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Sample records for macropus giganteus indicating

  1. A retrospective study of Babesia macropus associated with morbidity and mortality in eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus and agile wallabies (Macropus agilis

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    Shannon L. Donahoe

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This is a retrospective study of 38 cases of infection by Babesia macropus, associated with a syndrome of anaemia and debility in hand-reared or free-ranging juvenile eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus from coastal New South Wales and south-eastern Queensland between 1995 and 2013. Infection with B. macropus is recorded for the first time in agile wallabies (Macropus agilis from far north Queensland. Animals in which B. macropus infection was considered to be the primary cause of morbidity had marked anaemia, lethargy and neurological signs, and often died. In these cases, parasitised erythrocytes were few or undetectable in peripheral blood samples but were sequestered in large numbers within small vessels of visceral organs, particularly in the kidney and brain, associated with distinctive clusters of extraerythrocytic organisms. Initial identification of this piroplasm in peripheral blood smears and in tissue impression smears and histological sections was confirmed using transmission electron microscopy and molecular analysis. Samples of kidney, brain or blood were tested using PCR and DNA sequencing of the 18S ribosomal RNA and heat shock protein 70 gene using primers specific for piroplasms. The piroplasm detected in these samples had 100% sequence identity in the 18S rRNA region with the recently described Babesia macropus in two eastern grey kangaroos from New South Wales and Queensland, and a high degree of similarity to an unnamed Babesia sp. recently detected in three woylies (Bettongia penicillata ogilbyi in Western Australia.

  2. Toxoplasmosis in the Eastern Grey Kangaroo, Macropus giganteus and the Cape Hyrax, Procavis capensis in Japan

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    Khaled Mohamed El-Dakhly1,4, Nagwan El-Habashi2, El-Shaymaa El-Nahass3,4, Hiroki Sakai4 and Tokuma Yanai4,*

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis was investigated in an eastern grey kangaroo, Macropus giganteus, and four cape hyraxes, Procavia capensis, in a Japanese zoo. Clinically, the kangaroo showed neurological signs, emaciation, diarrhea, elevated AST and CK, and subjected to coma before death. One young cape hyrax had severe anorexia, while the other three died without exhibiting clinical signs. Grossly, lungs of the kangaroo were dark red in color, while hyraxes, besides, showed hepatic multifocal white foci, and intestinal multifocal hemorrhages. Histologically, the kangaroo had frequent Toxoplasma gondii pseudocysts in brain, heart and skeletal muscles. All hyraxes had multifocal necrosis with cysts containing numerous bradyzoites in liver and spleen, along with necrotic gastroenteritis and intestinal hemorrhages. Immunohistochemically, cysts showed positive reaction to anti-T. gondii antibodies. These findings indicate possible outbreaks of toxoplasmosis in eastern grey kangaroos and cape hyraxes, zoo habitants; therefore, they could be susceptible intermediate hosts for T. gondii in terms of zoonosis. This is the first report of toxoplasmosis in eastern grey kangaroos and cape hyraxes in Japanese zoos.

  3. Phylogeography of Eastern Grey Kangaroos, Macropus giganteus, Suggests a Mesic Refugium in Eastern Australia.

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    Brett A Coghlan

    Full Text Available Phylogeographic studies around the world have identified refugia where fauna were able to persist during unsuitable climatic periods, particularly during times of glaciation. In Australia the effects of Pleistocene climate oscillations on rainforest taxa have been well studied but less is known about the effects on mesic-habitat fauna, such as the eastern grey kangaroo (Macropus giganteus. The eastern grey kangaroo is a large mammal that is common and widespread throughout eastern Australia, preferring dry mesic habitat, rather than rainforest. As pollen evidence suggests that the central-eastern part of Australia (southeast Queensland and northern New South Wales experienced cycles of expansion in mesic habitat with contraction in rainforests, and vice versa during glacial and interglacial periods, respectively, we hypothesise that the distribution of the eastern grey kangaroo was affected by these climate oscillations and may have contracted to mesic habitat refugia. From 375 mitochondrial DNA control region sequences from across the distribution of eastern grey kangaroos we obtained 108 unique haplotypes. Phylogenetic analysis identified two clades in Queensland, one of which is newly identified and restricted to a small coastal region in southern Queensland north of Brisbane, known as the Sunshine Coast. The relatively limited geographic range of this genetically isolated clade suggests the possibility of a mesic habitat refugium forming during rainforest expansion during wetter climate cycles. Other potential, although less likely, reasons for the genetic isolation of the highly distinct clade include geographic barriers, separate northward expansions, and strong local adaptation.

  4. Developmental and Post-Eruptive Defects in Molar Enamel of Free-Ranging Eastern Grey Kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) Exposed to High Environmental Levels of Fluoride.

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    Kierdorf, Uwe; Death, Clare; Hufschmid, Jasmin; Witzel, Carsten; Kierdorf, Horst

    2016-01-01

    Dental fluorosis has recently been diagnosed in wild marsupials inhabiting a high-fluoride area in Victoria, Australia. Information on the histopathology of fluorotic marsupial enamel has thus far not been available. This study analyzed the developmental and post-eruptive defects in fluorotic molar enamel of eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) from the same high-fluoride area using light microscopy and backscattered electron imaging in the scanning electron microscope. The fluorotic enamel exhibited a brownish to blackish discolouration due to post-eruptive infiltration of stains from the oral cavity and was less resistant to wear than normally mineralized enamel of kangaroos from low-fluoride areas. Developmental defects of enamel included enamel hypoplasia and a pronounced hypomineralization of the outer (sub-surface) enamel underneath a thin rim of well-mineralized surface enamel. While the hypoplastic defects denote a disturbance of ameloblast function during the secretory stage of amelogenesis, the hypomineralization is attributed to an impairment of enamel maturation. In addition to hypoplastic defects, the fluorotic molars also exhibited numerous post-eruptive enamel defects due to the flaking-off of portions of the outer, hypomineralized enamel layer during mastication. The macroscopic and histopathological lesions in fluorotic enamel of M. giganteus match those previously described for placental mammals. It is therefore concluded that there exist no principal differences in the pathogenic mechanisms of dental fluorosis between marsupial and placental mammals. The regular occurrence of hypomineralized, opaque outer enamel in the teeth of M. giganteus and other macropodids must be considered in the differential diagnosis of dental fluorosis in these species.

  5. Developmental and Post-Eruptive Defects in Molar Enamel of Free-Ranging Eastern Grey Kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) Exposed to High Environmental Levels of Fluoride

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    Kierdorf, Uwe; Death, Clare; Hufschmid, Jasmin; Witzel, Carsten; Kierdorf, Horst

    2016-01-01

    Dental fluorosis has recently been diagnosed in wild marsupials inhabiting a high-fluoride area in Victoria, Australia. Information on the histopathology of fluorotic marsupial enamel has thus far not been available. This study analyzed the developmental and post-eruptive defects in fluorotic molar enamel of eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) from the same high-fluoride area using light microscopy and backscattered electron imaging in the scanning electron microscope. The fluorotic enamel exhibited a brownish to blackish discolouration due to post-eruptive infiltration of stains from the oral cavity and was less resistant to wear than normally mineralized enamel of kangaroos from low-fluoride areas. Developmental defects of enamel included enamel hypoplasia and a pronounced hypomineralization of the outer (sub-surface) enamel underneath a thin rim of well-mineralized surface enamel. While the hypoplastic defects denote a disturbance of ameloblast function during the secretory stage of amelogenesis, the hypomineralization is attributed to an impairment of enamel maturation. In addition to hypoplastic defects, the fluorotic molars also exhibited numerous post-eruptive enamel defects due to the flaking-off of portions of the outer, hypomineralized enamel layer during mastication. The macroscopic and histopathological lesions in fluorotic enamel of M. giganteus match those previously described for placental mammals. It is therefore concluded that there exist no principal differences in the pathogenic mechanisms of dental fluorosis between marsupial and placental mammals. The regular occurrence of hypomineralized, opaque outer enamel in the teeth of M. giganteus and other macropodids must be considered in the differential diagnosis of dental fluorosis in these species. PMID:26895178

  6. Developmental and Post-Eruptive Defects in Molar Enamel of Free-Ranging Eastern Grey Kangaroos (Macropus giganteus Exposed to High Environmental Levels of Fluoride.

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    Uwe Kierdorf

    Full Text Available Dental fluorosis has recently been diagnosed in wild marsupials inhabiting a high-fluoride area in Victoria, Australia. Information on the histopathology of fluorotic marsupial enamel has thus far not been available. This study analyzed the developmental and post-eruptive defects in fluorotic molar enamel of eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus from the same high-fluoride area using light microscopy and backscattered electron imaging in the scanning electron microscope. The fluorotic enamel exhibited a brownish to blackish discolouration due to post-eruptive infiltration of stains from the oral cavity and was less resistant to wear than normally mineralized enamel of kangaroos from low-fluoride areas. Developmental defects of enamel included enamel hypoplasia and a pronounced hypomineralization of the outer (sub-surface enamel underneath a thin rim of well-mineralized surface enamel. While the hypoplastic defects denote a disturbance of ameloblast function during the secretory stage of amelogenesis, the hypomineralization is attributed to an impairment of enamel maturation. In addition to hypoplastic defects, the fluorotic molars also exhibited numerous post-eruptive enamel defects due to the flaking-off of portions of the outer, hypomineralized enamel layer during mastication. The macroscopic and histopathological lesions in fluorotic enamel of M. giganteus match those previously described for placental mammals. It is therefore concluded that there exist no principal differences in the pathogenic mechanisms of dental fluorosis between marsupial and placental mammals. The regular occurrence of hypomineralized, opaque outer enamel in the teeth of M. giganteus and other macropodids must be considered in the differential diagnosis of dental fluorosis in these species.

  7. Esophageal diverticula in Parma wallabies (Macropus parma).

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    Okeson, Danelle M; Esterline, Meredith L; Coke, Rob L

    2009-03-01

    Four adult, wild caught Parma wallabies (Macropus parma) presented with intermittent, postprandial, midcervical swellings. Esophageal diverticula were discovered in the four animals. One of two wallabies was managed successfully with surgery. A third animal died of other causes. The fourth animal died with possible complications from the diverticulum. This is the first published report of esophageal diverticula in macropods.

  8. A Reproductive Management Program for an Urban Population of Eastern Grey Kangaroos (Macropus giganteus

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    Andrew Tribe

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, culling has been the expedient, most common, and in many cases, the only tool used to control free-ranging kangaroo populations. We applied a reproductive control program to a population of eastern grey kangaroos confined to a golf course in South East Queensland. The program aimed to reduce fecundity sufficiently for the population to decrease over time so that overgrazing of the fairways and the frequency of human–animal conflict situations were minimised. In 2003, 92% of the female kangaroos above 5 kg bodyweight were implanted with the GnRH agonist deslorelin after darting with a dissociative anaesthetic. In 2007, 86% of the females above 5 kg were implanted with deslorelin and also 87% of the males above 5 kg were sterilised by either orchidectomy or vasectomy. In 2005, 2008 and 2009, the population was censused to assess the effect of each treatment. The 2003 deslorelin program resulted in effective zero population growth for approximately 2.5 years. The combined deslorelin–surgery program in 2007 reduced the birth rate from 0.3 to 0.06%/year for 16 months, resulting in a 27% population reduction by November 2009. The results were consistent with implants conferring contraception to 100% of implanted females for at least 12 months. The iatrogenic mortality rates for each program were 10.5% and 4.9%, respectively, with 50% of all mortalities due to darting-related injuries, exertional myopathy/hyperthermia or recovery misadventure. The short term sexual and agonistic behaviour of the males was assessed for the 2007 program: no significant changes were seen in adult males given the vasectomy procedure, while sexual behaviours’ were decreased in adult males given the orchidectomy procedure. It is concluded that female reproduction was effectively controlled by implantation with deslorrelin and male reproductive behaviour was reduced by orchidectomy, which together achieved population control.

  9. Peters anomaly in a red kangaroo (Macropus rufus).

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    Suedmeyer, Wm Kirk; Pearce, Jacqueline; Persky, Meredith; Houck, Marlys L

    2014-09-01

    A 10-mo-old female red kangaroo (Macropus rufus) presented with a unilateral congenital corneal opacity OD. Complete ophthalmic examination revealed a shallow anterior chamber and a focal area of corneal edema with multiple persistent pupillary membranes extending from the iris colarette to the corneal endothelium adjacent to the edematous area of cornea. High-resolution B-scan ultrasound of the anterior segment showed an area consistent with thinning of Descemet's membrane in the area of corneal edema. Ophthalmic examination and ultrasound findings are consistent with a diagnosis of Peters anomaly, a form of anterior segment dysgenesis. An electroretinogram performed on the affected animal did not reveal any specific abnormalities. Karyotype analyses revealed a normal diploid number (2n = 20, -XX), with an abnormal pericentric inversion in the second largest chromosomal pair. The kangaroo exhibits mild compensated vision deficits in the affected eye. The maternal and paternal adult pairing has been discontinued in an effort to prevent future offspring anomalies.

  10. Hepatoprotective Effects of Panus giganteus (Berk.) Corner against Thioacetamide- (TAA-) Induced Liver Injury in Rats.

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    Wong, Wei-Lun; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen; Chua, Kek-Heng; Kuppusamy, Umah Rani; Tan, Yee-Shin; Sabaratnam, Vikineswary

    2012-01-01

    Panus giganteus, a culinary and medicinal mushroom consumed by selected indigenous communities in Malaysia, is currently being considered for large scale cultivation. This study was undertaken to investigate the hepatoprotective effects of P. giganteus against thioacetamide- (TAA-) induced liver injury in Sprague-Dawley rats. The rats were injected intraperitoneally with TAA thrice weekly and were orally administered freeze-dried fruiting bodies of P. giganteus (0.5 or 1 g/kg) daily for two months, while control rats were given vehicle or P. giganteus only. After 60 days, rats administered with P. giganteus showed lower liver body weight ratio, restored levels of serum liver biomarkers and oxidative stress parameters comparable to treatment with the standard drug silymarin. Gross necropsy and histopathological examination further confirmed the hepatoprotective effects of P. giganteus. This is the first report on hepatoprotective effects of P. giganteus. The present study showed that P. giganteus was able to prevent or reduce the severity of TAA-induced liver injury.

  11. Hepatoprotective Effects of Panus giganteus (Berk. Corner against Thioacetamide- (TAA- Induced Liver Injury in Rats

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    Wei-Lun Wong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Panus giganteus, a culinary and medicinal mushroom consumed by selected indigenous communities in Malaysia, is currently being considered for large scale cultivation. This study was undertaken to investigate the hepatoprotective effects of P. giganteus against thioacetamide- (TAA- induced liver injury in Sprague-Dawley rats. The rats were injected intraperitoneally with TAA thrice weekly and were orally administered freeze-dried fruiting bodies of P. giganteus (0.5 or 1 g/kg daily for two months, while control rats were given vehicle or P. giganteus only. After 60 days, rats administered with P. giganteus showed lower liver body weight ratio, restored levels of serum liver biomarkers and oxidative stress parameters comparable to treatment with the standard drug silymarin. Gross necropsy and histopathological examination further confirmed the hepatoprotective effects of P. giganteus. This is the first report on hepatoprotective effects of P. giganteus. The present study showed that P. giganteus was able to prevent or reduce the severity of TAA-induced liver injury.

  12. Magnetic resonance imaging findings in a red kangaroo (Macropus rufus) with otitis.

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    Okeson, Danelle M; Coke, Rob L; Kochunov, Peter; Davis, M Duff

    2008-12-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed on an adult, male Red kangaroo (Macropus rufus) with a history of nonspecific neurologic signs and acute discharge from the left ear. MRI revealed findings consistent with otitis and possible osteomyelitis of the temporal and mastoid bones. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of otitis and MRI findings in a kangaroo.

  13. Production of Particleboards with Bamboo (Dendrocalamus giganteus Reinforcement

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    Ulysses José Zaia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this research was to study the utilization of residues from bamboo (Dendrocalamus giganteus lamination in the manufacturing of panels for structural purposes. Bamboo particleboards were produced under three conditions: pure boards, reinforced with bamboo laminas, and with treated particles. Castor oil-based polyurethane was the resin binder, in view of using lower toxicity materials. The mechanical tests were performed according to Brazilian Standard (NBR 14810-3 (2006 and European Standard (EN 310 (2000. The results were superior to those recommended by these and other standards for internal adhesion resistance, modulus of rupture, and elasticity in static bending, as well as to the results of other studies. Starch treatment was an unnecessary stage. According to the conditions of this process, the studied panels showed a good potential for construction use. Moreover, the bamboo particleboards are an economically viable, environmentally friendly, and sustainable alternative for the use of waste generated during the processing of Dendrocalamus giganteus bamboo species, allied with castor oil-based polyurethane resin. The reinforced particleboard and its production process are being licensed as an Innovation Patent in Brazil, (BR 1020130133919-1-2013.

  14. The evaluation of growth and phytoextraction potential of Miscanthus x giganteus and Sida hermaphrodita on soil contaminated simultaneously with Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn.

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    Kocoń, Anna; Jurga, Beata

    2017-02-01

    One of the cheapest, environmentally friendly methods for cleaning an environment polluted by heavy metals is phytoextraction. It builds on the uptake of pollutants from the soil by the plants, which are able to grow under conditions of high concentrations of toxic metals. The aim of this work was to assess the possibility of growing and phytoextraction potential of Miscanthus x giganteus and Sida hermaphrodita cultivated on two different soils contaminated with five heavy metals simultaneously: Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn. A 3-year microplot experiment with two perennial energy crops, M. x giganteus and S. hermaphrodita, was conducted in the experimental station of IUNG-PIB in Poland (5° 25' N, 21° 58 'E), in the years of 2008-2010. Miscanthus was found more tolerant to concomitant soil contamination with heavy metals and produced almost double biomass than Sida in all three tested years, independent of soil type. Miscanthus collected greater amount of heavy metals (except for cadmium) in the biomass than Sida. Both energy crops absorb high levels of zinc, lower levels of lead, copper, and nickel, and absorbed cadmium at least, generally more metals were taken from the sandy soil, where plants also yielded better. Photosynthesis net rate of Miscanthus was on average 40% higher compared to Sida. Obtained results indicate that M. x giganteus and S. hermaphrodita can successfully be grown on moderately contaminated soil with heavy metals.

  15. Preliminary Results on Growing Second Generation Biofuel Crop Miscanthus X Giganteus at The Polluted Military Site in Ukraine

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    Pidlisnyuk Valentina

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The semi-field research on using second-generation biofuel crop Miscanthus x giganteus for restoration of former military site in Kamenetz-Podilsky, Ukraine was carried out during two vegetation seasons. Despite high metal pollution of soil, in particular, by Fe, Mn, Ti, and Zr, no growth inhibition was observed. The concentrations followed pattern soil > roots > stems > leaves. Accumulation of particular metals in roots was different: Fe, Mn and Ti were accumulated rather palpably after the first vegetation season and less tangible after the second one. Cu, Pb and Zn were less accumulative in both vegetation seasons, and for As and Pb the accumulative concentrations were very small. Accumulations in the aboveground parts of the plant in comparison to roots were significantly lower in case of Fe, Ti, Mn, Cu, Zn, Sr and even statistically comparable to zero in case of As, Pb and Zr. Calculated translocation ratio of metals in the plant’s parts preferably indicated lack of metals’ hyper accumulation. Generally, no correlations were observed between concentrations of metals in the soil and in the upper plant’s parts. The research confirmed the ability of Miscanthus x giganteus to grow on the military soils predominantly contaminated by metals.

  16. Identification of GBV-D, a novel GB-like flavivirus from old world frugivorous bats (Pteropus giganteus in Bangladesh.

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    Jonathan H Epstein

    Full Text Available Bats are reservoirs for a wide range of zoonotic agents including lyssa-, henipah-, SARS-like corona-, Marburg-, Ebola-, and astroviruses. In an effort to survey for the presence of other infectious agents, known and unknown, we screened sera from 16 Pteropus giganteus bats from Faridpur, Bangladesh, using high-throughput pyrosequencing. Sequence analyses indicated the presence of a previously undescribed virus that has approximately 50% identity at the amino acid level to GB virus A and C (GBV-A and -C. Viral nucleic acid was present in 5 of 98 sera (5% from a single colony of free-ranging bats. Infection was not associated with evidence of hepatitis or hepatic dysfunction. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that this first GBV-like flavivirus reported in bats constitutes a distinct species within the Flaviviridae family and is ancestral to the GBV-A and -C virus clades.

  17. Gasification of torrefied Miscanthus × giganteus in an air-blown bubbling fluidized bed gasifier.

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    Xue, G; Kwapinska, M; Horvat, A; Kwapinski, W; Rabou, L P L M; Dooley, S; Czajka, K M; Leahy, J J

    2014-05-01

    Torrefaction is suggested to be an effective method to improve the fuel properties of biomass and gasification of torrefied biomass should provide a higher quality product gas than that from unprocessed biomass. In this study, both raw and torrefied Miscanthus × giganteus (M×G) were gasified in an air-blown bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) gasifier using olivine as the bed material. The effects of equivalence ratio (ER) (0.18-0.32) and bed temperature (660-850°C) on the gasification performance were investigated. The results obtained suggest the optimum gasification conditions for the torrefied M × G are ER 0.21 and 800°C. The product gas from these process conditions had a higher heating value (HHV) of 6.70 MJ/m(3), gas yield 2m(3)/kg biomass (H2 8.6%, CO 16.4% and CH4 4.4%) and cold gas efficiency 62.7%. The comparison between raw and torrefied M × G indicates that the torrefied M × G is more suitable BFB gasification.

  18. The influence of co-cultivation on expression of the antifungal protein in Aspergillus giganteus.

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    Meyer, Vera; Stahl, Ulf

    2003-01-01

    The afp gene of Aspergillus giganteus encodes a small, highly basic polypeptide with antifungal activity, named Antifungal Protein (AFP). The protein is secreted by the mould and inhibits the growth of various filamentous fungi. In this paper we report that co-cultivation of A. giganteus with various microorganisms alters afp expression. It was found that co-cultivation modulates afp expression on the level of transcription, using a reporter system based on the beta-glucuronidase gene. The presence of Fusarium oxysporum triggered afp transcription whereas dual cultures of A. giganteus and A. niger resulted in suppression of afp transcription. Growth tests performed with several carbon and nitrogen sources, revealed that the influence of co-cultivation is strongly dependent on the medium composition.

  19. Presumptive Acute Neural Toxoplasmosis in a Captive Red-Necked Wallaby (Macropus rufogriseus

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    Carlos Hermosilla

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A red-necked male wallaby (Macropus rufogriseus from a German zoo was presented for acute onset of severe neurological signs, including head tremor, lethargy, unresponsiveness, and weakness. Serum biochemical abnormalities included increased LDH- and AST-levels, hyperproteinaemia, and reduced ALT-, ALP-, and creatinine-levels. The wallaby was found serologically positive for Toxoplasma gondii by the indirect haemagglutination test. After initiation of therapy by subcutaneous injections of trimethoprim/sulfadoxin, amelioration of neurological signs was noted and after 10 days the affected wallaby recovered. T. gondii can be confirmed rapidly by serology, and immediate therapy may reduce clinical illness and fatality of the disease within captive macropods.

  20. COMPARATIVE FOLIAR EPIDERMAL STUDIES IN CYMBOPOGON CITRATUS (STAPF. AND CYMBOPOGON GIGANTEUS (HOCHST. CHIOV. IN NIGERIA

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    Abayomi Ezekiel FOLORUNSO

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The foliar epidermal studies were carried out on Cymbopogon citratus and Cymbopogon giganteus with the aim of determining the patterns of variation in their epidermal characteristics and assessing their value in species identification and classification. The characters of diagnostic importance in the identification of C. citratus are the micro hairs, which are sparsely distributed in the adaxial epidermis and prickle hairs present in both abaxial and adaxial epidermis. The diagnostic character for C. giganteus is the papillae seen alongside their long cells.

  1. Fatal toxoplasmosis associated with an atypical Toxoplasma gondii strain in a Bennett’s wallaby (Macropus rufogriseus) in Spain

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    Toxoplasmosis is often fatal in captive wallabies, but the causes of this high susceptibility are not well understood. Here, we report fatal toxoplasmosis in a Bennet´s wallaby (Macropus rufogriseus) due to an atypical T. gondii strain for the first time in Europe. The wallaby was one of a colony of...

  2. Disseminated mycobacteriosis manifesting as paraplegia in two Parma wallabies (Macropus parma) naturally exposed to Mycobacterium avium.

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    Robveille, Cynthia; Albaric, Olivier; Gaide, Nicolas; Abadie, Jérome

    2015-11-01

    Two captive female Parma wallabies (Macropus parma) died after a history of flaccid paraplegia. On postmortem examination, granulomatous and suppurative osteomyelitis involving the left ischium and the lumbosacral region, with meningeal extension at the cauda equina, and caseonecrotic mastitis were the most significant changes. Multiple small nodules in the liver and spleen, and an enlargement of some lymph nodes with central caseous necrosis were also observed. Microscopically, a disseminated granulomatous inflammation with numerous multinucleate giant cells was seen. Numerous acid-fast bacilli were detected in macrophages, in multinucleated giant cells, and free in the central necrosis and suppurative exudate. After culture, polymerase chain reaction assays were carried out to detect the 65-kDa heat shock protein (Hsp65) and insertion sequences (IS)1245 and IS900. The causative agent was identified as Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium.

  3. Effect of Steam Explosion Pretreatment on the Specific Methane Yield of Miscanthus x giganteus

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    Franz Theuretzbacher; Javier Lizasoain; Simona Menardo; Paal Jahre Nilsen; Andreas Gronauer; Alexander Bauer

    2014-01-01

    A highly promising energy crop for biogas production can be Miscanthus x giganteus. It has multiple advantages, which include low soil requirements and the existence of genotypes adapted to dry conditions in comparison to other energy crops. Miscanthus cannot be used in the biogas plant without a pretreatment due to the recalcitrant nature of lignocelluloses. One of the most efficient pretreatment methods for lignocellulosic biomass is steam explosion. This includes heating the biomass...

  4. Phytoremediation potential of Miscanthus × giganteus and Spartina pectinata in soil contaminated with heavy metals.

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    Korzeniowska, Jolanta; Stanislawska-Glubiak, Ewa

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this work was to assess the suitability of Miscanthus × giganteus and Spartina pectinata link to Cu, Ni, and Zn phytoremediation. A 2-year microplot experiment with the tested grasses growing on metal-contaminated soil was carried out. Microplots with cement borders, measuring 1 × 1 × 1m, were filled with Haplic Luvisols soil. Simulated soil contamination with Cu, Ni, and Zn was introduced in the following doses in mg kg(-1): 0-no metals, Cu1-100, Cu2-200, Cu3-400, Ni1-60, Ni2-100, Ni3-240, Zn1-300, Zn2-600, and Zn3-1200. The phytoremediation potential of grasses was evaluated using a tolerance index (TI), bioaccumulation factor (BF), bioconcentration factor (BCF), and translocation factor (TF). S. pectinata showed a higher tolerance to soil contamination with Cu, Ni, and Zn compared to M. × giganteus. S. pectinata was found to have a high suitability for phytostabilization of Zn and lower suitability of Cu and Ni. M. × giganteus had a lower phytostabilization potential than S. pectinata. The suitability of both grasses for Zn phytoextraction depended on the age of the plants. Both grasses were not suitable for Cu and Ni phytoextraction. The research showed that one-season studies were not valuable for fully assessing the phytoremediation potential of perennial plants.

  5. Effect of fire on a monodominant floating mat of Cyperus giganteus Vahl in a neotropical wetland.

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    Rocha, M; Santos Júnior, C C; Damasceno-Júnior, G A; Pott, V J; Pott, A

    2015-01-01

    The rhizomatous Cyperus giganteus, abundant in the Pantanal wetland, can dominate extense floodable areas as monodominant communities. The Jacadigo lake has a large area of C. giganteus, where we performed an evaluation on community structure during two months in 2010, before it was hit by a wildfire which top-killed the vegetation, compared to ten months post-fire. We utilized 40 plots of 1m × 1m, along permanent trails, assessing two strata: the upper, near the inflorescence of adult plants, and the lower, close to the water level. Our results show that fire does not affect dominance of C. giganteus, as it maintained the same cover as before fire; species richness is not much altered either - 28 before fire and 34 thereafter. Fire changed the floristic composition, due to the annual variation of species and the ability of some plants to colonize gaps and to regrow after fire from underground organs and seeds. The stratification of the vegetation with characteristic species of upper and lower strata was similar after fire.

  6. Effect of fire on a monodominant floating mat of Cyperus giganteus Vahl in a neotropical wetland

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    M. Rocha

    Full Text Available The rhizomatous Cyperus giganteus, abundant in the Pantanal wetland, can dominate extense floodable areas as monodominant communities. The Jacadigo lake has a large area of C. giganteus, where we performed an evaluation on community structure during two months in 2010, before it was hit by a wildfire which top-killed the vegetation, compared to ten months post-fire. We utilized 40 plots of 1m × 1m, along permanent trails, assessing two strata: the upper, near the inflorescence of adult plants, and the lower, close to the water level. Our results show that fire does not affect dominance of C. giganteus, as it maintained the same cover as before fire; species richness is not much altered either - 28 before fire and 34 thereafter. Fire changed the floristic composition, due to the annual variation of species and the ability of some plants to colonize gaps and to regrow after fire from underground organs and seeds. The stratification of the vegetation with characteristic species of upper and lower strata was similar after fire.

  7. Lactation transcriptomics in the Australian marsupial, Macropus eugenii: transcript sequencing and quantification

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    Whitley Jane C

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lactation is an important aspect of mammalian biology and, amongst mammals, marsupials show one of the most complex lactation cycles. Marsupials, such as the tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii give birth to a relatively immature newborn and progressive changes in milk composition and milk production regulate early stage development of the young. Results In order to investigate gene expression in the marsupial mammary gland during lactation, a comprehensive set of cDNA libraries was derived from lactating tissues throughout the lactation cycle of the tammar wallaby. A total of 14,837 express sequence tags were produced by cDNA sequencing. Sequence analysis and sequence assembly were used to construct a comprehensive catalogue of mammary transcripts. Sequence data from pregnant and early or late lactating specific cDNA libraries and, data from early or late lactation massively parallel sequencing strategies were combined to analyse the variation of milk protein gene expression during the lactation cycle. Conclusion Results show a steady increase in expression of genes coding for secreted protein during the lactation cycle that is associated with high proportion of transcripts coding for milk proteins. In addition, genes involved in immune function, translation and energy or anabolic metabolism are expressed across the lactation cycle. A number of potential new milk proteins or mammary gland remodelling markers, including noncoding RNAs have been identified.

  8. Morphological and morphometric characteristics of gastric mucosa in western grey kangaroo (Macropus fuliginosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Badran Shoeib

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to investigate the morphology and histomorphometry of stomach and gastric mucosa in western grey kangaroo (Macropus fuliginosus. The stomach was composed of three indistinctive separate parts namely sacciform forestomach, tubiform forestomach, and hindstomach. The tubiform forestomach was the main tubular section of the organ. The stomach had a compound lining. The non-glandular mucosa occupied the medial blind sac (MBS of the sacciform forestomach; the layer covered about one-third of the tubiform forestomach (non-glandular region and the entire length of the gastric sulcus. The glandular part lined the parietal blind sac (PBS of sacciform forestomach and the cardiac gland region of tubiform forestomach as well as fundic and pyloric gland regions of the hindstomach. The cardiac mucosa had smooth and folded areas; these were filled with mixed glands. In the fundic glands, the parietal cells outnumbered the chief cells. The pyloric glands were of serous-like in characteristics. In conclusion, gross and histological structures of the stomach of western grey kangaroo are adaptive with its food habitat, which allows thorough mixing of highly fibrous grasses.

  9. LEISHMANIA INFANTUM INFECTION IN BENNETT'S WALLABIES (MACROPUS RUFOGRISEUS RUFOGRISEUS) IN A SPANISH WILDLIFE PARK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Ana; de Quadros, Lino Pérez; Mateo, Marta; Hernández, Leticia; Gálvez, Rosa; Alcántara, Gabriel; Checa, Rocío; Jiménez, María Ángeles; Chicharro, Carmen; Cruz, Israel; Miró, Guadalupe

    2016-06-01

    Although dogs are the main reservoir for human Leishmania infantum infection, the disease has also been reported in other domestic and wild mammals. In 2011, a fatal case of naturally acquired leishmaniosis was described for the first time in a Bennett's wallaby (Macropus rufogriseus rufogriseus) kept in a wildlife park in Madrid (Spain). This study was designed to assess the infection status of twelve Bennett's wallabies in the same park one year after this incident. Phlebotomus perniciosus, the main vector of L. infantum in Spain, was screened for using sticky and Centers for Disease Control miniature light traps. L. infantum infection was confirmed by molecular diagnosis in four animals, but only one wallaby returned a positive serology result. The presence of the sand fly vector was also confirmed in this habitat. These results suggest that the first case of L. infantum in a wallaby in this park was not an isolated incident and stress the need for further work to determine the role of this parasite in the morbidity and mortality of these macropods. Madrid was recently the scene of an outbreak of human cutaneous and visceral leishmaniosis. Epidemiological studies have so far revealed the widespread presence of L. infantum infection in animals other than the dog. Our ongoing work suggests a risk of L. infantum infection not only among captive animals in Madrid, but also among threatened species or even species that are already extinct in the wild.

  10. Potential uses of biomass from fast-growing crop miscanthus×giganteus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babović Nada V.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing interest in perennial grasses as a renewable source of bioenergy and feedstock for second-generation cellulosic biofuels. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum and miscanthus (Miscanthus×giganteus, belonging to the parennial grasses group, are the major lignocellulosic materials being studied today as sources for direct energy production, biofuels, bioremediation and other. They have the ability to grow at low cost on marginal land where they will not compete with the traditional food crops. Miscanthus×giganteus possesses a number of advantages in comparison with the other potential energy crops such as are: high yields, low moisture content at harvest, high water and nitrogen use efficiencies, low need for annual agronomic inputs such as fertilizers and pesticides, high cellulose content, non-invasive character, low susceptibility to pests and diseases and broad adaptation to temperate growing environments. The main problems are low rate of survival during the first winter after the creation of plantation and the relatively high establishment costs. Miscanthus×giganteus is grown primarily for heat and electricity generation but can also be used to produce transport fuels. Miscanthus biomass has a very good combustion quality due to its low water concentration as well as its low Cl, K, N, S and ash concentrations compared to other lignocellulose plants. It is expected that miscanthus will provide cheaper and more sustainable source of cellulose for production of bioethanol than annual crops such as corn. Miscanthus has great promise as a renewable energy source, but it can only be realised when the grass production has been optimised for large-scale commercial cultivation. However, further research is still needed to optimise agronomy of miscanthus, to develop the production chain and pre-treatment as well as to optimise energy conversation route to produce heat, electricity, and/or fuels from biomass, if miscanthus is to

  11. Neurologic amebiasis caused by Balamuthia mandrillaris in an Indian flying fox (Pteropus giganteus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossland, Nicholas A; Ali, Ibne; Higbie, Christine; Jackson, Jonathan; Pirie, Gordon; Bauer, Rudy

    2016-01-01

    A 4-5-month-old intact male Indian flying fox (Pteropus giganteus) was presented to the Baton Rouge Zoo's veterinary hospital with an acute onset of obtundation that was diagnosed with amebic encephalitis. Histologic examination revealed numerous amebic trophozoites within necrotic foci, affecting the occipital cerebrum and surrounding the mesencephalic aqueduct. The etiologic agent, Balamuthia mandrillaris, was determined by multiplex quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry, and indirect fluorescent antibody test. The current report documented a case of amebic encephalitis within the order Chiroptera. © 2016 The Author(s).

  12. Roosting behaviour and habitat selection of Pteropus giganteus reveals potential links to Nipah virus epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Micah B; Epstein, Jonathan H; Gurley, Emily S; Islam, Mohammad S; Luby, Stephen P; Daszak, Peter; Patz, Jonathan A

    2014-04-01

    1. Flying foxes Pteropus spp. play a key role in forest regeneration as seed dispersers and are also the reservoir of many viruses, including Nipah virus in Bangladesh. Little is known about their habitat requirements, particularly in South Asia. Identifying Pteropus habitat preferences could assist in understanding the risk of zoonotic disease transmission broadly, and in Bangladesh, could help explain the spatial distribution of human Nipah virus cases. 2. We analysed characteristics of Pteropus giganteus roosts and constructed an ecological niche model to identify suitable habitat in Bangladesh. We also assessed the distribution of suitable habitat in relation to the location of human Nipah virus cases. 3. Compared to non-roost trees, P. giganteus roost trees are taller with larger diameters, and are more frequently canopy trees. Colony size was larger in densely forested regions and smaller in flood-affected areas. Roosts were located in areas with lower annual precipitation and higher human population density than non-roost sites. 4. We predicted that 2-17% of Bangladesh's land area is suitable roosting habitat. Nipah virus outbreak villages were 2.6 times more likely to be located in areas predicted as highly suitable habitat for P. giganteus compared to non-outbreak villages. 5. Synthesis and applications. Habitat suitability modelling may help identify previously undocumented Nipah outbreak locations and improve our understanding of Nipah virus ecology by highlighting regions where there is suitable bat habitat but no reported human Nipah virus. Conservation and public health education is a key component of P. giganteus management in Bangladesh due to the general misunderstanding and fear of bats that are a reservoir of Nipah virus. Affiliation between Old World fruit bats (Pteropodidae) and people is common throughout their range, and in order to conserve these keystone bat species and prevent emergence of zoonotic viruses, it is imperative that we

  13. Growth characteristics and nutrient depletion of Miscanthus x ogiformis Honda 'Giganteus' suspension cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, Inger Bæksted

    1998-01-01

    The growth characteristics and nutrient depletion in suspension cultures of Miscanthus ogiformis Honda ‘Giganteus' grown in media containing either Murashige and Skoog or N6 basal nutrient salts were studied during a culture period of 15 days. Proline was added to both media in concentrations from...

  14. Final Report DE-SC0006634. Quantifying phenotypic and genetic diversity of Miscanthus sinensis as a resource for knowledge-based improvement of M. ×giganteus (M. sinensis × M. sacchariflorus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sacks, Erik [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)

    2016-02-08

    Miscanthus is especially attractive as a bioenergy crop for temperate environments because it produces high yields, needs few inputs, and grows well during the cool weather of early spring and late fall when few warm-season grasses can. However, Miscanthus feedstock production for the emerging U.S. bioenergy industry and for existing demand in Europe is based on a single sterile, vegetatively propagated variety of M. ×giganteus. M. ×giganteus is an interspecific hybrid of the parental species M. sinensis and M. sacchariflorus. Prior to the current study, little information existed about the genetic diversity and breeding potential of either M. ×giganteus parental species. In the current project, we studied more than 600 accessions of M. sinensis from throughout its native range in China, Japan, and Korea, in addition to ornamental cultivars and U.S. naturalized populations. Using thousands of DNA markers, we identified seven geographically distinct genetic groups of M. sinensis. Notably, we found that the ornamental cultivars and U.S. naturalized populations were derived from only a subset of the Southern Japan group, indicating that our study greatly increased the genetic diversity available for breeding new biomass cultivars. Additionally, this new understanding of M. sinensis population structure could be used to predict which crosses may produce progeny with the greatest hybrid vigor. Replicated field trials were also established at multiple locations in North America and Asia. Data on traits of importance for biomass productivity, such as flowering time, yield and height, were taken. Analyses of the phenotypic data from the field trials along with the DNA markers allowed us to identify many marker-trait associations. These results will enable marker-assisted breeding, which will allow selection at the seedling stage rather than waiting two to three years to obtain phenotypic data. Thus, this study is expected to greatly increase the efficiency of breeding

  15. Vigas de concreto reforçadas com bambu Dendrocalamus giganteus. I: análise experimental Concrete beams reinforced with bamboo (Dendrocalamus giganteus. I: experimental analysis

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    Humberto C. Lima Júnior

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, apresenta-se e se discute um estudo experimental sobre o comportamento estrutural de vigas de concreto reforçadas com bambu. Ensaiaram-se dez vigas de concreto armado, sendo oito vigas armadas longitudinalmente com varas de bambu Dendrocalamus giganteus e duas vigas de referência, armadas com barras de aço. Duas variáveis foram estudadas: a taxa de armadura longitudinal (1,6 e 3,2% e a relação área/perímetro das varas de bambu (0,25 e 0,33 cm. Para cada combinação de variáveis foram confeccionadas duas vigas. Curvas força vs. deslocamento e força vs. deformação dos materiais são apresentadas e discutidas. Constatou-se que o comportamento estrutural das vigas de concreto reforçadas com bambu segue a teoria de flexão de Bernoulli-Kirchoff, sendo possível a aplicação dos procedimentos usuais de dimensionamento do concreto armado no projeto desses elementos. Observou-se, também, que a capacidade de carga dessas vigas se assemelha à das vigas de aço; contudo, estas são mais rígidas que aquelas.In this paper, an experimental study about bamboo reinforced concrete beams is presented and discussed. Ten reinforced concrete beams were tested, where eight of them were reinforced with Dendrocalamus giganteus bamboo-splint and two reference beams were reinforced with steel bars. Two factors were studied: the longitudinal reinforcement ratio (1.6 and 3.2% and the area/perimeter ratio of the bamboo-splint (0.25 and 0.33 cm. For each factor combination, two beams were cast. Force vs. displacement and force vs. strain curves are presented and discussed. It was found out that the structural behaviour of bamboo-concrete beams follow the Bernoulli-Kirchoff bending theory. Therefore, the usual design procedures of reinforced concrete can be used to design the bamboo-concrete beams. The load capacity of the bamboo-concrete beams is almost the same as that of reinforced with steel; nevertheless, are more stiffer than those

  16. Influence of light and nitrogen on the photosynthetic efficiency in the C4 plant Miscanthus × giganteus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jian-Ying; Sun, Wei; Koteyeva, Nuria K; Voznesenskaya, Elena; Stutz, Samantha S; Gandin, Anthony; Smith-Moritz, Andreia M; Heazlewood, Joshua L; Cousins, Asaph B

    2017-01-01

    There are numerous studies describing how growth conditions influence the efficiency of C4 photosynthesis. However, it remains unclear how changes in the biochemical capacity versus leaf anatomy drives this acclimation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine how growth light and nitrogen availability influence leaf anatomy, biochemistry and the efficiency of the CO2 concentrating mechanism in Miscanthus × giganteus. There was an increase in the mesophyll cell wall surface area but not cell well thickness in the high-light (HL) compared to the low-light (LL) grown plants suggesting a higher mesophyll conductance in the HL plants, which also had greater photosynthetic capacity. Additionally, the HL plants had greater surface area and thickness of bundle-sheath cell walls compared to LL plants, suggesting limited differences in bundle-sheath CO2 conductance because the increased area was offset by thicker cell walls. The gas exchange estimates of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPc) activity were significantly less than the in vitro PEPc activity, suggesting limited substrate availability in the leaf due to low mesophyll CO2 conductance. Finally, leakiness was similar across all growth conditions and generally did not change under the different measurement light conditions. However, differences in the stable isotope composition of leaf material did not correlate with leakiness indicating that dry matter isotope measurements are not a good proxy for leakiness. Taken together, these data suggest that the CO2 concentrating mechanism in Miscanthus is robust under low-light and limited nitrogen growth conditions, and that the observed changes in leaf anatomy and biochemistry likely help to maintain this efficiency.

  17. Persistent organic pollutants in blood samples of Southern Giant Petrels (Macronectes giganteus) from the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colabuono, Fernanda I; Vander Pol, Stacy S; Huncik, Kevin M; Taniguchi, Satie; Petry, Maria V; Kucklick, John R; Montone, Rosalinda C

    2016-09-01

    Seabirds play an important role as top consumers in the food web and can be used as biomonitors of exposure to pollutants. Contamination studies involving non-destructive sampling methods are of considerable importance, allowing better evaluation of the levels of pollutants and their toxic effects. In the present study, organohalogen contaminants were analyzed in 113 blood samples from Southern Giant Petrel (Macronectes giganteus) adults and chicks collected in the austral summer of 2011/2012 and 2012/2013 from colonies on Elephant and Livingston Islands, South Shetland, Antarctica. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), pentachlorobenzene (PeCB), mirex, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroetane and derivatives (DDTs) and chlordanes were detected in all birds, whereas polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were not detected in any blood samples. No significant differences were found in organochlorine levels between sampling events. Adults exhibited significantly higher levels than chicks, except for PeCB. PCBs, HCB, mirex and DDTs were statistically similar in males and females from Elephant Island. Females on Livingston Island exhibited higher HCB values than males, but no sex differences were found regarding other organochlorines. The similarity in organochlorine levels between sexes in birds with very marked sexual segregation in feeding habits during the breeding season may indicate that significant amounts of contaminants are acquired during migration to lower latitudes, when the diets of males and females are similar. Birds sampled on Livingston Island exhibited significantly lower levels of PCBs, HCB, DDTs, mirex and chlordanes in comparison to those on Elephant Island, which could be the result of distinct foraging patterns between the two colonies. Organochlorine levels were similar between years in birds captured in two consecutive breeding seasons. Blood samples from Southern Giant Petrels adults and chicks proved to be useful for the comparison

  18. Refuge or reservoir? The potential impacts of the biofuel crop Miscanthus x giganteus on a major pest of maize.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph L Spencer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Interest in the cultivation of biomass crops like the C4 grass Miscanthus x giganteus (Miscanthus is increasing as global demand for biofuel grows. In the US, Miscanthus is promoted as a crop well-suited to the Corn Belt where it could be cultivated on marginal land interposed with maize and soybean. Interactions (direct and indirect of Miscanthus, maize, and the major Corn Belt pest of maize, the western corn rootworm, (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, WCR are unknown. Adding a perennial grass/biomass crop to this system is concerning since WCR is adapted to the continuous availability of its grass host, maize (Zea mays. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a greenhouse and field study, we investigated WCR development and oviposition on Miscanthus. The suitability of Miscanthus for WCR development varied across different WCR populations. Data trends indicate that WCR populations that express behavioural resistance to crop rotation performed as well on Miscanthus as on maize. Over the entire study, total adult WCR emergence from Miscanthus (212 WCR was 29.6% of that from maize (717 WCR. Adult dry weight was 75-80% that of WCR from maize; female emergence patterns on Miscanthus were similar to females developing on maize. There was no difference in the mean no. of WCR eggs laid at the base of Miscanthus and maize in the field. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Field oviposition and significant WCR emergence from Miscanthus raises many questions about the nature of likely interactions between Miscanthus, maize and WCR and the potential for Miscanthus to act as a refuge or reservoir for Corn Belt WCR. Responsible consideration of the benefits and risks associated with Corn Belt Miscanthus are critical to protecting an agroecosystem that we depend on for food, feed, and increasingly, fuel. Implications for European agroecosystems in which Miscanthus is being proposed are also discussed in light of the WCR's recent invasion into Europe.

  19. A second-generation anchored genetic linkage map of the tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Hardip R

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The tammar wallaby, Macropus eugenii, a small kangaroo used for decades for studies of reproduction and metabolism, is the model Australian marsupial for genome sequencing and genetic investigations. The production of a more comprehensive cytogenetically-anchored genetic linkage map will significantly contribute to the deciphering of the tammar wallaby genome. It has great value as a resource to identify novel genes and for comparative studies, and is vital for the ongoing genome sequence assembly and gene ordering in this species. Results A second-generation anchored tammar wallaby genetic linkage map has been constructed based on a total of 148 loci. The linkage map contains the original 64 loci included in the first-generation map, plus an additional 84 microsatellite loci that were chosen specifically to increase coverage and assist with the anchoring and orientation of linkage groups to chromosomes. These additional loci were derived from (a sequenced BAC clones that had been previously mapped to tammar wallaby chromosomes by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH, (b End sequence from BACs subsequently FISH-mapped to tammar wallaby chromosomes, and (c tammar wallaby genes orthologous to opossum genes predicted to fill gaps in the tammar wallaby linkage map as well as three X-linked markers from a published study. Based on these 148 loci, eight linkage groups were formed. These linkage groups were assigned (via FISH-mapped markers to all seven autosomes and the X chromosome. The sex-pooled map size is 1402.4 cM, which is estimated to provide 82.6% total coverage of the genome, with an average interval distance of 10.9 cM between adjacent markers. The overall ratio of female/male map length is 0.84, which is comparable to the ratio of 0.78 obtained for the first-generation map. Conclusions Construction of this second-generation genetic linkage map is a significant step towards complete coverage of the tammar wallaby

  20. Dermoglyphus giganteus sp, nov. : eine neue Art der Federmilben aus der Familie Dermoglyphidae (Astigmata, Analgoidea) vom Sperlingstäubchen Columbigal/ina passerina (Aves, Columbiformes)

    OpenAIRE

    Dabert, Jacek; Ehrnsberger, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    Es wird die neue Art Dermoglyphus giganteus sp.n. aus der Federmilbenfamilie Dermoglyphidae (Astigmata, Analgoidea) vom Sperlingstäubchen Collumbigallina passerina (Columbiformes) beschrieben. Es werden Angaben zum Mikrohabitat und zur Lebensweise dieser Art gemacht. The new species Dermoglyphus giganteus sp.n. of the feather mite family Dermoglyphidae (Astigmata, Analgoidea) from the Common Ground-Dove Columbigallina passerina (Columbiformes) is described. The life conditions and microha...

  1. The effect of daytime rain on the Indian Flying Fox (Mammalia: Chiroptera: Pteropodidae Pteropus giganteus

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    S. Baskaran

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Excessive water loss during the day due to heat stress in bats of the genus Pteropus appears to be inevitable, because these bats are exposed to direct sunlight.  Rain also affects the rest pattern of the Indian Flying Fox Pteropus giganteus during the day.  When rain occurred during the day, most of the bats hung in a slanting position and did not exhibit any movements.  After rain, they licked both ventral and dorsal surfaces of the wing membrane and scratched their body with their thumb claws.  They also licked the water droplets that remained on the leaves and branches of the tree.  Even though their rest had been affected by the rain the bats utilized the water droplets to quench their thirst, cool their body and clean their fur.  The construction of water reservoirs near Pteropus roosts will help to assure their long-term conservation. 

  2. EVALUATION OF FIBER DIMENSIONS OF Dendrocalamus giganteus (Wall Munro BAMBOO CULMS AT DIFFERENT AGES

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    Nelson Potenciano Marinho

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509813342This study aimed to evaluate the fiber dimension of Dendrocalamus giganteus culms in 2-6 years old. Samples from basal portion of culms were macerated and sliced in sliding microtome for dimension fibers evaluation and histological cut production. Results showed that fibers increased in length with culms age, being the smallest and the biggest lengths 3266 and 3878.57 μm, observed in 3º and 6º years, respectively. The fibers showed smaller and bigger wall thickness in 6º and 2º years, with value of 7.11 and 10.46 μm, respectively. The anatomical tissue of culms varied from 12.8, 47.6 and 39.6 for vascular bundles, fibers and parenchyma, respectively.

  3. Comparing the performance of Miscanthus x giganteus and wheat straw biomass in sulfuric acid based pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kärcher, M A; Iqbal, Y; Lewandowski, I; Senn, T

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to assess and compare the suitability of Miscanthus x giganteus and wheat straw biomass in dilute acid catalyzed pretreatment. Miscanthus and wheat straw were treated in a dilute sulfuric acid/steam explosion pretreatment. As a result of combining dilute sulfuric acid- and steam explosion pretreatment the hemicellulose hydrolysis yields (96% in wheat straw and 90% in miscanthus) in both substrates were higher than reported in literature. The combined severity factor (=CSF) for optimal hemicellulose hydrolysis was 1.9 and 1.5 in for miscanthus and wheat straw respectively. Because of the higher CSF value more furfural, furfuryl alcohol, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and acetic acid was formed in miscanthus than in wheat straw pretreatment.

  4. Increased metal concentrations in giant sungazer lizards (Smaug giganteus) from mining areas in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Trevor; Whiting, Martin J

    2012-11-01

    Environmental contaminants from anthropogenic activity such as mining can have profound health effects on the animals living in adjacent areas. We investigated whether inorganic contaminants associated with gold-mining waste discharges were accumulated by a threatened species of lizard, Smaug giganteus, in South Africa. Lizards were sampled from two mining sites and two control sites. Blood samples from the most contaminated mining site had significantly greater concentrations of lithium, sodium, aluminum, sulfur, silicon, chromium, manganese, iron, nickel, copper, tungsten, and bismuth than the remaining sites. Contaminant concentrations were not significantly related to lizard body condition, although these relationships were consistently negative. The adult sex ratio of the population inhabiting the most contaminated site also deviated from an expected 1:1 ratio in favour of female lizards. We demonstrate that lizards at these mining sites contained high concentrations of heavy metals that may be imposing as yet poorly understood costs to these lizards.

  5. Nitrogen Reserve Pools in Two Miscanthus × giganteus Genotypes under Contrasting N Managements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan M. Dierking

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen (N reserves in vegetative tissues contribute N to regrowth of Miscanthus × giganteus shoots in spring, but our understanding of how N fertilization and plant genotype affect this process is incomplete. Our specific objectives were to: (1 determine how N fertilizer management impacts accumulation of dry matter and N among aboveground and belowground tissues and organs; (2 understand how changes in N management and tissue N concentration influence seasonal fluctuations in concentrations of buffer-soluble proteins and amino acids in putative storage organs including rhizomes and roots; and (3 characterize genotypic variability and genotype × N interactions for N reserve accumulation and use among Miscanthus × giganteus genotypes. Established plots of the IL Clone and Nagara-sib population were fertilized with 0–0, 0–150, 75–75, 150–0, and 150–150 kg N ha-1 where the first numeral denotes the N rate applied in 2011 (Year 1 and the second number denotes the N rate applied in 2012 (Year 2. Rhizomes, roots, stembases, and shoots were sampled at 6-week intervals between March and August and then in November at dormancy. Concentrations of N, soluble protein and amino-N increased in all tissues with fertilizer N application. With the exception of rhizome amino-N, concentrations of these N pools in roots and rhizomes declined as plants resumed growth in spring and increased sharply between August and November as growth slowed. Losses in shoot and stembase N mass between August and November were similar to total N accumulation in roots and rhizomes during this interval. Compared to the unfertilized control, specific N managements enhanced growth of above- and belowground tissues. The IL Clone generally had greater biomass yield of all organs than the Nagara-sib; the exception being shoot biomass in November when extensive leaf senescence reduce yield of the IL Clone. High biomass yields were obtained with 75 kg N ha-1 applied annually

  6. Ultralong Cycle Life Achieved by a Natural Plant: Miscanthus × giganteus for Lithium Oxygen Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shu; Bi, Xuanxuan; Tao, Ran; Wang, Qingzhen; Yao, Ying; Wu, Feng; Zhang, Cunzhong

    2017-02-08

    Large energy-storage systems and electric vehicles require energy devices with high power and high energy density. Lithium oxygen (Li-O2) batteries could achieve high energy density, but they are still facing problems such as low practical capacity and poor cyclability. Here, we prepare activated carbons (MGACs) based on the natural plant Miscanthus × giganteus (MG) through slow pyrolysis. It possesses a large surface area, plenty of active sites, and high porosity, which are beneficial to the utilization of oxygen electrode in Li-O2 batteries. The MGACs-based oxygen electrode delivers a high specific capacity of 9400 mAh/g at 0.02 mA/cm(2), and long cycle life of 601 cycles (with a cutoff capacity of 500 mAh/g) and 295 cycles (with a cutoff capacity of 1000 mAh/g) at 0.2 mA/cm(2), respectively. Additionally, the material exhibits high rate capability and high reversibility, which is a promising candidate for the application in Li-O2 batteries.

  7. Environmental hazards related to Miscanthus x giganteus cultivation on heavy metal contaminated soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pogrzeba M.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available According to recent estimates reaching the target of a 20% share of renewable energy sources (RES in the final energy balance in Poland by 2020 will result in the demand for more than 8 million tons of biomass, which, in turn, will entail the necessity of creating large-scale energy crop plantations. According to EU assumptions the most effective way to produce biomass for energy purposes is cultivation of energy crops in agricultural areas. It is particularly vital for Poland, because these areas constitute a relatively large part of the country (59%, 76% of them being used as farmlands. In Silesia, the most industrialized region of the country, 5-10% of agricultural soils are contaminated with cadmium, lead and zinc. The main objective of the presented study was to estimate the accumulation of heavy metals in the tissues of Miscanthus x giganteus grown on contaminated soils and calculate concentrations of Pb, Cd and Zn in crops. It was shown that the large intake of heavy metals by that species could cause high emissions of pollutants into the atmosphere during its improper combustion. As a side effect, winter harvesting led to the loss of even 30% of biomass. Plant residues (leaves can be the source of pollution after decomposing and releasing metals back into the soil. Moreover, miscanthus leaves can be transferred by wind to the surrounding areas. It is very likely that ash coming from the combustion of contaminated biomass cannot be used as a fertilizer.

  8. Catalytic pyrolysis of miscanthus × giganteus in a spouted bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Shoucheng; Sun, Yijia; Gamliel, David P; Valla, Julia A; Bollas, George M

    2014-10-01

    A conical spouted bed reactor was designed and tested for fast catalytic pyrolysis of miscanthus × giganteus over Zeolite Socony Mobil-5 (ZSM-5) catalyst, in the temperature range of 400-600 °C and catalyst to biomass ratios 1:1-5:1. The effect of operating conditions on the lumped product distribution, bio-oil selectivity and gas composition was investigated. In particular, it was shown that higher temperature favors the production of gas and bio-oil aromatics and results in lower solid and liquid yields. Higher catalyst to biomass ratios increased the gas yield, at the expense of liquid and solid products, while enhancing aromatic selectivity. The separate catalytic effects of ZSM-5 catalyst and its Al2O3 support were studied. The support contributes to increased coke/char formation, due to the uncontrolled spatial distribution and activity of its alumina sites. The presence of ZSM-5 zeolite in the catalyst enhanced the production of aromatics due to its proper pore size distribution and activity.

  9. Cutaneous and diphtheritic avian poxvirus infection in a nestling Southern Giant Petrel (Macronectes giganteus) from Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie; Green, David Earl; Converse, K.A.; Docherty, D.E.; Thiel, T.; Geisz, H.N.; Fraser, William R.; Patterson-Fraser, Donna L.

    2008-01-01

    The Southern giant petrel (Macronectes giganteus) is declining over much of its range and currently is listed as vulnerable to extinction by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN). Island-specific breeding colonies near Palmer Station, Antarctica, have been monitored for over 30 years, and because this population continues to increase, it is critically important to conservation. In austral summer 2004, six diseased giant petrel chicks were observed in four of these colonies. Diseased chicks were 6a??9 weeks old and had multiple proliferative nodules on their bills and skin. One severely affected chick was found dead on the nest and was salvaged for necropsy. Histopathological examination of nodules from the dead chick revealed epithelial cell hyperplasia and hypertrophy with numerous eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusions (B??llinger bodies). A poxvirus was isolated from multiple nodules. Poxviral infection has not been reported in this species, and the reason for its emergence and its potential impact on the population are not yet known.

  10. Profiling the Chemical Composition and Growth Strain of Giant Bamboo (Dendrocalamus giganteus Munro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Ting Chang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of the wax layer and green epidermis at the surface of giant bamboo (Dendrocalamus giganteus Munro culms were conveniently analyzed through the diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT with Si-Carb sampling technique. Results from the radial lignin content profiling of giant bamboo showed that the lignin content in the middle layer was lower than the layers either from the inner or outer culms. As for the longitudinal depth profiling, the lignin contents of bamboo culms increased gradually from the top toward base portion. The distribution of growth strains in the radial direction of giant bamboo culm was investigated by the kerf method with strain gauges. The longitudinal tensile strains in various positions of giant bamboo culm were found to decrease in the order of the middle layer, the outer layer, and the inner layer. The tensile strains of different layers in the radial direction of giant bamboo culm correlate with their lignin content. The highest tensile strain on the middle layer of the bamboo culm was associated with the lowest lignin content. These results provided experimental evidence in the relationship between longitudinal tensile strain and lignin content of bamboo culm.

  11. Spatio-temporal variation of core and satellite arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus communities in Miscanthus giganteus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher James Barnes

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF are a group of obligate plant symbionts which can promote plant nutrition. AMF communities are diverse, but the factors which control their assembly in space and time remain unclear. In this study, the contributions of geographical distance, environmental heterogeneity and time to shaping AMF communities associated with Miscanthus giganteus were determined over a 13 month period. In particular, the community was partitioned into core (abundant and persistent taxa and satellite (taxa with low abundance and persistence constituents and the drivers of community assembly for each determined. We show that AMF richness and community composition changed over time associated with fluctuation within both the core and satellite communities. The degree to which AMF community variation was explained by soil properties was consistently higher in the core community than the combined and satellite communities, suggesting that the satellite community had considerable stochasticity associated with it. We suggest that the partitioning of communities into their core and satellite constituents could be employed to enhance the variation explained within microbial community analyses.

  12. Spatio-Temporal Variation of Core and Satellite Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus Communities in Miscanthus giganteus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Christopher J.; Burns, Caitlin A.; van der Gast, Christopher J.; McNamara, Niall P.; Bending, Gary D.

    2016-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are a group of obligate plant symbionts which can promote plant nutrition. AMF communities are diverse, but the factors which control their assembly in space and time remain unclear. In this study, the contributions of geographical distance, environmental heterogeneity and time in shaping AMF communities associated with Miscanthus giganteus (a perennial grass originating from south-east Asia) were determined over a 13 months period. In particular, the community was partitioned into core (abundant and persistent taxa) and satellite (taxa with low abundance and persistence) constituents and the drivers of community assembly for each determined. β-diversity was exceptionally low across the 140 m line transects, and there was limited evidence of geographical scaling effects on the composition of the core, satellite or combined communities. However, AMF richness and community composition changed over time associated with fluctuation within both the core and satellite communities. The degree to which AMF community variation was explained by soil properties was consistently higher in the core community than the combined and satellite communities, suggesting that the satellite community had considerable stochasticity associated with it. We suggest that the partitioning of communities into their core and satellite constituents could be employed to enhance the variation explained within microbial community analyses. PMID:27597844

  13. Seasonal patterns of circulating progesterone and prolactin and response to bromocriptine in the female tammar Macropus eugenii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyndale-Biscoe, C H; Hinds, L A

    1984-01-01

    Concentrations of prolactin and progesterone in the plasma of female tammars (Macropus eugenii) were measured during lactational quiescence and seasonal quiescence and during the period of natural resumption of reproduction after the summer solstice in December. Prolactin concentrations were consistently low (less than 40 ng/ml) during the period of declining day length and consistently elevated (greater than 40 ng/ml) during the period of increasing day length. Basal levels of progesterone were lowest (118.9 +/- 9.1 pg/ml) at the winter solstice and highest (244.1 +/- 21.0 pg/ml) at the summer solstice. Treatment with bromocriptine (CB154) did not depress prolactin levels at either time of the year but during February to June a single injection of 5 mg/kg body wt induced development of the quiescent corpus luteum (CL) and the diapausing embryo was reactivated. In February and March the level of progesterone increased in association with the developing CL, but after treatment at the winter solstice in June plasma progesterone did not increase although pregnancy was successfully completed. From September through November only 1 of 50 females responded to bromocriptine. None responded to bromocriptine given at the summer solstice in December, but all these animals spontaneously reactivated 2 weeks later. The difference in response of female tammars to bromocriptine treatment in the two halves of the year suggests that different endocrine controls operate in lactational and seasonal quiescence and that the latter is more complex.

  14. Molecular insights into evolution of the vertebrate gut: focus on stomach and parietal cells in the marsupial, Macropus eugenii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwek, Joly; De Iongh, Robbert; Nicholas, Kevin; Familari, Mary

    2009-09-15

    Gastrulation in vertebrate embryos results in the formation of the primary germ layers: ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm, which contain the progenitors of the tissues of the entire fetal body. Extensive studies undertaken in Xenopus, zebrafish and mouse have revealed a high degree of conservation in the genes and cellular mechanisms regulating endoderm formation. Nodal, Mix and Sox gene factor families have been implicated in the specification of the endoderm across taxa. Considerably less is known about endoderm development in marsupials. In this study we review what is known about the molecular aspects of endoderm development, focusing on evolution and development of the stomach and parietal cells and highlight recent studies on parietal cells in the stomach of Tammar Wallaby, Macropus eugenii. Although the regulation of parietal cells has been extensively studied, very little is known about the regulation of parietal cell differentiation. Intriguingly, during late-stage forestomach maturation in M. eugenii, there is a sudden and rapid loss of parietal cells, compared with the sharp increase in parietal cell numbers in the hindstomach region. This has provided a unique opportunity to study the development and regulation of parietal cell differentiation. A PCR-based subtractive hybridization strategy was used to identify candidate genes involved in this phenomenon. This will allow us to dissect the molecular mechanisms that underpin regulation of parietal cell development and differentiation, which have been a difficult process to study and provide markers that can be used to study the evolutionary origin of these cells in vertebrates.

  15. Secretion of whey acidic protein and cystatin is down regulated at mid-lactation in the red kangaroo (Macropus rufus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, K.R.; Fisher, J.A.; Muths, E.; Trott, J.; Janssens, P.A.; Reich, C.; Shaw, D.C.

    2001-01-01

    Milk collected from the red kangaroo (Macropus rufus) between day 100 and 260 of lactation showed major changes in milk composition at around day 200 of lactation, the time at which the pouch young begins to temporarily exit the pouch and eat herbage. The carbohydrate content of milk declined abruptly at this time and although there was only a small increase in total protein content, SDS PAGE analysis of milk revealed asynchrony in the secretory pattern of individual proteins. The levels of ??-lactalbumin, ??-lactoglobulin, serum albumin and transferrin remain unchanged during lactation. In contrast, the protease inhibitor cystatin, and the putative protease inhibitor whey acidic protein (WAP) first appeared in milk at elevated concentrations after approximately 150 days of lactation and then ceased to be secreted at approximately 200 days. In addition, a major whey protein, late lactation protein, was first detected in milk around the time whey acidic protein and cystatin cease to be secreted and was present at least until day 260 of lactation. The co-ordinated, but asynchronous secretion of putative protease inhibitors in milk may have several roles during lactation including tissue remodelling in the mammary gland and protecting specific proteins in milk required for physiological development of the dependent young. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science Inc.

  16. Effect of Steam Explosion Pretreatment on the Specific Methane Yield of Miscanthus x giganteus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz Theuretzbacher

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A highly promising energy crop for biogas production can be Miscanthus x giganteus. It has multiple advantages, which include low soil requirements and the existence of genotypes adapted to dry conditions in comparison to other energy crops. Miscanthus cannot be used in the biogas plant without a pretreatment due to the recalcitrant nature of lignocelluloses. One of the most efficient pretreatment methods for lignocellulosic biomass is steam explosion. This includes heating the biomass at high temperature values, followed by mechanical disruption of the biomass fibres by a rapid pressure drop. The objective of this study is to analyse the effect of the steam explosion pretreatment on the specific biogas and methane production of miscanthus. In addition methane hectare yields are calculated and compared to those of maize. Steam explosion pretreatment was carried out in a laboratory scale facility in Ĺs, Norway. The miscanthus was mixed with water and heated up to the desired temperature. After a defined pretreatment time the pressure in the reaction vessel was reduced rapidly, which caused the liquid water to vaporize immediately. The material was cooled down in a flushing tank and was then stored at 5°C until further analytical procedures. Pretreatment temperatures were 190°C and 210°C; holding times were 5, 10 and 15 minutes. Determination of the specific methane yield was done in triplicate using batch tests according to VDI 4630. The material was inoculated with the liquid fermentation residue of a biogas plant. The produced gas was collected in eudiometers and then analysed for the CH4 and CO2 content.

  17. Effect of Steam Explosion Pretreatment on the Specific Methane Yield of Miscanthus x giganteus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz Theuretzbacher

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A highly promising energy crop for biogas production can be Miscanthus x giganteus. It has multiple advantages, which include low soil requirements and the existence of genotypes adapted to dry conditions in comparison to other energy crops. Miscanthus cannot be used in the biogas plant without a pretreatment due to the recalcitrant nature of lignocelluloses. One of the most efficient pretreatment methods for lignocellulosic biomass is steam explosion. This includes heating the biomass at high temperature values, followed by mechanical disruption of the biomass fibres by a rapid pressure drop. The objective of this study is to analyse the effect of the steam explosion pretreatment on the specific biogas and methane production of miscanthus. In addition methane hectare yields are calculated and compared to those of maize. Steam explosion pretreatment was carried out in a laboratory scale facility in Ĺs, Norway. The miscanthus was mixed with water and heated up to the desired temperature. After a defined pretreatment time the pressure in the reaction vessel was reduced rapidly, which caused the liquid water to vaporize immediately. The material was cooled down in a flushing tank and was then stored at 5°C until further analytical procedures. Pretreatment temperatures were 190°C and 210°C; holding times were 5, 10 and 15 minutes. Determination of the specific methane yield was done in triplicate using batch tests according to VDI 4630. The material was inoculated with the liquid fermentation residue of a biogas plant. The produced gas was collected in eudiometers and then analysed for the CH4 and CO2 content. 

  18. Characterization of Miscanthus giganteus lignin isolated by ethanol organosolv process under reflux condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Stefan; Sorek, Hagit; Mitchell, Valerie D; Ibáñez, Ana B; Wemmer, David E

    2012-08-22

    Miscanthus giganteus lignin was extracted by an organosolv process under reflux conditions (4 h) with varying concentrations of ethanol (65%, 75%, 85%, 95%) and 0.2 M hydrochloric acid as catalyst. The resulting lignin was extensively characterized by size exclusion chromatography (SEC), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS), two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (2D-NMR), and chemical analysis (residual sugars, Klason lignin, ash). The predominant linkage units present were β-O-4' (82-84%), resinol (6-7%), and phenylcoumaran (10-11%). The 65% ethanol solvent system gave the lowest lignin yield (14% of starting biomass) compared to 29-32% of the other systems. Increasing ethanol concentration resulted in decreasing carbohydrate content of the lignins (3.6-1.1%), a higher solubility in tetrahydrofuran (THF), a slight reduction of the molecular weight (M(w) 2.72-2.25 KDa), an increasing α-ethoxylation, and an increase in ethoxylated phenylpropenoic compounds (p-coumaric and ferulic acid), but the S/G ratio of the monolignols (0.63, GC/MS) and Klason lignin content (86-88%) were unaffected. An extraction method for these ethyl-esterified phenylpropenoids and smaller molecular weight lignin compounds was developed. The effect of reaction time (2, 4, and 8 h) was investigated for the 95% ethanol solvent system. Besides increased lignin yield (13-43%), a slight increase in M(w) (2.21-2.38 kDa) and S/G ratio (0.53-0.68, GC-MS) was observed. Consecutive extractions suggested that these changes were not from lignin modifications (e.g., condensations) but rather from extraction of lignin of different composition. The results were compared to similar solvent systems with 95% acetone and 95% dioxane.

  19. Evaluation of suitability of Giant Miscanthus (Miscanthus × giganteus Greef et Deu. in phytoextraction of copper and zinc from soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Bosiacki

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to determine the suitability of Miscanthus × giganteus to phytoextraction of copper and zinc from soil, as well as evaluation of the tolerance of this species to the increasing concentration of the metals. Potential for phytoextraction of Miscanthus × giganteus had been studied for two years, pot experiment in the plastic greenhouse when they grown in mineral soil (which was slightly loamy sand and soil with raised peat substrate with four levels of copper and zinc: control (native Cu and Zn content, Cu – 80 mg·dm-3, Zn – 300 mg·dm-3 – weak pollution, Cu – 100 mg·dm-3, Zn – 1000 mg·dm-3 – medium pollution, Cu – 500 mg·dm-3, Zn – 3000 mg·dm-3 – strong pollution. Assessing their potential for copper and zinc phytoextraction from the soil, it was found that it is not significant. No hyperaccumulation of heavy metals in the aboveground biomass was found in this study.

  20. Potential growth and biomass productivity of Miscanthus x giganteus as affected by plant density and N-fertilization in central Greece

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Danalatos, N.G.; Archontoulis, S.V.; Mitsios, I.

    2007-01-01

    The potential growth and biomass productivity of Miscanthus x giganteus was investigated under constraint-free conditions during two years with appreciable different climatic conditions in central Greece, and under three different plant densities (0.66, 1, 2 pl m(-2)) and two different nitrogen dres

  1. Seasonal dynamics of nutrient accumulation and partitioning in the perennial C{sub 4}-grasses Miscanthus x giganteus and Spartina cynosuroides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beale, C.V. [Writtle College, Chelmsford (United Kingdom)] Long, S.P. [Essex Univ., Colchester (United Kingdom). Dept. of Biological and Chemical Sciences

    1997-12-31

    Seasonal variation in the accumulation and partitioning of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium was determined in both the above-ground and below-ground dry matter of the potential energy crops Miscanthus x giganteus and Spartina cynosuroides. It is desirable from both economic and environmental perspectives that such crops should exhibit a high nutrient use efficiency and minimal nutrient losses to the environment. The N, P and K concentrations in the above-ground dry matter, at final harvest, were 5.0, 0.6 and 12.0 mg g{sup -1} respectively in M. x giganteus and 3.0, 0.4 and 1.0 mg g{sup -1} in S. cynosurodes. Both species exhibited the high N-use efficiency expected of C{sub 4} plants. Nitrate leaching was negligible. At the end of the growing season, nutrients were translocated to the rhizomes and, in the case of M. giganteus, recycled to the soil in shed leaves. Consequently the nutrient content of the crop offtake was low. It was calculated that the N, P and K requirements of a M. x giganteus crop producing an above-ground harvest of 1.5 kg m{sup -2} dry matter would be 9.2, .3 and 20.4 g m{sup -2} respectively. The corresponding nutrient requirements for S. cynosuroides would be 7.5, 1.7 and 8.8 g m{sup -2}. Except for the K requirements of M. x giganteus, the N, P and K demands of both species were less than those of typical graminaceous crops, including maize. (Author)

  2. Developing County-level Water Footprints of Biofuel Produced from Switchgrass and Miscanthus x Giganteus in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, May M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Chiu, Yi-Wen [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2014-09-30

    Perennial grass has been proposed as a potential candidate for producing cellulosic biofuel because of its promising productivity and benefits to water quality, and because it is a non-food feedstock. While extensive research focuses on selecting and developing species and conversion technologies, the impact of grass-based biofuel production on water resources remains less clear. As feedstock growth requires water and the type of water consumed may vary considerably from region to region, water use must be characterized with spatial resolution and on a fuel production basis. This report summarizes a study that assesses the impact of biofuel production on water resource use and water quality at county, state, and regional scales by developing a water footprint of biofuel produced from switchgrass and Miscanthus × giganteus via biochemical conversion.

  3. Arthromitus (Bacillus cereus) symbionts in the cockroach Blaberus giganteus: dietary influences on bacterial development and population density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, L.; Jorgensen, J.; Haselton, A.; Pitt, A.; Rudner, R.; Margulis, L.

    1999-01-01

    The filamentous spore-forming bacterium Arthromitus, discovered in termites, millipedes, sow bugs and other soil-dwelling arthropods by Leidy (1850), is the intestinal stage of Bacillus cereus. We extend the range of Arthromitus habitats to include the hindgut of Blaberus giganteus, the large tropical American cockroach. The occurrence and morphology of the intestinal form of the bacillus were compared in individual cockroaches (n=24) placed on four different diet regimes: diurnally maintained insects fed (1) dog food, (2) soy protein only, (3)purified cellulose only, and (4) a dog food-fed group maintained in continuous darkness. Food quality exerted strong influence on population densities and developmental stages of the filamentous bacterium and on fecal pellet composition. The most dramatic rise in Arthromitus populations, defined as the spore-forming filament intestinal stage, occurred in adult cockroaches kept in the dark on a dog food diet. Limited intake of cellulose or protein alone reduced both the frequency of Arthromitus filaments and the rate of weight gain of the insects. Spores isolated from termites, sow bugs, cockroaches and moths, grown on various hard surfaces display a branching mobility and resistance to antibiotics characteristic to group I Bacilli whose members include B. cereus, B. circulans, B. alvei and B. macerans. DNA isolated from pure cultures of these bacilli taken from the guts of Blaberus giganteus (cockroach), Junonia coenia (moth), Porcellio scaber (sow bug) and Cryptotermes brevis (termite) and subjected to Southern hybridization with a 23S-5S B. subtilis ribosomal sequence probe verified that they are indistinguishable from laboratory strains of Bacillus cereus.

  4. Organic compounds in root exudates of Miscanthus × Giganteus greef et deu and limitation of microorganisms in its rhizosphere by nutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Kaňová

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the composition of sugars and organic acids in root exudates of Miscanthus × Giganteus and to find out if microorganisms of the rhizospheric soil are limited by mi­ne­ral nutrients. The following sugars and organic acids were determined in root exudates of this plant: glucose, saccharose, and acids such as succinic, propionic, citric, tartaric, malic, oxalic, ascorbic, acetic and fumaric. Respiration of soil from rhizosphere of Miscanthus × Giganteus was found to be limited by N, K and Ca. Respiration rate after application of mineral compounds increased in following orther: nitrate > calcium > potassium > ammonium, giving approx. 165, 99, 52 and 31 % increase compared to control. Further research is necessary to determine the role of plant nutrients from the point of their limitations for rhizosphere microorganisms, to broader very rare knowledges in this topic, especially for polluted soils to stimulate efficiency of phytoremediations.

  5. Can the exceptional chilling tolerance of C4 photosynthesis found in Miscanthus × giganteus be exceeded? Screening of a novel Miscanthus Japanese germplasm collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Głowacka, Katarzyna; Jørgensen, Uffe; Kjeldsen, Jens B; Kørup, Kirsten; Spitz, Idan; Sacks, Erik J; Long, Stephen P

    2015-05-01

    A clone of the hybrid perennial C4 grass Miscanthus × giganteus (Mxg) is known for achieving exceptionally high rates of leaf CO2 uptake during chilling. This is a requisite of success in the early spring, as is the ability of the leaves to survive occasional frosts. The aim of this study was to search for genotypes with greater potential than Mxg for photosynthesis and frost survival under these conditions. A total of 864 accessions representing 164 local populations of M. sacchariflorus (Msa), M. sinensis (Msi) and M. tinctorius (Mti) collected across Japan were studied. Accessions whose leaves survived a natural late frost in the field were screened for high maximum photosystem II efficiency (Fv/Fm) following chilling weather, as an indicator of their capacity for light-limited photosynthesis. Those showing the highest Fv/Fm were transferred to a high-light-controlled environment and maintained at chilling temperatures, where they were further screened for their capacities for high-light-limited and light-saturated leaf uptake of CO2 (ΦCO2,max and Asat, respectively). For the first time, relatives of Mxg with significantly superior capacities for photosynthesis at chilling temperatures were identified. Msa accession '73/2' developed leaves in the spring that survived night-time frost, and during growth under chilling maintained a statistically significant 79 % higher ΦCO2,max, as a measure of light-limited photosynthesis, and a 70 % higher Asat, as a measure of light-saturated photosynthesis. A second Msa accession, '73/3' also showed significantly higher rates of leaf uptake of CO2. As remarkable as Mxg has proved in its chilling tolerance of C4 photosynthesis, this study shows that there is still value and potential in searching for yet more superior tolerance. Msa accession '73/2' shows rates of light-limited and light-saturated photosynthesis at chilling temperatures that are comparable with those of the most cold-tolerant C3 species. This adds

  6. Giant miscanthus (Miscantus × Giganteus Greef Et Deu. – A Promising Plant for Soil Remediation: A Mini Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jindřich Figala

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Giant miscanthus (Miscanthus × giganteus Greef et Deu. is a perennial rhizomatous grass with C4 type photosynthesis, which is distinctive by its resistance to cold temperatures when maintaining a sufficient photosynthesis rate. We revised potential of Miscanhus for use in soil bioremediation, especially from biological point of view. Translocation rate from roots to aerial part is low in general, but Miscanthus is able to grow even on highly contaminated soils without artificial fertilization. We also discussed the role of root exudates in pollutant immobilization, chelation and uptake. Commetabolism of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with assistance of soil microbes shows promising results and significant reduction of tetracyclic PAHs in soil. Miscanthus is therefore suitable for immobilization of inorganic pollutants in soil and removal of organic pollutants, which makes it suitable to create buffer zones for surface waterway protection, stabilization of heavily contaminated substrates (e.g. reclaimed burrows of mining industry and sedimentation pools. According to low content of pollutants in aerial biomass the harvested plant material is deemed safe for further agricultural or industrial use.

  7. Purification and Characterization of a Unique Pectin Lyase from Aspergillus giganteus Able to Release Unsaturated Monogalacturonate during Pectin Degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrolli, Danielle Biscaro; Carmona, Eleonora Cano

    2014-01-01

    A pectin lyase, named PLIII, was purified to homogeneity from the culture filtrate of Aspergillus giganteus grown in submerged culture containing orange peel waste as carbon source. PLIII was able to digest apple pectin and citrus pectins with different degrees of methyl esterification. Interestingly, the PLIII activity was stimulated in the presence of some divalent cations including Pb(2+) and was not significantly affected by Hg(2+). Like other pectin lyases, PLIII is stimulated by but is not dependent on Ca(2+). The main soluble product released during the degradation of pectic substances promoted by the PLIII is compatible with an unsaturated monogalacturonate. PLIII is a unique enzyme able to release unsaturated monogalacturonate as the only soluble product during the degradation of pectic substances; therefore, PLIII was classified as an exo-pectin lyase. To our knowledge, this is the first characterization of an exo-pectin lyase. The PLIII described in this work is potentially useful for ethanol production from pectin-rich biomass, besides other common applications for alkaline pectinases like preparation of textile fibers, coffee and tea fermentation, vegetable oil extraction, and the treatment of pulp in papermaking.

  8. Optimization of ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX) pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of Miscanthus x giganteus to fermentable sugars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murnen, Hannah K; Balan, Venkatesh; Chundawat, Shishir P S; Bals, Bryan; Sousa, Leonardo da Costa; Dale, Bruce E

    2007-01-01

    Miscanthus x giganteus is a tall perennial grass whose suitability as an energy crop is presently being appraised. There is very little information on the effect of pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification of Miscanthus to produce fermentable sugars. This paper reports sugar yields during enzymatic hydrolysis from ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX) pretreated Miscanthus. Pretreatment conditions including temperature, moisture, ammonia loading, residence time, and enzyme loadings are varied to maximize hydrolysis yields. In addition, further treatments such as soaking the biomass prior to AFEX as well as washing the pretreated material were also attempted to improve sugar yields. The optimal AFEX conditions determined were 160 degrees C, 2:1 (w/w) ammonia to biomass loading, 233% moisture (dry weight basis), and 5 min reaction time for water-soaked Miscanthus. Approximately 96% glucan and 81% xylan conversions were achieved after 168 h enzymatic hydrolysis at 1% glucan loading using 15 FPU/(g of glucan) of cellulase and 64 p-NPGU/(g of glucan) of beta-glucosidase along with xylanase and tween-80 supplementation. A mass balance for the AFEX pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis process is presented.

  9. Purification and Characterization of a Unique Pectin Lyase from Aspergillus giganteus Able to Release Unsaturated Monogalacturonate during Pectin Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Biscaro Pedrolli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A pectin lyase, named PLIII, was purified to homogeneity from the culture filtrate of Aspergillus giganteus grown in submerged culture containing orange peel waste as carbon source. PLIII was able to digest apple pectin and citrus pectins with different degrees of methyl esterification. Interestingly, the PLIII activity was stimulated in the presence of some divalent cations including Pb2+ and was not significantly affected by Hg2+. Like other pectin lyases, PLIII is stimulated by but is not dependent on Ca2+. The main soluble product released during the degradation of pectic substances promoted by the PLIII is compatible with an unsaturated monogalacturonate. PLIII is a unique enzyme able to release unsaturated monogalacturonate as the only soluble product during the degradation of pectic substances; therefore, PLIII was classified as an exo-pectin lyase. To our knowledge, this is the first characterization of an exo-pectin lyase. The PLIII described in this work is potentially useful for ethanol production from pectin-rich biomass, besides other common applications for alkaline pectinases like preparation of textile fibers, coffee and tea fermentation, vegetable oil extraction, and the treatment of pulp in papermaking.

  10. The diet of the Indian Flying Fox Pteropus giganteus (Brünnich. 1782 (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae in Myanmar - conflicts with local people?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sein Sein Win

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The diet of Pteropus giganteus from three roosts in Mandalay Region, central Myanmar was investigated for over two years by examining feeding remains in and around two villages.  It consists of 24 species of fruits, six species of flowers and three of leaves.  Of these, 13 species of fruits are eaten by the local people, three of which are also marketed.  Two are used in traditional medicine and one for stuffing pillows. Most dietary plants are native, mangoes are seasonally superabundant and are eaten in large numbers.  Interviews revealed no evidence of conflict between bats and villagers. 

  11. Cytotoxicity and modes of action of four Cameroonian dietary spices ethno-medically used to treat cancers: Echinops giganteus, Xylopia aethiopica, Imperata cylindrica and Piper capense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuete, Victor; Sandjo, Louis P; Wiench, Benjamin; Efferth, Thomas

    2013-08-26

    Echinops giganteus, Imperata cylindrica, Piper capense and Xylopia aethiopica are four medicinal spices used in Cameroon to treat cancers. The above plants previously displayed cytotoxicity against leukemia CCRF-CEM and CEM/ADR5000 cell lines as well as human pancreatic MiaPaCa-2 cells. The present study aims at emphasizing the study of the cytotoxicity and the modes of action of the above plants on a panel of ten cancer cell lines including various sensitive and drug-resistant phenotypes. The study has been extended to the isolation of the bioactive constituents from Echinops giganteus. The cytotoxicity of the extracts was determined using a resazurin reduction assay, whereas the caspase-Glo assay was used to detect the activation of caspases 3/7, caspase 8 and caspase 9 in cells treated with the four extracts. Flow cytometry was used for cell cycle analysis and detection of apoptotic cells, analysis of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) as well as measurement of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The four tested extracts inhibited the proliferation of all tested cancer cell lines including sensitive and drug-resistant phenotypes. Collateral sensitivity of cancer cells to the extract of Echinops giganteus was generally better than to doxorubicin. The recorded IC50 ranges were 3.29 µg/mL [against human knockout clones HCT116 (p53(-/-)) colon cancer cells] to 14.32 µg/mL (against human liver hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells) for the crude extract from Echinops giganteus, 4.17 µg/mL (against breast cancer cells transduced with control vector MDA-MB231 cells) to 19.45 µg/mL (against MDA-MB-231 BCRP cells) for that of Piper capense, 4.11 µg/mL (against leukemia CCRF-CEM cells) to 30.60 µg/mL (against leukemia HL60AR cells) for Xylopia aethiopica, 3.28 µg/mL [against HCT116 (p53(-/-)) cells] to 33.43 µg/mL (against HepG2 cells) for Imperata cylindica and 0.11 µg/mL (against CCRF-CEM cells) to 132.47 µg/mL (against HL60AR cells) for doxorubicin. The four

  12. Australia's savanna herbivores: bioclimatic distributions and an assessment of the potential impact of regional climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Euan G; Bolitho, Elizabeth E

    2008-01-01

    The future impacts of climate change are predicted to significantly affect the survival of many species. Recent studies indicate that even species that are relatively mobile and/or have large geographic ranges may be at risk of range contractions or extinction. An ecologically and evolutionary significant group of mammals that has been largely overlooked in this research is Australia's large marsupial herbivores, the macropodids (kangaroos). The aims of our investigation were to define and compare the climatic conditions that influence the current distributions of four sympatric large macropodids in northern Australia (Macropus antilopinus, Macropus robustus, Macropus giganteus, and Macropus rufus) and to predict the potential future impact of climate change on these species. Our results suggest that contemporary distributions of these large macropodids are associated with well-defined climatic gradients (tropical and temperate conditions) and that climatic seasonality is also important. Bioclimatic modeling predicted an average reduction in northern Australian macropodid distributions of 48% +/- 16.4% in response to increases of 2.0 degrees C. At this temperature, the distribution of M. antilopinus was reduced by 89% +/-0.4%. We predict that increases of 6.0 degrees C may cause severe range reductions for all four macropodids (96% +/-2.1%) in northern Australia, and this range reduction may result in the extinction of M. antilopinus.

  13. Establishment, Growth, and Yield Potential of the Perennial Grass Miscanthus × Giganteus on Degraded Coal Mine Soils

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    Stanisław Jeżowski

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Miscanthus × giganteus is a giant C4 grass native to Asia. Unlike most C4 species, it is relatively cold tolerant due to adaptations across a wide range of altitudes. These grasses are characterized by high productivity and low input requirements, making them excellent candidates for bioenergy feedstock production. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential for growing Miscanthus on extremely marginal soils, degraded by open lignite (brown coal mining. Field experiments were established within three blocks situated on waste heaps originating from the lignite mine. Analyses were conducted over the first 3 years following Miscanthus cultivation, focusing on the effect of organic and mineral fertilization on crop growth, development and yield in this extreme environment. The following levels of fertilization were implemented between the blocks: the control plot with no fertilization (D0, a plot with sewage sludge (D1, a plot with an identical amount of sewage sludge plus one dose of mineral fertilizer (D2 and a plot with an identical amount of sewage sludge plus a double dose of mineral fertilizer (D3. Crop development and characteristics (plant height, tillering, and biomass yield [dry matter] were measured throughout the study period and analyzed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA. Significant differences were apparent between plant development and 3rd year biomass production over the course of the study (0.964 kg plant-1 for DO compared to 1.503 kg plant-1 for D1. Soil analyses conducted over the course of the experiment showed that organic carbon levels within the soil increased significantly following the cultivation of Miscanthus, and overall, pH decreased. With the exception of iron, macronutrient concentrations remained stable throughout. The promising yields and positive effects of Miscanthus on the degraded soil suggests that long term plantations on land otherwise unsuitable for agriculture may prove to be of great

  14. Establishment, Growth, and Yield Potential of the Perennial Grass Miscanthus × Giganteus on Degraded Coal Mine Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeżowski, Stanisław; Mos, Michal; Buckby, Sam; Cerazy-Waliszewska, Joanna; Owczarzak, Wojciech; Mocek, Andrzej; Kaczmarek, Zygmunt; McCalmont, Jon P.

    2017-01-01

    Miscanthus × giganteus is a giant C4 grass native to Asia. Unlike most C4 species, it is relatively cold tolerant due to adaptations across a wide range of altitudes. These grasses are characterized by high productivity and low input requirements, making them excellent candidates for bioenergy feedstock production. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential for growing Miscanthus on extremely marginal soils, degraded by open lignite (brown coal) mining. Field experiments were established within three blocks situated on waste heaps originating from the lignite mine. Analyses were conducted over the first 3 years following Miscanthus cultivation, focusing on the effect of organic and mineral fertilization on crop growth, development and yield in this extreme environment. The following levels of fertilization were implemented between the blocks: the control plot with no fertilization (D0), a plot with sewage sludge (D1), a plot with an identical amount of sewage sludge plus one dose of mineral fertilizer (D2) and a plot with an identical amount of sewage sludge plus a double dose of mineral fertilizer (D3). Crop development and characteristics (plant height, tillering, and biomass yield [dry matter]) were measured throughout the study period and analyzed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). Significant differences were apparent between plant development and 3rd year biomass production over the course of the study (0.964 kg plant-1 for DO compared to 1.503 kg plant-1 for D1). Soil analyses conducted over the course of the experiment showed that organic carbon levels within the soil increased significantly following the cultivation of Miscanthus, and overall, pH decreased. With the exception of iron, macronutrient concentrations remained stable throughout. The promising yields and positive effects of Miscanthus on the degraded soil suggests that long term plantations on land otherwise unsuitable for agriculture may prove to be of great environmental and

  15. ANÁLISE QUÍMICA DO BAMBU-GIGANTE (DENDROCALAMUS GIGANTEUS WALL. EX MUNRO EM DIFERENTES IDADES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Potenciano Marinho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bamboo is a monocotyledon of tropical origin which grows fast and is considered an important environment regenerator because of its root system. Dendrocalamus giganteus is popular learned by giant bamboo, being a big bush species, its culms can be from 24 to 40 meters high, with diameters from 10 and 20 centimeters. This work had the objective of a chemical analysis from giant bamboo to aim at giving information from its chemical composition from 2 to 6 years of age. Bamboo culms were collected in the Agriculture Experimental area of the Mechanical Engineering Department of UNESP -Bauru, where it is carried out the systematic handling from different bamboo species to this plant research and divulgation. Samples from base were collected from 2 and 6 years in the same bush, in total of 5 samples, with 2 high meters each, cropped in March, half moon. Chemical analysis was done with internodes using TAPPI Methods. The average percentage extractives from hot water, cool water, total extractives and ash content were not related to the age. The major percentage of hot water extractives, with values of 12.04%, cold water extractives, with 10.25%, and total extractives, with 12.91%, was observed by the age of two years. The major ash content was obtained on three years, with value of 1.09%. The mean value of NaOH extractives decreased from 25.72%, in two years, to 20.17% at six years old. The same behavior was observed for ethanol toluene extractives, decreasing from 10.91% to 4.61%. The mean lignin content was not influenced by age, varying from 22.66 to 24.11%.

  16. Caracterização físico-mecânica do laminado colado de bambu (Dendrocalamus giganteus.

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    Juarez Benigno Paes

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo avaliar a influência do tratamento preservativo e do tipo de adesivo nas propriedades físico-mecânicas do laminado colado, confeccionado com o bambu Dendrocalamus giganteus. Para tanto, colmos de bambu foram tratados pelo método de imersão em produto químico (solução de 1% de ingredientes ativos de borato de cobre cromatado - CCB e em água, durante 15 dias. Dos colmos tratados, foram retiradas as camadas externa e interna, obtendo-se lâminas com espessuras de 4 mm, comprimento de 45 cm e largura de 5 cm. Para a colagem das lâminas, utilizaram-se os adesivos "Cascophen RS" (resorcinol-formol e "Cascorez-Extra" (acetato polivinílico. O adesivo à base de resorcinol-formol proporcionou maior resistência à umidade ao BLC, quando comparado àquele à base de acetato polivinílico, tendo as amostras provenientes de peças tratadas com CCB sido mais estáveis que as tratadas com água. Dentre as propriedades mecânicas testadas, o adesivo apresentou resultado significativo para o cisalhamento na linha de cola e o tratamento preservativo para o MOE. A interação dos fatores adesivo e tratamento foi significativa para o MOE, resistência a compressão paralela ao cisalhamento na linha de cola, tendo as peças tratadas com água e aderidas com resorcinol-formol apresentado melhores resultados para o MOE e compressão paralela às fibras e aquelas tratadas com CCB, para o cisalhamento na linha de cola.

  17. Biosolids and distillery effluent amendment to Irish Miscanthus ×giganteus plantations: impacts on groundwater and soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbally, P; Fagan, C; Ryan, D; Finnan, J; Grant, J; McDonnell, K

    2012-01-01

    It is necessary to determine the risk of water pollution arising from amendment of organic by-products (OBs) to energy crops under Irish conditions. Therefore, the impact of landspreading two OBs on the quality of groundwater underlying plantations of Miscanthus X giganteus was assessed. Municipal biosolids and distillery effluent (DE) were spread annually (for 4 yr) on six 0.117-ha treatment plots at rates of 100, 50, and 0%. The 100% rate represented a maximum P load of 15 t ha(-1) as per Irish EPA regulation. Groundwater was sampled for 25 mo and tested for pH, electrical conductivity, NO(3)(-), orthophosphate (PO(4)(3-)), total soluble P, K(+), Cu, Cd, Cr, Pb, Ni, and Zn. Assessment of quality was based on comparison with Irish groundwater threshold values (GTVs). The study was limited to within-plot using a "well bottom" approach and did not investigate movement of groundwater plumes or vectors of percolation through the soil profile. Mean groundwater concentrations did not exceed GTVs during the sampling period for any species, with the exception of groundwater PO(4)(3-) in the 100% DE plot, which was almost double the GTV of 0.035 mg L(-1). There was no significant build-up of nutrients or heavy metals in groundwater (or soil) for any plot. Excessive PO(4)(3-) in the 100% DE plot groundwater is likely due to high background soil P, soil characteristics, and the occurrence of macropore/soil pore flow. These factors (particularly background soil P) should be assessed when determining suitable sites for land-spreading OBs. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  18. Suppurative otitis and ascending meningoencephalitis associated with Bacteroides tectus and Porphyromonas gulae in a captive Parma wallaby (Macropus parma) with toxoplasmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannitti, Federico; Schapira, Andrea; Anderson, Mark; Clothier, Kristin

    2014-09-01

    A 6-year-old female Parma wallaby (Macropus parma) at a zoo in California developed acute ataxia and left-sided circling. Despite intensive care, clinical signs progressed to incoordination and prostration, and the animal was euthanized. At necropsy, the left tympanic cavity was filled with homogeneous suppurative exudate that extended into the cranium expanding the meninges and neuroparenchyma in the lateral and ventral aspect of the caudal ipsilateral brainstem and medulla oblongata. Microscopically, the brainstem showed regional severe suppurative meningoencephalitis with large numbers of neutrophils, fewer macrophages, and lymphocytes admixed with fibrin, necrotic cellular debris, hemorrhage, and mineralization, with numerous intralesional Gram-negative bacilli. Bacteroides spp. and Porphyromonas spp. were isolated on anaerobic culture from the meninges, and the bacteria were further characterized by partial 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing as Bacteroides tectus and Porphyromonas gulae. Bacterial aerobic culture from the meninges yielded very low numbers of mixed flora and Proteus spp., which were considered contaminants. Culture of Mycoplasma spp. from middle ear and meninges was negative. Additionally, Toxoplasma gondii cysts were detected by immunohistochemistry in the heart and brain, and anti-Toxoplasma antibodies were detected in serum. The genera Bacteroides and Porphyromonas have been associated with oral disease in marsupials; but not with otitis and meningoencephalitis. The results of the present work highlight the importance of performing anaerobic cultures in the diagnostic investigation of cases of suppurative otitis and meningoencephalitis in macropods.

  19. Trypanosoma brucei Inhibition by Essential Oils from Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Traditionally Used in Cameroon (Azadirachta indica, Aframomum melegueta, Aframomum daniellii, Clausena anisata, Dichrostachys cinerea and Echinops giganteus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephane L. Ngahang Kamte

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils are complex mixtures of volatile components produced by the plant secondary metabolism and consist mainly of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes and, to a minor extent, of aromatic and aliphatic compounds. They are exploited in several fields such as perfumery, food, pharmaceutics, and cosmetics. Essential oils have long-standing uses in the treatment of infectious diseases and parasitosis in humans and animals. In this regard, their therapeutic potential against human African trypanosomiasis (HAT has not been fully explored. In the present work, we have selected six medicinal and aromatic plants (Azadirachta indica, Aframomum melegueta, Aframomum daniellii, Clausena anisata, Dichrostachys cinerea, and Echinops giganteus traditionally used in Cameroon to treat several disorders, including infections and parasitic diseases, and evaluated the activity of their essential oils against Trypanosma brucei TC221. Their selectivity was also determined with Balb/3T3 (mouse embryonic fibroblast cell line cells as a reference. The results showed that the essential oils from A. indica, A. daniellii, and E. giganteus were the most active ones, with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 values of 15.21, 7.65, and 10.50 µg/mL, respectively. These essential oils were characterized by different chemical compounds such as sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, monoterpene hydrocarbons, and oxygenated sesquiterpenes. Some of their main components were assayed as well on T. brucei TC221, and their effects were linked to those of essential oils.

  20. Análise química do bambu-gigante (Dendrocalamus giganteus Wall. ex Munro em diferentes idades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Potenciano Marinho

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050985749O bambu é uma planta monocotiledônea de origem tropical, de rápido crescimento, sendo considerado um importante regenerador ambiental devido ao seu sistema radicular. O Dendrocalamus giganteus é popularmente conhecido por bambu-gigante, sendo uma espécie entouceirante de grande porte, cujos colmos podem variar de 24 a 40 metros de altura, com diâmetros entre 10 e 20 cm. Esse trabalho teve como objetivo analisar quimicamente os colmos do bambu-gigante visando fornecer informações sobre a sua composição química nas idades de 2 a 6 anos. Os colmos do bambu foram coletados na área Experimental Agrícola do Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica da UNESP-Bauru, onde é realizado o manejo sistemático de diversas espécies de bambu para fins de pesquisas e divulgação dessa planta. Foram retiradas amostras da base entre bambus com idade de 2 a 6 anos de uma mesma touceira, totalizando 5 amostras, com 2 metros de altura cada, colhidas na lua minguante no mês de março. As análises químicas foram feitas com os entrenós, utilizando as normas e procedimentos da TAPPI. A porcentagem média de extrativos em água quente, extrativos em água fria, extrativos totais e teor de cinzas não apresentaram relação direta com a idade. A maior porcentagem de extrativos em água quente, com valor de 12,04%, extrativos em água fria, com 10,25%, e extrativos totais, com 12,91%, foi observada aos 2 anos de idade. A maior porcentagem de cinzas foi obtida aos três anos, com valores de 1,09%. O teor médio de extrativos em NaOH diminui de 25,72% aos dois anos para 20,17% aos seis anos de idade. O mesmo comportamento foi observado para os extrativos em etanol tolueno, diminuindo de 10,91% para 4,61%. O teor médio de lignina não sofreu influência da idade, variando de 22,66 a 24,11%.

  1. Passage marker excretion in red kangaroo (Macropus rufus), collared peccary (Pecari tajacu) and colobine monkeys (Colobus angolensis, C. polykomos, Trachypithecus johnii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarm, Angela; Ortmann, Sylvia; Wolf, Christian; Streich, W Jürgen; Clauss, Marcus

    2009-11-01

    Ruminants are characterized by an efficient particle-sorting mechanism in the forestomach (FRST) followed by selective rechewing of large food particles. For the nonruminating foregut fermenter pygmy hippo it was demonstrated that large particles are excreted as fast as, or faster than, the small particles. The same has been suggested for other nonruminating foregut fermenters. We determined the mean retention time of fluids and different-sized particles in six red kangaroos (Macropus rufus), seven collared peccaries (Pecari tajacu) and three colobine monkeys (Colobus angolensis, C. polykomos, Trachypithecus johnii). We fed Co-EDTA as fluid and mordanted fiber as particle markers (Cr, Ce). Mean (+ or - SD) total tract retention time for fluids, small and large particles was 14 + or - 2, 29 + or - 10 and 30 + or - 9 hr in red kangaroos, 26 + or - 2, 34 + or - 5 and 32 + or - 3 hr in collared peccaries and 57 + or - 17, 55 + or - 19 and 54 + or - 19 hr in colobine monkeys, respectively. Large and small particles were excreted simultaneously in all species. There was no difference in the excretion of fluids and particles in the colobine monkeys, in contrast to the other foregut fermenters. In the nonprimate, nonruminant foregut fermenters, the difference in the excretion of fluids and small particles decreases with increasing food intake. On the contrary, ruminants keep this differential excretion constant at different intake levels. This may be a prerequisite for the sorting of particles in their FRST and enable them to achieve higher food intake rates. The functional significance of differential excretion of fluids and particles from the FRST requires further investigations.

  2. Differences in the diurnal pattern of soil respiration under adjacent Miscanthus x giganteus and barley crops reveal potential flaws in accepted sampling strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, James; Ineson, Phil

    2017-04-01

    Soil respiration (Rs) plays an important role in the global carbon cycle and contributes ca. 30% of global ecosystem respiration.However, for convenience, measurements used to compare Rs from different land uses, crops or management practices are often made between 09:00 and 16:00, with an implicit assumption that Rs is largely controlled by temperature. Three months' continuous data presented here show distinctly different diurnal patterns of Rs between barley (Hordeum vulgare) and Miscanthus x giganteus (Miscanthus) grown on adjacent fields. Maximum Rs in barley occurred during the afternoon and correlated with soil temperature, whereas Rs peaked in Miscanthus during the night and was significantly correlated with earlier levels of solar radiation, probably due to delays in translocation of recent photosynthate. Since daily mean Rs in Miscanthus coincided with levels 40% greater than the mean in barley, it is vital to select appropriate times to measure Rs if only single daily measurements are to be made.

  3. Embryogenic callus formation, growth and regeneration in callus and suspension cultures of Miscanthus x ogiformis Honda 'Giganteus' as affected by proline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, Inger Bæksted; Krogstrup, Peter; Hansen, Jürgen

    1997-01-01

    The effects of proline additions to culture systems of Miscanthus x ogiformis Honda Giganteus' were investigated. Proline was added in concentrations of 0, 12.5, 25, 50, 100 or 300 mM to the callus induction and suspension culture media containing either Murashige and Skoog or N6 basal salts and 22...... with Murashige and Skoog salts increased embryogenic callus formation on shoot apices and leaf explants while proline had no effect on embryogenic callus formation in medium with N6 salts. Increased growth with increasing proline concentration was obtained in suspension aggregates grown in medium with N6 salts......, whereas proline only increased growth of suspension aggregates grown in medium with Murashige and Skoog salts at concentrations of 12.5 or 25 mM. A stimulating effect of proline on plant regeneration was observed in short-term cultures of callus as well as in long-term cultures of suspension aggregates...

  4. Relationships between soil parameters and physiological status of Miscanthus x giganteus cultivated on soil contaminated with trace elements under NPK fertilisation vs. microbial inoculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogrzeba, Marta; Rusinowski, Szymon; Sitko, Krzysztof; Krzyżak, Jacek; Skalska, Aleksandra; Małkowski, Eugeniusz; Ciszek, Dorota; Werle, Sebastian; McCalmont, Jon Paul; Mos, Michal; Kalaji, Hazem M

    2017-06-01

    Crop growth and development can be influenced by a range of parameters, soil health, cultivation and nutrient status all play a major role. Nutrient status of plants can be enhanced both through chemical fertiliser additions (e.g. N, P, K supplementation) or microbial fixation and mobilisation of naturally occurring nutrients. With current EU priorities discouraging the production of biomass on high quality soils there is a need to investigate the potential of more marginal soils to produce these feedstocks and the impacts of soil amendments on crop yields within them. This study investigated the potential for Miscanthus x giganteus to be grown in trace element (TE)-contaminated soils, ideally offering a mechanism to (phyto)manage these contaminated lands. Comprehensive surveys are needed to understand plant-soil interactions under these conditions. Here we studied the impacts of two fertiliser treatments on soil physico-chemical properties under Miscanthus x giganteus cultivated on Pb, Cd and Zn contaminated arable land. Results covered a range of parameters, including soil rhizosphere activity, arbuscular mycorrhization (AM), as well as plant physiological parameters associated with photosynthesis, TE leaf concentrations and growth performance. Fertilization increased growth and gas exchange capacity, enhanced rhizosphere microbial activity and increased Zn, Mg and N leaf concentration. Fertilization reduced root colonisation by AMF and caused higher chlorophyll concentration in plant leaves. Microbial inoculation seems to be a promising alternative for chemical fertilizers, especially due to an insignificant influence on the mobility of toxic trace elements (particularly Cd and Zn). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The coordination of C4 photosynthesis and the CO2-concentrating mechanism in maize and Miscanthus x giganteus in response to transient changes in light quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Ubierna, Nerea; Ma, Jian-Ying; Walker, Berkley J; Kramer, David M; Cousins, Asaph B

    2014-03-01

    Unequal absorption of photons between photosystems I and II, and between bundle-sheath and mesophyll cells, are likely to affect the efficiency of the CO2-concentrating mechanism in C4 plants. Under steady-state conditions, it is expected that the biochemical distribution of energy (ATP and NADPH) and photosynthetic metabolite concentrations will adjust to maintain the efficiency of C4 photosynthesis through the coordination of the C3 (Calvin-Benson-Bassham) and C4 (CO2 pump) cycles. However, under transient conditions, changes in light quality will likely alter the coordination of the C3 and C4 cycles, influencing rates of CO2 assimilation and decreasing the efficiency of the CO2-concentrating mechanism. To test these hypotheses, we measured leaf gas exchange, leaf discrimination, chlorophyll fluorescence, electrochromatic shift, photosynthetic metabolite pools, and chloroplast movement in maize (Zea mays) and Miscanthus × giganteus following transitional changes in light quality. In both species, the rate of net CO2 assimilation responded quickly to changes in light treatments, with lower rates of net CO2 assimilation under blue light compared with red, green, and blue light, red light, and green light. Under steady state, the efficiency of CO2-concentrating mechanisms was similar; however, transient changes affected the coordination of C3 and C4 cycles in M. giganteus but to a lesser extent in maize. The species differences in the ability to coordinate the activities of C3 and C4 cycles appear to be related to differences in the response of cyclic electron flux around photosystem I and potentially chloroplast rearrangement in response to changes in light quality.

  6. Circulating levels of prolactin and progesterone in a wild population of red kangaroos (Macropus rufus) Marsupialia: Macropodidae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muths, E.; Hinds, L. A.

    1996-01-01

    Circulating progesterone and prolactin levels were measured in shot and live-caught wild red kangaroos using radioimmunoassays validated for the red kangaroo. The objective of the study was to correlate hormone profiles with reproductive status and determine if red kangaroos follow the general pattern elucidated for other macropodids. During Phase 2a lactation (600 pg/ml (n= 32) during the transition to Phase 3 lactation (181 to 235 days) when the quiescent corpus luteum and embryo were reactivated. Progesterone concentrations then decreased to prolactin during Phase 2a were prolactin concentrations increased to 15 ng/ml (n= 32), then decreased and remained low through the subsequent stage of dual lactation. These results indicate that progesterone and prolactin profiles in wild red kangaroos follow patterns found previously in other macropodid species, the tammar and Bennett's wallabies.

  7. Technical note: Differences in the diurnal pattern of soil respiration under adjacent Miscanthus × giganteus and barley crops reveal potential flaws in accepted sampling strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Keane, J.; Ineson, Phil

    2017-03-01

    For convenience, measurements used to compare soil respiration (Rs) from different land uses, crops or management practices are often made between 09:00 and 16:00 UTC, convenience which is justified by an implicit assumption that Rs is largely controlled by temperature. Three months of continuous data presented here show distinctly different diurnal patterns of Rs between barley (Hordeum vulgare) and Miscanthus × giganteus (Miscanthus) grown on adjacent fields. Maximum Rs in barley occurred during the afternoon and correlated with soil temperature, whereas in Miscanthus after an initial early evening decline, Rs increased above the daily average during the night and in July maximum daily rates of Rs were seen at 22:00 and was significantly correlated with earlier levels of solar radiation, probably due to delays in translocation of recent photosynthate. Since the time of the daily mean Rs in Miscanthus occurred when Rs in the barley was 40 % greater than the daily mean, it is vital to select appropriate times to measure Rs especially if only single daily measurements are to be made.

  8. Phylogeny in defining model plants for lignocellulosic ethanol production: a comparative study of Brachypodium distachyon, wheat, maize, and Miscanthus x giganteus leaf and stem biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meineke, Till; Manisseri, Chithra; Voigt, Christian A

    2014-01-01

    The production of ethanol from pretreated plant biomass during fermentation is a strategy to mitigate climate change by substituting fossil fuels. However, biomass conversion is mainly limited by the recalcitrant nature of the plant cell wall. To overcome recalcitrance, the optimization of the plant cell wall for subsequent processing is a promising approach. Based on their phylogenetic proximity to existing and emerging energy crops, model plants have been proposed to study bioenergy-related cell wall biochemistry. One example is Brachypodium distachyon, which has been considered as a general model plant for cell wall analysis in grasses. To test whether relative phylogenetic proximity would be sufficient to qualify as a model plant not only for cell wall composition but also for the complete process leading to bioethanol production, we compared the processing of leaf and stem biomass from the C3 grasses B. distachyon and Triticum aestivum (wheat) with the C4 grasses Zea mays (maize) and Miscanthus x giganteus, a perennial energy crop. Lambda scanning with a confocal laser-scanning microscope allowed a rapid qualitative analysis of biomass saccharification. A maximum of 108-117 mg ethanol·g(-1) dry biomass was yielded from thermo-chemically and enzymatically pretreated stem biomass of the tested plant species. Principal component analysis revealed that a relatively strong correlation between similarities in lignocellulosic ethanol production and phylogenetic relation was only given for stem and leaf biomass of the two tested C4 grasses. Our results suggest that suitability of B. distachyon as a model plant for biomass conversion of energy crops has to be specifically tested based on applied processing parameters and biomass tissue type.

  9. Hybridization and back-crossing in giant petrels (Macronectes giganteus and M. halli) at Bird Island, South Georgia, and a summary of hybridization in seabirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ruth M; Techow, N M S Mareile; Wood, Andrew G; Phillips, Richard A

    2015-01-01

    Hybridization in natural populations provides an opportunity to study the evolutionary processes that shape divergence and genetic isolation of species. The emergence of pre-mating barriers is often the precursor to complete reproductive isolation. However, in recently diverged species, pre-mating barriers may be incomplete, leading to hybridization between seemingly distinct taxa. Here we report results of a long-term study at Bird Island, South Georgia, of the extent of hybridization, mate fidelity, timing of breeding and breeding success in mixed and conspecific pairs of the sibling species, Macronectes halli (northern giant petrel) and M. giganteus (southern giant petrel). The proportion of mixed-species pairs varied annually from 0.4-2.4% (mean of 1.5%), and showed no linear trend with time. Mean laying date in mixed-species pairs tended to be later than in northern giant petrel, and always earlier than in southern giant petrel pairs, and their breeding success (15.6%) was lower than that of conspecific pairs. By comparison, mixed-species pairs at both Marion and Macquarie islands always failed before hatching. Histories of birds in mixed-species pairs at Bird Island were variable; some bred previously or subsequently with a conspecific partner, others subsequently with a different allospecific partner, and some mixed-species pairs remained together for multiple seasons. We also report the first verified back-crossing of a hybrid giant petrel with a female northern giant petrel. We discuss the potential causes and evolutionary consequences of hybridization and back-crossing in giant petrels and summarize the incidence of back-crossing in other seabird species.

  10. Phylogeny in Defining Model Plants for Lignocellulosic Ethanol Production: A Comparative Study of Brachypodium distachyon, Wheat, Maize, and Miscanthus x giganteus Leaf and Stem Biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meineke, Till; Manisseri, Chithra; Voigt, Christian A.

    2014-01-01

    The production of ethanol from pretreated plant biomass during fermentation is a strategy to mitigate climate change by substituting fossil fuels. However, biomass conversion is mainly limited by the recalcitrant nature of the plant cell wall. To overcome recalcitrance, the optimization of the plant cell wall for subsequent processing is a promising approach. Based on their phylogenetic proximity to existing and emerging energy crops, model plants have been proposed to study bioenergy-related cell wall biochemistry. One example is Brachypodium distachyon, which has been considered as a general model plant for cell wall analysis in grasses. To test whether relative phylogenetic proximity would be sufficient to qualify as a model plant not only for cell wall composition but also for the complete process leading to bioethanol production, we compared the processing of leaf and stem biomass from the C3 grasses B. distachyon and Triticum aestivum (wheat) with the C4 grasses Zea mays (maize) and Miscanthus x giganteus, a perennial energy crop. Lambda scanning with a confocal laser-scanning microscope allowed a rapid qualitative analysis of biomass saccharification. A maximum of 108–117 mg ethanol·g−1 dry biomass was yielded from thermo-chemically and enzymatically pretreated stem biomass of the tested plant species. Principal component analysis revealed that a relatively strong correlation between similarities in lignocellulosic ethanol production and phylogenetic relation was only given for stem and leaf biomass of the two tested C4 grasses. Our results suggest that suitability of B. distachyon as a model plant for biomass conversion of energy crops has to be specifically tested based on applied processing parameters and biomass tissue type. PMID:25133818

  11. Molecular characterization of Eimeria species in macropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rongchang; Fenwick, Stan; Potter, Abbey; Elliot, Aileen; Power, Michelle; Beveridge, Ian; Ryan, Una

    2012-10-01

    A total of 597 faecal samples were collected from western grey kangaroos (Macropus fuliginosus), Euros (M. robustus), red kangaroos (M. rufus) in Western Australia and Eastern Grey Kangaroos (M. giganteus) from Victoria and screened for the presence of Eimeria by PCR at the 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) locus. The overall prevalence was 24.3% (145/597). At the 18S rRNA locus, sequences were obtained for 25 of the 145 positives. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that all the macropod-derived Eimeria species grouped in a separate marsupial clade that included Eimeria trichosuri from brushtail possums. At least 6 different clades were identified within the marsupial isolates and many of the genotypes identified are likely to be valid species, however morphological and biological data need to be collected to match sequences to previously characterized Eimeria species or identify if they are new species.

  12. Waste indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dall, O.; Lassen, C.; Hansen, E. [Cowi A/S, Lyngby (Denmark)

    2003-07-01

    The Waste Indicator Project focuses on methods to evaluate the efficiency of waste management. The project proposes the use of three indicators for resource consumption, primary energy and landfill requirements, based on the life-cycle principles applied in the EDIP Project. Trial runs are made With the indicators on paper, glass packaging and aluminium, and two models are identified for mapping the Danish waste management, of which the least extensive focuses on real and potential savings. (au)

  13. Quality indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth-Andersen, Christian

    1991-01-01

    In recent literature it has been suggested that consumers need have no knowledge of product quality as a number of quality indicators (or signals) may be used as substitutes. Very little attention has been paid to the empirical verification of these studies. The present paper is devoted...... to the issue of how well these indicators perform, using market data provided by consumer magazines from 3 countries. The results strongly indicate that price is a poor quality indicator. The paper also presents some evidence which suggests that seller reputation and easily observable characteristics are also...

  14. Solar Indices

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  15. 产抗真菌蛋白(AFP)巨大曲霉的分离鉴定及AFP的提纯%The Screening of a Antifungal Protein(AFP)-Producing Aspergillus giganteus and Purification of AFP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    元月; 王德良; 郭立芸; 林智平; 江伟

    2012-01-01

    从土壤中分离出1株可产抗真菌蛋白的菌株,通过形态观察和分子生物学实验等方法鉴定其为巨大曲霉,编号AF-11。研究证明,利用纤维素阳离子交换柱层析法和凝胶柱层析法可从该菌的发酵上清液中分离纯化出高活性的抗真菌蛋白(AFP),该蛋白对青霉属、曲霉属和镰刀霉属等产毒丝状真菌的生长具有明显的抑制作用。%A strain which can produce antifungal protein was isolated from soil and was identified as Aspergillus giganteus,numbered AF-11,through morphologic observation and molecular biology experiments.It has been proven that the high activity and purity antifungal protein(AFP) which can obviously inhibit the growth of filamentous fungi such as Penicillium,Aspergillus and Fusarium,can be separated from the fermentation supernatant by using cellulose cation exchange column chromatography and gelatin column chromatography.

  16. The influence of light quality on C4 photosynthesis under steady-state conditions in Zea mays and Miscanthus×giganteus: changes in rates of photosynthesis but not the efficiency of the CO2 concentrating mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Ubierna, Nerea; Ma, Jian-Ying; Cousins, Asaph B

    2012-05-01

    Differences in light quality penetration within a leaf and absorption by the photosystems alter rates of CO(2) assimilation in C(3) plants. It is also expected that light quality will have a profound impact on C(4) photosynthesis due to disrupted coordination of the C(4) and C(3) cycles. To test this hypothesis, we measured leaf gas exchange, (13) CO(2) discrimination (Δ(13) C), photosynthetic metabolite pools and Rubisco activation state in Zea mays and Miscanthus × giganteus under steady-state red, green, blue and white light. Photosynthetic rates, quantum yield of CO(2) assimilation, and maximum phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase activity were significantly lower under blue light than white, red and green light in both species. However, similar leakiness under all light treatments suggests the C(4) and C(3) cycles were coordinated to maintain the photosynthetic efficiency. Measurements of photosynthetic metabolite pools also suggest coordination of C(4) and C(3) cycles across light treatments. The energy limitation under blue light affected both C(4) and C(3) cycles, as we observed a reduction in C(4) pumping of CO(2) into bundle-sheath cells and a limitation in the conversion of C(3) metabolite phosphoglycerate to triose phosphate. Overall, light quality affects rates of CO(2) assimilation, but not the efficiency of CO(2) concentrating mechanism.

  17. Social indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, E B; Parke, R

    1975-05-16

    The notions of social indicators and social accounting, expressed by analogy with the national economic accounts, generated excitement in the 1960's, and the interest continues to grow if we may judge from governmental activity and the publication of programmatic and research papers. But the concepts which focused much of the early enthusiasm gave exaggerated promise of policy applications and provided an unproductive basis for research. The essential theoretical prerequisites for developing a system of social accounts-defining the variables and the interrelationships among them-are missing. It is now realized that evaluation research, particularly experimentation, must be relied on for evaluation of government programs. Through the development and analysis of descriptive time series and the modeling of social processes, we will be able to describe the state of the society and its dynamics and thus improve immensely our ability to state problems in a productive fashion, obtain clues as to promising lines of endeavor, and ask good questions. But these activities cannot measure program effectiveness. Finally, we must be skeptical about definitions of the social indicators enterprise which confine it to social engineering efforts. The issue is not whether social indicators are useful for policy but, rather, how this usefulness comes about. The interest in social indicators has stimulated a revival of interest in quantitative, comparative, social analysis (60), in the analysis of social change, in conceptual and measurement work on such topics as prejudice, crime, and learning, and in the development of models of social processes. The fruit of these efforts will be more directly a contribution to the policy-maker's cognition than to his decisions. Decision emerges from a mosaic of inputs, including valuational and political, as well as technical components. The work we have described deals with only one type of input; it is a contribution to the intellectual mapping

  18. 不同供锗水平对巨大革耳子实体可溶性蛋白和细胞保护酶活性的影响%Soluble Protein,Superoxide Dismutase, Peroxidase,Polyphenol Oxidase and Catalase Levels in Panus giganteus Fruit Bodies Grown on Substrates Supplemented with Different Concentrations of Germanium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜振兰

    2014-01-01

    研究培养料中锗(Ge)不同添加水平对巨大革耳(Panus giganteus)子实体内可溶性蛋白含量和超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、过氧化物酶(POD)和过氧化氢酶(CAT)等细胞保护酶活性的影响。结果表明,Ge 添加浓度为18 mg/kg时,巨大革耳子实体内可溶性蛋白含量、SOD和 POD活性平均分别比对照提高8.80%、193.9%和43.3%,与对照间差异极显著(P<0.01);CAT活性也平均比对照提高8.9%,与对照差异显著(P<0.05)。%Superoxide dismutase (SOD),peroxidase (POD),polyphenol oxidase (PPO),catalase (CAT)and soluble protein levels were determined in Panus giganteus fruit bodies grown on substrates supplemented with different GeO2 concentrations.Soluble protein,SOD,POD and CAT levels in P.giganteus fruit bodies cultivated on a substrate supplemented with 18 mg/kg GeO2 were 8.8% (P<0.01),193.9% (P<0.01), 43.3% (P<0.01)and 8.9% (P<0.05)higher,respectively compared to controls grown without added germanium.

  19. Geomagnetic Indices Bulletin (GIB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Geomagnetic Indices Bulletin is a one page sheet containing the magnetic indices Kp, Ap, Cp, An, As, Am and the provisional aa indices. The bulletin is published...

  20. CREDIT Performance Indicator Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Anne Kathrine; Bertelsen, Niels Haldor; Haugbølle, Kim

    2010-01-01

    During the past two years the Nordic Baltic research project CREDIT (Construction and Real Estate – Developing Indicators for Transparency) has worked with the aim to improve transparency of value creation in building and real estate. One of the central deliverables of the CREDIT project...... was a framework of indicators relevant in building and real estate and applicable in the Nordic and Baltic countries as well as a proposal for a set of key indicators. The study resulting in CREDIT Performance Indicator Framework has been based on 28 case studies of evaluation practises in the building and real...... regulations in the countries participating in CREDIT. The Performance Indicator Framework encompassed 187 indicators grouped in 7 main groups of indicators and 42 sub-groups. Based on the CREDIT case studies it was concluded that there neither is link between certain indicators and specific building types...

  1. Geomagnetic aa Indices

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The geomagnetic aa indices are the continuation of the series beginning in the year 1868. A full description of these indices is given in the International...

  2. Altimeter Setting Indicator

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Altimeter Setting Indicator (ASI) is an aneroid system used at airports to provide an altimeter setting for aircraft altimeters. This indicator may be an analog...

  3. Alternative Solar Indices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lantz, L.J.

    1980-07-01

    Possible alternative Solar Indices which could either be a perturbation from the currently defined Solar Index or possible indices based on current technologies for other media markets are discussed. An overview is given of the current project, including the logic that was utilized in defining its current structure and then alternative indices and definitions are presented and finally, recommendations are made for adopting alternative indices.

  4. eHealth indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    HYPPÖNEN, Hannele; AMMENWERTH, Elske; Nøhr, Christian;

    2012-01-01

    eHealth indicators are needed to measure defined aspects of national eHealth implementations. However, until now, eHealth indicators are ambiguous or unclear. Therefore, an expert workshop "Towards an International Minimum Dataset for Monitoring National Health Information System Implementations......" was organized. The objective was to develop ideas for a minimum eHealth indicator set. The proposed ideas for indicators were classified based on EUnetHTA and De-Lone & McClean, and classification was compared with health IT evaluation criteria classification by Ammenwerth & Keizer. Analysis of the workshop...... results emphasized the need for a common methodological framework for defining and classifying eHealth indicators. It also showed the importance of setting the indicators into context. The results will benefit policy makers, developers and researchers in pursuit of provision and use of evidence...

  5. Indicators for environmental sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dong, Yan; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2017-01-01

    Decision making on sustainable consumption and production requires scientifically based information on sustainability. Different environmental sustainability targets exist for specific decision problems. To observe how well these targets are met, relevant environmental indicators are needed....... In this study, we reviewed indicators applied in life cycle assessment (LCA), planetary boundary framework (PB), and Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) developed under United Nation. The aim is to 1) identify their applications and relevant decision context; 2) Review their indicators and categorize them...

  6. Indicators for environmental sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dong, Yan; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2017-01-01

    Decision making on sustainable consumption and production requires scientifically based information on sustainability. Different environmental sustainability targets exist for specific decision problems. To observe how well these targets are met, relevant environmental indicators are needed....... In this study, we reviewed indicators applied in life cycle assessment (LCA), planetary boundary framework (PB), and Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) developed under United Nation. The aim is to 1) identify their applications and relevant decision context; 2) Review their indicators and categorize them...

  7. Data Quality and Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Matute

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study highlights the importance of collecting good quality data from multidisciplinary studies. Bias in data may be the result of instrument inaccuracies, imprecise data recording techniques, inaccurate data entry to computers or inappropriate statistical analysis and presentation. Recommendations for good data quality control are given. Different types of data are discussed: raw data, simple indicators and complex indicators. It is shown how measurements from the components of multidisciplinary systems can be combined to form complex indicators and a specific example is given using Z-scores and dot charts. Finally the accumulated effect of bias in the individual component measurements upon the combined indicator is shown.

  8. Scopus' SNIP Indicator

    CERN Document Server

    Leydesdorff, Loet

    2010-01-01

    Rejoinder to Moed [arXiv:1005.4906]: Our main objection is against developing new indicators which, like some of the older ones (for example, the "crown indicator" of CWTS), do not allow for indicating error because they do not provide a statistics, but are based, in our opinion, on a violation of the order of operations. The claim of validity for the SNIP indicator is hollow because the normalizations are based on field classifications which are not valid. Both problems can perhaps be solved by using fractional counting.

  9. CREDIT Performance Indicator Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Anne Kathrine; Bertelsen, Niels Haldor; Haugbølle, Kim

    2010-01-01

    During the past two years the Nordic Baltic research project CREDIT (Construction and Real Estate – Developing Indicators for Transparency) has worked with the aim to improve transparency of value creation in building and real estate. One of the central deliverables of the CREDIT project was a fr......During the past two years the Nordic Baltic research project CREDIT (Construction and Real Estate – Developing Indicators for Transparency) has worked with the aim to improve transparency of value creation in building and real estate. One of the central deliverables of the CREDIT project...... was a framework of indicators relevant in building and real estate and applicable in the Nordic and Baltic countries as well as a proposal for a set of key indicators. The study resulting in CREDIT Performance Indicator Framework has been based on 28 case studies of evaluation practises in the building and real...... regulations in the countries participating in CREDIT. The Performance Indicator Framework encompassed 187 indicators grouped in 7 main groups of indicators and 42 sub-groups. Based on the CREDIT case studies it was concluded that there neither is link between certain indicators and specific building types...

  10. Climate Change Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presents information, charts and graphs showing measured climate changes across 40 indicators related to greenhouse gases, weather and climate, oceans, snow and ice, heath and society, and ecosystems.

  11. Indicators of sustainable tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovičić Dobrica

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The indicators, precisely describing the linkages between tourism and the environment, social and cultural base, are not easily available. How ever, some relevant organizations (WTO, EU, OECD, etc., institutions and experts, have been hardly working to create the indicators of sustainable tourism. Whereas the economic objectives are easily defined by the use of the traditional indicators used in national and business economics, it is very difficult to identify widely applicable environmental, social and cultural indicators. In order to stimulate and alleviate the process of sustainable tourism development, EU created the list of comparative indicators of sustainable tourism. In preparing this list, special attention is paid to identification of valid indicators of real tourism impacts on the social and cultural environment (the entire set of traditions, customs, history, hospitality and culture that characterize a given area, that is a very complex task. Assuming the fact that the related indicators have been analyzed in many European countries, this paper is focused on applying the related indicators in research of tourism development in villages of the Kosjerić community. .

  12. Indicators of coal metamorphism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proskuryakov, A.E.

    1982-06-01

    Important in determining metamorphism of coal is the reliability of indicators of coalification. Both the reflection of vitrinite and emission of volatile matter have been used for this purpose. To determine which indicator more accurately characterizes metamorphism of coal, their conformity to the following demands was established: 1. uniformity in direction of change of parameters with degree of metamorphism; 2. independence of the indicator of the genetic characteristics of coal (petrographic composition, reduction and oxidation of coal); 3. sensitivity of indicator. Both indicators conform to the first requirement. Emission of volatile substance decreases and reflective capacity of vitrinite increases uniformly with degree of metamorphism. However, the reflectivity of vitrinite is not influenced by petrographic composition of coals and is less dependent on the oxidation and reduction of coal than emission of volatile matter. It is also a more sensitive indicator distinguishing more degrees of metamorphism than emission of volatile matter. Reflectivity of vitrinite is a more reliable indicator of metamorphism than emission of volatile matter. However, in many laboratories this indicator is not measured with sufficient accuracy. To correct this, measuring equipment must be standardized.

  13. Key performance indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwetsloot, G.I.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses how organisations can use OSH performance indicators. This is an important way to mainstream OSH into business management. Key performance indicators (KPIs) should provide objective data on the OSH situation. It is often said that ‘what gets measured gets managed’. Without

  14. Key performance indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwetsloot, G.I.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses how organisations can use OSH performance indicators. This is an important way to mainstream OSH into business management. Key performance indicators (KPIs) should provide objective data on the OSH situation. It is often said that ‘what gets measured gets managed’. Without infor

  15. VP Ellipsis without Indices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hardt, Daniel; Asher, Nicholas; Hunter, Julie

    2013-01-01

    This paper compares two views on the status of indices in syntactic and logical representations. On a structural view, indices are syntactic formants on a par with node labels and phrase bracketings, and are thus a part of the logical forms that are derived from syntactic representations....... On the process view, an index is not a syntactic object at all, but rather, an indication of the output of a resolution process.In this paper we argue that a recent body of data provides a clear empirical basis for distinguishing between these two views of indices. We argue that cases of sloppy VP ellipsis pose...... insurmountable problems for the structural view of indices, while these problems do not arise for the process view. Furthermore, we show that this resolution process is constrained by the semantics of various discourse relations....

  16. Evaluating Living Standard Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birčiaková Naďa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the evaluation of selected available indicators of living standards, divided into three groups, namely economic, environmental, and social. We have selected six countries of the European Union for analysis: Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Luxembourg, France, and Great Britain. The aim of this paper is to evaluate indicators measuring living standards and suggest the most important factors which should be included in the final measurement. We have tried to determine what factors influence each indicator and what factors affect living standards. We have chosen regression analysis as our main method. From the study of factors, we can deduce their impact on living standards, and thus the value of indicators of living standards. Indicators with a high degree of reliability include the following factors: size and density of population, health care and spending on education. Emissions of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere also have a certain lower degree of reliability.

  17. The radon indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelsson, L.

    2005-11-01

    The radon indicator is an efficient instrument for measuring the radon daughter concentrations in a house or dwelling. Physics or environmental science students could build a radon indicator as a student project. Another possibility would be to use a radon indicator in a student investigation of radon levels in different houses. Finally the radon indicator is an excellent device for producing a radioactive source, free of charge, for the study of α-, β- and γ-radiation. The half-life of the activity collected is approximately 40 min. The radon indicator makes use of an electrostatic method by which charged particles are drawn to a small aluminium plate with a high negative voltage (-5 kV), thus creating a strong electric field between the plate and a surrounding copper wire. The radioactivity on the plate is subsequently measured by a GM-counter and the result calculated in Bq m-3. The collecting time is just 5.5 min and therefore the instrument is only suitable for use in a short-time method for indicating the radon concentration. An improved diagram, ground-radon and/or wall-radon in houses, is presented on the basis of the author's measurements recorded with the radon indicator over many years. This diagram is very useful when discussing how to reduce radiation levels in homes.

  18. Solar Indices Bulletin

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Solar Indices Bulletin is a prompt monthly information product that is distributed within two weeks after the observation month closes. For the month just ended,...

  19. Solar Indices - Solar Corona

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  20. Indicators and SEA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Jingjing; Kørnøv, Lone; Christensen, Per

    Abstract: Indicators are widely used in SEA to measure, communicate and monitor impacts from a proposed policy, plan or programme, and can improve the effectiveness for the SEA by simplifying the complexity of both assessment and presentation. Indicators can be seen as part of the implementation...... process helping to understand, communicate and, integrate important environmental issues in planning and decision-making. On the other hand, use of indicators can also limit SEA effectiveness, if the ones chosen are biased or limited, if the aggregation gives incorrect interpretation...... and if the information requirement for different target groups is not addressed. Indicators are widely used in SEA to measure, communicate and monitor impacts from a proposed policy, plan or programme, and can improve the effectiveness for the SEA by simplifying the complexity of both assessment and presentation...

  1. NOHSS Adult Indicators

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2012-2014 (even years). Data from BRFSS for indicators of adult oral health for even years from 2012 through 2014. National estimates are represented by the median...

  2. NOHSS Child Indicators

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Data for School year-end 1994 through year-end 2017. State oral health surveys are the data sources for these indicators. States periodically conduct independent...

  3. NOHSS Child Indicators

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Data for School year-end 1994 through year-end 2016. State oral health surveys are the data sources for these indicators. States periodically conduct independent...

  4. Indicators: Sediment Enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sediment enzymes are proteins that are produced by microorganisms living in the sediment or soil. They are indicators of key ecosystem processes and can help determine which nutrients are affecting the biological community of a waterbody.

  5. NOHSS Child Indicators

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Data for School year-end 1994 through year-end 2016. State oral health surveys are the data sources for these indicators. States periodically conduct independent...

  6. NOHSS Adult Indicators

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2012-2014 (even years). Data from BRFSS for indicators of adult oral health for even years from 2012 through 2014. National estimates are represented by the median...

  7. Fishery Performance Indicators

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Performance indicators for landings, effort, revenue and distribution of revenue are collected for various fisheries nation-wide. The fisheries include catch and...

  8. Solar Indices - Solar Flares

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  9. Solar Indices - Sunspot Numbers

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  10. Solar Indices - Plage Regions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  11. Solar Indices - Solar Irradiance

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  12. Solar Indices - Solar Ultraviolet

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  13. ENSO Indices and Analyses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhiren; WU Dexing; CHEN Xue'en; QIAO Ran

    2013-01-01

    New ENSO indices were developed and the spatial variability and temporal evolution of ENSO were analyzed based on the new indices and modeling experiments,as well as multiple data resources.The new indices,after being defined,were validated with their good diagnostic characteristics and correlation with wind and SST.In the analysis after the definition and validation of the new indices,ENSO feedbacks from wind,heat fluxes,and precipitation were spatially and temporally examined in order to understand ENSO variability and evolution with some emphasized points such as the interaction among the feedbacks,the role of westerly wind bursts and the transformation between zonal and meridional circulations in an ENSO cycle,and the typical pattern of modern ENSO.

  14. Laterality and reproductive indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalichman, Leonid; Kobyliansky, Eugene

    2008-01-01

    Several previous studies support the association between manual dominance and age at menarche or age at menopause. The aim of the present study was to estimate the association between indices of laterality and reproductive indices. The studied sample comprised 650 Chuvashian women aged 18 to 80 years (mean, 46.9; SD = 16.2). The independent-sample t test was used to compare the age at menarche or age at menopause between individuals with right or left dominance of handedness, dominant eye, hand clasping, and arm folding. No significant differences in age at menarche or age at menopause between women with right and left dominance in any of the studied laterality indices were found. This is the first study that simultaneously evaluates the association between dominance in four laterality indices (handedness, dominant eye, hand clasping, and arm folding) and two reproductive indices (age at menarche and age at menopause). Result of our study do not support the hypothesis of a possible association between handedness (and other indices of laterality) and an early age at menarche or age at natural menopause.

  15. Publication point indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elleby, Anita; Ingwersen, Peter

    2010-01-01

    with novel publication point indicators (PPIs) that are formalized and exemplified. Two diachronic citation windows are applied: 2006-07 and 2006-08. Web of Science (WoS) as well as Google Scholar (GS) are applied to observe the cite delay and citedness for the different document types published by DIIS......The paper presents comparative analyses of two publication point systems, The Norwegian and the in-house system from the interdiscplinary Danish Institute for International Studies (DIIS), used as case in the study for publications published 2006, and compares central citation-based indicators......; the Cumulated Publication Point Indicator (CPPI), which graphically illustrates the cumulated gain of obtained vs. ideal points, both seen as vectors; and the normalized Cumulated Publication Point Index (nCPPI) that represents the cumulated gain of publication success as index values, either graphically...

  16. Environmental indicators for buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dammann, Sven

    2004-01-01

    Environmental Indicators for Buildings are studied using two different perspectives: with a technological, environmental scientific departing point and with a social scientific departing point. Different relevant groups in the building sector are identified and analysed, using the Social...... Construction Of Technology theory as a frame for the studies. It is concluded that it is not possible to develop a common set of indicators that all the central actors in the building sector find acceptable - at least not in a near future. Different sets of solutions are, however, outlined in the thesis...

  17. Environmental indicators for buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dammann, Sven

    Environmental Indicators for Buildings are studied using two different perspectives: with a technological, environmental scientific departing point and with a social scientific departing point. Different relevant groups in the building sector are identified and analysed, using the Social...... Construction Of Technology theory as a frame for the studies. It is concluded that it is not possible to develop a common set of indicators that all the central actors in the building sector find acceptable - at least not in a near future. Different sets of solutions are, however, outlined in the thesis...

  18. "Healthy" Human Development Indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engineer, Merwan; Roy, Nilanjana; Fink, Sari

    2010-01-01

    In the Human Development Index (HDI), life expectancy is the only indicator used in modeling the dimension "a long and healthy life". Whereas life expectancy is a direct measure of quantity of life, it is only an indirect measure of healthy years lived. In this paper we attempt to remedy this omission by introducing into the HDI the morbidity…

  19. Pain indicators in newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spasojević Slobodan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Definition of pain. The International Association for the Study of Pain has defined pain as "an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage or described in terms of such damage." The interpretation of pain is subjective. Each person forms an internal construct of pain through encountered injury. Pain and newborn. The issue of pain perception in newborns, its management and prevention has been neglected for decades. The inability of "self-report" of painful experience has contributed significantly to misunderstanding of the importance of this problem and in­adequate treatment. The main characteristic of this 'critical window of brain development' period is rapid enlargement of brain volume and its great plasticity. Harmful short-term and long-term consequences can arise as a consequence of disturbance of the sophisticated balance between newborn and its surrounding. Neonatal pain indicators. As a response to a present painful stimulus, the newborn adapts to this acute stress with changes in endocrine, vegetative, immune and behavioral area. An ideal pain indicator in neonatal period does not exist. There are several different groups o them, namely contextual and developmental indicators (gestational age, contributed illness, medication, for example, physiological (heart rate, vagal tone, breathing rate, blood pressure, oxygen saturation, transcutaneous partial pressures of oxygen and carbon-dioxide, intracranial pressure, palm sweating and behavioral ones (face expression, movements of limbs, cry, several neonatal pain scales were constructed on the basis of these indicators. .

  20. "Healthy" Human Development Indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engineer, Merwan; Roy, Nilanjana; Fink, Sari

    2010-01-01

    In the Human Development Index (HDI), life expectancy is the only indicator used in modeling the dimension "a long and healthy life". Whereas life expectancy is a direct measure of quantity of life, it is only an indirect measure of healthy years lived. In this paper we attempt to remedy this omission by introducing into the HDI the morbidity…

  1. Indicators for energy security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruyt, B.; van Vuuren, D.P.; de Vries, H.J.M.; Groenenberg, H.

    2009-01-01

    The concept of energy security is widely used, yet there is no consensus on its precise interpretation. In this research, we have provided an overview of available indicators for long-term security of supply (SOS). We distinguished four dimensions of energy security that relate to the availability,

  2. Publication point indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elleby, Anita; Ingwersen, Peter

    2010-01-01

    with novel publication point indicators (PPIs) that are formalized and exemplified. Two diachronic citation windows are applied: 2006-07 and 2006-08. Web of Science (WoS) as well as Google Scholar (GS) are applied to observe the cite delay and citedness for the different document types published by DIIS...

  3. Maslov indices and monodromy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dullin, H.R.; Robbins, J.M.; Waalkens, H.; Creagh, S.C.; Tanner, G.

    2005-01-01

    We prove that for a Hamiltonian system on a cotangent bundle that is Liouville-integrable and has monodromy the vector of Maslov indices is an eigenvector of the monodromy matrix with eigenvalue 1. As a corollary, the resulting restrictions on the monodromy matrix are derived.

  4. Environmental health indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Posada de la Paz

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This presentation gives a general overview of the project titled Environmental Health Indicators, coordinated by WHO and managed by the Research Centre on the Toxic Oil Syndrome and Rare Diseases in Spain. The presentations describes the objectives of the project, the steps taken and the results obtained during the feasibility study. The project aims to develop an environmental health information system that will allow the monitoring of public health and its health determinants and make international comparisons, develop environmental policies and facilitate communication with citizens. WHO developed a methodology for the development of these indicators within the conceptual framework of DPSEEA (Driving Force, Pressure, State, Exposure, Effect, Action and selected a total of 55 indicators (which included 168 variables in 10 environmental health areas. The feasibility study predicted the successful gathering of 89% of the indicators. However, data recollection proved difficult due to the frequent incompatibility of some variables in the Spanish information systems with the WHO defined variables. On a management level, the greatest difficulty arose from the disperse distribution of responsibilities in environmental health matters. In addition to the technical contribution of this project to Environmental Health in Spain, an added value has been to establish a close collaboration with the different Ministries involved.

  5. The logarithmic hypervolume indicator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friedrich, Tobias; Bringmann, Karl; Voß, Thomas;

    2011-01-01

    It was recently proven that sets of points maximizing the hypervolume indicator do not give a good multiplicative approximation of the Pareto front. We introduce a new “logarithmic hypervolume indicator” and prove that it achieves a close-to-optimal multiplicative approximation ratio. This is exp...

  6. GRB as luminosity indicator

    CERN Document Server

    Basak, Rupal

    2014-01-01

    Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) are found at much higher redshifts (z>6) than Supernova Ia (z~1), and hence, they can be used to probe very primitive universe. However, radiation mechanism of GRB remains a puzzle, unlike Supernova Ia. Through comprehensive description, both empirical and physical, we shall discuss the most likely way to use the constituent pulses of a GRB to find the radiation mechanism as well as using the pulses as luminosity indicators.

  7. Indicators for Knowledge Economy

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    The Lisbon European Council conclusion was that in 2010 Europe will become 'the most competitive and dynamic knowledge-based economy in the world, capable of sustained economic growth with more and better jobs and greater social cohesion'. The knowledge economy concept is a part of modern society. This paper examines the knowledge economy concept and indicators for measuring the performance of the knowledge economy

  8. Indicators of Ecological Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-03

    Wang et al. (2003) and earlier those of Chapra and Di Toro (1991). Wang et al. (2003) termed their approach the extreme value method and used it to...Thesis, Auburn University, Auburn, AL. 210 pp. Chapra , S. C., Di Toro, D. M., 1991. Delta method for estimating primary production, respiration, and...characteristics, The challenge in using ecological indicators is determining which of the numerous measures of ecological systems best characterize

  9. Simplicial Indicator Kriging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R Tolosana-Delgado; V Pawlowsky-Glahn; J J Egozcue

    2008-01-01

    Indicator kriging (IK) is a spatial interpolation technique devised for estimating a conditional cumulative distribution function at an unsampled location. The result is a discrete approximation, and its corresponding estimated probability density function can be viewed as a composition in the simplex. This fact suggested a compositional approach to IK which, by construction, avoids all its standard drawbacks (negative predictions, not-ordered or larger than one). Here, a simple algorithm to develop the procedure is presented.

  10. Indicators of Ecological Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-01

    measures Leaf area Branch evaluations Plant diversity Ozone bioindicators Lichen diversity Visible damage Vegetation structure Forest type...composition, and physiological status (measured as signature lipid/ DNA biomarkers) as a quick and easy indicator of changes in soil quality as a...Cryptophyte Geophyte Forb 0.17 0.45 Blazing star RL Liatris tenuafolia Asteraceae Cryptophyte Geophyte Forb 0.11 0.36 Blazing star RM Lichens Lichens 0.61

  11. Teriparatide - Indications beyond osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilyn Lee Cheng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is a condition of impaired bone strength that results in an increased risk of fracture. The current and most popular pharmacological options for the treatment of osteoporosis include antiresorptive therapy, in particular, oral bisphosphonates (alendronate, risedronate, ibandronate. Anabolic agents like teriparatide have widened our therapeutic options. They act by directly stimulating bone formation and improving bone mass quantity and quality. Two forms of recombinant human parathyroid hormone (PTH are available : full-length PTH (PTH 1-84; approved in the EU only and the 1-34 N-terminal active fragment of PTH (teriparatide, US FDA approved. This review aims to discuss the benefits of teriparatide beyond the currently licensed indications like fracture healing, dental stability, osteonecrosis of jaw, hypoparathyroidism, and hypocalcemia.

  12. INDICATORS OF TERRITORIAL COHESION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA VASILESCU (DUMITRASCU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In a world of globalization generating geographical concentration, relocation of activities, thus inducing territorial disparities, territorial cohesion has become a prerequisite for achieving sustainable economic growth and implementing social and economic cohesion. The ratification of Lisbon Treaty represents the moment when “Territorial Cohesion” has been added as an official policy aim of the EU to its previous aims of economic and social cohesion. Thus, the process of defining this concept of “Territorial Cohesion” has become the task of the Commission and EU Member States. Based on a literature review, the paper describes, in the first section, the polysemantic nature of territorial cohesion. The main objective of the next section is to address the main indicators, directly related to territorial objectives, that could be used to support policy makers in measuring and monitoring territorial cohesion related to European territorial development.

  13. Environmental indicators for buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dammann, S.

    Whenever we shop, the products we consider buying are labelled with the economical price we have to pay if we want to purchase them - an important parameter in our decisions as purchasers. The increrasing awareness for environmental limits and backlashes of human activities also in the building...... sector have fostered the wish to define 'the ecological price' of a building as a help for environmental conscious decision-making. In a social constructivist approach this Ph.D. thesis looks across and beyond the manifold existing approaches for environmental indicators for buildings. It acknowledges...... that among the relevant actors in the building sector the scientific view is only one perspective among others. This study combines natural-scientific knowledge with social-scientific knowledge, obtained in a close co-operation with actors in the building sector in Denmark and a research period...

  14. Entanglement–breaking indices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lami, L. [Scuola Normale Superiore, I-56126 Pisa (Italy); Giovannetti, V. [NEST, Scuola Normale Superiore and Istituto Nanoscienze-CNR, I-56127 Pisa (Italy)

    2015-09-15

    We study a set of new functionals (called entanglement–breaking indices) which characterize how many local iterations of a given (local) quantum channel are needed in order to completely destroy the entanglement between the system of interest over which the transformation is defined and an external ancilla. The possibility of contrasting the noisy effects introduced by the channel iterations via the action of intermediate (filtering) transformations is analyzed. We provide some examples in which our functionals can be exactly calculated. The differences between unitary and non-unitary filtering operations are analyzed showing that, at least for systems of dimension d larger than or equal to 3, the non-unitary choice is preferable (the gap between the performances of the two cases being divergent in some cases). For d = 2 (qubit case), on the contrary, no evidences of the presence of such gap is revealed: we conjecture that for this special case unitary filtering transformations are optimal. The scenario in which more general filtering protocols are allowed is also discussed in some detail. The case of a depolarizing noise acting on a two–qubit system is exactly solved in a general case.

  15. Microbes as forensic indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan, G; Sarah, J P

    2012-09-01

    The forensic potential of microorganisms is becoming increasingly apparent as a consequence of advances in molecular sciences and genomics. This review discusses instances in which microbes, and in particular bacteria, can impact upon forensic investigations. There is increasing evidence that humans have an extremely diverse 'microbiome' that may prove useful in determining ethnicity, country of origin, and even personal identity. The human microbiome differs between regions of the body and may prove useful for determining the nature of stains such as those caused by saliva and vaginal fluid: it may even be possible to link the stains to the person responsible for them. Similarly, the composition of the microbiome present in a soil sample may prove a useful indicator of geographic origin or as a means of linking people, animals, or objects together or to a specific location. Microorganisms are important in the decay process and also influence the presence and concentration of alcohol, drugs, and other chemicals of forensic relevance. There is also a possibility that the entry of microorganisms into the body during the agonal period may prove useful for the diagnosis of drowning. The transmission of infectious diseases, and in particular sexually-transmitted diseases, can provide evidence linking a victim and a suspect. Microorganisms that cause fatal infections are not always identified at the time of death and may lead to the death being considered 'suspicious'. If a fatal infection can be linked to a hospital or medical procedure it can lead to prosecutions and therefore it is important to determine when and where an infection was acquired. Similarly, naturally acquired infections need to be distinguished from those that result from malicious transmission. Microorganisms can therefore provide evidence in many different forensic scenarios but most of the work is still at the experimental stage and there are therefore many opportunities for further research.

  16. Solar Indices Forecasting Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henney, Carl John; Shurkin, Kathleen; Arge, Charles; Hill, Frank

    2016-05-01

    Progress to forecast key space weather parameters using SIFT (Solar Indices Forecasting Tool) with the ADAPT (Air Force Data Assimilative Photospheric flux Transport) model is highlighted in this presentation. Using a magnetic flux transport model, ADAPT, we estimate the solar near-side field distribution that is used as input into empirical models for predicting F10.7(solar 10.7 cm, 2.8 GHz, radio flux), the Mg II core-to-wing ratio, and selected bands of solar far ultraviolet (FUV) and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) irradiance. Input to the ADAPT model includes the inferred photospheric magnetic field from the NISP ground-based instruments, GONG & VSM. Besides a status update regarding ADAPT and SIFT models, we will summarize the findings that: 1) the sum of the absolute value of strong magnetic fields, associated with sunspots, is shown to correlate well with the observed daily F10.7 variability (Henney et al. 2012); and 2) the sum of the absolute value of weak magnetic fields, associated with plage regions, is shown to correlate well with EUV and FUV irradiance variability (Henney et al. 2015). This work utilizes data produced collaboratively between Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) and the National Solar Observatory (NSO). The ADAPT model development is supported by AFRL. The input data utilized by ADAPT is obtained by NISP (NSO Integrated Synoptic Program). NSO is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA), Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation (NSF). The 10.7 cm solar radio flux data service, utilized by the ADAPT/SIFT F10.7 forecasting model, is operated by the National Research Council of Canada and National Resources Canada, with the support of the Canadian Space Agency.

  17. The timing and cause of megafauna mass deaths at Lancefield Swamp, south-eastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dortch, Joe; Cupper, Matt; Grün, Rainer; Harpley, Bernice; Lee, Kerrie; Field, Judith

    2016-08-01

    Lancefield Swamp, south-eastern Australia, was one of the earliest sites to provoke interest in Pleistocene faunal extinctions in Sahul (Pleistocene Australia-New Guinea). The systematic investigation of the deposit in the early 1970s identified megafaunal remains dominated by the 100-200 kg kangaroo Macropus giganteus titan. Associated radiocarbon ages indicated that the species was extant until c.30,000 BP, suggesting significant overlap with human settlement of Sahul. This evidence was inconsistent with contemporary models of rapid human-driven extinctions. Instead, researchers inferred ecological tethering of fauna at Lancefield Swamp due to intense drought precipitated localised mass deaths, consistent with Late Pleistocene climatic variability. Later investigations in another part of the swamp, the Mayne Site, remote to the initial investigations, concluded that mass flow disturbed this area, and Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) analyses on megafauna teeth returned wide-ranging ages. To clarify site formation processes and dating of Lancefield Swamp, we excavated new test-pits next to previous trenches in the Classic and Mayne Sites. We compared absolute chronologies for sediments and teeth, sedimentology, palaeo-topography, taphonomy, and macropod age at death across the swamp. Luminescence dating of sediments and ESR analysis of teeth returned ages between c.80,000 and 45,000 years ago. We found no archaeological remains in the bone beds, and evidence of carnivore activity and fluvial action, in the form of reactivated spring flow. The latter disturbed limited parts of the site and substantial areas of the bone beds remained intact. The faunal assemblage is dominated by megafaunal adult Macropus, consistent with mass die-offs due to severe drought. Such droughts appear to have recurred over millennia during the climatic variability of Marine Isotope Stages 4 and 3. These events began tens of millennia before the first appearance of Aboriginal people in Sahul

  18. Should researchers use single indicators, best indicators, or multiple indicators in structural equation models?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayduk Leslie A

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Structural equation modeling developed as a statistical melding of path analysis and factor analysis that obscured a fundamental tension between a factor preference for multiple indicators and path modeling’s openness to fewer indicators. Discussion Multiple indicators hamper theory by unnecessarily restricting the number of modeled latents. Using the few best indicators – possibly even the single best indicator of each latent – encourages development of theoretically sophisticated models. Additional latent variables permit stronger statistical control of potential confounders, and encourage detailed investigation of mediating causal mechanisms. Summary We recommend the use of the few best indicators. One or two indicators are often sufficient, but three indicators may occasionally be helpful. More than three indicators are rarely warranted because additional redundant indicators provide less research benefit than single indicators of additional latent variables. Scales created from multiple indicators can introduce additional problems, and are prone to being less desirable than either single or multiple indicators.

  19. Values of Kp Indices, Ap Indices, Cp Indices, C9 Indices, Sunspot Number, and 10.7 cm Flux

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data file consists of Kp indices, Ap indices, Cp indices, C9 indices, sunspot number, and 10.7 cm flux. The most often requested parameter of this file are the...

  20. Nordic eHealth Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    eHealth indicator and benchmarking activities are rapidly increasing nationally and internationally. The work is rarely based on a transparent methodology for indicator definition. This article describes first results of testing an indicator methodology for defining eHealth indicators, which...

  1. Indicators for Monitoring Soil Biodiversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bispo, A.; Cluzeau, D.; Creamer, R.

    2009-01-01

    is made for a set of suitable indicators for monitoring the decline in soil biodiversity (Bispo et al. 2007). These indicators were selected both from a literature review and an inventory of national monitoring programmes. Decline in soil biodiversity was defined as the reduction of forms of life living...... indicators are actually measured.   For monitoring application it was considered in ENVASSO that only three key indicators per soil stress were practical. For indicating biodiversity decline it was difficult to arrive at a small set of indicators due to the complexity of soil biota and functions. Therefore...

  2. On the ecology and conservation status of Cordylus giganteus A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1988-11-08

    Nov 8, 1988 ... The distribution of Cordy/us g;ganteus in the Transvaal is discussed. ... and dimensions are incorporated including data on sex ratios, age structure and reproduction. ... proportion of the population was under threat from the.

  3. Shedding light on the microbial community of the macropod foregut using 454-amplicon pyrosequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa-Maree Gulino

    Full Text Available Twenty macropods from five locations in Queensland, Australia, grazing on a variety of native pastures were surveyed and the bacterial community of the foregut was examined using 454-amplicon pyrosequencing. Specifically, the V3/V4 region of 16S rRNA gene was examined. A total of 5040 OTUs were identified in the data set (post filtering. Thirty-two OTUs were identified as 'shared' OTUS (i.e. present in all samples belonging to either Firmicutes or Bacteroidetes (Clostridiales/Bacteroidales. These phyla predominated the general microbial community in all macropods. Genera represented within the shared OTUs included: unclassified Ruminococcaceae, unclassified Lachnospiraceae, unclassified Clostridiales, Peptococcus sp. Coprococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., Blautia sp., Ruminoccocus sp., Eubacterium sp., Dorea sp., Oscillospira sp. and Butyrivibrio sp. The composition of the bacterial community of the foregut samples of each the host species (Macropus rufus, Macropus giganteus and Macropus robustus was significantly different allowing differentiation between the host species based on alpha and beta diversity measures. Specifically, eleven dominant OTUs that separated the three host species were identified and classified as: unclassified Ruminococcaceae, unclassified Bacteroidales, Prevotella spp. and a Syntrophococcus sucromutans. Putative reductive acetogens and fibrolytic bacteria were also identified in samples. Future work will investigate the presence and role of fibrolytics and acetogens in these ecosystems. Ideally, the isolation and characterization of these organisms will be used for enhanced feed efficiency in cattle, methane mitigation and potentially for other industries such as the biofuel industry.

  4. Edible Acid-Base Indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mebane, Robert C.; Rybolt, Thomas R.

    1985-01-01

    Reports on the colors observed during titrations of 15 natural indicators obtained from common fruits and vegetables. These edible indicators can be used for a variety of teacher demonstrations or for simple student experiments. (JN)

  5. Social Indicators and Social Forecasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Denis F.

    The paper identifies major types of social indicators and explains how they can be used in social forecasting. Social indicators are defined as statistical measures relating to major areas of social concern and/or individual well being. Examples of social indicators are projections, forecasts, outlook statements, time-series statistics, and…

  6. The SJR indicator: A new indicator of journals' scientific prestige

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez-Pereira, Borja; Moya-Anegon, Felix

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes an indicator of journals' scientific prestige, the SJR indicator, for ranking scholarly journals based on citation weighting schemes and eigenvector centrality to be used in complex and heterogeneous citation networks such Scopus. Its computation methodology is described and the results after implementing the indicator over Scopus 2007 dataset are compared to an ad-hoc Journal Impact Factor both generally and inside specific scientific areas. The results showed that SJR indicator and JIF distributions fitted well to a power law distribution and that both metrics were strongly correlated, although there were also major changes in rank. There was an observable general trend that might indicate that SJR indicator values decreased certain JIF values whose citedeness was greater than would correspond to their scientific influence.

  7. Herbal indicators as a substituent to synthetic indicators

    OpenAIRE

    Bhagat Vishwas; Patil Radheshyam; Channekar P; Shetty S; Akarte Atul

    2008-01-01

    In acid - base titrations, indicators are used to show sharp color change at intervals of pH. Natural pigments in plants are highly colored substances and may show color changes with variation of pH. An attempt has been made to investigate the indicator activity of methanolic extract of flower pigments and to replace synthetic indicators as they have certain disadvantages like chemical pollution, availability problems and high cost. Methanolic extract of Rosa indica (L) from family Rosaceae a...

  8. Cancer rehabilitation indicators for Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baili, Paolo; Hoekstra-Weebers, Josette; Van Hoof, Elke

    2013-01-01

    Little is known of cancer rehabilitation needs in Europe. EUROCHIP-3 organised a group of experts to propose a list of population-based indicators used for describing cancer rehabilitation across Europe. The aim of this study is to present and discuss these indicators. A EUROCHIP-3 expert panel...... reached agreement on two types of indicators. (a) Cancer prevalence indicators. These were proposed as a means of characterising the burden of cancer rehabilitation needs by time from diagnosis and patient health status. These indicators can be estimated from cancer registry data or by collecting data...... on follow-up and treatments for samples of cases archived in cancer registries. (b) Indicators of rehabilitation success. These include: return to work, quality of life, and satisfaction of specific rehabilitation needs. Studies can be performed to estimate these indicators in individual countries...

  9. Uncertainty in magnetic activity indices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Magnetic activity indices are widely used in theoretical studies of solar-terrestrial coupling and space weather prediction. However, the indices suffer from various uncertainties, which limit their application and even mislead to incorrect conclu-sion. In this paper we analyze three most popular indices, Kp, AE and Dst. Three categories of uncertainties in magnetic indices are discussed: "data uncertainty" originating from inadequate data processing, "station uncertainty" caused by in-complete station covering, and "physical uncertainty" stemming from unclear physical mechanism. A comparison between magnetic disturbances and related indices indicate that the residual Sq will cause an uncertainty of 1―2 in K meas-urement, the uncertainty in saturated AE is as much as 50%, and the uncertainty in Dst index caused by the partial ring currents is about a half of the partial ring cur-rent.

  10. Uncertainty in magnetic activity indices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU WenYao

    2008-01-01

    Magnetic activity indices are widely used in theoretical studies of solar-terrestrial coupling and space weather prediction. However, the indices suffer from various uncertainties, which limit their application and even mislead to incorrect conclu-sion. In this paper we analyze three most popular indices, Kp, AE and Dst. Three categories of uncertainties in magnetic indices are discussed: "data uncertainty" originating from inadequate data processing, "station uncertainty" caused by in-complete station covering, and "physical uncertainty" stemming from unclear physical mechanism. A comparison between magnetic disturbances and related indices indicate that the residual Sq will cause an uncertainty of 1-2 in K meas-urement, the uncertainty in saturated AE is as much as 50%, and the uncertainty in Dst index caused by the partial ring currents is about a half of the partial ring cur-rent.

  11. Herbal indicators as a substituent to synthetic indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhagat Vishwas

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In acid - base titrations, indicators are used to show sharp color change at intervals of pH. Natural pigments in plants are highly colored substances and may show color changes with variation of pH. An attempt has been made to investigate the indicator activity of methanolic extract of flower pigments and to replace synthetic indicators as they have certain disadvantages like chemical pollution, availability problems and high cost. Methanolic extract of Rosa indica (L from family Rosaceae and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (L from family Malvaceae gives sharp and intense color change as compared to phenolphthalein and methyl orange. Herbal indicators are evaluated by using strong acid - strong base, strong acid - weak base, weak acid - strong base, and weak acid - weak base. In all these titrations the extract was found to be very useful and accurate for indicating the equivalence point (neutralization point. From photochemical investigation and qualitative chemical tests for Rosa indica and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis shows presence of anthocyanins; which are the pigmented flavonoids; which may be the reason for its activity as an indicator. Apart from the above advantages the isolation of pure compounds possessing indicator′s properties help to know the mechanism by which they shows indicator′s properties and new theories of indicators could be established.

  12. Eaten out of house and home: impacts of grazing on ground-dwelling reptiles in Australian grasslands and grassy woodlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howland, Brett; Stojanovic, Dejan; Gordon, Iain J; Manning, Adrian D; Fletcher, Don; Lindenmayer, David B

    2014-01-01

    Large mammalian grazers can alter the biotic and abiotic features of their environment through their impacts on vegetation. Grazing at moderate intensity has been recommended for biodiversity conservation. Few studies, however, have empirically tested the benefits of moderate grazing intensity in systems dominated by native grazers. Here we investigated the relationship between (1) density of native eastern grey kangaroos, Macropus giganteus, and grass structure, and (2) grass structure and reptiles (i.e. abundance, richness, diversity and occurrence) across 18 grassland and grassy Eucalyptus woodland properties in south-eastern Australia. There was a strong negative relationship between kangaroo density and grass structure after controlling for tree canopy cover. We therefore used grass structure as a surrogate for grazing intensity. Changes in grazing intensity (i.e. grass structure) significantly affected reptile abundance, reptile species richness, reptile species diversity, and the occurrence of several ground-dwelling reptiles. Reptile abundance, species richness and diversity were highest where grazing intensity was low. Importantly, no species of reptile was more likely to occur at high grazing intensities. Legless lizards (Delma impar, D. inornata) were more likely to be detected in areas subject to moderate grazing intensity, whereas one species (Hemiergis talbingoensis) was less likely to be detected in areas subject to intense grazing and three species (Menetia greyii, Morethia boulengeri, and Lampropholis delicata) did not appear to be affected by grazing intensity. Our data indicate that to maximize reptile abundance, species richness, species diversity, and occurrence of several individual species of reptile, managers will need to subject different areas of the landscape to moderate and low grazing intensities and limit the occurrence and extent of high grazing.

  13. Eaten out of house and home: impacts of grazing on ground-dwelling reptiles in Australian grasslands and grassy woodlands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett Howland

    Full Text Available Large mammalian grazers can alter the biotic and abiotic features of their environment through their impacts on vegetation. Grazing at moderate intensity has been recommended for biodiversity conservation. Few studies, however, have empirically tested the benefits of moderate grazing intensity in systems dominated by native grazers. Here we investigated the relationship between (1 density of native eastern grey kangaroos, Macropus giganteus, and grass structure, and (2 grass structure and reptiles (i.e. abundance, richness, diversity and occurrence across 18 grassland and grassy Eucalyptus woodland properties in south-eastern Australia. There was a strong negative relationship between kangaroo density and grass structure after controlling for tree canopy cover. We therefore used grass structure as a surrogate for grazing intensity. Changes in grazing intensity (i.e. grass structure significantly affected reptile abundance, reptile species richness, reptile species diversity, and the occurrence of several ground-dwelling reptiles. Reptile abundance, species richness and diversity were highest where grazing intensity was low. Importantly, no species of reptile was more likely to occur at high grazing intensities. Legless lizards (Delma impar, D. inornata were more likely to be detected in areas subject to moderate grazing intensity, whereas one species (Hemiergis talbingoensis was less likely to be detected in areas subject to intense grazing and three species (Menetia greyii, Morethia boulengeri, and Lampropholis delicata did not appear to be affected by grazing intensity. Our data indicate that to maximize reptile abundance, species richness, species diversity, and occurrence of several individual species of reptile, managers will need to subject different areas of the landscape to moderate and low grazing intensities and limit the occurrence and extent of high grazing.

  14. Wacky Patents Meet Economic Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czarnitzki, Dirk; Hussinger, Katrin; Schneider, Cédric

    2011-01-01

    We investigate whether standard indicators can distinguish between “wacky” patents and a control group. Forward citations are good predictors of importance. However, “wacky” patents have higher originality, generality and citation lags, suggesting that these indicators should be interpreted...

  15. Lexical-Grammatical Pragmatic Indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum-Kulka, Shoshana; Levenston, Edward A.

    1987-01-01

    A study of the interlanguage pragmatics of learners of Hebrew and English (L2s) focuses on pragmatic indicators used in requests and apologies (situations in Appendix). Deviations from native-speaker norms in the speech of non-native speakers are discussed. Results suggest L2s' misuse of pragmatic indicators can have serious interactional…

  16. Rapid Benefit Indicators (RBI) webinar

    Science.gov (United States)

    RBI process for assessing restoration sites using non-monetary benefit indicators. The RBI approach uses readily-available data to estimate and quantify benefits to people around an ecological restoration site using indicators of nature’s value to people.

  17. Decisiveness indices are semiindices: addendum

    OpenAIRE

    Freixas Bosch, Josep; Pons Vallès, Montserrat

    2017-01-01

    In the paper Decisiveness indices are semiindices (Freixas and Pons, 2016) it was shown that any decisiveness index obtained from an anonymous probability distribution is a semiindex, and that the converse is not true. In this note we characterize the semiindices which are indices of decisiveness. Peer Reviewed

  18. Quality Indicators for Learning Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffel, Maren; Drachsler, Hendrik; Stoyanov, Slavi; Specht, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    This article proposes a framework of quality indicators for learning analytics that aims to standardise the evaluation of learning analytics tools and to provide a mean to capture evidence for the impact of learning analytics on educational practices in a standardised manner. The criteria of the framework and its quality indicators are based on…

  19. Geomagnetic Kn, Ks, Km Indices

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A full description of the indices Kn, Ks, Km is given in a monography,"Indices Kn, Ks et Km, 1964-1967", edited in 1968 by the Centre National de la Recherche...

  20. Vegetation indices as indicators of damage by the sunn pest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-01-18

    Jan 18, 2008 ... structure insensitive pigment index (SIPI) were chosen out of 19 indices initially tested. The NDVI ... Because chlorophyll content plays a direct role in photosynthesis ... near infrared (NIR) reflectance from its leaves. Jensen.

  1. Power Quality Indices Estimation Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana I. Arango-Zuluaga

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available An interactive platform for estimating the quality indices in single phase electric power systems is presented. It meets the IEEE 1459-2010 standard recommendations. The platform was developed in order to support teaching and research activities in electric power quality. The platform estimates the power quality indices from voltage and current signals using three different algorithms based on fast Fourier transform (FFT, wavelet packet transform (WPT and least squares method. The results show that the algorithms implemented are efficient for estimating the quality indices of the power and the platform can be used according to the objectives established. 

  2. The politics of SEA indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Jingjing; Kørnøv, Lone; Christensen, Per

    2013-01-01

    The use of indicators is not only technical and science-led, but also a value-laden social process, and thus concerns public participation, political judgment and decision-making. This article approaches the Chinese SEA indicator system from a science-policy interface and aims at: 1) contributing...... to the general recognition of indicators functioning at science-policy interfaces in SEA, and 2) analysing, through a Chinese case-study, to what extent national guidelines mediate the science-policy interaction. The overall finding is a strong emphasis on technical/science aspects found in the Chinese SEA...

  3. Hearing Aid with Visual Indicator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    is provided for powering the signal receiving part, the signal path and the audio transducer, and where further means are provided for assessing the function of the hearing aid and for generating an electrical indication signal which indicates the function of the hearing aid and where further means...... are provided for intermittently generating a power signal in response to the electrical indication signal and where means are provided for converting the power signal into a light signal, such that the light signal is visible from outside the hearing aid....

  4. Sustainable Transport and Performance Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Henrik

    2004-01-01

    Sustainable transport has become a major policy concern in recent years. The term suggests a need to consider transport in a comprehensive perspective including the well-being of both present and future generations, and taking environmental, social and economic issues into account. Indicators...... in forecasting and tracking the performance of transport systems increasingly guide sustainable transport policy making. This review explores the implications of the sustainable transport” concept and how it can be made operational with indicators. A number of indicator systems are reviewed, and some strengths...... and weaknesses are highlighted with regard to the support they provide for sustainable transport development....

  5. Indicators of Difficulty in Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragsted, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    This article sets out to investigate the correlation between indicators of difficulty observable in translation product and translation process data respectively. It has been claimed that the number of alternative renditions in the target text across a group of subjects translating the same source...... text item indicates the degree of cognitive effort. We identified words with high versus low target text variability across eight subjects and related these to various indicators of difficulty observable in process data from eye-tracking and keystroke logging: number of fixations, gaze time, pauses...

  6. EJSCREEN Environmental Indicators 2015 Internal

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — There are 12 EJ Indexes in EJSCREEN reflecting the 12 environmental indicators. The EJ Index names are: Particulate Matter (PM2.5), Ozone, NATA Diesel PM, NATA...

  7. EJSCREEN Environmental Indicators 2016 Public

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — There are eleven EJ Indexes in EJSCREEN reflecting the 11 environmental indicators. The EJ Index names are: Particulate Matter (PM2.5), Ozone, NATA Diesel PM, NATA...

  8. Investigation of Some Metallochromic Indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A. V.; Nelson, M.

    1979-01-01

    Presents some introductory experiments involving the reaction between EDTA and several metal ions using metallochromic indicators. The experiments represent familiar reactions and are followed by suggestions for extension into areas of discovery work by students. (Author/SA)

  9. Sewage-pollution indicator bacteria

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaiah, N.; Rodrigues, V.; Alwares, E.; Rodrigues, C.; Baksh, R.; Jayan, S.; Mohandass, C.

    Spatial distribution and annual cycle of sewage pollution indicator (total coliforms and total fecal coliforms) and human pathogenic bacteria (Escherichia coli and Streptococcus faecalis) in water and sediment samples in the Mandovi and Zuari...

  10. EJSCREEN Environmental Indicators 2015 Public

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — There are eight EJ Indexes in EJSCREEN reflecting the 8 environmental indicators. The eight EJ Index names are: Particulate Matter (PM2.5), Ozone Traffic Proximity...

  11. Fuzzy indicators for customer retention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Valenzuela-Fernández, Leslier; Nicolas, Carolina; Gil-Lafuente, Jaime; Merigó, José M

    2016-01-01

    .... Nevertheless, one cannot ignore the existence of a gap on how to measure this relationship. Following this idea, this study proposes six fuzzy key performance indicators that aims to measure customer retention and loyalty of the portfolio...

  12. Atlantic Coast Environmental Indicators Consortium

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — n 2000, the US EPA granted authority to establish up to five Estuarine Indicator Research Programs. These Programs were designed to identify, evaluate, recommend and...

  13. EJSCREEN Demographic Indicators 2016 Public

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EJSCREEN uses demographic factors as very general indicators of a community's potential susceptibility to the types of environmental factors included in this...

  14. EJSCREEN Demographic Indicators 2015 Internal

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EJSCREEN uses demographic factors as very general indicators of a community's potential susceptibility to the types of environmental factors included in this...

  15. EJSCREEN Demographic Indicators 2015 Public

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EJSCREEN uses demographic factors as very general indicators of a community's potential susceptibility to the types of environmental factors included in this...

  16. Solar Indices - Solar Radio Flux

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  17. Performance Indicators of Operating Reactors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission — A list of Performance Indicators (PI) that are reported to the NRC by licensees at the end of each quarter in accordance with Inspection Manual Chapters (IMC) 0608,...

  18. Cognitive Value of Financial Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Cristina FLOREA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Economic and Financial indicators are very important tools in the assessment of the economic entity's well-being. They Provide permanent monitoring of the significance of the issues related to the economic activity's deployment. The main Objectives tracked by the process of managing the company with the help of Economic and Financial indicators is the activity's continuity, ensuring liquidity and Achieving positive results.

  19. Current Indications for Coronary Arteriography

    OpenAIRE

    Dodek, Arthur

    1981-01-01

    Coronary arteriography is not necessary in all patients with angina pectoris. Angiography is indicated to define coronary anatomy in patients who have persistent angina despite full medication. It is also indicated in patients with a markedly positive stress test, unstable angina pectoris, positive stress test following myocardial infarction, variants of angina, ventricular aneurysm complications, and in the young coronary patient. Coronary arteriography may clarify the diagnosis in patients ...

  20. Indicators of Information Society Measurement :

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hind Elwy

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The indicator of information society describe the infrastructure of information and communication technology ; as well as it’s use and it’s production in different estate of society. The importance economic and social of tic is crescent in modern society. and the presentation of tendency inform above the situation of information society . in this article we want to describe the indicator of tic in Algeria according to librarian’s vision in Mentouri university

  1. Sustainable development indicators for cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Nikolayevich Bobylev

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of urban population’s life quality implies an investigation of all factors defining it: economic, social and ecological. The development of the corresponding indicators of sustainable urban development is necessary. The majority of the cities in the world and this country show unsustainable development at present time. In the article, the world and Russian experience of development of indicators of sustainable urban development is considered. In the article, opportunities of adaptation of approaches to these indicators’ development on the basis of Human Development Index developed by United Nations Development Program and an index of Adjusted Net Savings of the World Bank for Russia are considered. The authors propose a new integrated index of sustainability for Russian cities. It is based on the concept and methodology of the Adjusted Net Savings index. In order to evaluate the sustainability of urban development taking into account economic, social, and ecological factors, the authors propose applying three corresponding sub-indexes: gross capital, expenses on human capital development, and damage from environmental pollution in the cities. In the article, the authors’ set of indicators for Russian cities is proposed. It reflects the most acute problems of sustainable urban development in Russia and the quality of life in cities; also it corresponds to Russian statistics. 21 key indicators reflecting important economic, social, and ecological urban priorities are proposed. Indicators are divided into nine groups: economic indicators; energy efficiency; transport; social and institutional indicators; air and climate; water resources; waste; especially protected natural territories; noise influence. Proposed indicators for cities allow more adequately assess trends of urbanized space shaping and quality of life

  2. Energy Efficiency Indicators Methodology Booklet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathaye, Jayant; Price, Lynn; McNeil, Michael; de la rue du Can, Stephane

    2010-05-01

    This Methodology Booklet provides a comprehensive review and methodology guiding principles for constructing energy efficiency indicators, with illustrative examples of application to individual countries. It reviews work done by international agencies and national government in constructing meaningful energy efficiency indicators that help policy makers to assess changes in energy efficiency over time. Building on past OECD experience and best practices, and the knowledge of these countries' institutions, relevant sources of information to construct an energy indicator database are identified. A framework based on levels of hierarchy of indicators -- spanning from aggregate, macro level to disaggregated end-use level metrics -- is presented to help shape the understanding of assessing energy efficiency. In each sector of activity: industry, commercial, residential, agriculture and transport, indicators are presented and recommendations to distinguish the different factors affecting energy use are highlighted. The methodology booklet addresses specifically issues that are relevant to developing indicators where activity is a major factor driving energy demand. A companion spreadsheet tool is available upon request.

  3. Climate indices for vulnerability assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, Gunn; Baerring, Lars; Kjellstroem, Erik; Strandberg, Gustav; Rummuk ainen, Markku

    2007-08-15

    The demand is growing for practical information on climate projections and the impacts expected in different geographical regions and different sectors. It is a challenge to transform the vast amount of data produced in climate models into relevant information for climate change impact studies. Climate indices based on climate model data can be used as means to communicate climate change impact relations. In this report a vast amount of results is presented from a multitude of indices based on different regional climate scenarios. The regional climate scenarios described in this report show many similarities with previous scenarios in terms of general evolution and amplitude of future European climate change. The broad features are manifested in increases in warm and decreases in cold indices. Likewise are presented increases in wet indices in the north and dry indices in the south. Despite the extensive nature of the material presented, it does not cover the full range of possible climate change. We foresee a continued interactive process with stakeholders as well as continued efforts and updates of the results presented in the report.

  4. Jordan Banks Financial Soundness Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imad Kutum

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research paper is to examine the Jordanian banks using financial soundness indicators. This is to establish if Jordanian banks were affected because of the 2007/2008 financial crisis and determine the underlying reasons. The research paper was conducted on 25 banks in Jordan listed in the countries securities exchange. The research methodology used consisted of examining the banks financial records in order to derive four crucial Basel III ratio such as the capital adequacy ratio, the leverage ratio, the liquidity ratio and finally the Total Provisions (As % Of Non-Performing Loans %. The results revealed that out of the four hypotheses under examination Jordan Banks do not meet Basel financial Indicators for Capital Adequacy Ratio, Jordan Banks does not meet Basel financial Indicators for Liquidity Ratio , Jordan Banks do not meet Basel financial Indicators for Leverage Ratio and Jordan Banks do not meet Basel financial Indicators for Total Provisions (As % Of Non-Performing Loans ratio. Only one hypothesis was accepted based on the research outcomes. The rest of the hypothesis was rejected since the average trend line did not go below the Basel III required ratio level. The general outcome of the research revealed that Jordanian banks were not affected significantly by the financial crisis.

  5. Toward ecologically scaled landscape indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, C C; Verboom, J; Opdam, P F; Ter Braak, C J

    2001-01-01

    Nature conservation is increasingly based on a landscape approach rather than a species approach. Landscape planning that includes nature conservation goals requires integrated ecological tools. However, species differ widely in their response to landscape change. We propose a framework of ecologically scaled landscape indices that takes into account this variation. Our approach is based on a combination of field studies of spatially structured populations (metapopulations) and model simulations in artificial landscapes. From these, we seek generalities in the relationship among species features, landscape indices, and metapopulation viability. The concept of ecological species profiles is used to group species according to characteristics that are important in metapopulations' response to landscape change: individual area requirements as the dominant characteristic of extinction risk in landscape patches and dispersal distance as the main determinant of the ability to colonize patches. The ecological profiles and landscape indices are then integrated into two ecologically scaled landscape indices (ESLI): average patch carrying capacity and average patch connectivity. The field data show that the fraction of occupied habitat patches is correlated with the two ESLI. To put the ESLI into a perspective of metapopulation persistence, we determine the viability for six ecological profiles at different degrees of habitat fragmentation using a metapopulation model and computer-generated landscapes. The model results show that the fraction of occupied patches is a good indicator for metapopulation viability. We discuss how ecological profiles, ESLI, and the viability threshold can be applied for landscape planning and design in nature conservation.

  6. Hearing Aid with Visual Indicator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    The invention comprises a hearing aid, which has a casing containing a signal receiving part for receiving an audio signal, an audio transducer for providing an audio signal to the user, a signal transmission path between the signal receiving part and the audio transducer, whereby a battery...... is provided for powering the signal receiving part, the signal path and the audio transducer, and where further means are provided for assessing the function of the hearing aid and for generating an electrical indication signal which indicates the function of the hearing aid and where further means...... are provided for intermittently generating a power signal in response to the electrical indication signal and where means are provided for converting the power signal into a light signal, such that the light signal is visible from outside the hearing aid....

  7. GLOBALIZATION AND INDICATORS OF UNCERTAINTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matjaž Škabar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to explore the influence of culture, which understood in a broader sense, as focused towards the uncertainties in modern societies. Using theory and empirical data, we will determine the logic and dynamics of changes and the attitude towards changes and uncertainties in modern societies. This article, based on a theoretical thesis, empirically tests the correlation between the index of globalization and different indicators of individualism, as well as the attitude towards uncertainty and reflectiveness. We managed to prove the correlation between the globalization index and indicators of individualism. However, when we look at the links between the indicators of uncertainty and reflexivity, the correlations prove to be complex and inconsistent.

  8. Indicators of Difficulty in Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragsted, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    This article sets out to investigate the correlation between indicators of difficulty observable in translation product and translation process data respectively. It has been claimed that the number of alternative renditions in the target text across a group of subjects translating the same source...... and self-corrections. We found highly significant correlations between product and process data: high target text variability across subjects correlated with high fixation counts, long gaze time and long pauses. High variability in the target text was also associated with more self-corrections, but we...... text item indicates the degree of cognitive effort. We identified words with high versus low target text variability across eight subjects and related these to various indicators of difficulty observable in process data from eye-tracking and keystroke logging: number of fixations, gaze time, pauses...

  9. Some indicators of (unsuccessful reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuksanović Jasmina

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper we set the aim to determine whether phonological awareness and short-term verbal memory are indicators of a subsequent reading acquisition. The sample consisted of 194 first graders from two primary schools in Belgrade. The results of our research showed that the most significant indicator of the subsequent (unsuccessful reading was phonological awareness. The short-term verbal memory is, to a lesser extent, an indicator of the subsequent reading acquisition defined by the time needed for reading the text and by the text comprehension. Our findings offer basis for proposing that the phonological awareness assessment should be implemented into the regular procedure of assessing child's readiness for school. In this way children in need for preventive stimulation within the inclusive programme in primary schools could be identified.

  10. UK energy sector indicators 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-12-01

    The objective of the United Kingdom's energy policy is to ensure secure, diverse and sustainable supplies of energy to UK businesses and consumers at competitive prices. The indicators in this publication are designed to throw light on the extent to which this objective is being achieved. The indicators are grouped into 12 sections covering different aspects of the energy sector, namely energy in the economy; investment and productivity; resources; primary energy supply; capacity utilisation; conversion efficiencies; energy use indicators; fuel prices; fuel poverty; competition in energy markets; international comparisons of energy production and use; energy and the environment; and standards of service. The document has been published in parallel with The energy report 1999 (ISBN 0-11-515470-1) formerly published as volume 1 of the 'Energy report'). 119 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Nordic eHealth Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyppönen, Hannele; Faxvaag, Arild; Gilstad, Heidi;

    This report describes first results of the Network: eHealth policy analysis and first common Nordic eHealth indicators. The results show similarities and also some differences in the eHealth policies, priorities and implementation. Interesting similarities and differences in availability and use...... of eHealth services in the Nordic countries were found with the first comparable eHealth indicators. The results create a basis for Evidence-based policy making as well as benchmarking and learning best practices from each other....

  12. Design of energy management indicator.

    OpenAIRE

    Ernesto Tomás Dalmau García; Carlos Requejo Bravo; Roberto Fernández Collado

    2010-01-01

    This work has as a main goal to demostrate the viability of the energy management indicator, that will be a part of the Balanced Scorecard in the organization and the own process of calculation allows to obtain a Balanced Scorecard of energy management. It describes the executive order of the actions that have to be done to reach to the mentioned indicator, based on the selection of the selected period of time; the types of power carriers, the weight of each carrier in the structure of the c...

  13. Constitutive Effects of Performance Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahler-Larsen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The idea that performance indicators in public management have unintended consequences is almost as old as performance measurement itself. But, is ‘unintended consequences’ an appropriate and insightful idea? The very term rests on an identification of intentions and assumptions about validity...... that are demonstrably problematic. Based on a distinction between trivial and advanced measure fixation, an argument is made for constitutive effects that are based on less problematic assumptions. Through this conceptual move, the political dimension of performance indicators is appreciated. The conceptual dimensions...

  14. CHALLENGES WHEN DEVELOPING PERFORMANCE INDICATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brindusa Maria POPA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Developing key performance indicators (KPIs represents one step closer to the achievement of objectives and strategic vision of the organization. They are important elements of the pathway towards performance, they evaluate and indicate the level of progress, guide the organizational strategy, they can be considered even the qualitative or quantitative expression of the execution of the strategy. Building reliable and appropriate measurement systems is one of the most difficult stage in the performance evaluation process. Such systems of management will help the executives and the management teams identify and build upon the elements that create competitive advantage and opportunities for better results.

  15. THE ANALYSIS OF PROFITABILITY INDICATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUCIU GHEORGHE

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of profitability indicators is an activity that should preoccupy all companies. Profitabilitydoes not mean only obtaining profit. A company is competitive if the ownership equity grows (the shareholders’money, the company has a profit that is comparable to that of other companies from the same area of activity,has a positive cash flow and the employees are satisfied with their salaries. Multiple indicators are used tomeasure performance: profit, commercial, economic, financial, investment rate of return, breakeven point,economic value added, net operating result.

  16. Academic appropriation and Impact Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson López López

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The role of appropriation of scientific knowledge and the indicators designed to measure its impact is being hotly debated in Iberoamerica right now. I will separate what I call academic appropriation of knowledge from what many authors have called social appropriation of knowledge. The former isrelated to knowledge communication and transference practices in scientific communities, and the latter has to do with the multiple ways in which knowledge goes to society. This editorial will address academic appropriation.Academic appropriations are found in many levels: the first is that performed by colleagues (peers who use this knowledge, and citations are the indicators of usage. This is a sensitive indicator, and thus vulnerable to citation dynamics in academic communities. For example, communities with low levels of knowledge use are generally endogamic and have low international collaboration.They are also characterised by not easily modifying their citation habits. In this sense, a part of these citations generally make themselves invisible, this is, they do not acknowledge neither their own efforts, not those made by local peer groups (regional, and are negatively paradoxical, even when proclaimed in an anti-mainstream science discourse. At the same time, they downplay their own production or the regional production, and ground their work on the production that they claim to go beyond.On the other hand, research groups with an important output can improve or decrease the visibility of other groups and journals, since the amount of work ends up concentrating citations in particular works or journals, which affects themeasures derived from citation-expressed impacts. In this sense, and as a response with additional elements for assessing academic production, it is suggested that: 1. The quartile of the journal be used, since it gives a more accurate idea of its dynamics and shows the journal in relation to other journals with its variability

  17. Weighted norm inequalities and indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim Martín

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We extend and simplify several classical results on weighted norm inequalities for classical operators acting on rearrangement invariant spaces using the theory of indices. As an application we obtain necessary and sufficient conditions for generalized Hardy type operators to be bounded on ?p(w, ?p,8(w, Gp(w and Gp,8(w.

  18. Indicatives, concessives, and evidential support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douven, Igor; Verbrugge, Sara

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the issue of categorical acceptability of indicative and concessive conditionals. It presents experimental results in favour of two claims concerning the role of the evidential support relation for acceptability (or otherwise) of conditionals of both types. In particular, the re

  19. Contemporary Crises and Sustainability Indicators

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksander Zidansek; Marko Limbek; Ivo Slaus

    2014-01-01

    Following six decades of fastest economic and technological development in history, the current crises have been triggered by collapse of unsustainable financial systems. The extent of these contemporary interconnected crises of economic, societal, environmental, financial and other systems has also shown a need to reevaluate the measurement of sustainable development. Although the existing sustainability indicators are very complex, interdisciplinary and multidimensional, they could neither ...

  20. Sustainable Transport and Performance Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, H.

    2004-01-01

    ustainable transport has become a major policy concern in recent years. The term suggests a need to consider transport in a comprehensive perspective including the well-being of both present and future generations, and taking environmental, social and economic issues into account. Indicators in f...

  1. Indicators of malicious SSL connections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bortolameotti, R.; Peter, A.; Everts, M.H.; Bolzoni, D.

    2015-01-01

    Internet applications use SSL to provide data confidentiality to communicating entities. The use of encryption in SSL makes it impossible to distinguish between benign and malicious connections as the content cannot be inspected. Therefore, we propose and evaluate a set of indicators for malicious S

  2. Sustainable Transport and Performance Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, H.

    2004-01-01

    ustainable transport has become a major policy concern in recent years. The term suggests a need to consider transport in a comprehensive perspective including the well-being of both present and future generations, and taking environmental, social and economic issues into account. Indicators in f...

  3. Indicators of malicious SSL connections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bortolameotti, R.; Peter, A.; Everts, M.H.; Bolzoni, D.

    2015-01-01

    Internet applications use SSL to provide data confidentiality to communicating entities. The use of encryption in SSL makes it impossible to distinguish between benign and malicious connections as the content cannot be inspected. Therefore, we propose and evaluate a set of indicators for malicious

  4. Indicators of malicious SSL connections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bortolameotti, R.; Peter, A.; Everts, M.H.; Bolzoni, D.

    2015-01-01

    Internet applications use SSL to provide data confidentiality to communicating entities. The use of encryption in SSL makes it impossible to distinguish between benign and malicious connections as the content cannot be inspected. Therefore, we propose and evaluate a set of indicators for malicious S

  5. 5 Indicators of Decimal Understandings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Kathleen; Monson, Debra; Ahrendt, Sue; Colum, Karen; Wiley, Bethann; Wyberg, Terry

    2015-01-01

    The authors of this article collaborated with fourth-grade teachers from two schools to support implementation of a research-based fraction and decimal curriculum (Rational Number Project: Fraction Operations and Initial Decimal Ideas). Through this study, they identified five indicators of rich conceptual understanding of decimals, which are…

  6. Contemporary Crises and Sustainability Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksander Zidansek

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Following six decades of fastest economic and technological development in history, the current crises have been triggered by collapse of unsustainable financial systems. The extent of these contemporary interconnected crises of economic, societal, environmental, financial and other systems has also shown a need to reevaluate the measurement of sustainable development. Although the existing sustainability indicators are very complex, interdisciplinary and multidimensional, they could neither predict the onset of the crises nor their extent. Therefore relations between indicators of sustainability, technological development and happiness are presented and discussed also in terms of some of the current crises. Some possible solutions are also presented, which could be used for better measurement of life quality and could potentially replace the Gross Domestic Product as the prevailing measure of development.

  7. New indices in scholarship assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Dennis F; Callen, Erin C; Nahata, Milap C

    2009-10-01

    Faculty members' contributions to research and scholarship are measured by a variety of indices. Assessment also has become an integral part of the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education's accreditation process for professional programs. This review describes some of the newer indices available for faculty scholarship assessment. Recently described metrics include the h-index, m-quotient, g-index, h(2) index, a-index, m-index, r-index, ar index, and the creativity index. Of the newer scholarship metrics available, the h-index and m-quotient will likely have the most widespread application in the near future. However, there is no substitute for thoughtful peer review by experienced academicians as the primary method of research and scholarship assessment.

  8. Transgenic agriculture and environmental indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denize Dias de Carvalho

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the rapid diffusion of transgenic crops, there are still few environmental impact studies capable of supplying a conclusive scientific response in regard to its technical and economic advantages and disadvantages. Prospective scenarios were elaborated to assist environmental impact assessment, using techniques derived from SWOT (Strength, Weakness, Opportunity, Threat analysis and the DPSIR (Driving Force – human activity, Pressure, State, Impact, Response model, to evaluate the environmental indicators and the relationship between them. Control and management actions were identified, searching the integration of aspects related to the biotechnology applied to transgenic processes, biodiversity, biosafety and intellectual property. It was demonstrated that the DPSIR model is, in fact, an instrument for integrated environmental assessment and the application of the proposed methodology resulted in favorable indicators to the adoption of transgenic agriculture. The elaborated scenarios are useful to develop an Environmental Management System (EMS to agriculture.

  9. Taxonomy of stock market indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanno, Giovanni; Vandewalle, Nicolas; Mantegna, Rosario N.

    2000-12-01

    We investigate sets of financial nonredundant and nonsynchronously recorded time series. The sets are composed by a number of stock market indices located all over the world in five continents. By properly selecting the time horizon of returns and by using a reference currency we find a meaningful taxonomy. The detection of such a taxonomy proves that interpretable information can be stored in a set of nonsynchronously recorded time series.

  10. Human Resources Key Performance Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabčanová Iveta

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The article brings out a proposed strategy map and respective key performance indicators (KPIs in human resources (HR. The article provides an overview of how HR activities are supported in order to reach the partial goals of HR as defined in the strategic map. Overall the aim of the paper is to show the possibilities of using the modern Balanced Scorecard method in human capital.

  11. Bayesian Sampling using Condition Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Michael H.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2002-01-01

    . This allows for a Bayesian formulation of the indicators whereby the experience and expertise of the inspection personnel may be fully utilized and consistently updated as frequentistic information is collected. The approach is illustrated on an example considering a concrete structure subject to corrosion....... It is shown how half-cell potential measurements may be utilized to update the probability of excessive repair after 50 years....

  12. Staged urethroplasty: indications and techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secrest, Charles L

    2002-05-01

    There is still a place for staged urethroplasty. There are some indications for staged urethral reconstruction such as strictures associated with chronic inflammation, fistula, false passage, urethral stones, urethral diverticula, abscess, failed prior repair, complicated hypospadias, severe trauma, neurologic diseases, extensive BXO strictures and long strictures. Staging a urethroplasty should not be considered a step backwards rather instead we should learn from experience and realize there are some patients who are too complex to reconstruct in a single stage.

  13. Performance indicators: healthcare professionals' views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xiuzhu; Itoh, Kenji

    2016-08-08

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to capture factors behind professional views of indicator usefulness as a common structure for assessing healthcare performance and their important characteristics to design limited key performance indicators (PIs) for holistic hospital management. Design/methodology/approach - Two surveys were conducted using self-administered questionnaires, in which hospital manager/staff respondents were asked to rate the 52 PIs' usefulness. In total, 228 manager and 894 staff responses were collected. Findings - Eight factors were elicited from manager and staff responses as performance measures with 72 percent cumulative variance accounted for. Hospital managers and staff showed similar performance measure perceptions: high-utility acknowledgment on safety, operational efficiency and patient/employee satisfaction but relatively low-employee development concerns. Manager indicator usefulness perceptions were rather homogeneous and significantly higher than staff for almost all performance measures. Practical implications - Homogeneous manager views mean that a single key PI set for hospital management may be established regardless of hospital attributes. The following aspects may be measures that should be managed in a healthcare organization based on their key PIs: patient/employee safety, operational efficiency, financial effectiveness and patient/employee satisfaction. Originality/value - This is a pilot study on hospital management PIs in Japan. The eight-dimensional factor structure and findings about healthcare provider perceptions may be useful for healthcare management.

  14. Chromospheric activity as age indicator

    CERN Document Server

    Pace, Giancarlo

    2013-01-01

    Chromospheric activity has been calibrated and widely used as age indicator. However, it has been suggested that the viability of such an age indicator is, in the best case, limited to stars younger than about 1.5 Gyr. I aim to define the age range for which chromospheric activity is a robust astrophysical clock. I collected literature measurements of the S-index in field stars, which is a measure of the strength of the H and K lines of the Ca II and a proxy for chromospheric activity, and exploited the homogeneous database of temperature and age determinations for field stars provided by the Geneva-Copenhagen survey of the Solar neighbourhood. Field data, inclusive data previously used to calibrate chromospheric ages, confirm the result found using open cluster data, i.e. there is no decay of chromospheric activity after about 2 Gyr. The only existing indication supporting the viability of chromospheric ages larger than 2 Gyr, is the similarity of chromospheric activity levels in the components of 35 dwarf b...

  15. Indicators System for Poverty Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Mitrut

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Poverty represents a life aspect which is focusing the attention of both the macroeconomic analysis and the international comparisons. In order to measure the level being recorded by this phenomenon, there is a system of indicators which are used in order to underline, in a correlated manner, a number of aspects which are characterizing, quality and quantity wise, the evolution of the poverty in a specific country or, to a larger extent, through comparative surveys, at international level. Despite the fact that they are not the only instrument being used within the process of comparison of the stages of social and economic development at the international level, however the poverty indicators are providing a clear significance to the worked out surveys. In fact, the very purpose of the economic activity consists of increasing welfare and, as much as possible, at least reducing, if not eradicating, the poverty. The present work is broadly presenting the methodology as well as, both theoretical and practical, the way of computing the poverty, making a synthesis of the specific used indicators.

  16. Construction and demolition waste indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mália, Miguel; de Brito, Jorge; Pinheiro, Manuel Duarte; Bravo, Miguel

    2013-03-01

    The construction industry is one of the biggest and most active sectors of the European Union (EU), consuming more raw materials and energy than any other economic activity. Furthermore, construction waste is the commonest waste produced in the EU. Current EU legislation sets out to implement construction and demolition waste (CDW) prevention and recycling measures. However it lacks tools to accelerate the development of a sector as bound by tradition as the building industry. The main objective of the present study was to determine indicators to estimate the amount of CDW generated on site both globally and by waste stream. CDW generation was estimated for six specific sectors: new residential construction, new non-residential construction, residential demolition, non-residential demolition, residential refurbishment, and non-residential refurbishment. The data needed to develop the indicators was collected through an exhaustive survey of previous international studies. The indicators determined suggest that the average composition of waste generated on site is mostly concrete and ceramic materials. Specifically for new residential and new non-residential construction the production of concrete waste in buildings with a reinforced concrete structure lies between 17.8 and 32.9 kg m(-2) and between 18.3 and 40.1 kg m(-2), respectively. For the residential and non-residential demolition sectors the production of this waste stream in buildings with a reinforced concrete structure varies from 492 to 840 kg m(-2) and from 401 to 768 kg/m(-2), respectively. For the residential and non-residential refurbishment sectors the production of concrete waste in buildings lies between 18.9 and 45.9 kg/m(-2) and between 18.9 and 191.2 kg/m(-2), respectively.

  17. Antiandrogen monotherapy: indications and results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Many patients with prostate cancer for whom hormonal therapy is indicated are still physically and sexually active; quality of life is therefore a vital issue when considering treatment options. Traditional castration-based therapies, although effective, have implications with respect to quality...... with castration, in terms of sexual interest and physical capacity, in patients with either M0 and M1 stage disease. Data from a small subgroup of patients with stage M0 disease suggest that bicalutamide may also reduce the risk of osteoporosis compared with castration. Long-term therapy with bicalutamide 150-mg...

  18. Optimization by visualization of indices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haverkamp, Uwe; Kriz, Jan; Eich, Hans Theodor [University Muenster, Department of Radiotherapy, Muenster (Germany); Norkus, Darius [Vilnius University, Oncology Institute, Vilnius (Lithuania); Mueller Minai, Mariam; Prott, Franz-Josef [RNS Radiotherapy Wiesbaden, Wiesbaden (Germany)

    2014-11-15

    Physical 3D treatment planning provides a pool of parameters describing dose distributions. It is often useful to define conformal indices to enable quicker evaluation. However, the application of individual indices is controversial and not always effective. The aim of this study was to design a quick check of dose distributions based on several indices detecting underdosages within planning target volumes (PTVs) and overdosages in normal tissue. Dose distributions of 215 cancer patients were considered. Treatment modalities used were three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT), radiosurgery, intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), intensity-modulated arc therapy (IMAT) and tomotherapy. The volumes recommended in ICRU 50 and 83 were used for planning and six conformation and homogeneity indices were selected: CI, CN, C{sub ICRU}, COV, C{sub ∇}, and HI. These were based on the PTV, the partial volume covered by the prescribed isodose (PI; PTV{sub PI}), the treated volume (TV{sub PI}), near maximum D{sub 2} and near minimum D{sub 98}. Results were presented as a hexagon - the corners of which represent the values of the indices - and a modified test function F (Rosenbrock's function) was calculated. Results refer to clinical examples and mean values, in order to allow evaluation of the power of F and hexagon-based decision support procedures in detail and in general. IMAT and tomotherapy showed the best values for the indices and the lowest standard deviation followed by static IMRT. DCRT and radiosurgery (e.g. CN: IMAT 0.85 ± 0.06; tomotherapy 0.84 ± 0.06; IMRT 0.83 ± 0.07; 3DCRT 0.65 ± 0.08; radiosurgery 0.64 ± 0.11). In extreme situations, not all indices reflected the situation correctly. Over- and underdosing of PTV and normal tissue could be qualitatively assessed from the distortion of the hexagon in graphic analysis. Tomotherapy, IMRT, IMAT, 3DCRT and radiosurgery showed increasingly distorted hexagons, the type of distortion indicating

  19. [Sacral block: indications and effectiveness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grob, D; Dvorak, J

    1998-02-25

    It has been shown that during injection of 17 to 20 ml local anesthetics combined with a corticosteroid via the hiatus canalis sacralis that the solution is distributed up to the level of the thoraco-lumbar junction. The indication for therapeutical peridural injection are radicular symptoms as a result of disc herniation, foraminal stenosis as well as neurogenic claudicatio. Contraindications are anticoagulation, local infection as well as suspicion of systemic inflammatory disease of the peripheral nervous system. With proper technique and adequate desinfection, complications and side effects are very rare.

  20. Indications for pediatric liver transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquivel, Carlos O.; Iwatsuki, Shunzaburo; Gordon, Robert D.; Marsh, Wallis W.; Koneru, Baburao; Makowka, Leonard; Tzakis, Andreas G.; Todo, Satoru; Starzl, Thomas E.

    2010-01-01

    Two hundred fifty pediatric (<18 years of age) patients underwent orthotopic liver transplantation because of end-stage liver disease and were given combination therapy with cyclosporine and prednisone. The most common indications for transplantation In decreasing order of frequency were biliary atresia, inborn errors of metabolism, and postnecrotic cirrhosis. The 5-year actuarial survival for the entire group was 69.2%. Age and diagnosis did not influence survival. Infections were the most common cause of death, followed by liver failure and cerebrovascular accident. The impact of retransplantation on survival depends on the indication. The survival is better when retransplantation is carried out after rejection than because of technical complications, and the latter has a better survival than does primary graft nonfunction. The difference in survival among these groups is statistically significant. The quality of life for 164 of 173 survivors is good to excellent; only nine children are currently experiencing medical problems. A persisent problem in pediatric transplantation is the scarcity of small donors. PMID:3316578

  1. VITREORETINAL SURGERY AND ITS INDICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojca Globočnik-Petrovič

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Background. Vitreoretinal surgery is the second most frequent surgery after cataract extraction. It is indicated in the treatment of various vitreous and retinal disorders such as diabetic retinopathy, proliferative vitreoretinopathy, endophthalmitis, penetrating and perforating injuries of the eye. 400 vitreoretinal operations were done in University Eye Clinic in Ljubljana last year which is three times more like years ago. Almost third of all vitreoretinal operations were done on patients with diabetic retinopathy, 22% on patients with proliferative vitreoretinopathy, 10% on traumatic eyes and 14% were reoperations. Remaining 28% of operations were done on eyes with different diagnoses such as macular diseases, retinal detachment, haematovitreus, endophthalmitis and dropped nucleus.During vitrectomy, vitreous opacities are excised and abnormal structural changes above and beneath the retina can be removed. Depending on the type of retinal disease different types of vitreous cavity tamponade such as silicone oil, gas or intraocular saline are used.Conclusions. Improved knowledge of the pathohistology of abnormal vitreoretinal structural changes and new surgical techniques have resulted in improved anatomical and visual results of vitreoretinal surgery. The list of indications has expanded and some macular diseases which were untreatable a few years ago can now be routinely operated with good results.

  2. Simple indicators for Lorentzian causets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolognesi, Tommaso; Lamb, Alexander

    2016-09-01

    Several classes of directed acyclic graphs have been investigated in the last two decades, in the context of the causal set program, in search for good discrete models of spacetime. We introduce some statistical indicators that can be used for comparing these graphs and for assessing their closeness to the ideal Lorentzian causal sets (‘causets’)—those obtained by sprinkling points in a Lorentzian manifold. In particular, with the reversed triangular inequality of Special Relativity in mind, we introduce ‘longest/shortest path plots’, an easily implemented tool to visually detect the extent to which a generic causet matches the wide range of path lengths between events of Lorentzian causets. This tool can attribute some degree of ‘Lorentzianity’—in particular ‘non-locality’—also to causets that are not (directly) embeddable and that, due to some regularity in their structure, would not pass the key test for Lorentz invariance: the absence of preferred reference frames. We compare the discussed indicators and use them for assessing causets both of stochastic and of deterministic, algorithmic origin, finding examples of the latter that behave optimally w.r.t. our longest/shortest path plots.

  3. Diagnostic indices for vertiginous diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warninghoff Jan-Christian

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vertigo and dizziness are symptoms which are reported frequently in clinical practice. We aimed to develop diagnostic indices for four prevalent vertiginous diseases: benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV, Menière's disease (MD, vestibular migraine (VM, and phobic postural vertigo (PPV. Methods Based on a detailed questionnaire handed out to consecutive patients presenting for the first time in our dizziness clinic we preselected a set of seven questions with desirable diagnostic properties when compared with the final diagnosis after medical workup. Using exact logistic regression analysis diagnostic scores, each comprising of four to six items that can simply be added up, were built for each of the four diagnoses. Results Of 193 patients 131 questionnaires were left after excluding those with missing consent or data. Applying the suggested cut-off points, sensitivity and specificity were 87.5 and 93.5% for BPPV, 100 and 87.4% for MD, 92.3 and 83.7% for VM, 73.7 and 84.1% for PPV, respectively. By changing the cut-off points sensitivity and specificity can be adjusted to meet diagnostic needs. Conclusions The diagnostic indices showed promising diagnostic properties. Once further validated, they could provide an ease to use and yet flexible tool for screening vertigo in clinical practice and epidemiological research.

  4. Sound construction of risk indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Peter Borgen; Kjær, Christian; Thomsen, Marianne

    . The purpose is to develop a novel approach for risk indicators that can support risk minimization. Risk indicators can identify risk reduction and thus yield a time trend analysis of the progress in risk level. Another option is to evaluate the current condition in relation to a reference condition defined......). If the target is humans then every human that are covered by the risk assessment activity (e.g. all inhabitants in EU) will be a single PU or if the target is lakes then every single lake is a PU. The principle of the paradigm is to identify all, or at least a representative fraction, of PUs and to set up risk......  In spite of the great effort in the area of environmental risk assessment of chemicals, a critical amount of uncertainty is still a reality due to high complexity of the governing risk problem. Unexpected adverse effects may thus take place event though the risk assessment predicts no-risk. Some...

  5. Quality Indicators in Radiation Oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert, Jeffrey M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Das, Prajnan, E-mail: prajdas@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2013-03-15

    Oncologic specialty societies and multidisciplinary collaborative groups have dedicated considerable effort to developing evidence-based quality indicators (QIs) to facilitate quality improvement, accreditation, benchmarking, reimbursement, maintenance of certification, and regulatory reporting. In particular, the field of radiation oncology has a long history of organized quality assessment efforts and continues to work toward developing consensus quality standards in the face of continually evolving technologies and standards of care. This report provides a comprehensive review of the current state of quality assessment in radiation oncology. Specifically, this report highlights implications of the healthcare quality movement for radiation oncology and reviews existing efforts to define and measure quality in the field, with focus on dimensions of quality specific to radiation oncology within the “big picture” of oncologic quality assessment efforts.

  6. Antiandrogen monotherapy: indications and results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Peter

    2002-01-01

    with castration, in terms of sexual interest and physical capacity, in patients with either M0 and M1 stage disease. Data from a small subgroup of patients with stage M0 disease suggest that bicalutamide may also reduce the risk of osteoporosis compared with castration. Long-term therapy with bicalutamide 150-mg......Many patients with prostate cancer for whom hormonal therapy is indicated are still physically and sexually active; quality of life is therefore a vital issue when considering treatment options. Traditional castration-based therapies, although effective, have implications with respect to quality...... of life, causing loss of libido, impotence, fatigue, and reduced bone mineral density. Monotherapy with a nonsteroidal antiandrogen is an attractive therapeutic alternative to castration, offering effective therapy with potential quality-of-life benefits. Of the available nonsteroidal antiandrogens...

  7. Electrolyte leakage as an indicator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ahmad nezami

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the electrolyte leakage as an indicator of freezing injury in colza (Brassica napus L. genotypes under controlled conditions, a trial carried out at the green house of College of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. In this study 10 rapeseed genotypes, with 5 temperatures (0, -4, -8, -12 and -16 °C on subplot and acclimation and non acclimation on main plot were evaluated on RCD factorial split plot with two replications. Plants were kept until 3-5 leaf stage in green house condition with 23/16 2 °C (day/night and natural photoperiod. Pots were subjected to acclimation (for three weeks or non acclimation that plants immediately frozen.For acclimation treatment after three weeks freezing was done in thermogradient freezer. The cell membrane integrity was measured through electrolyte leakage and the lethal temperature 50 (LT50 of samples also were determined. There were significant differences (p

  8. Radon as a hydrological indicator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komae, Takami [National Research Inst. of Agricultural Engineering, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    The radon concentration in water is measured by a liquid scintillation method. After the radioactive equilibrium between radon and the daughter nuclides was attained, the radon concentration was determined by the liquid scintillation analyzer. {alpha}-ray from radon, then two {beta}- and two {alpha}-ray from the daughter nuclei group were released, so that 500% of the apparent counting efficiency was obtained. The detector limit is about 0.03 Bq/l, the low value, which corresponds to about 5.4x10{sup -15} ppm. By determining the radon concentration in groundwater, behavior of radon in hydrological process, the groundwater exchange caused by pumping and exchange between river water and groundwater were investigated. The water circulation analysis by means of radon indicator in the environment was shown. By using the large difference of radon concentration between in river water and in groundwater, arrival of injected water to the sampling point of groundwater was detected. (S.Y.)

  9. [Ketamine: psychiatric indications and misuses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delimbeuf, N; Petit, A; Karila, L; Lejoyeux, M

    2014-01-01

    Ketamine or -ketamine hydrochloride- is used as an anesthesic and a painkiller. It may also, in some indications, be prescribed in psychiatry and addictology. A literature review was conducted from 2003 to 2013, in PubMed, Google Scholar, Embase, and Psyclnfo, using the following key words (alone or combined): "ketamine", "abuse", "addiction", "dependence" and "misuse". Various studies have shown the benefit of kétamine in some psychiatric conditions such as major depressive episodes and electroconvulsive therapy. Others have demonstrated beneficial effects in alcohol or opiate abstinence maintenance. Ketamine seems to be a promising molecule in psychiatry and in the treatment of addictions, despite the absence of marketing approval for those specific uses. Being a strong psycho-stimulant, ketamine can be the source of abuse and dependence with somatic, psychiatric and cognitive complications.

  10. Invasive procedures with questionable indications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei V. Jargin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Insufficient coordination of medical research and partial isolation from the international scientific community can result in application of invasive methods without sufficient indications. Here is presented an overview of renal and pancreatic biopsy studies performed in the course of the operations of pancreatic blood shunting into the systemic blood flow in type 1 diabetic patients. Furthermore a surgical procedure of lung denervation as a treatment method of asthma as well as the use of bronchoscopy for research in asthmatics are discussed here. Today, the upturn in Russian economy enables acquisition of modern equipment; and medical research is on the increase. Under these circumstances, the purpose of this letter was to remind that, performing surgical or other invasive procedures, the risk-to-benefit ratio should be kept as low as possible.

  11. Selected Banks Economic Efficiency Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Szafarczyk

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available There are a lot of economic efficiency indicators in theory. It is necessary to choice some of them for concrete purposes. ROA, ROE and C/I play important role due to last experience of polish banks.Cost to Income Ratio plays very important role affecting not only efficiency monitoring process in the banks but also becoming a very important target in strategy or finance plan. There are several methodological approaches to construct this index in detail. Results are differing due to implementing methodology. This article describes trends C/I concerning both polish and foreign banks. It is difficult to compare banks in emerging country and real giants in finance mature economies.

  12. Viscoelastic behavior of stock indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gündüz, Güngör; Gündüz, Yalin

    2010-12-01

    The scattering diagram of a stock index results in a complex network structure, which can be used to analyze the viscoelastic properties of the index. The change along x- or y-direction of the diagram corresponds to purely elastic (or spring like) movement whereas the diagonal change at an angle of 45° corresponds to purely viscous (or dashpot like) movement. The viscous component pushes the price from its current value to any other value, while the elastic component acts like a restoring force. Four indices, namely, DJI, S&P-500, NASDAQ-100, and NASDAQ-composite were studied for the period of 2001-2009. NASDAQ-composite displayed very high elasticity while NASDAQ-100 displayed the highest fluidity in the time period considered. The fluidity of DJI and S&P-500 came out to be close to each other, and they are almost the same in the second half of the period.

  13. Pollen indicators of human activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI YiYin; ZHOU LiPing; CUI HaiTing

    2008-01-01

    The study of past human activities and their environmental effect is high in the agenda of global change research. A record of pollen assemblages is one of the most common proxies employed for detecting the impact of human activities on the landscape. In this review, we provide a summary and discussion on the recent progress on the use of pollen as indicators of human activity. For most of the studies related to human impact, the following features have been focused on: (1) decline of certain tree pollen; (2) flourishing of pioneer plant pollen; (3) concomitant occurrence of cereal-type pollen and cropland weed pollen; (4) abrupt changes in pollen concentration and richness; and (5) occurrence of nitrophilous plants and pastoral weed. Pollen of anthropogenic plants (weeds and cereal-type plants) is ideal indicators of human activities. Different types of human activities will result in different pollen assem-blages. Patterns of human-impacted pollen spectra would vary between forested areas and grassland. In the study of human impact with pollen data, high resolution in both time and space must be consid-ered. High resolution in space will help to inform the complexity of the landscape. More importantly, it can help to reveal the interference of human activities on the landscape, hence avoiding the bias cre-ated by the limited data points. Fine resolution in time will make accurate recording of short-lived events possible, hence avoiding the exclusion of events related to human activities. The combination of palynology with other proxies will help to decipher more accurately landscape changes through time. Charcoal is a particularly useful proxy for recording the disturbance of humans on vegetation. Its peak values usually occur with pronounced drop of tree pollen and significant rise of anthropogenic pollen.

  14. Indicating anthropogenic effectson urban water system - indicators and extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauch, G.; Ufz-Team

    2003-04-01

    Urban water systems are polluted by diffusive and direct contribution of anthropogenic activities. Besides industrial contaminants like aromatic and chlorinated HC and other persistent organic compounds, the urban aquatic environment is increasingly polluted by low concentrated but high eco-toxic compounds as pharmaceuticals, fragrances, plasticizers which most have disrupt endocrine functions, and trace elements carried in by surface and sub-surface waste water and seeping processes. This contamination could have a longtime impact on the urban ecosystem and on the human health. The interdisciplinary project on risk assessment of water pollution was initiated to explore new methodologies for assessing human activities on the urban water system and processes among urban watersheds. In a first assumption we used a flow model concept with in- and output and surface water transport represented by the city of Halle, Germany, and the river Saale. The river Saale acts as surface water system collecting waste water inputs along the city traverse. We investigated the anthropogenic effect on the urban water system using the indicators hydrological parameters, compound specific pattern of complex organic substances and trace elements, isotopic signatures of water (H, O) and dissolved substances (sulfate, DIC, nitrate), pathogens, and microbiota. A first balance modeling showed that main ions are not very sensitive concerning the direct urban input into the river. Depending on the discharge of the river in high and low flood stages the load of dissolved matter has no specific urban effect. However, the concentration pattern of fragrances (tonalid, galaxolid) and endocrine disrupters (t-nonylphenol) point to a different pollution along the city traverse: downstream of the sewage plant a higher load was observed in comparison to the upstream passage. Furthermore, a degradation ability of fungi and bacteria occurred in the bank sediments could be detected in lab experiments

  15. Tamper-Indicating Quantum Seal*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Brian P.; Britt, Keith A.; Humble, Travis S.

    2016-01-01

    Technical means for identifying when tampering occurs is a critical part of many containment and surveillance technologies. Conventional fiber-optic seals provide methods for monitoring enclosed inventories, but they are vulnerable to spoofing attacks based on classical physics. We address these vulnerabilities with the development of a quantum seal that offers the ability to detect the intercept-resend attack using quantum integrity verification. Our approach represents an application of entanglement to provide guarantees in the authenticity of the seal state by verifying it is transmitted coherently. We implement these ideas using polarization-entangled photon pairs that are verified after passing through a fiber-optic-channel test bed. Using binary-detection theory, we find the probability of detecting inauthentic signals is greater than 0.9999 with a false-alarm chance of 1 0-9 for a 10-s sampling interval. In addition, we show how the Hong-Ou-Mandel effect concurrently provides a tight bound on redirection attack, in which tampering modifies the shape of the seal. Our measurements limit the tolerable path-length change to submillimeter disturbances. These tamper-indicating features of the quantum seal offer unprecedented security for unattended monitoring systems.

  16. EFFECTIVE INDICATORS FOR SCIENCE INTERNATIONALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Renan da Cunha-Melo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To review of concepts and actions that aim to analyze the effects of internationalization of science and education, with emphasis in the medical field and its basement in development policies adopted by nations, exploring the potential for international interdisciplinary cooperation of each laboratory, department, university or institute. Method: Search of indicators to assess the degree of internationalization of universities and research institutes in several interconnected levels: organizational, regional, sectoral and global, and policy-making in science, technology innovation and higher education. Result: Scientific research is still carried out individually, but is now much more closely integrated with other social processes. The scientist is no longer a stranger who is allowed to surrender to his hobby to do what it wants. Internationalization of research and medical education, although it is among the topics of greatest need, as the globalized world, is difficult activity to be assessed. The leaders seem to have understood that the knowledge societies, leading to economic policy based on knowledge, can result in economic and social progress of nations. This fact has motivated increasingly the incentive to actions aimed at addressing global problems (eg health, climate change by funding research that generates new knowledge. Conclusion: The consensus is that the internationalization of science is desirable and necessary for the sustainable development of nations. However it cannot be done only by encouraging and promoting the outward students and researchers abroad. It is necessary, in addition, offer conditions to foreign researchers and students teachers to work in collaboration with Brazilian and raise the country to international scientific standards.

  17. Lead extraction. Indications and techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, C L; Schwartz, S J; Hedin, N

    1992-11-01

    Each of the extraction techniques and their ancillary tools was reported as used successfully; however, until now, no technique has been successful when used in more than a few isolated instances. The technique for intravascular countertraction and the associated tools described in this paper were devised and selected in an attempt to develop one technique to be used on all patients, with all types of leads, and with a very low complication rate. Its versatility permitted single or multiple lead extractions combined with the precision of selecting and extracting a specific lead. In our experience, as well as the experience of others, the techniques described in this paper have proved to be superior by minimizing the inherent risk and morbidity, allowing us to expand the indications for lead removal beyond septicemia and free-floating leads, to include infection, abandonment of pockets, and replacement of malfunctioning or fractured leads. Intravascular countertraction was a consistently safe and efficacious method of removing transvenous pacemaker leads regardless of the duration of the implant, thus permitting extractions in patients not considered candidates for a more extensive surgical procedure. Intravascular countertraction encompasses surgical and fluoroscopic techniques possessed by most physicians experienced in pacemaker and automatic implantable cardioverter defibrillator implants. However, there is a learning curve, predicating caution for the inexperienced physician. In addition, advanced surgical skills may be needed in handling associated conditions such as debridement and primary closure of chronically inflamed tissues, especially in submuscular pockets and sinus tracts in the neck. Although the potential for a cardiovascular complication is small, it does exist, and cardiovascular surgical backup is a recommended precaution.

  18. COSIS: COre State Indication System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, J. Y.; Lee, K. B.; Koo, B. S.; Lee, W. K.; Lee, C. C; Zee, S. Q

    2006-02-15

    COSIS (COre State Indication System) which implemented in the SMART research reactor plays a role to supply the core state parameters or graphs for the operator to recognize the core state effectively. The followings are the main functions of COSIS. (1) Validity Check for the Process Signals and Determination of the COSIS Inputs (SIGVAL) (2) Coolant Flow Rate Calculation (FLOW) (3) Core Thermal Power Calculation (COREPOW) (4) In-core 3-Dimensional Power Distribution Calculation and Peaking Parameters Generation (POWER3D) (5) Azimuthal Tilt Calculation (AZITILT). This report describes the methodology of COSIS which produces the core state parameters using the process and detector signals. In the SIGVAL module, COSIS checks most signals except for the CEA position and determines the input signals. In the FLOW module, the corelation coefficient between the RPM signal and coolant flow is updated from the energy balance at the steam generator, and the coolant flow rate is calculated using the RPM signal. In the COREPOW module, the secondary calorimetric power, the primary {delta}T power and the ex-core power are calculated, and the final core thermal power and biased core power are determined. In the POWER3D module, the 3-dimensional power distribution is calculated using the in-core detector signal, and the 3-D peaking factor, 2-D radial peaking factor, axial offset, maximum linear power density are produced. In the AZITILT module, the arithmetic averaged and vector averaged azimuthal tilts are calculated, and the final tilt is determined. The COSIS performance test of the COSIS is performed for the temperature compensation method, the COREPOW and the POWER3D modules. The test for the temperature compensation method is performed for the temperature variations of the linear, parabolic, exponential, sine function. The test shows that the implemented temperature compensation method works soundly. The COREPOW test is performed by varying the core power from the initial

  19. EFFECTIVE INDICATORS FOR SCIENCE INTERNATIONALIZATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha-Melo, José Renan da

    2015-01-01

    To review of concepts and actions that aim to analyze the effects of internationalization of science and education, with emphasis in the medical field and its basement in development policies adopted by nations, exploring the potential for international interdisciplinary cooperation of each laboratory, department, university or institute. Search of indicators to assess the degree of internationalization of universities and research institutes in several interconnected levels: organizational, regional, sectoral and global, and policy-making in science, technology innovation and higher education. Scientific research is still carried out individually, but is now much more closely integrated with other social processes. The scientist is no longer a stranger who is allowed to surrender to his hobby to do what it wants. Internationalization of research and medical education, although it is among the topics of greatest need, as the globalized world, is difficult activity to be assessed. The leaders seem to have understood that the knowledge societies, leading to economic policy based on knowledge, can result in economic and social progress of nations. This fact has motivated increasingly the incentive to actions aimed at addressing global problems (eg health, climate change) by funding research that generates new knowledge. The consensus is that the internationalization of science is desirable and necessary for the sustainable development of nations. However it cannot be done only by encouraging and promoting the outward students and researchers abroad. It is necessary, in addition, offer conditions to foreign researchers and students teachers to work in collaboration with Brazilian and raise the country to international scientific standards. Apresentar revisão dos conceitos e ações que objetivam analisar os efeitos da internacionalização da ciência e da educação, com ênfase na área médica e seu embasamento nas políticas de desenvolvimento adotadas pelas na

  20. Metodology for Risk-based Indicators Impementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Plos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the principle of creating a riskbased indicators in companies operating in an air transport. The first part deals with the description of safety indicators and introduce the concept of risk-based indicators. The next section describes the procedure for creating the base of risk-based indicators and describes specific examples of developed indicators.

  1. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in zoo and domestic animals in Jiangxi Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo Houqiang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic protozoan parasite that infects a wide range of warm-blooded animals throughout the world. In the present study, antibodies to T. gondii were determined using a commercial indirect hemagglutination (IHA test in wild animals in a zoo. Three of 11 giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis (27%, 1 of 5 wolves (Canis lupus laniger (20%, 1 of 6 hippopotamuses (Hippopotamus amphibious (17%, and 2 of 9 tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus (22% were found to be positive. No antibodies were detected in leopards (Panthera pardus, wild geese (Anser cygnoides, and Eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus. Domestic species from 13 counties of Jiangxi Province, China were also investigated by an indirect hemagglutination (IHA test. Thirty-five of 340 goats (10%, 94 of 560 water buffaloes (17%, and 4 of 35 cattle (11% were found to be seropositive. This is the first report of T. gondii infection in animals kept in zoos and domestic animals in this province.

  2. Environmental indicators for industrial optimization and design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konneman, Bram

    2008-01-01

    Companies use standard financial indicators to determine their business success and optimize their business opportunities. However, sustainable development demands for an integrated approach to economic, environmental and social indicators. Although a lot of indicator initiatives are under

  3. Environmental indicators for industrial optimization and design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konneman, Bram

    2008-01-01

    Companies use standard financial indicators to determine their business success and optimize their business opportunities. However, sustainable development demands for an integrated approach to economic, environmental and social indicators. Although a lot of indicator initiatives are under developme

  4. Environmental indicators for industrial optimization and design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konneman, Bram

    2008-01-01

    Companies use standard financial indicators to determine their business success and optimize their business opportunities. However, sustainable development demands for an integrated approach to economic, environmental and social indicators. Although a lot of indicator initiatives are under developme

  5. DC KIDS COUNT e-Databook Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    DC Action for Children, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This report presents indicators that are included in DC Action for Children's 2012 KIDS COUNT e-databook, their definitions and sources and the rationale for their selection. The indicators for DC KIDS COUNT represent a mix of traditional KIDS COUNT indicators of child well-being, such as the number of children living in poverty, and indicators of…

  6. Microorganisms as Indicators of Soil Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M. N.; Winding, A.; Binnerup, S.;

    Microorganisms are an essential part of living soil and of outmost importance for soil health. As such they can be used as indicators of soil health. This report reviews the current and potential future use of microbial indicators of soil health and recommends specific microbial indicators for soil...... indicators into soil monitoring programmes as they become applicable....

  7. 34 CFR 361.84 - Performance indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance indicators. 361.84 Section 361.84 Education... Standards and Performance Indicators § 361.84 Performance indicators. (a) The performance indicators establish what constitutes minimum compliance with the evaluation standards. (b) The performance...

  8. Dental fluorosis and skeletal fluoride content as biomarkers of excess fluoride exposure in marsupials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Death, Clare; Coulson, Graeme; Kierdorf, Uwe; Kierdorf, Horst; Morris, William K; Hufschmid, Jasmin

    2015-11-15

    Particulate and gaseous fluoride emissions contaminate vegetation near fluoride-emitting industries, potentially impacting herbivorous wildlife in neighboring areas. Dental fluorosis has been associated with consumption of fluoride-contaminated foliage by juvenile livestock and wildlife in Europe and North America. For the first time, we explored the epidemiology and comparative pathology of dental fluorosis in Australian marsupials residing near an aluminium smelter. Six species (Macropus giganteus, Macropus rufogriseus, Wallabia bicolor, Phascolarctos cinereus, Trichosurus vulpecula, Pseudocheirus peregrinus) demonstrated significantly higher bone fluoride levels in the high (n=161 individuals), compared to the low (n=67 individuals), fluoride areas (pdental lesions considered characteristic of dental fluorosis in eutherian mammals. Within the high-fluoride area, 67% of individuals across the six species showed dental enamel lesions, compared to 3% in the low-fluoride areas. Molars that erupted before weaning were significantly less likely to display pathological lesions than those developing later, and molars in the posterior portion of the dental arcade were more severely fluorotic than anterior molars in all six species. The severity of dental lesions was positively associated with increasing bone fluoride levels in all species, revealing a potential biomarker of excess fluoride exposure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Biological Indicator Systems in Floodplains - a Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziock, Frank; Henle, Klaus; Foeckler, Francis; Follner, Klaus; Scholz, Mathias

    2006-08-01

    Based on a literature review, the different approaches to biological indicator systems in floodplains are summarised. Four general categories of bioindication are defined and proposed here: 1. Classification indicators, 2.1 Environmental indicators, 2.2 Biodiversity indicators, 3. Valuation indicators. Furthermore, existing approaches in floodplains are classified according to the four categories. Relevant and widely used approaches in floodplains are explained in more detail. The results of the RIVA project are put into the context of these indication approaches. It is concluded that especially functional assessment approaches using biological traits of the species can be seen as very promising and deserve more attention by conservation biologists and floodplain ecologists.

  10. Indicator taxa revisited: useful for conservation planning?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Frank Wugt; Bladt, Jesper; Rahbek, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    investigate to what extent variation in species number between indicator taxa (e.g. 488 mammal spp. vs. 210 snake spp.) is causing the differences in effectiveness between indicator taxa. Second, we investigate whether indicator taxa are capable of outperforming indicator groups composed of random sets...... sets: sub-Saharan Africa (4,039 spp.), Denmark (847 spp.) and Uganda (2,822 spp.). Results:  We overall found that indicator taxa comprising a greater number of species tend to perform better than indicator taxa with fewer species (e.g. 488 mammal spp. outperform 210 snake spp.), although...

  11. Information Services for Social Indicators Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Nancy; Parke, Robert

    1974-01-01

    Gives examples of the resources available for social indicators research and describes the activities of the Center for Coordination of Research on Social Indicators in meeting the information needs in this field. (JG)

  12. Radiation indicator options for environmental policy

    CERN Document Server

    Pruppers, M J M

    2002-01-01

    It has proven impossible to create an indicator capable of showing the state of the art in a single figure so as to determine the progress made in the 'radiation component' of environmental policy from the trends indicated. This is the conclusion following an investigation requested by the Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment in the framework of the environmental theme 'dispersion of radioactive substances and ionising radiation' to develop a radiation indicator comparable to the indicators for proprietary substances and pesticides. The most important reasons for failing to develop this indicator lie in the absence of both suitable policy targets and data for the calculations necessary for the indicator. Substituting policy targets with reference emissions, reference concentrations and reference doses would make it possible to define indicators for radiation protection. Here, environmental pressure indicators are proposed for nuclear installations and the process industry. The environment...

  13. Review of Urban Sustainability Indicators Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michael, Florianna Lendai; Noor, Zainura Zainon; Figueroa, Maria Josefina

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines and compares the processes, methodologies and resulting sets of indicators for urban sustainability carried out in three of Asia's developing countries; Malaysia, Taiwan and China. The paper analytically discusses the challenges of developing urban sustainability indicators...

  14. Prognostic indicators influencing short term outcomes among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prognostic indicators influencing short term outcomes among operated head injury patients ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search ... indicators for short term outcomes in operated head injury patients at KCMC.

  15. Veterans Health Administration Patient Safety Indicators Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A list of VHA hospitals with data on the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) Patient Safety Indicators (PSIs). These indicators provide information on...

  16. Environmental Indicators in the Newspaper Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Enroth; Martin Johansson; Asa Moberg

    2003-01-01

    Environmental indicators promote the eco-efficient development of companies, as demonstrated in earlier study. This study builds on a previously developed model and inventory tools for industryspecific environmental indicators for the graphic arts industry. This study is based on case studies from 14 newspaper companies with experience of the use of these industry-specific environmental indicators in actual production.This paper presents data on industry-specific environmental indicators for ...

  17. Evaluation of European diatom trophic indices.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lototskaya, A.A.; Verdonschot, P.F.M.; Coste, M.; Vijver, van de B.

    2011-01-01

    Freshwater diatoms are considered to be reliable indicators of the trophic status of rivers and lakes. In the past 30 years, a number of indicator indices have been developed and used for the assessment of trophic conditions all over Europe. It is however still not clear whether the ecologic signatu

  18. 49 CFR 229.117 - Speed indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... normal position under all light conditions. (b) Each speed indicator required shall be tested as soon as... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Speed indicators. 229.117 Section 229.117... § 229.117 Speed indicators. (a) After December 31, 1980, each locomotive used as a...

  19. Laboratory Indices of Nutritional Status in Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council, Washington, DC. Food and Nutrition Board.

    This report reviews the current state of knowledge regarding laboratory indices of nutritional and metabolic status during normal pregnancy in order to provide normative data with respect to such indices in healthy pregnant women. The report contains seven chapters: Physiologic Adjustments in General; Hematologic Indices; Electrolytes in Normal…

  20. 49 CFR 236.513 - Audible indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Standards § 236.513 Audible indicator. (a) The automatic cab signal.... (b) The audible cab indicator of automatic cab signal, automatic train stop, or automatic train... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Audible indicator. 236.513 Section 236.513...

  1. Key Performance Indicators for Primary Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, Steve

    Focusing mostly on their application for primary schools, this document describes the educational key performance indicators (KPI) employed by the Wendsworth, England, Local Educational Authority (LEA). Indicators are divided into 3 areas, educational context, resource development, and outcomes. Contextual indicators include pupil mobility, home…

  2. Facilities Performance Indicators Report, 2008-09

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hills, Christina, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This paper features another expanded Web-based Facilities Performance Indicators Report (FPI). The purpose of APPA's Facilities Performance Indicators is to provide a representative set of statistics about facilities in educational institutions. The 2008-09 iteration of the Web-based Facilities Performance Indicators Survey was posted and…

  3. Early Reading Proficiency. Leading Indicator Spotlight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musen, Lindsey

    2010-01-01

    In "Beyond Test Scores: Leading Indicators for Education," Foley and colleagues (2008) define leading indicators as those that "provide early signals of progress toward academic achievement" (p. 1) and stress that educators "need leading indicators to help them see the direction their efforts are going in and to take…

  4. CONTENTS AND FUNCTIONS OF BALANCED INDICATIVE MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muratova L. I.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the article the questions of balanced indicative management essence are discussed, on basis of economic literature generalization its functions are dedicated, the system of indicators at the regional economy and economic agents level is formed, the structural elements and instruments of indicative management are analyzed

  5. Quality indicators for physiotherapy in Parkinson's disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijkrake, M.J.; Keus, S.H.J.; Ewalds, H.; Overeem, S.; Braspenning, J.C.C.; Oostendorp, R.A.B.; Hendriks, E.J.; Bloem, B.R.; Munneke, M.

    2009-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to develop quality indicators for physiotherapy in Parkinson's disease (PD) according to international criteria. METHODS: Indicators were based on an evidence-based guideline for physiotherapy in PD. Guideline recommendations were transformed into indicators and rated

  6. Antigenic compartmentation of the cerebellar cortex in an Australian marsupial, the tammar wallaby Macropus eugenii

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marzban, Hassan; Hoy, Nathan; Marotte, Lauren R; Hawkes, Richard

    2012-01-01

    The mammalian cerebellar cortex is apparently uniform in composition, but a complex heterogeneous pattern can be revealed by using biochemical markers such as zebrin II/aldolase C, which is expressed...

  7. Data book for Auroral Electrojet indices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-12-01

    The auroral electrojet (AE) indices for the period after 1978 have been published by the World Data Center C2 for Geomagnetism which is operated by the Data Analysis Center for Geomagnetism and Space Magnetism, Faculty of Science, Kyoto University. The Center in publishing the AE indices for every half year on a WDC-C2 for Geomagnetism Data Book. So far the Center has published 7 Data Books for the indices. The AE indices from 1978 to 1981 are published on the Data Book No. 3 to 10 and No. 11 involves the indices for the first half of 1983. The reason why the indices for 1983 has been published prior to that for 1982 is that the analysis group of the ISEE-3 satellite data requested the advanced derivation of the AE indices during magnetotail crossing by the satellite, and the WDC-A for STP (boulder, Colorado) digitized magnetograms necessary for derivation of the indices for the period (October 1982 to December 1983). The Center is now deriving the provisional AE indices during the ISEE-3 tail crossing period. The same data were used for the Data Book No. 11 after usual quality check which was neglected in derivation of the provisional indices. After No. 8 printing and distribution of the Data Book for AE indices are made by National Institute of Polar Research, Tokyo.

  8. Bibliometric indicators: quality measurements of scientific publication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durieux, Valérie; Gevenois, Pierre Alain

    2010-05-01

    Bibliometrics is a set of mathematical and statistical methods used to analyze and measure the quantity and quality of books, articles, and other forms of publications. There are three types of bibliometric indicators: quantity indicators, which measure the productivity of a particular researcher; quality indicators, which measure the quality (or "performance") of a researcher's output; and structural indicators, which measure connections between publications, authors, and areas of research. Bibliometric indicators are especially important for researchers and organizations, as these measurements are often used in funding decisions, appointments, and promotions of researchers. As more and more scientific discoveries occur and published research results are read and then quoted by other researchers, bibliometric indicators are becoming increasingly important. This article provides an overview of the currently used bibliometric indicators and summarizes the critical elements and characteristics one should be aware of when evaluating the quantity and quality of scientific output.

  9. March 2011 Physical Indicators Workshop Summary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Brent

    2011-01-01

    The National Climate Assessment (NCA) convened a workshop on Physical Climate Indicators from 29-30 March 2011, as part of a series on Monitoring Climate Change and its Impacts . The overarching goal of this workshop was to identify a few broad categories of potential physical climate indicators using a set of priorities developed by the NCA, and to provide a clear justification for how they would inform the Nation about climate change. Additional goals included providing input on the overall NCA framework for selecting the indicators and suggesting methodologies to construct indicators. Although one of the workshop goals was to address the status of current observational networks to support indicators, this was not a main focus of any single discussion. However, participants agreed with the NCA indicator vision that high quality data were needed to develop indicators, and generally focused on identifying indicator categories that current observation systems could support. The nearly 60 participants, primarily from Federal agencies, received a white paper in advance of the workshop that detailed the NCA vision for a coordinated suite of climate-related physical, ecological, and societal indicators. The intent of these national indicators of change is to develop a way to evaluate and communicate over time both the rate of change in impacts and the capacity to respond to climate drivers. These indicators will be tracked as a part of ongoing, long-term assessment activities, with adjustments as necessary to adapt to changing conditions and understanding. An initial framework was provided to workshop participants to ensure that everyone understood the audience, scope, and purpose of the indicators. A common lexicon was defined since indicator terminology varies widely. In addition, several potential approaches to grouping or categorizing the indicators were presented. Participants spent most of their time in small breakout groups with facilitators, working to address a

  10. [The modern indications for abortion (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucki, D

    1980-01-15

    Within the Swiss legal code, somatic and psychiatric indications for interruption of pregnancy are very well indicated and codified. These days, however, only 8% of indications for abortion are based on purely medical reasons; the great majority of indications are "modern", a clear manifestation of a slipping away from classical indications toward a much more liberal intervention which often has nothing to do with the corporal integrity of the mother, but with that of the child, or which simply takes into consideration the future quality of life of everybody involved. This evolution is a reflection of the new role of women in society, and also the result of the recent progresses of the science of neonatology. Such enlarged indications for abortion are accepted by most doctors concerned with these problems, and they include such different reasons as IUD failure, hormonal contraception failure, very young or too old age, exposure to X-rays, divorce and exposure to chemotherapy.

  11. Indicators for managing biosolids in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amajirionwu, Magnus; Connaughton, Noel; McCann, Brian; Moles, Richard; Bartlett, John; O'Regan, Bernadette

    2008-09-01

    Sustainable development indicators (SDIs) have emerged as a tool to measure progress towards sustainable development for a number of fields. However, no indicator initiative to date has been aimed at biosolids management at local authority, regional or national levels. This paper presents a study where stakeholders involved in the management of biosolids in Ireland participated in the development of SDIs for managing biosolids at the local/regional level. A significant 81% of participating stakeholders find SDIs either 'useful' or 'very useful' as a tool for managing biosolids. A suite of 22 indicators has been developed and arranged according to the driving force-pressure-state-impact-response (DPSIR) indicator framework. The indicators address all the domains of biosolids management namely, production, quality, cost, legislation/regulation, training/research and recycling/disposal. The stakeholder approach is recognition that no effective indicator set can be developed without the input of stakeholders.

  12. Outcome indicators for direct and indirect caregiving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfelder, D P; Swanson, E A; Specht, J K; Maas, M; Johnson, M

    2000-02-01

    Informal caregiving and outcomes for caregiving are an important part of health care and of particular importance in nursing. The purpose of this research is to report the results of a survey mailed to nursing experts for validation of the outcome labels Caregiver Role Performance: Direct Care and Caregiver Role Performance: Indirect Care and their accompanying indicators. Experts were asked to rate how important the identified indicators were for assessing those two outcomes. In addition, the respondents were asked to what extent nursing interventions influence the achievement of each identified indicator for Caregiver Role Performance: Direct Care and Caregiver Role Performance: Indirect Care. In general, the validity of the concept analysis work by the caregiver focus group was supported. Ten indicators for Caregiver Performance: Direct Care were retained, 1 was dropped that was considered most appropriate for indirect care, and 3 new indicators were added to reflect the nurse experts surveyed. For Caregiver Performance: Indirect Care, all of the indicators were retained.

  13. Energy conservation indicators. 1982 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belzer, D.B.

    1982-09-01

    A series of Energy Conservation Indicators were developed for the Department of Energy to assist in the evaluation of current and proposed conservation strategies. As descriptive statistics that signify current conditions and trends related to efficiency of energy use, indicators provide a way of measuring, monitoring, or inferring actual responses by consumers in markets for energy services. Related sets of indicators are presented in some 40 one-page indicator summaries. Indicators are shown graphically, followed by several paragraphs that explain their derivation and highlight key findings. Indicators are classified according to broad end-use sectors: Aggregate (economy), Residential, Commercial, Industrial, Transportation and Electric Utilities. In most cases annual time series information is presented covering the period 1960 through 1981.

  14. Performance Indicators for the Digital Library

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of performance indicators is „to assess the quality and effectiveness of services provided by a library ... and to assess the efficiency of resources allocated by the library to such services.” In the last decades, libraries have developed sets of performance indicators for evaluating the quality of their services. Such indicators have been presented in handbooks and in an international standard. They were for the most part restricted to the traditional library services (collectio...

  15. Condition Indicators for Gearbox Condition Monitoring Systems

    OpenAIRE

    P. Večeř; M. Kreidl; R. Šmíd

    2005-01-01

    Condition monitoring systems for manual transmissions based on vibration diagnostics are widely applied in industry. The systems deal with various condition indicators, most of which are focused on a specific type of gearbox fault. Frequently used condition indicators (CIs) are described in this paper. The ability of a selected condition indicator to describe the degree of gearing wear was tested using vibration signals acquired during durability testing of manual transmission with helical ge...

  16. Condition Indicators for Gearbox Condition Monitoring Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Večeř

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Condition monitoring systems for manual transmissions based on vibration diagnostics are widely applied in industry. The systems deal with various condition indicators, most of which are focused on a specific type of gearbox fault. Frequently used condition indicators (CIs are described in this paper. The ability of a selected condition indicator to describe the degree of gearing wear was tested using vibration signals acquired during durability testing of manual transmission with helical gears. 

  17. Comparison of UTCI to selected thermal indices

    OpenAIRE

    Blazejczyk, Krzysztof; Epstein, Yoram; Jendritzky, Gerd; Staiger, Henning; Tinz, Birger

    2011-01-01

    Over the past century more than 100 indices have been developed and used to assess bioclimatic conditions for human beings. The majority of these indices are used sporadically or for specific purposes. Some are based on generalized results of measurements (wind chill, cooling power, wet bulb temperature) and some on the empirically observed reactions of the human body to thermal stress (physiological strain, effective temperature). Those indices that are based on human heat balance considerat...

  18. Microorganisms as Indicators of Soil Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M. N.; Winding, A.; Binnerup, S.

    Microorganisms are an essential part of living soil and of outmost importance for soil health. As such they can be used as indicators of soil health. This report reviews the current and potential future use of microbial indicators of soil health and recommends specific microbial indicators for soil...... ecosystem parameters representing policy relevant end points. It is further recommended to identify a specific minimum data set for specific policy relevant end points, to carefully establish baseline values, to improve scientific knowledge on biodiversity and modelling of soil data, and to implement new...... indicators into soil monitoring programmes as they become applicable....

  19. An efficient compression scheme for bitmap indices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Kesheng; Otoo, Ekow J.; Shoshani, Arie

    2004-04-13

    When using an out-of-core indexing method to answer a query, it is generally assumed that the I/O cost dominates the overall query response time. Because of this, most research on indexing methods concentrate on reducing the sizes of indices. For bitmap indices, compression has been used for this purpose. However, in most cases, operations on these compressed bitmaps, mostly bitwise logical operations such as AND, OR, and NOT, spend more time in CPU than in I/O. To speedup these operations, a number of specialized bitmap compression schemes have been developed; the best known of which is the byte-aligned bitmap code (BBC). They are usually faster in performing logical operations than the general purpose compression schemes, but, the time spent in CPU still dominates the total query response time. To reduce the query response time, we designed a CPU-friendly scheme named the word-aligned hybrid (WAH) code. In this paper, we prove that the sizes of WAH compressed bitmap indices are about two words per row for large range of attributes. This size is smaller than typical sizes of commonly used indices, such as a B-tree. Therefore, WAH compressed indices are not only appropriate for low cardinality attributes but also for high cardinality attributes.In the worst case, the time to operate on compressed bitmaps is proportional to the total size of the bitmaps involved. The total size of the bitmaps required to answer a query on one attribute is proportional to the number of hits. These indicate that WAH compressed bitmap indices are optimal. To verify their effectiveness, we generated bitmap indices for four different datasets and measured the response time of many range queries. Tests confirm that sizes of compressed bitmap indices are indeed smaller than B-tree indices, and query processing with WAH compressed indices is much faster than with BBC compressed indices, projection indices and B-tree indices. In addition, we also verified that the average query response time

  20. [Hospital readmissions: A reliable quality indicator?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Galen, Louise S; Nanayakkara, Prabath W B

    2016-01-01

    The percentage of readmissions within 30 days after discharge is an official quality indicator for Dutch hospitals in 2016. In this commentary the authors argue why readmissions cannot be regarded as a reliable way of assessing quality of healthcare in a hospital. To date, policy makers have been struggling with its precise definition and the indicator has not been properly formulated yet. It does not distinguish between planned and unplanned readmissions and does not take into account the 'preventability'. Therefore the authors believe that the indicator in its current form might falsely interpret the quality of care of a hospital and it is questionable to use readmissions as a quality indicator.

  1. UV Spectroscopic Indices of Galactic Globular Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Hernández, J.; Chávez, M.; Bertone, E.; Buzzoni, A.; Bressan, A.

    2009-03-01

    We present the calculation of a set of 12 mid-ultraviolet (1900-3200 Å) spectroscopic indices for a sample of 15 galactic globular clusters (GGC) observed with the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE). We explore the dependence of the indices on age and metal abundance. We found that five indices (BL 2538, Fe II 2609, Mg II 2800, Mg I 2852 and Mg Wide) display a remarkably good correlation with [Fe/H]. With respect to age, only one index (BL 2740) shows a good correlation. Results from theoretical simple stellar populations well reproduce the global trends of indices vs. [Fe/H].

  2. Life Potential as a Basic Demographic Indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goerlich, Francisco J.; Soler, Angel

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes an indicator that integrates life expectancy with the demographic structure of the population for a given society. By doing this, we have a simple indicator of mortality and aging combined, which could be very useful for developed societies. As is widely known, life expectancy at birth is independent of the demographic…

  3. A stochastic indicator for sovereign debt sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lukkezen, J.H.J.; Rojas-Romagosa, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    We propose a stochastic indicator to assess government debt sustainability. This indicator combines the effect of economic uncertainty –represented by stochastic simulations of interest and growth rates– with the expected fiscal response that provides information on the long-term country specific at

  4. Indicators of School Crime and Safety, 1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Phillip; Chen, Xianglei; Choy, Susan P.; Ruddy, Sally A.; Miller, Amanda K.; Chandler, Kathryn A.; Chapman, Christopher D.; Rand, Michael R.; Klaus, Patsy

    This report provides detailed statistical information on crime in schools. It is a companion document to the "Annual Report on School Safety: 1999," which offers an overview of the nature and scope of school crime. This report is organized as a series of indicators, with each indicator presenting data on a different aspect of school crime and…

  5. Indicators of School Crime and Safety, 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Phillip; Chen, Xianglei; Choy, Susan P.; Ruddy, Sally A.; Miller, Amanda K.; Fleury, Jill K.; Chandler, Kathryn A.; Rand, Michael R.; Klaus, Patsy; Planty, Michael G.

    This report contains the most recent available data on school crime and safety drawn from a number of statistical series supported by the federal government. It is organized as a series of indicators, with each indicator presenting data on a different aspect of school crime and safety. There are five sections to the report: Violent Deaths at…

  6. Indicator Policy Factsheets: A Knowledge Brokerage Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Hák

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The concepts of sustainable development, quality of life, wellbeing, green growth, etc., and their assessment by various kinds of indicators (within the “Beyond GDP”, or later known as the “GDP and Beyond” movement have become important features of the professional life of many researchers, administrators and even policy makers. The underlying concepts, as well as the indicators are very broad, are often closely linked or overlapping and are in a continuous process of development. Information about them is primarily available in a scientific form—hypotheses, models, scenarios and figures—seldom comprehensible for a broad spectrum of final users. Some recent surveys show that the proliferation of indicators and the complexity (and complicatedness of the underlying concepts impede the willingness of policy makers to use them. One of the most viable and effective ways to overcome this barrier is to provide users with accurately targeted information about particular indicators. The article introduces “indicator policy factsheets” complementing the already developed and routinely used “indicator methodology sheets”; indicator policy factsheets contain specific and easy-to-obtain information supporting instrumental, conceptual and symbolic use of indicators.

  7. Building a Metaframework for Sustainable Transport Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornet, Yannick; Gudmundsson, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    a logical structure of complementary features with which to build indicator frameworks. Characteristics of robust indicator frameworks were evaluated in terms of their significance for the three key functions, and they were collected in a list of criteria. A review of the Brundtland Report provided...

  8. Risk indicators of depression in residential homes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisses, AMH; Kluiter, H; Jongenelis, K; Beekman, ATF; Ormel, J

    2004-01-01

    Objectives To assess risk indicators of depressive symptoms in social and personal domains of residents of residential homes. Methods In a cross-sectional study risk indicators for depressive symptoms (Geriatric Depression Scale) were examined in bivariate and multivariate analyses, four hundred and

  9. Indicadores educacionales (Educational Indicators). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashway, Larry

    Educators use informal theories and assumptions to guide their actions, yet often fail to evaluate these beliefs. This ERIC Digest in Spanish examines the nature and purpose of educational-indicator systems and discusses the design of report cards by which schools can inform the public of their performance. An indicator is any statistic that casts…

  10. Demonstration of the Colour Range of Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, G. T.

    1975-01-01

    Describes the construction of a box that is filled with indicator of a particular concentration. A little acid is added to one side and a little alkali to the other so that the complete colour range of the indicator is observable. (GS)

  11. Risk indicators of depression in residential homes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisses, AMH; Kluiter, H; Jongenelis, K; Beekman, ATF; Ormel, J

    Objectives To assess risk indicators of depressive symptoms in social and personal domains of residents of residential homes. Methods In a cross-sectional study risk indicators for depressive symptoms (Geriatric Depression Scale) were examined in bivariate and multivariate analyses, four hundred and

  12. Bibliometric indicators of young authors in astrophysics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havemann, Frank; Larsen, Birger

    2015-01-01

    We test 16 bibliometric indicators with respect to their validity at the level of the individual researcher by estimating their power to predict later successful researchers. We compare the indicators of a sample of astrophysics researchers who later co-authored highly cited papers before...

  13. Causal Indicators Can Help to Interpret Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentler, Peter M.

    2016-01-01

    The latent factor in a causal indicator model is no more than the latent factor of the factor part of the model. However, if the causal indicator variables are well-understood and help to improve the prediction of individuals' factor scores, they can help to interpret the meaning of the latent factor. Aguirre-Urreta, Rönkkö, and Marakas (2016)…

  14. Design of environmentally friendly products using indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenau, Torben Anker; Bey, Niki

    2001-01-01

    The paper describes the requirements of product designers towards methods for environmental evaluation; it argues that indicators can be used for rough environmental evaluations and it presents experiences made with the indicator-based Oil Point Method (OPM). This method is illustrated by means...

  15. Water quality indicators: bacteria, coliphages, enteric viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Johnson; Ganesh, Atheesha

    2013-12-01

    Water quality through the presence of pathogenic enteric microorganisms may affect human health. Coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli and coliphages are normally used as indicators of water quality. However, the presence of above-mentioned indicators do not always suggest the presence of human enteric viruses. It is important to study human enteric viruses in water. Human enteric viruses can tolerate fluctuating environmental conditions and survive in the environment for long periods of time becoming causal agents of diarrhoeal diseases. Therefore, the potential of human pathogenic viruses as significant indicators of water quality is emerging. Human Adenoviruses and other viruses have been proposed as suitable indices for the effective identification of such organisms of human origin contaminating water systems. This article reports on the recent developments in the management of water quality specifically focusing on human enteric viruses as indicators.

  16. Microencapsulation of Corrosion Indicators for Smart Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenyan; Buhrow, Jerry W.; Jolley, Scott T.; Calle, Luz M.; Hanna,Joshua S.; Rawlins, James W.

    2011-01-01

    A multifunctional smart coating for the autonomous detection, indication, and control of corrosion is been developed based on microencapsulation technology. This paper summarizes the development, optimization, and testing of microcapsules specifically designed for early detection and indication of corrosion when incorporated into a smart coating. Results from experiments designed to test the ability of the microcapsules to detect and indicate corrosion, when blended into several paint systems, show that these experimental coatings generate a color change, indicative of spot specific corrosion events, that can be observed with the naked eye within hours rather than the hundreds of hours or months typical of the standard accelerated corrosion test protocols.. Key words: smart coating, corrosion detection, microencapsulation, microcapsule, pH-sensitive microcapsule, corrosion indicator, corrosion sensing paint

  17. [Psychodiagnostic factors of indication for abortion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaser, A; Hodel, J

    1975-04-05

    The psychodiagnostic indication for abortion was investigated by means of the MMPI in 251 women with unwanted pregnancy. The results showed: 1. that, independently of the MMPI, positive indications exhibited more obvious psychopathological distrubance than the negative indications; 2. that women with negative indications where in some ways psychologically different from women with wanted pregnancy; 3. that after abortion women with positive indication no longer differed from a group of women with wanted pregnancy, so that the former could be identified as psychologically well adjusted; and 4. comparison between women with unwanted pregnancy and a group of neurotic women showed that both groups are phenomenologically very similar although women with unwanted pregnancy should be diagnosed as "reactive". The results are presented without comment as a basis for the medical and political debate now in progress.

  18. Dependency Relations among International Stock Market Indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonidas Sandoval Junior

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We develop networks of international stock market indices using information and correlation based measures. We use 83 stock market indices of a diversity of countries, as well as their single day lagged values, to probe the correlation and the flow of information from one stock index to another taking into account different operating hours. Additionally, we apply the formalism of partial correlations to build the dependency network of the data, and calculate the partial Transfer Entropy to quantify the indirect influence that indices have on one another. We find that Transfer Entropy is an effective way to quantify the flow of information between indices, and that a high degree of information flow between indices lagged by one day coincides to same day correlation between them.

  19. Performance Indicators for the Digital Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roswitha Poll

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of performance indicators is „to assess the quality and effectiveness of services provided by a library ... and to assess the efficiency of resources allocated by the library to such services.” In the last decades, libraries have developed sets of performance indicators for evaluating the quality of their services. Such indicators have been presented in handbooks and in an international standard. They were for the most part restricted to the traditional library services (collection, lending and ILL services, reading rooms, reference desk. For the fast developing electronic library services new and special indicators are needed in order to assess the effectiveness of services and to justify expenditure and resource allocation to that sector. In several projects on a national and international scale, such indicators have been developed and tested.

  20. [The acoustic indicator of saliva under stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalenkova, M A; Mikhaĭlova, Z D; Klemin, V A; Korkotashvili, L V; Abanin, A M; Klemina, A V; Dolgov, V V

    2014-03-01

    The situation of stress affects various organs and systems that results in development of functional disorders and/or somatic diseases. As a result, different noninvasive, including salivary, techniques of diagnostic of stress conditions are in the process of development. The dynamics of acoustic indicator of saliva is studied during the period of passing the exams. The relationship of indicator with levels of potassium, sodium, glucose and protein of saliva was analyzed. The sampling consisted of 102 students of 5 and 6 academic years of medical university. To detect the acoustic indicator of saliva acoustic analyzer AKBa-01- "BIOM" was applied. The level of potassium and sodium in saliva was detected using method of flame photometry. The level of glucose in saliva was detected by glucose oxydase technique using analyzer "EXAN-G". The protein in saliva was detected by biuretic technique. The correlation between acoustic indicator of saliva and analyzed indicators of saliva was established.

  1. Energy Innovation Systems Indicator Report 2016

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, Mads; Klitkou, Antje; Iversen, Eric

    This report collates a set of indicators, figures and tables for the energy innovation system in Denmark. Emphasis is on renewable energy and other technologies for moving towards sustainability. The purpose is to provide an overview of indicators available for illuminating dynamics...... and characteristics of energy innovation systems and to the extent possible offer figures of the developments in the individual indicators. The report is an update of a report published in 2012. Graphs and numbers are updated with the most recent data available. The text is updated where needed in connection...... to the individual indicators as well as in the general remarks and conclusions. A limited number of new indicators and measurements are included. In addition, the accounts are in a few cases changed due to changes in data availability or in measurement methods. The report is produced as part of the activities...

  2. Indicators of environmental sustainability in transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    How can environmental impacts of transport be measured? How can measurements be transformed into operational indicators? How can several indicators be jointly considered? And how can indicators be used in planning and decision making? This book contains the results of an interdisciplinary group...... of about thirty researchers meeting regularly to discuss these questions along the period 2005-2010. The researchers were from natural as well as social sciences, and all engaged in the field of transport and environment. The report provides analysis of the functions, strengths and weaknesses of indicators...... of cultural heritage. Finally it includes an extensive analysis and evaluation of methods to build composite indicators as well as multi-criteria methods for assessment. The authors give a state-of-the-art overview for those interested in methods to evaluate simply, accurately and efficiently the impact...

  3. Improved indicators and monitoring of pesticide use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Peter Borgen; Kjær, Christian; Kudsk, Per

      The goal for the new improved indicator, PestNaB (Pesticiders NaturBelastning), was to develop a valid indicator reflecting the potential risk for nature due to application of pesticides and based on available data set for Danish conditions. The focus is on risk in relation the nature close to...... separately: (1) Terrestrial nature; (2) Steams; (3) Ponds and lakes. GIS is used to combine data for agriculture praxis in terms of the crop distribution with distance to the nature elements. Pesticide application was estimated based on crop distribution and the toxicity for a series of toxic end......-points covering Fish, daphnia, mammals, arthropods, insects, algae and plants. Totally 18 separated indicators are calculated for each km2 in Denmark and feed into a multi criterion analysis using a partial order method. Like all others pesticide indicators this indicator is relative. So, it is possible...

  4. Key indicators for organizational performance measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firoozeh Haddadi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Each organization for assessing the amount of utility and desirability of their activities, especially in complex and dynamic environments, requires determining and ranking the vital performance indicators. Indicators provide essential links among strategy, execution and ultimate value creation. The aim of this paper is to develop a framework, which identifies and prioritizes Key Performance Indicators (KPIs that a company should focus on them to define and measure progress towards organizational objectives. For this purpose, an applied research was conducted in 2013 in an Iranian telecommunication company. We first determined the objectives of the company with respect to four perspectives of BSC (Balanced Scorecard framework. Next, performance indicators were listed and paired wise comparisons were accomplished by company's high-ranked employees through standard Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP questionnaires. This helped us establish the weight of each indicator and to rank them, accordingly.

  5. Estimates of Resilience Indices by Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiering, Myron B.

    1982-02-01

    A few of the resilience indices described in an earlier paper in this series are calculated for several reservoir configurations which constitute a set of sample plans for a river basin. Basin characteristics are introduced to estimate proposed surrogates of system resilience without the necessity of performing long and expensive simulation studies; these simulations are necessary to develop resilience indices for the sample basins and to compare them to a few conventional ranking functions. The objective is to determine if conventional indices replicate information contained in resilience indices and the extent to which either or both of these can be estimated from basin geometry. While imperfect, the results are encouraging and suggest areas for continuing work in the mapping of basin characteristics and configuration into performance indices.

  6. An Entangled Model for Sustainability Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedano, Karla G.; Martínez, Manuel; Jensen, Henrik J.

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays the challenge for humanity is to find pathways towards sustainable development. Decision makers require a set of sustainability indicators to know if the sustainability strategies are following those pathways. There are more than one hundred sustainability indicators but they differ on their relative importance according to the size of the locality and change on time. The resources needed to follow these sustainability indicators are scarce and in some instances finite, especially in smaller regions. Therefore strategies to select set of these indicators are useful for decision makers responsible for monitoring sustainability. In this paper we propose a model for the identification and selection of a set of sustainability indicators that adequately represents human systems. In developing this model, we applied evolutionary dynamics in a space where sustainability indicators are fundamental entities interconnected by an interaction matrix. we used a fixed interaction that simulates the current context for the city of Cuernavaca, México as an example. We were able to identify and define relevant sets indicators for the system by using the Pareto principle. In this case we identified a set of sixteen sustainability indicators with more than 80% of the total strength. This set presents resilience to perturbations. For the Tangled Nature framework we provided a manner of treating different contexts (i.e., cities, counties, states, regions, countries, continents or the whole planet), dealing with small dimensions. This model provides decision makers with a valuable tool to select sustainability indicators set for towns, cities, regions, countries, continents or the entire planet according to a coevolutionary framework. The social legitimacy can arise from the fact that each individual indicator must be selected from those that are most important for the subject community. PMID:26295948

  7. An Entangled Model for Sustainability Indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, Pável; Del Río, Jesús A; Cedano, Karla G; Martínez, Manuel; Jensen, Henrik J

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays the challenge for humanity is to find pathways towards sustainable development. Decision makers require a set of sustainability indicators to know if the sustainability strategies are following those pathways. There are more than one hundred sustainability indicators but they differ on their relative importance according to the size of the locality and change on time. The resources needed to follow these sustainability indicators are scarce and in some instances finite, especially in smaller regions. Therefore strategies to select set of these indicators are useful for decision makers responsible for monitoring sustainability. In this paper we propose a model for the identification and selection of a set of sustainability indicators that adequately represents human systems. In developing this model, we applied evolutionary dynamics in a space where sustainability indicators are fundamental entities interconnected by an interaction matrix. we used a fixed interaction that simulates the current context for the city of Cuernavaca, México as an example. We were able to identify and define relevant sets indicators for the system by using the Pareto principle. In this case we identified a set of sixteen sustainability indicators with more than 80% of the total strength. This set presents resilience to perturbations. For the Tangled Nature framework we provided a manner of treating different contexts (i.e., cities, counties, states, regions, countries, continents or the whole planet), dealing with small dimensions. This model provides decision makers with a valuable tool to select sustainability indicators set for towns, cities, regions, countries, continents or the entire planet according to a coevolutionary framework. The social legitimacy can arise from the fact that each individual indicator must be selected from those that are most important for the subject community.

  8. Thoracic sympathectomy: a review of current indications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashmonai, Moshe; Cameron, Alan E P; Licht, Peter B; Hensman, Chris; Schick, Christoph H

    2016-04-01

    Thoracic sympathetic ablation was introduced over a century ago. While some of the early indications have become obsolete, new ones have emerged. Sympathetic ablation is being still performed for some odd indications thus prompting the present study, which reviews the evidence base for current practice. The literature was reviewed using the PubMed/Medline Database, and pertinent articles regarding the indications for thoracic sympathectomy were retrieved and evaluated. Old, historical articles were also reviewed as required. Currently, thoracic sympathetic ablation is indicated mainly for primary hyperhidrosis, especially affecting the palm, and to a lesser degree, axilla and face, and for facial blushing. Despite modern pharmaceutical, endovascular and surgical treatments, sympathetic ablation has still a place in the treatment of very selected cases of angina, arrhythmias and cardiomyopathy. Thoracic sympathetic ablation is indicated in several painful conditions: the early stages of complex regional pain syndrome, erythromelalgia, and some pancreatic and other painful abdominal pathologies. Although ischaemia was historically the major indication for sympathetic ablation, its use has declined to a few selected cases of thromboangiitis obliterans (Buerger's disease), microemboli, primary Raynaud's phenomenon and Raynaud's phenomenon secondary to collagen diseases, paraneoplastic syndrome, frostbite and vibration syndrome. Thoracic sympathetic ablation for hypertension is obsolete, and direct endovascular renal sympathectomy still requires adequate clinical trials. There are rare publications of sympathetic ablation for primary phobias, but there is no scientific basis to support sympathetic surgery for any psychiatric indication.

  9. Comparison of UTCI to selected thermal indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazejczyk, Krzysztof; Epstein, Yoram; Jendritzky, Gerd; Staiger, Henning; Tinz, Birger

    2012-05-01

    Over the past century more than 100 indices have been developed and used to assess bioclimatic conditions for human beings. The majority of these indices are used sporadically or for specific purposes. Some are based on generalized results of measurements (wind chill, cooling power, wet bulb temperature) and some on the empirically observed reactions of the human body to thermal stress (physiological strain, effective temperature). Those indices that are based on human heat balance considerations are referred to as "rational indices". Several simple human heat balance models are known and are used in research and practice. This paper presents a comparative analysis of the newly developed Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI), and some of the more prevalent thermal indices. The analysis is based on three groups of data: global data-set, synoptic datasets from Europe, and local scale data from special measurement campaigns of COST Action 730. We found the present indices to express bioclimatic conditions reasonably only under specific meteorological situations, while the UTCI represents specific climates, weather, and locations much better. Furthermore, similar to the human body, the UTCI is very sensitive to changes in ambient stimuli: temperature, solar radiation, wind and humidity. UTCI depicts temporal variability of thermal conditions better than other indices. The UTCI scale is able to express even slight differences in the intensity of meteorological stimuli.

  10. Balanced indices in evaluation of production competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyudmila Nikolaevna Rodionova

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Competitiveness of production is a basic indicator for assessment of competitiveness of the enterprise, for making decisions on production in foreign economic activity. Today, there is no single approach and unified methodology for evaluating the competitiveness of products. At the same time, this assessment is the basis for the development of marketing providing and making decisions to enter into the new markets. The results of assessment show more adequate results than in the case of use of traditional methods. At the same time, the results of competitiveness evaluation are beyond any doubt in cases when a product has the best properties in a range of characteristics. The most existing methods for calculating the group indicators of production competitiveness averaged values of the analyzed indicators and did not allow them to evaluate the spread of values. The paper also examines the problem of production competitiveness evaluation by the aggregation of the indices characterized by significant heterogeneity of indices relatively to a product chosen as a sample. The degree of such heterogeneity is posed to evaluate with criterion of balanced indices, where reckoning is based on the metrical analysis. Competitiveness of production is a basic indicator for assessment of competitiveness of the enterprise, for making decisions on production, in foreign economic activity.

  11. EEA core set of indicators. Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This guide provides information on the quality of the 37 indicators in the EEA core set. Its primary role is to support improved implementation of the core set in the EEA, European topic centres and the European environment information and observation network (Eionet). In parallel, it is aimed at helping users outside the EEA/Eionet system make best use of the indicators in their own work. It is hoped that the guide will promote cooperation on improving indicator methodologies and data quality as part of the wider process to streamline and improve environmental reporting in the European Union and beyond. (au)

  12. New Age Indicators for Stellar Populations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KONG Xu; CHENG Fu-Zhen

    2000-01-01

    We apply the method of principal component analysis to a sample of simple stellar populations to select some age sensitive spectral indices. Besides the well-known age sensitive index Hβ, we also find some new age sensitive indices, G4300 and Fe4383, C24668, and Mgb. In addition, we find that these spectral indices sensitive to age depend on the metallicity of stellar population, Hβ and G4300 are more suitable to determine the age of loy metallicity stellar population, while C24668 and Mgb are more suitable to the high metallicity stellar population.

  13. Financial indicators for municipalities: a quantitative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreĉko Devjak

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available From the characterization of Local Authority financing models and structures in Portugal and Slovenia, a set of financial and generic budget indicators has been established. These indicators may be used in a comparative analysis considering the Bragança District in Portugal, and municipalities of similar population size in Slovenia. The research identified significant differences, in terms of financing sources due to some discrepancies on financial models and competences of municipalities on each country. The results show that Portuguese and Slovenian municipalities, in 2003, for the economy indicator, had similar ranking behaviour, but in 2004, they changed this behaviour.

  14. Presenting Software Metrics Indicators- A Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pantazos, Kostas; Shollo, Arisa; Staron, Miroslaw

    2010-01-01

    decisions based on indicators. In essence, visualizing indicators and their dependencies can communicate the information to the stakeholders efficiently if done correctly, or mislead them if not done properly. In this paper we present results of a case study conducted in a unit of Ericsson. During the case...... study we identified the main requirements for methods for visualizing the indicators, developed these visualizations and conducted a series of interviews evaluating them. The results show that the dashboard presentation is the best solution, but that the simple, tabular visualizations are next best...

  15. Density contrast indicators in cosmological dust models

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Filipe C Mena; Reza Tavakol

    2000-10-01

    We discuss ways of quantifying structuration in relativistic cosmological settings, by employing a family of covariant density constrast indicators. We study the evolution of these indicators with time in the context of inhomogeneous Szekeres models. We find that different observers (having either different spatial locations or different indicators) see different evolutions for the density contrast, which may or may not be monotonically increasing with time. We also find that monotonicity seems to be related to the initial conditions of the model, which may be of potential interest in connection with debates regarding gravitational entropy and the arrow of time.

  16. Ordinal Welfare Comparisons with Multiple Discrete Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Distante, Roberta; Hussain, M. Azhar;

    We develop an ordinal method for making welfare comparisons between populations with multidimensional discrete well-being indicators observed at the micro level. The approach assumes that, for each well-being indicator, the levels can be ranked from worse to better; however, no assumptions are ma...... another on the basis of available binary indicators by drawing upon linear programming theory. These approaches are applied to household survey data from Vietnam and Mozambique with a focus on child poverty comparisons over time and between regions....

  17. Strategic operating indicators point to equity growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleverley, W O

    1988-07-01

    As healthcare managers become more business-like in their behavior, they are becoming increasingly concerned with the equity growth rate of their organizations. Strong equity growth means a financially healthy organization. Equity growth can be expressed as a product of five financial ratios--the most important ratio being the operating margin. Improvements in operating margins will lead to improvements in equity growth. Thirty indicators, called strategic operating indicators, have been developed to monitor operating margins. These indicators, when compared with values from other peer groups, can help point to strategies for improvement of operating margins, and hence equity growth.

  18. The Stranding Anomaly as Population Indicator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peltier, Helene; Baagøe, Hans J.; Camphuysen, Kees C.J.

    2013-01-01

    Ecological indicators for monitoring strategies are expected to combine three major characteristics: ecological significance, statistical credibility, and cost-effectiveness. Strategies based on stranding networks rank highly in cost-effectiveness, but their ecological significance and statistical...... credibility are disputed. Our present goal is to improve the value of stranding data as population indicator as part of monitoring strategies by constructing the spatial and temporal null hypothesis for strandings. The null hypothesis is defined as: small cetacean distribution and mortality are uniform...... surveys, mostly SCANS surveys (1994 and 2005). This new indicator could be applied to cetacean populations across the world and more widely to marine megafauna....

  19. Estimating Hedonic Price Indices for Ground Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    organizations use price indices to distinguish sector-specific real price growth from general inflation  OMB uses price indices to estimate the relative...I N S T I T U T E F O R D E F E N S E A N A L Y S E S Estimating Hedonic Price Indices for Ground Vehicles (Presentation) David M. Tate Stanley...currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE JUN 2015 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Estimating Hedonic Price

  20. PERFORMANCE INDICATORS IN ROMANIAN HIGHER EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Ioana COSTE

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the main performance indicators took into consideration when the management is measuring the performance of the university. The study is based on interviews with top management and middle management at Romanian public universities. Thus, the paper uses a qualitative research. According to the results, an essential indicator for performance measurement is represented by the number of the students. The public funding gives the motivation of the importance of the indicators. The public funds are allocated based on the number of enrolled students. As a public institution, performance measurement represents a central issue for showing to users how well is performing the organization.

  1. Ranking national research systems by citation indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aksnes, Dag W.; Schneider, Jesper Wiborg; Gunnarsson, Magnus

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical analysis of two different methodologies for calculating national citation indicators: whole counts and fractionalised counts. The aim of our study is to investigate the effect on relative citation indicators when citations to documents are fractionalised among...... the authoring countries. We have performed two analyses: a time series analysis of one country and a cross-sectional analysis of 23 countries. The results show that all countries’ relative citation indicators are lower when fractionalised counting is used. Further, the difference between whole...

  2. Risk-Screening Environmental Indicators (RSEI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EPA’s Risk-Screening Environmental Indicators (RSEI) is a geographically-based model that helps policy makers and communities explore data on releases of toxic...

  3. Modal Indicators for Operational Modal Identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, L.; Brincker, Rune; Andersen, P.

    2001-01-01

    Modal validation is of paramount importance for all two-stage time domain modal identification algorithms. However, due to a higher noise/signal ratio in operational/ambient modal analysis, being able to determine the right model order and to distinguish between structural modes and computational...... modes become more significant than in traditional modal analysis. The two major modal indicators, i.e. Modal Confidence Factor (MCF) and Modal Amplitude Coherence (MAmC) are extended to two-stage time domain modal identification algorithms, together with a newly developed indicator, named as Modal...... Participation Indicator (MPI). The application of the three indicators is illustrated on different cases of operational/ambient modal identification. Three major time domain modal identification algorithms are used the Polyreference Complex Exponential (PRCE), Extended Ibrahim Time Domain (EITD), Eigensystem...

  4. Lipoprotein metabolism indicators improve cardiovascular risk prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Cardiovascular disease risk increases when lipoprotein metabolism is dysfunctional. We have developed a computational model able to derive indicators of lipoprotein production, lipolysis, and uptake processes from a single lipoprotein profile measurement. This is the first study to inves...

  5. ANALYSIS OF CONTEMPORARY ANTHROPOMETRIC INDICES OF STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arabadzhi Lyudmila Ivanivna

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of 123 students’ somatotypes was performed in current research. Based on Chtetsov’ methodic of somatotypes estimation the evaluation of anthropometric indices was done and the dominant somatotype of modern students was revealed.

  6. Quality Indicators and Outcomes of Emergency Caesarean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Abstract. The objective of this research study is to identify quality indicators of cesarean deliveries and determine their ... Quality of Cesarean Deliveries at a District-level Maternity Hospital .... complex surgical management i.e. uterine rupture.

  7. NOHSS Adult Indicators - 2010 And Prior BRFSS

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Data from BRFSS for indicators of adult oral health for 1999 and even years from 2002 through 2010. National estimates are represented by the median prevalence among...

  8. Proposed indicators for a monitoring programme. Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    The report presents proposals for a set of indicators to be used in a coordinated monitoring programme for the North Sea and Skagerrak ecosystems. This report suggests reference values and action thresholds for the indicators and suitable monitoring stations and survey transects, based on existing time series where possible. The relevance of the proposed indicators is also assessed to national and international environmental policy goals. The national targets of Norway's environmental policy and indicators used in the monitoring systems for the other Norwegian open sea areas were taken into account when drawing up the proposals. In the international context, The management plan was also assessed to the Convention on Biological Diversity, the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES), the Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic (the OSPAR Convention) and the EU's Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD).(Author)

  9. Lipoprotein metabolism indicators improve cardiovascular risk prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schalkwijk, D.B. van; Graaf, A.A. de; Tsivtsivadze, E.; Parnell, L.D.; Werff-van der Vat, B.J.C. van der; Ommen, B. van; Greef, J. van der; Ordovás, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cardiovascular disease risk increases when lipoprotein metabolism is dysfunctional. We have developed a computational model able to derive indicators of lipoprotein production, lipolysis, and uptake processes from a single lipoprotein profile measurement. This is the first study to inves

  10. The changing Chinese SEA indicator guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Jingjing; Christensen, Per; Kørnøv, Lone

    2014-01-01

    In the last decades China has introduced a set of indicators to guide their Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) practice. The most recent indicator system, proposed in 2009, is based on sector-specific guidelines and it found its justification in past negative experiences with more general...... guidelines (from 2003), which were mostly inspired by, or copied from, international experiences. Based on interviews with practitioners, researchers and administrators, we map and analyse the change in the national guidelines. This analysis is based on a description of the indicators that makes it possible...... to discern different aggregation levels of indicators and then trace the changes occurring under two sets of guidelines. The analysis also reveals the reasons and rationales behind the changes found in the guidelines. This analysis is inspired by implementation theory and a description of some of the more...

  11. Assessment of organosomatic indices and histopathological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of organosomatic indices and histopathological changes in vital organs of ... of fish fed 0 and 20% BSSM inclusions showed no visible signs of damage. ... 20% in C. gariepinus' diet could cause adverse histological alterations.

  12. Indicator organisms of pollution in Cochin backwaters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Remani, K.N.; Devi, K.S.; Venugopal, P.; Unnithan, R.V.

    Indicator organisms of organic pollution in two localities in the Cochin backwaters are identified The two sites have different sources of pollution, one from retting of coconut husk and the other from discharge of municipal wastes @i...

  13. Performance indicators of Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Performance indicators of Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) assessment in hospital buildings: a ... Four-factor parameters of IEQ were assessed; such as thermal quality, acoustic quality, ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  14. Hypoglycemic indices of Vernonia amygdalina on postprandial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-17

    Dec 17, 2008 ... Hypoglycemic indices of Vernonia amygdalina on postprandial blood ..... amygdalina have shown that it has antihyperglycemic effect. The study by .... of Solanum xanthocarpum (solanaceae) fruits in normal and streptozotocin ...

  15. Prognostic indices in childhood heart failure

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hood heart failure and highlight the factors that affect out- come among cases of heart failure ... month period were studied prospectively. Diagnosis of heart ... a case-fatality rate of 24% among the study population. Poor prognostic indices ...

  16. U.S. Chronic Disease Indicators (CDI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — CDC's Division of Population Health provides cross-cutting set of 124 indicators that were developed by consensus and that allows states and territories and large...

  17. Indicators of Disaster Risk and Risk Management

    OpenAIRE

    Omar D. Cardona

    2005-01-01

    This document is the summary report of the IDB-sponsored system of disaster risk and risk management indicators presented at the World Conference on Disaster Reduction in Kobe, Japan, 2005. The indices estimate disaster risk loss, distribution, vulnerability and management for 12 countries in Latin America and the Caribbean. The objective of this program is to facilitate access to relevant information on disaster risk and risk management by national decision-makers, thus making possible the i...

  18. A Catalogue of Marine Biodiversity Indicators

    KAUST Repository

    Teixeira, Heliana

    2016-11-04

    A Catalogue of Marine Biodiversity Indicators was developed with the aim of providing the basis for assessing the environmental status of the marine ecosystems. Useful for the implementation of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD), this catalogue allows the navigation of a database of indicators mostly related to biological diversity, non-indigenous species, food webs, and seafloor integrity. Over 600 indicators were compiled, which were developed and used in the framework of different initiatives (e.g., EU policies, research projects) and in national and international contexts (e.g., Regional Seas Conventions, and assessments in non-European seas). The catalogue reflects the current scientific capability to address environmental assessment needs by providing a broad coverage of the most relevant indicators for marine biodiversity and ecosystem integrity. The available indicators are reviewed according to their typology, data requirements, development status, geographical coverage, relevance to habitats or biodiversity components, and related human pressures. Through this comprehensive overview, we discuss the potential of the current set of indicators in a wide range of contexts, from large-scale to local environmental programs, and we also address shortcomings in light of current needs. Developed by the DEVOTES Project, the catalogue is freely available through the DEVOTool software application, which provides browsing and query options for the associated metadata. The tool allows extraction of ranked indicator lists best fulfilling selected criteria, enabling users to search for suitable indicators to address a particular biodiversity component, ecosystem feature, habitat, or pressure in a marine area of interest. This tool is useful for EU Member States, Regional Sea Conventions, the European Commission, non-governmental organizations, managers, scientists, and any person interested in marine environmental assessment. It allows users to build

  19. Design of environmentally friendly products using indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenau, Torben Anker; Bey, Niki

    2001-01-01

    The paper describes the requirements of product designers towards methods for environmental evaluation; it argues that indicators can be used for rough environmental evaluations and it presents experiences made with the indicator-based Oil Point Method (OPM). This method is illustrated by means...... of three examples, a vacuum cleaner, two sweaters and a passenger car. The quality of the results is compared with two other methods for environmental evaluation....

  20. Local matching indicators for concave transport costs

    CERN Document Server

    Delon, Julie; Sobolevskii, A

    2009-01-01

    In this note, we introduce a class of indicators that enable to compute efficiently optimal transport plans associated to arbitrary distributions of $N$ demands and $N$ supplies in $\\mathbf{R}$ in the case where the cost function is concave. The cost of these indicators is small and independent of $N$. Using them recursively according to a particular algorithm allows to find an optimal transport plan in less than $N^2$ evaluations of the cost function.

  1. The political economy of geographical indications

    OpenAIRE

    Deconinck, Koen; Swinnen, Johan

    2014-01-01

    Despite the growing importance of geographical indications (GI), relatively little attention has been devoted to studying the optimal size of a GI region, as well as how lobbying by interest groups may affect the actual size. We develop a political economy model of the size of geographical indications, taking into account possible effects on perceived quality as well as on cost sharing among producers. We show that the political process may result in a GI area that is smaller or larger than t...

  2. Development of Mental Health Indicators in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Hyeree; Ahn, Dong Hyun; Song, Jinhee; Hwang, Tae Yeon; Roh, Sungwon

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Promoting mental health and preventing mental health problems are important tasks for international organizations and nations. Such goals entail the establishment of active information networks and effective systems and indicators to assess the mental health of populations. This being said, there is a need in Korea develop ways to measure the state of mental health in Korea. Methods: This paper reviews the mental health indicator development policies and practices of seven organiza...

  3. Statistical Theory of Hedonic Price Indices

    OpenAIRE

    Brachinger, Hans Wolfgang

    2002-01-01

    In the economic literature, essentially, hedonic techniques either are applied straightforwardly or the economic foundations of the hedonic hypothesis are discussed. In this paper, the statistical foundations of hedonic price indices are developed. After a short overview on well-known functional forms of hedonic equations, first, precise hedonic notions of a good and its price are specified. These specifications allow a clear-cut definition of true hedonic price indices. Then, the problem of ...

  4. Environmental Indicators in the Newspaper Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Enroth

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Environmental indicators promote the eco-efficient development of companies, as demonstrated in earlier study. This study builds on a previously developed model and inventory tools for industryspecific environmental indicators for the graphic arts industry. This study is based on case studies from 14 newspaper companies with experience of the use of these industry-specific environmental indicators in actual production.This paper presents data on industry-specific environmental indicators for the newspaper industry. The data describes the average situation and the range of values for the indicators in 14 environmentally aware newspaper companies in Sweden in 2001. The data is also grouped so as to illustrate average values for various classes:Newspaper companies with printing facilities.Newspaper companies with no printing facilities.Newspaper printing companies.In addition, a preliminary comparison has been carried out using equivalent data for the commercial printing industry.The indicators calculated for each specific company, together with average values for these indicators, have been used to identify areas for action for the various companies and to formulate action plans. The aim of this is to promote more eco-efficient activities. The study also summarizes measures already implemented at the various companies.The use of indicators within these companies has been linked with the current and predicted future eed to communicate environmental issues. Financial and social aspects have been considered to a limited extent in the study in order to put forward the concept of sustainable development in the newspaper industry in Sweden.

  5. Quantitative Chemical Indices of Weathered Igneous Rocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A study was conducted to compare the effectiveness of different weathering indices for characterising weathered igneous rocks of Hong Kong. Among eight chemical indices evaluated in this study, the Parker index has been found most suitable for a quantitative description of state of weathering. Based on geochemical results of 174 samples, the index decreases almost linearly with an increasing extent of weathering. The results enable a better understanding of the modification of geotechnical properties of igneous rocks associated with weathering processes.

  6. The performance of hedge fund indices

    OpenAIRE

    Yigit Atilgan; Bali, Turan G.; K. Ozgur Demirtas

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the performance of various strategy-specific and composite hedge fund indices. Given the flexible and nonlinear investment mandates of hedge funds, various risk metrics that take factors such as extreme events and losses with respect to previous peaks are considered. Our analysis compares the risk-adjusted performances of hedge fund indices among themselves, with respect to the overall equitymarket and over time. Special attention is given to the distinction between in...

  7. Note on PI and Szeged indices

    CERN Document Server

    c, Aleksandar Ili\\'

    2011-01-01

    In theoretical chemistry molecular structure descriptors are used for modeling physico-chemical, pharmacological, toxicologic, biological and other properties of chemical compounds. In this paper we study distance-based graph invariants and present some improved and corrected sharp inequalities for PI, vertex PI, Szeged and edge Szeged topological indices, involving the number of vertices and edges, the diameter, the number of triangles and the Zagreb indices. In addition, we give a complete characterization of the extremal graphs.

  8. Developing Social Accountability Indicators at Medical Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalilian hamed Hasan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Medical education is constantly discussed by experts due to its close relationship with the public health from the perspectives of relevance, appropriateness and responsiveness to community needs. There is no consistent general model to evaluate the social accountability of medical schools. This study was conducted to develop indicators of social accountability in medical schools. Methods: Criteria and indicators of social accountability were developed during three stages. In the first stage, after a deep review on the Global Consensus on Social Accountability of Medical Schools (GCSA and several papers we developed baseline areas, criteria and indicators. In the second stage, during the first round of the Delphi, the tables draft was sent to twenty medical education experts. Then, comments were collected and classified in the first meeting of the focus group discussions and necessary reforms were implemented in the tables. In the third stage and second round of Delphi, the set of revisions were sent the same selected experts. The suggested reforms were applied after collecting the instructors’ comments in the second focus group discussions. Five members of the focus group discussions were selected based on their relevant knowledge and experience in social accountability issues. Results: Ten areas, twenty-eight criteria and ninety-five indicators were developed after three stages of study with two rounds using the Delphi method and two focus group sessions. To clarify the criteria and indicators, we tried to make the developed indicators and criteria practical so that they could be used in the social accountability evaluation of medical schools. Conclusion: According to the importance and key role of social accountability in the medical schools mission, using comprehensive indicators can result in better accreditation and evaluation of medical schools .This study has prepared applicable and comprehensive indicators for evaluation

  9. THE COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF ECOLOGICAL INDICATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bikova E.V.

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The comparative analysis of ecological indicators designed and specified for Moldova and similar indicators of the countries of CIS is made in the work. Some general items of information about power systems of the countries of CIS (the established capacities, manufacture of the electric power are given, the analysis of dynamics of emissions GHG- СО2, NOx, SO2 in Moldova and comparison with the emissions level in other countries of CIS is made.

  10. [A new colorimetric CO2 indicator Colibri].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, T; Hanaoka, K

    1996-06-01

    A new colorimetric carbon dioxide (CO2) indicator Colibri is a disposable, compact and light weighted device. Colibri does not need to be calibrated and is easily usable in an emergency. It indicates blue with CO2 below 4 mmHg and becomes yellow with CO2 above 40 mmHg. In comparison with EASY CAP, Colibri functions for a longer period and it has a humidifier and a bacterial filter. Colibri is useful for emergency situations and anesthetic care.

  11. A Catalogue of marine biodiversity indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heliana Teixeira

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A Catalogue of Marine Biodiversity Indicators was developed with the aim of providing the basis for assessing the environmental status of the marine ecosystems. Useful for the implementation of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD, this catalogue allows the navigation of a database of indicators mostly related to biological diversity, non-indigenous species, food webs, and seafloor integrity. Over 600 indicators were compiled, which were developed and used in the framework of different initiatives (e.g. EU policies, research projects and in national and international contexts (e.g. Regional Seas Conventions, and assessments in non-European seas. The catalogue reflects the current scientific capability to address environmental assessment needs by providing a broad coverage of the most relevant indicators for marine biodiversity and ecosystem integrity.The available indicators are reviewed according to their typology, data requirements, development status, geographical coverage, relevance to habitats or biodiversity components, and related human pressures. Through this comprehensive overview, we discuss the potential of the current set of indicators in a wide range of contexts, from large-scale to local environmental programs, and we also address shortcomings in light of current needs.Developed by the DEVOTES Project, the catalogue is freely available through the DEVOTool software application, which provides browsing and query options for the associated metadata. The tool allows extraction of ranked indicator lists best fulfilling selected criteria, enabling users to search for suitable indicators to address a particular biodiversity component, ecosystem feature, habitat or pressure in a marine area of interest.This tool is useful for EU Member States, Regional Sea Conventions, the European Commission, non-governmental organizations, managers, scientists and any person interested in marine environmental assessment. It allows users to

  12. Societal health and urban sustainability indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrich, C.H.; Tonn, B.E.

    1996-08-27

    Without the social will, no city can successfully Undertake the planning and programs necessary for meaningful progress toward sustainability. Social will derives from wellsprings of vital societal health. This paper presents an approach to helping cities in APEC member economies initiate a program for developing indicators of sustainability. Representative indicators of social capital and other aspects of civic engagement, as proxies for societal health, are presented.

  13. Composite indicator for railway infrastructure management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stephen M. Famurewa; Christer Stenstro¨ m; Matthias Asplund; Diego Galar; Uday Kumar

    2014-01-01

    The assessment and analysis of railway infra-structure capacity is an essential task in railway infra-structure management carried out to meet the required quality and capacity demand of railway transport. For sustainable and dependable infrastructure management, it is important to assess railway capacity limitation from the point of view of infrastructure performance. However, the existence of numerous performance indicators often leads to diffused information that is not in a format suitable to support decision making. In this paper, we demonstrated the use of fuzzy inference system for aggregating selected railway infrastructure performance indicators to relate maintenance function to capacity situation. The selected indicators consider the safety, comfort, punctuality and reliability aspects of railway infrastructure performance. The resulting composite indicator gives a reliable quanti-fication of the health condition or integrity of railway lines. A case study of the assessment of overall infrastructure performance which is an indication of capacity limitation is presented using indicator data between 2010 and 2012 for five lines on the network of Trafikverket (Swedish Trans-port Administration). The results are presented using cus-tomised performance dashboard for enhanced visualisation, quick understanding and relevant comparison of infra-structure conditions for strategic management. This gives additional information on capacity status and limitation from maintenance management perspective.

  14. Identifying novel drug indications through automated reasoning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Tari

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: With the large amount of pharmacological and biological knowledge available in literature, finding novel drug indications for existing drugs using in silico approaches has become increasingly feasible. Typical literature-based approaches generate new hypotheses in the form of protein-protein interactions networks by means of linking concepts based on their cooccurrences within abstracts. However, this kind of approaches tends to generate too many hypotheses, and identifying new drug indications from large networks can be a time-consuming process. METHODOLOGY: In this work, we developed a method that acquires the necessary facts from literature and knowledge bases, and identifies new drug indications through automated reasoning. This is achieved by encoding the molecular effects caused by drug-target interactions and links to various diseases and drug mechanism as domain knowledge in AnsProlog, a declarative language that is useful for automated reasoning, including reasoning with incomplete information. Unlike other literature-based approaches, our approach is more fine-grained, especially in identifying indirect relationships for drug indications. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: To evaluate the capability of our approach in inferring novel drug indications, we applied our method to 943 drugs from DrugBank and asked if any of these drugs have potential anti-cancer activities based on information on their targets and molecular interaction types alone. A total of 507 drugs were found to have the potential to be used for cancer treatments. Among the potential anti-cancer drugs, 67 out of 81 drugs (a recall of 82.7% are indeed known cancer drugs. In addition, 144 out of 289 drugs (a recall of 49.8% are non-cancer drugs that are currently tested in clinical trials for cancer treatments. These results suggest that our method is able to infer drug indications (original or alternative based on their molecular targets and interactions alone and has

  15. Comparison of two hydrological drought indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek A. Pathak

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Drought is a naturally occurring periodical event associated with significant decrease of water availability over a region. Drought, being a complex in nature it is difficult to define, quantify and monitor. Drought is mainly classified into meteorological drought, hydrological drought and agricultural drought. Among these classifications, assessment of hydrological drought has more importance in the water resources management perspective. Objective of this study is to analyse multi-time step hydrological drought by Stream flow Drought Index (SDI and Standardized Runoff Index (SRI. To obtain these indices, 36 years (1972–2007 of daily discharge data, measured in Ghataprabha river basin (a sub basin of Krishna river is considered. Results of both indices indicate moderate drought between 1986–1988 and 2001–2005 continuously. While comparing both indices, there is a good correlation between 9-month SRI and SDI is observed and it increases for 12-month SRI and SDI. This study may help to choose the appropriate drought indices among SRI and SDI for different lengths of drought studies.

  16. Ciphering Indicator approaches and user awareness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iosif Androulidakis

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the fundamental mobile phone security problems in GSM is the absence of base station authentication, which allows man-in-the-middle attacks. During such attacks, a third party activates a fake base station, which acts as a bypass to the network, thus switching off the encryption and intercepting the user’s communications. 3G mobile networks enforce mutual authentication but this can be circumvented if the 3G band is jammed by the attacker, forcing the phone to connect using GSM. GSM and newer standards provide a user alert indicating that the encryption has been switched off, which is called a Ciphering Indicator. In the present paper, different approaches followed by various manufacturers concerning the Ciphering Indicator are investigated. A total of 38 different mobile phones ranging from old to new and from simple to smart-phones that were produced by 13 different manufacturers were intercepted using a GSM testing device in order to document their reactions. Four approaches were identified with some manufacturers choosing not to implement the feature at all. It was also found that in the cases in which the feature was actually implemented, no universal indication was used and it was seldom documented in the phones’ manuals. User awareness regarding the Ciphering Indicator and security issues was also investigated via an empirical survey employing more than 7,000 users from 10 countries and was found to be significantly low.

  17. Comparison of East Asian winter monsoon indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Hui

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Four East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM indices are compared in this paper. In the research periods, all the indices show similar interannual and decadal-interdecadal variations, with predominant periods centering in 3–4 years, 6.5 years and 9–15 years, respectively. Besides, all the indices show remarkable weakening trends since the 1980s. The correlation coefficient of each two indices is positive with a significance level of 99%. Both the correlation analyses and the composites indicate that in stronger EAWM years, the Siberian high and the higher-level subtropical westerly jet are stronger, and the Aleutian low and the East Asia trough are deeper. This circulation pattern is favorable for much stronger northwesterly wind and lower air temperature in the subtropical regions of East Asia, while it is on the opposite in weaker EAWM years. Besides, EAWM can also exert a remarkable leading effect on the summer monsoon. After stronger (weaker EAWM, less (more summer precipitation is seen over the regions from the Yangtze River valley of China to southern Japan, while more (less from South China Sea to the tropical western Pacific.

  18. Clinical quality indicators of venous leg ulcers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Monica L; Mainz, Jan; Soernsen, Lars T

    2005-01-01

    In the clinical setting, diagnosis and treatment of venous leg ulcers can vary considerably from patient to patient. The first step to reducing this variation is to document venous leg ulcer care through use of quantitative scientific documentation principles. This requires the development of valid...... and reliable evidence-based quality indicators of venous leg ulcer care. A Scandinavian multidisciplinary, cross-sectional panel of wound healing experts developed clinical quality indicators on the basis of scientific evidence from the literature and subsequent group nominal consensus of the panel......; an independent medical doctor tested the feasibility and reliability of these clinical indicators, assessing the quality of medical technical care on 100 consecutive venous leg ulcer patients. Main outcome measures were healing, recurrence, pain, venous disease diagnosis, differential diagnosis and treatment...

  19. Indicators for Healthy Ageing — A Debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Fuchs

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Definitions of healthy ageing include survival to a specific age, being free of chronic diseases, autonomy in activities of daily living, wellbeing, good quality of life, high social participation, only mild cognitive or functional impairment, and little or no disability. The working group Epidemiology of Ageing of the German Association of Epidemiology organized a workshop in 2012 with the aim to present different indicators used in German studies and to discuss their impact on health for an ageing middle-European population. Workshop presentations focused on prevalence of chronic diseases and multimorbidity, development of healthy life expectancy at the transition to oldest-age, physical activity, assessment of cognitive capability, and functioning and disability in old age. The communication describes the results regarding specific indicators for Germany, and hereby contributes to the further development of a set of indicators for the assessment of healthy ageing.

  20. Indicators for Building Process without Final Defects -

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kirsten; Rasmussen, Grane Mikael Gregaard; Thuesen, Christian Langhoff

    2011-01-01

    This article introduces the preliminary data analysis, as well as the underlying theories and methods for identifying the indicators for building process without final defects. Since 2004, the Benchmark Centre for the Danish Construction Sector (BEC) has collected information about legal defects...... in connection with Danish construction enterprises that have been handed over. The project aims to utilise the knowledge potential available in BEC´s database in order to locate key performance indicators of construction failures and defects. The empirical data from BEC is applied in a more academic context...... than has been the case until now. The idea is to survey which indicators differentiate good construction and processes of construction from bad ones. The method is a retrospective analysis, which is based on data on the handing over. The data used has been partly that which BEC has already collected...

  1. Mattig's relation and dynamical distance indicators

    CERN Document Server

    Teerikorpi, Pekka

    2016-01-01

    We discuss how the redshift (Mattig) method in Friedmann cosmology relates to dynamical distance indicators based on Newton's gravity (Teerikorpi 2011). It belongs to the class of indicators where the relevant length inside the system is the distance itself (in this case the proper metric distance). As the Friedmann model has Newtonian analogy, its use to infer distances has instructive similarities to classical dynamical distance indicators. In view of the theoretical exact linear distance-velocity law, we emphasize that it is conceptually correct to derive the cosmological distance via the route: redshift (primarily observed) --> space expansion velocity (not directly observed) --> metric distance (physical length in "cm"). Important properties of the proper metric distance are summarized.

  2. Building a Metaframework for Sustainable Transport Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornet, Yannick; Gudmundsson, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Several recent papers presented at TRB and elsewhere seek to make sustainability manageable by suggesting indicators and performance measures as key tools to help conceptualize and operationalize sustainability for various levels of transportation-related planning and decision-making. These studies...... often prescribe frameworks that will allow sustainability indicators and measures to be selected and included in, for example, agency strategies and practices. Moreover, some suggest criteria for selection of individual indicators and performance measures. The studies do however not always agree on what...... is really meant by a framework or how to use it for making sustainability-based decisions, and they seem to underline partly different aspects and concerns. This paper will address the issue of frameworks more generically and explore what the authors term a ‘meta-framework’ with a set of associated criteria...

  3. Building a Metaframework for Sustainable Transport Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornet, Yannick; Gudmundsson, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    of individual indicators and performance measures. The studies, however, did not always agree on the definition of a framework or how to use one to make sustainability-based decisions, and they tended to differ on underscored aspects and concerns. The current study addressed the issue of frameworks more......Several recent papers presented at the annual meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C., and elsewhere have reported on efforts to make sustainability manageable. To this end, the papers suggested the use of indicators and performance measures to help conceptualize...... and operationalize sustainability for transportation-related planning and decision making. Often these studies presented frameworks that would allow sustainability indicators and measures to be included in, for example, agency strategies and practices. Moreover, some papers suggested criteria for the selection...

  4. Evaluation of headache service quality indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katsarava, Zaza; Gouveia, Raquel Gil; Jensen, Rigmor

    2015-01-01

    -Essen in Essen, Germany, and the Hospital da Luz in Lisbon, Portugal. Using seven previously-developed enquiry instruments, we interrogated health-care providers (HCPs), including doctors, nurses, psychologists and physiotherapists, as well as consecutive patients and their medical records. RESULTS......BACKGROUND: Evaluating quality of health care is increasingly recognized as an important contributor to the advancement of health-care delivery. We recently developed a set of quality indicators for headache care, intended to be applicable across countries, cultures and settings so...... that deficiencies in headache care worldwide might be recognized and rectified. These indicators themselves require evaluation and proof of fitness for purpose. This pilot study begins this process. METHODS: We tested the quality indicators in the tertiary headache centres of the University of Duisburg...

  5. Tamper indicating gold nanocup plasmonic films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeVetter, Brent M.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Bennett, Wendy D.; Schemer-Kohrn, Alan; Alvine, Kyle J.

    2017-02-13

    The spectral signature of nanoplasmonic films are both robust and tailorable with optical responses ranging from the visible to the near-infrared. We present the development of flexible, elastomeric nanoplasmonic films consisting of periodic arrays of gold nanocups as tamper indicating films. Gold nanocups have polarization-sensitive optical properties that may be manufactured into films that offer unique advantages for tamper indication. These flexible films can be made quickly and at low-cost using commercially available monodisperse polystyrene nanospheres through self-assembly followed by plasma etching, metal deposition, and lift-off from a sacrificial substrate. Polarization- and angle-dependent optical spectroscopic measurements were performed to characterize the fabricated films. Using polarization-sensitive hyperspectral imaging, we demonstrate how these films can be applied to tamper indication and counterfeit resistance applications.

  6. Clinical quality indicators of venous leg ulcers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Monica L; Mainz, Jan; Soernsen, Lars T

    2005-01-01

    and reliable evidence-based quality indicators of venous leg ulcer care. A Scandinavian multidisciplinary, cross-sectional panel of wound healing experts developed clinical quality indicators on the basis of scientific evidence from the literature and subsequent group nominal consensus of the panel......%) were assessed for venous surgery. Distal arterial pressure was measured following initial examination in 33 of the patients (34%). All patients (100%) were prescribed compression therapy. Of the 98 patients, 11 (11%) had ulcers recur in 3 months and 72 (73%) healed in 12 months, which is in line......; an independent medical doctor tested the feasibility and reliability of these clinical indicators, assessing the quality of medical technical care on 100 consecutive venous leg ulcer patients. Main outcome measures were healing, recurrence, pain, venous disease diagnosis, differential diagnosis and treatment...

  7. Ranking national research systems by citation indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aksnes, Dag W.; Schneider, Jesper Wiborg; Gunnarsson, Magnus

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical analysis of two different methodologies for calculating national citation indicators: whole counts and fractionalised counts. The aim of our study is to investigate the effect on relative citation indicators when citations to documents are fractionalised among...... the authoring countries. We have performed two analyses: a time series analysis of one country and a cross-sectional analysis of 23 countries. The results show that all countries’ relative citation indicators are lower when fractionalised counting is used. Further, the difference between whole...... and fractionalised counts is generally greatest for the countries with the highest proportion of internationally co-authored articles. In our view there are strong arguments in favour of using fractionalised counts to calculate relative citation indexes at the national level, rather than using whole counts, which...

  8. Gold resource modeling using pod indicator kriging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargawa, Waterman Sulistyana; Rauf, Abdul; Amri, Nur Ali

    2016-02-01

    This paper describes an implementation of the pod indicator kriging method used to gold resource modeling. Method such as ordinary kriging estimate the mean grade of a block that is fairly large. The usual outcome is that large blocks rarely turn out to be all ore or all waste, thus making reserve estimates an incorrect estimate of what will be mined. Pod indicator kriging offers a solution to this problem by estimating the distribution of grade values within a large block, rather than just estimating the mean grade of the block. Knowing the distribution of grade value within the block, it is then easy to calculate the proportion of the block that is above cutoff grade and the grade of the ore above cutoff grade. This research shows that the pod indicator kriging model is quite applicable and reliable in gold resourcemodeling.

  9. Do Indicators Influence Communication in SEA?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Jingjing; Kørnøv, Lone; Christensen, Per

    2013-01-01

    Indicators have become one of the primary tools for Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) in the Chinese context, but what does this use of indicators mean for communication within the SEA processes? This article explores how the selection and use of indicators influence the communication...... between different stakeholders involved in SEA. The article provides a conceptual communication model covering directions and level of communication. Using this model on empirical findings from interviews with two specific SEA cases and from general experience collected through an online survey...... and other relevant sectors (planning, energy, land use, forestry, etc.), the involvement of the public and NGOs is still not well implemented in Chinese SEA practice, and the direction of communication is mainly one-way channel of providing information rather than a two-way channel of dialogue...

  10. Improved indicators and monitoring of pesticide use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Peter Borgen; Kjær, Christian; Kudsk, Per

      The goal for the new improved indicator, PestNaB (Pesticiders NaturBelastning), was to develop a valid indicator reflecting the potential risk for nature due to application of pesticides and based on available data set for Danish conditions. The focus is on risk in relation the nature close to......, and directly inside, the agricultural areas so this excludes the risk for contamination of groundwater and the human risk. Elements from existing indicators are combined in a way that can make optimal use of the available data, where the level of complexity is adjusted to fit the conditions of uncertainty...... separately: (1) Terrestrial nature; (2) Steams; (3) Ponds and lakes. GIS is used to combine data for agriculture praxis in terms of the crop distribution with distance to the nature elements. Pesticide application was estimated based on crop distribution and the toxicity for a series of toxic end...

  11. Synthetic Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Indices in Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez, M.; Rodríguez-Merino, L. H.; Bertone, E.; Buzzoni, A.; Bressan, A.

    2007-12-01

    We present a progress report on the calculation of ultraviolet spectroscopic indices by using the UVBLUE library of synthetic spectra. The ensemble of indices are aimed at complementing empirical databases for the study of stellar populations. The definitions for the set of indices are mainly those empirically built upon data collected with the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE). Because the far-ultraviolet (far-UV) and mid-ultraviolet (mid-UV) are sensitive to quite dissimilar stellar populations, they are presented separately. We provide a few examples on the effects of the leading atmospheric parameters on index values. This analysis is, to our knowledge, the first based upon high resolution synthetic spectra and we envisage important applications on the study of stellar aggregates at UV wavelengths.

  12. On Topological Indices of Certain Dendrimer Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Adnan; Bashir, Yasir; Ahmad, Safyan; Gao, Wei

    2017-05-01

    A topological index can be considered as transformation of chemical structure in to real number. In QSAR/QSPR study, physicochemical properties and topological indices such as Randić, Zagreb, atom-bond connectivity ABC, and geometric-arithmetic GA index are used to predict the bioactivity of chemical compounds. Dendrimers are highly branched, star-shaped macromolecules with nanometer-scale dimensions. Dendrimers are defined by three components: a central core, an interior dendritic structure (the branches), and an exterior surface with functional surface groups. In this paper we determine generalised Randić, general Zagreb, general sum-connectivity indices of poly(propyl) ether imine, porphyrin, and zinc-Porphyrin dendrimers. We also compute ABC and GA indices of these families of dendrimers.

  13. STABILITY INDICATING HPLC METHOD DEVELOPMENT: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhoomi P. Shah*, Suresh Jain, Krishna K. Prajapati and Nasimabanu Y. Mansuri

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available High performance liquid chromatography is one of the most accurate methods widely used for the quantitative as well as qualitative analysis of drug product and is used for determining drug product stability. Stability indicating HPLC methods are used to separate various drug related impurities that are formed during the synthesis or manufacture of drug product. This article discusses the strategies and issues regarding the development of stability indicating HPLC system for drug substance. A number of key chromatographic factors were evaluated in order to optimize the detection of all potentially relevant degradants. The method should be carefully examined for its ability to distinguish the primary drug components from the impurities. New chemical entities and drug products must undergo forced degradation studies which would be helpful in developing and demonstrating the specificity of such stability indicating methods. At every stage of drug development practical recommendations are provided which will help to avoid failures.

  14. Socioeconomic indicators that matter for population health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantz, Paula M; Pritchard, Andrew

    2010-07-01

    Increasing research and policy attention is being given to how the socioeconomic environment influences health. This article discusses potential indicators or metrics regarding the socioeconomic environment that could play a role in an incentive-based system for population health. Given the state of the research regarding the influence of socioeconomic contextual variables on health outcomes, the state of data and metrics for these variables at the local level, and the potential for program and policy intervention, we recommend a set of metrics related to the socioeconomic composition of a community (including poverty, unemployment, and public assistance rates); educational attainment and achievement; racial segregation; and social-capital indicators such as density of voluntary organizations and voter turnout. These indicators reflect the evidence that population health gains depend on improvements in many of the fundamental social determinants of health, including meaningful employment, income security, educational opportunities, and engaged, active communities.

  15. Sustainability Index with Integrated Indicator Dependencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Wagenhals

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability is a growing concern worldwide. While companies used to focus on financial performance, now the focus has shifted to considering envi- ronmental and social performance as well. This trend is not only based on ‘image’, but recent research has proven that a complex approach regarding sustainability could significantly increase a company’s performance. The selection of sustainability indicators as well as the development of sustainabil- ity frameworks has been analysed by researchers already. The authors argue that interdependencies exist between different sustainability indicators and concepts. To address this issue, the fuzzy set method has been used and integrated into as- sessment methods, making it possible to develop a sustainability index which is able to consider the dependencies of the integrated variables. The proposed method can prove that indicator dependencies have a significant influence on the sustain - ability performance of a company and therefore on its overall performance.

  16. Lanthanide-halide based humidity indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beitz, James V.; Williams, Clayton W.

    2008-01-01

    The present invention discloses a lanthanide-halide based humidity indicator and method of producing such indicator. The color of the present invention indicates the humidity of an atmosphere to which it is exposed. For example, impregnating an adsorbent support such as silica gel with an aqueous solution of the europium-containing reagent solution described herein, and dehydrating the support to dryness forms a substance with a yellow color. When this substance is exposed to a humid atmosphere the water vapor from the air is adsorbed into the coating on the pore surface of the silica gel. As the water content of the coating increases, the visual color of the coated silica gel changes from yellow to white. The color change is due to the water combining with the lanthanide-halide complex on the pores of the gel.

  17. Comparison of Synchronization Indices: Behavioral Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Dugué

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The synchronization of a neuronal response to a given periodic stimulus is usually measured by Goldberg and Brown's vector strength metric. This index does not take omitted spikes into account. This particular limitation has motivated the development of two new indices: the corrected vector strength index and the corrected phase variance index, both including a penalty factor linked to the firing rate. In this paper, a theoretical study on the normalization of the corrected phase variance index is conducted. Both indices are compared to four existing ones using a simulated dataset which considers three desynchronizing disturbances: irregularity in firing, added spikes, and omitted spikes. In the case of unimodal responses, the two new indices are satisfying and appear the more promising in the case of real signals. In the multimodal case, the entropy-based index is better than the others even if this index is not drawback-free.

  18. [Indicators of quality in the critical patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, M C; Cabré, Ll; Ruiz, J; Blanch, Ll; Blanco, J; Castillo, F; Galdós, P; Roca, J; Saura, R M

    2008-01-01

    The utility of using quality indicators as a tool to measure the common practice and evaluate efficacy of measures established to improve quality has been demonstrated, making it possible to identify and make known the improvements carried out. The project "Quality indicators in the critical patient" has been conducted by the Spanish Society of Intensive and Critical Medicine (SEMICYUC) under the methodological management of the Foundation Avedis Donabedian (FAD) of Barcelona. Its objective was to develop key indicators in the care of the critical patient, considering the following as added values: reaching an agreement on the quality criteria in these patients and providing the professionals with a potent and reliable instrument for clinical evaluation and management, introducing common evaluation methods that make it possible to unify the measure, making a comparative evaluation (benchmarking), having information that makes it possible to develop quality plans (quantitative, objective, reliable and valid data) and having a system that assures total quality of care to the critical patient.

  19. People management as indicator of business excellence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haffer, Rafal; Kristensen, Kai

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to show the importance of people management as a key indicator of business excellence based on four research projects, conducted on the samples of Polish (in the years 2004-2005 and 2006-2007) and Danish companies (in 1999 and 2005). Design/methodology/approach – EFQM...... it possible to compare developing Polish and developed Danish companies in their initiatives aiming at business excellence. Findings – The results indicate significant negligence in the management of human resources as one of the initiatives towards business excellence of Polish enterprises before Poland...... Excellence Model indicators were used as the evaluation criteria for the studies. The data were next estimated as a structural equation model by partial least squares using SmartPLS software. That estimation was conducted on the model of the Danish Business Excellence Index methodology. Presented data make...

  20. Tamper indicating gold nanocup plasmonic films

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVetter, Brent M.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Bennett, Wendy D.; Schemer-Kohrn, Alan; Alvine, Kyle J.

    2017-02-01

    The spectral signatures of nanoplasmonic films are both robust and tailorable with optical responses ranging from the visible to the near-infrared. We present the development of flexible, elastomeric nanoplasmonic films consisting of periodic arrays of gold nanocups as tamper indicating films. Gold nanocups have polarization-sensitive optical properties that may be manufactured into films that offer unique advantages for tamper indication. These flexible films can be made quickly and at low-cost using the commercially available monodisperse polystyrene nanospheres through self-assembly followed by plasma etching, metal deposition, and lift-off from a sacrificial substrate. The polarization- and angle-dependent optical spectroscopic measurements were performed to characterize the fabricated films. Using polarization-sensitive hyperspectral imaging, we demonstrate how these films can be applied to tamper indication and counterfeit resistance applications.

  1. Performance Indicators of Wind Energy Production

    CERN Document Server

    D'Amico, G; Prattico, F

    2015-01-01

    Modeling wind speed is one of the key element when dealing with the production of energy through wind turbines. A good model can be used for forecasting, site evaluation, turbines design and many other purposes. In this work we are interested in the analysis of the future financial cash flows generated by selling the electrical energy produced. We apply an indexed semi-Markov model of wind speed that has been shown, in previous investigation, to reproduce accurately the statistical behavior of wind speed. The model is applied to the evaluation of financial indicators like the Internal Rate of Return, semi-Elasticity and relative Convexity that are widely used for the assessment of the profitability of an investment and for the measurement and analysis of interest rate risk. We compare the computation of these indicators for real and synthetic data. Moreover, we propose a new indicator that can be used to compare the degree of utilization of different power plants.

  2. Summary cortisol reactivity indicators: Interrelations and meaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer E. Khoury

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Research on the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA axis has involved a proliferation of cortisol indices. We surveyed recently published HPA-related articles and identified 15 such indices. We sought to clarify their biometric properties, specifically, how they interrelate and what they mean, because such information is rarely offered in the articles themselves. In the present article, the primary samples consist of community mothers and their infants (N = 297, who participated in two challenges, the Toy Frustration Paradigm and the Strange Situation Procedure. We sought to cross-validate findings from each of these samples against the other, and also against a clinically depressed sample (N = 48 and a sample of healthy older adults (N = 51 who participated in the Trier Social Stress Test. Cortisol was collected from all participants once before and twice after the challenges. These heterogenous samples were chosen to obtain the greatest possible range in cortisol levels and stress response regulation. Using these data, we computed the 15 summary cortisol indices identified in our literature survey. We assessed inter-relations amongst indices and determined their underlying dimensions via principal component analysis (PCA. The PCAs consistently extracted two components, accounting for 79%–93% of the variance. These components represent “total cortisol production” and “change in cortisol levels.” The components were highly congruent across challenge, time, and sample. High variable loadings and explained factor variance suggest that all indices represent their underlying dimensions very well. Thus the abundance of summary cortisol indices currently represented in the literature appears superfluous.

  3. Perinatal Complications and Aging Indicators by Midlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspi, Avshalom; Ambler, Antony; Belsky, Daniel W.; Chapple, Simon; Cohen, Harvey Jay; Israel, Salomon; Poulton, Richie; Ramrakha, Sandhya; Rivera, Christine D.; Sugden, Karen; Williams, Benjamin; Wolke, Dieter; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Perinatal complications predict increased risk for morbidity and early mortality. Evidence of perinatal programming of adult mortality raises the question of what mechanisms embed this long-term effect. We tested a hypothesis related to the theory of developmental origins of health and disease: that perinatal complications assessed at birth predict indicators of accelerated aging by midlife. METHODS: Perinatal complications, including both maternal and neonatal complications, were assessed in the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study cohort (N = 1037), a 38-year, prospective longitudinal study of a representative birth cohort. Two aging indicators were assessed at age 38 years, objectively by leukocyte telomere length (TL) and subjectively by perceived facial age. RESULTS: Perinatal complications predicted both leukocyte TL (β = −0.101; 95% confidence interval, −0.169 to −0.033; P = .004) and perceived age (β = 0.097; 95% confidence interval, 0.029 to 0.165; P = .005) by midlife. We repeated analyses with controls for measures of family history and social risk that could predispose to perinatal complications and accelerated aging, and for measures of poor health taken in between birth and the age-38 follow-up. These covariates attenuated, but did not fully explain the associations observed between perinatal complications and aging indicators. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide support for early-life developmental programming by linking newborns’ perinatal complications to accelerated aging at midlife. We observed indications of accelerated aging “inside,” as measured by leukocyte TL, an indicator of cellular aging, and “outside,” as measured by perceived age, an indicator of declining tissue integrity. A better understanding of mechanisms underlying perinatal programming of adult aging is needed. PMID:25349321

  4. Analyzing Crisis in Global Financial Indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sunil; Deo, Nivedita

    We apply the Random Matrix Theory and complex network techniques to 20 global financial indices and study the correlation and network properties before and during the financial crisis of 2008 respectively. We find that the largest eigenvalue deviate significantly from the upper bound which shows a strong correlation between financial indices. By using a sliding window of 25 days we find that largest eigenvalue represent the collective information about the correlation between global financial indices and its trend indicate the market conditions. It is confirmed that eigenvectors corresponding to second largest eigenvalue gives useful information about the sector formation in the global financial indices. We find that these clusters are formed on the basis of the geographical location. The correlation network is constructed using threshold method for different values of threshold θ in the range 0 to 0.9, at θ=0.2 the network is fully connected. At θ=0.6, the Americas, Europe and Asia/Pacific form different clusters before the crisis but during the crisis Americas and Europe are strongly linked. If we further increase the threshold to 0.9 we find that European countries France, Germany and UK consistently constitute the most tightly linked markets before and during the crisis. We find that the structure of Minimum Spanning Tree before the crisis is more star like whereas during the crisis it changes to be more chain like. Using the multifractal analysis, we find that Hurst exponents of financial indices increases during the period of crisis as compared to the period before the crisis. The empirical results verify the validity of measures, and this has led to a better understanding of complex financial markets.

  5. Performance indicators to evaluate Spatial Data Infrastructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lola Jiménez-Calderón

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The importance of geographic information in decision-making and the ability of Spatial Data Infrastructures to transform government actions from a spatial perspective have placed the IDE as a fundamental solution in decision-making at many levels. In view of its relevance and major investments in this area, there is great interest in different sectors of society to observe the impact of the IDE, its evolution and future scenarios. This creates the need for an assessment of its impact, to obtain an approximate measure the success of these initiatives. This requires the availability of reliable mechanisms of evaluation from different approaches and objectives, which does not prevent, despite having a wide variety of studies and proposals, remains a difficult task. As part of the evaluation and monitoring IDE there is a variety of approaches using performance indicators as valid to estimate their development mechanism. In this context it is noted, the effort of experts and organizations, by agreeing a method to evaluate the IDE on the one hand and to define indicators, which are the essential part of various methodological approaches on the other. Given that the indicators are principally a desire to measure, marked differences in purpose of evaluation, the name and scope of the indicators themselves are observed, which indicates there is still much work to be done. This article presents a comparative analysis of the use of indicators for monitoring and evaluation of IDE development, which has been considered the study of five major initiatives: IDEC of Catalonia, GIDEON the Netherlands, eSDI-Net + e INSPIRE European and UN-GGIM of America.

  6. Performance indicators, third quarter CY-1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    Secretary of Energy Notice (SEN-29-91) directed that a Department- wide ``uniform system of Performance Indicators (PI`s) for trending and analyzing operational data to help assess and support progress in improving performance and in strengthening line management control of operations relating to environmental safety, and health activities`` be developed. This Performance Indicator Report represents a compilation of data for the third quarter of calendar year 1991 for the following Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) facilities: (1) Bevalac, (2) 88-Inch Cyclotron, (3) Materials Sciences Division.

  7. Performance indicators, third quarter CY-1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    Secretary of Energy Notice (SEN-29-91) directed that a Department- wide uniform system of Performance Indicators (PI's) for trending and analyzing operational data to help assess and support progress in improving performance and in strengthening line management control of operations relating to environmental safety, and health activities'' be developed. This Performance Indicator Report represents a compilation of data for the third quarter of calendar year 1991 for the following Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) facilities: (1) Bevalac, (2) 88-Inch Cyclotron, (3) Materials Sciences Division.

  8. Achondroplasia in female twins: surgical indications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albisetti, Walter; Pedretti, Leopoldo; De Bartolomeo, Omar; Verdoni, Fabio; Memeo, Antonio

    2011-03-01

    Although in literature achondroplasia has been described profusely, reports on achondroplastic twins are limited. We present two cases of monozygotic female twins with achondroplasia, who underwent limb-lengthening surgical procedure with external fixation in the following five steps: tibia, femur, tibia; femur, homer. Both the cases presented a good limb length and an optimal correction of associated deformities after the treatment, fulfilling the indications. Surgical indications were mostly led by the axial deviations of the lower limbs, and the timing of the limb-lengthening procedures has been the same in both couples showing the importance of this aspect.

  9. Calibration of a universal indicated turbulence system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapin, W. G.

    1977-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental work on a Universal Indicated Turbulence Meter is described. A mathematical transfer function from turbulence input to output indication was developed. A random ergodic process and a Gaussian turbulence distribution were assumed. A calibration technique based on this transfer function was developed. The computer contains a variable gain amplifier to make the system output independent of average velocity. The range over which this independence holds was determined. An optimum dynamic response was obtained for the tubulation between the system pitot tube and pressure transducer by making dynamic response measurements for orifices of various lengths and diameters at the source end.

  10. Impact of Main Macroeconomic Indicators on Happiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yavuz Agan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between economic welfare and happiness has been compounded by different conceptualizations and statistical approaches. Economic conditions influence the welfare and social well-being of the society. While the literature indicates a positive relationship between income levels and life satisfaction, it indicates negative relationships between inflation, unemployment and life satisfaction. In this paper we analyze the relationship between main macroeconomic variables of unemployment, inflation, per capita GDP and life satisfaction using data from 57 countries. We make use of the standard regression analysis and conclude that our method is sufficient to examine the relations and the stated macro variables are significantly affecting life satisfaction towards expected directions.

  11. Certified metamodels for sensitivity indices estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prieur Clémentine

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Global sensitivity analysis of a numerical code, more specifically estimation of Sobol indices associated with input variables, generally requires a large number of model runs. When those demand too much computation time, it is necessary to use a reduced model (metamodel to perform sensitivity analysis, whose outputs are numerically close to the ones of the original model, while being much faster to run. In this case, estimated indices are subject to two kinds of errors: sampling error, caused by the computation of the integrals appearing in the definition of the Sobol indices by a Monte-Carlo method, and metamodel error, caused by the replacement of the original model by the metamodel. In cases where we have certified bounds for the metamodel error, we propose a method to quantify both types of error, and we compute confidence intervals for first-order Sobol indices. L’analyse de sensibilité globale d’un modèle numérique, plus précisément l’estimation des indices de Sobol associés aux variables d’entrée, nécessite généralement un nombre important d’exécutions du modèle à analyser. Lorsque celles-ci requièrent un temps de calcul important, il est judicieux d’effectuer l’analyse de sensibilité sur un modèle réduit (ou métamodèle, fournissant des sorties numériquement proches du modèle original mais pour un coût nettement inférieur. Les indices estimés sont alors entâchés de deux sortes d’erreur : l’erreur d’échantillonnage, causée par l’estimation des intégrales définissant les indices de Sobol par une méthode de Monte-Carlo, et l’erreur de métamodèle, liée au remplacement du modèle original par le métamodèle. Lorsque nous disposons de bornes d’erreurs certifiées pour le métamodèle, nous proposons une méthode pour quantifier les deux types d’erreurs et fournir des intervalles de confiance pour les indices de Sobol du premier ordre.

  12. The braking indices in pulsar emission models

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, F; Gil, J; Gil, Janusz

    2003-01-01

    Using the method proposed in a previous paper, we calculate pulsar braking indices in the models with torque contributions from both inner and outer accelerating regions, assuming that the interaction between them is negligible. We suggest that it is likely that the inverse Compton scattering induced polar vacuum gap and the outer gap coexist in the pulsar magnetosphere. We include the new near threshold vacuum gap models with curvature-radiation and inverse Compton scattering induced cascades, respectively; and find that these models can well reproduce the measured values of the braking indices.

  13. The thermal evolution indicator of carbonate rocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王兆云; 范璞; 程克明

    1995-01-01

    It has been studied by the solid state 13C NMR analysis that the chemical composition and the structure feature of kerogen of carbonate rocks are characteristic of different types and evolution degree. The purpose is to show the evolution degree using the structure parameters of kerogen of carbonate rocks. The detailed analysis of the carbon aromaticity (fa), the hydrogen aromaticity (Ha) and the average aromatic cluster size (Xb) indicates that Xb is the most effective indicator of evolution degree, and it is not influenced by the type and evolution degree of kerogen. The correlation between the average aromatic cluster size and vitrinite reflectance value of kerogen has also been established.

  14. The evaluation of research by scientometric indicators

    CERN Document Server

    Vinkler, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Aimed at academics, academic managers and administrators, professionals in scientometrics, information scientists and science policy makers at all levels. This book reviews the principles, methods and indicators of scientometric evaluation of information processes in science and assessment of the publication activity of individuals, teams, institutes and countries. It provides scientists, science officers, librarians and students with basic and advanced knowledge on evaluative scientometrics. Especially great stress is laid on the methods applicable in practice and on the clarification of quantitative aspects of impact of scientific publications measured by citation indicators.

  15. Norway's ICT Accessibility Legislation, Methods and Indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rygg, Malin; Rømen, Dagfinn; Sterri, Brynhild Runa

    2016-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the Norwegian legislation on Universal Design of information and communication technology (ICT) and how the Norwegian Authority for Universal Design of ICT works to enforce and achieve the goals behind the legislation. The Authority uses indicators to check websites for compliance with the regulations. This paper describes the rationale and intended use for the indicators and how they are used for both supervision and benchmarks as well as a way of gathering data to give an overview of the current state of Universal Design of websites in Norway.

  16. Impact of Main Macroeconomic Indicators on Happiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yavuz Agan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between economic welfare and happiness has been compounded by different conceptualizations and statistical approaches. Economic conditions influence the welfare and social well-being of the society. While the literature indicates a positive relationship between income levels and life satisfaction, it indicates negative relationships between inflation, unemployment and life satisfaction. In this paper we analyze the relationship between main macroeconomic variables of unemployment, inflation, per capita GDP and life satisfaction using data from 57 countries. We make use of the standard regression analysis and conclude that our method is sufficient to examine the relations and the stated macro variables are significantly affecting life satisfaction towards expected directions

  17. Econometric Models for Forecasting of Macroeconomic Indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhanova, Elena I.; Shirnaeva, Svetlana Y.; Mokronosov, Aleksandr G.

    2016-01-01

    The urgency of the research topic was stipulated by the necessity to carry out an effective controlled process by the economic system which can hardly be imagined without indices forecasting characteristic of this system. An econometric model is a safe tool of forecasting which makes it possible to take into consideration the trend of indices…

  18. Evaluation of Yield Maps Using Fuzzy Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper presents a new methodology for the evaluation of yield maps using fuzzy indicators, which takes into account atypical phenomena and expert opinions regarding the maps. This methodology could allow for improved methods for deciding boundary locations for precision application of production...

  19. Indication for pharmacological treatment is often lacking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skoog, Jessica; Midlöv, Patrik; Beckman, Anders

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although the elderly have a substantially higher drug use than younger patients, even after adjustment for multimorbidity, there is limited knowledge about the elderly's indication for treatment. It is essential for elderly patients to have a well-planned drug therapy. The first step ...

  20. New emergy indices for sustainable development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hong-fang; Lan, Sheng-fang; Li, Lei; Peng, Shao-lin

    2003-07-01

    The emergy indices for the evaluation of system's sustainable development ability were studied. Results indicated that the emergy indices are simplified and merged, and a new emergy index for sustainable development (EISD) is deduced. Employing EISD, two cases are conducted. The first one is to compare three different dike-pond agro-ecological engineering modes, which are: melon-melon-cabbage-four domestic fishes (mode I), melon-melon-cabbage-pig-four domestic fishes (mode II) and melon-melon-cabbage-pig-four domestic fishes combined with Siniperca chuatsi B. (mode III). The result is that the EISD of mode I is 0.53. Mode II's EISD is 5.26 times of mode I, and mode III's EISD is 6.83 times of mode I. The second one is to evaluate the development of Zhongshan City, Pearl Delta, during 1996 to 2000. The result indicated that the EISD of Zhongshan had appreciably declined from 1996 to 1998, and quickly improved from 1998 to 2000, partly because of its environment protection and product construction. Both of the two cases studies showed that EISD can assessment the sustainable development ability more roundly, with the consideration of environmental impact and social-economic effect at the same time.

  1. Presenting Software Metrics Indicators- A Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pantazos, Kostas; Shollo, Arisa; Staron, Miroslaw

    2010-01-01

    study we identified the main requirements for methods for visualizing the indicators, developed these visualizations and conducted a series of interviews evaluating them. The results show that the dashboard presentation is the best solution, but that the simple, tabular visualizations are next best...

  2. VNIR Spectroscopy Estimation of Soil Quality Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowledge of within-field spatial variability in soil quality indicators is important to assess the impact of site-specific management on the soil. Standard methods for measuring these properties require considerable time and expense, so sensor-based approaches would be useful. The purposes of this ...

  3. Scaling Analysis of Author Level Bibliometric Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wildgaard, Lorna; Larsen, Birger

    2014-01-01

    Despite of the concerns from the bibliometric community, evaluation of the individual through bibliometric indices is already performed as a form of ‘pseudo peer review’ in selection of candidates for tenure, in background checks of potential employees’ publicationand citation impact, and in appr...

  4. Education and the Economy: An Indicators Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Paul T.; And Others

    Education is an important contributor to productivity growth and has a major influence on the standard of living of the U.S. population. Economic productivity depends on human as well as physical capital. This report is the first in a series of indicator reports recommended by the congressionally mandated Special Study Panel on Education…

  5. Performance indicator of a bridge expansion joint

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalkman, I.M.; Lentzen, S.S.K.; Courage, W.M.G.; Napoles, O.M.; Galanti, F.M.B.

    2011-01-01

    In general the condition of a structure can be assessed in terms of a performance indicator. For example, this can be the strength of a structure. An asset manager is concerned with ensuring that the performance of a structure does not fall below a given minimum level. This can be achieved by inspec

  6. Education at a Glance 2012: OECD Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2012

    2012-01-01

    "Education at a Glance: OECD Indicators" is the authoritative source for accurate and relevant information on the state of education around the world. It provides data on the structure, finances, and performance of education systems in the OECD's 34 member countries, as well as a number of non-member G20 nations. Featuring more than 140…

  7. Indicative Surfaces for Crystal Optical Effects

    OpenAIRE

    R.Vlokh,; O.Mys; Vlokh, O.

    2007-01-01

    This paper has mainly a pedagogical meaning. Our aim is to demonstrate a correct general approach for constructing indicative surfaces of higher-rank tensors. We reconstruct the surfaces of piezo-optic tensor for beta-BaB2O4 and LiNbO3 crystals, which have been incorrectly presented in our recent papers.

  8. Energy Innovation Systems Indicator Report 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klitkou, Antje; Borup, Mads; Iversen, Eric

    statistics and reports. Among these are the pilot report for a Nordic Energy Technology Scoreboard (Klitkou et al., 2010) and parts of the results of the eNERGIA project (Klitkou et al., 2008b). For this report the indicator based tables and figures have been updated and new developments in the discussion...

  9. MODELING OF INDICATORS OF LIVESTOCK IN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina S. Darda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of livestock in food without dangerous country. The analysis of the dynamics of production indicators waspsmainly livestock products. The problems offorecasting-ing performance of LivestockDevelopment of the Russian Federationon the basis of the a-analytical models ofalignment and connected series.

  10. An Indicator for ecosystem externalities in fishing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn-Jonsen, Lars; Andersen, Ken Haste; Vestergaard, Niels

    a benefit indicator that explicitly divides the consequences of fishing into internal and external benefits. This analysis demonstrates that the forage fish fleet has a notable economic impact on the large fish fleet, but the reverse is not true. The impact can be either negative or positive, which entails...

  11. An indicator for ecosystem externalities in fishing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn-Jonsen, Lars; Andersen, Ken Haste; Vestergaard, Niels

    2016-01-01

    a benefit indicator that explicitly divides the consequences of fishing into internal and external benefits. This analysis demonstrates that the forage fish fleet has a notable economic impact on the large fish fleet, but the reverse is not true. The impact can be either negative or positive, which entails...

  12. Selecting a Regression Saturated by Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendry, David F.; Johansen, Søren; Santos, Carlos

    We consider selecting a regression model, using a variant of Gets, when there are more variables than observations, in the special case that the variables are impulse dummies (indicators) for every observation. We show that the setting is unproblematic if tackled appropriately, and obtain...

  13. Overtaking as Indicator of Road Traffic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dražen Topolnik

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Overtaking is presemed as one of the indicators of roadtraffic flow. The possibility of overtaking depends on the existenceof an intetval in the opposing traffic flow sufficient to performovertaking. It also analyses the probability of overtakingby applying adequate equations and graphical presentations

  14. A century of indicator dilution technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens H; Jensen, Gorm B; Larsson, Henrik B W

    2014-01-01

    This review imparts the history and the present status of the indicator dilution technique with quantitative bolus injection. The first report on flow measurement with this technique appeared 100 years ago. In 1928, the use of intravascular dyes made possible a widespread application in animals...

  15. Campus Prosociality as a Sustainability Indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waring, Timothy M.; Sullivan, Abigail V.; Stapp, Jared R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Prosociality may in part determine sustainability behavior. Prior research indicates that pro-environmental behavior correlates with prosocial attitudes, and separately, that prosociality correlates with social support in homes and communities. Therefore, prosociality may constitute a keystone variable linking human well-being with…

  16. Selecting indicators of future corporate business development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Dvořáček

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents applications of discriminate analysis to predicting corporate economy future developments. The discriminate analysis was applied employing 5 to 8 input indicators (discriminators. Attaining maximum accuracy, 7 discriminators suffice. A final choice of discriminators was made by further discriminate analysis applications, and by searching causes of erroneous classification, which concerned a closer examination of input data files.

  17. Short Communication - Aquatic Oil Pollution Impact Indicators ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Short Communication - Aquatic Oil Pollution Impact Indicators. ... increased biochemical oxygen demand, increased water temperature and acidity of the water ... Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management Vol. ... Journal Quality · for Researchers · for Journals · for Authors · for Policy Makers · about Open ...

  18. Estimating Decision Indices Based on Composite Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knupp, Tawnya Lee

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an IRT model that would enable the estimation of decision indices based on composite scores. The composite scores, defined as a combination of unidimensional test scores, were either a total raw score or an average scale score. Additionally, estimation methods for the normal and compound multinomial models…

  19. Better energy indicators for sustainable development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Peter G.; Abdalla, Kathleen; Quadrelli, Roberta; Vera, Ivan

    2017-08-01

    The UN Sustainable Development Goal 7 aims to deliver affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all. Tracking progress towards the targets under this goal can spur better energy statistics and data gathering capacity, and will require new indicators that also consider the interplay with other goals.

  20. New Economic and Financial Indicators of Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittman, James; Wilhelm, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    Financial accounting methods fall short of fully accounting for the relative sustainability of college and university operations. Management of social, environmental, and economic performance will be aided by changes to and new developments in financial accounting practices to complement other indicators of sustainability.

  1. Cosmological distance indicators by coalescing binaries

    CERN Document Server

    De Laurentis, Mariafelicia; De Martino, Ivan; Formisano, Michelangelo

    2011-01-01

    Gravitational waves detected from well-localized inspiraling binaries would allow to determine, directly and independently, both binary luminosity and redshift. In this case, such systems could behave as "standard candles" providing an excellent probe of cosmic distances up to z < 0.1 and thus complementing other indicators of cosmological distance ladder.

  2. A rejoinder on energy versus impact indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leydesdorff, Loet; Opthof, Tobias

    2012-01-01

    Citation distributions are so skewed that using the mean or any other central tendency measure is ill-advised. Unlike G. Prathap's scalar measures (Energy, Exergy, and Entropy or EEE), the Integrated Impact Indicator (I3) is based on non-parametric statistics using the (100) percentiles of the distr

  3. NEJHE's Trends & Indicators in Higher Education, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemer, Sue, Comp.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the New England Journal of Higher Education (NEJHE) Trends & Indicators in Higher Education, featuring 64 tables and charts exploring New England's demography, high school performance and graduation, college enrollment, college graduation rates and degree production, higher education financing, and university research. The…

  4. Trends & Indicators in Higher Education, 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connection: The Journal of the New England Board of Higher Education, 2002

    2002-01-01

    This issue contains data on trends and indicators of New England higher education, including demography, admissions, enrollment, degrees, educational attainment and income, student migration, retention and graduation, financing higher education, and university research and development. It also includes articles related to the data and on New…

  5. Health indicators profiles: an instrument for comparation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deckers, J.G.M.

    2003-01-01

    As part of the European Commission Health Monitoring Programma, health indicators have been developed which contribute to the establishment of an European health monitoring system. Epidemiological information of this system will be derived from various information sources. To study the appropriatene

  6. The Maslov indices of Hamiltonian periodic orbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gosson, Maurice de [Blekinge Institute of Technology, SE 371 79 Karlskrona (Sweden); Gosson, Serge de [Vaexjoe University (MSI), SE 351 95 Vaexjoe (Sweden)

    2003-12-05

    We use the properties of the Leray index to give precise formulae in arbitrary dimensions for the Maslov index of the monodromy matrix arising in periodic Hamiltonian systems. We compare our index with other indices appearing in the literature. (letter to the editor)

  7. Indicators for livestock and crop biodiversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eaton, D.J.F.; Windig, J.J.; Hiemstra, S.J.; Veller, van M.G.P.; Trach, N.X.; Hao, P.X.; Doan, D.H.; Hu, R.

    2006-01-01

    The focus of this study is on indicators for genetic resources, relevant for food and agriculture, for future food security and other functions of genetic resources or agro-biodiversity. The is one small area in the range of levels and sectors. It is recognized that there are many interrelationships

  8. A rejoinder on energy versus impact indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leydesdorff, Loet; Opthof, Tobias

    2012-01-01

    Citation distributions are so skewed that using the mean or any other central tendency measure is ill-advised. Unlike G. Prathap's scalar measures (Energy, Exergy, and Entropy or EEE), the Integrated Impact Indicator (I3) is based on non-parametric statistics using the (100) percentiles of the distr

  9. Indicators for Building Process without Final Defects -

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kirsten; Rasmussen, Grane Mikael Gregaard; Thuesen, Christian Langhoff

    2011-01-01

    This article introduces the preliminary data analysis, as well as the underlying theories and methods for identifying the indicators for building process without final defects. Since 2004, the Benchmark Centre for the Danish Construction Sector (BEC) has collected information about legal defects ...

  10. The Magic Sign: Acids, Bases, and Indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Donald B.

    1986-01-01

    Presents an approach that is used to introduce elementary and junior high students to a series of activities that will provide concrete experiences with acids, bases, and indicators. Provides instructions and listings of needed solutions and materials for developing this "magic sign" device. Includes background information and several…

  11. Selecting a Regression Saturated by Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendry, David F.; Johansen, Søren; Santos, Carlos

    We consider selecting a regression model, using a variant of Gets, when there are more variables than observations, in the special case that the variables are impulse dummies (indicators) for every observation. We show that the setting is unproblematic if tackled appropriately, and obtain...

  12. Campus Prosociality as a Sustainability Indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waring, Timothy M.; Sullivan, Abigail V.; Stapp, Jared R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Prosociality may in part determine sustainability behavior. Prior research indicates that pro-environmental behavior correlates with prosocial attitudes, and separately, that prosociality correlates with social support in homes and communities. Therefore, prosociality may constitute a keystone variable linking human well-being with…

  13. Sustainability Performance Indicators for Industrial Enterprise Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurgis K. Staniškis

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Sustainable development is increasingly considered to be a driving strategy for development. Despite the fact that sustainability performance evaluation receives broad attention from international organizations, industrial enterprises and researchers, a lot of unanswered questions remain in this area. It is commonly agreed that the use of performance indicators is a most effective way to evaluate sustainability performance, but design/ selection of sustainability performance indicators and their application wait to be explored at both national and enterprise levels until the consensus concerning the most effective performance indicator systems and methodologies for their application is achieved. This article (i provides an overview of different sustainability performance evaluation systems with identification of their strengths and weaknesses in respect of improved management effectiveness at an enterprise level; (ii presents recommendations for development/ selection of sustainability performance indicators that would make it possible to increase effectiveness of decision-making and to promote application of preventive measures, and (iii provides recommendations how the process of sustainability performance evaluation could be carried out by industrial enterprises in practice.

  14. Safety performance indicators for the road network.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijermars, W. Gitelman, V. Papadimitriou, E. Lima De & Azevedo, C.

    2010-01-01

    Within the 6th FP European project SafetyNet, a team has worked on the development of Safety Performance Indicators (SPIs) on seven road safety related areas. These SPIs reflect the operational conditions of the road traffic system that influence the system's safety performance. SPIs were developed

  15. A rejoinder on energy versus impact indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leydesdorff, L.; Opthof, T.

    2012-01-01

    Citation distributions are so skewed that using the mean or any other central tendency measure is ill-advised. Unlike G. Prathap’s scalar measures (Energy, Exergy, and Entropy or EEE), the Integrated Impact Indicator (I3) is based on non-parametric statistics using the (100) percentiles of the distr

  16. Voederconversie geen bruikbare indicator voor conditiescoreverloop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Animal Sciences Group (ASG),

    2006-01-01

    Na een analyse van hun eigen bedrijfscijfers komt het melkveehoudernetwerk “Verder dan voederconversie” tot de conclusie dat de voederconversie geen praktisch bruikbare indicator is voor het conditieverloop van de melkveestapel. Om het verloop van de conditiescore in beeld te houden en van daaruit d

  17. Sustainable Transportation - Indicators, Frameworks, and Performance Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Henrik; Hall, Ralph P.; Marsden, Greg;

    This textbook provides an introduction to the concept of sustainability in the context of transportation planning, management, and decision-making. The book is divided into two parts. In the first part, indicators and frameworks for measuring sustainable development in the transportation sector...

  18. Peer Grouping: The Refinement of Performance Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hom, Willard

    2008-01-01

    Community colleges operate under much scrutiny these days, and these institutions have experienced a growing emphasis on performance indicators as paths to institutional accountability. California's system of 109 community colleges recently developed and implemented an innovative accountability program that used peer group comparison as one of its…

  19. A specification language for organisational performance indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popova, Viara; Treur, Jan

    2007-01-01

    A specification language for performance indicators and their relations and requirements is presented and illustrated for a case study in logistics. The language can be used in different forms, varying from informal, semiformal, graphical to formal. A software environment has been developed that s

  20. Facilities Performance Indicators Report, 2006-07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazner, Steve, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    The "Facilities Performance Indicators Survey" ("FPI") supersedes and builds upon the two major surveys APPA conducted in the past: the Comparative Costs and Staffing (CCAS) survey and the Strategic Assessment Model (SAM). The "FPI" covers all the materials collected in CCAS and SAM, along with some select new data points and improved survey…

  1. South Africa's School Infrastructure Performance Indicator System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibberd, Jeremy

    2007-01-01

    While some South African schools have excellent infrastructure, others lack basic services such as water and sanitation. This article describes the school infrastructure performance indicator system (SIPIS) in South Africa. The project offers an approach that can address both the urgent provision of basic services as well as support the…

  2. Rorschach Indices of Children Classified as Hyperactive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Michael; Oshman, Harvey

    1981-01-01

    The Rorschach protocols of 20 boys (ages 6-11 years) rated by their teachers as hyperactive and those of 20 nonhyperactive boys were compared along 16 indices. Findings are discussed in terms of the assessment of hyperactivity within a conceptual framework which regards impulsivity as a major underlying dimension. (Author/SJL)

  3. A Case for Developing Community Drug Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughran, Hilda; McCann, Mary Ellen

    2011-01-01

    The EU Action Plan on Drugs (2005-2008) calls for member states of the European Union to provide information on five key epidemiological indicators. These are: general population surveys, prevalence and patterns of problem drug use, drug related infectious diseases, drug related deaths and mortality of drug users, and demand for drug treatment.…

  4. Sustainable development assessment through indicators evolving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.V. Zharova

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The sustainable development indicators perform an essential function of incorporating knowledge about the development of human society into decision-making at all stages from planning and application to evaluation of policy impacts. The article devoted to analysis of sustainable development indicators (SDI evolution and peculiarities of designing the set of SDI for Ukraine, Moldova, Georgia and other countries. It is illustrated that sustainable countries demonstrate success in economic and social development and in institutional support of developing. The necessity of unified set of sustainable development indicators for planning and evaluation is stressed. The results of the analysis. The paper provides an overview of evolution and application experience of sustainability measuring practice. Researchers analyze the directions of measurement approach progress. Modern trends of indicators’ using are explored. The research proofed that the more commonly used nowadays frameworks for evaluation sustainability of human development are Pressure-State-Response (PSR and its variations, limited mostly to the environmental pillar; human well-being/ecosystem well-being; issue or theme based frameworks; and capital accounting based frameworks, centered on the economic and environmental pillar of sustainable development. Research identified the complexity of overview of the large variety of national and international programs of compiling and publishing social, environmental and sustainable development indicators. It concluded that in general these programs include some or all of the following topics: population (growth, migration, refugees; human needs (health, food, housing, education, equity, security, etc.; renewable and non-renewable natural resources; environmental quality (air, water, land; ecosystems (acidification, eutrophication, biodiversity; economic sectors (and their impacts, including emissions, natural resource use

  5. FINANCIAL INDICATORS IN MANAGERIAL DECISION-MAKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenyves Veronika

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Working capital is crucial to determine the short-term financial position of a given company. Significant changes in working capital provide important information to the stakeholders. Working capital analysis is one of the methods of credit rating and it can also help to better understand the business cycle of a given company. One of the key elements of working capital management is liquidity management, that is, to maintain a company’s ability to pay continuously, because in the short-term, it ensures the company to stay afloat, and justifies its progress on the long-term. Decision makers are in need of such indicators and interrelations that can help precisely assessing the real situation and recognise problems of funding in time. Achieving this goal is a very complex task because the use of several indicators and perspectives are necessary to measure liquidity. For this, companies have to develop management and organizational structures that provide an adequate framework to measure and follow up liquidity. To facilitate this, the study draws attention to interrelations that anticipate the actual liquidity position of a company more precisely. Generally, liquidity indicators are being used to measure a company’s ability to pay, but those do not sufficiently take into account for how long different components are tied up during the operation. Adjusted liquidity indicators can be calculated to solve these problems as these include the time an asset is in the operating cycle in the case of current assets and short-term liabilities. At the same time, these days the continuous monitoring and analysis of operational data has become essential, too. The database which has been created as a result of the annual financial statement reporting obligation that was introduced by the Act C in 2000 can be used to analyse company data on a yearly basis. However, in case we would like to examine the changes of these indicators continuously during the

  6. Soil Quality Indicator: a new concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barão, Lúcia; Basch, Gottlieb

    2017-04-01

    During the last century, cultivated soils have been intensively exploited for food and feed production. This exploitation has compromised the soils' natural functions and many of the soil-mediated ecosystems services, including its production potential for agriculture. Also, soils became increasingly vulnerable and less resilient to a wide range of threats. To overcome this situation, new and better management practices are needed to prevent soil from degradation. However, to adopt the best management practices in a specific location, it is necessary to evaluate the soil quality status first. Different soil quality indicators have been suggested over the last decades in order to evaluate the soil status, and those are often based on the performance of soil chemical, physical and biological properties. However, the direct link between these properties and the associated soil functions or soil vulnerability to threats appears more difficult to be established. This present work is part of the iSQAPER project- Interactive Soil Quality Assessment in Europe and China for Agricultural Productivity and Environmental Resilience, where new soil quality concepts are explored to provide better information regarding the effects of the most promising agricultural management practices on soil quality. We have developed a new conceptual soil quality indicator which determines the soil quality status, regarding its vulnerability towards different threats. First, different indicators were specifically developed for each of the eight threats considered - Erosion, SOM decline, Poor Structure, Poor water holding capacity, Compaction, N-Leaching, Soil-borne pests and diseases and Salinization. As an example for the case of Erosion, the RUSLE equation for the estimate of the soil annual loss was used. Secondly, a reference classification was established for each indicator to integrate all possible results into a Good, Intermediate or Bad classification. Finally, all indicators were

  7. Alternative indicators for measuring hospital productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serway, G D; Strum, D W; Haug, W F

    1987-08-01

    This article explores the premise that the appropriateness and usefulness of typical hospital productivity measures have been affected by three changes in delivery: Organizational restructuring and other definition and data source changes that make full-time equivalent employee (FTE) measurements ambiguous. Transition to prospective payment (diagnosis-related groups). Increase in capitation (prepaid, at risk) programs. The effects of these changes on productivity management indicate the need for alternative productivity indicators. Several productivity measures that complement these changes in internal operations and the external hospital business environment are presented. These are based on an analysis of four hospitals within a multihospital system, and an illustration and interpretation of an array of measures, based on ten months of actual data, is provided. In conclusion, the recommendation is made for hospital management to collect an expanded set of productivity measures and review them in light of changing expense and revenue management schemes inherent in new payment modes.

  8. [Medical indications for acupuncture: Systematic review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Ortego, Juan; Solans-Domènech, Maite; Carrion, Carme

    2016-09-16

    Acupuncture is a medical procedure with a very wide range of indications according to the WHO. However the indications require robust scientific evidence to support them. We have conducted a systematic review (2010-2015) in order to define in which pathologies acupuncture can be an effective strategy, STRICTA criteria that aim to set up acupuncture clinical trials standard criteria were defined in 2010. Only systematic reviews and meta-analyses of good or very good methodological quality according to SIGN criteria were selected. Its main objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of acupuncture in the management of any disease. Most of the final 31 selected reviews focus on chronic pain-related diseases, mainly in the disciplines of Neurology, Orthopaedics and Rheumatology. Current evidence supports the use of acupuncture in the treatment of headaches, migraines, back pain, cervical pain and osteoarthritis. The remaining pathologies still require further good quality studies.

  9. Automatic recognition of malicious intent indicators.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drescher, D. J.; Yee, Mark L.; Giron, Casey; Fogler, Robert Joseph; Nguyen, Hung D.; Koch, Mark William

    2010-09-01

    A major goal of next-generation physical protection systems is to extend defenses far beyond the usual outer-perimeter-fence boundaries surrounding protected facilities. Mitigation of nuisance alarms is among the highest priorities. A solution to this problem is to create a robust capability to Automatically Recognize Malicious Indicators of intruders. In extended defense applications, it is not enough to distinguish humans from all other potential alarm sources as human activity can be a common occurrence outside perimeter boundaries. Our approach is unique in that it employs a stimulus to determine a malicious intent indicator for the intruder. The intruder's response to the stimulus can be used in an automatic reasoning system to decide the intruder's intent.

  10. Youth Indicators of Late-M Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Daniel; Cruz, K.; Lépine, S.; Alpert, N.

    2011-01-01

    We present a study in which we searched for a correlation between weak Na absorption doublet (8183Å, 8194Å) and strong H-Alpha emission (6563Å) in late-M dwarf stars (M6-M9), as both are indicative of youth. Our sample consists of late-M Dwarfs from the LSPM Survey (Lépine and Shara, 2005), which contain stars with measured proper motions of mu > 40 mas/yr. Measurements for emission and absorption strength were made using spectral indices. Our preliminary results are presented; future work will include a similar analysis of early type M Dwarfs, as well as kinematics. This work was funded by the CUNY Summer Undergraduate Research Program, as well as the CUNY Macaulay Honors College, and we acknowledge the hospitality of the American Museum of Natural History.

  11. Environmental indicators of intra-urban hetererogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rego, Rita Franco; Lima, Veronica Cadena; Lima, Ana Cerqueira; Barreto, Mauricio L; Prado, Matildes S; Strina, Agostino

    2013-06-01

    A large number of human diseases are related to poor access to water and sewer systems, inadequate solid waste management and deficient storm water drainage. The goal of this study was to formulate environmental sanitation indicators and classify sanitation conditions in specific sewer basins and their respective neighborhoods. The database used contains information on the following sanitation components in these areas: water supply, sewer systems, urban drainage, road pavement, building typology and public cleaning. Data was analyzed using cluster analysis. The key variable of each component was identified, and eight sewer basins and twenty-three neighborhoods were classified into the following categories: good, regular, and poor. The use of environmental sanitation indicators allows decision makers to identify critical areas and define priorities for improving environmental sanitation conditions.

  12. Description of future drought indices in Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyunwoo; Sridhar, Venkataramana

    2017-10-01

    This article presents projected future drought occurrences in five river basins in Virginia. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) climate models were used to derive input variables of multiple drought indices, such as the Standardized Soil Moisture index (SSI), the Multivariate Standardized Drought Index (MSDI), and the Modified Palmer Drought Severity Index (MPDSI) for both historic and future periods. The results of SSI indicate that there was an overall increase in agricultural drought occurrences and that these were caused by increases in evapotranspiration and runoff. However, the results of the MSDI and MPDSI projected a decrease in drought occurrences in future periods due to a greater increase in precipitation in the future. Furthermore, GCM-downscaled products (precipitation and temperature) were verified using comparisons with historic observations, and the results of uncertainty analyses suggest that the lower and upper bounds of future drought projections agree with historic conditions.

  13. Prognostic Indicators for Ebola Patient Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Samuel J; Maenner, Matthew J; Kuah, Solomon; Erickson, Bobbie Rae; Coffee, Megan; Knust, Barbara; Klena, John; Foday, Joyce; Hertz, Darren; Hermans, Veerle; Achar, Jay; Caleo, Grazia M; Van Herp, Michel; Albariño, César G; Amman, Brian; Basile, Alison Jane; Bearden, Scott; Belser, Jessica A; Bergeron, Eric; Blau, Dianna; Brault, Aaron C; Campbell, Shelley; Flint, Mike; Gibbons, Aridth; Goodman, Christin; McMullan, Laura; Paddock, Christopher; Russell, Brandy; Salzer, Johanna S; Sanchez, Angela; Sealy, Tara; Wang, David; Saffa, Gbessay; Turay, Alhajie; Nichol, Stuart T; Towner, Jonathan S

    2016-02-01

    To determine whether 2 readily available indicators predicted survival among patients with Ebola virus disease in Sierra Leone, we evaluated information for 216 of the 227 patients in Bo District during a 4-month period. The indicators were time from symptom onset to healthcare facility admission and quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR cycle threshold (Ct), a surrogate for viral load, in first Ebola virus-positive blood sample tested. Of these patients, 151 were alive when detected and had reported healthcare facility admission dates and Ct values available. Time from symptom onset to healthcare facility admission was not associated with survival, but viral load in the first Ebola virus-positive blood sample was inversely associated with survival: 52 (87%) of 60 patients with a Ct of >24 survived and 20 (22%) of 91 with a Ct of <24 survived. Ct values may be useful for clinicians making treatment decisions or managing patient or family expectations.

  14. Infrared Computations of Defect Schur Indices

    CERN Document Server

    Cordova, Clay; Shao, Shu-Heng

    2016-01-01

    We conjecture a formula for the Schur index of N=2 four-dimensional theories in the presence of boundary conditions and/or line defects, in terms of the low-energy effective Seiberg-Witten description of the system together with massive BPS excitations. We test our proposal in a variety of examples for SU(2) gauge theories, either conformal or asymptotically free. We use the conjecture to compute these defect-enriched Schur indices for theories which lack a Lagrangian description, such as Argyres-Douglas theories. We demonstrate in various examples that line defect indices can be expressed as sums of characters of the associated two-dimensional chiral algebra and that for Argyres-Douglas theories the line defect OPE reduces in the index to the Verlinde algebra.

  15. Quality indicators for acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiele, Francois; Gale, Chris P; Bonnefoy, Eric

    2016-01-01

    infarction (AMI), but no such indicators exist in Europe. In this context, the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) Acute Cardiovascular Care Association (ACCA) has reflected on the measurement of quality of care in the context of AMI (ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and non-ST segment...... be estimated solely on the basis of patients' clinical outcomes. Thus, measuring the process of care through quality indicators (QIs) has become a widely used practice in this context. Other professional societies have published QIs for the evaluation of quality of care in the context of acute myocardial...... elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI)) and created a set of QIs, with a view to developing programmes to improve quality of care for the management of AMI across Europe. We present here the list of QIs defined by the ACCA, with explanations of the methodology used, scientific justification and reasons...

  16. Evaluating Parsing Schemes with Entropy Indicators

    CERN Document Server

    Lyon, C; Lyon, Caroline; Brown, Stephen

    1997-01-01

    This paper introduces an objective metric for evaluating a parsing scheme. It is based on Shannon's original work with letter sequences, which can be extended to part-of-speech tag sequences. It is shown that this regular language is an inadequate model for natural language, but a representation is used that models language slightly higher in the Chomsky hierarchy. We show how the entropy of parsed and unparsed sentences can be measured. If the entropy of the parsed sentence is lower, this indicates that some of the structure of the language has been captured. We apply this entropy indicator to support one particular parsing scheme that effects a top down segmentation. This approach could be used to decompose the parsing task into computationally more tractable subtasks. It also lends itself to the extraction of predicate/argument structure.

  17. Long memory in German energy price indices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros, Carlos P. [Lisbon Univ. (Portugal). Inst. Superior de Economia e Gestao; Caporale, Guglielmo Maria [Brunel Univ., London (United Kingdom). Centre for Empirical Finance; Gil-Alana, Luis A. [Navarra Univ., Pamplona (Spain). Faculty of Economics and Business Administration

    2012-09-15

    This study examines the long-memory properties of German energy price indices (specifically, import and export prices, as well as producer and consumer prices) for hard coal, lignite, mineral oil and natural gas adopting a fractional integration modelling framework. The analysis is undertaken using monthly data from January 2000 to August 2011. The results suggest nonstationary long memory in the series (with orders of integration equal to or higher than 1) when breaks are not allowed for. However, endogenous break tests indicate a single break in all series except for producer prices for lignite for which two breaks are detected. When such breaks are taken into account, and with autocorrelated disturbances, evidence of mean reversion is found in practically all cases.

  18. Inefficiency in Latin-American market indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zunino, L.; Tabak, B. M.; Pérez, D. G.; Garavaglia, M.; Rosso, O. A.

    2007-11-01

    We explore the deviations from efficiency in the returns and volatility returns of Latin-American market indices. Two different approaches are considered. The dynamics of the Hurst exponent is obtained via a wavelet rolling sample approach, quantifying the degree of long memory exhibited by the stock market indices under analysis. On the other hand, the Tsallis q entropic index is measured in order to take into account the deviations from the Gaussian hypothesis. Different dynamic rankings of inefficieny are obtained, each of them contemplates a different source of inefficiency. Comparing with the results obtained for a developed country (US), we confirm a similar degree of long-range dependence for our emerging markets. Moreover, we show that the inefficiency in the Latin-American countries comes principally from the non-Gaussian form of the probability distributions.

  19. Polysomnographic indicators of mortality in stroke patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ponsaing, Laura B; Iversen, Helle K; Jennum, Poul

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to assess polysomnographic indicators of increased mortality risk in patients with stroke or a transient ischemic attack (TIA). METHODS: We performed polysomnographies in 63 acute stroke/TIA patients. Mortality data were collected from a national database after...... a 19-37-month follow-up period. RESULTS: Of the 57 stroke and 6 TIA patients, 9 stroke patients died during follow-up. All nine had moderate or severe sleep-related breathing disorders (SRBDs). Binarily divided, the group with the highest apnea hypopnea index (AHI) had an almost 10-fold higher.......92; 95 % CI 2.00-49.23; p = 0.005), and there was a trend toward a higher mortality risk with atrial fibrillation/flutter (HR 3.63; 95 % CI 0.97-13.51; p = 0.055). CONCLUSIONS: In stroke patients, the AHI and nocturnal wake time are indicators of increased mortality risk. SRBDs in stroke patients should...

  20. STUDY ON PRODUCTIVITY INDICATORS IN EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Fortuna SCHIOPU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to outline synthetically a set of indicators for the study of productivity in education and to critically analyze their suitability as input, output or outcome. References were made to the indicators available in the databases of Romania, World Bank, Eurostat, OECD relevant for measuring productivity in education, which opposed to usual reporting between effect / result and inputs elements consumed in the production process,in the case of educational services should be considered the quantitative, but also qualitative aspects - and especially - mediated effects, on long-term and very long term. The research results presented, emphasize the importance of the educational reform efforts to focus more on qualitative aspects in measuring productivity, more precisely on the abilities, competencies that have pupils /students and adults, on motivating teachers, to achieve educational outcomes which could increase students performance, productivity growth on long-term and very long term effects, with an impact at the macroeconomic level.

  1. Humor as a Mental Fitness Indicator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel P. Howrigan

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available To explain the pervasive role of humor in human social interaction and among mating partner preferences, Miller (2000a proposed that intentional humor evolved as an indicator of intelligence. To test this, we looked at the relationships among rater-judged humor, general intelligence, and the Big Five personality traits in a sample of 185 college-age students (115 women, 70 men. General intelligence positively predicted rater-judged humor, independent of the Big Five personality traits. Extraversion also predicted rater-judged humor, although to a lesser extent than general intelligence. General intelligence did not interact with the sex of the participant in predicting rating scores on the humor production tasks. The current study lends support to the prediction that effective humor production acts as an honest indicator of intelligence in humans. In addition, extraversion, and to a lesser extent, openness, may reflect motivational traits that encourage humor production.

  2. Complement diagnostics: concepts, indications, and practical guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Bo; Ekdahl, Kristina Nilsson

    2012-01-01

    Aberrations in the complement system have been shown to be direct or indirect pathophysiological mechanisms in a number of diseases and pathological conditions such as autoimmune disease, infections, cancer, allogeneic and xenogeneic transplantation, and inflammation. Complement analyses have been performed on these conditions in both prospective and retrospective studies and significant differences have been found between groups of patients, but in many diseases, it has not been possible to make predictions for individual patients because of the lack of sensitivity and specificity of many of the assays used. The basic indications for serological diagnostic complement analysis today may be divided into three major categories: (a) acquired and inherited complement deficiencies; (b) disorders with complement activation; (c) inherited and acquired C1INH deficiencies. Here, we summarize indications, techniques, and interpretations for basic complement analyses and present an algorithm, which we follow in our routine laboratory.

  3. Complement Diagnostics: Concepts, Indications, and Practical Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Nilsson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aberrations in the complement system have been shown to be direct or indirect pathophysiological mechanisms in a number of diseases and pathological conditions such as autoimmune disease, infections, cancer, allogeneic and xenogeneic transplantation, and inflammation. Complement analyses have been performed on these conditions in both prospective and retrospective studies and significant differences have been found between groups of patients, but in many diseases, it has not been possible to make predictions for individual patients because of the lack of sensitivity and specificity of many of the assays used. The basic indications for serological diagnostic complement analysis today may be divided into three major categories: (a acquired and inherited complement deficiencies; (b disorders with complement activation; (c inherited and acquired C1INH deficiencies. Here, we summarize indications, techniques, and interpretations for basic complement analyses and present an algorithm, which we follow in our routine laboratory.

  4. Hamilton's indicators of the force of selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baudisch, Annette

    2005-01-01

    To quantify the force of selection, Hamilton [Hamilton, W. D. (1966) J. Theor. Biol. 12, 12-45] derived expressions for the change in fitness with respect to age-specific mutations. Hamilton's indicators are decreasing functions of age. He concluded that senescence is inevitable: survival...... and fertility decline with age. I show that alternative parameterizations of mutational effects lead to indicators that can increase with age. I then consider the case of deleterious mutations with age-specific effects. In this case, it is the balance between mutation and selection pressure that determines...... the equilibrium number of mutations in a population. In this balance, the effects of different parameterizations cancel out, but only to a linear approximation. I show that mutation accumulation has little impact at ages when this linear approximation holds. When mutation accumulation matters, nonlinear effects...

  5. Delamination-Indicating Thermal Barrier Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldridge, Jeffrey I.

    2007-01-01

    The risk of premature failure of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs), typically composed of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ), compromises the reliability of TBCs used to provide thermal protection for turbine engine components. Unfortunately, TBC delamination proceeds well beneath the TBC surface and cannot be monitored by visible inspection. Nondestructive diagnostic tools that could reliably probe the subsurface damage state of TBCs would alleviate the risk of TBC premature failure by indicating when the TBC needs to be replaced before the level of TBC damage threatens engine performance or safety. To meet this need, a new coating design for thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) that are self-indicating for delamination has been successfully implemented by incorporating a europium-doped luminescent sublayer at the base of a TBC composed of YSZ. The luminescent sublayer has the same YSZ composition as the rest of the TBC except for the addition of low-level europium doping and therefore does not alter TBC performance.

  6. Development of future indications for BOTOX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brin, Mitchell F

    2009-10-01

    Since the late 1970s, local injections of BoNT have provided clinical benefit for patients with inappropriately contracting muscles with or without pain or sensory disturbance. Marketing authorization for some BoNTs, depending on country, include core indications of dystonia (blepharospasm and cervical dystonia), large muscle spastic disorders (not yet approved in the United States, e.g., adult post-stroke spasticity and equinus foot deformity), hyperhidrosis and aesthetic. Subsequent development has extended to selected conditions characterized by recurrent or chronic pain (migraine headache), and urologic indications (neurogenic/idiopathic overactive bladder; prostate hyperplasia), with multiple additional opportunities available. Portfolio management requires a careful individual opportunity assessment of scientific and technical aspects (basic science foundation, potential to treat unmet medical need, product-specific risk in specific populations, therapeutic margin/safety profile, and probability of successful registration pathway). This article describes ongoing development targets for BOTOX.

  7. STUDY ON PRODUCTIVITY INDICATORS IN EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Fortuna SCHIOPU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to outline synthetically a set of indicators for the study of productivity in education and to critically analyze their suitability as input, output or outcome. References were made to the indicators available in the databases of Romania, World Bank, Eurostat, OECD relevant for measuring productivity in education, which opposed to usual reporting between effect / result and inputs elements consumed in the production process,in the case of educational services should be considered the quantitative, but also qualitative aspects - and especially - mediated effects, on long-term and very long term. The research results presented, emphasize the importance of the educational reform efforts to focus more on qualitative aspects in measuring productivity, more precisely on the abilities, competencies that have pupils /students and adults, on motivating teachers, to achieve educational outcomes which could increase students performance, productivity growth on long-term and very long term effects, with an impact at the macroeconomic level.

  8. Development of Energy Efficiency Indicators in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Russia is sometimes referred to as 'the Saudi Arabia of energy efficiency'; its vast potential to reduce energy consumption can be considered a significant 'energy reserve'. Russia, recognising the benefits of more efficient use of energy, is taking measures to exploit this potential. The president has set the goal to reduce energy intensity by 40% between 2007 and 2020. In the past few years, the IEA has worked closely with Russian authorities to support the development of energy efficiency indicators in Russia, critical to an effective implementation and monitoring of Russia's ambitious energy intensity and efficiency goals. The key findings of the IEA work with Russia on developing energy efficiency indicators form the core of this report.

  9. Electronic health indicators in the selected countries: Are these indicators the best?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshari, Somaye; Khorasani, Elahe; Yarmohammadian, Mohammad Hossein; Atighechian, Golrokh; Darab, Mohsen Ghaffari

    2013-01-01

    Many changes have been made in different sciences by developing and advancing information and communication technology in last two decades. E-health is a very broad term that includes many different activities related to the use of electronic devices, software as well as hardware in health organizations. The aim of this study is comparing electronic health indicators in the selected countries and discussion on the best indicators. This study has chosen 12 countries randomly based on the regional division of the WHO. The relevant numbers of health indicators and general indicators and information technology indicators are extracted of these countries. We use data from the Bitarf's comparative study, which is conducted by the Iranian Supreme Council of Information Technology in 2007. By using Pearson correlation test, the relations between health general indicators and IT indicators are studied. Data was analyzed based on the research objectives using SPSS software and in accordance with research questions Pearson correlation test were used. The findings show that there is a positive relation between indicators related to IT and "Total per capita health, healthy life expectancy, percent literacy". Furthermore, there is a mutual relation between IT indicators and "mortality indicator". This study showed differences between selective indicators among different countries. The modern world, with its technological advances, is not powerless in the face of these geographic and health disparity challenges. Researchers must not rely on the available indicators. They must consider indicators like e-business companies, electronic data internet, medical supplies, health electronic record, health information system, etc., In future, continuous studies in this field, to provide the exact and regular reports of amount of using of these indicators through different countries must be necessary.

  10. Residential market transformation: National and regional indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Wie McGrory, Laura L.; McNamara, Maureen; Suozzo, Margaret

    2000-06-01

    A variety of programs are underway to address market barriers to the adoption of energy-efficient residential technologies and practices. Most are administered by utilities, states, or regions that rely on the Energy Star as a consistent platform for program marketing and messaging. This paper reviews regional and national market transformation activities for three key residential end-uses -- air conditioning, clothes washing, and lighting -- characterizing current and ongoing programs; reporting on progress; identifying market indicators; and discussing implications.

  11. [Bariatric surgery. Patient selection and indication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schusdziarra, V; Hausmann, M; Erdmann, J

    2005-07-01

    Successful reduction of body weight in patients with morbid obesity (BMI >40 kg/m(2)) is difficult and on a long-term basis nearly impossible with non-interventional treatment modalities. Surgical therapy is an efficient alternative for these patients. Potential surgical treatment should be carefully evaluated during a 6-month preoperative treatment phase during which indications and contraindications should be evaluated. Qualified postoperative care must be provided.

  12. National Climate Assessment Indicators: Background, Development, & Examples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janetos, Anthony C.; Chen, Robert; Arndt, Deke; Kenney, Melissa A.; Abbasi, Daniel; Armstrong, Tom; Bartuska, Ann; Blair, Maria; Buizer, Jim; Dietz, Tom; Easterling, Dave; Kaye, Jack; Kolian, Michael; McGeehin, Michael; O' Connor, Robert; Pulwarty, Roger; Running, Steve; Schmalensee, Dick; Webb, Robert; Weltzin, Jake; Baptista, Sandra; Enquist, Carolyn A.; Janetos, Anthony C.; Chen, Robert; Arndt, Deke; Hatfield, Jerry; Hayes, Mark L.; Jones, K. Burce; McNutt, Chad; Meier, Wayne R.; Schwartz, Mark D.; Svoboda, Mark

    2012-02-28

    Indicators are usually thought of as measurements or calculations that represent important features of the status, trend, or performance of a system of interest (e.g. the economy, agriculture, air quality). They are often used for the most practical of reasons – one cannot measure everything important about systems of interest, so there is a practical need to identify major features that can be reported periodically and used to guide both research and decisions (NRC 2000).

  13. Multidimensional Scaling Visualization using Parametric Similarity Indices

    OpenAIRE

    Tenreiro Machado, J. A.; António M. Lopes; Alexandra M. Galhano

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we apply multidimensional scaling (MDS) and parametric similarity indices (PSI) in the analysis of complex systems (CS). Each CS is viewed as a dynamical system, exhibiting an output time-series to be interpreted as a manifestation of its behavior. We start by adopting a sliding window to sample the original data into several consecutive time periods. Second, we define a given PSI for tracking pieces of data. We then compare the windows for different values of the parameter, an...

  14. Humor as a Mental Fitness Indicator

    OpenAIRE

    Howrigan, Daniel P.; Kevin B. MacDonald

    2008-01-01

    To explain the pervasive role of humor in human social interaction and among mating partner preferences, Miller (2000a) proposed that intentional humor evolved as an indicator of intelligence. To test this, we looked at the relationships among rater-judged humor, general intelligence, and the Big Five personality traits in a sample of 185 college-age students (115 women, 70 men). General intelligence positively predicted rater-judged humor, independent of the Big Five personality traits. Extr...

  15. Phytoestrogens in postmenopausal indications: A theoretical perspective

    OpenAIRE

    P Sunita; Pattanayak, S. P.

    2011-01-01

    This review discusses plant-derived compounds with estrogenic activity. The authors rightly emphasize the need for the intake of foods containing phytoestrogens in view of their positive effects on postmenopausal indications. This is particularly significant in the light of the current wave of enthusiasm for vegetarian food, in general, and phytoestrogens, in particular. Phytoestrogens are plant-derived hormone-like diphenolic compounds of dietary origin. These compounds are weakly estrogenic...

  16. Electroencephalographic changes as prognostic indicators after psychosurgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Bidi M; Bridges, P K; Bartlett, J R

    1981-01-01

    Thirty-five patients were studied by EEG with recordings taken the day before, two weeks after, and six months after psychosurgery. Most showed a characteristic frontal slow activity of varying degrees after operation with varying enhancement of background activity. The amount and spread of the frontal slow waves two weeks after operation showed a significant positive correlation with the clinical outcome one year later, which suggests a relatively objective and very early indication of the subsequent clinical response to psychosurgery. PMID:7264694

  17. Indication for quantum Darwinism in electron billiards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, R.; Akis, R.; Meisels, R.; Kuchar, F.; Ferry, D. K.

    2010-02-01

    In this paper, we investigate the dynamics in electron billiards by using classical and quantum mechanical calculations. We report on the existence of pointer states in single-dot and double-dot electron billiards. Additionally, we show that the two types of pointer states have the propensity to create offspring, i.e. they can be observed in the individual modes propagating between the external reservoirs. This can be understood as an indication that quantum Darwinism is present in the electron billiards.

  18. Adult tonsillectomy: postoperative pain depends on indications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaf Zagólski

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Intense pain is one of the most important postoperative complaints after tonsillectomy. It is often described by patients as comparable to the pain that accompanies an acute tonsillitis. Although recurrent tonsillitis is the most frequent indication for surgery, many tonsillectomies are performed due to other indications and these patients may be unfamiliar with such pain. OBJECTIVE: To verify whether individuals with recurrent tonsillitis experience different post-tonsillectomy pain intensity than those with other indications for surgery, with no history of episodes of acute tonsillitis. METHODS: A total of 61 tonsillectomies were performed under general anesthesia, using a potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP laser (to eliminate the potential influence on the study results of forceful dissection of fibrotic tonsils in patients with history of recurrent tonsillitis and multiple ligations of blood vessels within the tonsillar beds. The patients received 37.5 mg Tramadoli hydrochloridum + 325 mg Paracetamol tablets for 10 days. Postoperative variables included the duration of hospital stay, postoperative hemorrhage and readmission rate. The patients reported pain intensity on consecutive days, pain duration, weight loss on postoperative day 10, character, intensity and duration of swallowing difficulties, and the need for additional doses of painkillers. Healing was also assessed. Capsular nerve fibers were histologically examined in the resected tonsils by immunostainings for general and sensory markers. RESULTS: Indications for the surgery were: recurrent acute tonsillitis (34 patients, no history of recurrent tonsillitis: focus tonsil (20 and intense malodour (7. Pain intensity on postoperative days 3-4 and incidence of readmissions due to dehydration were significantly higher in the group with no history of recurrent tonsillitis. No significant differences in relative densities of protein gene product (PGP 9.5- and

  19. A Rejoinder on Energy versus Impact Indicators

    CERN Document Server

    Leydesdorff, Loet

    2011-01-01

    Citation distributions are so skewed that using the mean or any other central tendency measure is ill-advised. Unlike G. Prathap's scalar measures (Energy, Exergy, and Entropy or EEE), the Integrated Impact Indicator (I3) is based on non-parametric statistics using the (100) percentiles of the distribution. Observed values can be tested against expected ones; impact can be qualified at the article level and then aggregated.

  20. Multidimensional Scaling Visualization using Parametric Similarity Indices

    OpenAIRE

    Tenreiro Machado, J. A.; Lopes, António M.; Alexandra M. Galhano

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we apply multidimensional scaling (MDS) and parametric similarity indices (PSI) in the analysis of complex systems (CS). Each CS is viewed as a dynamical system, exhibiting an output time-series to be interpreted as a manifestation of its behavior. We start by adopting a sliding window to sample the original data into several consecutive time periods. Second, we define a given PSI for tracking pieces of data. We then compare the windows for different values of the parameter, an...