angle. A more advanced treatment of the interface is needed and here we propose such a refined model. The interaction of the liquid surface with the solid can be calculated by considering two forces: a short-range repulsive force and a longer range (up to a few micrometers) Casimir or van der Waals force.
Distinct molecular features of different macroscopic subtypes of colorectal neoplasms.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kenichi Konda
Full Text Available Colorectal adenoma develops into cancer with the accumulation of genetic and epigenetic changes. We studied the underlying molecular and clinicopathological features to better understand the heterogeneity of colorectal neoplasms (CRNs.We evaluated both genetic (mutations of KRAS, BRAF, TP53, and PIK3CA, and microsatellite instability [MSI] and epigenetic (methylation status of nine genes or sequences, including the CpG island methylator phenotype [CIMP] markers alterations in 158 CRNs including 56 polypoid neoplasms (PNs, 25 granular type laterally spreading tumors (LST-Gs, 48 non-granular type LSTs (LST-NGs, 19 depressed neoplasms (DNs and 10 small flat-elevated neoplasms (S-FNs on the basis of macroscopic appearance.S-FNs showed few molecular changes except SFRP1 methylation. Significant differences in the frequency of KRAS mutations were observed among subtypes (68% for LST-Gs, 36% for PNs, 16% for DNs and 6% for LST-NGs (P<0.001. By contrast, the frequency of TP53 mutation was higher in DNs than PNs or LST-Gs (32% vs. 5% or 0%, respectively (P<0.007. We also observed significant differences in the frequency of CIMP between LST-Gs and LST-NGs or PNs (32% vs. 6% or 5%, respectively (P<0.005. Moreover, the methylation level of LINE-1 was significantly lower in DNs or LST-Gs than in PNs (58.3% or 60.5% vs. 63.2%, P<0.05. PIK3CA mutations were detected only in LSTs. Finally, multivariate analyses showed that macroscopic morphologies were significantly associated with an increased risk of molecular changes (PN or LST-G for KRAS mutation, odds ratio [OR] 9.11; LST-NG or DN for TP53 mutation, OR 5.30; LST-G for PIK3CA mutation, OR 26.53; LST-G or DN for LINE-1 hypomethylation, OR 3.41.We demonstrated that CRNs could be classified into five macroscopic subtypes according to clinicopathological and molecular differences, suggesting that different mechanisms are involved in the pathogenesis of colorectal tumorigenesis.
Towards realistic molecular dynamics simulations of grain boundary mobility
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhou, J.; Mohles, V.
2011-01-01
In order to investigate grain boundary migration by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations a new approach involving a crystal orientation-dependent driving force has been developed by imposing an appropriate driving force on grain boundary atoms and enlarging the effective range of driving force. The new approach has been validated by the work of the driving force associated with the motion of grain boundaries. With the new approach the relation between boundary migration velocity and driving force is found to be nonlinear, as was expected from rate theory for large driving forces applied in MD simulations. By evaluating grain boundary mobility nonlinearly for a set of symmetrical tilt boundaries in aluminum at high temperature, high-angle grain boundaries were shown to move much faster than low-angle grain boundaries. This agrees well with experimental findings for recrystallization and grain growth. In comparison with the available data the simulated mobility of a 38.21 o Σ7 boundary was found to be significantly lower than other MD simulation results and comparable with the experimental values. Furthermore, the average volume involved during atomic jumps for boundary migration is determined in MD simulations for the first time. The large magnitude of the volume indicates that grain boundary migration is accomplished by the correlated motion of atom groups.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pang Xiaofeng; Deng Bo
2008-01-01
Influences of magnetic field on microscopic structures and macroscopic properties of water are studied by the spectrum techniques of infrared, Raman, visible, ultraviolet lights and X-ray. From these investigations, we know that the magnetic fields change the distribution of molecules and electrons, cause displacements and polarization of molecules and atoms, result in changes of dipole-moment transition and vibrational states of molecules and variation of transition probability of electrons, but does not alter the constitution of molecules and atoms. These are helpful in seeking the mechanism of magnetization of water. Meanwhile, we also measure the changed rules of the surface tension force, soaking effect or angle of contact, viscosity, rheology features, refraction index, dielectric constant and electric conductivity of magnetized water relative to that of pure water. The results show that the magnetic fields increase the soaking degree and hydrophobicity of water to materials, depress its surface-tension force, diminish the viscosity of war, enhance the feature of plastic flowing of water, and increase the refraction index, dielectric constant and electric conductivity of water after magnetization. These changes are caused by the above changes of microscopic structures under the action of magnetic field. Therefore, our studies are significant in science and has practical value of applications
Niu, Zhongwei; Bruckman, Michael A; Li, Siqi; Lee, L Andrew; Lee, Byeongdu; Pingali, Sai Venkatesh; Thiyagarajan, P; Wang, Qian
2007-06-05
One-dimensional (1D) polyaniline/tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) composite nanofibers and macroscopic bundles of such fibers were generated via a self-assembly process of TMV assisted by in-situ polymerization of polyaniline on the surface of TMV. At near-neutral reaction pH, branched polyaniline formed on the surface of TMV preventing lateral association. Therefore, long 1D nanofibers were observed with high aspect ratios and excellent processibility. At a lower pH, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis revealed that initially long nanofibers were formed which resulted in bundled structures upon long-time reaction, presumably mediated by the hydrophobic interaction because of the polyaniline on the surface of TMV. In-situ time-resolved small-angle X-ray scattering study of TMV at different reaction conditions supported this mechanism. This novel strategy to assemble TMV into 1D and 3D supramolecular composites could be utilized in the fabrication of advanced materials for potential applications including electronics, optics, sensing, and biomedical engineering.
Haagh, Martinus Everardus Johannes; Sîretanu, Igor; Duits, Michel; Mugele, Friedrich Gunther
2017-01-01
The effectiveness of water flooding oil recovery depends to an important extent on the competitive wetting of oil and water on the solid rock matrix. Here, we use macroscopic contact angle goniometry in highly idealized model systems to evaluate how brine salinity affects the balance of wetting forces and to infer the microscopic origin of the resultant contact angle alteration. We focus, in particular, on two competing mechanisms debated in the literature, namely, double-layer expansion and ...
Modeling of stresses at grain boundaries with respect to occurrence of stress corrosion cracking
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kozaczek, K.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Sinharoy, A.; Ruud, C.O. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); McIlree, A.R. [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States)
1995-12-31
The distributions of elastic stresses/strains in the grain boundary regions were studied by the analytical and the finite element models. The grain boundaries represent the sites where stress concentration occurs as a result of discontinuity of elastic properties across the grain boundary and the presence of second phase particles elastically different from the surrounding matrix grains. A quantitative analysis of those stresses for steels and nickel based alloys showed that the stress concentrations in the grain boundary regions are high enough to cause a local microplastic deformation even when the material is in the macroscopic elastic regime. The stress redistribution as a result of such a plastic deformation was discussed.
Studies of Grain Boundaries in Materials Subjected to Diffusional Creep
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nørbygaard, Thomas
Grain boundaries in crystalline Cu(2%Ni) creep specimens have been studied by use of scanning and transmission electron microscopy in order to establish the mechanism of deformation. Creep rate measurements and dependencies were found to fit reasonably well with the model for diffusional creep......) with the activity displayed during diffusional creep testing. It was found that boundaries with low deviation from perfect Σ did not contribute macroscopically to the creep strain. A resist deposition procedure was examined to improve the reference surface grid so as to allow determination of the grain boundary...... plane by use of simple stereomicroscopy directly on the surface. The etched pattern deteriorated heav-ily during creep testing, supposedly because of dislocation creep, due to exces-sive creep stress. Grain boundaries have been studied and characterised by TEM providing an insight into the diversity...
Diagnosis of bladder tumours in patients with macroscopic haematuria
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gandrup, Karen L; Løgager, Vibeke B; Bretlau, Thomas
2015-01-01
patients underwent CTU, MRU and flexible cystoscopy. Two uroradiologists individually reviewed the images without any clinical information, using a questionnaire. Patient records and pathology reports were also reviewed. RESULTS: At flexible cystoscopy, MRU and CTU, 32, 19 and 15 bladder lesions were...... identified, respectively. Histopathology showed that 13 of the 29 biopsied lesions were transitional cell carcinomas. Compared with the histopathology, the sensitivity and specificity for detection of tumours by CTU and MRU were 61.5% and 94.9%, and 79.9% and 93.4%, respectively. False-positive detection...... of bladder tumours, compared with histopathology, was reported in seven CTUs and nine MRUs, whereas the number of false-negative findings was five for CTUs and three for MRUs. CONCLUSIONS: Split-bolus CTU or MRU cannot replace cystoscopy in cases of macroscopic haematuria. MRU has a higher sensitivity than...
Polynomial parameterized representation of macroscopic cross section for PWR reactor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fiel, Joao Claudio B.
2015-01-01
The purpose of this work is to describe, by means of Tchebychev polynomial, a parameterized representation of the homogenized macroscopic cross section for PWR fuel element as a function of soluble boron concentration, moderator temperature, fuel temperature, moderator density and 235 U 92 enrichment. Analyzed cross sections are: fission, scattering, total, transport, absorption and capture. This parameterization enables a quick and easy determination of the problem-dependent cross-sections to be used in few groups calculations. The methodology presented here will enable to provide cross-sections values to perform PWR core calculations without the need to generate them based on computer code calculations using standard steps. The results obtained by parameterized cross-sections functions, when compared with the cross-section generated by SCALE code calculations, or when compared with K inf , generated by MCNPX code calculations, show a difference of less than 0.7 percent. (author)
Macroscopic quantum electrodynamics of high-Q cavities
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Khanbekyan, Mikayel
2009-10-27
In this thesis macroscopic quantum electrodynamics in linear media was applied in order to develop an universally valid quantum theory for the description of the interaction of the electromagnetic field with atomic sources in high-Q cavities. In this theory a complete description of the characteristics of the emitted radiation is given. The theory allows to show the limits of the applicability of the usually applied theory. In order to establish an as possible generally valid theory first the atom-field interaction was studied in the framework of macroscopic quantum electrodynamics in dispersive and absorptive media. In order to describe the electromagnetic field from Maxwell's equations was started, whereby the noise-current densities, which are connected with the absorption of the medium, were included. The solution of these equations expresses the electromagnetic field variables by the noise-current densities by means of Green's tensor of the macroscopic Maxwell equations. The explicit quantization is performed by means of the noise-current densities, whereby a diagonal Hamiltonian is introduced, which then guarantees the time development according to Maxwell's equation and the fulfillment of the fundamental simultaneous commutation relations of the field variables. In the case of the interaction of the medium-supported field with atoms the Hamiltonian must be extended by atom-field interactions energies, whereby the canonical coupling schemes of the minimal or multipolar coupling can be used. The dieelectric properties of the material bodies as well as their shape are coded in the Green tensor of the macroscopic Maxwell equations. As preparing step first the Green tensor was specified in order to derive three-dimensional input-output relations for the electromagnetic field operators on a plane multilayer structure. Such a general dewscription of the electromagnetic field allows the inclusion both of dispersion and absorption of the media and the
Macroscopic Modeling of Transport Phenomena in Direct Methanol Fuel Cells
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Olesen, Anders Christian
An increasing need for energy efficiency and high energy density has sparked a growing interest in direct methanol fuel cells for portable power applications. This type of fuel cell directly generates electricity from a fuel mixture consisting of methanol and water. Although this technology...... surpasses batteries in important areas, fundamental research is still required to improve durability and performance. Particularly the transport of methanol and water within the cell structure is difficult to study in-situ. A demand therefore exist for the fundamental development of mathematical models...... for studying their transport. In this PhD dissertation the macroscopic transport phenomena governing direct methanol fuel cell operation are analyzed, discussed and modeled using the two-fluid approach in the computational fluid dynamics framework of CFX 14. The overall objective of this work is to extend...
Macroscopic Floquet topological crystalline steel and superconductor pump
Rossi, Anna M. E. B.; Bugase, Jonas; Fischer, Thomas M.
2017-08-01
The transport of a macroscopic steel sphere and a superconducting sphere on top of two-dimensional periodic magnetic patterns is studied experimentally and compared with the theory and with experiments on topological transport of magnetic colloids. Transport of the steel and superconducting sphere is achieved by moving an external permanent magnet on a closed loop around the two-dimensional crystal. The transport is topological, i.e., the spheres are transported by a primitive unit vector of the lattice when the external magnet loop winds around specific directions. We experimentally determine the set of directions the loops must enclose for nontrivial transport of the spheres into various directions. We show that the loops can be used to sort steel and superconducting spheres. We show that the topological transport is robust with respect to the scale of the system and therefore speculate on its down scalability to the molecular scale.
Generation of macroscopic singlet states in atomic ensembles
Tóth, Géza; Mitchell, Morgan W.
2010-05-01
We study squeezing of the spin uncertainties by quantum non-demolition (QND) measurement in non-polarized spin ensembles. Unlike the case of polarized ensembles, the QND measurements can be performed with negligible back-action, which allows, in principle, perfect spin squeezing as quantified by Tóth et al (2007 Phys. Rev. Lett. 99 250405). The generated spin states approach many-body singlet states and contain a macroscopic number of entangled particles even when individual spin is large. We introduce the Gaussian treatment of unpolarized spin states and use it to estimate the achievable spin squeezing for realistic experimental parameters. Our proposal might have applications for magnetometry with a high spatial resolution or quantum memories storing information in decoherence free subspaces.
Fault detection by surface seismic scanning tunneling macroscope: Field test
Hanafy, Sherif M.
2014-08-05
The seismic scanning tunneling macroscope (SSTM) is proposed for detecting the presence of near-surface impedance anomalies and faults. Results with synthetic data are consistent with theory in that scatterers closer to the surface provide brighter SSTM profiles than those that are deeper. The SSTM profiles show superresolution detection if the scatterers are in the near-field region of the recording line. The field data tests near Gulf of Aqaba, Haql, KSA clearly show the presence of the observable fault scarp, and identify the subsurface presence of the hidden faults indicated in the tomograms. Superresolution detection of the fault is achieved, even when the 35 Hz data are lowpass filtered to the 5-10 Hz band.
Macroscopic chirality of a liquid crystal from nonchiral molecules
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jakli, A.; Nair, G. G.; Lee, C. K.; Sun, R.; Chien, L. C.
2001-01-01
The transfer of chirality from nonchiral polymer networks to the racemic B2 phase of nonchiral banana-shaped molecules is demonstrated. This corresponds to the transfer of chirality from an achiral material to another achiral material. There are two levels of chirality transfers. (a) On a microscopic level the presence of a polymer network (chiral or nonchiral) favors a chiral state over a thermodynamically stable racemic state due to the inversion symmetry breaking at the polymer-liquid crystal interfaces. (b) A macroscopically chiral (enantimerically enriched) sample can be produced if the polymer network has a helical structure, and/or contains chemically chiral groups. The chirality transfer can be locally suppressed by exposing the liquid crystal to a strong electric field treatment
Fault detection by surface seismic scanning tunneling macroscope: Field test
Hanafy, Sherif M.; Schuster, Gerard T.
2014-01-01
The seismic scanning tunneling macroscope (SSTM) is proposed for detecting the presence of near-surface impedance anomalies and faults. Results with synthetic data are consistent with theory in that scatterers closer to the surface provide brighter SSTM profiles than those that are deeper. The SSTM profiles show superresolution detection if the scatterers are in the near-field region of the recording line. The field data tests near Gulf of Aqaba, Haql, KSA clearly show the presence of the observable fault scarp, and identify the subsurface presence of the hidden faults indicated in the tomograms. Superresolution detection of the fault is achieved, even when the 35 Hz data are lowpass filtered to the 5-10 Hz band.
The N-salicylidene aniline mesogen: Microscopic and macroscopic properties
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nesrullazade, A.
2004-01-01
The vast majority of compounds exhibiting Iiquid crystalline phases may be regarded as having a rigid molecular central group with one or two flexible terminal alkyl or alkyloxy chains. The N-saIicyIidene anilines are very interesting and important materials both from fundamental and application points of view. These materials are on the one hand the ligands used to obtain metal containing complexes and on the other hand they are materials having the thermotropic mesomorphism. In this work we present investigations of microscopic and macroscopic properties of the 4-(Octyloxy)-N-(4-hexylphenyl)-2-hydrobenzaIimine (8SA) compound which was synthesized by our group. The 8SA compound shows the smectic C and nematic mesophases. These mesophases are enantiotropic and display specific confocal and schlieren textures, respectively. Thermotropic and thermodynamical properties of the straight and reverse phase transitions between smectic C and nematic mesophases and between nematic mesophase and isotropic liquid have been investigated
Non-Poissonian photon statistics from macroscopic photon cutting materials.
de Jong, Mathijs; Meijerink, Andries; Rabouw, Freddy T
2017-05-24
In optical materials energy is usually extracted only from the lowest excited state, resulting in fundamental energy-efficiency limits such as the Shockley-Queisser limit for single-junction solar cells. Photon-cutting materials provide a way around such limits by absorbing high-energy photons and 'cutting' them into multiple low-energy excitations that can subsequently be extracted. The occurrence of photon cutting or quantum cutting has been demonstrated in a variety of materials, including semiconductor quantum dots, lanthanides and organic dyes. Here we show that photon cutting results in bunched photon emission on the timescale of the excited-state lifetime, even when observing a macroscopic number of optical centres. Our theoretical derivation matches well with experimental data on NaLaF 4 :Pr 3+ , a material that can cut deep-ultraviolet photons into two visible photons. This signature of photon cutting can be used to identify and characterize new photon-cutting materials unambiguously.
Modeling Macroscopic Shape Distortions during Sintering of Multi-layers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tadesse Molla, Tesfaye
as to help achieve defect free multi-layer components. The initial thickness ratio between the layers making the multi-layer has also significant effect on the extent of camber evolution depending on the material systems. During sintering of tubular bi-layer structures, tangential (hoop) stresses are very...... large compared to radial stresses. The maximum value of hoop stress, which can generate processing defects such as cracks and coating peel-offs, occurs at the beginning of the sintering cycle. Unlike most of the models defining material properties based on porosity and grain size only, the multi...... (firing). However, unintended features like shape instabilities of samples, cracks or delamination of layers may arise during sintering of multi-layer composites. Among these defects, macroscopic shape distortions in the samples can cause problems in the assembly or performance of the final component...
The influence of flip angle on the magic angle effect
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zurlo, J.V.; Blacksin, M.F.; Karimi, S.
2000-01-01
Objective. To assess the impact of flip angle with gradient sequences on the ''magic angle effect''. We characterized the magic angle effect in various gradient echo sequences and compared the signal- to-noise ratios present on these sequences with the signal-to-noise ratios of spin echo sequences.Design. Ten normal healthy volunteers were positioned such that the flexor hallucis longus tendon remained at approximately at 55 to the main magnetic field (the magic angle). The tendon was imaged by a conventional spin echo T1- and T2-weighted techniques and by a series of gradient techniques. Gradient sequences were altered by both TE and flip angle. Signal-to-noise measurements were obtained at segments of the flexor hallucis longus tendon demonstrating the magic angle effect to quantify the artifact. Signal-to-noise measurements were compared and statistical analysis performed. Similar measurements were taken of the anterior tibialis tendon as an internal control.Results and conclusions. We demonstrated the magic angle effect on all the gradient sequences. The intensity of the artifact was affected by both the TE and flip angle. Low TE values and a high flip angle demonstrated the greatest magic angle effect. At TE values less than 30 ms, a high flip angle will markedly increase the magic angle effect. (orig.)
Haagh, Martinus Everardus Johannes; Sîretanu, Igor; Duits, Michel; Mugele, Friedrich Gunther
2017-01-01
The effectiveness of water flooding oil recovery depends to an important extent on the competitive wetting of oil and water on the solid rock matrix. Here, we use macroscopic contact angle goniometry in highly idealized model systems to evaluate how brine salinity affects the balance of wetting
Zalaletdinov, R. M.
1998-04-01
The averaging problem in general relativity is briefly discussed. A new setting of the problem as that of macroscopic description of gravitation is proposed. A covariant space-time averaging procedure is described. The structure of the geometry of macroscopic space-time, which follows from averaging Cartan's structure equations, is described and the correlation tensors present in the theory are discussed. The macroscopic field equations (averaged Einstein's equations) derived in the framework of the approach are presented and their structure is analysed. The correspondence principle for macroscopic gravity is formulated and a definition of the stress-energy tensor for the macroscopic gravitational field is proposed. It is shown that the physical meaning of using Einstein's equations with a hydrodynamic stress-energy tensor in looking for cosmological models means neglecting all gravitational field correlations. The system of macroscopic gravity equations to be solved when the correlations are taken into consideration is given and described.
Variable angle correlation spectroscopy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Y.K.; Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA
1994-05-01
In this dissertation, a novel nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique, variable angle correlation spectroscopy (VACSY) is described and demonstrated with 13 C nuclei in rapidly rotating samples. These experiments focus on one of the basic problems in solid state NMR: how to extract the wealth of information contained in the anisotropic component of the NMR signal while still maintaining spectral resolution. Analysis of the anisotropic spectral patterns from poly-crystalline systems reveal information concerning molecular structure and dynamics, yet in all but the simplest of systems, the overlap of spectral patterns from chemically distinct sites renders the spectral analysis difficult if not impossible. One solution to this problem is to perform multi-dimensional experiments where the high-resolution, isotropic spectrum in one dimension is correlated with the anisotropic spectral patterns in the other dimensions. The VACSY technique incorporates the angle between the spinner axis and the static magnetic field as an experimental parameter that may be incremented during the course of the experiment to help correlate the isotropic and anisotropic components of the spectrum. The two-dimensional version of the VACSY experiments is used to extract the chemical shift anisotropy tensor values from multi-site organic molecules, study molecular dynamics in the intermediate time regime, and to examine the ordering properties of partially oriented samples. The VACSY technique is then extended to three-dimensional experiments to study slow molecular reorientations in a multi-site polymer system
Boundary conditions in Ginsburg Landau theory and critical temperature of high-T superconductors
Lykov, A. N.
2008-06-01
New mixed boundary conditions to the Ginsburg-Landau equations are found to limit the critical temperature ( T) of high- T superconductors. Moreover, the value of the pseudogap in these superconductors can be explained by using the method. As a result, the macroscopic approach is proposed to increase T of cuprate superconductors.
Boundary conditions in Ginsburg-Landau theory and critical temperature of high-Tc superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lykov, A.N.
2008-01-01
New mixed boundary conditions to the Ginsburg-Landau equations are found to limit the critical temperature (T c ) of high-T c superconductors. Moreover, the value of the pseudogap in these superconductors can be explained by using the method. As a result, the macroscopic approach is proposed to increase T c of cuprate superconductors
Sector boundary distortion in the interplanetary medium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suess, S.T.; Feynman, J.
1977-01-01
We address the theoretical problem of the effect of a solar wind meridional velocity gradient on the orientation, or tipping, of a line embedded within the interplanetary plasma. We find that rotations of from 30degree to 75degree, between 1.5 solar radii and I AU, are produced when observed values for the solar wind velocity and its meridional gradient are used. This is not a small effect, nor is it difficult to calculate: it is a natural consequence of any meridional velocity gradient in the interplanetary medium. In relating this result to observed sector boundaries we note that the latitude dependence of the width of interplanetary magnetic sectors (dominant polarity or Rosenberg-Coleman effect) implies that sector boundaries at I AU are generally inclined at an angle of from 10degree to 20degree to the solar equatorial plane. Conversely, studies of photospheric magnetic fields have led to the conclusion that sector boundaries near the sun are, on the average, at large angles (approx.90degree) to the solar equatorial plane. If the dominant polarity effect were to be produced by rotation in the interplanetary medium, the sign of the solar wind meridional velocity gradient must not change at the equator, but the gradient does have to change sign for +/- boundary crossings in comparison to -/+ boundary crossings
Political State Boundary (National)
Department of Transportation — State boundaries with political limit - boundaries extending into the ocean (NTAD). The TIGER/Line Files are shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) that are an...
Allegheny County Municipal Boundaries
Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset demarcates the municipal boundaries in Allegheny County. Data was created to portray the boundaries of the 130 Municipalities in Allegheny County the...
Department of Housing and Urban Development — The HUD GIS Boundary Files are intended to supplement boundary files available from the U.S. Census Bureau. The files are for community planners interested in...
State Agency Administrative Boundaries
Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This database comprises 28 State agency boundaries and point of contact. The Kansas Geological Survey collected legal descriptions of the boundaries for various...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lillo, T. M.; Rooyen, I. J.; Aguiar, J. A.
2016-11-01
Precession electron diffraction in the transmission electron microscope was used to map grain orientation and ultimately determine grain boundary misorientation angle distributions, relative fractions of grain boundary types (random high angle, low angle or coincident site lattice (CSL)-related boundaries) and the distributions of CSL-related grain boundaries in the SiC layer of irradiated TRISO-coated fuel particles. Two particles from the AGR-1 experiment exhibiting high Ag-110m retention (>80%) were compared to a particle exhibiting low Ag-110m retention (<19%). Irradiated particles with high Ag-110m retention exhibited a lower fraction of random, high angle grain boundaries compared to the low Ag-110m retention particle. An inverse relationship between the random, high angle grain boundary fraction and Ag-110m retention is found and is consistent with grain boundary percolation theory. Also, comparison of the grain boundary distributions with previously reported unirradiated grain boundary distributions, based on SEM-based EBSD for similarly fabricated particles, showed only small differences, i.e. a greater low angle grain boundary fraction in unirradiated SiC. It was, thus, concluded that SiC layers with grain boundary distributions susceptible to Ag-110m release were present prior to irradiation. Finally, irradiation parameters were found to have little effect on the association of fission product precipitates with specific grain boundary types.
Equilibrium contact angle or the most-stable contact angle?
Montes Ruiz-Cabello, F J; Rodríguez-Valverde, M A; Cabrerizo-Vílchez, M A
2014-04-01
It is well-established that the equilibrium contact angle in a thermodynamic framework is an "unattainable" contact angle. Instead, the most-stable contact angle obtained from mechanical stimuli of the system is indeed experimentally accessible. Monitoring the susceptibility of a sessile drop to a mechanical stimulus enables to identify the most stable drop configuration within the practical range of contact angle hysteresis. Two different stimuli may be used with sessile drops: mechanical vibration and tilting. The most stable drop against vibration should reveal the changeless contact angle but against the gravity force, it should reveal the highest resistance to slide down. After the corresponding mechanical stimulus, once the excited drop configuration is examined, the focus will be on the contact angle of the initial drop configuration. This methodology needs to map significantly the static drop configurations with different stable contact angles. The most-stable contact angle, together with the advancing and receding contact angles, completes the description of physically realizable configurations of a solid-liquid system. Since the most-stable contact angle is energetically significant, it may be used in the Wenzel, Cassie or Cassie-Baxter equations accordingly or for the surface energy evaluation. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Doikou, Anastasia
2010-01-01
We examine the symmetry breaking of superalgebras due to the presence of appropriate integrable boundary conditions. We investigate the boundary breaking symmetry associated with both reflection algebras and twisted super-Yangians. We extract the generators of the resulting boundary symmetry as well as we provide explicit expressions of the associated Casimir operators.
Boundary Layer Effect on Behavior of Discrete Models.
Eliáš, Jan
2017-02-10
The paper studies systems of rigid bodies with randomly generated geometry interconnected by normal and tangential bonds. The stiffness of these bonds determines the macroscopic elastic modulus while the macroscopic Poisson's ratio of the system is determined solely by the normal/tangential stiffness ratio. Discrete models with no directional bias have the same probability of element orientation for any direction and therefore the same mechanical properties in a statistical sense at any point and direction. However, the layers of elements in the vicinity of the boundary exhibit biased orientation, preferring elements parallel with the boundary. As a consequence, when strain occurs in this direction, the boundary layer becomes stiffer than the interior for the normal/tangential stiffness ratio larger than one, and vice versa. Nonlinear constitutive laws are typically such that the straining of an element in shear results in higher strength and ductility than straining in tension. Since the boundary layer tends, due to the bias in the elemental orientation, to involve more tension than shear at the contacts, it also becomes weaker and less ductile. The paper documents these observations and compares them to the results of theoretical analysis.
A singular perturbation limit of diffused interface energy with a fixed contact angle condition
Kagaya, Takashi; Tonegawa, Yoshihiro
2016-01-01
We study a general asymptotic behavior of critical points of a diffused interface energy with a fixed contact angle condition defined on a domain $\\Omega \\subset \\mathbb{R}^n$. We show that the limit varifold derived from the diffused energy satisfies a generalized contact angle condition on the boundary under a set of assumptions.
Macroscopic objects in quantum mechanics: A combinatorial approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pitowsky, Itamar
2004-01-01
Why do we not see large macroscopic objects in entangled states? There are two ways to approach this question. The first is dynamic. The coupling of a large object to its environment cause any entanglement to decrease considerably. The second approach, which is discussed in this paper, puts the stress on the difficulty of observing a large-scale entanglement. As the number of particles n grows we need an ever more precise knowledge of the state and an ever more carefully designed experiment, in order to recognize entanglement. To develop this point we consider a family of observables, called witnesses, which are designed to detect entanglement. A witness W distinguishes all the separable (unentangled) states from some entangled states. If we normalize the witness W to satisfy tr(Wρ)≤1 for all separable states ρ, then the efficiency of W depends on the size of its maximal eigenvalue in absolute value; that is, its operator norm parallel W parallel . It is known that there are witnesses on the space of n qubits for which parallel W parallel is exponential in n. However, we conjecture that for a large majority of n-qubit witnesses parallel W parallel ≤O(√(n log n)). Thus, in a nonideal measurement, which includes errors, the largest eigenvalue of a typical witness lies below the threshold of detection. We prove this conjecture for the family of extremal witnesses introduced by Werner and Wolf [Phys. Rev. A 64, 032112 (2001)
Feedback Gating Control for Network Based on Macroscopic Fundamental Diagram
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
YangBeibei Ji
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Empirical data from Yokohama, Japan, showed that a macroscopic fundamental diagram (MFD of urban traffic provides for different network regions a unimodal low-scatter relationship between network vehicle density and network space-mean flow. This provides new tools for network congestion control. Based on MFD, this paper proposed a feedback gating control policy which can be used to mitigate network congestion by adjusting signal timings of gating intersections. The objective of the feedback gating control model is to maximize the outflow and distribute the allowed inflows properly according to external demand and capacity of each gating intersection. An example network is used to test the performance of proposed feedback gating control model. Two types of background signalization types for the intersections within the test network, fixed-time and actuated control, are considered. The results of extensive simulation validate that the proposed feedback gating control model can get a Pareto improvement since the performance of both gating intersections and the whole network can be improved significantly especially under heavy demand situations. The inflows and outflows can be improved to a higher level, and the delay and queue length at all gating intersections are decreased dramatically.
Communication: On the diffusion tensor in macroscopic theory of cavitation
Shneidman, Vitaly A.
2017-08-01
The classical description of nucleation of cavities in a stretched fluid relies on a one-dimensional Fokker-Planck equation (FPE) in the space of their sizes r, with the diffusion coefficient D(r) constructed for all r from macroscopic hydrodynamics and thermodynamics, as shown by Zeldovich. When additional variables (e.g., vapor pressure) are required to describe the state of a bubble, a similar approach to construct a diffusion tensor D ^ generally works only in the direct vicinity of the thermodynamic saddle point corresponding to the critical nucleus. It is shown, nevertheless, that "proper" kinetic variables to describe a cavity can be selected, allowing to introduce D ^ in the entire domain of parameters. In this way, for the first time, complete FPE's are constructed for viscous volatile and inertial fluids. In the former case, the FPE with symmetric D ^ is solved numerically. Alternatively, in the case of an inertial fluid, an equivalent Langevin equation is considered; results are compared with analytics. The suggested approach is quite general and can be applied beyond the cavitation problem.
Macroscopic multigroup constants for accelerator driven system core calculation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heimlich, Adino; Santos, Rubens Souza dos
2011-01-01
The high-level wastes stored in facilities above ground or shallow repositories, in close connection with its nuclear power plant, can take almost 106 years before the radiotoxicity became of the order of the background. While the disposal issue is not urgent from a technical viewpoint, it is recognized that extended storage in the facilities is not acceptable since these ones cannot provide sufficient isolation in the long term and neither is it ethical to leave the waste problem to future generations. A technique to diminish this time is to transmute these long-lived elements into short-lived elements. The approach is to use an Accelerator Driven System (ADS), a sub-critical arrangement which uses a Spallation Neutron Source (SNS), after separation the minor actinides and the long-lived fission products (LLFP), to convert them to short-lived isotopes. As an advanced reactor fuel, still today, there is a few data around these type of core systems. In this paper we generate macroscopic multigroup constants for use in calculations of a typical ADS fuel, take into consideration, the ENDF/BVI data file. Four energy groups are chosen to collapse the data from ENDF/B-VI data file by PREPRO code. A typical MOX fuel cell is used to validate the methodology. The results are used to calculate one typical subcritical ADS core. (author)
Gravitational wave echoes from macroscopic quantum gravity effects
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barceló, Carlos [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (IAA-CSIC),Glorieta de la Astronomía, 18008 Granada (Spain); Carballo-Rubio, Raúl [The Cosmology & Gravity Group and the Laboratory for Quantum Gravity & Strings,Department of Mathematics & Applied Mathematics, University of Cape Town,Private Bag, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Garay, Luis J. [Departamento de Física Teórica II,Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Estructura de la Materia (IEM-CSIC),Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain)
2017-05-10
New theoretical approaches developed in the last years predict that macroscopic quantum gravity effects in black holes should lead to modifications of the gravitational wave signals expected in the framework of classical general relativity, with these modifications being characterized in certain scenarios by the existence of dampened repetitions of the primary signal. Here we use the fact that non-perturbative corrections to the near-horizon external geometry of black holes are necessary for these modifications to exist, in order to classify different proposals and paradigms with respect to this criterion and study in a neat and systematic way their phenomenology. Proposals that lead naturally to the existence of echoes in the late-time ringdown of gravitational wave signals from black hole mergers must share the replacement of black holes by horizonless configurations with a physical surface showing reflective properties in the relevant range of frequencies. On the other hand, proposals or paradigms that restrict quantum gravity effects on the external geometry to be perturbative, such as black hole complementarity or the closely related firewall proposal, do not display echoes. For the sake of completeness we exploit the interplay between the timescales associated with the formation of firewalls and the mechanism behind the existence of echoes in order to conclude that even unconventional distortions of the firewall concept (such as naked firewalls) do not lead to this phenomenon.
Zero time tunneling: macroscopic experiments with virtual particles
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nimtz Günter
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Feynman introduced virtual particles in his diagrams as intermediate states of an interaction process. They represent necessary intermediate states between observable real states. Such virtual particles were introduced to describe the interaction process between an electron and a positron and for much more complicated interaction processes. Other candidates for virtual particles are evanescent modes in optics and in elastic fields. Evanescent modes have a purely imaginary wave number, they represent the mathematical analogy of the tunneling solutions of the Schrödinger equation. Evanescent modes exist in the forbidden frequency bands of a photonic lattice and in undersized wave guides, for instance. The most prominent example for the occurrence of evanescent modes is the frustrated total internal reflection (FTIR at double prisms. Evanescent modes and tunneling lie outside the bounds of the special theory of relativity. They can cause faster than light (FTL signal velocities. We present examples of the quantum mechanical behavior of evanescent photons and phonons at a macroscopic scale. The evanescent modes of photons are described by virtual particles as predicted by former QED calculations.
The universe as an ultimate macroscopic quantum phenomenon?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hu, Bei-Lok
2005-01-01
Full text: We explore two unconventional proposals on the meaning of quantum gravity and the quantum properties of spacetime. The first is an older proposal of mine that general relativity is the hydrodynamic limit of some fundamental theories of the microscopic structure of spacetime and matter, a more specific derivative of the idea of Sakharov. The latter is a more recent thought of mine on the possibility that spacetime is a condensate (Bose or Fermi). These proposals have implications radically different from the conventional views. For the former, spacetime described by a differentiable manifold is regarded as an emergent entity and the metric or connection forms are collective variables valid only at the low energy, long wavelength limit of the micro-theories of spacetime and matter. This view would render irrelevant the traditional efforts to find ways to quantize general relativity, because it would only give us the equivalent of phonon physics, not a theory of electrons or photons, QED. In the second proposal, even without the knowledge of what the 'atom of spacetime' is, the mere thought that spacetime at all energies below the Planck scale, including today's, is quantum rather than classical, has many challenging consequences. We discuss the implications of this view pertaining to issues in gravitation and cosmology, as well as to macroscopic quantum coherence phenomena. (author)
Quantum-limited heat conduction over macroscopic distances
Partanen, Matti; Tan, Kuan Yen; Govenius, Joonas; Lake, Russell E.; Mäkelä, Miika K.; Tanttu, Tuomo; Möttönen, Mikko
2016-05-01
The emerging quantum technological apparatuses, such as the quantum computer, call for extreme performance in thermal engineering. Cold distant heat sinks are needed for the quantized electric degrees of freedom owing to the increasing packaging density and heat dissipation. Importantly, quantum mechanics sets a fundamental upper limit for the flow of information and heat, which is quantified by the quantum of thermal conductance. However, the short distance between the heat-exchanging bodies in the previous experiments hinders their applicability in quantum technology. Here, we present experimental observations of quantum-limited heat conduction over macroscopic distances extending to a metre. We achieved this improvement of four orders of magnitude in the distance by utilizing microwave photons travelling in superconducting transmission lines. Thus, it seems that quantum-limited heat conduction has no fundamental distance cutoff. This work establishes the integration of normal-metal components into the framework of circuit quantum electrodynamics, which provides a basis for the superconducting quantum computer. Especially, our results facilitate remote cooling of nanoelectronic devices using faraway in situ-tunable heat sinks. Furthermore, quantum-limited heat conduction is important in contemporary thermodynamics. Here, the long distance may lead to ultimately efficient mesoscopic heat engines with promising practical applications.
Macroscopic local-field effects on photoabsorption processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ma Xiaoguang; Gong Yubing; Wang Meishan; Wang Dehua
2008-01-01
The influence of the local-field effect on the photoabsorption cross sections of the atoms which are embedded in the macroscopic medium has been studied by a set of alternative expressions in detail. Some notes on the validity of some different local-field models used to study the photoabsorption cross sections of atoms in condensed matter have been given for the first time. Our results indicate that the local fields can have substantial and different influence on the photoabsorption cross section of atoms in condensed matter for different models. Clausius-Mossotti model and Onsager model have proved to be more reasonable to describe the local field in gas, liquid, or even some simple solid, while Glauber-Lewenstein model probably is wrong in these conditions except for the ideal gas. A procedure which can avoid the errors introduced by Kramers-Kronig transformation has been implemented in this work. This procedure can guarantee that the theoretical studies on the local field effects will not be influenced by the integral instability of the Kramers-Kronig transformation
Theory and feasibility tests for a seismic scanning tunnelling macroscope
Schuster, Gerard T.
2012-09-01
We propose a seismic scanning tunnelling macroscope (SSTM) that can detect subwavelength scatterers in the near-field of either the source or the receivers. Analytic formulas for the time reverse mirror (TRM) profile associated with a single scatterer model show that the spatial resolution limit to be, unlike the Abbe limit of λ/2, independent of wavelength and linearly proportional to the source-scatterer separation as long as the scatterer is in the near-field region. This means that, as the scatterer approaches the source, imaging of the scatterer with super-resolution can be achieved. Acoustic and elastic simulations support this concept, and a seismic experiment in an Arizona tunnel shows a TRM profile with super-resolution adjacent to the fault location. The SSTM is analogous to the optical scanning tunnelling microscopes having subwavelength resolution. Scaled to seismic frequencies, it is theoretically possible to extract 100 Hz information from 20 Hz data by the imaging of near-field seismic energy.
Three lectures on macroscopic aspects of nuclear dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Swiatecki, W.J.
1979-03-01
These lectures concentrate on macroscopic aspects of nuclear dynamics, those aspects that come into prominence when the number of nucleons, A, is large, A >> 1. An attempt is made to set up a theory of the dynamics of nuclear shape changes, for small (sub-sonic) collective velocities. To set up the equations of motion one needs three forces: conservative, dissipative, and inertial. The first lecture deals with statics, i.e., it discusses methods of treating the Potential Energy Function of nuclear systems. From the Potential Energy the conservative forces that drive the time evolution of a nuclear configuration can be deduced. The division of the underlying potential energy into Local, Proximity, and Global terms is stressed. The second lecture deals with dynamical aspects, especially with the nuclear Dissipation Function, which describes how dissipative frictional forces oppose the conservative driving forces. The underlying physics is the approximate validity of the Independent-Particle model. This, combined with the Randomization Hypothesis, leads to simple formulas that suggest that dissipative forces may often overshadow the inertial forces. The third lecture outlines the kind of dynamics that results from the balance of these forces, and describes a number of applications to nuclear fission and heavy-ion collisions of this New Dynamics. Particularly simple equations of motion are set up, and some of the consequences are explored. 18 references, 31 figures, 3 tables
Validity of macroscopic concepts for fluids on a microscopic scale
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alder, B.J.; Alley, W.E.; Pollock, E.L.
1981-01-01
By Fourier decomposition of the appropriate fluctuation it is possible within the regime of linear response to extend the concept of both thermodynamic quantities and transport coefficients to their dependence on both wavelength and frequency. Experimentally these generalized macroscopic properties are accessible through neutron diffraction and, as examples, the dependence of the sound speed on wavelength and the diffusion coefficient on time are discussed. Through the molecular dynamics computer method the dependence of the viscosity on wavelength is calculated and applied with spectacular success to predict the dependence of the friction coefficient on the size of a Brownian particle all the way to atomic dimensions. On the other hand, the dielectric constant continuum concept, as applied to a charge or dipole in a cavity, generally fails to predict even the correct field at large distance from the charge. Avoiding the introduction of a cavity cures that problem, but the generalized dielectric constant fails badly in predicting the field at shorter distances from the charge. (orig.)
Leinonen, Risto; Asikainen, Mervi A.; Hirvonen, Pekka E.
2015-01-01
This study concentrates on evaluating the consistency of upper-division students' use of the second law of thermodynamics at macroscopic and microscopic levels. Data were collected by means of a paper and pencil test (N = 48) focusing on the macroscopic and microscopic features of the second law concerned with heat transfer processes. The data…
Quantum mechanics versus macroscopic realism: Is the flux there when nobody looks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leggett, A.J.; Garg, A.
1985-01-01
It is shown that, in the contect of an idealized ''macroscopic quantum coherence'' experiment, the prediction of quantum mechanics are incompattible with the conjunction of two general assimptions which are designated ''macroscopic realism'' and ''noninvasive measurability at the macroscopiclevel.'' The conditions under which quantum mechanics can be tested against these assumptions in a realistic experiment are discussed
Role of stochastic fluctuations in the charge on macroscopic particles in dusty plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vaulina, O.S.; Nefedov, A.P.; Petrov, O.F.; Khrapak, S.A.
1999-01-01
The currents which charge a macroscopic particle placed in a plasma consist of discrete charges; hence, the charge can undergo random fluctuations about its equilibrium value. These random fluctuations can be described by a simple model which, if the mechanisms for charging of macroscopic particles are known, makes it possible to determine the dependence of the temporal and amplitude characteristics of the fluctuations on the plasma parameters. This model can be used to study the effect of charge fluctuations on the dynamics of the macroscopic particles. The case of so-called plasma-dust crystals (i.e., highly ordered structures which develop because of strong interactions among macroscopic particles) in laboratory gaseous discharge plasmas is considered as an example. The molecular dynamics method shows that, under certain conditions, random fluctuations in the charge can effectively heat a system of macroscopic particles, thereby impeding the ordering process
Macroscopic erosion of divertor and first wall armour in future tokamaks
Würz, H.; Bazylev, B.; Landman, I.; Pestchanyi, S.; Safronov, V.
2002-12-01
Sputtering, evaporation and macroscopic erosion determine the lifetime of the 'in vessel' armour materials CFC, tungsten and beryllium presently under discussion for future tokamaks. For CFC armour macroscopic erosion means brittle destruction and dust formation whereas for metallic armour melt layer erosion by melt motion and droplet splashing. Available results on macroscopic erosion from hot plasma and e-beam simulation experiments and from tokamaks are critically evaluated and a comprehensive discussion of experimental and numerical macroscopic erosion and its extrapolation to future tokamaks is given. Shielding of divertor armour materials by their own vapor exists during plasma disruptions. The evolving plasma shield protects the armour from high heat loads, absorbs the incoming energy and reradiates it volumetrically thus reducing drastically the deposited energy. As a result, vertical target erosion by vaporization turns out to be of the order of a few microns per disruption event and macroscopic erosion becomes the dominant erosion source.
Macroscopic erosion of divertor and first wall armour in future tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wuerz, H.; Bazylev, B.; Landman, I.; Pestchanyi, S.; Safronov, V.
2002-01-01
Sputtering, evaporation and macroscopic erosion determine the lifetime of the 'in vessel' armour materials CFC, tungsten and beryllium presently under discussion for future tokamaks. For CFC armour macroscopic erosion means brittle destruction and dust formation whereas for metallic armour melt layer erosion by melt motion and droplet splashing. Available results on macroscopic erosion from hot plasma and e-beam simulation experiments and from tokamaks are critically evaluated and a comprehensive discussion of experimental and numerical macroscopic erosion and its extrapolation to future tokamaks is given. Shielding of divertor armour materials by their own vapor exists during plasma disruptions. The evolving plasma shield protects the armour from high heat loads, absorbs the incoming energy and reradiates it volumetrically thus reducing drastically the deposited energy. As a result, vertical target erosion by vaporization turns out to be of the order of a few microns per disruption event and macroscopic erosion becomes the dominant erosion source
The double Brewster angle effect
Thirion-Lefevre, Laetitia; Guinvarc'h, Régis
2018-01-01
The Double Brewster angle effect (DBE) is an extension of the Brewster angle to double reflection on two orthogonal dielectric surfaces. It results from the combination of two pseudo-Brewster angles occurring in complementary incidence angles domains. It can be observed for a large range of incidence angles provided that double bounces mechanism is present. As a consequence of this effect, we show that the reflection coefficient at VV polarization can be at least 10 dB lower than the reflection coefficient at HH polarization over a wide range of incidence angle - typically from 20 to 70∘. It is experimentally demonstrated using a Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) image that this effect can be seen on buildings and forests. For large buildings, the difference can reach more than 20 dB. xml:lang="fr"
Dynamical simulation of structural multiplicity in grain boundaries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Majid, I.; Bristowe, P.D.
1987-06-01
Work on a computer simulation study of a low-energy high-angle boundary structure which is not periodic have been recently reported. This result is of interest since grain boundary structures are usually assumed to have a periodicity corresponding to the appropriate coincidence site lattice (CSL) and many experimental observations of the structure of grain boundaries performed using conventional and high-resolution electron microscopy, electron diffraction and x-ray diffraction appear to support this work. However, this work, using empirical interatomic pair potentials and the relaxation method of molecular statics, have simulated a Σ = 5 36.87 0 (001) twist boundary and found a low energy structure having a larger repeat cell than the CSL and is composed of two different types of structural unit that are randomly distributed in the boundary plane. This result, which has been termed the multiplicity of grain boundary structures, has also been found in the simulation of tilt boundaries. The multiplicity phenomenon is of special interest in twist boundaries since it is used as a structural model to explain the x-ray scattering from a Σ = 5 boundary in gold. These scattering patterns had previously remained unexplained using stable structures that had simple CSL periodicity. Also, the effect of having a multiple number of low energy structural units coexisting in the grain boundary is of more general interest since it implies that the boundary structures may be quasi-periodic and, in some circumstances, may even result in a roughening of the boundary plane. This paper extends this work by showing, using molecular dynamics, that a multiplicity of structural units can actually nucleate spontaneously in a high-angle grain boundary at finite temperatures
Angle Performance on Optima XE
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
David, Jonathan; Satoh, Shu
2011-01-01
Angle control on high energy implanters is important due to shrinking device dimensions, and sensitivity to channeling at high beam energies. On Optima XE, beam-to-wafer angles are controlled in both the horizontal and vertical directions. In the horizontal direction, the beam angle is measured through a series of narrow slits, and any angle adjustment is made by steering the beam with the corrector magnet. In the vertical direction, the beam angle is measured through a high aspect ratio mask, and any angle adjustment is made by slightly tilting the wafer platen during implant.Using a sensitive channeling condition, we were able to quantify the angle repeatability of Optima XE. By quantifying the sheet resistance sensitivity to both horizontal and vertical angle variation, the total angle variation was calculated as 0.04 deg. (1σ). Implants were run over a five week period, with all of the wafers selected from a single boule, in order to control for any crystal cut variation.
Small angle neutron scattering
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cousin Fabrice
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS is a technique that enables to probe the 3-D structure of materials on a typical size range lying from ∼ 1 nm up to ∼ a few 100 nm, the obtained information being statistically averaged on a sample whose volume is ∼ 1 cm3. This very rich technique enables to make a full structural characterization of a given object of nanometric dimensions (radius of gyration, shape, volume or mass, fractal dimension, specific area… through the determination of the form factor as well as the determination of the way objects are organized within in a continuous media, and therefore to describe interactions between them, through the determination of the structure factor. The specific properties of neutrons (possibility of tuning the scattering intensity by using the isotopic substitution, sensitivity to magnetism, negligible absorption, low energy of the incident neutrons make it particularly interesting in the fields of soft matter, biophysics, magnetic materials and metallurgy. In particular, the contrast variation methods allow to extract some informations that cannot be obtained by any other experimental techniques. This course is divided in two parts. The first one is devoted to the description of the principle of SANS: basics (formalism, coherent scattering/incoherent scattering, notion of elementary scatterer, form factor analysis (I(q→0, Guinier regime, intermediate regime, Porod regime, polydisperse system, structure factor analysis (2nd Virial coefficient, integral equations, characterization of aggregates, and contrast variation methods (how to create contrast in an homogeneous system, matching in ternary systems, extrapolation to zero concentration, Zero Averaged Contrast. It is illustrated by some representative examples. The second one describes the experimental aspects of SANS to guide user in its future experiments: description of SANS spectrometer, resolution of the spectrometer, optimization of
Advantageous grain boundaries in iron pnictide superconductors
Katase, Takayoshi; Ishimaru, Yoshihiro; Tsukamoto, Akira; Hiramatsu, Hidenori; Kamiya, Toshio; Tanabe, Keiichi; Hosono, Hideo
2011-01-01
High critical temperature superconductors have zero power consumption and could be used to produce ideal electric power lines. The principal obstacle in fabricating superconducting wires and tapes is grain boundaries—the misalignment of crystalline orientations at grain boundaries, which is unavoidable for polycrystals, largely deteriorates critical current density. Here we report that high critical temperature iron pnictide superconductors have advantages over cuprates with respect to these grain boundary issues. The transport properties through well-defined bicrystal grain boundary junctions with various misorientation angles (θGB) were systematically investigated for cobalt-doped BaFe2As2 (BaFe2As2:Co) epitaxial films fabricated on bicrystal substrates. The critical current density through bicrystal grain boundary (JcBGB) remained high (>1 MA cm−2) and nearly constant up to a critical angle θc of ∼9°, which is substantially larger than the θc of ∼5° for YBa2Cu3O7–δ. Even at θGB>θc, the decay of JcBGB was much slower than that of YBa2Cu3O7–δ. PMID:21811238
Macroscopic behavior and microscopic magnetic properties of nanocarbon
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lähderanta, E., E-mail: Erkki.Lahderanta@lut.fi [Lappeenranta University of Technology, PO Box 20, FIN-53851 Lappeenranta (Finland); Ryzhov, V.A. [Lappeenranta University of Technology, PO Box 20, FIN-53851 Lappeenranta (Finland); Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, NRC “Kurchatov Institute”, Orlova Coppice, Gatchina, Leningrad province 188300 (Russian Federation); Lashkul, A.V. [Lappeenranta University of Technology, PO Box 20, FIN-53851 Lappeenranta (Finland); Galimov, D.M. [Lappeenranta University of Technology, PO Box 20, FIN-53851 Lappeenranta (Finland); South Ural State University, 454080 Chelyabinsk (Russian Federation); Titkov, A.N. [Lappeenranta University of Technology, PO Box 20, FIN-53851 Lappeenranta (Finland); A. F. Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Matveev, V.V. [Lappeenranta University of Technology, PO Box 20, FIN-53851 Lappeenranta (Finland); Saint-Petersburg State University, Saint-Petersburg 198504 (Russian Federation); Mokeev, M.V. [Institute of Macromolecular Compounds, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Kurbakov, A.I. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, NRC “Kurchatov Institute”, Orlova Coppice, Gatchina, Leningrad province 188300 (Russian Federation); Lisunov, K.G. [Lappeenranta University of Technology, PO Box 20, FIN-53851 Lappeenranta (Finland); Institute of Applied Physics ASM, Academiei Str., 5, MD 2028 Kishinev (Moldova, Republic of)
2015-06-01
Here are presented investigations of powder and glass-like samples containing carbon nanoparticles, not intentionally doped and doped with Ag, Au and Co. The neutron diffraction study reveals an amorphous structure of the samples doped with Au and Co, as well as the magnetic scattering due to a long-range FM order in the Co-doped sample. The composition and molecular structure of the sample doped with Au is clarified with the NMR investigations. The temperature dependence of the magnetization, M (T), exhibits large irreversibility in low fields of B=1–7 mT. M (B) saturates already above 2 T at high temperatures, but deviates from the saturation behavior below ~50 (150 K). Magnetic hysteresis is observed already at 300 K and exhibits a power-law temperature decay of the coercive field, B{sub c} (T). The macroscopic behavior above is typical of an assembly of partially blocked magnetic nanoparticles. The values of the saturation magnetization, M{sub s}, and the blocking temperature, T{sub b}, are obtained as well. However, the hysteresis loop in the Co-doped sample differs from that in other samples, and the values of B{sub c} and M{sub s} are noticeably increased. - Highlights: • We have investigated powder and glassy samples with carbon nanoparticles. • They include an undoped sample and those doped with Ag, Au and Co. • Neutron diffraction study reveals amorphous structure of Au- and Co-doped samples. • Composition and molecular structure of Au-doped sample was investigated with NMR. • Magnetic behavior is typical of an assembly of partially blocked magnetic nanoparticles.
Macroscopic behavior and microscopic magnetic properties of nanocarbon
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lähderanta, E.; Ryzhov, V.A.; Lashkul, A.V.; Galimov, D.M.; Titkov, A.N.; Matveev, V.V.; Mokeev, M.V.; Kurbakov, A.I.; Lisunov, K.G.
2015-01-01
Here are presented investigations of powder and glass-like samples containing carbon nanoparticles, not intentionally doped and doped with Ag, Au and Co. The neutron diffraction study reveals an amorphous structure of the samples doped with Au and Co, as well as the magnetic scattering due to a long-range FM order in the Co-doped sample. The composition and molecular structure of the sample doped with Au is clarified with the NMR investigations. The temperature dependence of the magnetization, M (T), exhibits large irreversibility in low fields of B=1–7 mT. M (B) saturates already above 2 T at high temperatures, but deviates from the saturation behavior below ~50 (150 K). Magnetic hysteresis is observed already at 300 K and exhibits a power-law temperature decay of the coercive field, B c (T). The macroscopic behavior above is typical of an assembly of partially blocked magnetic nanoparticles. The values of the saturation magnetization, M s , and the blocking temperature, T b , are obtained as well. However, the hysteresis loop in the Co-doped sample differs from that in other samples, and the values of B c and M s are noticeably increased. - Highlights: • We have investigated powder and glassy samples with carbon nanoparticles. • They include an undoped sample and those doped with Ag, Au and Co. • Neutron diffraction study reveals amorphous structure of Au- and Co-doped samples. • Composition and molecular structure of Au-doped sample was investigated with NMR. • Magnetic behavior is typical of an assembly of partially blocked magnetic nanoparticles
Proton irradiation effects on beryllium – A macroscopic assessment
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Simos, Nikolaos, E-mail: simos@bnl.gov [Nuclear Sciences & Technology Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY, 11973 (United States); Elbakhshwan, Mohamed [Nuclear Sciences & Technology Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY, 11973 (United States); Zhong, Zhong [Photon Sciences, NSLS II, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY, 11973 (United States); Camino, Fernando [Center for Functional Nanomaterials, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY, 11973 (United States)
2016-10-15
Beryllium, due to its excellent neutron multiplication and moderation properties, in conjunction with its good thermal properties, is under consideration for use as plasma facing material in fusion reactors and as a very effective neutron reflector in fission reactors. While it is characterized by unique combination of structural, chemical, atomic number, and neutron absorption cross section it suffers, however, from irradiation generated transmutation gases such as helium and tritium which exhibit low solubility leading to supersaturation of the Be matrix and tend to precipitate into bubbles that coalesce and induce swelling and embrittlement thus degrading the metal and limiting its lifetime. Utilization of beryllium as a pion production low-Z target in high power proton accelerators has been sought both for its low Z and good thermal properties in an effort to mitigate thermos-mechanical shock that is expected to be induced under the multi-MW power demand. To assess irradiation-induced changes in the thermal and mechanical properties of Beryllium, a study focusing on proton irradiation damage effects has been undertaken using 200 MeV protons from the Brookhaven National Laboratory Linac and followed by a multi-faceted post-irradiation analysis that included the thermal and volumetric stability of irradiated beryllium, the stress-strain behavior and its ductility loss as a function of proton fluence and the effects of proton irradiation on the microstructure using synchrotron X-ray diffraction. The mimicking of high temperature irradiation of Beryllium via high temperature annealing schemes has been conducted as part of the post-irradiation study. This paper focuses on the thermal stability and mechanical property changes of the proton irradiated beryllium and presents results of the macroscopic property changes of Beryllium deduced from thermal and mechanical tests.
Innovations in macroscopic evaluation of pancreatic specimens and radiologic correlation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Charikleia Triantopoulou
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of a novel dissection technique of surgical specimens in different cases of pancreatic tumors and provide a radiologic pathologic correlation. In our hospital, that is a referral center for pancreatic diseases, the macroscopic evaluation of the pancreatectomy specimens is performed by the pathologists using the axial slicing technique (instead of the traditional procedure with longitudinal opening of the main pancreatic and/or common bile duct and slicing along the plane defined by both ducts. The specimen is sliced in an axial plane that is perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the descending duodenum. The procedure results in a large number of thin slices (3–4 mm. This plane is identical to that of CT or MRI and correlation between pathology and imaging is straightforward. We studied 70 cases of suspected different solid and cystic pancreatic tumors and we correlated the tumor size and location, the structure—consistency (areas of necrosis—hemorrhage—fibrosis—inflammation, the degree of vessels’ infiltration, the size of pancreatic and common bile duct and the distance from resection margins. Missed findings by imaging or pitfalls were recorded and we tried to explain all discrepancies between radiology evaluation and the histopathological findings. Radiologic-pathologic correlation is extremely important, adding crucial information on imaging limitations and enabling quality assessment of surgical specimens. The deep knowledge of different pancreatic tumors’ consistency and way of extension helps to improve radiologists’ diagnostic accuracy and minimize the radiological-surgical mismatching, preventing patients from unnecessary surgery.
Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of macroscopic morphology and dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barrall, G.A.; Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA
1995-09-01
Nuclear magnetic resonance techniques are traditionally used to study molecular level structure and dynamics with a noted exception in medically applied NMR imaging (MRI). In this work, new experimental methods and theory are presented relevant to the study of macroscopic morphology and dynamics using NMR field gradient techniques and solid state two-dimensional exchange NMR. The goal in this work is not to take some particular system and study it in great detail, rather it is to show the utility of a number of new and novel techniques using ideal systems primarily as a proof of principle. By taking advantage of the analogy between NMR imaging and diffraction, one may simplify the experiments necessary for characterizing the statistical properties of the sample morphology. For a sample composed of many small features, e.g. a porous medium, the NMR diffraction techniques take advantage of both the narrow spatial range and spatial isotropy of the sample's density autocorrelation function to obtain high resolution structural information in considerably less time than that required by conventional NMR imaging approaches. The time savings of the technique indicates that NMR diffraction is capable of finer spatial resolution than conventional NMR imaging techniques. Radio frequency NMR imaging with a coaxial resonator represents the first use of cylindrically symmetric field gradients in imaging. The apparatus as built has achieved resolution at the micron level for water samples, and has the potential to be very useful in the imaging of circularly symmetric systems. The study of displacement probability densities in flow through a random porous medium has revealed the presence of features related to the interconnectedness of the void volumes. The pulsed gradient techniques used have proven successful at measuring flow properties for time and length scales considerably shorter than those studied by more conventional techniques
NMR studies of macroscopic and microscopic properties of liquid crystals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hughes, J.R.
1998-03-01
The work presented is concerned with studies of orientational order in liquid crystals and the behaviour of certain mesophases. The experimental technique used in common with all the work is deuterium NMR spectroscopy. Much of the work involves studies of the orientational order of deuteriated solute molecules dissolved in liquid crystal solvents. Chapter 1 gives an introduction to liquid crystals followed by a quantitative description of orientational order. Deuterium NMR in liquid crystals is described and an outline of the molecular field theory behind the orientational order of a rigid, biaxial solute in a uniaxial mesophase is given. In Chapter 2 a novel type of mesophase induction is studied using NMR, where a solute induces up to two extra phases in a discotic mesogen depending on its concentration. The purpose of this work is to try to gain an understanding into the mechanism of the phase induction involved. Chapter 3 is concerned primarily with the macroscopic behaviour of the nematic phase formed by a semi-rigid main-chain polymer in solution. Of particular interest is the study of the reorientation of the monodomain, once the director has been rotated with respect to the magnetic field of the NMR spectrometer. A mesogen which has been claimed to exhibit a biaxial nematic phase is studied in Chapter 4, in order to determine the symmetry of the phase using NMR. Finally, Chapter 5 deals with the differing behaviour of a liquid crystal monomer and its dimer dissolved in common nematic solvents in order to determine whether this agrees with molecular field theory. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhu, Yuping, E-mail: zhuyuping@126.com; Gu, Yunling; Liu, Hongguang
2015-02-25
Directional solidification technology has been widely used to improve the properties of polycrystalline Ni{sub 2}MnGa materials. Mechanical training can adjust the internal organizational structures of the materials, reduce the stress of twin boundaries motion, and then result in larger strain at lower outfield levels. In this paper, we test the microscopic structure of Ni{sub 2}MnGa polycrystalline ferromagnetic shape memory alloy produced by directional solidification and compress it along two axes successively for mechanical training. The influences of pre-compressive stresses on the temperature-induced strains are analyzed. The macroscopic mechanical behaviors show anisotropy. According to the generating mechanism of the macroscopic strain, a three-dimensional constitutive model is established. Based on thermodynamic method, the kinetic equations of the martensitic transformation and inverse transformation are presented considering the driving force and energy dissipation. The prediction curves of temperature-induce strains along two different directions are investigated. And the results coincide well with the experiment data. It well explains the macroscopic anisotropy mechanical behaviors and fits for using in engineering.
Grain-size distributions and grain boundaries of chalcopyrite-type thin films
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abou-Ras, D.; Schorr, S.; Schock, H.W.
2007-01-01
CuInSe 2 , CuGaSe 2 , Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 and CuInS 2 thin-film solar absorbers in completed solar cells were studied in cross section by means of electronbackscatter diffraction. From the data acquired, grain-size distributions were extracted, and also the most frequent grain boundaries were determined. The grain-size distributions of all chalcopyrite-type thin films studied can be described well by lognormal distribution functions. The most frequent grainboundary types in these thin films are 60 - left angle 221 right angle tet and 71 - left angle 110 right angle tet (near) Σ3 twin boundaries. These results can be related directly to the importance of {112} tet planes during the topotactical growth of chalcopyrite-type thin films. Based on energetic considerations, it is assumed that the most frequent twin boundaries exhibit a 180 - left angle 221 right angle tet constellation. (orig.)
Automated analysis of angle closure from anterior chamber angle images.
Baskaran, Mani; Cheng, Jun; Perera, Shamira A; Tun, Tin A; Liu, Jiang; Aung, Tin
2014-10-21
To evaluate a novel software capable of automatically grading angle closure on EyeCam angle images in comparison with manual grading of images, with gonioscopy as the reference standard. In this hospital-based, prospective study, subjects underwent gonioscopy by a single observer, and EyeCam imaging by a different operator. The anterior chamber angle in a quadrant was classified as closed if the posterior trabecular meshwork could not be seen. An eye was classified as having angle closure if there were two or more quadrants of closure. Automated grading of the angle images was performed using customized software. Agreement between the methods was ascertained by κ statistic and comparison of area under receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC). One hundred forty subjects (140 eyes) were included, most of whom were Chinese (102/140, 72.9%) and women (72/140, 51.5%). Angle closure was detected in 61 eyes (43.6%) with gonioscopy in comparison with 59 eyes (42.1%, P = 0.73) using manual grading, and 67 eyes (47.9%, P = 0.24) with automated grading of EyeCam images. The agreement for angle closure diagnosis between gonioscopy and both manual (κ = 0.88; 95% confidence interval [CI), 0.81-0.96) and automated grading of EyeCam images was good (κ = 0.74; 95% CI, 0.63-0.85). The AUC for detecting eyes with gonioscopic angle closure was comparable for manual and automated grading (AUC 0.974 vs. 0.954, P = 0.31) of EyeCam images. Customized software for automated grading of EyeCam angle images was found to have good agreement with gonioscopy. Human observation of the EyeCam images may still be needed to avoid gross misclassification, especially in eyes with extensive angle closure. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dimitrov, O.
1975-01-01
Well-established aspects of grain-boundary migration are first briefly reviewed (influences of driving force, temperature, orientation and foreign atoms). Recent developments of the experimental methods and results are then examined, by considering the various driving of resistive forces acting on grain boundaries. Finally, the evolution in the theoretical models of grain-boundary motion is described, on the one hand for ideally pure metals and, on the other hand, in the presence of solute impurity atoms [fr
Steeneveld, G.J.
2012-01-01
Understanding and prediction of the stable atmospheric boundary layer is a challenging task. Many physical processes are relevant in the stable boundary layer, i.e. turbulence, radiation, land surface coupling, orographic turbulent and gravity wave drag, and land surface heterogeneity. The development of robust stable boundary layer parameterizations for use in NWP and climate models is hampered by the multiplicity of processes and their unknown interactions. As a result, these models suffer ...
Measurement of the angle gamma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aleksan, R.; Sphicas, P.; Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA
1993-12-01
The angle γ as defined in the Wolfenstein approximation is not completely out of reach of current or proposed dedicated B experiments. This work represents but a first step in the direction of extracting the third angle of the unitarity triangle by study the feasibility of using new decay modes in a hadronic machine. (A.B.). 11 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs
King, Simon; Dimech, Margaret; Johnstone, Susan
2016-06-01
We examined whether introduction of a structured macroscopic reporting template for rectal tumour resection specimens improved the completeness and efficiency in collecting key macroscopic data elements. Fifty free text (narrative) macroscopic reports retrieved from 2012 to 2014 were compared with 50 structured macroscopic reports from 2013 to 2015, all of which were generated at John Hunter Hospital, Newcastle, NSW. The six standard macroscopic data elements examined in this study were reported in all 50 anatomical pathology reports using a structured macroscopic reporting dictation template. Free text reports demonstrated significantly impaired data collection when recording intactness of mesorectum (p<0.001), relationship to anterior peritoneal reflection (p=0.028) and distance of tumour to the non-peritonealised circumferential margin (p<0.001). The number of words used was also significantly (p<0.001) reduced using pre-formatted structured reports compared to free text reports. The introduction of a structured reporting dictation template improves data collection and may reduce the subsequent administrative burden when macroscopically evaluating rectal resections. Copyright © 2016 Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Innovations in macroscopic evaluation of pancreatic specimens and radiologic correlation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Triantopoulou, Charikleia; Papaparaskeva, Kleo; Agalianos, Christos; Dervenis, Christos
2016-01-01
•The axial slicing technique offers many advantages in accurate estimation of tumors extend and staging.•Cross-sectional axial imaging is the best technique for accurate radiologic-pathologic correlation.•Correlation may explain any discrepancies between radiological and histopathological findings.•Pathology correlation may offer a better understanding of the missed findings by imaging or pitfalls The axial slicing technique offers many advantages in accurate estimation of tumors extend and staging. Cross-sectional axial imaging is the best technique for accurate radiologic-pathologic correlation. Correlation may explain any discrepancies between radiological and histopathological findings. Pathology correlation may offer a better understanding of the missed findings by imaging or pitfalls The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of a novel dissection technique of surgical specimens in different cases of pancreatic tumors and provide a radiologic pathologic correlation. In our hospital, that is a referral center for pancreatic diseases, the macroscopic evaluation of the pancreatectomy specimens is performed by the pathologists using the axial slicing technique (instead of the traditional procedure with longitudinal opening of the main pancreatic and/or common bile duct and slicing along the plane defined by both ducts). The specimen is sliced in an axial plane that is perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the descending duodenum. The procedure results in a large number of thin slices (3–4 mm). This plane is identical to that of CT or MRI and correlation between pathology and imaging is straightforward. We studied 70 cases of suspected different solid and cystic pancreatic tumors and we correlated the tumor size and location, the structure—consistency (areas of necrosis—hemorrhage—fibrosis—inflammation), the degree of vessels’ infiltration, the size of pancreatic and common bile duct and the distance from resection margins
On quantum effects in the dynamics of macroscopic test masses
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mueller-Ebhardt, Helge
2009-01-01
This thesis provides theoretically a link between the increase of the sensitivity of gravitational-wave detectors and the possibility of preparing macroscopic quantum states in such detectors. In the first part of this thesis, we theoretically explore the quantum measurement noise of an optical speed meter topology, the Sagnac interferometer, equipped with an additional detuned cavity at the output port. This detuned signal-recycling technique was already investigated when applying it to a Michelson interferometer and is used in the gravitational-wave detector GEO600. Together with the quantum noise analysis of the simple Sagnac interferometer, it is the basis of our study: we optimize the Sagnac interferometer's sensitivity towards the detection of a certain gravitational-wave source in the vicinity of a realistic classical noise environment. Motivated by the fact that the Michelson interferometer, as a position meter, with detuned signal-recycling can transduce the gravitational-wave strain into real mirror motion, we compare the transducer effect in a speed and in a position meter. Furthermore, we theoretically investigate the conditional output squeezing of a cavity which is detuned with respect to its carrier and its subcarrier. Therewith we pursue the theoretical analysis of the ponderomotive squeezer. With the knowledge gained in the first part about the quantum measurement process in laser interferometers, the second part of this thesis comprises a theoretical analysis of the conditonal state in positon and momentum of the interferometer's test masses. We motivate not to obtain the conditional states from a stochastic master equation but with the help of the so-called Wiener filtering method. Using this method, we calculate the most general expression for the conditional covariance matrix of the Gaussian state of a test mass under any linear Markovian measurement process. Then we specify to the interferometry and theoretically show under which circumstances
Polymorphic phase transitions: Macroscopic theory and molecular simulation.
Anwar, Jamshed; Zahn, Dirk
2017-08-01
Transformations in the solid state are of considerable interest, both for fundamental reasons and because they underpin important technological applications. The interest spans a wide spectrum of disciplines and application domains. For pharmaceuticals, a common issue is unexpected polymorphic transformation of the drug or excipient during processing or on storage, which can result in product failure. A more ambitious goal is that of exploiting the advantages of metastable polymorphs (e.g. higher solubility and dissolution rate) while ensuring their stability with respect to solid state transformation. To address these issues and to advance technology, there is an urgent need for significant insights that can only come from a detailed molecular level understanding of the involved processes. Whilst experimental approaches at best yield time- and space-averaged structural information, molecular simulation offers unprecedented, time-resolved molecular-level resolution of the processes taking place. This review aims to provide a comprehensive and critical account of state-of-the-art methods for modelling polymorph stability and transitions between solid phases. This is flanked by revisiting the associated macroscopic theoretical framework for phase transitions, including their classification, proposed molecular mechanisms, and kinetics. The simulation methods are presented in tutorial form, focusing on their application to phase transition phenomena. We describe molecular simulation studies for crystal structure prediction and polymorph screening, phase coexistence and phase diagrams, simulations of crystal-crystal transitions of various types (displacive/martensitic, reconstructive and diffusive), effects of defects, and phase stability and transitions at the nanoscale. Our selection of literature is intended to illustrate significant insights, concepts and understanding, as well as the current scope of using molecular simulations for understanding polymorphic
Observation of squeezed light and quantum description of the macroscopical body movement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bykov, V.P.
1992-01-01
The possibility of a nondemolition measurement (observation) of macroscopical objects in widely distributed quantum mechanical states arises from the fact of the squezzed light observation. Macroscopical bodies -bodies of classical mechanics - are usually in states with narrow wave packets. It is shown that the absence of macroscopical bodies in widely distributed states is due to the focusing influence of the body's gravity field on its wave packet. An evidence that the gravity is essential in the classic limit of quantum mechanics is given. (author). 14 refs, 7 figs
Reitz, Meredith; Stark, Colin; Hung, Chi-Yao; Smith, Breannan; Grinspin, Eitan; Capart, Herve; Li, Liming; Crone, Timothy; Hsu, Leslie; Ling, Hoe
2014-05-01
A complete theoretical understanding of geophysical granular flow is essential to the reliable assessment of landslide and debris flow hazard and for the design of mitigation strategies, but several key challenges remain. Perhaps the most basic is a general treatment of the processes of internal energy dissipation, which dictate the runout velocity and the shape and scale of the affected area. Currently, dissipation is best described by macroscopic, empirical friction coefficients only indirectly related to the grain-scale physics. Another challenge is describing the forces exerted at the boundaries of the flow, which dictate the entrainment of further debris and the erosion of cohesive surfaces. While the granular effects on these boundary forces have been shown to be large compared to predictions from continuum approximations, the link between granular effects and erosion or entrainment rates has not been settled. Here we present preliminary results of a multi-disciplinary study aimed at improving our understanding of granular flow energy dissipation and boundary forces, through an effort to connect grain-scale physics to macroscopic behaviors. Insights into grain-scale force distributions and energy dissipation mechanisms are derived from discrete contact-dynamics simulations. Macroscopic erosion and flow behaviors are documented from a series of granular flow experiments, in which a rotating drum half-filled with grains is placed within a centrifuge payload, in order to drive effective gravity levels up to ~100g and approach the forces present in natural systems. A continuum equation is used to characterize the flowing layer depth and velocity resulting from the force balance between the down-slope pull of gravity and the friction at the walls. In this presentation we will focus on the effect of granular-specific physics such as force chain networks and grain-grain collisions, derived from the contact dynamics simulations. We will describe our efforts to
Steeneveld, G.J.
2012-01-01
Understanding and prediction of the stable atmospheric boundary layer is a challenging task. Many physical processes are relevant in the stable boundary layer, i.e. turbulence, radiation, land surface coupling, orographic turbulent and gravity wave drag, and land surface heterogeneity. The
Collisional boundary layer analysis for neoclassical toroidal plasma viscosity in tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shaing, K. C.; Cahyna, P.; Becoulet, M.; Park, J.-K.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Chu, M. S.
2008-01-01
It is demonstrated that the pitch angle integrals in the transport fluxes in the ν regime calculated in K. C. Shang [Phys. Plasmas 10, 1443 (2003)] are divergent as the trapped-circulating boundary is approached. Here, ν is the collision frequency. The origin of this divergence results from the logarithmic dependence in the bounce averaged radial drift velocity. A collisional boundary layer analysis is developed to remove the singularity. The resultant pitch angle integrals now include not only the original physics of the ν regime but also the boundary layer physics. The transport fluxes, caused by the particles inside the boundary layer, scale as √(ν)
RF sheaths for arbitrary B field angles
D'Ippolito, Daniel; Myra, James
2014-10-01
RF sheaths occur in tokamaks when ICRF waves encounter conducting boundaries and accelerate electrons out of the plasma. Sheath effects reduce the efficiency of ICRF heating, cause RF-specific impurity influxes from the edge plasma, and increase the plasma-facing component damage. The rf sheath potential is sensitive to the angle between the B field and the wall, the ion mobility and the ion magnetization. Here, we obtain a numerical solution of the non-neutral rf sheath and magnetic pre-sheath equations (for arbitrary values of these parameters) and attempt to infer the parametric dependences of the Child-Langmuir law. This extends previous work on the magnetized, immobile ion regime. An important question is how the rf sheath voltage distributes itself between sheath and pre-sheath for various B field angles. This will show how generally previous estimates of the rf sheath voltage and capacitance were reasonable, and to improve the RF sheath BC. Work supported by US DOE grants DE-FC02-05ER54823 and DE-FG02-97ER54392.
Development of boundary layers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Herbst, R.
1980-01-01
Boundary layers develop along the blade surfaces on both the pressure and the suction side in a non-stationary flow field. This is due to the fact that there is a strongly fluctuating flow on the downstream blade row, especially as a result of the wakes of the upstream blade row. The author investigates the formation of boundary layers under non-stationary flow conditions and tries to establish a model describing the non-stationary boundary layer. For this purpose, plate boundary layers are measured, at constant flow rates but different interferent frequency and variable pressure gradients. By introducing the sample technique, measurements of the non-stationary boundary layer become possible, and the flow rate fluctuation can be divided in its components, i.e. stochastic turbulence and periodical fluctuation. (GL) [de
Relationship between the Angle of Repose and Angle of Internal ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
). The angle of internal friction ... compression chambers. Lorenzen, 1957 (quoted by Mohsenin,. 1986), reported that the design of deep ... tiongiven for lateral pressure in deep bins as presented by Mohsenin. (1986). The presence of moisture ...
Edge contact angle and modified Kelvin equation for condensation in open pores.
Malijevský, Alexandr; Parry, Andrew O; Pospíšil, Martin
2017-08-01
We consider capillary condensation transitions occurring in open slits of width L and finite height H immersed in a reservoir of vapor. In this case the pressure at which condensation occurs is closer to saturation compared to that occurring in an infinite slit (H=∞) due to the presence of two menisci that are pinned near the open ends. Using macroscopic arguments, we derive a modified Kelvin equation for the pressure p_{cc}(L;H) at which condensation occurs and show that the two menisci are characterized by an edge contact angle θ_{e} that is always larger than the equilibrium contact angle θ, only equal to it in the limit of macroscopic H. For walls that are completely wet (θ=0) the edge contact angle depends only on the aspect ratio of the capillary and is well described by θ_{e}≈sqrt[πL/2H] for large H. Similar results apply for condensation in cylindrical pores of finite length. We test these predictions against numerical results obtained using a microscopic density-functional model where the presence of an edge contact angle characterizing the shape of the menisci is clearly visible from the density profiles. Below the wetting temperature T_{w} we find very good agreement for slit pores of widths of just a few tens of molecular diameters, while above T_{w} the modified Kelvin equation only becomes accurate for much larger systems.
Edge contact angle and modified Kelvin equation for condensation in open pores
Malijevský, Alexandr; Parry, Andrew O.; Pospíšil, Martin
2017-08-01
We consider capillary condensation transitions occurring in open slits of width L and finite height H immersed in a reservoir of vapor. In this case the pressure at which condensation occurs is closer to saturation compared to that occurring in an infinite slit (H =∞ ) due to the presence of two menisci that are pinned near the open ends. Using macroscopic arguments, we derive a modified Kelvin equation for the pressure pc c(L ;H ) at which condensation occurs and show that the two menisci are characterized by an edge contact angle θe that is always larger than the equilibrium contact angle θ , only equal to it in the limit of macroscopic H . For walls that are completely wet (θ =0 ) the edge contact angle depends only on the aspect ratio of the capillary and is well described by θe≈√{π L /2 H } for large H . Similar results apply for condensation in cylindrical pores of finite length. We test these predictions against numerical results obtained using a microscopic density-functional model where the presence of an edge contact angle characterizing the shape of the menisci is clearly visible from the density profiles. Below the wetting temperature Tw we find very good agreement for slit pores of widths of just a few tens of molecular diameters, while above Tw the modified Kelvin equation only becomes accurate for much larger systems.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Howes, P.B.; Rhead, S.; Roy, M.; Nicklin, C.L.; Rawle, J.L.; Norris, C.A.
2013-01-01
The atomic structure of the silicon Σ13(5 0 1) symmetric tilt grain boundary interface has been determined using Bragg rod X-ray scattering. In contrast to conventional structural studies of grain boundary structure using transmission electron microscopy, this approach allows the non-destructive measurement of macroscopic samples. The interface was found to have a single structure that is fully fourfold coordinated. X-ray diffraction data were measured at Beamline I07 at the Diamond Light Source
Ring magnet firing angle control
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Knott, M.J.; Lewis, L.G.; Rabe, H.H.
1975-01-01
A device is provided for controlling the firing angles of thyratrons (rectifiers) in a ring magnet power supply. A phase lock loop develops a smooth ac signal of frequency equal to and in phase with the frequency of the voltage wave developed by the main generator of the power supply. A counter that counts from zero to a particular number each cycle of the main generator voltage wave is synchronized with the smooth AC signal of the phase lock loop. Gates compare the number in the counter with predetermined desired firing angles for each thyratron and with coincidence the proper thyratron is fired at the predetermined firing angle
Grain boundary motion and grain rotation in aluminum bicrystals: recent experiments and simulations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Molodov, D A; Barrales-Mora, L A; Brandenburg, J-E
2015-01-01
The results of experimental and computational efforts over recent years to study the motion of geometrically different grain boundaries and grain rotation under various driving forces are briefly reviewed. Novel in-situ measuring techniques based on orientation contrast imaging and applied simulation techniques are described. The experimental results obtained on specially grown aluminum bicrystals are presented and discussed. Particularly, the faceting and migration behavior of low angle grain boundaries under the curvature force is addressed. In contrast to the pure tilt boundaries, which remained flat/faceted and immobile during annealing at elevated temperatures, mixed tilt-twist boundaries readily assumed a curved shape and steadily moved under the capillary force. Computational analysis revealed that this behavior is due to the inclinational anisotropy of grain boundary energy, which in turn depends on boundary geometry. The shape evolution and shrinkage kinetics of cylindrical grains with different tilt and mixed boundaries were studied by molecular dynamics simulations. The mobility of low angle <100> boundaries with misorientation angles higher than 10°, obtained by both the experiments and simulations, was found not to differ from that of the high angle boundaries, but decreases essentially with further decrease of misorientation. The shape evolution of the embedded grains in simulations was found to relate directly to results of the energy computations. Further simulation results revealed that the shrinkage of grains with pure tilt boundaries is accompanied by grain rotation. In contrast, grains with the tilt-twist boundaries composed of dislocations with the mixed edge-screw character do not rotate during their shrinkage. Stress driven boundary migration in aluminium bicrystals was observed to be coupled to a tangential translation of the grains. The activation enthalpy of high angle boundary migration was found to vary non-monotonically with
From Microscopic to Macroscopic Descriptions of Cell Migration on Growing Domains
Baker, Ruth E.; Yates, Christian A.; Erban, Radek
2009-01-01
are studied, and correspondence with a macroscopic-level PDE describing the evolution of cell density is demonstrated. The individual-based models are formulated in terms of random walkers on a lattice. Domain growth provides an extra mathematical challenge
New nuclear data set ABBN-90 and its testing on macroscopic experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kosh'cheev, V.N.; Manturov, G.N.; Nikolaev, M.N.; Rineyskiy, A.A.; Sinitsa, V.V.; Tsyboolya, A.M.; Zabrodskaya, S.V.
1993-01-01
The new group constant set ABBN-90 is developed now. It based on the FOND-2 evaluated neutron data library processed with the code GRUCON. Some results of the testing ABBN-90 set in different macroscopic experiments are presented. (author)
Relationship Between Filler-Matrix Interface and Macroscopical Properties of Polymer Nanocomposites
Ventura, Isaac Aguilar
2017-01-01
The macroscopic properties of Multiwall Carbon Nanotube (MWCNT) polymer nano-composites and multiscale composites have been studied from a multifunctional standpoint. The objective is to understand and correlate the mechanisms in which the addition
Equation-Free Analysis of Macroscopic Behavior in Traffic and Pedestrian Flow
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Marschler, Christian; Sieber, Jan; Hjorth, Poul G.
2014-01-01
Equation-free methods make possible an analysis of the evolution of a few coarse-grained or macroscopic quantities for a detailed and realistic model with a large number of fine-grained or microscopic variables, even though no equations are explicitly given on the macroscopic level. This will fac......Equation-free methods make possible an analysis of the evolution of a few coarse-grained or macroscopic quantities for a detailed and realistic model with a large number of fine-grained or microscopic variables, even though no equations are explicitly given on the macroscopic level....... This will facilitate a study of how the model behavior depends on parameter values including an understanding of transitions between different types of qualitative behavior. These methods are introduced and explained for traffic jam formation and emergence of oscillatory pedestrian counter flow in a corridor...
Grain-boundary engineering applied to grain growth in a high temperature material
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huda, Z.
1993-01-01
Crystallography of grain boundaries are determined for a high temperature material, before and after grain growth processes, so as to study the induction of special properties useful for application in components of a gas-turbine engine. The philosophy of grain-boundary engineering is applied to grain growth in APK-6, a powder formed nickel-base superalloy so as to establish the possible structure/property relationships. The alloy in the as received condition is shown to possess a strong texture and contained coincident site lattices (CSL) boundaries with most boundaries having sigma values in the range of 3 > sigma > 25. A normal grain-growth heat treatment result in a good population of low angle grain boundaries, and drastically reduces the proportion of CSL boundaries. A strong [011] annealing texture is observed after an intermediate grain growth; most grain boundaries, here, tend to be high angle indicating a possibility of possessing special properties. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shibata, T.; Hasegawa, Y. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan)
2010-07-01
Grain boundary precipitation strengthening is expected to be a decisive factor in developing ferritic creep resistant steels. This study examined the grain boundary precipitation strengthening mechanism extracting the effect of the tempered martensitic microstructure and precipitates on the high angle grain boundary in M{sub 23}C4{sub 6} type carbide and the Fe{sub 2}W type Laves phase effect of the creep deformation fixing the grain boundary according to transmission electron microscope (TEM) observation. A creep test was carried out at high temperature in order to evaluate the high angle boundary strengthening effect simulating the long-term creep deformation microstructure by the lath structure disappearance. The correlation of the creep rupture time and the grain boundary shielding ratio were found to be independent of precipitate type. The creep deformation model represents block boundary shielding by precipitates as the decisive factor for W containing ferritic creep resistant steels. (orig.)
Polyelectrolyte surfactant aggregates and their deposition on macroscopic surfaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Voisin, David
2002-01-01
cationically modified guar gums (of varying charge density) with two anionic surfactants: sodium lauryl (or dodecyl) ether sulfate [SLES] and sodium dodecyl sulfate [SDS], for various concentrations of the polyelectrolyte and added sodium chloride, at room temperature. The addition of sodium chloride has only a minor net effect on the CFC, but increases the CSC significantly. The interactions between the cationic polyelectrolyte and the surfactant have been studied in the one-phase regions, i.e. below the CFC and above the CSC, using different techniques. Surface tension, electrophoresis, light scattering and viscosimetry have been employed. In the two-phase region, the sedimented floe phase has been analysed and the flocculation has been investigated. Rheology of the floe phase has been studied, after a mild compression by centrifugation. The initial rate of flocculation has been determined, using stop-flow equipment. The growth and the structure of the flocs have been investigated by light scattering. The open-network flocs of polyelectrolyte-surfactant particles grow to ∼10's μm in size, prior to their eventual settling out. Other colloidal particles can be trapped within these large flocs, and the flocs can be used to transport these particles to a macroscopic surface. The deposition and the removal of such composite flocs on glass surfaces, under flow, have been studied using a flow cell device coupled with an optical microscope. Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy have also been employed. (author)
Polyelectrolyte surfactant aggregates and their deposition on macroscopic surfaces
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Voisin, David
2002-07-01
the CSC have been determined for mixtures of cationically modified guar gums (of varying charge density) with two anionic surfactants: sodium lauryl (or dodecyl) ether sulfate [SLES] and sodium dodecyl sulfate [SDS], for various concentrations of the polyelectrolyte and added sodium chloride, at room temperature. The addition of sodium chloride has only a minor net effect on the CFC, but increases the CSC significantly. The interactions between the cationic polyelectrolyte and the surfactant have been studied in the one-phase regions, i.e. below the CFC and above the CSC, using different techniques. Surface tension, electrophoresis, light scattering and viscosimetry have been employed. In the two-phase region, the sedimented floe phase has been analysed and the flocculation has been investigated. Rheology of the floe phase has been studied, after a mild compression by centrifugation. The initial rate of flocculation has been determined, using stop-flow equipment. The growth and the structure of the flocs have been investigated by light scattering. The open-network flocs of polyelectrolyte-surfactant particles grow to {approx}10's {mu}m in size, prior to their eventual settling out. Other colloidal particles can be trapped within these large flocs, and the flocs can be used to transport these particles to a macroscopic surface. The deposition and the removal of such composite flocs on glass surfaces, under flow, have been studied using a flow cell device coupled with an optical microscope. Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy have also been employed. (author)
Effect of isovector coupling channel on the macroscopic part of the nuclear binding energy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haddad, S.
2011-04-01
The effect of the isovector coupling channel on the macroscopic part of the nuclear binding energy is determined utilizing the relativistic density dependent Thomas-Fermi approach for the calculation of the macroscopic part of the nuclear binding energy, and the dependency of this effect on the numbers of neutrons and protons is studied. The isovector coupling channel leads to increased nuclear binding energy, and this effect sharpens with growing excess of the number of neutrons on the number of protons. (author)
Experimental observation of the quantum behavior of a macroscopic degree of freedom
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Devoret, M.H.; Martinis, J.M.; Esteve, D.
1986-08-01
At Berkeley a series of experiments have been performed, that demonstrates the quantum behavior of one macroscopic degree of freedom, namely the phase difference across a current biased Josephson junction. Here we will focus on the praticalities involved in such a demonstration. The emphasis is put on the particular procedures used to solve the two problems of noise shielding and parameter determination. To begin, a short description of the macroscopic system investigated, the current biased Josephson junction is given
Nguyen, Van-Dung; Wu, Ling; Noels, Ludovic
2017-03-01
This work provides a unified treatment of arbitrary kinds of microscopic boundary conditions usually considered in the multi-scale computational homogenization method for nonlinear multi-physics problems. An efficient procedure is developed to enforce the multi-point linear constraints arising from the microscopic boundary condition either by the direct constraint elimination or by the Lagrange multiplier elimination methods. The macroscopic tangent operators are computed in an efficient way from a multiple right hand sides linear system whose left hand side matrix is the stiffness matrix of the microscopic linearized system at the converged solution. The number of vectors at the right hand side is equal to the number of the macroscopic kinematic variables used to formulate the microscopic boundary condition. As the resolution of the microscopic linearized system often follows a direct factorization procedure, the computation of the macroscopic tangent operators is then performed using this factorized matrix at a reduced computational time.
Glaister, P.
1997-09-01
Tetrahedral Bond Angle from Elementary Trigonometry The alternative approach of using the scalar (or dot) product of vectors enables the determination of the bond angle in a tetrahedral molecule in a simple way. There is, of course, an even more straightforward derivation suitable for students who are unfamiliar with vectors, or products thereof, but who do know some elementary trigonometry. The starting point is the figure showing triangle OAB. The point O is the center of a cube, and A and B are at opposite corners of a face of that cube in which fits a regular tetrahedron. The required bond angle alpha = AÔB; and using Pythagoras' theorem, AB = 2(square root 2) is the diagonal of a face of the cube. Hence from right-angled triangle OEB, tan(alpha/2) = (square root 2) and therefore alpha = 2tan-1(square root 2) is approx. 109° 28' (see Fig. 1).
Yan, Zhifeng; Liu, Chongxuan; Liu, Yuanyuan; Bailey, Vanessa L.
2017-11-01
Biofilms are critical locations for biogeochemical reactions in the subsurface environment. The occurrence and distribution of biofilms at microscale as well as their impacts on macroscopic biogeochemical reaction rates are still poorly understood. This paper investigated the formation and distributions of biofilms in heterogeneous sediments using multiscale models and evaluated the effects of biofilm heterogeneity on local and macroscopic biogeochemical reaction rates. Sediment pore structures derived from X-ray computed tomography were used to simulate the microscale flow dynamics and biofilm distribution in the sediment column. The response of biofilm formation and distribution to the variations in hydraulic and chemical properties was first examined. One representative biofilm distribution was then utilized to evaluate its effects on macroscopic reaction rates using nitrate reduction as an example. The results revealed that microorganisms primarily grew on the surfaces of grains and aggregates near preferential flow paths where both electron donor and acceptor were readily accessible, leading to the heterogeneous distribution of biofilms in the sediments. The heterogeneous biofilm distribution decreased the macroscopic rate of biogeochemical reactions as compared with those in homogeneous cases. Operationally considering the heterogeneous biofilm distribution in macroscopic reactive transport models such as using dual porosity domain concept can significantly improve the prediction of biogeochemical reaction rates. Overall, this study provided important insights into the biofilm formation and distribution in soils and sediments as well as their impacts on the macroscopic manifestation of reaction rates.
INCOMPRESSIBLE LAMINAR BOUNDARY LAYER CONTROL BY BLOWING AND SUCTION
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
AZZEDINE NAHOUI
2013-12-01
Full Text Available A two-dimensional incompressible laminar boundary layer and its control using blowing and suction over a flat plate and around the NACA 0012 and 661012 profiles, is studied numerically. The study is based on the Prandtl boundary layer model using the finite differences method and the Crank-Nicolson scheme. The velocity distribution, the boundary layer thickness and the friction coefficient, are determined and presented with and without control. The application of the control technique, has demonstrated its positive effect on the transition point and the friction coefficient. Both control procedures are compared for different lengths, speeds and angles of blowing and suction.
Administrative Area Boundaries 2 (State Boundaries), Region 9, 2010, NAVTEQ
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — NAVTEQ Administrative Area Boundaries 2 (State Boundaries) for Region 9. There are five Administrative Area Boundaries layers (1, 2, 3, 4, 5). These layers contain...
Administrative Area Boundaries 4 (City Boundaries), Region 9, 2010, NAVTEQ
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — NAVTEQ Administrative Area Boundaries 4 (City Boundaries) for Region 9. There are five Administrative Area Boundaries layers (1, 2, 3, 4, 5). These layers contain...
Comparison of skin responses from macroscopic and microscopic UV challenges
Seo, InSeok; Bargo, Paulo R.; Chu, Melissa; Ruvolo, Eduardo; Kollias, Nikiforos
2011-03-01
The minimal erythema dose induced by solar-simulated radiation is a useful measure of UV sensitivity of skin. Most skin phototests have been conducted by projecting a flat field of UV radiation onto the skin in an area greater than 15 cm × 15 cm with an increment of radiation doses. In this study, we investigated the responses of human skin to solar-simulated radiation of different field sizes. Twelve human subjects of skin phototype I-IV were exposed to solar-simulated radiation (SSR) on their upper inner arm or on their lower back with a series of doses in increments of 20% in order to determine the threshold dose to induce a minimal perceptible erythema response (MED). Each dose was delivered with a liquid light guide (8 mm diameter on the back or 6 mm on the upper inner arm) and with quartz optical fibers of 200 μm diameter. The resulting skin responses were evaluated visually and investigated with a reflectance confocal microscope and imaging. The erythema response to the microscopic challenge was always diffuse with no clear boundaries extending to several times the exposed site diameter at doses greater than 2 MED. The skin returned to normal appearance from the microscopic challenge after two weeks of exposure while change in appearance for the larger areas persisted for several weeks to months. This new modality of testing provides the possibility to study skin at the microscopic level with a rapid recovery following challenge.
The atomic-scale origins of grain boundary superconducting properties
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pennycook, S.J.; Chisholm, M.F.; Buban, J.; Browning, N.D.; Prouteau, C.; Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL; Nellist, P.D.
1998-02-01
Due to the extremely short coherence lengths of the high-T c superconductors, defects such as grain boundaries are obvious barriers to the flow of supercurrent. Within a few months of the discovery of these materials, it was shown how the critical current dropped four orders of magnitude as the grain boundary misorientation increased from zero to 45 degree. Even today, there is no quantitative understanding of this behavior. A qualitative understanding is however possible through atomic resolution Z-contrast imaging on YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ and SrTiO 3 bicrystal grain boundaries, combined with bond-valence-sum analysis. The Z-contrast image of a YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ low angle grain boundary shows the same kind of reconstructed dislocation cores as seen in SrTiO 3 , containing reconstructions on both the Cu and Y/Ba sublattices. An image of an asymmetric 30 degree boundary in YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ shows the same units and unit sequence as expected for SrTiO 3 . YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ boundaries are wavy because of their non-equilibrium growth process, and therefore mostly asymmetric in nature, although small segments have the symmetric structure. It seems reasonable to assume that boundaries of other angles will also have similar structures in these two materials
Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Statewide GIS Tax Unit boundary file was created through a collaborative partnership between the State of Kansas Department of Revenue Property Valuation...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This city boundary shapefile was extracted from Esri Data and Maps for ArcGIS 2014 - U.S. Populated Place Areas. This shapefile can be joined to 500 Cities...
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This theme shows the USFS national forest boundaries in the state. This data was acquired from the GIS coordinators at both the Chippewa National Forest and the...
Allegheny County Parcel Boundaries
Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains parcel boundaries attributed with county block and lot number. Use the Property Information Extractor for more control downloading a filtered...
Boundary representation modelling techniques
2006-01-01
Provides the most complete presentation of boundary representation solid modelling yet publishedOffers basic reference information for software developers, application developers and users Includes a historical perspective as well as giving a background for modern research.
Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The dataset represents the boundaries of all public school districts in the state of New Mexico. The source for the data layer is the New Mexico Public Education...
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset consists of site boundaries from multiple Superfund sites in U.S. EPA Region 8. These data were acquired from multiple sources at different times and...
Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This data set is a digital hydrologic unit boundary that is at the 4-digit, 6-digit, 8-digit, and 11-digit level. The data set was developed by delineating the...
State Park Statutory Boundaries
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Legislative statutory boundaries for sixty six state parks, six state recreation areas, and eight state waysides. These data are derived principally from DNR's...
An influence of extremal edges on boundary extension.
Hale, Ralph G; Brown, James M; McDunn, Benjamin A; Siddiqui, Aisha P
2015-08-01
Studies have shown that people consistently remember seeing more of a studied scene than was physically present (e.g., Intraub & Richardson Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 15, 179-187, 1989). This scene memory error, known as boundary extension, has been suggested to occur due to an observer's failure to differentiate between the contributing sources of information, including the sensory input, amodal continuation beyond the view boundaries, and contextual associations with the main objects and depicted scene locations (Intraub, 2010). Here, "scenes" made of abstract shapes on random-dot backgrounds, previously shown to elicit boundary extension (McDunn, Siddiqui, & Brown Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 21, 370-375, 2014), were compared with versions made with extremal edges (Palmer & Ghose Psychological Science, 19, 77-84, 2008) added to their borders, in order to examine how boundary extension is influenced when amodal continuation at the borders' view boundaries is manipulated in this way. Extremal edges were expected to reduce boundary extension as compared to the same scenes without them, because extremal edge boundaries explicitly indicate an image's end (i.e., they do not continue past the view boundary). A large and a small difference (16 % and 40 %) between the close and wide-angle views shown during the experiment were tested to examine the effects of both boundary extension and normalization with and without extremal edges. Images without extremal edges elicited typical boundary extension for the 16 % size change condition, whereas the 40 % condition showed signs of normalization. With extremal edges, a reduced amount of boundary extension occurred for the 16 % condition, and only normalization was found for the 40 % condition. Our findings support and highlight the importance of amodal continuation at the view boundaries as a component of boundary extension.
Discontinuous Sturm-Liouville Problems with Eigenvalue Dependent Boundary Condition
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Amirov, R. Kh., E-mail: emirov@cumhuriyet.edu.tr; Ozkan, A. S., E-mail: sozkan@cumhuriyet.edu.tr [Cumhuriyet University, Department of Mathematics Faculty of Art and Science (Turkey)
2014-12-15
In this study, an inverse problem for Sturm-Liouville differential operators with discontinuities is studied when an eigenparameter appears not only in the differential equation but it also appears in the boundary condition. Uniqueness theorems of inverse problems according to the Prüfer angle, the Weyl function and two different eigenvalues sets are proved.
Physically-based modeling of the cyclic macroscopic behaviour of metals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sauzay, M.; Evrard, P.; Steckmeyer, A.; Ferrie, E.
2010-01-01
Grain size seems to have only a minor influence on the cyclic strain strain curves (CSSCs) of metallic polycrystals of medium to high stacking fault energy (SFE). That is why many authors tried to deduce the macroscopic CSSCs curves from the single crystals ones. Either crystals oriented for single slip or crystals oriented for multiple slip could be considered. In addition, a scale transition law should be used (from the grain scale to the macroscopic scale). Authors generally used either the Sachs rule (homogeneous single slip) or the Taylor one (homogeneous plastic strain, multiple slip). But the predicted macroscopic CSSCs do not generally agree with the experimental data for metals and alloys, presenting various SFE values. In order to avoid the choice of a particular scale transition rule, many finite element (FE) computations have been carried out using meshes of polycrystals including more than one hundred grains without texture. This allows the study of the influence of the crystalline constitutive laws on the macroscopic CSSCs. Activation of a secondary slip system in grains oriented for single slip is either allowed or hindered (slip planarity), which affects strongly the macroscopic CSSCs. The more planar the slip, the higher the predicted macroscopic stress amplitudes. If grains oriented for single slip obey slip planarity and two crystalline CSSCs are used (one for single slip grains and one for multiple slip grains), then the predicted macroscopic CSSCs agree well with experimental data provided the SFE is not too low (316L, copper, nickel, aluminium). Finally, the incremental self-consistent Hill-Hutchinson homogenization model is used for predicting CSS curves and partially validated with respect to the curves computed by the FE method. (authors)
Perera, M. Tharanga D.
Microstructure is key to understanding rheological behaviors of flowing particulate suspensions. During the past decade, Stokesian Dynamics simulations have been the dominant method of determining suspension microstructure. Structure results obtained numerically reveal that an anisotropic structure is formed under high Peclet (Pe) number conditions. Researchers have used various experimental techniques such as small angle neutron scattering (SANS) and light scattering methods to validate microstructure. This work outlines an experimental technique based on confocal microscopy to study microstructure of a colloidal suspension in an index-matched fluid flowing in a microchannel. High resolution scans determining individual particle locations in suspensions 30-50 vol % yield quantitative results of the local microstructure in the form of the pair distribution function, g(r). From these experimentally determined g(r), the effect of shear rate, quantified by the Peclet number as a ratio of shear and Brownian stress, on the suspension viscosity and normal stress follow that seen in macroscopic rheological measurements and simulations. It is generally believed that shear thickening behavior of colloidal suspensions is driven by the formation of hydroclusters. From measurements of particle locations, hydroclusters are identified. The number of hydroclusters grows exponentially with increasing Pe, and the onset of shear thickening is driven by the increase in formation of clusters having 5-8 particles. At higher Pe, we notice the emergence of 12 or more particle clusters. The internal structure of these hydroclusters has been investigated, and there is some evidence that particles internal to hydroclusters preferentially align along the 45° and 135° axis. Beyond observations of bulk suspension behavior, the influence of boundaries on suspension microstructure is also investigated. Experiments were performed for suspensions flowing over smooth walls, made of glass
Micromagnetic simulation of anisotropic grain boundary diffusion for sintered Nd-Fe-B magnets
Li, W.; Zhou, Q.; Zhao, L. Z.; Wang, Q. X.; Zhong, X. C.; Liu, Z. W.
2018-04-01
A systematic investigation on the anisotropic grain boundary diffusion in sintered Nd-Fe-B magnets is carried out by micromagnetic simulation. The results indicate that the critical reason for the anisotropic diffusion effect is not the difference in the amount of Dy diffused along different directions but the macroscopic demagnetizing field. The diffusion parallel to the easy axis from both pole surfaces of the magnet can increase the nucleation fields in the two major regions with large macroscopic demagnetizing fields, where the reverse domains can nucleate easily. As a consequence, the grain boundary diffusion along the directions parallel to the easy axis from two pole surfaces is more effective to improve the coercivity of the magnets than that along other directions. It is also found that, to enhance the coercivity, only a limited diffusion depth is required. The present result is in good agreement with the recent experimental findings.
Frequency scaling for angle gathers
Zuberi, M. A H; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali
2014-01-01
Angle gathers provide an extra dimension to analyze the velocity after migration. Space-shift and time shift-imaging conditions are two methods used to obtain angle gathers, but both are reasonably expensive. By scaling the time-lag axis of the time-shifted images, the computational cost of the time shift imaging condition can be considerably reduced. In imaging and more so Full waveform inversion, frequencydomain Helmholtz solvers are used more often to solve for the wavefields than conventional time domain extrapolators. In such cases, we do not need to extend the image, instead we scale the frequency axis of the frequency domain image to obtain the angle gathers more efficiently. Application on synthetic data demonstrate such features.
Angle imaging: Advances and challenges
Quek, Desmond T L; Nongpiur, Monisha E; Perera, Shamira A; Aung, Tin
2011-01-01
Primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG) is a major form of glaucoma in large populous countries in East and South Asia. The high visual morbidity from PACG is related to the destructive nature of the asymptomatic form of the disease. Early detection of anatomically narrow angles is important and the subsequent prevention of visual loss from PACG depends on an accurate assessment of the anterior chamber angle (ACA). This review paper discusses the advantages and limitations of newer ACA imaging technologies, namely ultrasound biomicroscopy, Scheimpflug photography, anterior segment optical coherence tomography and EyeCam, highlighting the current clinical evidence comparing these devices with each other and with clinical dynamic indentation gonioscopy, the current reference standard. PMID:21150037
Variable angle asymmetric cut monochromator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smither, R.K.; Fernandez, P.B.
1993-09-01
A variable incident angle, asymmetric cut, double crystal monochromator was tested for use on beamlines at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). For both undulator and wiggler beams the monochromator can expand area of footprint of beam on surface of the crystals to 50 times the area of incident beam; this will reduce the slope errors by a factor of 2500. The asymmetric cut allows one to increase the acceptance angle for incident radiation and obtain a better match to the opening angle of the incident beam. This can increase intensity of the diffracted beam by a factor of 2 to 5 and can make the beam more monochromatic, as well. The monochromator consists of two matched, asymmetric cut (18 degrees), silicon crystals mounted so that they can be rotated about three independent axes. Rotation around the first axis controls the Bragg angle. The second rotation axis is perpendicular to the diffraction planes and controls the increase of the area of the footprint of the beam on the crystal surface. Rotation around the third axis controls the angle between the surface of the crystal and the wider, horizontal axis for the beam and can make the footprint a rectangle with a minimum. length for this area. The asymmetric cut is 18 degrees for the matched pair of crystals, which allows one to expand the footprint area by a factor of 50 for Bragg angles up to 19.15 degrees (6 keV for Si[111] planes). This monochromator, with proper cooling, will be useful for analyzing the high intensity x-ray beams produced by both undulators and wigglers at the APS
Grain boundary structure and properties
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Balluffi, R.W.
1979-01-01
An attempt is made to distinguish those fundamental aspects of grain boundaries which should be relevant to the problem of the time dependent fracture of high temperature structural materials. These include the basic phenomena which are thought to be associated with cavitation and cracking at grain boundaries during service and with the more general microstructural changes which occur during both processing and service. A very brief discussion of the current state of our knowledge of these fundamentals is given. Included are the following: (1) structure of ideal perfect boundaries; (2) defect structure of grain boundaries; (3) diffusion at grain boundaries; (4) grain boundaries as sources/sinks for point defects; (5) grain boundary migration; (6) dislocation phenomena at grain boundaries; (7) atomic bonding and cohesion at grain boundaries; (8) non-equilibrium properties of grain boundaries; and (9) techniques for studying grain boundaries
Angle independent velocity spectrum determination
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
2014-01-01
An ultrasound imaging system (100) includes a transducer array (102) that emits an ultrasound beam and produces at least one transverse pulse-echo field that oscillates in a direction transverse to the emitted ultrasound beam and that receive echoes produced in response thereto and a spectral vel...... velocity estimator (110) that determines a velocity spectrum for flowing structure, which flows at an angle of 90 degrees and flows at angles less than 90 degrees with respect to the emitted ultrasound beam, based on the received echoes....
Temperature dependence of Brewster's angle.
Guo, Wei
2018-01-01
In this work, a dielectric at a finite temperature is modeled as an ensemble of identical atoms moving randomly around where they are trapped. Light reflection from the dielectric is then discussed in terms of atomic radiation. Specific calculation demonstrates that because of the atoms' thermal motion, Brewster's angle is, in principle, temperature-dependent, and the dependence is weak in the low-temperature limit. What is also found is that the Brewster's angle is nothing but a result of destructive superposition of electromagnetic radiation from the atoms.
Capillary contact angle in a completely wet groove.
Parry, A O; Malijevský, A; Rascón, C
2014-10-03
We consider the phase equilibria of a fluid confined in a deep capillary groove of width L with identical side walls and a bottom made of a different material. All walls are completely wet by the liquid. Using density functional theory and interfacial models, we show that the meniscus separating liquid and gas phases at two phase capillary coexistence meets the bottom capped end of the groove at a capillary contact angle θ(cap)(L) which depends on the difference between the Hamaker constants. If the bottom wall has a weaker wall-fluid attraction than the side walls, then θ(cap) > 0 even though all the isolated walls are themselves completely wet. This alters the capillary condensation transition which is now first order; this would be continuous in a capped capillary made wholly of either type of material. We show that the capillary contact angle θ(cap)(L) vanishes in two limits, corresponding to different capillary wetting transitions. These occur as the width (i) becomes macroscopically large, and (ii) is reduced to a microscopic value determined by the difference in Hamaker constants. This second wetting transition is characterized by large scale fluctuations and essential critical singularities arising from marginal interfacial interactions.
Detection of grain-boundary resistance to slip transfer using nanoindentation
Soer, WA; De Hosson, JTM
2005-01-01
Nanoindentation measurements near a high-angle grain boundary in a Fe-14%Si bicrystal showed dislocation pile-up and transmission across the boundary. The latter is observed as a characteristic displacement jump, from which the Hall-Petch slope can be calculated as a measure for the slip
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Н. А. Колесник
2017-06-01
Full Text Available When predicting deformations and determining measures to protect underworked objects, angular parameters are used: the boundary angles, the angles of total shift, the angle of maximum crop. The values of these angular parameters are given in the normative documents, but only for sections across and along the strike of the formation. However, at present, longwall face mining is mainly being carried out along a diagonal direction to the strike of the formation. In connection with this, the determination of the values of the angular parameters for such conditions is a topical task.The method of determination and the analytical dependences of the angles of total shifts and angles of maximum crop in sections of the longitudinal and transverse axes of coal-mining faces developed along diagonal directions to the strike of the formation are proposed. These angular parameters are used for prognosis of deformations of the earth's surface and for determining the characteristic zones of influence of mine workings on the local places.
Trowbridge, John H; Lentz, Steven J
2018-01-03
The oceanic bottom boundary layer extracts energy and momentum from the overlying flow, mediates the fate of near-bottom substances, and generates bedforms that retard the flow and affect benthic processes. The bottom boundary layer is forced by winds, waves, tides, and buoyancy and is influenced by surface waves, internal waves, and stratification by heat, salt, and suspended sediments. This review focuses on the coastal ocean. The main points are that (a) classical turbulence concepts and modern turbulence parameterizations provide accurate representations of the structure and turbulent fluxes under conditions in which the underlying assumptions hold, (b) modern sensors and analyses enable high-quality direct or near-direct measurements of the turbulent fluxes and dissipation rates, and (c) the remaining challenges include the interaction of waves and currents with the erodible seabed, the impact of layer-scale two- and three-dimensional instabilities, and the role of the bottom boundary layer in shelf-slope exchange.
Trowbridge, John H.; Lentz, Steven J.
2018-01-01
The oceanic bottom boundary layer extracts energy and momentum from the overlying flow, mediates the fate of near-bottom substances, and generates bedforms that retard the flow and affect benthic processes. The bottom boundary layer is forced by winds, waves, tides, and buoyancy and is influenced by surface waves, internal waves, and stratification by heat, salt, and suspended sediments. This review focuses on the coastal ocean. The main points are that (a) classical turbulence concepts and modern turbulence parameterizations provide accurate representations of the structure and turbulent fluxes under conditions in which the underlying assumptions hold, (b) modern sensors and analyses enable high-quality direct or near-direct measurements of the turbulent fluxes and dissipation rates, and (c) the remaining challenges include the interaction of waves and currents with the erodible seabed, the impact of layer-scale two- and three-dimensional instabilities, and the role of the bottom boundary layer in shelf-slope exchange.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Buesch, D.C.; Spengler, R.W.; Moyer, T.C.; Geslin, J.K.
1996-09-01
This paper describes the formations of the Paintbrush Group exposed at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, presents a detailed stratigraphic nomenclature for the Tiva Canyon and Topopah spring Tuffs, and discusses the criteria that define lithostratigraphic units. The Tiva Canyon and Topopah Spring Tuffs are divided into zones, subzones, and intervals on the basis of macroscopic features observed in surface exposures and borehole samples. Primary divisions reflect depositional and compositional zoning that is expressed by variations in crystal content, phenocryst assemblage, pumice content and composition, and lithic content. Secondary divisions define welding and crystlalization zones, depositional features, or fracture characteristics. Both formations are divided into crystal-rich and crystal-poor members that have an identical sequency of zones, although subzone designations vary slightly between the two units. The identified lithostratigraphic divisions can be used to approximate thermal-mechanical and hydrogeologic boundaries in the field. Linking these three systems of nomenclature provides a framework within which to correlate these properties through regions of sparse data.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Buesch, D.C.; Spengler, R.W.; Moyer, T.C.; Geslin, J.K.
1996-01-01
This paper describes the formations of the Paintbrush Group exposed at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, presents a detailed stratigraphic nomenclature for the Tiva Canyon and Topopah spring Tuffs, and discusses the criteria that define lithostratigraphic units. The Tiva Canyon and Topopah Spring Tuffs are divided into zones, subzones, and intervals on the basis of macroscopic features observed in surface exposures and borehole samples. Primary divisions reflect depositional and compositional zoning that is expressed by variations in crystal content, phenocryst assemblage, pumice content and composition, and lithic content. Secondary divisions define welding and crystlalization zones, depositional features, or fracture characteristics. Both formations are divided into crystal-rich and crystal-poor members that have an identical sequency of zones, although subzone designations vary slightly between the two units. The identified lithostratigraphic divisions can be used to approximate thermal-mechanical and hydrogeologic boundaries in the field. Linking these three systems of nomenclature provides a framework within which to correlate these properties through regions of sparse data
Experimental Research on Boundary Shear Stress in Typical Meandering Channel
Chen, Kai-hua; Xia, Yun-feng; Zhang, Shi-zhao; Wen, Yun-cheng; Xu, Hua
2018-06-01
A novel instrument named Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) flexible hot-film shear stress sensor was used to study the boundary shear stress distribution in the generalized natural meandering open channel, and the mean sidewall shear stress distribution along the meandering channel, and the lateral boundary shear stress distribution in the typical cross-section of the meandering channel was analysed. Based on the measurement of the boundary shear stress, a semi-empirical semi-theoretical computing approach of the boundary shear stress was derived including the effects of the secondary flow, sidewall roughness factor, eddy viscosity and the additional Reynolds stress, and more importantly, for the first time, it combined the effects of the cross-section central angle and the Reynolds number into the expressions. Afterwards, a comparison between the previous research and this study was developed. Following the result, we found that the semi-empirical semi-theoretical boundary shear stress distribution algorithm can predict the boundary shear stress distribution precisely. Finally, a single factor analysis was conducted on the relationship between the average sidewall shear stress on the convex and concave bank and the flow rate, water depth, slope ratio, or the cross-section central angle of the open channel bend. The functional relationship with each of the above factors was established, and then the distance from the location of the extreme sidewall shear stress to the bottom of the open channel was deduced based on the statistical theory.
Femoral varus: what's the angle
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Miles, James Edward; Svalastoga, Eiliv Lars; Eriksen, Thomas
angles were calculated using Microsoft Excel for the three previously reported techniques and a novel method, which we believed would be more reliable. Reliability between readings was assessed using the within-subject standard deviation and repeatability coefficient, and the effect of angulation...
Breukink, S O; Grond, A J K; Pierie, J P E N; Hoff, C; Wiggers, T; Meijerink, W J H J
2005-03-01
Next to surgical margins, yield of lymph nodes, and length of bowel resected, macroscopic completeness of mesorectal excision may serve as another quality control of total mesorectal excision (TME). In this study, the macroscopic completeness of laparoscopic TME was evaluated. A series of 25 patients with rectal cancer were managed laparoscopically (LTME) and included in this study. The pathologic specimens of the LTME group were prospectively examined and matched with a historical group of resection specimens from patients who had undergone open TME (OTME). The two groups were matched for gender and type of resection (low anterior or abdominoperineal resection). Special care was given to the macroscopic judgment concerning the completeness of the mesorectum. A three-grade scoring system showed no differences between the LTME and OTME groups. The current study supports the hypothesis that oncologic resection using laparoscopic TME is feasible and adequate.
The effect of interlayer adhesion on the mechanical behaviors of macroscopic graphene oxide papers.
Gao, Yun; Liu, Lu-Qi; Zu, Sheng-Zhen; Peng, Ke; Zhou, Ding; Han, Bao-Hang; Zhang, Zhong
2011-03-22
High mechanical performances of macroscopic graphene oxide (GO) papers are attracting great interest owing to their merits of lightweight and multiple functionalities. However, the loading role of individual nanosheets and its effect on the mechanical properties of the macroscopic GO papers are not yet well understood. Herein, we effectively tailored the interlayer adhesions of the GO papers by introducing small molecules, that is, glutaraldehyde (GA) and water molecules, into the gallery regions. With the help of in situ Raman spectroscopy, we compared the varied load-reinforcing roles of nanosheets, and further predicted the Young's moduli of the GO papers. Systematic mechanical tests have proven that the enhancement of the tensile modulus and strength of the GA-treated GO paper arose from the improved load-bearing capability of the nanosheets. On the basis of Raman and macroscopic mechanical tests, the influences of interlayer adhesions on the fracture mechanisms of the strained GO papers were inferred.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Czubek, J.A.; Burda, J.; Drozdowicz, K.; Igielski, A.; Kowalik, W.; Krynicka-Drozdowicz, E.; Woznicka, U.
1986-03-01
Preparation of rock samples for the measurement of the thermal neutron macroscopic absorption cross-section in small cylindrical two-region systems by a pulsed technique is presented. Requirements which should be fulfilled during the preparation of the samples due to physical assumptions of the method are given. A cylindrical vessel is filled with crushed rock and saturated with a medium strongly absorbing thermal neutrons. Water solutions of boric acid of well-known macroscopic absorption cross-section are used. Mass contributions of the components in the sample are specified. This is necessary for the calculation of the thermal neutron macroscopic absorption cross-section of the rock matrix. The conditions necessary for assuring the required accuracy of the measurement are given and the detailed procedure of preparation of the rock sample is described. (author)
Mechanical Behaviour of Materials Volume 1 Micro- and Macroscopic Constitutive Behaviour
François, Dominique; Zaoui, André
2012-01-01
Advances in technology are demanding ever-increasing mastery over the materials being used: the challenge is to gain a better understanding of their behaviour, and more particularly of the relations between their microstructure and their macroscopic properties. This work, of which this is the first volume, aims to provide the means by which this challenge may be met. Starting from the mechanics of deformation, it develops the laws governing macroscopic behaviour – expressed as the constitutive equations – always taking account of the physical phenomena which underlie rheological behaviour. The most recent developments are presented, in particular those concerning heterogeneous materials such as metallic alloys, polymers and composites. Each chapter is devoted to one of the major classes of material behaviour. As the subtitles indicate, Volume 1 deals with micro- and macroscopic constitutive behaviour and Volume 2 with damage and fracture mechanics. A third volume will be devoted to exercises and the...
Smolina, Irina Yu.
2015-10-01
Mechanical properties of a cable are of great importance in design and strength calculation of flexible cables. The problem of determination of elastic properties and rigidity characteristics of a cable modeled by anisotropic helical elastic rod is considered. These characteristics are calculated indirectly by means of the parameters received from statistical processing of experimental data. These parameters are considered as random quantities. With taking into account probable nature of these parameters the formulas for estimation of the macroscopic elastic moduli of a cable are obtained. The calculating expressions for macroscopic flexural rigidity, shear rigidity and torsion rigidity using the macroscopic elastic characteristics obtained before are presented. Statistical estimations of the rigidity characteristics of some cable grades are adduced. A comparison with those characteristics received on the basis of deterministic approach is given.
Hybrid methods for witnessing entanglement in a microscopic-macroscopic system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Spagnolo, Nicolo; Vitelli, Chiara; Paternostro, Mauro; De Martini, Francesco; Sciarrino, Fabio
2011-01-01
We propose a hybrid approach to the experimental assessment of the genuine quantum features of a general system consisting of microscopic and macroscopic parts. We infer entanglement by combining dichotomic measurements on a bidimensional system and phase-space inference through the Wigner distribution associated with the macroscopic component of the state. As a benchmark, we investigate the feasibility of our proposal in a bipartite-entangled state composed of a single-photon and a multiphoton field. Our analysis shows that, under ideal conditions, maximal violation of a Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt-based inequality is achievable regardless of the number of photons in the macroscopic part of the state. The difficulty in observing entanglement when losses and detection inefficiency are included can be overcome by using a hybrid entanglement witness that allows efficient correction for losses in the few-photon regime.
Hybrid methods for witnessing entanglement in a microscopic-macroscopic system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Spagnolo, Nicolo [Dipartimento di Fisica, Sapienza Universita di Roma, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, I-00185 Roma (Italy); Consorzio Nazionale Interuniversitario per le Scienze Fisiche della Materia, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, I-00185 Roma (Italy); Vitelli, Chiara [Dipartimento di Fisica, Sapienza Universita di Roma, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, I-00185 Roma (Italy); Paternostro, Mauro [School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen' s University, BT 7 1NN Belfast (United Kingdom); De Martini, Francesco [Dipartimento di Fisica, Sapienza Universita di Roma, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, I-00185 Roma (Italy); Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei, via della Lungara 10, I-00165 Roma (Italy); Sciarrino, Fabio [Dipartimento di Fisica, Sapienza Universita di Roma, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, I-00185 Roma (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Ottica, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (INO-CNR), largo E. Fermi 6, I-50125 Firenze (Italy)
2011-09-15
We propose a hybrid approach to the experimental assessment of the genuine quantum features of a general system consisting of microscopic and macroscopic parts. We infer entanglement by combining dichotomic measurements on a bidimensional system and phase-space inference through the Wigner distribution associated with the macroscopic component of the state. As a benchmark, we investigate the feasibility of our proposal in a bipartite-entangled state composed of a single-photon and a multiphoton field. Our analysis shows that, under ideal conditions, maximal violation of a Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt-based inequality is achievable regardless of the number of photons in the macroscopic part of the state. The difficulty in observing entanglement when losses and detection inefficiency are included can be overcome by using a hybrid entanglement witness that allows efficient correction for losses in the few-photon regime.
A strict experimental test of macroscopic realism in a superconducting flux qubit.
Knee, George C; Kakuyanagi, Kosuke; Yeh, Mao-Chuang; Matsuzaki, Yuichiro; Toida, Hiraku; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Saito, Shiro; Leggett, Anthony J; Munro, William J
2016-11-04
Macroscopic realism is the name for a class of modifications to quantum theory that allow macroscopic objects to be described in a measurement-independent manner, while largely preserving a fully quantum mechanical description of the microscopic world. Objective collapse theories are examples which aim to solve the quantum measurement problem through modified dynamical laws. Whether such theories describe nature, however, is not known. Here we describe and implement an experimental protocol capable of constraining theories of this class, that is more noise tolerant and conceptually transparent than the original Leggett-Garg test. We implement the protocol in a superconducting flux qubit, and rule out (by ∼84 s.d.) those theories which would deny coherent superpositions of 170 nA currents over a ∼10 ns timescale. Further, we address the 'clumsiness loophole' by determining classical disturbance with control experiments. Our results constitute strong evidence for the superposition of states of nontrivial macroscopic distinctness.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Javier A. Dottori
2015-01-01
Full Text Available A method for modeling outflow boundary conditions in the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM based on the maximization of the local entropy is presented. The maximization procedure is constrained by macroscopic values and downstream components. The method is applied to fully developed boundary conditions of the Navier-Stokes equations in rectangular channels. Comparisons are made with other alternative methods. In addition, the new downstream-conditioned entropy is studied and it was found that there is a correlation with the velocity gradient during the flow development.
Fritsche, Hans-Martin; Novara, Giacomo; Burger, Maximilian; Gupta, Amit; Matsumoto, Kazumasa; Kassouf, Wassim; Sircar, Kanishka; Zattoni, Filiberto; Walton, Tom; Tritschler, Stefan; Baba, Shiro; Bastian, Patrick J; Martínez-Salamanca, Juan I; Seitz, Christian; Otto, Wolfgang; Wieland, Wolf Ferdinand; Karakiewicz, Pierre I; Ficarra, Vincenzo; Hartmann, Arndt; Shariat, Shahrokh F
2012-09-01
Macroscopic sessile tumor architecture was associated with adverse outcomes after radical nephroureterectomy (RNU) for upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC). Before inclusion in daily clinical decision-making, the prognostic value of tumor architecture needs to be validated in an independent, external dataset. We tested whether macroscopic tumor architecture improves outcome prediction in an international cohort of patients. We retrospectively studied 754 patients treated with RNU for UTUC without neoadjuvant chemotherapy at 9 centers located in Asia, Canada, and Europe. Tumor architecture was macroscopically categorized as either papillary or sessile. Univariable and multivariable Cox regression analyses were used to address recurrence-free (RFS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS) estimates. Macroscopic sessile architecture was present in 20% of the patients. Its prevalence increased with advancing pathologic stage and it was significantly associated with established features of biologically aggressive UTUC, such as tumor grade, lymph node metastasis, lymphovascular invasion, and concomitant CIS (all P values architecture were 85% and 90%, compared with 58% and 66% for those with macroscopic sessile architecture, respectively (P values architecture was an independent predictor of both RFS (hazard ratio {HR}: 1.5; P = 0.036) and CSS (HR: 1.5; P = 0.03). We confirmed the independent prognostic value of macroscopic tumor architecture in a large, independent, multicenter UTUC cohort. It should be reported in every pathology report and included in post-RNU predictive models in order to refine current clinical decision making regarding follow-up protocol and adjuvant therapy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Departure of microscopic friction from macroscopic drag in molecular fluid dynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hanasaki, Itsuo [Institute of Engineering, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Naka-cho 2-24-16, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan); Fujiwara, Daiki; Kawano, Satoyuki, E-mail: kawano@me.es.osaka-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, Machikaneyama-cho 1-3, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan)
2016-03-07
Friction coefficient of the Langevin equation and drag of spherical macroscopic objects in steady flow at low Reynolds numbers are usually regarded as equivalent. We show that the microscopic friction can be different from the macroscopic drag when the mass is taken into account for particles with comparable scale to the surrounding fluid molecules. We illustrate it numerically by molecular dynamics simulation of chloride ion in water. Friction variation by the atomistic mass effect beyond the Langevin regime can be of use in the drag reduction technology as well as the electro or thermophoresis.
Macroscopic behavior of fast reactor fuel subjected to simulated thermal transients
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fenske, G.R.; Emerson, J.E.; Savoie, F.E.
1983-06-01
High-speed cinematography has been used to characterize the macroscopic behavior of irradiated and unirradiated fuel subjected to thermal transients prototypical of fast reactor transients. The results demonstrate that as the cladding melts, the fuel can disperse via spallation if the fuel contains in excess of approx. 16 μmoles/gm of fission gas. Once the cladding has melted, the macroscopic behavior (time to failure and dispersive nature) was strongly influenced by the presence of volatile fission products and the heating rate
Generating macroscopic chaos in a network of globally coupled phase oscillators
So, Paul; Barreto, Ernest
2011-01-01
We consider an infinite network of globally coupled phase oscillators in which the natural frequencies of the oscillators are drawn from a symmetric bimodal distribution. We demonstrate that macroscopic chaos can occur in this system when the coupling strength varies periodically in time. We identify period-doubling cascades to chaos, attractor crises, and horseshoe dynamics for the macroscopic mean field. Based on recent work that clarified the bifurcation structure of the static bimodal Kuramoto system, we qualitatively describe the mechanism for the generation of such complicated behavior in the time varying case. PMID:21974662
Minnesota County Boundaries - lines
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Minnesota county boundaries derived from a combination of 1:24,000 scale PLS lines, 1:100,000 scale TIGER, 1:100,000 scale DLG, and 1:24,000 scale hydrography lines....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bossen, Claus; Jensen, Lotte Groth; Udsen, Flemming Witt
2014-01-01
implementation, which also coupled the work of medical secretaries more tightly to that of other staff, and led to task drift among professions. Medical secretaries have been relatively invisible to health informatics and CSCW, and we propose the term ‘boundary-object trimming’ to foreground and conceptualize...
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Minnesota county boundaries derived from a combination of 1:24,000 scale PLS lines, 1:100,000 scale TIGER, 1:100,000 scale DLG, and 1:24,000 scale hydrography lines....
Glasby, John S
2013-01-01
The boundaries of space exploration are being pushed back constantly, but the realm of the partially understood and the totally unknown is as great as ever. Among other things this book deals with astronomical instruments and their application, recent discoveries in the solar system, stellar evolution, the exploding starts, the galaxies, quasars, pulsars, the possibilities of extraterrestrial life and relativity.
Conformal boundary loop models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jacobsen, Jesper Lykke; Saleur, Hubert
2008-01-01
We study a model of densely packed self-avoiding loops on the annulus, related to the Temperley-Lieb algebra with an extra idempotent boundary generator. Four different weights are given to the loops, depending on their homotopy class and whether they touch the outer rim of the annulus. When the weight of a contractible bulk loop x≡q+q -1 element of (-2,2], this model is conformally invariant for any real weight of the remaining three parameters. We classify the conformal boundary conditions and give exact expressions for the corresponding boundary scaling dimensions. The amplitudes with which the sectors with any prescribed number and types of non-contractible loops appear in the full partition function Z are computed rigorously. Based on this, we write a number of identities involving Z which hold true for any finite size. When the weight of a contractible boundary loop y takes certain discrete values, y r ≡([r+1] q )/([r] q ) with r integer, other identities involving the standard characters K r,s of the Virasoro algebra are established. The connection with Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions in the O(n) model is discussed in detail, and new scaling dimensions are derived. When q is a root of unity and y=y r , exact connections with the A m type RSOS model are made. These involve precise relations between the spectra of the loop and RSOS model transfer matrices, valid in finite size. Finally, the results where y=y r are related to the theory of Temperley-Lieb cabling
Gurses, Ercan
2011-12-01
In this work, a viscoplastic constitutive model for nanocrystalline metals is presented. The model is based on competing grain boundary and grain interior deformation mechanisms. In particular, inelastic deformations caused by grain boundary diffusion, grain boundary sliding and dislocation activities are considered. Effects of pressure on the grain boundary diffusion and sliding mechanisms are taken into account. Furthermore, the influence of grain size distribution on macroscopic response is studied. The model is shown to capture the fundamental mechanical characteristics of nanocrystalline metals. These include grain size dependence of the strength, i.e., both the traditional and the inverse Hall-Petch effects, the tension-compression asymmetry and the enhanced rate sensitivity. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Cheng, Z.; Shi, J.; Zhang, J.; Kistler, L. M.
2017-12-01
The influence of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) cone angle θ (the angle between the IMF direction and the Sun-Earth line) on the invariant latitudes (ILATs) of the footprints of the field-aligned currents (FACs) in the magnetotail has been investigated. We performed a statistic study of 542 FAC cases observed by the four Cluster spacecraft in the northern hemisphere. The results show that the large FAC (>10 nA/m2) cases occur at the low ILATs (60º, which implies the footprints of the large FACs mainly expand equatorward with large IMF cone angle. The equatorward boundary of the FAC footprints in the polar region decreases with the IMF cone angle especially when IMF Bz is positive. There is almost no correlation or a weak positive correlation of the poleward boundary and IMF cone angle no matter IMF is northward or southward. The equatorward boundary is more responsive to the IMF cone angle. Compared to the equatorward boundary, the center of the FAC projected location changes very little. This is the first time a correlation between FAC projected location and IMF cone angle has been determined.
Contact angles on stretched solids
Mensink, Liz; Snoeijer, Jacco
2017-11-01
The surface energy of solid interfaces plays a central role in wetting, as they dictate the liquid contact angle. Yet, it has been challenging to measure the solid surface energies independently, without making use of Young's law. Here we present Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations by which we measure the surface properties for all interfaces, including the solids. We observe change in contact angles upon stretching the solid substrates, showing that the surface energy is actually strain dependent. This is clear evidence of the so-called Shuttleworth effect, making it necessary to distinguish surface energy from surface tension. We discuss how this effect gives rise to a new class of elasto-capillary phenomena. ERC Consolidator Grant No. 616918.
Disorders of the cerebellopontine angle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Block, F.
2006-01-01
Disorders of the cerebellopontine angle may present by symptoms like vertigo, hearing problems, affection of the trigeminal or facial nerve. Ipsilateral ataxia and contralateral hemiparesis develop in case of a rather large tumor in this region and display an involvement of the cerebellum and/or brainstem. However, some of these typical symptoms are not recognized by the patient. Thus, in case of a suspicion of a disorder of the cerebellopontine angle the relevant functions have to be tested clinically. In addition, electrophysiology can confirm dysfunction of these cranial nerves. Mainstay of the therapy should be the treatment of the underlying cause. Nevertheless, not seldom it is necessary to treat symptoms like vertigo or facial pain. (orig.) [de
Measurement of the angle gamma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aleksan, R.; Kayser, B.; Sphicas, P.
1993-01-01
The angle γ at least as defined in the Wolfenstein approximation is not completely out of reach of current or proposed dedicated B experiments. This conclusion certainly depends crucially on the assumed trigger and tagging efficiencies and also on the expected backgrounds. The work summarized here represents but a first step in the direction of extracting the third angle of the unitarity triangle. The theoretical developments during the workshop have resulted in a clearer understanding of the quantities studied. On the experimental side, new decay modes (i.e. in addition to the traditional ρK s decay) have resulted in expections for observing CP violation in B s decays which are not unreasonable. It is conceivable that a dedicated B experiment can probe a fundamental aspect of the Standard Model, the CKM matrix, in multiple ways. In the process, new physics can appear anywhere along the line
Precise determination of lattice phase shifts and mixing angles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lu, Bing-Nan, E-mail: b.lu@fz-juelich.de [Institute for Advanced Simulation, Institut für Kernphysik, and Jülich Center for Hadron Physics, Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Lähde, Timo A. [Institute for Advanced Simulation, Institut für Kernphysik, and Jülich Center for Hadron Physics, Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Lee, Dean [Department of Physics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Meißner, Ulf-G. [Helmholtz-Institut für Strahlen- und Kernphysik and Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics, Universität Bonn, D-53115 Bonn (Germany); Institute for Advanced Simulation, Institut für Kernphysik, and Jülich Center for Hadron Physics, Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); JARA – High Performance Computing, Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany)
2016-09-10
We introduce a general and accurate method for determining lattice phase shifts and mixing angles, which is applicable to arbitrary, non-cubic lattices. Our method combines angular momentum projection, spherical wall boundaries and an adjustable auxiliary potential. This allows us to construct radial lattice wave functions and to determine phase shifts at arbitrary energies. For coupled partial waves, we use a complex-valued auxiliary potential that breaks time-reversal invariance. We benchmark our method using a system of two spin-1/2 particles interacting through a finite-range potential with a strong tensor component. We are able to extract phase shifts and mixing angles for all angular momenta and energies, with precision greater than that of extant methods. We discuss a wide range of applications from nuclear lattice simulations to optical lattice experiments.
LHC Report: playing with angles
Mike Lamont for the LHC team
2016-01-01
Ready (after a machine development period), steady (running), go (for a special run)! The crossing angles are an essential feature of the machine set-up. They have to be big enough to reduce the long-range beam-beam effect. The LHC has recently enjoyed a period of steady running and managed to set a new record for “Maximum Stable Luminosity Delivered in 7 days” of 3.29 fb-1 between 29 August and 4 September. The number of bunches per beam remains pegged at 2220 because of the limitations imposed by the SPS beam dump. The bunch population is also somewhat reduced due to outgassing near one of the injection kickers at point 8. Both limitations will be addressed during the year-end technical stop, opening the way for increased performance in 2017. On 10 and 11 September, a two day machine development (MD) period took place. The MD programme included a look at the possibility of reducing the crossing angle at the high-luminosity interaction points. The crossing angles are an ess...
Light Scattering at Various Angles
Latimer, Paul; Pyle, B. E.
1972-01-01
The Mie theory of scattering is used to provide new information on how changes in particle volume, with no change in dry weight, should influence light scattering for various scattering angles and particle sizes. Many biological cells (e.g., algal cells, erythrocytes) and large subcellular structures (e.g., chloroplasts, mitochondria) in suspension undergo this type of reversible volume change, a change which is related to changes in the rates of cellular processes. A previous study examined the effects of such volume changes on total scattering. In this paper scattering at 10° is found to follow total scattering closely, but scattering at 45°, 90°, 135°, and 170° behaves differently. Small volume changes can cause very large observable changes in large angle scattering if the sample particles are uniform in size; however, the natural particle size heterogeneity of most samples would mask this effect. For heterogeneous samples of most particle size ranges, particle shrink-age is found to increase large angle scattering. PMID:4556610
Angle comparison using an autocollimator
Geckeler, Ralf D.; Just, Andreas; Vasilev, Valentin; Prieto, Emilio; Dvorácek, František; Zelenika, Slobodan; Przybylska, Joanna; Duta, Alexandru; Victorov, Ilya; Pisani, Marco; Saraiva, Fernanda; Salgado, Jose-Antonio; Gao, Sitian; Anusorn, Tonmueanwai; Leng Tan, Siew; Cox, Peter; Watanabe, Tsukasa; Lewis, Andrew; Chaudhary, K. P.; Thalmann, Ruedi; Banreti, Edit; Nurul, Alfiyati; Fira, Roman; Yandayan, Tanfer; Chekirda, Konstantin; Bergmans, Rob; Lassila, Antti
2018-01-01
Autocollimators are versatile optical devices for the contactless measurement of the tilt angles of reflecting surfaces. An international key comparison (KC) on autocollimator calibration, EURAMET.L-K3.2009, was initiated by the European Association of National Metrology Institutes (EURAMET) to provide information on the capabilities in this field. The Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) acted as the pilot laboratory, with a total of 25 international participants from EURAMET and from the Asia Pacific Metrology Programme (APMP) providing measurements. This KC was the first one to utilise a high-resolution electronic autocollimator as a standard. In contrast to KCs in angle metrology which usually involve the full plane angle, it focused on relatively small angular ranges (+/-10 arcsec and +/-1000 arcsec) and step sizes (10 arcsec and 0.1 arcsec, respectively). This document represents the approved final report on the results of the KC. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCL, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).
Versatility of the CFR algorithm for limited angle reconstruction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fujieda, I.; Heiskanen, K.; Perez-Mendez, V.
1990-01-01
The constrained Fourier reconstruction (CFR) algorithm and the iterative reconstruction-reprojection (IRR) algorithm are evaluated based on their accuracy for three types of limited angle reconstruction problems. The cFR algorithm performs better for problems such as Xray CT imaging of a nuclear reactor core with one large data gap due to structural blocking of the source and detector pair. For gated heart imaging by Xray CT, radioisotope distribution imaging by PET or SPECT, using a polygonal array of gamma cameras with insensitive gaps between camera boundaries, the IRR algorithm has a slight advantage over the CFR algorithm but the difference is not significant
Macroscopic treatment of radio emission from cosmic ray air showers based on shower simulations
Werner, Klaus; Scholten, Olaf
We present a macroscopic calculation of coherent electro-magnetic radiation from air showers initiated by ultra-high energy cosmic rays, based on currents obtained from Monte Carlo simulations of air showers in a realistic geo-magnetic field. We can clearly relate the time signal to the time
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Strasburg, Sean; Davidson, Ronald C.
2000-01-01
The macroscopic warm-fluid model developed by Lund and Davidson [Phys.Plasmas 5, 3028 (1998)] is used in the smooth-focusing approximation to investigate detailed stability properties of an intense charged particle beam with pressure anisotropy, assuming small-amplitude electrostatic perturbations about a waterbag equilibrium
Effect of the isovector coupling channel on the macroscopic part of ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Physics Department, Atomic Energy Commission of Syria, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus, Syria. E-mail: pscientific@aec.org.sy. MS received 10 June 2012; revised 18 October 2012; accepted 12 December 2012. Abstract. The effect of isovector coupling channel on the macroscopic part of the nuclear binding energy is studied ...
Energetic macroscopic representation and inversion-based control of a CVT-based HEV
Chouhou, M.; Grée, F.; Jivan, C.; Bouscayrol, A.; Hofman, T.
2014-01-01
A Continuous Variable Transmission (CVT) is introduced in the simulation model of a Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV). The CVT-based vehicle simulation and its control are deduced from the Energetic Macroscopic Representation (EMR). Simulations are provided to show the interest of the CVT in term of
Energetic macroscopic representation and inversion- based control of a CVT-based HEV
Chouhou, M.; Grée, F.; Jivan, C.; Bouscayrol, A.; Hofman, T.
2013-01-01
A Continuous Variable Transmission (CVT) is introduced in the simulation model of a Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV). The CVT-based vehicle simulation and its control are deduced from the Energetic Macroscopic Representation (EMR). Simulations are provided to show the interest of the CVT in term of
On the inclusion of macroscopic theory in Monte Carlo simulation using game theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tatarkiewicz, J.
1980-01-01
This paper presents the inclusion of macroscopic damage theory into Monte Carlo particle-range simulation using game theory. A new computer code called RADDI was developed on the basis of this inclusion. Results of Monte Carlo damage simulation after 6.3 MeV proton bombardment of silicon are compared with experimental data of Bulgakov et al. (orig.)
Study using macroscopic autoradiography of the distribution of vanadium 48 in the rat and mouse
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Serhrouchni, M.
1982-07-01
Study of vanadium 48 distribution in the laboratory animal by macroscopic autoradiography. Vanadium 48 bioavailability is zero after oral administration and good after pulmonary administration. It is distributed throughout the body with a particular affinity for bone and teeth. Study of perinatal metabolism [fr
Macroscopic modeling for heat and water vapor transfer in dry snow by homogenization.
Calonne, Neige; Geindreau, Christian; Flin, Frédéric
2014-11-26
Dry snow metamorphism, involved in several topics related to cryospheric sciences, is mainly linked to heat and water vapor transfers through snow including sublimation and deposition at the ice-pore interface. In this paper, the macroscopic equivalent modeling of heat and water vapor transfers through a snow layer was derived from the physics at the pore scale using the homogenization of multiple scale expansions. The microscopic phenomena under consideration are heat conduction, vapor diffusion, sublimation, and deposition. The obtained macroscopic equivalent model is described by two coupled transient diffusion equations including a source term arising from phase change at the pore scale. By dimensional analysis, it was shown that the influence of such source terms on the overall transfers can generally not be neglected, except typically under small temperature gradients. The precision and the robustness of the proposed macroscopic modeling were illustrated through 2D numerical simulations. Finally, the effective vapor diffusion tensor arising in the macroscopic modeling was computed on 3D images of snow. The self-consistent formula offers a good estimate of the effective diffusion coefficient with respect to the snow density, within an average relative error of 10%. Our results confirm recent work that the effective vapor diffusion is not enhanced in snow.
How can macroscopically normal peritoneum contribute to the pathogenesis of endometriosis?
Fassbender, Amelie; Overbergh, Lut; Verdrengh, Eefje; Kyama, Cleophas M; Vodolazakaia, Alexandra; Bokor, Attila; Meuleman, Christel; Peeraer, Karen; Tomassetti, Carla; Waelkens, Etienne; Mathieu, Chantal; D'Hooghe, Thomas
2011-09-01
This study indicates that the immunobiology of macroscopically normal peritoneum is relevant to understand the pathogenesis of endometriosis. Peritoneal interleukin 6, interleukin 12, and ferritin were differentially expressed in women with and without endometriosis. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Macroscopic quantum coherence in a magnetic nanoparticle above the surface of a superconductor
Chudnovsky; Friedman
2000-12-11
We study macroscopic quantum tunneling of the magnetic moment in a single-domain particle placed above the surface of a superconductor. Such a setup allows one to manipulate the height of the energy barrier, preserving the degeneracy of the ground state. The tunneling amplitude and the effect of the dissipation in the superconductor are computed.
Macroscopic Quantum Coherence in a Magnetic Nanoparticle Above the Surface of a Superconductor
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chudnovsky, Eugene M.; Friedman, Jonathan R.
2000-12-11
We study macroscopic quantum tunneling of the magnetic moment in a single-domain particle placed above the surface of a superconductor. Such a setup allows one to manipulate the height of the energy barrier, preserving the degeneracy of the ground state. The tunneling amplitude and the effect of the dissipation in the superconductor are computed.
Macroscopic Quantum Coherence in a Magnetic Nanoparticle Above the Surface of a Superconductor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chudnovsky, Eugene M.; Friedman, Jonathan R.
2000-01-01
We study macroscopic quantum tunneling of the magnetic moment in a single-domain particle placed above the surface of a superconductor. Such a setup allows one to manipulate the height of the energy barrier, preserving the degeneracy of the ground state. The tunneling amplitude and the effect of the dissipation in the superconductor are computed
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gonnelli, Eduardo; Diniz, Ricardo [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares - IPEN/CNEN-SP Travessa R-400, 05508-900, Cidade Universitaria, Sao Paulo (Brazil)
2013-05-06
The neutron lifetimes of the core, reflector, and global were experimentally obtained through macroscopic neutron noise in the IPEN/MB-01 reactor for five levels of subcriticality. The theoretical Auto Power Spectral Densities were derived by point kinetic equations taking the reflector effect into account, and one of the approaches consider an additional group of delayed neutrons.
Bilateral subacromial bursitis with macroscopic rice bodies: Ultrasound, CT and MR appearance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Law, T.C.; Chong, S.F.; Lu, P.P.; Mak, K.H.
1998-01-01
The radiological findings of ultrasound, CT and MR of a case of bilateral subacromial bursitis with macroscopic rice bodies is described. MRI is the investigation of choice and the intravenous gadolinium-enhanced usefulness was noted. The previous literature is also reviewed. Copyright (1998) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd
Bilateral subacromial bursitis with macroscopic rice bodies: Ultrasound, CT and MR appearance
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Law, T.C.; Chong, S.F.; Lu, P.P. [Kwong Wah Hospital (Hong Kong). Department of Radiology; Mak, K.H. [Kwong Wah Hospital (Hong Kong). Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology
1998-05-01
The radiological findings of ultrasound, CT and MR of a case of bilateral subacromial bursitis with macroscopic rice bodies is described. MRI is the investigation of choice and the intravenous gadolinium-enhanced usefulness was noted. The previous literature is also reviewed. Copyright (1998) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd 5 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.
Sanli, Ceyda; Saitoh, K.; Luding, Stefan; van der Meer, Roger M.
2014-01-01
When a densely packed monolayer of macroscopic spheres floats on chaotic capillary Faraday waves, a coexistence of large scale convective motion and caging dynamics typical for glassy systems is observed. We subtract the convective mean flow using a coarse graining (homogenization) method and reveal
Self-similar drag reduction in plug-flow of suspensions of macroscopic fibers
Gillissen, J.J.J.; Hoving, J.P.
2012-01-01
Pipe flow experiments show that turbulent drag reduction in plug-flow of concentrated suspensions of macroscopic fibers is a self-similar function of the wall shear stress over the fiber network yield stress. We model the experimental observations, by assuming a central fiber network plug, whose
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xingtuan Yang
2015-05-01
Full Text Available A direct numerical simulation study of the characteristics of macroscopic and microscopic rotating motions in swirling jets confined in a rectangular flow domain is carried out. The different structures of vortex cores for different swirl levels are illustrated. It is found that the vortex cores of low swirl flows are of regular cylindrical-helix patterns, whereas those of the high swirl flows are characterized by the formation of the bubble-type vortex breakdown followed by the radiant processing vortex cores. The results of mean velocity fields show the general procedures of vortex origination. Moreover, the effects of macroscopic and microscopic rotating motions with respect to the mean and fluctuation fields of the swirling flows are evaluated. The microscopic rotating effects, especially the effects with respect to the turbulent fluctuation motion, are increasingly intermittent with the increase in the swirl levels. In contrast, the maximum value of the probability density functions with respect to the macroscopic rotating effects of the fluctuation motion occurs at moderate swirl levels since the macroscopic rotating effects are attenuated by the formation of the bubble vortex breakdown with a region of stagnant fluids at supercritical swirl levels.
Are the toroidal shapes of heavy-ion reactions seen in macroscopic drop collisions?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Menchaca R, A.; Borunda, M.; Hidalgo, S.S.; Huidobro, F.; Michaelian, K.; Perez, A.; Rodriguez, V.
1996-01-01
Experiments involving the collisions of water, and mineral oil, drops are reported. The aim is to search for toroidal configurations predicted by, both, macroscopic fluid dynamic and nuclear models. Instead, we find the formation of thin liquid sheets surrounded by a somewhat thicker rim presenting a fingering instability. (Author)
On the origin and elimination of macroscopic defects in MBE films
Wood, C. E. C.; Rathbun, L.; Ohno, H.; DeSimone, D.
1981-02-01
Spitting of group III metal droplets from Knudsen type effusion cells has been found culpable for a genre of problematical macroscopic surface topographical defects observed in the growth of semiconductor films by molecular beam epitaxy. Successful precautions are described which virtually eliminate the problem.
Lability of Nanoparticulate Metal Complexes at a Macroscopic Metal Responsive (Bio)interface
Duval, Jérôme F.L.; Town, Raewyn M.; Leeuwen, Van Herman P.
2018-01-01
The lability of metal complexes expresses the extent of the dissociative contribution of the complex species to the flux of metal ions toward a macroscopic metal-responsive (bio)interface, for example, an electrodic sensor or an organism. While the case of molecular ligands is well-established, it
Pinning of a curved flux line by macroscopic inclusions in a type II superconductor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shehata, L.N.; Saif, A.G.
1983-08-01
The pinning force is calculated as a function of the distance between a curved (or straight) flux line and the centre of a macroscopic superconducting (or normal) ellipsoidal inclusion. When the ellipsoidal tends to a spherical inclusion the results agree with those previously obtained. (author)
Pollen and macroscopic analyses of sediments from two lakes in the High Tatra mountains, Slovakia
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Rybníčková, Eliška; Rybníček, Kamil
2006-01-01
Roč. 15, - (2006), s. 345-356 ISSN 0939-6314 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/96/0531; GA ČR GA206/02/0568 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Pollen analyses * macroscopic analyses * high mointain lakes Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.649, year: 2006
Macroscopic networks in the human brain: mapping connectivity in healthy and damaged brains
Nijhuis, E.H.J.
2013-01-01
The human brain contains a network of interconnected neurons. Recent advances in functional and structural in-vivo magnetic resonance neuroimaging (MRI) techniques have provided opportunities to model the networks of the human brain on a macroscopic scale. This dissertation investigates the
Testing quantum mechanics against macroscopic realism using the output of χ(2) nonlinearity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Podoshvedov, Sergey A.; Kim, Jaewan
2006-01-01
We suggest an all-optical scheme to generate entangled superposition of a single photon with macroscopic entangled states for testing macroscopic realism. The scheme consists of source of single photons, a Mach-Zehnder interferometer in routes of which a system of coupled-down converters with type-I phase matching is inserted, and a beam splitter for the other auxiliary modes of the scheme. We use quantization of the pumping modes, depletion of the coherent states passing through the system, and interference effect in the pumping modes in the process of erasing which-path information of the single-photon on exit from the Mach-Zehnder interferometer. We show the macroscopic fields of the output superposition are distinguishable states. This scheme generates macroscopic entangled state that violates Bell's inequality. Moreover, the detailed analysis concerning change of amplitudes of entangled superposition by means of repeating this process many times is accomplished. We show our scheme works without photon number resolving detection and it is robust to detector inefficiency
Grain Boundary Segregation in Metals
Lejcek, Pavel
2010-01-01
Grain boundaries are important structural components of polycrystalline materials used in the vast majority of technical applications. Because grain boundaries form a continuous network throughout such materials, their properties may limit their practical use. One of the serious phenomena which evoke these limitations is the grain boundary segregation of impurities. It results in the loss of grain boundary cohesion and consequently, in brittle fracture of the materials. The current book deals with fundamentals of grain boundary segregation in metallic materials and its relationship to the grain boundary structure, classification and other materials properties.
General multi-group macroscopic modeling for thermo-chemical non-equilibrium gas mixtures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liu, Yen, E-mail: yen.liu@nasa.gov; Vinokur, Marcel [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California 94035 (United States); Panesi, Marco; Sahai, Amal [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, Illinois 61801 (United States)
2015-04-07
This paper opens a new door to macroscopic modeling for thermal and chemical non-equilibrium. In a game-changing approach, we discard conventional theories and practices stemming from the separation of internal energy modes and the Landau-Teller relaxation equation. Instead, we solve the fundamental microscopic equations in their moment forms but seek only optimum representations for the microscopic state distribution function that provides converged and time accurate solutions for certain macroscopic quantities at all times. The modeling makes no ad hoc assumptions or simplifications at the microscopic level and includes all possible collisional and radiative processes; it therefore retains all non-equilibrium fluid physics. We formulate the thermal and chemical non-equilibrium macroscopic equations and rate coefficients in a coupled and unified fashion for gases undergoing completely general transitions. All collisional partners can have internal structures and can change their internal energy states after transitions. The model is based on the reconstruction of the state distribution function. The internal energy space is subdivided into multiple groups in order to better describe non-equilibrium state distributions. The logarithm of the distribution function in each group is expressed as a power series in internal energy based on the maximum entropy principle. The method of weighted residuals is applied to the microscopic equations to obtain macroscopic moment equations and rate coefficients succinctly to any order. The model’s accuracy depends only on the assumed expression of the state distribution function and the number of groups used and can be self-checked for accuracy and convergence. We show that the macroscopic internal energy transfer, similar to mass and momentum transfers, occurs through nonlinear collisional processes and is not a simple relaxation process described by, e.g., the Landau-Teller equation. Unlike the classical vibrational energy
General multi-group macroscopic modeling for thermo-chemical non-equilibrium gas mixtures
Liu, Yen; Panesi, Marco; Sahai, Amal; Vinokur, Marcel
2015-04-01
This paper opens a new door to macroscopic modeling for thermal and chemical non-equilibrium. In a game-changing approach, we discard conventional theories and practices stemming from the separation of internal energy modes and the Landau-Teller relaxation equation. Instead, we solve the fundamental microscopic equations in their moment forms but seek only optimum representations for the microscopic state distribution function that provides converged and time accurate solutions for certain macroscopic quantities at all times. The modeling makes no ad hoc assumptions or simplifications at the microscopic level and includes all possible collisional and radiative processes; it therefore retains all non-equilibrium fluid physics. We formulate the thermal and chemical non-equilibrium macroscopic equations and rate coefficients in a coupled and unified fashion for gases undergoing completely general transitions. All collisional partners can have internal structures and can change their internal energy states after transitions. The model is based on the reconstruction of the state distribution function. The internal energy space is subdivided into multiple groups in order to better describe non-equilibrium state distributions. The logarithm of the distribution function in each group is expressed as a power series in internal energy based on the maximum entropy principle. The method of weighted residuals is applied to the microscopic equations to obtain macroscopic moment equations and rate coefficients succinctly to any order. The model's accuracy depends only on the assumed expression of the state distribution function and the number of groups used and can be self-checked for accuracy and convergence. We show that the macroscopic internal energy transfer, similar to mass and momentum transfers, occurs through nonlinear collisional processes and is not a simple relaxation process described by, e.g., the Landau-Teller equation. Unlike the classical vibrational energy
General multi-group macroscopic modeling for thermo-chemical non-equilibrium gas mixtures.
Liu, Yen; Panesi, Marco; Sahai, Amal; Vinokur, Marcel
2015-04-07
This paper opens a new door to macroscopic modeling for thermal and chemical non-equilibrium. In a game-changing approach, we discard conventional theories and practices stemming from the separation of internal energy modes and the Landau-Teller relaxation equation. Instead, we solve the fundamental microscopic equations in their moment forms but seek only optimum representations for the microscopic state distribution function that provides converged and time accurate solutions for certain macroscopic quantities at all times. The modeling makes no ad hoc assumptions or simplifications at the microscopic level and includes all possible collisional and radiative processes; it therefore retains all non-equilibrium fluid physics. We formulate the thermal and chemical non-equilibrium macroscopic equations and rate coefficients in a coupled and unified fashion for gases undergoing completely general transitions. All collisional partners can have internal structures and can change their internal energy states after transitions. The model is based on the reconstruction of the state distribution function. The internal energy space is subdivided into multiple groups in order to better describe non-equilibrium state distributions. The logarithm of the distribution function in each group is expressed as a power series in internal energy based on the maximum entropy principle. The method of weighted residuals is applied to the microscopic equations to obtain macroscopic moment equations and rate coefficients succinctly to any order. The model's accuracy depends only on the assumed expression of the state distribution function and the number of groups used and can be self-checked for accuracy and convergence. We show that the macroscopic internal energy transfer, similar to mass and momentum transfers, occurs through nonlinear collisional processes and is not a simple relaxation process described by, e.g., the Landau-Teller equation. Unlike the classical vibrational energy
General multi-group macroscopic modeling for thermo-chemical non-equilibrium gas mixtures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, Yen; Vinokur, Marcel; Panesi, Marco; Sahai, Amal
2015-01-01
This paper opens a new door to macroscopic modeling for thermal and chemical non-equilibrium. In a game-changing approach, we discard conventional theories and practices stemming from the separation of internal energy modes and the Landau-Teller relaxation equation. Instead, we solve the fundamental microscopic equations in their moment forms but seek only optimum representations for the microscopic state distribution function that provides converged and time accurate solutions for certain macroscopic quantities at all times. The modeling makes no ad hoc assumptions or simplifications at the microscopic level and includes all possible collisional and radiative processes; it therefore retains all non-equilibrium fluid physics. We formulate the thermal and chemical non-equilibrium macroscopic equations and rate coefficients in a coupled and unified fashion for gases undergoing completely general transitions. All collisional partners can have internal structures and can change their internal energy states after transitions. The model is based on the reconstruction of the state distribution function. The internal energy space is subdivided into multiple groups in order to better describe non-equilibrium state distributions. The logarithm of the distribution function in each group is expressed as a power series in internal energy based on the maximum entropy principle. The method of weighted residuals is applied to the microscopic equations to obtain macroscopic moment equations and rate coefficients succinctly to any order. The model’s accuracy depends only on the assumed expression of the state distribution function and the number of groups used and can be self-checked for accuracy and convergence. We show that the macroscopic internal energy transfer, similar to mass and momentum transfers, occurs through nonlinear collisional processes and is not a simple relaxation process described by, e.g., the Landau-Teller equation. Unlike the classical vibrational energy
Reactor pressure boundary materials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hong, Jun Hwa; Chi, S. H.; Lee, B. S.
2002-04-01
With a long-term operation of nuclear power plants, the component materials are degraded under severe reactor conditions such as neutron irradiation, high temperature, high pressure and corrosive environment. It is necessary to establish the reliable and practical technologies for improving and developing the component materials and for evaluating the mechanical properties. Especially, it is very important to investigate the technologies for reactor pressure boundary materials such as reactor vessel and pipings in accordance with their critical roles. Therefore, this study was focused on developing and advancing the microstructural/micro-mechanical evaluation technologies, and on evaluating the neutron irradiation characteristics and radiation effects analysis technology of the reactor pressure boundary materials, and also on establishing a basis of nuclear material property database
2014-05-01
Cantwell et al. / Acta Materialia 62 (2014) 1–48 challenging from a scientific perspective, but it can also be very technologically rewarding , given the...energy) is a competing explanation that remains to be explored. Strategies to drive the grain boundary energy toward zero have produced some success...Thompson AM, Soni KK, Chan HM, Harmer MP, Williams DB, Chabala JM, et al. J Am Ceram Soc 1997;80:373. [172] Behera SK. PhD dissertation, Materials Science
Schlichting (Deceased), Hermann
2017-01-01
This new edition of the near-legendary textbook by Schlichting and revised by Gersten presents a comprehensive overview of boundary-layer theory and its application to all areas of fluid mechanics, with particular emphasis on the flow past bodies (e.g. aircraft aerodynamics). The new edition features an updated reference list and over 100 additional changes throughout the book, reflecting the latest advances on the subject.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sanguineti, Giuseppe, E-mail: sanguineti@ifo.it [Department of Radiation Oncology, Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, Rome (Italy); Arcidiacono, Fabio [Department of Radiation Oncology, Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, Rome (Italy); Landoni, Valeria [Department of Physics, Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, Rome (Italy); Saracino, Bianca Maria; Farneti, Alessia; Arcangeli, Stefano; Petrongari, Maria Grazia; Gomellini, Sara [Department of Radiation Oncology, Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, Rome (Italy); Strigari, Lidia [Department of Physics, Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, Rome (Italy); Arcangeli, Giorgio [Department of Radiation Oncology, Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, Rome (Italy)
2016-10-01
Purpose: To assess the macroscopic hematuria rates within a single-institution randomized phase 3 trial comparing dose-escalated, conventionally fractionated radiation therapy (CFRT) and moderately hypofractionated radiation therapy (MHRT) for localized prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Patients with intermediate- to high-risk localized prostate cancer were treated with conformal RT and short-course androgen deprivation. Both the prostate and the entire seminal vesicles were treated to 80 Gy in 40 fractions over 8 weeks (CFRT) or 62 Gy in 20 fractions over 5 weeks (MHRT). The endpoint of the present study was the development of any episode or grade of macroscopic hematuria. The median follow-up period was 93 months (range 6-143). Results: Macroscopic hematuria was reported by 25 of 168 patients (14.9%). The actuarial estimate of hematuria at 8 years was 17.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] 10.7%-23.3%). The number of patients with hematuria was 6 and 19 in the CFRT and MHRT arms, respectively, for an actuarial 8-year estimate of 9.7% and 24.3%, respectively (hazard ratio 3.468, 95% CI 1.385-8.684; P=.008). Overall, 8 of 25 patients were found to have biopsy-proven urothelial carcinoma (3 in the CFRT arm and 5 in the MHRT arm; P=.27). Thus, the 8-year actuarial incidence of macroscopic hematuria (after censoring urothelial cancer–related episodes) was 4.1% and 18.2% after CFRT and MHRT, respectively (hazard ratio 4.961, 95% CI 1.426-17.263; P=.012). The results were confirmed by multivariate analysis after accounting for several patient-, treatment-, and tumor-related covariates. Conclusions: MHRT was associated with a statistically significant increased risk of macroscopic hematuria compared with CFRT.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sanguineti, Giuseppe; Arcidiacono, Fabio; Landoni, Valeria; Saracino, Bianca Maria; Farneti, Alessia; Arcangeli, Stefano; Petrongari, Maria Grazia; Gomellini, Sara; Strigari, Lidia; Arcangeli, Giorgio
2016-01-01
Purpose: To assess the macroscopic hematuria rates within a single-institution randomized phase 3 trial comparing dose-escalated, conventionally fractionated radiation therapy (CFRT) and moderately hypofractionated radiation therapy (MHRT) for localized prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Patients with intermediate- to high-risk localized prostate cancer were treated with conformal RT and short-course androgen deprivation. Both the prostate and the entire seminal vesicles were treated to 80 Gy in 40 fractions over 8 weeks (CFRT) or 62 Gy in 20 fractions over 5 weeks (MHRT). The endpoint of the present study was the development of any episode or grade of macroscopic hematuria. The median follow-up period was 93 months (range 6-143). Results: Macroscopic hematuria was reported by 25 of 168 patients (14.9%). The actuarial estimate of hematuria at 8 years was 17.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] 10.7%-23.3%). The number of patients with hematuria was 6 and 19 in the CFRT and MHRT arms, respectively, for an actuarial 8-year estimate of 9.7% and 24.3%, respectively (hazard ratio 3.468, 95% CI 1.385-8.684; P=.008). Overall, 8 of 25 patients were found to have biopsy-proven urothelial carcinoma (3 in the CFRT arm and 5 in the MHRT arm; P=.27). Thus, the 8-year actuarial incidence of macroscopic hematuria (after censoring urothelial cancer–related episodes) was 4.1% and 18.2% after CFRT and MHRT, respectively (hazard ratio 4.961, 95% CI 1.426-17.263; P=.012). The results were confirmed by multivariate analysis after accounting for several patient-, treatment-, and tumor-related covariates. Conclusions: MHRT was associated with a statistically significant increased risk of macroscopic hematuria compared with CFRT.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Risto Leinonen
2015-09-01
Full Text Available [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Upper Division Physics Courses.] This study concentrates on evaluating the consistency of upper-division students’ use of the second law of thermodynamics at macroscopic and microscopic levels. Data were collected by means of a paper and pencil test (N=48 focusing on the macroscopic and microscopic features of the second law concerned with heat transfer processes. The data analysis was based on a qualitative content analysis where students’ responses to the macroscopic- and microscopic-level items were categorized to provide insight into the consistency of the students’ ideas; if students relied on the same idea at both levels, they ended up in the same category at both levels, and their use of the second law was consistent. The most essential finding is that a majority of students, 52%–69% depending on the physical system under evaluation, used the second law of thermodynamics consistently at macroscopic and microscopic levels; approximately 40% of the students used it correctly in terms of physics while others relied on erroneous ideas, such as the idea of conserving entropy. The most common inconsistency harbored by 10%–15% of the students (depending on the physical system under evaluation was students’ tendency to consider the number of accessible microstates to remain constant even if the entropy was stated to increase in a similar process; other inconsistencies were only seen in the answers of a few students. In order to address the observed inconsistencies, we would suggest that lecturers should utilize tasks that challenge students to evaluate phenomena at macroscopic and microscopic levels concurrently and tasks that would guide students in their search for contradictions in their thinking.
The Atmospheric Boundary Layer
Garratt, J. R.
1994-05-01
A comprehensive and lucid account of the physics and dynamics of the lowest one to two kilometers of the Earth's atmosphere in direct contact with the Earth's surface, known as the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). Dr. Garratt emphasizes the application of the ABL problems to numerical modeling of the climate, which makes this book unique among recent texts on the subject. He begins with a brief introduction to the ABL before leading to the development of mean and turbulence equations and the many scaling laws and theories that are the cornerstone of any serious ABL treatment. Modeling of the ABL is crucially dependent for its realism on the surface boundary conditions, so chapters four and five deal with aerodynamic and energy considerations, with attention given to both dry and wet land surfaces and the sea. The author next treats the structure of the clear-sky, thermally stratified ABL, including the convective and stable cases over homogeneous land, the marine ABL, and the internal boundary layer at the coastline. Chapter seven then extends this discussion to the cloudy ABL. This is particularly relevant to current research because the extensive stratocumulus regions over the subtropical oceans and stratus regions over the Arctic have been identified as key players in the climate system. In the final chapters, Dr. Garratt summarizes the book's material by discussing appropriate ABL and surface parameterization schemes in general circulation models of the atmosphere that are being used for climate stimulation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zavatsky, S.; Phaneuf, P.; Topaz, D.; Ward, D.
1978-02-01
The NRC Office of Inspection and Enforcement (IE) has elected to evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of its existing regional boundary alignment because of the anticipated future growth of nuclear power generating facilities and corresponding inspection requirements. This report documents a management study designed to identify, analyze, and evaluate alternative regional boundary configurations for the NRC/IE regions. Eight boundary configurations were chosen for evaluation. These configurations offered alternatives ranging from two to ten regions, and some included the concepts of subregional or satellite offices. Each alternative configuration was evaluated according to three major criteria: project workload, cost, and office location. Each major criterion included elements such as management control, program uniformity, disruption, costs, and coordination with other agencies. The conclusion reached was that regional configurations with regions of equal and relatively large workloads, combined with the concepts of subregional or satellite offices, may offer a significant benefit to the Office of Inspection and Enforcement and the Commission and are worthy of further study. A phased implementation plan, which is suitable to some configurations, may help mitigate the disruption created by realignment
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Winthereik, Brit Ross
2008-01-01
Purpose – The paper seeks to examine how an online maternity record involving pregnant women worked as a means to create shared maternity care. Design/methodology/approach – Ethnographic techniques have been used. The paper adopts a theoretical/methodological framework based on science and techno......Purpose – The paper seeks to examine how an online maternity record involving pregnant women worked as a means to create shared maternity care. Design/methodology/approach – Ethnographic techniques have been used. The paper adopts a theoretical/methodological framework based on science...... and technology studies. Findings – The paper shows how a version of “the responsible patient” emerges from the project which is different from the version envisioned by the project organisation. The emerging one is concerned with the boundary between primary and secondary sector care, and not with the boundary......, IT designers and project managers should attend to the specific ways in which boundaries are inevitably enacted and to the ways in which care is already shared. This will provide them with opportunities to use the potentials of new identities and concerns that emerge from changing the organisation...
A statistical study of the upstream intermediate ion boundary in the Earth's foreshock
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K. Meziane
1998-02-01
Full Text Available A statistical investigation of the location of onset of intermediate and gyrating ion populations in the Earth's foreshock is presented based on Fixed Voltage Analyzer data from ISEE 1. This study reveals the existence of a spatial boundary for intermediate and gyrating ion populations that coincides with the reported ULF wave boundary. This boundary position in the Earth's foreshock depends strongly upon the magnetic cone angle θBX and appears well defined for relatively large cone angles, though not for small cone angles. As reported in a previous study of the ULF wave boundary, the position of the intermediate-gyrating ion boundary is not compatible with a fixed growth rate of the waves resulting from the interaction between a uniform beam and the ambient plasma. The present work examines the momentum associated with protons which travel along this boundary, and we show that the variation of the boundary position (or equivalently, the associated particle momentum with the cone angle is related to classical acceleration mechanisms at the bow shock surface. The same functional behavior as a function of the cone angle is obtained for the momentum predicted by an acceleration model and for the particle momentum associated with the boundary. However, the model predicts systematically larger values of the momentum than the observation related values by a constant amount; we suggest that this difference may be due to some momentum exchange between the incident solar-wind population and the backstreaming particles through a wave-particle interaction resulting from a beam plasma instability.Key words. Intermediate ion boundary · Statistical investigation · Earth's foreshock · ISEE 1 spacecraft
A statistical study of the upstream intermediate ion boundary in the Earth's foreshock
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K. Meziane
Full Text Available A statistical investigation of the location of onset of intermediate and gyrating ion populations in the Earth's foreshock is presented based on Fixed Voltage Analyzer data from ISEE 1. This study reveals the existence of a spatial boundary for intermediate and gyrating ion populations that coincides with the reported ULF wave boundary. This boundary position in the Earth's foreshock depends strongly upon the magnetic cone angle θ_{BX} and appears well defined for relatively large cone angles, though not for small cone angles. As reported in a previous study of the ULF wave boundary, the position of the intermediate-gyrating ion boundary is not compatible with a fixed growth rate of the waves resulting from the interaction between a uniform beam and the ambient plasma. The present work examines the momentum associated with protons which travel along this boundary, and we show that the variation of the boundary position (or equivalently, the associated particle momentum with the cone angle is related to classical acceleration mechanisms at the bow shock surface. The same functional behavior as a function of the cone angle is obtained for the momentum predicted by an acceleration model and for the particle momentum associated with the boundary. However, the model predicts systematically larger values of the momentum than the observation related values by a constant amount; we suggest that this difference may be due to some momentum exchange between the incident solar-wind population and the backstreaming particles through a wave-particle interaction resulting from a beam plasma instability.
Key words. Intermediate ion boundary · Statistical investigation · Earth's foreshock · ISEE 1 spacecraft
The gradient flow running coupling with twisted boundary conditions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ramos, Alberto
2014-09-01
We study the gradient flow for Yang-Mills theories with twisted boundary conditions. The perturbative behavior of the energy density left angle E(t) right angle is used to define a running coupling at a scale given by the linear size of the finite volume box. We compute the non-perturbative running of the pure gauge SU(2) coupling constant and conclude that the technique is well suited for further applications due to the relatively mild cutoff effects of the step scaling function and the high numerical precision that can be achieved in lattice simulations. We also comment on the inclusion of matter fields.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kang, Singon, E-mail: sikang@mines.edu [Advanced Steel Processing and Products Research Center, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Speer, John G.; Regier, Ryan W. [Advanced Steel Processing and Products Research Center, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Nako, Hidenori [Advanced Steel Processing and Products Research Center, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Materials Research Laboratory, Kobe Steel Ltd., Kobe, Hyogo 651-2271 (Japan); Kennett, Shane C. [Advanced Steel Processing and Products Research Center, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Exponent Failure Analysis Associates, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Findley, Kip O. [Advanced Steel Processing and Products Research Center, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO 80401 (United States)
2016-07-04
Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) measurements were performed to investigate the bainitic ferrite microstructure in low-carbon, microalloyed steels with varying C and Mn contents. Fully austenitized samples were isothermally heat treated at temperatures ranging from 450 to 550 °C to form bainitic ferrite. The bainitic ferrite microstructures and boundary characteristics obtained from the EBSD measurements were analyzed based on an inferred Kurdjumov-Sachs (K-S) orientation relationship. The heat treated samples exhibit a microstructure composed of laths and the lath aspect ratio tends to increase at lower isothermal heat treatment temperatures. High fractions of boundary misorientation angles below 5° are observed, which are due to lath boundaries in the microstructure. Additionally, misorientations of approximately 7°, 53° and 60° are observed, which are related to the sub-block, packet, and block boundaries, respectively. With decreasing isothermal heat treatment temperature, there is an increase of block boundaries; these boundaries are intervariant boundaries between different blocks within a packet, most of which have the misorientation angle of 60°. The specimens with a higher carbon level contained increased length of block boundaries, whereas the addition of Mn moderated the dependence of block boundary length on the heat treatment temperature within the experimental temperature range. Meanwhile, the length of intervariant boundaries of both packet and sub-block character did not vary much with heat treatment temperature and alloy composition.
Spontaneous Spreading of a Droplet: The Role of Solid Continuity and Advancing Contact Angle.
Jiang, Youhua; Sun, Yujin; Drelich, Jaroslaw W; Choi, Chang-Hwan
2018-05-01
Spontaneous spreading of a droplet on a solid surface is poorly understood from a macroscopic level down to a molecular level. Here, we investigate the effect of surface topography and wettability on spontaneous spreading of a water droplet. Spreading force is measured for a suspended droplet that minimizes interference of kinetic energy in the spontaneous spreading during its contact with solid surfaces of discontinuous (pillar) and continuous (pore) patterns with various shapes and dimensions. Results show that a droplet cannot spread spontaneously on pillared surfaces regardless of their shapes or dimensions because of the solid discontinuity. On the contrary, a droplet on pored surfaces can undergo spontaneous spreading whose force increases with a decrease in the advancing contact angle. Theoretical models based on both the system free energy and capillary force along the contact line validate the direct and universal dependency of the spontaneous spreading force on the advancing contact angle.
Grain-boundary free energy in an assembly of elastic disks.
Lusk, Mark T; Beale, Paul D
2004-02-01
Grain-boundary free energy is estimated as a function of misoriention for symmetric tilt boundaries in an assembly of nearly hard disks. Fluctuating cell theory is used to accomplish this since the most common techniques for calculating interfacial free energy cannot be applied to such assemblies. The results are analogous to those obtained using a Leonard-Jones potential, but in this case the interfacial energy is dominated by an entropic contribution. Disk assemblies colorized with free and specific volume elucidate differences between these two characteristics of boundary structure. Profiles are also provided of the Helmholtz and Gibbs free energies as a function of distance from the grain boundaries. Low angle grain boundaries are shown to follow the classical relationship between dislocation orientation/spacing and misorientation angle.
Cell boundary fault detection system
Archer, Charles Jens [Rochester, MN; Pinnow, Kurt Walter [Rochester, MN; Ratterman, Joseph D [Rochester, MN; Smith, Brian Edward [Rochester, MN
2009-05-05
A method determines a nodal fault along the boundary, or face, of a computing cell. Nodes on adjacent cell boundaries communicate with each other, and the communications are analyzed to determine if a node or connection is faulty.
Devi, Assa Aravindh Sasikala; Roqan, Iman S.
2018-01-01
The structural stability and magnetic properties of a grain boundary (GB) formed by aligning two ZnO single crystals oriented at an angle of 45° is investigated by density functional theory, using generalized gradient approximation (GGA) and taking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ghirardi, G.C.; Rimini, A.; Weber, T.
1987-06-01
It is shown that the assumption of a stochastic localization process for the quantum wave function is essentially different from the suppression of coherence over macroscopic distances arising from the interaction with the environment and allows for a conceptually complete derivation of the classical behaviour of macroscopic bodies. (author). 4 refs
Small angle scattering and polymers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cotton, J.P.
1996-01-01
The determination of polymer structure is a problem of interest for both statistical physics and industrial applications. The average polymer structure is defined. Then, it is shown why small angle scattering, associated with isotopic substitution, is very well suited to the measurement of the chain conformation. The corresponding example is the old, but pedagogic, measurement of the chain form factor in the polymer melt. The powerful contrast variation method is illustrated by a recent determination of the concentration profile of a polymer interface. (author) 12 figs., 48 refs
HREM investigation of the structure of the Σ5(310)/[001] symmetric tilt grain boundaries in Nb
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
King, W.E.; Compbell, G.H.; Coombs, A.; Ruehle, M.
1991-01-01
This paper reports on atomistic simulations using interatomic potentials for Nb developed employing the embedded atom method (EAM) and the model generalized pseudopotential theory (MGPT) that have indicated a possible cusp at the Σ5 (310) orientation in the energy vs tilt angle curves for left-angle 001 right-angle symmetric tilt grain boundaries. In addition, the most stable structure predicted using EAM exhibits shifts of one crystal relative to the other along the tilt axis and along the direction perpendicular to the tilt axis lying in the boundary plane. The structure predicted using the MGPT was mirror symmetric across the plane of the grain boundary. This boundary has been prepared for experimental study using the ultra high vacuum diffusion bonding method. A segment of this boundary has been studied using high resolution electron microscopy
An Angle Criterion for Riesz Bases
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lindner, Alexander M; Bittner, B.
1999-01-01
We present a characterization of Riesz bases in terms ofthe angles between certain finite dimensional subspaces. Correlationsbetween the bounds of the Riesz basis and the size of the angles arederived....
The origin and structure of streak-like instabilities in laminar boundary layer flames
Gollner, Michael; Miller, Colin; Tang, Wei; Finney, Mark
2017-11-01
Streamwise streaks are consistently observed in wildland fires, at the base of pool fires, and in other heated flows within a boundary layer. This study examines both the origin of these structures and their role in influencing some of the macroscopic properties of the flow. Streaks were reproduced and characterized via experiments on stationary heated strips and liquid and gas-fueled burners in laminar boundary layer flows, providing a framework to develop theory based on both observed and measured physical phenomena. The incoming boundary layer was established as the controlling mechanism in forming streaks, which are generated by pre-existing coherent structures, while the amplification of streaks was determined to be compatible with quadratic growth of Rayleigh-Taylor Instabilities, providing credence to the idea that the downstream growth of streaks is strongly tied to buoyancy. These local instabilities were also found to affect macroscopic properties of the flow, including heat transfer to the surface, indicating that a two-dimensional assumption may fail to adequately describe heat and mass transfer during flame spread and other reacting boundary layer flows. This work was supported by NSF (CBET-1554026) and the USDA-FS (13-CS-11221637-124).
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Li-Ying, Jason
2016-01-01
The extant literature runs short in understanding openness of innovation regarding and the different pathways along which internal and external knowledge resources can be combined. This study proposes a unique typology for outside-in innovations based on two distinct ways of boundary spanning......: whether an innovation idea is created internally or externally and whether an innovation process relies on external knowledge resources. This yields four possible types of innovation, which represent the nuanced variation of outside-in innovations. Using historical data from Canada for 1945...
Information dynamics of boundary perception
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kragness, Haley; Hansen, Niels Christian; Vuust, Peter
It has long been noted that expert musicians lengthen notes at phrase boundaries in expressive performance. Recently, we have extended research on this phenomenon by showing that undergraduates with no formal musical training and children as young as 3 years lengthen phrase boundaries during self...... uncertain than low-entropy contexts. Because phrase boundaries tend to afford high-entropy continuations, thus generating uncertain expectations in the listener, one possibility is that boundary perception is directly related to entropy. In other words, it may be hypothesized that entropy underlies...... on predictive uncertainty to the timing domain, as well as potentially answer key questions relating to boundary perception in musical listening....
On creating macroscopically identical granular systems with different numbers of particles
van der Meer, Devaraj; Rivas, Nicolas
2015-11-01
One of the fundamental differences between granular and molecular hydrodynamics is the enormous difference in the total number of constituents. The small number of particles implies that the role of fluctuations in granular dynamics is of paramount importance. To obtain more insight in these fluctuations, we investigate to what extent it is possible to create identical granular hydrodynamic states with different number of particles. A definition is given of macroscopically equivalent systems, and the dependency of the conservation equations on the particle size is studied. We show that, in certain cases, and by appropriately scaling the microscopic variables, we are able to compare systems with significantly different number of particles that present the same macroscopic phenomenology. We apply these scalings in simulations of a vertically vibrated system, namely the density inverted granular Leidenfrost state and its transition to a buoyancy-driven convective state.
Transport processes in macroscopically disordered media from mean field theory to percolation
Snarskii, Andrei A; Sevryukov, Vladimir A; Morozovskiy, Alexander; Malinsky, Joseph
2016-01-01
This book reflects on recent advances in the understanding of percolation systems to present a wide range of transport phenomena in inhomogeneous disordered systems. Further developments in the theory of macroscopically inhomogeneous media are also addressed. These developments include galvano-electric, thermoelectric, elastic properties, 1/f noise and higher current momenta, Anderson localization, and harmonic generation in composites in the vicinity of the percolation threshold. The book describes how one can find effective characteristics, such as conductivity, dielectric permittivity, magnetic permeability, with knowledge of the distribution of different components constituting an inhomogeneous medium. Considered are a wide range of recent studies dedicated to the elucidation of physical properties of macroscopically disordered systems. Aimed at researchers and advanced students, it contains a straightforward set of useful tools which will allow the reader to derive the basic physical properties of compli...
He, Q. Y.; Reid, M. D.
2013-06-01
Experiments have reported the entanglement of two spatially separated macroscopic atomic ensembles at room temperature (Krauter et al 2011 Phys. Rev. Lett. 107 080503; Julsgaard et al 2001 Nature 413 400). We show how an Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) paradox is realizable with this experiment. Our proposed test involves violation of an inferred Heisenberg uncertainty principle, which is a sufficient condition for an EPR paradox. This is a stronger test of nonlocality than entanglement. Our proposal would enable the first definitive confirmation of quantum EPR paradox correlations between two macroscopic objects at room temperature. This is a necessary intermediate step towards a nonlocal experiment with causal measurement separations. As well as having fundamental significance, the realization of an atomic EPR paradox could provide a resource for novel applications in quantum technology.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
He, Q Y; Reid, M D
2013-01-01
Experiments have reported the entanglement of two spatially separated macroscopic atomic ensembles at room temperature (Krauter et al 2011 Phys. Rev. Lett. 107 080503; Julsgaard et al 2001 Nature 413 400). We show how an Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen (EPR) paradox is realizable with this experiment. Our proposed test involves violation of an inferred Heisenberg uncertainty principle, which is a sufficient condition for an EPR paradox. This is a stronger test of nonlocality than entanglement. Our proposal would enable the first definitive confirmation of quantum EPR paradox correlations between two macroscopic objects at room temperature. This is a necessary intermediate step towards a nonlocal experiment with causal measurement separations. As well as having fundamental significance, the realization of an atomic EPR paradox could provide a resource for novel applications in quantum technology. (paper)
Flux dynamics and magnetovoltage measurements in a macroscopic cylindrical hole drilled in BSCCO
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yetis, H.; Altinkok, A.; Olutas, M. [Abant Izzet Baysal University, Department of Physics, Turgut Gulez Research Laboratory, 14280 Bolu (Turkey); Kilic, A. [Abant Izzet Baysal University, Department of Physics, Turgut Gulez Research Laboratory, 14280 Bolu (Turkey)], E-mail: kilic_a@ibu.edu.tr; Kilic, K. [Abant Izzet Baysal University, Department of Physics, Turgut Gulez Research Laboratory, 14280 Bolu (Turkey)
2007-10-01
Slow transport relaxation measurements (V-t curves) and magnetovoltage measurements (V-H curves) were carried out in a polycrystalline sample of Bi{sub 1.7}Pb{sub 0.3}Sr{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} (BSCCO) with a macroscopic cylindrically drilled hole (CH). The time evolution of quenched state in V-t curves was interpreted in terms of enhancement of the superconducting order parameter and the relaxation of moving entity. Upon cycling of the external magnetic field with different sweep rates, unusual counter clockwise hysteresis effects and asymmetry in V-H curves are observed in BSCCO sample with CH, which can also be correlated to the trapping of the macroscopic flux bundles in CH.
Flux dynamics and magnetovoltage measurements in a macroscopic cylindrical hole drilled in BSCCO
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yetis, H.; Altinkok, A.; Olutas, M.; Kilic, A.; Kilic, K.
2007-01-01
Slow transport relaxation measurements (V-t curves) and magnetovoltage measurements (V-H curves) were carried out in a polycrystalline sample of Bi 1.7 Pb 0.3 Sr 2 Ca 2 Cu 3 O x (BSCCO) with a macroscopic cylindrically drilled hole (CH). The time evolution of quenched state in V-t curves was interpreted in terms of enhancement of the superconducting order parameter and the relaxation of moving entity. Upon cycling of the external magnetic field with different sweep rates, unusual counter clockwise hysteresis effects and asymmetry in V-H curves are observed in BSCCO sample with CH, which can also be correlated to the trapping of the macroscopic flux bundles in CH
Linking stress with macroscopic and microscopic leaf response in trees: New diagnostic perspectives
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guenthardt-Goerg, Madeleine S. [Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research, WSL, Zuercherstrasse 111, CH-8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland)]. E-mail: madeleine.goerg@wsl.ch; Vollenweider, Pierre [Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research, WSL, Zuercherstrasse 111, CH-8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland)
2007-06-15
Visible symptoms in tree foliage can be used for stress diagnosis once validated with microscopical analyses. This paper reviews and illustrates macroscopical and microscopical markers of stress with a biotic (bacteria, fungi, insects) or abiotic (frost, drought, mineral deficiency, heavy metal pollution in the soil, acidic deposition and ozone) origin helpful for the validation of symptoms in broadleaved and conifer trees. Differentiation of changes in the leaf or needle physiology, through ageing, senescence, accelerated cell senescence, programmed cell death and oxidative stress, provides additional clues raising diagnosis efficiency, especially in combination with information about the target of the stress agent at the tree, leaf/needle, tissue, cell and ultrastructural level. Given the increasing stress in a changing environment, this review discusses how integrated diagnostic approaches lead to better causal analysis to be applied for specific monitoring of stress factors affecting forest ecosystems. - Macroscopic leaf symptoms and their microscopic analysis as stress bioindications.
Linking stress with macroscopic and microscopic leaf response in trees: New diagnostic perspectives
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guenthardt-Goerg, Madeleine S.; Vollenweider, Pierre
2007-01-01
Visible symptoms in tree foliage can be used for stress diagnosis once validated with microscopical analyses. This paper reviews and illustrates macroscopical and microscopical markers of stress with a biotic (bacteria, fungi, insects) or abiotic (frost, drought, mineral deficiency, heavy metal pollution in the soil, acidic deposition and ozone) origin helpful for the validation of symptoms in broadleaved and conifer trees. Differentiation of changes in the leaf or needle physiology, through ageing, senescence, accelerated cell senescence, programmed cell death and oxidative stress, provides additional clues raising diagnosis efficiency, especially in combination with information about the target of the stress agent at the tree, leaf/needle, tissue, cell and ultrastructural level. Given the increasing stress in a changing environment, this review discusses how integrated diagnostic approaches lead to better causal analysis to be applied for specific monitoring of stress factors affecting forest ecosystems. - Macroscopic leaf symptoms and their microscopic analysis as stress bioindications
All-carbon nanotube diode and solar cell statistically formed from macroscopic network
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Albert G. Nasibulin[1,2,3; Adinath M. Funde[3,4; Ilya V. Anoshkin[3; Igor A. Levitskyt[5,6
2015-01-01
Schottky diodes and solar cells are statistically created in the contact area between two macroscopic films of single-walled carbon nanotubes （SWNTs） at the junction of semiconducting and quasi-metallic bundles consisting of several high quality tubes. The n-doping of one of the films allows for photovoltaic action, owing to an increase in the built-in potential at the bundle-to-bundle interface. Statistical analysis demonstrates that the Schottky barrier device contributes significantly to the I-V characteristics, compared to the p-n diode. The upper limit of photovoltaic conversion efficiency has been estimated at N20%, demonstrating that the light energy conversion is very efficient for such a unique solar cell. While there have been multiple studies on rectifying SWNT diodes in the nanoscale environment, this is the first report of a macroscopic all-carbon nanotube diode and solar cell.
Automatic macroscopic characterization of diesel sprays by means of a new image processing algorithm
Rubio-Gómez, Guillermo; Martínez-Martínez, S.; Rua-Mojica, Luis F.; Gómez-Gordo, Pablo; de la Garza, Oscar A.
2018-05-01
A novel algorithm is proposed for the automatic segmentation of diesel spray images and the calculation of their macroscopic parameters. The algorithm automatically detects each spray present in an image, and therefore it is able to work with diesel injectors with a different number of nozzle holes without any modification. The main characteristic of the algorithm is that it splits each spray into three different regions and then segments each one with an individually calculated binarization threshold. Each threshold level is calculated from the analysis of a representative luminosity profile of each region. This approach makes it robust to irregular light distribution along a single spray and between different sprays of an image. Once the sprays are segmented, the macroscopic parameters of each one are calculated. The algorithm is tested with two sets of diesel spray images taken under normal and irregular illumination setups.
Flux dynamics and magnetovoltage measurements in a macroscopic cylindrical hole drilled in BSCCO
Yetiş, H.; Altinkok, A.; Olutaş, M.; Kiliç, A.; Kiliç, K.
2007-10-01
Slow transport relaxation measurements (V-t curves) and magnetovoltage measurements (V-H curves) were carried out in a polycrystalline sample of Bi1.7Pb0.3Sr2Ca2Cu3Ox (BSCCO) with a macroscopic cylindrically drilled hole (CH). The time evolution of quenched state in V-t curves was interpreted in terms of enhancement of the superconducting order parameter and the relaxation of moving entity. Upon cycling of the external magnetic field with different sweep rates, unusual counter clockwise hysteresis effects and asymmetry in V-H curves are observed in BSCCO sample with CH, which can also be correlated to the trapping of the macroscopic flux bundles in CH.
Measurements of effective total macroscopic cross sections and effective energy of continuum beam
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kobayashi, Hisao [Rikkyo Univ., Yokosuka, Kanagawa (Japan). Inst. for Atomic Energy
1998-03-01
Two practically useful quantities are introduced in this study to characterize a continuum neutron beam and to describe transmission phenomena of the beam in field of quantitative neutron radiography: an effective energy instead of a peak energy or a mean energy of the spectrum and an effective total macroscopic (ETM) cross section instead of a total macroscopic (TM) cross section defined at the monochromatic energy. The effective energy was evaluated by means of energy dependence of ETM cross section. To realize the method a beam quality indicator (BQI) has been proposed recently. Several effective energies were measured for non-filtered, filtered neutron beams, and outputs of neutron guide tubes in world by the BQI. A thermal neutron beam and three beams modulated by Pb filters with different thicknesses are studied to measure ETM cross sections for various materials and summarized in a table. Validity of the effective energy determined by the BQI is discussed relating with ETM cross sections of materials. (author)
Free boundary problems in PDEs and particle systems
Carinci, Gioia; Giardinà, Cristian; Presutti, Errico
2016-01-01
In this volume a theory for models of transport in the presence of a free boundary is developed. Macroscopic laws of transport are described by PDE's. When the system is open, there are several mechanisms to couple the system with the external forces. Here a class of systems where the interaction with the exterior takes place in correspondence of a free boundary is considered. Both continuous and discrete models sharing the same structure are analysed. In Part I a free boundary problem related to the Stefan Problem is worked out in all details. For this model a new notion of relaxed solution is proposed for which global existence and uniqueness is proven. It is also shown that this is the hydrodynamic limit of the empirical mass density of the associated particle system. In Part II several other models are discussed. The expectation is that the results proved for the basic model extend to these other cases. All the models discussed in this volume have an interest in problems arising in several research fields...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huang, Ming; Zhuo, Longchao; Liu, Zhanli; Lu, Xiaogang; Shi, Zhenxue; Li, Jiarong; Zhu, Jing
2015-01-01
The mechanical properties of nickel-based single crystal superalloys deteriorate with increasing misorientation, thus the finished product rate of the casting of single crystal turbine airfoils may be reduced due to the formation of grain boundaries especially when the misorientation angle exceeds to some extent. To this day, evolution of the microstructures at the grain boundaries with misorientation and the relationship between the microstructures and the mechanical properties are still unclear. In this work a detailed characterization of the misorientation related microstructure at the grain boundary in DD6 single crystal superalloy has been carried out using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques; the elemental distribution at the grain boundaries has been analyzed by energy dispersive (EDS) X-ray mapping; and the effect of precipitation of μ phases at the grain boundary on the mechanical property has been evaluated by finite element calculation. It is shown that the proportion of γ phase at the grain boundaries decreases, while the proportion of γ′ phase at the grain boundaries increases with increasing misorientation; the μ phase is precipitated at the grain boundaries when the misorientation angle exceeds about 10° and thus it could lead to a dramatic deterioration of the mechanical properties, as well as that the enrichment of Re and W gradually disappears as the misorientation angle increases. All these factors may result in the degradation of the mechanical properties at the grain boundaries as the misorientation increases. Furthermore, the finite element calculation confirms that precipitation of μ phases at the grain boundary is responsible for the significant deterioration of the mechanical properties when the misorientation exceeds about 10°. This work provides a physical imaging of the microstructure for understanding the relationship between the mechanical properties and the misorientation
He, Q Y; Reid, M D
2013-01-01
Experiments have reported the entanglement of two spatially separated macroscopic atomic ensembles at room temperature (Krauter et al 2011 Phys. Rev. Lett. 107 080503; Julsgaard et al 2001 Nature 413 400). We show how an Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) paradox is realizable with this experiment. Our proposed test involves violation of an inferred Heisenberg uncertainty principle, which is a sufficient condition for an EPR paradox. This is a stronger test of nonlocality than entanglement. Our pr...
Macroscopic proof of the Jarzynski–Wójcik fluctuation theorem for heat exchange
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sughiyama, Yuki; Abe, Sumiyoshi
2008-01-01
In a recent work, Jarzynski and Wójcik (2004 Phys. Rev. Lett. 92 230602) have shown by using the properties of Hamiltonian dynamics and a statistical mechanical consideration that heat exchange through contact between two systems initially prepared at different temperatures obeys a fluctuation theorem. Here, another proof is presented, in which only macroscopic thermodynamic quantities are employed. The detailed balance condition is found to play an essential role. As a result, the theorem is found to hold under very general conditions
Macroscopic angular-momentum stages of Bose-Einstein condensates in toroidal traps
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Benakli, M.; Raghavan, S.; Smerzi, A.; Fantoni, S.; Shenoy, S.R.
2001-03-01
We study the stability of a rotating repulsive-atom Bose-Einstein condensate in a toroidal trap. The resulting macroscopic angular-momentum states with integer vorticity l spread radially, lowering rotational energies. These states are robust against vorticity-lowering decays, with estimated metastability barriers capable of sustaining large angular momenta (1 < or ∼ 10) for typical parameters. We identify the centrifugally squashed l-dependent density profile as a possible signature of condensate rotation and superfluidity. (author)
Quantum description of microscopic and macroscopic systems: Old problems and recent investigations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ghirardi, G.C.
1986-04-01
We review some open problems and some proposed solutions which are encountered in the quantum description of the microscopic systems, of the macroscopic ones, and of the interactions between these two types of objects. We describe a recent attempt allowing a unified description of all phenomena, reproducing the quantum mechanical situation for microscopic systems and inducing in a completely consistent way the classical behaviour of macro object and the phenomena of wave packet reduction in the system-apparatus interaction. (author)
Solano, Javier; Duarte, José; Vargas, Erwin; Cabrera, Jhon; Jácome, Andrés; Botero, Mónica; Rey, Juan
2016-10-01
This paper addresses the Energetic Macroscopic Representation EMR, the modelling and the control of photovoltaic panel PVP generation systems for simulation purposes. The model of the PVP considers the variations on irradiance and temperature. A maximum power point tracking MPPT algorithm is considered to control the power converter. A novel EMR is proposed to consider the dynamic model of the PVP with variations in the irradiance and the temperature. The EMR is evaluated through simulations of a PVP generation system.
Time-dependent mechanical behavior of human amnion: Macroscopic and microscopic characterization
2014-01-01
© 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Characterizing the mechanical response of the human amnion is essential to understand and to eventually prevent premature rupture of fetal membranes. In this study a large set of macroscopic and microscopic mechanical tests have been carried out on fresh unfixed amnion to gain insight into the time dependent material response and the underlying mechanisms. Creep and relaxation responses of amnion were characterized in...
Levitation of Bose-Einstein condensates induced by macroscopic non-adiabatic quantum tunneling
Nakamura, Katsuhiro; Kohi, Akihisa; Yamasaki, Hisatsugu; Perez-Garcia, Victor M.
2006-01-01
We study the dynamics of two-component Bose-Einstein condensates trapped in different vertical positions in the presence of an oscillating magnetic field. It is shown here how tuning appropriately the oscillation frequency of the magnetic field leads to the levitation of the system against gravity. This phenomenon is a manifestation of a macroscopic non-adiabatic tunneling in a system with internal degrees of freedom.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shenoy, S.R.; Karlsruhe Univ.
1983-07-01
A two-dimensional NXN array of coupled Josephson junctions, each of size tau 0 and Josephson length lambdasub(JO)>>tau 0 , is shown to exhibit macroscopic weak superconductivity. The Josephson phase coherence here extends across the array, vanishing discontinuously at the Kosterlitz-Thouless transition temperature. The transverse size Ntau 0 must be smaller than a few times the effective Josephson screening length lambdasub(J)sup(eff) proportional to lambdasub(JO), for a sharp transition to be seen. (author)
Scaling from single molecule to macroscopic adhesion at polymer/metal interfaces.
Utzig, Thomas; Raman, Sangeetha; Valtiner, Markus
2015-03-10
Understanding the evolution of macroscopic adhesion based on fundamental molecular interactions is crucial to designing strong and smart polymer/metal interfaces that play an important role in many industrial and biomedical applications. Here we show how macroscopic adhesion can be predicted on the basis of single molecular interactions. In particular, we carry out dynamic single molecule-force spectroscopy (SM-AFM) in the framework of Bell-Evans' theory to gain information about the energy barrier between the bound and unbound states of an amine/gold junction. Furthermore, we use Jarzynski's equality to obtain the equilibrium ground-state energy difference of the amine/gold bond from these nonequilibrium force measurements. In addition, we perform surface forces apparatus (SFA) experiments to measure macroscopic adhesion forces at contacts where approximately 10(7) amine/gold bonds are formed simultaneously. The SFA approach provides an amine/gold interaction energy (normalized by the number of interacting molecules) of (36 ± 1)k(B)T, which is in excellent agreement with the interaction free energy of (35 ± 3)k(B)T calculated using Jarzynski's equality and single-molecule AFM experiments. Our results validate Jarzynski's equality for the field of polymer/metal interactions by measuring both sides of the equation. Furthermore, the comparison of SFA and AFM shows how macroscopic interaction energies can be predicted on the basis of single molecular interactions, providing a new strategy to potentially predict adhesive properties of novel glues or coatings as well as bio- and wet adhesion.