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Sample records for macroporous silica-based crown

  1. Development of the chromatographic partitioning of cesium and strontium utilizing two macroporous silica-based calix[4]arene-crown and amide impregnated polymeric composites: PREC partitioning process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Anyun; Kuraoka, Etsushu; Kumagai, Mikio

    2007-07-20

    To partition effectively Cs(I) and Sr(II), two harmful heat emitting nuclides, from a highly active liquid waste by extraction chromatography, two kinds of macroporous silica-based polymeric materials, Calix[4]arene-R14/SiO(2)-P and TODGA/SiO(2)-P, were synthesized. Two chelating agents, 1,3-[(2,4-diethyl-heptylethoxy)oxy]-2,4-crown-6-calix[4]arene (Calix[4]arene-R14), an excellent supramolecular compound having molecular recognition ability for Cs(I), and N,N,N',N'-tetraoctyl-3-oxapentane-1,5-diamide (TODGA) were impregnated and immobilized into the pores of SiO(2)-P particles support by a vacuum sucking technique. The loading and elution of 11 typical simulated fission and non-fission products from 4.0M or 2.0M HNO(3) were performed at 298K. It was found that in the first column packed with the Calix[4]arene-R14/SiO(2)-P, all of the simulated elements were separated effectively into two groups: (1) Na(I), K(I), Sr(II), Fe(III), Ba(II), Ru(III), Pd(II), Zr(IV), and Mo(VI) (noted as Sr-group); (2) Cs(I)-Rb(I) (Cs-group) by eluting with 4.0M HNO(3) and distilled water, respectively. The harmful element Cs(I) flowed into the second group along with Rb(I) because of their close sorption and elution properties towards Calix[4]arene-R14/SiO(2)-P, while Sr(II) showed no sorption and flowed into Sr-containing group. In the second column packed with TODGA/SiO(2)-P, the Sr-group was separated into (1) Ba(II), Ru(III), Na(I), K(I), Fe(III), and Mo(VI) (non-sorption group); (2) Sr(II); (3) Pd(II); and (4) Zr(IV) by eluting with 2.0M HNO(3), 0.01M HNO(3), 0.05M DTPA-pH 2.5, and 0.5M H(2)C(2)O(4), respectively. Sr(II) adsorbed towards TODGA/SiO(2)-P flowed into the second group and showed the excellent separation efficiency from others. Based on the elution behavior of the tested elements, an advanced PREC (Partitioning and Recovery of two heat generators from an acidic HLW (high activity liquid waste) by Extraction Chromatography) process was proposed.

  2. Synthesis and application of a macroporous silica-based polymeric octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphoshine oxide composite for the chromatographic separation of high level liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, A.

    2006-01-01

    The Minor Actinides Recovery from HLW by Extraction Chromatography (MAREC) process was used mainly for the separation of minor actinides (MAs) and some specific fission products (FPs) from highly active liquid waste (HLW) by the composite CMPO/SiO 2 -P of the macroporous silica based polymeric octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphoshine oxide (CMPO) and others. In this study a cascade of chromatographic separation was performed on a 3.0M HNO 3 solution containing 5.0 x 10 -3 M of 13 elements, at 323 K. The cascade consisted of three columns the first and second ones were packed with CMPO/SiO 2 -P and the third with SiO 2 -P particles. The first column was employed to prepare various eluents containing saturated CMPO. The second column was used for separation into groups. The CMPO of CMPO/SiO2-P was recovered from the effluent by the third column and a CMPO-free effluent containing minor actinides was obtained. The elements contained in the simulated HLW of 3.0M HNO 3 were separated into (1) a non-adsorption group (Sr, Cs, and Ru etc.), (2) a MA-hRE (heavy rare earth)-Mo-Zr group, and (3) a lRE (light rare earth) group by eluting with 3.0M HNO 3 , 0.05M DTPA (diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid) (pH 2.0) and HNO 3 (pH 3.5), respectively. The resultant MA-hRE-Mo-Zr mixture containing minor actinides was then separated into the groups (1) Pd-Ru, (2) MA-hRE, and (3) Mo-Zr by utilizing 3.0M HNO 3 , distilled water, and 0.05M DTPA (pH 2.0) as eluents. More than 92% of CMPO in the MA-hRE containing effluent was adsorbed by SiO 2 -P particles. The effectivity and technical feasibility of MAREC process were demonstrated. (author)

  3. Macropores and macropore transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Bo Vangsø; Lamandé, Mathieu; Torp, Søren Bent

    2012-01-01

    Preferential transport of water through soil macropores is a governing process in the facilitated transport of strongly sorbing compounds. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between macropore density and the hydraulic conductivity of the soil and to test the sampling...

  4. Biodiesel production by using lipase immobilized onto novel silica-based hybrid foams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brun, Nicolas [Centre de Recherche Paul Pascal, Pessac (France); Institut des Sciences Moleculaires, Talence (France); Garcia, Annick Babeau; Oestreicher, Victor; Durand, Fabien; Backov, Renal [Centre de Recherche Paul Pascal, Pessac (France); Deleuze, Herve [Institut des Sciences Moleculaires, Talence (France); Laurent, Guillaume; Sanchez, Clement [Laboratoire de Chimie de la Matiere Condensee, Paris (France)

    2010-07-01

    The covalent immobilization of crude lipases within silica-based macroporous frameworks have been performed by combining sol-gel process, concentrated direct emulsion, lyotropic mesophase and post-synthesis functionalizations. The assynthesized open cell hybrid monoliths exhibit high macroscopic porosity, around 90%, providing interconnected scaffold while reducing the diffusion low kinetic issue. The entrapment of enzymes in such foams deals with a high stability over esterification of fatty acids, hydrolysis of triglycerides (not shown herein) and biodiesel production by transesterification. (orig.)

  5. Microporous Silica Based Membranes for Desalination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João C. Diniz da Costa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This review provides a global overview of microporous silica based membranes for desalination via pervaporation with a focus on membrane synthesis and processing, transport mechanisms and current state of the art membrane performance. Most importantly, the recent development and novel concepts for improving the hydro-stability and separating performance of silica membranes for desalination are critically examined. Research into silica based membranes for desalination has focussed on three primary methods for improving the hydro-stability. These include incorporating carbon templates into the microporous silica both as surfactants and hybrid organic-inorganic structures and incorporation of metal oxide nanoparticles into the silica matrix. The literature examined identified that only metal oxide silica membranes have demonstrated high salt rejections under a variety of feed concentrations, reasonable fluxes and unaltered performance over long-term operation. As this is an embryonic field of research several target areas for researchers were discussed including further improvement of the membrane materials, but also regarding the necessity of integrating waste or solar heat sources into the final process design to ensure cost competitiveness with conventional reverse osmosis processes.

  6. Novel silica-based ion exchange resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    Eichrom`s highly successful Diphonixo resin resembles a conventional ion exchange resin in its use of sulfonic acid ligands on a styrene- divinylbenzene matrix. Diphonix resin exhibits rapid exchange kinetics that allow economical operation of ion exchange systems. Unlike conventional resins, Diphonix resin contains chelating ligands that are diphosphonic acid groups that recognize and remove the targeted metals and reject the more common elements such as sodium, calcium and magnesium. This latter property makes Diphonix ideal for many industrial scale applications, including those involving waste treatment. For treatment of low-level, transuranic (TRU) and high- level radioactive wastes, Diphonix`s polystyrene backbone hinders its application due to radiolytic stability of the carbon-hydrogen bonds and lack of compatibility with expected vitrification schemes. Polystyrene-based Diphonix is approximately 60% carbon- hydrogen. In response to an identified need within the Department of Energy for a resin with the positive attributes of Diphonix that also exhibits greater radiolytic stability and final waste form compatibility, Eichrom has successfully developed a new, silica-based resin version of Diphonix. Target application for this new resin is for use in environmental restoration and waste management situations involving the processing of low-level, transuranic and high-level radioactive wastes. The resin can also be used for processing liquid mixed waste (waste that contains low level radioactivity and hazardous constituents) including mixed wastes contaminated with organic compounds. Silica-based Diphonix is only 10% carbon-hydrogen, with the bulk of the matrix silica.

  7. Parallel fabrication of macroporous scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobos, Andrew; Grandhi, Taraka Sai Pavan; Godeshala, Sudhakar; Meldrum, Deirdre R; Rege, Kaushal

    2018-07-01

    Scaffolds generated from naturally occurring and synthetic polymers have been investigated in several applications because of their biocompatibility and tunable chemo-mechanical properties. Existing methods for generation of 3D polymeric scaffolds typically cannot be parallelized, suffer from low throughputs, and do not allow for quick and easy removal of the fragile structures that are formed. Current molds used in hydrogel and scaffold fabrication using solvent casting and porogen leaching are often single-use and do not facilitate 3D scaffold formation in parallel. Here, we describe a simple device and related approaches for the parallel fabrication of macroporous scaffolds. This approach was employed for the generation of macroporous and non-macroporous materials in parallel, in higher throughput and allowed for easy retrieval of these 3D scaffolds once formed. In addition, macroporous scaffolds with interconnected as well as non-interconnected pores were generated, and the versatility of this approach was employed for the generation of 3D scaffolds from diverse materials including an aminoglycoside-derived cationic hydrogel ("Amikagel"), poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) or PLGA, and collagen. Macroporous scaffolds generated using the device were investigated for plasmid DNA binding and cell loading, indicating the use of this approach for developing materials for different applications in biotechnology. Our results demonstrate that the device-based approach is a simple technology for generating scaffolds in parallel, which can enhance the toolbox of current fabrication techniques. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Advanced three dimensional characterization of silica-based ultraporous materials

    OpenAIRE

    Foray , Genevieve; Roiban , L.; Rong , Q.; Perret , A.; Ihiawakrim , D.; Masenelli-Varlot , K.; Maire , E.; Yrieix , B.

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Whatever the field of application (building, transportation, packaging, etc.) energy losses must be reduced to meet the government target of a 40% cut in CO 2 emissions. This leads to a challenge for materials scientists: designing materials with thermal conductivities lower than 0.015 W m À1 K À1 under ambient conditions. Such a low value requires reducing air molecule mobility in highly porous materials, and silica-based superinsulation materials (SIM) made of packed...

  9. Dinar-crown banknotes

    OpenAIRE

    Pantelić Svetlana

    2017-01-01

    Dinar-crown banknotes were: ½ dinars (i.e. 2 crowns), 1 dinar (i.e. 4 crowns), 5 dinars (i.e. 20 crowns), 10 dinars (i.e. 40 crowns), 20 dinars (i.e. 80 crowns), 100 dinars (i.e. 400 crowns), and 1000 dinars (i.e. 4000 crowns). The ½- and 1-dinar banknotes are assumed to have been issued in 1919, whereas the other five banknotes, according to one source, were released into circulation on 21.02.1920. Pursuant to the regulations, the replacement of the nostrified crown banknotes by the new crow...

  10. Factorization of Transport Coefficients in Macroporous Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shapiro, Alexander; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2000-01-01

    We prove the fundamental theorem about factorization of the phenomenological coefficients for transport in macroporous media. By factorization we mean the representation of the transport coefficients as products of geometric parameters of the porous medium and the parameters characteristic...

  11. Deep Ultraviolet Macroporous Silicon Filters, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase I proposal describes a novel method to make deep and far UV optical filters from macroporous silicon. This type of filter consists of an array of...

  12. Use of macroporous plastics in extraction chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, T.; Farac, A.B.

    1978-01-01

    Possibilities are analysed which the use of porous plastics (polyvinyl chloride, siloxane rubber, polyurethane, polystyrene and etc.) as carriers presents in extraction chromatography. Short characteristics of chemical and physical properties of macroporous carriers is given. The importance of correct chromatographic column packing is noted to obtain columns with good hydrodynamic characteristics and operational properties. Examples of using columns with macroporous carriers in radiochemistry and inorganic chemistry for element separation are given

  13. Silica Based Superhydrophobic Nanocoatings for Natural Rubber Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veromee Kalpana Wimalasiri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Silica based nonfluorinated superhydrophobic coatings for natural rubber surfaces have been developed. The coating was synthesized using nanosilica dispersion and a polychloroprene type binder as a compatibilizer. This nanocoating of silica was applied on to the surface of finished natural rubber gloves, by spray coating or dipped coating methods. The nanocoating demonstrates a water contact angle of more than 150° and sliding angle of 7°. The morphological features of the coating have been studied using scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy while Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to understand the nature of surface functional groups. Both imaging techniques provided evidence for the presence of nanosized particles in the coating. Coated gloves demonstrated comparable mechanical properties and significantly better alcohol resistivity when compared to those of the uncoated gloves.

  14. Potential of sub- and supercritical CO_2 reaction media for sol-gel deposition of silica-based molecular sieve membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durand, Veronique; Duchateau, Maxime; Drobek, Martin; Julbe, Anne; Hertz, Audrey; Ruiz, Jean-Christophe; Sarrade, Stephane

    2014-01-01

    A new eco-friendly method recently developed in our group has been further investigated for the preparation of gas selective silica-based molecular sieve membranes on/in macroporous tubular ceramic supports without any intermediate layer. The synthesis protocol under sub- and supercritical conditions was based on an 'On-Stream Supercritical Fluid Deposition method' (OS-SFD) applying supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO_2) as an attractive 'green' solvent with easily adjustable properties enabling a controlled solubilisation/reaction of precursors and their transport to the ceramic support. Parameters influencing the final membrane characteristics such as permeates flow rate, calcination treatment and deposition steps have been examined for a selected reaction mixture, transmembrane pressure and defined deposition temperatures. On-line monitoring of the membrane formation process (deposition signature curve) was used in this process. Membrane characteristics are discussed in correlation with their gas permeation properties. The optimized crack-free silica membranes prepared at 50 C have a compact microstructure but a thermal stability limited to 400 C. A second deposition run allowed a recovery of the molecular sieving behaviour with a thermally activated transport for He up to 350 C. These promising results demonstrate the potential of this novel method for the preparation of uniform molecular sieve membranes deposited directly on macroporous supports with virtually zero waste. (authors)

  15. Multimodality Imaging with Silica-Based Targeted Nanoparticle Platforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, Jason S.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To synthesize and characterize a C-Dot silica-based nanoparticle containing 'clickable' groups for the subsequent attachment of targeting moieties (e.g., peptides) and multiple contrast agents (e.g., radionuclides with high specific activity) (1,2). These new constructs will be tested in suitable tumor models in vitro and in vivo to ensure maintenance of target-specificity and high specific activity. Methods: Cy5 dye molecules are cross-linked to a silica precursor which is reacted to form a dye-rich core particle. This core is then encapsulated in a layer of pure silica to create the core-shell C-Dot (Figure 1) (2). A 'click' chemistry approach has been used to functionalize the silica shell with radionuclides conferring high contrast and specific activity (e.g. 64Cu and 89Zr) and peptides for tumor targeting (e.g. cRGD and octreotate) (3). Based on the selective Diels-Alder reaction between tetrazine and norbornene, the reaction is bioorthogonal, highyielding, rapid, and water-compatible. This radiolabeling approach has already been employed successfully with both short peptides (e.g. octreotate) and antibodies (e.g. trastuzumab) as model systems for the ultimate labeling of the nanoparticles (1). Results: PEGylated C-Dots with a Cy5 core and labeled with tetrazine have been synthesized (d = 55 nm, zeta potential = -3 mV) reliably and reproducibly and have been shown to be stable under physiological conditions for up to 1 month. Characterization of the nanoparticles revealed that the immobilized Cy5 dye within the C-Dots exhibited fluorescence intensities over twice that of the fluorophore alone. The nanoparticles were successfully radiolabeled with Cu-64. Efforts toward the conjugation of targeting peptides (e.g. cRGD) are underway. In vitro stability, specificity, and uptake studies as well as in vivo imaging and biodistribution investigations will be presented. Conclusions: C-Dot silica-based nanoparticles offer a robust, versatile, and multi

  16. Multimodality Imaging with Silica-Based Targeted Nanoparticle Platforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jason S. Lewis

    2012-04-09

    Objectives: To synthesize and characterize a C-Dot silica-based nanoparticle containing 'clickable' groups for the subsequent attachment of targeting moieties (e.g., peptides) and multiple contrast agents (e.g., radionuclides with high specific activity) [1,2]. These new constructs will be tested in suitable tumor models in vitro and in vivo to ensure maintenance of target-specificity and high specific activity. Methods: Cy5 dye molecules are cross-linked to a silica precursor which is reacted to form a dye-rich core particle. This core is then encapsulated in a layer of pure silica to create the core-shell C-Dot (Figure 1) [2]. A 'click' chemistry approach has been used to functionalize the silica shell with radionuclides conferring high contrast and specific activity (e.g. 64Cu and 89Zr) and peptides for tumor targeting (e.g. cRGD and octreotate) [3]. Based on the selective Diels-Alder reaction between tetrazine and norbornene, the reaction is bioorthogonal, highyielding, rapid, and water-compatible. This radiolabeling approach has already been employed successfully with both short peptides (e.g. octreotate) and antibodies (e.g. trastuzumab) as model systems for the ultimate labeling of the nanoparticles [1]. Results: PEGylated C-Dots with a Cy5 core and labeled with tetrazine have been synthesized (d = 55 nm, zeta potential = -3 mV) reliably and reproducibly and have been shown to be stable under physiological conditions for up to 1 month. Characterization of the nanoparticles revealed that the immobilized Cy5 dye within the C-Dots exhibited fluorescence intensities over twice that of the fluorophore alone. The nanoparticles were successfully radiolabeled with Cu-64. Efforts toward the conjugation of targeting peptides (e.g. cRGD) are underway. In vitro stability, specificity, and uptake studies as well as in vivo imaging and biodistribution investigations will be presented. Conclusions: C-Dot silica-based nanoparticles offer a robust

  17. Bleeding evaluation of the stationary phase from a few novel macroporous silica-substrate polymeric materials used for radionuclide partitioning from HLLW in MAREC process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, A.; Wei, Y.; Kumagai, M.

    2005-01-01

    To separate minor actinides from HLLW by extraction chromatography, a few novel silica-based di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (HDEHP), 4,4',(5')-di(tert-butylcyclohexano)-18-crown-6 (DtBuCH18C6), octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO), and N,N,N',N'-tetraoctyl-3-oxapentane-1,5-diamide (TODGA) polymeric adsorption materials (HDEHP/SiO 2 -P, DtBuCH18C6/SiO 2 -P, CMPO/SiO 2 -P, and TODGA/SiO 2 -P) were synthesized by impregnating HDEHP, DtBuCH18C6, CMPO, and TODGA into the pores of porous SiO 2 -P particles, which were the new kind of inorganic/organic composites consisted of macroporous SiO 2 and copolymer. The bleeding behavior of these composites was investigated by examining the effect of contact time and HNO 3 concentration. It was found that in the tested HNO 3 concentration range, a noticeable quantity of DtBuCH18C6, at least 600 ppm, leaked out from DtBuCH18C6/SiO 2 -P because of the protonation of DtBuCH18C6 with hydrogen ion, while the others were lower and basically equivalent to the solubility of HDEHP, CMPO, or TODGA in corresponding acidities solutions. Based on the batch experiment, the bleeding of CMPO/SiO 2 -P and TODGA/SiO 2 -P, the main adsorbents used in MAREC process for HLLW partitioning, was evaluated by column operation in 0.01M HNO 3 and 3M HNO 3 . The quantity of CMPO leaked was ∼48 ppm in 0.01M HNO 3 and ∼37 ppm in 3.0M HNO 3 . The bleeding of TODGA decreased from 23.2 ppm to 7.27 ppm at the initial stage and then basically kept constant. An actual bleeding of TODGA was evaluated by the separation of Sr(II) from a 2.0M HNO 3 solution containing 5.0 x 10 -3 M of 6 typically simulated elements. (author)

  18. Dinar-crown banknotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantelić Svetlana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dinar-crown banknotes were: ½ dinars (i.e. 2 crowns, 1 dinar (i.e. 4 crowns, 5 dinars (i.e. 20 crowns, 10 dinars (i.e. 40 crowns, 20 dinars (i.e. 80 crowns, 100 dinars (i.e. 400 crowns, and 1000 dinars (i.e. 4000 crowns. The ½- and 1-dinar banknotes are assumed to have been issued in 1919, whereas the other five banknotes, according to one source, were released into circulation on 21.02.1920. Pursuant to the regulations, the replacement of the nostrified crown banknotes by the new crown- dinar banknotes started on 3 February 1920 in Serbia and Montenegro and on 16 February 1920 in other parts of the country. All seven denominations of the dinar-crown banknotes were being withdrawn from circulation throughout a lengthy period of time from 21 February 1921 until May 1934. The first to be withdrawn were the 20-dinar banknotes, from 1 February to 30 April 1921, then the 5-dinar banknotes, from 20 July to 20 November 1922, and the 10-dinar banknotes, from 10 February to 10 June 1924. The 100-dinar (400-crown and 1000-dinar (4000-crown banknotes remained in circulation the longest. The withdrawal of the 100- and 1000-dinar banknotes started in 1929 and lasted until 25 May 1934. The 1924 rulebook on minting coins of ½, 1 and 2 dinars precisely defines their withdrawal from circulation and replacement by minted coins within one year after the last batch of minted coins gets released into circulation. However, in 1927 the decree of the Minister of Finance prescribed that the remaining paper banknotes be withdrawn from circulation on 30 September 1927 by being replaced by the metal coins of the same denominations.

  19. Novel macroporous amphoteric gels: Preparation and characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kudaibergenov

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Macroporous amphoteric gels based on allylamine, methacrylic acid and acrylamide crosslinked by N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide were synthesized by radical copolymerization of monomers in cryoconditions. The composition of cryogels was determined by combination of potentiometric and conductimetric titrations. The morphology of cryogels was evaluated by scanning electron microscope (SEM. Cryogels exhibited sponge-like porous structure with pore size ranging from 50 to 200 μm. The values of the isoelectric points (IEPs determined from the swelling experiments arranged between 3.5 and 4.3. The high adsorption-desorption capacity of amphoteric cryogels with respect to mM and trace concentrations of copper, nickel, and cobalt ions was demonstrated. It was shown that the macroporous amphoteric cryogels are able to adsorb up to 99.9% of copper, nickel, and cobalt ions from 10–3 mol•L–1 aqueous solution.

  20. Photoconductivity relaxation and electron transport in macroporous silicon structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Karachevtseva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Kinetics and temperature dependence of photoconductivity were measured in macroporous silicon at 80…300 K after light illumination with the wavelength 0.9 μm. The influence of mechanisms of the charge carrier transport through the macropore surface barrier on the kinetics of photoconductivity at various temperatures was investigated. The kinetics of photoconductivity distribution in macroporous silicon and Si substrate has been calculated using the finite-difference time-domain method. The maximum of photoconductivity has been found both in the layer of macroporous silicon and in the monocrystalline substrate. The kinetics of photoconductivity distribution in macroporous silicon showed rapid relaxation of the photoconductivity maximum in the layer of macroporous silicon and slow relaxation of it in the monocrystalline substrate.

  1. Crown Fire Potential

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Crown fire potential was modeled using FlamMap, an interagency fire behavior mapping and analysis program that computes potential fire behavior characteristics. The...

  2. Characteristics of immobilized aminoacylase from Aspergillus oryzae on macroporous copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, B L; Jiang, P; Qiu, Y B

    1990-01-01

    Aminoacylase from Aspergillus oryzae was adsorbed on functionallized macroporous copolymers where the enzyme showed excellent catalyzing activity and operation stability. Various factors which effect the activity of the immobilized aminoacylase such as temperature, pH and ionic strength were investigated. The continuous operation of the enzyme immobilized on macroporous copolymers was compared with that of the enzyme immobilized on DEAE-Sephadex.

  3. Meta-analysis on Macropore Flow Velocity in Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, D.; Gao, M.; Li, H. Y.; Chen, X.; Leung, L. R.

    2017-12-01

    Macropore flow is ubiquitous in the soils and an important hydrologic process that is not well explained using traditional hydrologic theories. Macropore Flow Velocity (MFV) is an important parameter used to describe macropore flow and quantify its effects on runoff generation and solute transport. However, the dominant factors controlling MFV are still poorly understood and the typical ranges of MFV measured at the field are not defined clearly. To address these issues, we conducted a meta-analysis based on a database created from 246 experiments on MFV collected from 76 journal articles. For a fair comparison, a conceptually unified definition of MFV is introduced to convert the MFV measured with different approaches and at various scales including soil core, field, trench or hillslope scales. The potential controlling factors of MFV considered include scale, travel distance, hydrologic conditions, site factors, macropore morphologies, soil texture, and land use. The results show that MFV is about 2 3 orders of magnitude larger than the corresponding values of saturated hydraulic conductivity. MFV is much larger at the trench and hillslope scale than at the field profile and soil core scales and shows a significant positive correlation with the travel distance. Generally, higher irrigation intensity tends to trigger faster MFV, especially at field profile scale, where MFV and irrigation intensity have significant positive correlation. At the trench and hillslope scale, the presence of large macropores (diameter>10 mm) is a key factor determining MFV. The geometric mean of MFV for sites with large macropores was found to be about 8 times larger than those without large macropores. For sites with large macropores, MFV increases with the macropore diameter. However, no noticeable difference in MFV has been observed among different soil texture and land use. Comparing the existing equations to describe MFV, the Poiseuille equation significantly overestimated the

  4. Solid Silica-based Sulphonic Acid as an Efficient Green Catalyst for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NJD

    Solid Silica-based Sulphonic Acid as an Efficient Green. Catalyst for the Selective Oxidation of Sulphides to. Sulphoxides using NaCIO in Aqueous Media. Ali Amoozadeh* and Firouzeh Nemati. Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Semnan University, Semnan, Iran. Received 21 October 2008, revised 6 December ...

  5. Crowns and Crypts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 6. Crowns and Crypts - A Fascinating Group of Multidentate Macrocyclic Ligands. Debasis Bandyopadhyay. General Article Volume 6 Issue 6 June 2001 pp 71-79. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  6. High energy density supercapacitors using macroporous kitchen sponges

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Wei; Baby, Rakhi Raghavan; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2012-01-01

    Macroporous, low-cost and recyclable kitchen sponges are explored as effective electrode platforms for supercapacitor devices. A simple and scalable process has been developed to fabricate MnO 2-carbon nanotube (CNT)-sponge supercapacitor electrodes

  7. Macroporous synthetic hydroxyapatite bioceramics for bone substitute applications

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Thomas, ME

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available An improved strategy is described for the manufacture of macroporous hydroxyapatite bioceramics for bone substitute applications. This is based on a modified fugitive phase technique, which allows production of relatively open, high-strength devices...

  8. Thermochemical stability of Soviet macroporous sulfonated cation-exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rukhlyada, N.N.; Plotnikova, V.P.; Roginskaya, B.S.; Znamenskii, Yu.P.; Zavodovskaya, A.S.; Dobrova, E.I.

    1988-10-20

    The purpose of this work was to study the influence of macroporosity on the thermochemical stability of sulfonated cation-exchangers. The investigations were carried out on commercial macroporous sulfonated cation-exchangers based on styrene-divinylbenzene copolymers. Study of the thermochemical stability of macroporous sulfonated cation-exchangers in dilute hydrogen peroxide solutions showed that the type of macroporosity has virtually no influence on their stability. The determining factor in thermal stability of macroporous cation-exchangers, as of the gel type, is the degree of cross-linking of the polymer matrix. The capacity loss of macroporous cation-exchangers during oxidative thermolysis is caused by destruction of the macromolecular skeleton and elution of fragments of polar chains containing sulfo groups into the solution.

  9. Soft-Template Construction of 3D Macroporous Polypyrrole Scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shaohua; Wang, Faxing; Dong, Renhao; Zhang, Tao; Zhang, Jian; Zheng, Zhikun; Mai, Yiyong; Feng, Xinliang

    2017-04-01

    A bottom-up approach toward 3D hierarchical macroporous polypyrrole aerogels is demonstrated via soft template-directed synthesis and self-assembly of ultrathin polypyrrole nanosheets in solution, which present interconnected macropores, ultrathin walls, and large specific surface areas, thereby exhibiting a high capacity, satisfactory rate capability, and excellent cycling stability for Na-ion storage. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Controlled release of ibuprofen by meso–macroporous silica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santamaría, E., E-mail: esthersantamaria@ub.edu; Maestro, A.; Porras, M.; Gutiérrez, J.M.; González, C.

    2014-02-15

    Structured meso–macroporous silica was successfully synthesized from an O/W emulsion using decane as a dispersed phase. Sodium silicate solution, which acts as a silica source and a poly(ethylene oxide)–poly(propylene oxide)–poly(ethylene oxide) (EO{sub 19}PO{sub 39}EO{sub 19}) denoted as P84 was used in order to stabilize the emulsion and as a mesopore template. The materials obtained were characterized through transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), small-angle X-ray diffraction scattering (SAXS) and nitrogen adsorption–desorption isotherms. Ibuprofen (IBU) was selected as the model drug and loaded into ordered meso–macroporous materials. The effect of the materials’ properties on IBU drug loading and release was studied. The results showed that the loading of IBU increases as the macropore presence in the material is increased. The IBU adsorption process followed the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. A two-step release process, consisting of an initial fast release and then a slower release was observed. Macropores enhanced the adsorption capacity of the material; this was probably due to the fact that they allowed the drug to access internal pores. When only mesopores were present, ibuprofen was probably adsorbed on the mesopores close to the surface. Moreover, the more macropore present in the material, the slower the release behaviour observed, as the ibuprofen adsorbed in the internal pores had to diffuse along the macropore channels up to the surface of the material. The material obtained from a highly concentrated emulsion was functionalized with amino groups using two methods, the post-grafting mechanism and the co-condensation mechanism. Both routes improve IBU adsorption in the material and show good behaviour as a controlled drug delivery system. - Graphical abstract: Ibuprofen release profiles for the materials obtained from samples P84{sub m}eso (black diamonds), P84{sub 2}0% (white squares), P84{sub 5

  11. Controlled release of ibuprofen by meso–macroporous silica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santamaría, E.; Maestro, A.; Porras, M.; Gutiérrez, J.M.; González, C.

    2014-01-01

    Structured meso–macroporous silica was successfully synthesized from an O/W emulsion using decane as a dispersed phase. Sodium silicate solution, which acts as a silica source and a poly(ethylene oxide)–poly(propylene oxide)–poly(ethylene oxide) (EO 19 PO 39 EO 19 ) denoted as P84 was used in order to stabilize the emulsion and as a mesopore template. The materials obtained were characterized through transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), small-angle X-ray diffraction scattering (SAXS) and nitrogen adsorption–desorption isotherms. Ibuprofen (IBU) was selected as the model drug and loaded into ordered meso–macroporous materials. The effect of the materials’ properties on IBU drug loading and release was studied. The results showed that the loading of IBU increases as the macropore presence in the material is increased. The IBU adsorption process followed the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. A two-step release process, consisting of an initial fast release and then a slower release was observed. Macropores enhanced the adsorption capacity of the material; this was probably due to the fact that they allowed the drug to access internal pores. When only mesopores were present, ibuprofen was probably adsorbed on the mesopores close to the surface. Moreover, the more macropore present in the material, the slower the release behaviour observed, as the ibuprofen adsorbed in the internal pores had to diffuse along the macropore channels up to the surface of the material. The material obtained from a highly concentrated emulsion was functionalized with amino groups using two methods, the post-grafting mechanism and the co-condensation mechanism. Both routes improve IBU adsorption in the material and show good behaviour as a controlled drug delivery system. - Graphical abstract: Ibuprofen release profiles for the materials obtained from samples P84 m eso (black diamonds), P84 2 0% (white squares), P84 5 0% (black triangles), P84 7

  12. The crown splash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deegan, Robert; Brunet, Philippe; Eggers, Jens

    2008-11-01

    The impact of a drop onto a liquid layer and the subsequent splash has important implications for diverse physical processes such as air-sea gas transfer, cooling, and combustion. In the crown splash parameter regime, the splash pattern is highly regular. We focus on this case as a model for the mechanism that leads to secondary droplets, and thus explain the drop size distribution resulting from the splash. We show that the mean number of secondary droplets is determined by the most unstable wavelength of the Rayleigh-Plateau instability. Variations from this mean are governed by the width of the spectrum. Our results for the crown splash will provide the basis for understanding more complicated splashes.

  13. Formation of Micro and Mesoporous Amorphous Silica-Based Materials from Single Source Precursors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Nazri Mohd Sokri

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Polysilazanes functionalized with alkoxy groups were designed and synthesized as single source precursors for fabrication of micro and mesoporous amorphous silica-based materials. The pyrolytic behaviors during the polymer to ceramic conversion were studied by the simultaneous thermogravimetry-mass spectrometry (TG-MS analysis. The porosity of the resulting ceramics was characterized by the N2 adsorption/desorption isotherm measurements. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR and Raman spectroscopic analyses as well as elemental composition analysis were performed on the polymer-derived amorphous silica-based materials, and the role of the alkoxy group as a sacrificial template for the micro and mesopore formations was discussed from a viewpoint to establish novel micro and mesoporous structure controlling technologies through the polymer-derived ceramics (PDCs route.

  14. Bone tissue engineering using silica-based mesoporous nanobiomaterials:Recent progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadjou, Nasrin; Hasanzadeh, Mohammad

    2015-10-01

    Bone disorders are of significant concern due to increase in the median age of our population. It is in this context that tissue engineering has been emerging as a valid approach to the current therapies for bone regeneration/substitution. Tissue-engineered bone constructs have the potential to alleviate the demand arising from the shortage of suitable autograft and allograft materials for augmenting bone healing. Silica based mesostructured nanomaterials possessing pore sizes in the range 2-50 nm and surface reactive functionalities have elicited immense interest due to their exciting prospects in bone tissue engineering. In this review we describe application of silica-based mesoporous nanomaterials for bone tissue engineering. We summarize the preparation methods, the effect of mesopore templates and composition on the mesopore-structure characteristics, and different forms of these materials, including particles, fibers, spheres, scaffolds and composites. Also, the effect of structural and textural properties of mesoporous materials on development of new biomaterials for production of bone implants and bone cements was discussed. Also, application of different mesoporous materials on construction of manufacture 3-dimensional scaffolds for bone tissue engineering was discussed. It begins by giving the reader a brief background on tissue engineering, followed by a comprehensive description of all the relevant components of silica-based mesoporous biomaterials on bone tissue engineering, going from materials to scaffolds and from cells to tissue engineering strategies that will lead to "engineered" bone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Construction of Silica-Based Micro/Nanoplatforms for Ultrasound Theranostic Biomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yang; Han, Xiaoxia; Jing, Xiangxiang; Chen, Yu

    2017-09-01

    Ultrasound (US)-based biomedicine has been extensively explored for its applications in both diagnostic imaging and disease therapy. The fast development of theranostic nanomedicine significantly promotes the development of US-based biomedicine. This progress report summarizes and discusses the recent developments of rational design and fabrication of silica-based micro/nanoparticles for versatile US-based biomedical applications. The synthetic strategies and surface-engineering approaches of silica-based micro/nanoparticles are initially discussed, followed by detailed introduction on their US-based theranostic applications. They have been extensively explored in contrast-enhanced US imaging, US-based multi-modality imaging, synergistic high-intensity focused US (HIFU) ablation, sonosensitizer-enhanced sonodynamic therapy (SDT), as well as US-triggered chemotherapy. Their biological effects and biosafety have been briefly discussed to guarantee further clinical translation. Based on the high biocompatibility, versatile composition/structure and high performance in US-based theranostic biomedicine, these silica-based theranostic agents are expected to pave a new way for achieving efficient US-based theranostics of disease by taking the specific advantages of material science, nanotechnology and US-based biomedicine. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Canada’s Evolving Crown: From a British Crown to a “Crown of Maples”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romaniuk Scott Nicholas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines how instruments have changed the Crown of Canada from 1867 through to the present, how this change has been effected, and the extent to which the Canadian Crown is distinct from the British Crown. The main part of this article focuses on the manner in which law, politics, and policy (both Canadian and non-Canadian have evolved a British Imperial institution since the process by which the federal Dominion of Canada was formed nearly 150 years ago through to a nation uniquely Canadian as it exists today. The evolution of the Canadian Crown has taken place through approximately fifteen discrete events since the time of Canadian confederation on July 1, 1867. These fifteen events are loosely categorized into three discrete periods: The Imperial Crown (1867-1930, A Shared Crown (1931-1981, and The Canadian Crown (1982-present.

  17. Immobilized Candida antarctica lipase B on ZnO nanowires/macroporous silica composites for catalyzing chiral resolution of (R,S)-2-octanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Chuan-Yang; Li, Wei-Xun; Zhang, Rui-Feng

    2014-01-01

    ZnO nanowires were successfully introduced into a macroporous SiO2 by in situ hydrothermal growth in 3D pores. The obtained composites were characterized by SEM and XRD, and used as supports to immobilize Candida antarctica lipase B (CALB) through adsorption. The high specific surface area (233 m(2)/g) and strong electrostatic interaction resulted that the average loading amount of the composite supports (196.8 mg/g) was 3-4 times of that of macroporous SiO2 and approximate to that of a silica-based mesoporous material. Both adsorption capacity and the activity of the CALB immobilized on the composite supports almost kept unchanged as the samples were soaked in buffer solution for 48 h. The chiral resolution of 2-octanol was catalyzed by immobilized CALB. A maximum molar conversion of 49.1% was achieved with 99% enantiomeric excess of (R)-2-octanol acetate under the optimal condition: a reaction using 1.0 mol/L (R,S)-2-octanol, 2.0 mol/L vinyl acetate and 4.0 wt.% water content at 60°C for 8h. After fifteen recycles the immobilized lipase could retain 96.9% of relative activity and 93.8% of relative enantioselectivity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of macropores on groundwater flow and transport of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huff, D.D.; DeAngelis, D.L.; Yeh, G.T.

    1983-01-01

    In humid environments, recent findings have shown that an important component of runoff and associated solute moves rapidly through large continuous voids. Thus, consideration of radionuclide transport in subsurface flow is incomplete without explicit treatment of continuous macropores and interaction between macropore flow and the soil matrix. A computer model, FRACPORT, that simulates the transport of a solute through a fractured porous matrix has been developed. The model employs the Integrated Compartment Method and uses the approach of dividing the porous media into compartments comprising fractures or porous material. The fracture region and a small portion of the porous matrix are simulated using a shorter time step than for the remaining porous matrix. This allows substantial savings in computational time. The model should be useful for analyses of generic problems associated with water and radionuclide transport in macropore systems at shallow-land disposal sites in humid environments. 14 references, 6 figures, 1 table

  19. Controlled release of ibuprofen by meso-macroporous silica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamaría, E.; Maestro, A.; Porras, M.; Gutiérrez, J. M.; González, C.

    2014-02-01

    Structured meso-macroporous silica was successfully synthesized from an O/W emulsion using decane as a dispersed phase. Sodium silicate solution, which acts as a silica source and a poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) (EO19PO39EO19) denoted as P84 was used in order to stabilize the emulsion and as a mesopore template. The materials obtained were characterized through transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), small-angle X-ray diffraction scattering (SAXS) and nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms. Ibuprofen (IBU) was selected as the model drug and loaded into ordered meso-macroporous materials. The effect of the materials’ properties on IBU drug loading and release was studied. The results showed that the loading of IBU increases as the macropore presence in the material is increased. The IBU adsorption process followed the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. A two-step release process, consisting of an initial fast release and then a slower release was observed. Macropores enhanced the adsorption capacity of the material; this was probably due to the fact that they allowed the drug to access internal pores. When only mesopores were present, ibuprofen was probably adsorbed on the mesopores close to the surface. Moreover, the more macropore present in the material, the slower the release behaviour observed, as the ibuprofen adsorbed in the internal pores had to diffuse along the macropore channels up to the surface of the material. The material obtained from a highly concentrated emulsion was functionalized with amino groups using two methods, the post-grafting mechanism and the co-condensation mechanism. Both routes improve IBU adsorption in the material and show good behaviour as a controlled drug delivery system.

  20. Macropores and earthworm species affected by agronomic intensification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Paul Henning; Pérès, Guénola

    project EcoFINDERS we investigated the relationsship between earthworm biodiversity, macropores and three agricultural landuse types. A field campaign was conducted in October-November 2011. Earthworm burrow distribution was quantified at 10, 20, 30, 50 and 100 20 cm horizontal layer intervals down...... the soil profile to 1 meter depth and correlated with the earthworm community consisting of 12 species dominated by the endogeics Aporrectodea caliginosa and Aporrectodea chlorotica and the anecics Aporrectodea longa and Lumbricus centralis. Medium-small macropores in the ploughing layer with diameters (Ø...

  1. Property comparisons of commercially available silica-based microporous insulations I. Machinability and thermal dimensional stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, Daniel P.; McNeil, Dennis C.; Ruhkamp, Joseph D.; Wells, Donna J.; Stringer, Robert L.; Howell, Edwin I.

    2002-01-01

    Maximizing the thermal to electrical conversion efficiency of a nuclear space power system requires that all of the available thermal energy be utilized in the most efficient manner. Microporous insulations are attractive for application in space power systems due to their very low thermal conductivity. Over the last few years, several new silica-based microporous insulating materials have become commercially available. Property comparisons of the various insulations obtained from company literature and experiments on microporous sample specimens are discussed. The results demonstrate that their machinability and thermal dimensional stability as a function of time at temperature and atmosphere are dependent on the particular material

  2. Positron and positronium annihilation in silica-based thin films studied by a pulsed positron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, R.; Ohdaira, T.; Kobayashi, Y.; Ito, K.; Shioya, Y.; Ishimaru, T.

    2003-01-01

    Positron and positronium annihilation in silica-based thin films has been investigated by means of measurement techniques with a monoenergetic pulsed positron beam. The age-momentum correlation study revealed that positron annihilation in thermally grown SiO 2 is basically the same as that in bulk amorphous SiO 2 while o-Ps in the PECVD grown SiCOH film predominantly annihilate with electrons of C and H at the microvoid surfaces. We also discuss time-dependent three-gamma annihilation in porous low-k films by two-dimensional positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy

  3. Ready to crown

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McReynolds, David

    2017-04-01

    When multiple teeth or localised segments of the mouth require crowns, the restorative interventions involved can be psychologically and physically demanding for the operator, patient and dental technician alike.1,2 It is important that all parties involved in restorations of this nature hold a shared understanding of the expected outcome of treatment, with a realistic, common end goal in mind right from the very beginning. Such clarity of thought and communication is key to avoiding biological, mechanical and aesthetic failures in the planning and execution of advanced restorative treatments. Biomechanically stable and aesthetically pleasing provisional restorations are an essential aspect of treatment, which allow teeth to be prepared and provisionalised over multiple appointments within the comfort zone of the operator and patient.3

  4. Macroporous silica–alumina composites with mesoporous walls

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Macroporous silica–alumina composites with mesopores have been prepared by employing polymethylmethacrylate beads as templates in the presence of the cationic surfactant, N-cetyl-N,N,N-trimethylammonium bromide. The Si/Al ratio in the composites has been varied between 4.5 and 48 and the occurrence of ...

  5. Fabrication and Characteristics of Macroporous TiO2 Photocatalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiyun Yi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Macroporous TiO2 photocatalyst was synthesized by a facile nanocasting method using polystyrene (PS spherical particles as the hard template. The synthesized photocatalyst was characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, thermogravimetry-differential thermogravimetry (TG-DTG, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and N2-sorption. TEM, SEM, and XRD characterizations confirmed that the macroporous TiO2 photocatalyst is composed of anatase phase. The high specific surface area of 87.85 m2/g can be achieved according to the N2-sorption analysis. Rhodamine B (RhB was chosen as probe molecule to evaluate the photocatalytic activity of the TiO2 catalysts. Compared with the TiO2 materials synthesized in the absence of PS spherical template, the macroporous TiO2 photocatalyst sintered at 500°C exhibits much higher activity on the degradation of RhB under the UV irradiation, which can be assigned to the well-structured macroporosity. The macroporous TiO2 material presents great potential in the fields of environmental remediation and energy conversion and storage.

  6. Nanoporous Silica-Based Protocells at Multiple Scales for Designs of Life and Nanomedicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Various protocell models have been constructed de novo with the bottom-up approach. Here we describe a silica-based protocell composed of a nanoporous amorphous silica core encapsulated within a lipid bilayer built by self-assembly that provides for independent definition of cell interior and the surface membrane. In this review, we will first describe the essential features of this architecture and then summarize the current development of silica-based protocells at both micro- and nanoscale with diverse functionalities. As the structure of the silica is relatively static, silica-core protocells do not have the ability to change shape, but their interior structure provides a highly crowded and, in some cases, authentic scaffold upon which biomolecular components and systems could be reconstituted. In basic research, the larger protocells based on precise silica replicas of cells could be developed into geometrically realistic bioreactor platforms to enable cellular functions like coupled biochemical reactions, while in translational research smaller protocells based on mesoporous silica nanoparticles are being developed for targeted nanomedicine. Ultimately we see two different motivations for protocell research and development: (1 to emulate life in order to understand it; and (2 to use biomimicry to engineer desired cellular interactions.

  7. Predicting macropores in space and time by earthworms and abiotic controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohenbrink, Tobias Ludwig; Schneider, Anne-Kathrin; Zangerlé, Anne; Reck, Arne; Schröder, Boris; van Schaik, Loes

    2017-04-01

    Macropore flow increases infiltration and solute leaching. The macropore density and connectivity, and thereby the hydrological effectiveness, vary in space and time due to earthworms' burrowing activity and their ability to refill their burrows in order to survive drought periods. The aim of our study was to predict the spatiotemporal variability of macropore distributions by a set of potentially controlling abiotic variables and abundances of different earthworm species. We measured earthworm abundances and effective macropore distributions using tracer rainfall infiltration experiments in six measurement campaigns during one year at six field sites in Luxembourg. Hydrologically effective macropores were counted in three soil depths (3, 10, 30 cm) and distinguished into three diameter classes (6 mm). Earthworms were sampled and determined to species-level. In a generalized linear modelling framework, we related macropores to potential spatial and temporal controlling factors. Earthworm species such as Lumbricus terrestris and Aporrectodea longa, local abiotic site conditions (land use, TWI, slope), temporally varying weather conditions (temperature, humidity, precipitation) and soil moisture affected the number of effective macropores. Main controlling factors and explanatory power of the models (uncertainty and model performance) varied depending on the depth and diameter class of macropores. We present spatiotemporal predictions of macropore density by daily-resolved, one year time series of macropore numbers and maps of macropore distributions at specific dates in a small-scale catchment with 5 m resolution.

  8. Overdenture dengan Pegangan Telescopic Crown

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pambudi Santoso

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Kaitan presisi merupakan alat retensi mekanis yang menghubungkan antara satu atau lebih pegangan gigi tiruan, yang bertujuan untuk menambah retensi dan/atau stabilisasi. Kaitan presisi dapat digunakan secara luas pada gigi tiruan cekat, gigi tiruan sebagian lepasan, overdenture, implant untuk retensi overdenture, dan protesa maksilo fasial. Overdenture dengan kaitan presisi dapat membantu dalam pembagian beban kunyah, meminimalkan trauma pada gigi pegangan dan jaringan lunak, meminimalkan resorbsi tulang, dan meningkatkan estetik dan pengucapan suara. Salah satu jenis dari kaitan presisi adalah telescopic crown, terdiri dari 2 macam mahkota, yaitu mahkota primer yang melekat secara permanen pada gigi penyangga, dan mahkota sekunder yang melekat pada gigi tiruan. Tujuan pemaparan kasus ini adalah untuk memberikan informasi tentang rehabilitasi pasien edentulous sebagian rahang atas dengan telescopic crown..  Pasien wanita berusia 45 tahun datang ke klinik prostodonsia RSGM Prof.Soedomo dengan keluhan ingin dibuatkan gigi tiruan. Pasien kehilangan gigi 11 12 15 16 17 21 22 24 25 26 dan 27 yang diindikasikan untuk pembuatan overdenture gigi tiruan sebagian lepasan (GTS kerangka logam dengan pegangan telescopic crown pada gigi 13 dan 14 dengan sistem parallel-sided crown. Tahap-tahap pembuatan telescopic crown yaitu mencetak model study dengan catatan gigit pendahuluan. Perawatan saluran dilakukan pada akar gigi 13, dilanjutkan pemasangan pasak fiber serta rewalling dinding bukal. Gigi 13 dan 14 dilakukan preparasi mahkota penuh, dilanjutkan dengan pencetakan model kerja untuk coping primer dan kerangka logam dengan metode double impression. Coping primer disementasi pada gigi penyangga, dilanjutkan pasang coba coping sekunder beserta kerangka logam. Selanjutnya dilakukan pencatatan gigit, pencetakan model kerja, penyusunan gigi dan pasang coba penyusunan gigi pada pasien. Prosedur dilanjutkan dengan proses di laboratorium, serta insersi pada

  9. Pore fabrication in various silica-based nanoparticles by controlled etching

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Lan

    2010-07-20

    A novel method based on controlled etching was developed to fabricate nanopores on preformed silica nanoparticles (<100 nm in diameter). The obtained monodisperse nanoporous particles could form highly stable homogeneous colloidal solution. Fluorescent silica nanoparticles and magnetic silica-coated γ-Fe 2O 3 nanoparticles were investigated as examples to illustrate that this strategy could be generally applied to various silica-based functional nanoparticles. The results indicated that this method was effective for generating pores on these nanoparticles without altering their original functionalities. The obtained multifunctional nanoparticles would be useful for many biological and biomedical applications. These porous nanoparticles could also serve as building blocks to fabricate three-dimensionally periodic structures that have the potential to be used as photonic crystals. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  10. Agricultural Crown Land in Saskatchewan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyle, W.E.

    1998-01-01

    The petroleum industry's interest in provincial crown land in the agricultural area of Saskatchewan has grown over the last two decades. Agricultural land is regulated by the Saskatchewan Department of Agriculture and Food, Lands Branch. Since 1974 surface lease contracts by oil and gas companies have increased from 1,400 to the present 3,700. Resource lands are regulated by Saskatchewan Environment and Resource Management. There are 8.8 million acres of crown agricultural land in Saskatchewan, most of which is held without title. Crown land management is meant to provide a long term management approach to crown lands that balances economic, environmental and social benefits for present and future generations. The oil and gas industry is an important participant in crown land management. Revenues from petroleum and gas surface leasing, and seismic licensing totals more than five million dollars annually. In 1995/96, there were 54 companies establishing new oil and gas leases on crown land in Saskatchewan. This paper provides details of current policies which apply to petroleum and gas leasing and seismic exploration, and environmental guidelines for companies developing well sites, compressor and metering stations, access roads and easements. 3 tabs

  11. Actinide/crown ether chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benning, M.M.

    1988-01-01

    A structural survey of actinide/crown ether compounds was conducted in order to investigate the solid state chemistry of these complexes. Several parameters - the metal size, crown type, counterion, solvent systems and reaction and crystallization conditions - were varied to correlate their importance in complexation. Under atmospheric conditions, two types of complexes were isolated, those containing only hydrogen-bonded crown interactions and instances where the crown interacts directly with the metal center. In both cases, water seems to play a very important role. When coordinated to the metal, water molecules exhibit the necessary donor properties required for the formation of hydrogen-bonded contacts. The water molecules also provide fierce competition with the crown ethers for metal-binding sites and in most cases prohibit the formation of complexes in which direct metal-ligand association exists. The results of this study indicate that direct interaction between the metal atoms and the crown ethers, in the presence of water, can only occur with polyether conformations which limit the steric replusions within the metal coordination sphere

  12. Crown rust control on oats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frey, K.J.; Browning, J.A.; Simons, M.D.

    1976-01-01

    Attempts have been made to test the relative effectiveness of EMS treatment for inducing tolerance to crown rust among oat strains Clintland-60 of different ploidy levels. One strain of diploid and one of tetraploid oats were treated with EMS. These two strains are as susceptible to damage from crown rust as are cultivars of hexaploid oats. Multiline cultivars of oats have been shown to provide adequate protection from economic loss due to crown-rust disease in Iowa. Since 1968, eleven multiline cultivars of oats have been released from the Iowa station for use in commercial production in the midwestern USA. During the past two winter seasons, the effectiveness of multiline oat cultivars against crown-rust disease has been researched in Texas, USA, which has a ''long rust season'' of about four months, not an Iowa ''short rust season''. The protection against crown rust afforded by the multiline cultivars appeared equally good in Texas and Iowa. The seasonal productions of crown-rust spores relative to completely resistant and susceptible checks were nearly identical in both environments. Fifteen new isolines of oats have been developed for use in multiline varieties, with seed supplies sufficiently large for immediate use

  13. Optimisation and characterisation of silica-based reversed-phase liquid chromatographic systems for the analysis of basic pharmaceuticals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervoort, R.J.M.; Debets, A.J.J.; Claessens, H.A.; Cramers, C.A.M.G.; Jong, de G.J.

    2000-01-01

    Reversed-phase liquid chromatography using silica-based columns is successfully applied in many separations. However, also some drawbacks exist, i.e. the analysis of basic compounds is often hampered by ionic interaction of the basic analytes with residual silanols present on the silica surface,

  14. High pH mobile phase effects on silica-based reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic columns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirkland, J.J.; Straten, van M.A.; Claessens, H.A.

    1995-01-01

    Aqueous mobile phases above pH 8 often cause premature column failure, limiting the utility of silica-based columns for applications requiring high pH. Previous studies suggest that covalently bound silane ligands are hydrolyzed and removed by high-pH mobile phases. However, we found that the

  15. Macropore-mesopore model of water flow through aggregated porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fong, L.; Appelbaum, H.R.

    1980-12-01

    A combined, one-dimensional, macropore-mesopore, hydrologic model was developed for simulating water flow through soils for analysis of data related to water and chemical flow in soils. Flows within the macroporous system as well as interactive flows between macroporous and mesoporous systems were modeled. Computer subroutines were written and incorporated into the existing one-dimensional Terrestrial Ecosystem Hydrologic Model (TEHM) developed at ORNL. Simulation showed that macropore flow effects are important during heavy precipitation and are more significant in soils of comparatively low hydraulic conductivity (5 to 10 cm/d). Increased drainage and decreased lateral flow result from the addition of the macropore model. The effect was more pronounced in soils of large macroporosity. Preliminary results indicate that the model is insensitive to geometrical properties of macropores

  16. Pesticide transport to tile-drained fields in SWAT model – macropore flow and sediment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Shenglan; Trolle, Dennis; Blicher-Mathiesen, Gitte

    2015-01-01

    Tool (SWAT) to simulate transport of both mobile (e.g. Bentazon) and strongly sorbed (e.g. Diuron) pesticides in tile drains. Macropore flow is initiated when soil water content exceeds a threshold and rainfall intensity exceeds infiltration capacity. The amount of macropore flow is calculated...... to macropore sediment transport. Simulated tile drain discharge, sediment and pesticide loads are calibrated against data from intensively monitored tile-drained fields and streams in Denmark....

  17. Functionalization of 2D macroporous silicon under the high-pressure oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karachevtseva, L.; Kartel, M.; Kladko, V.; Gudymenko, O.; Bo, Wang; Bratus, V.; Lytvynenko, O.; Onyshchenko, V.; Stronska, O.

    2018-03-01

    Addition functionalization after high-pressure oxidation of 2D macroporous silicon structures is evaluated. X-ray diffractometry indicates formation of orthorhombic SiO2 phase on macroporous silicon at oxide thickness of 800-1200 nm due to cylindrical symmetry of macropores and high thermal expansion coefficient of SiO2. Pb center concentration grows with the splitting energy of LO- and TO-phonons and SiO2 thickness in oxidized macroporous silicon structures. This increase EPR signal amplitude and GHz radiation absorption and is promising for development of high-frequency devices and electronically controlled elements.

  18. Experimental study on the basic characteristics of a novel silica-based CMPO adsorbent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Yuezhou; Arai, Tsuyoshi; Zhang, Anyun; Hoshi, Harutaka; Koma, Yoshikazu; Watanabe, Masayuki

    2002-01-01

    In order to establish the extraction chromatography process for recovery of minor actinides from HLLW with a novel silica-based CMPO (octyl(phenyl)-N, N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide) adsorbent, some basic characteristics, such as dissolving behavior of CMPO from the adsorbent, thermal decomposition of the adsorbent and treatment method of organic wastes, were examined. It was found that the leakage of CMPO from the adsorbent in contact with an aqueous solution is the result of the solubility of CMPO in the solution. About 40-50 ppm of CMPO constantly leaked into the effluent from the adsorbent packed column using 0.01 M (M=mol/dm 3 ) HNO 3 as a mobile phase. The leakage of CMPO from the adsorbent could be effectively depressed with the utilization of the aqueous solution saturated by CMPO. TG-DTA thermal analysis results indicate that CMPO in the adsorbent decomposed at 20degC and the SDB-polymer at 290degC. The impregnated CMPO could be completely dissolved out from the support with acetone. Furthermore, the organic wastes such as CMPO, oxalic acid and DTPA those come from the elution procedure could be effectively decomposed with the Fenton reagent. (author)

  19. A new surface catalytic model for silica-based thermal protection material for hypersonic vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Kai

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Silica-based materials are widely employed in the thermal protection system for hypersonic vehicles, and the investigation of their catalytic characteristics is crucially important for accurate aerothermal heating prediction. By analyzing the disadvantages of Norman’s high and low temperature models, this paper combines the two models and proposes an eight-reaction combined surface catalytic model to describe the catalysis between oxygen and silica surface. Given proper evaluation of the parameters according to many references, the recombination coefficient obtained shows good agreement with experimental data. The catalytic mechanisms between oxygen and silica surface are then analyzed. Results show that with the increase of the wall temperature, the dominant reaction contributing to catalytic coefficient varies from Langmuir–Hinshelwood (LH recombination (TW  1350 K. The surface coverage of chemisorption areas varies evidently with the dominant reactions in the high temperature (HT range, while the surface coverage of physisorption areas varies within quite low temperature (LT range (TW < 250 K. Recommended evaluation of partial parameters is also given.

  20. Silica based gel as a potential waste form for high level waste from fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, C.E.; Dempster, T.J.; Melling, P.J.

    1983-10-01

    To assess the feasibility of safe disposal of high-level radioactive waste as synthetic clay, or material that would react with ground water to form clay, experiments have been carried out to determine the hydrothermal crystallisation and leaching behaviour of silica based gels fired at 900 deg C. Crystallisation rates at a pressure of 500 bars and at temperatures below 400 deg C are negligible and this more or less precludes pre-disposal production of synthetic clay on the scale required. Leaching experiments suggest that the leach rates of Cs from gels by distilled water are higher than those of boro-silicate glasses and SYNROC at the lower temperatures that would be preferred for geological storage. However, amounts of bulk dissolution of gels may be lower than those of boro-silicate glasses. The initial leaching behaviour of gels might be considerably improved by hot compaction at 900 to 1000 deg C. Consideration of likely waste form dissolution behaviour in a repository environment suggests that gels of appropriate composition might perform as well as, or better than, boro-silicate glasses. A novel hypothetical plant is described that could produce the gel waste form on the scale required on a more or less continuous basis. (author)

  1. Silica-based microstructures on nonplanar substrates by femtosecond laser-induced nonlinear lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizoshiri, M; Nishiyama, H; Hirata, Y; Nishii, J

    2009-01-01

    We developed a technique for the formation of nonplanar surfaces of inorganic optical materials by a combined process of nonlinear lithography and plasma etching. This technique can be used to fabricate structures even on non-flat substrates, which is difficult using current semiconductor technology. Three-dimensional patterns were written directly inside a positive-tone photoresist using femtosecond laser-induced nonlinear optical absorption. The patterns were then transferred to underlying nonplanar substrates by the ion beam etching technique. For the lithographic process, we obtained a minimum feature size of 900 nm, which is below the diffraction limit. We demonstrated the fabrication of silica-based hybrid diffractive-refractive lenses. Fresnel zone plates with smooth surfaces were obtained on convex microlenses. When a 633-nm-wavelength He-Ne laser was coupled normally to the hybrid lens, the primary focal length was measured as 630 μm. This hybridization shifted the focal length by 200 μm, which agreed with the theoretical value. Our process is useful for the precise fabrication of nonplanar structures based on inorganic materials.

  2. Adsorption of Cr(VI) using silica-based adsorbent prepared by radiation-induced grafting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Jingyi; Wang Ziyue; Li Huibo; Xu Ling; Peng Jing; Zhai Maolin; Yang Chao; Li Jiuqiang; Wei Genshuan

    2009-01-01

    Silica-based adsorbent was prepared by radiation-induced grafting of dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA) onto the silanized silica followed by a protonation process. The FTIR spectra and XPS analysis proved that DMAEMA was grafted successfully onto the silica surface. The resultant adsorbent manifested a high ion exchange capacity (IEC) of ca. 1.30 mmol/g and the Cr(VI) adsorption behavior of the adsorbent was further investigated, revealing the recovery of Cr(VI) increased with the adsorbent feed and the equilibrium adsorption could be achieved within 40 min. The adsorption capacity, strongly depended on the pH of the solution, reached a maximum Cr(VI) uptake (ca. 68 mg/g) as the pH was in the range of 2.5-5.0. Furthermore, even in strong acidic (4.0 mol/L HNO 3 ) or alkaline media (pH 11.0), the adsorbent had a sound Cr(VI) uptake capacity (ca. 22 and 30 mg/g, respectively), and the adsorption followed Langmuir mode. The results indicated that this adsorbent, prepared via a convenient approach, is applicable for removing heavy-metal-ion pollutants (e.g. Cr(VI)) from waste waters.

  3. Nonenzymatic free-cholesterol detection via a modified highly sensitive macroporous gold electrode with platinum nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yi-Jae; Park, Jae-Yeong

    2010-12-15

    A sensitive macroporous Au electrode with a highly rough surface obtained through the use of with Pt nanoparticles (macroporous Au-/nPts) is reported. It has been designed for nonenzymatic free-cholesterol biosensor applications. A macroporous Au-/nPts electrode was fabricated by electroplating Pt nanoparticles onto a coral-like shaped macroporous Au electrode structure. The macroporous Au-/nPts electrode was physically characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). It was confirmed that the Pt nanoparticles were well deposited on the surface of the macroporous Au electrode. The porosity and window pore size of the macroporous Au electrode were 50% and 100-300 nm, respectively. The electroplated Pt nanoparticle size was approximately 10-20 nm. Electrochemical experiments showed that the macroporous Au-/nPts exhibited a much larger surface activation area (roughness factor (RF)=2024.7) than the macroporous Au electrode (RF=46.07). The macroporous Au-/nPts also presented a much stronger electrocatalytic activity towards cholesterol oxidation than does the macroporous Au electrode. At 0.2 V, the electrode responded linearly up to a 5 mM cholesterol concentration in a neutral media, with a detection limit of 0.015 mM and detection sensitivity of 226.2 μA mM(-1) cm(-2). Meanwhile, interfering species such as ascorbic acid (AA), acetaminophen (AP), and uric acid (UA), were effectively avoided. This novel nonenzymatic detection electrode has strong applications as an electrochemically based cholesterol biosensor. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Wave Forces on Crown Walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jan; Burcharth, H. F.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents some of the results from a large parametric laboratory study including more than 200 long-duration model tests. The study addresses both the wave forces imposed on the breakwater crown wall as well as the performance of the structure in reducing the wave overtopping. The testing...

  5. Earth Pressure on Tunnel Crown

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars

    Two different analyses have been carried out in order to find the vertical earth pressure, or overburden pressure, at the crown of a tunnel going through a dike. Firstly, a hand calculation is performed using a simple dispersion of the stresses over depth. Secondly, the finite‐element program...

  6. Effectiveness of silica based sol-gel microencapsulation method for odorants and flavors leading to sustainable environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Muhammad Aqeel; Khan, Aysha Masood; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Sarfraz, Maliha

    2015-01-01

    Microencapsulation has become a hot topic in chemical research. Technology mainly used for control release and protection purposes. The sol-gel micro encapsulation approach for fragrance and aroma in porous silica-based materials leads to sustainable odorant and flavored materials with novel and unique beneficial properties. Sol-gel encapsulation of silica based micro particles considered economically cheap as capital investment in manufacturing is very low and environmentally friendly. Amorphous sol-gel SiO2 is non-toxic and safe, whereas the sol-gel entrapment of delicate chemicals in its inner pores results in pronounced chemical and physical stabilization of the entrapped active agents, thereby broadening the practical utilization of chemically unstable essential oils (EOs). Reviewing progress in the fabrication of diverse odorant and flavored sol-gels, shows us how different synthetic strategies are appropriate for practical application with important health and environmental benefits.

  7. Effectiveness of silica based Sol-gel microencapsulation Method for odorants and flavours leading to sustainable Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Aqeel eAshraf

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Microencapsulation has become a hot topic in chemical research. Technology mainly used for control release and protection purposes. The sol–gel micro encapsulation approach for fragrance and aroma in porous silica-based materials leads to sustainable odorant and flavored materials with novel and unique beneficial properties. Sol-gel encapsulation of silica based micro particles considered economically cheap as capital investment in manufacturing is very low and environmentally friendly. Amorphous sol–gel SiO2 is non-toxic and safe, whereas the sol–gel entrapment of delicate chemicals in its inner pores results in pronounced chemical and physical stabilization of the entrapped actives, thereby broadening the practical utilization of chemically unstable essential oils. Reviewing progress in the fabrication of diverse odorant and flavoured sol-gels, shows us how different synthetic strategies are appropriate for practical application with important health and environmental benefits.

  8. Effectiveness of silica based sol-gel microencapsulation method for odorants and flavors leading to sustainable environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Muhammad Aqeel; Khan, Aysha Masood; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Sarfraz, Maliha

    2015-01-01

    Microencapsulation has become a hot topic in chemical research. Technology mainly used for control release and protection purposes. The sol-gel micro encapsulation approach for fragrance and aroma in porous silica-based materials leads to sustainable odorant and flavored materials with novel and unique beneficial properties. Sol-gel encapsulation of silica based micro particles considered economically cheap as capital investment in manufacturing is very low and environmentally friendly. Amorphous sol-gel SiO2 is non-toxic and safe, whereas the sol-gel entrapment of delicate chemicals in its inner pores results in pronounced chemical and physical stabilization of the entrapped active agents, thereby broadening the practical utilization of chemically unstable essential oils (EOs). Reviewing progress in the fabrication of diverse odorant and flavored sol-gels, shows us how different synthetic strategies are appropriate for practical application with important health and environmental benefits. PMID:26322304

  9. Digital photo monitoring for tree crown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neil Clark; Sang-Mook Lee

    2007-01-01

    Assessing change in the amount of foliage within a tree’s crown is the goal of crown transparency estimation, a component in many forest health assessment programs. Many sources of variability limit analysis and interpretation of crown condition data. Increased precision is needed to detect more subtle changes that are important for detection of health problems....

  10. Differently-catalyzed silica-based precursors as functional additives for the epoxy-based hybrid materials

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Perchacz, Magdalena; Beneš, Hynek; Zhigunov, Alexander; Serkis, Magdalena; Pavlova, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 99, 2 September (2016), s. 434-446 ISSN 0032-3861 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-05146S; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1507 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : epoxy-silica hybrid material * solvent-free sol-gel process * silica-based precursor Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 3.684, year: 2016

  11. Silica-based PLC with heterogeneously-integrated PDs for one-chip DP-QPSK receiver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurata, Yu; Nasu, Yusuke; Tamura, Munehisa; Kasahara, Ryoichi; Aozasa, Shinichi; Mizuno, Takayuki; Yokoyama, Haruki; Tsunashima, Satoshi; Muramoto, Yoshifumi

    2012-12-10

    To realize a DP-QPSK receiver PLC, we heterogeneously integrated eight high-speed PDs on a silica-based PLC platform with a PBS, 90-degree optical hybrids and a VOA. The use of a 2.5%-Δ waveguide reduced the receiver PLC size to 11 mm x 11 mm. We successfully demonstrated 32 Gbaud DP-QPSK signal demodulation with the receiver PLC.

  12. Soft-Templating Synthesis of Mesoporous Silica-Based Materials for Environmental Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunathilake, Chamila Asanka

    Dissertation research is mainly focus on: 1) the development of mesoporous silica materials with organic pendant and bridging groups (isocyanurate, amidoxime, benzene) and incorporated metal (aluminum, zirconium, calcium, and magnesium) species for high temperature carbon dioxide (CO2) sorption, 2) phosphorous-hydroxy functionalized mesoporous silica materials for water treatment, and 3) amidoxime-modified ordered mesoporous silica materials for uranium sorption under seawater conditions. The goal is to design composite materials for environmental applications with desired porosity, surface area, and functionality by selecting proper metal oxide precursors, organosilanes, tetraethylorthosilicate, (TEOS), and block copolymer templates and by adjusting synthesis conditions. The first part of dissertation presents experimental studies on the merge of aluminum, zirconium, calcium, and magnesium oxides with mesoporous silica materials containing organic pendant (amidoxime) and bridging groups (isocyanurate, benzene) to obtain composite sorbents for CO2 sorption at ambient (0-25 °C) and elevated (60-120 °C) temperatures. These studies indicate that the aforementioned composite sorbents are fairly good for CO2 capture at 25 °C via physisorption mechanism and show a remarkably high affinity toward CO2 chemisorption at 60-120 °C. The second part of dissertation is devoted to silica-based materials with organic functionalities for removal of heavy metal ions such as lead from contaminated water and for recovery of metal ions such as uranium from seawater. First, ordered mesoporous organosilica (OMO) materials with diethylphosphatoethyl and hydroxyphosphatoethyl surface groups were examined for Pb2+ adsorption and showed unprecedented adsorption capacities up to 272 mg/g and 202 mg/g, respectively However, the amidoxime-modified OMO materials were explored for uranium extraction under seawater conditions and showed remarkable capacities reaching 57 mg of uranium per gram

  13. Influence of geometry on mechanical properties of bio-inspired silica-based hierarchical materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimas, Leon S; Buehler, Markus J

    2012-01-01

    Diatoms, bone, nacre and deep-sea sponges are mineralized natural structures found abundantly in nature. They exhibit mechanical properties on par with advanced engineering materials, yet their fundamental building blocks are brittle and weak. An intriguing characteristic of these structures is their heterogeneous distribution of mechanical properties. Specifically, diatoms exhibit nanoscale porosity in specific geometrical configurations to create regions with distinct stress strain responses, notably based on a single and simple building block, silica. The study reported here, using models derived from first principles based full atomistic studies with the ReaxFF reactive force field, focuses on the mechanics and deformation mechanisms of silica-based nanocomposites inspired by mineralized structures. We examine single edged notched tensile specimens and analyze stress and strain fields under varied sample size in order to gain fundamental insights into the deformation mechanisms of structures with distinct ordered arrangements of soft and stiff phases. We find that hierarchical arrangements of silica nanostructures markedly change the stress and strain transfer in the samples. The combined action of strain transfer in the deformable phase, and stress transfer in the strong phase, acts synergistically to reduce the intensity of stress concentrations around a crack tip, and renders the resulting composites less sensitive to the presence of flaws, for certain geometrical configurations it even leads to stable crack propagation. A systematic study allows us to identify composite structures with superior fracture mechanical properties relative to their constituents, akin to many natural biomineralized materials that turn the weaknesses of building blocks into a strength of the overall system. (paper)

  14. Studies of ionizing radiation shielding effectiveness of silica-based commercial glasses used in Bangladeshi dwellings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Yasmin

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Following the rapid growing economy, the Bangladeshi dwellers are replacing their traditional (mud-, bamboo-, and wood-based houses to modern multistoried buildings, where different types of glasses are being used as decorative as well as structural materials due to their various advantageous properties. In this study, we inquire the protective and dosimetric capability of commercial glasses for ionizing radiation. Four branded glass samples (PHP-Bangladesh, Osmania-Bangladesh, Nasir-Bangladesh, and Rider-China of same thickness and color but different elemental weight fractions were analyzed for shielding and dosimetric properties. The chemical composition of the studied material was evaluated by EDX technique. A well-shielded HPGe γ-ray spectrometer combined with associated electronics was used to evaluate the attenuation coefficients of the studied materials for 59 keV, 661 keV, 1173 keV and 1332 keV photon energies. A number of shielding parameters- half value layer (HVL, radiation protection efficiency (RPE and effective atomic number (Zeff were also evaluated. The data were compared with the available literature (where applicable to understand its shielding capability relative to the standard materials such as lead. Among the studied brands, Rider (China shows relatively better indices to be used as ionizing radiation shielding material. The obtained, Zeff of the studied glass samples showed comparable values to the TLD-200 dosimeter, thus considered suitable for environmental radiation monitoring purposes. Keywords: Silica-based commercial glass, HPGe γ-ray spectrometry, EDX analyses, Shielding effectiveness, Dosimetric properties

  15. Modified APEX model for Simulating Macropore Phosphorus Contributions to Tile Drains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, William I; King, Kevin W; Williams, Mark R; Confesor, Remegio B

    2017-11-01

    The contribution of macropore flow to phosphorus (P) loadings in tile-drained agricultural landscapes remains poorly understood at the field scale, despite the recognized deleterious impacts of contaminant transport via macropore pathways. A new subroutine that couples existing matrix-excess and matrix-desiccation macropore flow theory and a modified P routine is implemented in the Agricultural Policy Environmental eXtender (APEX) model. The original and modified formulation were applied and evaluated for a case study in a poorly drained field in Western Ohio with 31 months of surface and subsurface monitoring data. Results highlighted that a macropore subroutine in APEX improved edge-of-field discharge calibration and validation for both tile and total discharge from satisfactory and good, respectively, to very good and improved dissolved reactive P load calibration and validation statistics for tile P loads from unsatisfactory to very good. Output from the calibrated macropore simulations suggested median annual matrix-desiccation macropore flow contributions of 48% and P load contributions of 43%, with the majority of loading occurring in winter and spring. While somewhat counterintuitive, the prominence of matrix-desiccation macropore flow during seasons with less cracking reflects the importance of coupled development of macropore pathways and adequate supply of the macropore flow source. The innovative features of the model allow for assessments of annual macropore P contributions to tile drainage and has the potential to inform P site assessment tools. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  16. Macroporous Hydrogel Scaffolds for Three-Dimensional Cell Culture and Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Changjiang; Wang, Dong-An

    2017-10-01

    Hydrogels have been promising candidate scaffolds for cell delivery and tissue engineering due to their tissue-like physical properties and capability for homogeneous cell loading. However, the encapsulated cells are generally entrapped and constrained in the submicron- or nanosized gel networks, seriously limiting cell growth and tissue formation. Meanwhile, the spatially confined settlement inhibits attachment and spreading of anchorage-dependent cells, leading to their apoptosis. In recent years, macroporous hydrogels have attracted increasing attention in use as cell delivery vehicles and tissue engineering scaffolds. The introduction of macropores within gel scaffolds not only improves their permeability for better nutrient transport but also creates space/interface for cell adhesion, proliferation, and extracellular matrix deposition. Herein, we will first review the development of macroporous gel scaffolds and outline the impact of macropores on cell behaviors. In the first part, the advantages and challenges of hydrogels as three-dimensional (3D) cell culture scaffolds will be described. In the second part, the fabrication of various macroporous hydrogels will be presented. Third, the enhancement of cell activities within macroporous gel scaffolds will be discussed. Finally, several crucial factors that are envisaged to propel the improvement of macroporous gel scaffolds are proposed for 3D cell culture and tissue engineering.

  17. Chemical changes in DMP1-null murine bone & silica based pecvd coatings for titanium implant osseoapplications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maginot, Megen

    In order to improve clinical outcomes in bone-implant systems, a thorough understanding of both local bone chemistry and implant surface chemistry is necessary. This study consists, therefore, of two main parts: one focused on determining the nature of the changes in bone chemistry in a DMP1-null transgenic disease model and the other on the development of amorphous silica-based coatings for potential use as titanium bone implant coatings. For the study of bone mineral in the DMP1 transgenic model, which is known to have low serum phosphate levels, transgenic DMP1-null and wild type mice were fed a high phosphate diet, sacrificed, and had their long bone harvested. This bone was characterized using SEM, FTIR, microCT and XANES and compared to DMP1-null and wild type control groups to assess the therapeutic effect of high Pi levels on the phenotype and the role of DMP1 in mineralization in vivo. Findings suggest that though the high phosphate diet results in restoring serum phosphate levels, it does not completely rescue the bone mineral phenotype at an ultrastructural level and implicates DMP1 in phosphate nucleation. Since plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) silica like coatings have not previously been fabricated for use in oessoapplications, the second part of this study initially focused on the characterization of novel SiOx chemistries fabricated via a chemical vapor deposition process that were designed specifically to act as bioactive coatings with a loose, hydrogenated structure. These coatings were then investigated for their potential initial stage response to bone tissue through immersion in a simulated body fluid and through the culture of MC3T3 cells on the coating surfaces. Coating surfaces were characterized by SEM, FTIR, contact angle measurements, and XANES. Coating dissolution and ionic release were also investigated by ICP-OES. Findings suggest that some SiOx chemistries may form a bioactive coating while more highly substituted

  18. Rainfall Simulator Experiments to Investigate Macropore Impacts on Hillslope Hydrological Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Smit

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Understanding hillslope runoff response to intense rainfall is an important topic in hydrology, and is key to correct prediction of extreme stream flow, erosion and landslides. Although it is known that preferential flow processes activated by macropores are an important phenomena in understanding runoff processes inside a hillslope, hydrological models have generally not embraced the concept of an extra parameter that represents ‘macropores’ because of the complexity of the phenomenon. Therefore, it is relevant to investigate the influence of macropores on runoff processes in an experimental small artificial hillslope. Here, we report on a controlled experiment where we could isolate the influence of macropores without the need for assumptions regarding their characteristics. Two identical hillslopes were designed, of which one was filled with artificial macropores. Twelve artificial rainfall events were applied to the two hillslopes and results of drainage and soil moisture were investigated. After the experiments, it could be concluded that the influence of macropores on runoff processes was minimal. The S90 sand used for this research caused runoff to respond fast to rainfall, leading to little or no development of saturation near the macropores. In addition, soil moisture data showed a large amount of pendular water in the hillslopes, which implies that the soil has a low air entry value, and, in combination with the lack of vertical flow, could have caused the pressure difference between the matrix and the macropores to vanish sooner and result in equilibrium being reached in a relatively short time. Nevertheless, a better outline is given to determine a correct sand type for these types of experiments and, by using drainage recession analysis to investigate the influences of macropores on runoff, heterogeneity in rainfall intensity can be overcome. This study is a good point of reference to start future experiments from concerning

  19. Drug delivery properties of macroporous polystyrene solid foams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canal, Cristina; Aparicio, Rosa Maria; Vilchez, Alejandro; Esquena, Jordi; García-Celma, Maria José

    2012-01-01

    Polymeric porous foams have been evaluated as possible new pharmaceutical dosage forms. These materials were obtained by polymerization in the continuous phase of highly concentrated emulsions prepared by the phase inversion temperature method. Their porosity, specific surface and surface topography were characterized, and the incorporation and release of active principles was studied using ketoprofen as model lipophilic molecule. Solid foams with very high pore volume, mainly inside macropores, were obtained by this method. The pore morphology of the materials was characterized, and very rough topography was observed, which contributed to their nearly superhydrophobic properties. These solid foams could be used as delivery systems for active principles with pharmaceutical interest, and in the present work ketoprofen was used as a model lipophilic molecule. Drug incorporation and release was studied from solid foam disks, using different concentrations of the loading solutions, achieving a delayed release with short lag-time.

  20. Bias-assisted KOH etching of macroporous silicon membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathwig, K; Geilhufe, M; Müller, F; Gösele, U

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an improved technique to fabricate porous membranes from macroporous silicon as a starting material. A crucial step in the fabrication process is the dissolution of silicon from the backside of the porous wafer by aqueous potassium hydroxide to open up the pores. We improved this step by biasing the silicon wafer electrically against the KOH. By monitoring the current–time characteristics a good control of the process is achieved and the yield is improved. Also, the etching can be stopped instantaneously and automatically by short-circuiting Si and KOH. Moreover, the bias-assisted etching allows for the controlled fabrication of silicon dioxide tube arrays when the silicon pore walls are oxidized and inverted pores are released.

  1. Design of pore size of macroporous ceramic substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szewald, O.; Kotsis, I.

    2000-01-01

    A method has been developed for the design of macro-porous ceramic substrates. Based on geometrical and regression models detailed technology was worked out for producing these 100% open porous filters, which were made using quasi homo-disperse fractions of corundum of diameters of several tens and hundreds microns and glassy binding material. Axial pressing was used as a forming process. Pore networks with size distribution that can be defined by a curve having one maximum were provided applying the above technology. Based on geometrical considerations and measurements it was proved that these maximums are at characteristic pore sizes that depend only on characteristic size of the original grain fractions and on the extent of the axial forming pressure. Copyright (2000) AD-TECH - International Foundation for the Advancement of Technology Ltd

  2. Quantification and Purification of Mulberry Anthocyanins with Macroporous Resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueming Liu

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Total anthocyanins in different cultivars of mulberry were measured and a process for the industrial preparation of mulberry anthocyanins as a natural food colorant was studied. In 31 cultivars of mulberry, the total anthocyanins, calculated as cyanidin 3-glucoside, ranged from 147.68 to 2725.46 mg/L juice. Extracting and purifying with macroporous resins was found to be an efficient potential method for the industrial production of mulberry anthocyanins as a food colorant. Of six resins tested, X-5 demonstrated the best adsorbent capability for mulberry anthocyanins (91 mg/mL resin. The adsorption capacity of resins increased with the surface area and the pore radius. Residual mulberry fruit juice after extraction of pigment retained most of its nutrients, except for anthocyanins, and may provide a substrate for further processing.

  3. Links between matrix bulk density, macropore characteristics and hydraulic behavior of soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katuwal, Sheela; Møldrup, Per; Lamandé, Mathieu

    2013-01-01

    characteristics on soil hydraulic functions has rarely been studied. With the objective of studying the links between these parameters we quantified macropore characteristics of intact soil columns (19 cm diameter x 20 cm high) from two agricultural field sites (Silstrup and Faardrup) in Denmark using coarse...... resolution X-ray CT and linked them with laboratory measurements of air permeability and leaching experiment. In addition to macropore characteristics, we also quantified the CT-number of the matrix as a measure of the bulk density of the matrix, i.e., excluding macropores in the soil. Soils from the two...

  4. ''Crown molecules'' for separating cesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dozol, J.F.; Lamare, V.

    2002-01-01

    After the minor actinides, the second category of radionuclides that must be isolated to optimize nuclear waste management concerns fission products, especially two cesium isotopes. If the cesium-135 isotope could be extracted, it could subsequently be transmuted or conditioned using a tailor-made process. Eliminating the 137 isotope from reprocessing and nuclear facility-dismantling waste would allow to dispose of most of this waste in near-surface facilities, and simply process the small remaining quantity containing long-lived elements. CEA research teams and their international partners have thought up crown molecules that could be used to pick out the cesium and meet these objectives. (authors)

  5. Temperature effect on the physico-chemical properties of silica based bio-hybrid composite for uranium uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, Archana; Melo, Jose Savio

    2013-01-01

    In the present work, silica based bio-hybrid composite has been prepared using Streptococcus lactis cells and silica nanoparticles through one step single process of spray drying. Bio-hybrids have many desired characteristics, and are thus used in a wide range of applications for example environmental cleanup which is of increasing importance. Thermogravimetric and thermodynamic analysis have been employed to understand the binding of uranium to the synthesized bio-hybrid material. Analysis of the thermodynamic parameters (ΔG 0 , ΔS 0 and ΔH 0 ) provides information regarding the inherent energy and feasibility of the sorption process. (author)

  6. All-ceramic crowns: bonding or cementing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pospiech, Peter

    2002-12-01

    Despite the wide variety of all-ceramic systems available today, the majority of dental practitioners hesitate to recommend and insert all-ceramic crowns. This article regards the nature of the ceramic materials, the principles of bonding and adhesion, and the clinical problems of the acid-etch technique for crowns. Advantages and disadvantages are discussed, and the influences of different factors on the strength of all-ceramic crowns are presented. Finally, the conclusion is drawn that conventional cementing of all-ceramic crowns is possible when the specific properties of the ceramics are taken into consideration.

  7. Pericoronal radiolucency associated with incomplete crown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nah, Kyung Soo

    2013-01-01

    The author experienced 8 cases of pericoronal radiolucency involving an incomplete tooth crown that had not developed to form the cemento-enamel junction, and the underdeveloped crown sometimes appeared to be floating within the radiolucency radiographically. The first impression was that these cystic lesions had odontogenic keratocysts, but half of them turned out to be dentigerous cysts histopathologically. There has been no report concerning odontogenic cysts involving an incompletely developed crown. The purpose of this paper is to report that dentigerous cysts may develop before the completion of the cemento-enamel junction of a developing crown.

  8. Pericoronal radiolucency associated with incomplete crown

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nah, Kyung Soo [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Pusan National University, Yangsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    The author experienced 8 cases of pericoronal radiolucency involving an incomplete tooth crown that had not developed to form the cemento-enamel junction, and the underdeveloped crown sometimes appeared to be floating within the radiolucency radiographically. The first impression was that these cystic lesions had odontogenic keratocysts, but half of them turned out to be dentigerous cysts histopathologically. There has been no report concerning odontogenic cysts involving an incompletely developed crown. The purpose of this paper is to report that dentigerous cysts may develop before the completion of the cemento-enamel junction of a developing crown.

  9. Radiolabeling Silica-Based Nanoparticles via Coordination Chemistry: Basic Principles, Strategies, and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Dalong; Jiang, Dawei; Ehlerding, Emily B; Huang, Peng; Cai, Weibo

    2018-03-20

    As one of the most biocompatible and well-tolerated inorganic nanomaterials, silica-based nanoparticles (SiNPs) have received extensive attention over the last several decades. Recently, positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of radiolabeled SiNPs has provided a highly sensitive, noninvasive, and quantitative readout of the organ/tissue distribution, pharmacokinetics, and tumor targeting efficiency in vivo, which can greatly expedite the clinical translation of these promising NPs. Encouraged by the successful PET imaging of patients with metastatic melanoma using 124 I-labeled ultrasmall SiNPs (known as Cornell dots or C dots) and their approval as an Investigational New Drug (IND) by the United States Food and Drug Administration, different radioisotopes ( 64 Cu, 89 Zr, 18 F, 68 Ga, 124 I, etc.) have been reported to radiolabel a wide variety of SiNPs-based nanostructures, including dense silica (dSiO 2 ), mesoporous silica (MSN), biodegradable mesoporous silica (bMSN), and hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticles (HMSN). With in-depth knowledge of coordination chemistry, abundant silanol groups (-Si-O-) on the silica surface or inside mesoporous channels not only can be directly used for chelator-free radiolabeling but also can be readily modified with the right chelators for chelator-based labeling. However, integrating these labeling strategies for constructing stably radiolabeled SiNPs with high efficiency has proven difficult because of the complexity of the involved key parameters, such as the choice of radioisotopes and chelators, nanostructures, and radiolabeling strategy. In this Account, we present an overview of recent progress in the development of radiolabeled SiNPs for cancer theranostics in the hope of speeding up their biomedical applications and potential translation into the clinic. We first introduce the basic principles and mechanisms for radiolabeling SiNPs via coordination chemistry, including general rules of selecting proper

  10. Macroporous 'bubble' graphene film via template-directed ordered-assembly for high rate supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cheng-Meng; Zhang, Qiang; Huang, Chun-Hsien; Zhao, Xiao-Chen; Zhang, Bing-Sen; Kong, Qing-Qiang; Wang, Mao-Zhang; Yang, Yong-Gang; Cai, Rong; Sheng Su, Dang

    2012-07-21

    A three-dimensional bubble graphene film, with controllable and uniform macropores and tailorable microstructure, was fabricated by a facile hard templating strategy and exhibit extraordinary electrochemical capacitance with high rate capability (1.0 V s(-1)).

  11. Flow and transport processes in a macroporous subsurface-drained glacial till soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villholth, Karen Grothe; Jensen, Karsten Høgh; Fredericia, Johnny

    1998-01-01

    of macropore structure and hydraulic efficiency, using image analysis and tension infiltration, and of soil water content, level of groundwater table, and chloride content of soil water within the soil profile yielded insights into small-scale processes and their associated variability. Macropore how...... into the soil profile. Dye infiltration experiments in the field as well as in the laboratory supported the recognition of the dominant contribution of macropores to the infiltration and transport process. The soil matrix significantly influenced the tracer distribution by acting as a source or sink...... for continuous solute exchange with the macropores. An average field-determined active macroporosity constituted 0.2% of the total porosity, or approximately 10% of the total macroporosity. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  12. [Studies on the process of Herba Clinopodii saponins purified with macroporous adsorption resin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Yan, Dan; Han, Yumei

    2005-10-01

    To study the technological parameters of the purification process of saponins with macroporous adsorption resin. The adsorptive characteristics and elutive parameters of the process were studied by taking the elutive and purified ratio of saponins as markers. 11.4 ml of the extraction of Herba Clinopodii (crude drugs 0.2 g/ml) was purified with a column of macroporous adsorption resin (phi15 mm x H90 mm, dry weight 2.5 g) and washed with 3BV of distilled water, then eluted with 3BV of 30% ethanol and 3BV of 70% ethanol. Most of saponins were collected in the 70% ethanol. With macroporous adsorption resin adsorbing and purifying,the elutive ratio of saponins is 86.8% and the purity reaches 153.2%. So this process of applying macroporous adsorption resin to adsorb and purify Saponins is feasible.

  13. Occurrence of the macropore nucleation centers in silicon as result of ion implantation

    CERN Document Server

    Astrova, E V

    2002-01-01

    Instead of commonly used V-shaped pits the possibility of application of ion implantation for formation of the regular pattern of macropore nucleation centers has been studied. It is shown that selective radiative damage or local conductivity type conversion are sufficient for generation of macropore nucleation in certain regions and passivation in other ones. Results obtained can be of interest both for practical application and for explanation of pore origin in silicon

  14. A new method to produce macroporous Mg-phosphate bone growth substitutes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babaie, Elham, E-mail: Elham.Babaie@rockets.utoledo.edu [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Lin, Boren [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Bhaduri, Sarit B. [Department of Mechanical, Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Department of Surgery (Dentistry), University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43614 (United States)

    2017-06-01

    This paper is a sequel to our previous effort in developing Mg-phosphate orthopedic cements using amorphous Mg-phosphate (AMP) as the precursor. In this paper, we report a new real-time in situ technique to create macroporous bone growth substitute (BGS). The method uses biodegradable Mg-particles as the porogen. As opposed to the conventional wisdom of providing corrosion protection layers to biodegradable Mg-alloys, the present method uses the fast corrosion kinetics of Mg to create macropores in real time during the setting of the cement. An aqueous solution of PVA was used as the setting solution. Using this technique, a macroporous cement containing up to 91% porosity is obtained, as determined by pycnometry. Due to formation of H{sub 2} gas bubbles from corrosion of Mg, the cement becomes macroporous. The pore sizes as big as 760 μm were observed. The results of SBF soaking indicated change in crystallinity as confirmed via scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Our in vitro cytocompatibility evaluation also revealed that the macroporous bone growth substitute composed of bobierrite is cytocompatible and can improve gene expression. - Highlights: • We report a new real time, in situ technique to fabricate macroporous bone grafts. • Self-corroding Mg granules act as porogens. • Compositions containing AMP and PVA self-set within a reasonable time. • The final bone graft substitute showed promising biocompatibility. • The results provide important information on the porosity content and bioactivity.

  15. Fracture-resistant monolithic dental crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Mai, Zhisong; Barani, Amir; Bush, Mark; Lawn, Brian

    2016-03-01

    To quantify the splitting resistance of monolithic zirconia, lithium disilicate and nanoparticle-composite dental crowns. Fracture experiments were conducted on anatomically-correct monolithic crown structures cemented to standard dental composite dies, by axial loading of a hard sphere placed between the cusps. The structures were observed in situ during fracture testing, and critical loads to split the structures were measured. Extended finite element modeling (XFEM), with provision for step-by-step extension of embedded cracks, was employed to simulate full failure evolution. Experimental measurements and XFEM predictions were self-consistent within data scatter. In conjunction with a fracture mechanics equation for critical splitting load, the data were used to predict load-sustaining capacity for crowns on actual dentin substrates and for loading with a sphere of different size. Stages of crack propagation within the crown and support substrate were quantified. Zirconia crowns showed the highest fracture loads, lithium disilicate intermediate, and dental nanocomposite lowest. Dental nanocomposite crowns have comparable fracture resistance to natural enamel. The results confirm that monolithic crowns are able to sustain high bite forces. The analysis indicates what material and geometrical properties are important in optimizing crown performance and longevity. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. All rights reserved.

  16. Coast redwood live crown and sapwood

    Science.gov (United States)

    John-Pascal Berrill; Jesse L. Deffress; Jessica M. Engle

    2012-01-01

    Understanding crown rise and sapwood taper will help meet management objectives such as producing long branch-free boles for clear wood and old-growth restoration, or producing sawlogs with a high proportion of heartwood. Coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) tree crown ratio data were collected 20 years after partial harvesting in a 65-year-old second growth stand....

  17. Cholesterol-imprinted macroporous monoliths: Preparation and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanova, Mariia А; Kinziabulatova, Lilia R; Nikitina, Anna A; Korzhikova-Vlakh, Evgenia G; Tennikova, Tatiana B

    2017-11-01

    The development of sorbents for selective binding of cholesterol, which is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, has a great importance for analytical science and medicine. In this work, two series of macroporous cholesterol-imprinted monolithic sorbents differing in the composition of functional monomers (methacrylic acid, butyl methacrylate, 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate and ethylene dimethacrylate), amount of a template (4, 6 and 8 mol%) used for molecular imprinting, as well as mean pore size were synthesized by in situ free-radical process in stainless steel housing of 50 mm × 4.6 mm i.d. All prepared materials were characterized regarding to their hydrodynamic permeability and porous properties, as well as examined by BET and SEM methods. Imprinting factors, apparent dynamic dissociation constants, the maximum binding capacity, the number of theoretical plates and the height equivalent to a theoretical palate of MIP monoliths at different mobile phase flow rates were determined. The separation of a mixture of structural analogues, namely, cholesterol and prednisolone, was demonstrated. Additionally, the possibility of using the developed monoliths for cholesterol solid-phase extraction from simulated biological solution was shown. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. High energy density supercapacitors using macroporous kitchen sponges

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Macroporous, low-cost and recyclable kitchen sponges are explored as effective electrode platforms for supercapacitor devices. A simple and scalable process has been developed to fabricate MnO 2-carbon nanotube (CNT)-sponge supercapacitor electrodes using ordinary kitchen sponges. Two organic electrolytes (1 M of tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate (Et 4NBF 4) in propylene carbonate (PC), 1 M of LiClO 4 in PC) are utilized with the sponge-based electrodes to improve the energy density of the symmetrical supercapacitors. Compared to aqueous electrolyte (1 M of Na 2SO 4 in H 2O), the energy density of supercapacitors tripled in Et 4NBF 4 electrolyte, and further increased by six times in LiClO 4 electrolyte. The long-term cycling performance in different electrolytes was examined and the morphology changes of the electrode materials were also studied. The good electrochemical performance in both aqueous and organic electrolytes indicates that the MnO 2-CNT-sponge is a promising low-cost electrode for energy storage systems. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  19. Spatial structure and scaling of macropores in hydrological process at small catchment scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silasari, Rasmiaditya; Broer, Martine; Blöschl, Günter

    2013-04-01

    During rainfall events, the formation of overland flow can occur under the circumstances of saturation excess and/or infiltration excess. These conditions are affected by the soil moisture state which represents the soil water content in micropores and macropores. Macropores act as pathway for the preferential flows and have been widely studied locally. However, very little is known about their spatial structure and conductivity of macropores and other flow characteristic at the catchment scale. This study will analyze these characteristics to better understand its importance in hydrological processes. The research will be conducted in Petzenkirchen Hydrological Open Air Laboratory (HOAL), a 64 ha catchment located 100 km west of Vienna. The land use is divided between arable land (87%), pasture (5%), forest (6%) and paved surfaces (2%). Video cameras will be installed on an agricultural field to monitor the overland flow pattern during rainfall events. A wireless soil moisture network is also installed within the monitored area. These field data will be combined to analyze the soil moisture state and the responding surface runoff occurrence. The variability of the macropores spatial structure of the observed area (field scale) then will be assessed based on the topography and soil data. Soil characteristics will be supported with laboratory experiments on soil matrix flow to obtain proper definitions of the spatial structure of macropores and its variability. A coupled physically based distributed model of surface and subsurface flow will be used to simulate the variability of macropores spatial structure and its effect on the flow behaviour. This model will be validated by simulating the observed rainfall events. Upscaling from field scale to catchment scale will be done to understand the effect of macropores variability on larger scales by applying spatial stochastic methods. The first phase in this study is the installation and monitoring configuration of video

  20. Radial distribution of the contributions to band broadening of a silica-based semi-preparative monolithic column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abia, Jude A; Mriziq, Khaled S; Guiochon, Georges A

    2009-04-01

    Using an on-column local electrochemical microdetector operated in the amperometric mode, band elution profiles were recorded at different radial locations at the exit of a 10 mm id, 100 mm long silica-based monolithic column. HETP plots were then acquired at each of these locations, and all these results were fitted to the Knox equation. This provided a spatial distribution of the values of the eddy diffusion (A), the molecular diffusion (B), and the resistance to the kinetics of mass transfer (C) terms. Results obtained indicate that the wall region yields higher A values and smaller C values than the central core region. Significant radial fluctuations of these contributions to band broadening occur throughout the exit column cross-section. This phenomenon is due to the structural radial heterogeneity of the column.

  1. Coupling of Spinosad Fermentation and Separation Process via Two-Step Macroporous Resin Adsorption Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fanglong; Zhang, Chuanbo; Yin, Jing; Shen, Yueqi; Lu, Wenyu

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, a two-step resin adsorption technology was investigated for spinosad production and separation as follows: the first step resin addition into the fermentor at early cultivation period to decrease the timely product concentration in the broth; the second step of resin addition was used after fermentation to adsorb and extract the spinosad. Based on this, a two-step macroporous resin adsorption-membrane separation process for spinosad fermentation, separation, and purification was established. Spinosad concentration in 5-L fermentor increased by 14.45 % after adding 50 g/L macroporous at the beginning of fermentation. The established two-step macroporous resin adsorption-membrane separation process got the 95.43 % purity and 87 % yield for spinosad, which were both higher than that of the conventional crystallization of spinosad from aqueous phase that were 93.23 and 79.15 % separately. The two-step macroporous resin adsorption method has not only carried out the coupling of spinosad fermentation and separation but also increased spinosad productivity. In addition, the two-step macroporous resin adsorption-membrane separation process performs better in spinosad yield and purity.

  2. Direct Writing of Three-Dimensional Macroporous Photonic Crystals on Pressure-Responsive Shape Memory Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yin; Ni, Yongliang; Leo, Sin-Yen; Wang, Bingchen; Basile, Vito; Taylor, Curtis; Jiang, Peng

    2015-10-28

    Here we report a single-step direct writing technology for making three-dimensional (3D) macroporous photonic crystal patterns on a new type of pressure-responsive shape memory polymer (SMP). This approach integrates two disparate fields that do not typically intersect: the well-established templating nanofabrication and shape memory materials. Periodic arrays of polymer macropores templated from self-assembled colloidal crystals are squeezed into disordered arrays in an unusual shape memory "cold" programming process. The recovery of the original macroporous photonic crystal lattices can be triggered by direct writing at ambient conditions using both macroscopic and nanoscopic tools, like a pencil or a nanoindenter. Interestingly, this shape memory disorder-order transition is reversible and the photonic crystal patterns can be erased and regenerated hundreds of times, promising the making of reconfigurable/rewritable nanooptical devices. Quantitative insights into the shape memory recovery of collapsed macropores induced by the lateral shear stresses in direct writing are gained through fundamental investigations on important process parameters, including the tip material, the critical pressure and writing speed for triggering the recovery of the deformed macropores, and the minimal feature size that can be directly written on the SMP membranes. Besides straightforward applications in photonic crystal devices, these smart mechanochromic SMPs that are sensitive to various mechanical stresses could render important technological applications ranging from chromogenic stress and impact sensors to rewritable high-density optical data storage media.

  3. Organic matter composition of soil macropore surfaces under different agricultural management practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glæsner, Nadia; Leue, Marin; Magid, Jacob; Gerke, Horst H.

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the heterogeneous nature of soil, i.e. properties and processes occurring specifically at local scales is essential for best managing our soil resources for agricultural production. Examination of intact soil structures in order to obtain an increased understanding of how soil systems operate from small to large scale represents a large gap within soil science research. Dissolved chemicals, nutrients and particles are transported through the disturbed plow layer of agricultural soil, where after flow through the lower soil layers occur by preferential flow via macropores. Rapid movement of water through macropores limit the contact between the preferentially moving water and the surrounding soil matrix, therefore contact and exchange of solutes in the water is largely restricted to the surface area of the macropores. Organomineral complex coated surfaces control sorption and exchange properties of solutes, as well as availability of essential nutrients to plant roots and to the preferentially flowing water. DRIFT (Diffuse Reflectance infrared Fourier Transform) Mapping has been developed to examine composition of organic matter coated macropores. In this study macropore surfaces structures will be determined for organic matter composition using DRIFT from a long-term field experiment on waste application to agricultural soil (CRUCIAL, close to Copenhagen, Denmark). Parcels with 5 treatments; accelerated household waste, accelerated sewage sludge, accelerated cattle manure, NPK and unfertilized, will be examined in order to study whether agricultural management have an impact on the organic matter composition of intact structures.

  4. Scalpel Depigmentation and Surgical Crown Lengthening to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    level of the apices of the six maxillary anterior teeth. Maxillary canines and ... requires osseous resection surgeries whereas excessive gingival display due to ... this case included complete oral prophylaxis along aesthetic crown lengthening ...

  5. Crown-rise and crown-length dynamics: applications to loblolly pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harry T. Valentine; Ralph L. Amateis; Jeffrey H. Gove; Annikki. Makela

    2013-01-01

    The original crown-rise model estimates the average height of a crown-base in an even-aged mono-species stand of trees. We have elaborated this model to reduce bias and prediction error, and to also provide crown-base estimates for individual trees. Results for the latter agree with a theory of branch death based on resource availability and allocation.We use the...

  6. Activity relationships for aromatic crown ethers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, Mark James

    1998-01-01

    This thesis involves an investigation of aromatic crown ethers and a study of their binding constants for alkali metals. The study was motivated by the current needs of the semiconductor industry to improve the scavenging of mobile ions from fabricated circuits. A number of aromatic crown ethers have been sulphonated in an attempt to improve their water solubility and cation binding activity. These materials have been extensively studied and their binding activity determined. In collaboration with a molecular modelling study, the effect of ionisable sulphonate groups on the macrocycles' behaviour has been investigated. The broader issue of the effect of substituents in aromatic crown ethers has also been studied with the preparation of a wide range of substituted crown ethers. The cation binding activity of these materials has been found to bear a simple relationship to the electron withdrawing nature of the aromatic substituents. This relationship can be accurately monitored using electronic charge densities from molecular modelling and this rational has been applied to the study of proton ionisable and lariating crown ethers. The incorporation of crown ethers into polyamic acid and polyimide frameworks has also been investigated, where the resulting materials have been found to exhibit unusual cation binding and uptake properties. These results imply that the combination of the crown ethers' macrocycle and adjacent carboxylic acid residues, from the polyamic acids, are conducive to effective cationic binding. NMR measurements, in conjunction with molecular modelling, have been used to explore the geometry changes encountered as the crown ether goes from it's uncomplexed to its complexed state. The energy requirement for these geometry changes has subsequently been used to examine the cation selectivity of these materials. The electronic charge changes associated with the complexation have also been investigated and correlated with the theoretical results. (author)

  7. 4-Bromoanilinium perchlorate 18-crown-6 clathrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Guo

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The reaction of 4-bromoaniline, 18-crown-6, and perchloric acid in methanol yields the title compound, C6H7BrN+·ClO4−·C12H24O6, in which the protonated –NH3+ group forms three bifurcated N—H...O hydrogen bonds to the O atoms of the crown ether.

  8. Assessment of crown angulations, crown inclinations, and tooth size discrepancies in a South Indian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geeta Maruti Doodamani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objective: The aim of this study was to assess crown angulations, crown inclinations, and tooth size discrepancy in a sample population from Davangere, South India. Materials and Methods: One hundred adults (50 male and 50 female of age 18-30 years, with Angle′s class I ideal occlusion and balanced profiles, were selected for the study. Study models were prepared and crown angulations and crown inclinations were measured using a customized protractor device. Bolton′s analysis was used to measure the tooth size discrepancies. Results: Maxillary and mandibular teeth had less crown angulations. Maxillary and mandibular incisors and maxillary molars showed increased crown inclinations, whereas mandibular molars and premolars had less crown inclinations than the original Andrews sample. The mean maxillary and mandibular tooth size ratios, overall and anterior, were similar to Bolton′s ratios. Conclusions: The finding of this study indicates that there are possible racial and ethnic factors contributing to variations in crown angulations and crown inclinations.

  9. Experimental and numerical modeling of shrub crown fire initiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watcharapong Tachajapong; Jesse Lozano; Shakar Mahalingam; Xiangyang Zhou; David Weise

    2009-01-01

    The transition of fire from dry surface fuels to wet shrub crown fuels was studied using laboratory experiments and a simple physical model to gain a better understanding of the transition process. In the experiments, we investigated the effects of varying vertical distances between surface and crown fuels (crown base height), and of the wind speed on crown fire...

  10. Preformed crowns for decayed primary molar teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innes, Nicola P T; Ricketts, David; Chong, Lee Yee; Keightley, Alexander J; Lamont, Thomas; Santamaria, Ruth M

    2015-12-31

    Crowns for primary molars are preformed and come in a variety of sizes and materials to be placed over decayed or developmentally defective teeth. They can be made completely of stainless steel (know as 'preformed metal crowns' or PMCs), or to give better aesthetics, may be made of stainless steel with a white veneer cover or made wholly of a white ceramic material. In most cases, teeth are trimmed for the crowns to be fitted conventionally using a local anaesthetic. However, in the case of the Hall Technique, PMCs are pushed over the tooth with no local anaesthetic, carious tissue removal or tooth preparation. Crowns are recommended for restoring primary molar teeth that have had a pulp treatment, are very decayed or are badly broken down. However, few dental practitioners use them in clinical practice. This review updates the original review published in 2007. Primary objectiveTo evaluate the clinical effectiveness and safety of all types of preformed crowns for restoring primary teeth compared with conventional filling materials (such as amalgam, composite, glass ionomer, resin modified glass ionomer and compomers), other types of crowns or methods of crown placement, non-restorative caries treatment or no treatment. Secondary objectiveTo explore whether the extent of decay has an effect on the clinical outcome of primary teeth restored with all types of preformed crowns compared with those restored with conventional filling materials. We searched the following electronic databases: Cochrane Oral Health Group Trials Register (to 21 January 2015), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; The Cochrane Library, 2014, Issue 12), MEDLINE via Ovid (1946 to 21 January 2015) and EMBASE via Ovid (1980 to 21 January 2015). We searched the US National Institutes of Health Trials Register (http://clinicaltrials.gov) and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform for ongoing trials and Open Grey for grey literature (to

  11. Representing macropore flow at the catchment scale: a comparative modeling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, D.; Li, H. Y.; Tian, F.; Leung, L. R.

    2017-12-01

    Macropore flow is an important hydrological process that generally enhances the soil infiltration capacity and velocity of subsurface water. Up till now, macropore flow is mostly simulated with high-resolution models. One possible drawback of this modeling approach is the difficulty to effectively represent the overall typology and connectivity of the macropore networks. We hypothesize that modeling macropore flow directly at the catchment scale may be complementary to the existing modeling strategy and offer some new insights. Tsinghua Representative Elementary Watershed model (THREW model) is a semi-distributed hydrology model, where the fundamental building blocks are representative elementary watersheds (REW) linked by the river channel network. In THREW, all the hydrological processes are described with constitutive relationships established directly at the REW level, i.e., catchment scale. In this study, the constitutive relationship of macropore flow drainage is established as part of THREW. The enhanced THREW model is then applied at two catchments with deep soils but distinct climates, the humid Asu catchment in the Amazon River basin, and the arid Wei catchment in the Yellow River basin. The Asu catchment has an area of 12.43km2 with mean annual precipitation of 2442mm. The larger Wei catchment has an area of 24800km2 but with mean annual precipitation of only 512mm. The rainfall-runoff processes are simulated at a hourly time step from 2002 to 2005 in the Asu catchment and from 2001 to 2012 in the Wei catchment. The role of macropore flow on the catchment hydrology will be analyzed comparatively over the Asu and Wei catchments against the observed streamflow, evapotranspiration and other auxiliary data.

  12. Silica-supported Macroporous Chitosan Bead for Affinity Purification of Trypsin Inhibitor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Na XI; Jian Min WU; Ming Ming LUAN

    2005-01-01

    Macroporous cross-linking chitosan layer coated on silica gel (CTS-SiO2) was prepared by phase inversion and polyethylene glycol (PEG) molecular imprinting methods. Formation of macroporous surface was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and BET analysis.The prepared bead was activated by reacting with 1,2-ethylene diglycidyl ether for introducing epoxy groups, and trypsin could be efficiently immobilized on the bead as a biospecific ligand.The bead bearing trypsin was employed to purify trypsin inhibitor (TIs) from egg white as affinity adsorbent.

  13. In vitro biological characterization of macroporous 3D Bonelike structures prepared through a 3D machining technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laranjeira, M.S.; Dias, A.G.; Santos, J.D.; Fernandes, M.H.

    2009-01-01

    3D bioactive macroporous structures were prepared using a 3D machining technique. A virtual 3D structure model was created and a computer numerically controlled (CNC) milling device machined Bonelike samples. The resulting structures showed a reproducible macroporosity and interconnective structure. Macropores size after sintering was approximately 2000 μm. In vitro testing using human bone marrow stroma showed that cells were able to adhere and proliferate on 3D structures surface and migrate into all macropore channels. In addition, these cells were able to differentiate, since mineralized globular structures associated with cell layer were identified. Results obtained showed that 3D structures of Bonelike successfully allow cell migration into all macropores, and allow human bone marrow stromal cells to proliferate and differentiate. This innovative technique may be considered as a step-forward preparation for 3D interconnective macroporous structures that allow bone ingrowth while maintaining mechanical integrity.

  14. An investigation of crown fuel bulk density effects on the dynamics of crown fire initiation in shrublands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watcharapong Tachajapong; Jesse Lozano; Shankar Mahalingam; Xiangyang Zhou; David R. Weise

    2008-01-01

    Crown fire initiation is studied by using a simple experimental and detailed physical modeling based on Large Eddy Simulation (LES). Experiments conducted thus far reveal that crown fuel ignition via surface fire occurs when the crown base is within the continuous flame region and does not occur when the crown base is located in the hot plume gas region of the surface...

  15. Extraction separation of lithium isotopes with crown-ethers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsivadze, A.Yu.; Demin, S.V.; Levkin, A.V.; Zhilov, V.I.; Nikol'skij, S.F.; Knyazev, D.A.

    1990-01-01

    By the method of extraction chromatography lithium isotope separation coefficients are measured during chemical isotope exchange between lithium aquocomplex and its complex in chloroform with crown-ethers: benzo-15-crown-5, 15crown-5, dicyclohexano-18-crown-6 and dibenzo-18-crown-6. Lithium perchlorate and trichloroacetate are the salts extracted. Values of 6 Li/ 7 Li isotope separation are 1.0032-1.020

  16. COMPARSION EFFECTIVENES METHODS REPEIR CROWN TEETH IN DOGS

    OpenAIRE

    CHOOHNO V.S.

    2008-01-01

    Methods of dogs’ crown teeth restoration with using of anchor pin with light curable composite, glass fiber pin with light curable composite, stump crown with prosthetic crown were approved. Their effectiveness was compared. Greater reliability was shown by methods of stump crown with prosthetic crown, when using of which there was no that restoration damage in all cases, but there was no cosmetics effect. Restoration methods with using anchor pin with light curable composite and glass fiber ...

  17. Soil Susceptibility to Macropore Flow Across a Desert-Oasis Ecotone of the Hexi Corridor, Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongyong; Zhao, Wenzhi; He, Jianhua; Fu, Li

    2018-02-01

    Macropore flow not only provides a fast pathway for water and solute transport and increases the risks of water and nutrient loss but also enhances soil aeration and groundwater recharge. However, macropore flow characteristics in irrigated oasis soils subject to continuous crop cultivation are poorly understood. This study was to investigate the effect of continuous cultivation on soil properties and macropore flow and to quantify the changes in macropore flow characteristics in an old oasis field (>50 years of cultivation, OOF), young oasis field (20 years, YOF), and adjacent uncultivated sandy area (0 year, USL) in Northwest China. Triplicate soil samples were collected from each site to investigate soil properties. Dye tracer experiments with also three replicates were conducted at each site. The degree of macropore flow (i.e., parameters of macropore flow) was highest at the OOF, intermediate at the YOF, and minimal at the USL. The macropore flow fraction (i.e., fraction of total infiltration flows through macropore flow pathways) at the OOF was 3.4 times greater than at the USL. The heterogeneous infiltration pattern at the OOF was dominated by macropore flow, while funnel flow was predominant at the USL. Long-term irrigation with silt-laden river water has increased silt + clay contents of the oasis soils. Irrigation and high-input crop cultivation also increased organic matter. These changes in soil properties contributed to the interaggregate voids formation. The conversion of native desert soils to irrigated croplands increases the degree of macropore flow, which might enhance groundwater recharge in the desert-oasis ecotone.

  18. The Effect of Aging and Silanization on the Mechanical Properties of Fumed Silica-based Dental Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaje S

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Mechanical strength and durability of dental composites are the main topics studied in this field of science today. This study examined fumed silica-based composite as a strong and durable restorative material through flexural and cycling test methods. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of silanization, ageing, cycling and hybridizing on mechanical properties of fumed silica-based resin composite. Materials and Methods: Composites were made of light-cured copolymer based on Bisphenol A glycolmethacrylate (Bis-GMA and Triethylene glycoldimethacrylate (TEGDMA at proportion of 50:50 which reinforced by fumed silica filler. For each composite sample, 5 specimen bars were made using Teflon mould (2 x 2 x 25 mm3. The samples with 12 wt% fumed silica (FS were considered as a base line group. The samples were exposed to cyclic cold water (FS-CCW and hot water (FS-CHW. The effect of silanization and adding more filler was studied together with samples containing 12 wt% (FS-S (12, 16 wt% (FS-S (16 and 20 wt% (FS-S (20 fumed silica filler. The filler was silanized with (γ-MPS. The degree of conversion was assessed with Fourier Transform Infra-Red spectroscopy. Flexural properties were evaluated with the Three-Point Bending test. Flexural data were analyzed with Excel software. Hardness was measured with an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM. Results: The degree of conversion of the resin reached 74% within 24 hrs. Salinization allowed more filler to be wetted by resin. Addition of silanized particles from sample FS-S (12 to sample FS-S (20 improved the mechanical strength. Hybridizing fumed silica with nano-silica (FS-N had no significant effect on the strength, but nano-hardness improved greatly. Ageing and cycling had adverse effects on the strength of the sample FS. The flexural strength of FS-CHW was 72% less than FS sample. Conclusions: Sample FS-N with low diluent and filler percentage complied with the

  19. Urban Crowns: crown analysis software to assist in quantifying urban tree benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew F. Winn; Sang-Mook Lee Bradley; Philip A. Araman

    2010-01-01

    UrbanCrowns is a Microsoft® Windows®-based computer program developed by the U.S. Forest Service Southern Research Station. The software assists urban forestry professionals, arborists, and community volunteers in assessing and monitoring the crown characteristics of urban trees (both deciduous and coniferous) using a single side-view digital photograph. Program output...

  20. Retrospective Study of Retention of Stainless Steel Crowns and Pre-veneered Crowns on Primary Anterior Teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Loverich, Angela M; Garcia, Maria Minerva; Donly, Kevin J

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this retrospective chart review was to explore the retention of anterior pre-veneered stainless steel crowns (NuSmile) and conventional stainless steel crowns (3M ESPE) placed on primary anterior teeth. Records for children were reviewed over four years using the electronic record system axiUm. Data collected included child's age at time of crown placement, date of placement, tooth number, type of crown, patient behavior, treatment environment, provider type, crown presence, absence, and cementation success or failure at subsequent recall visits. A total of 637 anterior crowns in children treated with either or both crown types met this study's inclusion criteria. Of these crowns, 483 were NuSmile Signature crowns and 154 were stainless steel crowns. There was a nine percent failure rate for the NuSmile Signature crowns and a seven percent failure rate for the stainless steel crowns. There was no statistically significant difference in crown retention rates between the two groups (P<0.05). A full-coverage restoration that can follow the lifespan of the primary anterior dentition in high-risk children is needed. The results from this study indicate good crown retention rates for both crown types with no statistically significant difference between them (P<0.05).

  1. All-ceramic or metal-ceramic tooth-supported fixed dental prostheses (FDPs)? A systematic review of the survival and complication rates. Part I: Single crowns (SCs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sailer, Irena; Makarov, Nikolay Alexandrovich; Thoma, Daniel Stefan; Zwahlen, Marcel; Pjetursson, Bjarni Elvar

    2015-06-01

    To assess the 5-year survival of metal-ceramic and all-ceramic tooth-supported single crowns (SCs) and to describe the incidence of biological, technical and esthetic complications. Medline (PubMed), Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) searches (2006-2013) were performed for clinical studies focusing on tooth-supported fixed dental prostheses (FDPs) with a mean follow-up of at least 3 years. This was complimented by an additional hand search and the inclusion of 34 studies from a previous systematic review [1,2]. Survival and complication rates were analyzed using robust Poisson's regression models to obtain summary estimates of 5-year proportions. Sixty-seven studies reporting on 4663 metal-ceramic and 9434 all-ceramic SCs fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Seventeen studies reported on metal-ceramic crowns, and 54 studies reported on all-ceramic crowns. Meta-analysis of the included studies indicated an estimated survival rate of metal-ceramic SCs of 94.7% (95% CI: 94.1-96.9%) after 5 years. This was similar to the estimated 5-year survival rate of leucit or lithium-disilicate reinforced glass ceramic SCs (96.6%; 95% CI: 94.9-96.7%), of glass infiltrated alumina SCs (94.6%; 95% CI: 92.7-96%) and densely sintered alumina and zirconia SCs (96%; 95% CI: 93.8-97.5%; 92.1%; 95% CI: 82.8-95.6%). In contrast, the 5-year survival rates of feldspathic/silica-based ceramic crowns were lower (pceramic and zirconia crowns exhibited significantly lower survival rates in the posterior region (pceramic fractures than metal-ceramic SCs (pceramic SCs than for metal-ceramic SCs. Survival rates of most types of all-ceramic SCs were similar to those reported for metal-ceramic SCs, both in anterior and posterior regions. Weaker feldspathic/silica-based ceramics should be limited to applications in the anterior region. Zirconia-based SCs should not be considered as primary option due to their high incidence of technical problems. Copyright © 2015 Academy

  2. Highly ordered three-dimensional macroporous carbon spheres for determination of heavy metal ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yuxiao; Zhang, Jianming [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM) and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Liu, Yang, E-mail: yangl@suda.edu.cn [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM) and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Huang, Hui [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM) and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Kang, Zhenhui, E-mail: zhkang@suda.edu.cn [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM) and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China)

    2012-04-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Highly ordered three dimensional macroporous carbon spheres (MPCSs) were prepared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MPCS was covalently modified by cysteine (MPCS-CO-Cys). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MPCS-CO-Cys was first time used in electrochemical detection of heavy metal ions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Heavy metal ions such as Pb{sup 2+} and Cd{sup 2+} can be simultaneously determined. -- Abstract: An effective voltammetric method for detection of trace heavy metal ions using chemically modified highly ordered three dimensional macroporous carbon spheres electrode surfaces is described. The highly ordered three dimensional macroporous carbon spheres were prepared by carbonization of glucose in silica crystal bead template, followed by removal of the template. The highly ordered three dimensional macroporous carbon spheres were covalently modified by cysteine, an amino acid with high affinities towards some heavy metals. The materials were characterized by physical adsorption of nitrogen, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy techniques. While the Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy was used to characterize the functional groups on the surface of carbon spheres. High sensitivity was exhibited when this material was used in electrochemical detection (square wave anodic stripping voltammetry) of heavy metal ions due to the porous structure. And the potential application for simultaneous detection of heavy metal ions was also investigated.

  3. Highly ordered three-dimensional macroporous carbon spheres for determination of heavy metal ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yuxiao; Zhang, Jianming; Liu, Yang; Huang, Hui; Kang, Zhenhui

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Highly ordered three dimensional macroporous carbon spheres (MPCSs) were prepared. ► MPCS was covalently modified by cysteine (MPCS–CO–Cys). ► MPCS–CO–Cys was first time used in electrochemical detection of heavy metal ions. ► Heavy metal ions such as Pb 2+ and Cd 2+ can be simultaneously determined. -- Abstract: An effective voltammetric method for detection of trace heavy metal ions using chemically modified highly ordered three dimensional macroporous carbon spheres electrode surfaces is described. The highly ordered three dimensional macroporous carbon spheres were prepared by carbonization of glucose in silica crystal bead template, followed by removal of the template. The highly ordered three dimensional macroporous carbon spheres were covalently modified by cysteine, an amino acid with high affinities towards some heavy metals. The materials were characterized by physical adsorption of nitrogen, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy techniques. While the Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy was used to characterize the functional groups on the surface of carbon spheres. High sensitivity was exhibited when this material was used in electrochemical detection (square wave anodic stripping voltammetry) of heavy metal ions due to the porous structure. And the potential application for simultaneous detection of heavy metal ions was also investigated.

  4. Activity and Spatial Distribution of Candida antarctica Lipase B Immobilized on Macroporous Organic Polymeric Adsorbents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne Veller Friis; Andric, Pavle; Munk Nielsen, Per

    2014-01-01

    A systematic study of the influence of carrier particle size (500 − 850 μ m) and enzyme load (26 200 − 66 100 lipase activity units (LU)/g dry carrier) on the content and activity of Candida antarctica lipase B (CALB) immobilized by adsorption onto macroporous poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMM...

  5. Rainfall Simulator Experiments to Investigate Macropore Impacts on Hillslope Hydrological Response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Y.; Teuling, Adriaan J.; van der Ploeg, Martine J.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding hillslope runoff response to intense rainfall is an important topic in hydrology, and is key to correct prediction of extreme stream flow, erosion and landslides. Although it is known that preferential flow processes activated by macropores are an important phenomena in understanding

  6. Polyacrylonitrile-Derived Sponge-Like Micro/Macroporous Carbon for Selective CO2 Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Li-Ping; Hu, Qing-Tao; Zhang, Peng; Li, Wen-Cui; Lu, An-Hui

    2018-03-25

    CO 2 capture under a dynamical flow situation requires adsorbents possessing balanced proportion of macropores as diffusion path and micropores as adsorption reservoir. However, the construction of interconnected micro-/macropores structure coupled with abundant nitrogen species into one carbon skeleton remains a challenge. Here, we report a new approach to prepare sponge-like carbon with a well-developed micro-/macroporous structure and enriched nitrogen species through aqueous phase polymerization of acrylonitrile in the presence of graphene oxide. The tension stress caused by the uniform thermal shrinkage of polyacrylonitrile during the pyrolysis together with the favorable flexibility of graphene oxide sheets are responsible for the formation of the sponge-like morphology. The synergistic effect of micro-/macroporous framework and rich CO 2 -philic site enables such carbon to decrease resistance to mass transfer and show high CO 2 dynamic selectivity over N 2 (454) and CH 4 (11), as well as good CO 2 capacity at 298 K under low CO 2 partial pressure (0.17 bar, a typical CO 2 partial pressure in flue gas). The above attributes make this porous carbon a promising candidate for CO 2 capture from flue gas, methane sources and other relevant applications. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. A Hierarchically Micro-Meso-Macroporous Zeolite CaA for Methanol Conversion to Dimethyl Ether

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A hierarchical zeolite CaA with microporous, mesoporous and macroporous structure was hydrothermally synthesized by a ”Bond-Blocking” method using organo-functionalized mesoporous silica (MS as a silica source. The characterization by XRD, SEM/TEM and N2 adsorption/desorption techniques showed that the prepared material had well-crystalline zeolite Linde Type A (LTA topological structure, microspherical particle morphologies, and hierarchically intracrystalline micro-meso-macropores structure. With the Bond-Blocking principle, the external surface area and macro-mesoporosity of the hierarchical zeolite CaA can be adjusted by varying the organo-functionalized degree of the mesoporous silica surface. Similarly, the distribution of the micro-meso-macroporous structure in the zeolite CaA can be controlled purposely. Compared with the conventional microporous zeolite CaA, the hierarchical zeolite CaA as a catalyst in the conversion of methanol to dimethyl ether (DME, exhibited complete DME selectivity and stable catalytic activity with high methanol conversion. The catalytic performances of the hierarchical zeolite CaA results clearly from the micro-meso-macroporous structure, improving diffusion properties, favoring the access to the active surface and avoiding secondary reactions (no hydrocarbon products were detected after 3 h of reaction.

  8. A practical technique for the fabrication of highly ordered macroporous structures of inorganic oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Fengqiu; Uchikoshi, Tetsuo; Sakka, Yoshio

    2006-01-01

    Well-defined macroporous ceramics consisting of SiO 2 , TiO 2 and ZrO 2 have been fabricated via a template-assisted colloidal processing technique. Close-packed polymer spheres were first prepared as a template using centrifugation or gravitational sedimentation, followed by infiltration with alkoxide precursors. The centrifugation should be preferred because it is a less time-consuming process and the materials are better ordered. The removal of the template beads was achieved by calcination of the organic-inorganic hybrids at appropriate temperatures, yielding well-ordered macroporous ceramics. The arrangement of the porous structures could be changing the preparation of the packed polymer templates. Some novel arrangements of macropores were obtained in these macroporous ceramics: a simple square-packed arrangement for SiO 2 , the coexistence of hexagonal close-packed and simple close-packed arrangements for TiO 2 , and face-centered cubic packed arrangement for ZrO 2 . The resulting highly structured ceramics could have applications in areas ranging from quantum electronics to photocatalysis and battery materials

  9. Imperata cylindrica sp as Novel Silica-Based Heterogeneous Catalysts for Transesterification of Palm Oil Mill Sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngaini, Zainab; Shahrom, Farra Diana; Jamil, Nurfarahen; Wahi, Rafeah; Ahmad, Zainal Abiddin

    2016-06-01

    Biodiesel from palm oil mill sludge (POMS) was prepared in the presence of novel silica-based heterogeneous catalysts derived from Imperata cylindrica sp. Imperatacid and Imperatabase are two types of heterogeneous catalysts derived from Imperata cylindrica sp and characterized using scanning electron microscopy, Energy Dispersive X-ray, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area and pore size measurement. Imperatacid has particle size of 43.1-83.9 µm while Imperatabase in the range of 89-193 µm. Imperatacid was conveniently applied in esterification step to afford > 90 wt% oil in 1:3 (oil/methanol) and 10 wt% catalyst, followed by transesterification with 1 wt% Imperatabase and 1:1 (oil/methanol) for 1 h at 65°C to afford 80% biodiesel with higher percentage of methyl palmitate (48.97%) and methyl oleate (34.14%) compare to conventional homogeneous catalyst. Reusability of the catalyst up to three times afforded biodiesel ranging from 78-80% w/w. The biodiesel was demonstrated onto alternative diesel engine (Megatech(®)-Mark III) and showed proportional increased of torque (ɽ) to biodiesel loading.

  10. Role of alkyl alcohol on viscosity of silica-based chemical gels for decontamination of highly radioactive nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, B. S.; Yoon, S. B.; Jung, C. H.; Lee, K. W.; Moon, J. K.

    2012-01-01

    Silica-based chemical gel for the decontamination of nuclear facilities was prepared by using fumed silica as a viscosifier, a 0.5 M Ce (IV) solution dissolved in concentrated nitric acid as a chemical decontamination agent, and tripropylene glycol butyl ether (TPGBE) as a co-viscosifier. A new effective strategy for the preparation of the chemical gel was investigated by introducing the alkyl alcohols as organic solvents to effectively dissolve the co-viscosifier. The mixture solution of the co-viscosifier and alkyl alcohols was more effective in the control of viscosity than that of the co-viscosifier only in gel. Here, the alkyl alcohols played a key role as an effective dissolution solvent for the co-viscosifier in the preparation of the chemical gel, resulting in a reducing of the amount of the co-viscosifier and gel time compared with that of the chemical gel prepared without the alkyl alcohols. It was considered that the alkyl alcohols contributed to the effective dissolution of the co-viscosifier as well as the homogeneous mixing in the formation of the gel, while the co-viscosifier in an aqueous media of the chemical decontamination agent solution showed a lower solubility. The decontamination efficiency of the chemical gels prepared in this work using a multi-channel analyzer (MCA) showed a high decontamination efficiency of over ca. 94% and ca. 92% for Co-60 and Cs-137 contaminated on surface of the stainless steel 304, respectively. (authors)

  11. Production and in vitro evaluation of macroporous, cell-encapsulating alginate fibres for nerve repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Sharon Chien-Yu, E-mail: sharonlin114@gmail.com [The University of Queensland, Pharmacy Australia Centre of Excellence, 20 Cornwall Street, Woolloongabba, Brisbane QLD 4102 (Australia); Wang, Yiwei, E-mail: yiweiwang@anzac.edu.au [The University of Queensland, Pharmacy Australia Centre of Excellence, 20 Cornwall Street, Woolloongabba, Brisbane QLD 4102 (Australia); Wertheim, David F., E-mail: d.wertheim@kingston.ac.uk [Faculty of Science, Engineering and Computing, Kingston University, Kingston upon Thames, Surrey KT1 2EE (United Kingdom); Coombes, Allan G.A., E-mail: allancoombes@pharmacy.psu.ac.th [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla 90112 (Thailand)

    2017-04-01

    The prospects for successful peripheral nerve repair using fibre guides are considered to be enhanced by the use of a scaffold material, which promotes attachment and proliferation of glial cells and axonal regeneration. Macroporous alginate fibres were produced by extraction of gelatin particle porogens from wet spun fibres produced using a suspension of gelatin particles in 1.5% w/v alginate solution. Gelatin loading of the starting suspension of 40.0, 57.0, and 62.5% w/w resulted in gelatin loading of the dried alginate fibres of 16, 21, and 24% w/w respectively. Between 45 and 60% of the gelatin content of hydrated fibres was released in 1 h in distilled water at 37 °C, leading to rapid formation of a macroporous structure. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and image processing provided qualitative and quantitative analysis of mean equivalent macropore diameter (48–69 μm), pore size distribution, estimates of maximum porosity (14.6%) and pore connectivity. CLSM also revealed that gelatin residues lined the macropore cavities and infiltrated into the body of the alginate scaffolds, thus, providing cell adhesion molecules, which are potentially advantageous for promoting growth of glial cells and axonal extension. Macroporous alginate fibres encapsulating nerve cells [primary rat dorsal root ganglia (DRGs)] were produced by wet spinning alginate solution containing dispersed gelatin particles and DRGs. Marked outgrowth was evident over a distance of 150 μm at day 11 in cell culture, indicating that pores and channels created within the alginate hydrogel were providing a favourable environment for neurite development. These findings indicate that macroporous alginate fibres encapsulating nerve cells may provide the basis of a useful strategy for nerve repair. - Highlights: • Nerve cells were encapsulated in macroporous alginate fibres for use in nerve repair. • Fibres were produced from alginate solution containing gelatin porogens and cells.

  12. Spatial distribution of heterocyclic organic matter compounds at macropore surfaces in Bt-horizons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leue, Martin; Eckhardt, Kai-Uwe; Gerke, Horst H.; Ellerbrock, Ruth H.; Leinweber, Peter

    2017-04-01

    The illuvial Bt-horizon of Luvisols is characterized by coatings of clay and organic matter (OM) at the surfaces of cracks, biopores and inter-aggregate spaces. The OM composition of the coatings that originate from preferential transport of suspended matter in macropores determines the physico-chemical properties of the macropore surfaces. The analysis of the spatial distribution of specific OM components such as heterocyclic N-compounds (NCOMP) and benzonitrile and naphthalene (BN+NA) could enlighten the effect of macropore coatings on the transport of colloids and reactive solutes during preferential flow and on OM turnover processes in subsoils. The objective was to characterize the mm-to-cm scale spatial distribution of NCOMP and BN+NA at intact macropore surfaces from the Bt-horizons of two Luvisols developed on loess and glacial till. In material manually separated from macropore surfaces the proportions of NCOMP and BN+NA were determined by pyrolysis-field ionization mass spectrometry (Py-FIMS). These OM compounds, likely originating from combustion residues, were found increased in crack coatings and pinhole fillings but decreased in biopore walls (worm burrows and root channels). The Py-FIMS data were correlated with signals from C=O and C=C groups and with signals from O-H groups of clay minerals as determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in diffuse reflectance mode (DRIFT). Intensive signals of C15 to C17 alkanes from long-chain alkenes as main components of diesel and diesel exhaust particulates substantiated the assumption that burning residues were prominent in the subsoil OM. The spatial distribution of NCOMP and BN+NA along the macropores was predicted by partial least squares regression (PLSR) using DRIFT mapping spectra from intact surfaces and was found closely related to the distribution of crack coatings and pinholes. The results emphasize the importance of clay coatings in the subsoil to OM sorption and stabilization

  13. Crown ether derivatives of EDTA: Pt. 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhongqun; Qin Shengying; Chen Shaojin; Tan Lin

    1988-01-01

    EDTA-diaminodibenzo-18-crown-6 (cis- and trans-) condensation polymer is a new compound of crown ether derivatives of EDTA. In this paper the adsorption behaviors of U(IV) and U(VI) on this polymer from chloride solutions and effects of hydrochloric acid concentrations, salting-out agents and organic solvents on distribution coefficient (K d ) of uranium are investigated. Adsorption mechanism of uranyl ion (UO 2 2+ ) on this polymer was studied with IR spectra and by means of the adsorption behaviors of compounds of similar structure. Experimental results show that both polyether section and carboxyl groups in EDTA-diaminodibenzo-18-crown-6 take part in complexation with uranyl ion and synergistic effect appeared

  14. Fast plasma sintering delivers functional graded materials components with macroporous structures and osseointegration properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy, R F; Coathup, M J; Blunn, G W; Alves, A L; Robotti, P; Goodship, A E

    2016-04-13

    We explored the osseointegration potential of two macroporous titanium surfaces obtained using fast plasma sintering (FPS): Ti macroporous structures with 400-600 µmØ pores (TiMac400) and 850-1000 µmØ pores (TiMac850). They were compared against two surfaces currently in clinical use: Ti-Growth® and air plasma spray (Ti-Y367). Each surface was tested, once placed over a Ti-alloy and once onto a CoCr bulk substrate. Implants were placed in medial femoral condyles in 24 sheep. Samples were explanted at four and eight weeks after surgery. Push-out loads were measured using a material-testing system. Bone contact and ingrowth were assessed by histomorphometry and SEM and EDX analyses. Histology showed early osseointegration for all the surfaces tested. At 8 weeks, TiMac400, TiMac850 and Ti-Growth® showed deep bone ingrowth and extended colonisation with newly formed bone. The mechanical push-out force was equal in all tested surfaces. Plasma spray surfaces showed greater bone-implant contact and higher level of pores colonisation with new bone than FPS produced surfaces. However, the void pore area in FPS specimens was significantly higher, yet the FPS porous surfaces allowed a deeper osseointegration of bone to implant. FPS manufactured specimens showed similar osseointegration potential to the plasma spray surfaces for orthopaedic implants. FPS is a useful technology for manufacturing macroporous titanium surfaces. Furthermore, its capability to combine two implantable materials, using bulk CoCr with macroporous titanium surfaces, could be of interest as it enables designers to conceive and manufacture innovative components. FPS delivers functional graded materials components with macroporous structures optimised for osseointegration.

  15. Structure, MC3T3-E1 cell response, and osseointegration of macroporous titanium implants covered by a bioactive microarc oxidation coating with microporous structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Rui; Wei, Daqing; Cheng, Su; Feng, Wei; Du, Qing; Yang, Haoyue; Li, Baoqiang; Wang, Yaming; Jia, Dechang; Zhou, Yu

    2014-04-09

    Macroporous Ti with macropores of 50-400 μm size is prepared by sintering Ti microbeads with different diameters of 100, 200, 400, and 600 μm. Bioactive microarc oxidation (MAO) coatings with micropores of 2-5 μm size are prepared on the macroporous Ti. The MAO coatings are composed of a few TiO2 nanocrystals and lots of amorphous phases with Si, Ca, Ti, Na, and O elements. Compared to compact Ti, the MC3T3-E1 cell attachment is prolonged on macroporous Ti without and with MAO coatings; however, the cell proliferation number increases. These results are contributed to the effects of the space structure of macroporous Ti and the surface chemical feature and element dissolution of the MAO coatings during the cell culture. Macroporous Ti both without and with MAO coatings does not cause any adverse effects in vivo. The new bone grows well into the macropores and micropores of macroporous Ti with MAO coatings, showing good mechanical properties in vivo compared to Ti, MAO-treated Ti, and macroporous Ti because of its excellent osseointegration. Moreover, the MAO coatings not only show a high interface bonding strength with new bones but also connect well with macroporous Ti. Furthermore, the pushing out force for macroporous Ti with MAO coatings increases significantly with increasing microbead diameter.

  16. A IR-Femtosecond Laser Hybrid Sensor to Measure the Thermal Expansion and Thermo-Optical Coefficient of Silica-Based FBG at High Temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Litong; Lv, Dajuan; Yang, Minghong; Xiong, Liangming; Luo, Jie

    2018-01-26

    In this paper, a hybrid sensor was fabricated using a IR-femtosecond laser to measure the thermal expansion and thermo-optical coefficient of silica-based fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs). The hybrid sensor was composed of an inline fiber Fabry-Perot interferometer (FFPI) cavity and a type-II FBG. Experiment results showed that the type-II FBG had three high reflectivity resonances in the wavelength ranging from 1100 to 1600 nm, showing the peaks in 1.1, 1.3 and 1.5 μm, respectively. The thermal expansion and thermo-optical coefficient (1.3 μm, 1.5 μm) of silica-based FBG, under temperatures ranging from 30 to 1100 °C, had been simultaneously calculated by measuring the wavelength of the type-II FBG and FFPI cavity length.

  17. Immobilization of Lactobacillus rhamnosus in mesoporous silica-based material: An efficiency continuous cell-recycle fermentation system for lactic acid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zijian; Xie, Xiaona; Wang, Zhi; Tao, Yanchun; Niu, Xuedun; Huang, Xuri; Liu, Li; Li, Zhengqiang

    2016-06-01

    Lactic acid bacteria immobilization methods have been widely used for lactic acid production. Until now, the most common immobilization matrix used is calcium alginate. However, Ca-alginate gel disintegrated during lactic acid fermentation. To overcome this deficiency, we developed an immobilization method in which Lactobacillus rhamnosus cells were successfully encapsulated into an ordered mesoporous silica-based material under mild conditions with a high immobilization efficiency of 78.77% by using elemental analysis. We also optimized the cultivation conditions of the immobilized L. rhamnosus and obtained a high glucose conversion yield of 92.4%. Furthermore, L. rhamnosus encapsulated in mesoporous silica-based material exhibited operational stability during repeated fermentation processes and no decrease in lactic acid production up to 8 repeated batches. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Crown ratio influences allometric scaling in trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annikki Makela; Harry T. Valentine

    2006-01-01

    Allometric theories suggest that the size and shape of organisms follow universal rules, with a tendency toward quarter-power scaling. In woody plants, however, structure is influenced by branch death and shedding, which leads to decreasing crown ratios, accumulation of heartwood, and stem and branch tapering. This paper examines the impacts on allometric scaling of...

  19. The molecular genetics of crown gall tumorigenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooykaas, P.J.J.; Schilperoort, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    The phytopathogenic bacteria Agrobacterium tumefaciens and A. rhizogenes are the causative agents of the widespread plant diseases ''crown gall'' and ''hairy root'' respectively. It is now well established that virulent strains of these bacterial species transfer a piece of bacterial DNA into plant cells, thereby transforming these into tumor cells. In research much attention has been paid to the agrobacteria for several reasons. First is the desire to develop a system for the genetic engineering of plant cells based on the natural system for gene transfer between Agrobacterium species and plant cells. Second, there is a striking resemblance between the etiology of animal cancers and the plant cancer crown gall that was recognized as early as in 1927. This led to basic studies on the process of plant tumor induction and on the recovery of plant cells from the tumorous state. A third important interest lies in crown gall as a disease that is the cause of economically important losses in agriculture an horticulture in Europe, North America, and Austrailia. Research has been aimed at finding means to prevent crown gall and to cure plants of this disease

  20. Navigating through the Crown land process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawson, M. [Samsung Renewable Energy Inc., ON (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Samsung Communications and Technology (Samsung C and T) and the Korea Electric Power Corporation are planning to invest approximately $7 billion to generate 2500 MW of wind and solar energy in Ontario. The plan was centred around the green energy investment agreement signed in January 2010. To date, only 1 project in Ontario has been permitted for development on Crown land, and there have been 3 different versions of the Crown land policy and procedure for the development of wind power projects. The Crown land process is challenged by issues related to grandfathering, timing, competing processes, and the Endangered Species Act. Guidance is needed to identify requirements for studies and evaluation processes. Additional studies are often required by government agencies when new documents and results are reviewed. Projects are also delayed when new species are added to the endangered species list. Wind power developers must keep abreast of proposed regulations and guidelines to ensure that work programs are not delayed. An overview of the current Crown land development process was included. tabs., figs.

  1. Paraphoma crown rot of pyrethrum (Tanacetum cinerariifolium)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moslemi, Azin; Ades, Peter Kevin; Groom, Tim; Crous, Pedro; Nicolas, Marc Edward; Taylor, Paul William James

    2016-01-01

    Pyrethrum (Tanacetum cinerariifolium) is commercially cultivated for the extraction of natural pyrethrin insecticides from the oil glands inside seeds. Yield-decline has caused significant yield losses in Tasmania during the last decade. A new pathogen of pyrethrum causing crown rot and reduced

  2. Rhizoctonia crown and root rot disease nursery

    Science.gov (United States)

    The BSDF cooperative CRR Eastern Evaluation Nursery Rhizoctonia crown and root rot Evaluation Nursery in 2016 was a randomized complete-block design with five replications in 15 feet long, one-row plots (20 in row spacing), at the Saginaw Valley Research and Education Center near Frankenmuth, MI. F...

  3. Correlation between acoustical and structural properties of glasses: Extension of Abd El-Moneim model for bioactive silica based glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abd El-Moneim, Amin, E-mail: aminabdelmoneim@hotmail.com

    2016-04-15

    Correlation between room temperature ultrasonic attenuation coefficient and the most significant structural parameters has been studied in the bioactive silica based glasses, for the first time. The correlation has been carried out in the quaternary SiO{sub 2}–Na{sub 2}O–CaO–P{sub 2}O{sub 5} glass system using the two semi-empirical formulas, which have been presented recently by the author. Changes in the elastic properties, related to the substitution of SiO{sub 2} by alkali Na{sub 2}O and alkaline earth CaO oxides, have also been deduced by evaluating the mean atomic volume, packing density, fractal bond connectivity and density of the analogous crystalline structure. Furthermore, values of the theoretical elastic moduli have been calculated on the basis of Makishima-Mackenzie theory and compared with the corresponding observed values. Results show that the correlation between ultrasonic attenuation coefficient and the oxygen density, average atomic ring size, first-order stretching force constant and experimental bulk modulus was achieved at 5 MHz frequency. Values of the theoretically calculated shear modulus are in excellent correlation (C. R. ≻95%) with the corresponding experimental ones. The divergence between the theoretical and experimental values of bulk modulus has been discussed. - Highlights: • Abd El-Moneim model was extended for bioactive glasses. • Ultrasonic attenuation was correlated with structural parameters. • Correlation was carried out in Si–Na–Ca–P glasses. • The model is valid for all investigated glass samples. • Agreement between theoretical and experimental elastic moduli was studied.

  4. Selective crystallization of cations with crown ethers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heffels, Dennis Egidius

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the selectivity and preferences of the incorporation of differently sized cations in the cavities of various crown ethers and the characterization of the resulting compounds. The coordination preferences of crown ethers with different cavities have long been known, and the impact of other effects on the structure formation have increasingly become the focus of attention. In this work a comparative overview of the coordination preferences depending on various factors was undertaken. The focus was mainly on the variation of the cavity of the crown ether in the presence of differently sized cations. In addition, the effects of the solvent and differently coordinating anions have been investigated. Within the framework of this work, basic coordination preferences could be detected with rare earth nitrates, which are affected particularly by the choice of the solvent. The formation of different types of structures could be controlled by varying the conditions such that the incorporation of the cation in the cavity of the crown ether was influenced and the formation of a particular type of structure can be influenced partly by the choice of solvent. In this case no direct preferences for the incorporation into the cavity of the crown ether in relation to the cation size were observed for rare earth cations. However, the coordination of the crown ether leads in each case - for lanthanides - to rather high coordination numbers. A total of five new rare earth complexes and two structural variants could be observed with crown ethers. In the study of the selectivity of the incorporation into the cavity, known structures were also reproduced and further structures were characterized but the crystal structures not entirely solved. With the use of monovalent cations such as potassium, lithium or silver a total of nine new compounds could be synthesized, while no clear preferences for the incorporation of certain cations were detected. The

  5. New atraumatic easy removal technique for permanently cemented crown

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pravinkumar G Patil

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Removal of a permanently cemented crown or fixed partial denture is a cumbersome procedure for a prosthodontist, especially when there is no purchase point available to remove it. The technique described in this article consists of sectioning of a crown on facial surface followed by removal of the crown with orthodontic plier. This technique does not damage the gingival/periodontal tissues or underlying tooth structure as the crown need not to be removed with jerky back-action force.

  6. Monodispersed macroporous architecture of nickel-oxide film as an anode material for thin-film lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Mao-Sung; Lin, Ya-Ping

    2011-01-01

    A nickel-oxide film with monodispersed open macropores was prepared on a stainless-steel substrate by electrophoretic deposition of a polystyrene-sphere monolayer followed by anodic electrodeposition of nickel oxy-hydroxide. The deposited films convert to cubic nickel oxide after annealing at 400 o C for 1 h. Galvanostatic charge and discharge results indicate that the nickel-oxide film with monodispersed open macropores is capable of delivering a higher capacity than the bare nickel-oxide film, especially in high-rate charge and discharge processes. The lithiation capacity of macroporous nickel oxide reaches 1620 mA h g -1 at 1 C current discharge and decreases to 990 mA h g -1 at 15 C current discharge. The presence of monodispersed open macropores in the nickel-oxide film might facilitate the electrolyte penetration, diffusion, and migration. Electrochemical reactions between nickel oxide and lithium ions are therefore markedly improved by this tailored film architecture.

  7. Digital photography for urban street tree crown conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neil A. Clark; Sang-Mook Lee; William A. Bechtold; Gregory A. Reams

    2006-01-01

    Crown variables such as height, diameter, live crown ratio, dieback, transparency, and density are all collected as part of the overall crown assessment (USDA 2004). Transparency and density are related to the amount of foliage and thus the photosynthetic potential of the tree. These measurements are both currently based on visual estimates and have been shown to be...

  8. 21 CFR 872.3770 - Temporary crown and bridge resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Temporary crown and bridge resin. 872.3770 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3770 Temporary crown and bridge resin. (a) Identification. A temporary crown and bridge resin is a device composed of a material, such as...

  9. Evaluation of sampling strategies to estimate crown biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna P Poudel; Hailemariam Temesgen; Andrew N Gray

    2015-01-01

    Depending on tree and site characteristics crown biomass accounts for a significant portion of the total aboveground biomass in the tree. Crown biomass estimation is useful for different purposes including evaluating the economic feasibility of crown utilization for energy production or forest products, fuel load assessments and fire management strategies, and wildfire...

  10. Fracture Resistance Force of Primary Molar Crowns Milled from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-04-04

    Apr 4, 2018 ... molar stainless steel crown (SSC) and stored in water at 37°C for 30 days. The crowns were seated on Cr‑Co ... model) or chairside (in‑office system model) CAD/ ..... crowns, deformation may be observed instead of fracture.

  11. Fatigue resistance of CAD/CAM resin composite molar crowns.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shembish, F.A.; Tong, H.; Kaizer, M.; Janal, M.N.; Thompson, V.P.; Opdam, N.J.M.; Zhang, Y.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the fatigue behavior of CAD/CAM resin composite molar crowns using a mouth-motion step-stress fatigue test. Monolithic leucite-reinforced glass-ceramic crowns were used as a reference. METHODS: Fully anatomically shaped monolithic resin composite molar crowns (Lava

  12. A Macroporous TiO2 Oxygen Sensor Fabricated Using Anodic Aluminium Oxide as an Etching Mask

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Po Wu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An innovative fabrication method to produce a macroporous Si surface by employing an anodic aluminium oxide (AAO nanopore array layer as an etching template is presented. Combining AAO with a reactive ion etching (RIE processes, a homogeneous and macroporous silicon surface can be effectively configured by modulating AAO process parameters and alumina film thickness, thus hopefully replacing conventional photolithography and electrochemical etch methods. The hybrid process integration is considered fully CMOS compatible thanks to the low-temperature AAO and CMOS processes. The gas-sensing characteristics of 50 nm TiO2 nanofilms deposited on the macroporous surface are compared with those of conventional plain (or non-porous nanofilms to verify reduced response noise and improved sensitivity as a result of their macroporosity. Our experimental results reveal that macroporous geometry of the TiO2 chemoresistive gas sensor demonstrates 2-fold higher (~33% improved sensitivity than a non-porous sensor at different levels of oxygen exposure. In addition, the macroporous device exhibits excellent discrimination capability and significantly lessened response noise at 500 °C. Experimental results indicate that the hybrid process of such miniature and macroporous devices are compatible as well as applicable to integrated next generation bio-chemical sensors.

  13. Separation of scutellarin from crude extracts of Erigeron breviscapus (vant.) Hand. Mazz. by macroporous resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Min; Huang, Wei; Liu, Chun-Zhao

    2007-10-15

    Scutellarin, a flavone glycoside, popularly used in the treatment of heart disease, has been efficiently separated using macroporous resins from crude extracts of Chinese medicinal plant Erigeron breviscapus (vant.) Hand. Mazz. HPD-800 resin offered the best adsorption and desorption capacity for scutellarin among the eight macroporous resins tested, and its adsorption data at 25 degrees C fit best to the Langmuir isotherm. The dynamic adsorption and desorption experiments have been carried out on a HPD-800 resin packed column to optimize the separation process of scutellarin from the crude extracts of E. breviscapus. After one run treatment with HPD-800 resin, the scutellarin content in the product was increased 15.69-fold from 2.61% to 40.96% with a recovery yield of 95.01%. The preparative separation process via adsorption-desorption method developed in this study provides a new approach for scale-up separation and purification of scutellarin for its wide pharmaceutical use.

  14. Evaluation of new macroporous resins for the removal of uranium and plutonium from waste streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenst, J.W.; Herald, W.R.

    1976-01-01

    Organic ion exchange resins were evaluated for 238 Pu(IV), 238 Pu(VI), and 233 U(VI) removal from water. The capacity of the resins and equilibrium coefficients (Kd) were compared with each other and to bone char--an inorganic adsorbent consisting of hydroxyapatite (HAP) for which data is available. Bone char gave the best results for the removal of 238 Pu(IV), Amberlite XE279 (one of the new macroporous resins) gave the best results for 238 Pu(VI), and another macroporous resin, Dowex-MSA-1, gave good results for 233 U(VI). Kd values were shown to be a function of pH

  15. Ordered macroporous platinum electrode and enhanced mass transfer in fuel cells using inverse opal structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ok-Hee; Cho, Yong-Hun; Kang, Soon Hyung; Park, Hee-Young; Kim, Minhyoung; Lim, Ju Wan; Chung, Dong Young; Lee, Myeong Jae; Choe, Heeman; Sung, Yung-Eun

    2013-01-01

    Three-dimensional, ordered macroporous materials such as inverse opal structures are attractive materials for various applications in electrochemical devices because of the benefits derived from their periodic structures: relatively large surface areas, large voidage, low tortuosity and interconnected macropores. However, a direct application of an inverse opal structure in membrane electrode assemblies has been considered impractical because of the limitations in fabrication routes including an unsuitable substrate. Here we report the demonstration of a single cell that maintains an inverse opal structure entirely within a membrane electrode assembly. Compared with the conventional catalyst slurry, an ink-based assembly, this modified assembly has a robust and integrated configuration of catalyst layers; therefore, the loss of catalyst particles can be minimized. Furthermore, the inverse-opal-structure electrode maintains an effective porosity, an enhanced performance, as well as an improved mass transfer and more effective water management, owing to its morphological advantages.

  16. Thermal-Conductivity Studies of Macro-porous Polymer-Derived SiOC Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, L.; Li, Y. M.; Zheng, X. H.; Zhu, J.; Tang, D. W.; Wu, J. Q.; Xu, C. H.

    2014-01-01

    A three-dimensional reticular macro-porous SiOC ceramics structure, made of spherical agglomerates, has been thermally characterized using a freestanding sensor-based method. The effective thermal conductivity of the macro-porous SiOC ceramics, including the effects of voids, is found to be to at room temperature, comparable with that of alumina aerogel or carbon aerogel. These results suggest that SiOC ceramics hold great promise as a thermal insulation material for use at high temperatures. The measured results further reveal that the effective thermal conductivity is limited by the low solid-phase volume fraction for the SiOC series processed at the same conditions. For SiOC ceramics processed under different pyrolysis temperatures, the contact condition between neighboring particles in the SiOC networks is another key factor influencing the effective thermal conductivity.

  17. Nitrogen Doped Macroporous Carbon as Electrode Materials for High Capacity of Supercapacitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudong Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen doped carbon materials as electrodes of supercapacitors have attracted abundant attention. Herein, we demonstrated a method to synthesize N-doped macroporous carbon materials (NMC with continuous channels and large size pores carbonized from polyaniline using multiporous silica beads as sacrificial templates to act as electrode materials in supercapacitors. By the nice carbonized process, i.e., pre-carbonization at 400 °C and then pyrolysis at 700/800/900/1000 °C, NMC replicas with high BET specific surface areas exhibit excellent stability and recyclability as well as superb capacitance behavior (~413 F ⋅ g−1 in alkaline electrolyte. This research may provide a method to synthesize macroporous materials with continuous channels and hierarchical pores to enhance the infiltration and mass transfer not only used as electrode, but also as catalyst somewhere micro- or mesopores do not work well.

  18. Flow and transport processes in a macroporous subsurface-drained glacial till soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villholth, Karen G.; Jensen, Karsten Høgh

    1998-01-01

    disturbance and compaction of the soil surface. Hypothetically introducing fully surface-connected macropores into the calibrated model resulted in a 22% increase in the loss of solute to the drain, indicating the significance of the hydraulic conditions at the soil surface and the model specification thereof......The experimental results from a field-scale tracer experiment in a subsurface-drained glacial till soil were analyzed by the application of a single/dual porosity model (MACRO), optionally accounting for concurrent and interacting flow and transport in the bulk soil porosity as well...... concentration. The exchange was overpredicted and too rapid when the soil aggregate size (distance between macropores) obtained from an image analysis of soil cores was used in the model. On this basis, the model assumption of instant equilibration of the solute across the matrix porosity, disregarding small...

  19. Synthesis and Textural Characterization of Mesoporous and Meso-/Macroporous Silica Monoliths Obtained by Spinodal Decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Galarneau

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Silica monoliths featuring either mesopores or flow-through macropores and mesopores in their skeleton are prepared by combining spinodal phase separation and sol-gel condensation. The macroporous network is first generated by phase separation in acidic medium in the presence of polyethyleneoxides while mesoporosity is engineered in a second step in alkaline medium, possibly in the presence of alkylammonium cations as surfactants. The mesoporous monoliths, also referred as aerogels, are obtained in the presence of alkylpolyethylene oxides in acidic medium without the use of supercritical drying. The impact of the experimental conditions on pore architecture of the monoliths regarding the shape, the ordering, the size and the connectivity of the mesopores is comprehensively discussed based on a critical appraisal of the different models used for textural analysis.

  20. Preparation of thin layer materials with macroporous microstructure for SOFC applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marrero-Lopez, D.; Ruiz-Morales, J.C.; Pena-Martinez, J.; Canales-Vazquez, J.; Nunez, P.

    2008-01-01

    A facile and versatile method using polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) microspheres as pore formers has been developed to prepare thin layer oxide materials with controlled macroporous microstructure. Several mixed oxides with fluorite and perovskite-type structures, i.e. doped zirconia, ceria, ferrites, manganites, and NiO-YSZ composites have been prepared and characterised by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), nitrogen adsorption and mercury porosimetry. The synthesised materials are nanocrystalline and present a homogeneous pore distribution and relatively high specific surface area, which makes them interesting for SOFC and catalysis applications in the intermediate temperature range. - Graphical abstract: Thin films materials of mixed oxides with potential application in SOFC devices have been prepared with macroporous microstructure using PMMA microspheres as pore formers. Display Omitted

  1. Non-lithographic method of forming ordered arrays of silicon pillars and macropores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, David; Kolasinski, Kurt W

    2005-01-01

    Micrometre-scale Si pillars are formed by chemically enhanced laser ablation using nanosecond excimer laser irradiation of a Si single crystal in the presence of SF 6 . We demonstrate the importance of precursor holes in determining the positioning of the pillars and show that we can control the initiation of precursor holes by ruling a grating into the Si substrate prior to irradiation. A rule defines an edge from which the laser light diffracts. Near-field amplification of the laser intensity enhances the formation of the precursor holes and aligns them parallel to the rule. The pillars can be thinned and eventually removed by wet chemical etching in aqueous KOH, resulting first in ordered arrays of extremely high aspect ratio pillars (e.g. tens of micrometres in length, with ∼ 10 nm tips) and then macropores. The shape of the macropore is determined by crystallography and the anisotropy of the wet etchant

  2. Macroporous resin purification of peptides with umami taste from soy sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Mingzhu; Zhao, Mouming; Lin, Lianzhu; Dong, Yi; Chen, Huiping; Feng, Mengying; Sun-Waterhouse, Dongxiao; Su, Guowan

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the performance and separation characteristics of four macroporous resins for purifying umami peptides from soy sauce were examined. Results showed that the resins could separate the peptides of soy sauce, and the particle diffusion kinetics model was suitable for describing the whole exothermic (ΔH sauce, and indicated that peptide may be the contributor to the umami taste in Chinese soy sauce. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Covalently coating dextran on macroporous polyglycidyl methacrylate microsphere enabled rapid protein chromatographic separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Rongyue; Li, Qiang; Li, Juan; Zhou, Weiqing; Ye, Peili; Gao, Yang; Ma, Guanghui, E-mail: ghma@home.ipe.ac.cn; Su, Zhiguo

    2012-12-01

    Protein denaturation and nonspecific adsorption on polymer media as a chromatographic support have been a problem which needs to be overcome. Macroporous poly(glycidyl methacrylate-divinylbezene) (PGMA-DVB) microspheres prepared in this study were firstly covalently coated with dextran through a three-step method. The dextran was firstly adsorbed onto the microspheres and then covalently bound to the PGMA-DVB microsphere through ether bonds which were formed by hydroxyl group reacting with epoxy group at the presence of 4-(Dimethylamino) pyridine. Finally, the coating dextran layer was crosslinked by ethylene glycol diglycidyl ether to form the continuous network coating. The coated microspheres were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectra, scanning electron microscope, mercury porosimetry measurements, laser scanning confocal microscope, and protein adsorption experiments. Results showed that PGMA-DVB microspheres coated with dextran successfully maintained the macroporous structure and high permeability. The backpressure was only 1.69 MPa at a high flow rate of 2891 cm/h. Consequently, the hydrophilicity and biocompatibility of modified microspheres were greatly improved, and the contact angle decreased from 184 Degree-Sign to 13 Degree-Sign , and nonspecific adsorption of proteins was decreased to little or none. The clad dextran coating with large amounts of hydroxyl group was easily derived to be various functional groups. The derived media have great potential applications in rapid protein chromatography. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Macroporous PGMA-DVB microspheres were covalently coated with dextran. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The hydrophilicity of the coated microspheres was significantly improved. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The irreversible adsorption of proteins was reduced to zero. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The coated microspheres can maintain the macropore structure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The coated microspheres

  4. Covalently coating dextran on macroporous polyglycidyl methacrylate microsphere enabled rapid protein chromatographic separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Rongyue; Li, Qiang; Li, Juan; Zhou, Weiqing; Ye, Peili; Gao, Yang; Ma, Guanghui; Su, Zhiguo

    2012-01-01

    Protein denaturation and nonspecific adsorption on polymer media as a chromatographic support have been a problem which needs to be overcome. Macroporous poly(glycidyl methacrylate–divinylbezene) (PGMA–DVB) microspheres prepared in this study were firstly covalently coated with dextran through a three-step method. The dextran was firstly adsorbed onto the microspheres and then covalently bound to the PGMA–DVB microsphere through ether bonds which were formed by hydroxyl group reacting with epoxy group at the presence of 4-(Dimethylamino) pyridine. Finally, the coating dextran layer was crosslinked by ethylene glycol diglycidyl ether to form the continuous network coating. The coated microspheres were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectra, scanning electron microscope, mercury porosimetry measurements, laser scanning confocal microscope, and protein adsorption experiments. Results showed that PGMA–DVB microspheres coated with dextran successfully maintained the macroporous structure and high permeability. The backpressure was only 1.69 MPa at a high flow rate of 2891 cm/h. Consequently, the hydrophilicity and biocompatibility of modified microspheres were greatly improved, and the contact angle decreased from 184° to 13°, and nonspecific adsorption of proteins was decreased to little or none. The clad dextran coating with large amounts of hydroxyl group was easily derived to be various functional groups. The derived media have great potential applications in rapid protein chromatography. - Highlights: ► Macroporous PGMA–DVB microspheres were covalently coated with dextran. ► The hydrophilicity of the coated microspheres was significantly improved. ► The irreversible adsorption of proteins was reduced to zero. ► The coated microspheres can maintain the macropore structure. ► The coated microspheres were applied to rapid protein separation.

  5. Dentin-bonded all-ceramic crowns: current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, F J; Qualtrough, A J; Hale, R W

    1998-04-01

    Dentin-bonded all-ceramic crowns employ contemporary techniques to lute the crown to the tooth using a resin luting material and dentin-bonding system. The advantages of these crowns are that they provide good esthetics and fracture resistance and can be used in cases of substantial tooth loss. Their principal disadvantages are that the luting procedure is more time-consuming and that these crowns should not be used where margins are subgingival. Dentin-bonded all-ceramic crowns may be a useful addition to the dentist's armamentarium, but long-term clinical studies are needed to fully assess their performance.

  6. Three-dimensional macroporous nanoelectronic networks as minimally invasive brain probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Chong; Liu, Jia; Fu, Tian-Ming; Dai, Xiaochuan; Zhou, Wei; Lieber, Charles M.

    2015-12-01

    Direct electrical recording and stimulation of neural activity using micro-fabricated silicon and metal micro-wire probes have contributed extensively to basic neuroscience and therapeutic applications; however, the dimensional and mechanical mismatch of these probes with the brain tissue limits their stability in chronic implants and decreases the neuron-device contact. Here, we demonstrate the realization of a three-dimensional macroporous nanoelectronic brain probe that combines ultra-flexibility and subcellular feature sizes to overcome these limitations. Built-in strains controlling the local geometry of the macroporous devices are designed to optimize the neuron/probe interface and to promote integration with the brain tissue while introducing minimal mechanical perturbation. The ultra-flexible probes were implanted frozen into rodent brains and used to record multiplexed local field potentials and single-unit action potentials from the somatosensory cortex. Significantly, histology analysis revealed filling-in of neural tissue through the macroporous network and attractive neuron-probe interactions, consistent with long-term biocompatibility of the device.

  7. Silica-based ionic liquid coating for 96-blade system for extraction of aminoacids from complex matrixes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mousavi, Fatemeh; Pawliszyn, Janusz

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Silica-based 1-vinyl-3-octadecylimidazolium bromide ionic liquid was synthesized and characterized. •The synthesized polymer was immobilized on the stainless steel blade using polyacrylonitrile glue. •SiImC 18 -PAN 96-blade SPME was applied as an extraction phase for extraction of highly polar compounds in grape matrix. •This system provides high extraction efficiency and reproducibility for up to 50 extractions from tartaric buffer and 20 extractions from grape pulp. -- Abstract: 1-Vinyl-3-octadecylimidazolium bromide ionic liquid [C 18 VIm]Br was prepared and used for the modification of mercaptopropyl-functionalized silica (Si-MPS) through surface radical chain-transfer addition. The synthesized octadecylimidazolium-modified silica (SiImC 18 ) was characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), infrared spectroscopy (IR), 13 C NMR and 29 Si NMR spectroscopy and used as an extraction phase for the automated 96-blade solid phase microextraction (SPME) system with thin-film geometry using polyacrylonitrile (PAN) glue. The new proposed extraction phase was applied for extraction of aminoacids from grape pulp, and LC–MS–MS method was developed for separation of model compounds. Extraction efficiency, reusability, linearity, limit of detection, limit of quantitation and matrix effect were evaluated. The whole process of sample preparation for the proposed method requires 270 min for 96 samples simultaneously (60 min preconditioning, 90 min extraction, 60 min desorption and 60 min for carryover step) using 96-blade SPME system. Inter-blade and intra-blade reproducibility were in the respective ranges of 5–13 and 3–10% relative standard deviation (RSD) for all model compounds. Limits of detection and quantitation of the proposed SPME-LC–MS/MS system for analysis of analytes were found to range from 0.1 to 1.0 and 0.5 to 3.0 μg L −1 , respectively. Standard addition calibration was applied for quantitative

  8. Silica-based ionic liquid coating for 96-blade system for extraction of aminoacids from complex matrixes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mousavi, Fatemeh; Pawliszyn, Janusz, E-mail: janusz@uwaterloo.ca

    2013-11-25

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Silica-based 1-vinyl-3-octadecylimidazolium bromide ionic liquid was synthesized and characterized. •The synthesized polymer was immobilized on the stainless steel blade using polyacrylonitrile glue. •SiImC{sub 18}-PAN 96-blade SPME was applied as an extraction phase for extraction of highly polar compounds in grape matrix. •This system provides high extraction efficiency and reproducibility for up to 50 extractions from tartaric buffer and 20 extractions from grape pulp. -- Abstract: 1-Vinyl-3-octadecylimidazolium bromide ionic liquid [C{sub 18}VIm]Br was prepared and used for the modification of mercaptopropyl-functionalized silica (Si-MPS) through surface radical chain-transfer addition. The synthesized octadecylimidazolium-modified silica (SiImC{sub 18}) was characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), infrared spectroscopy (IR), {sup 13}C NMR and {sup 29}Si NMR spectroscopy and used as an extraction phase for the automated 96-blade solid phase microextraction (SPME) system with thin-film geometry using polyacrylonitrile (PAN) glue. The new proposed extraction phase was applied for extraction of aminoacids from grape pulp, and LC–MS–MS method was developed for separation of model compounds. Extraction efficiency, reusability, linearity, limit of detection, limit of quantitation and matrix effect were evaluated. The whole process of sample preparation for the proposed method requires 270 min for 96 samples simultaneously (60 min preconditioning, 90 min extraction, 60 min desorption and 60 min for carryover step) using 96-blade SPME system. Inter-blade and intra-blade reproducibility were in the respective ranges of 5–13 and 3–10% relative standard deviation (RSD) for all model compounds. Limits of detection and quantitation of the proposed SPME-LC–MS/MS system for analysis of analytes were found to range from 0.1 to 1.0 and 0.5 to 3.0 μg L{sup −1}, respectively. Standard addition calibration was

  9. Wavelength selection in the crown splash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li V.; Brunet, Philippe; Eggers, Jens; Deegan, Robert D.

    2010-12-01

    The impact of a drop onto a liquid layer produces a splash that results from the ejection and dissolution of one or more liquid sheets, which expand radially from the point of impact. In the crown splash parameter regime, secondary droplets appear at fairly regularly spaced intervals along the rim of the sheet. By performing many experiments for the same parameter values, we measure the spectrum of small-amplitude perturbations growing on the rim. We show that for a range of parameters in the crown splash regime, the generation of secondary droplets results from a Rayleigh-Plateau instability of the rim, whose shape is almost cylindrical. In our theoretical calculation, we include the time dependence of the base state. The remaining irregularity of the pattern is explained by the finite width of the Rayleigh-Plateau dispersion relation. Alternative mechanisms, such as the Rayleigh-Taylor instability, can be excluded for the experimental parameters of our study.

  10. Elliptic Fourier analysis of crown shapes in Quercus petraea trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu Hâruţa

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Shape is a fundamental morphological descriptor, significant in taxonomic research as well as in ecomorphology, one method of estimation being from digitally processed images. In the present study, were analysed shapes of Q. petraea crowns, pertaining to five different stem diameter classes, from three similar stands. Based on measurements on terrestrial digital vertical photos, crown size analysis was performed and correlations between crown and stem variables were tested. Linear regression equations between crown volumes and dbh, and crown volumes and stem volumes were derived, explaining more than half of data variability. Employment of elliptic Fourier analysis (EFA, a powerful analysis tool, permitted the extraction of the mean shape from crowns, characterized by high morphological variability. The extracted, most important, coefficients were used to reconstruct the average shape of the crowns, using Inverse Fourier Transform. A mean shape of the crown, corresponding to stand conditions in which competition is added as influential shaping factor, aside genetic program of the species, is described for each stem diameter class. Crown regions with highest shape variability, from the perspective of stage developmentof the trees, were determined. Accordingly, the main crown shape characteristics are: crown elongation, mass center, asymmetry with regard to the main axis, lateral regions symmetrical and asymmetrical variations.

  11. Elliptic Fourier analysis of crown shapes in Quercus petraea trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu Hâruţa

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Shape is a fundamental morphological descriptor, significant in taxonomic research as well as in ecomorphology, one method of estimation being from digitally processed images. In the present study, were analysed shapes of Q. petraea crowns, pertaining to five different stem diameter classes, from three similar stands. Based on measurements on terrestrial digital vertical photos, crown size analysis was performed and correlations between crown and stem variables were tested. Linear regression equations between crown volumes and dbh, and crown volumes and stem volumes were derived, explaining more than half of data variability. Employment of elliptic Fourier analysis (EFA, a powerful analysis tool, permitted the extraction of the mean shape from crowns, characterized by high morphological variability. The extracted, most important, coefficients were used to reconstruct the average shape of the crowns, using Inverse Fourier Transform. A mean shape of the crown, corresponding to stand conditions in which competition is added as influential shaping factor, aside genetic program of the species, is described for each stem diameter class. Crown regions with highest shape variability, from the perspective of stage development of the trees, were determined. Accordingly, the main crown shape characteristics are: crown elongation, centroid position, asymmetry with regard to the main axis, lateral regions symmetrical and asymmetrical variations. 

  12. Crown structure, radiation absorption, photosynthesis and transpiration

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yingping

    1988-01-01

    A complex simulation model, MAESTRO, has been developed and validated against field measurements in plantation in both Scotland and Australia. It has been shown that MAESTRO can reasonably predict the daily course of PAR (photosynetically active radiation) transmittance at points below the canopies of radiata pine and Sitka spruce plantations. 1. Four structural properties of the Sitka spruce tree crown have been identified and evaluation in relation to PAR absorption, photosynthesis and ...

  13. Solvent Effects on Cesium Complexation with Crown Ethers from Liquid to Supercritical Fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wai, Chien M.; Rustenholtz, Anne; Wang, Shaofen; Lee, Su-Chen; Herman, Jamie; Porter, Richard A.

    2004-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques were used to study crown ether-water interactions in solvents of low dielectric constants such as chloroform and carbon tetrachloride. Water forms a 1:1 complex with a number of crown ethers including 12-crown-4, 15-crown-5, 18-crown-6, dicyclohexano-18=crown-6, dicyclohexano-24-crown 8, and dibenzl-24-crown-8 in chloroform. Among these crown ethers, the 18-crown-6-H2 complex has the largest equilibrium constant (K=545) and 97% of the crown is complexed to water in chloroform. Addition of carbon tetrachloride to chloroform lowers the equilibrium constants of the crown-water complexes. The partition coefficients of crown ethers (D=crown in water/crown in solvent) between water and organic solvent also vary with solvent composition

  14. Effects of the hydraulic conductivity of the matrix/macropore interface on cumulative infiltrations into dual-permeability media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassabatere, L.; Peyrard, X.; Angulo-Jaramillo, R.; Simunek, J.

    2009-12-01

    Modeling of water infiltration into the vadose zone is important for better understanding of movement of water-transported contaminants. There is a great need to take into account the soil heterogeneity and, in particular, the presence of macropores or cracks that could generate preferential flow. Several mathematical models have been proposed to describe unsaturated flow through heterogeneous soils. The dual-permeability model (referred to as the 2K model) assumes that flow is governed by Richards equation in both porous regions (matrix and macropores). Water can be exchanged between the two regions following a first-order rate law. Although several studies have dealt with such modeling, no study has evaluated the influence of the hydraulic conductivity of the matrix/macropore interface on water cumulative infiltration. And this is the focus of this study. An analytical scaling method reveals the role of the following main parameters for given boundary and initial conditions: the saturated hydraulic conductivity ratio (R_Ks), the water pressure scale parameter ratio (R_hg), the saturated volumetric water content ratio (R_θs), and the shape parameters of the water retention and hydraulic conductivity functions. The last essential parameter is related to the interfacial hydraulic conductivity (Ka) between the macropore and matrix regions. The scaled 2K flow equations were solved using HYDRUS-1D 4.09 for the specific case of water infiltrating into an initially uniform soil profile and a zero pressure head at the soil surface. A sensitivity of water infiltration was studied for different sets of scale parameters (R_Ks, R_hg, R_θs, and shape parameters) and the scaled interfacial conductivity (Ka). Numerical results illustrate two extreme behaviors. When the interfacial conductivity is zero (i.e., no water exchange), water infiltrates separately into matrix and macropore regions, producing a much deeper moisture front in the macropore domain. In the opposite case

  15. [Comparison of the clinical effects of selective laser melting deposition basal crowns and cobalt chromium alloy base crowns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing-min; Wang, Wei-qian; Ma, Jing-yuan

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate the clinical effects of selective laser melting (SLM) deposition basal crowns and cobalt chromium alloy casting base crowns. One hundred and sixty eight patients treated with either SLM deposition basal crowns (110 teeth) or cobalt chromium alloy casting basal crowns (110 teeth) were followed-up for 1 month, 6 months, 12 months and 24 months. The revised standard of American Public Health Association was used to evaluate the clinical effect of restoration, including the color of porcelain crowns, gingival inflammation, gingival margin discoloration, and crack or fracture. Data analysis was conducted with SPSS 20 software package for Student's t test and Chi-square test. Six cases were lost to follow-up. The patients who were treated with SLM deposition basal crowns (104 teeth) and cobalt chromium alloy casting base crowns (101 teeth) completed the study. Patients were more satisfied with SLM deposition cobalt chromium alloy porcelain crowns. There was 1 prosthesis with poor marginal fit after 24 months of restoration in SLM crowns. There were 6 prostheses with edge coloring and 8 with poor marginal fit in cobalt chromium alloy casting base crowns, which was significantly different between the 2 groups(P<0.05). The SLM deposition copings results in smaller edge coloring and better marginal fit than those of cobalt-chrome copings. Patients are pleased with short-term clinical results.

  16. Basal ganglia - thalamus and the crowning enigma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianela eGarcia-Munoz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available When Hubel (1982 referred to layer 1 of primary visual cortex as …a ‘crowning mystery’ to keep area-17 physiologists busy for years to come... he could have been talking about any cortical area. In the 80’s and 90’s there were no methods to examine this neuropile on the surface of the cortex: a tangled web of axons and dendrites from a variety of different places with unknown specificities and doubtful connections to the cortical output neurons some hundreds of microns below. Recently, three changes have made the crowning enigma less of an impossible mission: the clear presence of neurons in layer 1 (L1, the active conduction of voltage along apical dendrites and optogenetic methods that might allow us to look at one source of input at a time. For all of those reasons alone, it seems it is time to take seriously the function of L1. The functional properties of this layer will need to wait for more experiments but already L1 cells are GAD67 positive, i.e., inhibitory! They could reverse the sign of the thalamic glutamate (GLU input for the entire cortex. It is at least possible that in the near future normal activity of individual sources of L1 could be detected using genetic tools. We are at the outset of important times in the exploration of thalamic functions and perhaps the solution to the crowning enigma is within sight. Our review looks forward to that solution from the solid basis of the anatomy of the basal ganglia output to motor thalamus. We will focus on L1, its afferents, intrinsic neurons and its influence on responses of pyramidal neurons in layers 2/3 and 5. Since L1 is present in the whole cortex we will provide a general overview considering evidence mainly from the somatosensory cortex before focusing on motor cortex.

  17. A simple method for the production of large volume 3D macroporous hydrogels for advanced biotechnological, medical and environmental applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savina, Irina N.; Ingavle, Ganesh C.; Cundy, Andrew B.; Mikhalovsky, Sergey V.

    2016-02-01

    The development of bulk, three-dimensional (3D), macroporous polymers with high permeability, large surface area and large volume is highly desirable for a range of applications in the biomedical, biotechnological and environmental areas. The experimental techniques currently used are limited to the production of small size and volume cryogel material. In this work we propose a novel, versatile, simple and reproducible method for the synthesis of large volume porous polymer hydrogels by cryogelation. By controlling the freezing process of the reagent/polymer solution, large-scale 3D macroporous gels with wide interconnected pores (up to 200 μm in diameter) and large accessible surface area have been synthesized. For the first time, macroporous gels (of up to 400 ml bulk volume) with controlled porous structure were manufactured, with potential for scale up to much larger gel dimensions. This method can be used for production of novel 3D multi-component macroporous composite materials with a uniform distribution of embedded particles. The proposed method provides better control of freezing conditions and thus overcomes existing drawbacks limiting production of large gel-based devices and matrices. The proposed method could serve as a new design concept for functional 3D macroporous gels and composites preparation for biomedical, biotechnological and environmental applications.

  18. TRANSPLANTATION OF CRYOPRESERVED FETAL LIVER CELLS SEEDED INTO MACROPOROUS ALGINATE-GELATIN SCAFFOLDS IN RATS WITH LIVER FAILURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Grizay

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the therapeutic potential of cryopreserved fetal liver cells seeded into macroporous alginategelatin scaffolds after implantation to omentum of rats with hepatic failure.Materials and methods.Hepatic failure was simulated by administration of 2-acetyl aminofl uorene followed partial hepatectomy. Macroporous alginate-gelatin scaffolds, seeded with allogenic cryopreserved fetal liver cells (FLCs were implanted into rat omentum. To prevent from colonization of host cells scaffolds were coated with alginate gel shell. Serum transaminase activity, levels of albumin and bilirubin as markers of hepatic function were determined during 4 weeks after failure model formation and scaffold implantation. Morphology of liver and scaffolds after implantation were examined histologically. Results. Macroporous alginate-gelatin scaffolds after implantation to healthy rats were colonized by host cells. Additional formation of alginate gel shell around scaffolds prevented the colonization. Implantation of macroporous scaffolds seeded with cryopreserved rat FLCs and additionally coated with alginate gel shell into omentum of rats with hepatic failure resulted in signifi cant improvement of hepatospecifi c parameters of the blood serum and positive changes of liver morphology. The presence of cells with their extracellular matrix within the scaffolds was confi rmed after 4 weeks post implantation.Conclusion. The data above indicate that macroporous alginate-gelatin scaffolds coated with alginate gel shell are promising cell carriers for the development of bioengineered liver equivalents.

  19. Crown and bridge cements: clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunek, Sabiha S; Powers, John M

    2012-12-01

    Cement selection can be confusing because factors such as substrate, the type of restoration, and patient needs must be considered. Some substrates require additional treatment before cementation. This article describes the most commonly used traditional crown and bridge cements (GI and RMGI) used for metal and metal-ceramic restorations, and resin cements used for all-ceramic restorations. Advantages, disadvantages, indications, and contraindications of cements have been reviewed. Recommended uses of cements for metal, ceramic, and laboratory composite restorations have been presented. General guidelines for surface treatment ot silica- and zirconia-based restorations when using resin cements have been discussed.

  20. Gamma-radiolysis of benzosubstituted crown ethers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigor'ev, E.I.; Nesterov, S.V.; Mikhalitsyna, O.V.; Trakhtenberg, L.I.; Myasoedova, T.G.

    1992-01-01

    The products of gamma-radiolysis of benzosubstituted crown ethers, which are distiguished by the size of polyether ring, and alkylsubstituted DB18C6 are studied by the methods of ESR and mass-spectrometry. A mechanism of the radiolysis of the radiolysis of the studied compounds in the solid phase is proposed. It is shown that the prinicple radiolysis process is the rupture of C-O bond resulting in the stabilization of H atoms from group -CH 2 - of polyether ring is realized with a lower probability

  1. Silica-Based and Borate-Based, Titania-Containing Bioactive Coatings Characterization: Critical Strain Energy Release Rate, Residual Stresses, Hardness, and Thermal Expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Rodriguez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Silica-based and borate-based glass series, with increasing amounts of TiO2 incorporated, are characterized in terms of their mechanical properties relevant to their use as metallic coating materials. It is observed that borate-based glasses exhibit CTE (Coefficient of Thermal Expansion closer to the substrate’s (Ti6Al4V CTE, translating into higher mode I critical strain energy release rates of glasses and compressive residual stresses and strains at the coating/substrate interface, outperforming the silica-based glasses counterparts. An increase in the content of TiO2 in the glasses results in an increase in the mode I critical strain energy release rate for both the bulk glass and for the coating/substrate system, proving that the addition of TiO2 to the glass structure enhances its toughness, while decreasing its bulk hardness. Borate-based glass BRT3, with 15 mol % TiO2 incorporated, exhibits superior properties overall compared to the other proposed glasses in this work, as well as 45S5 Bioglass® and Pyrex.

  2. Characterization of Microsolvated Crown Ethers from Broadband Rotational Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Cristobal; Schnell, Melanie; Blanco, Susana; Lopez, Juan Carlos

    2016-06-01

    Since they were first synthetized, crown ethers have been extensively used in organometallic chemistry due to their unparalleled binding selectivity with alkali metal cations. From a structural point of view, crown ethers are heterocycles containing oxygen and/or other heteroatoms, although the most common ones are formed from ethylene oxide unit. Crown ethers are conventionally seen as being hydrophilic inside and hydrophobic outside when the structures found for the metal cation complexes are considered. However, crown ethers are extremely flexible and in isolation may present a variety of stable conformations so that their structure may be easily adapted in presence of a strong ligand as an alkali metal cation minimize the energy of the resulting complex. Water can be considered a soft ligand which interacts with crown ethers through moderate hydrogen bonds. It is thus interesting to investigate which conformers are selected by water to form complexes, the preferred interaction sites and the possible conformational changes due to the presence of one or more water molecules. Previous studies identified microsolvated crown ethers but in all cases with a chromophore group attached to the structure. Here we present a broadband rotational spectroscopy study of microsolvated crown ethers produced in a pulsed molecular jet expansion. Several 1:1 and 1:2 crown ether:water aggregates are presented for 12-crown-4, 15-crown-5 and 18-crown-6. Unambiguous identification of the structures has been achieved using isotopic substitution within the water unit. The subtle changes induced in the structures of the crown ether monomer upon complexation and the hydrogen-bonding network that hold them together will be also discussed. F. Gámez, B. Martínez-Haya, S. Blanco,J. C. López and J. L. Alonso, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 2014, 14 12912-12918 V. A. Shubert, C.W. Müller and T. Zwier, J. Phys. Chem. A 2009, 113 8067-8079

  3. Elliptic Fourier analysis of crown shapes in Quercus petraea trees

    OpenAIRE

    Ovidiu Hâruţa

    2011-01-01

    Shape is a fundamental morphological descriptor, significant in taxonomic research as well as in ecomorphology, one method of estimation being from digitally processed images. In the present study, were analysed shapes of Q. petraea crowns, pertaining to five different stem diameter classes, from three similar stands. Based on measurements on terrestrial digital vertical photos, crown size analysis was performed and correlations between crown and stem variables were tested. Linear regression ...

  4. Development of macroporous calcium phosphate scaffold processed via microwave rapid drying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamuna-Thevi, K., E-mail: jamuna@sirim.my [Advanced Materials Research Centre (AMREC), SIRIM Berhad, Lot 34, Jalan Hi-Tech 2/3, Kulim Hi-Tech Park, 09000 Kulim, Kedah (Malaysia); Zakaria, F.A. [Advanced Materials Research Centre (AMREC), SIRIM Berhad, Lot 34, Jalan Hi-Tech 2/3, Kulim Hi-Tech Park, 09000 Kulim, Kedah (Malaysia); Othman, R. [Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Seri Ampangan, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Muhamad, S. [Bioassay Unit, Herbal Medicine Research Centre (HMRC), Institute for Medical Research (IMR), Jalan Pahang, 50588 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2009-06-01

    Porous hydroxyapatite (HA) scaffold has great potential in bone tissue engineering applications. A new method to fabricate macroporous calcium phosphate (CP) scaffold via microwave irradiation, followed by conventional sintering to form HA scaffold was developed. Incorporation of trisodium citrate dihydrate and citric acid in the CP mixture gave macroporous scaffolds upon microwave rapid drying. In this work, a mixture of {beta}-tricalcium phosphate ({beta}-TCP), calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}), trisodium citrate dihydrate, citric acid and double distilled de-ionised water (DDI) was exposed to microwave radiation to form a macroporous structure. Based on gross eye examinations, addition of trisodium citrate at 30 and 40 wt.% in the CP mixture ({beta}-TCP and CaCO{sub 3}) without citric acid indicates increasing order of pore volume where the highest porosity yield was observed at 40 wt.% of trisodium citrate addition and the pore size was detected at several millimeters. Therefore, optimization of pore size was performed by adding 3-7 wt.% of citric acid in the CP mixture which was separately mixed with 30 and 40 wt.% of trisodium citrate for comparison purposes. Fabricated scaffolds were calcined at 600 deg. C and washed with DDI water to remove the sodium hydroxycarbonate and sintered at 1250 deg. C to form HA phase as confirmed in the X-ray diffraction (XRD) results. Based on Archimedes method, HA scaffolds prepared from 40 wt.% of trisodium citrate with 3-7 wt.% of citric acid added CP mixture have an open and interconnected porous structure ranging from 51 to 53 vol.% and observation using Scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed the pore size distribution between 100 and 500 {mu}m. The cytotoxicity tests revealed that the porous HA scaffolds have no cytotoxic potential on MG63 osteoblast-like cells which might allow for their use as biomaterials.

  5. Honeycomb-like graphitic ordered macroporous carbon prepared by pyrolysis of ammonium bicarbonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Liancheng [Key Laboratory of Colloid and Interface Chemistry, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong 250100 (China); Zhang, Junhao, E-mail: jhzhang6@mail.ustc.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Colloid and Interface Chemistry, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong 250100 (China); School of Biology and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University of Science and Technology, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu 212003 (China); Xu, Liqiang; Qian, Yitai [Key Laboratory of Colloid and Interface Chemistry, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong 250100 (China)

    2011-10-15

    Graphical abstract: Honeycomb-like graphitic macroporous carbon (HGMC) with big pores centered at 1-3 {mu}m, has been prepared by controlling the reaction temperature and amount of NH{sub 4}HCO{sub 3} at 550 {sup o}C in a sealed reaction system. Possible formation processes of HGMC are discussed on the experimental results. It is believed that the in situ formed MgO microparticles play a template role during the preparation of HGMC. Highlights: {yields} Honeycomb-like graphitic carbon was synthesized at 550 {sup o}C. {yields} The honeycomb-like graphitic carbon is macroposous structures. {yields} The formed MgO microparticles play a template role during the HGMC formation. {yields} The method can be expended to synthesize other porous or hollow carbon material. -- Abstract: Honeycomb-like graphitic macroporous carbon (HGMC) was synthesized by means of pyrolysis of NH{sub 4}HCO{sub 3} using Mg powder as reductant in an autoclave at 550 {sup o}C. The characterization of structure and morphology was carried out by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectrum, field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and (High-resolution) transmission electron microscope [(HR)TEM]. The results of nitrogen adsorption-desorption indicate that the products are macropore materials with the pore size of 1-3 {mu}m, and the Brunauer-Emett-Teller (BET) surface area was 14 m{sup 2}/g. As a typical morphology, the possible growth process of HGMC was also investigated and discussed. The experimental results show that the in situ formed MgO microparticles play a template role during the HGMC formation.

  6. Homogenization-assisted cavitation hybrid rotation extraction and macroporous resin enrichment of dihydroquercetin from Larix gmelinii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yu; Wang, Yinhang; Li, Wei; Ma, Chunhui; Liu, Shouxin

    2017-12-01

    Cavitation hybrid rotation, which was and is still looked upon as an unavoidable nuisance in the flow systems, for extraction processing intensification of active chemical compounds from natural products. In this study, a homogenization-assisted cavitation hybrid rotation extraction method was applied to extract dihydroquercetin (DHQ) from larch (Larix gmelinii) wood root. The extraction parameters were optimized in single factor experiments with the DHQ extraction yields as the response values. The optimum conditions were as follows: number of extractions, three; ethanol volume fraction for the extraction, 60%; liquid-solid ratio for homogenization, 10mL/g; homogenization time, 8min; liquid-solid ratio for cavitation extraction, 9mL/g, and cavitation extraction time, 35min. Under these conditions, the DHQ content in extract was 4.50±0.02mg/g, and the extraction efficiency was higher than those of traditional techniques. Cavitation can be effectively used to improve the extraction rate by increasing the mass transfer rates and possible rupture of cell wall due to formation of microcavities leading to higher product yields with reduced processing time and solvent consumption. After the extraction process, macroporous resin column chromatography was used to concentrate and purify the DHQ. Three resins were selected from fifteen macroporous resins for further investigation of their performance. Among these resins, AB-8 resin exhibited relatively better adsorption capacities and desorption ratios for DHQ. The ethanol volume fraction of the solutions for sample loading and desorption, and flow rates for loading and desorption were optimized for the macroporous resin column chromatography. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Highly ordered macroporous woody biochar with ultra-high carbon content as supercapacitor electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Junhua; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Xinying; Holm, Nancy; Rajagopalan, Kishore; Chen, Fanglin; Ma, Shuguo

    2013-01-01

    Woody biochar monolith with ultra-high carbon content and highly ordered macropores has been prepared via one-pot pyrolysis and carbonization of red cedar wood at 750 °C without the need of post-treatment. Energy-dispersive spectroscope (EDX) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) studies show that the original biochar has a carbon content of 98 wt% with oxygen as the only detectable impurity and highly ordered macroporous texture characterized by alternating regular macroporous regions and narrow porous regions. Moreover, the hierarchically porous biochar monolith has a high BET specific surface area of approximately 400 m 2 g −1 . We have studied the monolith material as supercapacitor electrodes under acidic environment using electrochemical and surface characterization techniques. Electrochemical measurements show that the original biochar electrodes have a potential window of about 1.3 V and exhibit typical rectangular-shape voltammetric responses and fast charging–discharging behavior with a gravimetric capacitance of about 14 F g −1 . Simple activation of biochar in diluted nitric acid at room temperature leads to 7 times increase in the capacitance (115 F g −1 ). Because the HNO 3 -activation slightly decreases rather than increases the BET surface area of the biochar, an increase in the coverage of surface oxygen groups is the most likely origin of the substantial capacitance improvement. This is supported by EDX, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Raman measurements. Preliminary life-time studies show that biochar supercapacitors using the original and HNO 3 -activated electrodes are stable over 5000 cycles without performance decays. These facts indicate that the use of woody biochar is promising for its low cost and it can be a good performance electrode with low environmental impacts for supercapacitor applications

  8. Electrochemical study of nitrobenzene reduction using novel Pt nanoparticles/macroporous carbon hybrid nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yufan; Zeng Lijun; Bo Xiangjie; Wang Huan; Guo Liping

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A one-step microwave-assisted route for rapidly synthesizing Pt nanoparticles ensemble on macroporous carbon hybrid nanocomposites (PNMPC) has been reported. As a novel electrode material, the excellent electrochemical behavior of nitrobenzene was investigated thoroughly at the PNMPC modified glassy carbon electrode. And moreover, the modified electrode was successfully applied to the determination of nitrobenzene in real samples. Highlights: ► One-step microwave-assisted heating synthesis Pt nanoparticles/macroporous carbon hybrid nanocomposites (PNMPC). ► Catalytic rate constant being 3.14 × 10 4 M −1 s −1 for NB in pH 7.0. ► Sensitive electrochemical detection of NB at the PNMPC/Nafion/GC electrode. ► The electrode showing excellent anti-interference ability and good stability for NB. - Abstract: Novel Pt nanoparticles (PN) ensemble on macroporous carbon (MPC) hybrid nanocomposites (PNMPC) were prepared through a rapidly and simple one-step microwave-assisted heating procedure. The obtained PNMPC was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and electrochemical methods. The electrochemical reduction of nitrobenzene (NB) was thoroughly investigated at the PNMPC modified glassy carbon (GC) electrode, and the catalytic rate constant was calculated to be 3.14 × 10 4 M −1 s −1 for NB. A sensitive NB sensor was developed based on the PNMPC/GC electrode, which showed a wide linear range (1–200 μM), low detection limit (50 nM), high sensitivity (6.93 μA μM −1 ), excellent anti-interference ability and good stability. And moreover, the electrode was successfully applied to the determination of NB in real samples.

  9. Honeycomb-like graphitic ordered macroporous carbon prepared by pyrolysis of ammonium bicarbonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Liancheng; Zhang, Junhao; Xu, Liqiang; Qian, Yitai

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Honeycomb-like graphitic macroporous carbon (HGMC) with big pores centered at 1-3 μm, has been prepared by controlling the reaction temperature and amount of NH 4 HCO 3 at 550 o C in a sealed reaction system. Possible formation processes of HGMC are discussed on the experimental results. It is believed that the in situ formed MgO microparticles play a template role during the preparation of HGMC. Highlights: → Honeycomb-like graphitic carbon was synthesized at 550 o C. → The honeycomb-like graphitic carbon is macroposous structures. → The formed MgO microparticles play a template role during the HGMC formation. → The method can be expended to synthesize other porous or hollow carbon material. -- Abstract: Honeycomb-like graphitic macroporous carbon (HGMC) was synthesized by means of pyrolysis of NH 4 HCO 3 using Mg powder as reductant in an autoclave at 550 o C. The characterization of structure and morphology was carried out by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectrum, field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and (High-resolution) transmission electron microscope [(HR)TEM]. The results of nitrogen adsorption-desorption indicate that the products are macropore materials with the pore size of 1-3 μm, and the Brunauer-Emett-Teller (BET) surface area was 14 m 2 /g. As a typical morphology, the possible growth process of HGMC was also investigated and discussed. The experimental results show that the in situ formed MgO microparticles play a template role during the HGMC formation.

  10. Risk predicting of macropore flow using pedotransfer functions, textural maps and modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Bo Vangsø; Børgesen, Christen Duus; Lægdsmand, Mette

    2011-01-01

    of this study were first to develop pedotransfer functions (PTFs) predicting near-saturated [k(−1)] and saturated (Ks) hydraulic conductivity using simple soil parameters as predictors and second to use this information and a newly developed rasterbased soil property map of Denmark to identify risk areas...... modeling were used to construct a new map dividing Denmark into risk categories for macropore flow. This map can be combined with other tools to identify areas where there is a high risk of contaminants leaching out of the root zone....

  11. Site selective generation of sol-gel deposits in layered bimetallic macroporous electrode architectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalo, Hélène; Bon-Saint-Côme, Yémima; Plano, Bernard; Etienne, Mathieu; Walcarius, Alain; Kuhn, Alexander

    2012-02-07

    The elaboration of an original composite bimetallic macroporous electrode containing a site-selective sol-gel deposit is reported. Regular colloidal crystals, obtained by a modified Langmuir-Blodgett approach, are used as templates for the electrogeneration of the desired metals in the form of a well-defined layered bimetallic porous electrode. This porous matrix shows a spatially modulated electroactivity which is subsequently used as a strategy for targeted electrogeneration of a sol-gel deposit, exclusively in one predefined part of the porous electrode.

  12. Linking air and water transport in intact soils to macropore characteristics inferred from X-ray computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katuwal, S.; Nørgaard, Trine; Møldrup, Per

    2015-01-01

    Soil macropores often control fluid flow and solute transport, and quantification of macropore characteristics including their variability in space and time are essential to predict soil hydraulic and hydrogeochemical functions. In this study, measurements of air and solute transport properties...... and direct macropore visualization by X-ray CT scanning were carried out on 17 large (19-cm diam.; 20-cm length) undisturbed soil columns sampled across a field site (Silstrup, Denmark) with natural gradients in texture and density. Air permeability (ka) at in-situ water content and -20 hPa of matric......-porosity, suggesting that density is the main control of functional soil structure and gas and solute transport at the Silstrup site. Linking gas transport and chemical tracer experiments with X-ray CT based visualization and quantification of macro-porosity was found to be a powerful method to understand field scale...

  13. Amphiphilic polymer promoted assembly of macroporous graphene/SnO2 frameworks with tunable porosity for high-performance lithium storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yanshan; Wu, Dongqing; Wang, Jinzuan; Han, Sheng; Lv, Lu; Zhang, Fan; Feng, Xinliang

    2014-06-12

    3D macroporous graphene/SnO2 frameworks (MGTFs) are fabricated by amphiphilic polymer-promoted assembly method, which exhibit controllable macroporous structure and outstanding lithium storage performance. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Descriptive statistics of tree crown condition in the North Central United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    KaDonna C. Randolph; Randall S. Morin; Jim Steinman

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program uses visual assessments of tree crown condition to monitor changes and trends in forest health. This report describes four crown condition indicators (crown dieback, crown density, foliage transparency, and sapling crown vigor) measured in Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, and Wisconsin...

  15. Descriptive statistics of tree crown condition in the United States Interior West

    Science.gov (United States)

    KaDonna C. Randolph; Mike T. Thompson

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program uses visual assessments of tree crown condition to monitor changes and trends in forest health. This report describes four crown condition indicators (crown dieback, crown density, foliage transparency, and sapling crown vigor) measured in Colorado, Idaho, Nevada, Utah, and Wyoming between 1996 and...

  16. Descriptive statistics of tree crown condition in the Northeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    KaDonna C. Randolph; Randall S. Morin; Jim Steinman

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program uses visual assessments of tree crown condition to monitor changes and trends in forest health. This report describes four crown condition indicators (crown dieback, crown density, foliage transparency, and sapling crown vigor) measured in Connecticut, Delaware, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New...

  17. Investigation the effect of porosity on corrosion of macroporous silicon in 1.0 M sodium hydroxide solution using weight loss measurements, electrochemical methods and scanning electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, Chuan; Xiang, Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The dissolution of silicon wafers conforms Faraday’s laws of electrolysis. • The porosity effect on macroporous silicon corrosion was investigated. • The corrosion rate increase linearly with porosity increasing. • The porosity effect on activation parameters was obtained. - Abstract: In this study, the macroporous silicon has been fabricated by electrochemical anodization. The dissolution of n-type silicon wafers in etching solution conforms Faraday’s laws of electrolysis. The fabricated macroporous silicon with different porosity corrosion in 1.0 M NaOH was systemically investigated by weight loss measurements, electrochemical methods and scanning electron microscope. Results show that with the porosity increasing, the corrosion rate of macroporous silicon in 1.0 M NaOH increases linearly. In addition, the increase of corrosion rate of macroporous silicon with relative higher porosity was determined by the pre-exponential factor.

  18. Transport of radionuclides by concentrated brine in a porous medium with micropore-macropore structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassanizadeh, S.M.

    1987-01-01

    This work concerns itself with the study of effects of soil aggregation and high salt concentrations on the transport of radionuclides by concentrated brine flowing through an aggregated porous medium. The medium is considered to be composed of porous rock aggregates separated by macropores through which the brine flows and transport of salt and radionuclides takes place. The aggregates contain dead-end pores, cracks, and stationary pockets collectively called micropores. The micropore space does not contribute to the flow, but it serves as a storage for salt and radionuclides. Adsorption of radionuclides takes place at internal surfaces of aggregates where they assume that a linear equilibrium isotherm describes the process. A one-dimensional numerical model is developed which is based on two sets of equations: one set for the flow and transport of salt and another set for transport of radionuclides. Results of numerical experiments clearly indicate that the existence of high salt concentrations markedly reduces the peak of nuclides concentration and slows down their movement. Also, it is found that diffusive mass exchange between macropores and aggregates results in a pronounced lowering of the radionuclides concentration peaks. 9 references, 7 figures

  19. 3D macroporous graphene frameworks for supercapacitors with high energy and power densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Bong Gill; Yang, Minho; Hong, Won Hi; Choi, Jang Wook; Huh, Yun Suk

    2012-05-22

    In order to develop energy storage devices with high power and energy densities, electrodes should hold well-defined pathways for efficient ionic and electronic transport. Herein, we demonstrate high-performance supercapacitors by building a three-dimensional (3D) macroporous structure that consists of chemically modified graphene (CMG). These 3D macroporous electrodes, namely, embossed-CMG (e-CMG) films, were fabricated by using polystyrene colloidal particles as a sacrificial template. Furthermore, for further capacitance boost, a thin layer of MnO(2) was additionally deposited onto e-CMG. The porous graphene structure with a large surface area facilitates fast ionic transport within the electrode while preserving decent electronic conductivity and thus endows MnO(2)/e-CMG composite electrodes with excellent electrochemical properties such as a specific capacitance of 389 F/g at 1 A/g and 97.7% capacitance retention upon a current increase to 35 A/g. Moreover, when the MnO(2)/e-CMG composite electrode was asymmetrically assembled with an e-CMG electrode, the assembled full cell shows remarkable cell performance: energy density of 44 Wh/kg, power density of 25 kW/kg, and excellent cycle life.

  20. Preparative Separation and Purification of the Total Flavonoids in Scorzonera austriaca with Macroporous Resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yang; Guo, Qiu-Shi; Wang, Guang-Shu

    2016-06-13

    The use of macroporous resins for the separation and purification of total flavonoids to obtain high-purity total flavonoids from Scorzonera austriaca was studied. The optimal conditions for separation and purification of total flavonoids in S. austriaca with macroporous resins were as follows: D4020 resin columns were loaded with crude flavonoid extract solution, and after reaching adsorptive saturation, the columns were eluted successively with 5 bed volumes (BV) of water, 5 BV of 5% (v/v) aqueous ethanol and 5 BV of 30% (v/v) aqueous ethanol at an elute flow rate of 2 BV·h(-1). Total flavonoids were obtained from the 30% aqueous ethanol eluate by vacuum distillation recovery. The content of flavonoid compounds in the total flavonoids was 93.5%, which represents an improvement by about 150%. In addition, five flavonoid compounds in the product were identified as 2″-O-β-d-xylopyranosyl isoorientin, 6-C-α-l-arabipyranosyl orientin, orientin, isoorientin and vitexin by LC-ESI-MS analysis and internal standard methods. The results in this study could represent a method for the large-scale production of total flavonoids from S. austriaca.

  1. Nanocrystals-based Macroporous Materials Synthesized by Freeze-drying Combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Ruiqiang; Chen, Yu; Lin, Ye; Chen, Fanglin

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel freeze-drying combustion method for synthesis of macroporous powders with nano-network, using Sm 0.2 Ce 0.8 O 1.9 (SDC) as an example. The metal nitrate salt solution mixed with glycine is frozen to form homogeneous nitrate/glycine mixture and then freeze-dried through sublimation of ice crystals. Upon combustion of the freeze-dried mixture, SDC powders with macroporous microstructure consisting of 10–20 nm nanocrystals, high surface area and excellent sinterability are achieved. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) analysis indicates that nanodomains due to aggregation/segregation of dopants in the SDC powders obtained from freeze-drying combustion are much smaller than those in the SDC powders synthesized by the conventional nitrate solution combustion approach, demonstrating better elemental homogeneity and improved conductivity. Using low cost precursors and simple processing conditions, freeze-drying combustion can be a versatile method to synthesize nanocrystalline powders with excellent composition homogeneity for broad applications.

  2. Tension free monofilament macropore polypropylene mesh (Gynemesh PS in female genital prolapse repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Sola

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To review intraoperative and postoperative complications associated to the correction of cystocele and rectocele with polypropylene mesh macropore monofilament (Gynemesh PS using transvaginal free tension technique. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Prospective study of patients that have been submitted to correction of cystocele and/or rectocele between November 2004 and August 2005 in the Urogynecology and Vaginal Surgery Unit of Gynecology and Obstetrics Department, Las Condes Clinic. Mesh was used in 31 patients: 9 for cystocele, 11 for rectocele, and 11 for concomitant meshes. Total mesh used 42. Media age 55 years old, weight 64 kilograms. In 7 patients we used a third mesh for correction of urinary incontinence by TVT-O technique. RESULTS: They did not present intraoperative complications, neither in immediate or delayed postoperative time. We did not observe hematoma, infection, erosion or exposition mesh. Healing of cystocele and rectocele was obtained in 100% of patients, with a pursuit between 1 and 8 months. DISCUSSION: The use of prosthetic polypropylene monofilament macropore mesh in the correction of cystocele and/or rectocele, by transvaginal route with tension free technique seems to be a safe and effective surgery procedure.

  3. The Influence of Syndepositional Macropores on the Hydraulic Integrity of Thick Alluvial Clay Aquitards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timms, Wendy A.; Acworth, R. Ian; Crane, Richard A.; Arns, Christoph H.; Arns, Ji-Youn; McGeeney, Dayna E.; Rau, Gabriel C.; Cuthbert, Mark O.

    2018-04-01

    Clay-rich deposits are commonly assumed to be aquitards which act as natural hydraulic barriers due to their low hydraulic connectivity. Postdepositional weathering processes are known to increase the permeability of aquitards in the near surface but not impact on deeper parts of relatively thick formations. However, syndepositional processes affecting the hydraulic properties of aquitards have previously received little attention in the literature. Here, we analyze a 31 m deep sediment core recovered from an inland clay-rich sedimentary sequence using a combination of techniques including particle size distribution and microscopy, centrifuge dye tracer testing and micro X-ray CT imaging. Subaerial deposition of soils within these fine grained alluvial deposits has led to the preservation of considerable macropores (root channels or animal burrows). Connected pores and macropores thus account for vertical hydraulic conductivity (K) of 4.2×10-9 m/s (geometric mean of 13 samples) throughout the thick aquitard, compared to a matrix K that is likely sediment was deposited must be considered when aquitards are investigated as potential natural hydraulic barriers and illustrate the value of combining multiple investigation techniques for characterizing clay-rich deposits.

  4. A composite chitosan-gelatin bi-layered, biomimetic macroporous scaffold for blood vessel tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badhe, Ravindra V; Bijukumar, Divya; Chejara, Dharmesh R; Mabrouk, Mostafa; Choonara, Yahya E; Kumar, Pradeep; du Toit, Lisa C; Kondiah, Pierre P D; Pillay, Viness

    2017-02-10

    A composite chitosan-gelatin macroporous hydrogel-based scaffold with bi-layered tubular architecture was engineered by solvent casting-co-particulate leaching. The scaffold constituted an inner macroporous layer concealed by a non-porous outer layer mimicking the 3D matrix of blood vessels with cellular adhesion and proliferation. The scaffold was evaluated for its morphological, physicochemical, physicomechanical and biodurability properties employing SEM, FTIR, DSC, XRD, porositometry, rheology and texture analysis. The fluid uptake and biodegradation in the presence of lysozymes was also investigated. Cellular attachment and proliferation was analysed using human dermal fibroblasts (HDF-a) seeded onto the scaffold and evaluated by MTT assay, SEM, and confocal microscopy. Results demonstrated that the scaffold had a desirable tensile strength=95.81±11kPa, elongation at break 112.5±13%, porosity 82% and pores between 100 and 230μm, 50% in vitro biodegradation at day 16 and proliferated fibroblasts over 20 days. These results demonstrate that scaffold may be an excellent tubular archetype for blood vessel tissue engineering. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Automatic crown cover mapping to improve forest inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claude Vidal; Jean-Guy Boureau; Nicolas Robert; Nicolas Py; Josiane Zerubia; Xavier Descombes; Guillaume Perrin

    2009-01-01

    To automatically analyze near infrared aerial photographs, the French National Institute for Research in Computer Science and Control developed together with the French National Forest Inventory (NFI) a method for automatic crown cover mapping. This method uses a Reverse Jump Monte Carlo Markov Chain algorithm to locate the crowns and describe those using ellipses or...

  6. Re/crowning the Jowo Śākyamuni

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warner, Cameron

    2011-01-01

    of ritual observance and visions received.  In 1409, Tsongkhapa Lozang Drakpa  (1357-1419) crowned the Jowo, changing his doctrinal and iconographic representations.  I connect the controversy surrounding Tsongkhapa's decision to re/crown the Jowo in 1409 to the significance placed on authenticity...

  7. Usurpation of a Crowned Lapwing Vanellus coronatus nest by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    I report an instance of usurpation of a Crowned Lapwing Vanellus coronatus nest by a pair of African Wattled Lapwings Vanellus senegalensis. The nest, which originally contained a single Crowned Lapwing egg, eventually contained an additional three Wattled Lapwing eggs, before it was predated. Although parents of ...

  8. Incorporating crown dimensions into stem height and basal area for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These increment models, with and without crown dimension were fitted to a modelling data set and the statistical significance of each of the crown dimensions was examined. All the models were then compared for predictive ability using an independent validation data set. The results obtained were similar for both the total ...

  9. Influence of structure of crown ethers on their radiation stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigor'ev, E.I.; Myasoedova, T.G.; Nesterov, S.V.; Trakhtenberg, L.I.

    1988-01-01

    Primary products of γ-radiolysis of crown ethers with the same size of the macrocyclic ring and different substituents were studied by EPR and mass spectrometry. It was shown that introduction of substituents into the polyether ring increases the radiation stability of crown ethers due to intramolecular transfer of energy from the polyether ring to a substituent

  10. Spectrophotometric evaluation of crown fragment a year after ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Crown fracture is the most common type of fracture and frequently affects the anterior teeth. Crown fractures have been treated in several ways depending on the location and kind of fracture. This case emphasizes reattachment of fractured fragments using fiber-reinforced post. Also this case report underlines ...

  11. 18-Crown-6-polyether complexing with iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borovikov, Yu.Ya.

    1988-01-01

    Using the methods of dielectrometry, conductometry, calorimetry, UV, NMR and IR spectroscopy, 18-Crown-6-polyether complexing with iodine in chlorobenzene, benzotrifluoride, 1,2 dichloroethane is investigated. At the first stage external complexes (1) of the composition 1:1 (dipole momentum μ=7 D) is formed, which gradually regroups into internal complex (2) of the compositon 4:1. The time of 1 transition into 2 is inversely proportional to dielectric permeability of the medium. Enthalpy of 1 formation is close to 8.3 kcal/mol, which is 2,5 times higher than in cyclohexane solutions. Complex 1 is molecular, 2 is salt-like. Formation enthalpy of complex 2 of the components is not high, in dichlaroethane it is centrally symmetric and nonpolar, in chlorobenzene and benzotrifluoride-highly polar. In solid phase complex of the composition 1:2 is formed

  12. 18-Crown-6-polyether complexing with iodine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borovikov, Yu Ya [AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev (Ukrainian SSR). Inst. Organicheskoj Khimii

    1988-01-01

    Using the methods of dielectrometry, conductometry, calorimetry, UV, NMR and IR spectroscopy, 18-Crown-6-polyether complexing with iodine in chlorobenzene, benzotrifluoride, 1,2 dichloroethane is investigated. At the first stage external complexes (1) of the composition 1:1 (dipole momentum {mu}=7 D) is formed, which gradually regroups into internal complex (2) of the compositon 4:1. The time of 1 transition into 2 is inversely proportional to dielectric permeability of the medium. Enthalpy of 1 formation is close to 8.3 kcal/mol, which is 2,5 times higher than in cyclohexane solutions. Complex 1 is molecular, 2 is salt-like. Formation enthalpy of complex 2 of the components is not high, in dichlaroethane it is centrally symmetric and nonpolar, in chlorobenzene and benzotrifluoride-highly polar. In solid phase complex of the composition 1:2 is formed.

  13. Gingival pigmentation beneath a metallic crown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, T.; Hirayasu, R.; Sakai, H.; Hashimoto, N.

    1988-01-01

    Light and electron microscopic studies and energy dispersive X-ray analysis disclosed that the essential cause of gingival discoloration following the placement of a metallic crown, was marked deposition of melanin pigment. Deposition of melanin pigment was observed in epithelial cells, on basement membranes, and in fibroblasts, macrophages and among intercellular ground substance of the proprial layer. Brown or dark brown colored granules were observed in the deep portion of the proprial layer. Some metallic elements as silver and sulfur were detected. It was presumed that these materials were dental metals accidentally implanted in gingival tissues during the therapeutic procedure. The deposition of melanin pigment closely corresponded with mucosal tissue where these materials were present in the deep portion of the proprial layer. These findings suggested that these materials influenced the physiological metabolism of melanin and induced its pathological deposition in the proprial tissue. (author)

  14. Calorimetric study of binding of some disaccharides with crown ethers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davydova, Olga I.; Lebedeva, Nataliya Sh.; Parfenyuk, Elena V

    2004-11-01

    Isothermal titration calorimetry has been applied to the determination of the thermodynamic parameters of binding of {beta}-lactose, {alpha},{alpha}-trehalose and sucrose with 15-crown-5 and 18-crown-6 in water at 298.15 K. The formation of 1:1 molecular associates has been found for the systems studied except 18-crown-6 and {beta}-lactose. The associates are preferentially or completely entropy stabilized. The most stable associate is formed between {alpha},{alpha}-trehalose and 18-crown-6. The obtained values of thermodynamic parameters of binding are discussed from the point of view of solute-solvent interactions as well as conformational and structural peculiarities of the disaccharides (DS) and crown ethers (CE)

  15. Calorimetric study of binding of some disaccharides with crown ethers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davydova, Olga I.; Lebedeva, Nataliya Sh.; Parfenyuk, Elena V.

    2004-01-01

    Isothermal titration calorimetry has been applied to the determination of the thermodynamic parameters of binding of β-lactose, α,α-trehalose and sucrose with 15-crown-5 and 18-crown-6 in water at 298.15 K. The formation of 1:1 molecular associates has been found for the systems studied except 18-crown-6 and β-lactose. The associates are preferentially or completely entropy stabilized. The most stable associate is formed between α,α-trehalose and 18-crown-6. The obtained values of thermodynamic parameters of binding are discussed from the point of view of solute-solvent interactions as well as conformational and structural peculiarities of the disaccharides (DS) and crown ethers (CE)

  16. [Fractographic analysis of clinically failed anterior all ceramic crowns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    DU, Qian; Zhou, Min-bo; Zhang, Xin-ping; Zhao, Ke

    2012-04-01

    To identify the site of crack initiation and propagation path of clinically failed all ceramic crowns by fractographic analysis. Three clinically failed anterior IPS Empress II crowns and two anterior In-Ceram alumina crowns were retrieved. Fracture surfaces were examined using both optical stereo and scanning electron microscopy. Fractographic theory and fracture mechanics principles were applied to disclose the damage characteristics and fracture mode. All the crowns failed by cohesive failure within the veneer on the labial surface. Critical crack originated at the incisal contact area and propagated gingivally. Porosity was found within the veneer because of slurry preparation and the sintering of veneer powder. Cohesive failure within the veneer is the main failure mode of all ceramic crown. Veneer becomes vulnerable when flaws are present. To reduce the chances of chipping, multi-point occlusal contacts are recommended, and layering and sintering technique of veneering layer should also be improved.

  17. IPS Empress crown system: three-year clinical trial results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, J A; Choi, C; Fanuscu, M I; Mito, W T

    1998-02-01

    The IPS Empress system is a highly esthetic hot pressed glass ceramic material for fabrication of single crowns. Adhesive cementation of the system not only contributes to the esthetics but is necessary for increased strength of the crown. The purpose of this prospective clinical trials was to evaluate the longevity of 75 adhesively cemented Empress full crowns. An additional aim was to assess the adhesive cementation methodology and potential side effects. At the three-year point, one molar crown fractured for a 1.3 percent failure rate. The resin cementation technique that was employed exhibited a low incidence of microleakage with few clinical side effects. There was a 5.6 percent incidence of post-cementation sensitivity, with all symptoms subsiding by eight weeks. None of the crowns in the study required endodontic therapy.

  18. Application of a Fast Separation Method for Anti-diabetics in Pharmaceuticals Using Monolithic Column: Comparative Study With Silica Based C-18 Particle Packed Column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemdan, A; Abdel-Aziz, Omar

    2018-04-01

    Run time is a predominant factor in HPLC for quality control laboratories especially if there is large number of samples have to be analyzed. Working at high flow rates cannot be attained with silica based particle packed column due to elevated backpressure issues. The use of monolithic column as an alternative to traditional C-18 column was tested for fast separation of pharmaceuticals, where the results were very competitive. The performance comparison of both columns was tested for separation of anti-diabetic combination containing Metformin, Pioglitazone and Glimepiride using Gliclazide as an internal standard. Working at high flow rates with less significant backpressure was obtained with the monolithic column where the run time was reduced from 6 min in traditional column to only 1 min in monolithic column with accepted resolution. The structure of the monolith contains many pores which can adapt the high flow rate of the mobile phase. Moreover, peak symmetry and equilibration time were more efficient with monolithic column.

  19. Process-based modelling of a headwater catchment in semi-arid conditions: the influence of macropore flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaik, N.L.M.B.; Bronstert, A.; Jong, S.M.; Jetten, V.G.; Dam, van J.C.; Ritsema, C.J.; Schnabel, S.

    2014-01-01

    Subsurface stormflow is thought to occur mainly in humid environments with steep terrains. However, in semi-arid areas, preferential flow through macropores can also result in a significant contribution of subsurface stormflow to catchment runoff for varying catchment conditions. Most hydrological

  20. Modification of macroporous membranes by graft co-polymerization induced by pre-irradiation with an electron accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grasselli, M.; Yoshii, Fumio

    1999-01-01

    Glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) and N,N-dimethylacrylamide (DMAA) have been co-grafted on hollow fiber membranes of macroporous polyethylene. Grafted copolymers have been obtained with different ratios of the monomers (molar ratio between 0 and 2 DMAA/GMA). The properties of the modified membranes are studied

  1. Nickel oxide film with open macropores fabricated by surfactant-assisted anodic deposition for high capacitance supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Mao-Sung; Wang, Min-Jyle

    2010-10-07

    Nickel oxide film with open macropores prepared by anodic deposition in the presence of surfactant shows a very high capacitance of 1110 F g(-1) at a scan rate of 10 mV s(-1), and the capacitance value reduces to 950 F g(-1) at a high scan rate of 200 mV s(-1).

  2. SOLVENT EFFECTS IN THE LIQUID-PHASE HYDRATION OF CYCLOHEXENE CATALYZED BY A MACROPOROUS STRONG ACID ION-EXCHANGE RESIN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PANNEMAN, HJ; BEENACKERS, AACM

    1992-01-01

    The liquid-phase hydration of cyclohexene, a pseudo first order reversible reaction catalyzed by a strong acid ion exchange resin, macroporous Amberlite XE 307, was investigated in solvent mixtures of water and sulfolane. A decrease by a factor of 3 and 6 is observed in the experimentally measured

  3. [Investigation on the process of sapindus saponin purified with macroporous adsorption resin and screening of its bacteriostasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yong; Lei, Peng; Han, Yu-mei; Yan, Dan

    2010-02-01

    To study the technological parameters of the purification process of saponins with macroporous adsorption resin. The adsorptive characteristics and elutive parameters of the process were studied by taking the elutive and purified ratio of saponins as markers. Bacteriostasis activity of each parts eluted was evaluated by the mean of cup-plate method. 13.6 mL of the extraction of sapindus saponin (crude drugs 0.01 g/mL) was purified with a column of macroporous adsorption resin (phi15 mm x H90 mm, dry weight 2.5 g) and washed with 3BV of distilled water, then eluted with 3BV of 30% ethanol and 3BV of 70% ethanol, most of saponins were collected in the 70% ethanol. With macroporous adsorption resin adsorbing and purifying, the elutive ratio of saponins was 93.8% and the purity reached 250.1%. So this process of applying macroporous adsorption resin to adsorb and purify saponins is feasible, and supplies reference to the purification of other types of saponin.

  4. Marginal Assessment of Crowns by the Aid of Parallel Radiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farnaz Fattahi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Marginal adaptation is the most critical item in long-term prognosis of single crowns. This study aimed to assess the marginal quality as well asthe discrepancies in marginal integrity of some PFM single crowns of posterior teeth by employing parallel radiography in Shiraz Dental School, Shiraz, Iran. Methods: In this descriptive study, parallel radiographies were taken from 200 fabricated PFM single crowns of posterior teeth after cementation and before discharging the patient. To calculate the magnification of the images, a metallic sphere with the thickness of 4 mm was placed in the direction of the crown margin on the occlusal surface. Thereafter, the horizontal and vertical space between the crown margins, the margin of preparations and also the vertical space between the crown margin and the bone crest were measured by using digital radiological software. Results: Analysis of data by descriptive statistics revealed that 75.5% and 60% of the cases had more than the acceptable space (50µm in the vertical (130±20µm and horizontal (90±15µm dimensions, respectively. Moreover, 85% of patients were found to have either horizontal or vertical gap. In 77% of cases, the margins of crowns invaded the biologic width in the mesial and 70% in distal surfaces. Conclusion: Parallel radiography can be expedient in the stage of framework try-in to yield some important information that cannot be obtained by routine clinical evaluations and may improve the treatment prognosis

  5. Effect of posterior crown margin placement on gingival health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitemeier, Bernd; Hänsel, Kristina; Walter, Michael H; Kastner, Christian; Toutenburg, Helge

    2002-02-01

    The clinical impact of posterior crown margin placement on gingival health has not been thoroughly quantified. This study evaluated the effect of posterior crown margin placement with multivariate analysis. Ten general dentists reviewed 240 patients with 480 metal-ceramic crowns in a prospective clinical trial. The alloy was randomly selected from 2 high gold, 1 low gold, and 1 palladium alloy. Variables were the alloy used, oral hygiene index score before treatment, location of crown margins at baseline, and plaque index and sulcus bleeding index scores recorded for restored and control teeth after 1 year. The effect of crown margin placement on sulcular bleeding and plaque accumulation was analyzed with regression models (Prisk of bleeding at intrasulcular posterior crown margins was approximately twice that at supragingival margins. Poor oral hygiene before treatment and plaque also were associated with sulcular bleeding. Facial sites exhibited a lower probability of sulcular bleeding than lingual surfaces. Type of alloy did not influence sulcular bleeding. In this study, placement of crown margins was one of several parameters that affected gingival health.

  6. Review of Alberta Crown Crude Oil Marketing Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crandall, G. R.; Kromm, R. B.

    1999-01-01

    This report contains an independent evaluation of the operations of the private marketing agents that are currently marketing the Alberta Crown's share of royalty crude oil. The evaluation includes a review of pricing performance, working relationship, current issues and the overall performance of the marketing arrangements during the fiscal years of 1997 and 1998. Overall, the outsourcing of sales of Crown production to agents is judged to be successful. For example, it has been noted that agents are becoming more aggressive in maintaining and increasing their margins. On the other hand, the increased level of aggressiveness in marketing, while tending to maximize Crown revenues, is also creating a potential conflict on how margins should be shared between the Crown and its agents. Also, there has been evidence of some management issues between the agents and the Crown concerning the extent to which the Crown should share in any increased value which the agent generates by increased third party marketing activities. These differences need to be addressed in order to maintain the strong performance of the marketing program. The consultants also recommend additional guidelines on risk management issues that more clearly define the Crown's risk tolerance. 2 tabs., 4 figs

  7. Unique case of a geminated supernumerary tooth with trifid crown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ather, Amber; Ather, Hunaiza; Sheth, Sanket Milan; Muliya, Vidya Saraswathi

    2012-01-01

    Gemination, a relatively uncommon dental anomaly, is characterized by its peculiar representation as a tooth with a bifid crown and a common root and root canal. It usually occurs in primary dentition. To come across gemination in a supernumerary tooth is a rare phenomenon. The purpose of this paper is to present a unique case of hyperdontia wherein gemination in an impacted supernumerary tooth resulted in a trifid crown unlike the usual bifid crown. The role of conventional radiographs as well as computed tomography, to accurately determine the morphology and spatial location, and to arrive at a diagnosis, is also emphasized in this paper.

  8. Extraction of anthocyanins from black bean canning wastewater with macroporous resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoxi; Hansen, Conly; Allen, Karin

    2014-02-01

    This study investigated purification of anthocyanins from black bean canning wastewater by column chromatography with 5 types of macroporous resins (Diaion Hp20, Sepabeads Sp70, Sepabeads Sp207, Sepabeads Sp700, and Sepabeads Sp710). By-product of canned black beans was partially purified by filtration, in anticipation of higher performance during column chromatography. Equilibrium adsorption isotherms were measured and analyzed using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. Both Langmuir (all R² ≥ 0.98) and Freundlich (all R² ≥ 0.97) models can describe the adsorption process of anthocyanins from black bean canning wastewater using the tested resins. The adsorption and desorption behaviors of anthocyanins were studied using a dynamic method on the 5 types of resins, and Sp700 presented the highest adsorption capacity (39 ± 4 mg/g; P canning wastewater. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  9. A novel electrochemical sensor based on zirconia/ordered macroporous polyaniline for ultrasensitive detection of pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yonglan; Jin, Jun; Yuan, Caixia; Zhang, Fan; Ma, Linlin; Qin, Dongdong; Shan, Duoliang; Lu, Xiaoquan

    2015-01-21

    A simple and mild strategy was proposed to develop a novel electrochemical sensor based on zirconia/ordered macroporous polyaniline (ZrO2/OMP) and further used for the detection of methyl parathion (MP), one of the organophosphate pesticides (OPPs). Due to the strong affinity of phosphate groups with ZrO2 and the advantages of OMP such as high catalytic activity and good conductivity, the developed sensor showed a limit of detection as low as 2.28 × 10(-10) mol L(-1) (S/N = 3) by square-wave voltammograms, and good selectivity, acceptable reproducibility and stability. Most importantly, this novel sensor was successfully applied to detect MP in real samples of apple and cabbage. It is expected that this method has potential applications in electrochemical sensing platforms with simple, sensitive, selective and fast analysis.

  10. Adsorption of Monobutyl Phthalate from Aqueous Phase onto Two Macroporous Anion-Exchange Resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengwen Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As new emerging pollutants, phthalic acid monoesters (PAMs pose potential ecological and human health risks. In the present study, adsorption performance of monobutyl phthalate (MBP onto two macroporous base anion-exchange resins (D-201 and D-301 was discussed. It was found that the adsorption isotherms were best fitted by the Langmuir equation while the adsorption kinetics were well described by pseudo-first-order model. Analyses of sorption isotherms and thermodynamics proved that the adsorption mechanisms for DBP onto D-201 were ion exchange. However, the obtained enthalpy values indicate that the sorption process of MBP onto D-301 is physical adsorption. The equilibrium adsorption capacities and adsorption rates of DBP on two different resins increased with the increasing temperature of the solution. D-301 exhibited a higher adsorption capacity of MBP than D-201. These results proved that D-301, as an effective sorbent, can be used to remove phthalic acid monoesters from aqueous solution.

  11. Formation of photoluminescent n-type macroporous silicon: Effect of magnetic field and lateral electric potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antunez, E.E. [Centro de Investigación en Ingeniería y Ciencias Aplicadas, UAEM, Av. Universidad 1001, Col. Chamilpa, Cuernavaca, Morelos, CP 62210 (Mexico); Estevez, J.O. [Instituto de Física, B. Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, A.P. J-48, Puebla 72570 (Mexico); Campos, J. [Instituto de Energías Renovables, UNAM, Priv. Xochicalco S/N, Temixco, Morelos, CP 62580 (Mexico); Basurto-Pensado, M.A. [Centro de Investigación en Ingeniería y Ciencias Aplicadas, UAEM, Av. Universidad 1001, Col. Chamilpa, Cuernavaca, Morelos, CP 62210 (Mexico); Agarwal, V., E-mail: vagarwal@uaem.mx [Centro de Investigación en Ingeniería y Ciencias Aplicadas, UAEM, Av. Universidad 1001, Col. Chamilpa, Cuernavaca, Morelos, CP 62210 (Mexico)

    2014-11-15

    Metal electrode-free electrochemical etching of low doped n-type silicon substrates, under the combined effect of magnetic and lateral electric field, is used to fabricate photoluminescent n-type porous silicon structures in dark conditions. A lateral gradient in terms of structural characteristics (i.e. thickness and pore dimensions) along the electric field direction is formed. Enhancement of electric and magnetic field resulted in the increase of pore density and a change in the shape of the macropore structure, from circular to square morphology. Broad photoluminescence (PL) emission from 500 to 800 nm, with a PL peak wavelength ranging from 571 to 642 nm, is attributed to the wide range of microporous features present on the porous silicon layer.

  12. Separation and purification of rebaudioside A from extract of Stevia Rebaudiana leaves by macroporous adsorption resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anvari Masoumeh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The separation and purification of rebaudioside A from Stevia rebaudiana crude extracts (Steviosides by macroporous resin were optimized by Taguchi orthogonal array (OA experimental design methodology. This approach was applied to evaluate the influence of five factors (adsorption temperature, desorption time, elution solution ratio, adsorption volume and type of resin on the rebaudioside A yield. The percentage contribution of each factor was also determined. The results showed that elution solution ratio and adsorption volume made the greatest (59.6% and the lowest (1.3% contribution, respectively. The results showed that the Taguchi method is able to model the purification of rebaudioside A process well (R2 > 0.998 and can therefore be applied in future studies conducted in various fields. Adsorption temperature 35°C, desorption time 60min, elution solution ratio 3, adsorption volume 200ml and HPD-400 as resin were the best conditions determined by the Taguchi method.

  13. Hierarchically Macroporous Graphitic Nanowebs Exhibiting Ultra-fast and Stable Charge Storage Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Young Soo

    2018-02-01

    The macro/microstructures of carbon-based electrode materials for supercapacitor applications play a key role in their electrochemical performance. In this study, hierarchically macroporous graphitic nanowebs (HM-GNWs) were prepared from bacterial cellulose by high-temperature heating at 2400 °C. The HM-GNWs were composed of well-developed graphitic nanobuilding blocks with a high aspect ratio, which was entangled as a nanoweb structure. The morphological and microstructural characteristics of the HM-GNWs resulted in remarkable charge storage performance. In particular, the HM-GNWs exhibited very fast charge storage behaviors at scan rates ranging from 5 to 100 V s-1, in which area capacitances ranging from 8.9 to 3.8 mF cm-2 were achieved. In addition, 97% capacitance retention was observed after long-term cycling for more than 1,000,000 cycles.

  14. Visual and reversible carbon dioxide sensing enabled by doctor blade coated macroporous photonic crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi-Han; Suen, Shing-Yi; Yang, Hongta

    2017-11-15

    With significant impacts of carbon dioxide on global climate change, carbon dioxide sensing is of great importance. However, most of the existing sensing technologies are prone to interferences from carbon monoxide, or suffer from the use of sophisticated instruments. This research reports the development of reproducible carbon dioxide sensor using roll-to-roll compatible doctor blade coated three-dimensional macroporous photonic crystals. The pores are functionalized with amine groups to allow the reaction with carbon dioxide in the presence of humidity. The adsorption of carbon dioxide leads to red-shift and amplitude reduction of the optical stop bands, resulting in carbon dioxide detection with visible readout. The dependences of the diffraction wavelength on carbon dioxide partial pressure for various amine-functionalized photonic crystals and different humidities in the environment are systematically investigated. In addition, the reproducibility of carbon dioxide sensing has also been demonstrated in this research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Exchange of Th, U and Pu on macroporous ion exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadkarni, M.N.; Mayankutty, P.C.; Pillai, N.S.; Shinde, S.S.

    1977-01-01

    Absorption of Th, U and Pu on macroporous ion exchangers, Amberlyst 15 (cationic) and Amberlyst A-26 (anionic) were studied in nitric acid solutions and the results were found comparable with those on their microreticular counter parts, Dowex 50x8 and Dowex IX4. With a view to evalute the efficiency of Amberlyst A-26 for the final purification of plutonium from the purex process stream, detailed studies conducted to determine the breakthrough capacity of Pu(IV) from 7.2 M nitric acid, elution by 0.5 M nitric acid and the decontamination factors for uranium and zirconium-95. Because of its faster kinetics, Amberlyst A-26 exhibited a much more efficient elution of Pu(IV) by 0.5 M nitric acid than Dowex IX4. (author)

  16. Novel method of separating macroporous arrays from p-type silicon substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Bobo; Wang Fei; Liu Tao; Yang Zhenya; Wang Lianwei; Fu, Ricky K. Y.; Chu, Paul K.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a novel method to fabricate separated macroporous silicon using a single step of photo-assisted electrochemical etching. The method is applied to fabricate silicon microchannel plates in 100 mm p-type silicon wafers, which can be used as electron multipliers and three-dimensional Li-ion microbatteries. Increasing the backside illumination intensity and decreasing the bias simultaneously can generate additional holes during the electrochemical etching which will create lateral etching at the pore tips. In this way the silicon microchannel can be separated from the substrate when the desired depth is reached, then it can be cut into the desired shape by using a laser cutting machine. Also, the mechanism of lateral etching is proposed. (semiconductor materials)

  17. Delta-sleep inducing peptide entrapment in the charged macroporous matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukhanova, Tatiana V.; Artyukhov, Alexander A.; Gurevich, Yakov M.; Semenikhina, Marina A.; Prudchenko, Igor A.; Shtilman, Mikhail I.; Markvicheva, Elena A.

    2014-01-01

    Various biomolecules, for example proteins, peptides etc., entrapped in polymer matrices, impact interactions between matrix and cells, including stimulation of cell adhesion and proliferation. Delta-sleep inducing peptide (DSIP) possesses numerous beneficial properties, including its abilities in burn treatment and neuronal protection. DSIP entrapment in two macroporous polymer matrices based on copolymer of dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate and methylen-bis-acrylamide (Co-DMAEMA-MBAA) and copolymer of acrylic acid and methylen-bis-acrylamide (Co-AA-MBAA) has been studied. Quite 100% of DSIP has been entrapped into positively charged Co-DMAEMA-MBAA matrix, while the quantity of DSIP adsorbed on negatively charged Co-AA-MBAA was only 2–6%. DSIP release from Co-DMAEMA-MBAA was observed in saline solutions (0.9% NaCl and PBS) while there was no DSIP release in water or 25% ethanol, thus ionic strength was a reason of this process. - Graphical abstract: Delta-sleep inducing peptide possessing neuroprotective and wound healing properties was adsorbed on positively charged polymer matrix Co-DMAEMA-MBAA for tissue engineering. The peptide released from Co-DMAEMA-MBAA matrix in function of ionic strength of solution, pH decreasing stimulated peptide release from Co-DMAEMA-MBAA matrix for 3 h. This construction could be a base of new bioactive implants. - Highlights: • Macroporous positively charged Co-DMAEMA-MBAA matrix pore size was 20–35 μm. • DSIP was adsorbed on Co-DMAEMA-MBAA totally in 16 h. • Its release depends on ionic strength of solution (no release in 25% ethanol or water). • Co-DMAEMA-MBAA matrix swelling depends on pH and ionic strength of solution. • DSIP is destroyed in PBS and 0.9% NaCl in 5 days, but in water it was more stable

  18. Purification of bioactive phenolics from Phanerochaete chysosporium biomass extract on selected macroporous resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, Z. M.; Dzahir, M. I. H. M.; Jamal, P.; Barkat, A. A.; Xian, R. L. W.

    2017-06-01

    In this study, two different types of macroporous resins known as XAD-7HP and HP-20 were evaluated for the adsorption and desorption properties against bioactive phenolics extracted from Phanerochaete chrysosporium. From the previous static sorption studies, it was found that the adsorption capacity for both resins had has no significant difference. Then, the kinetic adsorption data were analyzed with both pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order equations and the later performed better. The adsorption isotherm data were fitted well by both Langmuir and Freundlich models. Meanwhile in desorption study, HP-20 and XAD-7HP gave 90.52% and 88.28% recoveries, respectively. Considering the desorption results of the macroporous resins, HP-20 and XAD-7HP were packed in chromatography column to further purify the phenolics. For dynamic adsorption, breakthrough capacity of HP-20 (0.522) was found to be higher than XAD-7HP (0.131). Different ethanol concentrations (30% to 50% (v/v)) were investigated at fixed flowrate (1 ml/min) on phenolics recovery from both types of resins. The highest recovery of bioactive phenolics was 94.3% using XAD-7HP resins at 50% (v/v) of ethanol. Only 77.1% of bioactive phenolics were recovered using HP-20 resin at the same experimental conditions. The purified extract subsequently was analyzed using HPLC. The results showed that three phenolics (gallic acid 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid) were identified with higher concentrations as compared to non-purified extract. Finally, the purified extract was tested for scavenging activity against DPPH, and it showed that the activity increased significantly to 90.80% from 59.94% in non-purified extract.

  19. Delta-sleep inducing peptide entrapment in the charged macroporous matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sukhanova, Tatiana V., E-mail: sukhanovat@mail.ru [Shemyakin and Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Laboratory of Cell Interactions, Miklukho-Maklaya st., 16/10 Moscow (Russian Federation); Artyukhov, Alexander A.; Gurevich, Yakov M.; Semenikhina, Marina A. [Mendeleyev University of Chemical Technology of Russia, Research and Teaching Center “Biomaterials”, Miusskaya sq., 9 Moscow (Russian Federation); Prudchenko, Igor A. [Shemyakin and Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Laboratory of Peptide Chemistry, Miklukho-Maklaya st., 16/10 Moscow (Russian Federation); Shtilman, Mikhail I. [Mendeleyev University of Chemical Technology of Russia, Research and Teaching Center “Biomaterials”, Miusskaya sq., 9 Moscow (Russian Federation); Markvicheva, Elena A. [Shemyakin and Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Laboratory Polymers for Biology, Miklukho-Maklaya st., 16/10 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-09-01

    Various biomolecules, for example proteins, peptides etc., entrapped in polymer matrices, impact interactions between matrix and cells, including stimulation of cell adhesion and proliferation. Delta-sleep inducing peptide (DSIP) possesses numerous beneficial properties, including its abilities in burn treatment and neuronal protection. DSIP entrapment in two macroporous polymer matrices based on copolymer of dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate and methylen-bis-acrylamide (Co-DMAEMA-MBAA) and copolymer of acrylic acid and methylen-bis-acrylamide (Co-AA-MBAA) has been studied. Quite 100% of DSIP has been entrapped into positively charged Co-DMAEMA-MBAA matrix, while the quantity of DSIP adsorbed on negatively charged Co-AA-MBAA was only 2–6%. DSIP release from Co-DMAEMA-MBAA was observed in saline solutions (0.9% NaCl and PBS) while there was no DSIP release in water or 25% ethanol, thus ionic strength was a reason of this process. - Graphical abstract: Delta-sleep inducing peptide possessing neuroprotective and wound healing properties was adsorbed on positively charged polymer matrix Co-DMAEMA-MBAA for tissue engineering. The peptide released from Co-DMAEMA-MBAA matrix in function of ionic strength of solution, pH decreasing stimulated peptide release from Co-DMAEMA-MBAA matrix for 3 h. This construction could be a base of new bioactive implants. - Highlights: • Macroporous positively charged Co-DMAEMA-MBAA matrix pore size was 20–35 μm. • DSIP was adsorbed on Co-DMAEMA-MBAA totally in 16 h. • Its release depends on ionic strength of solution (no release in 25% ethanol or water). • Co-DMAEMA-MBAA matrix swelling depends on pH and ionic strength of solution. • DSIP is destroyed in PBS and 0.9% NaCl in 5 days, but in water it was more stable.

  20. Fate and transport of selected estrogen compounds in Hawaii soils: Effect of soil type and macropores

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessio, Matteo; Vasudevan, Dharni; Lichwa, Joseph; Mohanty, Sanjay K.; Ray, Chittaranjan

    2014-10-01

    The fate and transport of estrogen compounds in the environment is of increasing concern due to their potential impact on freshwater organisms, ecosystems and human health. The behavior of these compounds in batch experiments suggests low mobility, while field studies indicate the persistence of estrogen compounds in the soil with the possibility of migration to surface water as well as groundwater. To better understand the movement of these chemicals through soils, we examined their transport in three different Hawaiian soils and two aqueous matrices. The three different soils used were an Oxisol, a Mollisol and a cinder, characterized by different mineralogical properties and collected at depths of 60-90 cm and 210-240 cm. Two liquid matrices were used; deionized (DI) water containing calcium chloride (CaCl2), and recycled water collected from a wastewater treatment facility. The experiments were conducted in packed and structured columns. Non-equilibrium conditions were observed during the study, especially in the structured soil. This is believed to be primarily related to the presence of macropores in the soil. The presence of macropores resulted in reduced contact time between soil and estrogens, which facilitated their transport. We found that the organic carbon content and mineralogical composition of the soils had a profound effect on the transport of the estrogens. The mobility of estrone (E1) and 17β-estradiol (E2) was greater in cinder than in the other soils. In column experiments with recycled water, earlier breakthrough peaks and longer tails of estrogens were produced compared to those observed using DI water. The use of recycled water for agricultural purposes and the siting of septic tanks and cesspools should be critically reviewed in light of these findings, especially in areas where groundwater is the primary source of potable water, such as Hawaii.

  1. Soil macropores: Control on infiltration, hillslope and surface hydrology on a reclaimed surface-mined watershed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guebert, M.D.; Gardner, T.W.

    1992-01-01

    The hydrologic response of a surface-mined watershed in central Pennsylvania is controlled by rapid macropore flow within the unsaturated man-made topsoil. Newly reclaimed surface-mined watersheds in central Pennsylvania exhibit low steady-state infiltration rates (1--2 cm/hr) and produce runoff dominated by infiltration-excess overland flow. However, within four years after reclamation, infiltration rates on some mine surfaces approach premined rates (8 cm/hr). As infiltration rate increases, the volume of infiltrated water increases, but the total porosity of minesoil matrix remains constant. There is little change in the surface discharge volume, indicating that infiltrated water continues to contribute to the basin surface discharge by the processes of throughflow and return flow. Throughflow in the topsoil horizon occurs in rapid response to rainfall input, producing large volumes of water with throughflow rates closely related to rainfall rates and with throughflow peaks following rainfall peaks by only minutes. Increased return flow alters the shape of the surface runoff hydrograph by slightly lagging behind infiltration excess overland flow. These changes in the shape of the surface runoff hydrograph reduce the potential for severe gully erosion on the reclaimed site. In addition, throughflow water remains predominantly in the topsoil horizon, and therefore has limited contact with potentially acid-producing backfill. Better understanding of macropore flow processes in reclaimed minesoils will help investigators evaluate past strategies and develop new reclamation techniques that will minimize the short-term surface erosional effects of mining and reclamation, while optimizing the long-term effluent and groundwater quality

  2. Fate and transport of selected estrogen compounds in Hawaii soils: effect of soil type and macropores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessio, Matteo; Vasudevan, Dharni; Lichwa, Joseph; Mohanty, Sanjay K; Ray, Chittaranjan

    2014-10-01

    The fate and transport of estrogen compounds in the environment is of increasing concern due to their potential impact on freshwater organisms, ecosystems and human health. The behavior of these compounds in batch experiments suggests low mobility, while field studies indicate the persistence of estrogen compounds in the soil with the possibility of migration to surface water as well as groundwater. To better understand the movement of these chemicals through soils, we examined their transport in three different Hawaiian soils and two aqueous matrices. The three different soils used were an Oxisol, a Mollisol and a cinder, characterized by different mineralogical properties and collected at depths of 60-90 cm and 210-240 cm. Two liquid matrices were used; deionized (DI) water containing calcium chloride (CaCl2), and recycled water collected from a wastewater treatment facility. The experiments were conducted in packed and structured columns. Non-equilibrium conditions were observed during the study, especially in the structured soil. This is believed to be primarily related to the presence of macropores in the soil. The presence of macropores resulted in reduced contact time between soil and estrogens, which facilitated their transport. We found that the organic carbon content and mineralogical composition of the soils had a profound effect on the transport of the estrogens. The mobility of estrone (E1) and 17β-estradiol (E2) was greater in cinder than in the other soils. In column experiments with recycled water, earlier breakthrough peaks and longer tails of estrogens were produced compared to those observed using DI water. The use of recycled water for agricultural purposes and the siting of septic tanks and cesspools should be critically reviewed in light of these findings, especially in areas where groundwater is the primary source of potable water, such as Hawaii. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Rhombohedral iron trifluoride with a hierarchized macroporous/mesoporous texture from gaseous fluorination of iron disilicide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guérin, Katia, E-mail: katia.araujo_da_silva@univ-bpclermont.fr [Université Clermont Auvergne, Université Blaise Pascal, Institut de Chimie de Clermont-Ferrand, BP 10448, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand (France); CNRS, UMR 6296, ICCF, F-63171 Aubière (France); Delbègue, Diane; Louvain, Nicolas; Doubtsof, Léa; Hamwi, André [Université Clermont Auvergne, Université Blaise Pascal, Institut de Chimie de Clermont-Ferrand, BP 10448, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand (France); CNRS, UMR 6296, ICCF, F-63171 Aubière (France); Laik, Barbara; Pereira-Ramos, Jean-Pierre [Université Paris Est Créteil, Institut de Chimie et des Matériaux Paris-Est, UMR CNRS 7182, Thiais (France); Tahar-sougrati, Moulay; Jumas, Jean-Claude [Université Montpellier II, Institut Charles Gerhardt de Montpellier, UMR CNRS 5253, Montpellier (France); Willmann, Patrick; Cénac-Morthe, Céline [Centre National d' Etudes Spatiales, Toulouse (France)

    2016-04-15

    Stable low temperature rhombohedral iron trifluoride has been obtained by the fluorination under the pure fluorine gas of iron disilicide. The combination of both unusual fluorination process and precursor avoids to get unhydrated crystalline FeF{sub 3} particles and allows the formation of hierarchized channels of mesoporous/macroporous texture favorable for lithium diffusion. The fluorination mechanism proceeds by temperature steps from the formation, for a fluorination temperature below 200 °C, of an amorphous phase and an intermediate iron difluoride identified mainly by {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy before getting, as soon as a fluorination temperature of 260 °C is reached, the rhombohedral FeF{sub 3}. Both amorphous and crystallized samples display good ability for electrochemical process when used as cathode in lithium-ion battery. The low diameter of rhombohedral structure channels is balanced by an appropriate mesoporous texture and a capacity of 225 mAh.g{sup −1} after 5 cycles for a discharge cut-off of 2.5 V vs. Li{sup +}/Li at a current density of C/20 has been obtained and stabilized at 95 mAh.g{sup −1} after 116 cycles. - Highlights: • We investigated the synthesis of rhombohedral FeF{sub 3} by solid–gas reaction from iron disilicide. • We demonstrated that depending on the fluorination temperature various phases are stabilized. • We got a hierarchized macroporous/mesoporous texture. • We studied the electrochemical performances of amorphous and crystallized FeF{sub 3}. • Crystallized FeF{sub 3} presents a high faradic yield at first cycle focusing on insertion process.

  4. Qualitative Analysis of Polyphenols in Macroporous Resin Pretreated Pomegranate Husk Extract by HPLC-QTOF-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulla, Rahima; Mansur, Sanawar; Lai, Haizhong; Ubul, Ablikim; Sun, Guangying; Huang, Guozheng; Aisa, Haji Akber

    2017-09-01

    Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) husk is a traditional herbal medicine abundant in phenolic compounds and plays some roles in the treatment of oxidative stress, bacterial and viral infection, diabetes mellitus, and acute and chronic inflammation. Identification and determination of polyphenols in macroporous resin pretreated pomegranate husk extract by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-QTOF-MS). The total polyphenols of pomegranate husk were prepared by ethanol extraction followed by pretreatment with HPD-300 macroporous resin. The polyphenolic compounds were qualitatively analysed by HPLC-QTOF-MS in negative electrospray ionisation (ESI) mode at different collision energy (CE) values. A total of 50 polyphenols were detected in the extract of pomegranate husk, including 35 hydrolysable tannins and 15 flavonoids with distinct retention time, fragmentation behaviours and characteristics, and the accurate mass-to-charge ratios at low, moderate and high CE values. Of these, we identified nine compounds for the first time in the pomegranate husk, including hexahydroxydiphenoyl-valoneoyl-glucoside (HHDP-valoneyl-glucoside), galloyl-O-punicalin, rutin, hyperoside, quercimeritrin, kaempferol-7-O-rhahmano-glucoside, luteolin-3'-O-arabinoside, luteolin-3'-O-glucoside, and luteolin-4'-O-glucoside. To validate the specificity and accuracy of mass spectrometry in the detection of polyphenols, as compared to the fragmentation pathways of granatin B in detail, including the HHDP-valoneyl- glucoside was first identified from pomegranate husk. The study provides evidence for the quality control and development of novel drugs based on polyphenols from the pomegranate husk. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Composite fuselage crown panel manufacturing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willden, Kurtis; Metschan, S.; Grant, C.; Brown, T.

    1992-01-01

    Commercial fuselage structures contain significant challenges in attempting to save manufacturing costs with advanced composite technology. Assembly issues, material costs, and fabrication of elements with complex geometry are each expected to drive the cost of composite fuselage structures. Boeing's efforts under the NASA ACT program have pursued key technologies for low-cost, large crown panel fabrication. An intricate bond panel design and manufacturing concepts were selected based on the efforts of the Design Build Team (DBT). The manufacturing processes selected for the intricate bond design include multiple large panel fabrication with the Advanced Tow Placement (ATP) process, innovative cure tooling concepts, resin transfer molding of long fuselage frames, and utilization of low-cost material forms. The process optimization for final design/manufacturing configuration included factory simulations and hardware demonstrations. These efforts and other optimization tasks were instrumental in reducing cost by 18 percent and weight by 45 percent relative to an aluminum baseline. The qualitative and quantitative results of the manufacturing demonstrations were used to assess manufacturing risks and technology readiness.

  6. The energetic characterization of pineapple crown leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, R M; Queiroga, T S; Calixto, G Q; Almeida, H N; Melo, D M A; Melo, M A F; Freitas, J C O; Curbelo, F D S

    2015-12-01

    Energetic characterization of biomass allows for assessing its energy potential for application in different conversion processes into energy. The objective of this study is to physicochemically characterize pineapple crown leaves (PC) for their application in energy conversion processes. PC was characterized according to ASTM E871-82, E1755-01, and E873-82 for determination of moisture, ash, and volatile matter, respectively; the fixed carbon was calculated by difference. Higher heating value was determined by ASTM E711-87 and ash chemical composition was determined by XRF. The thermogravimetric and FTIR analyses were performed to evaluate the thermal decomposition and identify the main functional groups of biomass. PC has potential for application in thermochemical processes, showing high volatile matter (89.5%), bulk density (420.8 kg/m(3)), and higher heating value (18.9 MJ/kg). The results show its energy potential justifying application of this agricultural waste into energy conversion processes, implementing sustainability in the production, and reducing the environmental liabilities caused by its disposal.

  7. Acetylene–ammonia–18-crown-6 (1/2/1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Grassl

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C2H2·C12H24O6·2NH3, was formed by co-crystallization of 18-crown-6 and acetylene in liquid ammonia. The 18-crown-6 molecule has threefold rotoinversion symmetry. The acteylene molecule lies on the threefold axis and the whole molecule is generated by an inversion center. The two ammonia molecules are also located on the threefold axis and are related by inversion symmetry. In the crystal, the ammonia molecules are located below and above the crown ether plane and are connected by intermolecular N—H...O hydrogen bonds. The acetylene molecules are additionally linked by weak C—H...N interactions into chains that propagate in the direction of the crystallographic c axis. The 18-crown-6 molecule [occupancy ratio 0.830 (4:0.170 (4] is disordered and was refined using a split model.

  8. Mandibular molar crown-topography, a biological predisposing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mandibular molar crown-topography, a biological predisposing factor to development of caries – a post-mortem analysis of 2500 extracted lower permanent molars at the dental centre, University of Benin teaching hospital.

  9. Sentencing dangerous offenders: policy and practice in the Crown Court

    OpenAIRE

    Henham, R

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of Crown Courts' use of protective sentencing powers under s.80(2)(b), s.85, and s.109 of 2000 Act and whether preference for s.85 reflects fundamental flaw in leaving determination of "dangerousness" to judiciary.

  10. Fractal approach to computer-analytical modelling of tree crown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berezovskaya, F.S.; Karev, G.P.; Kisliuk, O.F.; Khlebopros, R.G.; Tcelniker, Yu.L.

    1993-09-01

    In this paper we discuss three approaches to the modeling of a tree crown development. These approaches are experimental (i.e. regressive), theoretical (i.e. analytical) and simulation (i.e. computer) modeling. The common assumption of these is that a tree can be regarded as one of the fractal objects which is the collection of semi-similar objects and combines the properties of two- and three-dimensional bodies. We show that a fractal measure of crown can be used as the link between the mathematical models of crown growth and light propagation through canopy. The computer approach gives the possibility to visualize a crown development and to calibrate the model on experimental data. In the paper different stages of the above-mentioned approaches are described. The experimental data for spruce, the description of computer system for modeling and the variant of computer model are presented. (author). 9 refs, 4 figs

  11. Heavy metal accumulation in Melilotus officinalis under crown Olea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-11-05

    Nov 5, 2008 ... crown Olea europaea L forest irrigated with wastewater. S. Seif Amiri1, H. ... mainly because they are non-biodegradable, non-thermo- ... Soils, as filters of ... transportation to the laboratory, soil samples were air dried, crush-.

  12. Consequences of crown shortening canine teeth in Greenland sled dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kortegaard, H E; Anthony Knudsen, T; Dahl, S

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the consequences of crown shortening, focusing on the prevalence of pulp exposure and periapical pathology in Greenland sled dogs that had had their canine crowns shortened at an early age. METHODS: Five cadaver heads and 54 sled dogs underwent an oral examination for dental...... fractures and pulp exposure of canines. All canines were radiographed and evaluated for periapical pathology. RESULTS: The prevalence of canine pulp exposure in 12 (5 heads and 7 dogs) crown shortened dogs was 91 · 7%, and 21 · 3% in 47 not-crown shortened dogs. A significant (P pulp...... exposure of the canines in the crown shortened group compared to the not-crown shortened group was seen with a relative risk of 4 · 3 on a dog basis and a relative risk of 12 · 2 on a tooth basis. In dogs with pulp exposure of canines (n = 51) the prevalence of periapical pathology was 82 · 4%, but only 0...

  13. Fracture load of different crown systems on zirconia implant abutments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, T; Kirsten, A; Kappert, H F; Fischer, H

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the fracture load of single zirconia abutment restorations using different veneering techniques and materials. The abutment restorations were divided into 6 groups with 20 samples each: test abutments (control group A), lithium disilicate ceramic crowns bonded on incisor abutments (group B), leucite ceramic crowns bonded on incisor abutments (group C), premolar abutments directly veneered with a fluor apatite ceramic (group D (layered) and group E (pressed)) and premolar abutments bonded with lithium disilicate ceramic crowns (group F). The fracture load of the restorations was evaluated using a universal testing machine. Half of each group was artificially aged (chewing simulation and thermocycling) before evaluating the fracture load with the exception of the test abutments. The fracture load of the test abutments was 705 ± 43N. Incisor abutments bonded with lithium disilicate or leucite ceramic crowns (groups B and C) showed fracture loads of about 580N. Premolar restorations directly veneered with fluor apatite ceramic (groups D and E) showed fracture loads of about 850N. Premolar restorations bonded with lithium disilicate ceramic crowns (group F) showed fracture loads of about 1850N. The artificial ageing showed no significant influence on the strength of the examined restorations. All ceramic crowns made of lithium disilicate glass-ceramic, adhesively bonded to premolar abutments showed the highest fracture loads in this study. However, all tested groups can withstand physiological bite forces. Copyright © 2010 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Root-Crown Relations of Young Sugar Maple and Yellow Birch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl H. Tubbs

    1977-01-01

    Young forest-grown sugar maple and yellow birch (1 to 6 inches d.b.h.) crowns were mapped and roots excavated. Crown dimensions were compared. Sugar maple roots usually terminated within a few feet of the crown perimeter. Yellow birch roots frequently terminated well outside crown perimeters and roots of birch were more irregularly distributed than those of maple....

  15. 30 CFR 250.404 - What are the requirements for the crown block?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the requirements for the crown block... General Requirements § 250.404 What are the requirements for the crown block? You must have a crown block safety device that prevents the traveling block from striking the crown block. You must check the device...

  16. Suitability of Secondary PEEK Telescopic Crowns on Zirconia Primary Crowns: The Influence of Fabrication Method and Taper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Merk

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the retention load (RL between ZrO2 primary crowns and secondary polyetheretherketone (PEEK crowns made by different fabrication methods with three different tapers. Standardized primary ZrO2 crowns were fabricated with three different tapers: 0°, 1°, and 2° (n = 10/group. Ten secondary crowns were fabricated (i milled from breCam BioHPP blanks (PM; (ii pressed from industrially fabricated PEEK pellets (PP (BioHPP Pellet; or (iii pressed from granular PEEK (PG (BioHPP Granulat. One calibrated operator adjusted all crowns. In total, the RL of 90 secondary crowns were measured in pull-off tests at 50 mm/min, and each specimen was tested 20 times. Two- and one-way ANOVAs followed by a Scheffé’s post-hoc test were used for data analysis (p < 0.05. Within crowns with a 0° taper, the PP group showed significantly higher retention load values compared with the other groups. Among the 1° taper, the PM group presented significantly lower retention loads than the PP group. However, the pressing type had no impact on the results. Within the 2° taper, the fabrication method had no influence on the RL. Within the PM group, the 2° taper showed significantly higher retention load compared with the 1° taper. The taper with 0° was in the same range value as the 1° and 2° tapers. No impact of the taper on the retention value was observed between the PP groups. Within the PG groups, the 0° taper presented significantly lower RL than the 1° taper, whereas the 2° taper showed no differences. The fabrication method of the secondary PEEK crowns and taper angles showed no consistent effect within all tested groups.

  17. Large-scale synthesis of macroporous SnO2 with/without carbon and their application as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Fei; Yao Gang; Xu Minwei; Zhao Mingshu; Sun Zhanbo; Song Xiaoping

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → A new hard template prepared from glucose was used to synthesize macroporous SnO 2 . → SnO 2 and SnO 2 /C were prepared in a simple and large-scale synthetic method. → Combining the nanostructure design and active/inactive nanocomposite concept. → The obtained SnO 2 /C composite exhibited superior cycling performance. - Abstract: The macroporous SnO 2 is prepared using close packed carbonaceous sphere template which synthesized from glucose by hydrothermal method. The structure and morphology of the macroporous SnO 2 are evaluated by XRD and FE-SEM. The average pore size of the macroporous SnO 2 is about 190 nm and its wall thickness is less than 10 nm. When the macroporous SnO 2 filled with carbon is used as an anode material for lithium-ion battery, the capacity is about 380 mAh g -1 after 70 cycles. The improved cyclability is attributed to the carbon matrix which is used as an effective physical buffer to prevent the collapse of the well dispersed macroporous SnO 2 .

  18. Large-scale synthesis of macroporous SnO{sub 2} with/without carbon and their application as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Fei; Yao Gang; Xu Minwei [MOE Key Laboratory for Non-equilibrium Synthesis and Modulation of Condensed Matter, School of Science, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Shaan Xi 710049 (China); Zhao Mingshu, E-mail: zhaomshu@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [MOE Key Laboratory for Non-equilibrium Synthesis and Modulation of Condensed Matter, School of Science, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Shaan Xi 710049 (China); Sun Zhanbo [MOE Key Laboratory for Non-equilibrium Synthesis and Modulation of Condensed Matter, School of Science, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Shaan Xi 710049 (China); Song Xiaoping, E-mail: xpsong@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [MOE Key Laboratory for Non-equilibrium Synthesis and Modulation of Condensed Matter, School of Science, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Shaan Xi 710049 (China)

    2011-05-19

    Highlights: > A new hard template prepared from glucose was used to synthesize macroporous SnO{sub 2}. > SnO{sub 2} and SnO{sub 2}/C were prepared in a simple and large-scale synthetic method. > Combining the nanostructure design and active/inactive nanocomposite concept. > The obtained SnO{sub 2}/C composite exhibited superior cycling performance. - Abstract: The macroporous SnO{sub 2} is prepared using close packed carbonaceous sphere template which synthesized from glucose by hydrothermal method. The structure and morphology of the macroporous SnO{sub 2} are evaluated by XRD and FE-SEM. The average pore size of the macroporous SnO{sub 2} is about 190 nm and its wall thickness is less than 10 nm. When the macroporous SnO{sub 2} filled with carbon is used as an anode material for lithium-ion battery, the capacity is about 380 mAh g{sup -1} after 70 cycles. The improved cyclability is attributed to the carbon matrix which is used as an effective physical buffer to prevent the collapse of the well dispersed macroporous SnO{sub 2}.

  19. Cm-scale Heterogeneity in Degradation - Potential Impact on Leaching of MCPA through a Variably-Saturated Macroporous Clayey Till

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbom, Annette Elisabeth; Johnsen, Anders R.; Aamand, Jens

    with no biodegradation of the MCPA at all nodes; 2) preferential flow (including a wormhole) of water with no biodegradation of the MCPA at all nodes; 3) simple matrix flow of water with average biodegradation of the MCPA at all nodes, which corresponds to results derived from a conventional homogenized soil sample; 4...... both flow and degradation are associated with macropores/wormholes. Results show that cm-scale heterogeneity in degradation potential with simple matrix flow has a negligible effect on MCPA leaching at one meter below soil surface. By introducing a wormhole in the low-permeable 3D-soil modeling domain......, however, the risk of MCPA-leaching below one meter depth increase drastically with low degradation potential along the wall of macropores/wormholes....

  20. Macroporous Inverse Opal-like MoxC with Incorporated Mo Vacancies for Significantly Enhanced Hydrogen Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Zhao, Xianglong; Mahmood, Javeed; Okyay, Mahmut Sait; Jung, Sun-Min; Ahmad, Ishfaq; Kim, Seok-Jin; Han, Gao-Feng; Park, Noejung; Baek, Jong-Beom

    2017-07-25

    The hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) is one of the most important pathways for producing pure and clean hydrogen. Although platinum (Pt) is the most efficient HER electrocatalyst, its practical application is significantly hindered by high-cost and scarcity. In this work, an Mo x C with incorporated Mo vacancies and macroporous inverse opal-like (IOL) structure (Mo x C-IOL) was synthesized and studied as a low-cost efficient HER electrocatalyst. The macroporous IOL structure was controllably fabricated using a facile-hard template strategy. As a result of the combined benefits of the Mo vacancies and structural advantages, including appropriate hydrogen binding energy, large exposed surface, robust IOL structure and fast mass/charge transport, the synthesized Mo x C-IOL exhibited significantly enhanced HER electrocatalytic performance with good stability, with performance comparable or superior to Pt wire in both acidic and alkaline solutions.

  1. Industrial-scale preparation of akebia saponin D by a two-step macroporous resin column separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yue; Ji, De; Liu, Yunfei; Zhang, Chunfeng; Yang, Zhonglin

    2012-06-26

    A simple and efficient procedure for the industrial preparation of akebia saponin D, one of the bioactive compounds commonly found in the well-known Chinese Medicinal herb Dipsaci Radix, was developed. First, HPD-722 was selected from among 10 kinds of macroporous absorption resins. Following this step, the purity of akebia saponin D was increased about 10 times from 6.27% to 59.41%. In order to achieve a higher purity, ADS-7 was chosen from among five kinds of macroporous absorption resins, and the purity of akebia saponin D was increased from 59.41% to 95.05%. The result indicated HPD-722 and ADS-7 were the most suitable resins to purify akebia saponin D from Dipsaci Radix. Under these conditions, large-scale preparation of akebia saponin D was carried out successfully. The preparation method is simple, efficient, and has been demonstrated to be effective for large scale preparations of akebia saponin D from Dipsaci Radix.

  2. Prediction of biopore- and matrix-dominated flow from X-ray CT-derived macropore network characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naveed, Muhammad; Møldrup, Per; Schaap, Marcel G

    2016-01-01

    was to investigate the predictive performance of previously developed empirical models for both water and air flow and to explore the potential applicability of X-ray computed tomography (CT)-derived macropore network characteristics. For this purpose, 65 cylindrical soil columns (6 cm diameter and 3.5 cm height......Prediction and modeling of localized flow processes in macropores is of crucial importance for sustaining both soil and water quality. However, currently there are no reliable means to predict preferential flow due to its inherently large spatial variability. The aim of this study......) were extracted from the topsoil (5 cm to 8.5 cm depth) in a 15m15m grid from an agricultural field located in Silstrup, Denmark. All soil columns were scanned with an industrial X-ray CT scanner (129 μm resolution) and later employed for measurement of saturated hydraulic conductivity, air permeability...

  3. l-Cysteine-modified silver-functionalized silica-based material as an efficient solid-phase extraction adsorbent for the determination of bisphenol A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanyuan; Zhu, Nan; Li, Bingxiang; Chen, Tong; Ma, Yulong; Li, Qiang

    2018-02-01

    A new silver-functionalized silica-based material with a core-shell structure based on silver nanoparticle-coated silica spheres was synthesized, and silver nanoparticles were modified using strongly bound l-cysteine. l-Cysteine-silver@silica was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and FTIR spectroscopy. Then, a solid-phase extraction method based on l-cysteine-silver@silica was developed and successfully used for bisphenol A determination prior to HPLC analysis. The results showed that the l-cysteine-silver@silica as an adsorbent exhibited good enrichment capability for bisphenol A, and the maximum adsorption saturation was 20.93 mg/g. Moreover, a short adsorption equilibrium time was obtained due to the presence of silver nanoparticles on the surface of the silica. The extraction efficiencies were then optimized by varying the eluents and pH. Under the optimized conditions, good linearity for bisphenol A was obtained in the range from 0.4 to 4.0 μM (R 2  > 0.99) with a low limit of detection (1.15 ng/mL). The spiked recoveries from tap water and milk samples were satisfactory (85-102%) with relative standard deviations below 5.2% (n = 3), which indicated that the method was suitable for the analysis of bisphenol A in complex samples. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Polar silica-based stationary phases. Part II- Neutral silica stationary phases with surface bound maltose and sorbitol for hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathnasekara, Renuka; El Rassi, Ziad

    2017-07-28

    Two neutral polyhydroxylated silica bonded stationary phases, namely maltose-silica (MALT-silica) and sorbitol-silica (SOR-silica), have been introduced and chromatographically characterized in hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) for a wide range of polar compounds. The bonding of the maltose and sorbitol to the silica surface was brought about by first converting bare silica to an epoxy-activated silica surface via reaction with γ-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GPTMS) followed by attaching maltose and sorbitol to the epoxy surface in the presence of the Lewis acid catalyst BF 3 .ethereate. Both silica based columns offered the expected retention characteristics usually encountered for neutral polar surface. The retention mechanism is majorly based on solute' differential partitioning between an organic rich hydro-organic mobile phase (e.g., ACN rich mobile phase) and an adsorbed water layer on the surface of the stationary phase although additional hydrogen bonding was also responsible in some cases for solute retention. The MALT-silica column proved to be more hydrophilic and offered higher retention, separation efficiency and resolution than the SOR-silica column among the tested polar solutes such as derivatized mono- and oligosaccharides, weak phenolic acids, cyclic nucleotide monophosphate and nucleotide-5'-monophosphates, and weak bases, e.g., nucleobases and nucleosides. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Anticancer Applications of Nanostructured Silica-Based Materials Functionalized with Titanocene Derivatives: Induction of Cell Death Mechanism through TNFR1 Modulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Gómez-Ruiz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of cytotoxic titanocene derivatives have been immobilized onto nanostructured silica-based materials using two different synthetic routes, namely, (i a simple grafting protocol via protonolysis of the Ti–Cl bond; and (ii a tethering method by elimination of ethanol using triethoxysilyl moieties of thiolato ligands attached to titanium. The resulting nanostructured systems have been characterized by different techniques such as XRD, XRF, DR-UV, BET, SEM, and TEM, observing the incorporation of the titanocene derivatives onto the nanostructured silica and slight changes in the textural features of the materials after functionalization with the metallodrugs. A complete biological study has been carried out using the synthesized materials exhibiting moderate cytotoxicity in vitro against three human hepatic carcinoma (HepG2, SK-Hep-1, Hep3B and three human colon carcinomas (DLD-1, HT-29, COLO320 and very low cytotoxicity against normal cell lines. In addition, the cells’ metabolic activity was modified by a 24-h exposure in a dose-dependent manner. Despite not having a significant effect on TNFα or the proinflammatory interleukin 1α secretion, the materials strongly modulated tumor necrosis factor (TNF signaling, even at sub-cytotoxic concentrations. This is achieved mainly by upregulation of the TNFR1 receptor production, something which has not previously been observed for these systems.

  6. Transport of oxidized multi-walled carbon nanotubes through silica based porous media: influences of aquatic chemistry, surface chemistry, and natural organic matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jin; Bitter, Julie L; Smith, Billy A; Fairbrother, D Howard; Ball, William P

    2013-12-17

    This paper provides results from studies of the transport of oxidized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (O-MWCNTs) of varying surface oxygen concentrations under a range of aquatic conditions and through uniform silica glass bead media. In the presence of Na(+), the required ionic strength (IS) for maximum particle attachment efficiency (i.e., the critical deposition concentration, or CDC) increased as the surface oxygen concentration of the O-MWCNTs or pH increased, following qualitative tenets of theories based on electrostatic interactions. In the presence of Ca(2+), CDC values were lower than those with Na(+) present, but were no longer sensitive to surface oxygen content, suggesting that Ca(2+) impacts the interactions between O-MWCNTs and glass beads by mechanisms other than electrostatic alone. The presence of Suwannee River natural organic matter (SRNOM) decreased the attachment efficiency of O-MWCNTs in the presence of either Na(+) or Ca(2+), but with more pronounced effects when Na(+) was present. Nevertheless, low concentrations of SRNOM (organic carbon) were sufficient to mobilize all O-MWCNTs studied at CaCl2 concentrations as high as 10 mM. Overall, this study reveals that NOM content, pH, and cation type show more importance than surface chemistry in affecting O-MWCNTs deposition during transport through silica-based porous media.

  7. The evaluation/application of Hydrus-2D model for simulating macro-pores flow in loess soil

    OpenAIRE

    Xuexuan Xu; Shahmir Ali Kalhoro; Wen yuan Chen; Sajjad Raza

    2017-01-01

    Soil hydraulic properties were mainly governed by soil structures especially when the structures is full of the connected soil macro-pores. Therefore, the good hydrological models need to be well documented for revealing the process of soil water movement affected by soil medium. The Hydrus-2D model with double domain was recommended in simulating water movement in a heterogeneous medium of soil. To evaluate the performance of the double domain Hydrus-2D model in loess soil, the dynamic of so...

  8. Insight into the cryopolymerization to form a poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)/clay macroporous gel: structure and phase evolution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Strachota, Beata; Matějka, Libor; Sikora, Antonín; Spěváček, Jiří; Konefal, Rafal; Zhigunov, Alexander; Šlouf, Miroslav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 6 (2017), s. 1244-1256 ISSN 1744-683X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-23392S; GA MŠk(CZ) LD14010 Grant - others:European Commission(XE) COST Action MP1202 HINT Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : macroporous gels * nanocomposite cryogels * polymer-clay hydrogel Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 3.889, year: 2016

  9. Human embryonic stem cell-encapsulation in alginate microbeads in macroporous calcium phosphate cement for bone tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Minghui; Chen, Wenchuan; Weir, Michael D.; Thein-Han, Wahwah; Xu, Hockin H. K.

    2012-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are exciting for regenerative medicine applications because of their strong proliferative ability and multilineage differentiation capability. To date there has been no report on hESC seeding with calcium phosphate cement (CPC). The objective of this study was to investigate hESC-derived mesenchymal stem cell (hESCd-MSC) encapsulation in hydrogel microbeads in macroporous CPC for bone tissue engineering. hESCs were cultured to form embryoid bodies (EBs), and the MSCs were then migrated out of the EBs. hESCd-MSCs had surface markers characteristic of MSCs, with positive alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining when cultured in osteogenic medium. hESCd-MSCs were encapsulated in alginate at a density of 1 million cells/mL, with an average microbead size of 207 µm. CPC contained mannitol porogen to create a porosity of 64% and macropores with size of 218 µm, with 20% absorbable fibers for additional porosity when the fibers degrade. hESCd-MSCs encapsulated in microbeads in CPC had good viability from 1 to 21 d. ALP gene expression at 21 d was 25-fold that at 1 d. Osteocalcin (OC) at 21 d was two orders of magnitude of that at 1 d. ALP activity in colorimetric p-nitrophenyl phosphate assay at 21 d was 5-fold that at 1 d. Mineral synthesis by the encapsulated hESCd-MSCs at 21 d was 7-fold that at 1 d. Potential benefits of the CPC-stem cell paste include injectability, intimate adaptation to complex-shaped bone defects, ease in contouring to achieve esthetics in maxillofacial repairs, and in situ setting ability. In conclusion, hESCd-MSCs were encapsulated in alginate microbeads in macroporous CPC showing good cell viability, osteogenic differentiation and mineral synthesis for the first time. The hESCd-MSC-encapsulating macroporous CPC construct is promising for bone regeneration in a wide range of orthopedic and maxillofacial applications. PMID:22633970

  10. Umbilical cord stem cells released from alginate-fibrin microbeads inside macroporous and biofunctionalized calcium phosphate cement for bone regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenchuan; Zhou, Hongzhi; Weir, Michael D.; Bao, Chongyun; Xu, Hockin H.K.

    2012-01-01

    The need for bone repair has increased as the population ages. The objectives of this study were to (1) develop a novel biofunctionalized and macroporous calcium phosphate cement (CPC) containing alginate-fibrin microbeads encapsulating human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs); and (2) investigate hUCMSC proliferation and osteogenic differentiation inside CPC for the first time. Macroporous CPC was developed using calcium phosphate powders, chitosan, and gas-foaming porogen. Five types of CPCs were fabricated: CPC control, CPC + 0.05% fibronectin (Fn), CPC + 0.1% Fn, CPC + 0.1% Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD), and CPC + 0.1% Fn + 0.1% RGD. Alginate-fibrin microbeads containing 106 hUCMSCs/mL were encapsulated in the CPC paste. After CPC had set, the degradable microbeads released hUCMSCs inside CPC. hUCMScs proliferated inside CPC, with cell density at 21 d being 4-fold that at 1 d. CPC + 0.1% RGD had the highest cell density, which was 4-fold that of CPC control. The released cells differentiated into the osteogenic lineage and synthesized bone minerals. hUCMSCs inside the CPC + 0.1% RGD construct had gene expressions of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteocalcin (OC) and collagen I, which were twice those of CPC control. Mineral synthesis by hUCMSCs inside the CPC + 0.1% RGD construct was 2-fold that in CPC control. RGD and Fn incorporation in CPC did not compromise the strength of CPC, which matched the reported strength of cancellous bone. In conclusion, degradable microbeads released the hUCMSCs which proliferated, differentiated and synthesized minerals inside the macroporous CPC for the first time. CPC with RGD greatly enhanced cell functions. The novel biofunctionalized and macroporous CPC-microbead-hUCMSC construct is promising for bone tissue engineering applications. PMID:22391411

  11. Preparation of Macroporous Poly (vinyl alcohol-co-triallyl isocyanurate) Beads Bearing Aminocarboxylic Acid as Functional Groups by Suspension Polymerization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Macroporous poly (vinyl acetate-co-triallyl isocyanurate) beads were prepared with suspension polymerization method. The copolymer beads were then transformed into poly (vinyl alcohol-co-triallyl isocyanurate) by ester exchange reaction. Aminocarboxylic acids were immobilized on the copolymer beads by the esterification of hydroxyl groups with diethyl-lenetriaminepentaacetic bisanhydride. The weak acid exchange capacities, specific surface areas and mean pore diameters of the resultant resin beads were measured.

  12. Study on the use of macroporous cation exchange resins for the separation and purification of uranium from thorium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rastogi, R.K.; Mahajan, M.A.; Chaudhuri, N.K.

    1992-01-01

    The possibility of using macroporous cation exchange resins for the purification of uranium from thorium relevant to the final purification of uranium after reprocessing thorium breeder fuel was explored. Two macroporous cation exchange resins were studied and compared with a commonly used gel type resin. Batch experiments and column experiments were performed to generate equilibrium data and to optimise the procedure for the separation of U from Th under process condition. Under the same condition Tulsion T-42 gave product U containing 0.1% of Th, while Amberlyst-15 gave the product U containing 1% of Th. Loading and washing rates were much higher (120 ml/hr) than those used for gel type resins (40 ml/hr). Though the volume of wash required for >90% recovery of U is more than that required with the gel type resin the disadvantage due to that is more than compensated by the use of high flow rate of loading and washing to give higher throughput. Thus there is a definite advantage of U purification with macroporous resins as compared to usual gel type resins. (author). 23 refs., 3 figs., 10 tabs

  13. Tracking Single DNA Nanodevices in Hierarchically Meso-Macroporous Antimony-Doped Tin Oxide Demonstrates Finite Confinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mieritz, Daniel; Li, Xiang; Volosin, Alex; Liu, Minghui; Yan, Hao; Walter, Nils G; Seo, Dong-Kyun

    2017-06-27

    Housing bio-nano guest devices based on DNA nanostructures within porous, conducting, inorganic host materials promise valuable applications in solar energy conversion, chemical catalysis, and analyte sensing. Herein, we report a single-template synthetic development of hierarchically porous, transparent conductive metal oxide coatings whose pores are freely accessible by large biomacromolecules. Their hierarchal pore structure is bimodal with a larger number of closely packed open macropores (∼200 nm) at the higher rank and with the remaining space being filled with a gel network of antimony-doped tin oxide (ATO) nanoparticles that is highly porous with a broad size range of textual pores mainly from 20-100 nm at the lower rank. The employed carbon black template not only creates the large open macropores but also retains the highly structured gel network as holey pore walls. Single molecule fluorescence microscopic studies with fluorophore-labeled DNA nanotweezers reveal a detailed view of multimodal diffusion dynamics of the biomacromolecules inside the hierarchically porous structure. Two diffusion constants were parsed from trajectory analyses that were attributed to free diffusion (diffusion constant D = 2.2 μm 2 /s) and to diffusion within an average confinement length of 210 nm (D = 0.12 μm 2 /s), consistent with the average macropore size of the coating. Despite its holey nature, the ATO gel network acts as an efficient barrier to the diffusion of the DNA nanostructures, which is strongly indicative of physical interactions between the molecules and the pore nanostructure.

  14. A simple method for preparation of macroporous polydimethylsiloxane membrane for microfluidic chip-based isoelectric focusing applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ou Junjie [Department of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, University of Waterloo, 200 University Ave West, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Department of Chemistry, University of Waterloo, 200 University Ave West, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Ren, Carolyn L., E-mail: c3ren@mecheng1.uwaterloo.ca [Department of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, University of Waterloo, 200 University Ave West, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Pawliszyn, Janusz [Department of Chemistry, University of Waterloo, 200 University Ave West, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2010-03-10

    A new, simple method was reported to prepare PDMS membranes with micrometer size pores for microfluidic chip applications. The pores were formed by adding polystyrene and toluene into PDMS prepolymer solution prior to spin-coating and curing. The resulting PDMS membrane has a thickness of around 10 {mu}m and macropores with a diameter ranging from 1 to 2 {mu}m measured using scanning electron microscope (SEM) imaging. This PDMS membrane was validated by integrating it with PDMS microfluidic chips for protein separation using isoelectric focusing mechanism coupled with whole channel imaging detection (IEF-WCID). It has been shown that five standard pI markers and a mixture of two proteins, myoglobin and {beta}-lactoglobulin, can be separated using these chips. The results indicated that this macroporous PDMS membrane can replace the dialysis membrane in PDMS chips for the IEF-WCID technique. The preparation method of macroporous PDMS membrane may be potentially applied in other fields of microfluidic chips.

  15. Effect of hierarchical meso–macroporous alumina-supported copper catalyst for methanol synthesis from CO2 hydrogenation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witoon, Thongthai; Bumrungsalee, Sittisut; Chareonpanich, Metta; Limtrakul, Jumras

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • CO 2 hydrogenation over Cu-loaded unimodal and hierarchical alumina catalysts. • Cu-loaded hierarchical catalyst exhibited higher methanol selectivity and stability. • The presence of macropores reduced the probability of side reaction. - Abstract: Effects of pore structures of alumina on the catalytic performance of copper catalysts for CO 2 hydrogenation were investigated. Copper-loaded hierarchical meso–macroporous alumina (Cu/HAl) catalyst exhibited no significant difference in terms of CO 2 conversion with copper-loaded unimodal mesoporous alumina (Cu/UAl) catalyst. However, the selectivity to methanol and dimethyl ether of the Cu/HAl catalyst was much higher than that of the Cu/UAl catalyst. This was attributed to the presence of macropores which diminished the occurrence of side reaction by the shortening the mesopores diffusion path length. The Cu/HAl catalyst also exhibited much higher stability than the Cu/UAl catalyst due to the fast diffusion of water out from the catalyst pellets, alleviating the oxidation of metallic copper to CuO

  16. Evaluation of marginal fit of 2 CAD-CAM anatomic contour zirconia crown systems and lithium disilicate glass-ceramic crown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Min-Kyung; Park, Ji-Hee; Park, Sang-Won; Yun, Kwi-Dug; Oh, Gye-Jeong; Lim, Hyun-Pil

    2015-08-01

    This study was to evaluate the marginal fit of two CAD-CAM anatomic contour zirconia crown systems compared to lithium disilicate glass-ceramic crowns. Shoulder and deep chamfer margin were formed on each acrylic resin tooth model of a maxillary first premolar. Two CAD-CAM systems (Prettau®Zirconia and ZENOSTAR®ZR translucent) and lithium disilicate glass ceramic (IPS e.max®press) crowns were made (n=16). Each crown was bonded to stone dies with resin cement (Rely X Unicem). Marginal gap and absolute marginal discrepancy of crowns were measured using a light microscope equipped with a digital camera (Leica DFC295) magnified by a factor of 100. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and post-hoc Tukey's HSD test were conducted to analyze the significance of crown marginal fit regarding the finish line configuration and the fabrication system. The mean marginal gap of lithium disilicate glass ceramic crowns (IPS e.max®press) was significantly lower than that of the CAD-CAM anatomic contour zirconia crown system (Prettau®Zirconia) (Pmarginal discrepancy (Pmarginal gap than the CAD-CAM anatomic contour zirconia crown system (Prettau®Zirconia). In terms of absolute marginal discrepancy, the CAD-CAM anatomic contour zirconia crown system (ZENOSTAR®ZR translucent) had under-extended margin, whereas the CAD-CAM anatomic contour zirconia crown system (Prettau®Zirconia) and lithium disilicate glass ceramic crowns (IPS e.max®press) had overextended margins.

  17. Museum security and the Thomas Crown Affair.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michaud, E. C. (Nuclear Engineering Division)

    2010-01-01

    Over the years, I've daydreamed about stealing a Vermeer, a Picasso, or Rembrandt. It tickles me, as much as watching the reboot of The Thomas Crown Affair. Why is it, do you suppose, so much fun to think about stealing a world renowned piece off the wall of a major metropolitan museum? Is it the romantic thoughts of getting away with it, walking past infrared detectors, and pressure sensors ala Indiana Jones with the sack of sand to remove the idol without triggering the security system? Is it the idea of snatching items with such fantastic prices, where the romance of possessing an item of such value is less intoxicating than selling it to a private collector for it to never be seen again? I suspect others share my daydreams as they watch theater or hear of a brazen daylight heist at museums around the world, or from private collections. Though when reality sets in, the mind of the security professional kicks in. How could one do it, why would one do it, what should you do once it's done? The main issue a thief confronts when acquiring unique goods is how to process or fence them. They become very difficult to sell because they are one-of-a-kind, easy to identify, and could lead to the people involved with the theft. The whole issue of museum security takes up an ironic twist when one considers the secretive British street artist 'Banksy'. Banksy has made a name for himself by brazenly putting up interesting pieces of art in broad daylight (though many critics don't consider his work to be art) on building walls, rooftops, or even museums. I bring him up for a interesting take on what may become a trend in museum security. In March of 2005, Banksy snuck a piece of his called 'Vandalized Oil Painting' into the Brooklyn Museum's Great Historical Painting Wing, plus 3 other pieces into major museums in New York. Within several days, 2 paintings had been torn down, but 2 stayed up much longer. In his home country of the UK, a

  18. Mesiodistal Crown Dimensions of Permanent Teeth in Bangladeshi Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Hossain Khan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Variation in tooth size is influenced by genetic and environmental factors. Several studies have reported tooth size variation between and within different racial groups. In order to improve the quality of dental care available, there is a great need for data on the mesiodistal crown dimensions of the individual teeth of Bangladeshi population. Objectives: To find nominative data on the mesiodistal crown dimensions of permanent teeth in Bangladeshi population and to compare the findings with those reported in other populations. Methods: This observational study was done from January, 2008 to June, 2010 in the Department of Orthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University. A total of 244 Bangladeshi subjects (77 males and 167 females, aged 7 – 36 years (mean 18.3 years with no age limit who attended at the above mentioned place for treatment were included in the study. Main outcome measure was mesiodistal crown dimension of each tooth class of permanent dentition. Mesiodistal crown dimensions were measured from dental casts of the permanent teeth. Results: Males had significantly larger teeth than females for maxillary central incisors (p < 0.05 and for the mandibular second premolars (p < 0.001. In both sexes, the maxillary lateral incisors showed the greatest variability [coefficient of variation (CV 10.7%] and the maxillary canines the least (CV 6.9% in mesiodistal crown dimension. Mandibular canines displayed greater sexual dimorphism in mesiodistal crown size than in any other tooth classes. Comparisons of the mesiodistal crown dimensions between population groups showed that Bangladeshis have tooth sizes close to those of North Indians, Icelanders and Jordanians but larger than those of North American Whites. Conclusions: From this study, a standard for the mesiodistal crown dimensions of permanent dentition of Bangladeshi males and females are obtained. Key Words: Crown dimension; Mesio

  19. Suitability of Secondary PEEK Telescopic Crowns on Zirconia Primary Crowns: The Influence of Fabrication Method and Taper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merk, Susanne; Wagner, Christina; Stock, Veronika; Eichberger, Marlis; Schmidlin, Patrick R; Roos, Malgorzata; Stawarczyk, Bogna

    2016-11-08

    This study investigates the retention load (RL) between ZrO₂ primary crowns and secondary polyetheretherketone (PEEK) crowns made by different fabrication methods with three different tapers. Standardized primary ZrO₂ crowns were fabricated with three different tapers: 0°, 1°, and 2° ( n = 10/group). Ten secondary crowns were fabricated (i) milled from breCam BioHPP blanks (PM); (ii) pressed from industrially fabricated PEEK pellets (PP) (BioHPP Pellet); or (iii) pressed from granular PEEK (PG) (BioHPP Granulat). One calibrated operator adjusted all crowns. In total, the RL of 90 secondary crowns were measured in pull-off tests at 50 mm/min, and each specimen was tested 20 times. Two- and one-way ANOVAs followed by a Scheffé's post-hoc test were used for data analysis ( p impact on the results. Within the 2° taper, the fabrication method had no influence on the RL. Within the PM group, the 2° taper showed significantly higher retention load compared with the 1° taper. The taper with 0° was in the same range value as the 1° and 2° tapers. No impact of the taper on the retention value was observed between the PP groups. Within the PG groups, the 0° taper presented significantly lower RL than the 1° taper, whereas the 2° taper showed no differences. The fabrication method of the secondary PEEK crowns and taper angles showed no consistent effect within all tested groups.

  20. Experimental investigation of the abrasive crown dynamics in orbital atherectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yihao; Belmont, Barry; Shih, Albert J

    2016-07-01

    Orbital atherectomy is a catheter-based minimally invasive procedure to modify the plaque within atherosclerotic arteries using a diamond abrasive crown. This study was designed to investigate the crown motion and its corresponding contact force with the vessel. To this end, a transparent arterial tissue-mimicking phantom made of polyvinyl chloride was developed, a high-speed camera and image processing technique were utilized to visualize and quantitatively analyze the crown motion in the vessel phantom, and a piezoelectric dynamometer measured the forces on the phantom during the procedure. Observed under typical orbital atherectomy rotational speeds of 60,000, 90,000, and 120,000rpm in a 4.8mm caliber vessel phantom, the crown motion was a combination of high-frequency rotation at 1000, 1500, and 1660.4-1866.1Hz and low-frequency orbiting at 18, 38, and 40Hz, respectively. The measured forces were also composed of these high and low frequencies, matching well with the rotation of the eccentric crown and the associated orbital motion. The average peak force ranged from 0.1 to 0.4N at different rotational speeds. Copyright © 2016 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Application of terrestrial laser scanning for measuring tree crown structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pretzsch, H.; Seifert, S.; Huang, P.

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses the potential of terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) for describing and modelling of tree crown structure and dynamics. We first present a general approach for the metabolic and structural scaling of tree crowns. Out of this approach we emphasize those normalization and scaling parameters which become accessible by TLS. For example we show how the individual tree leaf area index, convex hull, and its space-filling by leaves can be extracted out of laser scan data. This contributes to a theoretical and empirical substantiation of crown structure models which were missing so far for e.g. quantification of structural and species diversity in forest stands, inventory of crown biomass, species detection by remote sensing, and understanding of self- and alien-thinning in pure and mixed stands. Up to now works on this topic delivered a rather scattered empirical knowledge mainly by single inventories of trees and stands. In contrast, we recommend to start with a model approach, and to complete existing data with repeated TLS inventories in order to come to a consistent and theoretically based model of tree crowns. (author) [de

  2. Direct composite restoration of permanent anterior teeth uncomplicated crown fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley Evans Nicholas

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available An uncomplicated crown fracture is a fracture that involves only the tooth enamel or the dentin and tooth enamel without any damage or exposure to the pulp. Crown fracture of the anterior teeth usually caused by traumatic forces such as falls, accidents, violence, or sports activities. Traumatic injuries of the oral region frequently involve the anterior teeth, especially maxillary incisors due to the anatomic factors which may affect the functional and aesthetical values of the teeth. The objective of this literature study was to know more about uncomplicated crown fracture of the anterior teeth and its restoration. This research was a literature study performed by researching, highlighting various interesting facts and compiling the relevant published journals. The most common and ideal direct restoration of the anterior teeth was the composite resin restoration. The anterior teeth restoration was considered to be a complex and challenging case to solves due to the fact that besides reconstructing the tooth and regaining the function, the aesthetical aspect was also becoming the main objectives. The permanent anterior teeth uncomplicated crown fracture was the most common case of tooth fractures which was mainly caused by traumatic injuries such as falls, accidents, excessive forces, violence, and also sports activities. Dental injuries of the anterior teeth also affected the aesthetical properties and the function of the tooth. Composite resin restoration was able to performed directly on the permanent anterior teeth uncomplicated crown fracture.

  3. Crown sealing and buckling instability during water entry of spheres

    KAUST Repository

    Marston, J. O.

    2016-04-05

    We present new observations from an experimental investigation of the classical problem of the crown splash and sealing phenomena observed during the impact of spheres onto quiescent liquid pools. In the experiments, a 6 m tall vacuum chamber was used to provide the required ambient conditions from atmospheric pressure down to of an atmosphere, whilst high-speed videography was exploited to focus primarily on the above-surface crown formation and ensuing dynamics, paying particular attention to the moments just prior to the surface seal. In doing so, we have observed a buckling-type azimuthal instability of the crown. This instability is characterised by vertical striations along the crown, between which thin films form that are more susceptible to the air flow and thus are drawn into the closing cavity, where they atomize to form a fine spray within the cavity. To elucidate to the primary mechanisms and forces at play, we varied the sphere diameter, liquid properties and ambient pressure. Furthermore, a comparison between the entry of room-temperature spheres, where the contact line pins around the equator, and Leidenfrost spheres (i.e. an immersed superheated sphere encompassed by a vapour layer), where there is no contact line, indicates that the buckling instability appears in all crown sealing events, but is intensified by the presence of a pinned contact line. © 2016 Cambridge University Press.

  4. Biology and control of the raspberry crown borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKern, Jacquelyn A; Johnson, Donn T; Lewis, Barbara A

    2007-04-01

    This study explored the biology of raspberry crown borer, Pennisetia marginata (Harris) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), in Arkansas and the optimum timing for insecticide and nematode applications. The duration of P. marginata's life cycle was observed to be 1 yr in Arkansas. Insecticide trials revealed that bifenthrin, chlorpyrifos, imidacloprid, metaflumizone, and metofluthrin efficacy were comparable with that of azinphosmethyl, the only labeled insecticide for P. marginata in brambles until 2005. Applications on 23 October 2003 for plots treated with bifenthrin, chlorpyrifos, and azinphosmethyl resulted in >88% reduction in larvae per crown. Applications on 3 November 2004 of metaflumizone, metofluthrin, and bifenthrin resulted in >89% reduction in larvae per crown. Applications on 7 April 2005 for metofluthrin, imidacloprid, bifenthrin, metaflumizone, and benzoylphenyl urea resulted in >64% reduction in the number of larvae per crown. Applications on 6 May 2004 did not reduce larval numbers. The optimum timing for treatments was found to be between October and early April, before the larvae tunneled into the crowns of plants. Applying bifenthrin with as little as 468 liters water/ha (50 gal/acre) was found to be as effective against larvae as higher volumes of spray. Nematode applications were less successful than insecticides. Nematode applications of Steinernemafeltiae, Steinernema carpocapsae, and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora reduced larvae counts per plant by 46, 53, and 33%, respectively.

  5. Wind Tunnel Experiments to Study Chaparral Crown Fires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobian-Iñiguez, Jeanette; Aminfar, AmirHessam; Chong, Joey; Burke, Gloria; Zuniga, Albertina; Weise, David R; Princevac, Marko

    2017-11-14

    The present protocol presents a laboratory technique designed to study chaparral crown fire ignition and spread. Experiments were conducted in a low velocity fire wind tunnel where two distinct layers of fuel were constructed to represent surface and crown fuels in chaparral. Chamise, a common chaparral shrub, comprised the live crown layer. The dead fuel surface layer was constructed with excelsior (shredded wood). We developed a methodology to measure mass loss, temperature, and flame height for both fuel layers. Thermocouples placed in each layer estimated temperature. A video camera captured the visible flame. Post-processing of digital imagery yielded flame characteristics including height and flame tilt. A custom crown mass loss instrument developed in-house measured the evolution of the mass of the crown layer during the burn. Mass loss and temperature trends obtained using the technique matched theory and other empirical studies. In this study, we present detailed experimental procedures and information about the instrumentation used. The representative results for the fuel mass loss rate and temperature filed within the fuel bed are also included and discussed.

  6. Application of polymeric macroporous supports for temperature-responsive chromatography of pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamprou, Alexandros; Gavriilidou, Agni-Faviola-Mika; Storti, Giuseppe; Soos, Miroslav; Morbidelli, Massimo

    2015-08-14

    A macroporous particulate support prepared previously by reactive gelation under shear and functionalized with poly(N-isopropylacrylamide), PNIPAM, brushes of variable length is applied for temperature-responsive chromatography, whereby temperature modulates hydrophobic interactions. Several different analytes, including small pharmaceuticals, peptides, proteins and monoclonal antibodies are employed. Contrary to the most commonly observed behavior in conventional chromatography, increasing retention is observed at elevated temperatures. Peak broadening is quantified using the peak standard deviation, which depends on both the polymer chain conformation and analyte adsorptivity. The favorable effect of grafted polymer thickness on retention becomes progressively less pronounced for thicker grafted PNIPAM layers. The effect of eluent composition on solute-sorbent interactions was investigated by introducing NaCl, methanol, dioxane and by varying the pH. Salt or organic solvent addition affects apart from the analytes solution properties, the hydrophobicity of the stationary phase itself. Frontal analyses performed at different temperatures to determine dynamic binding capacities, indicate small mass transfer resistances imposed by this novel packing material. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Development of a Process for Separation of Mogroside V from Siraitia grosvenorii by Macroporous Resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Hu

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A separation method was developed for the preparative separation and enrichment of the non-caloric sweetener mogroside V from Siraitia grosvenorii. The adsorption properties of six macroporous resins were evaluated. Results showed that HZ 806 resin offered the best adsorption and desorption capacities. Based on the adsorption experiments on HZ 806, the adsorption data were found to fit the Freundlich model well. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model showed the highest correlation with the experimental results. Separation was performed with deionized water and 40% aqueous ethanol solution as mobile phases. In a typical run, 100 g of herb was processed and 3.38 g of mogroside V with a purity of 10.7% was harvested. This separation method provided a 15.1-fold increase in the purification factor from 0.5% to 10.7%. The present study showed that HZ 806 resins were effective for the separation and enrichment of mogroside V from S. grosvenorii.

  8. Synthesis of three-dimensionally ordered macroporous manganese dioxide-carbon nanocomposites for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi; Tan, Xiuli; Gao, Xin; Song, Lihong

    2014-12-01

    In this article, we report a composite of MnO2 nanoparticles supported by three-dimensionally ordered macroporous carbon (MnO2/3DOM carbon nanocomposites) fabricated by means of a simple multi-component infiltration of three-dimensional templates. MnO2 nanoparticles of 2 nm-6 nm are observed to be highly dispersed on the 3DOM carbon scaffolds. Cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge/discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques are employed to assess the properties of these nanocomposites for use in supercapacitors. The results demonstrate that MnO2 can be effectively utilized with assistance of the 3DOM carbon in the electrode. The specific capacitance of the nanocomposite electrode can reach as high as 347 F g-1 at a current density of 0.5 A g-1. Moreover, the electrode exhibit excellent charge/discharge rate and good cycling stability, retaining over 92% of its initial charge after 5500 cycles at a current density of 2.5 A g-1. Such MnO2/3DOM carbon nanocomposite represents a promising exploring direction for enhancing the device performance of metal oxide-based electrochemical supercapacitors.

  9. Understanding the peculiarities of the piezoelectric effect in macro-porous BaTiO3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roscow, James I; Topolov, Vitaly Yu; Bowen, Christopher R; Taylor, John; Panich, Anatoly E

    2016-01-01

    This work demonstrates the potential of porous BaTiO 3 for piezoelectric sensor and energy-harvesting applications by manufacture of materials, detailed characterisation and application of new models. Ferroelectric macro-porous BaTiO 3 ceramics for piezoelectric applications are manufactured for a range of relative densities, α  = 0.30-0.95, using the burned out polymer spheres method. The piezoelectric activity and relevant parameters for specific applications are interpreted by developing two models: a model of a 3-0 composite and a 'composite in composite' model. The appropriate ranges of relative density for the application of these models to accurately predict piezoelectric properties are examined. The two models are extended to take into account the effect of 90° domain-wall mobility within ceramic grains on the piezoelectric coefficients [Formula: see text]. It is shown that porous ferroelectrics provide a novel route to form materials with large piezoelectric anisotropy [Formula: see text] at 0.20 ≤ α ≤ 0.45 and achieve a high squared figure of merit [Formula: see text] [Formula: see text]. The modelling approach allows a detailed analysis of the relationships between the properties of the monolithic and porous materials for the design of porous structures with optimum properties.

  10. Determination of hydrogen peroxide using a Prussian Blue modified macroporous gold electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jiao; Lin, Meng; Cho, MiSuk; Lee, Youngkwan

    2015-01-01

    We describe an electrochemical sensor for hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) that is making use of Prussian Blue (PB) electrodeposited on a macroporous (mp) gold skeleton electrode. An mp-Cu film was first prepared as a template and the converted into an mp-Au film through a replacement reaction without destructing the structure. Next, a layer of PB was electrochemically deposited on the surface of the mp-Au film. The surface morphology of the electrode was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. Attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were applied to confirm the structural features. The mp-PB/Au film electrode displays high electro-catalytic activity for the reduction of H 2 O 2 at a working potential of −50 mV (vs. Ag/AgCl) and is very stable. It has a linear response to H 2 O 2 in the 50 μM to 11.3 mM concentration range and a sensitivity of 767 μA∙mM −1 cm −2 . The electrode also revealed good selectivity in the presence of electro-active species such as ascorbic acid and uric acid. (author)

  11. Photonic molecules for improving the optical response of macroporous silicon photonic crystals for gas sensing purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardador, D; Segura, D; Rodríguez, A

    2018-02-19

    In this paper, we report the benefits of working with photonic molecules in macroporous silicon photonic crystals. In particular, we theoretically and experimentally demonstrate that the optical properties of a resonant peak produced by a single photonic atom of 2.6 µm wide can be sequentially improved if a second and a third cavity of the same length are introduced in the structure. As a consequence of that, the base of the peak is reduced from 500 nm to 100 nm, while its amplitude remains constant, increasing its Q-factor from its initial value of 25 up to 175. In addition, the bandgap is enlarged almost twice and the noise within it is mostly eliminated. In this study we also provide a way of reducing the amplitude of one or two peaks, depending whether we are in the two- or three-cavity case, by modifying the length of the involved photonic molecules so that the remainder can be used to measure gas by spectroscopic methods.

  12. Carbon nanotube-coated macroporous sponge for microbial fuel cell electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Xie, Xing

    2012-01-01

    The materials that are used to make electrodes and their internal structures significantly affect microbial fuel cell (MFC) performance. In this study, we describe a carbon nanotube (CNT)-sponge composite prepared by coating a sponge with CNTs. Compared to the CNT-coated textile electrodes evaluated in prior studies, CNT-sponge electrodes had lower internal resistance, greater stability, more tunable and uniform macroporous structure (pores up to 1 mm in diameter), and improved mechanical properties. The CNT-sponge composite also provided a three-dimensional scaffold that was favorable for microbial colonization and catalytic decoration. Using a batch-fed H-shaped MFC outfitted with CNT-sponge electrodes, an areal power density of 1.24 W m -2 was achieved when treating domestic wastewater. The maximum volumetric power density of a continuously fed plate-shaped MFC was 182 W m -3. To our knowledge, these are the highest values obtained to date for MFCs fed domestic wastewater: 2.5 times the previously reported maximum areal power density and 12 times the previously reported maximum volumetric power density. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  13. Adsorbability Enhancement of Macroporous Resin by Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma Treatment to Phenol in Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoufeng Tang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to enhance the adsorption efficiency and economize the use of macroporous resin, we have treated it with the dielectric barrier discharge (DBD plasma to improve its adsorbing capacity for phenol. The effects of operation conditions, for instance, applied voltage, treated time, and air flow rate on resin, were investigated by adsorption kinetics and isotherms. Results showed that the adsorption data were in good agreement with the pseudo-second-order and Freundlich equation. Experimental results showed that the modified resin was 156.5 mg/g and 39.2% higher than the untreated sample, when the modified conditions were conducted for discharge voltage 20 kV, treatment time 45 min, and air flow rate 1.2 L/min. The resin was characterized by FTIR and nitrogen adsorption isotherms before and after the DBD processes. It was found that the reason for the enhancement of resin adsorbability was attributed to the DBD plasma changing the surface physical and chemical structure.

  14. In Situ Gold Nanoparticle Gradient Formation in a 3D Meso- and Macroporous Polymer Matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penders, Jelle; Rajasekharan, Anand K; Hulander, Mats; Andersson, Martin

    2017-08-01

    Herein, the development and characterization of a 3D gradient structure of gold nanoparticles is described. The gradient of gold nanoparticles is made in situ in a macroporous nonionic block copolymer hydrogel matrix, through gold ion diffusion control. The polymer provides a matrix for diffusion of gold ions, acts as a template for controlling nanoparticle growth, and facilitates the in situ reduction of gold ions to gold nanoparticles. A clear gradient in gold nanoparticles is observed across the 3D space of the polymer matrix using scanning electron microscopy, fluorescence microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. The particle gradient is further functionalized with both hydrophobic and hydrophilic groups via thiol-gold linkage to demonstrate the ability to form gradients with different chemical functionalities. Using additive manufacturing, the polymer can also be printed as a porous network with possible applications for 3D cell culturing in, e.g., biomaterials research. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Glycidyl methacrylate macroporous copolymer grafted with diethylene triamine as sorbent for Reactive Black 5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandić Zvjezdana P.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, macroporous glycidyl methacrylate and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate copolymer functionalized with diethylene triamine [PGME-deta], was evaluated as Reactive Black 5 (RB5 sorbent. Batch RB5 removal from aqueous solution by PGME-deta was investigated by varying pH, contact time, sorbent dosage, initial dye concentration and temperature. The sorption is pH sensitive having maximum at pH 2 (dye removal of 85%, decreasing with the increase of pH (dye removal of 24% at pH=11 after 60 min. Sorption kinetics was fitted to chemical-reaction and particle-diffusion models (pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, intraparticle diffusion and Mckay models. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model accurately predicted the RB5 amount sorbed under all investigated operating conditions, while the intraparticle diffusion was the dominant rate-limiting mechanism. The diffusion mechanism was more prevalent with the decrease in temperature and the increase in concentration. The isotherm data was best fitted with the Langmuir model, indicating homogeneous distribution of active sites on PGME-deta and monolayer sorption, with the maximum sorption capacity of 353 mg g-1. The calculated sorption rates improved with increasing temperature and an activation energy close to 40 kJ mol-1 was determined, suggesting that chemisorption was also rate-controlling. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 43009, br. TR 37021 i br. III 45001

  16. Uniform versus asymmetric shading mediates crown recession in conifers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda L Schoonmaker

    Full Text Available In this study we explore the impact of asymmetrical vs. uniform crown shading on the mortality and growth of upper and lower branches within tree crowns, for two conifer species: shade intolerant lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta and shade tolerant white spruce (Picea glauca. We also explore xylem hydraulics, foliar nutrition, and carbohydrate status as drivers for growth and expansion of the lower and upper branches in various types of shading. This study was conducted over a two-year period across 10 regenerating forest sites dominated by lodgepole pine and white spruce, in the lower foothills of Alberta, Canada. Trees were assigned to one of four shading treatments: (1, complete uniform shading of the entire tree, (2 light asymmetric shading where the lower 1/4-1/3 of the tree crown was shaded, (3 heavy asymmetric shading as in (2 except with greater light reduction and (4 control in which no artificial shading occurred and most of the entire crown was exposed to full light. Asymmetrical shading of only the lower crown had a larger negative impact on the bud expansion and growth than did uniform shading, and the effect was stronger in pine relative to spruce. In addition, lower branches in pine also had lower carbon reserves, and reduced xylem-area specific conductivity compared to spruce. For both species, but particularly the pine, the needles of lower branches tended to store less C than upper branches in the asymmetric shade, which could suggest a movement of reserves away from the lower branches. The implications of these findings correspond with the inherent shade tolerance and self-pruning behavior of these conifers and supports a carbon based mechanism for branch mortality--mediated by an asymmetry in light exposure of the crown.

  17. Provisional crown failures in dental school predoctoral clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Jeffrey D; Bader, James A; Shugars, Daniel A

    2007-11-01

    Following a preliminary study indicating that at least 10 percent of single-unit crown temporary restorations failed in patients who received treatment by predoctoral students, a comprehensive examination of provisional crown failure was initiated to identify strategies to reduce the failure rate. For all provisionalized, natural tooth, single-unit crown preparations in University of North Carolina School of Dentistry predoctoral clinics for one year (N=1008), we noted tooth type, type of crown, student level, faculty coverage experience, treatment clinic, temporary material and luting agent, and retreatment (failure) of the provisional restoration. For failures, we also noted the stage of crown preparation at failure and the time since initial placement of the temporary. We analyzed these data using simple cross-tabs and logistic regression on need for retreatment (alpha =0.05). The failure rate was 18.75 percent (N=189). The median time to failure was twelve days; the 25(th) and 75(th) percentiles were six and twenty-six days. Significant risk factors, in order of odds ratio estimates, were molar tooth, second- or third-year student, and inexperienced faculty. Most provisional failures occurred during the final preparation phase of treatment. Provisional restoration failure is more frequent than was initially suspected from preliminary studies. Strategies for institutional intervention to reduce provisional restoration failure include greater attention to evaluating provisional crowns placed by inexperienced students (sophomores and juniors) and placing more emphasis on the retentiveness of provisional restorations reused following the final impression. Review of provisional evaluation procedures is also indicated for faculty who do not routinely supervise these procedures.

  18. Preparation and characterization of micro-cell membrane chromatographic column with N-hydroxysuccinimide group-modified silica-based porous layer open tubular capillary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Liang; Xu, Bei; Zhao, Zhi-Yu; Yang, Hui-Ping; Tang, Cheng; Dong, Lin-Yi; Liu, Kun; Fu, Li; Wang, Xian-Hua

    2017-09-22

    Cell membrane chromatography (CMC) is an effective tool in screening active compounds from natural products and studying membrane protein interactions. Nevertheless, it always consumes a large amount of cells (e.g. 10 7 -10 8 ) for column preparation. To overcome this, micro-CMC (mCMC), that employs a silica capillary as membrane carrier, was developed. However, both CMC and mCMC suffer from short column life span (e.g. 3days), mainly due to the falling-off of cellular membranes (CMs). This has greatly limited further application of CMC and mCMC, especially when the cells are hard to obtain. To solve this, N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS)-modified silica-based porous layer open tubular capillary was first prepared for mCMC. The NHS groups can easily react with amino groups on CMs to form a stable covalent bond under a mild condition. So, CMs immobilized on the NHS-modified capillary are less likely to fall off. To verify this, SKBR3/mCMC (Her2 positive) and BALL1/mCMC (CD20 positive) columns were prepared. Two monoclonal antibody drugs, trastuzumab (anti-Her2) and rituximab (anti-CD20), were selected as analytes to characterize the columns. As a result, NHS-modified column for mCMC can afford higher chromatographic retention than non-modified column. Besides, the column life span was significantly improved to more than 16days for SKBR3/mCMC and 14days for BALL1/mCMC, while the compared column showed a sharp decline in retention factor in first 3days. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Modeling the spatial distribution of forest crown biomass and effects on fire behavior with FUEL3D and WFDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell A. Parsons; William Mell; Peter McCauley

    2010-01-01

    Crown fire poses challenges to fire managers and can endanger fire fighters. Understanding of how fire interacts with tree crowns is essential to informed decisions about crown fire. Current operational crown fire predictions in the United States assume homogeneous crown fuels. While a new class of research fire models, which model fire behavior with computational...

  20. AB INITIO INVESTIGATION OF 12-CROWN-4 AND BENZO-12-CROWN-4 COMPLEXES WITH Li+, Na+, K+, Zn2+, Cd2+, AND Hg2+

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahmin Yahmin

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The structure and binding energies of 12-crown-4 and benzo-12-crown-4 complexes with Li+, Na+, K+, Zn2+, Cd2+, and Hg2+were investigated with ab initio calculations using Hartree-Fock approximation and second-order perturbation theory. The basis set used in this study is lanl2mb. The structure optimization of cation-crown ether complexes was evaluated at HF/lanl2mb level of theory and interaction energy of the corresponding complexes was calculated at MP2/lanl2mb level of theory (MP2/lanl2mb//HF/lanl2mb. Interactions of the crown ethers and the cations were discussed in term of the structure parameter of crown ether. The binding energies of the complexes show that all complex formed from transition metal cations is more stable than the complexes formed from alkali metal cations.   Keywords: 12-crown-4, benzo-12-crown-4, alkali metals, transition metals

  1. CROWN: A service grid middleware with trust management mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUAI Jinpeng; HU Chunming; LI Jianxin; SUN Hailong; WO Tianyu

    2006-01-01

    Based on a proposed Web service-based grid architecture, a service grid middleware system called CROWN is designed in this paper. As the two kernel points of the middleware, the overlay-based distributed grid resource management mechanism is proposed, and the policy-based distributed access control mechanism with the capability of automatic negotiation of the access control policy and trust management and negotiation is also discussed in this paper. Experience of CROWN testbed deployment and application development shows that the middleware can support the typical scenarios such as computing-intensive applications, data-intensive applications and mass information processing applications.

  2. In vitro fracture resistance of three commercially available zirconia crowns for primary molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Janice A; Knoell, Patrick; Yu, Qingzhao; Zhang, Jian-Feng; Wang, Yapin; Zhu, Han; Beattie, Sean; Xu, Xiaoming

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the fracture resistance of primary mandibular first molar zirconia crowns from three different manufacturers-EZ Pedo (EZP), NuSmile (NSZ), and Kinder Krowns (KK)-and compare it with the thickness of the zirconia crowns and the measured fracture resistance of preveneered stainless steel crowns (SSCs). The thickness of 20 zirconia crowns from three manufacturers were measured. The mean force required to fracture the crowns was determined. Preveneered NuSmile (NSW) SSCs were tested as a control. EZP crowns were significantly thicker in three of the six measured locations. The force required to fracture the EZP crown was significantly higher than that required for NSZ and KK. There was a positive correlation between fracture resistance and crown thickness in the mesial, distal, mesioocclusal, and distoocclusal dimensions. None of the zirconia crowns proved to be as resistant to fracture as the preveneered SSCs. Statistically significant differences were found among the forces required to fracture zirconia crowns by three different manufacturers. The increase in force correlated with crown thickness. The forces required to fracture the preveneered stainless steel crowns were greater than the forces required to fracture all manufacturers' zirconia crowns.

  3. Meso- and macroporous sulfonated starch solid acid catalyst for esterification of palm fatty acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim M. Lokman

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, a heterogeneous solid acid catalyst was successfully developed from starch. The catalyst was prepared by a significant two-step process; the initial step was incomplete carbonization of starch (ICS at 400 °C for 12 h and consequently followed by sulfonation process using concentrated H2SO4 to produce sulfonated-incomplete carbonized starch (ICS-SO3H. The characterization of the ICS-SO3H catalyst was done for chemical and physical properties such as X-ray diffraction (XRD, ammonia-temperature programmed desorption (NH3-TPD, surface area analysis, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA, elemental analysis and morphology analysis by scanning electron microscope (SEM. BET results showed the structure of ICS-SO3H consists of meso- and macro-porous properties, which allowed high density of the SO3H group attached on its carbon networks. The catalytic activity of ICS-SO3H catalyst was determined by analyzing the catalyst performance to esterify palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD and sequentially produced methyl ester. The maximum free fatty acid (FFA conversion and FAME yield were as high as 94.6% and 90.4%, respectively, at 75 °C using 10:1 methanol-to-PFAD molar ratio and 2 wt.% of catalyst within 3 h. The catalyst has sufficient potential to recycle up to 6 reactions without reactivation step and any remarkable loss of catalytic activity. It revealed that the heterogeneous ICS-SO3H catalyst exhibits high stability, reusability and catalytic activity.

  4. Development of Three-Dimensional Multicellular Tissue-Like Constructs for Mutational Analysis Using Macroporous Microcarriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Jacqueline A.; Fraga, Denise N.; Gonda, Steve R.

    2002-01-01

    A three-dimensional (3-D), tissue-like model was developed for the genotoxic assessment of space environment. In previous experiments, we found that culturing mammalian cells in a NASA-designed bioreactor, using Cytodex-3 beads as a scaffold, generated 3-D multicellular spheroids. In an effort to generate scaffold-free spheroids, we developed a new 3-D tissue-like model by coculturing fibroblast and epithelial cell in a NASA bioreactor using macroporous Cultispher-S(TradeMark) microcarriers. Big Blue(Registered Trademark) Rat 2(Lambda) fibroblasts, genetically engineered to contain multiple copies (>60 copies/cell) of the Lac I target gene, were cocultured with radio-sensitive human epithelial cells, H184F5. Over an 8-day period, samples were periodically examined by microscopy and histology to confirm cell attachment, growth, and viability. Immunohistochemistry and western analysis were used to evaluate the expression of specific cytoskeletal and adhesion proteins. Key cell culture parameters (glucose, pH, and lactate concentrations) were monitored daily. Controls were two-dimensional mono layers of fibroblast or epithelial cells cultured in T-flasks. Analysis of 3-D spheroids from the bioreactor suggests fibroblast cells attached to and completely covered the bead surface and inner channels by day 3 in the bioreactor. Treatment of the 3-day spheroids with dispase II dissolved the Cultisphers(TradeMark) and produced multicellular, bead-less constructs. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the presence of vi.mentin, cytokeratin and E-cadherin in treated spheroids. Examination of the dispase II treated spheroids with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) also showed the presence of desmosomes. These results suggest that the controlled enzymatic degradation of an artificial matrix in the low shear environment of the NASA-designed bioreactor can produce 3-D tissue-like spheroids. 2

  5. Wannier–Stark electro-optical effect, quasi-guided and photonic modes in 2D macroporous silicon structures with SiO_2 coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karachevtseva, L.; Goltviansky, Yu.; Sapelnikova, O.; Lytvynenko, O.; Stronska, O.; Bo, Wang; Kartel, M.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The IR absorption spectra of oxidized macroporous silicon were studied. • The Wannier–Stark electro-optical effect on Si-SiO_2 boundary was confirmed. • An additional electric field of quasi-guided optical modes was evaluated. • The photonic modes and band gaps were measured as peculiarities in absorption spectra. - Abstract: Opportunities to enhance the properties of structured surfaces were demonstrated on 2D macroporous silicon structures with SiO_2 coatings. We investigated the IR light absorption oscillations in macroporous silicon structures with SiO2 coatings 0–800 nm thick. The Wannier–Stark electro-optical effect due to strong electric field on Si-SiO_2boundary and an additional electric field of quasi-guided optical modes were taken into account. The photonic modes and band gaps were also considered as peculiarities in absorbance spectra of macroporous silicon structures with a thick SiO_2 coating. The photonic modes do not coincide with the quasi-guided modes in the silicon matrix and do not appear in absorption spectra of 2D macroporous silicon structures with surface nanocrystals.

  6. Management of crown-of-thorns sea star (

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, A.R.; Gumanao, G.S.; Mueller, B.; Saceda-Cardoza, M.M.E.

    2013-01-01

    Removals of crown-of-thorns sea stars (Acanthaster planci L) are crucial initiatives in limiting the damage to coral reefs during outbreaks, but have often been unable to control the populations. We hypothesized that reef topography and exact timing of removals (before reproduction) determine their

  7. Biomedical potentials of crown ethers: prospective antitumor agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kralj, Marijeta; Tusek-Bozić, Ljerka; Frkanec, Leo

    2008-10-01

    Crown ethers are of enormous interest and importance in chemistry, biochemistry, materials science, catalysis, separation, transport and encapsulated processes, as well as in the design and synthesis of various synthetic systems with specific properties, diverse capabilities, and programmable functions. Classical crown ethers are macrocyclic polyethers that contain 3-20 oxygen atoms separated from each other by two or more carbon atoms. They are exceptionally versatile in selectively binding a range of metal ions and a variety of organic neutral and ionic species. Crown ethers are currently being studied and used in a variety of applications beyond their traditional place in chemistry. This review presents additional applications and the ever-increasing biomedical potentials of these intriguing compounds, with particular emphasis on the prospects of their relevance as anticancer agents. We believe that further research in this direction should be encouraged, as crown compounds could either induce toxicities that are different from those of conventional antitumor drugs, or complement drugs in current use, thereby providing a valuable adjunct to therapy.

  8. Chemical constituent analysis of the crown-of-thorns starfish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-12

    Oct 12, 2011 ... negative influence on the growth and the health of the mice. Based on these results, we ..... This work was supported by the National Key Technology ... anticoagulant factor from the spine venom of the crown-of-thorns starfish ...

  9. Effect of detachment time of pineapple ( Ananas comosus L .) crown ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A limiting factor to large scale production of pineapple is the scarcity of planting materials. The use of pineapple crown as a propagation material is common, but with no regard to length of time after detachment. A study was conducted in the late seasons of 2007 and 2008 at the Teaching and Research Farm Ekiti State ...

  10. Evaluation of sampling strategies to estimate crown biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna P Poudel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Depending on tree and site characteristics crown biomass accounts for a significant portion of the total aboveground biomass in the tree. Crown biomass estimation is useful for different purposes including evaluating the economic feasibility of crown utilization for energy production or forest products, fuel load assessments and fire management strategies, and wildfire modeling. However, crown biomass is difficult to predict because of the variability within and among species and sites. Thus the allometric equations used for predicting crown biomass should be based on data collected with precise and unbiased sampling strategies. In this study, we evaluate the performance different sampling strategies to estimate crown biomass and to evaluate the effect of sample size in estimating crown biomass. Methods Using data collected from 20 destructively sampled trees, we evaluated 11 different sampling strategies using six evaluation statistics: bias, relative bias, root mean square error (RMSE, relative RMSE, amount of biomass sampled, and relative biomass sampled. We also evaluated the performance of the selected sampling strategies when different numbers of branches (3, 6, 9, and 12 are selected from each tree. Tree specific log linear model with branch diameter and branch length as covariates was used to obtain individual branch biomass. Results Compared to all other methods stratified sampling with probability proportional to size estimation technique produced better results when three or six branches per tree were sampled. However, the systematic sampling with ratio estimation technique was the best when at least nine branches per tree were sampled. Under the stratified sampling strategy, selecting unequal number of branches per stratum produced approximately similar results to simple random sampling, but it further decreased RMSE when information on branch diameter is used in the design and estimation phases. Conclusions Use of

  11. In vitro evaluation of the marginal integrity of CAD/CAM interim crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelvin Khng, Kwang Yong; Ettinger, Ronald L; Armstrong, Steven R; Lindquist, Terry; Gratton, David G; Qian, Fang

    2016-05-01

    The accuracy of interim crowns made with computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) systems has not been well investigated. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the marginal integrity of interim crowns made by CAD/CAM compared with that of conventional polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) crowns. A dentoform mandibular left second premolar was prepared for a ceramic crown and scanned for the fabrication of 60 stereolithical resin dies, half of which were scanned to fabricate 15 Telio CAD-CEREC and 15 Paradigm MZ100-E4D-E4D crowns. Fifteen Caulk and 15 Jet interim crowns were made on the remaining resin dies. All crowns were cemented with Tempgrip under a 17.8-N load, thermocycled for 1000 cycles, placed in 0.5% acid fuschin for 24 hours, and embedded in epoxy resin before sectioning from the mid-buccal to mid-lingual surface. The marginal discrepancy was measured using a traveling microscope, and dye penetration was measured as a percentage of the overall length under the crown. The mean vertical marginal discrepancy of the conventionally made interim crowns was greater than for the CAD/CAM crowns (P=.006), while no difference was found for the horizontal component (P=.276). The mean vertical marginal discrepancy at the facial surface of the Caulk crowns was significantly greater than that of the other 3 types of interim crowns (Pmargin, the mean horizontal component of the Telio crowns was significantly larger than that of the other 3 types, with no difference at the lingual margins (P=.150). The mean percentage dye penetration for the Paradigm MZ100-E4D crowns was significantly greater and for Jet crowns significantly smaller than for the other 3 crowns (Pmarginal discrepancies of the Jet interim crowns at the facial surface and with the horizontal marginal discrepancies of the Caulk interim crowns at the lingual surface (Pmarginal discrepancy was found with the interim crowns fabricated by CAD/CAM as compared with PMMA crowns

  12. Preparation of three-dimensional macroporous chitosan-gelatin B microspheres and HepG2-cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Fang; Cui, Long; Peng, Cheng-Hong; Wu, Xu-Bo; Han, Bao-San; Dong, Ya-Dong

    2016-12-01

    Chitosan-gelatin B microspheres with an open, interconnected, highly macroporous (100-200 µm) structure were prepared via a three-step protocol combining freeze-drying with an electrostatic and ionic cross-linking method. Saturated tripolyphosphate ethanol solution (85% ethanol) was chosen as the crosslinking agent to prevent destruction of the porous structure and to improve the biostability of the chitosan-gelatin B microspheres, with N-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-N'-ethyl-carbodiimide/N-hydroxysuccinimide as a second crosslinking agent to react with gelatin A and fixed chitosan-gelatin B microspheres to attain improved biocompatibility. Water absorption of the three-dimensional macroporous chitosan-gelatin B microspheres (3D-P-CGMs) was 12.84, with a porosity of 85.45%. In vitro lysozyme degradation after 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 14, and 21 days showed improved biodegradation in the 3D-P-CGMs. The morphology of human hepatoma cell lines (HepG2 cells) cultured on the 3D-P-CGMs was spherical, unlike that of cells cultured under traditional two-dimensional conditions. Scanning electron microscopy and paraffin sections were used to confirm the porous structure of the 3D-P-CGMs. HepG2 cells were able to migrate inside through the pore. Cell proliferation and levels of albumin and lactate dehydrogenase suggested that the 3D-P-CGMs could provide a larger specific surface area and an appropriate microenvironment for cell growth and survival. Hence, the 3D-P-CGMs are eminently suitable as macroporous scaffolds for cell cultures in tissue engineering and cell carrier studies. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Asymptomatic ''crowned dens'' calcification in CT images for the craniovertebral junction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Gen; Mori, Masataka; Fukushima, Tatsuro

    2007-01-01

    Calcification around the odontoid process suggests 'crowned dens' syndrome, when accompanied with acute occipital headache or neck pain and with inflammatory signs. We retrospectively searched for calcification around the odontoid process in routine CT images of 282 patients emcompassing the craniovertebral junction, and found 13 (4.6%) had 'crowned dens' calcifications with neither characteristic symptoms nor signs suggestive for crowned dens' syndrome. Females of older ages frequently showed asymptomatic crowned dens' calcifications. (author)

  14. Effects of crown release on growth and quality of even-aged red maple stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry F. Strong; Audra E. Hubbell; Adam H. Weise; Gayne G. Erdmann

    2006-01-01

    The effects of six crown-release treatments on growth and bole quality of 54 dominant, codominant, and intermediate red maples (Acer rubrum L.) were examined in an even-aged stand in upper Michigan. Treatments included an unreleased control, a single-tree and a two-tree crown release, and a full crown-to-crown release of 5, 10, and 15ft. Twenty-two...

  15. Meso-Molding Three-Dimensional Macroporous Perovskites: A New Approach to Generate High-Performance Nanohybrid Catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arandiyan, Hamidreza; Scott, Jason; Wang, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Newly designed 3D highly ordered macro/mesoporous multifunctional La1-xCexCoO3 nanohybrid frameworks with a 2D hexagonal mesostructure were fabricated via facile meso-molding in a three-dimensionally macroporous perovskite (MTMP) route. The nanohybrid framework exhibited excellent catalytic...... activity for methane combustion, which derived from the MTMP providing a larger surface area and pore volume, uniform pore sizes, higher accessible surface oxygen concentration, better low-temperature reducibility, and a unique nanovoid 3D structure....

  16. Effects of CT Number-Derived Matrix Density on Preferential Flow 1 and Transport in a Macroporous Agricultural Soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katuwal, Sheela; Moldrup, Per; Lamandé, Mathieu

    2015-01-01

    risks to public health. This study was focused on establishing links between the structural pore space and preferential transport using a combination of standard physical measurement methods for air and water permeabilities, breakthrough experiments, and X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) on large soil...... columns. Substantial structural heterogeneity that resulted in significant variations of flow and tracer transport was observed, despite the textural similarity of investigated samples. Quantification of macropore characteristics with X-ray CT was useful but not sufficient to explain the variability...

  17. Preparation and physical characterization of calcium sulfate cement/silica-based mesoporous material composites for controlled release of BMP-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan H

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Honglue Tan,1 Shengbing Yang,2 Pengyi Dai,1 Wuyin Li,1 Bing Yue2 1Luoyang Orthopedics and Traumatology Institution, Luoyang Orthopedic-Traumatological Hospital, Luoyang, 2Shanghai Key Laboratory of Orthopedic Implants, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Shanghai Ninth People’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China Abstract: As a commonly used implant material, calcium sulfate cement (CSC, has some shortcomings, including low compressive strength, weak osteoinduction capability, and rapid degradation. In this study, silica-based mesoporous materials such as SBA-15 were synthesized and combined with CSC to prepare CSC/SBA-15 composites. The properties of SBA-15 were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and nitrogen adsorption–desorption isotherms. SBA-15 was blended into CSC at 0, 5, 10, and 20 wt%, referred to as CSC, CSC-5S (5% mass ratio, CSC-10S (10% mass ratio, and CSC-20S (20% mass ratio, respectively. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and compression tests were used to determine the structure and mechanical properties of the composites, respectively. The formation of hydroxyapatite on composite surfaces was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction after soaking in simulated body fluid. BMP-2 was loaded into the composites by vacuum freeze-drying, and its release characteristics were detected by Bradford protein assay. The in vitro degradation of the CSC/SBA-15 composite was investigated by measuring weight loss. The results showed that the orderly, nanostructured, mesoporous SBA-15 possessed regular pore size and structure. The compressive strength of CSC/SBA-15 increased with the increase in SBA-15 mass ratio, and CSC-20S demonstrated the maximum strength. Compared to CSC, hydroxyapatite that formed on the surfaces of CSC/SBA-15 was uniform and compact. The degradation rate of CSC/SBA-15 decreased with increasing

  18. Mesoporous silica based MCM-41 as solid-phase extraction sorbent combined with micro-liquid chromatography-quadrupole-mass spectrometry for the analysis of pharmaceuticals in waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahane, S; Martínez Galera, M; Marchionni, M E; Socías Viciana, M M; Derdour, A; Gil García, M D

    2016-05-15

    This paper reports the first application of the silica based mesoporous material MCM-41 as a sorbent in solid phase extraction, to pre-concentrate pharmaceuticals of very different polarity (atenolol, nadolol, pindolol, timolol, bisoprolol, metoprolol, betaxolol, ketoprofen, naproxen, ibuprofen, diclofenac, tolfenamic acid, flufenamic acid and meclofenamic acid) in surface waters. The analytes were extracted from 100mL water samples at pH 2.0 (containing 10(-3) mol/L of sodium chloride) by passing the solution through a cartridge filled with 100 mg of MCM-41. Following elution, the pharmaceuticals were determined by micro-liquid chromatography and triple quadrupole-mass spectrometry. Two selected reaction monitoring transitions were monitored per compound, the most intense one being used for quantification and the second one for confirmation. Matrix effect was found in real waters for most analytes and was overcome using the standard addition method, which compared favorably with the matrix matched calibration method. The detection limits in solvent (acetonitrile:water 10:90, v/v) ranged from 0.01 to 1.48 μg/L and in real water extracts from 0.10 to 3.85 μg/L (0.001-0.0385 μg/L in the water samples). The quantitation limits in solvent were in the range 0.02-4.93 μg/L, whereas in real water extracts were between 0.45 and 10.00 μg/L (0.0045 and 0.1000 μg/L in the water samples). When ultrapure water samples were spiked at two concentration levels of each pharmaceutical (0.1 and 0.2 μg/L) and quantified using solvent based calibration graphs, recoveries were near 100%. However, recoveries for most pharmaceuticals were comparable or better than de described above, when river water samples (spiked at the same concentration levels) were quantified by the standard addition method and slightly worse using the matrix matched calibration method. Five real samples (two rivers, one dam and two fountain water samples) were analyzed by the developed method, atenolol

  19. Fractal kinetics of radiation-induced point-defect formation and decay in amorphous insulators: Application to color centers in silica-based optical fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griscom, David L.

    2001-11-01

    Formalisms have been developed to express the time evolution of bimolecular processes taking place in fractal spaces. These ``stretched-second-order'' solutions are specifically applicable to radiation-induced electron-hole pairs and/or vacancy-interstitial pairs in insulating glasses. Like the analogous Kohlrausch-type (stretched-first-order) expressions, the present solutions are functions of (kt)β, where 0the new second-order formalism and the familiar Kohlrausch approach have been used to fit experimental data (induced optical absorptions in silica-based glasses monitored at selected wavelengths) that serve as proxies for the numbers of color centers created by γ irradiation and/or destroyed by processes involving thermal, optical, or γ-ray activation. Two material systems were investigated: (1) optical fibers with Ge-doped-silica cores and (2) fibers with low-OH/low-chloride pure-silica cores. Successful fits of the growth curves for the Ge-doped-silica-core fibers at four widely separated dose rates were accomplished using solutions for color-center concentrations, N[(kt)β], which approach steady-state values, Nsat, as t-->∞. The parametrization of these fits reveals some unexpected, and potentially useful, empirical rules regarding the dose-rate dependences of β, k, and Nsat in the fractal regime (0the pure-silica-core fibers as well. In both material systems, there appear to be fractal classical phase transitions at certain threshold values of dose rate, below which the dose-rate dependencies of k and Nsat revert to those specified by classical (β=1) first- or second-order kinetics. For ktthe first- and second-order fractal kinetic growth curves become identical, i.e., N((kt)β)~Atβ, where the coefficient A depends on dose rate but not kinetic order. It is found empirically that A depends on the 3β/2 power of dose rate in both first- and second-order kinetics, thus ``accidentally'' becoming linearly proportional to dose rate in cases where β~2

  20. Tree crown structure indicators in a natural uneven-aged mixed coniferous forest in northeastern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javier Jimenez-Perez; Oscar Aguirre-Calderon; Horst Kramer

    2006-01-01

    Characterization of tree crown structure provides critical information to assess a variety of ecological conditions for multiple purposes and applications. For biomass growth, for example, tree crowns have basic physiological functions: assimilation, respiration, and transpiration. How tree crowns spatially interact and grow can bring about a seamless landscape of...

  1. 78 FR 63559 - Order of Suspension of Trading; In The Matter of Crown Alliance Capital Limited

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... Alliance Capital Limited (``Crown Alliance''), quoted under the ticker symbol CACL, because of questions regarding the accuracy of assertions in Crown Alliance's public filings concerning the company's assets and... of Crown Alliance Capital Limited October 22, 2013. It appears to the Securities and Exchange...

  2. Study of Ni Metallization in Macroporous Si Using Wet Chemistry for Radio Frequency Cross-Talk Isolation in Mixed Signal Integrated Circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xi; Xu, Chengkun; Chong, Kyuchul; Tu, King-Ning; Xie, Ya-Hong

    2011-05-25

    A highly conductive moat or Faraday cage of through-the-wafer thickness in Si substrate was proposed to be effective in shielding electromagnetic interference thereby reducing radio frequency (RF) cross-talk in high performance mixed signal integrated circuits. Such a structure was realized by metallization of selected ultra-high-aspect-ratio macroporous regions that were electrochemically etched in p - Si substrates. The metallization process was conducted by means of wet chemistry in an alkaline aqueous solution containing Ni 2+ without reducing agent. It is found that at elevated temperature during immersion, Ni 2+ was rapidly reduced and deposited into macroporous Si and a conformal metallization of the macropore sidewalls was obtained in a way that the entire porous Si framework was converted to Ni. A conductive moat was as a result incorporated into p - Si substrate. The experimentally measured reduction of crosstalk in this structure is 5~18 dB at frequencies up to 35 GHz.

  3. Study of Ni Metallization in Macroporous Si Using Wet Chemistry for Radio Frequency Cross-Talk Isolation in Mixed Signal Integrated Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xi; Xu, Chengkun; Chong, Kyuchul; Tu, King-Ning; Xie, Ya-Hong

    2011-01-01

    A highly conductive moat or Faraday cage of through-the-wafer thickness in Si substrate was proposed to be effective in shielding electromagnetic interference thereby reducing radio frequency (RF) cross-talk in high performance mixed signal integrated circuits. Such a structure was realized by metallization of selected ultra-high-aspect-ratio macroporous regions that were electrochemically etched in p− Si substrates. The metallization process was conducted by means of wet chemistry in an alkaline aqueous solution containing Ni2+ without reducing agent. It is found that at elevated temperature during immersion, Ni2+ was rapidly reduced and deposited into macroporous Si and a conformal metallization of the macropore sidewalls was obtained in a way that the entire porous Si framework was converted to Ni. A conductive moat was as a result incorporated into p− Si substrate. The experimentally measured reduction of crosstalk in this structure is 5~18 dB at frequencies up to 35 GHz. PMID:28879960

  4. Comparison of Primary Molar Crown Dimensions with Stainless Steel Crowns in a Sample of Iranian Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Afshar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. Due to anatomic variation in tooth anatomy between populations, this study compared the buccolingual (BL and mesiodistal (MD dimensions of primary molars with those of stainless steel crowns (SSCs in anIranian population. Materials and methods. Impressions were taken from both dental arches of children, and casts were poured. Teeth with caries, restoration, hypoplasia or other dental anomalies were excluded. 216 primary molars were selected and divided into 4 groups of 54 each (maxillary and mandibular first and second primary molars. MD/BL dimensions were measured using a digital caliper with 0.01 mm precision on casts and SCCs (3M brand. Data were assessed using paired t-test, post hoc test and ANOVA. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results. The MD dimension of the lower first molar SSC and the BL dimension of the lower second molar SSC had the least difference with the corresponding values of the respective teeth. The MD dimension of the upper second molar SSC and the BL dimension of the upper first molar SSC had the greatest difference with the corresponding values in the respective teeth. Comparison of the two different brands of SSCs for the upper first molar revealed that both types had significant differences with the teeth in terms of both MD (P = 0.0 and BL (P = 0.0 dimensions. Conclusion. In the studied population, best adaptation was seen in second lower molars and the least adaptationswere seen in first and second upper molars.

  5. Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trial of Bilayer Ceramic and Metal-Ceramic Crown Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquivel-Upshaw, Josephine; Rose, William; Oliveira, Erica; Yang, Mark; Clark, Arthur E.; Anusavice, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Analyzing the clinical performance of restorative materials is important, as there is an expectation that these materials and procedures will restore teeth and do no harm. The objective of this research study was to characterize the clinical performance of metal-ceramic crowns, core ceramic crowns, and core ceramic/veneer ceramic crowns based on 11 clinical criteria. Materials and Methods An IRB-approved, randomized, controlled clinical trial was conducted as a single-blind pilot study. The following three types of full crowns were fabricated: (1) metal-ceramic crown (MC) made from a Pd-Au-Ag-Sn-In alloy (Argedent 62) and a glass-ceramic veneer (IPS d.SIGN veneer); (2) non-veneered (glazed) lithium disilicate glass-ceramic crown (LDC) (IPS e.max Press core and e.max Ceram Glaze); and (3) veneered lithia disilicate glass-ceramic crown (LDC/V) with glass-ceramic veneer (IPS Empress 2 core and IPS Eris). Single-unit crowns were randomly assigned. Patients were recalled for each of 3 years and were evaluated by two calibrated clinicians. Thirty-six crowns were placed in 31 patients. A total of 12 crowns of each of the three crown types were studied. Eleven criteria were evaluated: tissue health, marginal integrity, secondary caries, proximal contact, anatomic contour, occlusion, surface texture, cracks/chips (fractures), color match, tooth sensitivity, and wear (of crowns and opposing enamel). Numerical rankings ranged from 1 to 4, with 4 being excellent, and 1 indicating a need for immediate replacement. Statistical analysis of the numerical rankings was performed using a Fisher’s exact test. Results There was no statistically significant difference between performance of the core ceramic crowns and the two veneered crowns at year 1 and year 2 (p > 0.05). All crowns were rated either as excellent or good for each of the clinical criteria; however, between years 2 and 3, gradual roughening of the occlusal surface occurred in some of the ceramic-ceramic crowns

  6. PEEK Primary Crowns with Cobalt-Chromium, Zirconia and Galvanic Secondary Crowns with Different Tapers—A Comparison of Retention Forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Stock

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In prosthetic dentistry, double crown systems have proved their suitability as retainers for removable partial dentures. However, investigations in this context, regarding polyetheretherketone, are scarce. Therefore, the aim of this study was to test the retention force (RF between polyetheretherketone (PEEK primary and cobalt-chromium (CoCr, zirconia (ZrO2 and galvanic (GAL secondary crowns with three different tapers. Primary PEEK-crowns were milled with the tapers 0°, 1°, and 2° (n = 10/taper, respectively. Afterwards, 90 secondary crowns were fabricated: (i 30 CoCr-crowns milled from Ceramill Sintron (AmannGirrbach, Koblach, Austria (n = 10/taper, (ii 30 ZrO2-crowns milled from Ceramill ZI (AmannGirrbach, Koblach, Austria (n = 10/taper, and (iii 30 GAL-crowns made using electroforming (n = 10/taper. RF was measured in a pull-off test (20 pull-offs/specimen and data were analyzed using 2-/1-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA followed by the Tukey-Honestly Significant Difference (HSD post hoc test and linear regression analyses (p < 0.05. The measured mean RF values ranged between 9.6 and 38.2 N. With regard to the 0°, 1°, and 2° tapered crowns, no statistically significant differences between CoCr and ZrO2 were observed (p > 0.141. At 0° taper, no differences in retention forces between GAL, CrCr, and ZrO2 crowns were found (p = 0.075. However, at 1° and 2° taper, lower RF for GAL-crowns were observed (p < 0.009, p < 0.001, respectively. According to this laboratory study, PEEK might be a suitable material for primary crowns, regardless of the taper and the material of secondary crown. Long-term results, however, are still necessary.

  7. Porphyrinic metal-organic framework/macroporous carbon composites for electrocatalytic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Duanduan; Liu, Jian; Bo, Xiangjie; Li, Mian; Guo, Liping

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Zr-PorMOF/MPC composites were prepared, which used to detect H 2 O 2 and simultaneously detect UA, XA and HX Display Omitted -- Highlights: •Preparing Zr-PorMOF/MPC composites by a simple one-step solvothermal reaction. •Enhanced electrocatalytic activity at Zr-PorMOF/MPC than Zr-PorMOF and MPC. •A low detection limit, short response time and low applied potential towards H 2 O 2 reduction. •Simultaneous determination of UA, XA and HX. -- Abstract: In this work, a novel porphyrinic metal-organic framework-based composite has been successfully synthesized by a simple one-step solvothermal method through growing Zr-PorMOF on macroporous carbon (MPC). Porphyrin-base MOFs combining the structural adjustable of MOFs and the specific catalytic activity of biomimetic catalysts play an important role in electrocatalysis. A series of characterization show that the roles of MPC as follow: (1) MPC could avoid the agglomeration of Zr-PorMOF particles and increase the specific surface area; (2) MPC could improve the electrochemical stability of Zr-PorMOF particles; (3) MPC could reduce the electron transfer resistance. Therefore, MPC plays the role of the conductive bridges to provide facile charge transport. The obtained Zr-PorMOF/MPC composites exhibit much better electrocatalytic activity for the reduction of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) than the pristine Zr-PorMOF due to the synergy of Zr-PorMOF and MPC. This enzyme-free H 2 O 2 sensor shows two linear relationships in the ranges 0.5–137 μM (R 2 = 0.991, sensitivity = 66 μA mM −1 ) and 137–3587 μM (R 2 = 0.993, sensitivity = 16 μA mM −1 ), with a low over-potential at −0.2 V, a fast response time within 1 s and a low limit of detection (LOD) of 0.18 μM. Moreover, Zr-PorMOF/MPC composites were used to simultaneously detect uric acid (UA), xanthine (XA) and hypoxanthine (HX). These three substances are degradation products of purine metabolism. In addition, Zr-PorMOF/MPC composites

  8. Negative plate macropore surfaces in lead-acid batteries: Porosity, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller area, and capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Alkaine, C.V.; de O. Brito, G.A. [Group of Electrochemistry and Polymers, DQ-UFSCar, Rodovia Washington Luis, Km 235, CP 676, 13565-905 Sao Carlos (SP) (Brazil)

    2009-06-01

    We propose an explanation for the production of an electrochemically active area during the electrochemical formation of lead-acid battery negative plates based on solid-state reactions. Our proposal is supported by experimental data. This study includes a critical review of the literature on charge/discharge mechanisms, porosity, and BET area. The critical review, through the latter two parameters, indicates the existence of both macro and micropores in positive plates, but only macropores in negative plates, with characteristic surface roughness. In the present paper the surface sulfation of the precursor is controlled using various acidic, neutral and alkaline solutions during an electrochemical formation process that does not include soaking. Our results confirm that variable roughness can be produced at the negative plate macropore surfaces. The morphological changes produced by different formation conditions are assessed by measuring the macroporosity, BET area, and capacity of single negative plates. Based on these concepts, a method was developed and applied to measure independently the contributions of geometrical surface macroporosity and roughness to the negative plate capacity. (author)

  9. Studies on the absorption of uranium and plutonium on macroporous anion-exchange resins from mixed solvent media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chetty, K.V.; Mapara, P.M.; Godbole, A.G.; Swarup, Rajendra

    1995-01-01

    The ion-exchange studies on uranium and plutonium using macroporous anion-exchange resins from an aqueous-organic solvent mixed media were carried out to develop a method for their separation. Out of the several water miscible organic solvents tried, methanol and acetone were found to be best suited. Distribution data for U(VI) and Pu(IV) for three macroporous resins Tulsion A-27(MP) (strong base), Amberlyst A-26(MP) (strong base) and Amberlite XE-270(MP) (weak base) as a function of (i) nitric acid concentration (ii) organic solvent concentration were obtained. Based on the data separation factors for Pu/U were calculated. Column experiments using Tulsion A-27(MP) from a synthetic feed (HNO 3 - methanol and HNO 3 - acetone) containing Pu and U in different ratios were carried out. Plutonium was recovered from the bulk of the actual solution generated during the dissolution of plutonium bearing fuels. The method has the advantage of loading plutonium from as low as 1M nitric acid in presence of methanol or acetone and could be used satisfactorily for its recovery from solutions containing plutonium and uranium. (author). 11 refs., 4 figs., 16 tabs

  10. Molecularly imprinted macroporous monoliths for solid-phase extraction: Effect of pore size and column length on recognition properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlakh, E G; Stepanova, M A; Korneeva, Yu M; Tennikova, T B

    2016-09-01

    The series of macroporous monolithic molecularly imprinted monoliths differed by pore size, column length (volume) and amount of template used for imprinting was synthesized using methacrylic acid and glycerol dimethacrylate as co-monomers and antibiotic ciprofloxacin as a template. The prepared monoliths were characterized regarding to their permeability, pore size, porosity, and resistance to the flow of a mobile phase. The surface morphology was also analyzed. The slight dependence of imprinting factor on flow rate, as well as its independence on pore size of macroporous molecularly imprinted monolithic media was observed. The column obtained at different conditions exhibited different affinity of ciprofloxacin to the imprinted sites that was characterized with Kdiss values in the range of 10(-5)-10(-4)M. The solid-phase extraction of ciprofloxacin from such biological liquids as human blood serum, human urine and cow milk serum was performed using the developed monolithic columns. In all cases, the extraction was found to be 95.0-98.6%. Additionally, the comparison of extraction of three fluoroqinolone analogues, e.g. ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin and moxifloxacin, from human blood plasma was carried out. Contrary to ciprofloxacin extracted with more than 95%, this parameter did not exceed 40% for its analogues. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Adsorption and desorption properties of macroporous resins for anthocyanins from the calyx extract of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Xiu-Lian; Wang, Dong; Chen, Bi-Yun; Feng, Yong-Mei; Wen, Shao-Hong; Zhan, Peng-Yuan

    2012-03-07

    Adsorption of roselle anthocynins, a natural pigment, onto various macroporous resins was optimized to develop a simple and efficient process for industrial separation and purification of roselle anthocyanins. Nine different macroporous resins (AB-8, X-5, HPD-100, SP-207, XAD-4, LS-305A, DM-21, LS-610B, and LS-305) were evaluated for the adsorption properties of the anthocyanins extracted from the calyx extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. The influences of phase contact time, solution pH, initial anthocyanin concentration, and ethanol concentration with different citric acid amounts were studied by the static adsorption/desorption method. The adsorption isotherm data were fitted well to the Langmuir isotherm, and according to this model, LS-610B and LS-305 exhibited the highest monolayer sorption capacities of 31.95 and 38.16 mg/g, respectively. The kinetic data were modeled using pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, and intraparticle diffusion equations. The experimental data were well described by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Continuous column adsorption-regeneration cycles indicated negligible capacity loss of LS-305 during operation. The overall yield of pigment product was 49.6 mg/g dried calyces. The content of roselle anthocynins in the pigment product was 4.85%.

  12. Surface plasmon resonance sensor for femtomolar detection of testosterone with water-compatible macroporous molecularly imprinted film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingwen; Jing, Lijing; Zhang, Jinling; Ren, Yamin; Wang, Yang; Wang, Yi; Wei, Tianxin; Liedberg, Bo

    2014-10-15

    A novel water-compatible macroporous molecularly imprinted film (MIF) has been developed for rapid, sensitive, and label-free detection of small molecule testosterone in urine. The MIF was synthesized by photo copolymerization of monomers (methacrylic acid [MAA] and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate [HEMA]), cross-linker (ethylene glycol dimethacrylate, EGDMA), and polystyrene nanoparticles (PS NPs) in combination with template testosterone molecules. The PS NPs and template molecules were subsequently removed to form an MIF with macroporous structures and the specific recognition sites of testosterone. Incubation of artificial urine and human urine on the MIF and the non-imprinted film (NIF), respectively, indicated undetectable nonspecific adsorption. Accordingly, the MIF was applied on a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor for the detection of testosterone in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and artificial urine with a limit of detection (LOD) down to 10(-15)g/ml. To the best of our knowledge, the LOD is considered as one of the lowest among the SPR sensors for the detection of small molecules. The control experiments performed with analogue molecules such as progesterone and estradiol demonstrated the good selectivity of this MIF for sensing testosterone. Furthermore, this MIF-based SPR sensor shows high stability and reproducibility over 8months of storage at room temperature, which is more robust than protein-based biosensors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Separation and purification of both tea seed polysaccharide and saponin from camellia cake extract using macroporous resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Pengjie; Zhou, Mingda; Zhou, Chengyun; Wang, Qian; Zhang, Fangfang; Chen, Jian

    2015-02-01

    A novel method to separate and purify tea seed polysaccharide and tea seed saponin from camellia cake extract by macroporous resin was developed. Among four kinds of resins (AB-8, NKA-9, XDA-6, and D4020) tested, AB-8 macroporous resin possessed optimal separating capacity for the two substances and thus was selected for the separation, in which deionized water was used to elute tea seed polysaccharide, 0.25% NaOH solution to remove the undesired pigments, and 90% ethanol to elute tea seed saponin. Further dynamic adsorption/desorption experiments on AB-8 resin-based column chromatography were conducted to obtain the optimal parameters. Under optimal dynamic adsorption and desorption conditions, 18.7 and 11.8% yield of tea seed polysaccharide and tea seed saponin were obtained with purities of 89.2 and 96.0%, respectively. The developed method provides a potential approach for the large-scale production of tea seed polysaccharide and tea seed saponin from camellia cake. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Self-floating carbon nanotube membrane on macroporous silica substrate for highly efficient solar-driven interfacial water evaporation

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Yuchao

    2016-01-22

    Given the emerging energy and water challenges facing the mankind, solar-driven water evaporation has been gaining renewed research attention from both academia and industry as an energy efficient means of wastewater treatment and clean water production. In this project, a bi-layered material, consisting of a top self-floating hydrophobic CNT membrane and a bottom hydrophilic macroporous silica substrate, was rationally designed and fabricated for highly energy-efficient solar driven water evaporation based on the concept of interfacial heating. The top thin CNT membrane with excellent light adsorption capability, acted as photothermal component, which harvested and converted almost the entire incident light to heat for exclusively heating of interfacial water. On the other hand, the macroporous silica substrate provided multi-functions toward further improvement of operation stability and water evaporation performance of the material, including water pumping, mechanical support and heat barriers. The silica substrate was conducive in forming the rough surface structures of the CNT top layers during vacuum filtration and thus indirectly contributed to high light adsorption by the top CNT layers. With optimized thicknesses of the CNT top layer and silica substrate, a solar thermal conversion efficiency of 82 % was achieved in this study. The bi-layered material also showed great performance toward water evaporation from seawater and contaminated water, realizing the separation of water from pollutants, and indicating its application versatility.

  15. Mechanosensation across borders: fibroblasts inside a macroporous scaffold sense and respond to the mechanical environment beyond the scaffold walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Könnig, D; Herrera, A; Duda, G N; Petersen, A

    2018-01-01

    In tissue defects, cells face distinct mechanical boundary conditions, but how this influences early stages of tissue regeneration remains largely unknown. Biomaterials are used to fill defects but also to provide specific mechanical or geometrical signals. However, they might at the same time shield mechanical information from surrounding tissues that is relevant for tissue functionalisation. This study investigated how fibroblasts in a soft macroporous biomaterial scaffold respond to distinct mechanical environments while they form microtissues. Different boundary stiffnesses counteracting scaffold contraction were provided via a newly developed in vitro setup. Online monitoring over 14 days revealed 3.0 times lower microtissue contraction but 1.6 times higher contraction force for high vs. low stiffness. This difference was significant already after 48 h, a very early stage of microtissue growth. The microtissue's mechanical and geometrical adaptation indicated a collective cellular behaviour and mechanical communication across scaffold pore walls. Surprisingly, the stiffness of the environment influenced cell behaviour even inside macroporous scaffolds where direct cell-cell contacts are hindered. Mechanical communication between cells via traction forces is essential for tissue adaptation to the environment and should not be blocked by rigid biomaterials. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Low-cost removal of organic pollutants with nickel nanoparticle loaded ordered macroporous hydrogel as high performance catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Mingyi, E-mail: tmyi@tjcu.edu.cn [Department of Applied Chemistry, School of Science, Tianjin University of Commerce, Tianjin 300134 (China); Huang, Guanbo, E-mail: gbhuang2007@hotmail.com [Department of Chemistry, School of Science, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Zhang, Sai [Department of Applied Chemistry, School of Science, Tianjin University of Commerce, Tianjin 300134 (China); Liu, Yue [Department of Chemistry, School of Science, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Li, Xianxian [Department of Applied Chemistry, School of Science, Tianjin University of Commerce, Tianjin 300134 (China); Wang, Xingrui [Department of Chemistry, School of Science, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Pang, Xiaobo [Department of Applied Chemistry, School of Science, Tianjin University of Commerce, Tianjin 300134 (China); Qiu, Haixia, E-mail: qhx@tju.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, School of Science, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2014-06-01

    A facile route for the in situ preparation of catalytically active Ni nanoparticles (NPs) in ordered macroporous hydrogel (OMH) has been developed. The hydrogel was fabricated based on polystyrene colloid template. The electronegativity of amide and carboxyl groups on the poly(acrylamide-co-acryl acid) chains of the hydrogel caused strong binding of Ni{sup 2+} ions which made them distribute uniformly inside the hydrogel. When immersed in NaBH{sub 4} aqueous solution, the Ni{sup 2+} ions on the hydrogel were reduced to Ni NPs. The resultant Ni NPs loaded OMH showed good catalytic activity for the reduction of a common organic pollutant, 4-nitrophenol, with NaBH{sub 4}. A kinetic study of the catalytic reaction was carried out. The rate constant per unit weight could reach 0.53 s{sup −1} g{sup −1}, which is much better than many common hydrogel loaded nickel catalysts. Moreover, the current catalyst can be easily separated and recovered with stable catalytic activity. - Highlights: • A new poly(acrylamide-co-acryl acid) hydrogel with ordered macropores. • A simple in situ fabrication of nickel nanoparticles under mild conditions. • High-performance heterogeneous catalyst for removal of nitrophenol from water. • Good recyclability of catalyst without any complicated regeneration process.

  17. The influence of plutonium concentration and solution flow rate on the effective capacity of macroporous anion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, S.F.; Gallegos, T.D.

    1987-07-01

    The principal aqueous process used to recover and purify plutonium at the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility is anion exchange in nitric acid. Previous studies with gel-type anion exchange resin have shown an inverse relationship between plutonium concentration in the feed solution and the optimum flow rate for this process. Because gel-type resin has been replaced with macroporous resin at Los Alamos, the relationship between plutonium concentration and solution flow rate was reexamined with the selected Lewatit MP-500-FK resin using solutions of plutonium in nitric acid and in nitric acid with high levels of added nitrate salts. Our results with this resin differ significantly from previous data obtained with gel-type resin. Flow-rate variation from 10 to 80 liters per hour had essentially no effect on the measured quantities of plutonium sorbed by the macroporous resin. However, the effect of plutonium concentration in the feed solutions was pronounced, as feed solutions that contained the highest concentrations of plutonium also produced the highest resin loadings. The most notable effect of high concentrations of dissolved nitrate salts in these solutions was an increased resin capacity for plutonium at low flow rates. 16 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  18. Low-cost removal of organic pollutants with nickel nanoparticle loaded ordered macroporous hydrogel as high performance catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Mingyi; Huang, Guanbo; Zhang, Sai; Liu, Yue; Li, Xianxian; Wang, Xingrui; Pang, Xiaobo; Qiu, Haixia

    2014-01-01

    A facile route for the in situ preparation of catalytically active Ni nanoparticles (NPs) in ordered macroporous hydrogel (OMH) has been developed. The hydrogel was fabricated based on polystyrene colloid template. The electronegativity of amide and carboxyl groups on the poly(acrylamide-co-acryl acid) chains of the hydrogel caused strong binding of Ni 2+ ions which made them distribute uniformly inside the hydrogel. When immersed in NaBH 4 aqueous solution, the Ni 2+ ions on the hydrogel were reduced to Ni NPs. The resultant Ni NPs loaded OMH showed good catalytic activity for the reduction of a common organic pollutant, 4-nitrophenol, with NaBH 4 . A kinetic study of the catalytic reaction was carried out. The rate constant per unit weight could reach 0.53 s −1  g −1 , which is much better than many common hydrogel loaded nickel catalysts. Moreover, the current catalyst can be easily separated and recovered with stable catalytic activity. - Highlights: • A new poly(acrylamide-co-acryl acid) hydrogel with ordered macropores. • A simple in situ fabrication of nickel nanoparticles under mild conditions. • High-performance heterogeneous catalyst for removal of nitrophenol from water. • Good recyclability of catalyst without any complicated regeneration process

  19. Self-floating carbon nanotube membrane on macroporous silica substrate for highly efficient solar-driven interfacial water evaporation

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Yuchao; Zhang, Lianbin; Wang, Peng

    2016-01-01

    Given the emerging energy and water challenges facing the mankind, solar-driven water evaporation has been gaining renewed research attention from both academia and industry as an energy efficient means of wastewater treatment and clean water production. In this project, a bi-layered material, consisting of a top self-floating hydrophobic CNT membrane and a bottom hydrophilic macroporous silica substrate, was rationally designed and fabricated for highly energy-efficient solar driven water evaporation based on the concept of interfacial heating. The top thin CNT membrane with excellent light adsorption capability, acted as photothermal component, which harvested and converted almost the entire incident light to heat for exclusively heating of interfacial water. On the other hand, the macroporous silica substrate provided multi-functions toward further improvement of operation stability and water evaporation performance of the material, including water pumping, mechanical support and heat barriers. The silica substrate was conducive in forming the rough surface structures of the CNT top layers during vacuum filtration and thus indirectly contributed to high light adsorption by the top CNT layers. With optimized thicknesses of the CNT top layer and silica substrate, a solar thermal conversion efficiency of 82 % was achieved in this study. The bi-layered material also showed great performance toward water evaporation from seawater and contaminated water, realizing the separation of water from pollutants, and indicating its application versatility.

  20. Failure analysis of various monolithic posterior aesthetic dental crowns using finite element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porojan, Liliana; Topală, Florin

    2017-08-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the effect of material stiffness and load on the biomechanical performance of the monolithic full-coverage posterior aesthetic dental crowns using finite element analysis. Three restorative materials for monolithic dental crowns were selected for the study: zirconia; lithium disilicate glass-ceramic, and resin-based composite. Stresses were calculated in the crowns for all materials and in the teeth structures, under different load values. The experiments show that dental crowns made from all this new aesthetic materials processed by CAD/CAM technologies would be indicated as monolithic dental crowns for posterior areas.

  1. Design algorithm for generatrix profile of cylindrical crowned rollers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Creţu Spiridon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The cross-section of roller profile controls the pressure distribution in the contact area and radically affects the roller bearings basic dynamic load rating and rating lives. Today the most used roller profiles are the logarithmic profile and cylindrical-crowned (ZB profile. The logarithmic profile has a continuous evolution with no discontinuities till the intersection with the end fillet while ZB profile has two more discontinuities at the intersections points between the crowning circle and straight line generatrix. Using a semianalytical method, a numerical study has been carried out to find the optimum ZB profile for rollers incorporated in cylindrical rollers bearings. The basic reference rating life (L10_r has been used as optimization criterion.

  2. 18F-fluorination by crown ether-metal fluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irie, T.; Fukushi, K.; Ido, T.; Kasida, Y.; Nozaki, T.

    1982-01-01

    18 F-Fluorination by ''naked'' 18 F - anion produced by complexing anhydrous K 18 F, which was prepared from aqueous 18 F, with 18 -Crown-6 was described for preparing 18 F-21-fluoroprogesterone. In order to find out optimum conditions in this labelling method, various factors were investigated such as the solubility of KF in organic solvents containing 18 -Crown-6 and its reactivity for the nucleophilic displacement of 21-mesylate of progesterone. Chloroform was a good solvent in solubilization of KF and its reactivity. Problems in this labelling procedure were also examined, such as a supporter for transferring the labelled anhydrous K 18 F and reaction vessels. Use of a Teflon reaction vessel resulted in a good radiochemical yield based on the starting activity of $ 18 water. (author)

  3. 18F-fluorination by crown ether-metal fluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irie, T.; Fukushi, K.; Ido, T.; Kasida, Y.; Nozaki, T.

    1984-01-01

    For non-carrier-added 18 F-labeling of organic compounds, details were studied concerning the previously developed KF-crown ether method. In the modified method, a minute amount of KOH instead of carrier KF is added for the preparation of the anhydrous 18 F from aqueous carrier-free 18 F. The following factors were examined in order to determine optimum conditions for the preparation of the anhydrous non-carrier-added 18 F and the labeling synthesis with it: effects of the vessel on the evaporation of the 18 F-KOH solution and the amount of added KOH for the conversion of aqueous 18 F to anhydrous 18 F, the solubilized activity of the 18 F obtained by the evaporation in organic solutions containing 18-Crown-6 and the labeling reaction, as exemplified by the synthesis of 21-fluoroprogesterone. (author)

  4. Increasing the thermopower of crown-ether-bridged anthraquinones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismael, Ali K.; Grace, Iain; Lambert, Colin J.

    2015-10-01

    We investigate strategies for increasing the thermopower of crown-ether-bridged anthraquinones. The novel design feature of these molecules is the presence of either (1) crown-ether or (2) diaza-crown-ether bridges attached to the side of the current-carrying anthraquinone wire. The crown-ether side groups selectively bind alkali-metal cations and when combined with TCNE or TTF dopants, provide a large phase-space for optimising thermoelectric properties. We find that the optimum combination of cations and dopants depends on the temperature range of interest. The thermopowers of both 1 and 2 are negative and at room temperature are optimised by binding with TTF alone, achieving thermpowers of -600 μV K-1 and -285 μV K-1 respectively. At much lower temperatures, which are relevant to cascade coolers, we find that for 1, a combination of TTF and Na+ yields a maximum thermopower of -710 μV K-1 at 70 K, whereas a combination of TTF and Li+ yields a maximum thermopower of -600 μV K-1 at 90 K. For 2, we find that TTF doping yields a maximum thermopower of -800 μV K-1 at 90 K, whereas at 50 K, the largest thermopower (of -600 μV K-1) is obtain by a combination TTF and K+ doping. At room temperature, we obtain power factors of 73 μW m-1 K-2 for 1 (in combination with TTF and Na+) and 90 μW m-1 K-2 for 2 (with TTF). These are higher or comparable with reported power factors of other organic materials.We investigate strategies for increasing the thermopower of crown-ether-bridged anthraquinones. The novel design feature of these molecules is the presence of either (1) crown-ether or (2) diaza-crown-ether bridges attached to the side of the current-carrying anthraquinone wire. The crown-ether side groups selectively bind alkali-metal cations and when combined with TCNE or TTF dopants, provide a large phase-space for optimising thermoelectric properties. We find that the optimum combination of cations and dopants depends on the temperature range of interest. The

  5. Reduction of HCCI combustion noise through piston crown design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Troels Dyhr; Schramm, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    . The largest and most consistent reduction in noise level was however achieved with a diesel bowl type piston. The increased surface area as well as the larger crevice volumes of the experimental piston crowns generally resulted in lower IMEP than the flat piston. While the crevice volumes can be reduced...... away from the engine. The experiments were conducted in a diesel engine that was run in HCCI combustion mode with a fixed quantity of DME as fuel. The results show that combustion knock is effectively suppressed by limiting the size of the volume in which the combustion occurs. Splitting...... the compression volume into four smaller volumes placed between the perimeter of the piston and the cylinder liner increased the noise to a higher level than that generated with a flat piston crown. This was due to resonance between the four volumes. Using eight volumes instead decreased the noise. The noise...

  6. Modeling tree crown dynamics with 3D partial differential equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Robert; Letort, Véronique; Cournède, Paul-Henry

    2014-01-01

    We characterize a tree's spatial foliage distribution by the local leaf area density. Considering this spatially continuous variable allows to describe the spatiotemporal evolution of the tree crown by means of 3D partial differential equations. These offer a framework to rigorously take locally and adaptively acting effects into account, notably the growth toward light. Biomass production through photosynthesis and the allocation to foliage and wood are readily included in this model framework. The system of equations stands out due to its inherent dynamic property of self-organization and spontaneous adaptation, generating complex behavior from even only a few parameters. The density-based approach yields spatially structured tree crowns without relying on detailed geometry. We present the methodological fundamentals of such a modeling approach and discuss further prospects and applications.

  7. Synthesis of hybrid interfacial silica-based nanospheres composite as a support for ultra-small palladium nanoparticle and application of PdNPs/HSN in Mizoroki-Heck reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostamnia, Sadegh; Kholdi, Saba

    2017-12-01

    The silica based hollow nanosphere (silica-HNS) containing polymer of polyaniline was synthesized and chosen as a promising support for PdNPs. Then it was applied as a green catalyst in the reaction of Heck coupling with high yield. TEM and SEM-EDX/mapping images were used to study the structure and morphology. FT-IR spectroscopy, Thermal gravimetry analysis (TGA), and BET were used to characterize and investigate the catalyst. Also, the amounts of Pd loading were characterized by ICP-AES technique. Catalyst recyclability showed 5 successful runs for the reaction.

  8. Canopy Fuel Load Mapping of Mediterranean Pine Sites Based on Individual Tree-Crown Delineation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgos Mallinis

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an individual tree-crown-based approach for canopy fuel load estimation and mapping in two Mediterranean pine stands. Based on destructive sampling, an allometric equation was developed for the estimation of crown fuel weight considering only pine crown width, a tree characteristic that can be estimated from passive imagery. Two high resolution images were used originally for discriminating Aleppo and Calabrian pines crown regions through a geographic object based image analysis approach. Subsequently, the crown region images were segmented using a watershed segmentation algorithm and crown width was extracted. The overall accuracy of the tree crown isolation expressed through a perfect match between the reference and the delineated crowns was 34.00% for the Kassandra site and 48.11% for the Thessaloniki site, while the coefficient of determination between the ground measured and the satellite extracted crown width was 0.5. Canopy fuel load values estimated in the current study presented mean values from 1.29 ± 0.6 to 1.65 ± 0.7 kg/m2 similar to other conifers worldwide. Despite the modest accuracies attained in this first study of individual tree crown fuel load mapping, the combination of the allometric equations with satellite-based extracted crown width information, can contribute to the spatially explicit mapping of canopy fuel load in Mediterranean areas. These maps can be used among others in fire behavior prediction, in fuel reduction treatments prioritization and during active fire suppression.

  9. The marginal fit of selective laser melting-fabricated metal crowns: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dan; Xiang, Nan; Wei, Bin

    2014-12-01

    The selective laser melting technique is attracting interest in prosthetic dentistry. The marginal fit is a key criterion for fixed restorations. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the marginal fit of cast cobalt-chromium alloy crowns versus the fit of selective laser melting-fabricated crowns. The marginal gap widths of 36 single crowns (18 selective laser melting-fabricated cobalt-chromium metal crowns and 18 cobalt-chromium cast crowns) were determined with a silicone replica technique. Each crown specimen was cut into 4 sections, and the marginal gap width of each cross section was evaluated by stereomicroscopy (× 100). The Student t test was used to evaluate whether significant differences occurred in the marginal gap widths between the selective laser melting-fabricated and cast cobalt-chromium metal crowns (α=.05). The mean marginal gap width of the cast crowns (170.19 μm) was significantly wider than that of the selective laser melting-fabricated crowns (102.86 μm). Selective laser melting-fabricate cobalt-chromium dental crowns found improved marginal gap widths compared with traditional cast crowns. Copyright © 2014 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Marginal Fit of CEREC Crowns at Different Finish Line Curvatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    the percolation of bacteria. Micro-leakage in the oral cavity can cause inflammation of the vital pulp and caries. Poor marginal adaptation of...exhibit physiologically age-related gingival recession; similarly, patients with a history of periodontal disease may have pathologic gingival...Mikroleakage - ful crowns and the dental pulp . Journal of Endodontics, 18, 473. Grey, N., Piddock, V., & Wilson, M. {1993). In vitro comparison of

  11. PROGRAM HTVOL: The Determination of Tree Crown Volume by Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph C. Mawson; Jack Ward Thomas; Richard M. DeGraaf

    1976-01-01

    A FORTRAN IV computer program calculates, from a few field measurements, the volume of tree crowns. This volume is in layers of a specified thickness of trees or large shrubs. Each tree is assigned one of 15 solid forms, formed by using one of five side shapes (a circle, an ellipse, a neiloid, a triangle, or a parabolalike shape), and one of three bottom shapes (a...

  12. How resilient are southwestern ponderosa pine forests after crown fires?

    OpenAIRE

    Savage, M; Mast, J N

    2005-01-01

    The exclusion of low-severity surface fire from ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa P. & C. Lawson) forests of the Southwest has changed ecosystem structure and function such that severe crown fires are increasingly causing extensive stand mortality. This altered fire regime has resulted from the intersection of natural drought cycles with human activities that have suppressed natural fires for over a century. What is the trajectory of forest recovery after such fires? This study explores the reg...

  13. Provisional Crown Dislodgement during Scuba Diving: A Case of Barotrauma

    OpenAIRE

    Gulve, Meenal Nitin; Gulve, Nitin Dilip

    2013-01-01

    Changes in ambient pressure, for example, during flying, diving, or hyperbaric oxygen therapy, can lead to barotrauma. Although it may seem that this issue was neglected in dental education and research in recent decades, familiarity with and understanding of these facts may be of importance for dental practitioners. We report the case of a patient who experienced barotrauma involving dislodgement of a provisional crown during scuba diving. Patients who are exposed to pressure changes as a pa...

  14. Laboratory fire behavior measurements of chaparral crown fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Sanpakit; S. Omodan; D. Weise; M Princevac

    2015-01-01

    In 2013, there was an estimated 9,900 wildland fires that claimed more than 577,000 acres of land. That same year, about 542 prescribed fires were used to treat 48,554 acres by several agencies in California. Being able to understand fires using laboratory models can better prepare individuals to combat or use fires. Our research focused on chaparral crown fires....

  15. A short-term clinical evaluation of IPS Empress 2 crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toksavul, Suna; Toman, Muhittin

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical performance of all-ceramic crowns made with the IPS Empress 2 system after an observation period of 12 to 60 months. Seventy-nine IPS Empress 2 crowns were placed in 21 patients. The all-ceramic crowns were evaluated clinically, radiographically, and using clinical photographs. The evaluations took place at baseline (2 days after cementation) and at 6-month intervals for 12 to 60 months. Survival rate of the crowns was determined using Kaplan-Meier statistical analysis. Based on the US Public Health Service criteria, 95.24% of the crowns were rated satisfactory after a mean follow-up period of 58 months. Fracture was registered in only 1 crown. One endodontically treated tooth failed as a result of fracture at the cervical margin area. In this in vivo study, IPS Empress 2 crowns exhibited a satisfactory clinical performance during an observation period ranging from 12 to 60 months.

  16. Plant responses to Agrobacterium tumefaciens and crown gall development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohlke, Jochen; Deeken, Rosalia

    2014-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens causes crown gall disease on various plant species by introducing its T-DNA into the genome. Therefore, Agrobacterium has been extensively studied both as a pathogen and an important biotechnological tool. The infection process involves the transfer of T-DNA and virulence proteins into the plant cell. At that time the gene expression patterns of host plants differ depending on the Agrobacterium strain, plant species and cell-type used. Later on, integration of the T-DNA into the plant host genome, expression of the encoded oncogenes, and increase in phytohormone levels induce a fundamental reprogramming of the transformed cells. This results in their proliferation and finally formation of plant tumors. The process of reprogramming is accompanied by altered gene expression, morphology and metabolism. In addition to changes in the transcriptome and metabolome, further genome-wide (“omic”) approaches have recently deepened our understanding of the genetic and epigenetic basis of crown gall tumor formation. This review summarizes the current knowledge about plant responses in the course of tumor development. Special emphasis is placed on the connection between epigenetic, transcriptomic, metabolomic, and morphological changes in the developing tumor. These changes not only result in abnormally proliferating host cells with a heterotrophic and transport-dependent metabolism, but also cause differentiation and serve as mechanisms to balance pathogen defense and adapt to abiotic stress conditions, thereby allowing the coexistence of the crown gall and host plant. PMID:24795740

  17. Surgical crown lengthening: a 12-month study - radiographic results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Eleutério Diniz

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to perform a radiographic follow-up evaluation after a 12-month healing period, following crown lengthening surgery. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-three periodontally healthy subjects (mean age 32.5 years that required crown lengthening surgery in premolars were recruited. In a total of 30 premolars, full thickness flaps, osseous resection, and flap suturing were performed. The restorative margin was defined in the pre-surgical phase and maintained unaltered during the healing period, serving as a reference point. Standardized bitewing radiographs were taken before and after osseous reduction, and at 2, 3, 6, and 12-month healing periods. RESULTS: Intact lamina dura was observed at both mesial and distal alveolar crests only from the 3rd month. At 12-months, all alveolar crests presented lamina dura. The overall mean distance from the restorative margin to the alveolar crest achieved after osseous resection was 3.28±0.87 mm at mesial and 2.81±0.51 mm at distal sites. No significant radiographic changes in the bone crest were observed during a 12-month healing period. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study suggest that the radiographic proximal bone level observed on bitewing radiographs following crown lengthening surgery can be used as a reference to predict the future level of the healed alveolar crest.

  18. [Finite element analysis of the maxillary central incisor with traditional and modified crown lengthening surgery and post-core restoration in management of crown-root fracture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, M; Wei, Y P; Hu, W J; Rong, Q G; Zhang, H

    2016-06-01

    To construct three-dimensional finite element models with modified crown lengthening surgery and post-core restoration in management of various crown-root fracture types, to investigate the intensity and distribution of stressin models mentioned above, and to compare and analyze the indications of traditional and modified crown lengthening surgeries from the mechanic point of view. Nine three-dimensional finite element models with modified crown lengthening surgery and post-core restoration were established and analyzed by micro-CT scanning technique, dental impression scanner, Mimics 10.0, Geomagic studio 9.0 and ANSYS 14.0 software. The von Mises stress of dentin, periodontal ligament, alveolar bone, post and core, as well as the periodontal ligament area and threshold limit value were calculated and compared with the findings of traditional crown lengthening models which had been published earlierby our research group. The von Mises stress intensity of modified crown lengthening models were: dentin>post>core>alveolar bone>periodontal ligament. The maximum von Mises stress of dentin(44.37-80.58 MPa)distributed in lingual central shoulder. The periodontal ligament area of the modified crown lengthening surgery was reduced by 6% to 28%, under the same crown-root fracture conditions, the periodontal ligament area of modified crown lengthening models was larger than that of the traditional crown lengthening models. In modified crown lengthening surgery models, the von Mises stress of periodontal ligament of B3L1m, B3L2m, B3L3m models exceeded their limit values, however, the von Mises stress of periodontal ligament of the B2L2c, B2L3c, B3L1c, B3L2c, B3L3c models exceeded their limit values in traditional crown lengthening surgery models. The modified crown lengthening surgery conserves more periodontal supporting tissues, which facilitates the long-term survival of teeth. The indication of modified crown lengthening surgery is wider than traditional method. The

  19. Fracture toughness of zirconia ceramic crowns made by feather-edge tooth preparation design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirković Nemanja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Fracture toughness determines functional crown strenght and prevents damages on ceramics during mastication. There is a lack of relevant literature data about fracture toughness of crowns made by feather-edge preparation. Mechanical testing of ceramic samples is supposed to show if feather-edge tooth preparation is a successful method for making ceramic crowns without any risk of reduction of their mechanical properties. This research was done to establish effects of feather-edge tooth preparation on fracture toughness of single zirconia ceramic crowns. Methods. The research was performed as an experimental study. Sixty (60 ceramic crowns were made on non-carious extracted human premolars. Thirty (30 crowns were made on the basis of feather-edge preparation (experimental group I. The group II included 30 crowns made on 1 mm rounded shoulder. Crowns fabrication was executed on a copy mill production system “Zirkonzahn” (Zirkonzahn GMBH, Gais, Germany. The spherical compression test was used to determine fracture toughness, using 6 mm diameter ceramic ball. Fracture load for damaging ceramic crown was recorded on a universal testing machine - Zwick, type 1464, with the speed of 0.05 mm/min. Results. The results of this research introduced significant differences between fracture toughness of ceramic samples in every examined group. However, fracture toughness of crowns from both group was above 2 000 N, what was double beyond a recommended value. The mean value of fracture toughness in the feather-edge group was 2 090 N, and in shoulder group it was 2 214 N. Conclusion. This research showed a high fracture toughness of zirconia crowns made on feather-edge preparation. The examined crowns showed a fracture resistance at a sufficient distance in relation to the minimum values of functional loads. Further research of functional loads of these crown is necessary, as well as research of marginal adaptation of cemented crowns and

  20. Fracture rates of IPS Empress all-ceramic crowns--a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heintze, Siegward D; Rousson, Valentin

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical fracture rate of crowns fabricated with the pressable, leucite-reinforced ceramic IPS Empress, and relate the results to the type of tooth restored. The database SCOPUS was searched for clinical studies involving full-coverage crowns made of IPS Empress. To assess the fracture rate of the crowns in relation to the type of restored tooth and study, Poisson regression analysis was used. Seven clinical studies were identified involving 1,487 adhesively luted crowns (mean observation time: 4.5+/-1.7 years) and 81 crowns cemented with zinc-phosphate cement (mean observation time: 1.6+/-0.8 years). Fifty-seven of the adhesively luted crowns fractured (3.8%). The majority of fractures (62%) occurred between the third and sixth year after placement. There was no significant influence regarding the test center on fracture rate, but the restored tooth type played a significant role. The hazard rate (per year) for crowns was estimated to be 5 in every 1,000 crowns for incisors, 7 in every 1,000 crowns for premolars, 12 in every 1,000 crowns for canines, and 16 in every 1,000 crowns for molars. One molar crown in the zinc-phosphate group fractured after 1.2 years. Adhesively luted IPS Empress crowns showed a low fracture rate for incisors and premolars and a somewhat higher rate for molars and canines. The sample size of the conventionally luted crowns was too small and the observation period too short to draw meaningful conclusions.

  1. Retention of metal-ceramic crowns with contemporary dental cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Glen H; Lepe, Xavier; Zhang, Hai; Wataha, John C

    2009-09-01

    New types of crown and bridge cement are in use by practitioners, and independent studies are needed to assess their effectiveness. The authors conducted a study in three parts (study A, study B, and study C) and to determine how well these new cements retain metal-ceramic crowns. The authors prepared teeth with a 20-degree taper and a 4-millimeter length. They cast high-noble metal-ceramic copings, then fitted and cemented them with a force of 196 newtons. The types of cements they used were zinc phosphate, resin-modified glass ionomer, conventional resin and self-adhesive modified resin. They thermally cycled the cemented copings, then removed them. They recorded the removal force and calculated the stress of dislodgment by using the surface area of each preparation. They used a single-factor analysis of variance to analyze the data (alpha = .05). The mean stresses necessary to remove crowns, in megapascals, were 8.0 for RelyX Luting (3M ESPE, St. Paul, Minn.), 7.3 for RelyX Unicem (3M ESPE), 5.7 for Panavia F (Kuraray America, New York) and 4.0 for Fuji Plus (GC America, Alsip, Ill.) in study A; 8.1 for RelyX Luting, 2.6 for RelyX Luting Plus (3M ESPE) and 2.8 for Fuji CEM (GC America) in study B; and 4.9 for Maxcem (Kerr, Orange, Calif.), 4.0 for BisCem (Bisco, Schaumburg, Ill.), 3.7 for RelyX Unicem Clicker (3M ESPE), 2.9 for iCEM (Heraeus Kulzer, Armonk, N.Y.) and 2.3 for Fleck's Zinc Cement (Keystone Industries, Cherry Hill, N.J.) in study C. Powder-liquid versions of new cements were significantly more retentive than were paste-paste versions of the same cements. The mean value of crown removal stress for the new self-adhesive modified-resin cements varied appreciably among the four cements tested. All cements retained castings as well as or better than did zinc phosphate cement. Powder-liquid versions of cements, although less convenient to mix, may be a better clinical choice when crown retention is an issue. All cements tested will retain castings

  2. Descriptive statistics of tree crown condition in the Southern United States and impacts on data analysis and interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    KaDonna C. Randolph

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis Program (FIA) utilizes visual assessments of tree crown condition to monitor changes and trends in forest health. This report describes and discusses distributions of three FIA crown condition indicators (crown density, crown dieback, and foliage transparency) for trees in the Southern...

  3. Comparative evaluation of marginal leakage of provisional crowns cemented with different temporary luting cements: In vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheen Juneja Arora

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: The temporary cements with eugenol showed more microleakage than those without eugenol. SC-10 crowns showed more microleakage compared to Protemp 4 crowns. SC-10 crowns cemented with Kalzinol showed maximum microleakage and Protemp 4 crowns cemented with HY bond showed least microleakage.

  4. Facile synthesis of radial-like macroporous superparamagnetic chitosan spheres with in-situ co-precipitation and gelation of ferro-gels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hui Yang

    Full Text Available Macroporous chitosan spheres encapsulating superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by a facile and effective one-step fabrication process. Ferro-gels containing ferrous cations, ferric cations and chitosan were dropped into a sodium hydroxide solution through a syringe pump. In addition, a sodium hydroxide solution was employed for both gelation (chitosan and co-precipitation (ferrous cations and ferric cations of the ferro-gels. The results showed that the in-situ co-precipitation of ferro-ions gave rise to a radial morphology with non-spheroid macro pores (large cavities inside the chitosan spheres. The particle size of iron oxide can be adjusted from 2.5 nm to 5.4 nm by tuning the concentration of the sodium hydroxide solution. Using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction spectra, the synthesized nanoparticles were illustrated as Fe(3O(4 nanoparticles. In addition, the prepared macroporous chitosan spheres presented a super-paramagnetic behaviour at room temperature with a saturation magnetization value as high as ca. 18 emu/g. The cytotoxicity was estimated using cell viability by incubating doses (0∼1000 µg/mL of the macroporous chitosan spheres. The result showed good viability (above 80% with alginate chitosan particles below 1000 µg/mL, indicating that macroporous chitosan spheres were potentially useful for biomedical applications in the future.

  5. Ceramic molar crown reproducibility by digital workflow manufacturing: An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Ii-Do; Kim, Woong-Chul; Park, Jinyoung; Kim, Chong-Myeong; Kim, Ji-Hwan

    2017-08-01

    This in vitro study aimed to analyze and compare the reproducibility of zirconia and lithium disilicate crowns manufactured by digital workflow. A typodont model with a prepped upper first molar was set in a phantom head, and a digital impression was obtained with a video intraoral scanner (CEREC Omnicam; Sirona GmbH), from which a single crown was designed and manufactured with CAD/CAM into a zirconia crown and lithium disilicate crown (n=12). Reproducibility of each crown was quantitatively retrieved by superimposing the digitized data of the crown in 3D inspection software, and differences were graphically mapped in color. Areas with large differences were analyzed with digital microscopy. Mean quadratic deviations (RMS) quantitatively obtained from each ceramic group were statistically analyzed with Student's t-test (α=.05). The RMS value of lithium disilicate crown was 29.2 (4.1) µm and 17.6 (5.5) µm on the outer and inner surfaces, respectively, whereas these values were 18.6 (2.0) µm and 20.6 (5.1) µm for the zirconia crown. Reproducibility of zirconia and lithium disilicate crowns had a statistically significant difference only on the outer surface ( P <.001). The outer surface of lithium disilicate crown showed over-contouring on the buccal surface and under-contouring on the inner occlusal surface. The outer surface of zirconia crown showed both over- and under-contouring on the buccal surface, and the inner surface showed under-contouring in the marginal areas. Restoration manufacturing by digital workflow will enhance the reproducibility of zirconia single crowns more than that of lithium disilicate single crowns.

  6. Amperometric carbohydrate antigen 19-9 immunosensor based on three dimensional ordered macroporous magnetic Au film coupling direct electrochemistry of horseradish peroxidase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Qi [College of Sciences, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 211816 (China); Chen, Xiaojun, E-mail: chenxj_njut@126.com [College of Sciences, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 211816 (China); State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Tang, Yin [Zhangjiagang Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Zhangjiagang 215600 (China); Ge, Lingna; Guo, Buhua [College of Sciences, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 211816 (China); Yao, Cheng, E-mail: yaochengnjut@163.com [College of Sciences, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 211816 (China)

    2014-03-01

    Highlights: • Three dimensional ordered macroporous magnetic electrode was newly used in electrochemical immunosensor. • The large surface area of macroporous magnetic electrode could improve the immobilized amount of antibody. • Au nanoparticles functionalized SBA-15 was used to immobilize enzyme labeled Ab₂ and enzyme. • Macroporous magnetic electrode and Au nanoparticles composite facilitated the direct electron transfer of enzyme. • The immunoassay avoided adding electron transfer mediator, simplifying the procedure. Abstract: A sandwich-type electrochemical immunosensor for the detection of carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9) antigen based on the immobilization of primary antibody (Ab₁) on three dimensional ordered macroporous magnetic (3DOMM) electrode, and the direct electrochemistry of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) that was used as both the label of secondary antibody (Ab₂) and the blocking reagent. The 3DOMM electrode was fabricated by introducing core–shell Au–SiO₂@Fe₃O₄ nanospheres onto the surface of three dimensional ordered macroporous (3DOM) Au electrode via the application of an external magnet. Au nanoparticles functionalized SBA-15 (Au@SBA-15) was conjugated to the HRP labeled secondary antibody (HRP-Ab₂) through the Au–SH or Au–NH₃⁺ interaction, and HRP was also used as the block reagent. The formation of antigen–antibody complex made the combination of Au@SBA-15 and 3DOMM exhibit remarkable synergistic effects for accelerating direct electron transfer (DET) between HRP and the electrode. Under the optimal conditions, the DET current signal increased proportionally to CA 19-9 concentration in the range of 0.05 to 15.65 U mL⁻¹ with a detection limit of 0.01 U mL⁻¹. Moreover, the immunosensor showed high selectivity, good stability, satisfactory reproducibility and regeneration. Importantly, the developed method was used to assay clinical serum specimens, achieving a good relation with those obtained from

  7. A simple and effective approach to prepare injectable macroporous calcium phosphate cement for bone repair: Syringe-foaming using a viscous hydrophilic polymeric solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingtao; Liu, Weizhen; Gauthier, Olivier; Sourice, Sophie; Pilet, Paul; Rethore, Gildas; Khairoun, Khalid; Bouler, Jean-Michel; Tancret, Franck; Weiss, Pierre

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we propose a simple and effective strategy to prepare injectable macroporous calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) by syringe-foaming via hydrophilic viscous polymeric solution, such as using silanized-hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (Si-HPMC) as a foaming agent. The Si-HPMC foamed CPCs demonstrate excellent handling properties such as injectability and cohesion. After hardening the foamed CPCs possess hierarchical macropores and their mechanical properties (Young's modulus and compressive strength) are comparable to those of cancellous bone. Moreover, a preliminary in vivo study in the distal femoral sites of rabbits was conducted to evaluate the biofunctionality of this injectable macroporous CPC. The evidence of newly formed bone in the central zone of implantation site indicates the feasibility and effectiveness of this foaming strategy that will have to be optimized by further extensive animal experiments. A major challenge in the design of biomaterial-based injectable bone substitutes is the development of cohesive, macroporous and self-setting calcium phosphate cement (CPC) that enables rapid cell invasion with adequate initial mechanical properties without the use of complex processing and additives. Thus, we propose a simple and effective strategy to prepare injectable macroporous CPCs through syringe-foaming using a hydrophilic viscous polymeric solution (silanized-hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, Si-HPMC) as a foaming agent, that simultaneously meets all the aforementioned aims. Evidence from our in vivo studies shows the existence of newly formed bone within the implantation site, indicating the feasibility and effectiveness of this foaming strategy, which could be used in various CPC systems using other hydrophilic viscous polymeric solutions. Copyright © 2015 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Hollow hemisphere-shaped macroporous graphene/tungsten carbide/platinum nanocomposite as an efficient electrocatalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Zesheng; Liu, Zhisen; Li, Bolin; Liu, Zhenghui; Li, Dehao; Wang, Hongqiang; Li, Qingyu

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Newfashioned hollow hemisphere-shaped macroporous graphene/tungsten carbide/platinum (HMG/WC/Pt) nanocomposite with interesting three-dimensional architecture bas been successfully fabricated as an efficient electrocatalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction. - Highlights: • Hollow hemisphere-shaped macroporous graphene is proposed as ORR catalyst support. • Honeycomb-like macroporous graphene/WC/Pt electrocatalyst is firsy prepared for ORR. • The present electrocatalyst exhibited greatly enhanced ORR catalytic activity and stability. - Abstract: Hollow hemisphere-shaped macroporous graphene/tungsten carbide/platinum (HMG/WC/Pt) nanocomposite has been synthesized as an efficient electrocatalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). The HMG/WC/Pt sample has been systematically characterized by the X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The analysis results indicate that the sample has an interesting three-dimensional hollow hemisphere-shaped macroporous architecture. The results also demonstrate the successful integration of WC and Pt nanoparticles on the HMG, in which the WC nanoparticles are in size of about 10 nm and the Pt nanoparticles are in size of about 3 nm. The as-prepared HMG/WC/Pt electrode displays excellent electrocatalytic performances for the ORR in 0.1 mol L −1 HClO 4 electrolyte. The mass activity (i m at 0.9 V) of HMG/WC/Pt is 206 mA mg −1 Pt, which is about 85% higher than that of Pt/C (112 mA mg −1 Pt). It also displayed a very high activity retention of 84.5% after 2000 cyclic voltammetry cycles for the HMG/WC/Pt, while that of the Pt/C is only 70.5%. The HMG/WC/Pt nanocomposite would be a promising electrocatalytic material for the ORR in Fuel cell applications.

  9. Sonochemical synthesis and photocatalytic activity of meso- and macro-porous TiO2 for oxidation of toluene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Liu; Yan Li; Wang Yuntao; Xie Lei; Zheng Jie; Li Xingguo

    2008-01-01

    Meso-and macro-porous TiO 2 were synthesized by ultrasonic induced solvothermal method. Octadecylamine as a soft template was used to direct the formation of porous structure. The as-prepared porous TiO 2 was characterized by low angle and wide angle X-ray diffraction, N 2 adsorption-desorption isotherms and BET surface area. The energy influence of ultrasound and heat and concentration of nitric acid for post extraction on formation of porous structure were investigated. The photocatalytic activities of TiO 2 were investigated by degrading toluene gas under UV light. The results revealed that proper energy facilitates the formation of porous structure and too low concentration of nitric acid cannot extract template from pores. The photocatalytic activities of TiO 2 with porous structure are higher than those of nonporous ones

  10. Study of the structure of 3D-ordered macroporous GaN-ZnS:Mn nanocomposite films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurdyukov, D. A., E-mail: kurd@gvg.ioffe.ru; Shishkin, I. I.; Grudinkin, S. A.; Sitnikova, A. A.; Zamoryanskaya, M. V.; Golubev, V. G. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2015-05-15

    A film-type 3D-ordered macroporous GaN-ZnS:Mn nanocomposite with the structure of an inverted opal is fabricated. Structural studies of the nanocomposite are performed, and it is shown that GaN and ZnS:Mn introduced into the pores of the silica opal are nanocrystallites misoriented with respect to each other. It is shown that the nanocomposite is a structurally perfect 3D photonic crystal. The efficiency of using a buffer of GaN crystallites to preclude interaction between the surface of the spherical a-SiO{sub 2} particles forming the opal matrix and chemically active substances introduced into the pores is demonstrated.

  11. Recovery of plutonium from nitric acid containing oxalate and fluoride by a macroporous bifunctional phosphinic acid resin (MPBPA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venugopal Chetty, K.; Godbole, A.G.; Swarup, R.; Vaidya, V.N.; Venugopal, V.; Vasudeva Rao, P.R.

    2006-01-01

    The sorption of Pu from nitric acid solutions containing oxalate/fluoride was studied using an indigenously available macroporous bifunctional phosphinic acid (MPBPA) resin. Batch experiments were carried out to obtain the distribution data of Pu(IV) with a view to optimize conditions for its recovery from nitric acid waste solutions containing oxalate or fluoride ions. The measurements showed high distribution ratio (D) values even in the presence of strong complexing ions, like oxalate and fluoride, indicating the possibility of recovery of Pu from these types of waste solution. Column studies were carried out using this resin to recover Pu from the oxalate supernatant waste solution, which showed that up to 99% of Pu could be adsorbed on the resin. Elution of Pu loaded on the resin was studied using different eluting agents. (author)

  12. Template-assisted electrostatic spray deposition as a new route to mesoporous, macroporous, and hierarchically porous oxide films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, S; Paul, B; Ortel, E; Fischer, A; Kraehnert, R

    2011-03-01

    A novel film coating technique, template-assisted electrostatic spray deposition (TAESD), was developed for the synthesis of porous metal oxide films and tested on TiO(2). Organic templates are codeposited with the titania precursor by electrostatic spray deposition and then removed during calcination. Resultant films are highly porous with pores casted by uniformly sized templates, which introduced a new level of control over the pore morphology for the ESD method. Employing the amphiphilic block copolymer Pluronic P123, PMMA latex spheres, or a combination of the two, mesoporous, macroporous, and hierarchically porous TiO(2) films are obtained. Decoupled from other coating parameters, film thickness can be controlled by deposition time or depositing multiple layers while maintaining the coating's structure and integrity.

  13. Development of a novel starch with a three-dimensional ordered macroporous structure for improving the dissolution rate of felodipine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, Yanna; Wu, Chao, E-mail: wuchao27@126.com; Zhao, Zongzhe; Zhao, Ying; Xu, Jie; Qiu, Yang; Jiang, Jie; Yu, Tong; Ma, Chunyu; Zhou, Buyun

    2016-01-01

    In this study, silica nanospheres with different particle sizes were used as hard template for synthesis of a starch with a novel three-dimensional ordered macroporous structure (3DOMTS). As a pharmaceutical adjuvant, 3DOMTS was used to improve the dissolution rate and oral relative bioavailability of water-insoluble drugs. Felodipine (FDP) was chosen as a model drug and was loaded into the 3DOMTS by solvent evaporation. FDP loading into 3DOMTS with different pore sizes was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), powder X-ray diffractometer (PXRD) and Fourier-Transform Infrared (FTIR). The results obtained showed that FDP was present in the pores in an amorphic or microcrystalline state. The in vitro dissolution results showed that 3DOMTS could effectively improve the dissolution rate of FDP in comparison with commercial common tablets. Pharmacokinetic results indicated that the oral relative bioavailability of self-made FDP–3DOMTS tablets were 184%, showing that 3DOMTS produced a significantly increased oral absorption of FDP. In conclusion, 3DOMTS exhibits the dual potential of improving the dissolution rate of poorly water soluble drugs and the novel filler produced by direct compression technology confirming that 3DOMTS will be useful for many applications in the field of pharmaceutics. - Highlights: • We successfully prepared a starch with a novel three-dimensional ordered macroporous structure (3DOMTS). • 3DOMTS can suppress the crystallinity of the drug to maintain it at amorphous state. • In vivo and in vitro experiments proved that 3DOMTS can improve the solubility and bioavailability of felodipine.

  14. 3D-macroporous chitosan-based scaffolds with in situ formed Pd and Pt nanoparticles for nitrophenol reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berillo, Dmitriy; Cundy, Andrew

    2018-07-15

    3D-macroporous chitosan-based scaffolds (cryogels) were produced via growth of metal-polymer coordinated complexes and electrostatic interactions between oppositely charged groups of chitosan and metal ions under subzero temperatures. A mechanism of reduction of noble metal complexes inside the cryogel walls by glutaraldehyde is proposed, which produces discrete and dispersed noble metal nanoparticles. 3D-macroporous scaffolds prepared under different conditions were characterised using TGA, FTIR, nitrogen adsorption, SEM, EDX and TEM, and the distribution of platinum nanoparticles (PtNPs) and palladium nanoparticles (PdNPs) in the material assessed. The catalytic activity of the in situ synthesised PdNPs, at 2.6, 12.5 and 21.0 μg total mass, respectively, was studied utilising a model system of 4-nitrophenol reduction. The kinetics of the reaction under different conditions (temperature, concentration of catalyst) were examined, and a decrease of catalytic activity was not observed over 17 treatment cycles. Increasing the temperature of the catalytic reaction from 10 to 22 and 35 °C by PdNPs supported within the cryogel increased the kinetic rate by 44 and 126%, respectively. Turnover number and turnover frequency of the PdNPs catalysts at room temperature were in the range 0.20-0.53 h -1 . The conversion degree of 4-nitrophenol at room temperature reached 98.9% (21.0 μg PdNPs). Significantly less mass of palladium nanoparticles (by 30-40 times) was needed compared to published data to obtain comparable rates of reduction of 4-nitrophenol. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Crown condition assessment at the CONECOFOR Permanent Monitoring Plots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renzo NIBBI

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available A detailed crown condition assessment is currently being carried out at the CONECOFOR (CONtrollo ECOsistemi FORestali, Control of Forest Ecosystems plots. The assessment began in 1996, and during the first two years (1996 and 1997 an assessment form based on previous regional experience was used; in 1998 the new official EU form was adopted. The resulting loss of comparability means that only a few indices can be used in the temporal series 1996-1999. Much effort was devoted to Quality Assurance (QA procedures. The QA program is structured as follows: (i specific field manuals have been adopted and are continuously updated; (ii a national training and intercalibration course (NT&IC is undertaken yearly before beginning the assessment campaign;( iii field checks are carried out yearly on a large number of plots. The results of the QA program have shown that for several indices the quality objectives were not reached, but the quality of the data is improving with time. To express the change in crown conditions in each area, a complex index (CCI = Crown Condition Index was adopted. This index is the result of the sum of the relativized values of all the common indices used during the four years. The following parameters were used: transparency, ramification type, leaf colour alteration extension, leaf damage extension, alteration of leaf distension extension. The range within which the CCI fluctuates was evaluated taking into account all the observations carried out at a given plot throughout the years. The number of cases over a given threshold (outliers was calculated for each year. The threshold for outliers was calculated as the median value plus 2 times the range of the interquartile value. All individual cases exceeding this value are considered outliers. The results are presented for all the areas in which the data set is complete for the four years. The yearly fluctuations are discussed and related to possible causes.

  16. RICHMOND CROWN - FOR RESTORATION OF BADLY MUTILATED POSTERIOR TEETH : A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadav

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Restoration of badly broken endodontically treated teeth is a common problem in restorative dentistry. Such teeth often require additional support from the root canal by means of a post and core restoration. In cases where tooth structure is significantly lost full coverage restorations for posterior teeth are necessary to achieve proper tooth form and function. Badly broken teeth with minimal or no crown structure require added retention and support. The Richmond crown can be a good treatment alternative for restoration of such teeth. The Richmond crown was introduced in 1878 and incorporated a threaded tube in the canal with a screw retained crown. It was later modified to eliminate the threaded tube and was redesigned as a one piece dowel and crown. This case report shows restoration of badly mutilated posterior teeth with Richmond crown.

  17. Kinetically inert lanthanide complexes as reporter groups for binding of potassium by 18-crown-6

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junker, Anne Kathrine Ravnsborg; Tropiano, Manuel; Faulkner, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    in a copper(I)-catalyzed alkyne-azide cycloaddition (CuAAC) “click” reaction with azide-functionalized crown ethers. The resulting complexes were investigated using NMR and optical methods. Titrations with potassium chloride in methanol observing the sensititzed europium- and terbium-centered emissions were......-centered emission to report on the binding of potassium in an 18-crown-6 binding pocket. The responsive systems were made by linking a crown ether to a kinetically inert lanthanide binding pocket using a molecular building block approach. Specifically, an alkyne-appended Ln.DO3A was used as a building block...... used to investigate the response of the systems. The molecular reporters based on aliphatic crown ethers were found to have strongly inhibited binding of potassium, while the benzo-18-crown-6 derived systems had essentially the same association constants as the native crown ethers. The shape...

  18. [Clinical application of IPS-empress 2 pressable all-ceramic crowns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ai-jun; He, Xiao-ming; Liu, Li-xia; Zhang, Chao-biao; Zhang, Min; Shen, Bei-yong

    2007-02-01

    To evaluate the clinical prosthetic effect of IPS-Empress 2 pressahie ceramic crowns. 198 teeth of 70 patients were restored with IPS-Empress 2 pressahie ceramic crowns. The patients were asked to return in one week and every half year. The clinical prosthetic effect was evaluated. Through follow-up of 3-38 months, the veneer porcelain crowns of 3 teeth were broken. 2 crowns fall off due to teeth fracture, gingivitis occurred in 2 teeth, pulpitis or periapical periodontitis occurred in 3 teeth. The shades of 3 crowns were darkening. The prosthetic effect of 185 teeth was satisfied. The rate of satisfaction was 93.4%. IPS-Empress 2 pressable all-ceramic crown has the advantages of aesthetic effect, good hiocompatihility and simple fabrication. But its strength is not enough for posterior teeth and it can not cover the deep color of non-vital teeth and metal materials.

  19. Bis(hydroxyammonium hexachloridoplatinate(IV–18-crown-6 (1/2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny Bulatov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the title complex, (NH3OH2[PtCl6]·2C12H24O6, the PtIV atom is coordinated by six chloride anions in a slightly distorted octahedral geometry. The Pt—Cl bond lengths are comparable to those reported for other hexachloridoplatinate(IV species. The hydroxyammonium groups act as linkers between the [PtCl6]2− anion and the crown ether molecules. The anion is linked to two hydroxyammonium cations via O—H...Cl hydrogen bonds and each hydroxyammonium moiety is linked to a crown ether molecule by hydrogen bonds between ammonium H atoms and 18-crown-6 O atoms. The crown ether molecules have the classic crown shape in which all O atoms are located in the inner part of the crown ether ring and all –CH2– groups are turned to the outside.

  20. Suppressing Nonradiative Recombination in Crown-Shaped Quantum Wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Kwangwook [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ju, Gunwu [Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology; Korea Institute of Science and Technology; Na, Byung Hoon [Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology; Hwang, Hyeong-Yong [Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology; Jho, Young-Dahl [Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology; Myoung, NoSoung [Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology; Yim, Sang-Youp [Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology; Kim, Hyung-jun [Korea Institute of Science and Technology; Lee, Yong Tak [Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology

    2018-02-06

    We examined the structural and optical properties of a crown-shaped quantum well (CSQW) to suppress nonradiative recombination. To reduce carrier loss in defect traps at the well/barrier interface, the CSQW was designed to concentrate carriers in the central region by tailoring the bandgap energy. Temperature-dependent photoluminescence measurements showed that the CSQW had a high activation energy and low potential fluctuation. In addition, the long carrier lifetime of the CSQW at high temperatures can be interpreted as indicating a decrease in carrier loss at defect traps.

  1. Radiochemical determination of 210Pb using crown ether

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vajda, N.; Bodizs, D.; Vodicska, M.

    1994-01-01

    Gamma spectrometric determination of 210 Pb following chemical separation has been performed very precisely and with high sensitivity, due to the low and constant self-absorption of the chemically pure sample. A simple and quick method for the chemical separation of lead using crown ether has been developed. Its four steps are described in detail. The new method was verified using phosphate ore and gypsum samples that were measured in an interlaboratory comparison and with a standard reference material. This method can also be used for self-absorption correction in direct gamma spectrometry of 210 Pb. (N.T.) 4 refs.; 2 figs.; 2 tabs

  2. Short Note: New breeding locality for Crowned Cormorant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.A. Whittington

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The Crowned Cormorant Phalacrocorax coronatus is endemic to the southern African subregion with an estimated population of about 2700 pairs, breeding at 48 localities between Walvis Bay, Namibia and Cape Agulhas, South Africa (Crawford et al. 1994, Crawford 1997. The easternmost point at which breeding has previously been recorded is 2 km west of Aasfontein (34°46'S, 19°50'E, where 35 nests were recorded in January 1981 (Crawford et al. 1982. Non-breeding birds have been seen further to the east as far as Holkom Meester se Baai (34°23'S, 21°49'E (Crawford et al. 1982.

  3. Use of crown compounds and cryptands in analytical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blazius, Eh.; Yansen, K.P.

    1988-01-01

    Possibilities of crown compound and crypton application in amalytical chemistry for separation (extraction, chromatography) and determination of different cations and anions are considered. It is marked that monomeric cyclic polyethers are mainly used for separation and determination of alkali and alkaline earth metals. Linear polymers of cyclic polyethers are exclusively used for extraction of their salts. Cross-linked polymeric cyclic polyethers permit to carry out the separation and determination of most of cations (including transition, rare earth elements, actinides), anions and organic compounds. 99 refs.; 10 figs.; 8 tabs

  4. Fracture Strength of Aged Monolithic and Bilayer Zirconia-Based Crowns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Pacheco Lameira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of design and surface finishing on fracture strength of yttria-tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP crowns in monolithic (1.5 mm thickness and bilayer (0.8 mm zirconia coping and 0.7 mm porcelain veneer configuration after artificial aging. Bovine incisors received crown preparation and Y-TZP crowns were manufactured using CAD/CAM technique, according to the following groups (n=10: Polished monolithic zirconia crowns (PM; Glazed monolithic zirconia crowns (GM; Bi-layer crowns (BL. Crowns were cemented with resin cement, submitted to artificial aging in a chewing simulator (2.5 million cycles/80 N/artificial saliva/37°C, and tested for fracture strength. Two remaining crowns referring to PM and GM groups were submitted to a chemical composition analysis to measure the level of yttrium after aging. One-way ANOVA and Tukey’s test (P=.05 indicated that monolithic zirconia crowns presented similar fracture strength (PM=3476.2 N ± 791.7; GM=3561.5 N ± 991.6, which was higher than bilayer crowns (2060.4 N ± 810.6. There was no difference in the yttrium content among the three surfaces evaluated in the monolithic crowns. Thus, monolithic zirconia crowns present higher fracture strength than bilayer veneered zirconia after artificial aging and surface finishing does not affect their fracture strength.

  5. Composite Bonding to Stainless Steel Crowns Using a New Universal Bonding and Single-Bottle Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Ali Hattan; Sharat Chandra Pani; Mohammad AlOmari

    2013-01-01

    Aim. The aim of this study is to evaluate the shear bond strength of nanocomposite to stainless steel crowns using a new universal bonding system. Material and Methods. Eighty (80) stainless steel crowns (SSCs) were divided into four groups (20 each). Packable nanocomposite was bonded to the lingual surface of the crowns in the following methods: Group A without adhesive (control group), Group B using a new universal adhesive system (Scotchbond Universal Adhesive, 3M ESPE, Seefeld, Germany), ...

  6. DNA methylation mediated control of gene expression is critical for development of crown gall tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen Gohlke

    Full Text Available Crown gall tumors develop after integration of the T-DNA of virulent Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains into the plant genome. Expression of the T-DNA-encoded oncogenes triggers proliferation and differentiation of transformed plant cells. Crown gall development is known to be accompanied by global changes in transcription, metabolite levels, and physiological processes. High levels of abscisic acid (ABA in crown galls regulate expression of drought stress responsive genes and mediate drought stress acclimation, which is essential for wild-type-like tumor growth. An impact of epigenetic processes such as DNA methylation on crown gall development has been suggested; however, it has not yet been investigated comprehensively. In this study, the methylation pattern of Arabidopsis thaliana crown galls was analyzed on a genome-wide scale as well as at the single gene level. Bisulfite sequencing analysis revealed that the oncogenes Ipt, IaaH, and IaaM were unmethylated in crown galls. Nevertheless, the oncogenes were susceptible to siRNA-mediated methylation, which inhibited their expression and subsequently crown gall growth. Genome arrays, hybridized with methylated DNA obtained by immunoprecipitation, revealed a globally hypermethylated crown gall genome, while promoters were rather hypomethylated. Mutants with reduced non-CG methylation developed larger tumors than the wild-type controls, indicating that hypermethylation inhibits plant tumor growth. The differential methylation pattern of crown galls and the stem tissue from which they originate correlated with transcriptional changes. Genes known to be transcriptionally inhibited by ABA and methylated in crown galls became promoter methylated upon treatment of A. thaliana with ABA. This suggests that the high ABA levels in crown galls may mediate DNA methylation and regulate expression of genes involved in drought stress protection. In summary, our studies provide evidence that epigenetic processes

  7. Fatigue resistance and microleakage of CAD/CAM ceramic and composite molar crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Amr S; Atta, Osama; El-Mowafy, Omar

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine effect of compressive cyclic loading on fatigue resistance and microleakage of monolithic CAD/CAM molar ceramic and composite crowns. Thirty-two extracted molars were prepared to receive CEREC crowns according to manufacturer's guidelines using a special paralleling device (Parallel-A-Prep). Sixteen feldspathic ceramic crowns (VITABLOCS Mark II) (VMII) and 16 resin-composite crowns (Paradigm-MZ100 blocks) (PMZ) were milled using a CEREC-3D machine. Eight crowns of each group were cemented to their respective teeth using self-etching resin cement (Panavia-F-2.0) (PAN), and eight were cemented using self-adhesive resin cement (RelyX-Unicem-Clicker) (RXU). Following storage for 1 week in water, specimens were subjected to uniaxial compressive cyclic loading in an Instron testing machine at 12 Hz for 1,000,000 cycles. Load was applied at the central fossa, and the cycle range was 60-600 N. Specimens were then subjected to microleakage testing. Data were statistically analyzed using factorial ANOVA and Post Hoc (Tukey HSD) tests. All composite crowns survived compressive cyclic loading without fracture, while three ceramic crowns from the subgroup cemented with RXU developed surface cracks at the center of occlusal surfaces, extending laterally. Microleakage scores of ceramic crowns cemented with PAN were significantly lower than those of the other three subgroups (p < 0.05). After 1,000,000 cycles of compressive cyclic loading, PMZ composite molar crowns were more fatigue-resistant than VMII ceramic crowns. Cement type had a significant effect on fatigue resistance of the ceramic crowns but not the composite ones. Microleakage scores of ceramic crowns cemented with PAN were significantly lower than those of the other subgroups (p < 0.05). © 2011 by The American College of Prosthodontists.

  8. Influence of ionizing radiation and 12-crown-4 on coagulation system components of rat blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kratenko, R.Yi.

    2006-01-01

    The influence of 12-crown-4 and ionizing radiation on some components of blood coagulation system: Ca 2+ contents and prostaglandin concentrations in the blood serum, and erythrocyte contents in the blood plasma are studied. The influence of 12-crown-4 and ionizing radiation increases the coagulational properties of erythrocytes. The synergism of ionizing irradiation and 12-crown-4 influence blood coagulation process points out at the occurrence of radiomimetic properties of the latter

  9. Stress distribution difference between Lava Ultimate full crowns and IPS e.max CAD full crowns on a natural tooth and on tooth-shaped implant abutments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krejci, Ivo; Daher, René

    2017-04-01

    The goal of this short communication is to present finite element analysis comparison of the stress distribution between CAD/CAM full crowns made of Lava Ultimate and of IPS e.max CAD, adhesively luted to natural teeth and to implant abutments with the shape of natural teeth. Six 3D models were prepared using a 3D content-creating software, based on a micro-CT scan of a human mandibular molar. The geometry of the full crown and of the abutment was the same for all models representing Lava Ultimate full crowns (L) and IPS e.max CAD full crowns (E) on three different abutments: prepared natural tooth (n), titanium abutment (t) and zirconia abutment (z). A static load of 400 N was applied on the vestibular and lingual cusps, and fixtures were applied to the base of the models. After running the static linear analysis, the post-processing data we analyzed. The stress values at the interface between the crown and the abutment of the Lt and Lz groups were significantly higher than the stress values at the same interface of all the other models. The high stress concentration in the adhesive at the interface between the crown and the abutment of the Lava Ultimate group on implants might be one of the factors contributing to the reported debondings of crowns.

  10. Crown condition dynamics of oak in southern Sweden 1988-1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobyshev, Igor; Anderson, Stefan; Sonesson, Kerstin

    2007-11-01

    Crown defoliation of oak (Quercus robur and Q. petraea) was analysed in 808 trees during three forest condition surveys (1988, 1993, and 1999) in the southern Sweden. From 1988 to 1999 crown defoliation increased by more than 20%. Changes in crown defoliation were related to the pH in the upper 20-30 cm of the mineral soils, which was closely connected to other measures of soil fertility (cation exchange capacity, CEC and C/N ratio). Trees growing on soils with a high pH (> or =4.00, in BaCl2 filtrate), high CEC and low C/N ratio had significantly lower crown defoliation than trees growing on more acid soils (pH trees with respect to crown defoliation, indicating that decline in crown condition was not due to an age-related increase in crown transparency. Considering only trees younger than 100 years, a significant interaction was observed between changes in crown defoliation and soil pH. Trees younger than 100 years old growing on more acidic soils had a greater increase in crown transparency than trees on more basic soils between 1988 and 1999. Trees > or =100 years old had significantly higher defoliation on more acidic than on more basic soils, however defoliation dynamics of these trees over 1988-99 was not related to soil acidity. Two biotic agents (insect and fungal leaf infections) evaluated in this study did not prove to be important drivers of defoliation dynamics.

  11. Ionic complexation of N 2O 4 by 18-crown-6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricard, S.; Audet, P.; Savoie, R.

    1988-08-01

    An ionic complex has been obtained from N 2O 4 in the presence of the macrocyclic ether 18-crown-6. This crystalline compound has been shown from its Raman spectrum to have the formula NO +·crown·H(NO 3) 2-, with the nitrosonium ion closely associated with the crown ether rather than with the hydrogen dinitrate accompanying ion. This adduct decomposes readily in moist air to give the known complex (HNO 3·H 2O) 2·crown.

  12. CAD/CAM glass ceramics for single-tooth implant crowns: a finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akça, Kvanç; Cavusoglu, Yeliz; Sagirkaya, Elcin; Aybar, Buket; Cehreli, Murat Cavit

    2013-12-01

    To evaluate the load distribution of CAD/CAM mono-ceramic crowns supported with single-tooth implants in functional area. A 3-dimensional numerical model of a soft tissue-level implant was constructed with cement-retained abutment to support glass ceramic machinable crown. Implant-abutment complex and the retained crown were embedded in a Ø 1.5 × 1.5 cm geometric matrix for evaluation of mechanical behavior of mono-ceramic CAD/CAM aluminosilicate and leucite glass crown materials. Laterally positioned axial load of 300 N was applied on the crowns. Resulting principal stresses in the mono-ceramic crowns were evaluated in relation to different glass ceramic materials. The highest compressive stresses were observed at the cervical region of the buccal aspect of the crowns and were 89.98 and 89.99 MPa, for aluminosilicate and leucite glass ceramics, respectively. The highest tensile stresses were observed at the collar of the lingual part of the crowns and were 24.54 and 25.39 MPa, respectively. Stresses induced upon 300 N static loading of CAD/CAM aluminosalicate and leucite glass ceramics are below the compressive strength of the materials. Impact loads may actuate the progress to end failure of mono-ceramic crowns supported by metallic implant abutments.

  13. Radium separation through complexation by aqueous crown ethers and ion exchange or solvent extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiarizia, R.; Dietz, M.L.; Horwitz, E.P. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemistry Div.; Burnett, W.C. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States). Dept. of Oceanography

    1997-11-01

    The effect of three water-soluble, unsubstituted crown ethers (15-crown-5 (15C5), 18-crown-6 (18C6) and 21-crown-7 (21C7)) on the uptake of Ca, Sr, Ba and Ra cations by a sulfonic acid cation exchange resin, and on the extraction of the same cations by xylene solutions of dinonylnaphthalenesulfonic acid (HDNNS) from aqueous hydrochloric acid solutions has been investigated. The crown ethers enhance the sorption of the larger cations by the ion exchange resin, thereby improving the resin selectivity over calcium, a result of a synergistic interaction between the crown ether and the ionic functional groups of the resin. Similarly, the extraction of the larger alkaline earth cations into xylene by HDNNS is strongly synergized by the presence of the crown ethers in the aqueous phase. Promising results for intra-Group IIa cation separations have been obtained using each of the three crown ethers as the aqueous ligands and the sulfonic acid cation exchange resin. Even greater separation factors for the radium-calcium couple have been measured with the crown-ethers and HDNNS solutions in the solvent extraction mode. The application of the uptake and extraction results to the development of radium separation schemes is discussed and a possible flowchart for the determination of {sup 226}Ra/{sup 228}Ra in natural waters is presented.

  14. Extracting oil palm crown from WorldView-2 satellite image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korom, A.; Phua, M.-H.; Hirata, Y.; Matsuura, T.

    2014-02-01

    Oil palm (OP) is the most commercial crop in Malaysia. Estimating the crowns is important for biomass estimation from high resolution satellite (HRS) image. This study examined extraction of individual OP crown from a WorldView-2 image using twofold algorithms, i.e., masking of Non-OP pixels and detection of individual OP crown based on the watershed segmentation of greyscale images. The study site was located in Beluran district, central Sabah, where matured OPs with the age ranging from 15 to 25 years old have been planted. We examined two compound vegetation indices of (NDVI+1)*DVI and NDII for masking non-OP crown areas. Using kappa statistics, an optimal threshold value was set with the highest accuracy at 90.6% for differentiating OP crown areas from Non-OP areas. After the watershed segmentation of OP crown areas with additional post-procedures, about 77% of individual OP crowns were successfully detected in comparison to the manual based delineation. Shape and location of each crown segment was then assessed based on a modified version of the goodness measures of Möller et al which was 0.3, indicating an acceptable CSGM (combined segmentation goodness measures) agreements between the automated and manually delineated crowns (perfect case is '1').

  15. Extracting oil palm crown from WorldView-2 satellite image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korom, A; Phua, M-H; Hirata, Y; Matsuura, T

    2014-01-01

    Oil palm (OP) is the most commercial crop in Malaysia. Estimating the crowns is important for biomass estimation from high resolution satellite (HRS) image. This study examined extraction of individual OP crown from a WorldView-2 image using twofold algorithms, i.e., masking of Non-OP pixels and detection of individual OP crown based on the watershed segmentation of greyscale images. The study site was located in Beluran district, central Sabah, where matured OPs with the age ranging from 15 to 25 years old have been planted. We examined two compound vegetation indices of (NDVI+1)*DVI and NDII for masking non-OP crown areas. Using kappa statistics, an optimal threshold value was set with the highest accuracy at 90.6% for differentiating OP crown areas from Non-OP areas. After the watershed segmentation of OP crown areas with additional post-procedures, about 77% of individual OP crowns were successfully detected in comparison to the manual based delineation. Shape and location of each crown segment was then assessed based on a modified version of the goodness measures of Möller et al which was 0.3, indicating an acceptable CSGM (combined segmentation goodness measures) agreements between the automated and manually delineated crowns (perfect case is '1')

  16. Twenty-nine-month follow-up of a paediatric zirconia dental crown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez Cazaux, Serena; Hyon, Isabelle; Prud'homme, Tony; Dajean Trutaud, Sylvie

    2017-06-14

    The aim of this paper is to present the long-term follow-up of one paediatric zirconia crown on a deciduous molar. Preformed crowns are part of the armamentarium in paediatric dentistry. In recent years, aesthetic alternatives to preformed metal crowns have been developed, first preveneered crowns and then zirconia crowns. This paper describes the restoration of a primary molar with a zirconia crown (EZ-Pedo, Loomis, California, USA) in an 8-year-old boy. In this clinical case, the protocol for the implementation and maintenance of zirconia crowns is detailed. The patient was followed up for 29 months until the natural exfoliation of his primary molar. The adaptation of the zirconia crown, the gingival health and the wear on the opposing tooth were considered. In this case, the paediatric zirconia crown allowed sustainable functional restoration while restoring a natural appearance of the tooth. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  17. Conductometric study of reaction kinetics between potassium superoxide and 18-crown-6 in dimethylsulfoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efimova, I.V.; Opejda, I.A.

    2000-01-01

    Complexing within KO 2 -18-crown-6-solvent, KOH-18-crown-6-solvent and KI-KO 2 -18-crown-6-solvent systems in dimethylsulfoxide was studied by measurement of electrical conductivity. It was shown that time variation of electrical conductivity under the given conditions was described by the Erofeev-Auramy equation, the coefficients of that equation for various systems were determined, time to reach equilibrium state was estimated. Linear dependences of electrical conductivity of KI-KO 2 salt solutions at presence of 18-crown-6 at the state of equilibrium in contrast to the component concentrations were determined [ru

  18. Determination of stability constants of K and Cs nitrate complex with dicyclohexyl-18-crown-6 and dibenzo-18-crown-6 in isopropanol aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myasoedova, T.G.; Ponomareva, A.V.; Zagorets, P.A.; Filippov, E.A.

    1984-01-01

    Total stability constants of K and Cs nitrate complexes with dicyclohexyl-18-crown-6 and dibenzo-18-crown-6 in isopropanol aqueous solutions were determined by the method of low-frequency contact conductometry. Clearly defined K/Cs selectivity is observed for the system with dibenzo-18-crown-6. It is shown that lgβ depends on permittivity of the solvent. The decrease of permittivity of isopropanol aqueous solutions results in reduction of K/Cs selectivity of DB18C6

  19. Determination of stability constants of K and Cs nitrate complex with dicyclohexyl-18-crown-6 and dibenzo-18-crown-6 in isopropanol aqueous solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myasoedova, T G; Ponomareva, A V; Zagorets, P A; Filippov, E A [Moskovskij Khimiko-Tekhnologicheskij Inst. (USSR)

    1984-08-01

    Total stability constants of K and Cs nitrate complexes with dicyclohexyl-18-crown-6 and dibenzo-18-crown-6 in isopropanol aqueous solutions were determined by the method of low-frequency contact conductometry. Clearly defined K/Cs selectivity is observed for the system with dibenzo-18-crown-6. It is shown that lg..beta.. depends on permittivity of the solvent. The decrease of permittivity of isopropanol aqueous solutions results in reduction of K/Cs selectivity of DB18C6.

  20. SYNTHESIS OF 4’-ALLYLBENZO-3N-CROWN-N ETHERS AND THEIR MASS SPECTRA COMPARED WITH BENZO-3N-CROWN-N ETHERS

    OpenAIRE

    Anwar, Chairil

    2008-01-01

    Synthesis of 4’allylbenzo-3n-crown-n ethers was carried out by reacting demethylated eugenol with α,ω-dichloro-oligoethylene glycols in 1-butanol under basic condition. The mass spectra of 4’allylbenzo-3n-crown-n and benzo-3n-crown-n were investigated by mass spectrometry using electron impact under 70 eV of electron bombardment as ionisation method. The difference between the group of compounds is only the present of allyl moiety as a side chain at the other side of benzene ring. The first g...

  1. Influence of implant position on clinical crown length and peri-implant soft tissue dimensions at implant-supported single crowns replacing maxillary central incisors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peng, Min; Fei, Wei; Hosseini, Mandana

    2013-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to evaluate the influence of implant position on clinical crown length and marginal soft tissue dimensions at implant-supported single crowns of maxillary central incisors, and to validate the papilla index score (PIS). Twenty-five patients, who had lost one of ...... abutments and did not necessarily result in an increased crown length. The distal implant papilla heightwas obviously shorter, althoughthe mesial papilla height was similar to thatof the healthy dentition.The papilla index score was tested to be a valid index for papilla fill....

  2. The confusing array of tooth-colored crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Gordon J

    2003-09-01

    The venerable PFM crown or fixed prosthesis still dominates the tooth-colored restoration market. However, use of PFMs is declining slightly, as the many new all-ceramic and resin-based composite crowns and fixed-prosthesis products flood the market. Several situations may indicate the use of materials other than PFM. They include patients requiring a high level of esthetic acceptability, patients with proven or perceived allergies to the metals used in dentistry and bruxing or clenching patients with metal allergies or desire to eliminate metal from their mouths. PFM restorations have been proven during 40 years of successful use. They provide acceptable esthetics for most situations, minimal fracture during service, proven ability to serve in multiple-unit situations and excellent fit, and the profession has detailed knowledge of these restorations' advantages, disadvantages and physical characteristics. PFM restorations have only a few well-known negative characteristics. Be cautious as you elect to move from the reliability and positive history of PFM to relatively unknown types of restorations.

  3. Induced mutations for tolerance of oats to crown rust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simons, M.D.; Frey, K.J.

    1977-01-01

    Seeds of three oat (Avena sativa and A. abyssinica) strains were treated with ethyl methanesulphonate (EMS), and crown rust (caused by Puccinia coronata var. avenae) tolerance ratios of M 5 -derived lines were compared with untreated checks. Tolerance ratios of mutant lines tended to be distributed in both plus and minus directions. No mutant oat line had a significant increase in grain yield, but many showed significantly depressed yields. With C.I. 6665, only five of 130 mutagen-derived lines were not significantly below the check for grain yield; one of these had significantly improved tolerance. Re-treatment of selected strains from a previous EMS treatment (original cultivar was Clintland-60) gave one M 5 -derived oat line (of 100 tested) that was equal to Clintland-60 in grain yield and sustained no damage from crown rust (i.e. it had a tolerance ratio of 100). EMS treatment of the highly susceptible tetraploid C.I. 2110 resulted in both significantly increased and reduced tolerance. (author)

  4. Metabolic changes in Avena sativa crowns recovering from freezing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia A Henson

    Full Text Available Extensive research has been conducted on cold acclimation and freezing tolerance of fall-sown cereal plants due to their economic importance; however, little has been reported on the biochemical changes occurring over time after the freezing conditions are replaced by conditions favorable for recovery and growth such as would occur during spring. In this study, GC-MS was used to detect metabolic changes in the overwintering crown tissue of oat (Avena sativa L. during a fourteen day time-course after freezing. Metabolomic analysis revealed increases in most amino acids, particularly proline, 5-oxoproline and arginine, which increased greatly in crowns that were frozen compared to controls and correlated very significantly with days after freezing. In contrast, sugar and sugar related metabolites were little changed by freezing, except sucrose and fructose which decreased dramatically. In frozen tissue all TCA cycle metabolites, especially citrate and malate, decreased in relation to unfrozen tissue. Alterations in some amino acid pools after freezing were similar to those observed in cold acclimation whereas most changes in sugar pools after freezing were not. These similarities and differences suggest that there are common as well as unique genetic mechanisms between these two environmental conditions that are crucial to the winter survival of plants.

  5. Alkali-crown ether complexes at metal surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thontasen, Nicha; Deng, Zhitao; Rauschenbach, Stephan [Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, Stuttgart (Germany); Levita, Giacomo [University of Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Malinowski, Nikola [Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, Stuttgart (Germany); Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria); Kern, Klaus [Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, Stuttgart (Germany); EPFL, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2010-07-01

    Crown ethers are polycyclic ethers which, in solution, selectively bind cations depending on the size of the ring cavity. The study of a single host-guest complex is highly desirable in order to reveal the characteristics of these specific interactions at the atomic scale. Such detailed investigation is possible at the surface where high resolution imaging tools like scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) can be applied. Here, electrospray ion beam deposition (ES-IBD) is employed for the deposition of Dibenzo-24-crown-8 (DB24C8)-H{sup +}, -Na{sup +} and -Cs{sup +} complexes on a solid surface in ultrahigh vacuum (UHV). Where other deposition techniques have not been successful, this deposition technique combines the advantages of solution based preparation of the complex ions with a highly clean and controlled deposition in UHV. Single molecular structures and the cation-binding of DB24C8 at the surface are studied in situ by STM and MALDI-MS (matrix assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry). The internal structure of the complex, i.e. ring and cavity, is observable only when alkali cations are incorporated. The BD24C8-H{sup +} complex in contrast appears as a compact feature. This result is in good agreement with theoretical models based on density functional theory calculations.

  6. Displacement of screw-retained single crowns into implants with conical internal connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Burak; Seidt, Jeremy D; McGlumphy, Edwin A; Clelland, Nancy L

    2013-01-01

    Internal conical implant-abutment connections without platforms may lead to axial displacement of crowns during screw tightening. This displacement may affect proximal contacts, incisal edge position, or occlusion. This study aimed to measure the displacement of screw-retained single crowns into an implant in three dimensions during screw tightening by hand or via torque driver. A stereolithic acrylic resin cast was created using computed tomography data from a patient missing the maxillary right central incisor. A 4.0- × 11-mm implant was placed in the edentulous site. Five porcelain-fused-to-metal single crowns were made using "cast-to" abutments. Crowns were tried on the stereolithic model, representing the patient, and hand tightened. The spatial relationship of crowns to the model after hand tightening was determined using three-dimensional digital image correlation (3D DIC), an optical measurement technique. The crowns were then tightened using a torque driver to 20 Ncm and the relative crown positions were again recorded. Testing was repeated three times for each crown, and displacement of the crowns was compared between the hand-tightened and torqued states. Commercial image correlation software was used to analyze the data. Mean vertical and horizontal crown displacement values were calculated after torqueing. The interproximal contacts were evaluated before and after torquing using an 8-μm aluminum foil shim. There were vertical and horizontal differences in crown positions between hand tightening and torqueing. Although these were small in magnitude, detectable displacements occurred in both apical and facial directions. After hand tightening, the 8-μm shim could be dragged without tearing. However, after torque tightening, the interproximal contacts were too tight and the 8-μm shim could not be dragged without tearing. Differences between hand tightening and torque tightening should be taken into consideration during laboratory and clinical

  7. Crown Ether Complexes of Alkali-Metal Chlorides from SO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Kirsten; Rudel, Stefan S; Buchner, Magnus R; Kraus, Florian; von Hänisch, Carsten

    2017-07-18

    The structures of alkali-metal chloride SO 2 solvates (Li-Cs) in conjunction with 12-crown-4 or 1,2-disila-12-crown-4 show strong discrepancies, despite the structural similarity of the ligands. Both types of crown ethers form 1:1 complexes with LiCl to give [Li(1,2-disila-12-crown-4)(SO 2 Cl)] (1) and [Li(12-crown-4)Cl]⋅4 SO 2 (2). However, 1,2-disila-12-crown-4 proved unable to coordinate cations too large for the cavity diameter, for example, by the formation of sandwich-type complexes. As a result, 12-crown-4 reacts exclusively with the heavier alkali-metal chlorides NaCl, KCl and RbCl. Compounds [Na(12-crown-4) 2 ]Cl⋅4 SO 2 (3) and [M(12-crown-4) 2 (SO 2 )]Cl⋅4 SO 2 (4: M=K; 5: M=Rb) all showed S-coordination to the chloride ions through four SO 2 molecules. Compounds 4 and 5 additionally exhibit the first crystallographically confirmed non-bridging O,O'-coordination mode of SO 2 . Unexpectedly, the disila-crown ether supports the dissolution of RbCl and CsCl in the solvent and gives the homoleptic SO 2 -solvated alkali-metal chlorides [MCl⋅3 SO 2 ] (6: M=Rb; 7: M=Cs), which incorporate bridging μ-O,O'-coordinating moieties and the unprecedented side-on O,O'-coordination mode. All compounds were characterised by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The crown ether complexes were additionally studied by using NMR spectroscopy, and the presence of SO 2 at ambient temperature was revealed by IR spectroscopy of the neat compounds. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Fracture Strength and Failure Mode of Maxillary Implant-Supported Provisional Single Crowns : A Comparison of Composite Resin Crowns Fabricated Directly Over PEEK Abutments and Solid Titanium Abutments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santing, H.J.; Meijer, Henny J.A.; Raghoebar, G.M.; Ozcan, M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) temporary abutments have been recently introduced for making implant-supported provisional single crowns. Little information is available in the dental literature on the durability of provisional implant-supported restorations. Purpose: The objectives of this

  9. Retention Load Values of Telescopic Crowns Made of Y-TZP and CoCr with Y-TZP Secondary Crowns: Impact of Different Taper Angles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Merk

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine and compare the retention load values (RL of different telescopic crown assemblies (Y-TZP and CoCr primary crowns with electroformed and Y-TZP secondary crowns each with three different taper angles (0°, 1° and 2°. Thirty Y-TZP primary crowns with electroformed gold copings (Z/G group and Y-TZP secondary crowns (Z/Z group and 30 CoCr primary crowns with electroformed gold copings (C/G group and Y-TZP secondary crowns (C/Z group, each with taper angles of 0°, 1° and 2°, were fabricated, respectively. With the exception of the electroformed gold copings, all specimens were Computer-Aided-Design/Computer-Aided-Manufacturing (CAD/CAM-milled, then sintered and afterwards manually adapted. In order to stabilize the gold copings, they were fixed in a tertiary structure. The secondary crowns were constructed with a hook, which ensured self-alignment with an upper chain. Afterwards, 20 pull-off test cycles were performed in a universal testing machine under artificial saliva and after weighing the secondary crowns with a 5 kg object for 20 s. Data were analyzed by one-way and two-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA. C/Z with 1° showed higher (p = 0.009 RL than 0° and 2° tapers. C/G at 1° also showed higher (p = 0.001 RL than at tapers of 0° and 2°. Z/G and C/G at 0° showed lower RL than Z/Z and C/Z (p < 0.001. Primary crowns had no impact on the 0° group. Z/G showed lower RL as compared to C/Z within the 1° group (p = 0.007 and Z/Z in the 2° group (p = 0.006. The primary crown material had no influence on RL. Electroformed copings showed lower RL. Further investigations for 1° as well as for the long-term performance after thermomechanical aging are necessary.

  10. Absorption infrared spectra of interaction products of cyclic polyethers 18-crown-6 and dibenzo-18-crown-6 with uranyl dinitrate hexahydrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chumaevskij, N.A.; Belomestnykh, V.I.; Razgonyaeva, G.A.; Shabel'nik, K.S.; Afanas'eva, E.E.

    1988-01-01

    Using the method of IR spectroscopy it is established that during interaction of uranyl nitrate hexahydrate (UNH) with crown-ethers under investigation macrocycles adhere to UO 2 2+ via hydrogen bonds between water molecules and oxygen of polyethers. Interaction of UNH with the above-mentioned crowns leads to conformational rearrangement of cycles of polyethers and improvement of their symmetry, reflecting in noticeable simplification of IR spectra of interaction products as compared to spectra of initial cyclic polyethers

  11. Analysis of Flavonoids in Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Leaves and Their Antioxidant Activity Using Macroporous Resin Chromatography Coupled with LC-MS/MS and Antioxidant Biochemical Assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Zhi Zhu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera leaves, a traditional Chinese medicinal herb, are rich in flavonoids. In an effort to thoroughly analyze their flavonoid components, macroporous resin chromatography coupled with HPLC-MS/MS was employed to simultaneously enrich and identify flavonoids from lotus leaves. Flavonoids extracted from lotus leaves were selectively enriched in the macroporous resin column, eluted subsequently as fraction II, and successively subjected to analysis with the HPLC-MS/MS and bioactivity assays. Altogether, fourteen flavonoids were identified, four of which were identified from lotus leaves for the first time, including quercetin 3-O-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2-glucopyranoside, quercetin 3-O-arabinoside, diosmetin 7-O-hexose, and isorhamnetin 3-O-arabino- pyranosyl-(1→2-glucopyranoside. Further bioactivity assays revealed that these flavonoids from lotus leaves possess strong antioxidant activity, and demonstrate very good potential to be explored as food supplements or even pharmaceutical products to improve human health.

  12. Optical effects of different colors of artificial gingiva on ceramic crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Lin, Jin; Gil, Mindy; Da Silva, John D; Wright, Robert; Ishikawa-Nagai, Shigemi

    2013-08-01

    The interaction between gingival color and the shade of ceramic restorations has never been fully studied. The purpose of this study is to investigate the optical effects of altering artificial gingival color on the ceramic crown shade in the cervical area. Thirty-one all-ceramic crowns of different shades were used in this study with six different artificial gingival colors. Using a spectrophotometer (Crystaleye(®) Olympus, Japan), we measured the shade of crowns in cervical areas with each of six different artificial gingiva. The crown color measured in the presence of pink artificial gingiva (control) was compared with the crown color with five other artificial gingiva. color difference values ΔE* were calculated and compared between the control group and test groups and the correlation of the artificial gingival color with the crown color was also assessed. Significant differences were found in the mean L* and a* values of all-ceramic crowns at the cervical regions in all six gingival color groups (pcolors of artificial gingiva generated clinically detectable shade differences in the cervical region of ceramic crowns. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Equations for predicting diameter, height, crown width, and leaf area of San Joaquin Valley street trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.J. Peper; E.G. McPherson; S.M. Mori

    2001-01-01

    Although the modeling of energy-use reduction, air pollution uptake, rainfall interception, and microclimate modification associated with urban trees depends on data relating diameter at breast height (dbh) , crown height, crown diameter, and leaf area to tree age or dbh, scant information is available for common municipal tree species . I n this study , tree height ,...

  14. A Reliability Generalization Study of the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beretvas, S, Natasha; Meyers, Jason L.; Leite, Walter L.

    2002-01-01

    Conducted a reliability generalization study of the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale (D. Crowne and D. Marlowe, 1960). Analysis of 93 studies show that the predicted score reliability for male adolescents was 0.53, and reliability for men's responses was lower than for women's. Discusses the need for further analysis of the scale. (SLD)

  15. Crown characteristics of juvenile loblolly pine 6 years after application of thinning and fertilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shufang Yu; Jim L. Chambers; Zhenmin Tang; James P. Barnett

    2003-01-01

    Total foliage dry mass and leaf area at the canopy hierarchical level of needle, shoot, branch and crown were measured in 48 trees harvested from a 14-year-old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantation, six growing seasons after thinning and fertilization treatments. In the unthinned treatment, upper crown needles were heavier and had more leaf area...

  16. An alternative method for estimating crown characteristics of urban trees using digital photographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew F. Winn; Philip A. Araman

    2012-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program has concluded that statewide urban forest inventories are feasible based on a series of pilot studies initiated in 2001. However, much of the tree crown data collected during inventories are based on visual inspection and therefore highly subjective. In order to objectively determine the crown...

  17. Investigating assumptions of crown archetypes for modelling LiDAR returns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calders, K.; Lewis, P.; Disney, M.; Verbesselt, J.; Herold, M.

    2013-01-01

    LiDAR has the potential to derive canopy structural information such as tree height and leaf area index (LAI), via models of the LiDAR signal. Such models often make assumptions regarding crown shape to simplify parameter retrieval and crown archetypes are typically assumed to contain a turbid

  18. Plastic collapse load of crown-hinged steel circular arches : a theoretical method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoorenberg, R.C.; Snijder, H.H.; Hoenderkamp, J.C.D.

    2013-01-01

    For construction purposes and to avoid detrimental influences of foundation settlements arches are not always made from a single arch-rib but are built by connecting two curvilinear elements at the crown with a hinge. These arches are also known as crown-hinged arches. This paper presents an

  19. Interrelationships among light, photosynthesis and nitrogen in the crown of mature Pinus contorta ssp. latifolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. W. Schoettle; W. K. Smith

    1999-01-01

    Scaling leaf-level measurements to estimate carbon gain of entire leaf crowns or canopies requires an understanding of the distribution of photosynthetic capacity and corresponding light microenvironments within a crown. We have compared changes in the photosynthetic light response and nitrogen (N) content (per unit leaf area) of Pinus contorta Dougl. ssp. latifolia...

  20. Rapid crown root development confers tolerance to zinc deficiency in rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrit Kaur eNanda

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Zinc (Zn deficiency is one of the leading nutrient disorders in rice (Oryza sativa. Many studies have identified Zn efficient rice genotypes, but causal mechanisms for Zn deficiency tolerance remain poorly understood. Here we report a detailed study of the impact of Zn deficiency on crown root development of rice genotypes, differing in their tolerance to this stress. Zn deficiency delayed crown root development and plant biomass accumulation in both Zn efficient and inefficient genotypes, with the effects being much stronger in the latter. Zn efficient genotypes had developed new crown roots as early as three days after transplanting (DAT to a Zn deficient field and that was followed by a significant increase in total biomass by 7 DAT. Zn-inefficient genotypes developed few new crown roots and did not increase biomass during the first seven days following transplanting. This correlated with Zn efficient genotypes retranslocating a higher proportion of shoot Zn to their roots, compared to Zn inefficient genotypes. These latter genotypes were furthermore not efficient in utilizing the limited Zn for root development. Histological analyses indicated no anomalies in crown tissue of Zn-efficient or inefficient genotypes that would have suggested crown root emergence was impeded. We therefore conclude that the rate of crown root initiation was differentially affected by Zn deficiency between genotypes. Rapid crown root development, following transplanting, was identified as a main causative trait for tolerance to Zn deficiency and better Zn retranslocation from shoot to root was a key attribute of Zn-efficient genotypes.

  1. Polyacrylonitrile (PAN)/crown ether composite nanofibers for the selective adsorption of cations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tas, Sinem; Kaynan, Ozge; Ozden-Yenigun, Elif; Nijmeijer, Dorothea C.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we prepared electrospun polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibers functionalized with dibenzo-18-crown-6 (DB18C6) crown ether and showed the potential of these fibers for the selective recovery of K+ from other both mono- and divalent ions in aqueous solutions. Nanofibers were characterized

  2. First report of Fusarium redolens causing crown rot of wheat (Triticum spp.) in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium crown rot, caused by a complex of Fusarium spp., is a yield-limiting disease of wheat world-wide, especially in dry Mediterranean climates. In order to identify Fusarium species associated with crown rot of wheat, a survey was conducted in summer 2013 in the major wheat growing regions of T...

  3. A semi-empirical model for predicting crown diameter of cedrela ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A semi-empirical model relating age and breast height has been developed to predict individual tree crown diameter for Cedrela odorata (L) plantation in the moist evergreen forest zones of Ghana. The model was based on field records of 269 trees, and could determine the crown cover dynamics, forecast time of canopy ...

  4. Large acceleration of a-chymotrypsin-catalyzed dipeptide formation by 18-crown-6 in organic solvents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Unen, D.J.; Engbersen, Johannes F.J.; Reinhoudt, David

    1998-01-01

    The effects of 18-crown-6 on the synthesis of peptides catalyzed by α-chymotrypsin are reported. Lyophilization of the enzyme in the presence of 50 equivalents of 18-crown-6 results in a 425-fold enhanced activity when the reaction between the 2-chloroethylester of N-acetyl-L-phenylalanine and

  5. Equations relating compacted and uncompacted live crown ratio for common tree species in the South

    Science.gov (United States)

    KaDonna C. Randolph

    2010-01-01

    Species-specific equations to predict uncompacted crown ratio (UNCR) from compacted live crown ratio (CCR), tree length, and stem diameter were developed for 24 species and 12 genera in the southern United States. Using data from the US Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis program, nonlinear regression was used to model UNCR with a logistic function. Model...

  6. Crown releasing of red maple poles to shorten high-quality sawlog rotations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayne G. Erdmann; Ralph M., Jr. Peterson; Robert R. Orberg

    1985-01-01

    The effects of six crown-release treatments on growth and bole quality development of 54-year-old dominant, codominant, and intermediate red maples (Acer rubrum L.) were evaluated on a good red maple site (site index = 19.3 mat 50 years) in upper Michigan. Results showed that crown release stimulated the growth of dominants, codominants, and strong...

  7. An in-vitro investigation of the accuracy of fit of Procera and Empress crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Garry J R; Dobinson, Marie M; Landini, Gabriel; Harris, Jonathan J

    2005-09-01

    The current study aimed to investigate the accuracy of fit and the reproducibility of inner crown profile for two types of high strength ceramics, IPS Empress and Procera. Procera and Empress crowns with four different morphologies were cemented to dies using zinc phosphate dental cement. Vertical and horizontal sections were made through each of the crown/die preparations and images of the vertical sections were compared for curvature reproduction by alignment using image processing. Measurements were made on horizontal sections to determine cement layer thickness. Alignment of the crowns using image analysis identified quantifiable variations in the inner surface profile compared with the outer surface of the die. The largest differences occurred from the cusp tips to the occlusal adaptation area and differences in surface profile were less pronounced for Procera than Empress crowns. Marginal gap varied independently of ceramic or internal crown shape from 7-529 microm for Procera and 26-548 microm for Empress. IPS Empress has a superior ability to reproduce the inner surface profile of the crown morphologies investigated compared with Procera. The reduced reproduction of surface profile was associated with an increased cement thickness at the occlusal contact area that may inadvertently lead to failure of the crowns functional characteristics.

  8. Periodontal response to all-ceramic crowns (IPS Empress) in general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Wahadni, A M; Mansour, Y; Khader, Y

    2006-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the periodontal response to the presence of all-ceramic crowns (IPS Empress) in general practice patients. The convenience sample included 82 IPS Empress crowns placed in 64 patients. These crowns had been in place for an average of 16.27 (SD 9.26) months and ranged from 6.2 to 48.87 months at the time of clinical examination. Periodontal health status (as determined by dental plaque, gingival health status, periodontal pockets) was assessed around all crowned teeth and around matched contralateral teeth by one calibrated examiner. Periodontal indices utilized included the Plaque Index (PI), Gingival Index (GI) and pocket depth (PD) with calibrated probes graduated in millimetres. Plaque, gingival and PD values for crowned teeth were compared with those for control teeth using Wilcoxon signed-rank test for each clinical parameters. Chi-square was used to test the significance of the difference in their distribution between crowns and control teeth. Statistically, PI (0.35), GI (0.41) and mean PD scores (1.42) of IPS Empress crowned teeth compared less favourably with scores of the control teeth (0.27, 0.23 and 0.86 respectively). Teeth with IPS Empress crowns had poorer periodontal health and more clinically evident plaque than uncrowned teeth.

  9. Clinical performance of IPS-Empress 2 ceramic crowns inserted by general dental practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Yasar F; Al-Omiri, Mahmoud K; Khader, Yousef Saleh; Al-Wahadni, Ahed

    2008-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical performance of IPS-Empress 2(R) all-ceramic crowns placed by general dental practitioners. Eighty-two IPS-Empress 2 crowns placed in 64 patients (27 females and 37 males) were evaluated. These crowns had been in place for 15.2 to 57.2 months (mean 25.3 months, SD=9.3). Survival analysis was conducted using the Kaplan-Meier method. Of the 82 crowns 93.9% were rated satisfactory. In terms of the integrity of the restorations, fracture was observed in three crowns and two showed a crack upon transillumination. Five crowns were rated unsatisfactory for color match; one for marginal adaptation; and none for discoloration, secondary caries, or sensitivity. IPS-Empress 2(R) is a suitable material to fabricate all-ceramic crowns; when these all-ceramic crowns were inserted by general dental practitioners, they functioned satisfactorily with low failure rates during an observation period ranging between 15.2 to 57.2 months.

  10. In vitro evaluation of the marginal fit of different all-ceramic crowns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munir Tolga Yucel

    2013-09-01

    Conclusion: In-Ceram all-ceramic crowns showed the largest marginal gap, and Celay crowns showed the smallest marginal gap in both die groups. The marginal discrepancies found in this study were all within the clinically acceptable standard of 120 μm.

  11. Clinical Performance of Pedo Jacket Crowns in Maxillary Anterior Primary Teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Aimee; Badr, Sherine B Y; El-Badrawy, Wafa; Kulkarni, Gajanan

    2016-09-15

    To assess the clinical performance of Pedo Jacket crowns for restoration of carious primary anterior teeth. A total of 129 carious primary incisors and canines of 48 children younger than 71 months of age- were restored with Pedo Jacket crowns and resin-modified glass ionomer cementation. They were assessed for: ease of use; presence of recurrent decay; wear; partial or complete loss of the crown; color stability; gingival health; and overall clinical success over a 12-month follow-up. The patient's behavior at the restorative appointment during crown placement was also assessed. An overall clinical success of 89.5 percent of the teeth in 87.3 percent of the children was seen one year later. The crowns were easy to use, even in uncooperative children. The color stability, wear, plaque accumulation, and gingival health were acceptable. Discoloration, wear, or complete loss of the crown were found in 13.1 percent, 5.4 percent, and 7.6 percent of children, respectively. Although not statistically significant, failures were associated with poor patient cooperation at the time of crown placement, poor oral hygiene, or operator error. Pedo Jacket crowns are a viable treatment alternative for carious maxillary primary anterior teeth.

  12. Genome-Wide Association Mapping of Crown Rust Resistance in Oat Elite Germplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klos, Kathy Esvelt; Yimer, Belayneh A; Babiker, Ebrahiem M; Beattie, Aaron D; Bonman, J Michael; Carson, Martin L; Chong, James; Harrison, Stephen A; Ibrahim, Amir M H; Kolb, Frederic L; McCartney, Curt A; McMullen, Michael; Fetch, Jennifer Mitchell; Mohammadi, Mohsen; Murphy, J Paul; Tinker, Nicholas A

    2017-07-01

    Oat crown rust, caused by f. sp. , is a major constraint to oat ( L.) production in many parts of the world. In this first comprehensive multienvironment genome-wide association map of oat crown rust, we used 2972 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotyped on 631 oat lines for association mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL). Seedling reaction to crown rust in these lines was assessed as infection type (IT) with each of 10 crown rust isolates. Adult plant reaction was assessed in the field in a total of 10 location-years as percentage severity (SV) and as infection reaction (IR) in a 0-to-1 scale. Overall, 29 SNPs on 12 linkage groups were predictive of crown rust reaction in at least one experiment at a genome-wide level of statistical significance. The QTL identified here include those in regions previously shown to be linked with seedling resistance genes , , , , , and and also with adult-plant resistance and adaptation-related QTL. In addition, QTL on linkage groups Mrg03, Mrg08, and Mrg23 were identified in regions not previously associated with crown rust resistance. Evaluation of marker genotypes in a set of crown rust differential lines supported as the identity of . The SNPs with rare alleles associated with lower disease scores may be suitable for use in marker-assisted selection of oat lines for crown rust resistance. Copyright © 2017 Crop Science Society of America.

  13. Impact of a drop onto a wetted wall: description of crown formation and propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roisman, I. V.; Tropea, C.

    2002-12-01

    The impact of a drop onto a liquid film with a relatively high impact velocity, leading to the formation of a crown-like ejection, is studied theoretically. The motion of a kinematic discontinuity in the liquid film on the wall due to the drop impact, the formation of the upward jet at this kinematic discontinuity and its elevation are analysed. Four main regions of the drop and film are considered: the perturbed liquid film on the wall inside the crown, the unperturbed liquid film on the wall outside the crown, the upward jet forming a crown, and the free rim bounding this jet. The theory of Yarin & Weiss (1995) for the propagation of the kinematic discontinuity is generalized here for the case of arbitrary velocity vectors in the inner and outer liquid films on the wall. Next, the mass, momentum balance and Bernoulli equations at the base of the crown are considered in order to obtain the velocity and the thickness of the jet on the wall. Furthermore, the dynamic equations of motion of the crown are developed in the Lagrangian form. An analytical solution for the crown shape is obtained in the asymptotic case of such high impact velocities that the surface tension and the viscosity effects can be neglected in comparison to inertial effects. The edge of the crown is described by the motion of a rim, formed due to the surface tension.

  14. Effects of photographic distance on tree crown atributes calculated using urbancrowns image analysis software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason F. Patterson; P. Eric Wiseman; Matthew F. Winn; Sang-mook Lee; Philip A. Araman

    2011-01-01

    UrbanCrowns is a software program developed by the USDA Forest Service that computes crown attributes using a side-view digital photograph and a few basic field measurements. From an operational standpoint, it is not known how well the software performs under varying photographic conditions for trees of diverse size, which could impact measurement reproducibility and...

  15. Fracture strength and failure mode of maxillary implant-supported provisional single crowns: a comparison of composite resin crowns fabricated directly over PEEK abutments and solid titanium abutments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santing, Hendrik Jacob; Meijer, Henny J A; Raghoebar, Gerry M; Özcan, Mutlu

    2012-12-01

    Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) temporary abutments have been recently introduced for making implant-supported provisional single crowns. Little information is available in the dental literature on the durability of provisional implant-supported restorations. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the fracture strength of implant-supported composite resin crowns on PEEK and solid titanium temporary abutments, and to analyze the failure types. Three types of provisional abutments, RN synOcta Temporary Meso Abutment (PEEK; Straumann), RN synOcta Titanium Post for Temporary Restorations (Straumann), and Temporary Abutment Engaging NobRplRP (Nobel Biocare) were used, and provisional screw-retained crowns using composite resin (Solidex) were fabricated for four different locations in the maxilla. The specimens were tested in a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/minute until fracture occurred. The failure types were analyzed and further categorized as irreparable (Type 1) or reparable (Type 2). No significant difference was found between different abutment types. Only for the position of the maxillary central incisor, composite resin crowns on PEEK temporary abutments showed significantly lower (p Provisional crowns on PEEK abutments showed similar fracture strength as titanium temporary abutments except for central incisors. Maxillary right central incisor composite resin crowns on PEEK temporary abutments fractured below the mean anterior masticatory loading forces reported to be approximately 206 N. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Three-Dimensional Macroporous Polypyrrole-Derived Graphene Electrode Prepared by the Hydrogen Bubble Dynamic Template for Supercapacitors and Metal-Free Catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoqing; Liu, Anran; Zhao, Yuewu; Lu, Huijia; Zhang, Yuanjian; Wei, Wei; Li, Ying; Liu, Songqin

    2015-10-28

    We report a general method for the fabrication of three-dimensional (3D) macroporous graphene/conducting polymer modified electrode and nitrogen-doped graphene modified electrode. This method involves three consecutive steps. First, the 3D macroporous graphene (3D MG) electrode was fabricated electrochemically by reducing graphene oxide dispersion on different conducting substrates and used hydrogen bubbles as the dynamic template. The morphology and pore size of 3D MG could be governed by the use of surfactants and the dynamics of bubble generation and departure. Second, 3D macroporous graphene/polypyrrole (MGPPy) composites were constructed via directly electropolymerizing pyrrole monomer onto the networks of 3D MG. Due to the benefit of the good conductivity of 3D MG and pseudocapacitance of PPy, the composites manifest outstanding area specific capacitance of 196 mF cm(-2) at a current density of 1 mA cm(-2). The symmetric supercapacitor device assembled by the composite materials had a good capacity property. Finally, the nitrogen-doped MGPPy (N-MGPPy or MGPPy-X) with 3D macroporous nanostructure and well-regulated nitrogen doping was prepared via thermal treatment of the composites. The resultant N-MGPPy electrode was explored as a good electrocatalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) with the current density value of 5.56 mA cm(-2) (-0.132 V vs Ag/AgCl). Moreover, the fuel tolerance and durability under the electrochemical environment of the N-MGPPy catalyst were found to be superior to the Pt/C catalyst.

  17. Provisional Crown Dislodgement during Scuba Diving: A Case of Barotrauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenal Nitin Gulve

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in ambient pressure, for example, during flying, diving, or hyperbaric oxygen therapy, can lead to barotrauma. Although it may seem that this issue was neglected in dental education and research in recent decades, familiarity with and understanding of these facts may be of importance for dental practitioners. We report the case of a patient who experienced barotrauma involving dislodgement of a provisional crown during scuba diving. Patients who are exposed to pressure changes as a part of their jobs or hobbies and their dentists should know the causes of barotrauma. In addition, the clinician must be aware of the possible influence of pressure changes on the retention of dental components.

  18. AUTOMATIC TREE-CROWN DETECTION IN CHALLENGING SCENARIOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Bulatov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new procedure for individual tree detection and modeling is presented. The input of this procedure consists of a normalized digital surface model NDSM, and a possibly error-prone classification result. The procedure is modular so that the functionality, the advantages and the disadvantages for every single module will be explained. The most important technical contributions of the paper are: Employing watershed transformation combined with classification results, applying hotspots detectors for identifying treetops in groups of trees, and correcting NDSM by detecting and geometric reconstruction of small anomalies, such as earth walls. Two minor contributions are made up by a detailed literature research on available methods for individual tree detection and estimation of tree-crowns for clearly identified trees in order to reduce arbitrariness by assigning trees to one of the few types in the output model.

  19. Determination of radiostrontium in soil samples using a crown ether

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vajda, N; Ghods-Esphahani, A; Danesi, P R [International Atomic Energy Agency, Agency' s Laboratories, Chemistry Unit, PCI Laboratory, Seibersdorf (Austria)

    1995-07-01

    A simple and rapid method has been developed for the separation and successive determination of total radiostrontium in soil. The method consists of three basic steps: oxalate precipitation to remove bulk potassium, chromatographic separation of strontium from most inactive and radioactive interferences utilizing a crown ether (Sr. Spec, EIChroM Industries, II. USA), oxalate precipitation of strontium to evaluate the chemical yield. Radiostrontium is then determined by liquid scintillation counting of the dissolved precipitate. When 10 g samples of soil are used the sensitivity of the method is about 10 Bq/kg. The chemical yield is about 80%. The separation and determination of radiostrontium can be carried out in about 8 hours. (author)

  20. Determination of radiostrontium in soil samples using a crown ether

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vajda, N.; Ghods-Esphahani, A.; Danesi, P.R.

    1995-01-01

    A simple and rapid method has been developed for the separation and successive determination of total radiostrontium in soil. The method consists of three basic steps: oxalate precipitation to remove bulk potassium, chromatographic separation of strontium from most inactive and radioactive interferences utilizing a crown ether (Sr. Spec, EIChroM Industries, II. USA), oxalate precipitation of strontium to evaluate the chemical yield. Radiostrontium is then determined by liquid scintillation counting of the dissolved precipitate. When 10 g samples of soil are used the sensitivity of the method is about 10 Bq/kg. The chemical yield is about 80%. The separation and determination of radiostrontium can be carried out in about 8 hours. (author)

  1. Rehabilitation of complicated crown-root fracture by invisible approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Leela Rani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental trauma is one of the most common and significant problems met in all dental offices almost every day. In particular, injury to the anterior teeth is more vulnerable as it may affect the psychosocial behavior, severe emotional complications can occur leading to disturbances in their mental attitude. Cosmetic (lingual orthodontics is the recent development in the field of dentistry in the last few decades. Patients are more concerned about their appearance during the treatment and are affected by psychosocial issues because of labially placed brackets, thus leading to the evolution of lingual orthodontic appliances. In this article, we are sharing our clinical experience treating a complicated crown-root fracture using the lingual orthodontic technique.

  2. Shear Bond Strength of Orthodontic Brackets Bonded to Zirconium Crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehmeti, Blerim; Azizi, Bleron; Kelmendi, Jeta; Iljazi-Shahiqi, Donika; Alar, Željko; Anić-Milošević, Sandra

    2017-06-01

    An increasing demand for esthetic restorations has resulted in an increased use of all-ceramic restorations, such as zirconium. However, one of the challenges the orthodontist must be willing to face is how to increase bond strength between the brackets and various ceramic restorations.Bond strength can beaffected bybracket type, by the material that bracketsaremade of, and their base surface design or retention mode. ​: A im: of this study was to perform a comparative analysis of the shear bond strength (SBS) of metallic and ceramic orthodontic brackets bonded to all-zirconium ceramic surfaces used for prosthetic restorations, and also to evaluate the fracture mode of these two types of orthodontic brackets. Twenty samples/semi-crowns of all-zirconium ceramic, on which orthodontic brackets were bonded, 10 metallic and 10 ceramic polycrystalline brackets, were prepared for this research. SBS has been testedby Universal Testing Machine, with a load applied using a knife edged rod moving at a fixed rate of 1 mm/min, until failure occurred. The force required to debond the brackets was recorded in Newton, then SBS was calculated to MPa. In addition, the samples were analyzed using a digital camera magnifier to determine Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI). Statistical data were processed using t-test, and the level of significance was set at α = 0.05. Higher shear bond strength values were observed in metallic brackets bonded to zirconium crowns compared tothoseof ceramic brackets, with a significant difference. During the test, two of the ceramic brackets were partially or totally damaged. Metallic brackets, compared to ceramic polycrystalline brackets, seemed tocreate stronger adhesion with all-zirconium surfaces due to their better retention mode. Also, ceramic brackets showed higher fragility during debonding.

  3. [Cervical adaptation of complete cast crowns of various metal alloys, with and without die spacers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephano, C B; Roselino, R F; Roselino, R B; Campos, G M

    1989-01-01

    A metallic replica from a dental preparation for crown was used to make 8 class-IV stone dies. The wax patterns for the casting of the crowns were obtained in two conditions: a) from the stone die with no spacer; and b) from the stone die with an acrylic spacer. Thus, 64 metallic crowns were casted, using 4 different alloys: DURACAST (Cu-Al), NICROCAST (Ni-Cr) and DURABOND (Ni-Cr), and gold. The casted crowns were fitted in the metallic replica and measured as to the cervical discrepance of fitting. The results showed that the use of die spacers decreases the clinical discrepancies of fitting of the casted crowns (in a statistically significant level), no matter the metallic alloy employed.

  4. Zirconia crowns for rehabilitation of decayed primary incisors: an esthetic alternative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashima, G; Sarabjot, K Bhatia; Gauba, K; Mittal, H C

    2014-01-01

    Esthetic management of extensively decayed primary maxillary anterior teeth requiring full coronal coverage restoration is usually challenging to the pediatric dentists especially in very young children. Many esthetic options have been tried over the years each having its own advantages, disadvantages and associated technical, functional or esthetic limitations. Zirconia crowns have provided a treatment alternative to address the esthetic concerns and ease of placement of extra-coronal restorations on primary anterior teeth. The present article presents a case where grossly decayed maxillary primary incisors were restored esthetically and functionally with ready made zirconia crowns (ZIRKIZ, HASS Corp; Korea). After endodontic treatment the decayed teeth were restored with zirconia crowns. Over a 30 months period, the crowns have demonstrated good retention and esthetic results. Dealing with esthetic needs in children with extensive loss of tooth structure, using Zirconia crowns would be practical and successful. The treatment described is simple and effective and represents a promising alternative for rehabilitation of decayed primary teeth.

  5. Synthesis of hierarchically meso-macroporous TiO2/CdS heterojunction photocatalysts with excellent visible-light photocatalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Haixin; Cui, Shu; Yang, Lan; Li, Guodong; Li, Nan; Li, Xiaotian

    2018-02-15

    Photocatalysts with a hierarchically porous structure have attracted considerable attention owing to their wide pore size distribution and high surface area, which enhance the efficiency of transporting species to active sites. In this study, hierarchically meso-macroporous TiO 2 photocatalysts decorated with highly dispersed CdS nanoparticles were synthesized via hydrolysis, followed by a hydrothermal treatment. The textural mesopores and interconnected pore framework provided more accessible active sites and efficient mass transport for the photocatalytic process. The light collection efficiency was enhanced because of multiple scattering of incident light in the macropores. Moreover, the formation of a heterojunction between the CdS and TiO 2 nanoparticles extended the photoresponse of TiO 2 to the visible-light range and enhanced the charge separation efficiency. Therefore, the hierarchically meso-macroporous TiO 2 /CdS photocatalysts exhibited excellent photocatalytic activity for the degradation of rhodaming B under visible-light irradiation. Trapping experiments demonstrated that superoxide radicals (O 2 - ) and hydroxyl radicals (OH) were the main active species in photocatalysis. A reasonable photocatalytic mechanism of TiO 2 /CdS heterojunction photocatalysts was also presented. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The growth of high density network of MOF nano-crystals across macroporous metal substrates - Solvothermal synthesis versus rapid thermal deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maina, James W.; Gonzalo, Cristina Pozo; Merenda, Andrea; Kong, Lingxue; Schütz, Jürg A.; Dumée, Ludovic F.

    2018-01-01

    Fabrication of metal organic framework (MOF) films and membranes across macro-porous metal substrates is extremely challenging, due to the large pore sizes across the substrates, poor wettability, and the lack of sufficient reactive functional groups on the surface, which prevent high density nucleation of MOF crystals. Herein, macroporous stainless steel substrates (pore size 44 × 40 μm) are functionalized with amine functional groups, and the growth of ZIF-8 crystals investigated through both solvothermal synthesis and rapid thermal deposition (RTD), to assess the role of synthesis routes in the resultant membranes microstructure, and subsequently their performance. Although a high density of well interconnected MOF crystals was observed across the modified substrates following both techniques, RTD was found to be a much more efficient route, yielding high quality membranes under 1 h, as opposed to the 24 h required for solvothermal synthesis. The RTD membranes also exhibited high gas permeance, with He permeance of up to 2.954 ± 0.119 × 10-6 mol m-2 s-1 Pa-1, and Knudsen selectivities for He/N2, Ar/N2 and CO2/N2, suggesting the membranes were almost defect free. This work opens up route for efficient fabrication of MOF films and membranes across macro-porous metal supports, with potential application in electrically mediated separation applications.

  7. Enhanced Efficiency of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells with Mesoporous-Macroporous TiO2 Photoanode Obtained Using ZnO Template

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Trang T. T.; Mathews, Nripan; Lam, Yeng-Ming; Mhaisalkar, Subodh

    2017-06-01

    Improved light harvesting efficiency can be achieved by enhancing the optical properties of the titanium dioxide (TiO2) photoanode in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), leading to higher power conversion efficiency. By incorporating submicrometer cavities in TiO2 mesoporous film, using zinc oxide (ZnO) particles as a template, a bimodal pore size structure has been created, called a mesoporous-macroporous nanostructure. This photoanode structure consists of 20-nm TiO2 nanoparticles with two kinds of pores with size of 20 nm (mesopores) and 500 nm (macropores). Energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction studies showed no trace of ZnO in the TiO2 after removal by TiCl4 treatment. Higher diffuse transmittance of this film compared with the standard transparent photoanode provides evidence of improved light scattering. When employed in a device, the incident-photon-to-current efficiency of ZnO-assisted devices showed enhancement at longer wavelengths, corresponding to the Mie light scattering effect with the macropores as scattering centers. This resulted in overall higher power conversion efficiency of the DSSC. In this work, a nonvolatile gel ionic liquid was used as the electrolyte to also demonstrate the benefit of this structure in combination with a viscous electrolyte and its promising application to prolong the stability of DSSCs.

  8. Fabrication and properties of meso-macroporous electrodes screen-printed from mesoporous titania nanoparticles for dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Liang; Liu Min; Peng Tianyou; Fan Ke; Lu Lanlan; Dai Ke

    2009-01-01

    A meso-macroporous TiO 2 film electrode was fabricated by using mesoporous TiO 2 (m-TiO 2 ) nanoparticles through a screen-printing technique in order to efficiently control the main fabrication step of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The qualities of the screen-printed m-TiO 2 films were characterized by means of spectroscopy, electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption-desorption and photoelectrochemical measurements. Under the optimal paste composition and printing conditions, the DSSC based on the meso-macroporous m-TiO 2 film electrode exhibits an energy conversion efficiency of 4.14%, which is improved by 1.70% in comparison with DSSC made with commercially available nonporous TiO 2 nanoparticles (P25, Degussa) electrode printed with a similar paste composition. The meso-macroporous structure within the m-TiO 2 film is of great benefit to the dye adsorption, light absorption and the electrolyte transportation, and then to the improvement of the overall energy conversion efficiency of DSSC.

  9. An Efficient Protocol for Preparation of Gallic Acid from Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.) Roxb by Combination of Macroporous Resin and Preparative High-Performance Liquid Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Denglang; Chen, Tao; Chen, Chen; Li, Hongmei; Liu, Yongling; Li, Yulin

    2016-08-01

    In this article, macroporous resin column chromatography and preparative high-performance liquid chromatography were applied for preparation of gallic acid from Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.) Roxb. In the first step, six kinds of resins were investigated by adsorption and desorption tests and AB-8 macroporous resin was selected for the enrichment of gallic acid. As a result, 20 g of gallic acid at a purity of 71% could be separated from 100 g of crude extract in which the content of gallic acid was 16.7% and the recovery of gallic acid reached 85.0%. In the second step, preparative high-performance liquid chromatography was selected to purify gallic acid. As a result, 640 mg of gallic acid at a purity of 99.1% was obtained from 1 g of sample in 35 min. The results demonstrated that macroporous resin coupled with preparative high-performance liquid chromatography was suitable for preparation of gallic acid from T. bellirica (Gaertn.) Roxb. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Acetylene Black Induced Heterogeneous Growth of Macroporous CoV2O6 Nanosheet for High-Rate Pseudocapacitive Lithium-Ion Battery Anode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Zhao, Kangning; Luo, Yanzhu; Dong, Yifan; Xu, Wangwang; Yan, Mengyu; Ren, Wenhao; Zhou, Liang; Qu, Longbing; Mai, Liqiang

    2016-03-23

    Metal vanadates suffer from fast capacity fading in lithium-ion batteries especially at a high rate. Pseudocapacitance, which is associated with surface or near-surface redox reactions, can provide fast charge/discharge capacity free from diffusion-controlled intercalation processes and is able to address the above issue. In this work, we report the synthesis of macroporous CoV2O6 nanosheets through a facile one-pot method via acetylene black induced heterogeneous growth. When applied as lithium-ion battery anode, the macroporous CoV2O6 nanosheets show typical features of pseudocapacitive behavior: (1) currents that are mostly linearly dependent on sweep rate and (2) redox peaks whose potentials do not shift significantly with sweep rate. The macroporous CoV2O6 nanosheets display a high reversible capacity of 702 mAh g(-1) at 200 mA g(-1), excellent cyclability with a capacity retention of 89% (against the second cycle) after 500 cycles at 500 mA g(-1), and high rate capability of 453 mAh g(-1) at 5000 mA g(-1). We believe that the introduction of pseudocapacitive properties in lithium battery is a promising direction for developing electrode materials with high-rate capability.

  11. Study of Ni Metallization in Macroporous Si Using Wet Chemistry for Radio Frequency Cross-Talk Isolation in Mixed Signal Integrated Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    King-Ning Tu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A highly conductive moat or Faraday cage of through-the-wafer thickness in Si substrate was proposed to be effective in shielding electromagnetic interference thereby reducing radio frequency (RF cross-talk in high performance mixed signal integrated circuits. Such a structure was realized by metallization of selected ultra-high-aspect-ratio macroporous regions that were electrochemically etched in p− Si substrates. The metallization process was conducted by means of wet chemistry in an alkaline aqueous solution containing Ni2+ without reducing agent. It is found that at elevated temperature during immersion, Ni2+ was rapidly reduced and deposited into macroporous Si and a conformal metallization of the macropore sidewalls was obtained in a way that the entire porous Si framework was converted to Ni. A conductive moat was as a result incorporated into p− Si substrate. The experimentally measured reduction of crosstalk in this structure is 5~18 dB at frequencies up to 35 GHz.

  12. Preparation of macroporous zirconia monoliths from ionic precursors via an epoxide-mediated sol-gel process accompanied by phase separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Xingzhong; Song, Jie; Lvlin, Yixiu; Yang, Hui; Nakanishi, Kazuki; Kanamori, Kazuyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Monolithic macroporous zirconia (ZrO 2 ) derived from ionic precursors has been successfully fabricated via the epoxide-mediated sol-gel route accompanied by phase separation in the presence of propylene oxide (PO) and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO). The addition of PO used as an acid scavenger mediates the gelation, whereas PEO enhances the polymerization-induced phase separation. The appropriate choice of the starting compositions allows the production of a macroporous zirconia monolith with a porosity of 52.9% and a Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area of 171.9 m 2 · g −1 . The resultant dried gel is amorphous, whereas tetragonal ZrO 2 and monoclinic ZrO 2 are precipitated at 400 and 600 °C, respectively, without spoiling the macroporous morphology. After solvothermal treatment with an ethanol solution of ammonia, tetragonal ZrO 2 monoliths with smooth skeletons and well-defined mesopores can be obtained, and the BET surface area is enhanced to 583.8 m 2 · g −1 . (paper)

  13. Stability constants for some divalent metal ion/crown ether complexes in methanol determined by polarography and conductometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, L.; Bos, M.; Grootenhuis, P.D.J.; Christenhusz, A.; Hoogendam, E.; Reinhoudt, David; van der Linden, W.E.

    1987-01-01

    Stability constants in methanol at 25.0°C were evaluated for the complexes of the divalent cations Ca2+, Ni2+, Zn2+, Pb2+, Mg2+, Co2+ and Cu2+ with the macrocyclic polyethers 15-crown-5 (15C5), 18-crown-6 (18C6), dicyclohexyl-18-crown-6 (DC18C6) and dibenzo-24-crown-8 (DB24C8). The log K values of

  14. Enrichment of antioxidants in black garlic juice using macroporous resins and their protective effects on oxidation-damaged human erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Ying; Zhao, Mouming; Yang, Kun; Lin, Lianzhu; Wang, Yong

    2017-08-15

    The black garlic juice is popular for its nutritive value. Enrichment of antioxidants is needed to make black garlic extract an effective functional ingredient. Five macroporous resins were evaluated for their capacity in adsorbing antioxidants in black garlic juice. XAD-16 resin was chosen for further study due to its high adsorption and desorption ratios. Pseudo-second-order kinetics (q e =625μmol Trolox equiv/g dry resin, k 2 =0.0001463) and Freundlich isotherm models (ΔH=-10.1547kJ/mol) were suitable for describing the whole exothermic and physical adsorption processes of the antioxidants from black garlic juice on XAD-16 resin. The antioxidants and phenolics were mostly enriched in 40% ethanol fraction by XAD-16 resin column chromatography. The black garlic extract and its fractions could protect erythrocytes against AAPH-induced hemolysis in dose-dependent manners. The pretreatment of AAPH-damaged erythrocytes with 40% ethanol fractions (2.5mg/mL) significantly decreased the hemolysis ratios from 53.58% to 3.79%. The 40% ethanol fraction possessing strong intracellular antioxidant activity could be used as a functional food ingredient. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Formation mechanism of 3D macroporous graphene aerogel in alcohol-water media under gamma-ray radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weikang; Wu, Yihu; Jiang, Zhiwen; Wang, Mozhen; Wu, Qichao; Zhou, Xiao; Ge, Xuewu

    2018-01-01

    The subtle control on the self-assembly behavior of graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets is one of effective ways for the preparation of high-performance macroscopic graphene-based materials. In this work, detailed characterizations and discussion on the morphological and compositional changes on the solid products in various alcohol-water dispersions of GO under γ-ray radiation were carried out, proving the concurrent hydroxyalkylation and reduction processes of GO nanosheets in the system, which triggered the spontaneous self-assembly of the hydroxyalkylated and reduced GO nanosheets (HA-rGO). The pH and the volume ratio of alcohol to water (ϕa/w) are the key factors to control the self-assembly of the HA-rGO sheets. A free-standing graphene hydrogel (GH) only forms in the strong acid alcohol-water media with an appropriate ϕa/w. After the freeze-drying of the GH, a macroporous graphene aerogel (GA) was obtained, which exhibited a high absorption performance for not only nonpolar molecules (cyclohexane and kerosene), but also most polar molecules (toluene, chloroform, glycol, etc). This work demonstrates a comprehensive self-assembly mechanism of GO nanosheets in an aqueous media under γ-ray radiation and reveals that GA produced from the reduction of GO can be used as potential super-adsorbents for not only waste oil, but also the polar alcohols.

  16. Synthesis and application of nano-, meso- and macroporous sorbents based on lignin for detoxication of biological fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopabayeva, Nazira N.; Mukanov, Kanatbek N.; Tasmagambet, Amandyk T.

    2014-05-01

    Novel nano-, meso- and macroporous sorbents based on hydrolysis lignin have been synthesized by catalytic o-alkylation of biolpolymer with epoxy resin ED-20 and subsequent amination of formed α-oxyde derivative. Composition, structure, morphology and physical, chemical properties of ion-exchangers were investigated by FTIR, SEM, TEM, porosimetry and potentiometric titration method. It has been established that alkaline activated lignin shows an increase of SBET to 20.9 m2/g while modification leads to decrease of SBET more than double (from 9.2 to 5.2 m2/g) that of an untreared sample (14.5 m2/g). Synthesized sorbents are characterized by approximately identical mesoporous structure and mainly contained a pore size of 10-14 nm. The results clearly demonstrate the efficiency of lignin based sorbents for the removal of water and lipid soluble toxic metabolites from blood serum of diabetic retinopathy patients. Samples reduced the high level of total cholesterol, including its most atherogenic fractions (LDL-C, VLDL-C), triglyceride to the level of optimum compensated diabetes without significant removal of HDL-C. Concentration of glucose was decreased to physiological norms.

  17. Preparation of epoxy-based macroporous monolithic columns for the fast and efficient immunofiltration of Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Sonja; Niessner, Reinhard; Seidel, Michael

    2011-08-01

    Macroporous epoxy-based monolithic columns were used for immunofiltration of bacteria. The prepared monolithic polymer support is hydrophilic and has large pore sizes of 21 μm without mesopores. A surface chemistry usually applied for immobilization of antibodies on glass slides is successfully transferred to monolithic columns. Step-by-step, the surface of the epoxy-based monolith is hydrolyzed, silanized, coated with poly(ethylene glycol diamine) and activated with the homobifunctional crosslinker di(N-succinimidyl)carbonate for immobilization of antibodies on the monolithic columns. The functionalization steps are characterized to ensure the coating of each monolayer. The prepared antibody-immobilized monolithic column is optimized for immunofiltration to enrich Staphylococcus aureus as an important food contaminant. Different kinds of geometries of monolithic columns, flow rates and elution buffers are tested with the goal to get high recoveries in the shortest enrichment time as possible. An effective capture of S. aureus was achieved at a flow rate of 7.0 mL/min with low backpressures of 20.1±5.4 mbar enabling a volumetric enrichment of 1000 within 145 min. The bacteria were quantified by flow cytometry using a double-labeling approach. After immunofiltration the sensitivity was significantly increased and a detection limit of the total system of 42 S. aureus/mL was reached. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Ice as a Green-Structure-Directing Agent in the Synthesis of Macroporous MWCNTs and Chondroitin Sulphate Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardecchia, Stefania; Serrano, María Concepción; García-Argüelles, Sara; Maia Da Costa, Marcelo E. H.; Ferrer, María Luisa; Gutiérrez, María C.

    2017-01-01

    The incorporation of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) into chondroitin sulphate-based scaffolds and the effect on the structural, mechanical, conductive, and thermal properties of the resulting scaffolds is investigated. Three-dimensional hierarchical materials are prepared upon the application of the ice segregation-induced self-assembly (ISISA) process. The use of ice as structure-directing agents avoids chemicals typically used for this purpose (e.g., surfactants, block copolymers, etc.), hence, emphasising the green features of this soft-templating approach. We determine the critical parameters that control the morphology of the scaffolds formed upon ice-templating (i.e., MWCNTs type, freezing conditions, polymer and MWCNT concentration). MWCNTs are surface functionalized by acidic treatment. MWCNT functionalization is characterized by Raman, Fourier transfer infrared (FTIR) and X-ray Photoelectron (XPS) spectroscopies. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis and porosity studies reveal that MWCNT content modifies the morphology of the macroporous structure, which decreases by increasing MWCNT concentration. Differences in scaffold morphology should be translated into their conductivity and mechanical properties. As a general trend, the Young’s modulus and the electrical conductivity of the scaffolds increase with the MWCNT content. Preliminary biocompatibility tests with human osteoblast-like cells also reveal the capability of these structures to support cell growth. PMID:28772715

  19. Three-dimensional ordered macroporous MnO2/carbon nanocomposites as high-performance electrodes for asymmetric supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chunzhen; Zhou, Ming; Xu, Qian

    2013-12-07

    MnO2/carbon composites with ultrathin MnO2 nanofibers (diameter of 5-10 nm) uniformly deposited on three dimensional ordered macroporous (3DOM) carbon frameworks were fabricated via a self-limiting redox process. The MnO2 nanofibers provide a large surface area for charge storage, whereas the 3DOM carbon serves as a desirable supporting material providing rapid ion and electron transport through the composite electrodes. Cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were used to characterize the capacitive performance of these composites. Optimization of the composition results in a composite with 57 wt% MnO2 content, which gives both a high specific capacitance (234 F g(-1) at a discharge current of 0.1 A g(-1)) and good rate capability (52% retention of the capacitance at 5 A g(-1)). An asymmetric supercapacitor was fabricated by assembling the optimized MnO2/carbon composite as the positive electrode and 3DOM carbon as the negative electrode. The asymmetric supercapacitor exhibits superior electrochemical performances, which can be reversibly charged and discharged at a maximum cell voltage of 2.0 V in 1.0 M Na2SO4 aqueous electrolyte, delivering both high energy density (30.2 W h kg(-1)) and power density (14.5 kW kg(-1)). Additionally, the asymmetric supercapacitor exhibits an excellent cycle life, with 95% capacitance retained after 1000 cycles.

  20. Formation of carbon nanosheets via simultaneous activation and catalytic carbonization of macroporous anion-exchange resin for supercapacitors application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hui; Ma, Guofu; Sun, Kanjun; Mu, Jingjing; Zhang, Zhe; Lei, Ziqiang

    2014-12-10

    Two-dimensional mesoporous carbon nanosheets (CNSs) have been prepared via simultaneous activation and catalytic carbonization route using macroporous anion-exchange resin (AER) as carbon precursor and ZnCl2 and FeCl3 as activating agent and catalyst, respectively. The iron catalyst in the skeleton of the AER may lead to carburization to form a sheetlike structure during the carbonization process. The obtained CNSs have a large number of mesopores, a maximum specific surface area of 1764.9 m(2) g(-1), and large pore volume of 1.38 cm(3) g(-1). As an electrode material for supercapacitors application, the CNSs electrode possesses a large specific capacitance of 283 F g(-1) at 0.5 A g(-1) and excellent rate capability (64% retention ratio even at 50 A g(-1)) in 6 mol L(-1) KOH. Furthermore, CNSs symmetric supercapacitor exhibits specific energies of 17.2 W h kg(-1) at a power density of 224 W kg(-1) operated in the voltage range of 0-1.8 V in 0.5 mol L(-1) Na2SO4 aqueous electrolyte, and outstanding cyclability (retains about 96% initial capacitance after 5000 cycles).

  1. High-rate capability of three-dimensionally ordered macroporous T-Nb2O5 through Li+ intercalation pseudocapacitance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Shuaifeng; Cheng, Xinqun; Wang, Long; Gao, Jinlong; Li, Qin; Ma, Yulin; Gao, Yunzhi; Zuo, Pengjian; Du, Chunyu; Yin, Geping

    2017-09-01

    Orthorhombic Niobium oxide (T-Nb2O5) has been regarded as a promising anode material for high-rate lithium ion batteries (LIBs) due to its potential to operate at high rates with improved safety and high theoretical capacity of 200 mA h g-1. Herein, three-dimensionally ordered macroporous (3DOM) T-Nb2O5, with mesoporous hierarchical structure, was firstly prepared by a simple approach employing self-assembly polystyrene (PS) microspheres as hard templates. The obtained T-Nb2O5 anode material presents obvious and highly-efficiency pseudocapacitive Li+ intercalation behaviour, which plays a dominant role in the kinetics of electrode process. As a result, rapid Li+ intercalation/de-intercalation are achieved, leading to excellent rate capability and long cycle life. The 3DOM T-Nb2O5 shows a remarkable high capacity of 106 and 77 mA h g-1 at the rate of 20C and 50C. The work presented herein holds great promise for future design of material structure, and demonstrates the great potential of T-Nb2O5 as a practical high-rate anode material for LIBs.

  2. Label-free electrochemical immunoassay for neuron specific enolase based on 3D macroporous reduced graphene oxide/polyaniline film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Li, Xiaoyan; Qian, Chunhua; Dou, Li; Cui, Feng; Chen, Xiaojun

    2018-01-01

    The content of neuron specific enolase (NSE) in serum is considered to be an essential indicator of small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Here, a novel label-free electrochemical immunoassay for the detection of NSE based on the three dimensionally macroporous reduced graphene oxide/polyaniline (3DM rGO/PANI) film has been proposed. The 3DM rGO/PANI film was constructed by electrochemical co-deposition of GO and aniline into the interspaces of a sacrificial silica opal template modified Au slice. During the co-deposition, GO was successfully reduced by aniline and PANI could be deposited on the surfaces of rGO sheets. The ratio of rGO and PANI in the composite was also optimized to achieve the maximum electrochemical performance. The 3DM rGO/PANI composite provided larger specific surface area for the antibody immobilization, exhibited enhanced conductivity for electron transfer, and more important was that PANI acted as the electroactive probe for indicating the NSE concentration. Under the optimal conditions, a linear current response of PANI to NSE concentration was obtained over 0.5 pg mL -1 -10.0 ng mL -1 with a detection limit of 0.1 pg mL -1 . Moreover, the immunosensor showed excellent selectivity, good stability, satisfactory reproducibility and regeneration, and was employed to detect NSE in clinical serum specimens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Formation of different micro-morphologies from VO2 and ZnO crystallization using macro-porous silicon substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Kuri, U.; Antúnez, E. E.; Estevez, J. O.; Olive-Méndez, Sion F.; Silva-González, N. R.; Agarwal, V.

    2017-05-01

    Square-shaped macropores produced by electrochemical anodization of n- and p-type Si wafers have been used as centers of nucleation to crystallize VO2 and ZnO. Substrate roughness dependent formation of different morphologies is revealed in the form of squared particles, spheres, bars and ribbons in the case of VO2 and hexagonal piles and spheres in the case of ZnO, have been observed.The presence of nano-/micro-metric crystals was studied through field emission scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy mapping. Crystal structure of metal oxides was confirmed by micro-Raman spectroscopy. The growth of the different morphologies has been explained in terms of the surface free energy of a bare Si/SiO2 substrate and its modification originated from the roughness of the surface and of the walls of the porous substrates. This energy plays a crucial role on the minimization of the required energy to induce heterogeneous nucleation and crystal growth. Present work strengthens and provides an experimental evidence of roughness dependent metal oxide crystal growth with well-defined habits from pore corners and rough sides of the pore walls, similar to already reported protein crystals.

  4. Template-free synthesis of renewable macroporous carbon via yeast cells for high-performance supercapacitor electrode materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hongmei; He, Wenhui; Zong, Chenghua; Lu, Lehui

    2013-03-01

    The urgent need for sustainable development has forced material scientists to explore novel materials for next-generation energy storage devices through a green and facile strategy. In this context, yeast, which is a large group of single cell fungi widely distributed in nature environments, will be an ideal candidate for developing effective electrode materials with fascinating structures for high-performance supercapacitors. With this in mind, herein, we present the first example of creating three-dimensional (3D) interpenetrating macroporous carbon materials via a template-free method, using the green, renewable, and widespread yeast cells as the precursors. Remarkably, when the as-prepared materials are used as the electrode materials for supercapacitors, they exhibit outstanding performance with high specific capacitance of 330 F g(-1) at a current density of 1 A g(-1), and good stability, even after 1000 charge/discharge cycles. The approach developed in this work provides a new view of making full use of sustainable resources endowed by nature, opening the avenue to designing and producing robust materials with great promising applications in high-performance energy-storage devices.

  5. The efficiency of macroporous polystyrene ion-exchange resins in natural organic matter removal from surface water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urbanowska Agnieszka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural water sources used for water treatment contains various organic and inorganic compounds. Surface waters are commonly contaminated with natural organic matter (NOM. NOM removal from water is important e.g. due to lowering the risk of disinfection by-product formation during chlorination. Ion exchange with the use of synthetic ion-exchange resins is an alternative process to typical NOM removal approach (e.g. coagulation, adsorption or oxidation as most NOM compounds have anionic character. Moreover, neutral fraction could be removed from water due to its adsorption on resin surface. In this study, applicability of two macroporous, polystyrene ion exchange resins (BD400FD and A100 in NOM removal from water was assessed including comparison of treatment efficiency in various process set-ups and conditions. Moreover, resin regeneration effectivity was determined. Obtained results shown that examined resins could be applied in NOM removal and it should be noticed that column set-up yielded better results (contrary to batch set-up. Among the examined resins A100 one possessed better properties. It was determined that increase of solution pH resulted in a slight decrease in treatment efficiency while higher temperature improved it. It was also observed that regeneration efficiency was comparable in both tested methods but batch set-up required less reagents.

  6. Development of the preparation technology of macroporous sorbent for industrial off-gas treatment including 14C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Il Hoon; Cho, Young Hyun; Park, Guen Il; Kim, In Tae; Kim, June Hyung; Ahn, Byung Kil

    2001-01-01

    For environmental and health effects due to increasing levels of pollution in the atmosphere, it is necessary to develop environmentally sound technologies for the treatment of greenhouse gases (CO 2 , CH 4 , CFC, etc.) and acid gases (SOx, NOx, etc.). Specifically, advanced technology for CO 2 capturing is currently one of the most important environmental issues in worldwide. 14 CO 2 , specially which has been gradually emerging issue in the nuclear facilities, is generated about 330 ppm from the CANDU (Canadian Deuterium Uranium Reactor) nuclear power plant and the DUPIC (Direct Use of spent PWR fuel in CANDU reactors) process which is the process of spent fuel treatment. For this purpose, it is necessary to develop the most efficient treatment technology of CO 2 capture by various lime materials in semi- or dry process, it should be also considering a removal performance, waste recycling and safety of disposal. In order to develop a highly active slaked lime as a sorbent for CO 2 and high temperature desulfurization, macroporous slaked lime is necessarily prepared by modified swelling process and equipment, which was developed under carrying out this project. And also for the optimal removal process of off-gases the removal performance tests of various sorbents and the effects of relative humidity and bed depth on the removal capacity must be considered

  7. Development of the preparation technology of macroporous sorbent for industrial off-gas treatment including {sup 14}C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Il Hoon; Cho, Young Hyun; Park, Guen Il; Kim, In Tae; Kim, June Hyung; Ahn, Byung Kil

    2001-01-01

    For environmental and health effects due to increasing levels of pollution in the atmosphere, it is necessary to develop environmentally sound technologies for the treatment of greenhouse gases (CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, CFC, etc.) and acid gases (SOx, NOx, etc.). Specifically, advanced technology for CO{sub 2} capturing is currently one of the most important environmental issues in worldwide. {sup 14}CO{sub 2}, specially which has been gradually emerging issue in the nuclear facilities, is generated about 330 ppm from the CANDU (Canadian Deuterium Uranium Reactor) nuclear power plant and the DUPIC (Direct Use of spent PWR fuel in CANDU reactors) process which is the process of spent fuel treatment. For this purpose, it is necessary to develop the most efficient treatment technology of CO{sub 2} capture by various lime materials in semi- or dry process, it should be also considering a removal performance, waste recycling and safety of disposal. In order to develop a highly active slaked lime as a sorbent for CO{sub 2} and high temperature desulfurization, macroporous slaked lime is necessarily prepared by modified swelling process and equipment, which was developed under carrying out this project. And also for the optimal removal process of off-gases the removal performance tests of various sorbents and the effects of relative humidity and bed depth on the removal capacity must be considered.

  8. Thickness-Dependent Bioelectrochemical and Energy Applications of Thickness-Controlled Meso-Macroporous Antimony-Doped Tin Oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Mieritz

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Coatings of hierarchically meso-macroporous antimony-doped tin oxide (ATO enable interfacing adsorbed species, such as biomacromolecules, with an electronic circuit. The coating thickness is a limiting factor for the surface coverage of adsorbates, that are electrochemically addressable. To overcome this challenge, a carbon black-based templating method was developed by studying the composition of the template system, and finding the right conditions for self-standing templates, preventing the reaction mixture from flowing out of the mask. The thicknesses of as-fabricated coatings were measured using stylus profilometry to establish a relationship between the mask thickness and the coating thickness. Cyclic voltammetry was performed on coatings with adsorbed cytochrome c to check whether the entire coating thickness was electrochemically addressable. Further, bacterial photosynthetic reaction centers were incorporated into the coatings, and photocurrent with respect to coating thickness was studied. The template mixture required enough of both carbon black and polymer, roughly 7% carbon black and 6% poly(ethylene glycol. Coatings were fabricated with thicknesses approaching 30 µm, and thickness was shown to be controllable up to at least 15 µm. Under the experimental conditions, photocurrent was found to increase linearly with the coating thickness, up to around 12 µm, above which were diminished gains.

  9. Macroporous graphitic carbon foam decorated with polydopamine as a high-performance anode for microbial fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hongmei; Yang, Lu; Deng, Wenfang; Tan, Yueming; Xie, Qingji

    2017-09-01

    Herein, a macroporous graphitic carbon foam (MGCF) electrode decorated with polydopamine (PDA) is used as a high-performance anode for microbial fuel cell (MFC) applications. The MGCF is facilely prepared by pyrolysis of a powder mixture comprising maltose, nickel nitrate, and ammonia chloride, without using solid porous template. The MGCF is coated with PDA by self-polymerization of dopamine in a basic solution. The MGCF can provide a large surface area for bacterial attachment, and PDA coated on the MGCF electrode can further promote bacterial adhesion resulting from the improved hydrophility, so the MGCF-PDA electrode as an anode in a MFC can show ultrahigh bacterial loading capacity. Moreover, the electrochemical oxidation of flavins at the MGCF-PDA electrode is greatly accelerated, so the extracellular electron transfer mediated by flavins is improved. As a result, the MFC equipped with a MGCF-PDA anode can show a maximum power density of 1735 mW cm-2, which is 6.7 times that of a MFC equipped with a commercial carbon felt anode, indicating a promising anode for MFC applications.

  10. Cell expansion of human articular chondrocytes on macroporous gelatine scaffolds-impact of microcarrier selection on cell proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersson, Sofia; Kratz, Gunnar [Laboratory for Reconstructive Plastic Surgery, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linkoeping University, SE-581 85 Linkoeping (Sweden); Wetteroe, Jonas [Rheumatology/AIR, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linkoeping University, SE-581 85 Linkoeping (Sweden); Tengvall, Pentti, E-mail: sofia.pettersson@liu.se [Institute of Clinical Sciences, Department of Biomaterials, The Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, SE-405 30 Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2011-12-15

    This study investigates human chondrocyte expansion on four macroporous gelatine microcarriers (CultiSpher) differing with respect to two manufacturing processes-the amount of emulsifier used during initial preparation and the gelatine cross-linking medium. Monolayer-expanded articular chondrocytes from three donors were seeded onto the microcarriers and cultured in spinner flask systems for a total of 15 days. Samples were extracted every other day to monitor cell viability and establish cell counts, which were analysed using analysis of variance and piecewise linear regression. Chondrocyte densities increased according to a linear pattern for all microcarriers, indicating an ongoing, though limited, cell proliferation. A strong chondrocyte donor effect was seen during the initial expansion phase. The final cell yield differed significantly between the microcarriers and our results indicate that manufacturing differences affected chondrocyte densities at this point. Remaining cells stained positive for chondrogenic markers SOX-9 and S-100 but extracellular matrix formation was modest to undetectable. In conclusion, the four gelatine microcarriers supported chondrocyte adhesion and proliferation over a two week period. The best yield was observed for microcarriers produced with low emulsifier content and cross-linked in water and acetone. These results add to the identification of optimal biomaterial parameters for specific cellular processes and populations.

  11. [Finite element analysis of the maxillary central incisor with crown lengthening surgery and post-core restoration in management of crown-root fracture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Min; Hu, Wen-jie; Rong, Qi-guo

    2015-12-18

    To construct the finite element models of maxillary central incisor and the simulations with crown lengthening surgery and post-core restoration in management of different crown-root fracture types, to investigate the stress intensity and distributions of these models mentioned above, and to analyze the indications of crown lengthening from the point of view of mechanics. An extracted maxillary central incisor and alveolar bone plaster model were scanned by Micro-CT and dental impression scanner (3shape D700) respectively. Then the 3D finite element models of the maxillary central incisor and 9 simulations with crown lengthening surgery and post-core restoration were constructed by Mimics 10.0, Geomagic studio 9.0 and ANSYS 14.0 software. The oblique static force (100 N) was applied to the palatal surface (the junctional area of the incisal 1/3 and middle 1/3), at 45 degrees to the longitudinal axis, then the von Mises stress of dentin, periodontal ligament, alveolar bone, post and core, as well as the periodontal ligament area, were calculated. A total of 10 high-precision three-dimensional finite element models of maxillary central incisor were established. The von Mises stress of models: post>dentin>alveolar bone>core>periodontal ligament, and the von Mises stress increased linearly with the augmentation of fracture degree (besides the core). The periodontal ligament area of the crown lengthening was reduced by 12% to 33%. The von Mises stress of periodontal ligament of the B2L2c, B2L3c, B3L1c, B3L2c, B3L3c models exceeded their threshold limit value, respectively. The maxillary central incisors with the labial fracture greater than three-quarter crown length and the palatal fracture deeper than 1 mm below the alveolar crest are not the ideal indications of the crown lengthening surgery.

  12. Modelling initial mortality of Abies religiosa in a crown fire in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Temiño-Villota, S.; Rodríguez-Trejo, D.A.; Molina Terrén, D.M.; Ryan, K.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of the study: The objectives of this work were to determine which morphological and fire severity variables may help explain the mortality of adult Abies religiosa (Kunth) Schltdl. & Cham., to model the probability of this species after being affected by crown fire, and to obtain more elements to classify the sacred fir in terms of fire resistance. This type of studies are relevant to estimate the impact of crown fires on the climax forests that forms this species. Area of study: The burned forest was located in the southern Mexico City, borough. Material and methods: Morphological variables and fire severity indicators were collected for 335 Abies religiosa trees burned by a mixed severity fire. Logistic regression was used to analyze data and develop models that best explained tree mortality. Main results: Survival was 26.9%. The models for height (p≤0.0001), diameter at breast height (p=0.0082), crown length (p≤0.0001) and crown base height (p≤0.0001) were significant, with a negative relationship between each one of these variables and probability of mortality. The significant severity variables were lethal scorch height (p≤0.0001) and crown kill (p≤ 0.0001), which have a direct relationship with probability of mortality. Highlights: This species is moderately fire-resistant. Crown kill ≥ 70% markedly increases mortality. Silvicultural activities such as pruning, thinning and fuel management can reduce the risk of crown fires. (Author)

  13. [Comparative adaptation of crowns of selective laser melting and wax-lost-casting method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guo-qiang; Shen, Qing-yi; Gao, Jian-hua; Wu, Xue-ying; Chen, Li; Dai, Wen-an

    2012-07-01

    To investigate the marginal adaptation of crowns fabricated by selective laser melting (SLM) and wax-lost-casting method, so as to provide an experimental basis for clinic. Co-Cr alloy full crown were fabricated by SLM and wax-lost-casting for 24 samples in each group. All crowns were cemented with zinc phosphate cement and cut along longitudinal axis by line cutting machine. The gap between crown tissue surface and die was measured by 6-point measuring method with scanning electron microscope (SEM). The marginal adaptation of crowns fabricated by SLM and wax-lost-casting were compared statistically. The gap between SLM crowns were (36.51 ± 2.94), (49.36 ± 3.31), (56.48 ± 3.35), (42.20 ± 3.60) µm, and wax-lost-casting crowns were (68.86 ± 5.41), (58.86 ± 6.10), (70.62 ± 5.79), (69.90 ± 6.00) µm. There were significant difference between two groups (P casting method and SLM method provide acceptable marginal adaptation in clinic, and the marginal adaptation of SLM is better than that of wax-lost-casting method.

  14. Modelling initial mortality of Abies religiosa in a crown fire in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salomé Temiño-Villota

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: The objectives of this work were to determine which morphological and fire severity variables may help explain the mortality of adult Abies religiosa (Kunth Schltdl. & Cham., to model the probability of this species after being affected by crown fire, and to obtain more elements to classify the sacred fir in terms of fire resistance. This type of studies are relevant to estimate the impact of crown fires on the climax forests that forms this species.Area of study: The burned forest was located in the southern Mexico City, borough.Material and methods: Morphological variables and fire severity indicators were collected for 335 Abies religiosa trees burned by a mixed severity fire. Logistic regression was used to analyze data and develop models that best explained tree mortality.Main results: Survival was 26.9%. The models for height (p≤0.0001, diameter at breast height (p=0.0082, crown length (p≤0.0001 and crown base height (p≤0.0001 were significant, with a negative relationship between each one of these variables and probability of mortality. The significant severity variables were lethal scorch height (p≤0.0001 and crown kill (p≤ 0.0001, which have a direct relationship with probability of mortality.Highlights: This species is moderately fire-resistant. Crown kill ≥ 70% markedly increases mortality. Silvicultural activities such as pruning, thinning and fuel management can reduce the risk of crown fires.

  15. The general properties of water - nitrobenzene - crown - bis-1,2-dicarbollylcobaltate extraction systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanura, P.

    2003-01-01

    The extraction and stability constants in the system water - nitrobenzene have been collected and general rules valid for water - nitrobenzene - crown - bis-1,2-dicarbollylcobaltate extraction system have been found. The main principles are size compatibility of ion diameter and crown cavity diameters, the flexibility of crown, the basicity of crown and the steric factor of both the ligand and the extracted ion. The extraction in the system water - mineral acid or salt polyoxyethylene compound - bis-1,2-dicarbollylcobaltate - nitrobenzene is more complicated than can be expected from usually used ion diameter - crown cavity diameter compatibility principle. The other important factors are the basicity and the deformability of crown, steric aspect and the angles of bonds of extracted ion. The binuclear 'sandwich' complexes with H + ion and Sr 2+ or Ba 2+ ions have been proved for dibenzo-18-crown-6 (DB18C6). On the other hand, only SrL 2 and BaL 2 (L = 15C5) complexes are formed in nitrobenzene saturated with water. The addition of polyoxyethylene compound usually increases the distribution ratio of alkali earth metal ions and the selectivity of its mutual separation. (authors)

  16. Effect of electrostatic interaction on thermochemical behavior of 12-crown-4 ether in various polar solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barannikov, Vladimir P.; Guseynov, Sabir S.; Vyugin, Anatoliy I.

    2010-01-01

    The enthalpies of solution of 12-crown-4 ether have been measured in chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone, pyridine, acetonitrile and methanol at 298.15 K. The values of enthalpy of solvation and solute-solvent interaction were determined from the obtained results and similar literature data for 12-crown-4 in solvents of various polarities. It was shown that the certain correlation is observed between the enthalpy of solute-solvent interaction and the squared dipole moment of the solvent molecules for solutions in tetrachlormethane, ethyl acetate, pyridine, acetonitrile, DMF, DMSO and propylene carbonate. This means that the electrostatic interaction of 12-crown-4 with polar solvent molecules contributes significantly to the exothermic effect of solvation. The understated negative value was found for the enthalpy of interaction of 12-crown-4 with acetone that can be connected with domination of low polar conformer of the crown ether in acetone medium. The most negative values of enthalpy of solvation are observed for solutions in chloroform and water because of hydrogen bonding between O-atoms of crown ether and molecules of the indicated solvents. This effect is not observed for methanol. The negative coefficient of pairwise solute-solute interaction in methanol indicates that the effects of solvophobic solute-solute interaction and H-bonding of the ether molecule with chain associates of methanol are not evinced in the thermochemical behavior of 12-crown-4.

  17. [Comparative study of microleakage by using different finished lines in selective laser melting metal crowns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yan; Zhong, Qun; Wu, Xue-Ying; Weng, Jia-Wei

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate microleakage of SLM Co -Cr alloy metal crown with two types finished line (chamfer and shoulder), compared with conventional fabrication of Co -Cr alloy metal crowns. Thirty healthy non-carious human molars were selected and randomly assigned to 3 groups, 10 in each. Teeth in group A and C received a chamfer finish line preparation, whereas teeth in group C received a shoulder finish line. Conventional Co -Cr alloy metal crowns were fabricated for group A when SLM metal crowns were made for group B and group C. Glass ionomer was applied for bonding. After 5000 thermocycles ranging from 5degrees centigrade to 55degrees centigrade,all the specimens were evaluated by dye penetration and then microleakage was examined under light microscope. The data were analyzed statistically with SPSS 20.0 software package. Microleakage in group A was significantly higher than the other two groups, group B and group C showed no significant difference in microleakage while microleakage in group B was higher than that in group C. Microleakage of SLM metal crowns was significantly less than that of conventional Co-Cr alloy metal crowns; chamfer finish line designs was recommended for SLM metal crowns in consideration of reducing microleakage and protecting tooth.

  18. Comparative in vitro evaluation of CAD/CAM vs conventional provisional crowns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adil Othman ABDULLAH

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective This study compared the marginal gap, internal fit, fracture strength, and mode of fracture of CAD/CAM provisional crowns with that of direct provisional crowns. Material and Methods An upper right first premolar phantom tooth was prepared for full ceramic crown following tooth preparation guidelines. The materials tested were: VITA CAD-Temp®, Polyetheretherketone “PEEK”, Telio CAD-Temp, and Protemp™4 (control group. The crowns were divided into four groups (n=10, Group1: VITA CAD-Temp®, Group 2: PEEK, Group 3: Telio CAD-Temp, and Group 4: Protemp™4. Each crown was investigated for marginal and internal fit, fracture strength, and mode of fracture. Statistical analysis was performed using GraphPad Prism software version 6.0. Results The average marginal gap was: VITA CAD-Temp® 60.61 (±9.99 µm, PEEK 46.75 (±8.26 µm, Telio CAD-Temp 56.10 (±5.65 µm, and Protemp™4 193.07(±35.96 µm (P0.05. Conclusions CAD/CAM fabricated provisional crowns demonstrated superior fit and better strength than direct provisional crowns.

  19. Evaluation of different sterilization and disinfection methods on commercially made preformed crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Y; Guler, C

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes caused by different sterilization or disinfection methods on the vestibular surface of four commercially made preformed crowns using stereomicroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Preformed crowns (NuSmile Primary Anterior Crown (NSC), Kinder Krowns (KK), Pedo Pearls (PP) and polycarbonate crowns (PC)) were sterilized and/or disinfected by one of the following techniques: no sterilization or disinfection (G1 control group); steam autoclaving at 134 degrees C (30 psi) for 4 min (G2); steam autoclaving at 134 degrees C (30 psi) for 12 min (G3); steam autoclaving at 121 degrees C (15 psi) for 30 min (G4); and ultrasonication in a bath containing 4% Lysetol AF for 5 min at room temperature (chemical disinfection) (G5). Scanning electron micrographs of the crowns were taken before and after their sterilization or disinfection. The changes on the vestibular surface were then scored for the presence or absence of crazing, contour alteration, fracturing, and vestibular surface changes. The data were analyzed statistically using the chi-square test. No changes were observed before and after sterilization or disinfection in the stereomicroscopic evaluation of the vestibular surface of the crowns. However, all methods in which steam autoclaving was used to sterilize the crowns caused significant (P < 0.05) crazing and contour alterations of the vestibular surface of the crowns when they were examined by SEM. Chemical disinfection using an aldehyde-free disinfectant is the preferred method of disinfection for crowns that have been used previously in other dental patients.

  20. Crown and crown-root fractures: an evaluation of the treatment plans for management proposed by 154 specialists in restorative dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Mara Antonio Monteiro; Poi, Wilson Roberto; de Castro, José Carlos Monteiro; Panzarini, Sônia Regina; Sonoda, Celso Koogi; Trevisan, Carolina Lunardelli; Luvizuto, Eloá Rodrigues

    2010-06-01

    Traumatic tooth injuries involve function and aesthetics and cause damage that range from minimal enamel loss to complex fractures involving the pulp tissue and even loss of the tooth crown. Technical knowledge and clinical experience are essential to establish an accurate diagnosis and provide a rational treatment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knowledge of Restorative Dentistry specialists about the management of crown and crown-root fractures based on treatment plans proposed by these professionals for these cases. A descriptive questionnaire was mailed to 245 Restorative Dentistry specialists with questions referring to their professional profile and the treatment plans they would propose for the management of crown and crow-root fractures resulting from dental trauma. One hundred and fifty-four questionnaires were returned properly filled. The data were subjected to descriptive statistics and the chi-square test was used to determine the frequency and the level of the significance among the variables. The analysis of data showed that in spite of having a specialist title, all interviewees had great difficulty in planning the treatments. As much as 42.8% of the participants were unable to treat all types of dental trauma. Complicated and uncomplicated crown-root fractures posed the greatest difficulties for the dentists to establish adequate treatment plans because these fractures require multidisciplinary knowledge and approach for a correct case planning and prognosis.

  1. [An in vitro study of the fracture strength of tooth preparations for Empress 2 veneers and crowns and mandibular incisors restored with Empress 2 veneers and crowns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xue; Li, Yan

    2009-12-01

    To compare the fracture resistance of mandibular incisors' preparations for veneers and crowns, mandibular incisors restored with Empress 2 veneers and crowns. 50 human mandibular incisors were randomly divided into five groups. Each group consisted of ten teeth and the treatment obtained as follows: A, tooth preparations for veneers; B, tooth preparations for crowns; C, teeth restored with veneers; D, teeth restored with crowns; E, untreated group. The teeth received standardized preparation and the restorations were manufactured with Empress 2 system and cemented with resin luting agent. The fracture resistances of teeth were measured by Instron universal testing machine and statistically analyzed with one-way ANOVA. The fracture resistances of A, B, C, D, E were (576.11 +/- 91.53), (204.13 +/- 85.88), (451.50 +/- 116.81), (386.16 +/- 117.75) and (566.05 +/- 121.37) N, respectively. The statistical analysis demonstrated significant differences between five groups. There were no significant differences between group A and E, group C and D. Tooth preparations for veneers did not significantly reduce the fracture resistance of mandibular incisor. The fracture resistance of teeth restored with Empress 2 veneers and crowns did not significantly differ from each other.

  2. Online recovery of radiocesium from soil, cellulose and plant samples by supercritical fluid extraction employing crown ethers and calix-crown derivatives as extractants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanekar, A.S.; Pathak, P.N.; Mohapatra, P.K.

    2014-01-01

    Two crown ethers (CEs) viz. dibenzo18crown6, and dibenzo12crown7 and three calix-crown derivatives viz. (octyloxy)calix[4]arene-mono-crown-6 (CMC), calix[4]arene-bis(o-benzocrown-6) (CBC), and calix[4]arene-bis(naphthocrown-6) (CNC) were evaluated for the recovery of 137 Cs from synthetic soil, cellulose (tissue paper), and plant samples by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) route. CEs showed poor extraction of 137 Cs from soil matrix. SFE experiments using 1 × 10 -3 M solutions of CMC, CBC and CNC in acetonitrile at 3 M HNO 3 as modifiers displayed better extraction of 137 Cs, viz. 21(±2) % (CMC), 16.5(±3) % (CBC), and 4(±1) % (CNC). It was not possible to recover 137 Cs quantitatively from soil matrix. The inefficient extraction of 137 Cs from soil matrix was attributed to its incorporation into the interstitial sites. Experiments on tissue papers using CMC showed near quantitative 137 Cs recovery. On the other hand, recovery from plant samples varied between 50(±5) % (for stems) and 75(±5) % (for leaves). (author)

  3. CROWN-LEVEL TREE SPECIES CLASSIFICATION USING INTEGRATED AIRBORNE HYPERSPECTRAL AND LIDAR REMOTE SENSING DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Wang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Mapping tree species is essential for sustainable planning as well as to improve our understanding of the role of different trees as different ecological service. However, crown-level tree species automatic classification is a challenging task due to the spectral similarity among diversified tree species, fine-scale spatial variation, shadow, and underlying objects within a crown. Advanced remote sensing data such as airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR and hyperspectral imagery offer a great potential opportunity to derive crown spectral, structure and canopy physiological information at the individual crown scale, which can be useful for mapping tree species. In this paper, an innovative approach was developed for tree species classification at the crown level. The method utilized LiDAR data for individual tree crown delineation and morphological structure extraction, and Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager (CASI hyperspectral imagery for pure crown-scale spectral extraction. Specifically, four steps were include: 1 A weighted mean filtering method was developed to improve the accuracy of the smoothed Canopy Height Model (CHM derived from LiDAR data; 2 The marker-controlled watershed segmentation algorithm was, therefore, also employed to delineate the tree-level canopy from the CHM image in this study, and then individual tree height and tree crown were calculated according to the delineated crown; 3 Spectral features within 3 × 3 neighborhood regions centered on the treetops detected by the treetop detection algorithm were derived from the spectrally normalized CASI imagery; 4 The shape characteristics related to their crown diameters and heights were established, and different crown-level tree species were classified using the combination of spectral and shape characteristics. Analysis of results suggests that the developed classification strategy in this paper (OA = 85.12 %, Kc = 0.90 performed better than Li

  4. Crown-Level Tree Species Classification Using Integrated Airborne Hyperspectral and LIDAR Remote Sensing Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z.; Wu, J.; Wang, Y.; Kong, X.; Bao, H.; Ni, Y.; Ma, L.; Jin, J.

    2018-05-01

    Mapping tree species is essential for sustainable planning as well as to improve our understanding of the role of different trees as different ecological service. However, crown-level tree species automatic classification is a challenging task due to the spectral similarity among diversified tree species, fine-scale spatial variation, shadow, and underlying objects within a crown. Advanced remote sensing data such as airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) and hyperspectral imagery offer a great potential opportunity to derive crown spectral, structure and canopy physiological information at the individual crown scale, which can be useful for mapping tree species. In this paper, an innovative approach was developed for tree species classification at the crown level. The method utilized LiDAR data for individual tree crown delineation and morphological structure extraction, and Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager (CASI) hyperspectral imagery for pure crown-scale spectral extraction. Specifically, four steps were include: 1) A weighted mean filtering method was developed to improve the accuracy of the smoothed Canopy Height Model (CHM) derived from LiDAR data; 2) The marker-controlled watershed segmentation algorithm was, therefore, also employed to delineate the tree-level canopy from the CHM image in this study, and then individual tree height and tree crown were calculated according to the delineated crown; 3) Spectral features within 3 × 3 neighborhood regions centered on the treetops detected by the treetop detection algorithm were derived from the spectrally normalized CASI imagery; 4) The shape characteristics related to their crown diameters and heights were established, and different crown-level tree species were classified using the combination of spectral and shape characteristics. Analysis of results suggests that the developed classification strategy in this paper (OA = 85.12 %, Kc = 0.90) performed better than LiDAR-metrics method (OA = 79

  5. Complexation between Methyl Viologen (Paraquat) Bis(Hexafluorophosphate) and Dibenzo[24]Crown-8 Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gasa, Travis B.; Spruell, Jason M.; Dichtel, William R.

    2009-01-01

    Paraquat bis(hexafluorophosphate) undergoes stepwise dissociation in acetone. All three species - the neutral molecule, and the mono- and dications - are represented significantly under the experimental conditions typically used in host-guest binding studies. Paraquat forms at least four host...... toward dibenzo[24]crown-8. Thus, the relative abundance of neutral, singly, and doubly charged pseudorotaxanes is identical to the relative abundance of neutral, singly, and doubly charged paraquat unbound with respect to the crown ether in acetone. In the specific case of paraquat/dibenzo[24]crown-8...

  6. A comparison of the marginal fit of In-Ceram, IPS Empress, and Procera crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, F; Chai, J; Jameson, L M; Wozniak, W T

    1997-01-01

    The in vitro marginal fit of three all-ceramic crown systems (In-Ceram, Procera, and IPS Empress) was compared. All crown systems were significantly different from each other at P = 0.05. In-Ceram exhibited the greatest marginal discrepancy (161 microns), followed by Procera (83 microns), and IPS Empress (63 microns). There were no significant differences among the various stages of the crown fabrication: core fabrication, porcelain veneering, and glazing. The facial and lingual margins exhibited significantly larger marginal discrepancies than the mesial and distal margins.

  7. Possible applications of crown-ethers to metal extraction using liquid membrane technology - a literature survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dozol, M.

    1990-01-01

    Ether-crowns, discovered in 1967 by J.C. PEDERSEN, exhibit attractive complexive and extractive properties, enhanced in various fields, such as analytical chemistry, chemical synthesis, field of biology, or extractive chemistry. The investigations carried out on these macrocyclic compounds are continually increasing, as show in international literature. Among the focus of interest, the applications to metal extraction are extensively studied with crown compounds present in liquid phase or impregnated on supports (membranes or resins). The goal of this paper is to describe the application of crown-ethers to metal extraction, using liquid membrane processes. 69 refs

  8. Evaluation of various Crown ethers for the supercritical fluid extraction of uranium from nitric acid medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Pradeep; Rao, Ankita; Ramakumar, K.L.

    2009-01-01

    Various crowns have been evaluated for supercritical fluid extraction of uranium from nitric acid medium employing HPFOA as counter ion. Uranium extraction efficiency was found to be influenced by cavity size of crown ether and nature of substituents. Complexation tendency of UO 2 2+ increases with increasing cavity size of crown ether. Electron withdrawing substituents decreased the extraction efficiency which could be attributed to decrease in the basicity of four oxygen atoms and hence their bonding ability. Whereas electron donating substituents increased the efficiency due to increases in basicity of oxygen atoms and hence in increase in bonding ability. (author)

  9. Management of complicated crown-root fracture in central incisors using intentional replantation with 180° rotation: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyhaneh Faghihian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Complicated crown-root fractures are rare and their treatment is complex. Numerous methods such as crown lengthening and orthodontic or surgical extrusion have been described for the treatment of crown-root fracture. The aim of this study was to report managing complicated crown-root fracture using intentional replantation with 180° rotation. Case report: This case report demonstrates successful management of complicated crown-root fracture in central incisor of a 10-year-old boy using intentional replantation with 180° rotation. Discussion: At 18-month follow-up, the replanted tooth revealed normal function with no obvious resorption.

  10. Investigation of iron(III) complex with crown-porphyrin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pankratov, Denis A., E-mail: pankratov@radio.chem.msu.ru; Dolzhenko, Vladimir D. [Lomonosov Moscow State University (Russian Federation); Stukan, Reonald A. [Semenov Institute of Chemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation); Al Ansari, Yana F.; Savinkina, Elena V. [Lomonosov Moscow State Academy of Fine Chemical Technology (Russian Federation); Kiselev, Yury M. [Lomonosov Moscow State University (Russian Federation)

    2013-08-15

    Iron complex of 5-(4-(((4 Prime -hydroxy-benzo-15-crown-5)-5 Prime -yl)diazo)phenyl)-10,15, 20-triphenylporphyrin was investigated by {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy and EPR. Two Fe sites were identified; they give two differing signals, doublet and wide absorption in a large velocity interval. EPR spectra of solutions of the complex in chloroform at room temperature also show two signals with g = 2.064, A{sub Fe} = 0.032 cm{sup - 1}; g = 2.015, A{sub Fe} = 0.0034 cm{sup - 1}. The doublet asymmetry is studied vs. temperature and normal angle to the sample plane and gamma-beam. The isomer shift {delta} in the doublet varies from 0.25 to 0.41 mm/s in the 360-5 K temperature range, whereas quadruple splitting value is constant, {Delta} {approx} 0.65 mm/s. The relax absorption may be described as a wide singlet ({delta} = 0.30- 0.44 mm/s and {Gamma} = 2.83-3.38 mm/s); its relative area strongly depends on temperature. According to {delta}, both signals are assigned to Fe(III)

  11. The Role of the British Crown on Security Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behar Selimi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available United Kingdom is a limited parliamentary monarchy, in which state sovereignty is exercised jointly by two basic political institutions: Royal Crown and Parliament. The credit for a successful political co-governance of these institutions, which are simultaneously bearers of popular sovereignty, are usually addressed to the Queen's lack of executive power to exercise power alone and hence all the restraint in the race for primate of governance. It goes even further considering that the Queen is quite weak and has only ceremonial functions, which do not disturb the Parliament. However, a careful researcher may notice that the Queen continues to affect the British Government in general and in particular on defence issues. Declassification of communication between Prince Charles and the Government in 2013, pointed out a continuing impact of the Queen and her son on many political issues, including those of defence and security. Since Britain has no codified constitution in a single document, it is not easy to determine the real power and competences of the Queen. It is even more difficult, because customary law and precedent prevail. Therefore, the real definition of the role of the Queen in general in the British Government, can be done by studying the culture, structure and constitutional practice. On their basis I will try to determine the real impact of the Queen in matters of defence and security, whether through her prerogatives in relation to the Government and Parliament, or through moral and informal influence in relation to the Prime Minister and particular ministers.

  12. Unidirectional infiltration method to produce crown for dental prosthesis application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pontes, F.H.D.; Taguchi, S.P.; Machado, J.P.B.; Santos, C.

    2009-01-01

    Alumina ceramics have been used in dental prosthesis because it is inert, presents higher corrosion and shear resistance when compared to metals, excellent aesthetic, and mechanical resistance. In this work it was produced an infrastructure material for applications in dental crowns, obtained by glass infiltration in alumina preform. Various oxides, among that, rare-earth oxide produced by Xenotime, were melted at 1450 deg C and heat treatment at 700 deg C to obtain the glass (REglass). The alumina was pre-sintered at 1100 deg C cut and machined to predetermine format (unidirectional indirect infiltration) and finally conducted to infiltration test. The alumina was characterized by porosity (Hg-porosity and density) and microstructure (SEM). The glass wettability in alumina was determined as function of temperature, and the contact angle presented a low value (θ<90 deg), showing that glass can be infiltrated spontaneously in alumina. The infiltration test was conducted at glass melting temperature, during 30, 60, 180, 360 minutes. After infiltration, the samples were cut in longitudinal section, ground and polished, and analyzed by XRD (crystalline phases), SEM (microstructure) and EDS (composition).The REglass presents higher infiltration height when compared to current processes (direct infiltration), and homogeneous microstructure, showing that it is a promising method used by prosthetics and dentists. (author)

  13. Archaeobatrachian paraphyly and pangaean diversification of crown-group frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelants, Kim; Bossuyt, Franky

    2005-02-01

    Current models for the early diversification of living frogs inferred from morphological, ontogenetic, or DNA sequence data invoke very different scenarios of character evolution and biogeography. To explore central controversies on the phylogeny of Anura, we analyzed nearly 4000 base pairs of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA for the major frog lineages. Likelihood-based analyses of this data set are congruent with morphological evidence in supporting a paraphyletic arrangement of archaeobatrachian frogs, with an (Ascaphus + Leiopelma) clade as the sister-group of all other living anurans. The stability of this outcome is reinforced by screening for phylogenetic bias resulting from site-specific rate variation, homoplasy, or the obligatory use of distantly related outgroups. Twenty-one alternative branching and rooting hypotheses were evaluated using a nonparametric multicomparison test and parametric bootstrapping. Relaxed molecular clock estimates situate the emergence of crown-group anurans in the Triassic, approximately 55 million years prior to their first appearance in the fossil record. The existence of at least four extant frog lineages on the supercontinent Pangaea before its breakup gains support from the estimation that three early splits between Laurasia- and Gondwana-associated families coincide with the initial rifting of these landmasses. This observation outlines the potential significance of this breakup event in the formation of separate Mesozoic faunal assemblages in both hemispheres.

  14. [Study on color of thermosetting resin for veneer crown].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamitomai, H

    1989-02-01

    Based on the viewpoint that stresses the importance of achieving natural colors and forms for veneer crown, four representative kinds of thermosetting resins were investigated colorimetrically in an attempt to clarify the relationship between the thickness and color of resins in opaque, dentin and enamel colors respectively. A spectrophotometer was used to measure the colors, the CIE colorimetric system employed to show the readings, and the CIE 1964 U*V*W* space was utilized to indicate the color differences, with the following results. 1. In the case of dentin, certain specific colors were observed for thickness of 1.3 to 1.8 mm when used alone, but when applied over opaque the range was 0.2 to 0.5 mm lower than when used alone. 2. Enamel resins were grouped into two types according to different color groups, one group similar to achromatic color with low limpidity and the other similar to the dentin color with high limpidity. The former type became more grayer with an increase in thickness when applied over dentin. The latter type showed no difference in color even when the thickness increased. This study has shown that the facing color results vary depending on the color properties of the different resins used. Therefore, it is advisable that careful consideration be given to these differencies in order to achieve the intended color facing.

  15. Crown ethers and phase transfer catalysis in polymer science

    CERN Document Server

    Carraher, Charles

    1984-01-01

    Phase transfer catalysis or interfacial catalysis is a syn­ thetic technique involving transport of an organic or inorganic salt from a solid or aqueous phase into an organic liquid where reaction with an organic-soluble substrate takes place. Over the past 15 years there has been an enormous amount of effort invested in the development of this technique in organic synthe­ sis. Several books and numerous review articles have appeared summarizing applications in which low molecular weight catalysts are employed. These generally include either crown ethers or onium salts of various kinds. While the term phase transfer catalysis is relatively new, the concept of using a phasetrans­ fer agent (PTA) is much older~ Both Schnell and Morgan employed such catalysts in synthesis of polymeric species in the early 1950's. Present developments are really extensions of these early applications. It has only been within the last several years that the use of phase transfer processes have been employed in polymer synthesis...

  16. Unidirectional infiltration method to produce crown for dental prosthesis application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pontes, F.H.D.; Taguchi, S.P. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (EEL/DEMAR/USP), Lorena, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia; Borges Junior, L.A. [Centro Universitario de Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil); Machado, J.P.B. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Santos, C. [ProtMat Materiais Avancados, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Alumina ceramics have been used in dental prosthesis because it is inert, presents higher corrosion and shear resistance when compared to metals, excellent aesthetic, and mechanical resistance. In this work it was produced an infrastructure material for applications in dental crowns, obtained by glass infiltration in alumina preform. Various oxides, among that, rare-earth oxide produced by Xenotime, were melted at 1450 deg C and heat treatment at 700 deg C to obtain the glass (REglass). The alumina was pre-sintered at 1100 deg C cut and machined to predetermine format (unidirectional indirect infiltration) and finally conducted to infiltration test. The alumina was characterized by porosity (Hg-porosity and density) and microstructure (SEM). The glass wettability in alumina was determined as function of temperature, and the contact angle presented a low value (θ<90 deg), showing that glass can be infiltrated spontaneously in alumina. The infiltration test was conducted at glass melting temperature, during 30, 60, 180, 360 minutes. After infiltration, the samples were cut in longitudinal section, ground and polished, and analyzed by XRD (crystalline phases), SEM (microstructure) and EDS (composition).The REglass presents higher infiltration height when compared to current processes (direct infiltration), and homogeneous microstructure, showing that it is a promising method used by prosthetics and dentists. (author)

  17. Eocene diversification of crown group rails (Aves: Gruiformes: Rallidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-R, Juan C; Gibb, Gillian C; Trewick, Steve A

    2014-01-01

    Central to our understanding of the timing of bird evolution is debate about an apparent conflict between fossil and molecular data. A deep age for higher level taxa within Neoaves is evident from molecular analyses but much remains to be learned about the age of diversification in modern bird families and their evolutionary ecology. In order to better understand the timing and pattern of diversification within the family Rallidae we used a relaxed molecular clock, fossil calibrations, and complete mitochondrial genomes from a range of rallid species analysed in a Bayesian framework. The estimated time of origin of Rallidae is Eocene, about 40.5 Mya, with evidence of intrafamiliar diversification from the Late Eocene to the Miocene. This timing is older than previously suggested for crown group Rallidae, but fossil calibrations, extent of taxon sampling and substantial sequence data give it credence. We note that fossils of Eocene age tentatively assigned to Rallidae are consistent with our findings. Compared to available studies of other bird lineages, the rail clade is old and supports an inference of deep ancestry of ground-dwelling habits among Neoaves.

  18. Clinical evaluation of all-ceramic crowns fabricated from intraoral digital impressions based on the principle of active wavefront sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrek, Andreas; Reich, Gunnar; Ranftl, Dieter; Klein, Christoph; Cerny, Barbara; Brodesser, Jutta

    2010-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the fit of all-ceramic crowns fabricated from intraoral digital impressions with the fit of all-ceramic crowns fabricated from silicone impressions. Twenty patients agreed to take part in the study to receive two Lava crowns each for the same preparation. One crown was fabricated from intraoral scans using the Lava Chairside Oral Scanner (Lava C.O.S.), and the other crown from a two-step silicone impression. Prior to cementation the fit of both crowns was clinically evaluated by two calibrated and blinded examiners; the marginal fit was also scored from replicas. Data from the replica scores were analysed by Anderson-Darling test, Levene's test and Mann-Whitney test. All tests were performed with alpha-level of 0.05. Median marginal gap in the conventional impression group was 71microm (Q1:45microm; Q3:98microm), and in the digital impression group 49microm (Q1:32microm; Q3:65microm). Mann-Whitney test revealed a significant difference between the groups (pdigitally fabricated crowns. 1. Crowns from intraoral scans revealed significantly better marginal fit than crowns from silicone impressions. 2. Marginal discrepancies in both groups were within the limits of clinical acceptability. 3. Crowns from intraoral scans tended to show better interproximal contact area quality. 4. Crowns from both groups performed equally well with regard to occlusion. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Macroporous modified poly (vinyl alcohol) hydrogels with charged groups for tissue engineering: Preparation and in vitro evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drozdova, Maria G., E-mail: drozdovamg@gmail.com [Polymers for Biology Laboratory, Shemyakin & Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry of Russian Academy of Sciences, Miklukho-Maklaya str., 16/10, Moscow 117997 (Russian Federation); Zaytseva-Zotova, Daria S. [Polymers for Biology Laboratory, Shemyakin & Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry of Russian Academy of Sciences, Miklukho-Maklaya str., 16/10, Moscow 117997 (Russian Federation); Akasov, Roman A. [Polymers for Biology Laboratory, Shemyakin & Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry of Russian Academy of Sciences, Miklukho-Maklaya str., 16/10, Moscow 117997 (Russian Federation); Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Institute for Regenerative Medicine, Trubetskaya str., 8/2, Moscow 119048 (Russian Federation); Golunova, Anna S.; Artyukhov, Alexander A. [D. Mendeleyev University of Chemical Technology of Russia, Miusskaya Square 9, Moscow 125047 (Russian Federation); Udartseva, Olga O.; Andreeva, Elena R. [Institute of Biomedical Problems of Russian Academy of Sciences, Khoroshevskoe Shosse 76a, Moscow 123007 (Russian Federation); Lisovyy, Denis E.; Shtilman, Michael I. [D. Mendeleyev University of Chemical Technology of Russia, Miusskaya Square 9, Moscow 125047 (Russian Federation); Markvicheva, Elena A. [Polymers for Biology Laboratory, Shemyakin & Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry of Russian Academy of Sciences, Miklukho-Maklaya str., 16/10, Moscow 117997 (Russian Federation)

    2017-06-01

    Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) hydrogels are widely employed for various biomedical applications, including tissue engineering, due to their biocompatibility, high water solubility, low protein adsorption, and chemical stability. However, non-charged surface of PVA-based hydrogels is not optimal for cell adhesion and spreading. Here, cross-linked macroporous hydrogels based on low molecular weight acrylated PVA (Acr-PVA) was synthesized by modification of the pendant alcohol groups on the PVA with glycidyl methacrylate (GMA). To enhance cell affinity, charged groups were introduced to the hydrogel composition. For this purpose, Acr-PVA was copolymerized with either negatively charged acrylic acid (AA) or positively charged 2-(diethylamino) ethyl methacrylate (DEAEMA) monomers. A surface charge of the obtained hydrogels was found to be in function of the co-monomer type and content. Confocal microscopy observations confirmed that adhesion and spreading of both mouse fibroblasts (L929) and human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) on the modified Acr-PVA-AA and Acr-PVA-DEAEMA hydrogels were better than those on the non-modified Acr-PVA hydrogel. The increase of DEAEMA monomer content from 5 to 15 mol% resulted in the enhancement of cell viability which was 1.5-fold higher for Acr-PVA-DEAEMA-15 hydrogel than that of the non-modified Acr-PVA hydrogel sample. - Highlights: • To enhance cell affinity, acrylated PVA hydrogel was modified with AA or DEAEMA monomers. • Cell adhesion and spreading were found to depend on the co-monomer type and content. • Proliferation of L929 fibroblasts and stem cells increased on the modified hydrogels.

  20. Entrapment of dispersed pancreatic islet cells in CultiSpher-S macroporous gelatin microcarriers: Preparation, in vitro characterization, and microencapsulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Guerra, S; Bracci, C; Nilsson, K; Belcourt, A; Kessler, L; Lupi, R; Marselli, L; De Vos, P; Marchetti, P

    2001-12-20

    Immunoprotection of pancreatic islets for successful allo- or xenotransplantation without chronic immunosuppression is an attractive, but still elusive, approach for curing type 1 diabetes. It was recently shown that, even in the absence of fibrotic overgrowth, other factors, mainly insufficient nutrition to the core of the islets, represent a major barrier for long-term survival of intraperitoneal microencapsulated islet grafts. The use of dispersed cells might contribute to solve this problem due to the conceivably easier nutritional support to the cells. In the present study, purified bovine islets, prepared by collagenase digestion and density gradient purification, and dispersed bovine islet cells, obtained by trypsin and DNAsi (viability > 90%), were entrapped into either 2% (w/v) sodium alginate (commonly used for encapsulation purposes) or (dispersed islet cells only) macroporous gelatin microcarriers (CulthiSpher-S, commonly used for the production of biologicals by animal cells). Insulin release studies in response to glucose were performed within 1 week and after 1 month from preparation of the varying systems and showed no capability of dispersed bovine islet cells within sodium alginate microcapsules to sense glucose concentration changes. On the contrary, bovine islet cells entrapped in CulthiSpher-S microcarriers showed maintained capacity of increasing insulin secretion upon enhanced glucose concentration challenge. In this case, insulin release was approximately 60% of that from intact bovine islets within sodium alginate microcapsules. MTT and hematoxylineosin staining of islet cell-containing microcarriers showed the presence of viable and metabolically active cells throughout the study period. This encouraging functional data prompted us to test whether the microcarriers could be immunoisolated for potential use in transplantation. The microcarriers were embedded within 3% sodium alginate, which was then covered with a poly-L-lysine layer and a