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Sample records for macrophages released lps

  1. C–C Chemokines Released by Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated Human Macrophages Suppress HIV-1 Infection in Both Macrophages and T Cells

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    Verani, Alessia; Scarlatti, Gabriella; Comar, Manola; Tresoldi, Eleonora; Polo, Simona; Giacca, Mauro; Lusso, Paolo; Siccardi, Antonio G.; Vercelli, Donata

    1997-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) expression in monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) infected in vitro is known to be inhibited by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). However, the mechanisms are incompletely understood. We show here that HIV-1 suppression is mediated by soluble factors released by MDM stimulated with physiologically significant concentrations of LPS. LPS-conditioned supernatants from MDM inhibited HIV-1 replication in both MDM and T cells. Depletion of C–C chemokines (RANTES, MIP-1α, and MIP-1β) neutralized the ability of LPS-conditioned supernatants to inhibit HIV-1 replication in MDM. A combination of recombinant C–C chemokines blocked HIV-1 infection as effectively as LPS. Here, we report an inhibitory effect of C–C chemokines on HIV replication in primary macrophages. Our results raise the possibility that monocytes may play a dual role in HIV infection: while representing a reservoir for the virus, they may contribute to the containment of the infection by releasing factors that suppress HIV replication not only in monocytes but also in T lymphocytes. PMID:9120386

  2. Intracellular NAD+ levels are associated with LPS-induced TNF-α release in pro-inflammatory macrophages

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    Al-Shabany, Abbas Jawad; Moody, Alan John; Foey, Andrew David; Billington, Richard Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Metabolism and immune responses have been shown to be closely linked and as our understanding increases, so do the intricacies of the level of linkage. NAD+ has previously been shown to regulate tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) synthesis and TNF-α has been shown to regulate NAD+ homoeostasis providing a link between a pro-inflammatory response and redox status. In the present study, we have used THP-1 differentiation into pro- (M1-like) and anti- (M2-like) inflammatory macrophage subset models to investigate this link further. Pro- and anti-inflammatory macrophages showed different resting NAD+ levels and expression levels of NAD+ homoeostasis enzymes. Challenge with bacterial lipopolysaccharide, a pro-inflammatory stimulus for macrophages, caused a large, biphasic and transient increase in NAD+ levels in pro- but not anti-inflammatory macrophages that were correlated with TNF-α release and inhibition of certain NAD+ synthesis pathways blocked TNF-α release. Lipopolysaccharide stimulation also caused changes in mRNA levels of some NAD+ homoeostasis enzymes in M1-like cells. Surprisingly, despite M2-like cells not releasing TNF-α or changing NAD+ levels in response to lipopolysaccharide, they showed similar mRNA changes compared with M1-like cells. These data further strengthen the link between pro-inflammatory responses in macrophages and NAD+. The agonist-induced rise in NAD+ shows striking parallels to well-known second messengers and raises the possibility that NAD+ is acting in a similar manner in this model. PMID:26764408

  3. Excretory/secretory products from two Fasciola hepatica isolates induce different transcriptional changes and IL-10 release in LPS-activated bovine "BOMA" macrophages.

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    Bąska, Piotr; Norbury, Luke James; Zawistowska-Deniziak, Anna; Wiśniewski, Marcin; Januszkiewicz, Kamil

    2017-10-01

    Fasciola hepatica are trematodes that reside in the bile ducts of mammals. Infection causes US$3 billion in losses annually in animal production and is considered a zoonosis of growing importance. An under-represented area in F. hepatica research has been the examination of the different immunomodulatory abilities of various parasite isolates on the host immune system. In this paper, this issue was explored, with the bovine macrophage cell line "BOMA". The cells were matured by LPS treatment and stimulated with excretory/secretory antigens (ES) from two Fasciola hepatica isolates: a laboratory isolate "Weybridge" (Fh-WeyES) and a wild isolate (Fh-WildES). As expected, stimulation with antigen mixtures with highly similar compositions resulted in mild transcriptomic differences. However, there were significant differences in cytokine levels. Compared to Fh-WeyES, exposure to Fh-WildES upregulated 27 and downregulated 30 genes. Fh-ES from both isolates diminished the release of TNF-α, whereas only Fh-WildES decreased IL-10 secretion. Neither Fh-WeyES nor Fh-WildES had an impact on IL-12 release. Our results indicate that various isolates can have different immunomodulatory abilities and impacts on the bovine immune system.

  4. Soybean-derived Bowman-Birk inhibitor inhibits neurotoxicity of LPS-activated macrophages

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    Persidsky Yuri

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lipopolysaccharide (LPS, the major component of the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria, can activate immune cells including macrophages. Activation of macrophages in the central nervous system (CNS contributes to neuronal injury. Bowman-Birk inhibitor (BBI, a soybean-derived protease inhibitor, has anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, we examined whether BBI has the ability to inhibit LPS-mediated macrophage activation, reducing the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and subsequent neurotoxicity in primary cortical neural cultures. Methods Mixed cortical neural cultures from rat were used as target cells for testing neurotoxicity induced by LPS-treated macrophage supernatant. Neuronal survival was measured using a cell-based ELISA method for expression of the neuronal marker MAP-2. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS production in macrophages was measured via 2', 7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate (DCFH2DA oxidation. Cytokine expression was determined by quantitative real-time PCR. Results LPS treatment of macrophages induced expression of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α and of ROS. In contrast, BBI pretreatment (1-100 μg/ml of macrophages significantly inhibited LPS-mediated induction of these cytokines and ROS. Further, supernatant from BBI-pretreated and LPS-activated macrophage cultures was found to be less cytotoxic to neurons than that from non-BBI-pretreated and LPS-activated macrophage cultures. BBI, when directly added to the neuronal cultures (1-100 μg/ml, had no protective effect on neurons with or without LPS-activated macrophage supernatant treatment. In addition, BBI (100 μg/ml had no effect on N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA-mediated neurotoxicity. Conclusions These findings demonstrate that BBI, through its anti-inflammatory properties, protects neurons from neurotoxicity mediated by activated macrophages.

  5. Ginger extract inhibits LPS induced macrophage activation and function

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    Bruch David

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Macrophages play a dual role in host defence. They act as the first line of defence by mounting an inflammatory response to antigen exposure and also act as antigen presenting cells and initiate the adaptive immune response. They are also the primary infiltrating cells at the site of inflammation. Inhibition of macrophage activation is one of the possible approaches towards modulating inflammation. Both conventional and alternative approaches are being studied in this regard. Ginger, an herbal product with broad anti inflammatory actions, is used as an alternative medicine in a number of inflammatory conditions like rheumatic disorders. In the present study we examined the effect of ginger extract on macrophage activation in the presence of LPS stimulation. Methods Murine peritoneal macrophages were stimulated by LPS in presence or absence of ginger extract and production of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines were observed. We also studied the effect of ginger extract on the LPS induced expression of MHC II, B7.1, B7.2 and CD40 molecules. We also studied the antigen presenting function of ginger extract treated macrophages by primary mixed lymphocyte reaction. Results We observed that ginger extract inhibited IL-12, TNF-α, IL-1β (pro inflammatory cytokines and RANTES, MCP-1 (pro inflammatory chemokines production in LPS stimulated macrophages. Ginger extract also down regulated the expression of B7.1, B7.2 and MHC class II molecules. In addition ginger extract negatively affected the antigen presenting function of macrophages and we observed a significant reduction in T cell proliferation in response to allostimulation, when ginger extract treated macrophages were used as APCs. A significant decrease in IFN-γ and IL-2 production by T cells in response to allostimulation was also observed. Conclusion In conclusion ginger extract inhibits macrophage activation and APC function and indirectly inhibits T cell activation.

  6. Differential Cell Sensitivity between OTA and LPS upon Releasing TNF-α

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    Lauy Al-Anati

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The release of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α by ochratoxin A (OTA was studied in various macrophage and non-macrophage cell lines and compared with E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS as a standard TNF-α release agent. Cells were exposed either to 0, 2.5 or 12.5 µmol/L OTA, or to 0.1 µg/mL LPS, for up to 24 h. OTA at 2.5 µmol/L and LPS at 0.1 µg/mL were not toxic to the tested cells as indicated by viability markers. TNF-a was detected in the incubated cell medium of rat Kupffer cells, peritoneal rat macrophages, and the mouse monocyte macrophage cell line J774A.1: TNF-a concentrations were 1,000 pg/mL, 1,560 pg/mL, and 650 pg/mL, respectively, for 2.5 µmol/L OTA exposure and 3,000 pg/mL, 2,600 pg/mL, and 2,115 pg/mL, respectively, for LPS exposure. Rat liver sinusoidal endothelial cells, rat hepatocytes, human HepG2 cells, and mouse L929 cells lacked any cytokine response to OTA, but showed a significant release of TNF-a after LPS exposure, with the exception of HepG2 cells. In non-responsive cell lines, OTA lacked both any activation of NF-κB or the translocation of activated NF-κB to the cell nucleus, i.e., in mouse L929 cells. In J774A.1 cells, OTA mediated TNF-a release via the pRaf/MEK 1/2–NF-κB and p38-NF-κB pathways, whereas LPS used pRaf/MEK 1/2-NF-κB, but not p38-NF-κB pathways. In contrast, in L929 cells, LPS used other pathways to activate NF-κB. Our data indicate that only macrophages and macrophage derived cells respond to OTA and are considered as sources for TNF-a release upon OTA exposure.

  7. Deubiquitinase USP12 promotes LPS induced macrophage responses through inhibition of IκBα

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    Nayak, Tapan Kumar Singh; Alamuru-Yellapragada, Neeraja P.; Parsa, Kishore V.L.

    2017-01-01

    Post translational modifications, ubiquitination and its reversal by deubiquitination play an important role in regulating innate immune system. USP12 is a poorly studied deubiquitinase reported to regulate T-cell receptor signalling however the functional role of USP12 in macrophages, the principal architects of inflammation, is unknown. Thus, in this study we probed the involvement of USP12 in macrophage mediated inflammatory responses using bacterial endotoxin, LPS, as the model system. Here, we observed that the expression of USP12 was altered in time dependent manner in LPS stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages at both mRNA and protein levels as revealed by qPCR and western blot analysis, respectively. Further analysis showed that LPS reduced the levels of Sp1 which enhanced the transcriptional levels of USP12. We observed that siRNA mediated ablation of USP12 expression in mouse macrophages suppressed the induction of LPS-induced iNOS and IL-6 expression but failed to alter IFN-β synthesis, oxidative stress and phagocytic ability of macrophages. Mechanistic analysis suggest that USP12 may be required for the activation of NFκB pathway as knockdown of USP12 reduced the inhibitory phosphorylation of IκBα, a well characterized inhibitor of NFκB nuclear translocation. Further, USP12 was observed to be required for LPS elicited phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and p38. Collectively, our data suggest that USP12 may be a key mediator of LPS stimulated macrophage responses. - Highlights: • USP12 levels are significantly altered in LPS stimulated macrophages. • USP12 is required for LPS induced iNOS and IL6 expression. • USP12 is crucial for LPS induced phosphorylation of IκBα, ERK1/2, p38.

  8. Full Spectrum of LPS Activation in Alveolar Macrophages of Healthy Volunteers by Whole Transcriptomic Profiling.

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    Miguel Pinilla-Vera

    Full Text Available Despite recent advances in understanding macrophage activation, little is known regarding how human alveolar macrophages in health calibrate its transcriptional response to canonical TLR4 activation. In this study, we examined the full spectrum of LPS activation and determined whether the transcriptomic profile of human alveolar macrophages is distinguished by a TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-β (TRIF-dominant type I interferon signature. Bronchoalveolar lavage macrophages were obtained from healthy volunteers, stimulated in the presence or absence of ultrapure LPS in vitro, and whole transcriptomic profiling was performed by RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq. LPS induced a robust type I interferon transcriptional response and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis predicted interferon regulatory factor (IRF7 as the top upstream regulator of 89 known gene targets. Ubiquitin-specific peptidase (USP-18, a negative regulator of interferon α/β responses, was among the top up-regulated genes in addition to IL10 and USP41, a novel gene with no known biological function but with high sequence homology to USP18. We determined whether IRF-7 and USP-18 can influence downstream macrophage effector cytokine production such as IL-10. We show that IRF-7 siRNA knockdown enhanced LPS-induced IL-10 production in human monocyte-derived macrophages, and USP-18 overexpression attenuated LPS-induced production of IL-10 in RAW264.7 cells. Quantitative PCR confirmed upregulation of USP18, USP41, IL10, and IRF7. An independent cohort confirmed LPS induction of USP41 and IL10 genes. These results suggest that IRF-7 and predicted downstream target USP18, both elements of a type I interferon gene signature identified by RNA-Seq, may serve to fine-tune early cytokine response by calibrating IL-10 production in human alveolar macrophages.

  9. Leptomeningeal Cells Transduce Peripheral Macrophages Inflammatory Signal to Microglia in Reponse to Porphyromonas gingivalis LPS

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    Yicong Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report here that the leptomeningeal cells transduce inflammatory signals from peripheral macrophages to brain-resident microglia in response to Porphyromonas gingivalis (P.g. LPS. The expression of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2, TLR4, TNF-α, and inducible NO synthase was mainly detected in the gingival macrophages of chronic periodontitis patients. In in vitro studies, P.g. LPS induced the secretion of TNF-α and IL-1β from THP-1 human monocyte-like cell line and RAW264.7 mouse macrophages. Surprisingly, the mean mRNA levels of TNF-α and IL-1β in leptomeningeal cells after treatment with the conditioned medium from P.g. LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages were significantly higher than those after treatment with P.g. LPS alone. Furthermore, the mean mRNA levels of TNF-α and IL-1β in microglia after treatment with the conditioned medium from P.g. LPS-stimulated leptomeningeal cells were significantly higher than those after P.g. LPS alone. These observations suggest that leptomeninges serve as an important route for transducing inflammatory signals from macrophages to microglia by secretion of proinflammatory mediators during chronic periodontitis. Moreover, propolis significantly reduced the P.g. LPS-induced TNF-α and IL-1 β production by leptomeningeal cells through inhibiting the nuclear factor-κB signaling pathway. Together with the inhibitory effect on microglial activation, propolis may be beneficial in preventing neuroinflammation during chronic periodontitis.

  10. Anti-inflammatory effect of garlic 14-kDa protein on LPS-stimulated-J774A.1 macrophages.

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    Rabe, Shahrzad Zamani Taghizadeh; Ghazanfari, Tooba; Siadat, Zahra; Rastin, Maryam; Rabe, Shahin Zamani Taghizadeh; Mahmoudi, Mahmoud

    2015-04-01

    Garlic 14-kDa protein is purified from garlic (Allium sativum L.) which is used in traditional medicine and exerts various immunomodulatory activities. The present study investigated the suppressive effect of garlic 14-kDa protein on LPS-induced expression of pro-inflammatory mediators and underlying mechanism in inflammatory macrophages. J774A.1 macrophages were treated with 14-kDa protein (5-30 μg/ml) with/without LPS (1 μg/ml) and the production of inflammatory mediators such as prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), TNF-α, and IL-1β released were measured using ELISA. Nitric oxide (NO) production was determined using the Griess method. The anti-inflammatory activity of 14-kDa protein was examined by measuring inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 proteins using western blot. The expression of nuclear NF-κB p65 subunit was assessed by western blot. Garlic 14-kDa protein significantly inhibited the excessive production of NO, PGE, TNF-α, and IL-1β in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated J774A.1 macrophages in a concentration-related manner without cytotoxic effect. Western blot analysis demonstrated that garlic 14-kDa protein suppressed corresponding inducible NO synthase expression and activated cyclooxygenase-2 protein expression. The inhibitory effect was mediated partly by a reduction in the activity and expression of transcription factor NF-κB protein. Our results suggested, for the first time, garlic 14-kDa protein exhibits anti-inflammatory properties in macrophages possibly by suppressing the inflammatory mediators via the inhibition of transcription factor NF-κB signaling pathway. The traditional use of garlic as anti-inflammatory remedy could be ascribed partly to 14-kDa protein content. This protein might be a useful candidate for controlling inflammatory diseases and further investigations in vivo.

  11. Minocycline hydrochloride nanoliposomes inhibit the production of TNF-α in LPS-stimulated macrophages

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    Liu D

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available D Liu, P S YangShandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Oral Biomedicine, College of Stomatology, Shandong University, Shandong Province, People's Republic of ChinaBackground: As an adjunctive treatment of chronic periodontitis, it seems that the application of periocline or the other antimicrobials is effective against periodontopathogens. In this study, nanoliposomes were investigated as carriers of minocycline hydrochloride and the inhibition effects of minocycline hydrochloride nanoliposomes on the proliferation and lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated production of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α of macrophages were elucidated.Methods: After stimulation with 10 µg/mL LPS, murine macrophages (ANA-1 were treated with 10, 20, 40, 50 and 70 µg/mL 2% minocycline hydrochloride nanoliposomes, minocycline hydrochloride solution, and periocline for 6, 12, 24, 48 and 60 hours, respectively. A tetrazolium (MTT assay was used to evaluate macrophages cell proliferation rate and the levels of TNF-α mRNA were measured by SYBR Green Real Time PCR.Results: Ten to 70 µg/mL 2% minocycline hydrochloride nanoliposomes, minocycline hydrochloride solution, and periocline showed dose- and time-dependent inhibition of ANA-1 proliferation. Minocycline hydrochloride nanoliposomes showed dose- and ratio-dependent inhibition of LPS-stimulated TNF-α secretion of ANA-1. The inhibition effect of 10 µg/mL minocycline hydrochloride nanoliposomes was significantly better than that of two positive control groups, and equated to that of 60 or 70 µg/mL periocline. The expression of TNF-α mRNA in experimental group continued to reduce linearly with time.Conclusion: All three preparations of minocycline hydrochloride showed dose- and time-dependent inhibition of proliferation of ANA-1. Minocycline hydrochloride nanoliposomes have stronger and longer inhibition effect on LPS-stimulated TNF-α secretion of macrophages cell than minocycline hydrochloride solution and periocline

  12. Characterization of polarized THP-1 macrophages and polarizing ability of LPS and food compounds.

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    Chanput, Wasaporn; Mes, Jurriaan J; Savelkoul, Huub F J; Wichers, Harry J

    2013-02-01

    Little is known about the polarizing potential of currently used human macrophage cell lines, while a better understanding phenomena can support the prediction of effects in vivo based on in vitro analysis. To test the polarization capability of PMA differentiated-THP-1 macrophages (M0), cells were stimulated with 20 ng ml(-1) IFNγ + 1 μg ml(-1) LPS and 20 ng ml(-1) IL-4, which are known to influence macrophage polarization in vivo and ex vivo into the M1 and M2 state, respectively. Apart from several well-known M1 and M2 markers, also new possible markers for M1 and M2 polarization were analysed in this study. The expression of M1 marker genes was up-regulated in IFNγ + LPS stimulated-M0 THP-1 macrophages. The IL-4 stimulated-M0 THP-1 macrophages expressed M2 cell membrane receptor genes. However, M2 chemokine and their receptor genes were only slightly up-regulated which might be due to the complexity of the secondary cell-cell interaction of the chemokine system. Lipopolysaccharides from E. coli (LPS) and food compounds [lentinan, vitamin D3 (vD3) and the combination of lentinan + vitamin D3 (Len + vD3)] were investigated for their polarizing ability on M0 THP-1 macrophages towards either the M1 or M2 state. LPS (700 ng ml(-1)) was able to skew M0 THP-1 macrophages towards the M1 direction since all analysed M1 marker genes were strongly expressed. Lentinan, vD3 and Len + vD3 did not induce expression of either M1 or M2 markers, indicating no polarizing ability of these compounds. Based on the expression of M1 and M2 marker genes we concluded that THP-1 macrophages could be successfully polarized into either the M1 or M2 state. Therefore, they can be used as a new macrophage polarizing model to estimate the polarizing/switching ability of test food compounds.

  13. Anti-inflammatory activity of standardized dichloromethane extract of Salvia connivens on macrophages stimulated by LPS.

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    González-Chávez, Marco Martín; Ramos-Velázquez, Cinthia Saraí; Serrano-Vega, Roberto; Pérez-González, Cuauhtemoc; Sánchez-Mendoza, Ernesto; Pérez-Gutiérrez, Salud

    2017-12-01

    A previous study demonstrated that the chloroform extract of Salvia connivens Epling (Lamiaceae) has anti-inflammatory activity. Identification of the active components in the dicholorometane extract (DESC), and, standardization of the extract based in ursolic acid. DESC was prepared by percolation with dichlromethane and after washed with hot hexane, its composition was determined by CG-MS and NMR, and standardized by HPLC. The anti-inflammatory activity was tested on acute TPA-induced mouse ear oedema at doses of 2.0 mg/ear. The cell viability of macrophages was evaluated by MTT method, and pro- and anti-inflammatory interleukin levels were measured using an ELISA kit. Ursolic acid, oleanolic acid, dihydroursolic acid and eupatorin were identified in DESC, which was standardized based on the ursolic acid concentration (126 mg/g). The anti-inflammatory activities of DESC, the acid mixture, and eupatorin (2 mg/ear) were 60.55, 57.20 and 56.40% inhibition, respectively, on TPA-induced ear oedema. The IC 50 of DESC on macrophages was 149.4 μg/mL. DESC (25 μg/mL) significantly reduced TNF-α (2.0-fold), IL-1β (2.2-fold) and IL-6 (2.0-fold) in macrophages stimulated with LPS and increased the production of IL-10 (1.9-fold). Inflammation is a basic response to injuries, and macrophages are involved in triggering inflammation. Macrophage cells exhibit a response to LPS, inducing inflammatory mediators, and DESC inhibits the biosynthesis of the pro-inflammatory and promote anti-inflammatory cytokines. DESC has an anti-inflammatory effect; reduced the levels of IL-1β, Il-6 and TNF-α; and increases IL-10 in macrophages stimulated with LPS. Ursolic acid is a good phytochemical marker.

  14. Suppression of LPS-induced inflammatory responses in macrophages infected with Leishmania

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    Kelly Ben L

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic inflammation activated by macrophage innate pathogen recognition receptors such as TLR4 can lead to a range of inflammatory diseases, including atherosclerosis, Crohn's disease, arthritis and cancer. Unlike many microbes, the kinetoplastid protozoan pathogen Leishmania has been shown to avoid and even actively suppress host inflammatory cytokine responses, such as LPS-induced IL-12 production. The nature and scope of Leishmania-mediated inflammatory cytokine suppression, however, is not well characterized. Advancing our knowledge of such microbe-mediated cytokine suppression may provide new avenues for therapeutic intervention in inflammatory disease. Methods We explored the kinetics of a range of cytokine and chemokine responses in primary murine macrophages stimulated with LPS in the presence versus absence of two clinically distinct species of Leishmania using sensitive multiplex cytokine analyses. To confirm that these effects were parasite-specific, we compared the effects of Leishmania uptake on LPS-induced cytokine expression with uptake of inert latex beads. Results Whilst Leishmania uptake alone did not induce significant levels of any cytokine analysed in this study, Leishmania uptake in the presence of LPS caused parasite-specific suppression of certain LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-12, IL-17 and IL-6. Interestingly, L. amazonensis was generally more suppressive than L. major. We also found that other LPS-induced proinflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1α, TNF-α and the chemokines MIP-1α and MCP-1 and also the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10, were augmented during Leishmania uptake, in a parasite-specific manner. Conclusions During uptake by macrophages, Leishmania evades the activation of a broad range of cytokines and chemokines. Further, in the presence of a strong inflammatory stimulus, Leishmania suppresses certain proinflammatory cytokine responses in a parasite

  15. Simvastatin induces caspase-independent apoptosis in LPS-activated RAW264.7 macrophage cells

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    Kim, Yong Chan; Song, Seok Bean; Lee, Mi Hee; Kang, Kwang Il; Lee, Hayyoung; Paik, Sang-Gi; Kim, Kyoon Eon; Kim, Young Sang

    2006-01-01

    Macrophages participate in several inflammatory pathologies such as sepsis and arthritis. We examined the effect of simvastatin on the LPS-induced proinflammatory macrophage RAW264.7 cells. Co-treatment of LPS and a non-toxic dose of simvastatin induced cell death in RAW264.7 cells. The cell death was accompanied by disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), genomic DNA fragmentation, and caspase-3 activation. Surprisingly, despite caspase-dependent apoptotic cascade being completely blocked by Z-VAD-fmk, a pan-caspase inhibitor, the cell death was only partially repressed. In the presence of Z-VAD-fmk, DNA fragmentation was blocked, but DNA condensation, disruption of MMP, and nuclear translocation of apoptosis inducing factor were obvious. The cell death by simvastatin and LPS was effectively decreased by both the FPP and GGPP treatments as well as mevalonate. Our findings indicate that simvastatin triggers the cell death of LPS-treated RAW264.7 cells through both caspase-dependent and -independent apoptotic pathways, suggesting a novel mechanism of statins for the severe inflammatory disease therapy

  16. Reduced caveolin-1 promotes hyper-inflammation due to abnormal heme oxygenase-1 localizationin LPS challenged macrophages with dysfunctional CFTR

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    Zhang, Ping-Xia; Murray, Thomas S.; Villella, Valeria Rachela; Ferrari, Eleonora; Esposito, Speranza; D'Souza, Anthony; Raia, Valeria; Maiuri, Luigi; Krause, Diane S.; Egan, Marie E.; Bruscia, Emanuela M.

    2013-01-01

    We have previously reported that TLR4 signaling is increased in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) -stimulated Cystic Fibrosis (CF) macrophages (MΦs), contributing to the robust production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The heme oxygenase (HO-1)/carbon monoxide (CO) pathway modulates cellular redox status, inflammatory responses, and cell survival. The HO-1 enzyme, together with the scaffold protein caveolin 1 (CAV-1), also acts as a negative regulator of TLR4 signaling in MΦs. Here, we demonstrate that in LPS-challenged CF MΦs, HO-1 does not compartmentalize normally to the cell surface and instead accumulates intracellularly. The abnormal HO-1 localization in CF MΦs in response to LPS is due to decreased CAV-1 expression, which is controlled by the cellular oxidative state, and is required for HO-1 delivery to the cell surface. Overexpression of HO-1 or stimulating the pathway with CO-releasing molecules (CORM2)enhancesCAV-1 expression in CF MΦs, suggesting a positive-feed forward loop between HO-1/CO induction and CAV-1 expression. These manipulations reestablished HO-1 and CAV-1 cell surface localization in CF MΦ's. Consistent with restoration of HO-1/CAV-1 negative regulation of TLR4 signaling, genetic or pharmacological (CORM2)-induced enhancement of this pathway decreased the inflammatory response of CF MΦs and CF mice treated with LPS. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that the counter-regulatory HO-1/CO pathway, which is critical in balancing and limiting the inflammatory response, is defective in CF MΦs through a CAV-1-dependent mechanism, exacerbating the CF MΦ's response to LPS. This pathway could be a potential target for therapeutic intervention for CF lung disease. PMID:23606537

  17. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated macrophage activation: the role of calcium in the generation of tumoricidal activity

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    Drysdale, B.E.; Shin, H.S.

    1986-01-01

    As the authors reported, calcium ionophore, A23187, activates macrophages (M theta) for tumor cell killing and the activated M theta produce a soluble cytotoxic factor (M theta-CF) that is similar if not identical to tumor necrosis factor. Based on these observations they have investigated whether calcium is involved in the activation mediated by another potent M theta activator, LPS. The authors have shown that A23187 caused uptake of extracellular 45 Ca ++ but LPS did not. They have examined the effect of depleting extracellular calcium by using medium containing no added calcium containing 1.0 mM EGTA. In no case did depletion result in decreased M theta-CF production by the M theta activated with LPS. Measurements using the fluorescent, intracellular calcium indicator, Quin 2 have also been performed. While ionomycin, caused a rapid change in the Quin-2 signal, LPS at a concentration even in excess of that required to activate the M theta caused no change in the signal. When high doses of Quin 2 or another intracellular chelator, 8-(diethylaminol-octyl-3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoate, were used to treat M theta, M theta-CF production decreased and cytotoxic activity was impaired. These data indicate that one or more of the processes involved in M theta-CF production does require calcium, but that activation mediated by LPS occurs without the influx of extracellular calcium or redistribution of intracellular calcium

  18. Matrix metalloproteases as maestros for the dual role of LPS- and IL-10-stimulated macrophages in cancer cell behaviour

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    Cardoso, Ana P.; Pinto, Marta L.; Pinto, Ana T.; Pinto, Marta T.; Monteiro, Cátia; Oliveira, Marta I.; Santos, Susana G.; Relvas, João B.; Seruca, Raquel; Mantovani, Alberto; Mareel, Marc; Barbosa, Mário A.; Oliveira, Maria J.

    2015-01-01

    The interactions established between macrophages and cancer cells are largely dependent on instructions from the tumour microenvironment. Macrophages may differentiate into populations with distinct inflammatory profiles, but knowledge on their role on cancer cell activities is still very scarce. In this work, we investigated the influence of pro-inflammatory (LPS-stimulated) and anti-inflammatory (IL-10-stimulated) macrophages on gastric and colorectal cancer cell invasion, motility/migration, angiogenesis and proteolysis, and the associated molecular mechanisms. Following exposure of gastric and colon cancer cell lines to LPS- and IL-10-stimulated human macrophages, either by indirect contact or conditioned media, we analyzed the effect of the different macrophage populations on cancer cell invasion, migration, motility and phosphorylation status of EGFR and several interacting partners. Cancer-cell induced angiogenesis upon the influence of conditioned media from both macrophage populations was assessed using the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane assay. MMP activities were evaluated by gelatin zymograhy. Our results show that IL-10-stimulated macrophages are more efficient in promoting in vitro cancer cell invasion and migration. In addition, soluble factors produced by these macrophages enhanced in vivo cancer cell-induced angiogenesis, as opposed to their LPS-stimulated counterparts. We further demonstrate that differences in the ability of these macrophage populations to stimulate invasion or angiogenesis cannot be explained by the EGFR-mediated signalling, since both LPS- and IL-10-stimulated macrophages similarly induce the phosphorylation of cancer cell EGFR, c-Src, Akt, ERK1/2, and p38. Interestingly, both populations exert distinct proteolytic activities, being the IL-10-stimulated macrophages the most efficient in inducing matrix metalloprotease (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 activities. Using a broad-spectrum MMP inhibitor, we demonstrated that proteolysis was

  19. Xanthohumol from Hop (Humulus lupulus L.) Is an Efficient Inhibitor of Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 and Tumor Necrosis Factor-a Release in LPS-Stimulated RAW 264.7 Mouse Macrophages and U937 Human Monocytes

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    Lupinacci, E.; Meijerink, J.; Vincken, J.P.; Gabriele, B.; Gruppen, H.; Witkamp, R.F.

    2009-01-01

    Activated macrophages in adipose tissue play a major role in the chronic inflammatory process that has been linked to the complications of overweight and obesity. The hop plant (Humulus lupulus L.) has been described to possess both anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic effects. In the present study,

  20. Friedelane-type triterpenoids as selective anti-inflammatory agents by regulation of differential signaling pathways in LPS-stimulated macrophages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villar-Lorenzo, Andrea, E-mail: avillar@iib.uam.es [Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas Alberto Sols (IIBm) (CSIC/UAM), C/ Arturo Duperier 4, 28029 Madrid (Spain); Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Diabetes y Enfermedades Metabólicas Asociadas (CIBERdem), ISCIII, 28029 Madrid (Spain); Ardiles, Alejandro E., E-mail: ale_csic@gmail.com [Instituto Universitario de Bio-Orgánica Antonio González, Departamento de Química Orgánica, Universidad de La Laguna, Avenida Astrofísico Francisco Sánchez 2, 38206 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad Arturo Prat, Casilla 121, Iquique 1110939 (Chile); Arroba, Ana I., E-mail: aarroba@iib.uam.es [Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas Alberto Sols (IIBm) (CSIC/UAM), C/ Arturo Duperier 4, 28029 Madrid (Spain); Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Diabetes y Enfermedades Metabólicas Asociadas (CIBERdem), ISCIII, 28029 Madrid (Spain); Hernández-Jiménez, Enrique, E-mail: enheji@gmail.com [Tumor Immunology Laboratory (IdiPAZ), 28029 Madrid (Spain); Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Respiratorias (CIBERres), ISCIII, 28029 Madrid (Spain); and others

    2016-12-15

    A series of 31 pentacyclic triterpenoids isolated from the root barks of Celastrus vulcanicola and Maytenus jelskii were tested for cytotoxicity and inhibitory activity against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Compounds 18 (C18) and 25 (C25) exhibited significant inhibition of LPS-induced NO release at 50 and 25 μM concentrations, respectively, and decreased mRNAs of pro-inflammatory cytokines. At the molecular level, C18 neither inhibited LPS-mediated phosphorylation of mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) nor nuclear translocation of nuclear factor kappa beta (NFκB). Instead, C18 enhanced and prolonged nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and increased the expression of its target genes including hemeoxigenase 1 (HO1). C25 efficiently inhibited LPS-mediated phosphorylation of JNK, p38 and ERK, without affecting NFκB or Nrf2 signaling pathways. Both compounds reduced LPS-mediated processing of caspase-1 and the cleavage of interleukin 1β (IL1β) proform, reflecting their ability to target the inflammasome. C25 also counteracted LPS effects on iNOS expression and pro-inflammatory cytokines mRNA levels in Bv-2 microglial cells. The anti-inflammatory effect of both compounds was also assessed in human macrophages. Our results suggest that triterpenoids C18 and C25 possess anti-inflammatory effects, which may be therapeutically relevant for diseases linked to inflammation. - Highlights: • Compounds 18 (C18) and 25 (C25) exert anti-inflammatory effects in macrophages. • C18 enhanced nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and increased HO1 expression. • C25 inhibited the phosphorylation of JNK, p38 and ERK, members of the MAPKs family. • C25 reduced LPS-mediated processing of caspase-1 and the cleavage of interleukin 1β. • C18 and C25 may be therapeutic agents for diseases linked to inflammation.

  1. Friedelane-type triterpenoids as selective anti-inflammatory agents by regulation of differential signaling pathways in LPS-stimulated macrophages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villar-Lorenzo, Andrea; Ardiles, Alejandro E.; Arroba, Ana I.; Hernández-Jiménez, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    A series of 31 pentacyclic triterpenoids isolated from the root barks of Celastrus vulcanicola and Maytenus jelskii were tested for cytotoxicity and inhibitory activity against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Compounds 18 (C18) and 25 (C25) exhibited significant inhibition of LPS-induced NO release at 50 and 25 μM concentrations, respectively, and decreased mRNAs of pro-inflammatory cytokines. At the molecular level, C18 neither inhibited LPS-mediated phosphorylation of mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) nor nuclear translocation of nuclear factor kappa beta (NFκB). Instead, C18 enhanced and prolonged nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and increased the expression of its target genes including hemeoxigenase 1 (HO1). C25 efficiently inhibited LPS-mediated phosphorylation of JNK, p38 and ERK, without affecting NFκB or Nrf2 signaling pathways. Both compounds reduced LPS-mediated processing of caspase-1 and the cleavage of interleukin 1β (IL1β) proform, reflecting their ability to target the inflammasome. C25 also counteracted LPS effects on iNOS expression and pro-inflammatory cytokines mRNA levels in Bv-2 microglial cells. The anti-inflammatory effect of both compounds was also assessed in human macrophages. Our results suggest that triterpenoids C18 and C25 possess anti-inflammatory effects, which may be therapeutically relevant for diseases linked to inflammation. - Highlights: • Compounds 18 (C18) and 25 (C25) exert anti-inflammatory effects in macrophages. • C18 enhanced nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and increased HO1 expression. • C25 inhibited the phosphorylation of JNK, p38 and ERK, members of the MAPKs family. • C25 reduced LPS-mediated processing of caspase-1 and the cleavage of interleukin 1β. • C18 and C25 may be therapeutic agents for diseases linked to inflammation.

  2. Ca(OH2 action on TNF-alpha and NO release in macrophage culture stimulated by Pseudomonas aeruginosa LPS = Ação do Ca(OH2 sobre a produção de TNF-alfa e NO de cultura de macrófagos estimulada por LPS de Pseudomonas aeruginosa

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    Queiroz, Celso Emanoel de Souza

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: A ação do hidróxido de cálcio [Ca(OH2] com o sistema imune e o mecanismo de neutralização das bactérias e seus subprodutos ainda não foi completamente esclarecida. Neste estudo foi avaliada a capacidade do Ca(OH2 em neutralizar o lipopolissacarídeo (LPS de Pseudomonas aeruginosa, utilizando-se duas metodologias: liberação de Óxido Nítrico (NO e Fator de Necrose Tumoral Alfa (TNF-alfa em cultura de macrófagos peritoneais de camundongos. Metodologia: No ensaio do NO, as células peritoneais foram expostas a uma solução de LPS (25mg/mL e 50mg/mL; e à suspensão de LPS/Ca(OH2 em duas concentrações (50mg/ 25mg e 25mg/25mg. Após 8 horas de incubação, foi utilizado reagente de Griess, e a liberação de NO foi quantificada. No ensaio do TNF-alfa, a solução de LPS foi usada na concentração de 25mg/mL e o LPS/Ca(OH2 a 25mg/25mg. Após 24 horas, as células foram fixadas e coradas com cristal violeta, e os valores de absorbância foram obtidos. Os resultados foram expressos em micromols. Todos os testes foram realizados em triplicata. Resultados: A presença de Ca(OH2 nas duas concentrações avaliadas reduziu significativamente a liberação de NO e TNF-alfa. Conclusão: Pode-se concluir que o LPS bacteriano representa um forte estímulo para liberação destas citocinas, mas o hidróxido de cálcio foi capaz de neutralizar este efeito

  3. Cytosolic NADP(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase protects macrophages from LPS-induced nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeng, Oky; Kim, Yong Chan; Shin, Han-Jae; Lee, Jie-Oh; Huh, Tae-Lin; Kang, Kwang-il; Kim, Young Sang; Paik, Sang-Gi; Lee, Hayyoung

    2004-04-30

    Macrophages activated by microbial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) produce bursts of nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Redox protection systems are essential for the survival of the macrophages since the nitric oxide and ROS can be toxic to them as well as to pathogens. Using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) we found that cytosolic NADP(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDPc) is strongly upregulated by nitric oxide in macrophages. The levels of IDPc mRNA and of the corresponding enzymatic activity were markedly increased by treatment of RAW264.7 cells or peritoneal macrophages with LPS or SNAP (a nitric oxide donor). Over-expression of IDPc reduced intracellular peroxide levels and enhanced the survival of H2O2- and SNAP-treated RAW264.7 macrophages. IDPc is known to generate NADPH, a cellular reducing agent, via oxidative decarboxylation of isocitrate. The expression of enzymes implicated in redox protection, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase, was relatively unaffected by LPS and SNAP. We propose that the induction of IDPc is one of the main self-protection mechanisms of macrophages against LPS-induced oxidative stress.

  4. The LPS-induced neutrophil recruitment into rat air pouches is mediated by TNFα: likely macrophage origin

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    C-D. Arreto

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of resident cells during the lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced neutrophil recruitment into rat air pouches was investigated. In this model, LPS (Escherichia coli, O55: B5 strain; 2–2000 ng induced a dose– and time-dependent neutrophil recruitment accompanied by the generation of a tumour necrosis factor-α (TNFα-like activity. Dexamethasone (0.05–5 mug and cycloheximide (6 ng, injected 2 h before LPS into the pouches, inhibited the neutrophil recruitment and the generation of the TNFα-like activity, while the H1-receptor antagonist mepyramine (1 and 4 mg/kg, i.p., 0.5 h before LPS and the PAF-receptor antagonist WEB 2170 (0.05 and 1 mg/kg, i.p., 0.5 h before LPS had no effect. Purified alveolar macrophages (AM were used to replenish the pouches of cycloheximide-treated recipient rats. AM provided by PBS-treated animals led to the recovery of the LPS-induced neutrophil recruitment and of the TNFα-like formation contrasting with those from cycloheximide-treated animals (1 mg/kg, i.p.. When delivered in situ, liposome-encapsulated clodronate, a macrophage depletor, significantly impaired both the LPSinduced neutrophil recruitment and the TNFα-like activity. An anti-murine TNFα polyclonal antibody (0.5 h before LPS was also effective. These results emphasize the pivotal role of macrophages for LPS-induced neutrophil recruitment via the formation of TNFα.

  5. Effects of propofol on lipopolysaccharide-induced expression and release of HMGB1 in macrophages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, T.; Wei, X.Y.; Liu, B.; Wang, L.J.; Jiang, L.H. [Department of Anesthesiology, the Third Affiliated Hospital, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou (China)

    2015-02-24

    This study aimed to determine the effects of different concentrations of propofol (2,6-diisopropylphenol) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced expression and release of high-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) in mouse macrophages. Mouse macrophage cell line RAW264.7 cells were randomly divided into 5 treatment groups. Expression levels of HMGB1 mRNA were detected using RT-PCR, and cell culture supernatant HMGB1 protein levels were detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Translocation of HMGB1 from the nucleus to the cytoplasm in macrophages was observed by Western blotting and activity of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) in the nucleus was detected using ELISA. HMGB1 mRNA expression levels increased significantly in the cell culture supernatant and in cells after 24 h of stimulating RAW264.7 cells with LPS (500 ng/mL). However, HMGB1 mRNA expression levels in the P2 and P3 groups, which received 500 ng/mL LPS with 25 or 50 μmol/mL propofol, respectively, were significantly lower than those in the group receiving LPS stimulation (P<0.05). After stimulation by LPS, HMGB1 protein levels were reduced significantly in the nucleus but were increased in the cytoplasm (P<0.05). Simultaneously, the activity of NF-κB was enhanced significantly (P<0.05). After propofol intervention, HMGB1 translocation from the nucleus to the cytoplasm and NF-κB activity were inhibited significantly (each P<0.05). Thus, propofol can inhibit the LPS-induced expression and release of HMGB1 by inhibiting HMGB1 translocation and NF-κB activity in RAW264.7 cells, suggesting propofol may be protective in patients with sepsis.

  6. Anti-inflammatory activity of horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) root extracts in LPS-stimulated macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzocco, Stefania; Calabrone, Luana; Adesso, Simona; Larocca, Marilena; Franceschelli, Silvia; Autore, Giuseppina; Martelli, Giuseppe; Rossano, Rocco

    2015-12-01

    Horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) is a perennial crop belonging to the Brassicaceae family. Horseradish root is used as a condiment due to its extremely pungent flavour, deriving from the high content of glucosinolates and their breakdown products such as isothiocyanates and other sulfur compounds. Horseradish also has a long history in ethnomedicine. In this study the anti-inflammatory potential of three accessions of Armoracia rusticana on lipopolysaccharide from E. coli treated J774A.1 murine macrophages was evaluated. Our results demonstrate that Armoracia rusticana reduced nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 release and nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 expression in macrophages, acting on nuclear transcription factor NF-κB p65 activation. Moreover Armoracia rusticana reduced reactive oxygen species release and increased heme-oxygenase-1 expression, thus contributing to the cytoprotective cellular effect during inflammation.

  7. NLRC5 knockdown in chicken macrophages alters response to LPS and poly (I:C stimulation

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    Lian Ling

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background NLRC5 is a member of the CARD domain containing, nucleotide-binding oligomerization (NOD-like receptor (NLR family, which recognizes pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs and initiates an innate immune response leading to inflammation and/or cell death. However, the specific role of NLRC5 as a modulator of the inflammatory immune response remains controversial. It has been reported to be a mediator of type I IFNs, NF-kB, and MHC class I gene. But no study on NLRC5 function has been reported to date in chickens. In the current study, we investigated the role of NLRC5 in the regulation of IFNA, IFNB, IL-6, and MHC class I in the chicken HD11 macrophage cell line, by using RNAi technology. HD11 cells were transfected with one of five siRNAs (s1, s2, s3, negative-siRNA, or a mixture of s1, s2, s3-siRNAs. After 24 hours, cells were exposed to LPS or poly (I:C or a vehicle control. Gene expression of NLRC5, IFNA, IFNB, IL-6, and MHC class I at 2, 4, 6, and 8 hours post stimulation (hps was quantified by qPCR. Results The expression of NLRC5, IFNA, IFNB, and IL-6 genes in negative irrelevant transfection controls was up-regulated at 2 hps after LPS treatment compared to the vehicle controls. S3-siRNA effectively knocked down NLRC5 expression at 4 hps, and the expression of IFNA and IFNB (but not IL-6 and MHC class I was also down-regulated at 4 hps in s3-siRNA transfected cells, compared to negative irrelevant transfection controls. Stimulation by LPS appeared to relatively restore the decrease in NLRC5, IFNA, and IFNB expression, but the difference is not significant. Conclusions Functional characterization of chicken NLRC5 in an in vitro system demonstrated its importance in regulating intracellular molecules involved in inflammatory response. The knockdown of NLRC5 expression negatively mediates gene expression of IFNA and IFNB in the chicken HD11 cell line; therefore, NLRC5 likely has a role in positive regulation of

  8. Alveolar macrophage release of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in chronic alcoholics without liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidvari, K; Casey, R; Nelson, S; Olariu, R; Shellito, J E

    1998-05-01

    Alcohol is an immunosuppressive drug, and chronic abuse has been associated with increased susceptibility to a variety of infections, including bacterial pneumonia and tuberculosis. Alveolar macrophages are the resident phagocytes of the lung and play a central role in lung host defenses against infection ranging from direct antibacterial activity to the release of proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha). TNFalpha, in particular, plays a key role in the development of the early inflammatory response. In this study, we investigated the effects of chronic alcohol consumption on alveolar macrophage release of TNFalpha in vitro. We prospectively studied lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated release of TNFalpha from alveolar macrophages obtained from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) in 22 alcoholic (18 smokers, 4 nonsmokers) and 7 nondrinking healthy volunteers (3 smokers, 4 nonsmokers). The total number of cells recovered by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and their differential distribution were not significantly different in alcoholics versus controls (43 +/- 8 x 10(6) and 39 +/- 13 x 10(6), respectively). However, the total number of cells recovered from BALF was significantly higher in smokers (51 +/- 8 x 10(6)) than in nonsmokers (19 +/- 5 x 10(6)). Spontaneous (basal) release of TNFalpha by alveolar macrophages was the same in alcoholics and controls. In contrast, LPS-stimulated release of TNFalpha was significantly suppressed in alcoholics compared with that of controls (1343 +/- 271 vs. 3806 +/- 926 U TNF/ml/10(6) cells, respectively, p < 0.015). When controlled for smoking, LPS-stimulated TNFalpha production was suppressed in alcoholic nonsmokers (563 +/- 413 U TNF/ml/10(6)) compared with control nonsmokers (5113 +/- 1264 U TNF/ml/10(6)). LPS-stimulated TNFalpha production was also less in control smokers (2063 +/- 386 U TNF/ml/10(6) cells) than in control nonsmokers (5113 +/- 1264 U TNF/ml/10(6) cells). There was no difference

  9. Hypoacylated LPS from Foodborne Pathogen Campylobacter jejuni Induces Moderate TLR4-Mediated Inflammatory Response in Murine Macrophages

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    Kirill V. Korneev

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 initiates immune response against Gram-negative bacteria upon specific recognition of lipid A moiety of lipopolysaccharide (LPS, the major component of their cell wall. Some natural differences between LPS variants in their ability to interact with TLR4 may lead to either insufficient activation that may not prevent bacterial growth, or excessive activation which may lead to septic shock. In this study we evaluated the biological activity of LPS isolated from pathogenic strain of Campylobacter jejuni, the most widespread bacterial cause of foodborne diarrhea in humans. With the help of hydrophobic chromatography and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry we showed that LPS from a C. jejuni strain O2A consists of both hexaacyl and tetraacyl forms. Since such hypoacylation can result in a reduced immune response in humans, we assessed the activity of LPS from C. jejuni in mouse macrophages by measuring its capacity to activate TLR4-mediated proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine production, as well as NFκB-dependent reporter gene transcription. Our data support the hypothesis that LPS acylation correlates with its bioactivity.

  10. Hypoacylated LPS from Foodborne Pathogen Campylobacter jejuni Induces Moderate TLR4-Mediated Inflammatory Response in Murine Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korneev, Kirill V; Kondakova, Anna N; Sviriaeva, Ekaterina N; Mitkin, Nikita A; Palmigiano, Angelo; Kruglov, Andrey A; Telegin, Georgy B; Drutskaya, Marina S; Sturiale, Luisa; Garozzo, Domenico; Nedospasov, Sergei A; Knirel, Yuriy A; Kuprash, Dmitry V

    2018-01-01

    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) initiates immune response against Gram-negative bacteria upon specific recognition of lipid A moiety of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the major component of their cell wall. Some natural differences between LPS variants in their ability to interact with TLR4 may lead to either insufficient activation that may not prevent bacterial growth, or excessive activation which may lead to septic shock. In this study we evaluated the biological activity of LPS isolated from pathogenic strain of Campylobacter jejuni , the most widespread bacterial cause of foodborne diarrhea in humans. With the help of hydrophobic chromatography and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry we showed that LPS from a C. jejuni strain O2A consists of both hexaacyl and tetraacyl forms. Since such hypoacylation can result in a reduced immune response in humans, we assessed the activity of LPS from C. jejuni in mouse macrophages by measuring its capacity to activate TLR4-mediated proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine production, as well as NFκB-dependent reporter gene transcription. Our data support the hypothesis that LPS acylation correlates with its bioactivity.

  11. [Gallic acid inhibits inflammatory response of RAW264.7 macrophages by blocking the activation of TLR4/NF-κB induced by LPS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lihua; Hou, Lin; Xue, Hainan; Wang, Chunjie

    2016-12-01

    Objective To observe the influence of gallic acid on Toll-like receptor 4/nuclear factor-κB (TLR4/NF-κB) pathway in the RAW264.7 macrophages stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Methods RAW264.7 macrophages were divided into the following groups: control group, LPS group, LPS combined with gallic acid group, LPS combined with pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) group and LPS combined with dexamethasone (DM) group. RAW264.7 cells were cultured for 24 hours after corresponding treatments. The levels of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin-1 (IL-1) and IL-6 were detected by ELISA. The levels of TLR4 and NF-κB mRNAs were tested by real-time PCR. The levels of p-IκBα, p65, p-p65 and TLR4 proteins were examined by Western blotting. Results The expression levels of TNF-α, IL-1 and IL-6 were up-regulated in the RAW264.7 macrophages after stimulated by LPS. Gallic acid could reduce the elevated expression levels of TNF-α, IL-1 and IL-6 induced by LPS. The expression of TLR4 significantly increased after stimulated by LPS and NF-κB was activated. Gallic acid could reverse the above changes and prevent the activation of NF-κB. Conclusion Gallic acid could inhibit LPS-induced inflammatory response in RAW264.7 macrophages via TLR4/NF-κB pathway.

  12. DMPD: The Lps locus: genetic regulation of host responses to bacteriallipopolysaccharide. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 10669111 The Lps locus: genetic regulation of host responses to bacteriallipopolysaccharide. Qur...e The Lps locus: genetic regulation of host responses to bacteriallipopolysaccharide. Authors Qur

  13. Macrophage activation marker sCD163 correlates with accelerated lipolysis following LPS exposure: a human-randomised clinical trial

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    Nikolaj Rittig

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Macrophage activation determined by levels of soluble sCD163 is associated with obesity, insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2 and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. This suggests that macrophage activation is involved in the pathogenesis of conditions is characterised by adaptions in the lipid metabolism. Since sCD163 is shed to serum by inflammatory signals including lipopolysaccharides (LPS, endotoxin, we investigated sCD163 and correlations with lipid metabolism following LPS exposure. Methods: Eight healthy male subjects were investigated on two separate occasions: (i following an LPS exposure and (ii following saline exposure. Each study day consisted of a four-hour non-insulin-stimulated period followed by a two-hour hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp period. A 3H-palmitate tracer was used to calculate the rate of appearance (Rapalmitate. Blood samples were consecutively obtained throughout each study day. Abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue was obtained for western blotting. Results: We observed a significant two-fold increase in plasma sCD163 levels following LPS exposure (P < 0.001, and sCD163 concentrations correlated positively with the plasma concentration of free fatty acids, Rapalmitate, lipid oxidation rates and phosphorylation of the hormone-sensitive lipase at serine 660 in adipose tissue (P < 0.05, all. Furthermore, sCD163 concentrations correlated positively with plasma concentrations of cortisol, glucagon, tumour necrosis factor (TNF-α, interleukin (IL-6 and IL-10 (P < 0.05, all. Conclusion: We observed a strong correlation between sCD163 and stimulation of lipolysis and fat oxidation following LPS exposure. These findings support preexisting theory that inflammation and macrophage activation play a significant role in lipid metabolic adaptions under conditions such as obesity, DM2 and NAFLD.

  14. DMPD: LPS induction of gene expression in human monocytes. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 11257452 LPS induction of gene expression in human monocytes. Guha M, Mackman N. Ce...ll Signal. 2001 Feb;13(2):85-94. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show LPS induction of gene expression in human... monocytes. PubmedID 11257452 Title LPS induction of gene expression in human monocytes. Authors Guha M, Ma

  15. DMPD: LPS-binding proteins and receptors. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 9665271 LPS-binding proteins and receptors. Fenton MJ, Golenbock DT. J Leukoc Biol.... 1998 Jul;64(1):25-32. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show LPS-binding proteins and receptors. PubmedID 9665271 Title LPS-binding prot...eins and receptors. Authors Fenton MJ, Golenbock DT. Publication J Leukoc Biol. 199

  16. Isoalantolactone inhibits LPS-induced inflammation via NF-κB inactivation in peritoneal macrophages and improves survival in sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Guodong; Zhang, Xu; Chen, Yanhua; Chen, Jing; Li, Li; Xie, Yubo

    2017-06-01

    Sepsis, a clinical syndrome occurring in patients following infection or injury, is a leading cause of mortality worldwide. It involves uncontrolled inflammatory response resulting in multi-organ failure and even death. Isoalantolactone (IAL), a sesquiterpene lactone, is known for its anti-cancer effects. Nevertheless, little is known about the anti-inflammatory effects of IAL, and the role of IAL in sepsis is unclear. In this study, we demonstrated that IAL decreased lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated production of nitric oxide, PEG 2 and cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α) in peritoneal macrophages and RAW 264.7 macrophages. Moreover, molecular mechanism studies indicated that IAL plays an anti-inflammatory role by inhibiting LPS-induced activation of NF-κB pathway in peritoneal macrophages. In vivo, IAL reduced the secretion of IL-6 and TNF-α in serum, and increased the survival rate of mice with LPS-induced sepsis. In addition, IAL attenuated the activation of NF-κB pathway in liver. Taken together, our data suggest that IAL may represent a potentially new drug candidate for the treatment of sepsis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. The Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Algae-Derived Lipid Extracts on Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-Stimulated Human THP-1 Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Ruairi C; Guihéneuf, Freddy; Bahar, Bojlul; Schmid, Matthias; Stengel, Dagmar B; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; Ross, R Paul; Stanton, Catherine

    2015-08-20

    Algae contain a number of anti-inflammatory bioactive compounds such as omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) and chlorophyll a, hence as dietary ingredients, their extracts may be effective in chronic inflammation-linked metabolic diseases such as cardiovascular disease. In this study, anti-inflammatory potential of lipid extracts from three red seaweeds (Porphyra dioica, Palmaria palmata and Chondrus crispus) and one microalga (Pavlova lutheri) were assessed in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated human THP-1 macrophages. Extracts contained 34%-42% total fatty acids as n-3 PUFA and 5%-7% crude extract as pigments, including chlorophyll a, β-carotene and fucoxanthin. Pretreatment of the THP-1 cells with lipid extract from P. palmata inhibited production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-6 (p lipid extracts. The lipid extracts effectively inhibited the LPS-induced pro-inflammatory signaling pathways mediated via toll-like receptors, chemokines and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) signaling molecules. These results suggest that lipid extracts from P. lutheri, P. palmata, P. dioica and C. crispus can inhibit LPS-induced inflammatory pathways in human macrophages. Therefore, algal lipid extracts should be further explored as anti-inflammatory ingredients for chronic inflammation-linked metabolic diseases.

  18. Artesunate Reduces Serum Lipopolysaccharide in Cecal Ligation/Puncture Mice via Enhanced LPS Internalization by Macrophages through Increased mRNA Expression of Scavenger Receptors

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    Bin Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Innate immunity is the first line of defense in human beings against pathogen infection; monocytes/macrophages are the primary cells of the innate immune system. Recently, macrophages/monocytes have been discovered to participate in LPS clearance, and the clearance efficiency determines the magnitude of the inflammatory response and subsequent organ injury. Previously, we reported that artesunate (AS protected sepsis mice against heat-killed E. coli challenge. Herein, we further confirmed that AS protected cecal ligation/puncture (CLP sepsis mice. Its protection on sepsis mice was related to not only reduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines and serum LPS levels but also improvement of liver function. Based on the fact that AS did not directly bind and neutralize LPS, we hypothesized that the reduction of serum LPS level might be related to enhancement of LPS internalization and subsequent detoxification. Our results showed that AS increased FITC-LPS internalization by peritoneal macrophage and liver Kupffer cell, but enhancement of LPS internalization by AS was not related to the clathrin-dependent pathway. However, AS induced mRNA expression of important scavenger receptors (SRs; SR-A and MARCO mRNA expression was upregulated, suggesting that AS enhancement of LPS internalization and inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines was related to changes in mRNA expression of SRs.

  19. Nfkb1 inhibits LPS-induced IFN-β and IL-12 p40 production in macrophages by distinct mechanisms.

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    Xixing Zhao

    Full Text Available Nfkb1-deficient murine macrophages express higher levels of IFN-β and IL-12 p40 following LPS stimulation than control macrophages, but the molecular basis for this phenomenon has not been completely defined. Nfkb1 encodes several gene products including the NF-κB subunit p50 and its precursor p105. p50 is derived from the N-terminal of 105, and p50 homodimers can exhibit suppressive activity when overexpressed. The C-terminal region of p105 is necessary for LPS-induced ERK activation and it has been suggested that ERK activity inhibits both IFN-β and IL-12 p40 following LPS stimulation. However, the contributions of p50 and the C-terminal domain of p105 in regulating endogenous IFN-β(Ifnb and IL-12 p40 (Il12b gene expression in macrophages following LPS stimulation have not been directly compared.We have used recombinant retroviruses to express p105, p50, and the C-terminal domain of p105 (p105ΔN in Nfkb1-deficient murine bone marrow-derived macrophages at near endogenous levels. We found that both p50 and p105ΔN inhibited expression of Ifnb, and that inhibition of Ifnb by p105ΔN depended on ERK activation, because a mutant of p105ΔN (p105ΔNS930A that lacks a key serine necessary to support ERK activation failed to inhibit. In contrast, only p105ΔN but not p50 inhibited Il12b expression. Surprisingly, p105ΔNS930A retained inhibitory activity for Il12b, indicating that ERK activation was not necessary for inhibition. The differential effects of p105ΔNS930A on Ifnb and Il12b expression inversely correlated with the function of one of its binding partners, c-Rel. This raised the possibility that p105ΔNS930A influences gene expression by interfering with the function of c-Rel.These results demonstrate that Nfkb1 exhibits multiple gene-specific inhibitory functions following TLR stimulation of murine macrophages.

  20. CYLD Proteolysis Protects Macrophages from TNF-Mediated Auto-necroptosis Induced by LPS and Licensed by Type I IFN

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    Diana Legarda

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Tumor necrosis factor (TNF induces necroptosis, a RIPK3/MLKL-dependent form of inflammatory cell death. In response to infection by Gram-negative bacteria, multiple receptors on macrophages, including TLR4, TNF, and type I IFN receptors, are concurrently activated, but it is unclear how they crosstalk to regulate necroptosis. We report that TLR4 activates CASPASE-8 to cleave and remove the deubiquitinase cylindromatosis (CYLD in a TRIF- and RIPK1-dependent manner to disable necroptosis in macrophages. Inhibiting CASPASE-8 leads to CYLD-dependent necroptosis caused by the TNF produced in response to TLR4 ligation. While lipopolysaccharides (LPS-induced necroptosis was abrogated in Tnf−/− macrophages, a soluble TNF antagonist was not able to do so in Tnf+/+ macrophages, indicating that necroptosis occurs in a cell-autonomous manner. Surprisingly, TNF-mediated auto-necroptosis of macrophages requires type I IFN, which primes the expression of key necroptosis-signaling molecules, including TNFR2 and MLKL. Thus, the TNF necroptosis pathway is regulated by both negative and positive crosstalk.

  1. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor counter-regulates dexamethasone-induced annexin 1 expression and influences the release of eicosanoids in murine macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yu; Wang, Yu; Li, Jia-Hui; Zhu, Shi-Hui; Tang, Hong-Tai; Xia, Zhao-Fan

    2013-10-01

    Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), a pro-inflammatory cytokine and glucocorticoid (GC) counter-regulator, has emerged as an important modulator of inflammatory responses. However, the molecular mechanisms of MIF counter-regulation of GC still remain incomplete. In the present study, we investigated whether MIF mediated the counter-regulation of the anti-inflammatory effect of GC by affecting annexin 1 in RAW 264.7 macrophages. We found that stimulation of RAW 264.7 macrophages with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) resulted in down-regulation of annexin 1, while GC dexamethasone (Dex) or Dex plus LPS led to significant up-regulation of annexin 1 expression. RNA interference-mediated knockdown of intracellular MIF increased annexin 1 expression with or without incubation of Dex, whereas Dex-induced annexin 1 expression was counter-regulated by the exogenous application of recombinant MIF. Moreover, recombinant MIF counter-regulated, in a dose-dependent manner, inhibition of cytosolic phospholipase A2α (cPLA2α) activation and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) and leukotriene B4 (LTB4 ) release by Dex in RAW 264.7 macrophages stimulated with LPS. Endogenous depletion of MIF enhanced the effects of Dex, reflected by further decease of cPLA2α expression and lower PGE2 and LTB4 release in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Based on these data, we suggest that MIF counter-regulates Dex-induced annexin 1 expression, further influencing the activation of cPLA2α and the release of eicosanoids. These findings will add new insights into the mechanisms of MIF counter-regulation of GC. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. DMPD: Function of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-binding protein (LBP) and CD14, thereceptor for LPS/LBP complexes: a short review. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available eptor for LPS/LBP complexes: a short review. Schumann RR. Res Immunol. 1992 Jan;143(1):11-5. (.png) (.svg) (...ride (LPS)-binding protein (LBP) and CD14, thereceptor for LPS/LBP complexes: a short review. Authors Schuma.../LBP complexes: a short review. PubmedID 1373512 Title Function of lipopolysaccha....html) (.csml) Show Function of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-binding protein (LBP) and CD14, thereceptor for LPS

  3. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids from Liparis nervosa with inhibitory activities against LPS-induced NO production in RAW264.7 macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shuai; Zhou, Xian-li; Wang, Cui-juan; Wang, You-song; Xiao, Feng; Shan, Lian-hai; Guo, Zhi-yun; Weng, Jie

    2013-09-01

    Six pyrrolizidine alkaloids were isolated from the whole herb of Liparis nervosa together with two previously known ones. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analyses and chemical reactions. The cytotoxicity of the isolates was evaluated against A549, HepG2, and MCF-7 human cancer cell lines; however, no significant growth inhibition was observed. All compounds were evaluated for the inhibition of LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW264.7 macrophages, and most significantly inhibited NO production with IC50 values in the range of 2.16-38.25 μM. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. LPS inhibits caspase 3-dependent apoptosis in RAW264.7 macrophages induced by the AMPK activator AICAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russe, Otto Quintus; Möser, Christine V.; Kynast, Katharina L.; King, Tanya S.; Olbrich, Katrin; Grösch, Sabine; Geisslinger, Gerd; Niederberger, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • AMPK-activation induces caspase 3-dependent apoptosis in macrophages. • Apoptosis is associated with decreased mTOR and increased p21 levels. • All effects can be significantly inhibited by the TLR4 agonist lipopolysaccharide. - Abstract: AMP-activated kinase is a cellular energy sensor which is activated in stages of increased ATP consumption. Its activation has been associated with a number of beneficial effects such as decreasing inflammatory processes and the disease progress of diabetes and obesity, respectively. Furthermore, AMPK activation has been linked with induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in cancer and vascular cells, indicating that it might have a therapeutic impact for the treatment of cancer and atherosclerosis. However, the impact of AMPK on the proliferation of macrophages, which also play a key role in the formation of atherosclerotic plaques and in inflammatory processes, has not been focused so far. We have assessed the influence of AICAR- and metformin-induced AMPK activation on cell viability of macrophages with and without inflammatory stimulation, respectively. In cells without inflammatory stimulation, we found a strong induction of caspase 3-dependent apoptosis associated with decreased mTOR levels and increased expression of p21. Interestingly, these effects could be inhibited by co-stimulation with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) but not by other proinflammatory cytokines suggesting that AICAR induces apoptosis via AMPK in a TLR4-pathway dependent manner. In conclusion, our results revealed that AMPK activation is not only associated with positive effects but might also contribute to risk factors by disturbing important features of macrophages. The fact that LPS is able to restore AMPK-associated apoptosis might indicate an important role of TLR4 agonists in preventing unfavorable cell death of immune cells

  5. LPS inhibits caspase 3-dependent apoptosis in RAW264.7 macrophages induced by the AMPK activator AICAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russe, Otto Quintus, E-mail: quintus@russe.eu; Möser, Christine V., E-mail: chmoeser@hotmail.com; Kynast, Katharina L., E-mail: katharina.kynast@googlemail.com; King, Tanya S., E-mail: tanya.sarah.king@googlemail.com; Olbrich, Katrin, E-mail: Katrin.olbrich@gmx.net; Grösch, Sabine, E-mail: groesch@em.uni-frankfurt.de; Geisslinger, Gerd, E-mail: geisslinger@em.uni-frankfurt.de; Niederberger, Ellen, E-mail: e.niederberger@em.uni-frankfurt.de

    2014-05-09

    Highlights: • AMPK-activation induces caspase 3-dependent apoptosis in macrophages. • Apoptosis is associated with decreased mTOR and increased p21 levels. • All effects can be significantly inhibited by the TLR4 agonist lipopolysaccharide. - Abstract: AMP-activated kinase is a cellular energy sensor which is activated in stages of increased ATP consumption. Its activation has been associated with a number of beneficial effects such as decreasing inflammatory processes and the disease progress of diabetes and obesity, respectively. Furthermore, AMPK activation has been linked with induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in cancer and vascular cells, indicating that it might have a therapeutic impact for the treatment of cancer and atherosclerosis. However, the impact of AMPK on the proliferation of macrophages, which also play a key role in the formation of atherosclerotic plaques and in inflammatory processes, has not been focused so far. We have assessed the influence of AICAR- and metformin-induced AMPK activation on cell viability of macrophages with and without inflammatory stimulation, respectively. In cells without inflammatory stimulation, we found a strong induction of caspase 3-dependent apoptosis associated with decreased mTOR levels and increased expression of p21. Interestingly, these effects could be inhibited by co-stimulation with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) but not by other proinflammatory cytokines suggesting that AICAR induces apoptosis via AMPK in a TLR4-pathway dependent manner. In conclusion, our results revealed that AMPK activation is not only associated with positive effects but might also contribute to risk factors by disturbing important features of macrophages. The fact that LPS is able to restore AMPK-associated apoptosis might indicate an important role of TLR4 agonists in preventing unfavorable cell death of immune cells.

  6. Aloe vera downregulates LPS-induced inflammatory cytokine production and expression of NLRP3 inflammasome in human macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budai, Marietta M; Varga, Aliz; Milesz, Sándor; Tőzsér, József; Benkő, Szilvia

    2013-12-01

    Aloe vera has been used in traditional herbal medicine as an immunomodulatory agent inducing anti-inflammatory effects. However, its role on the IL-1β inflammatory cytokine production has not been studied. IL-1β production is strictly regulated both at transcriptional and posttranslational levels through the activity of Nlrp3 inflammasome. In this study we aimed to determine the effect of Aloe vera on the molecular mechanisms of Nlrp3 inflammasome-mediated IL-1β production in LPS-activated human THP-1 cells and monocyte-derived macrophages. Our results show that Aloe vera significantly reduced IL-8, TNFα, IL-6 and IL-1β cytokine production in a dose dependent manner. The inhibitory effect was substantially more pronounced in the primary cells. We found that Aloe vera inhibited the expression of pro-IL-1β, Nlrp3, caspase-1 as well as that of the P2X7 receptor in the LPS-induced primary macrophages. Furthermore, LPS-induced activation of signaling pathways like NF-κB, p38, JNK and ERK were inhibited by Aloe vera in these cells. Altogether, we show for the first time that Aloe vera-mediated strong reduction of IL-1β appears to be the consequence of the reduced expression of both pro-IL-1β as well as Nlrp3 inflammasome components via suppressing specific signal transduction pathways. Furthermore, we show that the expression of the ATP sensor P2X7 receptor is also downregulated by Aloe vera that could also contribute to the attenuated IL-1β cytokine secretion. These results may provide a new therapeutic approach to regulate inflammasome-mediated responses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Rhizoma Coptidis Inhibits LPS-Induced MCP-1/CCL2 Production in Murine Macrophages via an AP-1 and NF?B-Dependent Pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Remppis, Andrew; Bea, Florian; Greten, Henry Johannes; Buttler, Annette; Wang, Hongjie; Zhou, Qianxing; Preusch, Michael R.; Enk, Ronny; Ehehalt, Robert; Katus, Hugo; Blessing, Erwin

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. The Chinese extract Rhizoma coptidis is well known for its anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, antiviral, and antimicrobial activity. The exact mechanisms of action are not fully understood. Methods. We examined the effect of the extract and its main compound, berberine, on LPS-induced inflammatory activity in a murine macrophage cell line. RAW 264.7 cells were stimulated with LPS and incubated with either Rhizoma coptidis extract or berberine. Activation of AP-1 and NFB was anal...

  8. Peptide secreted by human alveolar macrophages releases neutrophil granule contents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacArthur, C.K.; Miller, E.J.; Cohen, A.B.

    1987-01-01

    A monoclonal antibody was developed against an 8000-kDa enzyme-releasing peptide (ERP) released from human alveolar macrophages. ERP was isolated on an immunoaffinity column containing the antibody bound to staphylococcal protein A-Sepharose, and by autoradiography. Release of ERP from the macrophages is not changed by plastic adherence, phagocytosis, calcium ionophore, or phorbol esters. The peptide was not antigenically similar to interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor, or interleukin lα or 1β. The release of constituents from azurophilic and specific granules was the main identified biologic function of ERP. ERP was a more effective secretagogue in the untreated neutrophils and f-met-leu-phe was more effective in the cytochalasin B-treated neutrophils. Absorption of ERP from macrophage-conditioned medium removed a small amount of the chemotactic activity; however, the immunopurified peptide was not chemotactic or chemokinetic for neutrophils, and at high concentrations, it suppressed base line chemokinesis. Treatment of washed macrophages with trypsin released active ERP of approximately the same m.w. of spontaneously secreted ERP. These studies showed that human alveolar macrophages release a peptide which is a secretagogue for human neutrophils under conditions which may be encountered in the lungs during certain disease states. Proteolytic enzymes which are free in the lungs may release the peptide and lead to the secretion of neutrophil enzymes

  9. Nogo-B Facilitates LPS-Mediated Immune Responses by Up-Regulation of TLR4-Signaling in Macrophage RAW264.7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Zhu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Nogo-B, a member of the reticulon family of proteins, is mainly located in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER. Here, we investigate the function and mechanism of Nogo-B in the regulation of TLR4-associated immune responses in the macrophage cell line of RAW264.7. Methods: Nogo-B was up- and down-regulated through the use of appropriate adenoviral vectors or siRNA, and the effects of Nogo-B on macrophages under liposaccharide (LPS stimulation were evaluated via western blotting, immunofluorescence, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, flow cytometric analysis, and transwell assay. Results: Our data indicates that the protein of Nogo-B was down-regulated in a time- and dose-dependent manner following LPS administration in the macrophage. Nogo-B overexpression increased the production of inflammatory cytokines (MCP-1, TNF-α, IL-1β, and TGF-β, enhanced macrophage migration activities, activated major histocompatibility complex II (MHC II, and elevated the expression of macrophage scavenger receptor 1(MSR1, all of which suggest that Nogo-B is necessary for immune responses and plays an important role in regulating macrophage recruitment. Mechanistically, Nogo-B may enhance TLR4 expression in macrophage surfaces, activate mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK pathways, and initiate inflammatory responses. Conclusion: These findings illustrate the key regulatory functions of Nogo-B in facilitating LPS-mediated immune responses through promoting the phosphorylation of MAP kinase.

  10. DMPD: LPS, TLR4 and infectious disease diversity. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Nat Rev Microbiol. 2005 Jan;3(1):36-46. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show LPS, TLR4 and infectious disease... (.png) SVG File (.svg) HTML File (.html) CSML File (.csml) Open .csml file with CIOPlayer Open .csml file w

  11. Inhibition of nitric oxide and inflammatory cytokines in LPS-stimulated murine macrophages by resveratrol, a potent proteasome inhibitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qureshi Asaf A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Altered immune function during ageing results in increased production of nitric oxide (NO and other inflammatory mediators. Recently, we have reported that NO production was inhibited by naturally-occurring proteasome inhibitors (quercetin, δ-tocotrienol, and riboflavin in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells, and thioglycolate-elicited peritoneal macrophages from C57BL/6 mice. In a continuous effort to find more potent, non-toxic, commercially available, naturally-occurring proteasome inhibitors that suppress inflammation, the present study was carried out to describe the inhibition of NF-κB activation and NO, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, and iNOS expression by trans-resveratrol, trans-pterostilbene, morin hydrate, and nicotinic acid in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells and thioglycolate-elicited peritoneal macrophages from C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice. Results The present results indicate that resveratrol, pterostilbene, and morin hydrate caused significant inhibition (>70% to 90%; P 40%; P 60%; P 40%; P P  Conclusions The present results clearly demonstrate that resveratrol and pterostilbene are particularly potent proteasome inhibitors that suppress expression of genes, and production of inflammatory products in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells, and macrophages from C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice. Resveratrol and pterostilbene which are present in grapes, blueberries, and red wine, have been implicated as contributing factors to the lower incidence of cardiovascular disease in the French population, despite their relatively high dietary fat intake. Consequently, it appears likely that the beneficial nutritional effects of resveratrol and pterostilbene are due at least in part, to their ability to inhibit NF-κB activation by the proteasome, thereby suppressing activation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and iNOS genes, resulting in decreased secretion of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and NO levels, in response to inflammatory stimuli

  12. Computational modeling and analysis of iron release from macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alka A Potdar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A major process of iron homeostasis in whole-body iron metabolism is the release of iron from the macrophages of the reticuloendothelial system. Macrophages recognize and phagocytose senescent or damaged erythrocytes. Then, they process the heme iron, which is returned to the circulation for reutilization by red blood cell precursors during erythropoiesis. The amount of iron released, compared to the amount shunted for storage as ferritin, is greater during iron deficiency. A currently accepted model of iron release assumes a passive-gradient with free diffusion of intracellular labile iron (Fe2+ through ferroportin (FPN, the transporter on the plasma membrane. Outside the cell, a multi-copper ferroxidase, ceruloplasmin (Cp, oxidizes ferrous to ferric ion. Apo-transferrin (Tf, the primary carrier of soluble iron in the plasma, binds ferric ion to form mono-ferric and di-ferric transferrin. According to the passive-gradient model, the removal of ferrous ion from the site of release sustains the gradient that maintains the iron release. Subcellular localization of FPN, however, indicates that the role of FPN may be more complex. By experiments and mathematical modeling, we have investigated the detailed mechanism of iron release from macrophages focusing on the roles of the Cp, FPN and apo-Tf. The passive-gradient model is quantitatively analyzed using a mathematical model for the first time. A comparison of experimental data with model simulations shows that the passive-gradient model cannot explain macrophage iron release. However, a facilitated-transport model associated with FPN can explain the iron release mechanism. According to the facilitated-transport model, intracellular FPN carries labile iron to the macrophage membrane. Extracellular Cp accelerates the oxidation of ferrous ion bound to FPN. Apo-Tf in the extracellular environment binds to the oxidized ferrous ion, completing the release process. Facilitated-transport model can

  13. The Nuclear Orphan Receptor NR4A1 is Involved in the Apoptotic Pathway Induced by LPS and Simvastatin in RAW 264.7 Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong Chan; Song, Seok Bean; Lee, Sang Kyu; Park, Sang Min; Kim, Young Sang

    2014-04-01

    Macrophage death plays a role in several physiological and inflammatory pathologies such as sepsis and arthritis. In our previous work, we showed that simvastatin triggers cell death in LPS-activated RAW 264.7 mouse macrophage cells through both caspase-dependent and independent apoptotic pathways. Here, we show that the nuclear orphan receptor NR4A1 is involved in a caspase-independent apoptotic process induced by LPS and simvastatin. Simvastatin-induced NR4A1 expression in RAW 264.7 macrophages and ectopic expression of a dominant-negative mutant form of NR4A1 effectively suppressed both DNA fragmentation and the disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) during LPS- and simvastatin-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, apoptosis was accompanied by Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) translocation to the mitochondria. Our findings suggest that NR4A1 expression and mitochondrial translocation of Bax are related to simvastatin-induced apoptosis in LPS-activated RAW 264.7 macrophages.

  14. Stress hormone release is a key component of the metabolic response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS): studies in hypopituitary and healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Ermina; Møller, Andreas Buch; Jørgensen, Jens Otto Lunde

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) generates acute and chronic inflammatory and metabolic responses during acute illness and in the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, but it is unclear whether these responses depend on intact pituitary release...... but not in HP. LPS increased whole body palmitate fluxes (3-fold) and decreased palmitate specific activity 40-50 % in CTR, but not in HP. G(0)/G(1) Switch Gene 2 (G0S2 - an inhibitor of lipolysis) adipose tissue mRNA was decreased in CTR. LPS increased phenylalanine fluxes significantly more in CTR, whereas...

  15. Effect of nitric oxide-releasing derivative of indomethacin on Prevotella intermedia lipopolysaccharide-induced production of proinflammatory mediators in murine macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, So-Hui; Choi, Eun-Young; Hyeon, Jin-Yi; Choi, In Soon; Kim, Sung-Jo

    2017-10-14

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influences of NCX 2121, a nitric oxide (NO)-releasing derivative of indomethacin, upon the generation of proinflammatory mediators using murine macrophages activated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) isolated from Prevotella intermedia, which is one of the pathogens implicated in periodontal diseases. Inducible NO synthase (iNOS)-derived NO, IL-1β and IL-6 as well as their relevant mRNA were significantly attenuated by NCX 2121 in RAW264.7 cells activated by P. intermedia LPS. NCX 2121 was much more effective than the parental compound indomethacin in reducing these proinflammatory mediators. NCX 2121 triggered induction of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in cells exposed to P. intermedia LPS, and its inhibitory influence upon P. intermedia LPS-elicited NO generation was notably blocked by SnPP treatment. NCX 2121 attenuated NF-κB-dependent SEAP release induced by P. intermedia LPS. NCX 2121 did not display inhibitory action towards IκB-α degradation triggered by LPS. Instead, it significantly diminished nuclear translocation as well as DNA-binding action of NF-κB p50 subunit elicited by P. intermedia LPS. Further, NCX 2121 significantly up-regulated SOCS1 mRNA expression in cells challenged with P. intermedia LPS. In summary, NCX 2121 down-regulates P. intermedia LPS-elicited generation of NO, IL-1β and IL-6 in murine macrophages in a mechanism that involves anti-inflammatory HO-1 induction as well as decrement of NF-κB activation, which may be associated with SOCS1 expression. NCX 2121 may have potential benefits as a host immunomodulatory agent for the therapy of periodontal disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Indirubin-3′-(2,3 dihydroxypropyl)-oximether (E804) is a potent modulator of LPS-stimulated macrophage functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babcock, Abigail S. [Department of Biological Sciences, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States); Anderson, Amy L. [Department of Biological Sciences, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States); Graduate Program in Environmental Toxicology, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States); Rice, Charles D., E-mail: cdrice@clemson.edu [Department of Biological Sciences, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States); Graduate Program in Environmental Toxicology, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Indirubin is a deep-red bis-indole isomer of indigo blue, both of which are biologically active ingredients in Danggui Longhui Wan, an ancient Chinese herbal tea mixture used to treat neoplasia and chronic inflammation and to enhance detoxification of xenobiotics. Multiple indirubin derivatives have been synthesized and shown to inhibit cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) and glycogen-synthase kinase (GSK-3β) with varying degrees of potency. Several indirubins are also aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists, with AhR-associated activities covering a wide range of potencies, depending on molecular structure. This study examined the effects of indirubin-3′-(2,3 dihydroxypropyl)-oximether (E804), a novel indirubin with potent STAT3 inhibitory properties, on basal and LPS-inducible activities in murine RAW264.7 macrophages. Using a focused commercial qRT-PCR array platform (SuperArray®), the effects of E804 on expression of a suite of genes associated with stress and toxicity were determined. Most genes up-regulated by LPS treatment were suppressed by E804; including LPS-induced expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and receptors, apoptosis control genes, and oxidative stress response genes. Using qRT-PCR as a follow up to the commercial arrays, E804 treatment suppressed LPS-induced COX-2, iNOS, IL-6 and IL-10 gene expression, though the effects on iNOS and COX-2 protein expression were less dramatic. E804 also inhibited LPS-induced secretion of IL-6 and IL-10. Functional endpoints, including iNOS and lysozyme enzymatic activity, phagocytosis of fluorescent latex beads, and intracellular killing of bacteria, were also examined, and in each experimental condition E804 suppressed activities. Collectively, these results indicate that E804 is a potent modulator of pro-inflammatory profiles in LPS-treated macrophages. -- Highlights: ► RAW 264.7 macrophages were treated with 1 μM Indirubin E804, 1 μg/ml LPS, or both. ► E804 suppresses LPS-induced expression of i

  17. Inhibitory effect of a formulated extract from multiple citrus peels on LPS-induced inflammation in RAW 246.7 macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadahiro Etoh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBackground: Formulated Citrus Peel Extract (GL made from the peels of six citrus fruits available in Japan, namely navel oranges, citrus hassaku, citrus limon, citrus natsudaidai, citrus miyauchi and satsuma, was initially developed as a cosmetic product to protect skin from UV irradiation. Anecdotal evidences of anti-cancer property of GL have been reported by consumers based on the cases such as topical application for melanoma, and oral ingestion for prostate, lung and liver cancers.Those anecdotal reports stimulated us to investigate anti-tumorigenesis activity of GL. In the previous study, we reported that the topical application of GL inhibited DMBA/TPA-induced skin tumor formation by decreasing inflammatory gene parameters.Objective: In this study, we mainly investigated the effect of GL on translocation of NF-kB together with production of nitric-oxide and TNF-α induced by LPS in RAW 264.7 cells.Results: This investigation showed that GL decreased the release of TNF-α and nitric oxide from macrophage RAW264.7 cells stimulated by LPS in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, GL suppressed the expression of iNOS and nuclear translocation of NF-kB in RAW264.7 cells, inhibited the degradation of IκB-α, and scavenged hydroxyl radicals (DMPO/OH adduct in vitro.Conclusions: Our findings suggest that GL suppresses the inflammation in vitro, and exerts chemopreventive activity through the inhibition of production of TNF-α and iNOS proteins due to the inhibition of nuclear translocation of NF-kB and oxidative stress. GL appears to be a novel functional natural product capable of preventing inflammation and inflammation-associated tumorigenesis.Keywords: GL, Citrus peel extract, anti-inflammation, Nitric oxide, iNOS, NF-kB, TNF-α

  18. Is nitric oxide decrease observed with naphthoquinones in LPS stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages a beneficial property?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brígida R Pinho

    Full Text Available The search of new anti-inflammatory drugs has been a current preoccupation, due to the need of effective drugs, with less adverse reactions than those used nowadays. Several naphthoquinones (plumbagin, naphthazarin, juglone, menadione, diosquinone and 1,4-naphthoquinone, plus p-hydroquinone and p-benzoquinone were evaluated for their ability to cause a reduction of nitric oxide (NO production, when RAW 264.7 macrophages were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS. Dexamethasone was used as positive control. Among the tested compounds, diosquinone was the only one that caused a NO reduction with statistical importance and without cytotoxicity: an IC(25 of 1.09±0.24 µM was found, with 38.25±6.50% (p<0.001 NO reduction at 1.5 µM. In order to elucidate if this NO decrease resulted from the interference of diosquinone with cellular defence mechanisms against LPS or to its conversion into peroxynitrite, by reaction with superoxide radical formed by naphthoquinones redox cycling, 3-nitrotyrosine and superoxide determination was also performed. None of these parameters showed significant changes relative to control. Furthermore, diosquinone caused a decrease in the pro-inflammatory cytokines: tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α and interleukin 6 (IL-6. Therefore, according to the results obtained, diosquinone, studied for its anti-inflammatory potential for the first time herein, has beneficial effects in inflammation control. This study enlightens the mechanisms of action of naphthoquinones in inflammatory models, by checking for the first time the contribution of oxidative stress generated by naphthoquinones to NO reduction.

  19. Quince (Cydonia oblonga Miller) peel polyphenols modulate LPS-induced inflammation in human THP-1-derived macrophages through NF-κB, p38MAPK and Akt inhibition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essafi-Benkhadir, Khadija; Refai, Amira; Riahi, Ichrak; Fattouch, Sami; Karoui, Habib; Essafi, Makram

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Quince peel polyphenols inhibit LPS-induced secretion of TNF-α and IL-8. ► Quince peel polyphenols augment LPS-induced secretion of IL-10 and IL-6. ► Quince peel polyphenols-mediated inhibition of LPS-induced secretion of TNF-α is partially mediated by IL-6. ► The anti-inflammatory effects of quince polyphenols pass through NF-κB, p38MAPK and Akt inhibition. -- Abstract: Chronic inflammation is a hallmark of several pathologies, such as rheumatoid arthritis, gastritis, inflammatory bowel disease, atherosclerosis and cancer. A wide range of anti-inflammatory chemicals have been used to treat such diseases while presenting high toxicity and numerous side effects. Here, we report the anti-inflammatory effect of a non-toxic, cost-effective natural agent, polyphenolic extract from the Tunisian quince Cydonia oblonga Miller. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment of human THP-1-derived macrophages induced the secretion of high levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α and the chemokine IL-8, which was inhibited by quince peel polyphenolic extract in a dose-dependent manner. Concomitantly, quince polyphenols enhanced the level of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 secreted by LPS-treated macrophages. We further demonstrated that the unexpected increase in IL-6 secretion that occurred when quince polyphenols were associated with LPS treatment was partially responsible for the polyphenols-mediated inhibition of TNF-α secretion. Biochemical analysis showed that quince polyphenols extract inhibited the LPS-mediated activation of three major cellular pro-inflammatory effectors, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), p38MAPK and Akt. Overall, our data indicate that quince peel polyphenolic extract induces a potent anti-inflammatory effect that may prove useful for the treatment of inflammatory diseases and that a quince-rich regimen may help to prevent and improve the treatment of such diseases.

  20. DMPD: The role of macrophages in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activation inresponse to endotoxin (LPS). [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available response to endotoxin (LPS). Derijk RH, van Rooijen N, Berkenbosch F. Res Immunol. 1992 Feb;143(2):224-9. (....e hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activation inresponse to endotoxin (LPS). Authors Derijk RH, van Rooijen N, Berk

  1. Emu Oil Reduces LPS-Induced Production of Nitric Oxide and TNF-α but not Phagocytosis in RAW 264 Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyashita, Tadayoshi; Minami, Kazuhiro; Ito, Minoru; Koizumi, Ryosuke; Sagane, Yoshimasa; Watanabe, Toshihiro; Niwa, Koichi

    2018-04-01

    Emu is the second-largest extant bird native to Australia. Emu oil, obtained from the emu's fat deposits, is used as an ingredient in cosmetic skincare products. Emu oil has been reported to improve several inflammatory symptoms; however, the mechanisms of these anti-inflammatory effects are largely unknown. This study investigated the effects of emu oil on the inflammatory macrophage response in vitro. A murine macrophage cell line, RAW 264, was incubated in culture media supplemented with or without emu oil and stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We determined phagocytic activity by measuring the number of fluorescent microspheres taken up by the cells. The phagocytic activity of RAW 264 cells in the presence of LPS was unaffected by emu oil. We also determined production of nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in the culture medium using the Griess reaction and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively, and the protein expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) using western blotting. The results indicated that emu oil reduced the LPS-induced production of NO, TNF-α, and iNOS expression in a dose-dependent manner. The results suggested that emu oil does not reduce the phagocytic clearance rate of inflammatory matter; however, it does reduce the production of NO and TNF-α in macrophages. These latter products enhance the inflammatory response and emu oil thereby demonstrated anti-inflammatory properties.

  2. Hydroxysafflor Yellow A Inhibits LPS-Induced NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation via Binding to Xanthine Oxidase in Mouse RAW264.7 Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolong Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA is an effective therapeutic agent for inflammatory diseases and autoimmune disorders; however, its regulatory effect on NLRP3 inflammasome activation in macrophages has not been investigated. In this study, we predicted the potential interaction between HSYA and xanthine oxidase (XO via PharmMapper inverse docking and confirmed the binding inhibition via inhibitory test (IC50 = 40.04 μM. Computation docking illustrated that, in this HSYA-XO complex, HSYA was surrounded by Leu 648, Leu 712, His 875, Leu 873, Ser 876, Glu 879, Phe 649, and Asn 650 with a binding energy of −5.77 kcal/M and formed hydrogen bonds with the hydroxyl groups of HSYA at Glu 879, Asn 650, and His 875. We then found that HSYA significantly decreased the activity of XO in RAW264.7 macrophages and suppressed LPS-induced ROS generation. Moreover, we proved that HSYA markedly inhibited LPS-induced cleaved caspase-1 activation via suppressing the sensitization of NLRP3 inflammasome and prevented the mature IL-1β formation from pro-IL-1β form. These findings suggest that XO may be a potential target of HSYA via direct binding inhibition and the combination of HSYA-XO suppresses LPS-induced ROS generation, contributing to the depression of NLRP3 inflammasome and inhibition of IL-1β secretion in macrophages.

  3. Pro-oxidant activity of indicaxanthin from Opuntia ficus indica modulates arachidonate metabolism and prostaglandin synthesis through lipid peroxide production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages

    OpenAIRE

    M. Allegra; F. D’Acquisto; L. Tesoriere; A. Attanzio; M.A. Livrea

    2014-01-01

    Macrophages come across active prostaglandin (PG) metabolism during inflammation, shunting early production of pro-inflammatory towards anti-inflammatory mediators terminating the process. This work for the first time provides evidence that a phytochemical may modulate the arachidonate (AA) metabolism in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages, promoting the ultimate formation of anti-inflammatory cyclopentenone 15deoxy-PGJ2. Added 1 h before LPS, indicaxanthin from Opuntia ...

  4. Immunomodulatory role for membrane vesicles released by THP-1 macrophages and respiratory pathogens during macrophage infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volgers, Charlotte; Benedikter, Birke J; Grauls, Gert E; Savelkoul, Paul H M; Stassen, Frank R M

    2017-11-13

    During infection, inflammation is partially driven by the release of mediators which facilitate intercellular communication. Amongst these mediators are small membrane vesicles (MVs) that can be released by both host cells and Gram-negative and -positive bacteria. Bacterial membrane vesicles are known to exert immuno-modulatory and -stimulatory actions. Moreover, it has been proposed that host cell-derived vesicles, released during infection, also have immunostimulatory properties. In this study, we assessed the release and activity of host cell-derived and bacterial MVs during the first hours following infection of THP-1 macrophages with the common respiratory pathogens non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Using a combination of flow cytometry, tunable resistive pulse sensing (TRPS)-based analysis and electron microscopy, we demonstrated that the release of MVs occurs by both host cells and bacteria during infection. MVs released during infection and bacterial culture were found to induce a strong pro-inflammatory response by naive THP-1 macrophages. Yet, these MVs were also found to induce tolerance of host cells to secondary immunogenic stimuli and to enhance bacterial adherence and the number of intracellular bacteria. Bacterial MVs may play a dual role during infection, as they can both trigger and dampen immune responses thereby contributing to immune defence and bacterial survival.

  5. Investigating the Role of TNF-α and IFN-γ Activation on the Dynamics of iNOS Gene Expression in LPS Stimulated Macrophages.

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    Taha Salim

    Full Text Available Macrophage produced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS is known to play a critical role in the proinflammatory response against intracellular pathogens by promoting the generation of bactericidal reactive nitrogen species. Robust and timely production of nitric oxide (NO by iNOS and analogous production of reactive oxygen species are critical components of an effective immune response. In addition to pathogen associated lipopolysaccharides (LPS, iNOS gene expression is dependent on numerous proinflammatory cytokines in the cellular microenvironment of the macrophage, two of which include interferon gamma (IFN-γ and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α. To understand the synergistic effect of IFN-γ and TNF-α activation, and LPS stimulation on iNOS expression dynamics and NO production, we developed a systems biology based mathematical model. Using our model, we investigated the impact of pre-infection cytokine exposure, or priming, on the system. We explored the essentiality of IFN-γ priming to the robustness of initial proinflammatory response with respect to the ability of macrophages to produce reactive species needed for pathogen clearance. Results from our theoretical studies indicated that IFN-γ and subsequent activation of IRF1 are essential in consequential production of iNOS upon LPS stimulation. We showed that IFN-γ priming at low concentrations greatly increases the effector response of macrophages against intracellular pathogens. Ultimately the model demonstrated that although TNF-α contributed towards a more rapid response time, measured as time to reach maximum iNOS production, IFN-γ stimulation was significantly more significant in terms of the maximum expression of iNOS and the concentration of NO produced.

  6. Investigating the Role of TNF-α and IFN-γ Activation on the Dynamics of iNOS Gene Expression in LPS Stimulated Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salim, Taha; Sershen, Cheryl L; May, Elebeoba E

    2016-01-01

    Macrophage produced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is known to play a critical role in the proinflammatory response against intracellular pathogens by promoting the generation of bactericidal reactive nitrogen species. Robust and timely production of nitric oxide (NO) by iNOS and analogous production of reactive oxygen species are critical components of an effective immune response. In addition to pathogen associated lipopolysaccharides (LPS), iNOS gene expression is dependent on numerous proinflammatory cytokines in the cellular microenvironment of the macrophage, two of which include interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). To understand the synergistic effect of IFN-γ and TNF-α activation, and LPS stimulation on iNOS expression dynamics and NO production, we developed a systems biology based mathematical model. Using our model, we investigated the impact of pre-infection cytokine exposure, or priming, on the system. We explored the essentiality of IFN-γ priming to the robustness of initial proinflammatory response with respect to the ability of macrophages to produce reactive species needed for pathogen clearance. Results from our theoretical studies indicated that IFN-γ and subsequent activation of IRF1 are essential in consequential production of iNOS upon LPS stimulation. We showed that IFN-γ priming at low concentrations greatly increases the effector response of macrophages against intracellular pathogens. Ultimately the model demonstrated that although TNF-α contributed towards a more rapid response time, measured as time to reach maximum iNOS production, IFN-γ stimulation was significantly more significant in terms of the maximum expression of iNOS and the concentration of NO produced.

  7. Extra virgin olive oil polyphenolic extracts downregulate inflammatory responses in LPS-activated murine peritoneal macrophages suppressing NFκB and MAPK signalling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdeno, A; Sánchez-Hidalgo, M; Aparicio-Soto, M; Sánchez-Fidalgo, S; Alarcón-de-la-Lastra, C

    2014-06-01

    Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) is obtained from the fruit of the olive tree Olea europaea L. Phenolic compounds present in EVOO have recognized anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. However, the activity of the total phenolic fraction extracted from EVOO and the action mechanisms involved are not well defined. The present study was designed to evaluate the potential anti-inflammatory mechanisms of the polyphenolic extract (PE) from EVOO on LPS-stimulated peritoneal murine macrophages. Nitric oxide (NO) production was analyzed by the Griess method and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) by fluorescence analysis. Moreover, changes in the protein expression of the pro-inflammatory enzymes, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1), as well as the role of nuclear transcription factor kappa B (NFκB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling pathways, were analyzed by Western blot. PE from EVOO reduced LPS-induced oxidative stress and inflammatory responses through decreasing NO and ROS generation. In addition, PE induced a significant down-regulation of iNOS, COX-2 and mPGES-1 protein expressions, reduced MAPK phosphorylation and prevented the nuclear NFκB translocation. This study establishes that PE from EVOO possesses anti-inflammatory activities on LPS-stimulated murine macrophages.

  8. Quince (Cydonia oblonga Miller) peel polyphenols modulate LPS-induced inflammation in human THP-1-derived macrophages through NF-{kappa}B, p38MAPK and Akt inhibition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Essafi-Benkhadir, Khadija [Laboratoire d' epidemiologie Moleculaire et Pathologie Experimentale Appliquee Aux Maladies Infectieuses, Institut Pasteur de Tunis (Tunisia); Refai, Amira [Laboratoire de Recherche sur la Transmission, le Controle et l' immunobiologie des Infections, Institut Pasteur de Tunis (Tunisia); Riahi, Ichrak [Laboratoire d' epidemiologie Moleculaire et Pathologie Experimentale Appliquee Aux Maladies Infectieuses, Institut Pasteur de Tunis (Tunisia); Fattouch, Sami [Laboratory LIP-MB National Institute of Applied Sciences and Technology, Tunis (Tunisia); Karoui, Habib [Laboratoire d' epidemiologie Moleculaire et Pathologie Experimentale Appliquee Aux Maladies Infectieuses, Institut Pasteur de Tunis (Tunisia); Essafi, Makram, E-mail: makram.essafi@pasteur.rns.tn [Laboratoire de Recherche sur la Transmission, le Controle et l' immunobiologie des Infections, Institut Pasteur de Tunis (Tunisia)

    2012-02-03

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quince peel polyphenols inhibit LPS-induced secretion of TNF-{alpha} and IL-8. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quince peel polyphenols augment LPS-induced secretion of IL-10 and IL-6. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quince peel polyphenols-mediated inhibition of LPS-induced secretion of TNF-{alpha} is partially mediated by IL-6. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The anti-inflammatory effects of quince polyphenols pass through NF-{kappa}B, p38MAPK and Akt inhibition. -- Abstract: Chronic inflammation is a hallmark of several pathologies, such as rheumatoid arthritis, gastritis, inflammatory bowel disease, atherosclerosis and cancer. A wide range of anti-inflammatory chemicals have been used to treat such diseases while presenting high toxicity and numerous side effects. Here, we report the anti-inflammatory effect of a non-toxic, cost-effective natural agent, polyphenolic extract from the Tunisian quince Cydonia oblonga Miller. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment of human THP-1-derived macrophages induced the secretion of high levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-{alpha} and the chemokine IL-8, which was inhibited by quince peel polyphenolic extract in a dose-dependent manner. Concomitantly, quince polyphenols enhanced the level of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 secreted by LPS-treated macrophages. We further demonstrated that the unexpected increase in IL-6 secretion that occurred when quince polyphenols were associated with LPS treatment was partially responsible for the polyphenols-mediated inhibition of TNF-{alpha} secretion. Biochemical analysis showed that quince polyphenols extract inhibited the LPS-mediated activation of three major cellular pro-inflammatory effectors, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-{kappa}B), p38MAPK and Akt. Overall, our data indicate that quince peel polyphenolic extract induces a potent anti-inflammatory effect that may prove useful for the treatment of inflammatory diseases and that a quince

  9. Rhizoma coptidis Inhibits LPS-Induced MCP-1/CCL2 Production in Murine Macrophages via an AP-1 and NFB-Dependent Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Remppis

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The Chinese extract Rhizoma coptidis is well known for its anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, antiviral, and antimicrobial activity. The exact mechanisms of action are not fully understood. Methods. We examined the effect of the extract and its main compound, berberine, on LPS-induced inflammatory activity in a murine macrophage cell line. RAW 264.7 cells were stimulated with LPS and incubated with either Rhizoma coptidis extract or berberine. Activation of AP-1 and NFB was analyzed in nuclear extracts, secretion of MCP-1/CCL2 was measured in supernatants. Results. Incubation with Rhizoma coptidis and berberine strongly inhibited LPS-induced monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1 production in RAW cells. Activation of the transcription factors AP-1 and NFB was inhibited by Rhizoma coptidis in a dose- and time-dependent fashion. Conclusions. Rhizoma coptidis extract inhibits LPS-induced MCP-1/CCL2 production in vitro via an AP-1 and NFB-dependent pathway. Anti-inflammatory action of the extract is mediated mainly by its alkaloid compound berberine.

  10. Rhizoma Coptidis Inhibits LPS-Induced MCP-1/CCL2 Production in Murine Macrophages via an AP-1 and NFκB-Dependent Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remppis, Andrew; Bea, Florian; Greten, Henry Johannes; Buttler, Annette; Wang, Hongjie; Zhou, Qianxing; Preusch, Michael R.; Enk, Ronny; Ehehalt, Robert; Katus, Hugo; Blessing, Erwin

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. The Chinese extract Rhizoma coptidis is well known for its anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, antiviral, and antimicrobial activity. The exact mechanisms of action are not fully understood. Methods. We examined the effect of the extract and its main compound, berberine, on LPS-induced inflammatory activity in a murine macrophage cell line. RAW 264.7 cells were stimulated with LPS and incubated with either Rhizoma coptidis extract or berberine. Activation of AP-1 and NFκB was analyzed in nuclear extracts, secretion of MCP-1/CCL2 was measured in supernatants. Results. Incubation with Rhizoma coptidis and berberine strongly inhibited LPS-induced monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 production in RAW cells. Activation of the transcription factors AP-1 and NFκB was inhibited by Rhizoma coptidis in a dose- and time-dependent fashion. Conclusions. Rhizoma coptidis extract inhibits LPS-induced MCP-1/CCL2 production in vitro via an AP-1 and NFκB-dependent pathway. Anti-inflammatory action of the extract is mediated mainly by its alkaloid compound berberine. PMID:20652055

  11. Carbon monoxide-releasing molecule-3 suppresses Prevotella intermedia lipopolysaccharide-induced production of nitric oxide and interleukin-1β in murine macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eun-Young; Choe, So-Hui; Hyeon, Jin-Yi; Choi, Jeom-Il; Choi, In Soon; Kim, Sung-Jo

    2015-10-05

    This study was performed to analyze the effect of carbon monoxide (CO)-releasing molecule-3 (CORM-3) in alleviating the production of proinflammatory mediators in macrophages treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Prevotella intermedia, a pathogen associated with periodontal disease, and its possible mechanisms of action. LPS was isolated using the hot phenol-water method. Culture supernatants were assayed for nitric oxide (NO) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β). Gene expression was quantified by real-time PCR, and protein expression by immunoblotting. DNA-binding activities of NF-κB subunits were determined using an ELISA-based kit. CORM-3 suppressed the production of inducible NO synthase (iNOS)-derived NO and IL-1β at both gene transcription and translation levels in P. intermedia LPS-activated RAW264.7 cells. CORM-3 enhanced heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression in cells stimulated with P. intermedia LPS, and inhibition of HO-1 activity by SnPP notably reversed the suppressive effect of CORM-3 on LPS-induced production of NO. LPS-induced phosphorylation of p38 and JNK was not affected by CORM-3. CORM-3 did not influence P. intermedia LPS-induced degradation of IκB-α. Instead, nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 and p50 subunits was blocked by CORM-3 in LPS-treated cells. In addition, CORM-3 reduced LPS-induced p65 and p50 binding to DNA. Besides, CORM-3 significantly suppressed P. intermedia LPS-induced phosphorylation of STAT1. Overall, this study indicates that CORM-3 suppresses the production of NO and IL-1β in P. intermedia LPS-activated murine macrophages via HO-1 induction and inhibition of NF-κB and STAT1 pathways. The modulation of host inflammatory response by CORM-3 would be an attractive therapeutic approach to attenuate the progression of periodontal disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Heterocarpin from the Salt Marsh Plant Corydalis heterocarpa in LPS-Induced RAW 264.7 Macrophage Cells

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    You Ah Kim

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The inhibitory effect of three chromones 1–3 and two coumarins 4–5 on the production of nitric oxide (NO was evaluated in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Among the compounds tested heterocarpin (1, a furochromone, significantly inhibited its production in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, heterocarpin suppressed prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 production and expression of cytokines such as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β and interleukin-6 (IL-6.

  13. Metformin affects macrophages' phenotype and improves the activity of glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, catalase and decreases malondialdehyde concentration in a partially AMPK-independent manner in LPS-stimulated human monocytes/macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bułdak, Łukasz; Łabuzek, Krzysztof; Bułdak, Rafał Jakub; Kozłowski, Michał; Machnik, Grzegorz; Liber, Sebastian; Suchy, Dariusz; Duława-Bułdak, Anna; Okopień, Bogusław

    2014-06-01

    Diabetic patients experience accelerated atherosclerosis. Metformin is a cornerstone of the current therapy of type 2 diabetes. Macrophages are the key cells associated with the development of atherosclerotic plaques. Therefore, our aim was to assess the in vitro effects of metformin on macrophages and its influence on the mechanisms involved in the development of atherosclerosis. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were obtained from the group including 16 age-matched healthy non-smoking volunteers aged 18-40 years. Monocytes were further incubated with metformin, LPS and compound C--a pharmacological inhibitor of AMPK. The impact of metformin on oxidative stress markers, antioxidative properties, inflammatory cytokines and phenotypical markers of macrophages was studied. We showed that macrophages treated with metformin expressed less reactive oxygen species (ROS), which resulted from increased antioxidative potential. Furthermore, a reduction in inflammatory cytokines was observed. We also observed a phenotypic shift toward the alternative activation of macrophages that was induced by metformin. All the aforementioned results resulted from AMPK activation, but a residual activity of metformin after AMPK blockade was still noticeable even after inhibition of AMPK by compound C. Authors believe that metformin-based therapy, a cornerstone in diabetes therapy, not only improves the prognosis of diabetics by reducing blood glucose but also by reducing oxidative stress, inflammatory cytokine production and the shift toward alternative activation of macrophages. Copyright © 2014 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  14. Pro-oxidant activity of indicaxanthin from Opuntia ficus indica modulates arachidonate metabolism and prostaglandin synthesis through lipid peroxide production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegra, M; D'Acquisto, F; Tesoriere, L; Attanzio, A; Livrea, M A

    2014-01-01

    Macrophages come across active prostaglandin (PG) metabolism during inflammation, shunting early production of pro-inflammatory towards anti-inflammatory mediators terminating the process. This work for the first time provides evidence that a phytochemical may modulate the arachidonate (AA) metabolism in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages, promoting the ultimate formation of anti-inflammatory cyclopentenone 15deoxy-PGJ2. Added 1 h before LPS, indicaxanthin from Opuntia Ficus Indica prevented activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and over-expression of PGE2 synthase-1 (mPGES-1), but up-regulated cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) and PGD2 synthase (H-PGDS), with final production of the anti-inflammatory cyclopentenone. The effects were positively related with concentration between 50 and 100 µM. Indicaxanthin did not have any effect in the absence of LPS. A kinetic study investigating the redox status of LPS-stimulated macrophages between 0.5 and 12 h, either in the absence or in the presence of 50-100 µM indicaxanthin, revealed a differential control of ROS production, with early (0.5-3 h) modest inhibition, followed by a progressive (3-12 h) concentration-dependent enhancement over the level induced by LPS alone. In addition, indicaxanthin caused early (0.5-3 h) concentration-dependent elevation of conjugated diene lipid hydroperoxides, and production of hydroxynonenal-protein adducts, over the amount induced by LPS. In LPS-stimulated macrophages indicaxanthin did not affect PG metabolism when co-incubated with either an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase or vitamin E. It is concluded that LPS-induced pro-oxidant activity of indicaxanthin at the membrane level allows formation of signaling intermediates whose accumulation modulates PG biosynthetic pathway in inflamed macrophages.

  15. Sulfite induces release of lipid mediators by alveolar macrophages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck-Speier, I.; Dayal, N.; Maier, L. [GSF - National Research Center for Environment and Health, Neuherberg (Germany). Inst. for Inhalation Biology; Denzlinger, C. [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Dept. II, Medical Clinic; Haberl, C. [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Dept. III, Medical Clinic

    1998-03-01

    Air pollutants are supposed to modulate physiological responses of alveolar macrophages (AM). This study was addressed to the question whether at neutral pH sulfur(IV) species in comparison to sulfur(VI) species cause AM to release proinflammatory mediators and which pathways are involved in their generation. Supernatants obtained from canine AM treated with sulfite (0.1 mM to 2 mM) enhanced the respiratory burst of canine neutrophils, measured by lucigenin-dependent chemiluminescence, whereas supernatants derived from AM treated with sulfate (1 mM) did not. The neutrophil-stimulating activity released by sulfite-treated AM consisted of platelet-activating factor (PAF) and leukotriene B{sub 4} (LTB{sub 4}) as shown by desensitization of the platelet-activating factor (PAF) and leukotriene B{sub 4} (LTB{sub 4}) as shown by desensitization of the corresponding receptors. Inhibitors of phospholipase A{sub 2} substantially suppressed release of neutrophil-stimulating activity by sulfite-treated AM. Inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase in sulfite-treated AM also reduced neutrophil-stimulating activity, while inhibition of cyclooxygenase had no effect. In conclusion, sulfite induces AM to release lipid mediators via phospholipase A{sub 2}- and 5-lipoxygenase-dependent pathways. These mediators activate neutrophils via the receptors for PAF and LTB{sub 4}. (orig.)

  16. DMPD: Induction of proliferation and cytokine production in human T lymphocytes bylipopolysaccharide (LPS). [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available bylipopolysaccharide (LPS). Ulmer AJ, Flad H, Rietschel T, Mattern T. Toxicology. 2000 Nov 2;152(1-3):37-45....el T, Mattern T. Publication Toxicology. 2000 Nov 2;152(1-3):37-45. Pathway - PNG File (.png) SVG File (.svg

  17. Ursolic acid isolated from guava leaves inhibits inflammatory mediators and reactive oxygen species in LPS-stimulated macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Hye; Kim, Jin Nam; Han, Sung Nim; Kim, Hye-Kyeong

    2015-06-01

    Psidium guajava (guava) leaves have been frequently used for the treatment of rheumatism, fever, arthritis and other inflammatory conditions. The purpose of this study was to identify major anti-inflammatory compounds from guava leaf extract. The methanol extract and its hexane-, dichloromethane-, ethylacetate-, n-butanol- and water-soluble phases derived from guava leaves were evaluated to determine their inhibitory activity on nitric oxide (NO) production by RAW 264.7 cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The methanol extract decreased NO production in a dose-dependent manner without cytotoxicity at a concentration range of 0-100 μg/mL. The n-butanol soluble phase was the most potent among the five soluble phases. Four compounds were isolated by reversed-phase HPLC from the n-butanol soluble phase and identified to be avicularin, guaijaverin, leucocyanidin and ursolic acid by their NMR spectra. Among these compounds, ursolic acid inhibited LPS-induced NO production in a dose-dependent manner without cytotoxity at a concentration range of 1-10 µM, but the other three compounds had no effect. Ursolic acid also inhibited LPS-induced prostaglandin E2 production. A western blot analysis showed that ursolic acid decreased the LPS-stimulated inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase protein levels. In addition, ursolic acid suppressed the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells, as measured by flow cytometry. Taken together, these results identified ursolic acid as a major anti-inflammatory compound in guava leaves.

  18. Controlled release of cytokines using silk-biomaterials for macrophage polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Andrew R D; Spiller, Kara L; Freytes, Donald O; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana; Kaplan, David L

    2015-12-01

    Polarization of macrophages into an inflammatory (M1) or anti-inflammatory (M2) phenotype is important for clearing pathogens and wound repair, however chronic activation of either type of macrophage has been implicated in several diseases. Methods to locally control the polarization of macrophages is of great interest for biomedical implants and tissue engineering. To that end, silk protein was used to form biopolymer films that release either IFN-γ or IL-4 to control the polarization of macrophages. Modulation of the solubility of the silk films through regulation of β-sheet (crystalline) content enabled a short-term release (4-8 h) of either cytokine, with smaller amounts released out to 24 h. Altering the solubility of the films was accomplished by varying the time that the films were exposed to water vapor. The released IFN-γ or IL-4 induced polarization of THP-1 derived macrophages into the M1 or M2 phenotypes, respectively. The silk biomaterials were able to release enough IFN-γ or IL-4 to repolarize the macrophage from M1 to M2 and vice versa, demonstrating the well-established plasticity of macrophages. High β-sheet content films that are not soluble and do not release the trapped cytokines were also able to polarize macrophages that adhered to the surface through degradation of the silk protein. Chemically conjugating IFN-γ to silk films through disulfide bonds allowed for longer-term release to 10 days. The release of covalently attached IFN-γ from the films was also able to polarize M1 macrophages in vitro. Thus, the strategy described here offers new approaches to utilizing biomaterials for directing the polarization of macrophages. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Integrated analysis of COX-2 and iNOS derived inflammatory mediators in LPS-stimulated RAW macrophages pre-exposed to Echium plantagineum L. bee pollen extract.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduarda Moita

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress and inflammation play important roles in disease development. This study intended to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant potential of Echium plantagineum L. bee pollen to support its claimed health beneficial effects. The hydromethanol extract efficiently scavenged nitric oxide ((•NO although against superoxide (O2(•- it behaved as antioxidant at lower concentrations and as pro-oxidant at higher concentrations. The anti-inflammatory potential was evaluated in LPS-stimulated macrophages. The levels of (•NO and L-citrulline decreased for all extract concentrations tested, while the levels of prostaglandins, their metabolites and isoprostanes, evaluated by UPLC-MS, decreased with low extract concentrations. So, E. plantagineum bee pollen extract can exert anti-inflammatory activity by reducing (•NO and prostaglandins. The extract is able to scavenge the reactive species (•NO and O2(•- and reduce markers of oxidative stress in cells at low concentrations.

  20. Pro-oxidant activity of indicaxanthin from Opuntia ficus indica modulates arachidonate metabolism and prostaglandin synthesis through lipid peroxide production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Allegra

    2014-01-01

    A kinetic study investigating the redox status of LPS-stimulated macrophages between 0.5 and 12 h, either in the absence or in the presence of 50–100 µM indicaxanthin, revealed a differential control of ROS production, with early (0.5–3 h modest inhibition, followed by a progressive (3–12 h concentration-dependent enhancement over the level induced by LPS alone. In addition, indicaxanthin caused early (0.5–3 h concentration-dependent elevation of conjugated diene lipid hydroperoxides, and production of hydroxynonenal-protein adducts, over the amount induced by LPS. In LPS-stimulated macrophages indicaxanthin did not affect PG metabolism when co-incubated with either an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase or vitamin E. It is concluded that LPS-induced pro-oxidant activity of indicaxanthin at the membrane level allows formation of signaling intermediates whose accumulation modulates PG biosynthetic pathway in inflamed macrophages.

  1. Scandoside Exerts Anti-Inflammatory Effect Via Suppressing NF-κB and MAPK Signaling Pathways in LPS-Induced RAW 264.7 Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingyu He

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The iridoids of Hedyotis diffusa Willd play an important role in the anti-inflammatory process, but the specific iridoid with anti-inflammatory effect and its mechanism has not be thoroughly studied. An iridoid compound named scandoside (SCA was isolated from H. diffusa and its anti-inflammatory effect was investigated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages. Its anti-inflammatory mechanism was confirmed by in intro experiments and molecular docking analyses. As results, SCA significantly decreased the productions of nitric oxide (NO, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and interleukin-6 (IL-6 and inhibited the levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2, TNF-α and IL-6 messenger RNA (mRNA expression in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages. SCA treatment suppressed the phosphorylation of inhibitor of nuclear transcription factor kappa-B alpaha (IκB-α, p38, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK. The docking data suggested that SCA had great binding abilities to COX-2, iNOS and IκB. Taken together, the results indicated that the anti-inflammatory effect of SCA is due to inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines and mediators via suppressing the nuclear transcription factor kappa-B (NF-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling pathways, which provided useful information for its application and development.

  2. Wool and grain dusts stimulate TNF secretion by alveolar macrophages in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, D M; Donaldson, K

    1996-06-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the ability of two organic dusts, wool and grain, and their soluble leachates to stimulate secretion of tumour necrosis factor (TNF) by rat alveolar macrophages with special reference to the role of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Rat alveolar macrophages were isolated by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and treated in vitro with whole dust, dust leachates, and a standard LPS preparation. TNF production was measured in supernatants with the L929 cell line bioassay. Both wool and grain dust samples were capable of stimulating TNF release from rat alveolar macrophages in a dose-dependent manner. The standard LPS preparation caused a dose-dependent secretion of TNF. Leachates prepared from the dusts contained LPS and also caused TNF release but leachable LPS could not account for the TNF release and it was clear that non-LPS leachable activity was present in the grain dust and that wool dust particles themselves were capable of causing release of TNF. The role of LPS in wool dust leachates was further investigated by treating peritoneal macrophages from two strains of mice, LPS responders (C3H) and LPS non-responders (C3H/HEJ), with LPS. The non-responder mouse macrophages produced very low concentrations of TNF in response to the wool dust leachates compared with the responders. LPS and other unidentified leachable substances present on the surface of grain dust, and to a lesser extent on wool dust, are a trigger for TNF release by lung macrophages. Wool dust particles themselves stimulate TNF. TNF release from macrophages could contribute to enhancement of inflammatory responses and symptoms of bronchitis and breathlessness in workers exposed to organic dusts such as wool and grain.

  3. Anti-inflammatory effect of a selective 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 inhibitor via the stimulation of heme oxygenase-1 in LPS-activated mice and J774.1 murine macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Bum Park

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available 11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1 converts inactive cortisone to the active cortisol. 11β-HSD1 may be involved in the resolution of inflammation. In the present study, we investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of 2-(3-benzoyl-4-hydroxy-1,1-dioxo-2H-1,2-benzothiazine-2-yl-1-phenylethanone (KR-66344, a selective 11β-HSD1 inhibitor, in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-activated C57BL/6J mice and macrophages. LPS increased 11β-HSD1 activity and expression in macrophages, which was inhibited by KR-66344. In addition, KR-66344 increased survival rate in LPS treated C57BL/6J mice. HO-1 mRNA expression level was increased by KR-66344, and this effect was reversed by the HO competitive inhibitor, ZnPP, in macrophages. Moreover, ZnPP reversed the suppression of ROS formation and cell death induced by KR-66344. ZnPP also suppressed animal survival rate in LPS plus KR-66344 treated C57BL/6J mice. In the spleen of LPS-treated mice, KR-66344 prevented cell death via suppression of inflammation, followed by inhibition of ROS, iNOS and COX-2 expression. Furthermore, LPS increased NFκB-p65 and MAPK phosphorylation, and these effects were abolished by pretreatment with KR-66344. Taken together, KR-66344 protects against LPS-induced animal death and spleen injury by inhibition of inflammation via induction of HO-1 and inhibition of 11β-HSD1 activity. Thus, we concluded that the selective 11β-HSD1 inhibitor may provide a novel strategy in the prevention/treatment of inflammatory disorders in patients.

  4. Aqueous Extract of Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. and Ferulic Acid Reduce the Expression of TNF-α and IL-1β in LPS-Activated Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simón Navarrete

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Acute inflammation is essential for defending the body against pathogens; however, when inflammation becomes chronic, it is harmful to the body and is part of the pathophysiology of various diseases such as Diabetes Mellitus type 2 (DM2 and Cardiovascular Disease (CVD among others. In chronic inflammation macrophages play an important role, mainly through the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines such as Tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α and Interleukin (IL-1β, explained in part by activation of the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4, a signaling pathway which culminates in the activation of Nuclear factor (NF-κB, an important transcription factor in the expression of these proinflammatory genes. On the other hand, the benefits on health of a diet rich in fruit and vegetables are well described. In this work, the effects of aqueous extract of tomato and ferulic acid on the expression of proinflammatory cytokines in LPS activated monocyte-derived THP-1 macrophages were investigated. In addition, using Western blot, we investigated whether the inhibition was due to the interference on activation of NF-κB. We found that both the tomato extract and ferulic acid presented inhibitory activity on the expression of TNF-α and IL-1β cytokine by inhibiting the activation of NF-κB. The current results suggest that tomatoes and ferulic acid may contribute to prevention of chronic inflammatory diseases.

  5. In vitro differentiation of human monocytes to macrophages: change of PDE profile and its relationship to suppression of tumour necrosis factor-α release by PDE inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantner, Florian; Kupferschmidt, Rochus; Schudt, Christian; Wendel, Albrecht; Hatzelmann, Armin

    1997-01-01

    During in vitro culture in 10% human AB serum, human peripheral blood monocytes acquire a macrophage-like phenotype. The underlying differentiation was characterized by increased activities of the macrophage marker enzymes unspecific esterase (NaF-insensitive form) and acid phosphatase, as well as by a down-regulation in surface CD14 expression. In parallel, a dramatic change in the phosphodiesterase (PDE) profile became evident within a few days that strongly resembled that previously described for human alveolar macrophages. Whereas PDE1 and PDE3 activities were augmented, PDE4 activity, which represented the major cyclic AMP-hydrolysing activity of peripheral blood monocytes, rapidly declined. Monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages responded to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) with the release of tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF). In line with the change in CD14 expression, the EC50 value of LPS for induction of TNF release increased from approximately 0.1 ng ml−1 in peripheral blood monocytes to about 2 ng ml−1 in macrophages. Both populations of cells were equally susceptible towards inhibition of TNF release by cyclic AMP elevating agents such as dibutyryl cyclic AMP, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) or forskolin, which all led to a complete abrogation of TNF production in a concentration-dependent manner and which were more efficient than the glucocorticoid dexamethasone. In monocytes, PDE4 selective inhibitors (rolipram, RP73401) suppressed TNF formation by 80%, whereas motapizone, a PDE3 selective compound, exerted a comparatively weak effect (10–15% inhibition). Combined use of PDE3 plus PDE4 inhibitors resulted in an additive effect and fully abrogated LPS-induced TNF release as did the mixed PDE3/4 inhibitor tolafentrine. In monocyte-derived macrophages, neither PDE3- nor PDE4-selective drugs markedly affected TNF generation when used alone (<15% inhibition), whereas in combination, they led to a maximal inhibition of TNF formation by about 40–50

  6. p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase up-regulates LPS-induced NF-κB activation in the development of lung injury and RAW 264.7 macrophages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hee J.; Lee, Hui S.; Chong, Young H.; Kang, Jihee Lee

    2006-01-01

    Clarification of the key regulatory steps that lead to nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) under cellular and pathological conditions is very important. The action of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) on the upstream of NF-κB activation remains controversial. To examine this issue using an in vivo lung injury model, SB203580, a p38 MAPK inhibitor was given intraorally 1 h prior to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment (intratracheally). The mice were sacrificed 4 h after LPS treatment. SB203580 substantially suppressed LPS-induced rises in p38 MAPK phosphorylation, neutrophil recruitment, total protein content in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and apoptosis of bronchoalveolar cells. Furthermore, SB203580 blocked LPS-induced NF-κB activation in lung tissue through down-regulation of serine phosphorylation, degradation of IκB-α, and consequent translocation of the p65 subunit of NF-κB to the nucleus. It is likely that, in cultured RAW 264.7 macrophages, SB203580 also blocked LPS-induced NF-κB activation in a dose-dependent manner. SB203580 inhibited LPS-induced serine phosphorylation, degradation of IκB-α, and tyrosine phosphorylation of p65 NF-κB. These data indicate that p38 MAPK acts upstream of LPS-induced NF-κB activation by modulating the phosphorylation of IκB-α and p65 NF-κB during acute lung injury. Because LPS-stimulated macrophages may contribute to inflammatory lung injury, the inhibition of the p38 MAPK-mediated intracellular signaling pathway leading to NF-κB activation represents a target for the attenuation of lung inflammation and parenchymal damage

  7. Enhanced Inhibitory Effect of Ultra-Fine Granules of Red Ginseng on LPS-induced Cytokine Expression in the Monocyte-Derived Macrophage THP-1 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Yeoul Kim

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Red ginseng is one of the most popular traditional medicines in Korea because its soluble hot-water extract is known to be very effective on enhancing immunity as well as inhibiting inflammation. Recently, we developed a new technique, called the HACgearshift system, which can pulverize red ginseng into the ultra-fine granules ranging from 0.2 to 7.0 μm in size. In this study, the soluble hot-water extract of those ultra-fine granules of red ginseng (URG was investigated and compared to that of the normal-sized granules of red ginseng (RG. The high pressure liquid chromatographic analyses of the soluble hot-water extracts of both URG and RG revealed that URG had about 2-fold higher amounts of the ginsenosides, the biologically active components in red ginseng, than RG did. Using quantitative RT-PCR, cytokine profiling against the Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS in the monocyte-derived macrophage THP-1 cells demonstrated that the URG-treated cells showed a significant reduction in cytokine expression than the RG-treated ones. Transcription expression of the LPS-induced cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and TGF-β was significantly inhibited by URG compared to RG. These results suggest that some biologically active and soluble components in red ginseng can be more effectively extracted from URG than RG by standard hot-water extraction.

  8. Effect of gamma irradiation on the change of solubility and anti-inflammation activity of chrysin in macrophage cells and LPS-injected endotoxemic mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, Eui-Baek; Jang, Beom-Su; Byun, Eui-Hong; Sung, Nak-Yun

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the changes of solubility and anti-inflammatory properties of structurally modified gamma-irradiated chrysin. Chrysin was irradiated at various doses for a physical analysis and determining any structural changes and solubility. As shown through the physical analysis, the main peak of the chrysin was decreased as the irradiation dose increased, and it was concomitant with the appearance of several new peaks, which were highly increased in 50 kGy gamma-irradiated chrysin. The solubility was markedly increased in the gamma-irradiated groups. As shown through a physiological analysis, both gamma-irradiated- (15–50 kGy) and intact-chrysin (0 kGy) did not exert cytotoxicity to bone-marrow derived macrophages. The treatment of LPS-stimulated macrophages with 50 kGy gamma-irradiated chrysin resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in pro-inflammatory mediators, such as iNOS-mediated NO, PGE 2 , COX-2, and cell surface marker (CD80 and CD86), as well as pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6), when compared to the intact-chrysin treated group. Mechanically, we found that the inhibition of these pro-inflammatory mediators induced by gamma-irradiated chrysin occurred through an inhibition of MAPKs (ERK1/2 and p38) and the NF-κB signaling pathways. Furthermore, the anti-inflammatory activity remained in the LPS-injected animal model. In this model, gamma-irradiated chrysin treatment highly increased the mouse survival, and significantly decreased the serum cytokine (TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β) levels. From these findings, the anti-inflammatory action by gamma-irradiated chrysin may be closely mediated with structural modification. It seems likely that gamma irradiation can be an effective tool for improvement of the physical and physiological properties of polyphenols. - Highlights: • Gamma irradiation leads to the structural modification of chrysin. • Gamma irradiation improved the solubility of chrysin. • Gamma-irradiated chrysin significantly

  9. Structural characterization of blackberry wine polysaccharides and immunomodulatory effects on LPS-activated RAW 264.7 macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro Caillot, Adriana Rute; de Lacerda Bezerra, Iglesias; Palhares, Laís Cristina Gusmão Ferreira; Santana-Filho, Arquimedes Paixão; Chavante, Suely Ferreira; Sassaki, Guilherme Lanzi

    2018-08-15

    Three polysaccharide fractions were isolated from blackberry wine. The crude extract BWPs was obtained with ethanol precipitation and freeze-thawing process, it was then submitted to Fehling treatment, giving soluble BWPFs and insoluble BWPFp fractions. These fractions were characterized by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR). Major polysaccharides were identified for each fraction: mannan, type II arabinogalactan and type I rhamnogalacturonan for BWPs, a mannan formed by a major chain of α-Manp(1 → 6)-linked units, O-2 substituted with α-d-Manp(1 → 2)-linked side chains for BWPFp and a AG II formed by a major chain of β-d-Galp(1 → 3)-linked, substituted at O-6 by side chains of the β-d-Galp(1 → 6)-linked, which then are substituted at O-3 by non-reducing units of α-l-Araf and a RG I, formed by [→4)-α-d-GalpA-(1 → 2)-α-l-Rhap-(1→] n for BWPFs. Anti-inflammatory effects of polysaccharide fractions were evaluated in RAW 264.7 cells. Fractions markedly reduced nitric oxide (NO) and pro-inflammatory cytokine production (TNF-α and IL-1β) in LPS-treated cells. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Impaired IL-10 transcription and release in animal models of Gaucher disease macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacher, Yaacov; Futerman, Anthony H

    2009-01-01

    A number of studies have shown altered cytokine levels in serum from Gaucher disease patients, including changes in levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-10 (IL-10). However, the source of IL-10, or the mechanisms leading to changes in IL-10 serum levels are not known. We now show that mouse macrophages treated with an active site-directed inhibitor of glucocerebrosidase, or macrophages from a mouse model of Gaucher disease, the L444P mouse, release significantly less IL-10 than their untreated counterparts, but that TNFalpha release is unaffected. These changes are due to reduced transcription of IL-10 mRNA in macrophages. The reduction in IL-10 secretion observed in animal models of Gaucher disease macrophages may be of relevance to explain the increase in inflammation that is often observed in Gaucher disease.

  11. Propofol pretreatment attenuates LPS-induced granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor production in cultured hepatocytes by suppressing MAPK/ERK activity and NF-κB translocation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jawan, Bruno; Kao, Y.-H.; Goto, Shigeru; Pan, M.-C.; Lin, Y.-C.; Hsu, L.-W.; Nakano, Toshiaki; Lai, C.-Y.; Sun, C.-K.; Cheng, Y.-F.; Tai, M.-H.

    2008-01-01

    Propofol (PPF), a widely used intravenous anesthetic for induction and maintenance of anesthesia during surgeries, was found to possess suppressive effect on host immunity. This study aimed at investigating whether PPF plays a modulatory role in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory cytokine expression in a cell line of rat hepatocytes. Morphological observation and viability assay showed that PPF exhibits no cytotoxicity at concentrations up to 300 μM after 48 h incubation. Pretreatment with 100 μM PPF for 24 h prior to LPS stimulation was performed to investigate the modulatory effect on LPS-induced inflammatory gene production. The results of semi-quantitative RT-PCR demonstrated that PPF pretreatment significantly suppressed the LPS-induced toll-like receptor (TLR)-4, CD14, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) gene expression. Western blotting analysis showed that PPF pretreatment potentiated the LPS-induced TLR-4 downregulation. Flow cytometrical analysis revealed that PPF pretreatment showed no modulatory effect on the LPS-upregulated CD14 expression on hepatocytes. In addition, PPF pretreatment attenuated the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MAPK/ERK) and IκBα, as well as the nuclear translocation of NF-κB primed by LPS. Moreover, addition of PD98059, a MAPK kinase inhibitor, significantly suppressed the LPS-induced NF-κB nuclear translocation and GM-CSF production, suggesting that the PPF-attenuated GM-CSF production in hepatocytes may be attributed to its suppressive effect on MAPK/ERK signaling pathway. In conclusion, PPF as an anesthetic may clinically benefit those patients who are vulnerable to sepsis by alleviating sepsis-related inflammatory response in livers

  12. Hypochoeris radicata attenuates LPS-induced inflammation by suppressing p38, ERK, and JNK phosphorylation in RAW 264.7 macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Jin; Kim, Se-Jae; Kim, Sang Suk; Lee, Nam Ho; Hyun, Chang-Gu

    2014-01-01

    Hypochoeris radicata, an invasive plant species, is a large and growing threat to ecosystem integrity on Jeju Island, a UNESCO World Heritage site. Therefore, research into the utilization of H. radicata is important and urgently required in order to solve this invasive plant problem in Jeju Island. The broader aim of our research is to elucidate the biological activities of H. radicata, which would facilitate the conversion of this invasive species into high value-added products. The present study was undertaken to identify the pharmacological effects of H. radicata flower on the production of inflammatory mediators in macrophages. The results indicate that the ethyl acetate fraction of H. radicata extract (HRF-EA) inhibited the production of pro-inflammatory molecules such as NO, iNOS, PGE2, and COX-2, and cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-1ß, and IL-6 in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. Furthermore, the phosphorylation of MAPKs such as p38, ERK, and JNK was suppressed by HRF-EA in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, through HPLC and UPLC fingerprinting, luteolins were also identified and quantified as extract constituents. On the basis of these results, we suggest that H. radicata may be considered possible anti-inflammatory candidates for pharmaceutical and/or cosmetic applications.

  13. Carbon black nanoparticles induce type II epithelial cells to release chemotaxins for alveolar macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donaldson Ken

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alveolar macrophages are a key cell in dealing with particles deposited in the lungs and in determining the subsequent response to that particle exposure. Nanoparticles are considered a potential threat to the lungs and the mechanism of pulmonary response to nanoparticles is currently under intense scrutiny. The type II alveolar epithelial cell has previously been shown to release chemoattractants which can recruit alveolar macrophages to sites of particle deposition. The aim of this study was to assess the responses of a type II epithelial cell line (L-2 to both fine and nanoparticle exposure in terms of secretion of chemotactic substances capable of inducing macrophage migration. Results Exposure of type II cells to carbon black nanoparticles resulted in significant release of macrophage chemoattractant compared to the negative control and to other dusts tested (fine carbon black and TiO2 and nanoparticle TiO2 as measured by macrophage migration towards type II cell conditioned medium. SDS-PAGE analysis of the conditioned medium from particle treated type II cells revealed that a higher number of protein bands were present in the conditioned medium obtained from type II cells treated with nanoparticle carbon black compared to other dusts tested. Size-fractionation of the chemotaxin-rich supernatant determined that the chemoattractants released from the epithelial cells were between 5 and 30 kDa in size. Conclusion The highly toxic nature and reactive surface chemistry of the carbon black nanoparticles has very likely induced the type II cell line to release pro-inflammatory mediators that can potentially induce migration of macrophages. This could aid in the rapid recruitment of inflammatory cells to sites of particle deposition and the subsequent removal of the particles by phagocytic cells such as macrophages and neutrophils. Future studies in this area could focus on the exact identity of the substance(s released by the

  14. The role of substrate morphology for the cytokine release profile of immature human primary macrophages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartneck, Matthias [Department of Medicine III, Medical Faculty, RWTH Aachen, Pauwelsstr. 30, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Heffels, Karl-Heinz [Department and Chair of Functional Materials in Medicine and Dentistry, University of Würzburg, Pleicherwall 2, 97070 Würzburg (Germany); Bovi, Manfred [Electron Microscopic Facility, Medical Faculty, RWTH Aachen (Germany); Groll, Jürgen [Department and Chair of Functional Materials in Medicine and Dentistry, University of Würzburg, Pleicherwall 2, 97070 Würzburg (Germany); Zwadlo-Klarwasser, Gabriele [Interdisciplinary Center for Clinical Research and Dept. of Dermatology, Medical Faculty, RWTH Aachen, Pauwelsstr. 30, 52056 Aachen (Germany)

    2013-12-01

    There is increasing evidence that the physicochemical nature of any given material is a dominant factor for the release of cytokines by innate immune cells, specifically of macrophages, and thus majorly influences their interaction with other cell types. Recently, we could show that the 3D structure of star shaped polytheylene oxide–polypropylene oxide co-polymers (sP(EO-stat-PO))-hydrogel coated substrates has a stronger influence on the release pattern of cytokines after 7 days of culture than surface chemistry. Here, we focused on the analysis of cytokine release over time and a more detailed analysis of cell morphology by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Therefore, we compared different strategies for SEM sample preparation and found that using osmium tetroxide combined with aqua bidest led to best preparation results. For cytokine release we show significant changes from day 3 to day 7 of cell culture. After 3 days, the sP(EO-stat-PO)-coated substrates led to an induction of pro-angiogenic CCL3 and CCL4, and of low amounts of the anti-inflammatory IL10, which declined at day 7. In contrast, pleiotropic IL6 and the pro-inflammatory TNFα and IL1β were expressed stronger at day 7 than at day 3. - Highlights: • Strategies for the preparation of macrophages on hydrogel materials (Fig. 1) • Cytokine release of immature macrophages on the substrates (Fig. 2 and Table 1) • Changes in cytokine release during macrophage maturation (Table 2)

  15. The role of substrate morphology for the cytokine release profile of immature human primary macrophages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartneck, Matthias; Heffels, Karl-Heinz; Bovi, Manfred; Groll, Jürgen; Zwadlo-Klarwasser, Gabriele

    2013-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that the physicochemical nature of any given material is a dominant factor for the release of cytokines by innate immune cells, specifically of macrophages, and thus majorly influences their interaction with other cell types. Recently, we could show that the 3D structure of star shaped polytheylene oxide–polypropylene oxide co-polymers (sP(EO-stat-PO))-hydrogel coated substrates has a stronger influence on the release pattern of cytokines after 7 days of culture than surface chemistry. Here, we focused on the analysis of cytokine release over time and a more detailed analysis of cell morphology by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Therefore, we compared different strategies for SEM sample preparation and found that using osmium tetroxide combined with aqua bidest led to best preparation results. For cytokine release we show significant changes from day 3 to day 7 of cell culture. After 3 days, the sP(EO-stat-PO)-coated substrates led to an induction of pro-angiogenic CCL3 and CCL4, and of low amounts of the anti-inflammatory IL10, which declined at day 7. In contrast, pleiotropic IL6 and the pro-inflammatory TNFα and IL1β were expressed stronger at day 7 than at day 3. - Highlights: • Strategies for the preparation of macrophages on hydrogel materials (Fig. 1) • Cytokine release of immature macrophages on the substrates (Fig. 2 and Table 1) • Changes in cytokine release during macrophage maturation (Table 2)

  16. Natural product HTP screening for antibacterial (E.coli 0157:H7) and anti-inflammatory agents in (LPS from E. coli O111:B4) activated macrophages and microglial cells; focus on sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzio, Elizabeth A; Li, Nan; Bauer, David; Mendonca, Patricia; Taka, Equar; Darb, Mohammed; Thomas, Leeshawn; Williams, Henry; Soliman, Karam F A

    2016-11-15

    Acute systemic inflammatory response syndrome arising from infection can lead to multiple organ failure and death, with greater susceptibility occurring in immunocompromised individuals. Moreover, sub-acute chronic inflammation is a contributor to the pathology of diverse degenerative diseases (Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease and arthritis). Given the known limitations in Western medicine to treat a broad range of inflammatory related illness as well as the emergence of antibiotic resistance, there is a renewed interest in complementary and alternative medicines (CAMs) to achieve these means. A high throughput (HTP) screening of >1400 commonly sold natural products (bulk herbs, cooking spices, teas, leaves, supplement components, nutraceutical food components, fruit and vegetables, rinds, seeds, polyphenolics etc.) was conducted to elucidate anti-inflammatory substances in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (E. coli serotype O111:B4) monocytes: RAW 264.7 macrophages [peripheral], BV-2 microglia [brain]) relative to hydrocortisone, dexamethasone and L-N6-(1Iminoethyl)lysine (L-NIL). HTP evaluation was also carried out for lethal kill curves against E.coli 0157:H7 1x10 6 CFU/mL relative to penicillin. Validation studies were performed to assess cytokine profiling using antibody arrays. Findings were corroborated by independent ELISAs and NO2-/iNOS expression quantified using the Griess Reagent and immunocytochemistry, respectively. For robust screening, we developed an in-vitro efficacy paradigm to ensure anti-inflammatory parameters were observed independent of cytotoxicity. This caution was taken given that many plants exert tumoricidal and anti-inflammatory effects at close range through similar signaling pathways, which could lead to false positives. The data show that activated BV-2 microglia cells (+ LPS 1μg/ml) release >10-fold greater IL-6, MIP1/2, RANTES and nitric oxide (NO2-), where RAW 264.7 macrophages (+ LPS 1μg/ml) produced > 10-fold rise in sTNFR2

  17. Frontline Science: ATF3 is responsible for the inhibition of TNF-α release and the impaired migration of acute ethanol-exposed monocytes and macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chaojie; Meng, Xiaoming; Huang, Cheng; Shen, Chenlin; Li, Jun

    2017-03-01

    Binge drinking represses host innate immunity and leads to a high risk of infection. Acute EtOH-pretreated macrophages exhibit a decreased production of proinflammatory mediators in response to LPS. ATF3 is induced and counter-regulates the LPS/TLR4 inflammatory cascade. Here, we investigated the potential role of ATF3 in LPS tolerance in acute ethanol-pretreated macrophages. We found that there was an inverse correlation between ATF3 and LPS-induced TNF-α production in acute ethanol-pretreated murine monocytes and macrophages. The knockdown of ATF3 attenuated the inhibitory effects of acute ethanol treatment on LPS-induced TNF-α production. Furthermore, ChIP assays and co-IP demonstrated that ATF3, together with HDAC1, negatively modulated the transcription of TNF-α. In binge-drinking mice challenged with LPS, an up-regulation of ATF3 and HDAC1 and a concomitant decrease in TNF-α were observed. Given that HDAC1 was concomitantly induced in acute ethanol-exposed monocytes and macrophages, we used the HDACi TSA or silenced HDAC1 to explore the role of HDAC1 in acute ethanol-treated macrophages. Our results revealed that TSA treatment and HDAC1 knockdown prevented acute ethanol-induced ATF3 expression and the inhibition of TNF-α transcription. These data indicated a dual role for HDAC1 in acute ethanol-induced LPS tolerance. Furthermore, we showed that the induction of ATF3 led to the impaired migration of BM monocytes and macrophages. Overall, we present a novel role for ATF3 in the inhibition of LPS-induced TNF-α and in the impairment of monocyte and macrophage migration. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  18. LPS-induced release of IL-6 from glia modulates production of IL-1beta in a JAK2-dependent manner

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Minogue, Aedín M

    2012-06-14

    AbstractBackgroundCompelling evidence has implicated neuroinflammation in the pathogenesis of a number of neurodegenerative conditions. Chronic activation of both astrocytes and microglia leads to excessive secretion of proinflammatory molecules such as TNFα, IL-6 and IL-1β with potentially deleterious consequences for neuronal viability. Many signaling pathways involving the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), nuclear factor κB (NFκB) complex and the Janus kinases (JAKs)\\/signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT)-1 have been implicated in the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines from glia. We sought to identify signaling kinases responsible for cytokine production and to delineate the complex interactions which govern time-related responses to lipopolysaccharide (LPS).MethodsWe examined the time-related changes in certain signaling events and the release of proinflammatory cytokines from LPS-stimulated co-cultures of astrocytes and microglia isolated from neonatal rats.ResultsTNFα was detected in the supernatant approximately 1 to 2 hours after LPS treatment while IL-1β and IL-6 were detected after 2 to 3 and 4 to 6 hours, respectively. Interestingly, activation of NFκB signaling preceded release of all cytokines while phosphorylation of STAT1 was evident only after 2 hours, indicating that activation of JAK\\/STAT may be important in the up-regulation of IL-6 production. Additionally, incubation of glia with TNFα induced both phosphorylation of JAK2 and STAT1 and the interaction of JAK2 with the TNFα receptor (TNFR1). Co-treatment of glia with LPS and recombinant IL-6 protein attenuated the LPS-induced release of both TNFα and IL-1β while potentiating the effect of LPS on suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS)3 expression and IL-10 release.ConclusionsThese data indicate that TNFα may regulate IL-6 production through activation of JAK\\/STAT signaling and that the subsequent production of IL-6 may impact on the release of

  19. Regulation of LPS-induced mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines via alteration of NF-κB activity in mouse peritoneal macrophages exposed to fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yuhu; Huo, Meijun; Li, Guangsheng; Li, Yanyan; Wang, Jundong

    2016-10-01

    F toxicity to immune system, especially to macrophage, has been studied a lot recently. Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), as a transcription factor, plays a central role in immune and inflammatory responses via the regulation of downstream gene expression. Recent studies indicated that fluoride effect on inflammatory cytokine secretion, however, the molecular mechanism was less understood. In our study, peritoneal macrophages (PMs) were divided several groups and were administrated sodium fluoride (NaF, 50, 100, 200, 400, 800 μM) and/or lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 30 ng/mg). The mRNA expression of p65, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) in macrophages exposed to fluoride was determined by quantitative real-time RT-PCR respectively. The translocation of NF-κB from cytoplasm to nucleus, which in a way reflects NF-κB activity, was demonstrated by Immunofluorescence and ELISA. Our results showed that fluoride had a dose-dependent effect on NF-κB activity, which coincided with LPS-induced mRNA expression of its downstream genes, iNOS and IL-1β. Fluoride alone causes no effect on gene expression. However, the mRNA expression of TNF-α showed non-NF-κB-dependent manner. Therefore, we come to the conclusion that fluoride can regulate LPS-induced mRNA expression of iNOS and IL-1β via NF-κB pathway in mouse peritoneal macrophages. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. High-dose, short-term exposure of mice to perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) or perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) affects the number of circulating neutrophils differently, but enhances the inflammatory responses of macrophages to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in a similar fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qazi, Mousumi R; Bogdanska, Jasna; Butenhoff, John L; Nelson, B Dean; DePierre, Joseph W; Abedi-Valugerdi, Manuchehr

    2009-08-21

    Having found previously that high-dose, short-term dietary exposure of mice to perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) or perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) suppresses adaptive immunity, in the present study we characterize the effects of these fluorochemicals on the innate immune system. Male C57BL/6 mice receiving 0.02% (w/w) PFOS or PFOA in their diet for 10 days exhibited a significant reduction in the numbers of total white blood cells (WBC), involving lymphopenia in both cases, but neutropenia only in response to treatment with PFOA. Moreover, both compounds also markedly reduced the number of macrophages (CD11b(+) cells) in the bone marrow, but not in the spleen or peritoneal cavity. The ex vivo production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) by peritoneal macrophages isolated from animals treated with PFOA or PFOS was increased modestly. Moreover, both fluorochemicals markedly enhanced the ex vivo production of these same cytokines by peritoneal and bone marrow macrophages stimulated either in vitro or in vivo with lipopolysaccharide (LPS); whereas there was no such effect on splenic macrophages. The serum levels of these inflammatory cytokines observed in response to in vivo stimulation with LPS were elevated substantially by prior exposure to PFOA, but not by PFOS. None of these parameters of innate immunity were altered in animals receiving a dietary dose of these compounds that was 20-fold lower (0.001%, w/w). These findings reveal that in addition to suppressing adaptive immunity, high-dose, short-term exposure of mice to either PFOS or PFOA augments inflammatory responses to LPS, a potent activator of innate immunity.

  1. Design, synthesis, and structure-activity relationship study of halogen containing 2-benzylidene-1-indanone derivatives for inhibition of LPS-stimulated ROS production in RAW 264.7 macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Aarajana; Jin Oh, Hye; Kim, Mi Jin; Pun, Nirmala Tilija; Magar, Til Bahadur Thapa; Bist, Ganesh; Choi, Hongseok; Park, Pil-Hoon; Lee, Eung-Seok

    2017-06-16

    As a continuous effort to discover new potential anti-inflammatory agents, we systematically designed and synthesized sixty-one 2-benzylidene-1-indanone derivatives with structural modification of chalcone, and evaluated their inhibitory activity on LPS-stimulated ROS production in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Systematic structure-activity relationship study revealed that hydroxyl group in C-5, C-6, or C-7 position of indanone moiety, and ortho-, meta-, or para-fluorine, trifluoromethyl, trifluoromethoxy, and bromine functionalities in phenyl ring are important for inhibition of ROS production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Among all the tested compounds, 6-hydroxy-2-(2-(trifluoromethoxy) benzylidene)-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-1-one (compound 44) showed the strongest inhibitory activity of ROS production. Further studies on the mode of action revealed that compound 44 potently suppressed LPS-stimulated ROS production via modulation of NADPH oxidase. The findings of this work could be useful to design 2-benzylidene-indanone based lead compounds as novel anti-inflammatory agents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Microparticles release by adipocytes act as "find-me" signals to promote macrophage migration.

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    Akiko Eguchi

    Full Text Available Macrophage infiltration of adipose tissue during weight gain is a central event leading to the metabolic complications of obesity. However, what are the mechanisms attracting professional phagocytes to obese adipose tissue remains poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that adipocyte-derived microparticles (MPs are critical "find-me" signals for recruitment of monocytes and macrophages. Supernatants from stressed adipocytes stimulated the attraction of monocyte cells and primary macrophages. The activation of caspase 3 was required for release of these signals. Adipocytes exposed to saturated fatty acids showed marked release of MPs into the supernatant while common genetic mouse models of obesity demonstrate high levels of circulating adipocyte-derived MPs. The release of MPs was highly regulated and dependent on caspase 3 and Rho-associated kinase. Further analysis identified these MPs as a central chemoattractant in vitro and in vivo. In addition, intravenously transplanting circulating MPs from the ob/ob mice lead to activation of monocytes in circulation and adipose tissue of the wild type mice. These data identify adipocyte-derived MPs as novel "find me" signals that contributes to macrophage infiltration associated with obesity.

  3. Peracetylated hydroxytyrosol, a new hydroxytyrosol derivate, attenuates LPS-induced inflammatory response in murine peritoneal macrophages via regulation of non-canonical inflammasome, Nrf2/HO1 and JAK/STAT signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Tatiana; Aparicio-Soto, Marina; Castejón, María Luisa; Rosillo, María Ángeles; Sánchez-Hidalgo, Marina; Begines, Paloma; Fernández-Bolaños, José G; Alarcón-de-la-Lastra, Catalina

    2018-03-18

    The present study was designed to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of a new derivative of hydroxytyrosol (HTy), peracetylated hydroxytyrosol (Per-HTy), compared with its parent, HTy, on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated murine macrophages as well as potential signaling pathways involved. In particular, we attempted to characterize the role of the inflammasome underlying Per-HTy possible anti-inflammatory effects. Isolated murine peritoneal macrophages were treated with HTy or its derivative in the presence or absence of LPS (5 μg/ml) for 18 h. Cell viability was determined using sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay. Nitric oxide (NO) production was analyzed by Griess method. Production of pro-inflammatory cytokines was evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT) pathway (STAT3), haem oxigenase 1 (HO1), nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) expression and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) activation was determined by Western blot. Per-HTy significantly reduced the levels of NO and pro-inflammatory cytokines as well as both COX-2 and iNOS expressions. Furthermore, Per-HTy treatment inhibited STAT3 and increased Nrf2 and HO1 protein levels in murine macrophages exposed to LPS. In addition, Per-HTy anti-inflammatory activity was related with an inhibition of non-canonical nucleotide binding domain (NOD)-like receptor (NLRP3) inflammasome pathways by decreasing pro-inflammatory interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18 cytokine levels as consequence of regulation of cleaved caspase-11 enzyme. These results support that this new HTy derivative may offer a new promising nutraceutical therapeutic strategy in the management of inflammatory-related pathologies. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Phagocytosis-induced 51Cr release from activated macrophages and blood mononuclears. Effect of colchicine and antioxidants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGee, M.P.; Hale, A.H.

    1981-01-01

    The chromium-release test was adapted to the measurement of the cellular injury induced when activated macrophages phagocytose particulates. Macrophages obtained from rabbit lungs undergoing BCG-induced chronic inflammation released more chromium when incubated in the presence of phagocytosable particles than when incubated under resting conditions. Blood mononuclear cells, 40-60% monocytes, procured from the same BCG-injected animals, were less susceptible to phagocytosis-induced injury than the macrophages obtained from the lungs. The amount of chromium released by the activated macrophages was proportional to the number of particles present during incubation. In the presence of catalase, the amounts of chromium released by phagocytosing and resting macrophages were similar; in the presence of superoxide dismutase and cytochrome c, the amount of chromium released by phagocytosing macrophages was 13-35% less than the amount of chromium released by macrophages incubated without the antioxidants. In addition, colchicine, an inhibitor of degranulation also exerted partial inhibition of the chromium release. These results suggest that oxygen radicals and lysosomal contents contribute to the cellular injury that results from phagocytosis

  5. Tacaribe virus but not junin virus infection induces cytokine release from primary human monocytes and macrophages.

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    Allison Groseth

    Full Text Available The mechanisms underlying the development of disease during arenavirus infection are poorly understood. However, common to all hemorrhagic fever diseases is the involvement of macrophages as primary target cells, suggesting that the immune response in these cells may be of paramount importance during infection. Thus, in order to identify features of the immune response that contribute to arenavirus pathogenesis, we have examined the growth kinetics and cytokine profiles of two closely related New World arenaviruses, the apathogenic Tacaribe virus (TCRV and the hemorrhagic fever-causing Junin virus (JUNV, in primary human monocytes and macrophages. Both viruses grew robustly in VeroE6 cells; however, TCRV titres were decreased by approximately 10 fold compared to JUNV in both monocytes and macrophages. Infection of both monocytes and macrophages with TCRV also resulted in the release of high levels of IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α, while levels of IFN-α, IFN-β and IL-12 were not affected. However, we could show that the presence of these cytokines had no direct effect on growth of either TCRV of JUNV in macrophages. Further analysis also showed that while the production of IL-6 and IL-10 are dependent on viral replication, production of TNF-α also occurs after exposure to UV-inactivated TCRV particles and is thus independent of productive virus infection. Surprisingly, JUNV infection did not have an effect on any of the cytokines examined indicating that, in contrast to other viral hemorrhagic fever viruses, macrophage-derived cytokine production is unlikely to play an active role in contributing to the cytokine dysregulation observed in JUNV infected patients. Rather, these results suggest that an early, controlled immune response by infected macrophages may be critical for the successful control of infection of apathogenic viruses and prevention of subsequent disease, including systemic cytokine dysregulation.

  6. Lemongrass and citral effect on cytokines production by murine macrophages.

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    Bachiega, Tatiana Fernanda; Sforcin, José Maurício

    2011-09-01

    Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf (Poaceae-Gramineae), an herb commonly known as lemongrass (LG), is an important source of ethnomedicines as well as citral, the major constituent of Cymbopogon citratus, used in perfumery, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries for controlling pathogens. Thus, the goal of this work was to analyze the effect of LG and citral on cytokines production (IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-10) in vitro, as well as before or after LPS incubation. Peritoneal macrophages from BALB/c mice were treated with LG or citral in different concentrations for 24h. The concentrations that inhibited cytokines production were tested before or after macrophages challenge with LPS, in order to evaluate a possible anti-inflammatory action. Supernatants of cell cultures were used for cytokines determination by ELISA. As to IL-1β, only citral inhibited its release, exerting an efficient action before LPS challenge. LG and citral inhibited IL-6 release. Cymbopogon citratus showed inhibitory effects only after LPS challenge, whereas citral prevented efficiently LPS effects before and after LPS addition. Citral inhibited IL-10 production and although LG did not inhibit its production, the concentration of 100 μg/well was tested in the LPS-challenge protocol, because it inhibited IL-6 production. LG inhibited LPS action after macrophages incubation with LPS, while citral counteracted LPS action when added before or after LPS incubation. LG exerted an anti-inflammatory action and citral may be involved in its inhibitory effects on cytokines production. We suggest that a possible mechanism involved in such results could be the inhibition of the transcription factor NF-κB. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Krill Oil-In-Water Emulsion Protects against Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Proinflammatory Activation of Macrophages In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaterra, Gabriel A; Driscoll, David; Schwarzbach, Hans; Kinscherf, Ralf

    2017-03-15

    Parenteral nutrition is often a mandatory therapeutic strategy for cases of septicemia. Likewise, therapeutic application of anti-oxidants, anti-inflammatory therapy, and endotoxin lowering, by removal or inactivation, might be beneficial to ameliorate the systemic inflammatory response during the acute phases of critical illness. Concerning anti-inflammatory properties in this setting, omega-3 fatty acids of marine origin have been frequently described. This study investigated the anti-inflammatory and LPS-inactivating properties of krill oil (KO)-in-water emulsion in human macrophages in vitro. Differentiated THP-1 macrophages were activated using specific ultrapure-LPS that binds only on the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in order to determine the inhibitory properties of the KO emulsion on the LPS-binding capacity, and the subsequent release of TNF-α. KO emulsion inhibited the macrophage binding of LPS to the TLR4 by 50% (at 12.5 µg/mL) and 75% (at 25 µg/mL), whereas, at 50 µg/mL, completely abolished the LPS binding. Moreover, KO (12.5 µg/mL, 25 µg/mL, or 50 µg/mL) also inhibited (30%, 40%, or 75%, respectively) the TNF-α release after activation with 0.01 µg/mL LPS in comparison with LPS treatment alone. KO emulsion influences the LPS-induced pro-inflammatory activation of macrophages, possibly due to inactivation of the LPS binding capacity.

  8. Effect of pecan phenolics on the release of nitric oxide from murine RAW 264.7 macrophage cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Katherine S; Greenspan, Phillip; Pegg, Ronald B

    2016-12-01

    Inflammation is linked to numerous chronic disease states. Phenolic compounds have attracted attention because a number of these compounds possess anti-inflammatory properties. A phenolic crude extract was prepared from pecans and separated by Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography into low- and high-molecular-weight (LMW/HMW) fractions. Anti-inflammatory properties of these fractions were assessed in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells. NO and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was monitored after 3 different experimental protocols: (1) pre-treatment with Escherichia coli O111:B4 lipopolysaccharide (LPS); (2) pre-treatment with a pecan crude extract and its fractions; and (3) co-incubation of LPS with a pecan crude extract and its fractions. The LMW fraction displayed a dose-dependent decrease in NO production and a significant decrease from the LPS control in ROS production when cells were either co-incubated with or pre-treated with LPS. The phenolics were characterized by HPLC to help identify those responsible for the observed effect. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Calreticulin Release at an Early Stage of Death Modulates the Clearance by Macrophages of Apoptotic Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Rim; Tacnet-Delorme, Pascale; Kleman, Jean-Philippe; Millet, Arnaud; Frachet, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Calreticulin (CRT) is a well-known “eat-me” signal harbored by dying cells participating in their recognition by phagocytes. CRT is also recognized to deeply impact the immune response to altered self-cells. In this study, we focus on the role of the newly exposed CRT following cell death induction. We show that if CRT increases at the outer face of the plasma membrane and is well recognized by C1q even when phosphatidylserine is not yet detected, CRT is also released in the surrounding milieu and is able to interact with phagocytes. We observed that exogenous CRT is endocytosed by THP1 macrophages through macropinocytosis and that internalization is associated with a particular phenotype characterized by an increase of cell spreading and migration, an upregulation of CD14, an increase of interleukin-8 release, and a decrease of early apoptotic cell uptake. Importantly, CRT-induced pro-inflammatory phenotype was confirmed on human monocytes-derived macrophages by the overexpression of CD40 and CD274, and we found that monocyte-derived macrophages exposed to CRT display a peculiar polarization notably associated with a downregulation of the histocompatibility complex of class II molecules hampering its description through the classical M1/M2 dichotomy. Altogether our results highlight the role of soluble CRT with strong possible consequences on the macrophage-mediated immune response to dying cell. PMID:28878781

  10. Calreticulin Release at an Early Stage of Death Modulates the Clearance by Macrophages of Apoptotic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rim Osman

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Calreticulin (CRT is a well-known “eat-me” signal harbored by dying cells participating in their recognition by phagocytes. CRT is also recognized to deeply impact the immune response to altered self-cells. In this study, we focus on the role of the newly exposed CRT following cell death induction. We show that if CRT increases at the outer face of the plasma membrane and is well recognized by C1q even when phosphatidylserine is not yet detected, CRT is also released in the surrounding milieu and is able to interact with phagocytes. We observed that exogenous CRT is endocytosed by THP1 macrophages through macropinocytosis and that internalization is associated with a particular phenotype characterized by an increase of cell spreading and migration, an upregulation of CD14, an increase of interleukin-8 release, and a decrease of early apoptotic cell uptake. Importantly, CRT-induced pro-inflammatory phenotype was confirmed on human monocytes-derived macrophages by the overexpression of CD40 and CD274, and we found that monocyte-derived macrophages exposed to CRT display a peculiar polarization notably associated with a downregulation of the histocompatibility complex of class II molecules hampering its description through the classical M1/M2 dichotomy. Altogether our results highlight the role of soluble CRT with strong possible consequences on the macrophage-mediated immune response to dying cell.

  11. Kaempferol alleviates LPS-induced neuroinflammation and BBB dysfunction in mice via inhibiting HMGB1 release and down-regulating TLR4/MyD88 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiao; Yang, Ying-Lin; Yang, Huan; Wang, Yue-Hua; Du, Guan-Hua

    2018-03-01

    Kaempferol is a natural flavonoid with many biological activities including anti-oxidation and anti-inflammation. Nevertheless, its anti-neuroinflammation role and the relevant mechanism remain unclear. The present study was to investigate effects of kaempferol against LPS-induced neuroinflammation and blood-brain barrier dysfunction as well as the mechanism in mice. BALB/c mice were treated with LPS 5mg/kg to induce inflammation after pre-treatment with kaempferol 25, 50, or 100mg/kg for 7days. The results showed that kaempferol reduced the production of various pro-inflammatory factors and inflammatory proteins including IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, MCP-1, COX-2 and iNOS in brain tissues. In addition, kaempferol also protected BBB integrity and increased BBB related proteins including occludin-1, claudin-1 and CX43 in brain of LPS-induced mice. Furthermore, kaempferol significantly reduced HMGB1 level and suppressed TLR4/MyD88 inflammatory pathway in both transcription level and translation level. These results collectively suggested that kaempferol might be a promising neuroprotective agent for alleviating inflammatory responses and BBB dysfunction by inhibiting HMGB1 release and down-regulating TLR4/MyD88 inflammatory pathway. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Plant Polyphenols and Exendin-4 Prevent Hyperactivity and TNF-α Release in LPS-Treated In vitro Neuron/Astrocyte/Microglial Networks

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    Francesca Gullo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence supports a decisive role for neuroinflammation in the neurodegenerative process of several central nervous system (CNS disorders. Microglia are essential mediators of neuroinflammation and can regulate a broad spectrum of cellular responses by releasing reactive oxygen intermediates, nitric oxide, proteases, excitatory amino acids, and cytokines. We have recently shown that also in ex-vivo cortical networks of neurons, astrocytes and microglia, an increased level of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α was detected a few hours after exposure to the bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS. Simultaneously, an atypical “seizure-like” neuronal network activity was recorded by multi-electrode array (MEA electrophysiology. These effects were prevented by minocycline, an established anti-inflammatory antibiotic. We show here that the same inhibitory effect against LPS-induced neuroinflammation is exerted also by natural plant compounds, polyphenols, such as curcumin (CU, curcuma longa, crocin (CR, saffron, and resveratrol (RE, grape, as well as by the glucagon like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R agonist exendin-4 (EX-4. The drugs tested also caused per-se early transient (variable changes of network activity. Since it has been reported that LPS-induced neuroinflammation causes rearrangements of glutamate transporters in astrocytes and microglia, we suggest that neural activity could be putatively increased by an imbalance of glial glutamate transporter activity, leading to prolonged synaptic glutamatergic dysregulation.

  13. System with embedded drug release and nanoparticle degradation sensor showing efficient rifampicin delivery into macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trousil, Jiří; Filippov, Sergey K; Hrubý, Martin; Mazel, Tomáš; Syrová, Zdeňka; Cmarko, Dušan; Svidenská, Silvie; Matějková, Jana; Kováčik, Lubomír; Porsch, Bedřich; Konefał, Rafał; Lund, Reidar; Nyström, Bo; Raška, Ivan; Štěpánek, Petr

    2017-01-01

    We have developed a biodegradable, biocompatible system for the delivery of the antituberculotic antibiotic rifampicin with a built-in drug release and nanoparticle degradation fluorescence sensor. Polymer nanoparticles based on poly(ethylene oxide) monomethyl ether-block-poly(ε-caprolactone) were noncovalently loaded with rifampicin, a combination that, to best of our knowledge, was not previously described in the literature, which showed significant benefits. The nanoparticles contain a Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) system that allows real-time assessment of drug release not only in vitro, but also in living macrophages where the mycobacteria typically reside as hard-to-kill intracellular parasites. The fluorophore also enables in situ monitoring of the enzymatic nanoparticle degradation in the macrophages. We show that the nanoparticles are efficiently taken up by macrophages, where they are very quickly associated with the lysosomal compartment. After drug release, the nanoparticles in the cmacrophages are enzymatically degraded, with half-life 88±11 min. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Release of lysosomal enzymes in Candida albicans phagocytosis by rat peritoneal macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontenla de Petrino, S E; Sirena, A

    1984-02-15

    The present paper reports the in vitro release of lysosomal enzymes in the supernatant of cultures of rat peritoneal macrophages, with the addition of Candida albicans cells. Macrophages were taken from the rat peritoneal cavity 72 hr after non-specific activation with Brain-Heart-Infusion (B.H.I.) broth containing 10% proteose-peptone No. 3. They were then cultured in Parker medium No. 199 (TC 199). After 24 hr a suspension of Candida albicans cells, in a determined concentration, was added to the peritoneal macrophage cultures. At that time, and during pre-determined periods, the following enzymes in the culture supernatants were studied using colorimetric methods: beta-glucuronidase, beta-galactosidase and acid phosphatase. It is concluded that, under identical conditions, the release of beta-galactosidase and acid phosphatase is higher than for beta-glucuronidase. The release rate of all three enzymes is the highest at a 6 hr incubation period, after which, a gradual decrease leads to the rate down to 50% at 24 hr.

  15. Anti-inflammation effect of methyl salicylate 2-O-β-D-lactoside on adjuvant induced-arthritis rats and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated murine macrophages RAW264.7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xue; Sun, Jialin; Xin, Wenyu; Li, Yongjie; Ni, Lin; Ma, Xiaowei; Zhang, Dan; Zhang, Dongming; Zhang, Tiantai; Du, Guanhua

    2015-03-01

    Methyl salicylate 2-O-β-D-lactoside (MSL) is a derivative of natural salicylate isolated from Gaultheria yunnanensis (Franch.) Rehder, which is widely used for treating rheumatoid arthritis (RA), swelling and pain. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of MSL on the progression of adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) in rat in vivo and explore the anti-inflammatory effects and mechanism of MSL in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated murine macrophages RAW264.7 cells in vitro. Our results showed that MSL significantly inhibited the arthritis progression in AIA rats, decreasing the right hind paw swelling and ankle diameter, attenuating histopathological changes and suppressing the plasma levels of TNF-α and IL-1β in AIA rats. Besides, MSL had potent anti-inflammatory effects on the LPS-activated RAW264.7. MSL dose-dependently inhibited the activity of COX-1, and COX-2. Moreover, MSL prominently inhibited LPS-induced activation of MAPK in RAW264.7 cells by blocking phosphorylation of p38 and ERK. Our study suggests that MSL may be effective in the treatment of inflammatory diseases by inhibiting the pro-inflammatory cytokine production and regulating the MAPK signal pathway. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Short-term heating reduces the anti-inflammatory effects of fresh raw garlic extracts on the LPS-induced production of NO and pro-inflammatory cytokines by downregulating allicin activity in RAW 264.7 macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jung-Hye; Ryu, Ji Hyeon; Kang, Min Jung; Hwang, Cho Rong; Han, Jaehee; Kang, Dawon

    2013-08-01

    Garlic has a variety of biologic activities, including anti-inflammatory properties. Although garlic has several biologic activities, some people dislike eating fresh raw garlic because of its strong taste and smell. Therefore, garlic formulations involving heating procedures have been developed. In this study, we investigated whether short-term heating affects the anti-inflammatory properties of garlic. Fresh and heated raw garlic extracts (FRGE and HRGE) were prepared with incubation at 25 °C and 95 °C, respectively, for 2 h. Treatment with FRGE and HRGE significantly reduced the LPS-induced increase in the pro-inflammatory cytokine concentration (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6) and NO through HO-1 upregulation in RAW 264.7 macrophages. The anti-inflammatory effect was greater in FRGE than in HRGE. The allicin concentration was higher in FRGE than in HRGE. Allicin treatment showed reduced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and NO and increased HO-1 activity. The results show that the decrease in LPS-induced NO and pro-inflammatory cytokines in RAW 264.7 macrophages through HO-1 induction was greater for FRGE compared with HRGE. Additionally, the results indicate that allicin is responsible for the anti-inflammatory effect of FRGE. Our results suggest a potential therapeutic use of allicin in the treatment of chronic inflammatory disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Controlled release of sphingosine-1-phosphate agonist with gelatin hydrogels for macrophage recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Masahiro; Saito, Takashi; Tabata, Yasuhiko

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study is to design a drug delivery system (DDS) for the in vivo promotion of macrophage recruitment. As the drug, a water-insoluble agonist of sphingosine-1-phosphate type 1 receptor (SEW2871) was selected. SEW2871 (SEW) was water-solubilized by micelle formation with gelatin grafted by L-lactic acid oligomer. SEW micelles were mixed with gelatin, followed by dehydrothermal crosslinking of gelatin to obtain gelatin hydrogels incorporating SEW micelles. SEW was released from the hydrogels incorporating SEW micelles in vitro and in vivo. The water-solubilized SEW showed in vitro macrophage migration activity. When implanted into the back subcutis or the skin wound defect of mice, the hydrogel incorporating SEW micelles promoted macrophage migration toward the tissue around the implanted site to a significantly great extent compared with SEW-free hydrogel and that mixed with SEW micelles. The hydrogel is a promising DDS to enhance macrophage recruitment in vivo. Copyright © 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Alveolar macrophage phagocytosis is enhanced after blunt chest trauma and alters the posttraumatic mediator release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitz, Daniel H; Palmer, Annette; Niesler, Ulrike; Fröba, Janine S; Heidemann, Vera; Rittlinger, Anne; Braumüller, Sonja T; Zhou, Shaoxia; Gebhard, Florian; Knöferl, Markus W

    2011-12-01

    Blunt chest trauma is known to induce a pulmonary invasion of short-lived polymorphonuclear neutrophils and apoptosis of alveolar epithelial type 2 (AT2) cells. Apoptotic cells are removed by alveolar macrophages (AMΦ). We hypothesized that chest trauma alters the phagocytic response of AMΦ as well as the mediator release of AMΦ during phagocytosis. To study this, male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to blunt chest trauma. Phagocytosis assays were performed in AMΦ isolated 2 or 24 h after trauma with apoptotic cells or opsonized beads. Phagocytosis of apoptotic AT2 cells by unstimulated AMΦ was significantly increased 2 h after trauma. At 24 h, AMΦ from traumatized animals, stimulated with phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate, ingested significantly more apoptotic polymorphonuclear neutrophils than AMΦ from sham animals. Alveolar macrophages after trauma released significantly higher levels of tumor necrosis factor α, macrophage inflammatory protein 1α, and cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant 1 when they incorporated latex beads, but significantly lower levels of interleukin 1β and macrophage inflammatory protein 1α when they ingested apoptotic cells. In vivo, phagocytosis of intratracheally instilled latex beads was decreased in traumatized rats. The bronchoalveolar lavage concentrations of the phagocytosis-supporting surfactant proteins A and D after blunt chest trauma were slightly decreased, whereas surfactant protein D mRNA expression in AT2 cells was significantly increased after 2 h. These findings indicate that chest trauma augments the phagocytosis of apoptotic cells by AMΦ. Phagocytosis of opsonized beads enhances and ingestion of apoptotic cells downregulates the immunologic response following lung contusion. Our data emphasize the important role of phagocytosis during posttraumatic inflammation after lung contusion.

  19. Consistent inhibition of cyclooxygenase drives macrophages towards the inflammatory phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Rang Na

    Full Text Available Macrophages play important roles in defense against infection, as well as in homeostasis maintenance. Thus alterations of macrophage function can have unexpected pathological results. Cyclooxygenase (COX inhibitors are widely used to relieve pain, but the effects of long-term usage on macrophage function remain to be elucidated. Using bone marrow-derived macrophage culture and long-term COX inhibitor treatments in BALB/c mice and zebrafish, we showed that chronic COX inhibition drives macrophages into an inflammatory state. Macrophages differentiated in the presence of SC-560 (COX-1 inhibitor, NS-398 (COX-2 inhibitor or indomethacin (COX-1/2 inhibitor for 7 days produced more TNFα or IL-12p70 with enhanced p65/IκB phosphoylation. YmI and IRF4 expression was reduced significantly, indicative of a more inflammatory phenotype. We further observed that indomethacin or NS-398 delivery accelerated zebrafish death rates during LPS induced sepsis. When COX inhibitors were released over 30 days from an osmotic pump implant in mice, macrophages from peritoneal cavities and adipose tissue produced more TNFα in both the basal state and under LPS stimulation. Consequently, indomethacin-exposed mice showed accelerated systemic inflammation after LPS injection. Our findings suggest that macrophages exhibit a more inflammatory phenotype when COX activities are chronically inhibited.

  20. Characterization of recombinant human HBP/CAP37/azurocidin, a pleiotropic mediator of inflammation-enhancing LPS-induced cytokine release from monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, P B; Bjørn, S; Hastrup, S; Nielsen, P F; Norris, K; Thim, L; Wiberg, F C; Flodgaard, H

    1996-07-15

    Neutrophil-derived heparin-binding protein (HBP) is a strong chemoattractant for monocytes. We report here for the first time the expression of recombinant HBP. A baculovirus containing the human HBP cDNA mediated in insect cells the secretion of a 7-residue N-terminally extended HBP form (pro-HBP). Deletion of the pro-peptide-encoding cDNA sequence resulted in correctly processed HBP at the N-terminus. Electrospray mass spectrum analysis of recombinant HBP yielded a molecular weight of 27.237 +/- 3 amu. Consistent with this mass is a HBP form of 225 amino acids (mature part +3 amino acid C-terminal extension). The biological activity of recombinant HBP was confirmed by its chemotactic action towards monocytes. Furthermore, we have shown that recombinant HBP stimulates in a dose-dependent manner the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cytokine release from human monocytes.

  1. Chronic cigarette smoking enhances spontaneous release of tumour necrosis factor-α from alveolar macrophages of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Pessina

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Some biological effects of chronic cigarette smoking (two cigarettes for 2 h, daily for 4 months in rats were evaluated. During the smoking period, body weight of smoker rats was always significantly lower than that of control rats. Immediately after the last smoking session the carboxyhaemoglobin concentration in the blood was about 8.5% and the polymorphonuclear cells in the bronchoalveolar fluid increased significantly. At the same time, enzymatic analyses on the supernatants of bronchoalveolar fluid revealed a significant increase of β-glucuronidase in the smoker group. Alveolar macrophages, collected 0, 8 and 24 h after the last smoking session, significantly increased the generation of superoxide anion and, after incubation for 24 h at 37° C in a humidified atmosphere, released significantly high amounts of TNF-α. When challenged with lipopolysaccharide, alveolar macrophages of smoker rats released much more TNF-α but, in such a case, TNF-α release was about one half of that observed in the control group. Peritoneal macrophages of both control and smoker rats were unable either to generate high levels of superoxide anion or to release significant amounts of TNF-α. The results clearly demonstrated the activated state of alveolar macrophages and the resting state of peritoneal macrophages.

  2. The β-adrenoceptor agonist clenbuterol is a potent inhibitor of the LPS-induced production of TNF-α and IL-6 in vitro and in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Izeboud, C.A.; Monshouwer, M.; Miert, A.S.J.P.A.M. van; Witkamp, R.F.

    1999-01-01

    Objective and Design: To investigate the suppressive effects of the β-agonist clenbuterol on the release of TNF-α and IL-6 in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-model of inflammation, both in vitro and in vivo. Material and Subjects: Human U-937 cell line (monocyte-derived macrophages), and male Wistar rats

  3. Substance P enhances tissue factor release from granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor-dependent macrophages via the p22phox/β-arrestin 2/Rho A signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Rui; Yamamoto, Takatoshi; Sakamoto, Arisa; Ishimaru, Yasuji; Narahara, Shinji; Sugiuchi, Hiroyuki; Yamaguchi, Yasuo

    2016-03-01

    Granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) induces procoagulant activity of macrophages. Tissue factor (TF) is a membrane-bound glycoprotein and substance P (SP) is a pro-inflammatory neuropeptide involved in the formation of membrane blebs. This study investigated the role of SP in TF release by GM-CSF-dependent macrophages. SP significantly decreased TF levels in whole-cell lysates of GM-CSF-dependent macrophages. TF was detected in the culture supernatant by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay after stimulation of macrophages by SP. Aprepitant (an SP/neurokinin 1 receptor antagonist) reduced TF release from macrophages stimulated with SP. Pretreatment of macrophages with a radical scavenger(pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate) also limited the decrease of TF in whole-cell lysates after stimulation with SP. A protein kinase C inhibitor (rottlerin) partially blocked this macrophage response to SP, while it was significantly inhibited by a ROCK inhibitor (Y-27632) or a dynamin inhibitor (dinasore). An Akt inhibitor (perifosine) also partially blocked this response. Furthermore, siRNA targeting p22phox, β-arrestin 2, or Rho A, blunted the release of TF from macrophages stimulated with SP. In other experiments, visceral adipocytes derived from cryopreserved preadipocytes were found to produce SP. In conclusion, SP enhances the release of TF from macrophages via the p22phox/β-arrestin 2/Rho A signaling pathway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Recombinant CC16 protein inhibits the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines via NF-κB and p38 MAPK pathways in LPS-activated RAW264.7 macrophages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Pang; Guoping Zheng; Baofeng Yu; Hailong Wang; Yangyang Yuan; Dong Wang; Ting Li; Dan Wang; Xiaohong Shi; Min Guo; Chunfang Wang; Xinri Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that Clara cell protein-16 (CC16) has anti-inflammatory functions,although the involved molecular pathways have not been completely elucidated.Here,we evaluated the effect of recombinant rat CC16 (rCC16) on the expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α),interleukin-6 (IL-6),and IL-8 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated mouse macrophages (RAW264.7 cells) and explored the underlying molecular mechanisms.It was found that rCC16 inhibited LPS-induced TNF-α,IL-6,and IL-8 expression at both the messenger ribonucleicacid (mRNA) level and protein level in a concentration-dependent manner,as demonstrated by realtime reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.Such suppressive effects were accompanied by the inhibition of transcriptional activity and the deoxyribonucleic acid binding activity of nuclear factor (NF)-κB but not activator protein (AP)-1.Western blot analysis further revealed that rCC16 inhibited the increase of nuclear NF-κB and the reduction of cytosolic NF-κB,the phosphorylation and reduction of NF-κB inhibitory protein IκBα,and the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-dependent NF-κB activation by phosphoryl-ation at Ser276 of its p65 subunit.Furthermore,rCC16 was found to have no effect on the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase,c-Jun,or the nuclear translocation of c-Jun.In addition,reduction of TNF-α,IL-6,and IL-8 were reversed when the level of endogenous uteroglobin-binding protein was reduced by RNA interference in rCC16-and LPS-treated RAW264.7 cells.Our data suggest that rCC16 suppresses LPS-mediated inflammatory mediator TNF-α,IL-6,and IL-8 production by inactivating NF-κB and p38 MAPK but not AP-1 in RAW264.7 cells.

  5. Different particle determinants induce apoptosis and cytokine release in primary alveolar macrophage cultures

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    Schwarze Per E

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Particles are known to induce both cytokine release (MIP-2, TNF-α, a reduction in cell viability and an increased apoptosis in alveolar macrophages. To examine whether these responses are triggered by the same particle determinants, alveolar macrophages were exposed in vitro to mineral particles of different physical-chemical properties. Results The crystalline particles of the different stone types mylonite, gabbro, basalt, feldspar, quartz, hornfels and fine grain syenite porphyr (porphyr, with a relatively equal size distribution (≤ 10 μm, but different chemical/mineral composition, all induced low and relatively similar levels of apoptosis. In contrast, mylonite and gabbro induced a marked MIP-2 response compared to the other particles. For particles of smaller size, quartz (≤ 2 μm seemed to induce a somewhat stronger apoptotic response than even smaller quartz (≤ 0.5 μm and larger quartz (≤ 10 μm in relation to surface area, and was more potent than hornfels and porphyr (≤ 2 μm. The reduction in cell viability induced by quartz of the different sizes was roughly similar when adjusted to surface area. With respect to cytokines, the release was more marked after exposure to quartz ≤ 0.5 μm than to quartz ≤ 2 μm and ≤ 10 μm. Furthermore, hornfels (≤ 2 μm was more potent than the corresponding hornfels (≤ 10 μm and quartz (≤ 2 μm to induce cytokine responses. Pre-treatment of hornfels and quartz particles ≤ 2 μm with aluminium lactate, to diminish the surface reactivity, did significantly reduce the MIP-2 response to hornfels. In contrast, the apoptotic responses to the particles were not affected. Conclusion These results indicate that different determinants of mineral/stone particles are critical for inducing cytokine responses, reduction in cell viability and apoptosis in alveolar macrophages. The data suggest that the particle surface reactivity was critical for cytokine responses

  6. Recruitment of mesenchymal stem cells and macrophages by dual release of stromal cell-derived factor-1 and a macrophage recruitment agent enhances wound closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yang-Hee; Tabata, Yasuhiko

    2016-04-01

    In this study, the wound closure of mouse skin defects was examined in terms of recruitment of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) and macrophages. For the cells recruitment, stromal derived factor-1 (SDF-1) of a MSC recruitment agent and sphingosine-1 phosphate agonist (SEW2871) of a macrophages recruitment agent were incorporated into gelatin hydrogels, and then released in a controlled fashion. When applied to a skin wound defect of mice, gelatin hydrogels incorporating mixed 500 ng SDF-1 and 0.4, 0.8, or 1.6 mg SEW2871-micelles recruited a higher number of both MSC and macrophages than those incorporating SDF-1 or phosphate buffered saline. However, the number of M1 phenotype macrophages for the hydrogel incorporating mixed SDF-1 and SEW2871-micelles recruited was remarkably low to a significant extent compared with that for those hydrogel incorporating 0.4, 0.8, or 1.6 mg SEW2871-micelles. On the other hand, the number of M2 macrophages 3 days after the implantation of the hydrogels incorporating SDF-1 and 0.4 mg SEW2871-micelles significantly increased compared with that for other hydrogels. In vivo experiments revealed the hydrogels incorporating SDF-1 and 0.4 mg SEW2871-micelles promoted the wound closure of skin defect to a significant stronger extent than those incorporating SEW2871-micelles, SDF-1, and a mixture of SDF-1 and higher doses of SEW2871-micelles. It is concluded that the in vivo recruitment of MSC and macrophages to the defects may contribute to the tissue regeneration of skin wound. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. CCR8 signaling influences Toll-like receptor 4 responses in human macrophages in inflammatory diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, Martina Kvist; Brange, Charlotte; Rosendahl, Alexander

    2011-12-01

    CCR8 immunity is generally associated with Th2 responses in allergic diseases. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time a pronounced attenuated influx of macrophages in ovalbumin (OVA)-challenged CCR8 knockout mice. To explore whether macrophages in human inflamed lung tissue also were CCR8 positive, human lung tissue from patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) was evaluated. Indeed, CCR8 expression was pronounced in invading monocytes/macrophages from lungs of patients with Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) stage IV COPD. Given this expression pattern, the functional role of CCR8 on human macrophages was evaluated in vitro. Human peripheral blood monocytes expressed low levels of CCR8, while macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF)-derived human macrophages expressed significantly elevated surface levels of CCR8. Importantly, CCL1 directly regulated the expression of CD18 and CD49b and hence influenced the adhesion capacity of human macrophages. CCL1 drives chemotaxis in M-CSF-derived macrophages, and this could be completely inhibited by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Whereas both CCL1 and LPS monotreatment inhibited spontaneous superoxide release in macrophages, CCL1 significantly induced superoxide release in the presence of LPS in a dose-dependent manner. Finally, CCL1 induced production of proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) and could inhibit LPS-induced cytokine production in a dose-dependent manner. Our data demonstrate, for the first time, the presence of CCR8 on inflammatory macrophages in human COPD lung tissue. Importantly, the functional data from human macrophages suggest a potential cross talk between the CCR8 and the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) pathways, both of which are present in COPD patients.

  8. Bid-Induced Release of AIF/EndoG from Mitochondria Causes Apoptosis of Macrophages during Infection with Leptospira interrogans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Lin Hu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is a global zoonotic infectious disease caused by pathogenic Leptospira species. Leptospire-induced macrophage apoptosis through the Fas/FasL-caspase-8/3 pathway plays an important role in the survival and proliferation of the pathogen in hosts. Although, the release of mitochondrial apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF and endonuclease G (EndoG in leptospire-infected macrophages has been described, the mechanisms linking caspase and mitochondrion-related host-cell apoptosis has not been determined. Here, we demonstrated that leptospire-infection induced apoptosis through mitochondrial damages in macrophages. Apoptosis was caused by the mitochondrial release and nuclear translocation of AIF and/or EndoG, leading to nuclear DNA fragmentation. However, the mitochondrion-related CytC-caspase-9/3 pathway was not activated. Next, we found that the release and translocation of AIF and/or EndoG was preceded by the activation of the BH3-interacting domain death agonist (Bid. Furthermore, our data demonstrated that caspase-8 was activated during the infection and caused the activation of Bid. Meanwhile, high reactive oxygen species (ROS trigged by the infection caused the dephosphorylation of Akt, which also activated Bid. In conclusion, Bid-mediated mitochondrial release of AIF and/or EndoG followed by nuclear translocation is a major mechanism of leptospire- induced apoptosis in macrophages, and this process is modulated by both caspase-8 and ROS-Akt signal pathways.

  9. Atrial natriuretic peptide down-regulates LPS/ATP-mediated IL-1β release by inhibiting NF-kB, NLRP3 inflammasome and caspase-1 activation in THP-1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezzasoma, Letizia; Antognelli, Cinzia; Talesa, Vincenzo Nicola

    2016-02-01

    Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is an hormone/paracrine/autocrine factor regulating cardiovascular homeostasis by guanylyl cyclase natriuretic peptide receptor (NPR-1). ANP plays an important role also in regulating inflammatory and immune systems by altering macrophages functions and cytokines secretion. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) is a potent pro-inflammatory cytokine involved in a wide range of biological responses, including the immunological one. Unlike other cytokines, IL-1β production is rigorously controlled. Primarily, NF-kB activation is required to produce pro-IL-1β; subsequently, NALP3 inflammasome/caspase-1 activation is required to cleave pro-IL-1β into the active secreted protein. NALP3 is a molecular platform capable of sensing a large variety of signals and a major player in innate immune defense. Due to their pleiotropism, IL-1β and NALP3 dysregulation is a common feature of a wide range of diseases. Therefore, identifying molecules regulating IL-1β/NALP3/caspase-1 expression is an important step in the development of new potential therapeutic agents. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of ANP on IL-1β/NALP3/caspase-1 expression in LPS/ATP-stimulated human THP1 monocytes. We provided new evidence of the direct involvement of ANP/NPR-1/cGMP axis on NF-kB/NALP3/caspase-1-mediated IL-1β release and NF-kB-mediated pro-IL-1β production. In particular, ANP inhibited both NF-kB and NALP3/caspase-1 activation leading to pro- and mature IL-1β down-regulation. Our data, pointing out a modulatory role of this endogenous peptide on IL-1β release and on NF-kB/NALP3/caspase-1 activation, indicate an important anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effect of ANP via these mechanisms. We suggest a possible employment of ANP for the treatment of inflammatory/immune-related diseases and IL-1β/NALP3-associated disorders, affecting millions of people worldwide.

  10. Inhibitory effect of trichodermanone C, a sorbicillinoid produced by Trichoderma citrinoviride associated to the green alga Cladophora sp., on nitrite production in LPS-stimulated macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, Roberta; Nicoletti, Rosario; Pagano, Ester; DellaGreca, Marina; Salvatore, Maria Michela; Borrelli, Francesca; Lombardi, Nadia; Vinale, Francesco; Woo, Sheridan L; Andolfi, Anna

    2018-05-31

    From the green alga Cladophora sp. collected in Italy, the marine fungal strain A12 of Trichoderma citrinoviride was isolated, identified and characterized. LC-MS qTOF analysis was applied to perform a metabolic profile of the fungal culture. Chromatographic techniques and spectroscopic methods were used to isolate and characterize the major secondary metabolites produced by this strain in liquid culture. In particular, four known sorbicillinoids (trichodermanone C, spirosorbicillinol A, vertinolide and sorbicillin) were purified and identified, together with 2-phenylethanol and tyrosol. Moreover, metabolomic analysis allowed to detect small amounts of trichodimerol, rezishanone A, 2',3'-dihydrosorbicillin and bisvertinol. For the first time a significant inhibitory effect on nitrite levels has been shown for trichodermanone C in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated J774A.1 macrophages.

  11. Long-time treatment by low-dose N-acetyl-L-cysteine enhances proinflammatory cytokine expressions in LPS-stimulated macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomokazu Ohnishi

    Full Text Available N-acetyl-L-cysteine is known to act as a reactive oxygen species scavenger and used in clinical applications. Previous reports have shown that high-dose N-acetyl-L-cysteine treatment inhibits the expression of proinflammatory cytokines in activated macrophages. Here, we have found that long-time N-acetyl-L-cysteine treatment at low-concentration increases phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and AKT, which are essential for the induction of proinflammatory cytokines including interleukin 1β and interleukin 6 in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Furthermore, long-time N-acetyl-L-cysteine treatment decreases expressions of protein phosphatases, catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase-2A and dual specificity phosphatase 1. On the other hand, we have found that short-time N-acetyl-L-cysteine treatment at low dose increases p53 expression, which inhibits expressions of proinflammatory cytokines. These observations suggest that long-time low-dose N-acetyl-L-cysteine treatment increases expressions of proinflammatory cytokines through enhancement of kinase phosphorylation.

  12. Inhibition of LPS toxicity by hepatic argininosuccinate synthase (ASS): novel roles for ASS in innate immune responses to bacterial infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prima, Victor; Wang, Alvin; Molina, Gabriel; Wang, Kevin K W; Svetlov, Stanislav I

    2011-09-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a structural component of Gram-negative bacteria, is implicated in the pathogenesis of endotoxemia/sepsis and multi-organ injury, including liver damage. We have shown that argininosuccinate synthase (ASS), a hepatic enzyme of the urea cycle, accumulates in circulation within 1h after treatment with both LPS alone and hepatotoxic combination of LPS and D-Galactosamine. These findings indicate ASS as a sensitive biomarker of liver responses to bacterial endotoxin. Furthermore, we suggest that the ASS release represents a potential counteracting liver reaction to LPS, and demonstrates anti-LPS activity of recombinant ASS (rASS) in vitro and in rodent models of endotoxemia in vivo. rASS physically bound to LPS, as indicated by a gel shift assay, and suppressed Escherichia coli growth in cultures consistent with direct antimicrobial properties of ASS. rASS reduced LPS cytotoxicity, TNF-α production, and increased cell viability in cultured mouse macrophages, even when added one hour following LPS challenge. Intraperitoneal injection of rASS (5 mg/kg) after treatment with a high dose of LPS remarkably increased survival of rodents, with a concomitant decrease of sepsis markers TNF-α, C-reactive protein (CRP), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels in blood. These results suggest that the endogenous ASS constitutes a novel liver-derived component of the innate immune response to bacterial LPS, and that recombinant ASS could mitigate the lethal effects of bacterial endotoxins during sepsis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of β-Glucan on the Release of Nitric Oxide by Macrophages Stimulated with Lipopolysaccharide

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    E. Y. Choi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This research analyzed the effect of β-glucan that is expected to alleviate the production of the inflammatory mediator in macrophagocytes, which are processed by the lipopolysaccharide (LPS of Escherichia. The incubated layer was used for a nitric oxide (NO analysis. The DNA-binding activation of the small unit of nuclear factor-κB was measured using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-based kit. In the RAW264.7 cells that were vitalized by Escherichia coli (E. coli LPS, the β-glucan inhibited both the combatant and rendering phases of the inducible NO synthase (iNOS-derived NO. β-Glucan increased the expression of the heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 in the cells that were stimulated by E. coli LPS, and the HO-1 activation was inhibited by the tin protoporphyrin IX (SnPP. This shows that the NO production induced by LPS is related to the inhibition effect of β-glucan. The phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK and the p38 induced by the LPS were not influenced by the β-glucan, and the inhibitory κB-α (IκB-α decomposition was not influenced either. Instead, β-glucan remarkably inhibited the phosphorylation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription-1 (STAT1 that was induced by the E. coli LPS. Overall, the β-glucan inhibited the production of NO in macrophagocytes that was vitalized by the E .coli LPS through the HO-1 induction and the STAT1 pathways inhibition in this research. As the host immune response control by β-glucan weakens the progress of the inflammatory disease, β-glucan can be used as an effective immunomodulator.

  14. Comparison of WTC Dust Size on Macrophage Inflammatory Cytokine Release In vivo and In vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiden, Michael D.; Naveed, Bushra; Kwon, Sophia; Segal, Leopoldo N.; Cho, Soo Jung; Tsukiji, Jun; Kulkarni, Rohan; Comfort, Ashley L.; Kasturiarachchi, Kusali J.; Prophete, Colette; Cohen, Mitchell D.; Chen, Lung-Chi; Rom, William N.; Prezant, David J.; Nolan, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Background The WTC collapse exposed over 300,000 people to high concentrations of WTC-PM; particulates up to ∼50 mm were recovered from rescue workers’ lungs. Elevated MDC and GM-CSF independently predicted subsequent lung injury in WTC-PM-exposed workers. Our hypotheses are that components of WTC dust strongly induce GM-CSF and MDC in AM; and that these two risk factors are in separate inflammatory pathways. Methodology/Principal Findings Normal adherent AM from 15 subjects without WTC-exposure were incubated in media alone, LPS 40 ng/mL, or suspensions of WTC-PM10–53 or WTC-PM2.5 at concentrations of 10, 50 or 100 µg/mL for 24 hours; supernatants assayed for 39 chemokines/cytokines. In addition, sera from WTC-exposed subjects who developed lung injury were assayed for the same cytokines. In the in vitro studies, cytokines formed two clusters with GM-CSF and MDC as a result of PM10–53 and PM2.5. GM-CSF clustered with IL-6 and IL-12(p70) at baseline, after exposure to WTC-PM10–53 and in sera of WTC dust-exposed subjects (n = 70) with WTC lung injury. Similarly, MDC clustered with GRO and MCP-1. WTC-PM10–53 consistently induced more cytokine release than WTC-PM2.5 at 100 µg/mL. Individual baseline expression correlated with WTC-PM-induced GM-CSF and MDC. Conclusions WTC-PM10–53 induced a stronger inflammatory response by human AM than WTC-PM2.5. This large particle exposure may have contributed to the high incidence of lung injury in those exposed to particles at the WTC site. GM-CSF and MDC consistently cluster separately, suggesting a role for differential cytokine release in WTC-PM injury. Subject-specific response to WTC-PM may underlie individual susceptibility to lung injury after irritant dust exposure. PMID:22815721

  15. Comparison of WTC dust size on macrophage inflammatory cytokine release in vivo and in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D Weiden

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The WTC collapse exposed over 300,000 people to high concentrations of WTC-PM; particulates up to ∼50 mm were recovered from rescue workers' lungs. Elevated MDC and GM-CSF independently predicted subsequent lung injury in WTC-PM-exposed workers. Our hypotheses are that components of WTC dust strongly induce GM-CSF and MDC in AM; and that these two risk factors are in separate inflammatory pathways. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Normal adherent AM from 15 subjects without WTC-exposure were incubated in media alone, LPS 40 ng/mL, or suspensions of WTC-PM(10-53 or WTC-PM(2.5 at concentrations of 10, 50 or 100 µg/mL for 24 hours; supernatants assayed for 39 chemokines/cytokines. In addition, sera from WTC-exposed subjects who developed lung injury were assayed for the same cytokines. In the in vitro studies, cytokines formed two clusters with GM-CSF and MDC as a result of PM(10-53 and PM(2.5. GM-CSF clustered with IL-6 and IL-12(p70 at baseline, after exposure to WTC-PM(10-53 and in sera of WTC dust-exposed subjects (n = 70 with WTC lung injury. Similarly, MDC clustered with GRO and MCP-1. WTC-PM(10-53 consistently induced more cytokine release than WTC-PM(2.5 at 100 µg/mL. Individual baseline expression correlated with WTC-PM-induced GM-CSF and MDC. CONCLUSIONS: WTC-PM(10-53 induced a stronger inflammatory response by human AM than WTC-PM(2.5. This large particle exposure may have contributed to the high incidence of lung injury in those exposed to particles at the WTC site. GM-CSF and MDC consistently cluster separately, suggesting a role for differential cytokine release in WTC-PM injury. Subject-specific response to WTC-PM may underlie individual susceptibility to lung injury after irritant dust exposure.

  16. CCR8 Signaling Influences Toll-Like Receptor 4 Responses in Human Macrophages in Inflammatory Diseases ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvist Reimer, Martina; Brange, Charlotte; Rosendahl, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    CCR8 immunity is generally associated with Th2 responses in allergic diseases. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time a pronounced attenuated influx of macrophages in ovalbumin (OVA)-challenged CCR8 knockout mice. To explore whether macrophages in human inflamed lung tissue also were CCR8 positive, human lung tissue from patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) was evaluated. Indeed, CCR8 expression was pronounced in invading monocytes/macrophages from lungs of patients with Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) stage IV COPD. Given this expression pattern, the functional role of CCR8 on human macrophages was evaluated in vitro. Human peripheral blood monocytes expressed low levels of CCR8, while macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF)-derived human macrophages expressed significantly elevated surface levels of CCR8. Importantly, CCL1 directly regulated the expression of CD18 and CD49b and hence influenced the adhesion capacity of human macrophages. CCL1 drives chemotaxis in M-CSF-derived macrophages, and this could be completely inhibited by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Whereas both CCL1 and LPS monotreatment inhibited spontaneous superoxide release in macrophages, CCL1 significantly induced superoxide release in the presence of LPS in a dose-dependent manner. Finally, CCL1 induced production of proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) and could inhibit LPS-induced cytokine production in a dose-dependent manner. Our data demonstrate, for the first time, the presence of CCR8 on inflammatory macrophages in human COPD lung tissue. Importantly, the functional data from human macrophages suggest a potential cross talk between the CCR8 and the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) pathways, both of which are present in COPD patients. PMID:21976223

  17. Krill Oil-In-Water Emulsion Protects against Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Proinflammatory Activation of Macrophages In Vitro

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    Gabriel A. Bonaterra

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Parenteral nutrition is often a mandatory therapeutic strategy for cases of septicemia. Likewise, therapeutic application of anti-oxidants, anti-inflammatory therapy, and endotoxin lowering, by removal or inactivation, might be beneficial to ameliorate the systemic inflammatory response during the acute phases of critical illness. Concerning anti-inflammatory properties in this setting, omega-3 fatty acids of marine origin have been frequently described. This study investigated the anti-inflammatory and LPS-inactivating properties of krill oil (KO-in-water emulsion in human macrophages in vitro. Materials and Methods: Differentiated THP-1 macrophages were activated using specific ultrapure-LPS that binds only on the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 in order to determine the inhibitory properties of the KO emulsion on the LPS-binding capacity, and the subsequent release of TNF-α. Results: KO emulsion inhibited the macrophage binding of LPS to the TLR4 by 50% (at 12.5 µg/mL and 75% (at 25 µg/mL, whereas, at 50 µg/mL, completely abolished the LPS binding. Moreover, KO (12.5 µg/mL, 25 µg/mL, or 50 µg/mL also inhibited (30%, 40%, or 75%, respectively the TNF-α release after activation with 0.01 µg/mL LPS in comparison with LPS treatment alone. Conclusion: KO emulsion influences the LPS-induced pro-inflammatory activation of macrophages, possibly due to inactivation of the LPS binding capacity.

  18. Interaction with extracellular matrix proteins influences Lsh/Ity/Bcg (candidate Nramp) gene regulation of macrophage priming/activation for tumour necrosis factor-alpha and nitrite release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formica, S; Roach, T I; Blackwell, J M

    1994-05-01

    The murine resistance gene Lsh/Ity/Bcg regulates activation of macrophages for tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)-dependent production of nitric oxide mediating antimicrobial activity against Leishmania, Salmonella and Mycobacterium. As Lsh is differentially expressed in macrophages from different tissue sites, experiments were performed to determine whether interaction with extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins would influence the macrophage TNF-alpha response. Plating of bone marrow-derived macrophages onto purified fibrinogen or fibronectin-rich L929 cell-derived matrices, but not onto mannan, was itself sufficient to stimulate TNF-alpha release, with significantly higher levels released from congenic B10.L-Lshr compared to C57BL/10ScSn (Lshs) macrophages. Only macrophages plated onto fibrinogen also released measurable levels of nitrites, again higher in Lshr compared to Lshs macrophages. Addition of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), but not bacterial lipopolysaccharide or mycobacterial lipoarabinomannan, as a second signal enhanced the TNF-alpha and nitrite responses of macrophages plated onto fibrinogen, particularly in the Lshr macrophages. Interaction with fibrinogen and fibronectin also primed macrophages for an enhanced TNF-alpha response to leishmanial parasites, but this was only translated into enhanced nitrite responses in the presence of IFN-gamma. In these experiments, Lshr macrophages remained superior in their TNF-alpha responses throughout, but to a degree which reflected the magnitude of the difference observed on ECM alone. Hence, the specificity for the enhanced TNF-alpha responses of Lshr macrophages lay in their interaction with fibrinogen and fibronectin ECM, while a differential nitrite response was only observed with fibrinogen and/or IFN-gamma. The results are discussed in relation to the possible function of the recently cloned candidate gene Nramp, which has structural identity to eukaryote transporters and an N-terminal cytoplasmic

  19. Ethyl acetate extract from Asparagus cochinchinensis exerts anti-inflammatory effects in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophage cells by regulating COX-2/iNOS, inflammatory cytokine expression, MAP kinase pathways, the cell cycle and anti-oxidant activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun Ah; Koh, Eun Kyoung; Sung, Ji Eun; Kim, Ji Eun; Song, Sung Hwa; Kim, Dong Seob; Son, Hong Joo; Lee, Chung Yeoul; Lee, Hee Seob; Bae, Chang Joon; Hwang, Dae Youn

    2017-01-01

    Asparagus cochinchinesis (A. cochinchinesis) is a medicine traditionally used to treat fever, cough, kidney disease, breast cancer, inflammatory disease and brain disease in northeast Asian countries. Although numerous studies of the anti-inflammatory effects of A. cochinchinesis have been conducted, the underlying mechanisms of such effects in macrophages remain to be demonstrated. To investigate the mechanism of suppressive effects on the inflammatory response in macrophages, alterations of the nitric oxide (NO) level, the cell viability, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression levels, inflammatory cytokine expression, the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway, cell cycle arrest and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were measured in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW264.7 cells following treatment with ethyl acetate extract from A. cochinchinesis root (EaEAC). RAW264.7 cells pretreated two different concentrations of EaEAC prior to LPS treatment exhibited no significant toxicity. The concentration of NO was significantly decreased in the EaEAC + LPS treated group compared with the vehicle + LPS treated group. A similar decrease in mRNA transcript level of COX-2, iNOS, pro-inflammatory cytokines [tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin (IL)-1β] and anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and IL-10) was detected in the EaEAC + LPS treated group compared with the vehicle + LPS treated group, although the decrease rate varied. Enhancement of the phosphorylation of MAPK family members following LPS treatment was partially rescued in the EaEAC pretreated group, and the cell cycle was arrested at the G2/M phase. Furthermore, the EaEAC pretreated group exhibited a reduced level of ROS generation compared with the vehicle + LPS treated group. Taken together, these results suggest that EaEAC suppresses inflammatory responses through inhibition of NO production, COX-2 expression and ROS production, as well as

  20. Upregulating Nonneuronal Cholinergic Activity Decreases TNF Release from Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated RAW264.7 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Lv

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonneuronal cholinergic system plays a primary role in maintaining homeostasis. It has been proved that endogenous neuronal acetylcholine (ACh could play an anti-inflammatory role, and exogenous cholinergic agonists could weaken macrophages inflammatory response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS stimulation through activation of α7 subunit-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR. We assumed that nonneuronal cholinergic system existing in macrophages could modulate inflammation through autocrine ACh and expressed α7nAChR on the cells. Therefore, we explored whether LPS continuous stimulation could upregulate the nonneuronal cholinergic activity in macrophages and whether increasing autocrine ACh could decrease TNF release from the macrophages. The results showed that, in RAW264.7 cells incubated with LPS for 20 hours, the secretion of ACh was significantly decreased at 4 h and then gradually increased, accompanied with the enhancement of α7nAChR expression level. The release of TNF was greatly increased from RAW264.7 cells at 4 h and 8 h exposure to LPS; however, it was suppressed at 20 h. Upregulating choline acetyltransferase (ChAT expression through ChAT gene transfection could enhance ACh secretion and reduce TNF release from the infected RAW264. 7cells. The results indicated that LPS stimulation could modulate the activity of nonneuronal cholinergic system of RAW264.7 cells. Enhancing autocrine ACh production could attenuate TNF release from RAW264.7 cells.

  1. The effects of propolis on cytokine production in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages

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    Hatice Özbilge

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Propolis, a bee-product, has attracted researchers’ interest in recent years because of several biological and pharmacological properties. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS is a component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria and has an important role in the pathogenesis of septic shock and several inflammatory diseases by causing excessive release of inflammatory cytokines. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of ethanol extract of propolis collected in Kayseri and its surroundings on production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in LPS-stimulated macrophages.Materials and methods: In vitro, U937 human macrophage cells were grown in RPMI-1640 medium supplemented with fetal bovine serum (10% and penicillin-streptomycin (2% and divided into: control, LPS treated, and propolis+LPS treated cell groups. After incubation in an atmosphere of 5% CO2 and at 37°C of cells, interleukin (IL-1β, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α levels were measured in cell-free supernatants by ELISA.Results: IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α levels increased in LPS treated cell group according to control, statistically significant. Each cytokine levels significantly decreased in LPS and propolis treated cell group according to only LPS treated cell group (p<0.05.Conclusion: Propolis is a natural product to be examined for usage when needed the suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. J Clin Exp Invest 2011; 2 (4: 366-370

  2. Inhibitors of the 5-lipoxygenase arachidonic acid pathway induce ATP release and ATP-dependent organic cation transport in macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva-Souza, Hercules Antônio; Lira, Maria Nathalia de; Costa-Junior, Helio Miranda; da Cruz, Cristiane Monteiro; Vasconcellos, Jorge Silvio Silva; Mendes, Anderson Nogueira; Pimenta-Reis, Gabriela; Alvarez, Cora Lilia; Faccioli, Lucia Helena; Serezani, Carlos Henrique; Schachter, Julieta; Persechini, Pedro Muanis

    2014-07-01

    We have previously described that arachidonic acid (AA)-5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) metabolism inhibitors such as NDGA and MK886, inhibit cell death by apoptosis, but not by necrosis, induced by extracellular ATP (ATPe) binding to P2X7 receptors in macrophages. ATPe binding to P2X7 also induces large cationic and anionic organic molecules uptake in these cells, a process that involves at least two distinct transport mechanisms: one for cations and another for anions. Here we show that inhibitors of the AA-5-LO pathway do not inhibit P2X7 receptors, as judged by the maintenance of the ATPe-induced uptake of fluorescent anionic dyes. In addition, we describe two new transport phenomena induced by these inhibitors in macrophages: a cation-selective uptake of fluorescent dyes and the release of ATP. The cation uptake requires secreted ATPe, but, differently from the P2X7/ATPe-induced phenomena, it is also present in macrophages derived from mice deficient in the P2X7 gene. Inhibitors of phospholipase A2 and of the AA-cyclooxygenase pathway did not induce the cation uptake. The uptake of non-organic cations was investigated by measuring the free intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) by Fura-2 fluorescence. NDGA, but not MK886, induced an increase in [Ca(2+)]i. Chelating Ca(2+) ions in the extracellular medium suppressed the intracellular Ca(2+) signal without interfering in the uptake of cationic dyes. We conclude that inhibitors of the AA-5-LO pathway do not block P2X7 receptors, trigger the release of ATP, and induce an ATP-dependent uptake of organic cations by a Ca(2+)- and P2X7-independent transport mechanism in macrophages. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of habitual exercise on the eHsp72-induced release of inflammatory cytokines by macrophages from obese Zucker rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, J J; Martin-Cordero, L; Hinchado, M D; Bote, M E; Ortega, E

    2013-06-01

    Regular exercise is a good non-pharmacological treatment of metabolic syndrome in that it improves obesity, diabetes, and inflammation. The 72 kDa extracellular heat shock protein (eHsp72) is released during exercise, thus stimulating the inflammatory responses. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the effect of regular exercise on the eHsp72-induced release of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNFα by macrophages from genetically obese Zucker rats (fa/fa) (ObZ), using lean Zucker (LZ) rats (Fa/fa) to provide reference values. ObZ presented a higher plasma concentration of eHsp72 than LZ, and exercise increased that concentration. In response to eHsp72, the macrophages from ObZ released less IL-1β and TNFα, but more IL-6, than macrophages from LZ. While eHsp72 stimulated the release of IL-1β, TNFα, and IL-6 in the macrophages from healthy LZ (with respect to the constitutive release), it inhibited the release of IL-1β and IL-6 in macrophages from ObZ. The habitual exercise improved the release of inflammatory cytokines by macrophages from ObZ in response to eHsp72 (it increased IL-1β and TNFα, and decreased IL-6), tending to values closer to those determined in healthy LZ. A deregulated macrophage inflammatory and stress response induced by eHsp72 underlies MS, and this is improved by habitual exercise. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Enhancement of wound closure by modifying dual release patterns of stromal-derived cell factor-1 and a macrophage recruitment agent from gelatin hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yang-Hee; Tabata, Yasuhiko

    2017-11-01

    The objective of the present study is to evaluate the effects of the release patterns of stromal derived factor (SDF)-1 and sphingosine-1 phosphate agonist (SEW2871), used as MSC and macrophage recruitment agents, on the wound closure of diabetic mouse skin defects. To achieve different release patterns, hydrogels were prepared using two types of gelatin with isoelectric points (IEP) of 5 and 9, into which SDF-1 and SEW2871 were then incorporated in various combinations. When the hydrogels incorporating SDF-1 and SEW2871 were applied into wound defects of diabetic mice, the number of MSCs and macrophages recruited to the defects and the levels of pro- and anti- inflammatory cytokines were found to be dependent on the release profiles of SDF-1 and SEW2871. Of particular interest was the case of a rapid release of SDF-1 combined with a controlled release of SEW2871. This resulted in a higher number of M2 macrophages and gene expression levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines 3 days after implantation and faster wound closure than when pairing the controlled release of SDF-1 with a rapid release of SEW2871. Therefore, the present study demonstrates that different release patterns of SDF-1 and SEW2871 can enhance the in vivo recruitment of MSCs and macrophages, and can promote skin wound closure through the modulation of inflammation. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. mTOR inhibition in macrophages of asymptomatic HIV+ persons reverses the decrease in TLR4-mediated TNFα release through prolongation of MAPK pathway activation1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Han, Xinbing; Llano, Juliana; Bole, Medhavi; Zhou, Xiuqin; Swan, Katharine; Anandaiah, Asha; Nelson, Benjamin; Patel, Naimish R.; Reinach, Peter S.; Koziel, Henry; Tachado, Souvenir D.

    2011-01-01

    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) mediated signaling is significantly impaired in macrophages from HIV+ persons predominantly due to altered MyD88-dependent pathway signaling caused in part by constitutive activation of PI3K. Here we assessed in these macrophages if the blunted increase in TLR4-mediated TNFα release induced by lipid A are associated with PI3K-induced upregulation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activity. mTOR inhibition with rapamycin enhanced TLR4-mediated TNFα release, but instead suppressed anti-inflammatory IL-10 release. Targeted gene silencing of mTOR in macrophages resulted in lipid A-induced TNFα and IL-10 release patterns similar to those induced by rapamycin. Rapamycin restored MyD88-IRAK interaction in a dose-dependent manner. Targeted gene silencing of MyD88 (shRNA) and mTOR (RNAi) inhibition resulted in TLR4-mediated p70s6K activation and enhanced TNFα release, whereas IL-10 release was inhibited in both silenced and non-silenced HIV+ macrophages. Furthermore, mTOR inhibition augmented lipid A-induced TNFα release through enhanced and prolonged phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and JNK1/2 MAP kinases, which was associated with time-dependent MKP-1 destabilization. Taken together, impaired TLR4-mediated TNFα release in HIV+ macrophages is attributable in part to mTOR activation by constitutive PI3K expression in a MyD88-dependent signaling pathway. These changes result in MKP-1 stabilization, which shortens and blunts MAP kinase activation. mTOR inhibition may serve as a potential therapeutic target to upregulate macrophage innate immune host defense responsiveness in HIV+ persons. PMID:22025552

  6. Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone (CRH Promotes Macrophage Foam Cell Formation via Reduced Expression of ATP Binding Cassette Transporter-1 (ABCA1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wonkyoung Cho

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis, the major pathology of cardiovascular disease, is caused by multiple factors involving psychological stress. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH, which is released by neurosecretory cells in the hypothalamus, peripheral nerve terminals and epithelial cells, regulates various stress-related responses. Our current study aimed to verify the role of CRH in macrophage foam cell formation, the initial critical stage of atherosclerosis. Our quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR, semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR, and Western blot results indicate that CRH down-regulates ATP-binding cassette transporter-1 (ABCA1 and liver X receptor (LXR-α, a transcription factor for ABCA1, in murine peritoneal macrophages and human monocyte-derived macrophages. Oil-red O (ORO staining and intracellular cholesterol measurement of macrophages treated with or without oxidized LDL (oxLDL and with or without CRH (10 nM in the presence of apolipoprotein A1 (apoA1 revealed that CRH treatment promotes macrophage foam cell formation. The boron-dipyrromethene (BODIPY-conjugated cholesterol efflux assay showed that CRH treatment reduces macrophage cholesterol efflux. Western blot analysis showed that CRH-induced down-regulation of ABCA1 is dependent on phosphorylation of Akt (Ser473 induced by interaction between CRH and CRH receptor 1(CRHR1. We conclude that activation of this pathway by CRH accelerates macrophage foam cell formation and may promote stress-related atherosclerosis.

  7. Role of lysosomal enzymes released by alveolar macrophages in the pathogenesis of the acute phase of hypersensitivity pneumonitis

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    J. L. Pérez-Arellano

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrolytic enzymes are the major constituents of alveolar macrophages (AM and have been shown to be involved in many aspects of the inflammatory pulmonary response. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of lysosomal enzymes in the acute phase of hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HPs. An experimental study on AM lysosomal enzymes of an HP-guinea-pig model was performed. The results obtained both in vivo and in vitro suggest that intracellular enzymatic activity decrease is, at least partly, due to release of lysosomal enzymes into the medium. A positive but slight correlation was found between extracellular lysosomal activity and four parameters of lung lesion (lung index, bronchoalveolar fluid total (BALF protein concentration, BALF LDH and BALF alkaline phosphatase activities. All the above findings suggest that the AM release of lysosomal enzymes during HP is a factor involved, although possibly not the only one, in the pulmonary lesions appearing in this disease.

  8. Exposure of alveolar macrophages to polybrominated diphenyl ethers suppresses the release of pro-inflammatory products in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennigar, Stephen R; Myers, Jay L; Tagliaferro, Anthony R

    2012-04-01

    Inhalation of chemical pollutants has been associated with a reduced immune response in humans. Inhalation of dust is a major route of exposure for one endocrine-disrupting chemical and suspected xenoestrogen, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs); however, the impact of PBDEs on immune function is unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the action of PBDEs on cytokine and eicosanoid release by alveolar macrophages and determine whether the effects are mediated via the estrogen receptor. The production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, IL-10 and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) by porcine alveolar macrophages exposed to different concentrations of the pentabrominated diphenyl ether mixture, DE-71, were measured; cells were also exposed to varying concentrations of 17β-estradiol and the selective estrogen receptor-modulating agent, tamoxifen. Cells exposed to PBDEs released significantly less pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6) and PGE(2) compared with controls; IL-1β and IL-10 were not detected in the culture medium. Cells exposed to 17β-estradiol released significantly less TNF-α compared with controls, an effect that was reversed by the addition of tamoxifen; tamoxifen had no effect on the inhibition of TNF-α release by PBDEs. Although the suppression of TNF-α with DE-71 was similar to that of estrogen, the inhibitory effects of DE-71 were not found to be dependent on the estrogen receptor. Findings of this study suggest that chronic exposure to PBDEs suppressed innate immunity in vitro. Whether the immunosuppressant effects of PBDEs occur in vivo, remains to be determined.

  9. γ-Oryzanol suppresses COX-2 expression by inhibiting reactive oxygen species-mediated Erk1/2 and Egr-1 signaling in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Soon Young; Kim, Heon-Woong; Jang, Hwan-Hee; Hwang, Yu-Jin; Choe, Jeong-Sook; Kim, Jung-Bong; Lim, Yoongho; Lee, Young Han

    2017-09-16

    Cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 produces prostanoids, which contribute to inflammatory responses. Nuclear factor (NF)-κB is a key transcription factor mediating COX-2 expression. γ-Oryzanol is an active component in rice bran oil, which inhibits lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated COX-2 expression by inhibiting NF-κB. However, the inhibition of COX-2 expression by γ-oryzanol independently of NF-κB is poorly understood. We found that LPS upregulated Egr-1 expression at the transcriptional level. Forced expression of Egr-1 trans-activated the Cox-2 promoter independently of NF-κB. In contrast, silencing of Egr-1 abrogated LPS-mediated COX-2 expression. LPS produced reactive oxygen species (ROS), which, in turn, induced Egr-1 expression via the Erk1/2 MAPK pathway. ROS scavenging activity of γ-oryzanol suppressed Egr-1 expression by inhibiting the Erk1/2 MAPK pathway. Our results suggest that γ-oryzanol inhibits LPS-mediated COX-2 expression by suppressing Erk1/2-mediated Egr-1 expression. This study supports that γ-oryzanol may be useful for ameliorating LPS-mediated inflammatory responses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Kinetics of killing Listeria monocytogenes by macrophages: correlation of 3H-DNA release from labeled bacteria and changes in numbers of viable organisms by mathematical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, W.A.

    1982-01-01

    Conventional methods of assessing antibacterial activities of macrophages by viable counting are limited by the precision of the statistics and are difficult to interpret quantitatively because of unrestrained extracellular growth of bacteria. An alternative technique based on the release of radioactive DNA from labeled bacteria has been offered as overcoming these drawbacks. To assess it for use with macrophages I have made a correlation with the conventional viable counting method using a mathematical model. Opsonized Listeria monocytogenes labeled with 3 H-thymidine were exposed to rat macrophages for periods up to 4 hr. Numbers of viable bacteria determined after sonication increased exponentially in the absence of live cells and this growth rate was progressively inhibited by increasing numbers of macrophages. After a lag period of 30-60 min soluble 3 H appeared in the supernatant, the amount increasing with time and numbers of macrophages. To correlate these data I developed a mathematical model that considered that changes in numbers of viable organisms were due to the difference between rates of 1) growth of extracellular bacteria and 2) killing within the macrophage. On the basis of this model curves of best fit to the viable counts data were used to predict the release of radioactivity, assuming that death of a bacterium led to the total release of its label. These predictions and the experimental data agreed well, the lag period of 30-60 min between death of the bacterium and release of radioactivity being consistent with intracellular digestion. Release of soluble radioactivity appears to be an accurate reflection of the number of bacteria killed within the macrophage

  11. Activation of AMPA receptor promotes TNF-α release via the ROS-cSrc-NFκB signaling cascade in RAW264.7 macrophages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Xiu-Li [Department of Physiology, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, School of Basic Medicine, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Ding, Fan [Office of Scientific R& D, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China); Li, Hui; Tan, Xiao-Qiu [Department of Physiology, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, School of Basic Medicine, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Liu, Xiao [Department of Pathophysiology, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, School of Basic Medicine, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Cao, Ji-Min, E-mail: caojimin@126.com [Department of Physiology, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, School of Basic Medicine, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Gao, Xue, E-mail: longlongnose@163.com [Department of Pathophysiology, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, School of Basic Medicine, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China)

    2015-05-29

    The relationship between glutamate signaling and inflammation has not been well defined. This study aimed to investigate the role of AMPA receptor (AMPAR) in the expression and release of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) from macrophages and the underlying mechanisms. A series of approaches, including confocal microscopy, immunofluorescency, flow cytometry, ELISA and Western blotting, were used to estimate the expression of AMPAR and downstream signaling molecules, TNF-α release and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in the macrophage-like RAW264.7 cells. The results demonstrated that AMPAR was expressed in RAW264.7 cells. AMPA significantly enhanced TNF-α release from RAW264.7 cells, and this effect was abolished by CNQX (AMPAR antagonist). AMPA also induced elevation of ROS production, phosphorylation of c-Src and activation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB in RAW264.7 cells. Blocking c-Src by PP2, scavenging ROS by glutathione (GSH) or inhibiting NF-κB activation by pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) decreased TNF-α production from RAW264.7 cells. We concluded that AMPA promotes TNF-α release in RAW264.7 macrophages likely through the following signaling cascade: AMPAR activation → ROS generation → c-Src phosphorylation → NF-κB activation → TNF-α elevation. The study suggests that AMPAR may participate in macrophage activation and inflammation. - Highlights: • AMPAR is expressed in RAW264.7 macrophages and is upregulated by AMPA stimulation. • Activation of AMPAR stimulates TNF-α release in macrophages through the ROS-cSrc-NFκB signaling cascade. • Macrophage AMPAR signaling may play an important role in inflammation.

  12. Pseudane-VII Isolated from Pseudoalteromonas sp. M2 Ameliorates LPS-Induced Inflammatory Response In Vitro and In Vivo

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    Mi Eun Kim

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The ocean is a rich resource of flora, fauna, food, and biological products. We found a wild-type bacterial strain, Pseudoalteromonas sp. M2, from marine water and isolated various secondary metabolites. Pseudane-VII is a compound isolated from the Pseudoalteromonas sp. M2 metabolite that possesses anti-melanogenic activity. Inflammation is a response of the innate immune system to microbial infections. Macrophages have a critical role in fighting microbial infections and inflammation. Recent studies reported that various compounds derived from natural products can regulate immune responses including inflammation. However, the anti-inflammatory effects and mechanism of pseudane-VII in macrophages are still unknown. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of pseudane-VII. In present study, lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO production was significantly decreased by pseudane-VII treatment at 6 μM. Moreover, pseudane-VII treatment dose-dependently reduced mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines including inos, cox-2, il-1β, tnf-α, and il-6 in LPS-stimulated macrophages. Pseudane-VII also diminished iNOS protein levels and IL-1β secretion. In addition, Pseudane-VII elicited anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting ERK, JNK, p38, and nuclear factor (NF-κB-p65 phosphorylation. Consistently, pseudane-VII was also shown to inhibit the LPS-stimulated release of IL-1β and expression of iNOS in mice. These results suggest that pseudane-VII exerted anti-inflammatory effects on LPS-stimulated macrophage activation via inhibition of ERK, JNK, p38 MAPK phosphorylation, and pro-inflammatory gene expression. These findings may provide new approaches in the effort to develop anti-inflammatory therapeutics.

  13. Pseudane-VII Isolated from Pseudoalteromonas sp. M2 Ameliorates LPS-Induced Inflammatory Response In Vitro and In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi Eun; Jung, Inae; Lee, Jong Suk; Na, Ju Yong; Kim, Woo Jung; Kim, Young-Ok; Park, Yong-Duk; Lee, Jun Sik

    2017-11-01

    The ocean is a rich resource of flora, fauna, food, and biological products. We found a wild-type bacterial strain, Pseudoalteromonas sp. M2, from marine water and isolated various secondary metabolites. Pseudane-VII is a compound isolated from the Pseudoalteromonas sp. M2 metabolite that possesses anti-melanogenic activity. Inflammation is a response of the innate immune system to microbial infections. Macrophages have a critical role in fighting microbial infections and inflammation. Recent studies reported that various compounds derived from natural products can regulate immune responses including inflammation. However, the anti-inflammatory effects and mechanism of pseudane-VII in macrophages are still unknown. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of pseudane-VII. In present study, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) production was significantly decreased by pseudane-VII treatment at 6 μM. Moreover, pseudane-VII treatment dose-dependently reduced mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines including inos , cox-2 , il-1β , tnf-α , and il-6 in LPS-stimulated macrophages. Pseudane-VII also diminished iNOS protein levels and IL-1β secretion. In addition, Pseudane-VII elicited anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting ERK, JNK, p38, and nuclear factor (NF)-κB-p65 phosphorylation. Consistently, pseudane-VII was also shown to inhibit the LPS-stimulated release of IL-1β and expression of iNOS in mice. These results suggest that pseudane-VII exerted anti-inflammatory effects on LPS-stimulated macrophage activation via inhibition of ERK, JNK, p38 MAPK phosphorylation, and pro-inflammatory gene expression. These findings may provide new approaches in the effort to develop anti-inflammatory therapeutics.

  14. Differential response to dexamethasone on the TXB2 release in guinea-pig alveolar macrophages induced by zymosan and cytokines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Salgueiro

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Glucocorticosteroids reduce the production of inflammatory mediators but this effect may depend on the stimulus. We have compared the time course of the effect of dexamethasone on the thromboxane B2 (TXB2 release induced by cytokine stimulation and zymosan in guinea-pig alveolar macrophages. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β, tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and opsonized zymosan (OZ, all stimulate TXB2 release. High concentrations of dexamethasone (1–10 μM inhibit the TXB2 production induced by both cytokines and OZ, but the time course of this response is different. Four hours of incubation with dexamethasone reduce the basal TXB2 release and that induced by IL-1β and TNF-α, but do not modify the TXB2 release induced by OZ. However, this stimulus was reduced after 24 h incubation. Our results suggest that the antiinflammatory activity of glucocorticosteroids shows some dependence on stimulus and, therefore, may have more than one mechanism involved.

  15. Alendronate augments interleukin-1β release from macrophages infected with periodontal pathogenic bacteria through activation of caspase-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Xue; Tamai, Riyoko; Endo, Yasuo; Kiyoura, Yusuke

    2009-01-01

    Nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates (NBPs) are anti-bone-resorptive drugs with inflammatory side effects that include osteomyelitis and osteonecrosis of the jaw. Oral bacteria have been considered to be a trigger for these NBP-associated jaw bone diseases. The present study examined the effects of alendronate (a typical NBP) and clodronate (a non-NBP) on the production of proinflammatory cytokines by macrophages infected with Porphyromonas gingivalis and Tannerella forsythia, which are important pathogens of periodontal diseases. Pretreatment with alendronate augmented IL-1β, but not TNFα, production by macrophages infected with P. gingivalis or T. forsythia. This augmentation of IL-1β production was inhibited by clodronate. Furthermore, caspase-1, a promoter of IL-1β production, was activated by treatment with alendronate, and caspase-1 inhibitor reduced the production of IL-1β induced by alendronate and P. gingivalis. These results suggest that NBPs augment periodontal pathogenic bacteria-induced IL-1β release via caspase-1 activation, and this phenomenon may contribute to the development of NBP-associated inflammatory side effects including jaw osteomyelitis. Co-treatment with clodronate may prevent and/or reduce these inflammatory effects induced by NBPs

  16. Alendronate augments interleukin-1{beta} release from macrophages infected with periodontal pathogenic bacteria through activation of caspase-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Deng; Tamai, Riyoko [Division of Oral Bacteriology, Department of Oral Medical Science, Ohu University School of Dentistry, 31-1 Misumido, Tomitamachi, Koriyama, Fukushima 963-8611 (Japan); Endo, Yasuo [Department of Molecular Regulation, Graduate School of Dentistry, Tohoku University, 4-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Kiyoura, Yusuke [Division of Oral Bacteriology, Department of Oral Medical Science, Ohu University School of Dentistry, 31-1 Misumido, Tomitamachi, Koriyama, Fukushima 963-8611 (Japan)

    2009-02-15

    Nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates (NBPs) are anti-bone-resorptive drugs with inflammatory side effects that include osteomyelitis and osteonecrosis of the jaw. Oral bacteria have been considered to be a trigger for these NBP-associated jaw bone diseases. The present study examined the effects of alendronate (a typical NBP) and clodronate (a non-NBP) on the production of proinflammatory cytokines by macrophages infected with Porphyromonas gingivalis and Tannerella forsythia, which are important pathogens of periodontal diseases. Pretreatment with alendronate augmented IL-1{beta}, but not TNF{alpha}, production by macrophages infected with P. gingivalis or T. forsythia. This augmentation of IL-1{beta} production was inhibited by clodronate. Furthermore, caspase-1, a promoter of IL-1{beta} production, was activated by treatment with alendronate, and caspase-1 inhibitor reduced the production of IL-1{beta} induced by alendronate and P. gingivalis. These results suggest that NBPs augment periodontal pathogenic bacteria-induced IL-1{beta} release via caspase-1 activation, and this phenomenon may contribute to the development of NBP-associated inflammatory side effects including jaw osteomyelitis. Co-treatment with clodronate may prevent and/or reduce these inflammatory effects induced by NBPs.

  17. Ginkgolide A Ameliorates LPS-Induced Inflammatory Responses In Vitro and In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Li

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Ginkgolide A (GA is a natural compound isolated from Ginkgo biloba and has been used to treat cardiovascular diseases and diabetic vascular complications. However, only a few studies have been conducted on the anti-inflammatory effects of GA. In particular, no related reports have been published in a common inflammation model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated macrophages, and the anti-inflammatory mechanisms of GA have not been fully elucidated. In the present study, we extensively investigated the anti-inflammatory potential of GA in vitro and in vivo. We showed that GA could suppress the expression of pro-inflammatory mediators (cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 and nitric oxide (NO and pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, interleukin (IL-6 and IL-1β in LPS-treated mouse peritoneal macrophages, mouse macrophage RAW264.7 cells, and differentiated human monocytes (dTHP-1 in vitro. These effects were partially carried out via downregulating Nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB, Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs (p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK, but not c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK, and activating the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK signaling pathway also seems to be important. Consistently, GA was also shown to inhibit the LPS-stimulated release of TNF-α and IL-6 in mice. Taken together, these findings suggest that GA can serve as an effective inflammatory inhibitor in vitro and in vivo.

  18. Cytotoxic macrophage-released tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) as a killing mechanism for cancer cell death after cold plasma activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, Nagendra Kumar; Kaushik, Neha; Min, Booki; Choi, Ki Hong; Hong, Young June; Miller, Vandana; Fridman, Alexander; Choi, Eun Ha

    2016-03-01

    The present study aims at studying the anticancer role of cold plasma-activated immune cells. The direct anti-cancer activity of plasma-activated immune cells against human solid cancers has not been described so far. Hence, we assessed the effect of plasma-treated RAW264.7 macrophages on cancer cell growth after co-culture. In particular, flow cytometer analysis revealed that plasma did not induce any cell death in RAW264.7 macrophages. Interestingly, immunofluorescence and western blot analysis confirmed that TNF-α released from plasma-activated macrophages acts as a tumour cell death inducer. In support of these findings, activated macrophages down-regulated the cell growth in solid cancer cell lines and induced cell death in vitro. Together our findings suggest plasma-induced reactive species recruit cytotoxic macrophages to release TNF-α, which blocks cancer cell growth and can have the potential to contribute to reducing tumour growth in vivo in the near future.

  19. Cytotoxic macrophage-released tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) as a killing mechanism for cancer cell death after cold plasma activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaushik, Nagendra Kumar; Kaushik, Neha; Min, Booki; Choi, Ki Hong; Hong, Young June; Choi, Eun Ha; Miller, Vandana; Fridman, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The present study aims at studying the anticancer role of cold plasma-activated immune cells. The direct anti-cancer activity of plasma-activated immune cells against human solid cancers has not been described so far. Hence, we assessed the effect of plasma-treated RAW264.7 macrophages on cancer cell growth after co-culture. In particular, flow cytometer analysis revealed that plasma did not induce any cell death in RAW264.7 macrophages. Interestingly, immunofluorescence and western blot analysis confirmed that TNF-α released from plasma-activated macrophages acts as a tumour cell death inducer. In support of these findings, activated macrophages down-regulated the cell growth in solid cancer cell lines and induced cell death in vitro. Together our findings suggest plasma-induced reactive species recruit cytotoxic macrophages to release TNF-α, which blocks cancer cell growth and can have the potential to contribute to reducing tumour growth in vivo in the near future. (paper)

  20. Serrulatane Diterpenoid from Eremophila neglecta Exhibits Bacterial Biofilm Dispersion and Inhibits Release of Pro-inflammatory Cytokines from Activated Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mon, Htwe H; Christo, Susan N; Ndi, Chi P; Jasieniak, Marek; Rickard, Heather; Hayball, John D; Griesser, Hans J; Semple, Susan J

    2015-12-24

    The purpose of this study was to assess the biofilm-removing efficacy and inflammatory activity of a serrulatane diterpenoid, 8-hydroxyserrulat-14-en-19-oic acid (1), isolated from the Australian medicinal plant Eremophila neglecta. Biofilm breakup activity of compound 1 on established Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus biofilms was compared to the antiseptic chlorhexidine and antibiotic levofloxacin. In a time-course study, 1 was deposited onto polypropylene mesh to mimic a wound dressing and tested for biofilm removal. The ex-vivo cytotoxicity and effect on lipopolysaccharide-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine release were studied in mouse primary bone-marrow-derived macrophage (BMDM) cells. Compound 1 was effective in dispersing 12 h pre-established biofilms with a 7 log10 reduction of viable bacterial cell counts, but was less active against 24 h biofilms (approximately 2 log10 reduction). Compound-loaded mesh showed dosage-dependent biofilm-removing capability. In addition, compound 1 displayed a significant inhibitory effect on tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) secretion from BMDM cells, but interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) secretion was not significant. The compound was not cytotoxic to BMDM cells at concentrations effective in removing biofilm and lowering cytokine release. These findings highlight the potential of this serrulatane diterpenoid to be further developed for applications in wound management.

  1. Effect of ionizing radiation on macrophage stimulating property of Vibrio parahaemolyticus lipopolysaccharide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandekar, J R; Nene, S P; Nerkar, D P

    1988-09-01

    Effect of gamma radiation on the macrophage stimulating ability of Vibrio parahaemolyticus lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was examined. Radiodetoxified LPS (RLPS) when injected (ip) in mice stimulated peritoneal macrophages as was evident from the enhancement of their acid hydrolases and cellular RNA contents. RLPS also stimulated the phagocytic activities of macrophages. The stimulation of macrophages was slightly less as compared to that observed with n ative LPS. Thus, treatment of LPS with 15 kGy dose of gamma radiation results in a slight reduction in its macrophage stimulating ability. (author). 3 tabs., 22 refs.

  2. Cell Elasticity Determines Macrophage Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Naimish R.; Bole, Medhavi; Chen, Cheng; Hardin, Charles C.; Kho, Alvin T.; Mih, Justin; Deng, Linhong; Butler, James; Tschumperlin, Daniel; Fredberg, Jeffrey J.; Krishnan, Ramaswamy; Koziel, Henry

    2012-01-01

    Macrophages serve to maintain organ homeostasis in response to challenges from injury, inflammation, malignancy, particulate exposure, or infection. Until now, receptor ligation has been understood as being the central mechanism that regulates macrophage function. Using macrophages of different origins and species, we report that macrophage elasticity is a major determinant of innate macrophage function. Macrophage elasticity is modulated not only by classical biologic activators such as LPS and IFN-γ, but to an equal extent by substrate rigidity and substrate stretch. Macrophage elasticity is dependent upon actin polymerization and small rhoGTPase activation, but functional effects of elasticity are not predicted by examination of gene expression profiles alone. Taken together, these data demonstrate an unanticipated role for cell elasticity as a common pathway by which mechanical and biologic factors determine macrophage function. PMID:23028423

  3. Cell elasticity determines macrophage function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naimish R Patel

    Full Text Available Macrophages serve to maintain organ homeostasis in response to challenges from injury, inflammation, malignancy, particulate exposure, or infection. Until now, receptor ligation has been understood as being the central mechanism that regulates macrophage function. Using macrophages of different origins and species, we report that macrophage elasticity is a major determinant of innate macrophage function. Macrophage elasticity is modulated not only by classical biologic activators such as LPS and IFN-γ, but to an equal extent by substrate rigidity and substrate stretch. Macrophage elasticity is dependent upon actin polymerization and small rhoGTPase activation, but functional effects of elasticity are not predicted by examination of gene expression profiles alone. Taken together, these data demonstrate an unanticipated role for cell elasticity as a common pathway by which mechanical and biologic factors determine macrophage function.

  4. Modulation of LPS induced inflammatory response by Lawsonyl monocyclic terpene from the marine derived Streptomyces sp.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ali, A.; Khajuria, A.; Sidiq, T.; AshokKumar; Thakur, N.L.; Naik, D.; Vishwakarma, R.A.

    . The effect of Lawsonone (1) was elucidated on the immune cells (splenocytes and macrophages) collected from BALB/c mice. Study was carried out to find the effect of Lawsonone (1) on Con-A and LPS stimulated splenocyte proliferation, LPS-induced NO, IL-1beta...

  5. Real time macrophage migration analysis and associated pro-inflammatory cytokine release on transparent carbon nanotube/polymer composite nano-film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khang, Dongwoo

    2015-01-01

    Surface chemistry and nanoscale surface morphology are both influential factors for cell adhesion, growth, and differentiation. In particular, cell migration is one of the major markers of initial immune response activation to implanted biomaterials. Despite their indication, it has been difficult to directly examine macrophages on nanoscale materials, because most nanomaterials possess greater thicknesses than nanoscale. This study developed transparent films comprising a carbon nanotube and polymer composite with controlled surface stiffness and nanoscale roughness. As nanoscale surface topography can incite immune cell activation, analysis of the real-time cell migration (including velocity) of macrophages due to changes in nanoscale surface topography of a biopolymer can support the direct relationship between initial macrophage dynamics and corresponding pro-inflammatory responses. Through real-time analysis, we have identified that surface chemistry and surface nanoscale topography are both independent factors mediating macrophage interactions, and, thus, immune cell behavior can be further controlled by the systematic variation of nanoscale surface topography for a given surface chemistry. Considering that the initial immune response can determine the fate and lifetime of implanted biomaterials, this study presents the direct relationship between initial macrophage dynamics and subsequent inflammatory cytokine release on transparent carbon nanotube polymer composites. (paper)

  6. LPS-induced lung inflammation in marmoset monkeys - an acute model for anti-inflammatory drug testing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Seehase

    Full Text Available Increasing incidence and substantial morbidity and mortality of respiratory diseases requires the development of new human-specific anti-inflammatory and disease-modifying therapeutics. Therefore, new predictive animal models that closely reflect human lung pathology are needed. In the current study, a tiered acute lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced inflammation model was established in marmoset monkeys (Callithrix jacchus to reflect crucial features of inflammatory lung diseases. Firstly, in an ex vivo approach marmoset and, for the purposes of comparison, human precision-cut lung slices (PCLS were stimulated with LPS in the presence or absence of the phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE4 inhibitor roflumilast. Pro-inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α and macrophage inflammatory protein-1 beta (MIP-1β were measured. The corticosteroid dexamethasone was used as treatment control. Secondly, in an in vivo approach marmosets were pre-treated with roflumilast or dexamethasone and unilaterally challenged with LPS. Ipsilateral bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL was conducted 18 hours after LPS challenge. BAL fluid was processed and analyzed for neutrophils, TNF-α, and MIP-1β. TNF-α release in marmoset PCLS correlated significantly with human PCLS. Roflumilast treatment significantly reduced TNF-α secretion ex vivo in both species, with comparable half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC(50. LPS instillation into marmoset lungs caused a profound inflammation as shown by neutrophilic influx and increased TNF-α and MIP-1β levels in BAL fluid. This inflammatory response was significantly suppressed by roflumilast and dexamethasone. The close similarity of marmoset and human lungs regarding LPS-induced inflammation and the significant anti-inflammatory effect of approved pharmaceuticals assess the suitability of marmoset monkeys to serve as a promising model for studying anti-inflammatory drugs.

  7. Cytokine release from alveolar macrophages exposed to ambient particulate matter: Heterogeneity in relation to size, city and season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dybing Erik

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have demonstrated an association between exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM and respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. Inflammation seems to play an important role in the observed health effects. However, the predominant particle component(s that drives the inflammation is still not fully clarified. In this study representative coarse (2.5–10 μm and fine (0.1–2.5 μm particulate samples from a western, an eastern, a northern and a southern European city (Amsterdam, Lodz, Oslo and Rome were collected during three seasons (spring, summer and winter. All fractions were investigated with respect to cytokine-inducing potential in primary macrophages isolated from rat lung. The results were related to the physical and chemical parameters of the samples in order to disclose possible connections between inflammatory potential and specific characteristics of the particles. Results Compared on a gram-by gram basis, both site-specific and seasonal variations in the PM-induced cytokine responses were demonstrated. The samples collected in the eastern (Lodz and southern (Rome cities appeared to be the most potent. Seasonal variation was most obvious with the samples from Lodz, with the highest responses induced by the spring and summer samples. The site-specific or seasonal variation in cytokine release could not be attributed to variations in any of the chemical parameters. Coarse fractions from all cities were more potent to induce the inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 and tumour necrosis factor-α than the corresponding fine fractions. Higher levels of specific elements such as iron and copper, some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs and endotoxin/lipopolysaccaride seemed to be prevalent in the coarse fractions. However, variations in the content of these components did not reflect the variation in cytokine release induced by the different coarse fractions. Addition of polymyxin B did not affect

  8. Anti-inflammatory effects of benfotiamine are mediated through the regulation of the arachidonic acid pathway in macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoeb, Mohammad; Ramana, Kota V

    2012-01-01

    Benfotiamine, a lipid-soluble analogue of vitamin B1, is a potent antioxidant that is used as a food supplement for the treatment of diabetic complications. Our recent study (U.C. Yadav et al., Free Radic. Biol. Med. 48:1423-1434, 2010) indicates a novel role for benfotiamine in the prevention of bacterial endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cytotoxicity and inflammatory response in murine macrophages. Nevertheless, it remains unclear how benfotiamine mediates anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory role of benfotiamine in regulating arachidonic acid (AA) pathway-generated inflammatory lipid mediators in RAW264.7 macrophages. Benfotiamine prevented the LPS-induced activation of cPLA2 and release of AA metabolites such as leukotrienes, prostaglandin E2, thromboxane 2 (TXB2), and prostacyclin (PGI2) in macrophages. Further, LPS-induced expression of AA-metabolizing enzymes such as COX-2, LOX-5, TXB synthase, and PGI2 synthase was significantly blocked by benfotiamine. Furthermore, benfotiamine prevented the LPS-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and expression of transcription factors NF-κB and Egr-1. Benfotiamine also prevented the LPS-induced oxidative stress and protein-HNE adduct formation. Most importantly, compared to specific COX-2 and LOX-5 inhibitors, benfotiamine significantly prevented LPS-induced macrophage death and monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells. Thus, our studies indicate that the dual regulation of the COX and LOX pathways in AA metabolism could be a novel mechanism by which benfotiamine exhibits its potential anti-inflammatory response. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Benfotiamine are Mediated Through the Regulation of Arachidonic Acid Pathway in Macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoeb, Mohammad; Ramana, Kota V

    2011-01-01

    Benfotiamine, a lipid-soluble analogue of vitamin B1, is a potent anti-oxidant that is used as a food supplement for the treatment of diabetic complications. Our recent study indicates a novel role of benfotiamine in the prevention of bacterial endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cytotoxicity and inflammatory response in murine macrophages. Nevertheless, it remains unclear how benfotiamine mediates anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory role of benfotiamine in regulating the arachidonic acid (AA) pathway generated inflammatory lipid mediators in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Benfotiamine prevented the LPS-induced activation of cPLA2 and release of AA metabolites such as leukotrienes (LTB4), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), thromboxanes 2 (TXB2) and prostacyclin (PGI2) in macrophages. Further, LPS-induced expressions of AA metabolizing enzymes such as COX-2, LOX-5, TXB synthase and PGI2 synthase were significantly blocked by benfotiamine. Furthermore, benfotiamine prevented the LPS-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and expression of transcription factors NF-kB, and Egr-1. Benfotiamine also prevented the LPS-induced oxidative stress and protein-HNE adducts formation. Most importantly, as compared to specific COX-2 and LOX-5 inhibitors, benfotiamine significantly prevented the LPS-induced macrophage death and monocytes adhesion to endothelial cells. Thus, our studies indicate that the dual regulation of COX and LOX pathways in AA metabolism could be a novel mechanism by which benfotiamine exhibits its potential anti-inflammatory response. PMID:22067901

  10. Anti-inflammatory effects of ursodeoxycholic acid by lipopolysaccharide-stimulated inflammatory responses in RAW 264.7 macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-Kyu Ko

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages.We induced an inflammatory process in RAW 264.7 macrophages using LPS. The anti-inflammatory effects of UDCA on LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages were analyzed using nitric oxide (NO. Pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines were analyzed by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The phosphorylations of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK, and p38 in mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling pathways and nuclear factor kappa-light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor, alpha (IκBα signaling pathways were evaluated by western blot assays.UDCA decreased the LPS-stimulated release of the inflammatory mediator NO. UDCA also decreased the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, interleukin 1-α (IL-1α, interleukin 1-β (IL-1β, and interleukin 6 (IL-6 in mRNA and protein levels. In addition, UDCA increased an anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin 10 (IL-10 in the LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. UDCA inhibited the expression of inflammatory transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Furthermore, UDCA suppressed the phosphorylation of ERK, JNK, and p38 signals related to inflammatory pathways. In addition, the phosphorylation of IκBα, the inhibitor of NF-κB, also inhibited by UDCA.UDCA inhibits the pro-inflammatory responses by LPS in RAW 264.7 macrophages. UDCA also suppresses the phosphorylation by LPS on ERK, JNK, and p38 in MAPKs and NF-κB pathway. These results suggest that UDCA can serve as a useful anti-inflammatory drug.

  11. SiO2-induced release of sVEGFRs from pulmonary macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Jie; Lv, Yan; Chen, Jin; Wang, Jing; Yao, Honghong

    2018-01-01

    The inhalation of silicon dioxide (SiO 2 ) particles causes silicosis, a stubborn pulmonary disease that is characterized by alveolar inflammation during the early stage. Soluble cytokine receptors (SCRs) play important roles in regulating inflammation by either attenuating or promoting cytokine signaling. However, the role of SCRs in silicosis remains unknown. Luminex assays revealed increased soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (sVEGFR) family levels in the plasma of silicosis patients. In an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), cells from the differentiated human monocytic cell line U937 released sVEGFR family proteins after exposure to SiO 2 (50μg/cm 2 ). Further Western blot experiments revealed that VEGFR expression was also elevated in U937 cells. In contrast, levels of sVEGFR family members did not change in the supernatants of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) after exposure to SiO 2 (50μg/cm 2 ). Interestingly, VEGFR expression in HUVECs decreased after SiO 2 treatment. In a scratch assay, HUVECs exhibited cell migration ability, indicating the acquisition of mesenchymal properties. Our findings highlight the important role of sVEGFRs in both inflammation and fibrosis induced by SiO 2 , suggesting a possible mechanism for the fibrogenic effects observed in pulmonary diseases associated with fibrosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. LPS Catch and Effort Estimation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data collected from the LPS dockside (LPIS) and the LPS telephone (LPTS) surveys are combined to produce estimates of total recreational catch, landings, and fishing...

  13. GSK621 activates AMPK signaling to inhibit LPS-induced TNFα production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Yong-hong; Li, Quan; Li, Ping; Liu, Bei

    2016-01-01

    LPS stimulation in macrophages/monocytes induces TNFα production. We here tested the potential effect of GSK621, a novel AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activator, against the process. In RAW264.7 macrophages, murine bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients' monocytes, GSK621 significantly inhibited LPS-induced TNFα protein secretion and mRNA synthesis. Inhibition of AMPK, through AMPKα shRNA knockdown or dominant negative mutation (T172A), almost abolished GSK621's suppression on TNFα in RAW264.7 cells. Reversely, forced-expression of a constitutively-active AMPKα (T172D) mimicked GSK621 actions and reduced LPS-induced TNFα production. Molecularly, GSK621 suppressed LPS-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) activation. In vivo, GSK621 oral administration inhibited LPS-induced TNFα production and endotoxin shock in mice. In summary, GSK621 activates AMPK signaling to inhibit LPS-induced TNFα production in macrophages/monocytes. - Highlights: • GSK621 inhibits LPS-induced TNFα production/expression in RAW264.7 cells and BMDMs. • GSK621 inhibits LPS-induced TNFα production/expression in COPD patients' PBMCs. • GSK621's inhibition on TNFα production by LPS requires AMPK activation. • GSK621 inhibits LPS-induced ROS production and NFκB activation, dependent on AMPK. • GSK621 oral administration inhibits LPS-induced TNFα production and endotoxin shock in mice.

  14. The LPS trigger system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benotto, F.; Costa, M.; Staiano, A.; Zampieri, A.; Bollito, M.; Isoardi, P.; Pernigotti, E.; Sacchi, R.; Trapani, P.P.; Larsen, H.; Massam, T.; Nemoz, C.

    1996-03-01

    The Leading Proton Spectrometer (LPS) has been equipped with microstrip silicon detectors specially designed to trigger events with high values of x L vertical stroke anti p' p vertical stroke / vertical stroke anti p p vertical stroke ≥0.95 where vertical stroke anti p' p vertical stroke and vertical stroke anti p p vertical stroke are respectively the momenta of outgoing and incoming protons. The LPS First Level Trigger can provide a clear tag for very high momentum protons in a kinematical region never explored before. In the following we discuss the physics motivation in tagging very forward protons and present a detailed description of the detector design, the front end electronics, the readout electronics, the Monte Carlo simulation and some preliminary results from 1995 data taking. (orig.)

  15. 1,5-Anhydro-D-fructose attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced cytokine release via suppression of NF-κB p65 phosphorylation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Xiaojie; Kawahara, Ko-ichi; Nawa, Yuko; Miura, Naoki; Shrestha, Binita; Tancharoen, Salunya; Sameshima, Hisayo; Hashiguchi, Teruto; Maruyama, Ikuro

    2009-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulates macrophages by activating NF-κB, which contributes to the release of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-6. 1,5-anhydro-D-fructose (1,5-AF), a monosaccharide formed from starch and glycogen, exhibits anti-oxidant activity and enhances insulin secretion. This study examined the effects of 1,5-AF on LPS-induced inflammatory reactions and elucidated its molecular mechanisms. Before LPS challenge, mice were pretreated with 1,5-AF (38.5 mg/kg). We found that 1,5-AF pretreatment attenuated cytokine release into the serum, including TNF-α, IL-6 and macrophage chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1. Furthermore, pretreatment with 1,5-AF (500 μg/ml) attenuated cytokine release, and 1,5-AF directly inhibited the nuclear translocalization of the NF-κB p65 subunit in LPS-stimulated murine macrophage-like RAW264.7 cells. This inhibition was responsible for decreased LPS-induced phosphorylation on Ser536 of the NF-κB p65 subunit, which is a posttranslational modification involved in the non-canonical pathway. Collectively, these findings indicate that the anti-inflammatory activity of 1,5-AF occurs via inactivation of NF-κB.

  16. Lipopolysaccharide modulation of a CD14-like molecule on porcine alveolar macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kielian, T. L.; Ross, C. R.; McVey, D. S.; Chapes, S. K.; Blecha, F.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    Cluster of differentiation antigen 14 (CD14) functions as a receptor for lipopolysaccharide (LPS) LPS-binding protein (LBP) complexes. Because LPS has varying effects on CD14 expression in vitro, we evaluated CD14 expression in response to LPS with a fully differentiated macrophage phenotype, the alveolar macrophage. By using flow microfluorometric analysis and a radioimmunoassay with an anti-human CD14 monoclonal antibody (My4) that cross-reacts with porcine CD14, we found that macrophages stimulated with LPS for 24 h exhibited a two- to fivefold increase in CD14-like antigen compared with unstimulated cells. At low concentrations of LPS, up-regulation of the CD14-like antigen was dependent on serum; at higher concentrations of LPS, serum was not required. In the absence of serum a 10-fold higher dose of LPS (10 ng/ml) was required to increase CD14-like expression. In addition, LPS-induced CD14-like up-regulation correlated with secretion of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, regardless of serum concentration. Blockade with My4 antibody significantly inhibited LPS-induced tumor necrosis factor-alpha secretion at 1 ng/ml of LPS. However, inhibition decreased as we increased the LPS concentration, suggesting the existence of CD14-independent pathways of macrophage activation in response to LPS. Alternatively, My4 may have a lower affinity for the porcine CD14 antigen than LPS, which may have only partially blocked the LPS-LBP binding site at high concentrations of LPS. Therefore, these data suggest that LPS activation of porcine alveolar macrophages for 24 h increased CD14-like receptor expression. The degree of CD14-like up-regulation was related to LPS concentration, however, activation did not require the presence of serum at high concentrations of LPS.

  17. Macrophage-specific nanotechnology-driven CD163 overexpression in human macrophages results in an M2 phenotype under inflammatory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Vazquez, Perla Abigail; Bernal, Laura; Paige, Candler A; Grosick, Rachel L; Moracho Vilrriales, Carolina; Ferreira, David Wilson; Ulecia-Morón, Cristina; Romero-Sandoval, E Alfonso

    2017-08-01

    M1 macrophages release proinflammatory factors during inflammation. They transit to an M2 phenotype and release anti-inflammatory factors to resolve inflammation. An imbalance in the transition from M1 to M2 phenotype in macrophages contributes to the development of persistent inflammation. CD163, a member of the scavenger receptor cysteine-rich family, is an M2 macrophage marker. The functional role of CD163 during the resolution of inflammation is not completely known. We postulate that CD163 contributes to the transition from M1 to M2 phenotype in macrophages. We induced CD163 gene in THP-1 and primary human macrophages using polyethylenimine nanoparticles grafted with a mannose ligand (Man-PEI). This nanoparticle specifically targets cells of monocytic origin via mannose receptors. Cells were challenged with a single or a double stimulation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). A CD163 or empty plasmid was complexed with Man-PEI nanoparticles for cell transfections. Quantitative RT-PCR, immunocytochemistry, and ELISAs were used for molecular assessments. CD163-overexpressing macrophages displayed reduced levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF)-α and monocytes chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 after a single stimulation with LPS. Following a double stimulation paradigm, CD163-overexpressing macrophages showed an increase of interleukin (IL)-10 and IL-1ra and a reduction of MCP-1. This anti-inflammatory phenotype was partially blocked by an anti-CD163 antibody (effects on IL-10 and IL-1ra). A decrease in the release of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 was observed in CD163-overexpressing human primary macrophages. The release of IL-6 was blocked by an anti-CD163 antibody in the CD163-overexpressing group. Our data show that the induction of the CD163 gene in human macrophages under inflammatory conditions produces changes in cytokine secretion in favor of an anti-inflammatory phenotype. Targeting macrophages to induce CD163 using cell-directed nanotechnology is an attractive

  18. Macrophage conditioned medium induced cellular network formation in MCF-7 cells through enhanced tunneling nanotube formation and tunneling nanotube mediated release of viable cytoplasmic fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patheja, Pooja; Sahu, Khageswar

    2017-01-01

    Infiltrating macrophages in tumor microenvironment, through their secreted cytokines and growth factors, regulate several processes of cancer progression such as cancer cell survival, proliferation, invasion, metastasis and angiogenesis. Recently, intercellular cytoplasmic bridges between cancer cells referred as tunneling nanotubes (TNTs) have been recognized as novel mode of intercellular communication between cancer cells. In this study, we investigated the effect of inflammatory mediators present in conditioned medium derived from macrophages on the formation of TNTs in breast adenocarcinoma cells MCF-7. Results show that treatment with macrophage conditioned medium (MφCM) not only enhanced TNT formation between cells but also stimulated the release of independently migrating viable cytoplasmic fragments, referred to as microplasts, from MCF-7 cells. Time lapse microscopy revealed that microplasts were released from parent cancer cells in extracellular space through formation of TNT-like structures. Mitochondria, vesicles and cytoplasm could be transferred from parent cell body to microplasts through connecting TNTs. The microplasts could also be resorbed into the parent cell body by retraction of the connecting TNTs. Microplast formation inhibited in presence cell migration inhibitor, cytochalasin-B. Notably by utilizing migratory machinery within microplasts, distantly located MCF-7 cells formed several TNT based intercellular connections, leading to formation of physically connected network of cells. Together, these results demonstrate novel role of TNTs in microplast formation, novel modes of TNT formation mediated by microplasts and stimulatory effect of MφCM on cellular network formation in MCF-7 cells mediated through enhanced TNT and microplast formation.

  19. Macrophage conditioned medium induced cellular network formation in MCF-7 cells through enhanced tunneling nanotube formation and tunneling nanotube mediated release of viable cytoplasmic fragments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patheja, Pooja, E-mail: pooja.patheja8@gmail.com [Laser Biomedical Applications Section, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452013, Madhya Pradesh (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Training School Complex, Anushaktinagar, Mumbai 400094, Maharashtra (India); Sahu, Khageswar [Laser Biomedical Applications Section, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452013, Madhya Pradesh (India)

    2017-06-15

    Infiltrating macrophages in tumor microenvironment, through their secreted cytokines and growth factors, regulate several processes of cancer progression such as cancer cell survival, proliferation, invasion, metastasis and angiogenesis. Recently, intercellular cytoplasmic bridges between cancer cells referred as tunneling nanotubes (TNTs) have been recognized as novel mode of intercellular communication between cancer cells. In this study, we investigated the effect of inflammatory mediators present in conditioned medium derived from macrophages on the formation of TNTs in breast adenocarcinoma cells MCF-7. Results show that treatment with macrophage conditioned medium (MφCM) not only enhanced TNT formation between cells but also stimulated the release of independently migrating viable cytoplasmic fragments, referred to as microplasts, from MCF-7 cells. Time lapse microscopy revealed that microplasts were released from parent cancer cells in extracellular space through formation of TNT-like structures. Mitochondria, vesicles and cytoplasm could be transferred from parent cell body to microplasts through connecting TNTs. The microplasts could also be resorbed into the parent cell body by retraction of the connecting TNTs. Microplast formation inhibited in presence cell migration inhibitor, cytochalasin-B. Notably by utilizing migratory machinery within microplasts, distantly located MCF-7 cells formed several TNT based intercellular connections, leading to formation of physically connected network of cells. Together, these results demonstrate novel role of TNTs in microplast formation, novel modes of TNT formation mediated by microplasts and stimulatory effect of MφCM on cellular network formation in MCF-7 cells mediated through enhanced TNT and microplast formation.

  20. Effects of lipopolysaccharide on the catabolic activity of macrophages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cluff, C.; Ziegler, H.K.

    1986-01-01

    The ability of macrophages to degrade and catabolize antigens is of relevance both as a means to process complex antigens prior to presentation to T cells, as well as a way to down regulate immune responses by destroying the antigenicity of polypeptides. With these considerations, the authors have investigated the regulation of macrophage catabolic activity by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Catabolic activity was quantitated by following the distribution and molecular form of 125 -I labelled surface components of heat-killed Listeria monocytogenes (HKLM) subsequent to their uptake by macrophages. They have compared the catabolic activity of macrophages from peritoneal exudates of mice injected i.p. with saline or LPS and have found that LPS-elicited macrophages display a greatly enhanced (3 fold) rate of catabolism. This increase in catabolic activity peaks 3 days after LPS injection and steadily declines thereafter, approaching a baseline level after 3 weeks. The enhancement of catabolic activity is under LPS gene control. LPS-elicited macrophages rapidly destroy the antigenicity of bacterial antigens and function poorly as antigen presenting cells in vitro. These results suggest that LPS elicits a macrophage population specialized for antigen degradation functions with negative regulatory effects on the induction of specific immune responses

  1. Cyclophilin B attenuates the expression of TNF-α in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages through the induction of B cell lymphoma-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcant, Adeline; Denys, Agnès; Melchior, Aurélie; Martinez, Pierre; Deligny, Audrey; Carpentier, Mathieu; Allain, Fabrice

    2012-08-15

    Extracellular cyclophilin A (CyPA) and CyPB have been well described as chemotactic factors for various leukocyte subsets, suggesting their contribution to inflammatory responses. Unlike CyPA, CyPB accumulates in extracellular matrixes, from which it is released by inflammatory proteases. Hence, we hypothesized that it could participate in tissue inflammation by regulating the activity of macrophages. In the current study, we confirmed that CyPB initiated in vitro migration of macrophages, but it did not induce production of proinflammatory cytokines. In contrast, pretreatment of macrophages with CyPB attenuated the expression of inflammatory mediators induced by LPS stimulation. The expression of TNF-α mRNA was strongly reduced after exposure to CyPB, but it was not accompanied by significant modification in LPS-induced activation of MAPK and NF-κB pathways. LPS activation of a reporter gene under the control of TNF-α gene promoter was also markedly decreased in cells treated with CyPB, suggesting a transcriptional mechanism of inhibition. Consistent with this hypothesis, we found that CyPB induced the expression of B cell lymphoma-3 (Bcl-3), which was accompanied by a decrease in the binding of NF-κB p65 to the TNF-α promoter. As expected, interfering with the expression of Bcl-3 restored cell responsiveness to LPS, thus confirming that CyPB acted by inhibiting initiation of TNF-α gene transcription. Finally, we found that CyPA was not efficient in attenuating the production of TNF-α from LPS-stimulated macrophages, which seemed to be due to a modest induction of Bcl-3 expression. Collectively, these findings suggest an unexpected role for CyPB in attenuation of the responses of proinflammatory macrophages.

  2. Activated prostaglandin D2 receptors on macrophages enhance neutrophil recruitment into the lung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandl, Katharina; Stacher, Elvira; Bálint, Zoltán; Sturm, Eva Maria; Maric, Jovana; Peinhaupt, Miriam; Luschnig, Petra; Aringer, Ida; Fauland, Alexander; Konya, Viktoria; Dahlen, Sven-Erik; Wheelock, Craig E.; Kratky, Dagmar; Olschewski, Andrea; Marsche, Gunther; Schuligoi, Rufina; Heinemann, Akos

    2016-01-01

    Background Prostaglandin (PG) D2 is an early-phase mediator in inflammation, but its action and the roles of the 2 D-type prostanoid receptors (DPs) DP1 and DP2 (also called chemoattractant receptor–homologous molecule expressed on TH2 cells) in regulating macrophages have not been elucidated to date. Objective We investigated the role of PGD2 receptors on primary human macrophages, as well as primary murine lung macrophages, and their ability to influence neutrophil action in vitro and in vivo. Methods In vitro studies, including migration, Ca2+ flux, and cytokine secretion, were conducted with primary human monocyte-derived macrophages and neutrophils and freshly isolated murine alveolar and pulmonary interstitial macrophages. In vivo pulmonary inflammation was assessed in male BALB/c mice. Results Activation of DP1, DP2, or both receptors on human macrophages induced strong intracellular Ca2+ flux, cytokine release, and migration of macrophages. In a murine model of LPS-induced pulmonary inflammation, activation of each PGD2 receptor resulted in aggravated airway neutrophilia, tissue myeloperoxidase activity, cytokine contents, and decreased lung compliance. Selective depletion of alveolar macrophages abolished the PGD2-enhanced inflammatory response. Activation of PGD2 receptors on human macrophages enhanced the migratory capacity and prolonged the survival of neutrophils in vitro. In human lung tissue specimens both DP1 and DP2 receptors were located on alveolar macrophages along with hematopoietic PGD synthase, the rate-limiting enzyme of PGD2 synthesis. Conclusion For the first time, our results show that PGD2 markedly augments disease activity through its ability to enhance the proinflammatory actions of macrophages and subsequent neutrophil activation. PMID:26792210

  3. Inflammation and ER Stress Downregulate BDH2 Expression and Dysregulate Intracellular Iron in Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susu M. Zughaier

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Macrophages play a very important role in host defense and in iron homeostasis by engulfing senescent red blood cells and recycling iron. Hepcidin is the master iron regulating hormone that limits dietary iron absorption from the gut and limits iron egress from macrophages. Upon infection macrophages retain iron to limit its bioavailability which limits bacterial growth. Recently, a short chain butyrate dehydrogenase type 2 (BDH2 protein was reported to contain an iron responsive element and to mediate cellular iron trafficking by catalyzing the synthesis of the mammalian siderophore that binds labile iron; therefore, BDH2 plays a crucial role in intracellular iron homeostasis. However, BDH2 expression and regulation in macrophages have not yet been described. Here we show that LPS-induced inflammation combined with ER stress led to massive BDH2 downregulation, increased the expression of ER stress markers, upregulated hepcidin expression, downregulated ferroportin expression, caused iron retention in macrophages, and dysregulated cytokine release from macrophages. We also show that ER stress combined with inflammation synergistically upregulated the expression of the iron carrier protein NGAL and the stress-inducible heme degrading enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 leading to iron liberation. This is the first report to show that inflammation and ER stress downregulate the expression of BDH2 in human THP-1 macrophages.

  4. Alveolar macrophage-epithelial cell interaction following exposure to atmospheric particles induces the release of mediators involved in monocyte mobilization and recruitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukae Hiroshi

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies from our laboratory have shown that human alveolar macrophages (AM and bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC exposed to ambient particles (PM10 in vitro increase their production of inflammatory mediators and that supernatants from PM10-exposed cells shorten the transit time of monocytes through the bone marrow and promote their release into the circulation. Methods The present study concerns co-culture of AM and HBEC exposed to PM10 (EHC-93 and the production of mediators involved in monocyte kinetics measured at both the mRNA and protein levels. The experiments were also designed to determine the role of the adhesive interaction between these cells via the intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1 in the production of these mediators. Results AM/HBEC co-cultures exposed to 100 μg/ml of PM10 for 2 or 24 h increased their levels of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF, M-CSF, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP-1β, monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP-1, interleukin (IL-6 and ICAM-1 mRNA, compared to exposed AM or HBEC mono-cultures, or control non-exposed co-cultures. The levels of GM-CSF, M-CSF, MIP-1β and IL-6 increased in co-cultured supernatants collected after 24 h exposure compared to control cells (p 10-induced increase in co-culture mRNA expression. Conclusion We conclude that an ICAM-1 independent interaction between AM and HBEC, lung cells that process inhaled particles, increases the production and release of mediators that enhance bone marrow turnover of monocytes and their recruitment into tissues. We speculate that this interaction amplifies PM10-induced lung inflammation and contributes to both the pulmonary and systemic morbidity associated with exposure to air pollution.

  5. Macrophage conditioned medium induced cellular network formation in MCF-7 cells through enhanced tunneling nanotube formation and tunneling nanotube mediated release of viable cytoplasmic fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patheja, Pooja; Sahu, Khageswar

    2017-06-15

    Infiltrating macrophages in tumor microenvironment, through their secreted cytokines and growth factors, regulate several processes of cancer progression such as cancer cell survival, proliferation, invasion, metastasis and angiogenesis. Recently, intercellular cytoplasmic bridges between cancer cells referred as tunneling nanotubes (TNTs) have been recognized as novel mode of intercellular communication between cancer cells. In this study, we investigated the effect of inflammatory mediators present in conditioned medium derived from macrophages on the formation of TNTs in breast adenocarcinoma cells MCF-7. Results show that treatment with macrophage conditioned medium (MɸCM) not only enhanced TNT formation between cells but also stimulated the release of independently migrating viable cytoplasmic fragments, referred to as microplasts, from MCF-7 cells. Time lapse microscopy revealed that microplasts were released from parent cancer cells in extracellular space through formation of TNT-like structures. Mitochondria, vesicles and cytoplasm could be transferred from parent cell body to microplasts through connecting TNTs. The microplasts could also be resorbed into the parent cell body by retraction of the connecting TNTs. Microplast formation inhibited in presence cell migration inhibitor, cytochalasin-B. Notably by utilizing migratory machinery within microplasts, distantly located MCF-7 cells formed several TNT based intercellular connections, leading to formation of physically connected network of cells. Together, these results demonstrate novel role of TNTs in microplast formation, novel modes of TNT formation mediated by microplasts and stimulatory effect of MɸCM on cellular network formation in MCF-7 cells mediated through enhanced TNT and microplast formation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Vasorelaxing effects and inhibition of nitric oxide in macrophages by new iron-containing carbon monoxide-releasing molecules (CO-RMs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motterlini, Roberto; Sawle, Philip; Hammad, Jehad; Mann, Brian E; Johnson, Tony R; Green, Colin J; Foresti, Roberta

    2013-02-01

    Carbon monoxide-releasing molecules (CO-RMs) are a class of organometallo carbonyl complexes capable of delivering controlled quantities of CO gas to cells and tissues thus exerting a broad spectrum of pharmacological effects. Here we report on the chemical synthesis, CO releasing properties, cytotoxicity profile and pharmacological activities of four novel structurally related iron-allyl carbonyls. The major difference among the new CO-RMs tested was that three compounds (CORM-307, CORM-308 and CORM-314) were soluble in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), whereas a fourth one (CORM-319) was rendered water-soluble by reacting the iron-carbonyl with hydrogen tetrafluoroborate. We found that despite the fact all compounds liberated CO, CO-RMs soluble in DMSO caused a more pronounced toxic effect both in vascular and inflammatory cells as well as in isolated vessels. More specifically, iron carbonyls soluble in DMSO released CO with a fast kinetic and displayed a marked cytotoxic effect in smooth muscle cells and RAW 247.6 macrophages despite exerting a rapid and pronounced vasorelaxation ex vivo. In contrast, CORM-319 that is soluble in water and liberated CO with a slower rate, preserved smooth muscle cell viability, relaxed aortic tissue and exerted a significant anti-inflammatory effect in macrophages challenged with endotoxin. These data suggest that iron carbonyls can be used as scaffolds for the design and synthesis of pharmacologically active CO-RMs and indicate that increasing water solubility and controlling the rate of CO release are important parameters for limiting their potential toxic effects. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Influence of exercise on NA- and Hsp72-induced release of IFNγ by the peritoneal suspension of macrophages and lymphocytes from genetically obese Zucker rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Cordero, L; García, J J; Hinchado, M D; Bote, E; Ortega, E

    2013-03-01

    Regular physical exercise is recognized as a nonpharmacological therapeutic strategy in the treatment of metabolic syndrome, and has been proposed for improving obesity, diabetic status, insulin resistance, and immune response. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of a regular exercise program (treadmill running, 5 days/week for 14 weeks at 35 cm/s for 35 min in the last month) on the release of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interferon gamma (IFNγ) by peritoneal cells (macrophages and lymphocytes) from obese Zucker rats (fa/fa) in response to noradrenaline (NA) and heat shock proteins of 72 kDa (Hsp72), and the possible adaptation due to training for a bout acute exercise (a single session of 25-35 min at 35 cm/s). In healthy (lean Fa/fa) and obese animals, peritoneal cells released greater concentrations of IFNγ in response to Hsp72 and lower concentrations in response to NA. The regular exercise training protocol, evaluated in the obese animals, produced a clear change in the regulation of the release of IFNγ. Peritoneal immune cells from trained animals released more IFNγ in response to NA, but there was a reduction in the release of IFNγ in response to Hsp72. In the obese animals, regular exercise caused a change in the inhibitory effect of NA (which now becomes stimulatory) and the stimulatory effect of Hsp72e (which now becomes inhibitory) in relation to the release of IFNγ. This reflects that Hsp72, induced by the prior release of NA following exercise-induced stress, plays a role in the homeostatic balance of release of IFNγ by peritoneal immune cells in obese animals during exercise.

  8. DMPD: Regulation of arachidonic acid release and cytosolic phospholipase A2activation. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 10080535 Regulation of arachidonic acid release and cytosolic phospholipase A2activ...on of arachidonic acid release and cytosolic phospholipase A2activation. PubmedID 10080535 Title Regulation ...of arachidonic acid release and cytosolic phospholipase A2activation. Authors Gij

  9. Study of Nitric Oxide production by murine peritoneal macrophages induced by Brucella Lipopolysaccharide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavoosi G

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Brueclla is a gram negative bacteria that causes Brucellosis. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS ", the pathogenic agent of Brucella is composed of O-chain, core oligosaccharide and lipid A. in addition, the structural and biological properties of different LPS extracted from different strains are not identical. The first defense system against LPS is nonspecific immunity that causes macrophage activation. Activated macrophages produce oxygen and nitrogen radicals that enhance the protection against intracellular pathogens.In this experiment LPS was extracted by hot phenol- water procedure and the effect of various LPSs on nitric oxide prodution by peritoneal mouse macrophages was examined.Our results demonstrated that the effect of LPS on nitric oxide production is concentration-dependent we observed the maximum response in concentration of 10-20 microgram per milliliter. Also our results demonstrate that LPS extracted from vaccine Brucella abortus (S 19 had a highe effect on nitric oxide production than the LPS from other strains

  10. LYATK1 potently inhibits LPS-mediated pro-inflammatory response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi, Feng; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Xiujuan; Kong, Wei; Zhao, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-primed monocytes/macrophages produce pro-inflammatory cytokines, which could lead to endotoxin shock. TGF-β-activated kinase1 (TAK1) activation is involved in the process. In the current study, we studied the potential effect of a selective TAK1 inhibitor, LYTAK1, on LPS-stimulated response both in vitro and in vivo. We demonstrated that LYTAK1 inhibited LPS-induced mRNA expression and production of several pro-inflammatory cytokines [interleukin 1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) and interleukin-6 (IL-6)] in RAW 264.7 macrophages. LYTAK1's activity was almost nullified with TAK1 shRNA-knockdown. Meanwhile, in both primary mouse bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDMs) and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine production was again attenuated with LYTAK1 co-treatment. Molecularly, LYTAK1 dramatically inhibited LPS-induced TAK1-nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (Erk, Jnk and p38) activation in RAW 264.7 cells, mouse BMDMs and human PBMCs. In vivo, oral administration of LYTAK1 inhibited LPS-induced activation of TAK1-NFκB-p38 in ex-vivo cultured PBMCs, and cytokine production and endotoxin shock in mice. Together, these results demonstrate that LYTAK1 inhibits LPS-induced production of several pro-inflammatory cytokines and endotoxin shock probably through blocking TAK1-regulated signalings. - Highlights: • LYTAK1 inhibits LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine production in RAW 264.7 cells. • The effect by LYTAK1 is more potent than other known TAK1 inhibitors. • LYTAK1 inhibits LPS-induced cytokine production in primary macrophages/monocytes. • LYTAK1 inhibits LPS-induced TAK1-NFκB and MAPK activation in macrophages/monocytes. • LYTAK1 gavage inhibits LPS-induced endotoxin shock and cytokine production in mice.

  11. LYATK1 potently inhibits LPS-mediated pro-inflammatory response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xi, Feng [Department of Intensive Care Unit, Taixing People" ' s Hospital, Taixing, Jiangsu Province, 225400 (China); Liu, Yuan [Department of Ophthalmology, Nanjing First Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing (China); Wang, Xiujuan; Kong, Wei [Department of Intensive Care Unit, Taixing People" ' s Hospital, Taixing, Jiangsu Province, 225400 (China); Zhao, Feng, E-mail: taixingzhaofeng163@163.com [Department of Intensive Care Unit, Taixing People" ' s Hospital, Taixing, Jiangsu Province, 225400 (China)

    2016-01-29

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-primed monocytes/macrophages produce pro-inflammatory cytokines, which could lead to endotoxin shock. TGF-β-activated kinase1 (TAK1) activation is involved in the process. In the current study, we studied the potential effect of a selective TAK1 inhibitor, LYTAK1, on LPS-stimulated response both in vitro and in vivo. We demonstrated that LYTAK1 inhibited LPS-induced mRNA expression and production of several pro-inflammatory cytokines [interleukin 1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) and interleukin-6 (IL-6)] in RAW 264.7 macrophages. LYTAK1's activity was almost nullified with TAK1 shRNA-knockdown. Meanwhile, in both primary mouse bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDMs) and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine production was again attenuated with LYTAK1 co-treatment. Molecularly, LYTAK1 dramatically inhibited LPS-induced TAK1-nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (Erk, Jnk and p38) activation in RAW 264.7 cells, mouse BMDMs and human PBMCs. In vivo, oral administration of LYTAK1 inhibited LPS-induced activation of TAK1-NFκB-p38 in ex-vivo cultured PBMCs, and cytokine production and endotoxin shock in mice. Together, these results demonstrate that LYTAK1 inhibits LPS-induced production of several pro-inflammatory cytokines and endotoxin shock probably through blocking TAK1-regulated signalings. - Highlights: • LYTAK1 inhibits LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine production in RAW 264.7 cells. • The effect by LYTAK1 is more potent than other known TAK1 inhibitors. • LYTAK1 inhibits LPS-induced cytokine production in primary macrophages/monocytes. • LYTAK1 inhibits LPS-induced TAK1-NFκB and MAPK activation in macrophages/monocytes. • LYTAK1 gavage inhibits LPS-induced endotoxin shock and cytokine production in mice.

  12. GSK3β-dependent inhibition of AMPK potentiates activation of neutrophils and macrophages and enhances severity of acute lung injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Dae Won; Jiang, Shaoning; Liu, Yanping; Siegal, Gene P.; Inoki, Ken; Abraham, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Although AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is involved in regulating carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, activated AMPK also plays an anti-inflammatory role in many cell populations. However, despite the ability of AMPK activation to diminish the severity of inflammatory responses, previous studies have found that AMPK activity is diminished in LPS-treated neutrophils and also in lungs of mice with LPS-induced acute lung injury (ALI). Since GSK3β participates in regulating AMPK activity, we examined potential roles for GSK3β in modulating LPS-induced activation of neutrophils and macrophages and in influencing severity of ALI. We found that GSK3β-dependent phosphorylation of T479-AMPK was associated with pT172 dephosphorylation and inactivation of AMPK following TLR4 engagement. GSK3β inhibitors BIO (6-bromoindirubin-3′-oxime), SB216763, or siRNA knockdown of GSK3β, but not the PI3K/AKT inhibitor LY294002, prevented Thr172-AMPK dephosphorylation. Exposure to LPS resulted in rapid binding between IKKβ and AMPKα, and phosphorylation of S485-AMPK by IKKβ. These results suggest that IKKβ-dependent phosphorylation of S485-AMPK was an essential step in subsequent phosphorylation and inactivation AMPK by GSK3β. Inhibition of GSK3β activity delayed IκBα degradation and diminished expression of the proinflammatory TNF-α in LPS-stimulated neutrophils and macrophages. In vivo, inhibition of GSK3β decreased the severity of LPS-induced lung injury as assessed by development of pulmonary edema, production of TNF-α and MIP-2, and release of the alarmins HMGB1 and histone 3 in the lungs. These results show that inhibition of AMPK by GSK3β plays an important contributory role in enhancing LPS-induced inflammatory responses, including worsening the severity of ALI. PMID:25239914

  13. Graphene oxide directed in-situ synthesis of Prussian blue for non-enzymatic sensing of hydrogen peroxide released from macrophages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Weiwei; Zhu, Qionghua; Gao, Fei; Gao, Feng [College of Chemistry and Environment, Fujian Province Key Laboratory of Morden Analytical Science and Separation Technology, Minnan Normal University, Zhangzhou 363000 (China); Huang, Jiafu; Pan, Yutian [College of Biological Science and Technology, Minnan Normal University, Zhangzhou 363000 (China); Wang, Qingxiang, E-mail: axiang236@126.com [College of Chemistry and Environment, Fujian Province Key Laboratory of Morden Analytical Science and Separation Technology, Minnan Normal University, Zhangzhou 363000 (China)

    2017-03-01

    A novel electrochemical non-enzymatic hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) sensor has been developed based on Prussian blue (PB) and electrochemically reduced graphene oxide (ERGO). The GO was covalently modified on glassy carbon electrode (GCE), and utilized as a directing platform for in-situ synthesis of electroactive PB. Then the GO was electrochemically treated to reduction form to improve the effective surface area and electroactivity of the sensing interface. The fabrication process was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results showed that the rich oxygen containing groups play a crucial role for the successful synthesis of PB, and the obtained PB layer on the covalently immobilized GO has good stability. Electrochemical sensing assay showed that the modified electrode had tremendous electrocatalytic property for the reduction of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. The steady-state current response increased linearly with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentrations from 5 μM to 1 mM with a fast response time (less than 3 s). The detection limit was estimated to be 0.8 μM. When the sensor was applied for determination of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} released from living cells of macrophages, satisfactory results were achieved. - Highlights: • Covalent method was applied for immobilization of GO on glassy carbon electrode. • GO directed in-situ synthesis of electroactive PB. • PB-ERGO composite shows high electrocatalytic activity toward H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. • The modified biosensor is capable of detecting H{sub 2}O{sub 2} released from living macrophages.

  14. Arctigenin ameliorates inflammation in vitro and in vivo by inhibiting the PI3K/AKT pathway and polarizing M1 macrophages to M2-like macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyam, Supriya R; Lee, In-Ah; Gu, Wan; Kim, Kyung-Ah; Jeong, Jin-Ju; Jang, Se-Eun; Han, Myung Joo; Kim, Dong-Hyun

    2013-05-15

    Seeds of Arctium lappa, containing arctigenin and its glycoside arctiin as main constituents, have been used as a diuretic, anti-inflammatory and detoxifying agent in Chinese traditional medicine. In our preliminary study, arctigenin inhibited IKKβ and NF-κB activation in peptidoglycan (PGN)- or lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced peritoneal macrophages. To understand the anti-inflammatory effect of arctigenin, we investigated its anti-inflammatory effect in LPS-stimulated peritoneal macrophages and on LPS-induced systemic inflammation as well as 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis in mice. Arctigenin inhibited LPS-increased IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α expression in LPS-stimulated peritoneal macrophages, but increased LPS-reduced IL-10 and CD204 expression. Arctigenin inhibited LPS-induced PI3K, AKT and IKKβ phosphorylation, but did not suppress LPS-induced IRAK-1 phosphorylation. However, arctigenin did not inhibit NF-κB activation in LPS-stimulated PI3K siRNA-treated peritoneal macrophages. Arctigenin suppressed the binding of p-PI3K antibody and the nucleus translocation of NF-κB p65 in LPS-stimulated peritoneal macrophages. Arctigenin suppressed blood IL-1β and TNF-α level in mice systemically inflamed by intraperitoneal injection of LPS. Arctigenin also inhibited colon shortening, macroscopic scores and myeloperoxidase activity in TNBS-induced colitic mice. Arctigenin inhibited TNBS-induced IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-6 expression, as well as PI3K, AKT and IKKβ phosphorylation and NF-κB activation in mice, but increased IL-10 and CD204 expression. However, it did not affect IRAK-1 phosphorylation. Based on these findings, arctigenin may ameliorate inflammatory diseases, such as colitis, by inhibiting PI3K and polarizing M1 macrophages to M2-like macrophages. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. CD36 Differently Regulates Macrophage Responses to Smooth and Rough Lipopolysaccharide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Biedroń

    Full Text Available Lipopolysaccharide (LPS is the major pathogen-associated molecular pattern of Gram-negative bacterial infections, and includes smooth (S-LPS and rough (R-LPS chemotypes. Upon activation by LPS through CD14, TLR4/MD-2 heterodimers sequentially induce two waves of intracellular signaling for macrophage activation: the MyD88-dependent pathway from the plasma membrane and, following internalization, the TRIF-dependent pathway from endosomes. We sought to better define the role of scavenger receptors CD36 and CD204/SR-A as accessory LPS receptors that can contribute to pro-inflammatory and microbicidal activation of macrophages. We have found that CD36 differently regulates activation of mouse macrophages by S-LPS versus R-LPS. The ability of CD36 to substitute for CD14 in loading R-LPS, but not S-LPS onto TLR4/MD-2 allows CD14-independent macrophage responses to R-LPS. Conversely, S-LPS, but not R-LPS effectively stimulates CD14 binding to CD36, which favors S-LPS transfer from CD14 onto TLR4/MD-2 under conditions of low CD14 occupancy with S-LPS in serum-free medium. In contrast, in the presence of serum, CD36 reduces S-LPS binding to TLR4/MD-2 and the subsequent MyD88-dependent signaling, by mediating internalization of S-LPS/CD14 complexes. Additionally, CD36 positively regulates activation of TRIF-dependent signaling by both S-LPS and R-LPS, by promoting TLR4/MD-2 endocytosis. In contrast, we have found that SR-A does not function as a S-LPS receptor. Thus, by co-operating with CD14 in both R- and S-LPS loading onto TLR4/MD-2, CD36 can enhance the sensitivity of tissue-resident macrophages in detecting infections by Gram-negative bacteria. However, in later phases, following influx of serum to the infection site, the CD36-mediated negative regulation of MyD88-dependent branch of S-LPS-induced TLR4 signaling might constitute a mechanism to prevent an excessive inflammatory response, while preserving the adjuvant effect of S-LPS for adaptive

  16. Compound list: LPS [Open TG-GATEs

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available LPS LPS 00A07 ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Human/in_vitro.../LPS.Human.in_vitro.Liver.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vitro/LPS.Rat.in..._vitro.Liver.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Liver/Single/LPS.Rat.in_vivo.Liver.Single.zip ...

  17. Effect of curcumin (Curcuma longa extract) on LPS-induced acute lung injury is mediated by the activation of AMPK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joungmin; Jeong, Seong-Wook; Quan, Hui; Jeong, Cheol-Won; Choi, Jeong-Il; Bae, Hong-Beom

    2016-02-01

    Curcumin, a biphenolic compound extracted from turmeric (Curcuma longa), possesses potent anti-inflammatory activity. The present study investigated whether curcumin could increase 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity in macrophages and modulate the severity of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury. Macrophages were treated with curcumin and then exposed (or not) to LPS. Acute lung injury was induced by intratracheal administration of LPS in BALB/c mice. Curcumin increased phosphorylation of AMPK and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), a downstream target of AMPK, in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Curcumin did not increase phosphorylation of liver kinase B1, a primary kinase upstream of AMPK. STO-609, an inhibitor of calcium(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase, diminished curcumin-induced AMPK phosphorylation, but transforming growth factor-beta-activated kinase 1 inhibitor did not. Curcumin also diminished the LPS-induced increase in phosphorylation of inhibitory κB-alpha and the production of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-2, and interleukin (IL)-6 by macrophages. Systemic administration of curcumin significantly decreased the production of TNF-α, MIP-2, and IL-6 as well as neutrophil accumulation in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and also decreased pulmonary myeloperoxidase levels and the wet/dry weight ratio in mice subjected to LPS treatment. These results suggest that the protective effect of curcumin on LPS-induced acute lung injury is associated with AMPK activation.

  18. Macrophages in synovial inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisling eKennedy

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available AbstractSynovial macrophages are one of the resident cell types in synovial tissue and while they remain relatively quiescent in the healthy joint, they become activated in the inflamed joint and, along with infiltrating monocytes/macrophages, regulate secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and enzymes involved in driving the inflammatory response and joint destruction. Synovial macrophages are positioned throughout the sub-lining layer and lining layer at the cartilage-pannus junction and mediate articular destruction. Sub-lining macrophages are now also considered as the most reliable biomarker for disease severity and response to therapy in rheumatoid arthritis (RA. There is a growing understanding of the molecular drivers of inflammation and an appreciation that the resolution of inflammation is an active process rather than a passive return to homeostasis, and this has implications for our understanding of the role of macrophages in inflammation. Macrophage phenotype determines the cytokine secretion profile and tissue destruction capabilities of these cells. Whereas inflammatory synovial macrophages have not yet been classified into one phenotype or another it is widely known that TNFα and IL-l, characteristically released by M1 macrophages, are abundant in RA while IL-10 activity, characteristic of M2 macrophages, is somewhat diminished.Here we will briefly review our current understanding of macrophages and macrophage polarisation in RA as well as the elements implicated in controlling polarisation, such as cytokines and transcription factors like NFκB, IRFs and NR4A, and pro-resolving factors, such as LXA4 and other lipid mediators which may promote a non-inflammatory, pro-resolving phenotype and may represent a novel therapeutic paradigm.

  19. Active spice-derived components can inhibit inflammatory responses of adipose tissue in obesity by suppressing inflammatory actions of macrophages and release of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 from adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Hae-Mi; Kang, Ji-Hye; Kawada, Teruo; Yoo, Hoon; Sung, Mi-Kyung; Yu, Rina

    2007-02-13

    Inflammation plays a key role in obesity-related pathologies such as cardiovascular disease, type II diabetes, and several types of cancer. Obesity-induced inflammation entails the enhancement of the recruitment of macrophages into adipose tissue and the release of various proinflammatory proteins from fat tissue. Therefore, the modulation of inflammatory responses in obesity may be useful for preventing or ameliorating obesity-related pathologies. Some spice-derived components, which are naturally occurring phytochemicals, elicit antiobesity and antiinflammatory properties. In this study, we investigated whether active spice-derived components can be applied to the suppression of obesity-induced inflammatory responses. Mesenteric adipose tissue was isolated from obese mice fed a high-fat diet and cultured to prepare an adipose tissue-conditioned medium. Raw 264.7 macrophages were treated with the adipose tissue-conditioned medium with or without active spice-derived components (i.e., diallyl disulfide, allyl isothiocyanate, piperine, zingerone and curcumin). Chemotaxis assay was performed to measure the degree of macrophage migration. Macrophage activation was estimated by measuring tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), nitric oxide, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) concentrations. The active spice-derived components markedly suppressed the migration of macrophages induced by the mesenteric adipose tissue-conditioned medium in a dose-dependent manner. Among the active spice-derived components studied, allyl isothiocyanate, zingerone, and curcumin significantly inhibited the cellular production of proinflammatory mediators such as TNF-alpha and nitric oxide, and significantly inhibited the release of MCP-1 from 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Our findings suggest that the spice-derived components can suppress obesity-induced inflammatory responses by suppressing adipose tissue macrophage accumulation or activation and inhibiting MCP-1 release from adipocytes

  20. Purinergic signaling during macrophage differentiation results in M2 alternative activated macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberà-Cremades, Maria; Baroja-Mazo, Alberto; Pelegrín, Pablo

    2016-02-01

    Macrophages represent a highly heterogenic cell population of the innate immune system, with important roles in the initiation and resolution of the inflammatory response. Purinergic signaling regulates both M1 and M2 macrophage function at different levels by controlling the secretion of cytokines, phagocytosis, and the production of reactive oxygen species. We found that extracellular nucleotides arrest macrophage differentiation from bone marrow precursors via adenosine and P2 receptors. This results in a mature macrophage with increased expression of M2, but not M1, genes. Similar to adenosine and ATP, macrophage growth arrested with LPS treatment resulted in an increase of the M2-related marker Ym1. Recombinant Ym1 was able to affect macrophage proliferation and could, potentially, be involved in the arrest of macrophage growth during hematopoiesis. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  1. Moringa fruit inhibits LPS-induced NO/iNOS expression through suppressing the NF-κ B activation in RAW264.7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyo-Jin; Jeong, Yun-Jeong; Lee, Tae-Sung; Park, Yoon-Yub; Chae, Whi-Gun; Chung, Il-Kyung; Chang, Hyeun-Wook; Kim, Cheorl-Ho; Choi, Yung-Hyun; Kim, Wun-Jae; Moon, Sung-Kwon; Chang, Young-Chae

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory effects of moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam.), a natural biologically active substance, by determining its inhibitory effects on pro-inflammatory mediators in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophage RAW264.7 cells. Extracts from different parts of moringa (root, leaf, and fruit) reduced LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) release in a dose-dependent manner. The moringa fruit extract most effectively inhibited LPS-induced NO production and levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). The moringa fruit extract also was shown to suppress the production of inflammatory cytokines including IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6. Furthermore, moringa fruit extract inhibited the cytoplasmic degradation of I κ B -α and the nuclear translocation of p65 proteins, resulting in lower levels of NF -κ B transactivation. Collectively, the results of this study demonstrate that moringa fruit extract reduces the levels of pro-inflammatory mediators including NO , IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6 via the inhibition of NF -κ B activation in RAW264.7 cells. These findings reveal, in part, the molecular basis underlying the anti-inflammatory properties of moringa fruit extract.

  2. Scutellarin Suppresses NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation in Macrophages and Protects Mice against Bacterial Sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Jing, Yan-Yun; Zeng, Chen-Ying; Li, Chen-Guang; Xu, Li-Hui; Yan, Liang; Bai, Wen-Jing; Zha, Qing-Bing; Ouyang, Dong-Yun; He, Xian-Hui

    2017-01-01

    The NLRP3 inflammasome plays a critical role in mediating the innate immune defense against pathogenic infections, but aberrant activation of NLRP3 inflammasome has been linked to a variety of inflammatory diseases. Thus targeting the NLRP3 inflammasome represents a promising therapeutic for the treatment of such diseases. Scutellarin is a flavonoid isolated from Erigeron breviscapus (Vant.) Hand.-Mazz. and has been reported to exhibit potent anti-inflammatory activities, but the underlying mechanism is only partly understood. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether scutellarin could affect the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome in macrophages. The results showed that scutellarin dose-dependently reduced caspase-1 activation and decreased mature interleukin-1β (IL-1β) release in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-primed macrophages upon ATP or nigericin stimulation, indicating that scutellarin inhibited NLRP3 inflammasome activation in macrophages. Consistent with this, scutellarin also suppressed pyroptotic cell death in LPS-primed macrophages treated with ATP or nigericin. ATP or nigericin-induced ASC speck formation and its oligomerization were blocked by scutellarin pre-treatment. Intriguingly, scutellarin augmented PKA-specific phosphorylation of NLRP3 in LPS-primed macrophages, which was completely blocked by selective PKA inhibitor H89, suggesting that PKA signaling had been involved in the action of scutellarin to suppress NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Supporting this, the inhibitory effect of scutellarin on NLRP3 inflammasome activation was completely counteracted by H89 or adenyl cyclase inhibitor MDL12330A. As NLRP3-dependent release of IL-1β has a critical role in sepsis, the in vivo activity of scutellarin was assayed in a mouse model of bacterial sepsis, which was established by intraperitoneally injection of a lethal dose of viable Escherichia coli . Oral administration of scutellarin significantly improved the survival of mice with bacterial sepsis

  3. Scutellarin Suppresses NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation in Macrophages and Protects Mice against Bacterial Sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The NLRP3 inflammasome plays a critical role in mediating the innate immune defense against pathogenic infections, but aberrant activation of NLRP3 inflammasome has been linked to a variety of inflammatory diseases. Thus targeting the NLRP3 inflammasome represents a promising therapeutic for the treatment of such diseases. Scutellarin is a flavonoid isolated from Erigeron breviscapus (Vant. Hand.-Mazz. and has been reported to exhibit potent anti-inflammatory activities, but the underlying mechanism is only partly understood. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether scutellarin could affect the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome in macrophages. The results showed that scutellarin dose-dependently reduced caspase-1 activation and decreased mature interleukin-1β (IL-1β release in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-primed macrophages upon ATP or nigericin stimulation, indicating that scutellarin inhibited NLRP3 inflammasome activation in macrophages. Consistent with this, scutellarin also suppressed pyroptotic cell death in LPS-primed macrophages treated with ATP or nigericin. ATP or nigericin-induced ASC speck formation and its oligomerization were blocked by scutellarin pre-treatment. Intriguingly, scutellarin augmented PKA-specific phosphorylation of NLRP3 in LPS-primed macrophages, which was completely blocked by selective PKA inhibitor H89, suggesting that PKA signaling had been involved in the action of scutellarin to suppress NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Supporting this, the inhibitory effect of scutellarin on NLRP3 inflammasome activation was completely counteracted by H89 or adenyl cyclase inhibitor MDL12330A. As NLRP3-dependent release of IL-1β has a critical role in sepsis, the in vivo activity of scutellarin was assayed in a mouse model of bacterial sepsis, which was established by intraperitoneally injection of a lethal dose of viable Escherichia coli. Oral administration of scutellarin significantly improved the survival of mice with

  4. Protective role of benfotiamine, a fat-soluble vitamin B1 analogue, in lipopolysaccharide-induced cytotoxic signals in murine macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Umesh C S; Kalariya, Nilesh M; Srivastava, Satish K; Ramana, Kota V

    2010-05-15

    This study was designed to investigate the molecular mechanisms by which benfotiamine, a lipid-soluble analogue of vitamin B1, affects lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory signals leading to cytotoxicity in the mouse macrophage cell line RAW264.7. Benfotiamine prevented LPS-induced apoptosis, expression of the Bcl-2 family of proapoptotic proteins, caspase-3 activation, and PARP cleavage and altered mitochondrial membrane potential and release of cytochrome c and apoptosis-inducing factor and phosphorylation and subsequent activation of p38-MAPK, stress-activated kinases (SAPK/JNK), protein kinase C, and cytoplasmic phospholipase A2 in RAW cells. Further, phosphorylation and degradation of inhibitory kappaB and consequent activation and nuclear translocation of the redox-sensitive transcription factor NF-kappaB were significantly prevented by benfotiamine. The LPS-induced increased expression of cytokines and chemokines and the inflammatory marker proteins iNOS and COX-2 and their metabolic products NO and PGE(2) was also blocked significantly. Thus, our results elucidate the molecular mechanism of the anti-inflammatory action of benfotiamine in LPS-induced inflammation in murine macrophages. Benfotiamine suppresses oxidative stress-induced NF-kappaB activation and prevents bacterial endotoxin-induced inflammation, indicating that vitamin B1 supplementation could be beneficial in the treatment of inflammatory diseases. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Protective role of benfotiamine, a fat soluble vitamin B1 analogue, in the lipopolysaccharide–induced cytotoxic signals in murine macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Umesh C S; Kalariya, Nilesh M; Srivastava, Satish K; Ramana, Kota V

    2010-01-01

    The study has been designed to investigate the molecular mechanisms by which benfotiamine, a lipid-soluble analogue of Vitamin B1 effects lipopolysaccharide (LPS) – induced inflammatory signals leading to cytotoxicity in mouse macrophage cell line RAW264.7. Benfotiamine prevented LPS-induced apoptosis, expression of Bcl-2 family of pro-apoptotic proteins, caspase-3 activation and PARP cleavage, altered mitochondrial membrane potential and release of cytochrome-c and apoptosis inducing factor (AIF), phosphorylation and subsequent activation of p38-MAPK, stress activated kinases (SAPK/JNK), Protein kinase C, and cytoplasmic-phospholipase A2 in RAW cells. Further, phosphorylation and degradation of inhibitory kappa B (IκB) and consequent activation and nuclear translocation of redox-sensitive transcription factor NF-κB was significantly prevented by benfotiamine. The LPS-induced increased expression of cytokines and chemokines and other inflammatory marker proteins iNOS and COX-2 and their metabolic products NO and PGE2 were also blocked significantly. Thus, our results elucidate the molecular mechanism of anti-inflammatory action of benfotiamine in LPS-induced inflammation in murine macrophage. Benfotiamine suppresses oxidative stress-induced NF-κB activation and prevents the bacterial endotoxin-induced inflammation indicating that vitamin B1 supplementation could be beneficial in the treatment of inflammatory diseases. PMID:20219672

  6. 15-Lipoxygenases regulate the production of chemokines in human lung macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrial, C; Grassin-Delyle, S; Salvator, H; Brollo, M; Naline, E; Devillier, P

    2015-09-01

    15-Lipoxygenase (15-LOX) activity is associated with inflammation and immune regulation. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the expression of 15-LOX-1 and 15-LOX-2 and evaluate the enzymes' roles in the polarization of human lung macrophages (LMs) in response to LPS and Th2 cytokines (IL-4/-13). LMs were isolated from patients undergoing surgery for carcinoma. The cells were cultured with a 15-LOX inhibitor (PD146176 or ML351), a COX inhibitor (indomethacin), a 5-LOX inhibitor (MK886) or vehicle and then stimulated with LPS (10 ng · mL(-1)), IL-4 (10 ng · mL(-1)) or IL-13 (50 ng · mL(-1)) for 24 h. Levels of ALOX15 (15-LOX-1) and ALOX15B (15-LOX-2) transcripts were determined by real-time quantitative PCR. Immunoassays were used to measure levels of LPS-induced cytokines (TNF-α, CCL2, CCL3, CCL4, CXCL1, CXCL8 and CXCL10) and Th2 cytokine-induced chemokines (CCL13, CCL18 and CCL22) in the culture supernatant. Stimulation of LMs with LPS was associated with increased expression of ALOX15B, whereas stimulation with IL-4/IL-13 induced the expression of ALOX15. PD146176 and ML351 (10 μM) reduced the release of the chemokines induced by LPS and Th2 cytokines. The effects of these 15-LOX inhibitors were maintained in the presence of indomethacin and MK886. Furthermore, indomethacin revealed the inhibitory effect of PD146176 on TNF-α release. Inhibition of the 15-LOX pathways is involved in the down-regulation of the in vitro production of chemokines in LMs. Our results suggest that the 15-LOX pathways have a role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory lung disorders and may thus constitute a potential drug target. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society.

  7. LPS-Enhanced Glucose-Stimulated Insulin Secretion Is Normalized by Resveratrol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, Mark K; Dudele, Anete; Poulsen, Morten M

    2016-01-01

    we test the effect of LPS and the anti-inflammatory compound resveratrol on glucose homeostasis, insulin levels and inflammation. Mice were subcutaneously implanted with osmotic mini pumps infusing either low-dose LPS or saline for 28 days. Half of the mice were treated with resveratrol delivered...... through the diet. LPS caused increased inflammation of the liver and adipose tissue (epididymal and subcutaneous) together with enlarged spleens and increased number of leukocytes in the blood. Resveratrol specifically reduced the inflammatory status in epididymal fat (reduced expression of TNFa and Il1b......, whereas the increased macrophage infiltration was unaltered) without affecting the other tissues investigated. By LC-MS, we were able to quantitate resveratrol metabolites in epididymal but not subcutaneous adipose tissue. LPS induced insulin resistance as the glucose-stimulated insulin secretion during...

  8. Gossypol induces pyroptosis in mouse macrophages via a non-canonical inflammasome pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Qiu-Ru; Li, Chen-Guang; Zha, Qing-Bing; Xu, Li-Hui; Pan, Hao; Zhao, Gao-Xiang; Ouyang, Dong-Yun; He, Xian-Hui

    2016-01-01

    Gossypol, a polyphenolic compound isolated from cottonseeds, has been reported to possess many pharmacological activities, but whether it can influence inflammasome activation remains unclear. In this study, we found that in mouse macrophages, gossypol induced cell death characterized by rapid membrane rupture and robust release of HMGB1 and pro-caspase-11 comparable to ATP treatment, suggesting an induction of pyroptotic cell death. Unlike ATP, gossypol induced much low levels of mature interleukin-1β (IL-1β) secretion from mouse peritoneal macrophages primed with LPS, although it caused pro-IL-1β release similar to that of ATP. Consistent with this, activated caspase-1 responsible for pro-IL-1β maturation was undetectable in gossypol-treated peritoneal macrophages. Besides, RAW 264.7 cells lacking ASC expression and caspase-1 activation also underwent pyroptotic cell death upon gossypol treatment. In further support of pyroptosis induction, both pan-caspase inhibitor and caspase-1 subfamily inhibitor, but not caspase-3 inhibitor, could sharply suppress gossypol-induced cell death. Other canonical pyroptotic inhibitors, including potassium chloride and N-acetyl-L-cysteine, could suppress ATP-induced pyroptosis but failed to inhibit or even enhanced gossypol-induced cell death, whereas nonspecific pore-formation inhibitor glycine could attenuate this process, suggesting involvement of a non-canonical pathway. Of note, gossypol treatment eliminated thioglycollate-induced macrophages in the peritoneal cavity with recruitment of other leukocytes. Moreover, gossypol administration markedly decreased the survival of mice in a bacterial sepsis model. Collectively, these results suggested that gossypol induced pyroptosis in mouse macrophages via a non-canonical inflammasome pathway, which raises a concern for its in vivo cytotoxicity to macrophages. - Highlights: • Gossypol induces pyroptosis in mouse peritoneal and RAW 264.7 macrophages. • In LPS

  9. Gossypol induces pyroptosis in mouse macrophages via a non-canonical inflammasome pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Qiu-Ru; Li, Chen-Guang [Department of Immunobiology, College of Life Science and Technology, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Zha, Qing-Bing [Department of Fetal Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Xu, Li-Hui [Department of Cell Biology, College of Life Science and Technology, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Pan, Hao; Zhao, Gao-Xiang [Department of Immunobiology, College of Life Science and Technology, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Ouyang, Dong-Yun, E-mail: dongyun1967@aliyun.com [Department of Immunobiology, College of Life Science and Technology, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); He, Xian-Hui, E-mail: thexh@jnu.edu.cn [Department of Immunobiology, College of Life Science and Technology, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)

    2016-02-01

    Gossypol, a polyphenolic compound isolated from cottonseeds, has been reported to possess many pharmacological activities, but whether it can influence inflammasome activation remains unclear. In this study, we found that in mouse macrophages, gossypol induced cell death characterized by rapid membrane rupture and robust release of HMGB1 and pro-caspase-11 comparable to ATP treatment, suggesting an induction of pyroptotic cell death. Unlike ATP, gossypol induced much low levels of mature interleukin-1β (IL-1β) secretion from mouse peritoneal macrophages primed with LPS, although it caused pro-IL-1β release similar to that of ATP. Consistent with this, activated caspase-1 responsible for pro-IL-1β maturation was undetectable in gossypol-treated peritoneal macrophages. Besides, RAW 264.7 cells lacking ASC expression and caspase-1 activation also underwent pyroptotic cell death upon gossypol treatment. In further support of pyroptosis induction, both pan-caspase inhibitor and caspase-1 subfamily inhibitor, but not caspase-3 inhibitor, could sharply suppress gossypol-induced cell death. Other canonical pyroptotic inhibitors, including potassium chloride and N-acetyl-L-cysteine, could suppress ATP-induced pyroptosis but failed to inhibit or even enhanced gossypol-induced cell death, whereas nonspecific pore-formation inhibitor glycine could attenuate this process, suggesting involvement of a non-canonical pathway. Of note, gossypol treatment eliminated thioglycollate-induced macrophages in the peritoneal cavity with recruitment of other leukocytes. Moreover, gossypol administration markedly decreased the survival of mice in a bacterial sepsis model. Collectively, these results suggested that gossypol induced pyroptosis in mouse macrophages via a non-canonical inflammasome pathway, which raises a concern for its in vivo cytotoxicity to macrophages. - Highlights: • Gossypol induces pyroptosis in mouse peritoneal and RAW 264.7 macrophages. • In LPS

  10. Modulation of macrophage Ia expression by lipopolysaccharide: Stem cell requirements, accessory lymphocyte involvement, and IA-inducing factor production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wentworth, P.A.; Ziegler, H.K.

    1989-01-01

    The mechanism of induction of murine macrophage Ia expression by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was studied. Intraperitoneal injection of 1 microgram of LPS resulted in a 3- to 10-fold increase in the number of IA-positive peritoneal macrophages (flow cytometry and immunofluorescence) and a 6-to 16-fold increase by radioimmunoassay. The isolated lipid A moiety of LPS was a potent inducer of macrophage Ia expression. Ia induction required a functional myelopoietic system as indicated by the finding that the response to LPS was eliminated in irradiated (900 rads) mice and reinstated by reconstitution with bone marrow cells. Comparison of LPS-induced Ia expression in normal and LPS-primed mice revealed a faster secondary response to LPS. The memory response could be adoptively transferred to normal mice with nonadherent spleen cells prepared 60 days after LPS injection. Spleen cells prepared 5 days after LPS injection caused Ia induction in LPS-nonresponder mice; such induction was not observed in irradiated (900 rads) recipients. The cell responsible for this phenomenon was identified as a Thy-1+, immunoglobulin-negative nonadherent cell. The biosynthesis and expression of Ia were not increased by direct exposure of macrophages to LPS in vitro. Small amounts of LPS inhibited Ia induction by gamma interferon. LPS showed positive regulatory effects on Ia expression by delaying the loss of Ia expression on cultured macrophages and by stimulating the production of Ia-inducing factors. Supernatants from cultured spleen cells stimulated with LPS in vitro contained antiviral and Ia-inducing activity that was acid labile, indicating that the active factor is gamma interferon. We conclude that induction of Ia expression by LPS in vivo is a bone-marrow-dependent, radiation-sensitive process which involves the stimulation of a gamma interferon-producing accessory lymphocyte and a delay in Ia turnover

  11. Voluntary exercise attenuates obesity-associated inflammation through ghrelin expressed in macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizaki, Takako; Maegawa, Taketeru; Sakurai, Takuya; Ogasawara, Jun-etsu; Ookawara, Tomomi; Oh-ishi, Shuji; Izawa, Tetsuya; Haga, Shukoh; Ohno, Hideki

    2011-09-30

    Chronic low-level inflammation is associated with obesity and a sedentary lifestyle, causing metabolic disturbances such as insulin resistance. Exercise training has been shown to decrease chronic low-level systemic inflammation in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. However, the molecular mechanisms mediating its beneficial effects are not fully understood. Ghrelin is a peptide hormone predominantly produced in the stomach that stimulates appetite and induces growth hormone release. In addition to these well-known functions, recent studies suggest that ghrelin localizes to immune cells and exerts an anti-inflammatory effect. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the role of ghrelin expressed in macrophages in the anti-inflammatory effects of voluntary exercise training. Expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1 and F4/80 was increased in adipose tissue from mice fed a HFD (HFD mice) compared with mice fed a standard diet (SD mice), whereas the expression of these inflammatory cytokines was markedly decreased in mice performing voluntary wheel running during the feeding of a HFD (HFEx mice). The expression of TNF-α was also increased in peritoneal macrophages by a HFD and exercise training inhibited the increase of TNF-α expression. Interestingly, expression of ghrelin in peritoneal macrophages was decreased by a HFD and recovered by exercise training. Suppression of ghrelin expression by siRNA increased TNF-α expression and LPS-stimulated NF-κB activation in RAW264 cells, which is a macrophage cell line. TNF-α expression by stimulation with LPS was significantly suppressed in RAW264 cells cultured in the presence of ghrelin. These results suggest that ghrelin exerts potent anti-inflammatory effects in macrophages and functions as a mediator of the beneficial effects of exercise training. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. SIRT2 ameliorates lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in macrophages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ae Sin; Jung, Yu Jin; Kim, Dal; Nguyen-Thanh, Tung; Kang, Kyung Pyo; Lee, Sik; Park, Sung Kwang; Kim, Won

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Knockout of SIRT2 attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced iNOS expression. • Lipopolysaccharide-induced NO production is decreased in SIRT2 KO macrophage. • SIRT2 deficiency suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced ROS production in macrophage. • M1-macrophage related factors are decreased in SIRT2 deficient cells. • SIRT2 deficiency decreases lipopolysaccharide-induced activation of NFκB. - Abstract: Introduction: SIRT2 is a NAD(+)-dependent deacetylases and associated with numerous processes such as infection, carcinogenesis, DNA damage and cell cycle regulation. However, the role of SIRT2 in inflammatory process in macrophage remains unclear. Materials and methods: In the present study, we have evaluated the regulatory effects of SIRT2 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages isolated from SIRT2 knockout (KO) and wild type (WT) mice or Raw264.7 macrophage cells. As inflammatory parameters, expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), the productions of nitric oxide, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and M1-macrophage-related factors were evaluated. We also examined the effects of SIRT2 on activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NFκB) signaling. Results: SIRT2 deficiency inhibits LPS-induced iNOS mRNA and protein expression in bone marrow derived macrophages. SIRT2-siRNA transfection also suppressed LPS-induced iNOS expression in Raw264.7 macrophage cells. Bone marrow derived macrophages isolated from SIRT2 KO mice produced lower nitric oxide and expressed lower levels of M1-macrophage related markers including iNOS and CD86 in response to LPS than WT mice. Decrease of SIRT2 reduced the LPS-induced reactive oxygen species production. Deficiency of SIRT2 resulted in inhibition of NFκB activation through reducing the phosphorylation and degradation of IκBα. The phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of p65 was significantly decreased in SIRT2-deficient macrophages after LPS stimulation. Discussion: Our data suggested that

  13. SIRT2 ameliorates lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in macrophages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ae Sin; Jung, Yu Jin; Kim, Dal; Nguyen-Thanh, Tung [Department of Internal Medicine, Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Kyung Pyo [Department of Internal Medicine, Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Research Institute of Clinical Medicine of Chonbuk National University, Chonbuk National University Hospital, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sik [Department of Internal Medicine, Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sung Kwang [Department of Internal Medicine, Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Research Institute of Clinical Medicine of Chonbuk National University, Chonbuk National University Hospital, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Won, E-mail: kwon@jbnu.ac.kr [Department of Internal Medicine, Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Research Institute of Clinical Medicine of Chonbuk National University, Chonbuk National University Hospital, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-08

    Highlights: • Knockout of SIRT2 attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced iNOS expression. • Lipopolysaccharide-induced NO production is decreased in SIRT2 KO macrophage. • SIRT2 deficiency suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced ROS production in macrophage. • M1-macrophage related factors are decreased in SIRT2 deficient cells. • SIRT2 deficiency decreases lipopolysaccharide-induced activation of NFκB. - Abstract: Introduction: SIRT2 is a NAD(+)-dependent deacetylases and associated with numerous processes such as infection, carcinogenesis, DNA damage and cell cycle regulation. However, the role of SIRT2 in inflammatory process in macrophage remains unclear. Materials and methods: In the present study, we have evaluated the regulatory effects of SIRT2 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages isolated from SIRT2 knockout (KO) and wild type (WT) mice or Raw264.7 macrophage cells. As inflammatory parameters, expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), the productions of nitric oxide, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and M1-macrophage-related factors were evaluated. We also examined the effects of SIRT2 on activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NFκB) signaling. Results: SIRT2 deficiency inhibits LPS-induced iNOS mRNA and protein expression in bone marrow derived macrophages. SIRT2-siRNA transfection also suppressed LPS-induced iNOS expression in Raw264.7 macrophage cells. Bone marrow derived macrophages isolated from SIRT2 KO mice produced lower nitric oxide and expressed lower levels of M1-macrophage related markers including iNOS and CD86 in response to LPS than WT mice. Decrease of SIRT2 reduced the LPS-induced reactive oxygen species production. Deficiency of SIRT2 resulted in inhibition of NFκB activation through reducing the phosphorylation and degradation of IκBα. The phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of p65 was significantly decreased in SIRT2-deficient macrophages after LPS stimulation. Discussion: Our data suggested that

  14. C-reactive protein interaction with macrophages: in vitro induction of tumor cytotoxicity, and characterization of C-reactive protein binding to macrophages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahedi, K.A.

    1987-01-01

    The ability of C-reactive protein (CRP) to activate macrophages to tumoricidal state was examined. CRP was able to activate macrophages to kill tumor cells. The activation was shown to be due to CRP and not to low levels of other activators present in the CRP preparations, since specific removal of CRP led to abrogation of the CRP mediated activation of macrophages. The role of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as a contaminating activator was eliminated by showing the ability of CRP preparations to activate macrophages from LPS non-responsive strains of mice, and to activate macrophages under conditions which specifically inactivated or removed the contaminating LPS. In order to exclude the possibility of indirect activation of macrophages by other cells present in the peritoneal exudate cell population, effect of CRP on pure macrophages was examined. Bone marrow derived macrophages as well as well as macrophage cell lines exhibited a significant increase in their capacity to kill tumor cells after treatment with CRP. The nature of CRP and macrophage interaction was examined using radioiodinated CRP. Labelled CRP bound specifically to macrophages and macrophage cell lines

  15. Interaction of differentiated human adipocytes with macrophages leads to trogocytosis and selective IL-6 secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sárvári, A K; Doan-Xuan, Q-M; Bacsó, Z; Csomós, I; Balajthy, Z; Fésüs, L

    2015-01-22

    Obesity leads to adipose tissue inflammation that is characterized by increased release of proinflammatory molecules and the recruitment of activated immune cells. Although macrophages are present in the highest number among the immune cells in obese adipose tissue, not much is known about their direct interaction with adipocytes. We have introduced an ex vivo experimental system to characterize the cellular interactions and the profile of secreted cytokines in cocultures of macrophages and human adipocytes differentiated from either mesenchymal stem cells or a preadipocyte cell line. As observed by time-lapse microscopy, flow, and laser-scanning cytometry, macrophages phagocytosed bites of adipocytes (trogocytosis), which led to their de novo, phagocytosis and NF-κB-dependent synthesis, then release of interleukin (IL)-6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1. IL-6 secretion was not accompanied by secretion of other proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and IL-8, except MCP-1. LPS-induced release of TNF-α, IL-8 and MCP-1 was decreased in the presence of the differentiated adipocytes but the IL-6 level did not subside suggesting that phagocytosis-dependent IL-6 secretion may have significant regulatory function in the inflamed adipose tissue.

  16. Evaluation of the effects of active fractions of chinese medicine formulas on IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α release from ANA-1 murine macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Li-Jun; Wang, Nan-Nan; Zhang, Li-Guo; Guo, Yan-Zi; Shi, Wan-Zhong

    2016-02-17

    Yaotongning (YTN) is a traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) that contains ten component medicinal materials (CMMs) and uses Chinese rice wine as a vehicle to enhance its efficacy. YTN has been used for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) treatment in China for decades and has been reported to have anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects, as well as to strengthen the immune system. The present work quantitatively evaluated the in vitro effects of active fractions from the ten CMMs that make up YTN and eight additional herbs commonly used in TCM formulas for RA treatment, as well as different combinations of these active fractions, on cellular immune response; the findings were used to determine which active fractions are responsible for promoting an immune response, and to assess whether YTN is superior to other similar formulas and whether YTN can be improved by simplifying its formula from the point of its cellular immunomodulatory activity. Using the YTN formulation principles and some concepts in combinatorial chemistry, 27 TCM samples were designed by combining some or all of the active fractions of YTN and other eight herbs used for RA treatment. Release of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) from ANA-1 murine macrophages was measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The immunoregulatory effects of the TCM samples were evaluated by comparing their half-effective concentrations (EC50) for stimulating the release of these cytokines. Among the investigated active fractions, the flavonoids from Carthamus tinctorius (Fct), Davallia mariesii (Fdm), and Cinnamomum cassia Twig volatile oils (Vca) from the eight selected herbs effectively promoted IL-1β and IL-6 release from ANA-1 cells. Saponins from the YTN CMM Glycyrrhiza uralensis (Sgu) were the most potent promoters of IL-1β and TNF-α release. The aqueous extract of YTN CMM Eupolyphaga sinensis (Ves) strongly enhanced the release of IL-1β, IL-6, and

  17. Agomelatine, a MT1/MT2 melatonergic receptor agonist with serotonin 5-HT2C receptor antagonistic properties, suppresses Prevotella intermedia lipopolysaccharide-induced production of proinflammatory mediators in murine macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyeon, Jin-Yi; Choi, Eun-Young; Choe, So-Hui; Park, Hae Ryoun; Choi, Jeom-Il; Choi, In Soon; Kim, Sung-Jo

    2017-10-01

    This study was performed in an attempt to examine the influence of agomelatine in mitigating the generation of proinflammatory mediators in RAW264.7 murine macrophages exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) obtained from Prevotella intermedia, a gram-negative anaerobic bacterium that is related with various types of periodontal diseases, and the molecular mechanisms behind its effects. LPS from P. intermedia strain ATCC 25611 was prepared employing the conventional phenol-water procedure. Conditioned culture media were analyzed for the levels of nitric oxide (NO), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-6. Real-time PCR analysis was carried out to determine the mRNA levels of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), IL-1β, IL-6 and SOCS1. Protein expression levels were evaluated by immunoblot test. NF-κB-dependent SEAP reporter assay was performed using a reporter cell line. DNA-binding activities of NF-κB subunits were analyzed utilizing the ELISA-based kits. Agomelatine was found to down-regulate significantly the generation of iNOS-derived NO, IL-1β and IL-6 as well as the expression of their mRNAs in cells activated with P. intermedia LPS. Agomelatine decreased NF-κB-dependent SEAP release caused by P. intermedia LPS. Agomelatine did not inhibit NF-κB transcription induced by LPS at the level of IκB-α degradation. Instead, LPS-induced nuclear translocation and DNA binding of NF-κB p50 subunit was blocked by agomelatine. P. intermedia LPS-elicited activation of STAT1 and STAT3 was reduced notably by co-treatment with agomelatine. Agomelatine showed a tendency to enhance mRNA level of SOCS1 in LPS-activated cells as well. Agomelatine merits further evaluation to reveal its usefulness on the host modulation of periodontal disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Inhibition of Release of Vasoactive and Inflammatory Mediators in Airway and Vascular Tissues and Macrophages by a Chinese Herbal Medicine Formula for Allergic Rhinitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Binh Lenon

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Herbal therapies are being used increasingly for the treatment of allergic rhinitis. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible pharmacological actions and cellular targets of a Chinese herbal formula (RCM-101, which was previously shown to be effective in reducing seasonal allergic rhinitis symptoms in a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Rat and guinea pig isolated tissues (trachea and aorta were used to study the effects of RCM-101 on responses to various mediators. Production of leukotriene B4 in porcine neutrophils and of prostaglandin E2 and nitric oxide (NO in Raw 264.7 cells were also measured. In rat and guinea pig tracheal preparations, RCM-101 inhibited contractile responses to compound 48/80 but not those to histamine (guinea pig preparations or serotonin (rat preparations. Contractile responses of guinea pig tracheal preparations to carbachol and leukotriene C4, and relaxant responses to substance P and prostaglandin E2 were not affected by RCM-101. In rat aortic preparations, precontracted with phenylephrine, endothelium-dependent relaxant responses to acetylcholine and endothelium-independent relaxant responses to sodium nitroprusside were not affected by RCM-101. However, RCM-101 inhibited relaxations to l-arginine in endothelium-denuded rat aortic preparations, which had been pre-incubated with lipopolysaccharide. RCM-101 did not affect leukotriene B4 formation in isolated porcine neutrophils, induced by the calcium ionophore A23187; however, it inhibited prostaglandin E2 and NO production in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated murine macrophages (Raw 264.7 cells.The findings indicate that RCM-101 may have multiple inhibitory actions on the release and/or synthesis of inflammatory mediators involved in allergic rhinitis.

  19. Inhibition of IRAK-4 activity for rescuing endotoxin LPS-induced septic mortality in mice by lonicerae flos extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sun Hong; Roh, Eunmiri [College of Pharmacy, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyun Soo [Pharmaceutical R and D Center, Huons Co., Ltd., Anyang (Korea, Republic of); Baek, Seung-Il [College of Pharmacy, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Nam Song [Pharmaceutical R and D Center, Huons Co., Ltd., Anyang (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Narae; Hwang, Bang Yeon; Han, Sang-Bae [College of Pharmacy, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Youngsoo, E-mail: youngsoo@chungbuk.ac.kr [College of Pharmacy, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-13

    Highlights: •Lonicerae flos extract (HS-23) is a clinical candidate, Phase I for sepsis treatment. •Here, HS-23 or its major constituents rescued LPS-induced septic mortality in mice. •As a mechanism, they directly inhibited IRAK-4-catalyzed kinase activity. •Thus, they suppressed LPS-induced expression of NF-κB/AP-1-target inflammatory genes. -- Abstract: Lonicerae flos extract (HS-23) is a clinical candidate currently undergoing Phase I trial in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-injected healthy human volunteers, but its molecular basis remains to be defined. Here, we investigated protective effects of HS-23 or its major constituents on Escherichia coli LPS-induced septic mortality in mice. Intravenous treatment with HS-23 rescued LPS-intoxicated C57BL/6J mice under septic conditions, and decreased the levels of cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β and high-mobility group box-1 (HMGB-1) in the blood. Chlorogenic acid (CGA) and its isomers were assigned as major constituents of HS-23 in the protection against endotoxemia. As a molecular mechanism, HS-23 or CGA isomers inhibited endotoxin LPS-induced autophosphorylation of the IL-1 receptor-associated kinase 4 (IRAK-4) in mouse peritoneal macrophages as well as the kinase activity of IRAK-4 in cell-free reactions. HS-23 consequently suppressed downstream pathways critical for LPS-induced activation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB or activating protein 1 (AP-1) in the peritoneal macrophages. HS-23 also inhibited various toll-like receptor agonists-induced nitric oxide (NO) production, and down-regulated LPS-induced expression of NF-κB/AP-1-target inflammatory genes in the cells. Taken together, HS-23 or CGA isomers exhibited anti-inflammatory therapy against LPS-induced septic mortality in mice, at least in part, mediated through the inhibition of IRAK-4.

  20. Curcumin longa extract-loaded nanoemulsion improves the survival of endotoxemic mice by inhibiting nitric oxide-dependent HMGB1 release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Min Young; Hwang, Jung Seok; Lee, Su Bi; Ham, Sun Ah; Hur, Jinwoo; Kim, Jun Tae; Seo, Han Geuk

    2017-01-01

    High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a well-known damage-related alarmin that participates in cellular inflammatory responses. However, the mechanisms leading to HMGB1 release in inflammatory conditions and the therapeutic agents that could prevent it remain poorly understood. This study attempted to examine whether the Curcumin longa herb, which is known to have anti-inflammatory property, can modulate cellular inflammatory responses by regulating HMGB1 release. The murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and/or a C. longa extract-loaded nanoemulsion (CLEN). The levels of released HMGB1, nitric oxide (NO) production, inducible NO synthase (iNOS) expression, and phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases were analyzed in RAW264.7 macrophages. The effects of CLEN on survival of endotoxemic model mice, circulating HMGB1 levels, and tissue iNOS expression were also evaluated. We have shown that a nanoemulsion loaded with an extract from the C. longa rhizome regulates cellular inflammatory responses and LPS-induced systemic inflammation by suppressing the release of HMGB1 by macrophages. First, treatment of RAW264.7 macrophages with the nanoemulsion significantly attenuated their LPS-induced release of HMGB1: this effect was mediated by inhibiting c-Jun N-terminal kinase activation, which in turn suppressed the NO production and iNOS expression of the cells. The nanoemulsion did not affect LPS-induced p38 or extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation. Second, intraperitoneal administration of the nanoemulsion improved the survival rate of LPS-injected endotoxemic mice. This associated with marked reductions in circulating HMGB1 levels and tissue iNOS expression. The present study shows for the first time the mechanism by which C. longa ameliorates sepsis, namely, by suppressing NO signaling and thereby inhibiting the release of the proinflammatory cytokine HMGB1. These observations suggest that identification of

  1. Curcumin longa extract-loaded nanoemulsion improves the survival of endotoxemic mice by inhibiting nitric oxide-dependent HMGB1 release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Young Ahn

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1 is a well-known damage-related alarmin that participates in cellular inflammatory responses. However, the mechanisms leading to HMGB1 release in inflammatory conditions and the therapeutic agents that could prevent it remain poorly understood. This study attempted to examine whether the Curcumin longa herb, which is known to have anti-inflammatory property, can modulate cellular inflammatory responses by regulating HMGB1 release. Methods The murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS and/or a C. longa extract-loaded nanoemulsion (CLEN. The levels of released HMGB1, nitric oxide (NO production, inducible NO synthase (iNOS expression, and phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases were analyzed in RAW264.7 macrophages. The effects of CLEN on survival of endotoxemic model mice, circulating HMGB1 levels, and tissue iNOS expression were also evaluated. Results We have shown that a nanoemulsion loaded with an extract from the C. longa rhizome regulates cellular inflammatory responses and LPS-induced systemic inflammation by suppressing the release of HMGB1 by macrophages. First, treatment of RAW264.7 macrophages with the nanoemulsion significantly attenuated their LPS-induced release of HMGB1: this effect was mediated by inhibiting c-Jun N-terminal kinase activation, which in turn suppressed the NO production and iNOS expression of the cells. The nanoemulsion did not affect LPS-induced p38 or extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation. Second, intraperitoneal administration of the nanoemulsion improved the survival rate of LPS-injected endotoxemic mice. This associated with marked reductions in circulating HMGB1 levels and tissue iNOS expression. Discussion The present study shows for the first time the mechanism by which C. longa ameliorates sepsis, namely, by suppressing NO signaling and thereby inhibiting the release of the proinflammatory cytokine HMGB1

  2. Adrenaline stimulates the proliferation and migration of mesenchymal stem cells towards the LPS-induced lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaodan; Wang, Zhiming; Qian, Mengjia; Wang, Lingyan; Bai, Chunxue; Wang, Xiangdong

    2014-08-01

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) could modulate inflammation in experimental lung injury. On the other hand, adrenergic receptor agonists could increase DNA synthesis of stem cells. Therefore, we investigated the therapeutic role of adrenaline-stimulated BMSCs on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced lung injury. BMSCs were cultured with adrenergic receptor agonists or antagonists. Suspensions of lung cells or sliced lung tissue from animals with or without LPS-induced injury were co-cultured with BMSCs. LPS-stimulated alveolar macrophages were co-cultured with BMSCs (with adrenaline stimulation or not) in Transwell for 6 hrs. A preliminary animal experiment was conducted to validate the findings in ex vivo study. We found that adrenaline at 10 μM enhanced proliferation of BMSCs through both α- and β-adrenergic receptors. Adrenaline promoted the migration of BMSCs towards LPS-injured lung cells or lung tissue. Adrenaline-stimulated BMSCs decreased the inflammation of LPS-stimulated macrophages, probably through the expression and secretion of several paracrine factors. Adrenaline reduced the extent of injury in LPS-injured rats. Our data indicate that adrenaline-stimulated BMSCs might contribute to the prevention from acute lung injury through the activation of adrenergic receptors, promotion of proliferation and migration towards injured lung, and modulation of inflammation. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  3. Involvement of mitogen-activated protein kinases and NFκB in LPS-induced CD40 expression on human monocytic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Weidong; Alexis, Neil E.; Chen Xian; Bromberg, Philip A.; Peden, David B.

    2008-01-01

    CD40 is a costimulatory molecule linking innate and adaptive immune responses to bacterial stimuli, as well as a critical regulator of functions of other costimulatory molecules. The mechanisms regulating lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced CD40 expression have not been adequately characterized in human monocytic cells. In this study we used a human monocytic cell line, THP-1, to investigate the possible mechanisms of CD40 expression following LPS exposure. Exposure to LPS resulted in a dose- and time-dependent increase in CD40 expression. Further studies using immunoblotting and pharmacological inhibitors revealed that mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and NFκB were activated by LPS exposure and involved in LPS-induced CD40 expression. Activation of MAPKs was not responsible for LPS-induced NFκB activation. TLR4 was expressed on THP-1 cells and pretreatment of cells with a Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) neutralizing antibody (HTA125) significantly blunted LPS-induced MAPK and NFκB activation and ensuing CD40 expression. Additional studies with murine macrophages expressing wild type and mutated TLR4 showed that TLR4 was implicated in LPS-induced ERK and NFκB activation, and CD40 expression. Moreover, blockage of MAPK and NFκB activation inhibited LPS-induced TLR4 expression. In summary, LPS-induced CD40 expression in monocytic cells involves MAPKs and NFκB

  4. Effects of high-fat diet on somatic growth, metabolic parameters and function of peritoneal macrophages of young rats submitted to a maternal low-protein diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alheiros-Lira, Maria Cláudia; Jurema-Santos, Gabriela Carvalho; da-Silva, Helyson Tomaz; da-Silva, Amanda Cabral; Moreno Senna, Sueli; Ferreira E Silva, Wylla Tatiana; Ferraz, José Candido; Leandro, Carol Góis

    2017-03-01

    This study evaluated the effects of a post-weaning high-fat (HF) diet on somatic growth, food consumption, metabolic parameters, phagocytic rate and nitric oxide (NO) production of peritoneal macrophages in young rats submitted to a maternal low-protein (LP) diet. Male Wistar rats (aged 60 d) were divided in two groups (n 22/each) according to their maternal diet during gestation and lactation: control (C, dams fed 17 % casein) and LP (dams fed 8 % casein). At weaning, half of the groups were fed HF diet and two more groups were formed (HF and low protein-high fat (LP-HF)). Somatic growth, food and energy intake, fat depots, serum glucose, cholesterol and leptin concentrations were evaluated. Phagocytic rate and NO production were analysed in peritoneal macrophages under stimulation of zymosan and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)+interferon γ (IFN-γ), respectively. The maternal LP diet altered the somatic parameters of growth and development of pups. LP and LP-HF pups showed a higher body weight gain and food intake than C pups. HF and LP-HF pups showed increased retroperitoneal and epididymal fat depots, serum level of TAG and total cholesterol compared with C and LP pups. After LPS+IFN-γ stimulation, LP and LP-HF pups showed reduced NO production when compared with their pairs. Increased phagocytic activity and NO production were seen in LP but not LP-HF peritoneal macrophages. However, peritoneal macrophages of LP pups were hyporesponsive to LPS+IFN-γ induced NO release, even after a post-weaning HF diet. Our data demonstrated that there was an immunomodulation related to dietary fatty acids after the maternal LP diet-induced metabolic programming.

  5. Synthetic LPS-Binding Polymer Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Tian

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), one of the principal components of most gram-negative bacteria's outer membrane, is a type of contaminant that can be frequently found in recombinant DNA products. Because of its strong and even lethal biological effects, selective LPS removal from bioproducts solution is of particular importance in the pharmaceutical and health care industries. In this thesis, for the first time, a proof-of-concept study on preparing LPS-binding hydrogel-like NPs through facile one-step free-radical polymerization was presented. With the incorporation of various hydrophobic (TBAm), cationic (APM, GUA) monomers and cross-linkers (BIS, PEG), a small library of NPs was constructed. Their FITC-LPS binding behaviors were investigated and compared with those of commercially available LPS-binding products. Moreover, the LPS binding selectivity of the NPs was also explored by studying the NPs-BSA interactions. The results showed that all NPs obtained generally presented higher FITC-LPS binding capacity in lower ionic strength buffer than higher ionic strength. However, unlike commercial poly-lysine cellulose and polymyxin B agarose beads' nearly linear increase of FITC-LPS binding with particle concentration, NPs exhibited serious aggregation and the binding quickly saturated or even decreased at high particle concentration. Among various types of NPs, higher FITC-LPS binding capacity was observed for those containing more hydrophobic monomers (TBAm). However, surprisingly, more cationic NPs with higher content of APM exhibited decreased FITC-LPS binding in high ionic strength conditions. Additionally, when new cationic monomer and cross-linker, GUA and PEG, were applied to replace APM and BIS, the obtained NPs showed improved FITC-LPS binding capacity at low NP concentration. But compared with APM- and BIS-containing NPs, the FITC-LPS binding capacity of GUA- and PEG-containing NPs saturated earlier. To investigate the NPs' binding to proteins, we tested the NPs

  6. Indoline-3-propionate and 3-aminopropyl carbamates reduce lung injury and pro-inflammatory cytokines induced in mice by LPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkin-Groner, E; Moradov, D; Shifrin, H; Bejar, C; Nudelman, A; Weinstock, M

    2015-02-01

    In the search for safer and effective anti-inflammatory agents, we investigated the effect of methyl indoline-3-propionate and indoline-3-(3-aminopropyl) carbamates on LPS-induced lung injury and pro-inflammatory cytokines in mice. Their mechanism of action was determined in murine peritoneal macrophages. Lung injury was induced by intratracheal infusion of LPS and assessed by the change in lung weight and structure by light microscopy after staining by haematoxylin and eosin. In LPS-activated macrophages, MAPK proteins and IκBα were measured by Western blotting and the transcription factors, AP-1 and NF-κB by electromobility shift assay. Cytokines in the plasma and spleen of mice injected with LPS were measured by elisa-based assay. AN917 and AN680 (1-10 pM) decreased TNF-α protein in macrophages by inhibiting phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, IκBα degradation and activation of AP-1 and NF-κB without affecting cell viability. In vivo, these compounds (10 μmol · kg(-1)) markedly decreased lung injury induced by LPS and the elevation of TNF-α and IL-6 in lung, plasma and spleen. Activation of α-7nACh receptors contributed to the reduction of TNF-α by AN917, which inhibited AChE in the spleen by 35%. Indoline carbamates are potent inhibitors of pro-inflammatory mediators in murine macrophages and in mice injected with LPS, acting via the p38 MAPK, AP-1 and NF-κB cascades. Indirect α-7nACh receptor activation by AN917, through inhibition of AChE, contributes to its anti-inflammatory effect. Indoline carbamates may have therapeutic potential for lung injury and other diseases associated with chronic inflammation without causing immunosuppression. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  7. LL-37 directs macrophage differentiation toward macrophages with a proinflammatory signature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Does, Anne M; Beekhuizen, Henry; Ravensbergen, Bep; Vos, Tim; Ottenhoff, Tom H M; van Dissel, Jaap T; Drijfhout, Jan W; Hiemstra, Pieter S; Nibbering, Peter H

    2010-08-01

    The human cathelicidin LL-37 has broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. It also participates at the interface of innate and adaptive immunity by chemoattracting immune effector cells, modulating the production of a variety of inflammatory mediators by different cell types, and regulating the differentiation of monocytes into dendritic cells. In this study, we investigated the effects of LL-37 on the differentiation of human monocytes into anti-inflammatory macrophages (MPhi-2; driven by M-CSF) versus proinflammatory macrophages (MPhi-1; driven by GM-CSF) as well as on fully differentiated MPhi-1 and MPhi-2. Results revealed that monocytes cultured with M-CSF in the presence of LL-37 resulted in macrophages displaying a proinflammatory signature, namely, low expression of CD163 and little IL-10 and profound IL-12p40 production on LPS stimulation. The effects of LL-37 on M-CSF-driven macrophage differentiation were dose- and time-dependent with maximal effects observed at 10 microg/ml when the peptide was present from the start of the cultures. The peptide enhanced the GM-CSF-driven macrophage differentiation. Exposure of fully differentiated MPhi-2 to LL-37 for 6 d resulted in macrophages that produced less IL-10 and more IL-12p40 on LPS stimulation than control MPhi-2. In contrast, LL-37 had no effect on fully differentiated MPhi-1. Peptide mapping using a set of 16 overlapping 22-mer peptides covering the complete LL-37 sequence revealed that the C-terminal portion of LL-37 is responsible for directing macrophage differentiation. Our results furthermore indicate that the effects of LL-37 on macrophage differentiation required internalization of the peptide. Together, we conclude that LL-37 directs macrophage differentiation toward macrophages with a proinflammatory signature.

  8. Inhibition of Apoptosis by Escherichia coli K1 Is Accompanied by Increased Expression of BclXL and Blockade of Mitochondrial Cytochrome c Release in Macrophages

    OpenAIRE

    Sukumaran, Sunil K.; Selvaraj, Suresh K.; Prasadarao, Nemani V.

    2004-01-01

    Escherichia coli K1 survival in the blood is a critical step for the onset of meningitis in neonates. Therefore, the circulating bacteria are impelled to avoid host defense mechanisms by finding a niche to survive and multiply. Our recent studies have shown that E. coli K1 enters and survives in both monocytes and macrophages in the newborn rat model of meningitis as well as in macrophage cell lines. Here we demonstrate that E. coli K1 not only extends the survival of human and murine infecte...

  9. The Impairment of Macrophage-to-Feces Reverse Cholesterol Transport during Inflammation Does Not Depend on Serum Amyloid A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Beer, Maria C; Wroblewski, Joanne M; Noffsinger, Victoria P; Ji, Ailing; Meyer, Jason M; van der Westhuyzen, Deneys R; de Beer, Frederick C; Webb, Nancy R

    2013-01-01

    Studies suggest that inflammation impairs reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). We investigated whether serum amyloid A (SAA) contributes to this impairment using an established macrophage-to-feces RCT model. Wild-type (WT) mice and mice deficient in SAA1.1 and SAA2.1 (SAAKO) were injected intraperitoneally with (3)H-cholesterol-labeled J774 macrophages 4 hr after administration of LPS or buffered saline. (3)H-cholesterol in plasma 4 hr after macrophage injection was significantly reduced in both WT and SAAKO mice injected with LPS, but this was not associated with a reduced capacity of serum from LPS-injected mice to promote macrophage cholesterol efflux in vitro. Hepatic accumulation of (3)H-cholesterol was unaltered in either WT or SAAKO mice by LPS treatment. Radioactivity present in bile and feces of LPS-injected WT mice 24 hr after macrophage injection was reduced by 36% (P < 0.05) and 80% (P < 0.001), respectively. In contrast, in SAAKO mice, LPS did not significantly reduce macrophage-derived (3)H-cholesterol in bile, and fecal excretion was reduced by only 45% (P < 0.05). Injection of cholesterol-loaded allogeneic J774 cells, but not syngeneic bone-marrow-derived macrophages, transiently induced SAA in C57BL/6 mice. Our study confirms reports that acute inflammation impairs steps in the RCT pathway and establishes that SAA plays only a minor role in this impairment.

  10. M2 polarization enhances silica nanoparticle uptake by macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica eHoppstädter

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available While silica nanoparticles have enabled numerous industrial and medical applications, their toxicological safety requires further evaluation. Macrophages are the major cell population responsible for nanoparticle clearance in vivo. The prevailing macrophage phenotype largely depends on the local immune status of the host. Whereas M1-polarized macrophages are considered as pro-inflammatory macrophages involved in host defense, M2 macrophages exhibit anti-inflammatory and wound-healing properties, but also promote tumor growth.We employed different models of M1 and M2 polarization: GM-CSF/LPS/IFN-gamma was used to generate primary human M1 cells and M-CSF/IL-10 to differentiate M2 monocyte-derived macrophages. PMA-differentiated THP-1 cells were polarized towards an M1 type by LPS/IFN-gamma and towards M2 by IL-10. Uptake of fluorescent silica nanoparticles (Ø 26 and 41 nm and microparticles (Ø 1.75 µm was quantified. At the concentration used (50 µg/ml, silica nanoparticles did not influence cell viability as assessed by MTT assay. Nanoparticle uptake was enhanced in M2-polarized primary human monocyte-derived macrophages compared with M1 cells, as shown by flow cytometric and microscopic approaches. In contrast, the uptake of microparticles did not differ between M1 and M2 phenotypes. M2 polarization was also associated with increased nanoparticle uptake in the macrophage-like THP-1 cell line. In accordance, in vivo polarized M2-like primary human tumor-associated macrophages (TAM obtained from lung tumors took up more nanoparticles than M1-like alveolar macrophages isolated from the surrounding lung tissue.In summary, our data indicate that the M2 polarization of macrophages promotes nanoparticle internalization. Therefore, the phenotypical differences between macrophage subsets should be taken into consideration in future investigations on nanosafety, but might also open up therapeutic perspectives allowing to specifically target M2

  11. Regulation of cytokine production in human alveolar macrophages and airway epithelial cells in response to ambient air pollution particles: Further mechanistic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, Susanne; Mundandhara, Sailaja; Devlin, Robert B.; Madden, Michael

    2005-01-01

    In order to better understand how ambient air particulate matter (PM) affect lung health, the two main airway cell types likely to interact with inhaled particles, alveolar macrophages (AM) and airway epithelial cells have been exposed to particles in vitro and followed for endpoints of inflammation, and oxidant stress. Separation of Chapel Hill PM 10 into fine and coarse size particles revealed that the main proinflammatory response (TNF, IL-6, COX-2) in AM was driven by material present in the coarse PM, containing 90-95% of the stimulatory material in PM10. The particles did not affect expression of hemoxygenase-1 (HO-1), a sensitive marker of oxidant stress. Primary cultures of normal human bronchial epithelial cells (NHBE) also responded to the coarse fraction with higher levels of IL-8 and COX-2, than induced by fine or ultrafine PM. All size PM induced oxidant stress in NHBE, while fine PM induced the highest levels of HO-1 expression. The production of cytokines in AM by both coarse and fine particles was blocked by the toll like receptor 4 (TLR4) antagonist E5531 involved in the recognition of LPS and Gram negative bacteria. The NHBE were found to recognize coarse and fine PM through TLR2, a receptor with preference for recognition of Gram positive bacteria. Compared to ambient PM, diesel PM induced only a minimal cytokine response in both AM and NHBE. Instead, diesel suppressed LPS-induced TNF and IL-8 release in AM. Both coarse and fine ambient air PM were also found to inhibit LPS-induced TNF release while silica, volcanic ash or carbon black had no inhibitory effect. Diesel particles did not affect cytokine mRNA induction nor protein accumulation but interfered with the release of cytokine from the cells. Ambient coarse and fine PM, on the other hand, inhibited both mRNA induction and protein production. Exposure to coarse and fine PM decreased the expression of TLR4 in the macrophages. Particle-induced decrease in TLR4 and hyporesponsiveness to LPS

  12. Chondroitin-6-sulfate attenuates inflammatory responses in murine macrophages via suppression of NF-κB nuclear translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Guak-Kim; Tabata, Yasuhiko

    2014-06-01

    Inflammation is a host protective response to noxious stimuli, and excessive production of pro-inflammatory mediators by macrophages (mφ) can lead to numerous pathological conditions. In this study, immunomodulatory effects of immobilized and soluble glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) on mouse-bone-marrow-derived mφ were compared by measuring nitric oxide (NO). We demonstrate here that all GAGs studied except for heparin were able to modulate interferon-γ/lipopolysaccharide (IFN-γ/LPS)-induced NO release by mφ to varying extents after 24h of incubation. In particular, the modulatory activities of soluble chondroitin-6-sulfate (C6S), hyaluronic acid and heparan sulfate altered markedly after covalent immobilization. Of these, soluble C6S exhibited the strongest NO inhibitory activity, and the inhibition was dose- and time-dependent. Moreover, C6S significantly reduced pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α production by IFN-γ/LPS- or LPS-activated mφ. Specifically, the C6S-mediated suppression of mφ pro-inflammatory phenotype was accompanied by an increase in the IL-10 level, suggesting a possible switch towards anti-inflammatory/wound healing M2 state. In addition, the highest magnitude of inhibitory effects was obtained when cells were pre-treated with C6S prior to IFN-γ/LPS or LPS challenge, suggesting an additional role for C6S in protection against microbial infection. Further investigations reveal that the anti-inflammatory effects of C6S on activated mφ may be ascribed at least in part to suppression of NF-κB nuclear translocation. Copyright © 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Functional Toll-like receptor 4 expressed in lactotrophs mediates LPS-induced proliferation in experimental pituitary hyperplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabatino, María Eugenia; Sosa, Liliana del Valle; Petiti, Juan Pablo; Mukdsi, Jorge Humberto; Mascanfroni, Iván Darío; Pellizas, Claudia Gabriela; Gutiérrez, Silvina; Torres, Alicia Inés; De Paul, Ana Lucía

    2013-01-01

    Toll like receptor 4 (TLR4) has been characterized for its ability to recognize bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Considering that infections or inflammatory processes might contribute to the progression of pituitary tumors, we analyzed the TLR4 functional role by evaluating the LPS effect on lactotroph proliferation in primary cultures from experimental pituitary tumors, and examined the involvement of PI3K-Akt and NF-κB activation in this effect. In addition, the role of 17β-estradiol as a possible modulator of LPS-induced PRL cell proliferation was further investigated. In estrogen-induced hyperplasic pituitaries, LPS triggered lactotroph cell proliferation. However, endotoxin failed to increase the number of lactotrophs taking up BrdU in normal pituitaries. Moreover, incubation with anti-TLR4 antibody significantly reduced LPS-induced lactotroph proliferation, suggesting a functional role of this receptor. As a sign of TLR4 activation, an LPS challenge increased IL-6 release in normal and tumoral cells. By flow cytometry, TLR4 baseline expression was revealed at the plasma membrane of tumoral lactotrophs, without changes noted in the percentage of double PRL/TLR4 positive cells after LPS stimulus. Increases in TLR4 intracellular expression were detected as well as rises in CD14, p-Akt and NF-κB after an LPS challenge, as assessed by western blotting. The TLR4/PRL and PRL/NF-κB co-localization was also corroborated by immunofluorescence and the involvement of PI3K/Akt signaling in lactotroph proliferation and IL-6 release was revealed through the PI3K inhibitor Ly-294002. In addition, 17β-estradiol attenuated the LPS-evoked increase in tumoral lactotroph proliferation and IL-6 release. Collectively these results demonstrate the presence of functional TLR4 in lactotrophs from estrogen-induced hyperplasic pituitaries, which responded to the proliferative stimulation and IL-6 release induced by LPS through TLR4/CD14, with a contribution of the PI3K

  14. Functional Toll-like receptor 4 expressed in lactotrophs mediates LPS-induced proliferation in experimental pituitary hyperplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabatino, María Eugenia; Sosa, Liliana del Valle; Petiti, Juan Pablo; Mukdsi, Jorge Humberto [Centro de Microscopía Electrónica, Instituto de Investigaciones en Ciencias de la Salud (INICSA-CONICET), Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Av. Enrique Barros y Enfermera Gordillo, Ciudad Universitaria, CP 5000, Córdoba (Argentina); Mascanfroni, Iván Darío; Pellizas, Claudia Gabriela [Centro de Investigaciones en Bioquímica Clínica e Inmunología (CIBICI-CONICET), Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Av. Haya de la Torre y Medina Allende, Ciudad Universitaria, CP 5000, Córdoba (Argentina); Gutiérrez, Silvina; Torres, Alicia Inés [Centro de Microscopía Electrónica, Instituto de Investigaciones en Ciencias de la Salud (INICSA-CONICET), Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Av. Enrique Barros y Enfermera Gordillo, Ciudad Universitaria, CP 5000, Córdoba (Argentina); De Paul, Ana Lucía, E-mail: adepaul@cmefcm.uncor.edu [Centro de Microscopía Electrónica, Instituto de Investigaciones en Ciencias de la Salud (INICSA-CONICET), Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Av. Enrique Barros y Enfermera Gordillo, Ciudad Universitaria, CP 5000, Córdoba (Argentina)

    2013-11-15

    Toll like receptor 4 (TLR4) has been characterized for its ability to recognize bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Considering that infections or inflammatory processes might contribute to the progression of pituitary tumors, we analyzed the TLR4 functional role by evaluating the LPS effect on lactotroph proliferation in primary cultures from experimental pituitary tumors, and examined the involvement of PI3K-Akt and NF-κB activation in this effect. In addition, the role of 17β-estradiol as a possible modulator of LPS-induced PRL cell proliferation was further investigated. In estrogen-induced hyperplasic pituitaries, LPS triggered lactotroph cell proliferation. However, endotoxin failed to increase the number of lactotrophs taking up BrdU in normal pituitaries. Moreover, incubation with anti-TLR4 antibody significantly reduced LPS-induced lactotroph proliferation, suggesting a functional role of this receptor. As a sign of TLR4 activation, an LPS challenge increased IL-6 release in normal and tumoral cells. By flow cytometry, TLR4 baseline expression was revealed at the plasma membrane of tumoral lactotrophs, without changes noted in the percentage of double PRL/TLR4 positive cells after LPS stimulus. Increases in TLR4 intracellular expression were detected as well as rises in CD14, p-Akt and NF-κB after an LPS challenge, as assessed by western blotting. The TLR4/PRL and PRL/NF-κB co-localization was also corroborated by immunofluorescence and the involvement of PI3K/Akt signaling in lactotroph proliferation and IL-6 release was revealed through the PI3K inhibitor Ly-294002. In addition, 17β-estradiol attenuated the LPS-evoked increase in tumoral lactotroph proliferation and IL-6 release. Collectively these results demonstrate the presence of functional TLR4 in lactotrophs from estrogen-induced hyperplasic pituitaries, which responded to the proliferative stimulation and IL-6 release induced by LPS through TLR4/CD14, with a contribution of the PI3K

  15. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation of fungal secondary metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Zeinab G.; Kalansuriya, Pabasara; Capon, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    We report on a preliminary investigation of the use the Gram-negative bacterial cell wall constituent lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as a natural chemical cue to stimulate and alter the expression of fungal secondary metabolism. Integrated high-throughput micro-cultivation and micro-analysis methods determined that 6 of 40 (15%) of fungi tested responded to an optimal exposure to LPS (0.6 ng/mL) by activating, enhancing or accelerating secondary metabolite production. To explore the possible mechanisms behind this effect, we employed light and fluorescent microscopy in conjunction with a nitric oxide (NO)-sensitive fluorescent dye and an NO scavenger to provide evidence that LPS stimulation of fungal secondary metabolism coincided with LPS activation of NO. Several case studies demonstrated that LPS stimulation can be scaled from single microplate well (1.5 mL) to preparative (>400 mL) scale cultures. For example, LPS treatment of Penicillium sp. (ACM-4616) enhanced pseurotin A and activated pseurotin A1 and pseurotin A2 biosynthesis, whereas LPS treatment of Aspergillus sp. (CMB-M81F) substantially accelerated and enhanced the biosynthesis of shornephine A and a series of biosynthetically related ardeemins and activated production of neoasterriquinone. As an indication of broader potential, we provide evidence that cultures of Penicillium sp. (CMB-TF0411), Aspergillus niger (ACM-4993F), Rhizopus oryzae (ACM-165F) and Thanatephorus cucumeris (ACM-194F) were responsive to LPS stimulation, the latter two examples being particular noteworthy as neither are known to produce secondary metabolites. Our results encourage the view that LPS stimulation can be used as a valuable tool to expand the molecular discovery potential of fungal strains that either have been exhaustively studied by or are unresponsive to traditional culture methodology. PMID:25379339

  16. Nicotinamide: a vitamin able to shift macrophage differentiation toward macrophages with restricted inflammatory features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Ronald; Schilling, Erik; Grahnert, Anja; Kölling, Valeen; Dorow, Juliane; Ceglarek, Uta; Sack, Ulrich; Hauschildt, Sunna

    2015-11-01

    The differentiation of human monocytes into macrophages is influenced by environmental signals. Here we asked in how far nicotinamide (NAM), a vitamin B3 derivative known to play a major role in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-mediated signaling events, is able to modulate monocyte differentiation into macrophages developed in the presence of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-MØ) or macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-MØ). We found that GM-MØ undergo biochemical, morphological and functional modifications in response to NAM, whereas M-MØ were hardly affected. GM-MØ exposed to NAM acquired an M-MØ-like structure while the LPS-induced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and COX-derived eicosanoids were down-regulated. In contrast, NAM had no effect on the production of IL-10 or the cytochrome P450-derived eicosanoids. Administration of NAM enhanced intracellular NAD concentrations; however, it did not prevent the LPS-mediated drain on NAD pools. In search of intracellular molecular targets of NAM known to be involved in LPS-induced cytokine and eicosanoid synthesis, we found NF-κB activity to be diminished. In conclusion, our data show that vitamin B3, when present during the differentiation of monocytes into GM-MØ, interferes with biochemical pathways resulting in strongly reduced pro-inflammatory features. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Tanshinone IIA Sodium Sulfonate Attenuates LPS-Induced Intestinal Injury in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Jing Yang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Tanshinone IIA sodium sulfonate (TSS is known to possess anti-inflammatory effects and has exhibited protective effects in various inflammatory conditions; however, its role in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- induced intestinal injury is still unknown. Objective. The present study is designed to explore the role and possible mechanism of TSS in LPS-induced intestinal injury. Methods. Male C57BL/6J mice, challenged with intraperitoneal LPS injection, were treated with or without TSS 0.5 h prior to LPS exposure. At 1, 6, and 12 h after LPS injection, mice were sacrificed, and the small intestine was excised. The intestinal tissue injury was analyzed by HE staining. Inflammatory factors (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in the intestinal tissue were examined by ELISA and RT-PCR. In addition, expressions of autophagy markers (microtubule-associated light chain 3 (LC3 and Beclin-1 were detected by western blot and RT-PCR. A number of autophagosomes were also observed under electron microscopy. Results. TSS treatment significantly attenuated small intestinal epithelium injury induced by LPS. LPS-induced release of inflammatory mediators, including TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6, were markedly inhibited by TSS. Furthermore, TSS treatment could effectively upregulate LPS-induced decrease of autophagy levels, as evidenced by the increased expression of LC3 and Beclin-1, and more autophagosomes. Conclusion. The protective effect of TSS on LPS-induced small intestinal injury may be attributed to the inhibition of inflammatory factors and promotion of autophagy levels. The present study may provide novel insight into the molecular mechanisms of TSS on the treatment of intestinal injury.

  18. Niacin and its metabolites as master regulators of macrophage activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montserrat-de la Paz, Sergio; Naranjo, M Carmen; Lopez, Sergio; Abia, Rocio; Muriana, Francisco J Garcia; Bermudez, Beatriz

    2017-01-01

    Niacin is a broad-spectrum lipid-regulating drug used for clinical therapy of chronic high-grade inflammatory diseases. However, the mechanisms by which either niacin or the byproducts of its catabolism ameliorate these inflammatory diseases are not clear yet. Human circulating monocytes and mature macrophages were used to analyze the effects of niacin and its metabolites (NAM, NUA and 2-Pyr) on oxidative stress, plasticity and inflammatory response by using biochemical, flow cytometry, quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot technologies. Niacin, NAM and 2-Pyr significantly decreased ROS, NO and NOS2 expression in LPS-treated human mature macrophages. Niacin and NAM skewed macrophage polarization toward antiinflammatory M2 macrophage whereas a trend toward proinflammatory M1 macrophage was noted following treatment with NUA. Niacin and NAM also reduced the inflammatory competence of LPS-treated human mature macrophages and promoted bias toward antiinflammatory CD14 + CD16 ++ nonclassical human primary monocytes. This study reveals for the first time that niacin and its metabolites possess antioxidant, reprogramming and antiinflammatory properties on human primary monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages. Our findings imply a new understanding of the mechanisms by which niacin and its metabolites favor a continuous and gradual plasticity process in the human monocyte/macrophage system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Inhibitory mechanism of chroman compound on LPS-induced nitric oxide production and nuclear factor-κB activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Byung Hak; Reddy, Alavala Matta; Lee, Kum-Ho; Chung, Eun Yong; Cho, Sung Min; Lee, Heesoon; Min, Kyung Rak; Kim, Youngsoo

    2004-01-01

    6-Hydroxy-7-methoxychroman-2-carboxylic acid phenylamide (KL-1156) is a novel chemically synthetic compound. In the present study, the chroman KL-1156 compound was found to inhibit lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide production in macrophages RAW 264.7. KL-1156 compound attenuated LPS-induced synthesis of both mRNA and protein of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), in parallel, and inhibited LPS-induced iNOS promoter activity, indicating that the chroman compound down-regulated iNOS expression at transcription level. As a mechanism of the anti-inflammatory action shown by KL-1156 compound, suppression of nuclear factor (NF)-κB has been documented. KL-1156 compound exhibited a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on LPS-induced NF-κB transcriptional activity in macrophages RAW 264.7. Furthermore, the compound inhibited LPS-induced nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 and DNA binding activity of NF-κB complex, in parallel, but did not affect IκBα degradation. Taken together, this study demonstrated that chroman KL-1156 compound interfered with nuclear translocation step of NF-κB p65, which was attributable to its anti-inflammatory action

  20. Visfatin Is Actively Secreted In Vitro From U-937 Macrophages, but Only Passively Released From 3T3-L1 Adipocytes and HepG2 Hepatocytes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svoboda, Petr; Křížová, E.; Čeňková, K.; Vápenková, K.; Zídková, J.; Zídek, Václav; Škop, V.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 4 (2017), s. 709-714 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-04859S; GA ČR(CZ) GA13-04580S Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : Nampt * Visfatin * active secretion * adipocytes * hepatocytes * macrophages Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Endocrinology and metabolism (including diabetes, hormones) Impact factor: 1.461, year: 2016

  1. Nitric oxide production from macrophages is regulated by arachidonic acid metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Y; Kolb, H; Burkart, V

    1993-11-30

    In activated macrophages the inducible form of the enzyme nitric oxide (NO) synthase generates high amounts of the toxic mediator NO. After 20 h of treatment with LPS rat peritoneal macrophages release 12-16 nmol NO2-/10(5) cells which is detectable in the culture supernatant by the Griess reaction as a measure of NO formation. The addition of aminoguanidine (1 mM), a preferential inhibitor of the inducible NO-synthase, completely abolished NO2-accumulation. Incubation with indomethacin or acetyl-salicylic acid, preferential inhibitors of the cyclooxygenase pathway of the arachidonic acid metabolism, did not influence NO2- levels. Nordihydro-guaiaretic acid (50 microM), a preferential inhibitor of the lipoxygenase pathway, caused strong reduction of NO2- accumulation to 1.9 +/- 0.3 nmol/200 microliter. Simultaneous inhibition of cyclo- and lipoxygenase by BW755c resulted in an intermediate effect (7.3 +/- 1.1 nmol/200 microliter NO2-). These results show that the induction of NO production in activated macrophages is regulated by products of the lipoxygenase-pathway of the arachidonic acid metabolism.

  2. Exogenous oxidants activate nuclear factor kappa B through Toll-like receptor 4 stimulation to maintain inflammatory phenotype in macrophage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Igwe, Orisa J

    2018-01-01

    Disturbances in redox equilibrium in tissue can lead to inflammatory state, which is a mediatory factor in many human diseases. The mechanism(s) by which exogenous oxidants may activate an inflammatory response is not fully understood. Emerging evidence suggests that oxidant-induced Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) activation plays a major role in "sterile" inflammation. In the present study, we used murine macrophage RAW-Blue cells, which are chromosomally integrated with secreted embryonic alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) inducible by NF-κB. We confirmed the expression of TLR4 mRNA and protein in RAW-Blue cells by RT-PCR and Western blot, respectively. We showed that oxidants increased intracellular reactive oxygen species production and lipid peroxidation, which resulted in decreased intracellular total antioxidant capacity. Consistent with the actions of TLR4-specific agonist LPS-EK, exogenous oxidants increased transcriptional activity of NF-κB p65 with subsequent release of NF-κB reporter gene SEAP. These effects were blocked by pretreatment with TLR4 neutralizing pAb and TLR4 signaling inhibitor CLI-095. In addition, oxidants decreased the expression of IκBα with enhanced phosphorylation at the Tyr42 residue. Finally, oxidants and LPS-EK increased TNFα production, but did not affect IL-10 production, which may cause imbalance between pro- and anti-inflammatory processes, which CLI-095 inhibited. For biological relevance, we confirmed that oxidants increased release of TNFα and IL-6 in primary macrophages derived from TLR4-WT and TLR4-KO mice. Our results support the involvement of TLR4 mediated oxidant-induced inflammatory phenotype through NF-κB activation in macrophages. Thus exogenous oxidants may play a role in activating inflammatory phenotypes that propagate and maintain chronic disease states. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Monocyte to macrophage differentiation-associated (MMD) positively regulates ERK and Akt activation and TNF-α and NO production in macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiang; Zheng, Jin; Yin, Dan-Dan; Xiang, Jie; He, Fei; Wang, Yao-Chun; Liang, Liang; Qin, Hong-Yan; Liu, Li; Liang, Ying-Min; Han, Hua

    2012-05-01

    Macrophage activation is modulated by both environmental cues and endogenous programs. In the present study, we investigated the role of a PAQR family protein, monocyte to macrophage differentiation-associated (MMD), in macrophage activation and unveiled its underlying molecular mechanism. Our results showed that while MMD expression could be detected in all tissues examined, its expression level is significantly up-regulated upon monocyte differentiation. Within cells, EGFP-MMD fusion protein could be co-localized to endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, Golgi apparatus, but not lysosomes and cytoplasm. MMD expression is up-regulated in macrophages after LPS stimulation, and this might be modulated by RBP-J, the critical transcription factor of Notch signaling. Overexpression of MMD in macrophages increased the production of TNF-α and NO upon LPS stimulation. We found that MMD overexpression enhanced ERK1/2 and Akt phosphorylation in macrophages after LPS stimulation. Blocking Erk or Akt by pharmacological agent reduced TNF-α or NO production in MMD-overexpressing macrophages, respectively. These results suggested that MMD modulates TNF-α and NO production in macrophages, and this process might involves Erk or Akt.

  4. Inhibition of 5-Lipoxygenase Pathway Attenuates Acute Liver Failure by Inhibiting Macrophage Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the role of 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO in acute liver failure (ALF and changes in macrophage activation by blocking it. ALF was induced in rats by administration of D-galactosamine (D-GalN/lipopolysaccharide (LPS. Rats were injected intraperitoneally with AA-861 (a specific 5-LO inhibitor, 24 hr before D-GalN/LPS administration. After D-GalN/LPS injection, the liver tissue was collected for assessment of histology, macrophage microstructure, macrophage counts, 5-LO mRNA formation, protein expression, and concentration of leukotrienes. Serum was collected for detecting alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate transaminase (AST, total bilirubin (Tbil, and tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-α. Twenty-four hours after injection, compared with controls, ALF rats were characterized by widespread hepatocyte necrosis and elevated ALT, AST, and Tbil, and 5-LO protein expression reached a peak. Liver leukotriene B4 was also significantly elevated. However, 5-LO mRNA reached a peak 8 hr after D-GalN/LPS injection. Simultaneously, the microstructure of macrophages was changed most significantly and macrophages counts were increased significantly. Moreover, serum TNF-α was also elevated. By contrast, AA-861 pretreatment significantly decreased liver necrosis as well as all of the parameters compared with the rats without pretreatment. Macrophages, via the 5-LO pathway, play a critical role in ALF, and 5-LO inhibitor significantly alleviates ALF, possibly related to macrophage inhibition.

  5. [Notch1 signaling participates in the release of inflammatory mediators in mouse RAW264.7 cells via activating NF-κB pathway].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongwei; Xu, Che Nan; Huang, Chao; Jiang, Jinzhi; Li, Liangchang

    2017-10-01

    Objective To study the effect of Notch1 signaling on the release of inflammatory mediators in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced macrophages and the related mechanism. Methods The expressions of Notch1 and hairy and enhancer of split 1 (Hes1) mRNAs were investigated by reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) in mouse RAW264.7 cells after stimulated with 100 ng/mL LPS for 8 hours. Prior to stimulation with LPS, mouse RAW264.7 cells were treated with DAPT (10 μmol/L), an inhibitor of Notch1 signaling, for 1 hour. The concentrations of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), interleukin 1β (IL-1β), IL-6, nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ) in cell culture media were measured by ELISA. The mRNA levels of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) were examined by RT-PCR. The protein levels of iNOS, COX-2, nuclear factor kappa Bp65 (NF-κBp65) and phosphorylated nuclear factor κB inhibitor α (p-IκBα) were detected by Western blotting. Results The expressions of Notch1 and Hes1 mRNAs significantly increased in mouse RAW264.7 cells after stimulated with LPS. The levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, NO and PGE 2 were significantly up-regulated in cell culture media after stimulated with LPS, but the levels of those inflammatory mediators were reduced by DAPT. The mRNA and protein levels of iNOS and COX-2 were significant raised in mouse RAW264.7 cells after stimulated with LPS, while they were inhibited by DAPT. Both IκBα-phosphorylation and NF-κBp65 translocation into nuclear in LPS-induced RAW264.7 cells were also inhibited by DAPT. Conclusion Notch1 signaling activates NF-κB to participate in LPS-induced inflammatory mediator release in macrophages.

  6. Macrophages Promote Axon Regeneration with Concurrent Neurotoxicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gensel, J.C.; Nakamura, S.; Guan, Z.; Rooijen, van N.; Ankeny, D.P.; Popovich, P.G.

    2009-01-01

    Activated macrophages can promote regeneration of CNS axons. However, macrophages also release factors that kill neurons. These opposing functions are likely induced simultaneously but are rarely considered together in the same experimental preparation. A goal of this study was to unequivocally

  7. Expression analysis of G Protein-Coupled Receptors in mouse macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattin, Jane E; Schroder, Kate; Su, Andrew I; Walker, John R; Zhang, Jie; Wiltshire, Tim; Saijo, Kaoru; Glass, Christopher K; Hume, David A; Kellie, Stuart; Sweet, Matthew J

    2008-04-29

    Monocytes and macrophages express an extensive repertoire of G Protein-Coupled Receptors (GPCRs) that regulate inflammation and immunity. In this study we performed a systematic micro-array analysis of GPCR expression in primary mouse macrophages to identify family members that are either enriched in macrophages compared to a panel of other cell types, or are regulated by an inflammatory stimulus, the bacterial product lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Several members of the P2RY family had striking expression patterns in macrophages; P2ry6 mRNA was essentially expressed in a macrophage-specific fashion, whilst P2ry1 and P2ry5 mRNA levels were strongly down-regulated by LPS. Expression of several other GPCRs was either restricted to macrophages (e.g. Gpr84) or to both macrophages and neural tissues (e.g. P2ry12, Gpr85). The GPCR repertoire expressed by bone marrow-derived macrophages and thioglycollate-elicited peritoneal macrophages had some commonality, but there were also several GPCRs preferentially expressed by either cell population. The constitutive or regulated expression in macrophages of several GPCRs identified in this study has not previously been described. Future studies on such GPCRs and their agonists are likely to provide important insights into macrophage biology, as well as novel inflammatory pathways that could be future targets for drug discovery.

  8. Inflammatory Macrophage Phenotype in BTBR T+tf/J Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul eAshwood

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Although autism is a behaviorally defined disorder, many studies report an association with increased pro-inflammatory cytokine production. Recent characterization of the BTBR T+tf/J (BTBR inbred mouse strain has revealed several behavioral characteristics including social deficits, repetitive behavior, and atypical vocalizations which may be relevant to autism. We therefore hypothesized that asocial BTBR mice, which exhibit autism-like behaviors, may have an inflammatory immune profile similar to that observed in children with autism. The objectives of this study were to characterize the myeloid immune profile of BTBR mice and to explore their associations with autism-relevant behaviors. C57BL/6J (C57 mice and BTBR mice were tested for social interest and repetitive self-grooming behavior. Cytokine production was measured in bone-marrow derived macrophages incubated for 24 hours in either growth media alone, LPS, IL-4/ LPS, or IFNγ/ LPS to ascertain any M1/M2 skewing. After LPS stimulation, BTBR macrophages produced higher levels of IL-6, MCP-1, and MIP-1α and lower IL-10 (p<0.01 that C57 mice, suggesting an exaggerated inflammatory profile. After exposure to IL-4/LPS BTBR macrophages produced less IL-10 than C57 macrophages and more IL-12p40 (p<0.01 suggesting poor M2 polarization. Levels of IL-12(p70 (p<0.05 were higher in BTBR macrophages after IFNγ/LPS stimulation, suggesting enhanced M1 polarization. We further observed a positive correlation between grooming frequency, and production of IL-12(p40, IL-12p70, IL-6, and TNFα (p<0.05 after treatment with IFNγ/LPS across both strains. Collectively, these data suggest that the asocial BTBR mouse strain exhibits a more inflammatory, or M1, macrophage profile in comparison to social C57 strain. We have further demonstrated a relationship between this relative increase in inflammation and repetitive grooming behavior, which may have relevance to repetitive and stereotyped behavior of autism.

  9. Mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 expression in macrophages is controlled by lymphocytes during macrophage activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Chong; Yang, Xiqiang; Yao, Lan; Jiang, Liping; Liu, Wei; Li, Xin; Wang, Lijia

    2012-01-01

    The viewpoints on the control of innate immune cells by the adaptive immune system during sepsis remain controversial. Mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP-1) is essential to the negative control of innate immunity and suppresses the activation of macrophages by inhibiting activated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). The purpose of the current study was to observe inflammatory response and macrophage activation in mice with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) with endotoxemia and to determine the role of MKP-1 in the control of macrophage activation by the adaptive immune system. Endotoxemia was induced in wild-type and SCID mice by an intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and all of the SCID mice died. SCID mice produced more inflammatory cytokines than BALB/c mice systemically and locally. TNF-α mRNA expression was higher and MKP-1 mRNA expression was lower in peritoneal macrophages (PMa) from SCID mice compared to PMa from wild-type mice after and even before LPS injection. Thioglycollate-stimulated PMa from wild-type mice were stimulated with LPS in vitro in the presence or absence of pan-T cells. The levels of TNF-α and IL-6 were higher in the supernatants from PMa cultured alone compared to PMa co-cultured with pan-T cells, and PMa MKP-1 mRNA and protein expression were higher when PMa were co-cultured with pan-T cells. Therefore, pan-T cells can up-regulate MKP-1 expression in macrophages and inhibit the secretion of inflammatory cytokines secretion by macrophages. In SCID mice, lymphocyte deficiency, especially T cell deficiency, causes insufficient MKP-1 expression in macrophages, which can be responsible for the severe inflammation and bad prognosis of septic SCID mice. MKP-1 plays an important role in the control of macrophage activation by the adaptive immune system.

  10. Bacterial lipopolysaccharide induces osteoclast formation in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, Shamima; Hassan, Ferdaus; Tumurkhuu, Gantsetseg; Dagvadorj, Jargalsaikhan; Koide, Naoki; Naiki, Yoshikazu; Mori, Isamu; Yoshida, Tomoaki; Yokochi, Takashi

    2007-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a potent bone resorbing factor. The effect of LPS on osteoclast formation was examined by using murine RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. LPS-induced the formation of multinucleated giant cells (MGC) in RAW 264.7 cells 3 days after the exposure. MGCs were positive for tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity. Further, MGC formed resorption pits on calcium-phosphate thin film that is a substrate for osteoclasts. Therefore, LPS was suggested to induce osteoclast formation in RAW 264.7 cells. LPS-induced osteoclast formation was abolished by anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α antibody, but not antibodies to macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) and receptor activator of nuclear factor (NF)-κB ligand (RANKL). TNF-α might play a critical role in LPS-induced osteoclast formation in RAW 264.7 cells. Inhibitors of NF-κB and stress activated protein kinase (SAPK/JNK) prevented the LPS-induced osteoclast formation. The detailed mechanism of LPS-induced osteoclast formation is discussed

  11. Interleukin-6 Contributes to Age-Related Alteration of Cytokine Production by Macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Christian R.; Karavitis, John; Palmer, Jessica L.; Faunce, Douglas E.; Ramirez, Luis; Nomellini, Vanessa; Kovacs, Elizabeth J.

    2010-01-01

    Here, we studied in vitro cytokine production by splenic macrophages obtained from young and aged BALB/c wild type (WT) and IL-6 knockout (IL-6 KO) mice. Relative to macrophages obtained from young WT mice given lipopolysaccharide (LPS), those from aged WT mice had decreased production of proinflammatory cytokines. In contrast, when compared to macrophages from young IL-6 KO mice, LPS stimulation yielded higher levels of these cytokines by cells from aged IL-6 KO mice. Aging or IL-6 deficiency did not affected the percentage of F4/80+ macrophages, or the surface expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and components of the IL-6 receptor. Overall, our results indicate that IL-6 plays a role in regulating the age-related defects in macrophages through alteration of proinflammatory cytokines, adding to the complexity of IL-6-mediated impairment of immune cell function with increasing age. PMID:20671912

  12. Lignans from Arctium lappa and their inhibition of LPS-induced nitric oxide production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, So Young; Hong, Seong Su; Han, Xiang Hua; Hwang, Ji Sang; Lee, Dongho; Ro, Jai Seup; Hwang, Bang Yeon

    2007-01-01

    A new butyrolactone sesquilignan, isolappaol C (1), together with four known lignans, lappaol C (2), lappaol D (3), lappaol F (4), and diarctigenin (5), were isolated from the methanolic extract of the seeds from the Arctium lappa plant. The structure of isolappaol C (1) was determined by spectral analysis including 1D- and 2D-NMR. All the isolates were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on the LPS-induced nitric oxide production using murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells. Lappaol F (4) and diarctigenin (5) strongly inhibited NO production in the LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells with IC(50) values of 9.5 and 9.6 microM, respectively.

  13. Up-regulation of T lymphocyte and antibody production by inflammatory cytokines released by macrophage exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grecco, Ana Carolina P.; Paula, Rosemeire F. O.; Mizutani, Erica; Sartorelli, Juliana C.; Milani, Ana M.; Longhini, Ana Leda F.; Oliveira, Elaine C.; Pradella, Fernando; Silva, Vania D. R.; Moraes, Adriel S.; Peterlevitz, Alfredo C.; Farias, Alessandro S.; Ceragioli, Helder J.; Santos, Leonilda M. B.; Baranauskas, Vitor

    2011-07-01

    Our data demonstrate that multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are internalized by macrophages, subsequently activating them to produce interleukin (IL)-12 (IL-12). This cytokine induced the proliferative response of T lymphocytes to a nonspecific mitogen and to ovalbumin (OVA). This increase in the proliferative response was accompanied by an increase in the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interferon-gamma (IFNγ), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) and IL-6, in mice inoculated with MWCNTs, whether or not they had been immunized with OVA. A decrease in the expression of transforming growth factor-beta (TGFβ) was observed in the mice treated with MWCNTs, whereas the suppression of the expression of both TGFβ and IL-10 was observed in mice that had been both treated and immunized. The activation of the T lymphocyte response by the pro-inflammatory cytokines leads to an increase in antibody production to OVA, suggesting the important immunostimulatory effect of carbon nanotubes.

  14. Passive transfer of leishmania lipopolysaccharide confers parasite survival in macrophages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Handman, E.; Schnur, L.F.; Spithill, T.W.; Mitchell, G.F.

    1986-01-01

    Infection of macrophages by the intracellular protozoan parasite Leishmania involves specific attachment to the host membrane, followed by phagocytosis and intracellular survival and growth. Two parasite molecules have been implicated in the attachment event: Leishmania lipopolysaccharide (L-LPS) and a glycoprotein (gp63). This study was designed to clarify the role of L-LPS in infection and the stage in the process of infection at which it operates. The authors have recently identified a Leishmania major strain (LRC-L119) which lacks the L-LPS molecule and is not infective for hamsters or mice. This parasite was isolated from a gerbil in Kenya and was identified phenotypically as L. major by isoenzyme and fatty acid analysis. In this study they have confirmed at the genotype level that LRC-L119 is L. major by analyzing and comparing the organization of cloned DNA sequences in the genome of different strains of L. major. Here they show that LRC-L119 promastigotes are phagocytosed rapidly by macrophages in vitro, but in contrast to virulent strains of L. major, they are then killed over a period of 18 hr. In addition, they show that transfer of purified L-LPS from a virulent clone of L. major (V121) into LRC-L119 promastigotes confers on them the ability to survive in macrophages in vitro

  15. A study to evaluate the effect of nootropic drug-piracetam on DNA damage in leukocytes and macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sarika; Goswami, Poonam; Swarnkar, Supriya; Singh, Sheelendra Pratap; Wahajuddin; Nath, Chandishwar; Sharma, Sharad

    2011-11-27

    Piracetam is a nootropic drug that protects neurons in neuropathological and age-related diseases and the activation and modulation of peripheral blood cells in patients with neuropathological conditions is well known. Therefore, in the present study, in vivo, ex vivo, and in vitro tests were conducted to investigate the effect of piracetam on leukocytes and macrophages. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) causes oxidative DNA damage; thus, in the present study, LPS was used as a tool to induce DNA damage. In vivo experiments were conducted on Sprague Dawley rats, and piracetam (600mg/kg, oral) was provided for five consecutive days. On the fifth day, a single injection of LPS (10mg/kg, i.p.) was administered. Three hours after LPS injection, blood leukocytes and peritoneal macrophages were collected and processed, and a variety of different assays were conducted. Ex vivo treatments were performed on isolated rat blood leukocytes, and in vitro experiments were conducted on rat macrophage cell line J774A.1. Cell viability and the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and DNA damage were estimated in untreated (control) and piracetam-, LPS- and LPS+piracetam-treated leukocytes and macrophages. In vivo experiments revealed that rats pretreated with piracetam were significantly protected against LPS-induced increases in ROS levels and DNA damage. Ex vivo isolated leukocytes and J774A.1 cells treated with LPS exhibited augmented ROS levels and DNA damage, which were attenuated with piracetam treatment. Thus, the present study revealed the salutary effect of piracetam against LPS-induced oxidative stress and DNA damage in leukocytes and macrophages. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Carapanolides J–L from the Seeds of Carapa guianensis (Andiroba and Their Effects on LPS-Activated NO Production

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    Yuuki Matsui

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A novel gedunin and two novel phragmalin-type limonoids, named carapanolides J–L (compounds 1–3 as well as a known gedunin-type limonoid 4 were isolated from the seeds of Carapa guianensis (andiroba. Their structures were determined on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy and HRFABMS. Compounds 1–4 were evaluated for their effects on the production of NO in LPS-activated mouse peritoneal macrophages.

  17. 4T1 Murine Mammary Carcinoma Cells Enhance Macrophage-Mediated Innate Inflammatory Responses.

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    Laurence Madera

    Full Text Available Tumor progression and the immune response are intricately linked. While it is known that cancers alter macrophage inflammatory responses to promote tumor progression, little is known regarding how cancers affect macrophage-dependent innate host defense. In this study, murine bone-marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM were exposed to murine carcinoma-conditioned media prior to assessment of the macrophage inflammatory response. BMDMs exposed to 4T1 mammary carcinoma-conditioned medium demonstrated enhanced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin-6, and CCL2 in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS while production of interleukin-10 remained unchanged. The increased LPS-induced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines was transient and correlated with enhanced cytokine production in response to other Toll-like receptor agonists, including peptidoglycan and flagellin. In addition, 4T1-conditioned BMDMs exhibited strengthened LPS-induced nitric oxide production and enhanced phagocytosis of Escherichia coli. 4T1-mediated augmentation of macrophage responses to LPS was partially dependent on the NFκB pathway, macrophage-colony stimulating factor, and actin polymerization, as well as the presence of 4T1-secreted extracellular vesicles. Furthermore, peritoneal macrophages obtained from 4T1 tumor-bearing mice displayed enhanced pro-inflammatory cytokine production in response to LPS. These results suggest that uptake of 4T1-secreted factors and actin-mediated ingestion of 4T1-secreted exosomes by macrophages cause a transient enhancement of innate inflammatory responses. Mammary carcinoma-mediated regulation of innate immunity may have significant implications for our understanding of host defense and cancer progression.

  18. Repeated exposure to intra-amniotic LPS partially protects against adverse effects of intravenous LPS in preterm lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisslen, Tate; Hillman, Noah H; Musk, Gabrielle C; Kemp, Matthew W; Kramer, Boris W; Senthamaraikannan, Paranthaman; Newnham, John P; Jobe, Alan H; Kallapur, Suhas G

    2014-02-01

    Histologic chorioamnionitis, frequently associated with preterm births and adverse outcomes, results in prolonged exposure of preterm fetuses to infectious agents and pro-inflammatory mediators, such as LPS. Endotoxin tolerance-type effects were demonstrated in fetal sheep following repetitive systemic or intra-amniotic (i.a.) exposures to LPS, suggesting that i.a. LPS exposure would cause endotoxin tolerance to a postnatal systemic dose of LPS in preterm sheep. In this study, randomized pregnant ewes received either two i.a. injections of LPS or saline prior to preterm delivery. Following operative delivery, the lambs were treated with surfactant, ventilated, and randomized to receive either i.v. LPS or saline at 30  min of age. Physiologic variables and indicators of systemic and lung inflammation were measured. Intravenous LPS decreased blood neutrophils and platelets values following i.a. saline compared to that after i.a. LPS. Intra-amniotic LPS prevented blood pressure from decreasing following the i.v. LPS, but also caused an increased oxygen index. Intra-amniotic LPS did not cause endotoxin tolerance as assessed by cytokine expression in the liver, lung or plasma, but increased myeloperoxidase-positive cells in the lung. The different compartments of exposure to LPS (i.a. vs i.v.) are unique to the fetal to newborn transition. Intra-amniotic LPS incompletely tolerized fetal lambs to postnatal i.v. LPS.

  19. Delineation of diverse macrophage activation programs in response to intracellular parasites and cytokines.

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    Shuyi Zhang

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The ability to reside and proliferate in macrophages is characteristic of several infectious agents that are of major importance to public health, including the intracellular parasites Trypanosoma cruzi (the etiological agent of Chagas disease and Leishmania species (etiological agents of Kala-Azar and cutaneous leishmaniasis. Although recent studies have elucidated some of the ways macrophages respond to these pathogens, the relationships between activation programs elicited by these pathogens and the macrophage activation programs elicited by bacterial pathogens and cytokines have not been delineated.To provide a global perspective on the relationships between macrophage activation programs and to understand how certain pathogens circumvent them, we used transcriptional profiling by genome-wide microarray analysis to compare the responses of mouse macrophages following exposure to the intracellular parasites T. cruzi and Leishmania mexicana, the bacterial product lipopolysaccharide (LPS, and the cytokines IFNG, TNF, IFNB, IL-4, IL-10, and IL-17. We found that LPS induced a classical activation state that resembled macrophage stimulation by the Th1 cytokines IFNG and TNF. However, infection by the protozoan pathogen L. mexicana produced so few transcriptional changes that the infected macrophages were almost indistinguishable from uninfected cells. T. cruzi activated macrophages produced a transcriptional signature characterized by the induction of interferon-stimulated genes by 24 h post-infection. Despite this delayed IFN response by T. cruzi, the transcriptional response of macrophages infected by the kinetoplastid pathogens more closely resembled the transcriptional response of macrophages stimulated by the cytokines IL-4, IL-10, and IL-17 than macrophages stimulated by Th1 cytokines.This study provides global gene expression data for a diverse set of biologically significant pathogens and cytokines and identifies the relationships between

  20. The influence of N-acetyl-L-cysteine on oxidative stress and nitric oxide synthesis in stimulated macrophages treated with a mustard gas analogue

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    Smith Milton

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sulphur mustard gas, 2, 2'-dichlorodiethyl sulphide (HD, is a chemical warfare agent. Both mustard gas and its monofunctional analogue, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulphide (CEES, are alkylating agents that react with and diminish cellular thiols and are highly toxic. Previously, we reported that lipopolysaccharide (LPS significantly enhances the cytotoxicity of CEES in murine RAW 264.7 macrophages and that CEES transiently inhibits nitric oxide (NO production via suppression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS protein expression. NO generation is an important factor in wound healing. In this paper, we explored the hypotheses that LPS increases CEES toxicity by increasing oxidative stress and that treatment with N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC would block LPS induced oxidative stress and protect against loss of NO production. NAC stimulates glutathione (GSH synthesis and also acts directly as a free radical scavenger. The potential therapeutic use of the antibiotic, polymyxin B, was also evaluated since it binds to LPS and could thereby block the enhancement of CEES toxicity by LPS and also inhibit the secondary infections characteristic of HD/CEES wounds. Results We found that 10 mM NAC, when administered simultaneously or prior to treatment with 500 μM CEES, increased the viability of LPS stimulated macrophages. Surprisingly, NAC failed to protect LPS stimulated macrophages from CEES induced loss of NO production. Macrophages treated with both LPS and CEES show increased oxidative stress parameters (cellular thiol depletion and increased protein carbonyl levels. NAC effectively protected RAW 264.7 cells simultaneously treated with CEES and LPS from GSH loss and oxidative stress. Polymyxin B was found to partially block nitric oxide production and diminish CEES toxicity in LPS-treated macrophages. Conclusion The present study shows that oxidative stress is an important mechanism contributing to CEES toxicity in LPS stimulated macrophages and

  1. Up-regulation of T lymphocyte and antibody production by inflammatory cytokines released by macrophage exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grecco, Ana Carolina P; Mizutani, Erica; Peterlevitz, Alfredo C; Ceragioli, Helder J; Baranauskas, Vitor [Faculdade de Engenharia Eletrica e Computacao, Universidade de Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Paula, Rosemeire F O; Sartorelli, Juliana C; Milani, Ana M; Longhini, Ana Leda F; Oliveira, Elaine C; Pradella, Fernando; Silva, Vania D R; Moraes, Adriel S; Farias, Alessandro S; Santos, Leonilda M B, E-mail: leonilda@unicamp.br [Laboratorio de Neuroimunologia, Departamento Genetica, Evolucao e Bioagentes, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade de Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Our data demonstrate that multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are internalized by macrophages, subsequently activating them to produce interleukin (IL)-12 (IL-12). This cytokine induced the proliferative response of T lymphocytes to a nonspecific mitogen and to ovalbumin (OVA). This increase in the proliferative response was accompanied by an increase in the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interferon-gamma (IFN{gamma}), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF{alpha}) and IL-6, in mice inoculated with MWCNTs, whether or not they had been immunized with OVA. A decrease in the expression of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF{beta}) was observed in the mice treated with MWCNTs, whereas the suppression of the expression of both TGF{beta} and IL-10 was observed in mice that had been both treated and immunized. The activation of the T lymphocyte response by the pro-inflammatory cytokines leads to an increase in antibody production to OVA, suggesting the important immunostimulatory effect of carbon nanotubes.

  2. Moracin C, A Phenolic Compound Isolated from Artocarpus heterophyllus, Suppresses Lipopolysaccharide-Activated Inflammatory Responses in Murine Raw264.7 Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xue; Wu, Dang; Dong, Ningning; Ouyang, Ping; Pu, Jiaqian; Hu, Qian; Wang, Jingyuan; Lu, Weiqiang; Huang, Jin

    2016-07-25

    Artocarpus heterophyllus, a popular tropical fruit commonly known as the jackfruit tree, is normally planted in subtropical or tropical areas. Since a variety of phytochemicals isolated from A. heterophyllus have been found to possess potently anti-inflammatory, antiviral and antimalarial activities, researchers have devoted much interest to its potential pharmaceutical value. However, the exact mechanism underlying its anti-inflammatory activity is not well characterized. In this study, seven natural products isolated from A. heterophyllus, including 25-Hydroxycycloart-23-en-3-one (HY), Artocarpin (AR), Dadahol A (DA), Morachalcone A (MA), Artoheterophyllin B (AB), Cycloheterophyllin (CY) and Moracin C (MC) were collected. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated inflammatory response in RAW264.7 macrophages were used in this study. Among these compounds, MC significantly inhibited LPS-activated reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) release without marked cytotoxicity. Furthermore, MC effectively reduced LPS stimulated up-regulation of mRNA and protein expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and serval pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α)). Mechanistic studies revealed that the anti-inflammatory effect of MC was associated with the activation of the mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) (including p38, ERK and JNK) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathways, especially reducing the nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 subunit as revealed by nuclear separation experiment and confocal microscopy.

  3. Interactions of proteoliposomes from serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis with bone marrow-derived dendritic cells and macrophages: adjuvant effects and antigen delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Tamara; Pérez, Oliver; Ménager, Nathalie; Ugrinovic, Sanja; Bracho, Gustavo; Mastroeni, Pietro

    2005-01-26

    Exposure to proteoliposomes from serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis (PL) induced up-regulation of MHC-II, MHC-I, CD40, CD80 and CD86 expression on the surface of murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (DC). CD40, CD80 and CD86 were up-regulated on bone marrow-derived macrophages (MPhi) upon stimulation with PL. Both DC and MPhi released TNFalpha, but only DC produced IL12(p70) in response to PL. A small increase in the expression of MHC-II, CD40 and CD86, as well as production of IL12(p70), was observed on the cell surface of DC, but not MPhi from LPS-non-responder C3H/HeJ after exposure to PL. DC, but not MPhi, incubated with PL containing ovalbumin (PL-OVA) presented OVA-specific peptides to CD4+ and CD8+ OVA-specific T-cell hybridomas. These data clearly indicate that PL exert an immunomodulatory effect on DC and MPhi, with some contribution of non-LPS components besides the main role of LPS. The work also shows the potential of PL as a general system to deliver antigens to DC for presentation to CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells.

  4. Endogenous PGI2 signaling through IP inhibits neutrophilic lung inflammation in LPS-induced acute lung injury mice model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toki, Shinji; Zhou, Weisong; Goleniewska, Kasia; Reiss, Sara; Dulek, Daniel E; Newcomb, Dawn C; Lawson, William E; Peebles, R Stokes

    2018-04-13

    Endogenous prostaglandin I 2 (PGI 2 ) has inhibitory effects on immune responses against pathogens or allergens; however, the immunomodulatory activity of endogenous PGI 2 signaling in endotoxin-induced inflammation is unknown. To test the hypothesis that endogenous PGI 2 down-regulates endotoxin-induced lung inflammation, C57BL/6 wild type (WT) and PGI 2 receptor (IP) KO mice were challenged intranasally with LPS. Urine 6-keto-PGF 1α , a stable metabolite of PGI 2, was significantly increased following the LPS-challenge, suggesting that endogenous PGI 2 signaling modulates the host response to LPS-challenge. IPKO mice had a significant increase in neutrophils in the BAL fluid as well as increased proteins of KC, LIX, and TNF-α in lung homogenates compared with WT mice. In contrast, IL-10 was decreased in LPS-challenged IPKO mice compared with WT mice. The PGI 2 analog cicaprost significantly decreased LPS-induced KC, and TNF-α, but increased IL-10 and AREG in bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) and bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) compared with vehicle-treatment. These results indicated that endogenous PGI 2 signaling attenuated neutrophilic lung inflammation through the reduced inflammatory cytokine and chemokine and enhanced IL-10. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Evaluation of amniotic mesenchymal cell derivatives on cytokine production in equine alveolar macrophages: an in vitro approach to lung inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucca, Enrica; Corsini, Emanuela; Galbiati, Valentina; Lange-Consiglio, Anna; Ferrucci, Francesco

    2016-09-20

    Data obtained in both animal models and clinical trials suggest that cell-based therapies represent a potential therapeutic strategy for lung repair and remodeling. Recently, new therapeutic approaches based on the use of stem cell derivatives (e.g., conditioned medium (CM) and microvesicles (MVs)) to regenerate tissues and improve their functions were proposed. The aim of this study was to investigate the immunomodulatory effects of equine amniotic mesenchymal cell derivatives on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cytokine production in equine alveolar macrophages, which may be beneficial in lung inflammatory disorders such as recurrent airway obstruction (RAO) in horses. RAO shares many features with human asthma, including an increased number of cells expressing mRNA for interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-5 and a decreased expression of IFN-γ in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of affected horses. The release of TNF-α, IL-6, and TGF-β1 at different time points (1, 24, 48, and 72 h) was measured in equine alveolar macrophages stimulated or not with LPS (10 and 100 ng/mL) in the presence or absence of 10 % CM or 50 × 10(6) MVs/mL. Cytokines were measured using commercially available ELISA kits. For multiple comparisons, analysis of variance was used with Tukey post-hoc test. Differences were considered significant at p ≤ 0.05. Significant modulatory effects of CM on LPS-induced TNF-α release at 24 h, and of both CM and MVs on TNF-α release at 48 h were observed. A trend toward a modulatory effect of both CM and MVs on the release of TGF-β and possibly IL-6 was visible over time. Results support the potential use of CM and MVs in lung regenerative medicine, especially in situations in which TGF-β may be detrimental, such as respiratory allergy. Further studies should evaluate the potential clinical applications of CM and MVs in equine lung diseases, such as RAO and other inflammatory disorders.

  6. In vitro methods of assessing ocular biocompatibility using THP-1-derived macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCanna, David Joseph; Barthod-Malat, Aurore V; Gorbet, Maud B

    2015-01-01

    Macrophages play an important role in the elimination of infections, the removal of debris and in tissue repair after infection and trauma. In vitro models that assess ocular biomaterials for toxicity typically focus on the effects of these materials on epithelial or fibroblast cells. This investigation evaluated known ocular toxins deposited on model materials for their effects on the viability and activation of macrophages. THP-1-derived macrophages were cultured onto silicone films (used as a base biomaterial) deposited with chemical toxins (benzalkonium chloride (BAK), zinc diethyldithiocarbamate (ZDEC) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)). Utilizing three fluorescent dyes calcein, ethidium homodimer-1 (EthD-1) and annexin V, the viability of macrophages attached to the biomaterial was determined using confocal microscopy. Propidium iodide (PI) staining and alamarBlue® (resazurin) reduction were used to assess cell death and metabolic activity. CD14, CD16, CD33, CD45, and CD54 expression of adherent macrophages, were also evaluated to detect LPS activation of macrophages using flow cytometry. The sensitivity of this test battery was demonstrated as significant toxicity from treated surfaces with ZDEC (0.001-0.01%), and BAK (0.001%-0.1%) was detected. Also, macrophage activation could be detected by measuring CD54 expression after exposure to adsorbed LPS. These in vitro methods will be helpful in determining the toxicity potential of new ocular biomaterials.

  7. Macrophage antioxidant protection within atherosclerotic plaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gieseg, Steven P; Leake, David S; Flavall, Elizabeth M; Amit, Zunika; Reid, Linzi; Yang, Ya-Ting

    2009-01-01

    Macrophage cells within inflammatory lesions are exposed to a wide range of degrading and cytotoxic molecules including reactive oxygen species. Unlike neutrophils, macrophages do not normally die in this environment but continue to generate oxidants, phagocytose cellular remains, and release a range of cyto-active agents which modulate the immune response. It is this potential of the macrophage cell to survive in an oxidative environment that allows the growth and complexity of advanced atherosclerotic plaques. This review will examine the oxidants encountered by macrophages within an atherosclerotic plaque and describe some of the potential antioxidant mechanisms which enable macrophages to function within inflammatory lesions. Ascorbate, a-tocopherol, and glutathione appear to be central to the protection of macrophages yet additional antioxidant mechanisms appear to be involved. Gamma-Interferon causes macrophages to generate 7,8-dihydroneopterin, neopterin and 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid both of which have antioxidant properties. Manganese superoxide dismutase is also upregulated in macrophages. The evidence that these antioxidants provide further protection, so allowing the macrophage cells to survive within sites of chronic inflammation such as atherosclerotic plaques, will be described.

  8. Nanopatterned bulk metallic glass-based biomaterials modulate macrophage polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shayan, Mahdis; Padmanabhan, Jagannath; Morris, Aaron H; Cheung, Bettina; Smith, Ryan; Schroers, Jan; Kyriakides, Themis R

    2018-06-01

    Polarization of macrophages by chemical, topographical and mechanical cues presents a robust strategy for designing immunomodulatory biomaterials. Here, we studied the ability of nanopatterned bulk metallic glasses (BMGs), a new class of metallic biomaterials, to modulate murine macrophage polarization. Cytokine/chemokine analysis of IL-4 or IFNγ/LPS-stimulated macrophages showed that the secretion of TNF-α, IL-1α, IL-12, CCL-2 and CXCL1 was significantly reduced after 24-hour culture on BMGs with 55 nm nanorod arrays (BMG-55). Additionally, under these conditions, macrophages increased phagocytic potential and exhibited decreased cell area with multiple actin protrusions. These in vitro findings suggest that nanopatterning can modulate biochemical cues such as IFNγ/LPS. In vivo evaluation of the subcutaneous host response at 2 weeks demonstrated that the ratio of Arg-1 to iNOS increased in macrophages adjacent to BMG-55 implants, suggesting modulation of polarization. In addition, macrophage fusion and fibrous capsule thickness decreased and the number and size of blood vessels increased, which is consistent with changes in macrophage responses. Our study demonstrates that nanopatterning of BMG implants is a promising technique to selectively polarize macrophages to modulate the immune response, and also presents an effective tool to study mechanisms of macrophage polarization and function. Implanted biomaterials elicit a complex series of tissue and cellular responses, termed the foreign body response (FBR), that can be influenced by the polarization state of macrophages. Surface topography can influence polarization, which is broadly characterized as either inflammatory or repair-like. The latter has been linked to improved outcomes of the FBR. However, the impact of topography on macrophage polarization is not fully understood, in part, due to a lack of high moduli biomaterials that can be reproducibly processed at the nanoscale. Here, we studied

  9. Cyclical DNA Methylation and Histone Changes Are Induced by LPS to Activate COX-2 in Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells.

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    Tiziana Angrisano

    Full Text Available Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS induces release of inflammatory mediators both in immune and epithelial cells. We investigated whether changes of epigenetic marks, including selected histone modification and DNA methylation, may drive or accompany the activation of COX-2 gene in HT-29 human intestinal epithelial cells upon exposure to LPS. Here we describe cyclical histone acetylation (H3, methylation (H3K4, H3K9, H3K27 and DNA methylation changes occurring at COX-2 gene promoter overtime after LPS stimulation. Histone K27 methylation changes are carried out by the H3 demethylase JMJD3 and are essential for COX-2 induction by LPS. The changes of the histone code are associated with cyclical methylation signatures at the promoter and gene body of COX-2 gene.

  10. Efek ekstrak daun singkong (Manihot utilissima terhadap ekspresi COX-2 pada monosit yang dipapar LPS E.coli (The effect of Manihot utilissima extracts on COX-2 expression of monocytes induced by LPS E. coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahara Meilawaty

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Periodontal disease is a common and widespread disease in the community. Gram negative bacteria have a role inperiodontitis. These bacteria secrete a variety of products such as endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS, which causes the occurrenceof inflammation or infection. The body defense responses are neutrophils and mononuclear cells (monocytes and macrophages. Inresponse to defense mechanism, the body will be expressed enzyme cyclooxygenase (COX which functions convert arachidonic acidto prostaglandins. Cassava leaf cells known to play a role in reducing inflammation, but the mechanism for inhibiting COX-2, is notknown. Purpose: The study was aimed to determine the effect of cassava leaf extract (Manihot utilissima on expression of enzyme COX-2 in monocytes which were exposed by LPS E. coli. Methods: This study was in vitro experimental studies with the design of posttestonly control group design. The sample was the cassava leaves extract (Manihot utilissima at concentration of 12.5 % and 25 %. Theexpression of COX-2 was determined by immunocytochemistry method. Isolated monocytes were incubated in cassava leaf extract, andthen exposed to LPS, after washing imunostaning procedure was performed using a monoclonal antibody (MAb anti-human COX-2.The research data was the number of monocytes that express COX-2. Results: Expression of COX-2 in the group cassava leaf extractwas higher than the group that induced by LPS E. coli only. Conclusion: Cassava leaf extract did not inhibit the expression of COX-2in monocytes which were exposed by LPS E. coli.Latar belakang: Penyakit periodontal merupakan penyakit umum dan tersebar luas di masyarakat. Bakteri yang banyak berperanpada periodontitis adalah Gram negatif. Bakteri ini mengeluarkan berbagai produk antara lain endotoksin lipopolisakarida (LPS yangmenyebabkan inflamasi atau infeksi. Respon pertahanan tubuh pertama adalah netrofil dan sel mononuklear (monosit dan makrofag.Pada respon

  11. Production of macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1alpha and MIP-1beta by human polymorphonuclear neutrophils stimulated with Porphyromonas endodontalis lipopolysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Hyun Jung; Lim, Sung Sam

    2002-11-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the capacity of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) to secrete Macrophage Inflammatory Protein (MIP)-1alpha and MIP-1beta after stimulation with Porphyromonas endodontalis lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Escherichia coli LPS was used as a positive control. Venous blood was collected and PMNs were isolated from healthy volunteers. Cells were cultured with various concentrations of LPS for different periods of time. Cell supernatants were assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The levels of chemokine secretion in PMNs stimulated with each LPS were found to be significantly higher than in the unstimulated control cells (p endodontalis LPS. These findings demonstrated that P. endodontalis LPS is capable of stimulating PMNs to produce chemotactic cytokines and suggested that PMNs stimulated with P. endodontalis LPS may play a crucial role in the inflammatory and immunopathological reactions of pulpal and periapical diseases.

  12. BMP pathway regulation of and by macrophages.

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    Megha Talati

    Full Text Available Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH is a disease of progressively increasing pulmonary vascular resistance, associated with mutations of the type 2 receptor for the BMP pathway, BMPR2. The canonical signaling pathway for BMPR2 is through the SMAD family of transcription factors. BMPR2 is expressed in every cell type, but the impact of BMPR2 mutations affecting SMAD signaling, such as Bmpr2delx4+, had only previously been investigated in smooth muscle and endothelium. In the present study, we created a mouse with universal doxycycline-inducible expression of Bmpr2delx4+ in order to determine if broader expression had an impact relevant to the development of PAH. We found that the most obvious phenotype was a dramatic, but patchy, increase in pulmonary inflammation. We crossed these double transgenic mice onto an NF-κB reporter strain, and by luciferase assays on live mice, individual organs and isolated macrophages, we narrowed down the origin of the inflammatory phenotype to constitutive activation of tissue macrophages. Study of bone marrow-derived macrophages from mutant and wild-type mice suggested a baseline difference in differentiation state in Bmpr2 mutants. When activated with LPS, both mutant and wild-type macrophages secrete BMP pathway inhibitors sufficient to suppress BMP pathway activity in smooth muscle cells (SMC treated with conditioned media. Functionally, co-culture with macrophages results in a BMP signaling-dependent increase in scratch closure in cultured SMC. We conclude that SMAD signaling through BMP is responsible, in part, for preventing macrophage activation in both live animals and in cells in culture, and that activated macrophages secrete BMP inhibitors in sufficient quantity to cause paracrine effect on vascular smooth muscle.

  13. The Protective Effect of Apamin on LPS/Fat-Induced Atherosclerotic Mice

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    Soo-Jung Kim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Apamin, a peptide component of bee venom (BV, has anti-inflammatory properties. However, the molecular mechanisms by which apamin prevents atherosclerosis are not fully understood. We examined the effect of apamin on atherosclerotic mice. Atherosclerotic mice received intraperitoneal (ip injections of lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 2 mg/kg to induce atherosclerotic change and were fed an atherogenic diet for 12 weeks. Apamin (0.05 mg/kg was administered by ip injection. LPS-induced THP-1-derived macrophage inflammation treated with apamin reduced expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1, and intracellular cell adhesion molecule (ICAM-1, as well as the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB signaling pathway. Apamin decreased the formation of atherosclerotic lesions as assessed by hematoxylin and elastic staining. Treatment with apamin reduced lipids, Ca2+ levels, and TNF-α in the serum from atherosclerotic mice. Further, apamin significantly attenuated expression of VCAM-1, ICAM-1, TGF-β1, and fibronectin in the descending aorta from atherosclerotic mice. These results indicate that apamin plays an important role in monocyte/macrophage inflammatory processing and may be of potential value for preventing atherosclerosis.

  14. Benzyl alcohol derivatives from the mushroom Hericium erinaceum attenuate LPS-stimulated inflammatory response through the regulation of NF-κB and AP-1 activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Hyung Jun; Yoon, Ju Young; Kim, Geum Sook; Lee, Seung Eun; Lee, Dae Young; Choi, Je Hun; Kim, Seung Yu; Kang, Ki Sung; Cho, Jae Youl; Kim, Ki Hyun

    2014-10-01

    On the search for anti-inflammatory compounds from natural Korean medicinal sources, a bioassay-guided fractionation and chemical investigation of the MeOH extract from the fruiting bodies of Hericium erinaceum resulted in the isolation and identification of five benzyl alcohol derivatives (1-5). In this study, their anti-inflammatory effects on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of pro-inflammatory mediators were examined using RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. The structures of isolates were identified by comparing their spectroscopic data with previously reported values. The analysis of their inhibitory activities on LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells showed that erinacerin B (2) and hericenone E (4) decreased the levels of NO and PGE2 production in a concentration-dependent manner. Next, this study was performed to examine their mechanism of action on the regulation of NO and PGE2 production. Compounds 2 and 4 were found to block the LPS-induced phosphorylation of two major inflammatory transcription factors, NF-κB (p65/p50) and AP-1 (c-Jun and c-Fos). Taken together, these results suggest that down-regulation of LPS-induced NO and PGE2 production by compounds 2 and 4 is mediated through the modulation of NF-κB and AP-1 activation in macrophage cells. These results impact the development of potential health products for preventing and treating inflammatory diseases.

  15. Suppressive effects of ketamine on macrophage functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Yi; Chen, T.-L.; Sheu, J.-R.; Chen, R.-M.

    2005-01-01

    Ketamine is an intravenous anesthetic agent. Clinically, induction of anesthesia with ketamine can cause immunosuppression. Macrophages play important roles in host defense. In this study, we attempted to evaluate the effects of ketamine on macrophage functions and its possible mechanism using mouse macrophage-like Raw 264.7 cells as the experimental model. Exposure of macrophages to 10 and 100 μM ketamine, which correspond to 0.1 and 1 times the clinically relevant concentration, for 1, 6, and 24 h had no effect on cell viability or lactate dehydrogenase release. When the administered concentration reached 1000 μM, ketamine caused a release of lactate dehydrogenase and cell death. Ketamine, at 10 and 100 μM, did not affect the chemotactic activity of macrophages. Administration of 1000 μM ketamine in macrophages resulted in a decrease in cell migration. Treatment of macrophages with ketamine reduced phagocytic activities. The oxidative ability of macrophages was suppressed by ketamine. Treatment with lipopolysaccharide induced TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 mRNA in macrophages. Administration of ketamine alone did not influence TNF-α, IL-1β, or IL-6 mRNA production. Meanwhile, cotreatment with ketamine and lipopolysaccharide significantly inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 mRNA levels. Exposure to ketamine led to a decrease in the mitochondrial membrane potential. However, the activity of mitochondrial complex I NADH dehydrogenase was not affected by ketamine. This study shows that a clinically relevant concentration of ketamine (100 μM) can suppress macrophage function of phagocytosis, its oxidative ability, and inflammatory cytokine production possibly via reduction of the mitochondrial membrane potential instead of direct cellular toxicity

  16. The Impairment of Macrophage-to-Feces Reverse Cholesterol Transport during Inflammation Does Not Depend on Serum Amyloid A

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    Maria C. de Beer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies suggest that inflammation impairs reverse cholesterol transport (RCT. We investigated whether serum amyloid A (SAA contributes to this impairment using an established macrophage-to-feces RCT model. Wild-type (WT mice and mice deficient in SAA1.1 and SAA2.1 (SAAKO were injected intraperitoneally with 3H-cholesterol-labeled J774 macrophages 4 hr after administration of LPS or buffered saline. 3H-cholesterol in plasma 4 hr after macrophage injection was significantly reduced in both WT and SAAKO mice injected with LPS, but this was not associated with a reduced capacity of serum from LPS-injected mice to promote macrophage cholesterol efflux in vitro. Hepatic accumulation of 3H-cholesterol was unaltered in either WT or SAAKO mice by LPS treatment. Radioactivity present in bile and feces of LPS-injected WT mice 24 hr after macrophage injection was reduced by 36%   (P<0.05 and 80%   (P<0.001, respectively. In contrast, in SAAKO mice, LPS did not significantly reduce macrophage-derived 3H-cholesterol in bile, and fecal excretion was reduced by only 45%   (P<0.05. Injection of cholesterol-loaded allogeneic J774 cells, but not syngeneic bone-marrow-derived macrophages, transiently induced SAA in C57BL/6 mice. Our study confirms reports that acute inflammation impairs steps in the RCT pathway and establishes that SAA plays only a minor role in this impairment.

  17. Targeted Delivery of siRNA to Macrophages for Anti-inflammatory Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sang-Soo; Ye, Chunting; Kumar, Priti; Chiu, Isaac; Subramanya, Sandesh; Wu, Haoquan; Shankar, Premlata; Manjunath, N

    2010-01-01

    Inflammation mediated by tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and the associated neuronal apoptosis characterizes a number of neurologic disorders. Macrophages and microglial cells are believed to be the major source of TNF-α in the central nervous system (CNS). Here, we show that suppression of TNF-α by targeted delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA) to macrophage/microglial cells dramatically reduces lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neuroinflammation and neuronal apoptosis in vivo. Because ma...

  18. Flipping the NF-κB Switch in Macrophages | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    A critical component of the innate immune system, macrophages respond to diverse microbes by recognizing certain molecular patterns, such as the Gram-negative bacteria product lipopolysaccharide (LPS), via Toll-like receptors. Receptor activation stimulates a complex signaling network that involves, among others, the NF-κB pathway. The complexity of this network has hampered researchers’ understanding of how macrophages resolve conflicting signals to determine when to mount an immune response.

  19. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor is associated with aneurysmal expansion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pan, Jie-Hong; Lindholt, Jes Sanddal; Sukhova, Galina K

    2003-01-01

    Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is an inflammatory cytokine released mainly from macrophages and activated lymphocytes. Both atherosclerosis and abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) are inflammatory diseases tightly linked to the function of these cells. The correlation and contribution o...... of MIF to these human diseases remain unknown, although a recent rabbit study showed expression of this cytokine in atherosclerotic lesions.......Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is an inflammatory cytokine released mainly from macrophages and activated lymphocytes. Both atherosclerosis and abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) are inflammatory diseases tightly linked to the function of these cells. The correlation and contribution...

  20. Inhibition of inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase by a mustard gas analog in murine macrophages

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    Smith Milton

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background 2-Chloroethyl ethyl sulphide (CEES is a sulphur vesicating agent and an analogue of the chemical warfare agent 2,2'-dichlorodiethyl sulphide, or sulphur mustard gas (HD. Both CEES and HD are alkylating agents that influence cellular thiols and are highly toxic. In a previous publication, we reported that lipopolysaccharide (LPS enhances the cytotoxicity of CEES in murine RAW264.7 macrophages. In the present investigation, we studied the influence of CEES on nitric oxide (NO production in LPS stimulated RAW264.7 cells since NO signalling affects inflammation, cell death, and wound healing. Murine macrophages stimulated with LPS produce NO almost exclusively via inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS activity. We suggest that the influence of CEES or HD on the cellular production of NO could play an important role in the pathophysiological responses of tissues to these toxicants. In particular, it is known that macrophage generated NO synthesised by iNOS plays a critical role in wound healing. Results We initially confirmed that in LPS stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages NO is exclusively generated by the iNOS form of nitric oxide synthase. CEES treatment inhibited the synthesis of NO (after 24 hours in viable LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages as measured by either nitrite secretion into the culture medium or the intracellular conversion of 4,5-diaminofluorescein diacetate (DAF-2DA or dichlorofluorescin diacetate (DCFH-DA. Western blots showed that CEES transiently decreased the expression of iNOS protein; however, treatment of active iNOS with CEES in vitro did not inhibit its enzymatic activity Conclusion CEES inhibits NO production in LPS stimulated macrophages by decreasing iNOS protein expression. Decreased iNOS expression is likely the result of CEES induced alteration in the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB signalling pathway. Since NO can act as an antioxidant, the CEES induced down-regulation of iNOS in LPS

  1. MAPK/p38 regulation of cytoskeleton rearrangement accelerates induction of macrophage activation by TLR4, but not TLR3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Hongjun; Li, Feifei; Wang, Wenwen; Zhao, Qi; Gao, Shanshan; Ma, Jincai; Li, Xiao; Ren, Wanhua; Qin, Chengyong; Qi, Jianni

    2017-11-01

    Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) and TLR4 utilize adaptor proteins to activate mitogen‑activated protein kinase (MAPK), resulting in the acute but transient inflammatory response aimed at the clearance of pathogens. In the present study, it was demonstrated that macrophage activation by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or poly(I:C), leading to changes in cell morphology, differed significantly between the mouse macrophage cell line RAW264.7 and mouse primary peritoneal macrophages. Moreover, the expression of α- and β-tubulin was markedly decreased following LPS stimulation. By contrast, α- and β-tubulin expression were only mildly increased following poly(I:C) treatment. However, the expression of β-actin and GAPDH was not significantly affected. Furthermore, it was verified that vincristine pretreatment abrogated the cytoskeleton rearrangement and decreased the synthesis and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and migration of macrophages caused by LPS. Finally, it was observed that the MAPK/p38 signaling pathway regulating cytoskeleton rearrangement may participate in LPS‑induced macrophage cytokine production and migration. Overall, the findings of the present study indicated that MAPK/p38 regulation of the cytoskeleton, particularly tubulin proteins, plays an important role in LPS-induced inflammatory responses via alleviating the synthesis and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and inhibiting the migration of macrophages.

  2. Andrographolide protects against LPS-induced acute lung injury by inactivation of NF-κB.

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    Tao Zhu

    Full Text Available Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB is a central transcriptional factor and a pleiotropic regulator of many genes involved in acute lung injury. Andrographolide is found in the plant of Andrographis paniculata and widely used in Traditional Chinese Medicine, exhibiting potently anti-inflammatory property by inhibiting NF-κB activity. The purpose of our investigation was designed to reveal the effect of andrographolide on various aspects of LPS induced inflammation in vivo and in vitro.In vivo, BALB/C mice were subjected to LPS injection with or without andrographolide treatments to induce ALI model. In vitro, MLE-12 cells were stimulated with LPS in the presence and absence of andrographolide. In vivo, pulmonary inflammation, pulmonary edema, ultrastructure changes of type II alveolar epithelial cells, MPO activity, total cells, neutrophils, macrophages, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β in BALF, along with the expression of VCAM-1 and VEGF were dose-dependently attenuated by andrographolide. Meanwhile, in vitro, the expression of VCAM-1 and VEGF was also reduced by andrographolide. Moreover, our data showed that andrographolide significantly inhibited the ratios of phospho-IKKβ/total IKKβ, phospho-IκBα/total IκBα and phospho-NF-κB p65/total NF-κB p65, and NF-κB p65 DNA binding activities, both in vivo and in vitro.These results indicate that andrographolide dose-dependently suppressed the severity of LPS-induced ALI, more likely by virtue of andrographolide-mediated NF-κB inhibition at the level of IKKβ activation. These results suggest andrographolide may be considered as an effective and safe drug for the potential treatment of ALI.

  3. Andrographolide Protects against LPS-Induced Acute Lung Injury by Inactivation of NF-κB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Tao; Wang, Dao-xin; Zhang, Wei; Liao, Xiu-qing; Guan, Xian; Bo, Hong; Sun, Jia-yang; Huang, Ni-wen; He, Jing; Zhang, Yun-kun; Tong, Jing; Li, Chang-yi

    2013-01-01

    Background Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) is a central transcriptional factor and a pleiotropic regulator of many genes involved in acute lung injury. Andrographolide is found in the plant of Andrographis paniculata and widely used in Traditional Chinese Medicine, exhibiting potently anti-inflammatory property by inhibiting NF-κB activity. The purpose of our investigation was designed to reveal the effect of andrographolide on various aspects of LPS induced inflammation in vivo and in vitro. Methods and Results In vivo, BALB/C mice were subjected to LPS injection with or without andrographolide treatments to induce ALI model. In vitro, MLE-12 cells were stimulated with LPS in the presence and absence of andrographolide. In vivo, pulmonary inflammation, pulmonary edema, ultrastructure changes of type II alveolar epithelial cells, MPO activity, total cells, neutrophils, macrophages, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β in BALF, along with the expression of VCAM-1 and VEGF were dose-dependently attenuated by andrographolide. Meanwhile, in vitro, the expression of VCAM-1 and VEGF was also reduced by andrographolide. Moreover, our data showed that andrographolide significantly inhibited the ratios of phospho-IKKβ/total IKKβ, phospho-IκBα/total IκBα and phospho-NF-κB p65/total NF-κB p65, and NF-κB p65 DNA binding activities, both in vivo and in vitro. Conclusions These results indicate that andrographolide dose-dependently suppressed the severity of LPS-induced ALI, more likely by virtue of andrographolide-mediated NF-κB inhibition at the level of IKKβ activation. These results suggest andrographolide may be considered as an effective and safe drug for the potential treatment of ALI. PMID:23437127

  4. Recombinant guinea pig CCL5 (RANTES) differentially modulates cytokine production in alveolar and peritoneal macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skwor, Troy A; Cho, Hyosun; Cassidy, Craig; Yoshimura, Teizo; McMurray, David N

    2004-12-01

    The CC chemokine ligand 5 (CCL5; regulated on activation, normal T expressed and secreted) is known to recruit and activate leukocytes; however, its role in altering the responses of host cells to a subsequent encounter with a microbial pathogen has rarely been studied. Recombinant guinea pig (rgp)CCL5 was prepared, and its influence on peritoneal and alveolar macrophage activation was examined by measuring cytokine and chemokine mRNA expression in cells stimulated with rgpCCL5 alone or exposed to rgpCCL5 prior to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation. Levels of mRNA for guinea pig tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin (IL)-1beta, CCL2 (monocyte chemoattractant protein-1), and CXC chemokine ligand 8 (IL-8) were analyzed by reverse transcription followed by real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis using SYBR Green. Bioactive TNF-alpha protein concentration was measured using the L929 bioassay. Both macrophage populations displayed significant enhancement of all the genes and TNF-alpha protein levels when stimulated with rgpCCL5, except for CCL2 in alveolar macrophages. When peritoneal or alveolar macrophages were pretreated with rgpCCL5 for 2 h and then exposed to low concentrations of LPS, diminished cytokine and chemokine mRNA levels were apparent at 6 h compared with LPS alone. At the protein level, there was a reduction in TNF-alpha protein at 6 h in the CCL5-pretreated cells compared with LPS alone. These results further support a role for CCL5 in macrophage activation in addition to chemotactic properties and suggest a role in regulating the inflammatory response to LPS in the guinea pig by modulating the production of proinflammatory cytokines by macrophages.

  5. The role of TREM-2 in internalization and intracellular survival of Brucella abortus in murine macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Pan; Lu, Qiang; Cui, Guimei; Guan, Zhenhong; Yang, Li; Sun, Changjiang; Sun, Wanchun; Peng, Qisheng

    2015-02-15

    Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-2 (TREM-2) is a cell surface receptor primarily expressed on macrophages and dendritic cells. TREM-2 functions as a phagocytic receptor for bacteria as well as an inhibitor of Toll like receptors (TLR) induced inflammatory cytokines. However, the role of TREM-2 in Brucella intracellular growth remains unknown. To investigate whether TREM-2 is involved in Brucella intracellular survival, we chose bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDMs), in which TREM-2 is stably expressed, as cell model. Colony formation Units (CFUs) assay suggests that TREM-2 is involved in the internalization of Brucella abortus (B. abortus) by macrophages, while silencing of TREM-2 decreases intracellular survival of B. abortus. To further study the underlying mechanisms of TREM-2-mediated bacterial intracellular survival, we examined the activation of B. abortus-infected macrophages through determining the kinetics of activation of the three MAPKs, including ERK, JNK and p38, and measuring TNFα production in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Brucella (BrLPS) or B. abortus stimulation. Our data show that TREM-2 deficiency promotes activation of Brucella-infected macrophages. Moreover, our data also demonstrate that macrophage activation promotes killing of Brucella by enhancing nitric oxygen (NO), but not reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, macrophage apoptosis or cellular death. Taken together, these findings provide a novel interpretation of Brucella intracellular growth through inhibition of NO production produced by TREM-2-mediated activated macrophages. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The response of macrophages to titanium particles is determined by macrophage polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajarinen, Jukka; Kouri, Vesa-Petteri; Jämsen, Eemeli; Li, Tian-Fang; Mandelin, Jami; Konttinen, Yrjö T

    2013-11-01

    Aseptic loosening of total joint replacements is driven by the reaction of macrophages to foreign body particles released from the implant. It was hypothesized that the macrophages' response to these particles is dependent, in addition to particle characteristics and contaminating biomolecules, on the state of macrophage polarization as determined by the local cytokine microenvironment. To test this hypothesis we differentiated M1 and M2 macrophages from human peripheral blood monocytes and compared their responses to titanium particles using genome-wide microarray analysis and a multiplex cytokine assay. In comparison to non-activated M0 macrophages, the overall chemotactic and inflammatory responses to titanium particles were greatly enhanced in M1 macrophages and effectively suppressed in M2 macrophages. In addition, the genome-wide approach revealed several novel, potentially osteolytic, particle-induced mediators, and signaling pathway analysis suggested the involvement of toll-like and nod-like receptor signaling in particle recognition. It is concluded that the magnitude of foreign body reaction caused by titanium particles is dependent on the state of macrophage polarization. Thus, by limiting the action of M1 polarizing factors, e.g. bacterial biofilm formation, in peri-implant tissues and promoting M2 macrophage polarization by biomaterial solutions or pharmacologically, it might be possible to restrict wear-particle-induced inflammation and osteolysis. Copyright © 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Induction of different activated phenotypes of mouse peritoneal macrophages grown in different tissue culture media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Tomoya; Koike, Atsushi; Amano, Fumio

    2017-08-01

    The role of activated macrophages in the host defense against pathogens or tumor cells has been investigated extensively. Many researchers have been using various culture media in in vitro experiments using macrophages. We previously reported that J774.1/JA-4 macrophage-like cells showed great differences in their activated macrophage phenotypes, such as production of reactive oxygen, nitric oxide (NO) or cytokines depending on the culture medium used, either F-12 (Ham's F-12 nutrient mixture) or Dulbecco modified Eagle's medium (DMEM). To examine whether a difference in the culture medium would influence the functions of primary macrophages, we used BALB/c mouse peritoneal macrophages in this study. Among the activated macrophage phenotypes, the expression of inducible NO synthase in LPS- and/or IFN-γ-treated peritoneal macrophages showed the most remarkable differences between F-12 and DMEM; i.e., NO production by LPS- and/or IFN-γ-treated cells was far lower in DMEM than in F-12. Similar results were obtained with C57BL mouse peritoneal macrophages. Besides, dilution of F-12 medium with saline resulted in a slight decrease in NO production, whereas that of DMEM with saline resulted in a significant increase, suggesting the possibility that DMEM contained some inhibitory factor(s) for NO production. However, such a difference in NO production was not observed when macrophage-like cell lines were examined. These results suggest that phenotypes of primary macrophages could be changed significantly with respect to host inflammatory responses by the surrounding environment including nutritional factors and that these altered macrophage phenotypes might influence the biological host defense.

  8. Importance of bacterial endotoxin (LPS in endodontics A importância da endotoxina bacteriana (LPS na endodontia atual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Roberto Leonardo

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available New knowledge of the structure and biological activity of endotoxins (LPS has revolutionized concepts concerning their mechanisms of action and forms of inactivation. Since the 1980's, technological advances in microbiological culture and identification have shown that anaerobic microorganisms, especially Gram-negative, predominate in root canals of teeth with pulp necrosis and radiographically visible chronic periapical lesions. Gram-negative bacteria not only have different factors of virulence and generate sub-products that are toxic to apical and periapical tissues, as also contain endotoxin (LPS on their cell wall. This is especially important because endotoxin is released during multiplication or bacterial death, causing a series of biological effects that lead to an inflammatory reaction and resorption of mineralized tissues. Thus, due to the role of endotoxin in the pathogenesis of periapical lesions, we reviewed the literature concerning the biological activity of endotoxin and the relevance of its inactivation during treatment of teeth with pulp necrosis and chronic periapical lesion.O conhecimento mais aprofundado sobre a estrutura e atividade biológica das endotoxinas (LPS revolucionou os conceitos sobre seu mecanismo de ação e formas de inativação. A partir da década de 80, os avanços tecnológicos na cultura e identificação microbiológica demonstraram que, em canais radiculares de dentes portadores de necrose pulpar e lesão periapical crônica, visível radiograficamente, predominam microrganismos anaeróbios, particularmente os gram-negativos. Como se sabe, os microrganismos gram-negativos, além de possuírem diferentes fatores de virulência e gerarem produtos e sub-produtos tóxicos aos tecidos apicais e periapicais, contêm endotoxina em sua parede celular. Esse conhecimento é particularmente importante, uma vez que a endotoxina é liberada durante a multiplicação ou morte bacteriana, exercendo uma série de

  9. An Anacardiaceae preparation reduces the expression of inflammation-related genes in murine macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiro, J; García, D; Arranz, J A; Delgado, R; Sanmartín, M L; Orallo, F

    2004-08-01

    This study investigated the effects of an aqueous extract of the stem bark of Mangifera indica L. (Anacardiaceae; Vimang), which contains a defined mixture of components including polyphenols (principally mangiferin, MA), triterpenes, phytosteroids, fatty acids and microelements, on expression of inflammation mediators in inflammatory murine macrophages after stimulation in vitro with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma). In vitro treatment with Vimang at 4 microg/ml reduced levels of NOS-2 mRNA and NOS-2, while treatment at 40 microg/ml also reduced levels of COX-2 mRNA, COX-2, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Results suggested that MA is involved in these effects. In vitro treatment with Vimang at 40 microg/ml also inhibited mRNA levels of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin 1beta (IL-1beta), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), but did not affect mRNA levels of IL-6 or tumor growth factor-beta (TGF-beta). Extracellular release of TNF-alpha by inflammatory macrophages was inhibited by in vitro treatment with Vimang at the same concentrations that showed inhibition of TNF-alpha mRNA levels. The inhibition of TNF-alpha production appears to be at least partially attributable to MA. Vimang at 4 microg/ml decreased mRNA levels of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) but did not affect expression of the NF-kappaB inhibitor (IkappaB). These data indicate that the potent anti-inflammatory effects of Vimang are due to selective modulation of the expression of inflammation-related genes, leading to attenuation of macrophage activation.

  10. Prolonged triglyceride storage in macrophages: pHo trumps pO2 and TLR4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Mingfang; Kho, Terry; Munford, Robert S

    2014-08-01

    Lipid-laden macrophages contribute to pathologies as diverse as atherosclerosis and tuberculosis. Three common stimuli are known to promote macrophage lipid storage: low tissue oxygen tension (pO2), low extracellular pH (pHo), and exposure to agonists such as bacterial LPS. Noting that cells responding to low pO2 or agonistic bacterial molecules often decrease pHo by secreting lactic and other carboxylic acids, we studied how pHo influences the stimulation of triacylglycerol (TAG) storage by low pO2 and LPS. We found that TAG retention after incubation for 48-72 h was inversely related to pHo when primary macrophages were cultured in 21% oxygen, 4% oxygen, or with LPS at either oxygen concentration. Maintaining pHo at ~7.4 was sufficient to prevent the increase in prolonged TAG storage induced by either low pO2 or LPS. The strong influence of pHo on TAG retention may explain why lipid-laden macrophages are found in some tissue environments and not in others. It is also possible that other long-term cellular changes currently attributed to low pO2 or bacterial agonists may be promoted, at least in part, by the decrease in pHo that these stimuli induce.

  11. Toll-like receptor 4-positive macrophages protect mice from Pasteurella pneumotropica-induced pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Marcia L.; Mosier, Derek A.; Chapes, Stephen K.

    2003-01-01

    This study investigates Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-positive macrophages in early recognition and clearance of pulmonary bacteria. TLR4 is a trans-membrane receptor that is the primary recognition molecule for lipopolysaccharide of gram-negative bacteria. The TLR4(Lps-del) mouse strains C57BL10/ScN (B10) and STOCK Abb(tm1) TLR4(Lps-del) Slc11a1(s)(B10 x C2D) are susceptible to pulmonary infections and develop pneumonia when naturally or experimentally infected by the opportunistic bacterium Pasteurella pneumotropica. Since these mice have the TLR4(Lps-del) genotype, we hypothesized that reconstitution of mice with TLR4-positive macrophages would provide resistance to this bacterium. A cultured macrophage cell line (C2D macrophages) and bone marrow cells from C2D mice were adoptively transferred to B10 and B10 x C2D mice by intraperitoneal injection. C2D macrophages increased B10 and B10 x C2D mouse resistance to P. pneumotropica. In C2D-recipient mice there was earlier transcription of tumor necrosis factor alpha and chemokines JE and macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2) in the lungs of B10 and B10 x C2D mice, and there was earlier transcription of KC and MIP-1alpha in B10 x C2D mice. In addition, the course of inflammation following experimental Pasteurella challenge was altered in C2D recipients. C2D macrophages also protected B10 x C2D mice, which lack CD4(+) T cells. These data indicate that macrophages are critical for pulmonary immunity and can provide host resistance to P. pneumotropica. This study indicates that TLR4-positive macrophages are important for early recognition and clearance of pulmonary bacterial infections.

  12. The EBI2 signalling pathway plays a role in cellular crosstalk between astrocytes and macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowska, Aleksandra; O'Sullivan, Sinead A; Christen, Isabelle; Zhang, Juan; Sailer, Andreas W; Dev, Kumlesh K

    2016-05-11

    EBI2 is a G protein-coupled receptor activated by oxysterol 7α, 25-dihydroxycholesterol (7α25HC) and regulates T cell-dependant antibody response and B cell migration. We recently found EBI2 is expressed in human astrocytes, regulates intracellular signalling and modulates astrocyte migration. Here, we report that LPS treatment of mouse astrocytes alters mRNA levels of EBI2 and oxysterols suggesting that the EBI2 signalling pathway is sensitive to LPS-mediated immune challenge. We also find that conditioned media obtained from LPS-stimulated mouse astrocytes induces macrophage migration, which is inhibited by the EBI2 antagonist NIBR189. These results demonstrate a role for the EBI2 signalling pathway in astrocytes as a sensor for immune challenge and for communication with innate immune cells such as macrophages.

  13. Research on Protective Effect and Mechanism of Idazoxan on lps Attacked Acute Hepatic Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Junyu; Ying, Shangqi; Kang, Wenyuan; Huang, Wenjuan; Liang, Huaping

    2018-01-01

    Objective: To observe the protection effect of Idazoxan (IDA) on LPS induced acute hepatic injury, and to explore its action mechanism. Methods: 60 adult C57BL/6 mice were divided into a control group (20 mice, intraperitoneal injection of phosphate buffer), a model group (20 mice, intraperitoneal injection of LPS 10 mg/kg) and a agmatine group (20 mice, intraperitoneal injection of LPS 10 mg/kg and agmatine 200 mg/kg) according to random number table method. Blood and liver tissue were collected for preparation of tissue homogenate. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was adopted for detecting tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL- 1β and IL - 6) contents in the serum and liver tissue at 24h after molding. Automatic biochemical analyzer is used for determining alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level at 24h after molding; The liver tissue pathology changes were observed at 24h after molding. Macrophage RAW264.7 cells were stimulated by 10 μg/mL LPS and with or without IDA (100 μmol/L). 2’, 7’-dichlorofluoresce in diacetate (DCFH-DA) was used as a fluorescent probe for detection of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level; qRT - PCR method was used for detecting antioxidant enzymes HO-1 and NQO-1 mRNA expression level at 2h, 4h and 8 h. Results: mice in the model group suffered from depression, curling and food water forbidding at 6h after molding. Mice in the Idazoxan group have obviously better spirit and activity than that of model group. The serum ALT, AST and LDH level of LPS attacked acute hepatic injury mice can be effectively alleviated after Idazoxan treatment. The expression of proinflammatory factor TNF-α and IL-6 in the liver can be reduced. The liver showed obvious pathological changes at 24 h after injection, such as liver cell swelling, necrosis, congestion, inflammatory cell infiltration, etc.; The liver cell injury was prominently alleviated in IDA

  14. Garlic (Allium sativum) stimulates lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor-alpha production from J774A.1 murine macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Jessica; Harfouche, Youssef; De La Cruz, Melissa; Zamora, Martha P; Liu, Yan; Rego, James A; Buckley, Nancy E

    2015-02-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum) is known to have many beneficial attributes such as antimicrobial, antiatherosclerotic, antitumorigenetic, and immunomodulatory properties. In the present study, we investigated the effects of an aqueous garlic extract on macrophage cytokine production by challenging the macrophage J774A.1 cell line with the garlic extract in the absence or presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) under different conditions. The effect of allicin, the major component of crushed garlic, was also investigated. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and reverse transcriptase-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, it was found that garlic and synthetic allicin greatly stimulated tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) production in macrophages treated with LPS. The TNF-α secretion levels peaked earlier and were sustained for a longer time in cells treated with garlic and LPS compared with cells treated with LPS alone. Garlic acted in a time-dependent manner. We suggest that garlic, at least partially via its allicin component, acts downstream from LPS to stimulate macrophage TNF-α secretion. © 2014 The Authors. Phytotherapy Research published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. [DNA hydroxymethylase 10-11 translocation 2 (TET2) inhibits mouse macrophage activation and polarization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bingyi; Huo, Yi; Lin, Zhifeng; Wang, Tao

    2017-09-01

    Objective To study the role of DNA hydroxymethylase 10-11 translocation 2 (TET2) in macrophage activation and polarization. Methods RAW264.7 macrophages were cultured in vitro and stimulated with 100 ng/mL LPS for 0, 1, 2, 4, 6 hours. Real-time quantitative PCR was used to detect TET2 mRNA expression. TET2 expression was knocked down with siRNA and the knock-down efficiency was evaluated by real-time quantitative PCR and Western blotting. Following siRNA transfection for 48 hours, RAW264.7 cells were stimulated by LPS for 4 hours, and then real-time quantitative PCR and ELISA were performed to detect the expressions of interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and IL-12. The M1 polarizing markers TNF-α, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and IL-12, and M2 polarizing markers mannose receptor (MR), arginase 1 (Arg-1) and chitinase 3-like molecule 1 (Ym1) were tested after M1 or M2 induction by LPS/IFN-γ or IL-4. Results TET2 expression increased after LPS treatment in RAW264.7 cells and reached the peak at 2 hours later. The siRNA effectively reduced the expression of TET2. The expressions of IL-6, TNF-α and IL-12 mRNAs increased after TET2 knock-down and LPS stimulation. The expressions of M1 polarization markers and M2 markers were up-regulated by the corresponding stimulations after TET2 knock-down. Conclusion TET2 has the effect of inhibiting LPS-induced macrophage activation and plays an inhibitory role in macrophage M1 and M2 polarization.

  16. Fenoterol inhibits LPS-induced AMPK activation and inflammatory cytokine production through β-arrestin-2 in THP-1 cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Wei; Zhang, Yuan; Xu, Ming; Zhang, You-Yi; He, Bei

    2015-01-01

    The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway is involved in regulating inflammation in several cell lines. We reported that fenoterol, a β 2 -adrenergic receptor (β 2 -AR) agonist, had anti-inflammatory effects in THP-1 cells, a monocytic cell line. Whether the fenoterol anti-inflammatory effect involves the AMPK pathway is unknown. In this study, we explored the mechanism of β 2 -AR stimulation with fenoterol in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory cytokine secretion in THP-1 cells. We studied whether fenoterol and β-arrestin-2 or AMPKα1 subunit knockdown could affect LPS-induced AMPK activation, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation and inflammatory cytokine secretion. LPS-induced AMPK activation and interleukin 1β (IL-1β) release were reduced with fenoterol pretreatment of THP-1 cells. SiRNA knockdown of β-arrestin-2 abolished the fenoterol inhibition of LPS-induced AMPK activation and interleukin 1β (IL-1β) release, thus β-arrestin-2 mediated the anti-inflammatory effects of fenoterol on LPS-treated THP-1 cells. In addition, siRNA knockdown of AMPKα1 significantly attenuated the LPS-induced NF-κB activation and IL-1β release, so AMPKα1 was a key signaling molecule involved in LPS-induced inflammatory cytokine production. These results suggested the β 2 -AR agonist fenoterol inhibited LPS-induced AMPK activation and IL-1β release via β-arrestin-2 in THP-1 cells. The exploration of these mechanisms may help optimize therapeutic agents targeting these pathways in inflammatory diseases. - Highlights: • β 2 -AR agonist fenoterol exerts its protective effect on LPS-treated THP-1 cells. • Fenoterol inhibits LPS-induced AMPK activation and IL-1β production. • β-arrestin2 mediates fenoterol-inhibited AMPK activation and IL-1β release. • AMPKα1 is involved in LPS-induced NF-κB activation and IL-1β production

  17. Fenoterol inhibits LPS-induced AMPK activation and inflammatory cytokine production through β-arrestin-2 in THP-1 cell line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wei [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing (China); Department of Infectious Diseases, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing (China); Zhang, Yuan [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing (China); Xu, Ming; Zhang, You-Yi [Department of Institute of Vascular Medicine and Beijing Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Receptors Research, Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Molecular Biology and Regulatory Peptides, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing (China); He, Bei, E-mail: puh3_hb@bjmu.edu.cn [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing (China)

    2015-06-26

    The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway is involved in regulating inflammation in several cell lines. We reported that fenoterol, a β{sub 2}-adrenergic receptor (β{sub 2}-AR) agonist, had anti-inflammatory effects in THP-1 cells, a monocytic cell line. Whether the fenoterol anti-inflammatory effect involves the AMPK pathway is unknown. In this study, we explored the mechanism of β{sub 2}-AR stimulation with fenoterol in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory cytokine secretion in THP-1 cells. We studied whether fenoterol and β-arrestin-2 or AMPKα1 subunit knockdown could affect LPS-induced AMPK activation, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation and inflammatory cytokine secretion. LPS-induced AMPK activation and interleukin 1β (IL-1β) release were reduced with fenoterol pretreatment of THP-1 cells. SiRNA knockdown of β-arrestin-2 abolished the fenoterol inhibition of LPS-induced AMPK activation and interleukin 1β (IL-1β) release, thus β-arrestin-2 mediated the anti-inflammatory effects of fenoterol on LPS-treated THP-1 cells. In addition, siRNA knockdown of AMPKα1 significantly attenuated the LPS-induced NF-κB activation and IL-1β release, so AMPKα1 was a key signaling molecule involved in LPS-induced inflammatory cytokine production. These results suggested the β{sub 2}-AR agonist fenoterol inhibited LPS-induced AMPK activation and IL-1β release via β-arrestin-2 in THP-1 cells. The exploration of these mechanisms may help optimize therapeutic agents targeting these pathways in inflammatory diseases. - Highlights: • β{sub 2}-AR agonist fenoterol exerts its protective effect on LPS-treated THP-1 cells. • Fenoterol inhibits LPS-induced AMPK activation and IL-1β production. • β-arrestin2 mediates fenoterol-inhibited AMPK activation and IL-1β release. • AMPKα1 is involved in LPS-induced NF-κB activation and IL-1β production.

  18. Fisetin administration improves LPS-induced acute otitis media in mouse in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Chen, Dan; Huang, Yang

    2018-01-01

    Acute otitis media is one of the most common infectious diseases worldwide in spite of the widespread vaccination. The present study was conducted to explore the effects of fisetin on mouse acute otitis media models. The animal models were established by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection into the middle ear of mice via the tympanic membrane. Fisetin was administered to mice for ten days through intragastric administration immediate after LPS application. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining was performed and the pro-inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), IL-6 and VEGF, were measured through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method and RT-qPCR analysis. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway was detected by immunoblotting assays. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated levels were determined through assessment of anti-oxidants, and TXNIP/MAPKs signaling pathways were explored to reveal the possible molecular mechanism for acute otitis media progression and the function of fisetin. Fisetin reduced mucosal thickness caused by LPS. In fisetin-treated animals, pro-inflammatory cytokine release was downregulated accompanied with TLR4/NF-κB inactivation. ROS production was significantly decreased in comparison to the LPS-treated group. The TXNIP/MAPKs signaling pathway was inactivated for fisetin treatment in LPS-induced mice with acute otitis media. The above results indicated that fisetin improved acute otitis media through inflammation and ROS suppression via inactivating TLR4/NF-κB and TXNIP/MAPKs signaling pathways. PMID:29568876

  19. Fisetin administration improves LPS-induced acute otitis media in mouse in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Chen, Dan; Huang, Yang

    2018-07-01

    Acute otitis media is one of the most common infectious diseases worldwide in spite of the widespread vaccination. The present study was conducted to explore the effects of fisetin on mouse acute otitis media models. The animal models were established by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection into the middle ear of mice via the tympanic membrane. Fisetin was administered to mice for ten days through intragastric administration immediate after LPS application. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining was performed and the pro-inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), IL-6 and VEGF, were measured through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method and RT-qPCR analysis. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway was detected by immunoblotting assays. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated levels were determined through assessment of anti-oxidants, and TXNIP/MAPKs signaling pathways were explored to reveal the possible molecular mechanism for acute otitis media progression and the function of fisetin. Fisetin reduced mucosal thickness caused by LPS. In fisetin-treated animals, pro-inflammatory cytokine release was downregulated accompanied with TLR4/NF-κB inactivation. ROS production was significantly decreased in comparison to the LPS-treated group. The TXNIP/MAPKs signaling pathway was inactivated for fisetin treatment in LPS-induced mice with acute otitis media. The above results indicated that fisetin improved acute otitis media through inflammation and ROS suppression via inactivating TLR4/NF-κB and TXNIP/MAPKs signaling pathways.

  20. [The effect of isoflurane on the secretion of TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta from LPS-stimulated human peripheral blood monocytes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, W; Enzan, K; Masaki, Y; Kayaba, M; Suzuki, M

    1995-07-01

    The cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-1 secreted from macrophages/monocytes proved to play important roles in the pathogenesis of endotoxemia, severe pancreatitis and other surgical injuries. However, it is still unclear how inhalational anesthetic agents influence the secretion of these cytokines from macrophages/monocytes. We investigated the effects of isoflurane on TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta secretions from human peripheral blood monocytes stimulated by lipopolysaccharide. TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta secretions increased after LPS stimulation and this increase was inhibited by isoflurane in dose-dependent fashion. The inhibitory action of isoflurane disappeared between 1 and 3 hours after stopping isoflurane inhalation. We concluded that isoflurane could inhibit TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta secretions from peripheral blood monocytes stimulated by LPS in a dose-dependent fashion and that the inhibitory action of isoflurane was reversible.

  1. Riboflavin Reduces Pro-Inflammatory Activation of Adipocyte-Macrophage Co-culture. Potential Application of Vitamin B2 Enrichment for Attenuation of Insulin Resistance and Metabolic Syndrome Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur-Bialy, Agnieszka Irena; Pocheć, Ewa

    2016-12-15

    Due to the progressive increase in the incidence of obese and overweight individuals, cardiometabolic syndrome has become a worldwide pandemic in recent years. Given the immunomodulatory properties of riboflavin, the current study was performed to investigate the potency of riboflavin in reducing obesity-related inflammation, which is the main cause of insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus 2 or arteriosclerosis. We determined whether pretreatment with a low dose of riboflavin (10.4-1000 nM) affected the pro-inflammatory activity of adipocyte-macrophage co-culture (3T3 L1-RAW 264.7) following lipopolysaccharide stimulation (LPS; 100 ng/mL) which mimics obesity-related inflammation. The apoptosis of adipocytes and macrophages as well as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 1beta (IL-1β), monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1), high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGFβ), interleukin 10 (IL-10), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), nitric oxide (NO), matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) expression and release, macrophage migration and adipokines (adiponectin and leptin) were determined. Our results indicated an efficient reduction in pro-inflammatory factors (TNFα, IL-6, MCP-1, HMGB1) upon culture with riboflavin supplementation (500-1000 nM), accompanied by elevation in anti-inflammatory adiponectin and IL-10. Moreover, macrophage migration was reduced by the attenuation of chemotactic MCP-1 release and degradation of the extracellular matrix by MMP-9. In conclusion, riboflavin effectively inhibits the pro-inflammatory activity of adipocyte and macrophage co-cultures, and therefore we can assume that its supplementation may reduce the likelihood of conditions associated with the mild inflammation linked to obesity.

  2. Riboflavin Reduces Pro-Inflammatory Activation of Adipocyte-Macrophage Co-culture. Potential Application of Vitamin B2 Enrichment for Attenuation of Insulin Resistance and Metabolic Syndrome Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Irena Mazur-Bialy

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the progressive increase in the incidence of obese and overweight individuals, cardiometabolic syndrome has become a worldwide pandemic in recent years. Given the immunomodulatory properties of riboflavin, the current study was performed to investigate the potency of riboflavin in reducing obesity-related inflammation, which is the main cause of insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus 2 or arteriosclerosis. We determined whether pretreatment with a low dose of riboflavin (10.4–1000 nM affected the pro-inflammatory activity of adipocyte-macrophage co-culture (3T3 L1-RAW 264.7 following lipopolysaccharide stimulation (LPS; 100 ng/mL which mimics obesity-related inflammation. The apoptosis of adipocytes and macrophages as well as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, interleukin 6 (IL-6, interleukin 1beta (IL-1β, monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1, high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1, transforming growth factor–beta 1 (TGFβ, interleukin 10 (IL-10, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, nitric oxide (NO, matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1 expression and release, macrophage migration and adipokines (adiponectin and leptin were determined. Our results indicated an efficient reduction in pro-inflammatory factors (TNFα, IL-6, MCP-1, HMGB1 upon culture with riboflavin supplementation (500–1000 nM, accompanied by elevation in anti-inflammatory adiponectin and IL-10. Moreover, macrophage migration was reduced by the attenuation of chemotactic MCP-1 release and degradation of the extracellular matrix by MMP-9. In conclusion, riboflavin effectively inhibits the pro-inflammatory activity of adipocyte and macrophage co-cultures, and therefore we can assume that its supplementation may reduce the likelihood of conditions associated with the mild inflammation linked to obesity.

  3. Bioactive Extract from Moringa oleifera Inhibits the Pro-inflammatory Mediators in Lipopolysaccharide Stimulated Macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fard, Masoumeh Tangestani; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Karthivashan, Govindarajan; Adam, Siti Khadijah; Fakurazi, Sharida

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Inflammation is a well-known physiological response to protect the body against infection and restore tissue injury. Nevertheless, the chronic inflammation can trigger various inflammatory associated diseases/disorder. Moringa oleifera is a widely grown plant in most tropical countries and it has been recognized traditionally for several medicinal benefits. Objectives: The objective of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory properties of M. oleifera extract on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) - stimulated macrophages. Materials and Methods: The anti-inflammatory effect of M. oleifera hydroethanolic bioactive leaves extracts was evaluated by assessing the inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) production during Griess reaction and the expression of pro-inflammatory mediators in macrophages. Results: Interestingly, we found that M. oleifera hydroethanolic bioactive leaves extract significantly inhibited the secretion of NO production and other inflammatory markers such as prostaglandin E2, tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-1β. Meanwhile, the bioactive extract has induced the production of IL-10 in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, M. oleifera hydroethanolic bioactive leaves extract effectively suppressed the protein expression of inflammatory markers inducible NO synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B-cells p65 in LPS-induced RAW264.7 macrophages in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusion: These findings support the traditional use of M. oleifera plant as an effective treatment for inflammation associated diseases/disorders. SUMMARY Hydroethanolic extracts of Moringa oleifera effectively inhibit the NO production in LPS induced inflammatory model.M. oleifera crude extracts successfully modulate the production of pro-inflammatory mediators in LPS stimulated macrophages.M. oleifera extracts suppressed the expression of inflammatory mediators in LPS stimulated macrophages. PMID:27013794

  4. Adipocyte fetuin-A contributes to macrophage migration into adipose tissue and polarization of macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Priyajit; Seal, Soma; Mukherjee, Sandip; Kundu, Rakesh; Mukherjee, Sutapa; Ray, Sukanta; Mukhopadhyay, Satinath; Majumdar, Subeer S; Bhattacharya, Samir

    2013-09-27

    Macrophage infiltration into adipose tissue during obesity and their phenotypic conversion from anti-inflammatory M2 to proinflammatory M1 subtype significantly contributes to develop a link between inflammation and insulin resistance; signaling molecule(s) for these events, however, remains poorly understood. We demonstrate here that excess lipid in the adipose tissue environment may trigger one such signal. Adipose tissue from obese diabetic db/db mice, high fat diet-fed mice, and obese diabetic patients showed significantly elevated fetuin-A (FetA) levels in respect to their controls; partially hepatectomized high fat diet mice did not show noticeable alteration, indicating adipose tissue to be the source of this alteration. In adipocytes, fatty acid induces FetA gene and protein expressions, resulting in its copious release. We found that FetA could act as a chemoattractant for macrophages. To simulate lipid-induced inflammatory conditions when proinflammatory adipose tissue and macrophages create a niche of an altered microenvironment, we set up a transculture system of macrophages and adipocytes; the addition of fatty acid to adipocytes released FetA into the medium, which polarized M2 macrophages to M1. This was further confirmed by direct FetA addition to macrophages. Taken together, lipid-induced FetA from adipocytes is an efficient chemokine for macrophage migration and polarization. These findings open a new dimension for understanding obesity-induced inflammation.

  5. Heme oxygenase-1 induction alters chemokine regulation and ameliorates human immunodeficiency virus-type-1 infection in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Zhao-Hua; Kumari, Namita; Nekhai, Sergei; Clouse, Kathleen A.; Wahl, Larry M.; Yamada, Kenneth M.; Dhawan, Subhash

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Lipopolysaccharide stimulation of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) ameliorated HIV-1 infection of primary human macrophages. •The partial protection by HO-1 against HIV infection was associated with induction of chemokines such as MIP1α and MIP1β. •This mechanism explains lipopolysaccharide-stimulated HO-1-mediated inhibition of HIV-1 infection of macrophages. -- Abstract: We have elucidated a putative mechanism for the host resistance against HIV-1 infection of primary human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We show that LPS-activated MDM both inhibited HIV-1 entry into the cells and were refractory to post-entry productive viral replication. LPS-treated cells were virtually negative for mature virions as revealed by transmission electron microscopy. LPS activation of MDM markedly enhanced the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), a potent inducible cytoprotective enzyme. Increased HO-1 expression was accompanied by elevated production of macrophage inflammatory chemokines (MIP1α and MIP1β) by LPS-activated MDM, significantly decreased surface chemokine receptor-5 (CCR-5) expression, and substantially reduced virus replication. Treatment of cells with HO-1 inhibitor SnPP IX (tin protoporphyrin IX) attenuated the LPS-mediated responses, HIV-1 replication and secretion of MIP1α, MIP1β, and LD78β chemokines with little change in surface CCR-5 expression. These results identify a novel role for HO-1 in the modulation of host immune response against HIV infection of MDM

  6. Pure Δ9-tetrahydrocannabivarin and a Cannabis sativa extract with high content in Δ9-tetrahydrocannabivarin inhibit nitrite production in murine peritoneal macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Barbara; Pagano, Ester; Orlando, Pierangelo; Capasso, Raffaele; Cascio, Maria Grazia; Pertwee, Roger; Marzo, Vincenzo Di; Izzo, Angelo A; Borrelli, Francesca

    2016-11-01

    Historical and scientific evidence suggests that Cannabis use has immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects. We have here investigated the effect of the non-psychotropic phytocannabinoid Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV) and of a Cannabis sativa extract with high (64.8%) content in THCV (THCV-BDS) on nitric oxide (NO) production, and on cannabinoid and transient receptor potential (TRP) channel expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated murine peritoneal macrophages. THCV-BDS and THCV exhibited similar affinity in radioligand binding assays for CB 1 and CB 2 receptors, and inhibited, via CB 2 but not CB 1 cannabinoid receptors, nitrite production evoked by LPS in peritoneal macrophages. THCV down-regulated the over-expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and interleukin 1β (IL-1β) proteins induced by LPS. Furthermore, THCV counteracted LPS-induced up-regulation of CB 1 receptors, without affecting the changes in CB 2 , TRPV2 or TRPV4 mRNA expression caused by LPS. Other TRP channels, namely, TRPA1, TRPV1, TRPV3 and TRPM8 were poorly expressed or undetectable in both unstimulated and LPS-challenged macrophages. It is concluded that THCV - via CB 2 receptor activation - inhibits nitrite production in macrophages. The effect of this phytocannabinoid was associated with a down-regulation of CB 1 , but not CB 2 or TRP channel mRNA expression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Macrophage CGI-58 Attenuates Inflammatory Responsiveness via Promotion of PPARγ Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Yang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Comparative gene identification-58 (CGI-58, an adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL coactivator, strongly promotes ATGL-mediated triglyceride (TG catabolism. Beyond its function in promoting lipolysis, other features of CGI-58 have been proposed. Here, we investigated the role of CGI-58 in the regulation of inflammatory responsiveness in macrophages. Methods: Macrophage-specific GCI-58 transgenic mice (TG and wild type mice (WT were fed a high fat diet (HFD, and RAW264.7 cells were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR signaling was detected. The inflammatory responsiveness and mitochondrial function were examined. Results: TG mice showed lower serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines and better mitochondrial function in macrophages compared with WT control. Knockdown of CGI-58 in RAW264.7 cells aggravated LPS-induced inflammation and mitochondrial dysfunction. CGI-58 overexpression and silencing in macrophages induced and inhibited PPARγ expression and activity, respectively. Most importantly, the PPARγ-specific agonist rosiglitazone significantly suppressed inflammation and mitochondrial dysfunction induced by CGI-58 deficiency. Furthermore, knockdown of PPARγ in macrophages significantly dampened the role of CGI-58 in suppression of inflammation and mitochondrial dysfunction. Interestingly, CGI-58 inhibited histone deacetylation and the recruitment of histone deacetylase (HDAC to the PPARγ promoter. Finally, ATGL deficiency did not affect inflammatory responsiveness and PPARγ signaling in macrophages. Conclusion: These results demonstrate that macrophage CGI-58 enhances PPARγ signaling and thus suppresses inflammatory responsiveness and mitochondrial dysfunction.

  8. A novel liposome-based nanocarrier loaded with an LPS-dsRNA cocktail for fish innate immune system stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angels Ruyra

    Full Text Available Development of novel systems of vaccine delivery is a growing demand of the aquaculture industry. Nano- and micro- encapsulation systems are promising tools to achieve efficient vaccines against orphan vaccine fish diseases. In this context, the use of liposomal based-nanocarriers has been poorly explored in fish; although liposomal nanocarriers have successfully been used in other species. Here, we report a new ∼125 nm-in-diameter unilamellar liposome-encapsulated immunostimulant cocktail containing crude lipopolysaccharide (LPS from E. coli and polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid [poly (I:C], a synthetic analog of dsRNA virus, aiming to be used as a non-specific vaccine nanocarrier in different fish species. This liposomal carrier showed high encapsulation efficiencies and low toxicity not only in vitro using three different cellular models but also in vivo using zebrafish embryos and larvae. We showed that such liposomal LPS-dsRNA cocktail is able to enter into contact with zebrafish hepatocytes (ZFL cell line and trout macrophage plasma membranes, being preferentially internalized through caveolae-dependent endocytosis, although clathrin-mediated endocytosis in ZFL cells and macropinocytocis in macrophages also contribute to liposome uptake. Importantly, we also demonstrated that this liposomal LPS-dsRNA cocktail elicits a specific pro-inflammatory and anti-viral response in both zebrafish hepatocytes and trout macrophages. The design of a unique delivery system with the ability to stimulate two potent innate immunity pathways virtually present in all fish species represents a completely new approach in fish health.

  9. Macrophages are related to goblet cell hyperplasia and induce MUC5B but not MUC5AC in human bronchus epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Manuel A; Bercik, Premysl

    2012-06-01

    Airway goblet cell hyperplasia (GCH)--detectable by mucin staining--and abnormal macrophage infiltrate are pathological features present in many chronic respiratory disorders. However, it is unknown if both factors are associated. Using in-vivo and in-vitro models, we investigated whether macrophages are related with GCH and changes in mucin immunophenotypes. Lung sections from Sprague-Dawley rats treated for 48 h with one intra-tracheal dose of PBS or LPS (n=4-6 per group) were immunophenotyped for rat-goblet cells, immune, and proliferation markers. Human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) were pre-treated with or without LPS, immunophenotyped, and their supernatant, as well as cytokines at levels equivalent to supernatant were used to challenge primary culture of normal human bronchus epithelial cells (HBEC) in air-liquid interface, followed by MUC5B and MUC5AC mucin immunostaining. An association between increased bronchiolar goblet cells and terminal-bronchiolar proliferative epithelial cells confirmed the presence of GCH in our LPS rat model, which was related with augmented bronchiolar CD68 macrophage infiltration. The in-vitro experiments have shown that MUC5AC phenotype was inhibited when HBEC were challenged with supernatant from MDM pre-treated with or without LPS. In contrast, TNF-α and interleukin-1β at levels equivalent to supernatant from LPS-treated MDM increased MUC5AC. MUC5B was induced by LPS, supernatant from LPS-treated MDM, a mix of cytokines including TNF-α and TNF-α alone at levels present in supernatant from LPS-treated MDM. We demonstrated that macrophages are related with bronchiolar GCH, and that they induced MUC5B and inhibited MUC5AC in HBEC, suggesting a role for them in the pathogenesis of airway MUC5B-related GCH.

  10. SOCS3 Expression Correlates with Severity of Inflammation, Expression of Proinflammatory Cytokines, and Activation of STAT3 and p38 MAPK in LPS-Induced Inflammation In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Antônio Chaves de Souza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available SOCS3 is an inducible endogenous negative regulator of JAK/STAT pathway, which is relevant in inflammatory conditions. We used a model of LPS-induced periodontal disease in rats to correlate SOCS3 expression with the inflammatory status. In vitro we used a murine macrophage cell line to assess the physical interaction between SOCS3 and STAT3 by coimmunoprecipitation. 30 ug of LPS from Escherichia coli were injected in the gingival tissues on the palatal aspect of first molars of the animals 3x/week for up to 4 weeks. Control animals were injected with the vehicle (PBS. The rats were sacrificed at 7, 15, and 30 days. Inflammation and gene expression were assessed by stereometric analysis, immunohistochemistry, RT-qPCR, and western blot. LPS injections increased inflammation, paralleled by an upregulation of SOCS3, of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α and increased phosphorylation of STAT3 and p38 MAPK. SOCS3 expression accompanied the severity of inflammation and the expression of proinflammatory cytokines, as well as the activation status of STAT3 and p38 MAPK. LPS stimulation in a macrophage cell line in vitro induced transient STAT3 activation, which was inversely correlated with a dynamic physical interaction with SOCS3, suggesting that this may be a mechanism for SOCS3 regulatory function.

  11. Aqueous Extract of Oldenlandia diffusa Suppresses LPS-Induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... potential transcriptional factor for regulating the expression of iNOS, COX-2 and TNF-α. As expected, AEOD suppressed the LPS-induced degradation and phosphorylation of IκBα and sustained the expression of p65 in the cytosol. Furthermore, AEOD substantially inhibited the LPS-induced DNA binding activity of NF-κB.

  12. Effect of azithromycin on Prevotella intermedia lipopolysaccharide-induced production of interleukin-6 in murine macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eun-Young; Jin, Ji-Young; Choi, Jeom-Il; Choi, In Soon; Kim, Sung-Jo

    2014-04-15

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a key proinflammatory cytokine which plays a central role in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease. Host modulatory agents targeting at inhibiting IL-6, therefore, appear to be beneficial in slowing the progression of periodontal disease and potentially reducing destructive aspects of the host response. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of the macrolide antibiotic azithromycin on IL-6 generation in murine macrophages treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Prevotella intermedia, a pathogen implicated in inflammatory periodontal disease, and its mechanisms of action. Azithromycin significantly suppressed IL-6 production as well as its mRNA expression in P. intermedia LPS-activated RAW264.7 cells. LPS-induced activation of JNK and p38 was not affected by azithromycin treatment. Azithromycin failed to prevent P. intermedia LPS from degrading IκB-α. Instead, azithromycin significantly diminished nuclear translocation and DNA binding activity of NF-κB p50 subunit induced with LPS. Azithromycin inhibited P. intermedia LPS-induced STAT1 and STAT3 phosphorylation. In addition, azithromycin up-regulated the mRNA level of SOCS1 in cells treated with LPS. In conclusion, azithromycin significantly attenuated P. intermedia LPS-induced production of IL-6 in murine macrophages via inhibition of NF-κB, STAT1 and STAT3 activation, which is possibly related to the activation of SOCS1 signaling. Further in vivo studies are required to better evaluate the potential of azithromycin in the treatment of periodontal disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. DMPD: Toll receptors, CD14, and macrophage activation and deactivation by LPS. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available File (.html) CSML File (.csml) Open .csml file with CIOPlayer Open .csml file with CIOPlayer - ※CIO Playerのご利用上の注意 Open .csml file with CIO Open .csml file with CIO - ※CIOのご利用上の注意 ...

  14. Oxidized LDL Induces Alternative Macrophage Phenotype through Activation of CD36 and PAFR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Rios

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OxLDL is recognized by macrophage scavenger receptors, including CD36; we have recently found that Platelet-Activating Factor Receptor (PAFR is also involved. Since PAFR in macrophages is associated with suppressor function, we examined the effect of oxLDL on macrophage phenotype. It was found that the presence of oxLDL during macrophage differentiation induced high mRNA levels to IL-10, mannose receptor, PPARγ and arginase-1 and low levels of IL-12 and iNOS. When human THP-1 macrophages were pre-treated with oxLDL then stimulated with LPS, the production of IL-10 and TGF-β significantly increased, whereas that of IL-6 and IL-8 decreased. In murine TG-elicited macrophages, this protocol significantly reduced NO, iNOS and COX2 expression. Thus, oxLDL induced macrophage differentiation and activation towards the alternatively activated M2-phenotype. In murine macrophages, oxLDL induced TGF-β, arginase-1 and IL-10 mRNA expression, which were significantly reduced by pre-treatment with PAFR antagonists (WEB and CV or with antibodies to CD36. The mRNA expression of IL-12, RANTES and CXCL2 were not affected. We showed that this profile of macrophage activation is dependent on the engagement of both CD36 and PAFR. We conclude that oxLDL induces alternative macrophage activation by mechanisms involving CD36 and PAFR.

  15. Dysregulation of Macrophage Activation Profiles by Engineered Nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kodali, Vamsi; Littke, Matthew H.; Tilton, Susan C.; Teeguarden, Justin G.; Shi, Liang; Frevert, Charles W.; Wang, Wei; Pounds, Joel G.; Thrall, Brian D.

    2013-08-27

    Although the potential human health impacts from exposure to engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) are uncertain, past epidemiological studies have established correlations between exposure to ambient air pollution particulates and the incidence of pneumonia and lung infections. Using amorphous silica and superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) as model high production volume ENPs, we examined how macrophage activation by bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or the lung pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae is altered by ENP pretreatment. Neither silica nor SPIO treatment elicited direct cytotoxic or pro-inflammatory effects in bone marrow-derived macrophages. However, pretreatment of macrophages with SPIO caused extensive reprogramming of nearly 500 genes regulated in response to LPS challenge, hallmarked by exaggerated activation of oxidative stress response pathways and suppressed activation of both pro- and anti-inflammatory pathways. Silica pretreatment altered regulation of only 67 genes, but there was strong correlation with gene sets affected by SPIO. Macrophages exposed to SPIO displayed a phenotype suggesting an impaired ability to transition from an M1 to M2-like activation state, characterized by suppressed IL-10 induction, enhanced TNFα production, and diminished phagocytic activity toward S. pneumoniae. Studies in macrophages deficient in scavenger receptor A (SR-A) showed SR-A participates in cell uptake of both the ENPs and S. pneumonia and co-regulates the anti-inflammatory IL-10 pathway. Thus, mechanisms for dysregulation of innate immunity exist by virtue that common receptor recognition pathways are used by some ENPs and pathogenic bacteria, although the extent of transcriptional reprogramming of macrophage function depends on the physicochemical properties of the ENP after internalization. Our results also illustrate that biological effects of ENPs may be indirectly manifested only after challenging normal cell function. Finally, nanotoxicology screening

  16. Effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS and peptidoglycan (PGN on human mast cell numbers, cytokine production, and protease composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Yalin

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human mast cell (HuMC maturation occurs in tissues interfacing with the external environment, exposing both mast cell progenitors and mature mast cells, to bacteria and their products. It is unknown, however, whether long- or short-term exposure to bacteria-derived toll-like receptor (TLR ligands, such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS or peptidoglycan (PGN, influences HuMC biology. Results Over 6 wks of culture, LPS had minimal effect on HuMC numbers but increased CD117, tryptase and chymase expression. PGN inhibited HuMC development. For mature mast cells, LPS in the presence of rhSCF (10 ng/ml increased CD117, tryptase, chymase and carboxypeptidase expression, primarily in CD117low HuMC. LPS decreased FcεRI expression and β-hexosaminidase release; but had no effect on LTC4 and PGD2 production. PGN reduced HuMC numbers; and CD117 and tryptase expression. IL-1β and IL-6 (in addition to IL-8 and IL-12 were detected in short-term culture supernatants of LPS treated cells, and reproduced the increases in CD117, tryptase, chymase, and carboxypeptidase expression observed in the presence of LPS. Comparative studies with mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells from wild type, but not TLR4 knockout mice, showed increases in mRNA of mouse mast cell chymases MMCP-1, MMCP-2 and MMCP-4. Conclusion PGN inhibits HuMC growth, while LPS exerts its primary effects on mature HuMC by altering cytokine production and protease composition, particularly at low concentrations of SCF. These data demonstrate the ability of bacterial products to alter HuMC mediator production, granular content, and number which may be particularly relevant at mucosal sites where HuMC are exposed to these products.

  17. Pleurotus giganteus (Berk. Karun & Hyde), the giant oyster mushroom inhibits NO production in LPS/H2O2 stimulated RAW 264.7 cells via STAT 3 and COX-2 pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskaran, Asweni; Chua, Kek Heng; Sabaratnam, Vikineswary; Ravishankar Ram, Mani; Kuppusamy, Umah Rani

    2017-01-13

    Pleurotus giganteus (Berk. Karunarathna and K.D. Hyde), has been used as a culinary mushroom and is known to have medicinal properties but its potential as an anti-inflammatory agent to mitigate inflammation triggered diseases is untapped. In this study, the molecular mechanism underlying the protective effect of ethanol extract of P. giganteus (EPG) against lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and combination of LPS and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 )-induced inflammation on RAW 264.7 macrophages was investigated. The effect of EPG on nitric oxide (NO) production as an indicator of inflammation in RAW 264.7 macrophages was estimated based on Griess reaction that measures nitrite level. The expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), NF-kB activating protein (NKAP), signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 protein (STAT 3) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) genes were assessed using real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) approach. EPG (10 μg/ml) showed the highest reduction in the LPS-induced NO production in RAW 264.7 macrophages and significantly suppressed (p < 0.05) the expression iNOS, STAT 3 and COX-2. There was a significant increase (p < 0.05) in combination of LPS and H 2 O 2 - induced iNOS production when compared to the LPS-induced iNOS production in RAW 264.7 macrophages and this concurred with the NO production which was attenuated by EPG at 10 μg/ml. A significant (p < 0.05) down regulation was observed in the combination of LPS and H 2 O 2 -induced iNOS and GPx expression by EPG. Our data suggest that the anti-inflammatory activity of EPG is mediated via the suppression of the STAT 3 and COX-2 pathways and can serve as potential endogenous antioxidant stimulant.

  18. Vpx complementation of 'non-macrophage tropic' R5 viruses reveals robust entry of infectious HIV-1 cores into macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlcochova, Petra; Watters, Sarah A; Towers, Greg J; Noursadeghi, Mahdad; Gupta, Ravindra K

    2014-03-21

    It is now known that clinically derived viruses are most commonly R5 tropic with very low infectivity in macrophages. As these viruses utilize CD4 inefficiently, defective entry has been assumed to be the dominant restriction. The implication is that macrophages are not an important reservoir for the majority of circulating viruses. Macrophage infection by clinical transmitted/founder isolates was 10-100 and 30-450 fold less efficient as compared to YU-2 and BaL respectively. Vpx complementation augmented macrophage infection by non-macrophage tropic viruses to the level of infectivity observed for YU-2 in the absence of Vpx. Augmentation was evident even when Vpx was provided 24 hours post-infection. The entry defect was measured as 2.5-5 fold, with a further 3.5-10 fold block at strong stop and subsequent stages of reverse transcription as compared to YU-2. The overall block to infection was critically dependent on the mechanism of entry as demonstrated by rescue of infection after pseudotyping with VSV-G envelope. Reverse transcription in macrophages could not be enhanced using a panel of cytokines or lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Although the predominant block to clinical transmitted/founder viruses is post-entry, infectivity is determined by Env-CD4 interactions and can be rescued with VSV-G pseudotyping. This suggests a functional link between the optimal entry pathway taken by macrophage tropic viruses and downstream events required for reverse transcription. Consistent with a predominantly post-entry block, replication of R5 using viruses can be greatly enhanced by Vpx. We conclude therefore that entry is not the limiting step and that macrophages represent clinically relevant reservoirs for 'non-macrophage tropic' viruses.

  19. Metformin reduces the endotoxin-induced down-regulation of apolipoprotein E gene expression in macrophages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stavri, Simona; Trusca, Violeta G.; Simionescu, Maya; Gafencu, Anca V., E-mail: anca.gafencu@icbp.ro

    2015-05-29

    The atheroprotective role of macrophage-derived apolipoprotein E (apoE) is well known. Our previous reports demonstrated that inflammatory stress down-regulates apoE expression in macrophages, aggravating atherogenesis. Metformin, extensively used as an anti-diabetic drug, has also anti-inflammatory properties, and thus confers vascular protection. In this study, we questioned whether metformin could have an effect on apoE expression in macrophages in normal conditions or under lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced stress. The results showed that metformin slightly increases the apoE expression only at high doses (5–10 mM). Low doses of metformin (1–3 mM) significantly reduce the LPS down-regulatory effect on apoE expression in macrophages. Our experiments demonstrated that LPS-induced NF-κB binds to the macrophage-specific distal regulatory element of apoE gene, namely to the multienhancer 2 (ME.2) and its 5′-deletion fragments. The NF-κB binding on ME.2 and apoE promoter has a down-regulatory effect. In addition, data revealed that metformin impairs NF-κB nuclear translocation, and thus, improves the apoE levels in macrophages under inflammatory stress. The positive effect of metformin in the inflammatory states, its clinical safety and low cost, make this drug a potential adjuvant in the therapeutic strategies for atherosclerosis. - Highlights: • High doses of metformin slightly increase apoE expression in macrophages. • Low doses of metformin up-regulate apoE gene in endotoxin-stressed macrophages. • Metformin reduces the negative effect of LPS on apoE expression by NF-κB inhibition.

  20. Metformin reduces the endotoxin-induced down-regulation of apolipoprotein E gene expression in macrophages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stavri, Simona; Trusca, Violeta G.; Simionescu, Maya; Gafencu, Anca V.

    2015-01-01

    The atheroprotective role of macrophage-derived apolipoprotein E (apoE) is well known. Our previous reports demonstrated that inflammatory stress down-regulates apoE expression in macrophages, aggravating atherogenesis. Metformin, extensively used as an anti-diabetic drug, has also anti-inflammatory properties, and thus confers vascular protection. In this study, we questioned whether metformin could have an effect on apoE expression in macrophages in normal conditions or under lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced stress. The results showed that metformin slightly increases the apoE expression only at high doses (5–10 mM). Low doses of metformin (1–3 mM) significantly reduce the LPS down-regulatory effect on apoE expression in macrophages. Our experiments demonstrated that LPS-induced NF-κB binds to the macrophage-specific distal regulatory element of apoE gene, namely to the multienhancer 2 (ME.2) and its 5′-deletion fragments. The NF-κB binding on ME.2 and apoE promoter has a down-regulatory effect. In addition, data revealed that metformin impairs NF-κB nuclear translocation, and thus, improves the apoE levels in macrophages under inflammatory stress. The positive effect of metformin in the inflammatory states, its clinical safety and low cost, make this drug a potential adjuvant in the therapeutic strategies for atherosclerosis. - Highlights: • High doses of metformin slightly increase apoE expression in macrophages. • Low doses of metformin up-regulate apoE gene in endotoxin-stressed macrophages. • Metformin reduces the negative effect of LPS on apoE expression by NF-κB inhibition

  1. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Citric Acid-Treated Wheat Germ Extract in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hee-Yeong; Choi, Yong-Seok; Lee, Jae-Kang; Lee, Beom-Joon; Kim, Woo-Ki; Kang, Hee

    2017-07-10

    Until recently, fermentation was the only processing used to improve the functionality of wheat germ. The release of 2,6-dimethoxy-1,4-benzoquinone (DMBQ) from hydroquinone glycosides during the fermentation process is considered a marker of quality control. Here, we treated wheat germ extract with citric acid (CWG) to release DMBQ and examined the anti-inflammatory activity of this extract using a lipopolysaccharide-activated macrophage model. Treatment of wheat germ with citric acid resulted in detectable release of DMBQ but reduced total phenolic and total flavonoid contents compared with untreated wheat germ extract (UWG). CWG inhibited secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-12 and the synthesis of cyclooxygenase-2, while UWG only decreased IL-12 production. CWG and UWG induced high levels of anti-inflammatory IL-10 and heme oxygenase-1. CWG specifically inhibited phosphorylation of NF-κB p65 and p38 kinase at 15 min after LPS stimulation. Our study showed that citric acid treatment enhanced the anti-inflammatory activity of wheat germ extract.

  2. The Deep-Sea Polyextremophile Halobacteroides lacunaris TB21 Rough-Type LPS: Structure and Inhibitory Activity towards Toxic LPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lorenzo, Flaviana; Palmigiano, Angelo; Paciello, Ida; Pallach, Mateusz; Garozzo, Domenico; Bernardini, Maria-Lina; La Cono, Violetta; Yakimov, Michail M.; Molinaro, Antonio; Silipo, Alba

    2017-01-01

    The structural characterization of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from extremophiles has important implications in several biomedical and therapeutic applications. The polyextremophile Gram-negative bacterium Halobacteroides lacunaris TB21, isolated from one of the most extreme habitats on our planet, the deep-sea hypersaline anoxic basin Thetis, represents a fascinating microorganism to investigate in terms of its LPS component. Here we report the elucidation of the full structure of the R-type LPS isolated from H. lacunaris TB21 that was attained through a multi-technique approach comprising chemical analyses, NMR spectroscopy, and Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry. Furthermore, cellular immunology studies were executed on the pure R-LPS revealing a very interesting effect on human innate immunity as an inhibitor of the toxic Escherichia coli LPS. PMID:28653982

  3. Anti-Inflammatory Benefits of Antibiotics: Tylvalosin Induces Apoptosis of Porcine Neutrophils and Macrophages, Promotes Efferocytosis, and Inhibits Pro-Inflammatory CXCL-8, IL1α, and LTB4 Production, While Inducing the Release of Pro-Resolving Lipoxin A4 and Resolvin D1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moges, Ruth; De Lamache, Dimitri Desmonts; Sajedy, Saman; Renaux, Bernard S; Hollenberg, Morley D; Muench, Gregory; Abbott, Elizabeth M; Buret, Andre G

    2018-01-01

    Excessive accumulation of neutrophils and their uncontrolled death by necrosis at the site of inflammation exacerbates inflammatory responses and leads to self-amplifying tissue injury and loss of organ function, as exemplified in a variety of respiratory diseases. In homeostasis, neutrophils are inactivated by apoptosis, and non phlogistically removed by neighboring macrophages in a process known as efferocytosis, which promotes the resolution of inflammation. The present study assessed the potential anti-inflammatory and pro-resolution benefits of tylvalosin, a recently developed broad-spectrum veterinary macrolide derived from tylosin. Recent findings indicate that tylvalosin may modulate inflammation by suppressing NF-κB activation. Neutrophils and monocyte-derived macrophages were isolated from fresh blood samples obtained from 12- to 22-week-old pigs. Leukocytes exposed to vehicle or to tylvalosin (0.1, 1.0, or 10 µg/mL; 0.096-9.6 µM) were assessed at various time points for apoptosis, necrosis, efferocytosis, and changes in the production of cytokines and lipid mediators. The findings indicate that tylvalosin increases porcine neutrophil and macrophage apoptosis in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, without altering levels of necrosis or reactive oxygen species production. Importantly, tylvalosin increased the release of pro-resolving Lipoxin A 4 (LXA 4 ) and Resolvin D1 (RvD 1 ) while inhibiting the production of pro-inflammatory Leukotriene B4 (LTB 4 ) in Ca 2+ ionophore-stimulated porcine neutrophils. Tylvalosin increased neutrophil phospholipase C activity, an enzyme involved in releasing arachidonic acid from membrane stores. Tylvalosin also inhibited pro-inflammatory chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 8 (CXCL-8, also known as Interleukin-8) and interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1α) protein secretion in bacterial lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages. Together, these data illustrate that tylvalosin has potent immunomodulatory effects in porcine

  4. Anti-Inflammatory Benefits of Antibiotics: Tylvalosin Induces Apoptosis of Porcine Neutrophils and Macrophages, Promotes Efferocytosis, and Inhibits Pro-Inflammatory CXCL-8, IL1α, and LTB4 Production, While Inducing the Release of Pro-Resolving Lipoxin A4 and Resolvin D1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Moges

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Excessive accumulation of neutrophils and their uncontrolled death by necrosis at the site of inflammation exacerbates inflammatory responses and leads to self-amplifying tissue injury and loss of organ function, as exemplified in a variety of respiratory diseases. In homeostasis, neutrophils are inactivated by apoptosis, and non phlogistically removed by neighboring macrophages in a process known as efferocytosis, which promotes the resolution of inflammation. The present study assessed the potential anti-inflammatory and pro-resolution benefits of tylvalosin, a recently developed broad-spectrum veterinary macrolide derived from tylosin. Recent findings indicate that tylvalosin may modulate inflammation by suppressing NF-κB activation. Neutrophils and monocyte-derived macrophages were isolated from fresh blood samples obtained from 12- to 22-week-old pigs. Leukocytes exposed to vehicle or to tylvalosin (0.1, 1.0, or 10 µg/mL; 0.096–9.6 µM were assessed at various time points for apoptosis, necrosis, efferocytosis, and changes in the production of cytokines and lipid mediators. The findings indicate that tylvalosin increases porcine neutrophil and macrophage apoptosis in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, without altering levels of necrosis or reactive oxygen species production. Importantly, tylvalosin increased the release of pro-resolving Lipoxin A4 (LXA4 and Resolvin D1 (RvD1 while inhibiting the production of pro-inflammatory Leukotriene B4 (LTB4 in Ca2+ ionophore-stimulated porcine neutrophils. Tylvalosin increased neutrophil phospholipase C activity, an enzyme involved in releasing arachidonic acid from membrane stores. Tylvalosin also inhibited pro-inflammatory chemokine (C–X–C motif ligand 8 (CXCL-8, also known as Interleukin-8 and interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1α protein secretion in bacterial lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages. Together, these data illustrate that tylvalosin has potent immunomodulatory effects

  5. Eukaryotic elongation factor 2 controls TNF-α translation in LPS-induced hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Terán, Bárbara; Cortés, José R.; Manieri, Elisa; Matesanz, Nuria; Verdugo, ρngeles; Rodríguez, María E.; González-Rodríguez, ρgueda; Valverde, ρngela; Martín, Pilar; Davis, Roger J.; Sabio, Guadalupe

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial LPS (endotoxin) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of acute liver disease through its induction of the proinflammatory cytokine TNF-α. TNF-α is a key determinant of the outcome in a well-established mouse model of acute liver failure during septic shock. One possible mechanism for regulating TNF-α expression is through the control of protein elongation during translation, which would allow rapid cell adaptation to physiological changes. However, the regulation of translational elongation is poorly understood. We found that expression of p38γ/δ MAPK proteins is required for the elongation of nascent TNF-α protein in macrophages. The MKK3/6-p38γ/δ pathway mediated an inhibitory phosphorylation of eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2) kinase, which in turn promoted eEF2 activation (dephosphorylation) and subsequent TNF-α elongation. These results identify a new signaling pathway that regulates TNF-α production in LPS-induced liver damage and suggest potential cell-specific therapeutic targets for liver diseases in which TNF-α production is involved. PMID:23202732

  6. Regulation of macrophage development and function in peripheral tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavin, Yonit; Mortha, Arthur; Rahman, Adeeb; Merad, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    Macrophages are immune cells of haematopoietic origin that provide crucial innate immune defence and have tissue-specific functions in the regulation and maintenance of organ homeostasis. Recent studies of macrophage ontogeny, as well as transcriptional and epigenetic identity, have started to reveal the decisive role of the tissue stroma in the regulation of macrophage function. These findings suggest that most macrophages seed the tissues during embryonic development and functionally specialize in response to cytokines and metabolites that are released by the stroma and drive the expression of unique transcription factors. In this Review, we discuss how recent insights into macrophage ontogeny and macrophage–stroma interactions contribute to our understanding of the crosstalk that shapes macrophage function and the maintenance of organ integrity. PMID:26603899

  7. The Fps/Fes kinase regulates the inflammatory response to endotoxin through down-regulation of TLR4, NF-kappaB activation, and TNF-alpha secretion in macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Sean A; Greer, Peter A

    2006-12-01

    Fps/Fes and Fer are members of a distinct subfamily of cytoplasmic protein tyrosine kinases that have recently been implicated in the regulation of innate immunity. Previous studies showed that mice lacking Fps/Fes are hypersensitive to systemic LPS challenge, and Fer-deficient mice displayed enhanced recruitment of leukocytes in response to local LPS challenge. This study identifies physiological, cellular, and molecular defects that contribute to the hyperinflammatory phenotype in Fps/Fes null mice. Plasma TNF-alpha levels were elevated in LPS challenged Fps/Fes null mice as compared with wild-type mice and cultured Fps/Fes null peritoneal macrophages treated with LPS showed increased TNF-alpha production. Cultured Fps/Fes null macrophages also displayed prolonged LPS-induced degradation of IkappaB-alpha, increased phosphorylation of the p65 subunit of NF-kappaB, and defective TLR4 internalization, compared with wild-type macrophages. Together, these observations provide a likely mechanistic basis for elevated proinflammatory cytokine secretion by Fps/Fes null macrophages and the increased sensitivity of Fps/Fes null mice to endotoxin. We posit that Fps/Fes modulates the innate immune response of macrophages to LPS, in part, by regulating internalization and down-regulation of the TLR4 receptor complex.

  8. Selenium Pretreatment Alleviated LPS-Induced Immunological Stress Via Upregulation of Several Selenoprotein Encoding Genes in Murine RAW264.7 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Longqiong; Jing, Jinzhong; Yan, Hui; Tang, Jiayong; Jia, Gang; Liu, Guangmang; Chen, Xiaoling; Tian, Gang; Cai, Jingyi; Shang, Haiying; Zhao, Hua

    2018-04-18

    This study was conducted to profile selenoprotein encoding genes in mouse RAW264.7 cells upon lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge and integrate their roles into immunological regulation in response to selenium (Se) pretreatment. LPS was used to develop immunological stress in macrophages. Cells were pretreated with different levels of Se (0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 μmol Se/L) for 2 h, followed by LPS (100 ng/mL) stimulation for another 3 h. The mRNA expression of 24 selenoprotein encoding genes and 9 inflammation-related genes were investigated. The results showed that LPS (100 ng/mL) effectively induced immunological stress in RAW264.7 cells with induced inflammation cytokines, IL-6 and TNF-α, mRNA expression, and cellular secretion. LPS increased (P immunological stress in RAW264.7 cells accompanied with the global downregulation of selenoprotein encoding genes and Se pretreatment alleviated immunological stress via upregulation of a subset of selenoprotein encoding genes.

  9. Comparison of Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Flavonoid-Rich Common and Tartary Buckwheat Sprout Extracts in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated RAW 264.7 and Peritoneal Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Gyu Nam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Buckwheat sprouts have been widely consumed all around world due to their great abundance of bioactive compounds. In this study, the anti-inflammatory effects of flavonoid-rich common buckwheat sprout (CBS and tartary buckwheat sprout (TBS extracts were evaluated in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- stimulated RAW 264.7 murine macrophages and primary peritoneal macrophages from male BALB/c mice. Based on the reversed-phase HPLC analysis, the major flavonoids in CBS were determined to be C-glycosylflavones (orientin, isoorientin, vitexin, and isovitexin, quercetin-3-O-robinobioside, and rutin, whereas TBS contained only high amounts of rutin. The TBS extract exhibited higher inhibitory activity as assessed by the production of proinflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide and cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin- (IL- 6, and IL-12 in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages than CBS extract. In addition, TBS extract suppressed nuclear factor-kappa B activation by preventing inhibitor kappa B-alpha degradation and mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Moreover, the TBS extract markedly reduced LPS-induced cytokine production in peritoneal macrophages. Taken together, these findings suggest that TBS extract can be a potential source of anti-inflammatory agents that may influence macrophage-mediated inflammatory disorders.

  10. Purinergic signaling to terminate TLR responses in macrophages

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    Kajal eHamidzadeh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Macrophages undergo profound physiological alterations when they encounter pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs. These alterations can result in the elaboration of cytokines and mediators that promote immune responses and contribute to the clearance of pathogens. These innate immune responses by myeloid cells are transient. The termination of these secretory responses is not due to the dilution of stimuli, but rather to the active down-regulation of innate responses induced by the very PAMPs that initiated them. Here we describe a purinergic autoregulatory program whereby TLR-stimulated macrophages control their activation state. In this program, TLR stimulated macrophages undergo metabolic alterations that result in the production of ATP and its release through membrane pannexin channels. This purine nucleotide is rapidly hydrolyzed to adenosine by ectoenzymes on the macrophage surface, CD39 and CD73. Adenosine then signals through the P1 class of seven transmembrane receptors to induce a regulatory state that is characterized by the down-regulation of inflammatory cytokines and the production of anti-inflammatory cytokines and growth factors. This purinergic autoregulatory system mitigates the collateral damage that would be caused by the prolonged activation of macrophages, and rather allows the macrophage to maintain homeostasis. The transient activation of macrophages can be prolonged by treating macrophages with IFN-γ. IFN-γ treated macrophages become less sensitive to the regulatory effects of adenosine, allowing them to sustain macrophage activation for the duration of an adaptive immune response.

  11. Thalidomide protects mice against LPS-induced shock

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    Moreira A.L.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Thalidomide has been shown to selectively inhibit TNF-a production in vitro by lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated monocytes. TNF-a has been shown to play a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of endotoxic shock. Using a mouse model of LPS-induced shock, we investigated the effects of thalidomide on the production of TNF-a and other cytokines and on animal survival. After injection of 100-350 µg LPS into mice, cytokines including TNF-a, IL-6, IL-10, IL-1ß, GM-CSF and IFN-g were measured in the serum. Administration of 200 mg/kg thalidomide to mice before LPS challenge modified the profile of LPS-induced cytokine secretion. Serum TNF-a levels were reduced by 93%, in a dose-dependent manner, and TNF-a mRNA expression in the spleens of mice was reduced by 70%. Serum IL-6 levels were also inhibited by 50%. Thalidomide induced a two-fold increase in serum IL-10 levels. Thalidomide treatment did not interfere with the production of GM-CSF, IL-1ß or IFN-g. The LD50 of LPS in this model was increased by thalidomide pre-treatment from 150 µg to 300 µg in 72 h. Thus, at otherwise lethal doses of LPS, thalidomide treatment was found to protect animals from death

  12. Heat Stress and Lipopolysaccharide Stimulation of Chicken Macrophage-Like Cell Line Activates Expression of Distinct Sets of Genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Slawinska

    Full Text Available Acute heat stress requires immediate adjustment of the stressed individual to sudden changes of ambient temperatures. Chickens are particularly sensitive to heat stress due to development of insufficient physiological mechanisms to mitigate its effects. One of the symptoms of heat stress is endotoxemia that results from release of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS from the guts. Heat-related cytotoxicity is mitigated by the innate immune system, which is comprised mostly of phagocytic cells such as monocytes and macrophages. The objective of this study was to analyze the molecular responses of the chicken macrophage-like HD11 cell line to combined heat stress and lipopolysaccharide treatment in vitro. The cells were heat-stressed and then allowed a temperature-recovery period, during which the gene expression was investigated. LPS was added to the cells to mimic the heat-stress-related endotoxemia. Semi high-throughput gene expression analysis was used to study a gene panel comprised of heat shock proteins, stress-related genes, signaling molecules and immune response genes. HD11 cell line responded to heat stress with increased mRNA abundance of the HSP25, HSPA2 and HSPH1 chaperones as well as DNAJA4 and DNAJB6 co-chaperones. The anti-apoptotic gene BAG3 was also highly up-regulated, providing evidence that the cells expressed pro-survival processes. The immune response of the HD11 cell line to LPS in the heat stress environment (up-regulation of CCL4, CCL5, IL1B, IL8 and iNOS was higher than in thermoneutral conditions. However, the peak in the transcriptional regulation of the immune genes was after two hours of temperature-recovery. Therefore, we propose the potential influence of the extracellular heat shock proteins not only in mitigating effects of abiotic stress but also in triggering the higher level of the immune responses. Finally, use of correlation networks for the data analysis aided in discovering subtle differences in the gene

  13. Essential oil from leaves of Liquidambar formosana ameliorates inflammatory response in lipopolysaccharide-activated mouse macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Kuo-Feng; Yang, Tzu-Jung; Chiu, Huan-Wen; Ho, Chen-Lung

    2014-06-01

    The essential oil from Liquidambar formosana leaves (EOLF) was demonstrated to exhibit anti-inflammatory activity in mouse macrophages. EOLF reduced nitrite oxide generation, secretion levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6, and expression levels of prointerleukin-beta, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and cyclooxygenase-2 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated mouse macrophages. EOLF also reduced NLRP3 inflammasome-derived interleukin-1beta secretion. The underlying mechanisms for the EOLF-mediated anti-inflammatory activity were (1) reduction of LPS-induced reactive oxygen species generation; (2) reduction of LPS-induced activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and p38 MAP kinase; (3) reduction of LPS-induced nuclear factor-kappaBeta activation. Furthermore, 25 compounds were identified in the EOLF using GC-FID and GC-MS and the major compounds were terpinen-4-ol (32.0%), beta-pinene (18.0%), gamma-terpinene (13.8%), and alpha-terpinene (9.7%). We found that LPS-induced nitrite oxide generation was inhibited significantly by terpinen-4-ol. Our results indicated that EOLF has anti-inflammatory activity and may provide a molecular rationale for future therapeutic interventions in immune modulation.

  14. Inflammation induced mTORC2-Akt-mTORC1 signaling promotes macrophage foam cell formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Dipanjan; Sinha, Archana; Saikia, Sudeshna; Gogoi, Bhaskarjyoti; Rathore, Arvind K; Das, Anindhya Sundar; Pal, Durba; Buragohain, Alak K; Dasgupta, Suman

    2018-06-05

    The transformation of macrophages into lipid loaded foam cells is a critical and early event in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Several recent reports highlighted that induction of TLR4 signaling promotes macrophage foam cell formation; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms have not been clearly elucidated. Here, we found that the TLR4 mediated inflammatory signaling communicated with mTORC2-Akt-mTORC1 metabolic cascade in macrophage and thereby promoting lipid uptake and foam cell formation. Mechanistically, LPS treatment markedly upregulates TLR4 mediated inflammatory pathway which by activating mTORC2 induces Akt phosphorylation at serine 473 and that aggravate mTORC1 dependent scavenger receptors expression and consequent lipid accumulation in THP-1 macrophages. Inhibition of mTORC2 either by silencing Rictor expression or inhibiting its association with mTOR notably prevents LPS induced Akt activation, scavenger receptors expression and macrophage lipid accumulation. Although suppression of mTORC1 expression by genetic knockdown of Raptor did not produce any significant change in Akt S473 phosphorylation, however, incubation with Akt activator in Rictor silenced cells failed to promote scavenger receptors expression and macrophage foam cell formation. Thus, present research explored the signaling pathway involved in inflammation induced macrophage foam cells formation and therefore, targeting this pathway might be useful for preventing macrophage foam cell formation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  15. Ketamine inhibits tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 gene expressions in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages through suppression of toll-like receptor 4-mediated c-Jun N-terminal kinase phosphorylation and activator protein-1 activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, G.-J.; Chen, T.-L.; Ueng, Y.-F.; Chen, R.-M.

    2008-01-01

    Our previous study showed that ketamine, an intravenous anesthetic agent, has anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, we further evaluated the effects of ketamine on the regulation of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interlukin-6 (IL-6) gene expressions and its possible signal-transducing mechanisms in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated macrophages. Exposure of macrophages to 1, 10, and 100 μM ketamine, 100 ng/ml LPS, or a combination of ketamine and LPS for 1, 6, and 24 h was not cytotoxic to macrophages. A concentration of 1000 μM of ketamine alone or in combined treatment with LPS caused significant cell death. Administration of LPS increased cellular TNF-α and IL-6 protein levels in concentration- and time-dependent manners. Meanwhile, treatment with ketamine concentration- and time-dependently alleviated the enhanced effects. LPS induced TNF-α and IL-6 mRNA syntheses. Administration of ketamine at a therapeutic concentration (100 μM) significantly inhibited LPS-induced TNF-α and IL-6 mRNA expressions. Application of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) small interfering (si)RNA into macrophages decreased cellular TLR4 levels. Co-treatment of macrophages with ketamine and TLR4 siRNA decreased the LPS-induced TNF-α and IL-6 productions more than alone administration of TLR4 siRNA. LPS stimulated phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase and translocation of c-Jun and c-Fos from the cytoplasm to nuclei. However, administration of ketamine significantly decreased LPS-induced activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase and translocation of c-Jun and c-Fos. LPS increased the binding of nuclear extracts to activator protein-1 consensus DNA oligonucleotides. Administration of ketamine significantly ameliorated LPS-induced DNA binding activity of activator protein-1. Therefore, a clinically relevant concentration of ketamine can inhibit TNF-α and IL-6 gene expressions in LPS-activated macrophages. The suppressive mechanisms occur through suppression of TLR4-mediated

  16. Effect of quercetin on the production of nitric oxide in murine macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide from Prevotella intermedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yun-Jung; Kim, Sung-Jo

    2013-08-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a short-lived bioactive molecule that is known to play an important role in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease. In the current study, we investigated the effect of the flavonoid quercetin on the production of NO in murine macrophages activated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Prevotella intermedia, a pathogen related to inflammatory periodontal disease, and tried to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of action. LPS was isolated from P. intermedia ATCC 25611 cells by the standard hot phenol-water method. The concentration of NO in cell culture supernatants was determined by measuring the accumulation of nitrite. Inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) protein expression, phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38, inhibitory κB (IκB)-α degradation, and signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) phosphorylation were analyzed via immunoblotting. Quercetin significantly attenuated iNOS-derived NO production in RAW246.7 cells activated by P. intermedia LPS. In addition, quercetin induced HO-1 protein expression in cells activated with P. intermedia LPS. Tin protoporphyrin IX (SnPP), a competitive inhibitor of HO-1, abolished the inhibitory effect of quercetin on LPS-induced NO production. Quercetin did not affect the phosphorylation of JNK and p38 induced by P. intermedia LPS. The degradation of IκB-α induced by P. intermedia LPS was inhibited when the cells were treated with quercetin. Quercetin also inhibited LPS-induced STAT1 signaling. Quercetin significantly inhibits iNOS-derived NO production in murine macrophages activated by P. intermedia LPS via anti-inflammatory HO-1 induction and inhibition of the nuclear factor-κB and STAT1 signaling pathways. Our study suggests that quercetin may contribute to the modulation of host-destructive responses mediated by NO and appears to have potential as a novel therapeutic agent for treating inflammatory periodontal disease.

  17. Effects of protein-energy malnutrition on NF-kappaB signalling in murine peritoneal macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fock, Ricardo Ambrósio; Rogero, Marcelo Macedo; Vinolo, Marco Aurélio Ramirez; Curi, Rui; Borges, Maria Carolina; Borelli, Primavera

    2010-04-01

    Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) is an important public health problem affecting millions of people worldwide. PEM decreases resistance to infection, impairing a number of physiological processes. In unstimulated cells, NF-kappaB is kept from binding to its consensus sequence by the inhibitor I kappaB alpha, which retains NF-kappaB in the cytoplasm. Upon various signals, such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS), I kappaB alpha is rapidly degraded and NF-kappaB is induced to translocate into the nucleus, where it activates expression of various genes that participate in the inflammatory response, including those involved in the synthesis of TNF-alpha. TRAF-6 is a cytoplasmic adapter protein that links the stimulatory signal from Toll like receptor-4 to NF-kappaB. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of malnutrition on induction of TNF-alpha by LPS in murine peritoneal macrophages. We evaluated peritoneal cellularity, the expression of MyD88, TRAF-6, IKK, I kappaB alpha and NF-kappaB, NF-kappaB activation and TNF-alpha mRNA and protein synthesis in macrophages. Two-month-old male BALB/C mice were submitted to PEM with a low-protein diet that contained 2% protein, compared to 12% protein in the control diet. When the experimental group had lost about 20% of the original body weight, it was used in the subsequent experiments. Malnourished animals presented anemia, leucopenia and severe reduction in peritoneal cavity cellularity. TNF-alpha mRNA and protein levels of macrophages stimulated with LPS were significantly lower in malnourished animals. PEM also decreased TRAF-6 expression and NF-kappaB activation after LPS stimulation. These results led us to conclude that PEM changes NF-kB signalling pathway in macrophages to LPS stimulus.

  18. Chondroitin Sulfate Inhibits Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 Release From 3T3-L1 Adipocytes: A New Treatment Opportunity for Obesity-Related Inflammation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas V Stabler

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 overproduction from inflamed adipose tissue is a major contributor to obesity-related metabolic syndromes. 3T3-L1 embryonic fibroblasts were cultured and differentiated into adipocytes using an established protocol. Adipocytes were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS to induce inflammation and thus MCP-1 release. At the same time, varying concentrations of chondroitin sulfate (CS were added in a physiologically relevant range (10-200 µg/mL to determine its impact on MCP-1 release. Chondroitin sulfate, a natural glycosaminoglycan of connective tissue including the cartilage extracellular matrix, was chosen on the basis of our previous studies demonstrating its anti-inflammatory effect on macrophages. Because the main action of MCP-1 is to induce monocyte migration, cultured THP-1 monocytes were used to test whether CS at the highest physiologically relevant concentration could inhibit cell migration induced by human recombinant MCP-1. Chondroitin sulfate (100-200 µg/mL inhibited MCP-1 release from inflamed adipocytes in a dose-dependent manner ( P  < .01, 95% confidence interval [CI]: −5.89 to −3.858 at 100 µg/mL and P  < .001, 95% CI: −6.028 to −3.996 at 200 µg/mL but had no effect on MCP-1–driven chemotaxis of THP-1 monocytes. In summary, CS could be expected to reduce macrophage infiltration into adipose tissue by reduction in adipocyte expression and release of MCP-1 and as such might reduce adipose tissue inflammation in response to pro-inflammatory stimuli such as LPS, now increasingly recognized to be relevant in vivo.

  19. Enteroendocrine L Cells Sense LPS after Gut Barrier Injury to Enhance GLP-1 Secretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorène J. Lebrun

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1 is a hormone released from enteroendocrine L cells. Although first described as a glucoregulatory incretin hormone, GLP-1 also suppresses inflammation and promotes mucosal integrity. Here, we demonstrate that plasma GLP-1 levels are rapidly increased by lipopolysaccharide (LPS administration in mice via a Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4-dependent mechanism. Experimental manipulation of gut barrier integrity after dextran sodium sulfate treatment, or via ischemia/reperfusion experiments in mice, triggered a rapid rise in circulating GLP-1. This phenomenon was detected prior to measurable changes in inflammatory status and plasma cytokine and LPS levels. In human subjects, LPS administration also induced GLP-1 secretion. Furthermore, GLP-1 levels were rapidly increased following the induction of ischemia in the human intestine. These findings expand traditional concepts of enteroendocrine L cell biology to encompass the sensing of inflammatory stimuli and compromised mucosal integrity, linking glucagon-like peptide secretion to gut inflammation. : Lebrun et al. demonstrate that enteroendocrine L cells sense lipopolysaccharides (pro-inflammatory bacterial compounds after gut injury and respond by secreting glucagon-like peptide 1. These findings expand concepts of L cell function to include roles as both a nutrient and pathogen sensor, linking glucagon-like peptide secretion to gut inflammation. Keywords: glucagon-like peptide 1, lipopolysaccharides, enteroendocrine cells, TLR4, gut injury, intestinal ischemia, inflammation

  20. Immunomodulatory activity of andrographolide on macrophage activation and specific antibody response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Wang, Jing; Dong, Sheng-fu; Liu, Chun-hong; Italiani, Paola; Sun, Shu-hui; Xu, Jing; Boraschi, Diana; Ma, Shi-ping; Qu, Di

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the immunomodulatory effects of andrographolide on both innate and adaptive immune responses. Methods: Andrographolide (10 μg/mL in vitro or 1 mg/kg in vivo) was used to modulate LPS-induced classical activated (M1) or IL-4-induced alternative activated (M2) macrophages in vitro and humor immune response to HBsAg in vivo. Cytokine gene expression profile (M1 vs M2) was measured by real-time PCR, IL-12/IL-10 level was detected by ELISA, and surface antigen expression was evaluated by flow cytometry, whereas phosphorylation level of ERK 1/2 and AKT was determined by Western blot. The level of anti-HBs antibodies in HBsAg immunized mice was detected by ELISA, and the number of HBsAg specific IL-4-producing splenocyte was enumerated by ELISPOT. Results: Andrographolide treatment in vitro attenuated either LPS or IL-4 induced macrophage activation, inhibited both M1 and M2 cytokines expression and decreased IL-12/IL-10 ratio (the ratio of M1/M2 polarization). Andrographolide down-regulated the expression of mannose receptor (CD206) in IL-4 induced macrophages and major histocompability complex/costimulatory molecules (MHC I, CD40, CD80, CD86) in LPS-induced macrophages. Correspondingly, anti-HBs antibody production and the number of IL-4-producing splenocytes were reduced by in vivo administration of andrographolide. Reduced phosphorylation levels of ERK1/2 and AKT were observed in macrophages treated with andrographolide. Conclusion: Andrographolide can modulate the innate and adaptive immune responses by regulating macrophage phenotypic polarization and Ag-specific antibody production. MAPK and PI3K signaling pathways may participate in the mechanisms of andrographolide regulating macrophage activation and polarization. PMID:20139902

  1. Divergent responses to peptidoglycans derived from different E. coli serotypes influence inflammatory outcome in trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goetz Frederick

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs are structural components of pathogens such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS and peptidoglycan (PGN from bacterial cell walls. PAMP-recognition by the host results in an induction of defence-related genes and often the generation of an inflammatory response. We evaluated both the transcriptomic and inflammatory response in trout (O. mykiss macrophages in primary cell culture stimulated with DAP-PGN (DAP; meso-diaminopimelic acid, PGN; peptidoglycan from two strains of Escherichia coli (PGN-K12 and PGN-O111:B4 over time. Results Transcript profiling was assessed using function-targeted cDNA microarray hybridisation (n = 36 and results show differential responses to both PGNs that are both time and treatment dependent. Wild type E. coli (K12 generated an increase in transcript number/diversity over time whereas PGN-O111:B4 stimulation resulted in a more specific and intense response. In line with this, Gene Ontology analysis (GO highlights a specific transcriptomic remodelling for PGN-O111:B4 whereas results obtained for PGN-K12 show a high similarity to a generalised inflammatory priming response where multiple functional classes are related to ribosome biogenesis or cellular metabolism. Prostaglandin release was induced by both PGNs and macrophages were significantly more sensitive to PGN-O111:B4 as suggested from microarray data. Conclusion Responses at the level of the transcriptome and the inflammatory outcome (prostaglandin synthesis highlight the different sensitivity of the macrophage to slight differences (serotype in peptidoglycan structure. Such divergent responses are likely to involve differential receptor sensitivity to ligands or indeed different receptor types. Such changes in biological response will likely reflect upon pathogenicity of certain serotypes and the development of disease.

  2. Role for macrophage inflammatory protein-2 in lipopolysaccharide-induced lung injury in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmal, H; Shanley, T P; Jones, M L

    1996-01-01

    Macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) is a C-X-C chemokine that possesses chemotactic activity for neutrophils. Rat MIP-2 was cloned and expressed as a 7.9-kDa peptide that exhibited dose-dependent neutrophil chemotactic activity at concentrations from 10 to 250 nM. Rabbit polyclonal Ab to th...... instillation of LPS was found to be MIP-2-dependent. These data indicate that MIP-2 plays a significant role in LPS-induced inflammatory response in rat lungs and is required for the full recruitment of neutrophils....

  3. IFN-γ priming of macrophages represses a part of the inflammatory program and attenuates neutrophil recruitment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeksema, Marten A.; Scicluna, Brendon P.; Boshuizen, Marieke C. S.; van der Velden, Saskia; Neele, Annette E.; van den Bossche, Jan; Matlung, Hanke L.; van den Berg, Timo K.; Goossens, Pieter; de Winther, Menno P. J.

    2015-01-01

    Macrophages form a heterogeneous population of immune cells, which is critical for both the initiation and resolution of inflammation. They can be skewed to a proinflammatory subtype by the Th1 cytokine IFN-γ and further activated with TLR triggers, such as LPS. In this work, we investigated the

  4. Anti-Neuroinflammatory Effects of Houttuynia cordata Extract on LPS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV-2 microglial cells, and its anti-oxidant properties. ... Keywords: Houttuynia cordata, DPPH radicals, antioxidant, neuroinflammation, BV-2 cells, iNOS, ..... extracts on anaphylactic reaction and mast cell.

  5. Truncated thioredoxin (Trx-80) promotes pro-inflammatory macrophages of the M1 phenotype and enhances atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Dler Faieeq Darweesh; Abderrazak, Amna; Couchie, Dominique; Lunov, Oleg; Diderot, Vimala; Syrovets, Tatiana; Slimane, Mohamed-Naceur; Gosselet, Fabien; Simmet, Thomas; Rouis, Mustapha; El Hadri, Khadija

    2013-07-01

    Vascular cells are particularly susceptible to oxidative stress that is believed to play a key role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disorders. Thioredoxin-1 (Trx-1) is an oxidative stress-limiting protein with anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic properties. In contrast, its truncated form (Trx-80) exerts pro-inflammatory effects. Here we analyzed whether Trx-80 might exert atherogenic effects by promoting macrophage differentiation into the M1 pro-inflammatory phenotype. Trx-80 at 1 µg/ml significantly attenuated the polarization of anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages induced by exposure to either IL-4 at 15 ng/ml or IL-4/IL-13 (10 ng/ml each) in vitro, as evidenced by the expression of the characteristic markers, CD206 and IL-10. By contrast, in LPS-challenged macrophages, Trx-80 significantly potentiated the differentiation into inflammatory M1 macrophages as indicated by the expression of the M1 cytokines, TNF-α and MCP-1. When Trx-80 was administered to hyperlipoproteinemic ApoE2.Ki mice at 30 µg/g body weight (b.w.) challenged either with LPS at 30 µg/30 g (b.w.) or IL-4 at 500 ng/30 g (b.w.), it significantly induced the M1 phenotype but inhibited differentiation of M2 macrophages in thymus and liver. When ApoE2.Ki mice were challenged once weekly with LPS for 5 weeks, they showed severe atherosclerotic lesions enriched with macrophages expressing predominantly M1 over M2 markers. Such effect was potentiated when mice received daily, in addition to LPS, the Trx-80. Moreover, the Trx-80 treatment led to a significantly increased aortic lesion area. The ability of Trx-80 to promote differentiation of macrophages into the classical proinflammatory phenotype may explain its atherogenic effects in cardiovascular diseases. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Inhibition of LPS binding to MD-2 co-receptor for suppressing TLR4-mediated expression of inflammatory cytokine by 1-dehydro-10-gingerdione from dietary ginger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sun Hong; Kyeong, Min Sik; Hwang, Yuri; Ryu, Shi Yong; Han, Sang-Bae; Kim, Youngsoo

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► 1-Dehydro-10-gingerdione (1D10G) from ginger inhibits LPS binding to MD-2. ► 1D10G suppresses MyD88- or TRIF-dependent signaling in LPS-activated macrophages. ► 1D10G down-regulates the expression of NF-κB-, AP1- or IRF3-target genes. ► MD-2 is a molecular target in the anti-inflammatory action of 1D10G. -- Abstract: Myeloid differentiation protein 2 (MD-2) is a co-receptor of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) for innate immunity. Here, we delineated a new mechanism of 1-dehydro-10-gingerdione (1D10G), one of pungent isolates from ginger (Zingiber officinale), in the suppression of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced gene expression of inflammatory cytokines. 1D10G inhibited LPS binding to MD-2 with higher affinity than gingerol and shogaol from dietary ginger. Moreover, 1D10G down-regulated TLR4-mediated expression of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) or activating protein 1 (AP1)-target genes such as tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β, as well as those of interferon (IFN) regulatory factor 3 (IRF3)-target IFN-β gene and IFN-γ inducible protein 10 (IP-10) in LPS-activated macrophages. Taken together, MD-2 is a molecular target in the anti-inflammatory action of 1D10G.

  7. Inhibition of LPS binding to MD-2 co-receptor for suppressing TLR4-mediated expression of inflammatory cytokine by 1-dehydro-10-gingerdione from dietary ginger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sun Hong; Kyeong, Min Sik; Hwang, Yuri [College of Pharmacy, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Shi Yong [Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Sang-Bae [College of Pharmacy, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Youngsoo, E-mail: youngsoo@chungbuk.ac.kr [College of Pharmacy, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-23

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 1-Dehydro-10-gingerdione (1D10G) from ginger inhibits LPS binding to MD-2. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 1D10G suppresses MyD88- or TRIF-dependent signaling in LPS-activated macrophages. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 1D10G down-regulates the expression of NF-{kappa}B-, AP1- or IRF3-target genes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MD-2 is a molecular target in the anti-inflammatory action of 1D10G. -- Abstract: Myeloid differentiation protein 2 (MD-2) is a co-receptor of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) for innate immunity. Here, we delineated a new mechanism of 1-dehydro-10-gingerdione (1D10G), one of pungent isolates from ginger (Zingiber officinale), in the suppression of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced gene expression of inflammatory cytokines. 1D10G inhibited LPS binding to MD-2 with higher affinity than gingerol and shogaol from dietary ginger. Moreover, 1D10G down-regulated TLR4-mediated expression of nuclear factor-{kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B) or activating protein 1 (AP1)-target genes such as tumor necrosis factor {alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) and interleukin-1{beta}, as well as those of interferon (IFN) regulatory factor 3 (IRF3)-target IFN-{beta} gene and IFN-{gamma} inducible protein 10 (IP-10) in LPS-activated macrophages. Taken together, MD-2 is a molecular target in the anti-inflammatory action of 1D10G.

  8. Micrometam C Protects against Oxidative Stress in Inflammation Models in Zebrafish and RAW264.7 Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Tang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Micrometam C is a core of novel marine compound isolated from the mangrove associates Micromelum falcatum. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of micrometam C in inflammation models in the transgenic zebrafish line Tg (corola: eGFP and RAW264.7 macrophages. We found that micrometam C significantly suppressed the migration of immune cells in tail-cutting-induced inflammation in transgenic zebrafish and reduced lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS in both zebrafish and macrophages. In addition, micrometam C also restored LPS-induced reduction of endogenous antioxidants, such as catalase (CAT, glutathione (GSH and superoxide dismutase (SOD. The protective effects of micrometam C were in parallel to its inhibition of NADPH oxidase and nuclear factor-kappa-binding (NF-κB activity. Thus, the present results demonstrate that micrometam C protects against LPS-induced inflammation possibly through its antioxidant property.

  9. Lactoferrin Efficiently Counteracts the Inflammation-Induced Changes of the Iron Homeostasis System in Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutone, Antimo; Rosa, Luigi; Lepanto, Maria Stefania; Scotti, Mellani Jinnett; Berlutti, Francesca; Bonaccorsi di Patti, Maria Carmela; Musci, Giovanni; Valenti, Piera

    2017-01-01

    Human lactoferrin (hLf), an 80-kDa multifunctional iron-binding cationic glycoprotein, is constitutively secreted by exocrine glands and by neutrophils during inflammation. hLf is recognized as a key element in the host immune defense system. The in vitro and in vivo experiments are carried out with bovine Lf (bLf), which shares high sequence homology and identical functions with hLf, including anti-inflammatory activity. Here, in "pure" M1 human macrophages, obtained by stimulation with a mixture of 10 pg/ml LPS and 20 ng/ml IFN-γ, as well as in a more heterogeneous macrophage population, challenged with high-dose of LPS (1 µg/ml), the effect of bLf on the expression of the main proteins involved in iron and inflammatory homeostasis, namely ferroportin (Fpn), membrane-bound ceruloplasmin (Cp), cytosolic ferritin (Ftn), transferrin receptor 1, and cytokines has been investigated. The increase of IL-6 and IL-1β cytokines, following the inflammatory treatments, is associated with both upregulation of cytosolic Ftn and downregulation of Fpn, membrane-bound Cp, and transferrin receptor 1. All these changes take part into intracellular iron overload, a very unsafe condition leading in vivo to higher host susceptibility to infections as well as iron deficiency in the blood and anemia of inflammation. It is, therefore, of utmost importance to counteract the persistence of the inflammatory status to rebalance iron levels between tissues/secretions and blood. Moreover, levels of the antiinflammatory cytokine IL-10 were increased in cells treated with high doses of LPS. Conversely, IL-10 decreased when the LPS/IFN-γ mix was used, suggesting that only the inflammation triggered by LPS high doses can switch on an anti-inflammatory response in our macrophagic model. Here, we demonstrate that bLf, when included in the culture medium, significantly reduced IL-6 and IL-1β production and efficiently prevented the changes of Fpn, membrane-bound Cp, cytosolic Ftn, and

  10. Lactoferrin Efficiently Counteracts the Inflammation-Induced Changes of the Iron Homeostasis System in Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antimo Cutone

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Human lactoferrin (hLf, an 80-kDa multifunctional iron-binding cationic glycoprotein, is constitutively secreted by exocrine glands and by neutrophils during inflammation. hLf is recognized as a key element in the host immune defense system. The in vitro and in vivo experiments are carried out with bovine Lf (bLf, which shares high sequence homology and identical functions with hLf, including anti-inflammatory activity. Here, in “pure” M1 human macrophages, obtained by stimulation with a mixture of 10 pg/ml LPS and 20 ng/ml IFN-γ, as well as in a more heterogeneous macrophage population, challenged with high-dose of LPS (1 µg/ml, the effect of bLf on the expression of the main proteins involved in iron and inflammatory homeostasis, namely ferroportin (Fpn, membrane-bound ceruloplasmin (Cp, cytosolic ferritin (Ftn, transferrin receptor 1, and cytokines has been investigated. The increase of IL-6 and IL-1β cytokines, following the inflammatory treatments, is associated with both upregulation of cytosolic Ftn and downregulation of Fpn, membrane-bound Cp, and transferrin receptor 1. All these changes take part into intracellular iron overload, a very unsafe condition leading in vivo to higher host susceptibility to infections as well as iron deficiency in the blood and anemia of inflammation. It is, therefore, of utmost importance to counteract the persistence of the inflammatory status to rebalance iron levels between tissues/secretions and blood. Moreover, levels of the antiinflammatory cytokine IL-10 were increased in cells treated with high doses of LPS. Conversely, IL-10 decreased when the LPS/IFN-γ mix was used, suggesting that only the inflammation triggered by LPS high doses can switch on an anti-inflammatory response in our macrophagic model. Here, we demonstrate that bLf, when included in the culture medium, significantly reduced IL-6 and IL-1β production and efficiently prevented the changes of Fpn, membrane-bound Cp

  11. Moracin C, A Phenolic Compound Isolated from Artocarpus heterophyllus, Suppresses Lipopolysaccharide-Activated Inflammatory Responses in Murine Raw264.7 Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Yao

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Artocarpus heterophyllus, a popular tropical fruit commonly known as the jackfruit tree, is normally planted in subtropical or tropical areas. Since a variety of phytochemicals isolated from A. heterophyllus have been found to possess potently anti-inflammatory, antiviral and antimalarial activities, researchers have devoted much interest to its potential pharmaceutical value. However, the exact mechanism underlying its anti-inflammatory activity is not well characterized. In this study, seven natural products isolated from A. heterophyllus, including 25-Hydroxycycloart-23-en-3-one (HY, Artocarpin (AR, Dadahol A (DA, Morachalcone A (MA, Artoheterophyllin B (AB, Cycloheterophyllin (CY and Moracin C (MC were collected. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated inflammatory response in RAW264.7 macrophages were used in this study. Among these compounds, MC significantly inhibited LPS-activated reactive oxygen species (ROS and nitric oxide (NO release without marked cytotoxicity. Furthermore, MC effectively reduced LPS stimulated up-regulation of mRNA and protein expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2, and serval pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1β (IL-1β, interleukin-6 (IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α. Mechanistic studies revealed that the anti-inflammatory effect of MC was associated with the activation of the mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs (including p38, ERK and JNK and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB pathways, especially reducing the nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 subunit as revealed by nuclear separation experiment and confocal microscopy.

  12. Clonorchis sinensis antigens alter hepatic macrophage polarization in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun-Min; Kwak, You Shine; Yi, Myung-Hee; Kim, Ju Yeong; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Yong, Tai-Soon

    2017-05-01

    Clonorchis sinensis infection elicits hepatic inflammation, which can lead to cholangitis, periductal hepatic fibrosis, liver cirrhosis, and even cholangiocarcinoma. Hepatic macrophages are an intrinsic element of both innate and acquired immunity. This study was conducted to demonstrate the dynamics of hepatic macrophage polarization during C. sinensis infection in mice and to identify factors regulating this polarization. Treatment of hepatic macrophages isolated from normal mice with C. sinensis excretory/secretory products (ESPs) resulted in the preferential generation of classically activated hepatic macrophages (M1 macrophages) and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Additionally, cells stimulated with C. sinensis ESPs exhibited changes in cellular morphology. During the early stages of C. sinensis infection, hepatic macrophages preferentially differentiated into M1 macrophages; however, during the C. sinensis mature worm stage, when eggs are released, there were significant increases in the abundance of both M1 macrophages and alternatively activated hepatic macrophages (M2 macrophages). Moreover, there was a further increase in the M2 macrophage count during the fibrotic and cirrhotic stage of infection. Notably, this fibrotic and cirrhotic stage promoted a strong increase in the proportion of Arg-1-producing macrophages (M2 phenotype), which were associated with fibrosis and tissue repair in the liver. Our results suggest that the dynamic polarization of hepatic macrophages as C. sinensis infection progresses is related to the histological lesions present in liver tissue. Hepatic macrophages thus play an important role in local immunity during C. sinensis infection.

  13. Clonorchis sinensis antigens alter hepatic macrophage polarization in vitro and in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Min Kim

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Clonorchis sinensis infection elicits hepatic inflammation, which can lead to cholangitis, periductal hepatic fibrosis, liver cirrhosis, and even cholangiocarcinoma. Hepatic macrophages are an intrinsic element of both innate and acquired immunity. This study was conducted to demonstrate the dynamics of hepatic macrophage polarization during C. sinensis infection in mice and to identify factors regulating this polarization. Treatment of hepatic macrophages isolated from normal mice with C. sinensis excretory/secretory products (ESPs resulted in the preferential generation of classically activated hepatic macrophages (M1 macrophages and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Additionally, cells stimulated with C. sinensis ESPs exhibited changes in cellular morphology. During the early stages of C. sinensis infection, hepatic macrophages preferentially differentiated into M1 macrophages; however, during the C. sinensis mature worm stage, when eggs are released, there were significant increases in the abundance of both M1 macrophages and alternatively activated hepatic macrophages (M2 macrophages. Moreover, there was a further increase in the M2 macrophage count during the fibrotic and cirrhotic stage of infection. Notably, this fibrotic and cirrhotic stage promoted a strong increase in the proportion of Arg-1-producing macrophages (M2 phenotype, which were associated with fibrosis and tissue repair in the liver. Our results suggest that the dynamic polarization of hepatic macrophages as C. sinensis infection progresses is related to the histological lesions present in liver tissue. Hepatic macrophages thus play an important role in local immunity during C. sinensis infection.

  14. TNF{alpha} and IL-1{beta} are mediated by both TLR4 and Nod1 pathways in the cultured HAPI cells stimulated by LPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Wenwen; Zheng, Xuexing [College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Jilin University, Changchun 130062, Jilin Province (China); Department of Anesthesiology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL 33136 (United States); Liu, Shue [Department of Anesthesiology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL 33136 (United States); Ouyang, Hongsheng [College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Jilin University, Changchun 130062, Jilin Province (China); Levitt, Roy C.; Candiotti, Keith A. [Department of Anesthesiology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL 33136 (United States); Hao, Shuanglin, E-mail: shao@med.miami.edu [Department of Anesthesiology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL 33136 (United States)

    2012-04-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LPS induces proinflammatory cytokine release in HAPI cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer JNK pathway is dependent on TLR4 signaling to release cytokines. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NF-{kappa}B pathway is dependent on Nod1 signaling to release cytokines. -- Abstract: A growing body of evidence recently suggests that glial cell activation plays an important role in several neurodegenerative diseases and neuropathic pain. Microglia in the central nervous system express toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) that is traditionally accepted as the primary receptor of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). LPS activates TLR4 signaling pathways to induce the production of proinflammatory molecules. In the present studies, we verified the LPS signaling pathways using cultured highly aggressively proliferating immortalized (HAPI) microglial cells. We found that HAPI cells treated with LPS upregulated the expression of TLR4, phospho-JNK (pJNK) and phospho-NF-{kappa}B (pNF-{kappa}B), TNF{alpha} and IL-1{beta}. Silencing TLR4 with siRNA reduced the expression of pJNK, TNF{alpha} and IL-1{beta}, but not pNF-{kappa}B in the cells. Inhibition of JNK with SP600125 (a JNK inhibitor) decreased the expression of TNF{alpha} and IL-1{beta}. Unexpectedly, we found that inhibition of Nod1 with ML130 significantly reduced the expression of pNF-{kappa}B. Inhibition of NF-{kappa}B also reduced the expression of TNF{alpha} and IL-1{beta}. Nod1 ligand, DAP induced the upregulation of pNF-{kappa}B which was blocked by Nod1 inhibitor. These data indicate that LPS-induced pJNK is TLR4-dependent, and that pNF-{kappa}B is Nod1-dependent in HAPI cells treated with LPS. Either TLR4-JNK or Nod1-NF-{kappa}B pathways is involved in the expression of TNF{alpha} and IL-1{beta}.

  15. Human umbilical cord blood-derived f-macrophages retain pluripotentiality after thrombopoietin expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yong; Mazzone, Theodore

    2005-01-01

    We have previously characterized a new type of stem cell from human peripheral blood, termed fibroblast-like macrophage (f-MΦ). Here, using umbilical cord blood as a source, we identified cells with similar characteristics including expression of surface markers (CD14, CD34, CD45, CD117, and CD163), phagocytosis, and proliferative capacity. Further, thrombopoietin (TPO) significantly stimulated the proliferation of cord blood-derived f-MΦ (CB f-MΦ) at low dosage without inducing a megakaryocytic phenotype. Additional experiments demonstrated that TPO-expanded cord blood-derived f-MΦ (TCB f-MΦ) retained their surface markers and differentiation ability. Treatment with vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF) gave rise to endothelial-like cells, expressing Flt-1, Flk-1, von Willebrand Factor (vWF), CD31, acetylated low density lipoprotein internalization, and the ability to form endothelial-like cell chains. In the presence of lipopolyssacharide (LPS) and 25 mM glucose, the TCB f-MΦ differentiated to express insulin mRNA, C-peptide, and insulin. In vitro functional analysis demonstrated that these insulin-positive cells could release insulin in response to glucose and other secretagogues. These findings demonstrate a potential use of CB f-MΦ and may lead to develop new therapeutic strategy for treating dominant disease

  16. Identification of BCAP-{sub L} as a negative regulator of the TLR signaling-induced production of IL-6 and IL-10 in macrophages by tyrosine phosphoproteomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumura, Takayuki [Consolidated Research Institute for Advanced Science and Medical Care, Waseda University, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-0041 (Japan); Department of Life Science and Medical Bio-Science, Waseda University, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8480 (Japan); Oyama, Masaaki; Kozuka-Hata, Hiroko [Medical Proteomics Laboratory, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8639 (Japan); Ishikawa, Kosuke; Inoue, Takafumi [Consolidated Research Institute for Advanced Science and Medical Care, Waseda University, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-0041 (Japan); Department of Life Science and Medical Bio-Science, Waseda University, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8480 (Japan); Muta, Tatsushi [Laboratory of Cell Recognition and Response, Graduate School of Life Sciences, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Semba, Kentaro, E-mail: ksemba@waseda.jp [Consolidated Research Institute for Advanced Science and Medical Care, Waseda University, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-0041 (Japan); Department of Life Science and Medical Bio-Science, Waseda University, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8480 (Japan); Inoue, Jun-ichiro, E-mail: jun-i@ims.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Medical Proteomics Laboratory, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8639 (Japan); Division of Cellular and Molecular Biology, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8639 (Japan)

    2010-09-17

    Research highlights: {yields} Twenty five tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins in LPS-stimulated macrophages were determined. {yields} BCAP is a novel tyrosine-phosphorylated protein in LPS-stimulated macrophages. {yields} BCAP-{sub L} inhibits IL-6 and IL-10 production in LPS-stimulated macrophages. -- Abstract: Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling in macrophages is essential for anti-pathogen responses such as cytokine production and antigen presentation. Although numerous reports suggest that protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) are involved in cytokine induction in response to lipopolysaccharides (LPS; TLR4 ligand) in macrophages, the PTK-mediated signal transduction pathway has yet to be analyzed in detail. Here, we carried out a comprehensive and quantitative dynamic tyrosine phosphoproteomic analysis on the TLR4-mediated host defense system in RAW264.7 macrophages using stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC). We determined the temporal profiles of 25 proteins based on SILAC-encoded peptide(s). Of these, we focused on the tyrosine phosphorylation of B-cell adaptor for phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (BCAP) because the function of BCAP remains unknown in TLR signaling in macrophages. Furthermore, Bcap has two distinct transcripts, a full-length (Bcap-{sub L}) and an alternatively initiated or spliced (Bcap-{sub S}) mRNA, and little is known about the differential functions of the BCAP-{sub L} and BCAP-{sub S} proteins. Our study showed, for the first time, that RNAi-mediated selective depletion of BCAP-{sub L} enhanced IL-6 and IL-10 production but not TNF-{alpha} production in TLR ligand-stimulated macrophages. We propose that BCAP-{sub L} (but not BCAP-{sub S}) is a negative regulator of the TLR-mediated host defense system in macrophages.

  17. [Macrophages in human semen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouvet, Beatriz Reina; Brufman, Adriana Silvia; Paparella, Cecilia Vicenta; Feldman, Rodolfo Nestor; Gatti, Vanda Nora; Solis, Edita Amalia

    2003-11-01

    To investigate the presence of macrophages in human semen samples and the function they carry out in the seminal fluid. Their presence was studied in relation to spermatic morphology, percentage of spermatozoids with native DNA, and presence of antispermatic antibodies. The work was performed with semen samples from 31 unfertile males from 63 couples in which the "female factor" was ruled out as the cause of infertility. Sperm study according to WHO (1992) was carried out in all samples, in addition to: DNA study with acridine orange as fluorocrom, macrophage concentration by neutral red in a Neubauer camera, and detection of antispermatic antibodies with a mixed agglutination test (TAC II) (validated with Mar Screen-Fertility technologies). Sperm morphology was evaluated by Papanicolaou test. 19/31 selected sperm samples (61.3%) showed increased concentration of macrophages, 13 of them (41.9%) with denaturalized DNA, and 8 (25.8%) abnormal morphology. Six samples showed increased macrophage concentration and predominance of native DNA, whereas 11 samples showed increased macrophages and abnormal morphology. Among 18 (58.1%) samples showing antispermatic antibodies 14 (77.7%) had an increased concentration of macrophages. Statistical analysis resulted in a high correlation between macrophage concentration and increased percentage of spermatozoids with denaturalized DNA (p < 0.05). An increased concentration of macrophages is associated with the presence of antispermatic antibodies (p < 0.05). There was not evidence of significant association between concentration of macrophages and percentage of morphologically normal spermatozoids (p < 0.05). We can conclude that macrophages are present in human semen and participate in immunovigilance contributing to improve the seminal quality.

  18. The in vitro effects of macrophages on the osteogenic capabilities of MC3T3-E1 cells encapsulated in a biomimetic poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Leila S; Carles-Carner, Maria; Bryant, Stephanie J

    2018-04-15

    Poly(ethylene glycol) PEG-based hydrogels are promising for cell encapsulation and tissue engineering, but are known to elicit a foreign body response (FBR) in vivo. The goal of this study was to investigate the impact of the FBR, and specifically the presence of inflammatory macrophages, on encapsulated cells and their ability to synthesize new extracellular matrix. This study employed an in vitro co-culture system with murine macrophages and MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts encapsulated in a bone-mimetic hydrogel, which were cultured in transwell inserts, and exposed to an inflammatory stimulant, lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The co-culture was compared to mono-cultures of the cell-laden hydrogels alone and with LPS over 28 days. Two macrophage cell sources, RAW 264.7 and primary derived, were investigated. The presence of LPS-stimulated primary macrophages led to significant changes in the cell-laden hydrogel by a 5.3-fold increase in percent apoptotic osteoblasts at day 28, 4.2-fold decrease in alkaline phosphatase activity at day 10, and 7-fold decrease in collagen deposition. The presence of LPS-stimulated RAW macrophages led to significant changes in the cell-laden hydrogel by 5-fold decrease in alkaline phosphatase activity at day 10 and 4-fold decrease in collagen deposition. Mineralization, as measured by von Kossa stain or quantified by calcium content, was not sensitive to macrophages or LPS. Elevated interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α secretion were detected in mono-cultures with LPS and co-cultures. Overall, primary macrophages had a more severe inhibitory effect on osteoblast differentiation than the macrophage cell line, with greater apoptosis and collagen I reduction. In summary, this study highlights the detrimental effects of macrophages on encapsulated cells for bone tissue engineering. Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-based hydrogels are promising for cell encapsulation and tissue engineering, but are known to elicit a foreign body response (FBR) in

  19. Progastrin represses the alternative activation of human macrophages and modulates their influence on colon cancer epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Hernández

    Full Text Available Macrophage infiltration is a negative prognostic factor for most cancers but gastrointestinal tumors seem to be an exception. The effect of macrophages on cancer progression depends on their phenotype, which may vary between M1 (pro-inflammatory, defensive to M2 (tolerogenic, pro-tumoral. Gastrointestinal cancers often become an ectopic source of gastrins and macrophages present receptors for these peptides. The aim of the present study is to analyze whether gastrins can affect the pattern of macrophage infiltration in colorectal tumors. We have evaluated the relationship between gastrin expression and the pattern of macrophage infiltration in samples from colorectal cancer and the influence of these peptides on the phenotype of macrophages differentiated from human peripheral monocytes in vitro. The total number of macrophages (CD68+ cells was similar in tumoral and normal surrounding tissue, but the number of M2 macrophages (CD206+ cells was significantly higher in the tumor. However, the number of these tumor-associated M2 macrophages correlated negatively with the immunoreactivity for gastrin peptides in tumor epithelial cells. Macrophages differentiated from human peripheral monocytes in the presence of progastrin showed lower levels of M2-markers (CD206, IL10 with normal amounts of M1-markers (CD86, IL12. Progastrin induced similar effects in mature macrophages treated with IL4 to obtain a M2-phenotype or with LPS plus IFNγ to generate M1-macrophages. Macrophages differentiated in the presence of progastrin presented a reduced expression of Wnt ligands and decreased the number and increased cell death of co-cultured colorectal cancer epithelial cells. Our results suggest that progastrin inhibits the acquisition of a M2-phenotype in human macrophages. This effect exerted on tumor associated macrophages may modulate cancer progression and should be taken into account when analyzing the therapeutic value of gastrin immunoneutralization.

  20. M1 and M2 macrophages derived from THP-1 cells differentially modulate the response of cancer cells to etoposide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genin, Marie; Clement, Francois; Fattaccioli, Antoine; Raes, Martine; Michiels, Carine

    2015-01-01

    Tumor associated macrophages (TAMs) are present in high density in solid tumors. TAMs share many characteristics with alternatively activated macrophages, also called M2. They have been shown to favor tumor development and a role in chemoresistance has also been suggested. Here, we investigated the effects of M2 in comparison to M1 macrophages on cancer cell sensitivity to etoposide. We set up a model of macrophage polarization, starting from THP-1 monocytes differentiated into macrophages using PMA (Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate). Once differentiated (M0 macrophages), they were incubated with IL-4 and IL-13 in order to obtain M2 polarized macrophages or with IFN-gamma and LPS for classical macrophage activation (M1). To mimic the communication between cancer cells and TAMs, M0, M1 or M2 macrophages and HepG2 or A549 cancer cells were co-cultured during respectively 16 (HepG2) or 24 (A549) hours, before etoposide exposure for 24 (HepG2) or 16 (A549) hours. After the incubation, the impact of etoposide on macrophage polarization was studied and cancer cell apoptosis was assessed by western-blot for cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved PARP-1 protein, caspase activity assay and FACS analysis of Annexin V and PI staining. mRNA and protein expression of M1 and M2 markers confirmed the polarization of THP-1-derived macrophages, which provide a new, easy and well-characterized model of polarized human macrophages. Etoposide-induced cancer cell apoptosis was markedly reduced in the presence of THP-1 M2 macrophages, while apoptosis was increased in cells co-cultured with M1 macrophages. On the other hand, etoposide did not influence M1 or M2 polarization. These results evidence for the first time a clear protective effect of M2 on the contrary to M1 macrophages on etoposide-induced cancer cell apoptosis

  1. Enniatin B-induced cell death and inflammatory responses in RAW 267.4 murine macrophages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gammelsrud, A. [Norwegian Veterinary Institute, P.O. Box 750, Centrum, N-0106 Oslo (Norway); Department of Air Pollution and Noise, Division of Environmental Medicine, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, N-0403 Oslo (Norway); Solhaug, A. [Norwegian Veterinary Institute, P.O. Box 750, Centrum, N-0106 Oslo (Norway); Dendelé, B. [EA 4427 SeRAIC, IRSET, Université de Rennes 1, IFR 140, Rennes (France); Sandberg, W.J. [Department of Air Pollution and Noise, Division of Environmental Medicine, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, N-0403 Oslo (Norway); Ivanova, L. [Norwegian Veterinary Institute, P.O. Box 750, Centrum, N-0106 Oslo (Norway); Kocbach Bølling, A. [Department of Air Pollution and Noise, Division of Environmental Medicine, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, N-0403 Oslo (Norway); Lagadic-Gossmann, D. [EA 4427 SeRAIC, IRSET, Université de Rennes 1, IFR 140, Rennes (France); Refsnes, M.; Becher, R. [Department of Air Pollution and Noise, Division of Environmental Medicine, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, N-0403 Oslo (Norway); Eriksen, G. [Norwegian Veterinary Institute, P.O. Box 750, Centrum, N-0106 Oslo (Norway); Holme, J.A., E-mail: jorn.holme@fhi.no [Department of Air Pollution and Noise, Division of Environmental Medicine, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, N-0403 Oslo (Norway)

    2012-05-15

    The mycotoxin enniatin B (EnnB) is predominantly produced by species of the Fusarium genera, and often found in grain. The cytotoxic effect of EnnB has been suggested to be related to its ability to form ionophores in cell membranes. The present study examines the effects of EnnB on cell death, differentiation, proliferation and pro-inflammatory responses in the murine monocyte–macrophage cell line RAW 264.7. Exposure to EnnB for 24 h caused an accumulation of cells in the G0/G1-phase with a corresponding decrease in cyclin D1. This cell cycle-arrest was possibly also linked to the reduced cellular ability to capture and internalize receptors as illustrated by the lipid marker ganglioside GM1. EnnB also increased the number of apoptotic, early apoptotic and necrotic cells, as well as cells with elongated spindle-like morphology. The Neutral Red assay indicated that EnnB induced lysosomal damage; supported by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showing accumulation of lipids inside the lysosomes forming lamellar structures/myelin bodies. Enhanced levels of activated caspase-1 were observed after EnnB exposure and the caspase-1 specific inhibitor ZYVAD-FMK reduced EnnB-induced apoptosis. Moreover, EnnB increased the release of interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) in cells primed with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and this response was reduced by both ZYVAD-FMK and the cathepsin B inhibitor CA-074Me. In conclusion, EnnB was found to induce cell cycle arrest, cell death and inflammation. Caspase-1 appeared to be involved in the apoptosis and release of IL-1β and possibly activation of the inflammasome through lysosomal damage and leakage of cathepsin B. -- Highlights: ► The mycotoxin EnnB induced cell cycle arrest, cell death and inflammation. ► The G0/G1-arrest was linked to a reduced ability to internalize receptors. ► EnnB caused lysosomal damage, leakage of cathepsin B and caspase-1 cleavage. ► Caspase-1 was partly involved in both apoptosis and release of IL-1

  2. Enniatin B-induced cell death and inflammatory responses in RAW 267.4 murine macrophages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gammelsrud, A.; Solhaug, A.; Dendelé, B.; Sandberg, W.J.; Ivanova, L.; Kocbach Bølling, A.; Lagadic-Gossmann, D.; Refsnes, M.; Becher, R.; Eriksen, G.; Holme, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    The mycotoxin enniatin B (EnnB) is predominantly produced by species of the Fusarium genera, and often found in grain. The cytotoxic effect of EnnB has been suggested to be related to its ability to form ionophores in cell membranes. The present study examines the effects of EnnB on cell death, differentiation, proliferation and pro-inflammatory responses in the murine monocyte–macrophage cell line RAW 264.7. Exposure to EnnB for 24 h caused an accumulation of cells in the G0/G1-phase with a corresponding decrease in cyclin D1. This cell cycle-arrest was possibly also linked to the reduced cellular ability to capture and internalize receptors as illustrated by the lipid marker ganglioside GM1. EnnB also increased the number of apoptotic, early apoptotic and necrotic cells, as well as cells with elongated spindle-like morphology. The Neutral Red assay indicated that EnnB induced lysosomal damage; supported by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showing accumulation of lipids inside the lysosomes forming lamellar structures/myelin bodies. Enhanced levels of activated caspase-1 were observed after EnnB exposure and the caspase-1 specific inhibitor ZYVAD-FMK reduced EnnB-induced apoptosis. Moreover, EnnB increased the release of interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) in cells primed with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and this response was reduced by both ZYVAD-FMK and the cathepsin B inhibitor CA-074Me. In conclusion, EnnB was found to induce cell cycle arrest, cell death and inflammation. Caspase-1 appeared to be involved in the apoptosis and release of IL-1β and possibly activation of the inflammasome through lysosomal damage and leakage of cathepsin B. -- Highlights: ► The mycotoxin EnnB induced cell cycle arrest, cell death and inflammation. ► The G0/G1-arrest was linked to a reduced ability to internalize receptors. ► EnnB caused lysosomal damage, leakage of cathepsin B and caspase-1 cleavage. ► Caspase-1 was partly involved in both apoptosis and release of IL-1

  3. Assessment of Antibody-based Drugs Effects on Murine Bone Marrow and Peritoneal Macrophage Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozicky, Lisa; Sly, Laura M

    2017-12-26

    Macrophages are phagocytic innate immune cells, which initiate immune responses to pathogens and contribute to healing and tissue restitution. Macrophages are equally important in turning off inflammatory responses. We have shown that macrophages stimulated with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) can produce high amounts of the anti-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin 10 (IL-10), and low levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in response to bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS). IVIg is a polyvalent antibody, primarily immunoglobulin Gs (IgGs), pooled from the plasma of more than 1,000 blood donors. It is used to supplement antibodies in patients with immune deficiencies or to suppress immune responses in patients with autoimmune or inflammatory conditions. Infliximab, a therapeutic anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) antibody, has also been shown to activate macrophages to produce IL-10 in response to inflammatory stimuli. IVIg and other antibody-based biologics can be tested to determine their effects on macrophage activation. This paper describes methods for derivation, stimulation, and assessment of murine bone marrow macrophages activated by antibodies in vitro and murine peritoneal macrophages activated with antibodies in vivo. Finally, we demonstrate the use of western blotting to determine the contribution of specific cell signaling pathways to anti-inflammatory macrophage activity. These protocols can be used with genetically modified mice, to determine the effect of a specific protein(s) on anti-inflammatory macrophage activation. These techniques can also be used to assess whether specific biologics may act by changing macrophages to an IL-10-producing anti-inflammatory activation state that reduces inflammatory responses in vivo. This can provide information on the role of macrophage activation in the efficacy of biologics during disease models in mice, and provide insight into a potential new mechanism of action in people. Conversely, this may caution

  4. Role of IFN-gamma and LPS on Neuron/Glial Co-Cultures Infected by Neospora caninum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Etelvina Viana De Jesus

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Neospora caninum causes cattle abortion and neurological symptoms in dogs. Although infection is usually asymptomatic, classical neurological symptoms of neosporosis may be associated with encephalitis. This parasite can grow in brain endothelial cells without markedly damages, but it can modulate the cellular environment to promote its survival in the brain. In previous studies, we described that IFN-γ decreased the parasite proliferation and down regulated nitric oxide production in astrocyte/microglia cultures. However, it remains unclear how glial cells respond to N. caninum in the presence of neurons. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of 300 IU/mL IFN-γ or 1.0 μg/mL of LPS on infected rat neuron/glial co-cultures. After 72 hours of infection, LPS did not affect the mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity. However, IFN-γ decreased this parameter by 15.5 and 12.0% in uninfected and infected cells, respectively. The number of tachyzoites decreased 54.1 and 44.3% in cells stimulated with IFN-γ and LPS, respectively. Infection or LPS treatment did not change NO production. On the other hand, IFN-γ induced increased nitrite release in 55.7%, but the infection reverted this induction. IL-10 levels increased only in infected cultures (treated or not, meanwhile PGE2 release was improved in IFN-γ/infected or LPS/infected cells. Although IFN-γ significantly reduced the neurite length in uninfected cultures (42.64%; p < 0.001, this inflammatory cytokine reverted the impairment of neurite outgrowth induced by the infection (81.39%. The results suggest a neuroprotective potential response of glia to N. caninum infection under IFN-γ stimulus. This observation contributes to understand the immune mediated mechanisms of neosporosis in CNS

  5. FNDC5 attenuates adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance via AMPK-mediated macrophage polarization in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xiao-Qing; Geng, Zhi; Zhou, Bing; Zhang, Feng; Han, Ying; Zhou, Ye-Bo; Wang, Jue-Jin; Gao, Xing-Ya; Chen, Qi; Li, Yue-Hua; Kang, Yu-Ming; Zhu, Guo-Qing

    2018-06-01

    Obesity-induced chronic inflammation is critical in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance, and the recruitment and proinflammatory activation of adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) is important for the development of this process. Here, we examined the effects of fibronectin type III domain-containing 5 (FNDC5) on inflammation and insulin resistance in high-fat diet-induced obese mice. Male wild-type (WT) and FNDC5 -/- mice were fed with standard chow (Ctrl) or high fat diet (HFD) for 20 weeks to induce obesity and insulin resistance. Firstly, effects of FNDC5 gene deletion on obesity, insulin resistance, macrophage accumulation and polarization and adipose tissue inflammation were determined in mice. Secondly, the macrophage polarity shift was further examined with flow cytometry in isolated stromal vascular fraction (SVF). Thirdly, the effects of exogenous FNDC5 on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced macrophage polarization, inflammation and the underlying signaling mechanism were investigated in RAW264.7 macrophages and primary mouse peritoneal cavity macrophages (PMs). Finally, the therapeutic effects of FNDC5 overexpression were examined in HFD-induced obese WT and FNDC5 -/- mice. FNDC5 gene deletion aggravated obesity, insulin resistance, fat accumulation and inflammation accompanied with enhanced AMPK inhibition, macrophages recruitment and M1 polarization in mice fed with HFD. Exogenous FNDC5 inhibited LPS-induced M1 macrophage polarization and inflammatory cytokine production via AMPK phosphorylation in both RAW264.7 macrophages and PMs. FNDC5 overexpression attenuated insulin resistance, AMPK inhibition, M1 macrophage polarization and inflammatory cytokine production in adipose tissue of obese WT and FNDC5 -/- mice. FNDC5 attenuates adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance via AMPK-mediated macrophage polarization in HFD-induced obesity. FNDC5 plays several beneficial roles in obesity and may be used as a therapeutic regimen for preventing

  6. Analysis of migration rate and chemotaxis of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells in response to LPS and LTA in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herzmann, Nicole; Salamon, Achim [Department of Cell Biology, University Medicine Rostock, Schillingallee 69, D-18057 Rostock (Germany); Fiedler, Tomas [Institute for Medical Microbiology, Virology and Hygiene, University Medicine Rostock, Schillingallee 70, D-18057 Rostock (Germany); Peters, Kirsten, E-mail: kirsten.peters@med.uni-rostock.de [Department of Cell Biology, University Medicine Rostock, Schillingallee 69, D-18057 Rostock (Germany)

    2016-03-15

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are able to stimulate the regeneration of injured tissue. Since bacterial infections are common complications in wound healing, bacterial pathogens and their components come into direct contact with MSC. The interaction with bacterial structures influences the proliferation, differentiation and migratory activity of the MSC, which might be of relevance during regeneration. Studies on MSC migration in response to bacterial components have shown different results depending on the cell type. Here, we analyzed the migration rate and chemotaxis of human adipose-derived MSC (adMSC) in response to the basic cell-wall components lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Gram-negative bacteria and lipoteichoic acid (LTA) of Gram-positive bacteria in vitro. To this end, we used transwell and scratch assays, as well as a specific chemotaxis assay combined with live-cell imaging. We found no significant influence of LPS or LTA on the migration rate of adMSC in transwell or scratch assays. Furthermore, in the µ-slide chemotaxis assay, the stimulation with LPS did not exert any chemotactic effect on adMSC. - Highlights: • LPS increased the release of IL-6 and IL-8 in adMSC significantly. • The migration rate of adMSC was not influenced by LPS or LTA. • LPS or LTA did not exert a chemotactic effect on adMSC.

  7. Analysis of migration rate and chemotaxis of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells in response to LPS and LTA in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herzmann, Nicole; Salamon, Achim; Fiedler, Tomas; Peters, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are able to stimulate the regeneration of injured tissue. Since bacterial infections are common complications in wound healing, bacterial pathogens and their components come into direct contact with MSC. The interaction with bacterial structures influences the proliferation, differentiation and migratory activity of the MSC, which might be of relevance during regeneration. Studies on MSC migration in response to bacterial components have shown different results depending on the cell type. Here, we analyzed the migration rate and chemotaxis of human adipose-derived MSC (adMSC) in response to the basic cell-wall components lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Gram-negative bacteria and lipoteichoic acid (LTA) of Gram-positive bacteria in vitro. To this end, we used transwell and scratch assays, as well as a specific chemotaxis assay combined with live-cell imaging. We found no significant influence of LPS or LTA on the migration rate of adMSC in transwell or scratch assays. Furthermore, in the µ-slide chemotaxis assay, the stimulation with LPS did not exert any chemotactic effect on adMSC. - Highlights: • LPS increased the release of IL-6 and IL-8 in adMSC significantly. • The migration rate of adMSC was not influenced by LPS or LTA. • LPS or LTA did not exert a chemotactic effect on adMSC.

  8. NCX 4040, a nitric oxide-donating aspirin derivative, inhibits Prevotella intermedia lipopolysaccharide-induced production of proinflammatory mediators in murine macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eun-Young; Choe, So-Hui; Hyeon, Jin-Yi; Park, Hae Ryoun; Choi, Jeom-Il; Choi, In Soon; Kim, Sung-Jo

    2015-12-05

    In this study, the effects and underlying mechanisms of NCX 4040, a nitric oxide (NO)-donating aspirin derivative, on the production of proinflammatory mediators were examined using murine macrophages exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Prevotella intermedia, a pathogen implicated in the etiology of periodontal disease. NCX 4040 significantly reduced P. intermedia LPS-induced production of inducible NO synthase (iNOS)-derived NO, IL-1β and IL-6 as well as their mRNA expression in RAW264.7 cells. Notably, NCX 4040 was much more effective than the parental compound aspirin in reducing LPS-induced production of inflammatory mediators. NCX 4040 induced the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in cells treated with P. intermedia LPS, and the suppressive effect of NCX 4040 on LPS-induced NO production was significantly reversed by SnPP, a competitive HO-1 inhibitor. NCX 4040 did not influence LPS-induced phosphorylation of JNK and p38. IκB-α degradation as well as nuclear translocation and DNA-binding activities of NF-κB p65 and p50 subunits induced by P. intermedia LPS were significantly reduced by NCX 4040. Besides, LPS-induced phosphorylation of STAT1 and STAT3 was significantly down-regulated by NCX 4040. Further, NCX 4040 elevated the SOCS1 mRNA in cells stimulated with LPS. This study indicates that NCX 4040 inhibits P. intermedia LPS-induced production of NO, IL-1β and IL-6 in murine macrophages through anti-inflammatory HO-1 induction and suppression of NF-κB, STAT1 and STAT3 activation, which is associated with the activation of SOCS1 signaling. NCX 4040 could potentially be a promising tool in the treatment of periodontal disease, although further studies are required to verify this. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Human macrophage hemoglobin-iron metabolism in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Custer, G.; Balcerzak, S.; Rinehart, J.

    1982-01-01

    An entirely in vitro technique was employed to characterize hemoglobin-iron metabolism by human macrophages obtained by culture of blood monocytes and pulmonary alveolar macrophages. Macrophages phagocytized about three times as many erythrocytes as monocytes and six times as many erythrocytes as pulmonary alveolar macrophages. The rate of subsequent release of 59 Fe to the extracellular transferrin pool was two- to fourfold greater for macrophages as compared to the other two cell types. The kinetics of 59 Fe-transferrin release were characterized by a relatively rapid early phase (hours 1-4) followed by a slow phase (hours 4-72) for all three cell types. Intracellular movement of iron was characterized by a rapid shift from hemoglobin to ferritin that was complete with the onset of the slow phase of extracellular release. A transient increase in 59 Fe associated with an intracellular protein eluting with transferrin was also observed within 1 hour after phagocytosis. The process of hemoglobin-iron release to extracellular transferrin was inhibited at 4 degrees C but was unaffected by inhibitory of protein synthesis, glycolysis, microtubule function, and microfilament function. These data emphasize the rapidity of macrophage hemoglobin iron metabolism, provide a model for characterization of this process in vitro, and in general confirm data obtained utilizing in vivo animal models

  10. Evaluation of a nanotechnology-based approach to induce gene-expression in human THP-1 macrophages under inflammatory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, Laura; Alvarado-Vázquez, Abigail; Ferreira, David Wilson; Paige, Candler A; Ulecia-Morón, Cristina; Hill, Bailey; Caesar, Marina; Romero-Sandoval, E Alfonso

    2017-02-01

    Macrophages orchestrate the initiation and resolution of inflammation by producing pro- and anti-inflammatory products. An imbalance in these mediators may originate from a deficient or excessive immune response. Therefore, macrophages are valid therapeutic targets to restore homeostasis under inflammatory conditions. We hypothesize that a specific mannosylated nanoparticle effectively induces gene expression in human macrophages under inflammatory conditions without undesirable immunogenic responses. THP-1 macrophages were challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 5μg/mL). Polyethylenimine (PEI) nanoparticles grafted with a mannose receptor ligand (Man-PEI) were used as a gene delivery method. Nanoparticle toxicity, Man-PEI cellular uptake rate and gene induction efficiency (GFP, CD14 or CD68) were studied. Potential immunogenic responses were evaluated by measuring the production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), Interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-10. Man-PEI did not produce cytotoxicity, and it was effectively up-taken by THP-1 macrophages (69%). This approach produced a significant expression of GFP (mRNA and protein), CD14 and CD68 (mRNA), and transiently and mildly reduced IL-6 and IL-10 levels in LPS-challenged macrophages. Our results indicate that Man-PEI is suitable for inducing an efficient gene overexpression in human macrophages under inflammatory conditions with limited immunogenic responses. Our promising results set the foundation to test this technology to induce functional anti-inflammatory genes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Modulation of rat macrophage function by the Mangifera indica L. extracts Vimang and mangiferin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, D; Delgado, R; Ubeira, F M; Leiro, J

    2002-05-01

    Vimang is an aqueous extract of Mangiferia indica L., traditionally used in Cuba as an anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antioxidant. In the present study, we investigated the effects of Vimang and of mangiferin (a C-glucosylxanthone present in the extract) on rat macrophage functions including phagocytic activity and the respiratory burst. Both Vimang and mangiferin showed inhibitory effects on macrophage activity: (a) intraperitoneal doses of only 50-250 mg/kg markedly reduced the number of macrophages in peritoneal exudate following intraperitoneal injection of thioglycollate 5 days previously (though there was no significant effect on the proportion of macrophages in the peritoneal-exudate cell population); (b) in vitro concentrations of 0.1-100 microg/ml reduced the phagocytosis of yeasts cells by resident peritoneal and thioglycollate-elicited macrophages; (c) in vitro concentrations of 1-50 microg/ml reduced nitric oxide (NO) production by thioglycollate-elicited macrophages stimulated in vitro with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and IFNgamma; and (d) in vitro concentrations of 1-50 microg/ml reduced the extracellular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by resident and thioglycollate-elicited macrophages stimulated in vitro with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA). These results suggest that components of Vimang, including the polyphenol mangiferin, have depressor effects on the phagocytic and ROS production activities of rat macrophages and, thus, that they may be of value in the treatment of diseases of immunopathological origin characterized by the hyperactivation of phagocytic cells such as certain autoimmune disorders.

  12. Protective effects of total alkaloids from Dendrobium crepidatum against LPS-induced acute lung injury in mice and its chemical components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yang; Ren, Jie; Wang, Lei; Zhao, Xin; Zhang, Mian; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi; Zhang, Chaofeng

    2018-05-01

    Dendrobium crepidatum was one of the sources of Herba Dendrobii, a famous and precious traditional Chinese medicine. Indolizine-type alkaloids are the main characteristic ingredients of D. crepidatum, which possesses a variety of changeable skeletons. In the present study, we found that the total alkaloids of D. crepidatum (TAD) can inhibit the production of nitric oxide (NO) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated macrophages and showed protective effects against LPS-induced acute lung injury (ALI) in mice through downregulating the TLR4-mediated MyD88/MAPK signaling pathway. Further phytochemical study showed that six previously undescribed indolizine-type compounds, including a racemic mixture (dendrocrepidine A-E) were isolated from TAD. Meanwhile, dendrocrepidine F was separated into a pair of enantiomers by a chiral chromatography, and their absolute configurations were assigned by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The isomer (-)-dendrocrepidine F showed higher anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting NO production in LPS-treated macrophages with an IC 50 value of 13.3 μM. Taken together, indolizine-type alkaloids are the active components of D. crepidatum through downregulating the TLR4-mediated pathway, indicating some kind of therapy of TAD for ALI treatment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Lipoxin A4 and platelet activating factor are involved in E. coli or LPS-induced lung inflammation in CFTR-deficient mice.

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    Haiya Wu

    Full Text Available CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator is expressed by both neutrophils and platelets. Lack of functional CFTR could lead to severe lung infection and inflammation. Here, we found that mutation of CFTR (F508del or inhibition of CFTR in mice led to more severe thrombocytopenia, alveolar neutrocytosis and bacteriosis, and lower lipoxin A4/MIP-2 (macrophage inhibitory protein-2 or lipoxin A4/neutrophil ratios in the BAL (bronchoalveolar lavage during acute E. coli pneumonia. In vitro, inhibition of CFTR promotes MIP-2 production in LPS-stimulated neutrophils; however, lipoxin A4 could dose-dependently suppress this effect. In LPS-induced acute lung inflammation, blockade of PSGL-1 (P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 or P-selectin, antagonism of PAF by WEB2086, or correction of mutated CFTR trafficking by KM11060 could significantly increase plasma lipoxin A4 levels in F508del relevant to wildtype mice. Concurrently, F508del mice had higher plasma platelet activating factor (PAF levels and PAF-AH activity compared to wildtype under LPS challenge. Inhibiting hydrolysis of PAF by a specific PAF-AH (PAF-acetylhydrolase inhibitor, MAFP, could worsen LPS-induced lung inflammation in F508del mice compared to vehicle treated F508del group. Particularly, depletion of platelets in F508del mice could significantly decrease plasma lipoxin A4 and PAF-AH activity and deteriorate LPS-induced lung inflammation compared to control F508del mice. Taken together, lipoxin A4 and PAF are involved in E. coli or LPS-induced lung inflammation in CFTR-deficient mice, suggesting that lipoxin A4 and PAF might be therapeutic targets for ameliorating CFTR-deficiency deteriorated lung inflammation.

  14. Chemical Composition and Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Brazilian Green Propolis on Activated J774A.1 Macrophages

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    Ewelina Szliszka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the chemical composition and anti-inflammatory effect of ethanolic extract of Brazilian green propolis (EEP-B on LPS + IFN-γ or PMA stimulated J774A.1 macrophages. The identification and quantification of phenolic compounds in green propolis extract were performed using HPLC-DAD and UPLC-Q-TOF-MS methods. The cell viability was evaluated by MTT and LDH assays. The radical scavenging ability was determined using DPPH• and ABTS•+. ROS and RNS generation was analyzed by chemiluminescence. NO concentration was detected by the Griess reaction. The release of various cytokines by activated J774A.1 cells was measured in the culture supernatants using a multiplex bead array system based on xMAP technology. Artepillin C, kaempferide, and their derivatives were the main phenolics found in green propolis. At the tested concentrations, the EEP-B did not decrease the cell viability and did not cause the cytotoxicity. EEP-B exerted strong antioxidant activity and significantly inhibited the production of ROS, RNS, NO, cytokine IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-12p40, IL-13, TNF-α, G-CSF, GM-CSF, MCP-1, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, and RANTES in stimulated J774A.1 macrophages. Our findings provide new insights for understanding the anti-inflammatory mechanism of action of Brazilian green propolis extract and support its application in complementary and alternative medicine.

  15. Targeted delivery of siRNA to macrophages for anti-inflammatory treatment.

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    Kim, Sang-Soo; Ye, Chunting; Kumar, Priti; Chiu, Isaac; Subramanya, Sandesh; Wu, Haoquan; Shankar, Premlata; Manjunath, N

    2010-05-01

    Inflammation mediated by tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and the associated neuronal apoptosis characterizes a number of neurologic disorders. Macrophages and microglial cells are believed to be the major source of TNF-alpha in the central nervous system (CNS). Here, we show that suppression of TNF-alpha by targeted delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA) to macrophage/microglial cells dramatically reduces lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neuroinflammation and neuronal apoptosis in vivo. Because macrophage/microglia express the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AchR) on their surface, we used a short AchR-binding peptide derived from the rabies virus glycoprotein (RVG) as a targeting ligand. This peptide was fused to nona-D-arginine residues (RVG-9dR) to enable siRNA binding. RVG-9dR was able to deliver siRNA to induce gene silencing in macrophages and microglia cells from wild type, but not AchR-deficient mice, confirming targeting specificity. Treatment with anti-TNF-alpha siRNA complexed to RVG-9dR achieved efficient silencing of LPS-induced TNF-alpha production by primary macrophages and microglia cells in vitro. Moreover, intravenous injection with RVG-9dR-complexed siRNA in mice reduced the LPS-induced TNF-alpha levels in blood as well as in the brain, leading to a significant reduction in neuronal apoptosis. These results demonstrate that RVG-9dR provides a tool for siRNA delivery to macrophages and microglia and that suppression of TNF-alpha can potentially be used to suppress neuroinflammation in vivo.

  16. Activation of murine macrophages by lipoprotein and lipooligosaccharide of Treponema denticola.

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    Rosen, G; Sela, M N; Naor, R; Halabi, A; Barak, V; Shapira, L

    1999-03-01

    We have recently demonstrated that the periodontopathogenic oral spirochete Treponema denticola possesses membrane-associated lipoproteins in addition to lipooligosaccharide (LOS). The aim of the present study was to test the potential of these oral spirochetal components to induce the production of inflammatory mediators by human macrophages, which in turn may stimulate tissue breakdown as observed in periodontal diseases. An enriched lipoprotein fraction (dLPP) from T. denticola ATCC 35404 obtained upon extraction of the treponemes with Triton X-114 was found to stimulate the production of nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), and interleukin-1 (IL-1) by mouse macrophages in a dose-dependent manner. Induction of NO by dLPP was at 25% of the levels obtained by Salmonella typhosa lipopolysaccharide (LPS) at similar concentrations, while IL-1 was produced at similar levels by both inducers. dLPP-mediated macrophage activation was unaffected by amounts of polymyxin B that neutralized the induction produced by S. typhosa LPS. dLPP also induced NO and TNF-alpha secretion from macrophages isolated from endotoxin-unresponsive C3H/HeJ mice to an extent similar to the stimulation produced in endotoxin-responsive mice. Purified T. denticola LOS also produced a concentration-dependent activation of NO and TNF-alpha in LPS-responsive and -nonresponsive mouse macrophages. However, macrophage activation by LOS was inhibited by polymyxin B. These results suggest that T. denticola lipoproteins and LOS may play a role in the inflammatory processes that characterize periodontal diseases.

  17. Activation of Murine Macrophages by Lipoprotein and Lipooligosaccharide of Treponema denticola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Graciela; Sela, Michael N.; Naor, Ronit; Halabi, Amal; Barak, Vivian; Shapira, Lior

    1999-01-01

    We have recently demonstrated that the periodontopathogenic oral spirochete Treponema denticola possesses membrane-associated lipoproteins in addition to lipooligosaccharide (LOS). The aim of the present study was to test the potential of these oral spirochetal components to induce the production of inflammatory mediators by human macrophages, which in turn may stimulate tissue breakdown as observed in periodontal diseases. An enriched lipoprotein fraction (dLPP) from T. denticola ATCC 35404 obtained upon extraction of the treponemes with Triton X-114 was found to stimulate the production of nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and interleukin-1 (IL-1) by mouse macrophages in a dose-dependent manner. Induction of NO by dLPP was at 25% of the levels obtained by Salmonella typhosa lipopolysaccharide (LPS) at similar concentrations, while IL-1 was produced at similar levels by both inducers. dLPP-mediated macrophage activation was unaffected by amounts of polymyxin B that neutralized the induction produced by S. typhosa LPS. dLPP also induced NO and TNF-α secretion from macrophages isolated from endotoxin-unresponsive C3H/HeJ mice to an extent similar to the stimulation produced in endotoxin-responsive mice. Purified T. denticola LOS also produced a concentration-dependent activation of NO and TNF-α in LPS-responsive and -nonresponsive mouse macrophages. However, macrophage activation by LOS was inhibited by polymyxin B. These results suggest that T. denticola lipoproteins and LOS may play a role in the inflammatory processes that characterize periodontal diseases. PMID:10024558

  18. The improvement of M1 polarization in macrophages by glycopeptide derived from Ganoderma lucidum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li-Xin; Lin, Zhi-Bin; Lu, Jie; Li, Wei-Dong; Niu, Yan-Dong; Sun, Yu; Hu, Chen-Yang; Zhang, Guo-Qiang; Duan, Xin-Suo

    2017-06-01

    Ganoderma lucidum (Fr.) Karst (Ganodermataceae) is a medicinal mushroom that has been extensively used in China for centuries to promote longevity and improve vigor without significant adverse effects. There is continuous interest in the bioactive properties of G. lucidum in view of its newly developed popularity in other regions besides Asia, such as Europe. Glycopeptide derived from G. lucidum (Gl-PS) is one of the main effective components isolated from this mushroom. The Gl-PS has been demonstrated pleiotropic with many bioactivities including immunomodulatory and antitumor effects. Macrophages are important cells involved in innate and adaptive immunity. Classically activated macrophages (M1) and alternatively activated macrophages (M2), with their different roles, display distinct cytokine profiles: M1 preferentially produces TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-12; conversely, M2 generates more IL-10 and arginase. Gl-PS might have the potential to promote macrophage M1 polarization by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In this study, LPS was used to induce the M1 polarization. It was shown that the level of the TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-12 were increased and the IL-10 and arginase I were decreased in the polarized M1 macrophages after application of Gl-PS compared to the control. The results indicated the potential of Gl-PS to promote M1 polarization vs M2, with the health beneficial understanding of the bioactivities of Gl-PS.

  19. Suppression of TLR4-mediated inflammatory response by macrophage class A scavenger receptor (CD204)

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    Ohnishi, Koji; Komohara, Yoshihiro; Fujiwara, Yukio; Takemura, Kenichi [Department of Cell Pathology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan); Lei, XiaoFeng [Department of Cell Pathology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan); Department of Biochemistry, Showa University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Nakagawa, Takenobu [Department of Cell Pathology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan); Sakashita, Naomi [Department of Cell Pathology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan); Department of Human Pathology, Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima, Tokushima (Japan); Takeya, Motohiro, E-mail: takeya@kumamoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Cell Pathology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan)

    2011-08-05

    Highlights: {yields} We focused on the interaction between SR-A and TLR4 signaling in this study. {yields} SR-A deletion promoted NF{kappa}B activation in macrophages in septic model mouse. {yields} SR-A suppresses both MyD88-dependent and -independent TLR4 signaling in vitro. {yields} SR-A clears LPS binding to TLR4 which resulting in the suppression of TLR4 signals. -- Abstract: The class A scavenger receptor (SR-A, CD204), one of the principal receptors expressed on macrophages, has been found to regulate inflammatory response and attenuate septic endotoxemia. However, the detailed mechanism of this process has not yet been well characterized. To clarify the regulative mechanisms of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced macrophage activation by SR-A, we evaluated the activation of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-mediated signaling molecules in SR-A-deficient (SR-A{sup -/-}) macrophages. In a septic shock model, the blood levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-{alpha}, interleukin (IL)-6 and interferon (IFN)-{beta} were significantly increased in SR-A{sup -/-} mice compared to wild-type mice, and elevated nuclear factor kappa B (NF{kappa}B) activation was detected in SR-A{sup -/-} macrophages. SR-A deletion increased the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and NF{kappa}B in vitro. SR-A deletion also promoted the nuclear translocation of NF{kappa}B and IFN regulatory factor (IRF)-3. In addition, a competitive binding assay with acetylated low-density lipoprotein, an SR-A-specific ligand, and anti-SR-A antibody induced significant activation of TLR4-mediated signaling molecules in wild-type macrophages but not in SR-A{sup -/-} macrophages. These results suggest that SR-A suppresses the macrophage activation by inhibiting the binding of LPS to TLR4 in a competitive manner and it plays a pivotal role in the regulation of the LPS-induced inflammatory response.

  20. Immunomodulatory effect of Parsley (Petroselinum crispum) essential oil on immune cells: mitogen-activated splenocytes and peritoneal macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousofi, Alireza; Daneshmandi, Saeed; Soleimani, Neda; Bagheri, Kambiz; Karimi, Mohammad Hossein

    2012-04-01

    Parsley (Petroselinum crispum) has been traditionally used for the treatment of allergy, autoimmune and chronic inflammatory disorders. The present study aims to investigate the suppressive effects of parsley essential oil on mouse splenocytes and macrophages cells. Parsley essential oil was harvested. It was treated on splenocytes and phytohemagglutinin (PHA) (5 μg/mL) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (10 μg/mL) activated splenocytes in different concentrations (0.01-100 μg/mL); then, proliferation was assayed by methyl tetrazolium (MTT) method. Treatment was also performed on the macrophages and LPS-stimulated macrophages (10 μg/ml) and the nitrite levels were measured using the diazotization method based on the Griess reaction and MTT assay for evaluation of the viability of the macrophages. Proliferation of splenocytes in all the treated groups was suppressed. In PHA-stimulated splenocytes, the suppression was seen in all the examined concentrations (0.01-100 μg/mL), while in the unstimulated and LPS-stimulated groups suppression was relatively dose dependent and in high concentration (10 and100 μg/mL).The viability of the macrophages in all groups was the same and in the unstimulated groups; NO suppression was significant in all the concentrations but in LPS-stimulated groups, it was significant in the three higher concentrations (1, 10, and100 μg/mL). The results of this study indicate that parsley essential oil may be able to suppress the cellular and humoral immune response. It can also suppress both NO production and the functions of macrophages as the main innate immune cells. These results may suggest that parsley essential oil is a proper suppressant for different applications.

  1. Effect of Kramecyne on the Inflammatory Response in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated Peritoneal Macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Miranda, E.; Lemus-Bautista, J.; Pérez, S.; Pérez-Ramos, J.

    2013-01-01

    Kramecyne is a new peroxide, it was isolated from Krameria cytisoides, methanol extract, and this plant was mostly found in North and South America. This compound showed potent anti-inflammatory activity; however, the mechanisms by which this compound exerts its anti-inflammatory effect are not well understood. In this study, we examined the effects of kramecyne on inflammatory responses in mouse lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced peritoneal macrophages. Our findings indicate that kramecyne inhibits LPS-induced production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and interleukin- (IL-) 6. During the inflammatory process, levels of cyclooxygenase- (COX-) 2, nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and nitric oxide (NO) increased in mouse peritoneal macrophages; however, kramecyne suppressed them significantly. These results provide novel insights into the anti-inflammatory actions and support its potential use in the treatment of inflammatory diseases. PMID:23573152

  2. Assessment of carbon nanoparticle exposure on murine macrophage function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suro-Maldonado, Raquel M.

    There is growing concern about the potential cytotoxicity of nanoparticles. Exposure to respirable ultrafine particles (2.5uM) can adversely affect human health and have been implicated with episodes of increased respiratory diseases such as asthma and allergies. Nanoparticles are of particular interest because of their ability to penetrate into the lung and potentially elicit health effects triggering immune responses. Nanoparticles are structures and devises with length scales in the 1 to 100-nanometer range. Black carbon (BC) nanoparticles have been observed to be products of combustion, especially flame combustion and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) have been shown to be found in both indoor and outdoor air. Furthermore, asbestos, which have been known to cause mesothelioma as well as lung cancer, have been shown to be structurally identical to MWCNTs. The aims of these studies were to examine the effects of carbon nanoparticles on murine macrophage function and clearance mechanisms. Macrophages are immune cells that function as the first line of defense against invading pathogens and are likely to be amongst the first cells affected by nanoparticles. Our research focused on two manufactured nanoparticles, MWCNT and BC. The two were tested against murine-derived macrophages in a chronic contact model. We hypothesized that long-term chronic exposure to carbon nanoparticles would decrease macrophages ability to effectively respond to immunological challenge. Production of nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), cell surface macrophage; activation markers, reactive oxygen species formation (ROS), and antigen processing and presentation were examined in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) following a 144hr exposure to the particulates. Data demonstrated an increase in TNF-alpha, and NO production; a decrease in phagocytosis and antigen processing and presentation; and a decrease in the expression levels of cell surface macrophage

  3. Attenuation of LPS-induced inflammation by ICT, a derivate of icariin, via inhibition of the CD14/TLR4 signaling pathway in human monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jinfeng; Zhou, Junmin; Chen, Xianghong; Fortenbery, Nicole; Eksioglu, Erika A; Wei, Sheng; Dong, Jingcheng

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the anti-inflammatory potential of ICT in LPS stimulated human innate immune cells. 3, 5, 7-Trihydroxy-4'-methoxy-8-(3-hydroxy-3- methylbutyl)-flavone (ICT) is a novel derivative of icariin, the major active ingredient of Herba Epimedii, an herb used in traditional Chinese medicine. We previously demonstrated its anti-inflammatory potential in a murine macrophage cell line as well as in mouse models. We measured TNF-α production by ELISA, TLR4/CD14 expression by flow cytometry, and NF-κB and MAPK activation by western blot all in LPS-stimulated PBMC, human monocytes, or THP-1 cells after treatment with ICT. ICT inhibited LPS-induced TNF-α production in THP-1 cells, PBMCs and human monocytes in a dose-dependent manner. ICT treatment resulted in down-regulation of the expression of CD14/TLR4 and attenuated NF-κB and MAPK activation induced by LPS. We illustrate the anti-inflammatory property of ICT in human immune cells, especially in monocytes. These effects were mediated, at least partially, via inhibition of the CD14/TLR4 signaling pathway. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. CD44-deficiency attenuates the immunologic responses to LPS and delays the onset of endotoxic shock-induced renal inflammation and dysfunction.

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    Elena Rampanelli

    Full Text Available Acute kidney injury (AKI is a common complication during systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS, a potentially deadly clinical condition characterized by whole-body inflammatory state and organ dysfunction. CD44 is a ubiquitously expressed cell-surface transmembrane receptor with multiple functions in inflammatory processes, including sterile renal inflammation. The present study aimed to assess the role of CD44 in endotoxic shock-induced kidney inflammation and dysfunction by using CD44 KO and WT mice exposed intraperitoneally to LPS for 2, 4, and 24 hours . Upon LPS administration, CD44 expression in WT kidneys was augmented at all time-points. At 2 and 4 hours, CD44 KO animals showed a preserved renal function in comparison to WT mice. In absence of CD44, the pro-inflammatory cytokine levels in plasma and kidneys were lower, while renal expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 was higher. The cytokine levels were associated with decreased leukocyte influx and endothelial activation in CD44 KO kidneys. Furthermore, in vitro assays demonstrated a role of CD44 in enhancing macrophage cytokine responses to LPS and leukocyte migration. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that lack of CD44 impairs the early pro-inflammatory cytokine response to LPS, diminishes leukocyte migration/chemotaxis and endothelial activation, hence, delays endotoxic shock-induced AKI.

  5. The role of HFE genotype in macrophage phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Anne M; Neely, Elizabeth; Simpson, Ian A; Connor, James R

    2018-02-01

    Iron regulation is essential for cellular energy production. Loss of cellular iron homeostasis has critical implications for both normal function and disease progression. The H63D variant of the HFE gene is the most common gene variant in Caucasians. The resulting mutant protein alters cellular iron homeostasis and is associated with a number of neurological diseases and cancer. In the brain, microglial and infiltrating macrophages are critical to maintaining iron homeostasis and modulating inflammation associated with the pathogenic process in multiple diseases. This study addresses whether HFE genotype affects macrophage function and the implications of these findings for disease processes. Bone marrow macrophages were isolated from wildtype and H67D HFE knock-in mice. The H67D gene variant in mice is the human equivalent of the H63D variant. Upon differentiation, the macrophages were used to analyze iron regulatory proteins, cellular iron release, migration, phagocytosis, and cytokine expression. The results of this study demonstrate that the H67D HFE genotype significantly impacts a number of critical macrophage functions. Specifically, fundamental activities such as proliferation in response to iron exposure, L-ferritin expression in response to iron loading, secretion of BMP6 and cytokines, and migration and phagocytic activity were all found to be impacted by genotype. Furthermore, we demonstrated that exposure to apo-Tf (iron-poor transferrin) can increase the release of iron from macrophages. In normal conditions, 70% of circulating transferrin is unsaturated. Therefore, the ability of apo-Tf to induce iron release could be a major regulatory mechanism for iron release from macrophages. These studies demonstrate that the HFE genotype impacts fundamental components of macrophage phenotype that could alter their role in degenerative and reparative processes in neurodegenerative disorders.

  6. The elusive antifibrotic macrophage

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    Adhyatmika eAdhyatmika

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Fibrotic diseases, especially of the liver, the cardiovascular system, the kidneys, and the lungs account for approximately 45% of deaths in Western societies. Fibrosis is a serious complication associated with aging and/or chronic inflammation or injury and cannot be treated effectively yet. It is characterized by excessive deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM proteins by myofibroblasts and impaired degradation by macrophages. This ultimately destroys the normal structure of an organ, which leads to loss of function. Most efforts to develop drugs have focused on inhibiting ECM production by myofibroblasts and have not yielded many effective drugs yet. Another option is to stimulate the cells that are responsible for degradation and uptake of excess ECM, i.e. antifibrotic macrophages. However, macrophages are plastic cells that have many faces in fibrosis, including profibrotic behaviour stimulating ECM production. This can be dependent on their origin, as the different organs have tissue-resident macrophages with different origins and a various influx of incoming monocytes in steady-state conditions and during fibrosis. To be able to pharmacologically stimulate the right kind of behaviour in fibrosis, a thorough characterization of antifibrotic macrophages is necessary, as well as an understanding of the signals they need to degrade ECM. In this review we will summarize the current state of the art regarding the antifibrotic macrophage phenotype and the signals that stimulate its behaviour.

  7. Resolution of LPS-induced airway inflammation and goblet cell hyperplasia is independent of IL-18

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    Lyons C Rick

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The resolution of inflammatory responses in the lung has not been described in detail and the role of specific cytokines influencing the resolution process is largely unknown. Methods The present study was designed to describe the resolution of inflammation from 3 h through 90 d following an acute injury by a single intratracheal instillation of F344/N rats with LPS. We documented the inflammatory cell types and cytokines found in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF, and epithelial changes in the axial airway and investigated whether IL-18 may play a role in the resolution process by reducing its levels with anti-IL-18 antibodies. Results Three major stages of inflammation and resolution were observed in the BALF during the resolution. The first stage was characterized by PMNs that increased over 3 h to 1 d and decreased to background levels by d 6–8. The second stage of inflammation was characterized by macrophage influx reaching maximum numbers at d 6 and decreasing to background levels by d 40. A third stage of inflammation was observed for lymphocytes which were elevated over d 3–6. Interestingly, IL-18 and IL-9 levels in the BALF showed a cyclic pattern with peak levels at d 4, 8, and 16 while decreasing to background levels at d 1–2, 6, and 12. Depletion of IL-18 caused decreased PMN numbers at d 2, but no changes in inflammatory cell number or type at later time points. Conclusion These data suggest that IL-18 plays a role in enhancing the LPS-induced neutrophilic inflammation of the lung, but does not affect the resolution of inflammation.

  8. Effect of lectin (ScLL on fibroblasts stimulated with LPS - an in vitro study

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    Manuella Verdinelli de Paula REIS

    Full Text Available Abstract: The lectin (ScLL extracted from the Synadenium carinatum plant has been evaluated as an immunomodulator in diseases such as asthma, neosporosis and leishmaniasis. However, it has not yet been evaluated in the oral cavity. This study evaluated the effect of ScLL on viability, proliferation and release of IL-10 in human gingival fibroblasts (HGF stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS. HGF were stimulated with LPS 1 µg/ml and treated with ScLL in concentrations of 10, 5 and 2 µg/ml for 1 and 5 h, and evaluated by flow cytometry for viability, apoptosis (initial/advanced and necrosis. The supernatant was collected to detect release of IL-10 by ELISA. The proliferation was assessed with the BrdU assay. Positive control consisted of cells maintained in Dulbecco's Modified Eagles Medium (DMEM, and the negative control, of those kept in tap water. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Dunnett's test (α = 0.05. No significant difference was found for ScLL concentrations regarding viability or initial and advanced apoptosis (p=0.455. All the groups, including the positive control, had a significantly lower necrosis parameter than negative control at 5 h (p < 0.001. No difference was found for proliferation among the experimental groups (p = 0.832. ScLL at 5 and 2 µg/ml resulted in a lower release of IL-10 than positive and negative controls at 5 h (p = 0.047. The results indicated that ScLL concentrations tested were not cytotoxic, and had no effect on proliferation and release of IL-10 parameters. A thorough understanding of ScLL, regarding its immunomodulatory potential, may open the door to new perspectives for dentistry.

  9. Immunoregulation of bovine macrophages by factors in the salivary glands of Rhipicephalus microplus

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    Brake Danett K

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alternative strategies are required to control the southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus microplus, due to evolving resistance to commercially available acaricides. This invasive ectoparasite is a vector of economically important diseases of cattle such as bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis. An understanding of the biological intricacies underlying vector-host-pathogen interactions is required to innovate sustainable tick management strategies that can ultimately mitigate the impact of animal and zoonotic tick-borne diseases. Tick saliva contains molecules evolved to impair host innate and adaptive immune responses, which facilitates blood feeding and pathogen transmission. Antigen presenting cells are central to the development of robust T cell responses including Th1 and Th2 determination. In this study we examined changes in co-stimulatory molecule expression and cytokine response of bovine macrophages exposed to salivary gland extracts (SGE obtained from 2-3 day fed, pathogen-free adult R. microplus. Methods Peripheral blood-derived macrophages were treated for 1 hr with 1, 5, or 10 μg/mL of SGE followed by 1, 6, 24 hr of 1 μg/mL of lipopolysaccharide (LPS. Real-time PCR and cytokine ELISA were used to measure changes in co-stimulatory molecule expression and cytokine response. Results Changes were observed in co-stimulatory molecule expression of bovine macrophages in response to R. microplus SGE exposure. After 6 hrs, CD86, but not CD80, was preferentially up-regulated on bovine macrophages when treated with 1 μg/ml SGE and then LPS, but not SGE alone. At 24 hrs CD80, CD86, and CD69 expression was increased with LPS, but was inhibited by the addition of SGE. SGE also inhibited LPS induced upregulation of TNFα, IFNγ and IL-12 cytokines, but did not alter IL-4 or CD40 mRNA expression. Conclusions Molecules from the salivary glands of adult R. microplus showed bimodal concentration-, and time-dependent effects on

  10. Tolerance of monocytes and macrophages in response to bacterial endotoxin

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    Ewelina Wiśnik

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Monocytes belong to myeloid effector cells, which constitute the first line of defense against pathogens, also called the nonspecific immune system and play an important role in the maintenance of tissue homeostasis. In response to stimulation, monocytes differentiate into macrophages capable of microorganism phagocytosis and secrete factors that play a key role in the regulation of immune responses. However excessive exposure of monocytes/macrophages to the lipopolysaccharide (LPS of Gram negative bacteria leads to the acquisition of immune tolerance by these cells. Such state results from disruption of different biological processes, for example intracellular signaling pathways and is accompanied by a number of disease states (immune, inflammatory or neoplastic conditions. Regulation of monocytes/macrophages activity is controlled by miRNAs, which are involved in the modulation of immune tolerance acquired by these cells. Moreover, the tolerance to endotoxin is conditioned by the posttranscriptional processes and posttranslational epigenetic modifications leading to the impairment of normal immune response for example by alterations in the expression of many genes encoding immune signaling mediators. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview existing knowledge on the modulation of activity of monocytes/macrophages in response to bacterial endotoxin and impaired immune responses.

  11. Sargachromenol from Sargassum micracanthum Inhibits the Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Production of Inflammatory Mediators in RAW 264.7 Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Jin Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available During our ongoing screening program designed to determine the anti-inflammatory potential of natural compounds, we isolated sargachromenol from Sargassum micracanthum. In the present study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of sargachromenol on lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced inflammation in murine RAW 264.7 macrophage cells and the underlying mechanisms. Sargachromenol significantly inhibited the LPS-induced production of nitric oxide (NO and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 in a dose-dependent manner. It also significantly inhibited the protein expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 in a dose-dependent manner in LPS-stimulated macrophage cells. Further analyses showed that sargachromenol decreased the cytoplasmic loss of inhibitor κBα (IκBα protein. These results suggest that sargachromenol may exert its anti-inflammatory effects on LPS-stimulated macrophage cells by inhibiting the activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway. In conclusion, to our knowledge, this is the first study to show that sargachromenol isolated from S. micracanthum has an effective anti-inflammatory activity. Therefore, sargachromenol might be useful for cosmetic, food, or medical applications requiring anti-inflammatory properties.

  12. Signal-transducing mechanisms of ketamine-caused inhibition of interleukin-1β gene expression in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated murine macrophage-like Raw 264.7 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, T.-L.; Chang, C.-C.; Lin, Y.-L.; Ueng, Y.-F.; Chen, R.-M.

    2009-01-01

    Ketamine may affect the host immunity. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) are pivotal cytokines produced by macrophages. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of ketamine on the regulation of inflammatory cytokine gene expression, especially IL-1β, in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated murine macrophage-like Raw 264.7 cells and its possible signal-transducing mechanisms. Administration of Raw 264.7 cells with a therapeutic concentration of ketamine (100 μM), LPS, or a combination of ketamine and LPS for 1, 6, and 24 h was not cytotoxic to macrophages. Exposure to 100 μM ketamine decreased the binding affinity of LPS and LPS-binding protein but did not affect LPS-induced RNA and protein synthesis of TLR4. Treatment with LPS significantly increased IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α gene expressions in Raw 264.7 cells. Ketamine at a clinically relevant concentration did not affect the synthesis of these inflammatory cytokines, but significantly decreased LPS-caused increases in these cytokines. Immunoblot analyses, an electrophoretic mobility shift assay, and a reporter luciferase activity assay revealed that ketamine significantly decreased LPS-induced translocation and DNA binding activity of nuclear factor-kappa B (NFκB). Administration of LPS sequentially increased the phosphorylations of Ras, Raf, MEK1/2, ERK1/2, and IKK. However, a therapeutic concentration of ketamine alleviated such augmentations. Application of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) small interfering (si)RNA reduced cellular TLR4 amounts and ameliorated LPS-induced RAS activation and IL-1β synthesis. Co-treatment with ketamine and TLR4 siRNA synergistically ameliorated LPS-caused enhancement of IL-1β production. Results of this study show that a therapeutic concentration of ketamine can inhibit gene expression of IL-1β possibly through suppressing TLR4-mediated signal-transducing phosphorylations of Ras, Raf, MEK1/2, ERK1/2, and IKK and subsequent translocation and

  13. TLR Stimulation Dynamically Regulates Heme and Iron Export Gene Expression in Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Philip

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pathogenic bacteria have evolved multiple mechanisms to capture iron or iron-containing heme from host tissues or blood. In response, organisms have developed defense mechanisms to keep iron from pathogens. Very little of the body’s iron store is available as free heme; rather nearly all body iron is complexed with heme or other proteins. The feline leukemia virus, subgroup C (FeLV-C receptor, FLVCR, exports heme from cells. It was unknown whether FLVCR regulates heme-iron availability after infection, but given that other heme regulatory proteins are upregulated in macrophages in response to bacterial infection, we hypothesized that macrophages dynamically regulate FLVCR. We stimulated murine primary macrophages or macrophage cell lines with LPS and found that Flvcr is rapidly downregulated in a TLR4/MD2-dependent manner; TLR1/2 and TLR3 stimulation also decreased Flvcr expression. We identified several candidate TLR-activated transcription factors that can bind to the Flvcr promoter. Macrophages must balance the need to sequester iron from systemic circulating or intracellular pathogens with the macrophage requirement for heme and iron to produce reactive oxygen species. Our findings underscore the complexity of this regulation and point to a new role for FLVCR and heme export in macrophages responses to infection and inflammation.

  14. Dihydro-CDDO-trifluoroethyl amide suppresses inflammatory responses in macrophages via activation of Nrf2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Bin; Abdalrahman, Akram; Lai, Yimu; Janicki, Joseph S.; Ward, Keith W.; Meyer, Colin J.; Wang, Xing Li; Tang, Dongqi; Cui, Taixing

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Dh404 suppresses the expression of a selected set of pro-inflammatory cytokines in inflamed macrophages via activating Nrf2. • Dh404 activates Nrf2 while keeping Keap1 function intact in macrophages. • Dh404 minimally regulates NF-κB pathway in macrophages. - Abstract: Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) is the major regulator of cellular defenses against various pathological stresses in a variety of organ systems, thus Nrf2 has evolved to be an attractive drug target for the treatment and/or prevention of human disease. Several synthetic oleanolic triterpenoids including dihydro-CDDO-trifluoroethyl amide (dh404) appear to be potent activators of Nrf2 and exhibit chemopreventive promises in multiple disease models. While the pharmacological efficacy of Nrf2 activators may be dependent on the nature of Nrf2 activation in specific cell types of target organs, the precise role of Nrf2 in mediating biological effects of Nrf2 activating compounds in various cell types remains to be further explored. Herein we report a unique and Nrf2-dependent anti-inflammatory profile of dh404 in inflamed macrophages. In lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-inflamed RAW264.7 macrophages, dh404 dramatically suppressed the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines including inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), and macrophage inflammatory protein-1 beta (MIP-1β), while minimally regulating the expression of interleulin-6 (IL-6), IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα). Dh404 potently activated Nrf2 signaling; however, it did not affect LPS-induced NF-κB activity. Dh404 did not interrupt the interaction of Nrf2 with its endogenous inhibitor Kelch-like ECH associating protein 1 (Keap1) in macrophages. Moreover, knockout of Nrf2 blocked the dh404-induced anti-inflammatory responses in LPS-inflamed macrophages. These results demonstrated that dh404 suppresses pro-inflammatory responses in macrophages via an activation

  15. Dihydro-CDDO-trifluoroethyl amide suppresses inflammatory responses in macrophages via activation of Nrf2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Bin [Shandong University Qilu Hospital Research Center for Cell Therapy, Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Remodeling and Function Research, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan 250012 (China); Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, University of South Carolina School of Medicine, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); Abdalrahman, Akram; Lai, Yimu; Janicki, Joseph S. [Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, University of South Carolina School of Medicine, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); Ward, Keith W.; Meyer, Colin J. [Department of Pharmacology, Reata Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Irving, TX 75063 (United States); Wang, Xing Li [Shandong University Qilu Hospital Research Center for Cell Therapy, Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Remodeling and Function Research, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan 250012 (China); Tang, Dongqi, E-mail: Dongqi.Tang@uscmed.sc.edu [Shandong University Qilu Hospital Research Center for Cell Therapy, Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Remodeling and Function Research, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan 250012 (China); Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, University of South Carolina School of Medicine, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); Cui, Taixing, E-mail: taixing.cui@uscmed.sc.edu [Shandong University Qilu Hospital Research Center for Cell Therapy, Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Remodeling and Function Research, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan 250012 (China); Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, University of South Carolina School of Medicine, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States)

    2014-02-21

    Highlights: • Dh404 suppresses the expression of a selected set of pro-inflammatory cytokines in inflamed macrophages via activating Nrf2. • Dh404 activates Nrf2 while keeping Keap1 function intact in macrophages. • Dh404 minimally regulates NF-κB pathway in macrophages. - Abstract: Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) is the major regulator of cellular defenses against various pathological stresses in a variety of organ systems, thus Nrf2 has evolved to be an attractive drug target for the treatment and/or prevention of human disease. Several synthetic oleanolic triterpenoids including dihydro-CDDO-trifluoroethyl amide (dh404) appear to be potent activators of Nrf2 and exhibit chemopreventive promises in multiple disease models. While the pharmacological efficacy of Nrf2 activators may be dependent on the nature of Nrf2 activation in specific cell types of target organs, the precise role of Nrf2 in mediating biological effects of Nrf2 activating compounds in various cell types remains to be further explored. Herein we report a unique and Nrf2-dependent anti-inflammatory profile of dh404 in inflamed macrophages. In lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-inflamed RAW264.7 macrophages, dh404 dramatically suppressed the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines including inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), and macrophage inflammatory protein-1 beta (MIP-1β), while minimally regulating the expression of interleulin-6 (IL-6), IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα). Dh404 potently activated Nrf2 signaling; however, it did not affect LPS-induced NF-κB activity. Dh404 did not interrupt the interaction of Nrf2 with its endogenous inhibitor Kelch-like ECH associating protein 1 (Keap1) in macrophages. Moreover, knockout of Nrf2 blocked the dh404-induced anti-inflammatory responses in LPS-inflamed macrophages. These results demonstrated that dh404 suppresses pro-inflammatory responses in macrophages via an activation

  16. A new and efficient culture method for porcine bone marrow-derived M1- and M2-polarized macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jiye; Scheenstra, Maaike R; van Dijk, Albert; Veldhuizen, Edwin J A; Haagsman, Henk P

    2018-06-01

    Macrophages play an important role in the innate immune system as part of the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS). They have a pro-inflammatory signature (M1-polarized macrophages) or anti-inflammatory signature (M2-polarized macrophages) based on expression of surface receptors and secretion of cytokines. However, very little is known about the culture of macrophages from pigs and more specific about the M1 and M2 polarization in vitro. Porcine monocytes or mononuclear bone marrow cells were used to culture M1- and M2-polarized macrophages in the presence of GM-CSF and M-CSF, respectively. Surface receptor expression was measured with flow cytometry and ELISA was used to quantify cytokine secretion in response to LPS and PAM 3 CSK 4 stimulation. Human monocyte-derived macrophages were used as control. Porcine M1- and M2-polarized macrophages were cultured best using porcine GM-CSF and murine M-CSF, respectively. Cultures from bone marrow cells resulted in a higher yield M1- and M2-polarized macrophages which were better comparable to human monocyte-derived macrophages than cultures from porcine monocytes. Porcine M1-polarized macrophages displayed the characteristic fried egg shape morphology, lower CD163 expression and low IL-10 production. Porcine M2-polarized macrophages contained the spindle-like morphology, higher CD163 expression and high IL-10 production. Porcine M1- and M2-polarized macrophages can be most efficiently cultured from mononuclear bone marrow cells using porcine GM-CSF and murine M-CSF. The new culture method facilitates more refined studies of porcine macrophages in vitro, important for both porcine and human health since pigs are increasingly used as model for translational research. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The influence of aging and estradiol to progesterone ratio on rat macrophage phenotypic profile and NO and TNF-α production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrijević, Mirjana; Stanojević, Stanislava; Kuštrimović, Nataša; Mitić, Katarina; Vujić, Vesna; Aleksić, Iva; Radojević, Katarina; Leposavić, Gordana

    2013-11-01

    The phenotype and function of tissue macrophages substantially depend on the cellular milieu and biological effector molecules, such as steroid hormones, to which they are exposed. Furthermore, in female rats, aging is associated with the altered macrophage functioning and the increased estrogen level is followed by a decrease in that of progesterone. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the influence of estradiol/progesterone balance on rat macrophage function and phenotype throughout whole adult lifespan. We ovariectomized rats at the late prepubertal age or at the very end of reproductive lifespan, and examined the expression of ED2 (CD163, a marker of mature resident macrophages related to secretion of inflammatory mediators) on peritoneal macrophages and their ability to produce TNF-α and NO upon LPS-stimulation at different age points. In addition, to delineate direct and indirect effects of estrogen, we assessed the in vitro influence of different concentrations of 17β-estradiol on LPS-induced macrophage TNF-α and NO production. Results showed that: (a) the low frequency of ED2(high) cells amongst peritoneal macrophages of aged rats was accompanied with the reduced TNF-α, but not NO production; (b) estradiol level gradually increased following ovariectomy; (c) macrophage ED2 expression and TNF-α production were dependent on estradiol/progesterone balance and they changed in the same direction; (d) changes in estradiol/progesterone balance differentially affected macrophages TNF-α and NO production; and (e) estradiol exerted pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory effects on macrophages in vivo and in vitro, respectively. Overall, our study discloses that estradiol/progesterone balance contributes to the fine-tuning of rat macrophage secretory capacity, and adds to a better understanding of the ovarian steroid hormone role in the regulation of macrophage function, and its significance for the age-associated changes in innate immunity.

  18. A novel chalcone derivative attenuates the diabetes-induced renal injury via inhibition of high glucose-mediated inflammatory response and macrophage infiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Qilu; Zhao, Leping; Wang, Yi; Zhang, Yali; Li, Zhaoyu; Pan, Yong; Kanchana, Karvannan; Wang, Jingying; Tong, Chao; Li, Dan; Liang, Guang

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation plays a central role in the development and progression of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Researches on novel anti-inflammatory agents may offer new opportunities for the treatment of DN. We previously found a chalcone derivative L6H21 could inhibit LPS-induced cytokine release from macrophages. The aim of this study was to investigate whether L6H21 could ameliorate the high glucose-mediated inflammation in NRK-52E cells and attenuate the inflammation-mediated renal injury. According to the results, L6H21 showed a great inhibitory effect on the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, cell adhesion molecules, chemokines, and macrophage adhesion via down-regulation of NF-κB/MAPKs activity in high glucose-stimulated renal NRK-52E cells. Further, in vivo oral administration with L6H21 at a dosage of 20 mg/kg/2 days showed a decreased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, cell adhesion molecules, which subsequently contributed to the inhibition on renal macrophage infiltration, the reduction of serum creatinine and BUN levels, and the improvement on the fibrosis and pathological changes in the renal tissues of diabetic mice. These findings provided that chalcone derived L6H21 may be a promising anti-inflammatory agent and have the potential in the therapy of diabetic nephropathy, and importantly, MAPK/NF-κB signaling system may be a novel therapeutic target for human DN in the future. - Highlights: • Inflammation plays a central role in the development of diabetic nephropathy. • Compound L6H21 reduced the high glucose-mediated inflammation in NRK-52E cells. • Compound L6H21 attenuated the inflammation-mediated renal injury. • L6H21 exhibited anti-inflammatory effects via inactivation of NF-κB/MAPKs. • MAPKs/NF-κB may be a novel therapeutic target in diabetic nephropathy treatment

  19. A novel chalcone derivative attenuates the diabetes-induced renal injury via inhibition of high glucose-mediated inflammatory response and macrophage infiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Qilu [Chemical Biology Research Center, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang (China); Zhao, Leping [Department of Pharmacy, the Affiliated Yueqing Hospital, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang (China); Wang, Yi; Zhang, Yali [Chemical Biology Research Center, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang (China); Li, Zhaoyu [Department of International High School, Shanghai Jiaotong University Nanyang Affiliated (Kunshan) School, Minhang District, Shanghai (China); Pan, Yong; Kanchana, Karvannan; Wang, Jingying; Tong, Chao [Chemical Biology Research Center, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang (China); Li, Dan, E-mail: yqyyld@163.com [Department of Nephrology, the Affiliated Yueqing Hospital, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang (China); Liang, Guang, E-mail: wzmcliangguang@163.com [Chemical Biology Research Center, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang (China)

    2015-01-15

    Inflammation plays a central role in the development and progression of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Researches on novel anti-inflammatory agents may offer new opportunities for the treatment of DN. We previously found a chalcone derivative L6H21 could inhibit LPS-induced cytokine release from macrophages. The aim of this study was to investigate whether L6H21 could ameliorate the high glucose-mediated inflammation in NRK-52E cells and attenuate the inflammation-mediated renal injury. According to the results, L6H21 showed a great inhibitory effect on the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, cell adhesion molecules, chemokines, and macrophage adhesion via down-regulation of NF-κB/MAPKs activity in high glucose-stimulated renal NRK-52E cells. Further, in vivo oral administration with L6H21 at a dosage of 20 mg/kg/2 days showed a decreased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, cell adhesion molecules, which subsequently contributed to the inhibition on renal macrophage infiltration, the reduction of serum creatinine and BUN levels, and the improvement on the fibrosis and pathological changes in the renal tissues of diabetic mice. These findings provided that chalcone derived L6H21 may be a promising anti-inflammatory agent and have the potential in the therapy of diabetic nephropathy, and importantly, MAPK/NF-κB signaling system may be a novel therapeutic target for human DN in the future. - Highlights: • Inflammation plays a central role in the development of diabetic nephropathy. • Compound L6H21 reduced the high glucose-mediated inflammation in NRK-52E cells. • Compound L6H21 attenuated the inflammation-mediated renal injury. • L6H21 exhibited anti-inflammatory effects via inactivation of NF-κB/MAPKs. • MAPKs/NF-κB may be a novel therapeutic target in diabetic nephropathy treatment.

  20. Inhibitory effects on the production of inflammatory mediators and reactive oxygen species by Mori folium in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages and zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DA HYE KWON

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Mori folium, the leaf of Morus alba L. (Moraceae, has been traditionally used for various medicinal purposes from ancient times to the present. In this study, we examined the effects of water extract of Mori folium (WEMF on the production of inflammatory mediators, such as nitric oxide (NO and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, and reactive oxygen species (ROS in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated murine RAW 264.7 macrophages. Our data indicated that WEMF significantly suppressed the secretion of NO and PGE2 in RAW 264.7 macrophages without any significant cytotoxicity. The protective effects were accompanied by a marked reduction in their regulatory gene expression at the transcription level. WEMF attenuated LPS-induced intracellular ROS production in RAW 264.7 macrophages. It inhibited the nuclear translocation of the nuclear factor-kappa B p65 subunit and the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases in LPS-treated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Furthermore, WEMF reduced LPS-induced NO production and ROS accumulation in zebrafish. Although more efforts are needed to fully understand the critical role of WEMF in the inhibition of inflammation, the findings of the present study may provide insights into the approaches for Mori folium as a potential therapeutic agent for inflammatory and antioxidant disorders.

  1. Procyanidin dimer B2-mediated IRAK-M induction negatively regulates TLR4 signaling in macrophages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Nak-Yun [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Mi-So [Department of Microbiology, Infection Signaling Network Research Center, College of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Song, Du-Sub [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); School of life sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University 5-ka, Anam-Dong, Sungbuk-ku, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae-Kyung; Park, Jong-Heum; Song, Beom-Seok; Park, Sang-Hyun; Lee, Ju-Woon [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hyun-Jin [School of life sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University 5-ka, Anam-Dong, Sungbuk-ku, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae-Hun [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Eui-Baek, E-mail: ebbyun80@kaeri.re.kr [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Eui-Hong, E-mail: ehbyun80@kongju.ac.k [Department of Food Science and Technology, Kongju National University, Yesan 340-800 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-08-16

    Highlights: •Pro B2 elevated the expression of IRAK-M, a negative regulator of TLR signaling. •LPS-induced expression of cell surface molecules was inhibited by Pro B2. •LPS-induced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines was inhibited by Pro B2. •Pro B2 inhibited LPS-induced activation of MAPKs and NF-κB through IRAK-M. •Pro B2 inactivated naïve T cells by inhibiting LPS-induced cytokines via IRAK-M. -- Abstract: Polyphenolic compounds have been found to possess a wide range of physiological activities that may contribute to their beneficial effects against inflammation-related diseases; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying this anti-inflammatory activity are not completely characterized, and many features remain to be elucidated. In this study, we investigated the molecular basis for the down-regulation of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signal transduction by procyanidin dimer B2 (Pro B2) in macrophages. Pro B2 markedly elevated the expression of the interleukin (IL)-1 receptor-associated kinase (IRAK)-M protein, a negative regulator of TLR signaling. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced expression of cell surface molecules (CD80, CD86, and MHC class I/II) and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-12p70) were inhibited by Pro B2, and this action was prevented by IRAK-M silencing. In addition, Pro B2-treated macrophages inhibited LPS-induced activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases such as extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, p38, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase and the translocation of nuclear factor κB and p65 through IRAK-M. We also found that Pro B2-treated macrophages inactivated naïve T cells by inhibiting LPS-induced interferon-γ and IL-2 secretion through IRAK-M. These novel findings provide new insights into the understanding of negative regulatory mechanisms of the TLR4 signaling pathway and the immune-pharmacological role of Pro B2 in the immune response against the development

  2. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulates fresh human monocytes to lyse actinomycin D-treated WEHI-164 target cells via increased secretion of a monokine similar to tumor necrosis factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, A.R.; McKinnon, K.P.; Koren, H.S.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on tumoricidal activity of human monocytes freshly isolated from peripheral blood were studied. Actinomycin D-treated WEHI-164 cells were used as targets because they are NK insensitive and are lysed rapidly by monocytes in 6-hr 51 Cr-release assays. Monocytes exhibited significant spontaneous activity without endotoxin. Monocytes either pretreated for 1 hr with LPS or assayed in the presence of LPS exhibited 100- to 1000-fold increased cytolytic activity. Cytolytic activity was heat labile and trypsin sensitive, and was recovered from Sepharose S-200 columns in a single peak wi