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  1. Food reinforcement, energy intake, and macronutrient choice.

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    Epstein, Leonard H; Carr, Katelyn A; Lin, Henry; Fletcher, Kelly D

    2011-07-01

    Food is a powerful reinforcer that motivates people to eat. The relative reinforcing value of food (RRV(food)) is associated with obesity and energy intake and interacts with impulsivity to predict energy intake. How RRV(food) is related to macronutrient choice in ad libitum eating tasks in humans has not been studied; however, animal research suggests that sugar or simple carbohydrates may be a determinant of reward value in food. This study assessed which macronutrients are associated with food reinforcement. Two hundred seventy-three adults with various body mass indexes were assessed for RRV(food), the relative reinforcing value of reading, food hedonics, energy intake in an ad libitum taste test, and usual energy intake derived from repeated 24-h dietary recalls. Multiple regression was used to assess the relation between predictors of total energy and energy associated with macronutrient intake after control for age, sex, income, education, minority status, and other macronutrient intakes. The results showed that the relative proportion of responding for food compared with reading (RRV(prop)) was positively related to body mass index, laboratory-measured energy intake, and usual energy intake. In addition, RRV(prop) was a predictor of sugar intake but not of total carbohydrate, fat, or protein intake. These results are consistent with basic animal research showing that sugar is related to food reward and with the hypothesis that food reward processes are more strongly related to eating than are food hedonics. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00962117.

  2. The Macronutrients, Appetite, and Energy Intake.

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    Carreiro, Alicia L; Dhillon, Jaapna; Gordon, Susannah; Higgins, Kelly A; Jacobs, Ashley G; McArthur, Breanna M; Redan, Benjamin W; Rivera, Rebecca L; Schmidt, Leigh R; Mattes, Richard D

    2016-07-17

    Each of the macronutrients-carbohydrate, protein, and fat-has a unique set of properties that influences health, but all are a source of energy. The optimal balance of their contribution to the diet has been a long-standing matter of debate. Over the past half century, thinking has progressed regarding the mechanisms by which each macronutrient may contribute to energy balance. At the beginning of this period, metabolic signals that initiated eating events (i.e., determined eating frequency) were emphasized. This was followed by an orientation to gut endocrine signals that purportedly modulate the size of eating events (i.e., determined portion size). Most recently, research attention has been directed to the brain, where the reward signals elicited by the macronutrients are viewed as potentially problematic (e.g., contribute to disordered eating). At this point, the predictive power of the macronutrients for energy intake remains limited.

  3. Preprandial ghrelin is not affected by macronutrient intake, energy intake or energy expenditure

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    Rumpler William V

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ghrelin, a peptide secreted by endocrine cells in the gastrointestinal tract, is a hormone purported to have a significant effect on food intake and energy balance in humans. The influence of factors related to energy balance on ghrelin, such as daily energy expenditure, energy intake, and macronutrient intake, have not been reported. Secondly, the effect of ghrelin on food intake has not been quantified under free-living conditions over a prolonged period of time. To investigate these effects, 12 men were provided with an ad libitum cafeteria-style diet for 16 weeks. The macronutrient composition of the diets were covertly modified with drinks containing 2.1 MJ of predominantly carbohydrate (Hi-CHO, protein (Hi-PRO, or fat (Hi-FAT. Total energy expenditure was measured for seven days on two separate occasions (doubly labeled water and physical activity logs. Results Preprandial ghrelin concentrations were not affected by macronutrient intake, energy expenditure or energy intake (all P > 0.05. In turn, daily energy intake was significantly influenced by energy expenditure, but not ghrelin. Conclusion Preprandial ghrelin does not appear to be influenced by macronutrient composition, energy intake, or energy expenditure. Similarly, ghrelin does not appear to affect acute or chronic energy intake under free-living conditions.

  4. Preprandial ghrelin is not affected by macronutrient intake, energy intake or energy expenditure

    OpenAIRE

    Rumpler William V; Rhodes Donna G; Kramer Matthew; Paul David R

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Ghrelin, a peptide secreted by endocrine cells in the gastrointestinal tract, is a hormone purported to have a significant effect on food intake and energy balance in humans. The influence of factors related to energy balance on ghrelin, such as daily energy expenditure, energy intake, and macronutrient intake, have not been reported. Secondly, the effect of ghrelin on food intake has not been quantified under free-living conditions over a prolonged period of time. To inve...

  5. Dietary sources of energy and macronutrient intakes among Flemish preschoolers.

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    De Keyzer, Willem; Lin, Yi; Vereecken, Carine; Maes, Lea; Van Oyen, Herman; Vanhauwaert, Erika; De Backer, Guy; De Henauw, Stefaan; Huybrechts, Inge

    2011-11-01

    This study aims to identify major food sources of energy and macronutrients among Flemish preschoolers as a basis for evaluating dietary guidelines. Three-day estimated diet records were collected from a representative sample of 696 Flemish preschoolers (2.5-6.5 years old; participation response rate: 50%). For 11 dietary constituents, the contribution of 57 food groups was computed by summing the amount provided by the food group for all individuals divided by the total intake of the respective nutrient for all individuals. Bread (12%), sweet snacks (12%), milk (6%), flavoured milk drinks (9%), and meat products (6%) were the top five energy contributors. Sweet snacks were among the top contributors to energy, total fat, all fatty acids, cholesterol, and complex and simple carbohydrates. Fruit juices and flavoured milk drinks are the main contributors to simple carbohydrates (respectively 14% and 18%). All principal food groups like water, bread and cereals, vegetables, fruit, milk and spreadable fats were under-consumed by more than 30% of the population, while the food groups that were over-consumed consisted only of low nutritious and high energy dense foods (sweet snacks, sugared drinks, fried potatoes, sauces and sweet spreads). From the major food sources and gaps in nutrient and food intakes, some recommendations to pursue the nutritional goals could be drawn: the intake of sweet snacks and sugar-rich drinks (incl. fruit juices) should be discouraged, while consumption of fruits, vegetables, water, bread and margarine on bread should be encouraged.

  6. Macronutrient distribution over a period of 23 years in relation to energy intake and body fatness

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    Koppes, L.L.J.; Boon, N.; Nooyens, A.C.J.; Mechelen, W. van; Saris, W.H.M.

    2009-01-01

    The distribution of the four macronutrients is associated with energy intake and body fatness according to short-term interventions. The present study involves macronutrient distribution in relation to energy intake and body fatness over a period of 23 years in individuals who have ad libitum access

  7. Macronutrient distribution over a period of 23 years in relation to energy intake and body fatness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppes, L.L.J.; Boon, N.; Nooyens, A.C.J.; Mechelen, W. van; Saris, W.H.M.

    2009-01-01

    The distribution of the four macronutrients is associated with energy intake and body fatness according to short-term interventions. The present study involves macronutrient distribution in relation to energy intake and body fatness over a period of 23 years in individuals who have ad libitum access

  8. Food reinforcement, energy intake, and macronutrient choice123

    OpenAIRE

    Epstein, Leonard H.; Carr, Katelyn A; Lin, Henry; Fletcher, Kelly D.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Food is a powerful reinforcer that motivates people to eat. The relative reinforcing value of food (RRVfood) is associated with obesity and energy intake and interacts with impulsivity to predict energy intake.

  9. [Intakes of energy and macronutrients in pregnant women in the northeast of Mexico].

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    Tijerina Sáenz, Alexandra; Ramírez López, Erik; Meneses Valderrama, Víctor Manuel; Martínez Garza, Nancy Edith

    2014-09-01

    Descriptive and transversal study, first to report the dietary intake of energy and macronutrients in pregnant women in the northeast of Mexico. Convenience sample of 125 pregnant women (15-45 years of age) in the third trimester, who were prenatal patients in the Hospital Regional Materno Infantil, Nuevo León, Mexico. It was reported the level of studies, marital and professional status, weight, height and body mass index (BMI). Diet was evaluated by 24-hour food recalls, in 3 non-consecutive days. There were analyzed the intake of energy and the percentage contribution of calories from macronutrients according to the recommendations of intake of pregnant women. Intake of energy was 1683,8 Cal/day. The caloric contribution of saturated fat was higher than the recommendation in 53.6% of women. 76.8% of participants ate more than 55% of energy from carbohydrates, while 86.4% ate more sugars than the amount suggested. The median intake of protein was 12.0% of total energy intake. 75% of participants consumed less than 22,5 g of total dietary fiber. The relevance of knowing the intakes of energy and macronutrients in pregnant women may be due to the possible influence of diet over the child's appetite and maternal complications. Results of this study suggest the need to provide women with adequate nutritional recommendations since the first trimester of gestation, according to their nutritional status and social environment.

  10. Energy and macronutrient intakes in preschool children in urban areas of Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

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    Sibbritt David W

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity has been documented in preschool children in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC, Vietnam. However, little is known about what preschool children in HCMC eat or how well their nutrient intake meets nutrient recommendations. This study aims to describe the energy and macronutrient intake and compare these nutrient intakes with the recommendations for Vietnamese children aged four to five years. Methods The data comes from the baseline measurement of a one year follow-up study on obesity in 670 children attending kindergartens in HCMC. Dietary information for each child at the school and home settings was collected using Food Frequency Questionnaires (FFQs, by interviewing teachers and parents or main caregivers. The average energy and nutrient intake in a day was calculated. The proportion of children with energy intake from macronutrients meeting or exceeding the recommendations was estimated based on the 2006 recommended daily allowance (RDA for Vietnamese children in this age group. Results The dietary intake of the participants contained more energy from protein and fat, particularly animal protein and fat, and less energy from carbohydrates, than the RDA. Most children (98.1% had mean energy intake from protein greater than the recommended level of 15%, and no child obtained energy from animal fat that was in accordance with the recommendation of less than 30% of the total fat intake. Nearly one half of children (46.5% consumed less than the advised range of mean energy intake from carbohydrate (60%–70%. Conclusion In this preschool child population in HCMC, in which obesity is emerging as major public health problem, there is an imbalance in dietary intake. Healthy eating programs need to be developed as a part of an obesity prevention program for young children in HCMC.

  11. Body composition and energy expenditure predict ad-libitum food and macronutrient intake in humans.

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    Weise, C M; Hohenadel, M G; Krakoff, J; Votruba, S B

    2014-02-01

    Obesity is the result of chronic positive energy balance. The mechanisms underlying the regulation of energy homeostasis and food intake are not understood. Despite large increases in fat mass (FM), recent evidence indicates that fat-free mass (FFM) rather than FM is positively associated with intake in humans. In 184 humans (73 females/111 males; age 34.5±8.8 years; percentage body fat: 31.6±8.1%), we investigated the relationship of FFM index (FFMI, kg m(-2)), FM index (FMI, kg m(-2)); and 24-h energy expenditure (EE, n=127) with ad-libitum food intake using a 3-day vending machine paradigm. Mean daily calories (CAL) and macronutrient intake (PRO, CHO, FAT) were determined and used to calculate the relative caloric contribution of each (%PRO, %CHO, %FAT) and percent of caloric intake over weight maintaining energy needs (%WMENs). FFMI was positively associated with CAL (Pintake (all PFood and macronutrient intake are predicted by FFMI and to a lesser degree by FMI. FFM and FM may have opposing effects on energy homeostasis.

  12. Lipid-Based Nutrient Supplements Increase Energy and Macronutrient Intakes from Complementary Food among Malawian Infants.

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    Hemsworth, Jaimie; Kumwenda, Chiza; Arimond, Mary; Maleta, Kenneth; Phuka, John; Rehman, Andrea M; Vosti, Stephen A; Ashorn, Ulla; Filteau, Suzanne; Dewey, Kathryn G; Ashorn, Per; Ferguson, Elaine L

    2016-02-01

    Low intakes of good-quality complementary foods (CFs) contribute to undernutrition and consequently negatively affect health, growth, and development. Lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNSs) are designed to ensure dietary adequacy in micronutrients and essential fatty acids and to provide some energy and high-quality protein. In populations in which acute energy deficiency is rare, the dose-dependent effect of LNSs on CF intakes is unknown. The objective of this study was to evaluate the difference in energy and macronutrient intakes from CF between a control (no supplement) group and 3 groups that received 10, 20, or 40 g LNS/d. We collected repeated interactive 24-h dietary recalls from caregivers of rural Malawian 9- to 10-mo-old infants (n = 748) to estimate dietary intakes (LNS and all non-breast-milk foods) of energy and macronutrients and their dietary patterns. All infants were participating in a 12-mo randomized controlled trial to investigate the efficacy of various doses of LNS for preventing undernutrition. Dietary energy intakes were significantly higher among infants in the LNS intervention groups than in the control group (396, 406, and 388 kcal/d in the 10-, 20-, and 40-g LNS/d groups, respectively, compared with 345 kcal/d; each pairwise P energy intakes between groups who were administered the different LNS doses (10 g LNS/d compared with 20 g LNS/d: P = 0.72; 10 g LNS/d compared with 40 g LNS/d: P ≥ 0.67; 20 g LNS/d compared with 40 g LNS/d: P = 0.94). Intakes of protein and fat were significantly higher in the LNS intervention groups than in the control group. No significant intergroup differences were found in median intakes of energy from non-LNS CFs (357, 347, and 296 kcal/d in the 10-, 20-, and 40-g LNS/d groups, respectively, compared with 345 kcal/d in the control group; P = 0.11). LNSs in doses of 10-40 g/d increase intakes of energy and macronutrients among 9- to 10-mo-old Malawian infants, without displacing locally available CFs

  13. Novel Molecules Regulating Energy Homeostasis: Physiology and Regulation by Macronutrient Intake and Weight Loss

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    Anna Gavrieli

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Excess energy intake, without a compensatory increase of energy expenditure, leads to obesity. Several molecules are involved in energy homeostasis regulation and new ones are being discovered constantly. Appetite regulating hormones such as ghrelin, peptide tyrosine-tyrosine and amylin or incretins such as the gastric inhibitory polypeptide have been studied extensively while other molecules such as fibroblast growth factor 21, chemerin, irisin, secreted frizzle-related protein-4, total bile acids, and heme oxygenase-1 have been linked to energy homeostasis regulation more recently and the specific role of each one of them has not been fully elucidated. This mini review focuses on the above mentioned molecules and discusses them in relation to their regulation by the macronutrient composition of the diet as well as diet-induced weight loss.

  14. Energy and macronutrient intake in adolescent sprint athletes: a follow-up study.

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    Aerenhouts, Dirk; Deriemaeker, Peter; Hebbelinck, Marcel; Clarys, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Macronutrient intake, height, weight, and body composition of 60 adolescent sprint athletes were estimated every 6 months over 3 years. Seven-day food records were analysed based on the Belgian and Dutch food databanks. The age of participants at the start of the 3-year study was 14.8 ± 1.6 years for female athletes and 14.7 ± 1.9 years for male athletes. Girls and boys gained height (3.4 ± 4.6 cm and 5.9 ± 6.6 cm respectively) and weight (5.6 ± 3.5 kg and 8.7 ± 5.5 kg respectively), whereas percent body fat remained unchanged in both girls and boys (around 17.0% and 8.5% respectively). Mean protein intake of around 1.5 g · kg⁻¹ body weight was within recommendations on each occasion for both sexes. Carbohydrate intakes between 5 and 7 g · kg⁻¹ body weight support a training programme of moderate intensity. Total and saturated fat intakes were high at the start of the study (girls: 31.8 ± 3.5% and 12.2 ± 2.0% of energy intake; boys: 30.3 ± 4.6% and 12.0 ± 1.9% of energy intake) and it appeared to be difficult to achieve and maintain lower intakes. Consistent low fluid intakes around 40 ml · kg⁻¹ body weight were observed. General non-stringent advice for improvement of the diet resulted in significant favourable changes only for the consumption of wholegrain bread, vegetables, and soft drinks. Dietary habits of adolescent sprint athletes are not always according to guidelines and are relatively stable but repeated advice can induce moderate improvements.

  15. Energy and macronutrient intake over the course of the day of German adults: A DEDIPAC-study.

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    Wittig, Friederike; Hummel, Eva; Wenzler, Germaine; Heuer, Thorsten

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze the energy and macronutrient intake over the course of the day of selected population groups in Germany defined by sex, age, BMI, SES, and diet quality. The study was based on food consumption data from the German National Nutrition Survey II (2005-2007) assessed by two 4-day dietary weighing records of 662 women and men aged between 18 and 80 years. Energy and macronutrient intake were calculated using the German Nutrient Database 3.02 and summarized for the periods 'morning', 'midday', 'afternoon', 'evening', and 'night'. Generalized estimating equation models were used to examine differences in energy and macronutrient intake. For women and men, a three-main-meal pattern ('morning', 'midday', and 'evening') was observed, indicated as peaks in energy intake at 08:00 to 09:00, 13:00 and 19:00 o'clock. The distributions of carbohydrate, protein, and fat intake mirror the distribution of energy intake over the course of the day. The highest energy intake was found in the 'evening' period, especially in young adults, overweight persons, persons with a high SES, and men with a low diet quality. Women of the oldest age group showed a similar energy intake across the three-main-meals in contrast to young adults, who had lower peaks in the 'morning' and 'midday' periods as well as a shift to later meal times. Young adults seem to have a higher variability in energy intake and a less distinct meal pattern, while seniors have a more structured day. Because a high energy intake in the 'evening' period is associated with negative health-related factors, the distribution of energy intake should be considered by recommendations for a healthy nutritional behavior. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Energy and macronutrient intake and risk of differentiated thyroid carcinoma in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zamora-Ros, Raul; Rinaldi, Sabina; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K.; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine; Rostgaard-Hansen, Agnetha Linn; Tjønneland, Anne; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Mesrine, Sylvie; Katzke, Verena A.; Kühn, Tilman; Förster, Jana; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Klinaki, Eleni; Masala, Giovanna; Sieri, Sabina; Ricceri, Fulvio; Tumino, Rosario; Mattiello, Amalia; Peeters, Petra H M; Bueno-De-Mesquita, H. B.; Engeset, Dagrun; Skeie, Guri; Argüelles, Marcial; Agudo, Antonio; Sánchez, María José; Chirlaque, María Dolores; Barricarte, Aurelio; Chamosa, Saioa; Almquist, Martin; Tosovic, Ada; Hennings, Joakim; Sandström, Maria; Schmidt, Julie A.; Khaw, Kay Thee; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Cross, Amanda J.; Slimani, Nadia; Byrnes, Graham; Romieu, Isabelle; Riboli, Elio; Franceschi, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Incidence rates of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (TC) have increased in many countries. Adiposity and dietary risk factors may play a role, but little is known on the influence of energy intake and macronutrient composition. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between TC and

  17. Energy and macronutrient intake and risk of differentiated thyroid carcinoma in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora-Ros, Raul; Rinaldi, Sabina; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Rostgaard-Hansen, Agnetha Linn; Tjønneland, Anne; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Mesrine, Sylvie; Katzke, Verena A; Kühn, Tilman; Förster, Jana; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Klinaki, Eleni; Masala, Giovanna; Sieri, Sabina; Ricceri, Fulvio; Tumino, Rosario; Mattiello, Amalia; Peeters, Petra H M; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; Engeset, Dagrun; Skeie, Guri; Argüelles, Marcial; Agudo, Antonio; Sánchez, María-José; Chirlaque, María-Dolores; Barricarte, Aurelio; Chamosa, Saioa; Almquist, Martin; Tosovic, Ada; Hennings, Joakim; Sandström, Maria; Schmidt, Julie A; Khaw, Kay-Thee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Cross, Amanda J; Slimani, Nadia; Byrnes, Graham; Romieu, Isabelle; Riboli, Elio; Franceschi, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Incidence rates of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (TC) have increased in many countries. Adiposity and dietary risk factors may play a role, but little is known on the influence of energy intake and macronutrient composition. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between TC and the intake of energy, macronutrients, glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. The study included 477,274 middle-age participants (70.2% women) from ten European countries. Dietary data were collected using country-specific validated dietary questionnaires. Total carbohydrates, proteins, fats, saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats (PUFA), starch, sugar, and fiber were computed as g/1,000 kcal. Multivariable Cox regression was used to calculate multivariable adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) by intake quartile (Q). After a mean follow-up time of 11 years, differentiated TC was diagnosed in 556 participants (90% women). Overall, we found significant associations only with total energy (HRQ4 vs .Q1 , 1.29; 95% CI, 1.00-1.68) and PUFA intakes (HRQ4 vs .Q1 , 0.74; 95% CI, 0.57-0.95). However, the associations with starch and sugar intake and GI were significantly heterogeneous across body mass index (BMI) groups, i.e., positive associations with starch and GI were found in participants with a BMI ≥ 25 and with sugar intake in those with BMI < 25. Moreover, inverse associations with starch and GI were observed in subjects with BMI < 25. In conclusion, our results suggest that high total energy and low PUFA intakes may increase the risk of differentiated TC. Positive associations with starch intake and GI in participants with BMI ≥ 25 suggest that those persons may have a greater insulin response to high starch intake and GI than lean people.

  18. Energy and macronutrient intake and dietary pattern among school children in Bahrain: a cross-sectional study

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    Rasheed Parveen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is increasing in Bahrain and there is lack of information on the energy and macronutrient intake of children. The objective of this research was to study the energy and macronutrient intake as well as food frequency pattern of Bahraini school children. Methods This is a cross-sectional descriptive study conducted on Bahraini school boys and girls aged 6-18 years from all the 11 populated regions of the country. Data on food intake consisted of a 24-hour dietary recall and was obtained by interviewing a sub-sample of the study population. Information was also obtained through a self-administered questionnaire for the entire sample on the weekly frequency of food items that were grouped into 7 categories based on similarity of nutrient profiles. Dietary analysis was performed using the Nutritionist 5 (First Data Bank Version 1.6 1998. Results While the average energy intake of students was close to the Estimated Average Requirements of the UK Reference standards, protein intake substantially exceeded the Reference Nutrient Intake values as did daily sugar consumption. Dietary fiber fell short of the Dietary Recommended Values (UK and 36%-50% students exceeded the Energy % limits for total fat, saturated fat and cholesterol. The Polyunsaturated: Saturated fat ratio remained at an unacceptable level of 0.6 for girls and boys. While sweets, snacks and regular soda drinks were popular, milk, fruits and vegetables were not commonly consumed. Conclusions High sugar consumption, low intake of dietary fiber and high energy % of saturated fat and dietary cholesterol by many Bahraini children, is likely to increase their risk of obesity and cardiovascular diseases in later life. Nutrition education programs in schools should emphasize the importance of healthy balanced diets for growth and health maintenance of children as well as dietary prevention of diseases.

  19. Associations of body mass index and waist circumference with: energy intake and percentage energy from macronutrients, in a cohort of australian children

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    Abbott Rebecca A

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is evident from previous research that the role of dietary composition in relation to the development of childhood obesity remains inconclusive. Several studies investigating the relationship between body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC and/or skin fold measurements with energy intake have suggested that the macronutrient composition of the diet (protein, carbohydrate, fat may play an important contributing role to obesity in childhood as it does in adults. This study investigated the possible relationship between BMI and WC with energy intake and percentage energy intake from macronutrients in Australian children and adolescents. Methods Height, weight and WC measurements, along with 24 h food and drink records (FDR intake data were collected from 2460 boys and girls aged 5-17 years living in the state of Queensland, Australia. Results Statistically significant, yet weak correlations between BMI z-score and WC with total energy intake were observed in grades 1, 5 and 10, with only 55% of subjects having a physiologically plausible 24 hr FDR. Using Pearson correlations to examine the relationship between BMI and WC with energy intake and percentage macronutrient intake, no significant correlations were observed between BMI z-score or WC and percentage energy intake from protein, carbohydrate or fat. One way ANOVAs showed that although those with a higher BMI z-score or WC consumed significantly more energy than their lean counterparts. Conclusion No evidence of an association between percentage macronutrient intake and BMI or WC was found. Evidently, more robust longitudinal studies are needed to elucidate the relationship linking obesity and dietary intake.

  20. Relevance of Morning and Evening Energy and Macronutrient Intake during Childhood for Body Composition in Early Adolescence

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    Tanja Diederichs

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: This study investigated the relevance of morning and evening energy and macronutrient intake during childhood for body composition in early adolescence; (2 Methods: Analyses were based on data from 372 DONALD (DOrtmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed study participants. Explorative life-course plots were performed to examine whether morning or evening energy and macronutrient intake at 3/4 years, 5/6 years, or 7/8 years is critical for fat mass index (FMI [kg/m2] and fat free mass index (FFMI [kg/m2] in early adolescence (10/11 years. Subsequently, exposures in periods identified as consistently critical were examined in depth using adjusted regression models; (3 Results: Life-course plots identified morning fat and carbohydrate (CHO intake at 3/4 years and 7/8 years as well as changes in these intakes between 3/4 years and 7/8 years as potentially critical for FMI at 10/11 years. Adjusted regression models corroborated higher FMI values at 10/11 years among those who had consumed less fat (p = 0.01 and more CHO (p = 0.01 in the morning at 7/8 years as well as among those who had decreased their morning fat intake (p = 0.02 and increased their morning CHO intake (p = 0.05 between 3/4 years and 7/8 years; (4 Conclusion: During childhood, adherence to a low fat, high CHO intake in the morning may have unfavorable consequences for FMI in early adolescence.

  1. A systematic review and meta-analysis of energy and macronutrient intake responses to physical activity interventions in children and adolescents with obesity.

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    Schwartz, C; King, N A; Perreira, B; Blundell, J E; Thivel, D

    2017-06-01

    The effects of regular physical activity on energy intake in obese adolescents are unknown. The objective is to determine how physical activity interventions affect energy and macronutrient intake in overweight/obese youth. Databases were searched from December 2014 to December 2015 for studies that measured energy and/or macronutrient consumption in response to physical activity intervention in overweight/obese youth. The review comprises primary source articles published in English in peer-reviewed journals. Articles that presented data on energy and/or macronutrient intake before and after a physical activity intervention (without dietary restriction) in overweight or obese children and teenagers (up to 18 years old) were included. Of the initial 307 references found, nine were included. The nine included studies analysed the effect of 15 different physical activity interventions. Nine showed a decrease and six unchanged energy intakes. The effect size for total energy intake ranged from -2.108 to -0.207 (n = 14). Results of the meta-analysis revealed a mean effect of physical intervention to reduce intake of -1.003 (95% confidence interval = -1.261 to -0.745, p energy intake reduction was -323 ± 286 kcal. Macronutrient intake was assessed in 11 interventions. Protein intake was found decreased in five (reduction of -26.8 ± 19.2 g), seven reported fat decrease (reduction of -26.4 ± 17.8 g) and five a decrease in CHO (reduction of -72.5 ± 22.8 g). The meta-analysis revealed significant decreases of each macronutrient (p energy intake in obese adolescents. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  2. Does increased exercise or physical activity alter ad-libitum daily energy intake or macronutrient composition in healthy adults? A systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph E Donnelly

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The magnitude of the negative energy balance induced by exercise may be reduced due to compensatory increases in energy intake. OBJECTIVE: TO ADDRESS THE QUESTION: Does increased exercise or physical activity alter ad-libitum daily energy intake or macronutrient composition in healthy adults? DATA SOURCES: PubMed and Embase were searched (January 1990-January 2013 for studies that presented data on energy and/or macronutrient intake by level of exercise, physical activity or change in response to exercise. Ninety-nine articles (103 studies were included. STUDY ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Primary source articles published in English in peer-reviewed journals. Articles that presented data on energy and/or macronutrient intake by level of exercise or physical activity or changes in energy or macronutrient intake in response to acute exercise or exercise training in healthy (non-athlete adults (mean age 18-64 years. STUDY APPRAISAL AND SYNTHESIS METHODS: Articles were grouped by study design: cross-sectional, acute/short term, non-randomized, and randomized trials. Considerable heterogeneity existed within study groups for several important study parameters, therefore a meta-analysis was considered inappropriate. Results were synthesized and presented by study design. RESULTS: No effect of physical activity, exercise or exercise training on energy intake was shown in 59% of cross-sectional studies (n = 17, 69% of acute (n = 40, 50% of short-term (n = 10, 92% of non-randomized (n = 12 and 75% of randomized trials (n = 24. Ninety-four percent of acute, 57% of short-term, 100% of non-randomized and 74% of randomized trials found no effect of exercise on macronutrient intake. Forty-six percent of cross-sectional trials found lower fat intake with increased physical activity. LIMITATIONS: The literature is limited by the lack of adequately powered trials of sufficient duration, which have prescribed and measured exercise energy expenditure, or

  3. Body Composition and Energy Expenditure Predict Ad-Libitum Food and Macronutrient Intake in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Weise, Christopher M.; Hohenadel, Maximilian G.; Krakoff, Jonathan; Votruba, Susanne B.

    2013-01-01

    Background Obesity is the result of chronic positive energy balance. The mechanisms underlying the regulation of energy homeostasis and food intake are not understood. Despite large increases in fat mass (FM), recent evidence indicates that fat-free mass (FFM) rather than FM is positively associated with intake in humans. Methods In 184 humans (73F/111M; age 34.5±8.8y; % body fat [PFAT] 31.6±8.1%) we investigated the relationship of FFM index (FFMI kg*m2), FM index (FMI kg*m2;), and 24-hour e...

  4. Total Energy Intake May Be More Associated with Glycemic Control Compared to Each Proportion of Macronutrients in the Korean Diabetic Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Mi Kang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundMajor macronutrients for energy intake vary among countries and cultures. Carbohydrates, including rice, are the major component of daily energy intake in Korea. The aim of this study was to examine the association of daily energy intake or each proportion of macronutrients, especially carbohydrates, with glycemic control in diabetic Koreans.MethodsA total of 334 individuals with diabetes (175 men, age 57.4±0.8 years; 159 women, age 60.9±0.9 years who participated in the 2005 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were examined. Glycemic control was categorized based on concentration of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c; HbA1c ≤6.5%; 6.6% to 8.0%; ≥8.1%. Dietary intake was assessed by using a 24-recall item questionnaire.ResultsHigh total energy intake was associated with poor glycemic control (HbA1c ≤6.5%, 1,824±75 kcal; 6.6% to 8.0%, 1,990±57 kcal; ≥8.1%, 2,144±73 kcal; P value for trend=0.002. Each proportion of protein, fat, or carbohydrate was not associated with glycemic control. Even after adjusting for several parameters, the association of daily energy intake with glycemic control still persisted.ConclusionTotal energy intake may be more closely related to glycemic control than each proportionof macronutrients in Korean diabetics.

  5. Energy and macronutrient composition of breakfast affect gastric emptying of lunch and subsequent food intake, satiety and satiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clegg, Miriam; Shafat, Amir

    2010-06-01

    Satiety and food intake are closely related to gastrointestinal transit and specifically gastric emptying. High-fat (HF) meals empty more slowly from the stomach yet are less satiating than isoenergetic low-fat (LF) meals. The current study examines how gastric emptying and satiety at lunch are affected by energy and macronutrient content of breakfast. Nine male volunteers consumed either (1) a HF breakfast, (2) a LF breakfast isoenergetic to HF (LFE) or (3) a LF breakfast of equal mass to HF (LFM). Gastric emptying half time measured using the sodium [(13)C] acetate breath test was delayed after HF compared to LF meals (HF: 102 + or - 11, LFE: 96 + or - 13, LFM: 95 + or - 13 min, mean + or - SD). Fullness increased and desire to eat decreased following the LFE breakfast measured using visual analogue scales. Eating a HF breakfast increased the energy, fat and protein from an ad libitum buffet meal given 4h after lunch. In conclusion, eating a HF breakfast delayed gastric emptying of lunch and increased food intake 7 h later compared to a LFM breakfast. These data suggest both mass and energy content of food regulate subsequent appetite and feeding and demonstrate the hyperphagic effect of a single HF meal.

  6. Contribution of beverages to energy, macronutrient and micronutrient intake of third- and fourth-grade schoolchildren in Quetzaltenango, Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenegro-Bethancourt, Gabriela; Vossenaar, Marieke; Doak, Colleen M; Solomons, Noel W

    2010-04-01

    Beverages are selected based on availability, culture, taste preference, health, safety and social context. Beverages may be important to energy and to the macronutrient and micronutrient quality of overall intake. The aim of this study was to determine the contribution of beverages to the dietary energy and estimated macro- and micronutrient intake to the diet of young schoolchildren. We analyzed data from third- and fourth-grade urban Guatemalan school-children aged predominantly 8-10 years old. One-day pictorial registries of all beverages, foods and snacks consumed over a 24-h period were collected from children from private (n = 219) and public (n = 230) schools. Food composition nutrient values were assigned to the items consumed. Eleven main categories of beverages were identified. The contribution of each of the 11 beverage categories to energy, macro- and micronutrients was evaluated. The estimated intake of beverages was 475,300 mL, as reported by the 449 children. As a group, the beverage consumed in the greatest quantity was coffee (126,500 mL), followed by plain water (62,000 mL). Beverages represented a mean energy contribution of 418 +/- 26 kcal (21.5% of total dietary energy). The beverages varied in energy density from 0 (water) to 1.5 kcal mL(-1) (thin gruels). Beverages contributed one-third of the dietary carbohydrate. Through the contribution of fortified drinks, beverages were important sources of vitamin A (55%), vitamin C (38%), zinc (21%) and calcium (19%). Milk was an important source for vitamin D (10%). These results show the importance of drinks to nutrition and the balance of concerns of overweight/obesity with micronutrient quality.

  7. Impact of the Bolsa Família Program on energy, macronutrient, and micronutrient intakes: Study of the Northeast and Southeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naiara SPERANDIO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To assess the impact of the Bolsa Família Program on the energy and nutrient intakes of beneficiaries from the Brazilian Northeast and Southeast regions. Methods: The study used data from the 2008-2009 Pesquisa de Orçamento Famíliar, which assessed individual food intake on two nonconsecutive days of individuals aged more than 10 years. Based the personal information booklet, food intake values were transformed into nutritional values (energy and nutrients. Analysis of the impact measure was preceded by propensity score matching, a technique that matches some socioeconomic characteristics of beneficiaries and nonbeneficiaries. Once the score was calculated, the impact of the Bolsa Família Program was estimated by nearest neighbor matching. Results: The program increased energy and macronutrient intakes and decreased calcium and vitamin A, D, E, and C intakes of adolescent beneficiaries in both regions. Adult beneficiaries from the Southeast region increased their fiber, iron, and selenium intakes, and those from the Northeast region decreased their energy, lipid, added sugar, sodium, zinc, vitamin E, and pyridoxine intakes. Conclusion: The results show a positive impact of the program on the energy and macronutrient intakes, and a negative impact on the intakes of most study micronutrients, especially in adolescents, which reinforce the importance of implementing intersectoral actions to improve the nutritional quality of the Bolsa Família Program beneficiaries' diet.

  8. Macronutrient Intake for Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buford, Thomas

    Proper nutrition is an essential element of athletic performance, body composition goals, and general health. Although natural variability among persons makes it impossible to create a single diet that can be recommended to all; examining scientific principles makes it easier for athletes and other physically active persons to eat a diet that prepares them for successful training and/or athletic competition. A proper nutritional design incorporates these principles and is tailored to the individual. It is important for the sports nutritionist, coach, and athlete to understand the role that each of the macronutrients plays in an active lifestyle. In addition, keys to success include knowing how to determine how many calories to consume, the macronutrient breakdown of those calories, and proper timing to maximize the benefits needed for the individual's body type and activity schedule.

  9. [Effect of educational nutrition program on the energy and macronutrients intake of preschoolers attending Junji day care centres in the eastern sector of Santiago, Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vásquez, Fabián; Andrade, Margarita; Rodríguez, M del Pilar; Salazar, Gabriela

    2008-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the change on the energy and macronutrients intake in obese and eutrophic preschoolers, attending National Board of Day Care Centres (JUNJI), in the eastern area of Santiago, as product of an educational intervention in intake, nutrition and physical activity, sustained in the theory of the social cognitive learning and the model of community organization. The sample comprised of thirty five obese children, plus eighty five eutrophic children (4-5 years olds). Energy intake was evaluated, measuring full two days a week plus one weekend day. At the day care centre, all ingested food was weighed, and when back at home, child food-intake was recalled. During the stay at the day care centres, the intervention produced a reduction in: energy, proteins, lipids and carbohydrates in obese girls (pobese boys (pobese girls and eutrophic boys (pobese boys, reduced the intake of calories (pobese girls the reduction was in calories (pobesity and chronic diseases.

  10. Assessment of habitual energy and macronutrient intake in adults: comparison of a seven day food record with a dietary history interview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høidrup, S.; Andreasen, A. H.; Osler, M.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To examine the quantitative agreement between a 7 day food record and a diet history interview when these are conducted under the same conditions and to evaluate whether the two methods assess habitual diet intake differently among subgroups of age and body mass index (BMI). Design......: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Population study, Denmark. Subjects: A total of 175 men and 173 women aged 30-60 y, selected randomly from a larger population sample of Danish adults. Interventions: All subjects had habitual diet intake assessed by a diet history interview and completed a 7 day food...... record within 3 weeks following the interview. The diet history interview and coding of records were performed by the same trained dietician. Main outcome measure: Median between-method difference in assessment of total energy intake, absolute intake of macronutrients, and nutrient energy percentages...

  11. [Hungarian Diet and Nutritional Status Survey - OTÁP2014. II. Energy and macronutrient intake of the Hungarian population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkadi Nagy, Eszter; Bakacs, Márta; Illés, Éva; Nagy, Barbara; Varga, Anita; Kis, Orsolya; Schreiberné Molnár, Erzsébet; Martos, Éva

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the study was to assess and monitor the dietary habits and nutrient intake of Hungarian adults. Three-day dietary records were used for dietary assessment, the sample was representative for the Hungarian population aged ≥18ys by gender and age. The mean proportion of energy from fat was higher (men: 38 energy%, women: 37 energy%), that from carbohydrates was lower (men: 45 energy%, women: 47 energy%) than recommended, the protein intake is adequate. Unfavorable change compared to the previous survey in 2009 was the increase of fat and saturated fatty acid energy percent in women, the decrease in fruit and vegetable consumption, which explains the decreased fiber intake. An increasing trend in added sugar energy percent in each age groups of both genders was observed compared to 2009. Interventions focusing on the promotion of fruit and vegetable consumption and decreasing of saturated fat and added sugar intake are needed. Orv. Hetil., 2017, 158(15), 587-597.

  12. Effect of macronutrient composition on short-term food intake and weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellissimo, Nick; Akhavan, Tina

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this review is to describe the role of macronutrient composition on the suppression of short-term food intake (FI) and weight loss. The effects of macronutrient composition on short-term FI will be reviewed first, followed by a brief examination of longer-term clinical trials that vary in effects of dietary macronutrient composition on weight loss. The objectives were: 1) to examine the effect of macronutrient composition on the suppression of short-term FI, 2) to determine whether some macronutrient sources suppress FI beyond their provision of energy, 3) to assess the combined effects of macronutrients on FI and glycemic response, and 4) to determine whether knowledge of the effect of macronutrients on short-term FI has led to greater success in spontaneous weight loss, adherence to energy-restricted diets, and better weight maintenance after weight loss. Although knowledge of macronutrient composition on short-term FI regulation has advanced our understanding of the role of diet composition on energy balance, it has yet to lead to greater success in long-term weight loss and weight maintenance. It is clear from this review that many approaches based on manipulating dietary macronutrient composition can help people lose weight as long as they follow the diets. However, only by evaluating the interaction between the physiologic systems that govern FI and body weight may the benefits of dietary macronutrient composition be fully realized. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  13. Energy and macronutrient intake of a female vegan cyclist during an 8-day mountain bike stage race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirnitzer, Katharina C; Kornexl, Elmar

    2014-01-01

    This report describes the dietary intake of a vegan mountain biker (height, 161 cm; weight, 49.6 kg; body mass index, 19.1 kg/m(2); relative peak power output, 4.6 W/kg) during the Transalp Challenge 2004 (altitude climbed, 22,500 m; total distance, 662 km), illustrating an aggressive dietary strategy that allowed the cyclist to be competitive. She finished the 8-stage event in 42 hours (mixed category, rank 16; 514 minutes behind the winners of this category), cycling with an average heart rate of 79.5% of laboratory-determined maximum, spending 892 minutes and 1627 minutes at intensities below and above 80%, respectively. During racing, the consumption of energy was 69.3 MJ (1.65 MJ/h), 65.76 MJ from carbohydrates (92 g/h), which was 35% of calories and 40% of carbohydrate total intake, and the fluid ingested was 3 L/day (570 mL/h), 55% of the total fluid consumed.

  14. Assessment of macronutrient and micronutrient intake in women with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadigan, C M; Anderson, E J; Miller, K K; Hubbard, J L; Herzog, D B; Klibanski, A; Grinspoon, S K

    2000-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the accuracy of diet history compared to observed food intake in the nutritional assessment of women with anorexia nervosa (AN) and healthy age-matched controls. One-month diet history was compared to 1-day observed food intake in 30 women with AN and 28 control subjects. Reported intake by diet history was similar to observed intake for macronutrient composition and fat intake for patients with AN. Reported energy intake was higher than observed intake (1,602 +/- 200 kcal vs. 1,289 +/- 150 kcal, p assessed by diet history. In contrast to patients with AN, diet history did not correlate with observed intake of energy, macronutrients, or most micronutrients among the controls. Diet history is an accurate tool to assess fat intake and macronutrient composition in patients with AN and demonstrates significant micronutrient deficiencies in this population. The agreement between total energy intake and predicted energy expenditure supports the overall utility of the diet history in the nutritional assessment of patients with AN. Copyright 2000 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  15. Macronutrients Content and Energy Value of Fiber Rich Biscuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lovorka Vujić

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Cereals and cereal based products are an important source of energy, fibers and a range of macro- and micronutrients such as carbohydrates, proteins, minerals etc. Most of the evidences for health benefits of cereal foods are related to the fiber rich wholegrain foods and its role in reducing risk of degenerative chronic diseases, so-called Western diseases (constipation, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, diverticulosis, obesity, and colon cancer. To evaluate fiber-rich cereal products as a functional food, nine types of biscuits based on whole grain wheat flour with enlarged share of dietary fibers were experimentally prepared. The goal of this study was to present the contents of main macronutrients, such as total proteins, carbohydrates and total fat in mentioned biscuits and to estimate contributions of each individual component to biscuit’s energy value in relation to new reference values. Our results show that regarding Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI given by the Food and Nutrition Board, USA (FNB 2005, examined biscuits can be considered as a good source of macronutrients and dietary fibers in nutrition. Consumption of those biscuits ensure relatively balanced intake of energy originated from main macronutrients. Being high in total dietary fibers (16.50 up to 46.77 g/1000 kcal that is considerably higher than recommended by Adequate Intake (AI for total dietary fibers based on 14 g/1000 kcal of required energy (DRI 2005, investigated biscuits can significantly contribute to the intake of those health enhancing components.

  16. Alimentos industrializados en la dieta de los preescolares mexicanos Contribution of processed foods to the energy, macronutrient and fiber intakes of Mexican children aged 1 to 4 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinorah González-Castell

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Clasificar los alimentos consumidos por preescolares mexicanos, en relación con su proceso de elaboración y temporalidad: a industrializados modernos (IM, b industrializados tradicionales (IT y c no industrializados (NI. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Con base en información del recordatorio de 24 horas de la Encuesta Nacional de Nutrición 1999 en niños de 1-4 años (n=1 070 se analizó la contribución de cada categoría de alimentos en energía, macronutrimentos y fibra. RESULTADOS: La contribución de energía a partir de IM e IT, respectivamente, fue: energía, 17 y 31%; proteína total, 14 y 25%; proteína vegetal, 10 y 10%; proteína animal, 17 y 34%; carbohidratos, 18 y 26%; fibra, 4 y 5%; grasa total, 15 y 41%; grasa saturada, 16 y 52%; y colesterol, 7 y 7 por ciento. CONCLUSIONES: Los alimentos industrializados aportan más de 39% de la energía, proteína animal, carbohidratos y grasas a la dieta de los preescolares mexicanos. Se recomienda la participación de la industria alimentaria para prevenir la mala nutrición infantil en México.OBJECTIVE: To classify the foods consumed by Mexican children 1-4 years in three food categories according to the preparation process and temporality: a Processed Modern Foods (PMF, b Processed Traditional Foods (PTF and c Non-Processed Foods. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-four-hour dietary recalls were collected from the National Nutrition Survey 1999 in children 1-4 years (n =1070. The contribution of each food category to the total energy, macronutrient and fiber intakes was analyzed. RESULTS: The contribution of PMF and PTF was as follows, respectively: Energy: 17%, 31%; total protein: 14%, 25%; non-animal protein: 10%, 10%; animal protein: 17%, 34%; carbohydrates: 18%, 26%; fiber: 4%, 5%; total fat 15%, 41%; saturated fat 16%, 52%; and cholesterol 7%, 7%. CONCLUSIONS: The contribution of PF to the diets of Mexican children accounts for >39% of energy, total protein, animal protein

  17. Food and macronutrient intake of male adolescent Kalenjin runners in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Dirk L; Van Hall, Gerrit; Hambraeus, Leif

    2002-12-01

    A nutritional survey based on twelve adolescent male Kalenjin runners in Kenya during a 2-week field study was carried out in order to determine the composition of their diet and make a comparison with macronutrient recommendations for athletes. Food samples were collected for analysis of macronutrient distribution and energy content from main meals and the macronutrient distribution and energy content of additional food intake were based on the information of a 24 h recall interview and estimated from food tables. The diet of the Kalenjin runners was very high in carbohydrate (71 % 8.7 g/kg body weight per d) and very low in fat (15 %). Intake of total protein (13 %; 1.6 g/kg body weight per d) was above the daily intake recommended by the Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization/United Nations University (FAO/WHO/UNU), while essential amino acid intake was estimated to be in the borderline-to-low range based on FAO/WHO/UNU recommendations for children staple food (81 %). The diet of the Kalenjin runners met recommendations for endurance athletes for total protein and most essential amino acid intake as well as carbohydrate intake even though it was based on a small range of food items.

  18. Balancing macronutrient intake in a mammalian carnivore: disentangling the influences of flavour and nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewson-Hughes, Adrian K.; Colyer, Alison; Simpson, Stephen J.; Raubenheimer, David

    2016-01-01

    There is a large body of research demonstrating that macronutrient balancing is a primary driver of foraging in herbivores and omnivores, and more recently, it has been shown to occur in carnivores. However, the extent to which macronutrient selection in carnivores may be influenced by organoleptic properties (e.g. flavour/aroma) remains unknown. Here, we explore the roles of nutritional and hedonic factors in food choice and macronutrient balancing in a mammalian carnivore, the domestic cat. Using the geometric framework, we determined the amounts and ratio of protein and fat intake in cats allowed to select from combinations of three foods that varied in protein : fat (P : F) composition (approx. 10 : 90, 40 : 60 and 70 : 30 on a per cent energy basis) to which flavours of different ‘attractiveness’ (fish, rabbit and orange) were added. In two studies, in which animal and plant protein sources were used, respectively, the ratio and amounts of protein and fat intake were very consistent across all groups regardless of flavour combination, indicating regulation of both protein and fat intake. Our results suggest that macronutrient balancing rather than hedonistic rewards based on organoleptic properties of food is a primary driver of longer-term food selection and intake in domestic cats. PMID:27429768

  19. Gasto energético e ingesta de energía y macronutrientes en mujeres obesas en edad estéril Energy expenditure and energy and macronutrient intake in obese women of fertile age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Esquivel

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A 90 mujeres con sobrepeso y obesidad del área de atracción del Programa de Atención Integral en Salud (PAIS se les midió la tasa metabólica basal por calorimetría indirecta y se les evaluó tanto el nivel de actividad física como la ingesta de energía y macronutrientes. Se observó una correlación positiva entre el Índice de Masas Corporal y la tasa metabólica basal de estas mujeres. Aunque se encontró diferencia significativa entre el gasto metabólico basal estimado por la ecuación de Harris-Benedict y el gasto metabólico basal medido por calorimetría indirecta, no se encontró diferencia significativa en el total de energía expedida obtenida por ambos métodos. En estas pacientes con sobrepeso no se encontró diferencia significativa entre el gasto energético total y la ingesta energética diaria obtenida, lo que sugiere un estado de equilibrio energético adaptado a la nueva condición de fisiológica. Según la distribución de macronutrientes fue la grasa la que excedió la recomendación dietética diaria.A group of 90 women with overweight and obesity, residing in the area covered by the Program for Integral Attention in Health (PAIS participated in this study. The following measurements were made: basal metabolic rate by indirect calorimetry, level of physical activity and intake of energy and macronutrients. There was a positive correlation between Body Mass Index and the basal metabolic rate for these women. Although a significant difference was found between the average basal metabolic expenditure of the group, as estimated by the Harris-Benedict equation and average basal metabolic expenditure as measured by indirect calorimetry, there was no significant difference between total energy expenditure as estimated by both methods. No significant difference was found between average energy expenditure and average energy intake for these women, suggesting a state of energy balance which is an adaption to the new

  20. The association between macronutrient intake and the metabolic syndrome and its components in type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahola, Aila J; Harjutsalo, Valma; Thorn, Lena M; Freese, Riitta; Forsblom, Carol; Mäkimattila, Sari; Groop, Per-Henrik

    2017-02-20

    Diet is a major modifiable lifestyle factor that may affect the components of the metabolic syndrome. We aimed to investigate the association between relative proportions of macronutrients and the components of the metabolic syndrome in a population of individuals with type 1 diabetes. In all, 791 individuals without nephropathy, with plausible energy intake and known metabolic syndrome status, taking part in the Finnish Diabetic Nephropathy Study were included in the analyses. Dietary data were collected with a diet record. The association between the relative macronutrient intake and the outcome variables were analysed using multivariable nutrient density substitution models. The relative proportions of dietary macronutrients or fatty acids were not associated with the presence of the metabolic syndrome. In men, however, favouring carbohydrates over fats was associated with lower odds of the waist component, whereas favouring either carbohydrates or fats over proteins was associated with lower odds of the blood pressure component of the metabolic syndrome. In women, substituting carbohydrates for fats was associated with lower HDL-cholesterol concentration. Substituting carbohydrates or fats for alcohol or protein was, in men, associated with lower systolic blood pressure. To conclude, the relative distribution of macronutrients may have some relevance for the metabolic syndrome.

  1. Macronutrient Intakes in 553 Dutch Elite and Sub-Elite Endurance, Team, and Strength Athletes: Does Intake Differ between Sport Disciplines?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wardenaar, Floris; Brinkmans, Naomi; Ceelen, Ingrid; Rooij, Van Bo; Mensink, Marco; Witkamp, Renger; Vries, De Jeanne

    2017-01-01

    Web-based 24-h dietary recalls and questionnaires were obtained from 553 Dutch well-trained athletes. The total energy and macronutrient intake was compared between discipline-categories (endurance, team, and strength) within gender, and dietary inadequacy, i.e., too low or high intakes, according

  2. Food price policy can favorably alter macronutrient intake in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, X; Popkin, B M; Mroz, T A; Zhai, F

    1999-05-01

    The rapid change in diets, physical activity and body composition in low income countries has led to the coexistence of large pockets of undernutrition and overnutrition. Public health strategies for addressing this situation may be necessary, and price policy options are examined for China. Longitudinal dietary data collected in China in 1989-1993 on a sample of 5625 adults aged 20-45 y were examined. Three-day averages of food group consumption and nutrient intake were used in longitudinal statistical models to examine separately the effects of food prices on the decision to consume each food group and then the amount consumed. The effects of changes in six food prices on the consumption of each of six food groups, not just the food group whose price had changed, and on three macronutrients were estimated. The effects show large and significant price effects. If the joint effects of the nutrition transition are to be considered, then there are clear tradeoffs among which foods to tax and which to subsidize. Most important is the effect of prices in reducing fat intake of the rich but not adversely affecting protein intake for the poor. Increases in the prices of pork, eggs and edible oils are predicted to lower fat intake. Only increases in pork prices led to reduced protein intakes. This raises questions about earlier policy changes being implemented in China and provides insight into an important and controversial area for public health policy.

  3. Macronutrient intakes and cardio metabolic risk factors in high BMI African American children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudes Mark L

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between intakes of energy-providing macronutrients, and markers of cardio metabolic risk factors in high BMI African American (AA children. Methods A cross sectional analysis of a sample of 9-11 year old children (n = 80 with BMI greater then the 85th percentile. Fasting hematological and biochemical measurements, and blood pressure were measured as selected markers of cardio metabolic risk factors and their relationships to dietary intakes determined. Results After adjusting for gender, pubertal stage and waist circumference (WC, multivariate regression analysis showed that higher total energy intakes (when unadjusted for source of energy were associated with higher plasma concentrations of intermediate density lipoprotein cholesterol (IDL-C and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C. Higher intakes of carbohydrate energy (fat and protein held constant were associated with higher IDL-C, VLDL-C, triglycerides (TG and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR. Higher intakes of fat (carbohydrate and protein held constant, however, were associated with lower IDL-C; and higher protein intakes (fat and carbohydrate held constant were associated with lower HOMA-IR. Conclusion The specific macronutrients that contribute energy are significantly associated with a wide range of cardio metabolic risk factors in high BMI AA children. Increases in carbohydrate energy were associated with undesirable effects including increases in several classes of plasma lipids and HOMA-IR. Increases in protein energy were associated with the desirable effect of reduced HOMA-IR, and fat energy intakes were associated with the desirable effect of reduced IDL-C. This analysis suggests that the effect of increased energy on risk of developing cardio metabolic risk factors is influenced by the source of that energy.

  4. The excesive intake of macronutrients: does it influence the sportive performances of young cyclists?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Sánchez-Benito

    Full Text Available The purpose was to determine whether 34 young Spanish males belonging to a cyclist team, follows the optimal macronutrients intake based on the ecommended dietary guidelines. The deficits in nutrition jeopardise the sportive performances, but what about the diets with excessive intake of macronutrients? Furthermore, is there an association between their sportive achievements and the psychological profile? Surely, but the problem is to determine which psychological variables are involved. Method: Nutritional evaluation based on Nutrients intake questionnaire of 7 consecutive days. Results: Cyclists consume an excessive quantity of proteins and lipids in their diets. The average consumption of proteins is 16,36% of their caloric intake (the recommended quantity is less than 10%. The average consumption of fats is 38,71% (the recommended is less than 30%. The same tendency is found in the homologous Spanish young people of the enKID study, where the percentage of energy from fat and saturated fat is much higher than the recommended one. The cyclists consume insufficient quantities of carbohydrates (average is 44, 94% of their caloric intake, the recommended is more than 60%, therefore the reload of their glycogen stores may not be complete on each competition stage. No association has been found between the excessive intake of referred macronutrients and the achieved sport performances. Conclusion: This work contributes to the knowledge of the diets of very active young cyclists. Excessive intake of proteins and fats do not jeopardise their sportive performances. The commonly studied psychological variables in sport, are not determinant of sportive achievements of young cyclists; additional work is needed to determine the psychological profile playing a determinant role in success of young cyclists.

  5. Altered salience network connectivity predicts macronutrient intake after sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Zhuo; Spaeth, Andrea M; Ma, Ning; Zhu, Senhua; Hu, Siyuan; Goel, Namni; Detre, John A; Dinges, David F; Rao, Hengyi

    2015-02-03

    Although insufficient sleep is a well-recognized risk factor for overeating and weight gain, the neural mechanisms underlying increased caloric (particularly fat) intake after sleep deprivation remain unclear. Here we used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and examined brain connectivity changes associated with macronutrient intake after one night of total sleep deprivation (TSD). Compared to the day following baseline sleep, healthy adults consumed a greater percentage of calories from fat and a lower percentage of calories from carbohydrates during the day following TSD. Subjects also exhibited increased brain connectivity in the salience network from the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) to bilateral putamen and bilateral anterior insula (aINS) after TSD. Moreover, dACC-putamen and dACC-aINS connectivity correlated with increased fat and decreased carbohydrate intake during the day following TSD, but not during the day following baseline sleep. These findings provide a potential neural mechanism by which sleep loss leads to increased fat intake.

  6. [Macronutrients, food intake and body weight; the role of fat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcalá-Bejarano Carrillo, Jesús; Yago Torregrosa, Maria Dolores; Mañas Almendros, Mariano; López Millán, María Belén; Martínez Burgos, María Alba; Martínez de Victoria Muñoz, Emilio

    2014-11-27

    "Globesity" is the term that the World Health Organization (WHO) employs to define the growth of obesity in the world from the last 40 years which started in the developed countries and has been inevitably propagated to the developing ones. Governments and international organizations are aware of the problem and they are trying to implement measures to fight it. To analyze the current evidence in terms of studies about the relationship between macronutrients (especially fat and lipid release systems) and the secretion of gastrointestinal peptides that are involved with satiety and satiation. The search was conducted in Medline (via Pubmed) using different combinations of MeSH terms and in the database LILACs using "DeCS". A selection of another articles relevant to the review topic was also examined. At present, there are several laboratories and industries developing novel bioactive ingredients aimed at the regulation of food intake, with emphasis on those related with fat intake and the different ways in which fat can be technologically processed in order to create structures able to enhance satiety and/ or diminish hunger. These ingredients will be the future of functional foods focused on the prevention of weight gain and the support of other strategies against obesity (dietary, behavioral, etc…). Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  7. Estimativa do consumo de energia e de macronutrientes no domicílio e na escola em pré-escolares Estimation of energy and macronutrient intake at home and in the kindergarten programs in preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Rombaldi Bernardi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estimar o consumo de energia e de macronutrientes no domicílio e na escola em tempo integral em crianças de 2 a 6 anos e pesquisar diferenças no consumo entre as crianças de escolas públicas e particulares. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal realizado com 362 pré-escolares em Caxias do Sul (RS. O estado nutricional foi avaliado pela razão peso para estatura. O consumo na escola foi avaliado por meio do método de pesagem direta individual dos alimentos consumidos pelas crianças e, no domicílio, por meio do método de registro alimentar realizado pelos pais ou responsáveis. Para as análises estatísticas utilizou-se o teste U de Mann-Whitney (p OBJECTIVE: To estimate the energy and macronutrient intake at home and at all-day in the kindergarten programs in children aged 2 to 6 and to investigate differences in consumption and intake between children at public and private kindergartens. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of 362 preschool children from Caxias do Sul, Brazil. Nutritional status was assessed in terms of weight to height ratios. Foods consumed in the kindergarten were evaluated by weighing the actual foods eaten by the children and home intakes were calculated from a food diary kept by parents or guardians. Statistical analyses were performed using the Mann-Whitney U test (p < 0.05. RESULTS: It was found that 28 children (7.7% were overweight, 92 (25.4% were at risk of becoming overweight and seven (1.9% were classified as having wasting. Analysis of 24-hour nutritional intake demonstrated that 51.3% of the energy, 60.3% of the lipids and 51.6% of the proteins consumed by children were eaten at home, despite the children spending the whole day in the kindergarten programs. Preschool children at kindergartens ate greater quantities of energy (p = 0.001, carbohydrates (p < 0.001, and lipids (p = 0.04 than did children at public kindergartens, but their total daily intakes were similar, irrespective of which type of

  8. Association of total energy intake and macronutrient consumption with colorectal cancer risk: results from a large population-based case-control study in Newfoundland and Labrador and Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Zhuoyu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diet is regarded as one of the most important environmental factors associated with colorectal cancer (CRC risk. A recent report comprehensively concluded that total energy intake does not have a simple relationship with CRC risk, and that the data were inconsistent for carbohydrate, cholesterol and protein. The objective of this study was to identify the associations of CRC risk with dietary intakes of total energy, protein, fat, carbohydrate, fiber, and alcohol using data from a large case-control study conducted in Newfoundland and Labrador (NL and Ontario (ON, Canada. Methods Incident colorectal cancer cases (n = 1760 were identified from population-based cancer registries in the provinces of ON (1997-2000 and NL (1999-2003. Controls (n = 2481 were a random sample of residents in each province, aged 20-74 years. Family history questionnaire (FHQ, personal history questionnaire (PHQ, and food frequency questionnaire (FFQ were used to collect study data. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association of intakes of total energy, macronutrients and alcohol with CRC risk. Results Total energy intake was associated with higher risk of CRC (OR: 1.56; 95% CI: 1.21-2.01, p-trend = 0.02, 5th versus 1st quintile, whereas inverse associations emerged for intakes of protein (OR: 0.85, 95%CI: 0.69-1.00, p-trend = 0.06, 5th versus 1st quintile, carbohydrate (OR: 0.81, 95%CI: 0.63-1.00, p-trend = 0.05, 5th versus 1st quintile and total dietary fiber (OR: 0.84, 95% CI:0.67-0.99, p-trend = 0.04, 5th versus 1st quintile. Total fat, alcohol, saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and cholesterol were not associated with CRC risk. Conclusion This study provides further evidence that high energy intake may increase risk of incident CRC, whereas diets high in protein, fiber, and carbohydrate may reduce the risk of the disease.

  9. Preterm Human Milk Macronutrient and Energy Composition: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimouni, Francis B; Lubetzky, Ronit; Yochpaz, Sivan; Mandel, Dror

    2017-03-01

    This study is a systematic review of the macronutrient and energy composition of preterm human milk to enable the practicing neonatologist to make informed nutritional decisions in preterm infants. Meta-analyses were conducted in all the studies that reported total energy, true protein, fat, and lactose. Protein content decreased massively (by one-half) and significantly from day 1 to 3 at week 10 to 12. There was a significant linear increase in fat, lactose, and energy content during the same timeframe. Theoretic calculations on energy and macronutrient intake of preterm infants must be made according to a lactation time-specific manner. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The association between dietary macronutrient intake and the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skilton, Michael R; Laville, Martine; Cust, Anne E; Moulin, Philippe; Bonnet, Fabrice

    2008-08-01

    We examined the association of dietary carbohydrates, protein, fat (including fatty acid subtypes) and alcohol with the metabolic syndrome and its components, in a cross-sectional study of 1626 patients with at least one cardiovascular risk factor. Multivariate nutrient density substitution models were used to examine the associations between macronutrients (assessed by 24 h dietary recall) and the metabolic syndrome. These models express the effects of 'substituting' one macronutrient for another without altering total energy intake. Increases in carbohydrates offset by isoenergetic decreases in either fat or protein were associated with a decrease in the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (OR 0.87 (95 % CI 0.81, 0.93), P 0.10). Consumption of up to one standard alcoholic drink per d was associated with a lower prevalence of the metabolic syndrome when compared with non-drinkers (OR 0.67 (95 % CI 0.50, 0.89), P = 0.006); however, these benefits were weakened with higher levels of alcohol intake (P = 0.10 for one to three drinks and P = 0.29 for >three drinks). Thus, a diet high in carbohydrates, low in fat and protein, with low-to-moderate alcohol intake, is associated with a reduced prevalence of the metabolic syndrome.

  11. Protein leverage and energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosby, A K; Conigrave, A D; Raubenheimer, D; Simpson, S J

    2014-03-01

    Increased energy intakes are contributing to overweight and obesity. Growing evidence supports the role of protein appetite in driving excess intake when dietary protein is diluted (the protein leverage hypothesis). Understanding the interactions between dietary macronutrient balance and nutrient-specific appetite systems will be required for designing dietary interventions that work with, rather than against, basic regulatory physiology. Data were collected from 38 published experimental trials measuring ad libitum intake in subjects confined to menus differing in macronutrient composition. Collectively, these trials encompassed considerable variation in percent protein (spanning 8-54% of total energy), carbohydrate (1.6-72%) and fat (11-66%). The data provide an opportunity to describe the individual and interactive effects of dietary protein, carbohydrate and fat on the control of total energy intake. Percent dietary protein was negatively associated with total energy intake (F = 6.9, P protein. The analysis strongly supports a role for protein leverage in lean, overweight and obese humans. A better appreciation of the targets and regulatory priorities for protein, carbohydrate and fat intake will inform the design of effective and health-promoting weight loss diets, food labelling policies, food production systems and regulatory frameworks.

  12. Macronutrient Intakes in 553 Dutch Elite and Sub-Elite Endurance, Team, and Strength Athletes: Does Intake Differ between Sport Disciplines?

    OpenAIRE

    Floris Wardenaar; Naomi Brinkmans; Ingrid Ceelen; Bo Van Rooij; Marco Mensink; Renger Witkamp; Jeanne De Vries

    2017-01-01

    Web-based 24-h dietary recalls and questionnaires were obtained from 553 Dutch well-trained athletes. The total energy and macronutrient intake was compared between discipline-categories (endurance, team, and strength) within gender, and dietary inadequacy, i.e., too low or high intakes, according to selected recommendations and guidelines, was evaluated by applying a probability approach. On average, 2.83 days per person were reported with a mean energy intake of 2566–2985 kcal and 1997–2457...

  13. Liraglutide suppression of caloric intake competes with the intake-promoting effects of a palatable cafeteria diet, but does not impact food or macronutrient selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Kellie M; Blonde, Ginger D; le Roux, Carel W; Spector, Alan C

    2017-08-01

    Liraglutide, a Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist, is used as a treatment for Type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity because it improves glycemia and decreases food intake. Here, we tested whether chronic activation of the GLP-1 receptor system with liraglutide would induce decreases in intake accompanied by changes in proportional food or macronutrient intake similar to those seen following RYGB in rats when a variety of palatable food options are available. A "cafeteria diet" was used that included: laboratory rodent chow, refried beans (low-fat/low-sugar), low-fat yogurt (low-fat/high-sugar), peanut butter (high-fat/low-sugar) and sugar-fat whip (high-fat/high-sugar). Liraglutide (1mg/kg daily, sc, n=6) induced significant reductions in body weight and total caloric intake compared to saline-injected control rats (n=6). Although access to a cafeteria diet induced increases in caloric intake in both groups relative to chow alone, liraglutide still effectively decreased intake compared with saline-injected rats suggesting that chronic GLP-1 activation competes with the energy density and palatability of available food options in modulating ingestive behavior. Even with the substantial effects on overall intake, liraglutide did not change food choice or relative macronutrient intake when compared to pre-treatment baseline. When drug treatment was discontinued, the liraglutide group increased caloric intake and rapidly gained body weight to match that of the saline group. These results demonstrate that, while liraglutide effectively decreases caloric intake and body weight in rats, it does not cause adjustments in relative macronutrient consumption. Our data also show that drug-induced decreases in intake and body weight are not maintained following termination of treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Macronutrient Intakes in 553 Dutch Elite and Sub-Elite Endurance, Team, and Strength Athletes: Does Intake Differ between Sport Disciplines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardenaar, Floris; Brinkmans, Naomi; Ceelen, Ingrid; Van Rooij, Bo; Mensink, Marco; Witkamp, Renger; De Vries, Jeanne

    2017-01-01

    Web-based 24-h dietary recalls and questionnaires were obtained from 553 Dutch well-trained athletes. The total energy and macronutrient intake was compared between discipline-categories (endurance, team, and strength) within gender, and dietary inadequacy, i.e., too low or high intakes, according to selected recommendations and guidelines, was evaluated by applying a probability approach. On average, 2.83 days per person were reported with a mean energy intake of 2566–2985 kcal and 1997–2457 kcal per day, for men and women, respectively. Between disciplines, small differences in the mean intake of energy and macronutrients were seen for both men and women. Overall, 80% of the athletes met the suggested lower-limit sport nutrition recommendation of 1.2 g·kg−1 of protein per day. The carbohydrate intake of 50%–80% of athletes was between 3 and 5 g·kg−1 bodyweight, irrespective of the category of their discipline. This can be considered as low to moderate, in view of their daily total exercise load (athletes reported on average ~100 min per day). In conclusion, only small differences in the mean energy and macronutrient intake between elite endurance, strength, and team sport athletes, were found. The majority of the athletes were able to meet the generally accepted protein recommendation for athletes, of 1.2 g·kg−1. However, for most athletes, the carbohydrate intake was lower than generally recommended in the existing consensus guidelines on sport nutrition. This suggests that athletes could either optimize their carbohydrate intake, or that average carbohydrate requirements merit a re-evaluation. PMID:28208581

  15. Macronutrient Intakes in 553 Dutch Elite and Sub-Elite Endurance, Team, and Strength Athletes: Does Intake Differ between Sport Disciplines?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floris Wardenaar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Web-based 24-h dietary recalls and questionnaires were obtained from 553 Dutch well-trained athletes. The total energy and macronutrient intake was compared between discipline-categories (endurance, team, and strength within gender, and dietary inadequacy, i.e., too low or high intakes, according to selected recommendations and guidelines, was evaluated by applying a probability approach. On average, 2.83 days per person were reported with a mean energy intake of 2566–2985 kcal and 1997–2457 kcal per day, for men and women, respectively. Between disciplines, small differences in the mean intake of energy and macronutrients were seen for both men and women. Overall, 80% of the athletes met the suggested lower-limit sport nutrition recommendation of 1.2 g·kg−1 of protein per day. The carbohydrate intake of 50%–80% of athletes was between 3 and 5 g·kg−1 bodyweight, irrespective of the category of their discipline. This can be considered as low to moderate, in view of their daily total exercise load (athletes reported on average ~100 minutes per day. In conclusion, only small differences in the mean energy and macronutrient intake between elite endurance, strength, and team sport athletes, were found. The majority of the athletes were able to meet the generally accepted protein recommendation for athletes, of 1.2 g·kg−1. However, for most athletes, the carbohydrate intake was lower than generally recommended in the existing consensus guidelines on sport nutrition. This suggests that athletes could either optimize their carbohydrate intake, or that average carbohydrate requirements merit a re-evaluation.

  16. Macronutrient Intakes in 553 Dutch Elite and Sub-Elite Endurance, Team, and Strength Athletes: Does Intake Differ between Sport Disciplines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardenaar, Floris; Brinkmans, Naomi; Ceelen, Ingrid; Van Rooij, Bo; Mensink, Marco; Witkamp, Renger; De Vries, Jeanne

    2017-02-10

    Web-based 24-h dietary recalls and questionnaires were obtained from 553 Dutch well-trained athletes. The total energy and macronutrient intake was compared between discipline-categories (endurance, team, and strength) within gender, and dietary inadequacy, i.e., too low or high intakes, according to selected recommendations and guidelines, was evaluated by applying a probability approach. On average, 2.83 days per person were reported with a mean energy intake of 2566-2985 kcal and 1997-2457 kcal per day, for men and women, respectively. Between disciplines, small differences in the mean intake of energy and macronutrients were seen for both men and women. Overall, 80% of the athletes met the suggested lower-limit sport nutrition recommendation of 1.2 g·kg(-1) of protein per day. The carbohydrate intake of 50%-80% of athletes was between 3 and 5 g·kg(-1) bodyweight, irrespective of the category of their discipline. This can be considered as low to moderate, in view of their daily total exercise load (athletes reported on average ~100 minutes per day). In conclusion, only small differences in the mean energy and macronutrient intake between elite endurance, strength, and team sport athletes, were found. The majority of the athletes were able to meet the generally accepted protein recommendation for athletes, of 1.2 g·kg(-1). However, for most athletes, the carbohydrate intake was lower than generally recommended in the existing consensus guidelines on sport nutrition. This suggests that athletes could either optimize their carbohydrate intake, or that average carbohydrate requirements merit a re-evaluation.

  17. Genome-wide meta-analysis of observational studies shows common genetic variants associated with macronutrient intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Tanaka (Toshiko); J.S. Ngwa; F.J.A. van Rooij (Frank); M.C. Zillikens (Carola); M.K. Wojczynski (Mary ); A.C. Frazier-Wood (Alexis); D.K. Houston (Denise); S. Kanoni (Stavroula); R.N. Lemaitre (Rozenn ); J. Luan; V. Mikkilä (Vera); F. Renström (Frida); E. Sonestedt (Emily); J.H. Zhao (Jing); A.Y. Chu (Audrey); L. Qi (Lu); D.I. Chasman (Daniel); M.C. De Oliveira Otto (Marcia); E.J. Dhurandhar (Emily); M.F. Feitosa (Mary Furlan); I. Johansson (Ingegerd); K-T. Khaw (Kay-Tee); K. Lohman (Kurt); A. Manichaikul (Ani); N.M. McKeown (Nicola ); D. Mozaffarian (Dariush); A.B. Singleton (Andrew); K. Stirrups (Kathy); J. Viikari (Jorma); Z. Ye (Zheng); S. Bandinelli (Stefania); I. Barroso (Inês); P. Deloukas (Panagiotis); N.G. Forouhi (Nita); A. Hofman (Albert); Y. Liu (Yongmei); L.-P. Lyytikäinen (Leo-Pekka); K.E. North (Kari); M. Dimitriou (Maria); G. Hallmans (Göran); M. Kähönen (Mika); C. Langenberg (Claudia); J.M. Ordovas (Jose); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); F.B. Hu (Frank); I.-P. Kalafati (Ioanna-Panagiota); O. Raitakari (Olli); O.H. Franco (Oscar); A. Johnson (Anthony); V. Emilsson (Valur); J.A. Schrack (Jennifer); R.D. Semba; D.S. Siscovick (David); D.K. Arnett (Donna); I.B. Borecki (Ingrid); P.W. Franks (Paul); S.B. Kritchevsky (Stephen); R.J.F. Loos (Ruth); M. Orho-Melander (Marju); J.I. Rotter (Jerome); N.J. Wareham (Nick); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); G.V. Dedoussis (George); L.A. Cupples (Adrienne); J.A. Nettleton (Jennifer )

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Macronutrient intake varies substantially between individuals, and there is evidence that this variation is partly accounted for by genetic variants. Objective: The objective of the study was to identify common genetic variants that are associated with macronutrient intake. D

  18. Serum adiponectin concentration in relation to macronutrient and food intake in young Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Kentaro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Uenishi, Kazuhiro

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the relation of modifiable dietary factors to circulating adiponectin concentrations, particularly in young adults and non-Western populations. The aim of this study was to determine the association between macronutrient and food intake and serum adiponectin concentration in a group of young Japanese women. This cross-sectional study included 1047 female Japanese dietetic students aged 18 to 22 y. Using a validated, self-administered, comprehensive diet history questionnaire, we assessed intake of nutrients (protein, total fat, saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, and polyunsaturated fatty acids, carbohydrates, and dietary fiber) and foods (rice, bread, noodles, potatoes, confectioneries, fats and oils, pulses, fish and shellfish, meats, eggs, dairy products, vegetables, fruits, coffee, green and oolong tea, black tea, and soft drinks) and glycemic index and load. Fasting blood samples were collected and serum adiponectin concentrations were measured. Adjustment was made for survey year, region, municipality level, current smoking, current alcohol drinking, physical activity, body mass index, energy intake, and intakes of other nutrients or foods. After adjustment for potential confounding factors, none of the nutrients examined was a significant determinant of serum adiponectin concentration. There was no association for glycemic index or load. Coffee was the only food significantly and independently associated with serum adiponectin concentration. Mean (SE) values of serum adiponectin concentration for each quartile of coffee intake were 12.4 (0.2), 12.4 (0.5), 12.5 (0.3), and 13.2 (0.3) μg/mL, respectively (P for trend = 0.04). In a group of young Japanese women, higher coffee intake was independently associated with higher serum adiponectin concentration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A genetic risk tool for obesity predisposition assessment and personalized nutrition implementation based on macronutrient intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goni, Leticia; Cuervo, Marta; Milagro, Fermín I; Martínez, J Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    There is little evidence about genetic risk score (GRS)-diet interactions in order to provide personalized nutrition based on the genotype. The aim of the study was to assess the value of a GRS on obesity prediction and to further evaluate the interactions between the GRS and dietary intake on obesity. A total of 711 seekers of a Nutrigenetic Service were examined for anthropometric and body composition measurements and also for dietary habits and physical activity. Oral epithelial cells were collected for the identification of 16 SNPs (related with obesity or lipid metabolism) using DNA zip-coded beads. Genotypes were coded as 0, 1 or 2 according to the number of risk alleles, and the GRS was calculated by adding risk alleles with such a criterion. After being adjusted for gender, age, physical activity and energy intake, the GRS demonstrated that individuals carrying >7 risk alleles had in average 0.93 kg/m(2) of BMI, 1.69 % of body fat mass, 1.94 cm of waist circumference and 0.01 waist-to-height ratio more than the individuals with ≤7 risk alleles. Significant interactions for GRS and the consumption of energy, total protein, animal protein, vegetable protein, total fat, saturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, total carbohydrates, complex carbohydrates and fiber intake on adiposity traits were found after adjusted for confounders variables. The GRS confirmed that the high genetic risk group showed greater values of adiposity than the low risk group and demonstrated that macronutrient intake modifies the GRS association with adiposity traits.

  20. Food, energy and macronutrient intake of postmenopausal women from a menopause program Consumo de alimentos, energía y macronutrientes en mujeres postmenopáusicas de un programa de menopausia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Schoppen

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to analyse the food, energy and macronutrient intake of a group of postmenopausal women participating in a health-care-program. Methods: Subjects included were 38 healthy postmenopausal women aged between 46 and 60 years, recruited from the Menopause Program of the Madrid City Council. Physical activity, some anthropometric data and dietary information was obtained using a modified version of the dietary history method, which contained a 24-hour-recall and a food frequency questionnaire covering the preceding month as reference period. Dietary quality indexes, including those of the energy provided by macronutrients, alcohol and fatty acids and PUFA + MUFA/SFA and PUFA/SFA ratios were calculated. Results: This group consumed a diet very similar to the traditional Mediterranean diet. Intake of vegetables (415 ± 165 g/d, fruits (396 ± 178 g/d and fish (131 ± 69 g/d was high and a wide variety of these products was consumed. Potato and cereal (157 ± 76 g/d intake was low. Dairy products, meat, poultry and eggs were only a modest part of this diet. The fat quality (PUFA + MUFA/SFA = 2.26 was satisfactory. Conclusion: The diet of this group of postmenopausal women attending a prevention program closely conforms to current nutritional guidelines. Physical activity, body weight and intake of vegetable foods are adequate and may be very useful to counterbalance the increased risk of several pathologies after menopause. However, consumption of carbohydrate rich foods is lower than recommended. Participation in the menopause healthcare-program is useful for weight control and dietary advice.Objetivo: Analizar la ingesta de alimentos, energía y macronutrientes de un grupo de mujeres postmenopáusicas que participan en un programa de postmenopausia. M��todos: La muestra está formada por 38 mujeres postmenopáusicas de 46 a 60 años de edad, pertenecientes al Programa de Menopausia del Excmo. Ayuntamiento de Madrid. Se

  1. [ENERGY AND MACRONUTRIENT INTAKE IN FEMALE ATHLETES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernad Asencio, Laura; Reig García-Galbis, Manuel

    2015-11-01

    Objetivo: determinar la ingesta de macronutrientes adecuada para mejorar el estado nutricional de las mujeres atletas y su rendimiento deportivo. Métodos: se realizó una búsqueda en cuatro bases de datos: EBSCO, Proquest, Pubmed y OvidSP, empleando las palabras clave “protein intake” AND “athletes” y “endurance athletes” AND “nutrition”. Criterios de selección: artículos originales sobre el consumo de proteínas en atletas femeninas (Entre 2009 y 2014), en revistas científicas indexadas. Resultados: se identificaron 722 artículos, de los cuales solo el 1,4% fueron considerados como incluidos. El 100% eran ensayos clínicos finalizados y publicados en el extranjero, el 50% en EE. UU. El 20% eran estudios exclusivos de mujeres atletas y el 80% incluían hombres y mujeres en la muestra. En el 70% de los estudios las mujeres atletas presentaron déficits energéticos; en la ingesta proteica, el 70% cumplieron con las recomendaciones dietéticas; la ingesta de hidratos de carbono fue inadecuada en el 90% de los ensayos clínicos y, en el 50%, las mujeres presentaban una sobreingesta de grasas. Conclusiones: existe una deficiencia de información acerca de la nutrición en mujeres atletas en Europa y a nivel internacional. Las atletas femeninas consumen energía y macronutrientes en menor proporción que los atletas masculinos. No existe consenso en el rango de proteínas recomendado y se encuentran discrepancias en el consumo en función del tipo de ejercicio físico que se realice. Se recomienda llevar a cabo un acuerdo entre instituciones científicas de prestigio sobre la ingesta energética y de macronutrientes en el deporte, especialmente en la mujer.

  2. Central insulin and macronutrient intake in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chavez, M; Riedy, CA; VanDijk, G; Woods, SC; Riedy, Christine A.; Woods, Stephen C.

    1997-01-01

    When rats are maintained on a standard laboratory diet, the infusion of low doses of insulin into the cerebroventricular system causes a reduction of food intake and body weight. It was recently reported that, if rats are maintained on a high-fat diet (56% calories as fat), they are insensitive to t

  3. Macronutrient intake and risk of urothelial cell carcinoma in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Naomi E; Appleby, Paul N; Key, Timothy J; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Ros, Martine M; Kiemeney, Lambertus A L M; Tjønneland, Anne; Roswall, Nina; Overvad, Kim; Weikert, Steffen; Boeing, Heiner; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Teucher, Birgit; Panico, Salvatore; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Tumino, Rosario; Palli, Domenico; Sieri, Sabina; Peeters, Petra; Quirós, Jose Ramón; Jakszyn, Paula; Molina-Montes, Esther; Chirlaque, María-Dolores; Ardanaz, Eva; Dorronsoro, Miren; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Ljungberg, Börje; Hallmans, Göran; Ehrnström, Roy; Ericson, Ulrika; Gram, Inger Torhild; Parr, Christine L; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Karapetyan, Tina; Dilis, Vardis; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Fagherrazzi, Guy; Romieu, Isabelle; Gunter, Marc J; Riboli, Elio

    2013-02-01

    Previous studies have suggested that dietary factors may be important in the development of bladder cancer. We examined macronutrient intake in relation to risk of urothelial cell carcinoma among 469,339 men and women in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Associations were examined using Cox regression, stratified by sex, age at recruitment and centre and further adjusted for smoking status and duration, body mass index and total energy intake. After an average of 11.3 years of follow-up, 1,416 new cases of urothelial cell carcinoma were identified. After allowing for measurement error, a 3% increase in the consumption of energy intake from animal protein was associated with a 15% higher risk (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3-30%; p(trend) = 0.01) and a 2% increase in energy from plant protein intake was associated with a 23% lower risk (95% CI: 36-7%, p(trend) = 0.006). Dietary intake of fat, carbohydrate, fibre or calcium was not associated with risk. These findings suggest that animal and/or plant protein may affect the risk of urothelial cell carcinoma, and examination of these associations in other studies is needed.

  4. The Effects of a Normal Rate versus a Slow Intervalled Rate of Oral Nutrient Intake and Intravenous Low Rate Macronutrient Application on Psychophysical Function – Two Pilot Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denzer-Lippmann, Melanie Y.; Bachlechner, Stephan; Wielopolski, Jan; Fischer, Marie; Buettner, Andrea; Doerfler, Arndt; Schöfl, Christof; Münch, Gerald; Kornhuber, Johannes; Thürauf, Norbert

    2017-01-01

    Stomach distension and energy per time are factors influencing satiety. Moreover, different rates of nutrient intake induce different stomach distension. The goal of our studies was to elucidate the influence of different oral rates of nutrient intake (normal rate versus slow intervalled rate; study I) and intravenous low rate macronutrient application (protein, carbohydrate, fat) or placebo (study II) on psychophysical function. The pilot studies investigated the effects of 1) study I: a mixed nutrient solution (1/3 protein, 1/3 fat, 1/3 carbohydrates) 2) study II: intravenous macronutrient infusions (protein, carbohydrate, fat) or placebo on psychophysical function (mood, hunger, food craving, alertness, smell intensity ratings and hedonic ratings) in human subjects. In study I 10 male subjects (age range: 21–30 years) completed the study protocol participating in both test conditions and in study II 20 male subjects (age range: 19–41 years) completed the study protocol participating in all test conditions. Additionally, metabolic function was analyzed and cognitive and olfactory tests were conducted twice starting 100 min before the beginning of the intervention and 240 min after. Psychophysical (mood, hunger, fat-, protein-, carbohydrate-, sweets- and vegetable-craving), alertness and metabolic function tests were performed seven times on each examination day. Greater effects on hunger and food cravings were observed for normal rate of intake compared to slow intervalled rate of intake and intravenous low rate macronutrient application. Our findings potentially confirm that volume of the food ingested and a higher rate of energy per time contribute to satiety during normal rate of food intake, while slow intervalled rate of food intake and intravenous low rate macronutrient application showed no effects on satiation. Our results motivate the view that a certain amount of volume of the food ingested and a certain energy per time ratio are necessary to reduce

  5. The Effects of a Normal Rate versus a Slow Intervalled Rate of Oral Nutrient Intake and Intravenous Low Rate Macronutrient Application on Psychophysical Function – Two Pilot Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Y. Denzer-Lippmann

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Stomach distension and energy per time are factors influencing satiety. Moreover, different rates of nutrient intake induce different stomach distension. The goal of our studies was to elucidate the influence of different oral rates of nutrient intake (normal rate versus slow intervalled rate; study I and intravenous low rate macronutrient application (protein, carbohydrate, fat or placebo (study II on psychophysical function. The pilot studies investigated the effects of 1 study I: a mixed nutrient solution (1/3 protein, 1/3 fat, 1/3 carbohydrates 2 study II: intravenous macronutrient infusions (protein, carbohydrate, fat or placebo on psychophysical function (mood, hunger, food craving, alertness, smell intensity ratings and hedonic ratings in human subjects. In study I 10 male subjects (age range: 21–30 years completed the study protocol participating in both test conditions and in study II 20 male subjects (age range: 19–41 years completed the study protocol participating in all test conditions. Additionally, metabolic function was analyzed and cognitive and olfactory tests were conducted twice starting 100 min before the beginning of the intervention and 240 min after. Psychophysical (mood, hunger, fat-, protein-, carbohydrate-, sweets- and vegetable-craving, alertness and metabolic function tests were performed seven times on each examination day. Greater effects on hunger and food cravings were observed for normal rate of intake compared to slow intervalled rate of intake and intravenous low rate macronutrient application. Our findings potentially confirm that volume of the food ingested and a higher rate of energy per time contribute to satiety during normal rate of food intake, while slow intervalled rate of food intake and intravenous low rate macronutrient application showed no effects on satiation. Our results motivate the view that a certain amount of volume of the food ingested and a certain energy per time ratio are necessary

  6. High-fiber rye diet increases ileal excretion of energy and macronutrients compared with low-fiber wheat diet independent of meal frequency in ileostomy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isaksson, Hanna; Landberg, Rikard; Sundberg, Birgitta;

    2013-01-01

    Background:Whole-grain foods and cereal dietary fiber intake is associated with lower body weight. This may partly result from lower energy utilization of high-fiber diets. Objective: In the present study, the impact on ileal excretion of energy and macronutrients in response to a rye bread high...... at the third day of each of the four dietary periods and analyzed for gross energy and nutrient contents. Results: The results showed that intake of rye bread high-fiber diet compared to the refined wheat low-fiber diet caused an increase in ileal excretion of energy and macronutrients. The effect...

  7. Dietary patterns, food and macronutrient intakes among adults in three ethnic groups in rural Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Andreas Wolff; Christensen, Dirk; Larsson, Melanie

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To compare dietary patterns and food and macronutrient intakes among adults in three ethnic groups in rural Kenya. Design. In the present cross-sectional study, dietary intake was estimated in adult volunteers using two non-consecutive interactive 24 h recalls. Dietary patterns were...... was conducted in the Bondo, Kitui and Transmara districts of rural Kenya. A high prevalence of food insecurity in Kenya underlines the importance of describing the dietary patterns and intakes in different Kenyan ethnic groups. Subjects. A total of 1163 (61% women) adult Luo, Kamba and Maasai, with a mean age...... of 38.6 (range: 18–68) years, volunteered to participate. Results. Dietary patterns and food groups contributing to EI differed significantly among the ethnic groups. Mean EI ranged from 5.8 to 8.6 MJ/d among women and from 7.2 to 10.5 MJ/d among men, with carbohydrates contributing between 55.7% and 74...

  8. Temporal Trends in Dietary Macronutrient Intakes among Adults in Rural China from 1991 to 2011: Findings from the CHNS

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    Chang Su

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have examined nutrition transitions among the rural population of China, even though half of the Chinese population (about 700 million is living in rural China. To fill this research gap, we examined temporal trends in dietary macronutrient intakes in members of the Chinese rural population aged 18–60 years. The analysis used data from consecutive three-day dietary recalls, collected from the China Health and Nutrition Surveys (CHNS. Mixed-effect models were constructed to obtain adjusted means and to examine temporal trends after adjusting for intra-class correlation within clusters and covariates, including age, sex, geographical region, urbanicity, and income. From 1991 to 2011, a downward trend in daily energy, protein, and carbohydrate intakes was seen in all categories, with a significant reduction among all rural people (p < 0.0001. In contrast, a significant increment in daily fat intake, the proportion of energy from fat, and the proportion of rural people consuming a diet with more than 30% of energy from fat, were observed in the present study (p < 0.0001. These results suggest that adults in rural China have been undergoing a rapid nutrition transition towards a high-fat diet. Therefore, more emphasis should be placed on the quality of fat and maintaining a balanced diet during the process of nutritional education.

  9. Effects of dietary macronutrient composition on exogenous neuropeptide Y's stimulation of food intake in chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Laura A; Gilbert, Elizabeth R; Cline, Mark A

    2015-03-30

    In mammalian models it is well documented that the potent orexigenic factor, neuropeptide Y (NPY) causes preferential intake of high carbohydrate and fat diets; however, information on this is limited in non-mammalian species. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of dietary macronutrient composition on NPY's orexigenic effect in chicks. Three isocaloric diets were formulated: high carbohydrate, fat and protein. In Experiment 1, chicks were fed the three diets and received intracerebroventricular injections of 0.2 or 2.0nmol NPY. Chicks that consumed the high carbohydrate and protein diets had a non-dose dependent similar magnitude of increased food intake after NPY injection, but those on the high fat diet had a dose dependent food intake increase. In Experiment 2, when chicks were given free access to all three diets, injection of 0.2nmol NPY caused preferential increase in intake of only the high protein diet whereas 2.0nmol NPY caused preferential increases in of both high carbohydrate and protein diets. Neither dose affected high fat diet intake. In Experiment 3, chicks were raised on one of the three diets and then switched to the others. When chicks were raised on the high fat and protein diets and then switched to the other diets, stimulation of food intake occurred for the same duration, 180min. However, when chicks were raised on the high carbohydrate and then switched to high fat, NPY injection caused a sustaining increase in cumulative food intake that lasted the entire observation period. These results suggest that NPY has selective effects on consumption of carbohydrate, fat and protein in chicks, and that diet in turn affects the NPY-mediated response in food intake, with a high fat diet enhancing NPY sensitivity that is associated with a greater magnitude and duration of feeding response. In turn, NPY caused preferential protein and carbohydrate intake instead of fat intake (in this order of preference), when chicks had the

  10. The Ratio of Macronutrients, Not Caloric Intake, Dictates Cardiometabolic Health, Aging, and Longevity in Ad Libitum-Fed Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solon-Biet, Samantha M.; McMahon, Aisling C.; Ballard, J. William O.; Ruohonen, Kari; Wu, Lindsay E.; Cogger, Victoria C.; Warren, Alessandra; Huang, Xin; Pichaud, Nicolas; Melvin, Richard G.; Gokarn, Rahul; Khalil, Mamdouh; Turner, Nigel; Cooney, Gregory J.; Sinclair, David A.; Raubenheimer, David; Le Couteur, David G.; Simpson, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    Summary The fundamental questions of what represents a macronutritionally balanced diet and how this maintains health and longevity remain unanswered. Here, the Geometric Framework, a state-space nutritional modeling method, was used to measure interactive effects of dietary energy, protein, fat, and carbohydrate on food intake, cardiometabolic phenotype, and longevity in mice fed one of 25 diets ad libitum. Food intake was regulated primarily by protein and carbohydrate content. Longevity and health were optimized when protein was replaced with carbohydrate to limit compensatory feeding for protein and suppress protein intake. These consequences are associated with hepatic mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activation and mitochondrial function and, in turn, related to circulating branched-chain amino acids and glucose. Calorie restriction achieved by high-protein diets or dietary dilution had no beneficial effects on lifespan. The results suggest that longevity can be extended in ad libitum-fed animals by manipulating the ratio of macronutrients to inhibit mTOR activation. PMID:24606899

  11. Macronutrient intake and risk of urothelial cell carcinoma in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allen, N.E.; Appleby, P.N.; Key, T.J.; Bueno-De-Mesquita, H.B.; Ros, M.M.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Tjonneland, A.; Roswall, N.; Overvad, K.; Weikert, S.; Boeing, H.; Chang-Claude, J.; Teucher, B.; Panico, S.; Sacerdote, C.; Tumino, R.; Palli, D.; Sieri, S.; Peeters, P.; Quiros, J.R.; Jakszyn, P.; Molina-Montes, E.; Chirlaque, M.D.; Ardanaz, E.; Dorronsoro, M.; Khaw, K.T.; Wareham, N.; Ljungberg, B.; Hallmans, G.; Ehrnstrom, R.; Ericson, U.; Gram, I.T.; Parr, C.L.; Trichopoulou, A.; Karapetyan, T.; Dilis, V.; Clavel-Chapelon, F.; Boutron-Ruault, M.C.; Fagherrazzi, G.; Romieu, I.; Gunter, M.J.; Riboli, E.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that dietary factors may be important in the development of bladder cancer. We examined macronutrient intake in relation to risk of urothelial cell carcinoma among 469,339 men and women in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Associations

  12. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells as a source to detect markers of homeostatic alterations caused by the intake of diets with an unbalanced macronutrient composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Rúa, Rubén; Keijer, Jaap; Caimari, Antoni; van Schothorst, Evert M; Palou, Andreu; Oliver, Paula

    2015-04-01

    Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) are accessible in humans, and their gene expression pattern was shown to reflect overall physiological response of the body to a specific stimulus, such as diet. We aimed to study the impact of sustained intake (4months) of diets with an unbalanced macronutrient proportion (rich in fat or protein) administered isocalorically to a balanced control diet, as physiological stressors on PBMC whole-genome gene expression in rats, to better understand the effects of these diets on metabolism and health and to identify biomarkers of nutritional imbalance. Dietary macronutrient composition (mainly increased protein content) altered PBMC gene expression, with genes involved in immune response being the most affected. Intake of a high-fat (HF) diet decreased the expression of genes related to antigen recognition/presentation, whereas the high-protein (HP) diet increased the expression of these genes and of genes involved in cytokine signaling and immune system maturation/activation. Key energy homeostasis genes (mainly related to lipid metabolism) were also affected, reflecting an adaptive response to the diets. Moreover, HF diet feeding impaired expression of genes involved in redox balance regulation. Finally, we identified a common gene expression signature of 7 genes whose expression changed in the same direction in response to the intake of both diets. These genes, individually or together, constitute a potential risk marker of diet macronutrient imbalance. In conclusion, we newly show that gene expression analysis in PBMCs allows for detection of diet-induced physiological deviations that distinguish from a diet with a proper and equilibrated macronutrient composition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Analysis of macronutrients intake and body mass index in preschool children in the western region of the Republic of Srpska

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    Đermanović Mirjana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Childhood obesity is currently considered to be one of the most prevailing and challenging public health issues in industrialized countries and some developing countries, including the Republic of Srpska. Objective. Our objective was to determine macronutrients intake in collective diet of preschool children and to estimate the rate of obesity in this population. Methods. Samples of food intended for preschool children diet were collected in a preschool facility in the western region of the Republic of Srpska. In daily portions, the content of proteins, fats, carbohydrates, water and mineral matter were determined using standard methods. The body mass index was determined on the basis of anthropometric measurements. Results. An average daily meal contained 17.5 g of fats, 19.1 g of proteins and 101.5 g of carbohydrates. The energy value was 676 Kcal. The analysis of the data from the menu showed that the number of consumed servings of fruits, vegetables, legumes, milk and dairy products was less than one portion per day. However, the amount of consumed meat and meat products exceeded one portion per day. Out of the total number of children, 10.0% were undernourished, 16.7% were overweight and 13.3% were obese. Conclusion. Daily portions in the preschool facility are not in accordance with the recommended dietary allowance for energy and carbohydrates intake, and the composition of meals is inadequate. Parents and caregivers should be encouraged to expose young children to a wide variety of fruit and vegetables, whole grains, low-fat dairy products, and to balance food intake with the requirements.

  14. The diet quality index evaluates the adequacy of energy provided by dietary macronutrients

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    Aline MENDES

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the relationship between macronutrient intake adequacy and the national diet quality index score. Methods The study analyzed a representative sample of 1,662 individuals from the municipality of São Paulo who participated in a cross-sectional study called Health Survey-Capital (2008/2009. Two 24-hour recalls were collected. Habitual intake was determined by the Multiple Source Method. The Brazilian index was calculated as suggested, and macronutrient adequacy was given by the World Health Organization and Food and Agriculture Organization recommendations. A generalized linear model verified the relationship between the Brazilian index and macronutrient adequacy. All analyses with a descriptive level below 0.05 were considered significant. The analyses were performed by the software Stata 12.0, survey mode. Results The vast majority (91% of the population had inappropriate macronutrient intakes, and the total median Brazilian index score was 61.3 points (interquartile range=10.1. The total Brazilian index score of individuals with high lipid intake was worse than that of individuals with proper lipid intake (β=0,96; p=0,004, while those with high protein intake had a better score (β=1,10; p=0,003 than those with proper protein intake. Conclusion The revised Brazilian Healthy Eating Index assesses diet quality properly regarding high lipid intake, but it has some limitations regarding high protein intake according to the World Health Organization and Food and Agriculture Organization recommendations. New studies should investigate the possibility of adapting this index to the World Health Organization and Food and Agriculture Organization recommendations.

  15. Adult Cranberry Beverage Consumers Have Healthier Macronutrient Intakes and Measures of Body Composition Compared to Non-Consumers: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2005–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyah J. Duffey

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Flavonoids, present in high levels in cranberries, are potent bioactives known for their health-promoting benefits, but cranberry beverages (CB are not typically recommended as part of a healthy diet. We examine the association between CB consumption with macronutrient intake and weight status. Data for US adults (≥19 years, n = 10,891 were taken from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES Survey 2005–2008. Total CB consumption was measured over two non-consecutive 24-h dietary recalls. Linear and logistic regression models adjusting for important covariates were used to examine predicted differences between CB consumers and non-consumers on macronutrient and anthropometric outcomes. Results are weighted to be nationally representative. CB consumers (n = 581 were older (>50 year non-Hispanic black females. They consumed an average 221 mL (7.5 oz CB per day. In fully adjusted models CB consumers (vs. non-consumers had higher carbohydrates and total sugars and lower percent energy from protein and total fat (all p < 0.001, but no difference in total energy. A significantly higher proportion of CB consumers were predicted to be normal weight (BMI < 25 kg/m2; p = 0.001 and had to have lower waist circumferences (p = 0.001. Although there was not a significant trend across level of CB intake, low and middle level CB consumers compared to non-consumers were more likely to be normal weight (p < 0.001 and less likely to be overweight/obese (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2, p < 0.001. Despite having slightly higher daily macronutrient intakes, CB consumers have more desirable anthropometric measures compared to non-consumers.

  16. Nutrients, satiety, and control of energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Angelo; Bellisle, France

    2015-10-01

    In the context of the worldwide epidemic of obesity affecting men and women of all ages, it is important to understand the mechanisms that control human appetite, particularly those that allow the adjustment of energy intake to energy needs. Satiety is one important psycho-biological mechanism whose function is to inhibit intake following the ingestion of a food or a beverage. According to the classical theories of appetite control, satiety is influenced by macronutrient intake and/or metabolism. Satiety also seems to be modified by micronutrients, non-nutrients, and some bioactive food constituents. Under optimal conditions, satiety should be well connected with hunger and satiation in a way that spontaneously leads to a close match between energy intake and expenditures. However, the current obesity epidemic suggests that dysfunctions often affect satiety and energy intake. In this regard, this paper presents a conceptual integration that hopefully will help health professionals address satiety issues and provide the public with informed advice to facilitate appetite control.

  17. Relationships between dietary macronutrients and adult neurogenesis in the regulation of energy metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yon, Marianne A; Mauger, Suzanna L; Pickavance, Lucy C

    2013-05-01

    Of the environmental factors which have an impact on body weight, nutrients are most influential. Within normal limits, hypothalamic and related neuronal populations correct perturbations in energy metabolism, to return the body to its nutritional set-point, either through direct response to nutrients or indirectly via peripheral appetite signals. Excessive intake of certain macronutrients, such as simple carbohydrates and SFA, can lead to obesity and attendant metabolic dysfunction, also reflected in alterations in structural plasticity, and, intriguingly,neurogenesis, in some of these brain regions. Neurogenesis, previously thought to occur only in the embryo, is now known to take place in the adult brain, dependent on numerous stimulating and inhibiting factors, including dietary components. Because of classic associations between neurogenesis and the hippocampus, in learning and cognition, this brain region has also been the focus of attention in the study of links between diet and neurogenesis. Recently, however, a more complete picture of this relationship has been building: not only has the hypothalamus been shown to satisfy the criteria for a neurogenic niche, but appetite-related mediators, including circulating hormones, such as leptin and ghrelin, pro-inflammatory cytokines and the endocannabinoid intracellular messengers, are also being examined for their potential role in mediating neurogenic responses to macronutrients. The present review draws together these observations and investigates whether n-3 PUFA may exert their attenuating effects on body weight through the stimulation of adult neurogenesis. Exploration of the effects of nutraceuticals on neurogenic brain regions may encourage the development of new rational therapies in the fight against obesity.

  18. High-fiber rye diet increases ileal excretion of energy and macronutrients compared with low-fiber wheat diet independent of meal frequency in ileostomy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Isaksson

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Whole-grain foods and cereal dietary fiber intake is associated with lower body weight. This may partly result from lower energy utilization of high-fiber diets. Objective: In the present study, the impact on ileal excretion of energy and macronutrients in response to a rye bread high-fiber diet compared to a refined wheat low-fiber diet was investigated. Furthermore, the effect of meal frequency on apparent absorption of nutrients was studied for the first time. Design: Ten participants that had undergone ileostomy consumed standardized iso-caloric diets, including low-fiber wheat bread (20 g dietary fiber per day for 2 weeks followed by high-fiber rye bread (52 g dietary fiber per day for 2 weeks. The diets were consumed in an ordinary (three meals per day and a nibbling (seven meals per day meal frequency in a cross-over design. Ileal effluents were collected during 24 h at the third day of each of the four dietary periods and analyzed for gross energy and nutrient contents. Results: The results showed that intake of rye bread high-fiber diet compared to the refined wheat low-fiber diet caused an increase in ileal excretion of energy and macronutrients. The effect was independent of meal frequency. This suggests that a high intake of rye may result in lower availability of macronutrients for small intestinal digestion and absorption. A regular intake of rye may therefore have implications for weight management.

  19. Control of voluntary feed intake in fish: a role for dietary oxygen demand in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fed diets with different macronutrient profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, S; Geurden, I; Figueiredo-Silva, A C; Kaushik, S J; Haidar, M N; Verreth, J A J; Schrama, J W

    2012-10-28

    It has been hypothesised that, at non-limiting water oxygen conditions, voluntary feed intake (FI) in fish is limited by the maximal physiological capacity of oxygen use (i.e. an 'oxystatic control of FI in fish'). This implies that fish will adjust FI when fed diets differing in oxygen demand, resulting in identical oxygen consumption. Therefore, FI, digestible energy (DE) intake, energy balance and oxygen consumption were monitored at non-limiting water oxygen conditions in Nile tilapia fed diets with contrasting macronutrient composition. Diets were formulated in a 2 × 2 factorial design in order to create contrasts in oxygen demand: two ratios of digestible protein (DP):DE ('high' v. 'low'); and a contrast in the type of non-protein energy source ('starch' v. 'fat'). Triplicate groups of tilapia were fed each diet twice daily to satiation for 48 d. FI (g DM/kg(0·8) per d) was significantly lower (9·5%) in tilapia fed the starch diets relative to the fat diets. The DP:DE ratio affected DE intakes (P demand of these diets. Indeed, DE intakes of fish showed an inverse linear relationship with dietary oxygen demand (DOD; R 2 0·81, P theory), oxygen consumption of fish was identical among three out of the four diets. Altogether, these results demonstrate the involvement of metabolic oxygen use and DOD in the control of FI in tilapia.

  20. Ingesta de macronutrientes en adolescentes escolarizados en Soria capital Macronutrients intake in school teenagers in Soria capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Carrero

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Estudiar la ingesta de macronutrientes en adolescentes sorianos de 10-19 años, así como su índice de masa corporal (IMC. Metodología: Encuesta sobre el consumo de alimentos durante siete días en una muestra accidental de adolescentes (54 varones y 56 mujeres de escuelas públicas de Soria capital. Valoración del aporte medio diario de energía, glúcidos, lípidos y proteínas mediante el programa "Alimentación y Salud" que también da valores de ingesta diaria recomendada (IDR para cada individuo en función de sus características particulares. Utilización del test de la t de Student para comparar los valores medios de la ingesta estimada para los distintos nutrientes y sus ingestas diarias recomendadas. Resultados: En general, el aporte de energía, proteínas y lípidos supera de forma estadísticamente significativa las ingestas diarias recomendadas, mientras que el de glúcidos es inferior a las recomendaciones. En cuanto al tipo de lípidos ingerido, la ingesta es superior a la recomendada para colesterol, ácidos grasos monoinsaturados y ácidos grasos saturados, pero no para los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados. En chicas, a partir de los 13 años, más del 12% tiene un valor de índice de masa corporal superior a 26 kg/m², sin embargo, entre los 10-12 años el 20% de la población estudiada tiene este parámetro por debajo de 16 kg/m². Conclusiones: En función de los resultados obtenidos, parece conveniente realizar algún tipo de intervención nutricional entre los adolescentes de la capital soriana para promover una alimentación saludable que permita prevenir posibles trastornos (obesidad, anorexia, etc..Objectives: To study the macronutrients intake in Soria teenagers from 10 to 19 years, as well as their body mass index (BMI. Methods: A seven-day diet questionnaire filled in by an accidental sample of teenagers (54 boys and 56 girls from public schools in the capital. Working out the average daily intake of

  1. Central oxytocin and food intake: focus on macronutrient-driven reward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anica eKlockars

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Centrally acting oxytocin (OT is known to terminate food consumption in response to excessive stomach distension, increase in salt loading and presence of toxins. Hypothalamic-hindbrain OT pathways facilitate these aspects of OT-induced hypophagia. However, recent discoveries have implicated OT in modifications of feeding via reward circuits: OT has been found to differentially affect consumption of individual macronutrients in choice and no-choice paradigms. In this mini-review, we focus on presenting and interpreting evidence that defines OT as a key component of mechanisms that reduce eating for pleasure and shape macronutrient preferences. We also provide remarks on challenges in integrating the knowledge on physiological and pathophysiological states in which both OT activity and macronutrient preferences are affected.

  2. The Effects of Dietary Macronutrient Balance on Skin Structure in Aging Male and Female Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Aisling C.; Ruohonen, Kari; Raubenheimer, David; Ballard, J. William O.; Le Couteur, David G.; Nicholls, Caroline; Li, Zhe; Maitz, Peter K. M.; Wang, Yiwei; Simpson, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    Nutrition influences skin structure; however, a systematic investigation into how energy and macronutrients (protein, carbohydrate and fat) affects the skin has yet to be conducted. We evaluated the associations between macronutrients, energy intake and skin structure in mice fed 25 experimental diets and a control diet for 15 months using the Geometric Framework, a novel method of nutritional analysis. Skin structure was associated with the ratio of dietary macronutrients eaten, not energy intake, and the nature of the effect differed between the sexes. In males, skin structure was primarily associated with protein intake, whereas in females carbohydrate intake was the primary correlate. In both sexes, the dermis and subcutaneous fat thicknesses were inversely proportional. Subcutaneous fat thickness varied positively with fat intake, due to enlarged adipocytes rather than increased adipocyte number. We therefore demonstrated clear interactions between skin structure and macronutrient intakes, with the associations being sex-specific and dependent on dietary macronutrient balance. PMID:27832138

  3. Adult cranberry beverage consumers have healthier macronutrient intakes and measures of body composition compared to non-consumers: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffey, Kiyah J; Sutherland, Lisa A

    2013-12-01

    Flavonoids, present in high levels in cranberries, are potent bioactives known for their health-promoting benefits, but cranberry beverages (CB) are not typically recommended as part of a healthy diet. We examine the association between CB consumption with macronutrient intake and weight status. Data for US adults (≥19 years, n = 10,891) were taken from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) Survey 2005-2008. Total CB consumption was measured over two non-consecutive 24-h dietary recalls. Linear and logistic regression models adjusting for important covariates were used to examine predicted differences between CB consumers and non-consumers on macronutrient and anthropometric outcomes. Results are weighted to be nationally representative. CB consumers (n = 581) were older (>50 year) non-Hispanic black females. They consumed an average 221 mL (7.5 oz) CB per day. In fully adjusted models CB consumers (vs. non-consumers) had higher carbohydrates and total sugars and lower percent energy from protein and total fat (all p consumers were predicted to be normal weight (BMI consumers compared to non-consumers were more likely to be normal weight (p consumers have more desirable anthropometric measures compared to non-consumers.

  4. Unhealthy eating habits, physical exercise and macronutrient intakes are predictors of anthropometric indicators in the Women's Health Trial: Feasibility Study in Minority Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, Alok; Guthrie, Joanne F

    2002-12-01

    The increasing prevalence of obesity in the USA, especially among minority populations, is a serious public health concern. This present study analysed repeated measurements at baseline and at 6 and 12 months on 351 women in the control group and 575 women in the intervention group of the Women's Health Trial: Feasibility Study in Minority Populations. Dynamic random effects models were estimated using the three repeated observations to explain the effects of energy and macronutrient intakes, physical exercise, unhealthy eating habits and socio-economic characteristics on the subjects' body weights and waist and hip circumferences. In both the control and intervention groups, physical exercise was negatively associated with body weight and with waist and hip circumferences, while an index of unhealthy eating habits was positively associated (Peating habits and increasing physical exercise can reduce obesity prevalence in the USA.

  5. Evaluation of energy and macronutrient intake of black women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-11-19

    Nov 19, 2008 ... 2Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, University of the Free State, 3PAREXEL, Bloemfontein, South Africa. 4Department ... nutrition, diet-related chronic diseases are now becoming ..... South Africa: National Academy. Press ...

  6. Associations between energy and fat intakes with adiposity in schoolchildren – the Cuenca Study

    OpenAIRE

    Lahoz García, Noelia; García Hermoso, Antonio; Sánchez López, Mairena; Cañete García-Prieto, Jorge; Milla Tobarra, Marta; Martínez Vizcaíno, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: the relationship between changes in energy intake (EI) over the last few decades and the trends towards of excess weight in children is still debated. Objective: to examine the relationship between energy and macronutrient intakes with adipostity in children, controlling for cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) as a surrogate measure of physical activity. Method: we conducted a cross-sectional study of 320 schoolchildren aged 9-11 years (54.5% girls). We collected data on so...

  7. FTO polymorphisms moderate the association of food reinforcement with energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheid, Jennifer L; Carr, Katelyn A; Lin, Henry; Fletcher, Kelly D; Sucheston, Lara; Singh, Prashant K; Salis, Robbert; Erbe, Richard W; Faith, Myles S; Allison, David B; Epstein, Leonard H

    2014-06-10

    Food reinforcement (RRVfood) is related to increased energy intake, cross-sectionally related to obesity, and prospectively related to weight gain. The fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene is related to elevated body mass index and increased energy intake. The primary purpose of the current study was to determine whether any of 68 FTO single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) or a FTO risk score moderate the association between food reinforcement and energy or macronutrient intake. Energy and macronutrient intake was measured using a laboratory ad libitum snack food consumption task in 237 adults of varying BMI. Controlling for BMI, the relative reinforcing value of reading (RRVreading) and proportion of African ancestry, RRVfood predicted 14.2% of the variance in energy intake, as well as predicted carbohydrate, fat, protein and sugar intake. In individual analyses, six FTO SNPs (rs12921970, rs9936768, rs12446047, rs7199716, rs8049933 and rs11076022, spanning approximately 251kbp) moderated the relationship between RRVfood and energy intake to predict an additional 4.9-7.4% of variance in energy intake. We created an FTO risk score based on 5 FTO SNPs (rs9939609, rs8050136, rs3751812, rs1421085, and rs1121980) that are related to BMI in multiple studies. The FTO risk score did not increase variance accounted for beyond individual FTO SNPs. rs12921970 and rs12446047 served as moderators of the relationship between RRVfood and carbohydrate, fat, protein, and sugar intake. This study shows for the first time that the relationship between RRVfood and energy intake is moderated by FTO SNPs. Research is needed to understand how these processes interact to predict energy and macronutrient intake. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Food and macronutrient intake of male adolescent Kalenjin runners in Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Dirk L; Van Hall, Gerrit; Hambraeus, Leif

    2002-01-01

    /kg body weight per d) and very low in fat (15 %). Intake of total protein (13 %; 1.6 g/kg body weight per d) was above the daily intake recommended by the Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization/United Nations University (FAO/WHO/UNU), while essential amino acid intake was estimated...... to be in the borderline-to-low range based on FAO/WHO/UNU recommendations for children beans as the staple food (81 %). The diet of the Kalenjin runners met recommendations for endurance athletes for total...

  9. Associations between Macronutrient Intake and Obstructive Sleep Apnoea as Well as Self-Reported Sleep Symptoms: Results from a Cohort of Community Dwelling Australian Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingting Cao

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: macronutrient intake has been found to affect sleep parameters including obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA in experimental studies, but there is uncertainty at the population level in adults. Methods: cross-sectional analysis was conducted of participants in the Men Androgen Inflammation Lifestyle Environment and Stress cohort (n = 784, age 35–80 years. Dietary intake was measured by a validated food frequency questionnaire. Self-reported poor sleep quality and daytime sleepiness were measured by questionnaires. Overnight in-home polysomnography (PSG was conducted among participants with without previously diagnosed OSA. Results: after adjusting for demographic, lifestyle factors, and chronic diseases, the highest quartile of fat intake was positively associated with excessive daytime sleepiness (relative risk ratio (RRR = 1.78, 95% CI 1.10, 2.89 and apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI ≥20, (RRR = 2.98, 95% CI 1.20–7.38. Body mass index mediated the association between fat intake and AHI (30%, but not daytime sleepiness. There were no associations between other intake of macronutrient and sleep outcomes. Conclusion: high fat is associated with daytime sleepiness and AHI. Sleep outcomes are generally not assessed in studies investigating the effects of varying macronutrient diets on weight loss. The current result highlights the potential public health significance of doing so.

  10. Nutritional status in university students: its relation to the number of daily intakes and macronutrients consumption

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pi, Romina Antonella; Vidal, Paula Daniela; Brassesco, Bárbara Romina; Viola, Lorena; Aballay, Laura Rosana

    2015-01-01

    .... to establish the relationship between the number of daily dietary intakes and nutritional status in male students aged 23 to 33 years of the National Technological University, in the city of Córdoba, in 2013...

  11. Energy intake and energy expenditure of pre-professional female contemporary dancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Meghan A.; Howatson, Glyn; Quin, Edel; Redding, Emma; Stevenson, Emma J.

    2017-01-01

    Many athletes in aesthetic and weight dependent sports are at risk of energy imbalance. However little is known about the exercise and eating behaviours of highly trained dance populations. This investigation sought to determine the energy intake and energy expenditure of pre-professional female contemporary dancers. Twenty-five female contemporary dance students completed the study. Over a 7-day period, including five week days (with scheduled dance training at a conservatoire) and two weekend days (with no scheduled dance training at the conservatoire), energy intake (self-reported weighed food diary and 24 h dietary recall) and expenditure (tri-axial accelerometry) were recorded. Mean daily energy intake and expenditure were different over the 7-day period (P = 0.014) equating to an energy deficit of -356 ± 668 kcal·day-1 (or -1.5 ± 2.8 MJ·day-1). Energy expenditure was not different when comparing week and weekend days (P = 0.297). However daily energy intake (P = 0.002), energy availability (P = 0.003), and energy balance (P = 0.004) were lower during the week compared to the weekend, where energy balance became positive. The percentage contribution of macronutrients to total energy intake also differed; with higher fat (P = 0.022) and alcohol (P = 0.020), and lower carbohydrate (P = 0.001) and a trend for lower protein (P = 0.051) at the weekend. Energy balance and appropriate macronutrient intake are essential for maintaining the demands of training, performance and recovery. Whilst aesthetics are important, female contemporary dancers may be at risk of the numerous health and performance impairments associated with negative energy balance, particularly during periods of scheduled training. PMID:28212449

  12. Energy intake and energy expenditure of pre-professional female contemporary dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Meghan A; Howatson, Glyn; Quin, Edel; Redding, Emma; Stevenson, Emma J

    2017-01-01

    Many athletes in aesthetic and weight dependent sports are at risk of energy imbalance. However little is known about the exercise and eating behaviours of highly trained dance populations. This investigation sought to determine the energy intake and energy expenditure of pre-professional female contemporary dancers. Twenty-five female contemporary dance students completed the study. Over a 7-day period, including five week days (with scheduled dance training at a conservatoire) and two weekend days (with no scheduled dance training at the conservatoire), energy intake (self-reported weighed food diary and 24 h dietary recall) and expenditure (tri-axial accelerometry) were recorded. Mean daily energy intake and expenditure were different over the 7-day period (P = 0.014) equating to an energy deficit of -356 ± 668 kcal·day-1 (or -1.5 ± 2.8 MJ·day-1). Energy expenditure was not different when comparing week and weekend days (P = 0.297). However daily energy intake (P = 0.002), energy availability (P = 0.003), and energy balance (P = 0.004) were lower during the week compared to the weekend, where energy balance became positive. The percentage contribution of macronutrients to total energy intake also differed; with higher fat (P = 0.022) and alcohol (P = 0.020), and lower carbohydrate (P = 0.001) and a trend for lower protein (P = 0.051) at the weekend. Energy balance and appropriate macronutrient intake are essential for maintaining the demands of training, performance and recovery. Whilst aesthetics are important, female contemporary dancers may be at risk of the numerous health and performance impairments associated with negative energy balance, particularly during periods of scheduled training.

  13. Short-term feed intake is regulated by macronutrient oxidation in lactating Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derno, M; Nürnberg, G; Schön, P; Schwarm, A; Röntgen, M; Hammon, H M; Metges, C C; Bruckmaier, R M; Kuhla, B

    2013-02-01

    In addition to plasma metabolites and hormones participating as humoral signals in the control of feed intake, oxidative metabolic processes in peripheral organs also generate signals to terminate feeding. Although the degree of oxidation over longer periods is relatively constant, recent work suggests that the periprandial pattern of fuel oxidation is involved in regulating feeding behavior in the bovine. However, the association between periprandial oxidative metabolism and feed intake of dairy cows has not yet been studied. Therefore, the aim of this study was to elucidate possible associations existing between single feed intake events and whole-body net fat and net carbohydrate oxidation as well as their relation to plasma metabolite concentrations. To this end, 4 late-lactating cows equipped with jugular catheters were kept in respiratory chambers with continuous and simultaneous recording of gas exchange and feed intake. Animals were fed ad libitum (AL) for 24h and then feed restricted (RE) to 50% of the previous AL intake for a further 24h. Blood samples were collected hourly to analyze β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), glucose, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), insulin, and acylated ghrelin concentrations. Cross-correlation analysis revealed an offset ranging between 30 and 42 min between the maximum of a feed intake event and the lowest level of postprandial net fat oxidation (FOX(net)) and the maximum level of postprandial net carbohydrate oxidation (COX(net)), respectively. During the AL period, FOX(net) did not increase above -0.2g/min, whereas COX(net) did not decrease below 6g/min before the start of the next feed intake event. A strong inverse cross-correlation was obtained between COX(net) and plasma glucose concentration. Direct cross-correlations were observed between COXnet and insulin, between heat production and BHBA, between insulin and glucose, and between BHBA and ghrelin. We found no cross-correlation between FOX(net) and NEFA. During RE, FOX

  14. Habitual sleep duration is associated with BMI and macronutrient intake and may be modified by CLOCK genetic variants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dashti, Hassan S; Follis, Jack L; Smith, Caren E

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Short sleep duration has been associated with greater risks of obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Also, common genetic variants in the human Circadian Locomotor Output Cycles Kaput (CLOCK) show associations with ghrelin and total energy intake. OBJECTIVES: We...

  15. An analysis of partial efficiencies of energy utilisation of different macronutrients by barramundi (Lates calcarifer) shows that starch restricts protein utilisation in carnivorous fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glencross, Brett D; Blyth, David; Bourne, Nicholas; Cheers, Susan; Irvin, Simon; Wade, Nicholas M

    2017-02-01

    This study examined the effect of including different dietary proportions of starch, protein and lipid, in diets balanced for digestible energy, on the utilisation efficiencies of dietary energy by barramundi (Lates calcarifer). Each diet was fed at one of three ration levels (satiety, 80 % of initial satiety and 60 % of initial satiety) for a 42-d period. Fish performance measures (weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio) were all affected by dietary energy source. The efficiency of energy utilisation was significantly reduced in fish fed the starch diet relative to the other diets, but there were no significant effects between the other macronutrients. This reduction in efficiency of utilisation was derived from a multifactorial change in both protein and lipid utilisation. The rate of protein utilisation deteriorated as the amount of starch included in the diet increased. Lipid utilisation was most dramatically affected by inclusion levels of lipid in the diet, with diets low in lipid producing component lipid utilisation rates well above 1·3, which indicates substantial lipid synthesis from other energy sources. However, the energetic cost of lipid gain was as low as 0·65 kJ per kJ of lipid deposited, indicating that barramundi very efficiently store energy in the form of lipid, particularly from dietary starch energy. This study defines how the utilisation efficiency of dietary digestible energy by barramundi is influenced by the macronutrient source providing that energy, and that the inclusion of starch causes problems with protein utilisation in this species.

  16. Maternal Macronutrient Intake and Offspring Blood Pressure 20 Years Later

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hrolfsdottir, Laufey; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I; Rytter, Dorte

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Results from 2 cohort studies in Scotland established in the 1940s and 1950s (Aberdeen and Motherwell) suggested that a high protein diet during pregnancy might adversely influence offspring blood pressure at adult age. Our objective was to examine this association in the Danish Fetal...... adjusted linear regression was used to examine the relation between higher maternal protein intake, at the expense of carbohydrates, and offspring blood pressure (isocaloric substitution). Main analyses were adjusted for mother's age during pregnancy, prepregnancy body mass index, parity, smoking during...... with slightly higher offspring diastolic blood pressure (highest compared with the lowest quintile of protein intake: ∆=2.4 mm Hg; 95% CI 0.4-4.4; P=0.03 for trend). Similar differences, although not significant, were found for systolic blood pressure (∆=2.6 mm Hg; 95% CI -0.0 to 5.3; P=0.08 for trend...

  17. Bumble bees regulate their intake of essential protein and lipid pollen macronutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaudo, A D; Stabler, D; Patch, H M; Tooker, J F; Grozinger, C M; Wright, G A

    2016-12-15

    Bee population declines are linked to the reduction of nutritional resources due to land-use intensification, yet we know little about the specific nutritional needs of many bee species. Pollen provides bees with their primary source of protein and lipids, but nutritional quality varies widely among host-plant species. Therefore, bees might have adapted to assess resource quality and adjust their foraging behavior to balance nutrition from multiple food sources. We tested the ability of two bumble bee species, Bombus terrestris and Bombus impatiens, to regulate protein and lipid intake. We restricted B. terrestris adults to single synthetic diets varying in protein:lipid ratios (P:L). The bees over-ate protein on low-fat diets and over-ate lipid on high-fat diets to reach their targets of lipid and protein, respectively. The bees survived best on a 10:1 P:L diet; the risk of dying increased as a function of dietary lipid when bees ate diets with lipid contents greater than 5:1 P:L. Hypothesizing that the P:L intake target of adult worker bumble bees was between 25:1 and 5:1, we presented workers from both species with unbalanced but complementary paired diets to determine whether they self-select their diet to reach a specific intake target. Bees consumed similar amounts of proteins and lipids in each treatment and averaged a 14:1 P:L for B. terrestris and 12:1 P:L for B. impatiens These results demonstrate that adult worker bumble bees likely select foods that provide them with a specific ratio of P:L. These P:L intake targets could affect pollen foraging in the field and help explain patterns of host-plant species choice by bumble bees. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  18. [Nutritional status in university students: its relation to the number of daily intakes and macronutrients consumption].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pi, Romina Antonella; Vidal, Paula Daniela; Brassesco, Bárbara Romina; Viola, Lorena; Aballay, Laura Rosana

    2015-04-01

    There is increasing scientific evidence that nutrition influence positive and negative on health along life. Many studies have reported that the student population is a particularly vulnerable group from the nutritional point of view, due to it is characterized by meal skipping frequently and nibble between eating occasions. to establish the relationship between the number of daily dietary intakes and nutritional status in male students aged 23 to 33 years of the National Technological University, in the city of Córdoba, in 2013. in order to achieve this aim, a prospective, cross-sectional and descriptive correlational design was used. Descriptive and inferential analysis were applied by using multiple logistic regression models. Almost 50% of the sample analyzed presented overweight (OW) and 40% high body fat (BF). In relation to the intakes numbers, the students that take less than 4 and more than 6 had 2 times more chance of presenting overweight and high body fat. It was found that as age increases it also does the Body Fat Storage, whereas diminished physical activity increases the chance of having high Body Mass Index and Body Fat. Moreover, high ingestion of carbohydrates increases the chance of high Body Fat and Overweight, and a high intake of protein and lipids increases the risk of high Body Fat. it is recognized that high or low number of daily intakes than recommended, low level of physical activity, high consumption of carbohydrates and having more than 29 years is related to high overweight and body fat. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  19. Estimated macronutrient and fatty acid intakes from an East African Paleolithic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuipers, Remko S; Luxwolda, Martine F; Dijck-Brouwer, D A Janneke; Eaton, S Boyd; Crawford, Michael A; Cordain, Loren; Muskiet, Frits A J

    2010-12-01

    Our genome adapts slowly to changing conditions of existence. Many diseases of civilisation result from mismatches between our Paleolithic genome and the rapidly changing environment, including our diet. The objective of the present study was to reconstruct multiple Paleolithic diets to estimate the ranges of nutrient intakes upon which humanity evolved. A database of, predominantly East African, plant and animal foods (meat/fish) was used to model multiple Paleolithic diets, using two pathophysiological constraints (i.e. protein 1.0 en%), at known hunter-gatherer plant/animal food intake ratios (range 70/30-30/70 en%/en%). We investigated selective and non-selective savannah, savannah/aquatic and aquatic hunter-gatherer/scavenger foraging strategies. We found (range of medians in en%) intakes of moderate-to-high protein (25-29), moderate-to-high fat (30-39) and moderate carbohydrates (39-40). The fatty acid composition was SFA (11.4-12.0), MUFA (5.6-18.5) and PUFA (8.6-15.2). The latter was high in α-linolenic acid (ALA) (3.7-4.7 en%), low in LA (2.3-3.6 en%), and high in long-chain PUFA (LCP; 4.75-25.8 g/d), LCP n-3 (2.26-17.0 g/d), LCP n-6 (2.54-8.84 g/d), ALA/LA ratio (1.12-1.64 g/g) and LCP n-3/LCP n-6 ratio (0.84-1.92 g/g). Consistent with the wide range of employed variables, nutrient intakes showed wide ranges. We conclude that compared with Western diets, Paleolithic diets contained consistently higher protein and LCP, and lower LA. These are likely to contribute to the known beneficial effects of Paleolithic-like diets, e.g. through increased satiety/satiation. Disparities between Paleolithic, contemporary and recommended intakes might be important factors underlying the aetiology of common Western diseases. Data on Paleolithic diets and lifestyle, rather than the investigation of single nutrients, might be useful for the rational design of clinical trials.

  20. Does eating slowly influence appetite and energy intake when water intake is controlled?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrade Ana M

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Slow eating has been associated with enhanced satiation, but also with increased water intake. Therefore, the role of water ingestion in regard to eating rate needs to be discerned. This study examined the influence of eating rate on appetite regulation and energy intake when water intake is controlled. Methods In a randomized design, slow and fast eating rates were compared on two occasions, in 30 women (22.7±1.2y; BMI=22.4±0.4kg/m2 who consumed an ad libitum mixed-macronutrient lunch with water (300 mL. Satiation was examined as the main outcome by measuring energy intake during meals. At designated times, subjects rated hunger, satiety, desire-to-eat, thirst, and meal palatability on visual analogue scales. Paired t-tests were used to compare hypothesis-driven outcomes. Appetite ratings were compared across time points and conditions by repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA using a within-subject model. Results Energy intake and appetite ratings did not differ between conditions at meal completion. However, subjects rated less hunger and tended to rate lower desire-to-eat and greater satiety at 1 hour following the slow condition. Conclusions Results tend to support a role of slow eating on decreased hunger and higher inter-meal satiety when water intake is controlled. However, the lack of significant differences in energy intake under these conditions indicates that water intake may account for the effects of eating rate on appetite regulation.

  1. The excesive intake of macronutrients: does it influence the sportive performances of young cyclists? La excesiva ingesta de macronutrientes: ¿influye en el rendimiento deportivo de jóvenes ciclistas?

    OpenAIRE

    J. L. Sánchez-Benito; E. Sánchez Soriano

    2007-01-01

    The purpose was to determine whether 34 young Spanish males belonging to a cyclist team, follows the optimal macronutrients intake based on the ecommended dietary guidelines. The deficits in nutrition jeopardise the sportive performances, but what about the diets with excessive intake of macronutrients? Furthermore, is there an association between their sportive achievements and the psychological profile? Surely, but the problem is to determine which psychological variables are involved. Meth...

  2. Increased energy and nutrient intake during training and competition improves elite triathletes' endurance performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frentsos, J A; Baer, J T

    1997-03-01

    Dietary habits were evaluated in 6 elite triathletes (4 male, 2 female). Analysis of 7-day diet records showed mean daily energy and carbohydrate intake to be insufficient to support estimated requirements. Mean intakes of vitamins and most minerals exceeded the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) except zinc chromium, which did not meet 66% of recommended amounts. Individualized nutrition intervention using the Diabetic Food Exchange System to support performance during training and competition was provided. To improve dietary intake, subjects consumed fortified nutrition supplements (Reliv, Inc.) before and after daily training. Follow-up 7-day diet records showed that average energy intake and percentage of energy from carbohydrate increased, as did intakes of zinc and chromium. Triathletes' performance in a short course triathlon was improved compared to a similar competition completed prior to the nutrition intervention. Following the intervention, triathletes were able to meet recommended daily energy, macronutrient, and micronutrient intakes and improve endurance performance.

  3. Dietary intakes of macronutrients among Mexican Americans and Anglo Americans: the San Antonio heart study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haffner, S M; Knapp, J A; Hazuda, H P; Stern, M P; Young, E A

    1985-12-01

    Twenty-four-hour dietary recalls were obtained on 1254 Mexican Americans (MA) and 916 Anglo Americans (AA), aged 25 to 64, as part of the San Antonio heart study, a population-based survey of cardiovascular risk factors from 1979 to 1982. In order to separate the effects of ethnicity from those of socioeconomic status (SES), we sampled subjects in three distinct neighborhoods: a low income MA neighborhood (barrio), a middle income neighborhood, and an upper income, predominantly Anglo, neighborhood. Intakes of protein, fat, and carbohydrate were similar to those found in other dietary surveys (NHANES, LRC). MA females living in the barrio consumed more cholesterol than either Anglos or MAs living in the other two neighborhoods. In MA males, the rise in the Hegsted Score with increasing SES paralleled the rise in LDL cholesterol with rising SES reported previously by our group. Females consumed a less atherogenic diet than males.

  4. Macronutrient intake in advanced age: Te Puāwaitanga o Ngā Tapuwae Kia ora Tonu, Life and Living in Advanced Age: A Cohort Study in New Zealand (LiLACS NZ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wham, Carol; Teh, Ruth; Moyes, Simon A; Rolleston, Anna; Muru-Lanning, Marama; Hayman, Karen; Adamson, Ashley; Kerse, Ngaire

    2016-09-01

    As part of the 12-month follow-up of the longitudinal cohort study, Life and Living in Advanced Age: A Cohort Study in New Zealand, dietary intake was assessed in 216 Māori and 362 non-Māori octogenarians using repeat 24-h multiple pass recalls. Energy and macronutrient intakes were calculated, and food items reported were allocated to food groups used in the New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey (NZANS). Intakes were compared with the nutrient reference values (NRV) for Australia and New Zealand. The median BMI was higher for Māori (28·3 kg/m2) than for non-Māori (26·2 kg/m2) P=0·007. For Māori, median energy intake was 7·44 MJ/d for men and 6·06 MJ/d for women with 16·3 % energy derived from protein, 43·3 % from carbohydrate and 38·5 % from fat. Median energy intake was 7·91 and 6·26 MJ/d for non-Māori men and women, respectively, with 15·4 % of energy derived from protein, 45 % from carbohydrate and 36·7 % from fat. For both ethnic groups, bread was the top contributor to energy and carbohydrate intakes. Protein came from beef and veal, fish and seafood, bread, milk and poultry with the order differing by ethnic groups and sex. Fat came mainly from butter and margarine. Energy-adjusted protein was higher for Māori than non-Māori (P=0·049). For both ethnic groups, the median energy levels were similar, percent carbohydrate tended to be lower and percent fat higher compared with adults aged >70 years in NZANS. These unique cross-sectional data address an important gap in our understanding of dietary intake in this growing section of our population and highlight lack of age-appropriate NRV.

  5. Macronutrient intake and inadequacies of community-dwelling older adults, a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borg, ter S.J.; Verlaan, S.; Mijnarends, D.; Schols, J.M.G.A.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Luiking, Y.C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Anorexia of ageing may predispose older adults to under-nutrition and protein energy malnutrition. Studies, however, report a large variation in nutrient inadequacies among community-dwelling older adults. Summary: This systematic review provides a comprehensive overview of the energy an

  6. Habitual sleep duration is associated with BMI and macronutrient intake and may be modified by CLOCK genetic variants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short sleep duration has been associated with greater risks of obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Also, common genetic variants in the human Circadian Locomotor Output Cycles Kaput (CLOCK) show associations with ghrelin and total energy intake. We examined associations betw...

  7. Diet quality is lower and energy intake higher on weekends compared to weekdays in midlife women: A one-year cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Differences in energy and macronutrient intakes by weekday and weekend have been reported, but there are little data on differences in food group consumption and indices of diet quality. Objective: To describe dietary intake by day and on weekends compared to weekdays. Design: One-year c...

  8. Organismal and spatial partitioning of energy and macronutrient transformations within a hypersaline mat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mobberley, Jennifer M.; Lindemann, Stephen R.; Bernstein, Hans C.; Moran, James J.; Renslow, Ryan S.; Babauta, Jerome; Hu, Dehong; Beyenal, Haluk; Nelson, William C.

    2017-03-21

    Phototrophic mat communities are model ecosystems for studying energy cycling and elemental transformations because complete biogeochemical cycles occur over millimeter-to-centimeter scales. Characterization of energy and nutrient capture within hypersaline phototrophic mats has focused on specific processes and organisms, however little is known about community-wide distribution of and linkages between these processes. To investigate energy and macronutrient capture and flow through a structured community, the spatial and organismal distribution of metabolic functions within a compact hypersaline mat community from Hot Lake have been broadly elucidated through species-resolved metagenomics and geochemical, microbial diversity, and metabolic gradient measurements. Draft reconstructed genomes of abundant organisms revealed three dominant cyanobacterial populations differentially distributed across the top layers of the mat suggesting niche separation along light and oxygen gradients. Many organisms contained diverse functional profiles, allowing for metabolic response to changing conditions within the mat. Organisms with partial nitrogen and sulfur metabolisms were widespread indicating dependence upon metabolite exchange. In addition, changes in community spatial structure were observed over the diel. These results indicate that organisms within the mat community have adapted to the temporally dynamic environmental gradients in this hypersaline mat through metabolic flexibility and fluid syntrophic interactions, including shifts in spatial arrangements.

  9. Energy balance and macronutrient distribution in relation to C-reactive protein and HbA1c levels among patients with type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiba Bawadi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recently growing evidence indicates that obesity and diabetes are states of inflammation associated with elevated circulation of inflammatory mediators. Excess adiposity and oxidative stress, induced by feeding, may also lead to a state of low-grade inflammation. Objective: This study aimed at investigating energy balance and distribution in relation to low-grade inflammation among patients with type 2 diabetes. Design: A cross-sectional study included 198 male and female patients with type 2 diabetes. Patients’ weight, height, waist circumference, total body fat and truncal fat percent, energy, and macronutrient intake were measured. Venous blood specimens were collected, and levels of HbA1c and serum levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP were determined. Results: After adjusting for covariates (body mass index, total body fat, and truncal fat, energy balance was positively correlated with hs-CRP and HbA1c. A positive energy balance was also associated with increased waist circumference and truncal fat percent (p<0.05. Total energy intake, percent energy from fat (p=0.04, and percent energy from proteins (p=0.03, but not percent energy from carbohydrates (p=0.12, were also correlated with higher hs-CRP levels among poorly glycemic-controlled patients. Conclusion: Positive energy balance is associated with elevations in hs-CRP. Increased energy intake and increased percentages of energy from fat and protein are associated with elevated hs-CRP among patients with poor glycemic control.

  10. The effect of socioeconomic indicators and macronutrient intake rate on body composition in adolescents 12 to 16 years old in Merida, Yucatan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta Banik, Sudip; Andrade Olalde, Ana Carolina; Rodriguez, Luis; Dickinson, Federico

    2014-01-01

    Intake pattern of macronutrients (protein, lipid, carbohydrate) and socioeconomic status (SES) are major causes of high child and adolescent overweight and obesity prevalences in Mexico. An evaluation was done of the relationship between body mass index (BMI)-based nutritional status and body composition (BC), macronutrient intake rates (MIR) and SES indicators in 127 boys and 156 girls aged 12 to 16 years attending schools in Merida, Mexico. Anthropometric variables included height, weight, and BMI. The BC (body fat mass, fat-free mass, dry lean mass) was estimated by bioelectrical impedance (Bodystat 1500 MDD). The MIR were estimated following FAO/WHO/UNO standard (1985). Proxy socioeconomic indicators included parents' age (as a maturity indicator) and education, fathers' occupation, school type and monthly household food expenditure per capita. Excess weight (overweight + obesity) assessed by BMI, was higher in boys (40.16 %) than in girls (33.97 %). Boys had higher BMI, less fat mass and higher fat-free mass than girls. The MIR did not vary significantly in response to age, sex, BC or SES. Participants with higher SES were taller and heavier, had higher fat-free mass and lower fat mass. In the studied adolescents, anthropometric and BC values, and overweight and obesity rates were more associated with SES than MIR.

  11. Relationship between dietary macronutrient intake and the risk of age-related cataract in middle-aged and elderly patients in northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Quan Lu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To examine the association between dietary macronutrient intake and the risk of age-related cataract (ARC in middle-aged and elderly men.METHODS:A hospital-based case-control study was conducted from December 2009 to November 2011. Cases (n=360 were patients with cataract aged 45-85 years old, and controls (n=360 were patients who had been admitted to the same hospital for diseases not related with cataract. All subjects were interviewed using a structured interviewer-administrated questionnaire that included information on socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle habits and detailed medical history, simultaneously, the dietary intakes of nutrients were collected via a valid semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ. The odds ratios (OR and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI of three types of ARC were estimated using multiple logistic regression models.RESULTS: After adjusting for multiple potential confounders, total dietary intake of carbohydrate was positively associated with cortical cataract, compared to controls in the lowest quartile, and the OR for cases in the highest quartile of intake was 2.471 (95%CI:1.348-6.043, P=0.027. Higher dietary intakes of protein were protective for posterior subcapsular cataract (PSC (OR=0.528, 95%CI:0.148-0.869, P=0.023. Dietary fat intake was not associated with any type of cataract, however, participants in the highest quartile of polyunsaturated fatty acids intake had 2.7 times the risk of nuclear cataract as did those in the lowest quartile (OR=2.742, 95%CI:1.790-4.200, P=0.033.CONCLUSION: A high intake of carbohydrate and polyunsaturated fatty acid may increase the odds of cortical and nuclear cataract, respectively, whereas high intake of protein, especially animal protein, may protect against PSC cataract. It is possible that dietary changes of target population may reduce the risk of ARC.

  12. Appetite and Energy Intake in Humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lone Brinkmann

    on appetite sensations, ad libitum energy intake and gastro-intestinal satiety hormones. 3. To compare the effect of dark chocolate versus milk chocolate on appetite sensations and ad libitum energy intake. In paper 1, the participants who received sucrose supplements had lower ratings of fullness and higher...... ratings of prospective food consumption between lunch and dinner, and after dinner than the participants who received artificial sweetener supplements. Both groups had a high energy intake during the test day, but the sucrose supplements induced a higher energy intake, compared with the artificial...... sweetener supplements. In paper 2, the modified triacylglycerol salatrim did not reduce energy intake, compared with traditional fat, despite slightly higher ratings of fullness during the salatrim test day. The slight difference in fullness was not due to differences in gastro-intestinal satiety hormones...

  13. The relationship between dietary intake and energy availability, eating attitudes and cognitive restraint in students enrolled in undergraduate nutrition degrees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocks, Tetyana; Pelly, Fiona; Slater, Gary; Martin, Lisa Anne

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this research was to explore the relationship of total energy and macronutrient intake, energy balance and energy availability to eating attitudes and cognitive restraint in students enrolled in undergraduate nutrition degrees. Energy and micronutrient intake was assessed in 63 students (n = 50 nutrition, and n = 13 occupation therapy degrees; n = 51 females, n = 12 males) using three 24-h dietary recalls. Energy requirements were calculated based on measured resting metabolic rate, estimated exercise energy expenditure, and dietary induced thermogenesis. Body composition was assessed using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Eating attitudes and cognitive restraint were measured using previously validated tools. Eighteen percent of nutrition students were classified as having low energy availability (energy balance. Eating attitudes and cognitive restraint were not associated with total energy or macronutrient intake. However, female nutrition students with high cognitive restraint had greater exercise energy expenditure and thus lower energy availability than those with low cognitive restraint (371 (302) kcal d(-1) compared to 145 (206) kcal d(-1), P energy availability (rs = -0.37, P = 0.02 and rs = -0.51, P energy balance through exercise, as opposed to restricting food intake.

  14. Randomization to plant-based dietary approaches leads to larger short-term improvements in Dietary Inflammatory Index scores and macronutrient intake compared with diets that contain meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M; Wirth, Michael D; Shivappa, Nitin; Wingard, Ellen E; Fayad, Raja; Wilcox, Sara; Frongillo, Edward A; Hébert, James R

    2015-02-01

    Studies have examined nutrient differences among people following different plant-based diets. However, all of these studies have been observational. The aim of the present study was to examine differences in nutrient intake and Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII) scores among overweight and obese (body mass index 25.0-49.9 kg/m(2)) adults randomized to receive dietary instruction on a vegan (n = 12), vegetarian (n = 13), pescovegetarian (n = 13), semivegetarian (n = 13), or omnivorous (n = 12) diet during a 6-month randomized controlled trial. Nutrient intake, nutrient adequacy, and DII score were assessed via two 24-hour dietary recalls (Automated Self-Administered 24-Hour Dietary Recall) at baseline and at 2 and 6 months. Differences in nutrient intake and the DII were examined using general linear models with follow-up tests at each time point. We hypothesized that individuals randomized to the vegan diet would have lower DII scores and greater improvements in fiber, carbohydrate, fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol at both 2 and 6 months as compared with the other 4 diets. Participants randomized to the vegan diet had significantly greater changes in most macronutrients at both time points, including fat and saturated fat, as well as cholesterol and, at 2 months, fiber, as compared with most of the other diet groups (Ps plant-based dietary approaches, such as vegan and vegetarian diets, should be given consideration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Energy and nutrient intakes of young children in the UK: findings from the Gemini twin cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrad, H; Llewellyn, C H; van Jaarsveld, C H M; Johnson, L; Jebb, S A; Wardle, J

    2016-05-28

    Data on the diets of young children in the UK are limited, despite growing evidence of the importance of early diet for long-term health. We used the largest contemporary dietary data set to describe the intake of 21-month-old children in the UK. Parents of 2336 children aged 21 months from the UK Gemini twin cohort completed 3-d diet diaries in 2008/2009. Family background information was obtained from questionnaires completed 8 months after birth. Mean total daily intakes of energy, macronutrients (g and %E) and micronutrients from food and beverages, including and excluding supplements, were derived. Comparisons with UK dietary reference values (DRV) were made using t tests and general linear regression models, respectively. Daily energy intake (kJ), protein (g) and most micronutrients exceeded DRV, except for vitamin D and Fe, where 96 or 84 % and 70 or 6 % of children did not achieve the reference nutrient intake or lower reference nutrient intake (LRNI), respectively, even with supplementation. These findings reflect similar observations in the smaller sample of children aged 18-36 months in the National Diet and Nutrition Survey. At a population level, young children in the UK are exceeding recommended daily intakes of energy and protein, potentially increasing their risk of obesity. The majority of children are not meeting the LRNI for vitamin D, largely reflecting inadequate use of the supplements recommended at this age. Parents may need more guidance on how to achieve healthy energy and nutrient intakes for young children.

  16. The Influence of Seasonal Frugivory on Nutrient and Energy Intake in Wild Western Gorillas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelly Masi

    Full Text Available The daily energy requirements of animals are determined by a combination of physical and physiological factors, but food availability may challenge the capacity to meet nutritional needs. Western gorillas (Gorilla gorilla are an interesting model for investigating this topic because they are folivore-frugivores that adjust their diet and activities to seasonal variation in fruit availability. Observations of one habituated group of western gorillas in Bai-Hokou, Central African Republic (December 2004-December 2005 were used to examine seasonal variation in diet quality and nutritional intake. We tested if during the high fruit season the food consumed by western gorillas was higher in quality (higher in energy, sugar, fat but lower in fibre and antifeedants than during the low fruit season. Food consumed during the high fruit season was higher in digestible energy, but not any other macronutrients. Second, we investigated whether the gorillas increased their daily intake of carbohydrates, metabolizable energy (KCal/g OM, or other nutrients during the high fruit season. Intake of dry matter, fibers, fat, protein and the majority of minerals and phenols decreased with increased frugivory and there was some indication of seasonal variation in intake of energy (KCal/g OM, tannins, protein/fiber ratio, and iron. Intake of non-structural carbohydrates and sugars was not influenced by fruit availability. Gorillas are probably able to extract large quantities of energy via fermentation since they rely on proteinaceous leaves during the low fruit season. Macronutrients and micronutrients, but not digestible energy, may be limited for them during times of low fruit availability because they are hind-gut fermenters. We discuss the advantages of seasonal frugivores having large dietary breath and flexibility, significant characteristics to consider in the conservation strategies of endangered species.

  17. Exercise and the regulation of energy intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheurink, AJW; Ammar, AA; Benthem, B; van Dijk, G; Sodersten, PAT; Södersten, Per A.T.

    1999-01-01

    Energy balance is the resultant of ingested calories and energy expenditure and is generally maintained within narrow limits over prolonged periods. Exercise leads to an increase in energy expenditure which is, in the long-term, counteracted by increased energy intake. Evidence for this comes from a

  18. Exercise and the regulation of energy intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheurink, AJW; Ammar, AA; Benthem, B; van Dijk, G; Sodersten, PAT; Södersten, Per A.T.

    Energy balance is the resultant of ingested calories and energy expenditure and is generally maintained within narrow limits over prolonged periods. Exercise leads to an increase in energy expenditure which is, in the long-term, counteracted by increased energy intake. Evidence for this comes from a

  19. Reproducibility of an in-laboratory test meal to assess ad libitum energy intake in adolescents with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thivel, David; Genin, Pauline Manon; Mathieu, Marie-Eve; Pereira, Bruno; Metz, Lore

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the present work was to test the reproducibility of a personalized in-laboratory ad libitum buffet meal in assessing energy and macronutrient intake in obese adolescents. Twelve 13.5 ± 1.5 years old obese adolescent girls were asked to complete three identical experimental sessions during which an ad libitum buffet meal was presented at lunch time. The buffet was personalized based on food preference questionnaires, presented usually consumed food items and excluded preferred foods. Total energy intake and the energy ingested derived from each macronutrient were assessed by investigators using the Bilnuts nutritional software. Mean body mass was 87.0 ± 13.7 kg and mean BMI was 32.2 ± 4.9 kg/m(2). Mean FM percentage was 39.1 ± 4.4% and FFM was 50.6 ± 7.7 kg. There was no significant difference between total energy intake, the percentage of intake related to fat, protein or Carbohydrates (CHO) between the three sessions. The Intraclass Correlations (ICC) observed for total energy intake was 0.99. ICC for Protein, Fat and CHO were 0.38; 0.96 and 0.81 respectively. The Bland & Altman visual analysis revealed an important agreement between meals. The proposed personalized in-laboratory ad libitum test meal produces is a reproducible methods to assess energy and macronutrients intake in obese adolescent girls. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of exercise mode, energy, and macronutrient interventions on inflammation during military training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasiakos, Stefan M; Margolis, Lee M; Murphy, Nancy E; McClung, Holy L; Martini, Svein; Gundersen, Yngvar; Castellani, John W; Karl, James P; Teien, Hilde K; Madslien, Elisabeth H; Stenberg, Pal H; Young, Andrew J; Montain, Scott J; McClung, James P

    2016-06-01

    Load carriage (LC) exercise may exacerbate inflammation during training. Nutritional supplementation may mitigate this response by sparing endogenous carbohydrate stores, enhancing glycogen repletion, and attenuating negative energy balance. Two studies were conducted to assess inflammatory responses to acute LC and training, with or without nutritional supplementation. Study 1: 40 adults fed eucaloric diets performed 90-min of either LC (treadmill, mean ± SD 24 ± 3 kg LC) or cycle ergometry (CE) matched for intensity (2.2 ± 0.1 VO2peak L min(-1)) during which combined 10 g protein/46 g carbohydrate (223 kcal) or non-nutritive (22 kcal) control drinks were consumed. Study 2: 73 Soldiers received either combat rations alone or supplemented with 1000 kcal day(-1) from 20 g protein- or 48 g carbohydrate-based bars during a 4-day, 51 km ski march (~45 kg LC, energy expenditure 6155 ± 515 kcal day(-1) and intake 2866 ± 616 kcal day(-1)). IL-6, hepcidin, and ferritin were measured at baseline, 3-h post exercise (PE), 24-h PE, 48-h PE, and 72-h PE in study 1, and before (PRE) and after (POST) the 4-d ski march in study 2. Study 1: IL-6 was higher 3-h and 24-h post exercise (PE) for CE only (mode × time, P Energy expenditure (r = 0.40), intake (r = -0.26), and balance (r = -0.43) were associated (P supplemental nutrition during energy balance. The magnitude of hepcidin response was inversely related to energy balance suggesting that eating enough to balance energy expenditure might attenuate the inflammatory response to military training.

  1. Fluctuations in daily energy intake do not cause physiological stress in a Neotropical primate living in a seasonal forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Mota, Rodolfo; Righini, Nicoletta; Palme, Rupert

    2016-12-01

    Animals may face periods of nutritional stress due to short-term food shortage and/or low energy consumption associated with seasonal fluctuations in resource availability. We tested the hypothesis that periods of restricted macronutrient and energy intake result in energy deficits and physiological stress in wild black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra) inhabiting seasonal tropical semi-deciduous forests. We conducted full-day follows of focal animals recording feeding rates, time spent feeding, and total amount of food ingested. We carried out nutritional analysis of foods collected from feeding trees and calculated the daily nutrient and energy intake of each focal individual. Fecal glucocorticoid metabolites (fGCM) of focal animals were used as an indicator of physiological stress. We found that fluctuations in daily energy intake across seasons did not have significant effects on fGCM of individuals. However, protein intake was negatively associated with fGCM, highlighting the interplay among macronutrients, metabolism, and the endocrine system. Fecal glucocorticoid metabolites were also positively related to fruit availability, but this relationship was most likely due to social stress associated with intergroup encounters and resource defense that occurred when preferred trees were fruiting. Behavioral strategies such as dietary shifts and nutrient mixing, and metabolic adaptations such as low energy expenditure allowed individuals to fulfill their minimum energy requirements even during periods of decreased resource availability and intake. The present study suggests that seasonal variations in food, macronutrient, and energy acquisition may have limited physiological costs for animals that exploit different types of plant resources such as howler monkeys.

  2. Energy Expenditure and Intake Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerterp, K.R.

    2015-01-01

    The main components of total energy expenditure are energy expenditure for maintenance or basal metabolic rate, the thermic effect of food or diet-induced energy expenditure (DEE), and the energy cost of physical activity or activity-induced energy expenditure (AEE). This chapter describes methods t

  3. Infant macronutrient composition is associated with differences in cardiovascular structures and function in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Hooven, Edith H; de Jonge, Layla L; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C; Raat, Hein; Villamor, Eduardo; Hofman, Albert; Felix, Janine F; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Moll, Henriette A; Franco, Oscar H

    2013-12-01

    Early-life nutrition may influence cardiovascular development. Not much is known about the associations between dietary composition and cardiovascular risk factors in childhood. We examined the associations of infant macronutrient intake with cardiovascular structures and function in 2882 children participating in a prospective, population-based cohort study. Information on macronutrient intake at the age of 14 mo was obtained from food-frequency questionnaires completed by a parent. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure, carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV), fractional shortening, and left cardiac structures (left atrial diameter, aortic root diameter, and left ventricular mass) were measured at the age of 6 y. Linear regression analyses were performed by using energy-adjusted macronutrient intakes, adjusted for maternal, child, and other dietary factors. Higher total fat intake was associated with higher carotid-femoral PWV (P-trend = 0.03), whereas higher intakes of total carbohydrate and mono- and disaccharides were associated with lower carotid-femoral PWV. No consistent associations were observed for macronutrient intake with systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, fractional shortening, and aortic root diameter. Higher intakes of total, saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fat were associated with lower left atrial diameter (all P-trend ≤ 0.01), and higher total carbohydrate and mono- and disaccharide intakes were associated with higher left atrial diameter (P-trend cardiovascular structures and function in childhood. Further studies are needed to investigate whether these differences have consequences for the risk of future cardiovascular disease.

  4. Absorption of macronutrients and nitrogen balance in children with dysentery fed an amylase-treated energy-dense porridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M M; Mahalanabis, D; Ali, M; Mazumder, R N; Wahed, M A; Fuchs, G J

    1997-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the absorption of macronutrients and energy from an energy-dense diet liquefied with amylase from germinated wheat (ARF) in children suffering from acute dysentery. Thirty male children aged 6-35 months presenting with acute dysentery were randomly assigned to receive either an ARF-treated porridge or a standard porridge liquefied with water to make its consistency similar to the ARF porridge. After 24-h stabilization a 72-h metabolic balance was performed. Sixteen children received an ARF-treated porridge and 14 received a standard porridge liquefied with water. The mean +/- SD coefficients of absorption (%) of carbohydrate, fat, protein and energy (ARF porridge vs regular porridge) were 81.4 +/- 11 vs 86.9 +/- 7, 86.1 +/- 10 vs 82.8 +/- 15, 57.3 +/- 12 vs 48.4 +/- 24 and 81.4 +/- 9 vs 83.1 +/- 8, respectively. The stool loss of carbohydrate, protein, fat and energy was similar in the two groups. The net absorption of energy was substantially greater in the ARF-fed than regular porridge-fed children (by 28%, p = 0.01). The nitrogen balance was 6.9 +/- 3.4 mg kg(-1) d(-1) in the ARF porridge group and 1.1 +/- 6.7 mg kg(-1) d(-1) in the regular porridge group (p = 0.01). These results show that, despite being hyperosmolar, an amylase-treated liquefied energy-dense porridge is absorbed as well as a regular porridge by malnourished children with severe dysentery. Consequently, its use substantially increased the absorption of a net amount of macronutrients and resulted in a better nitrogen balance. These results further support this innovative approach of feeding sick children in developing countries.

  5. An intervention study targeting energy and nutrient intake in worksite cafeterias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Michael R; Tappe, Karyn A; Butryn, Meghan L; Annunziato, Rachel A; Coletta, Maria C; Ochner, Christopher N; Rolls, Barbara J

    2010-08-01

    Modifying the food environment is a promising strategy for promoting healthier eating behavior. This study aimed to evaluate nutritional and weight changes in a program that used worksite cafeterias to reduce employees' calorie content of purchased foods and improve their macronutrient intake. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two conditions: 1) only environmental change (i.e., the introduction of 10 new low-energy-density (ED) foods and provision of labels for all foods sold at lunch, which listed ED, calories, and macronutrient content) or 2) the environmental change plus pricing incentives for purchasing low-ED foods and education about low-ED eating delivered in four, 1-hour group sessions. Participant lunch choices were monitored electronically at the point of purchase for 3 months before the intervention was instituted (i.e., the baseline period) and for 3 months afterward (i.e., intervention period). Participants were adults (n=96, BMI=29.7+/-6.0 kg/m(2)) who regularly ate lunch at their workplace cafeteria. There was no difference between groups in total energy intake over the study period. Across groups, energy and percent of energy from fat decreased and percent of energy from carbohydrate increased from baseline to the intervention period (all p<.01). Follow-up analyses, conducted by averaging Baseline Months 1 and 2 and comparing them to Intervention Month 3 as a conservative estimate of overall impact of the intervention, indicated that change in energy, carbohydrate, and fat intake remained significant (p<.001). Providing nutrition labels and reducing the ED of selected foods was associated with improved dietary intake.

  6. Effect of flavour of liquid Ensure diet supplement on energy intake in male SD rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Zoe A; Brown, Yvonne A; Rayner, D Vernon; Stubbs, R James; Mercer, Julian G

    2006-10-30

    Outbred male Sprague-Dawley rats were provided with one of the four flavours of the liquid diet, Ensure, in addition to chow pellets, to examine whether differences in flavour lead to differences in energy intake i.e. degree of over-consumption. For half the rats, the Ensure supplement was provided for 14 days and then withdrawn for the final 8 days of the study, whereas the remaining animals were allowed to consume Ensure for 22 days. All four flavours of Ensure, chocolate, vanilla, coffee and asparagus, induced a sustained increase in daily energy intake of approximately 15%. There was an effect of flavour on initial consumption of the Ensure diet, with coffee and asparagus flavours being consumed less avidly than vanilla or chocolate. However, this effect was short-lived. Overall, there was no effect of flavour on body weight gain, energy intake from Ensure, total energy intake, body composition, or measured blood hormones and metabolites. Withdrawal of Ensure resulted in reductions in body weight gain, total energy intake, fat but not lean tissue mass, and concentrations of blood leptin, non-esterified fatty acids and triglycerides, but there was no effect of the flavour of Ensure previously supplied on any of these parameters. The ability of the liquid diet, Ensure, to stimulate long-term caloric over-consumption is not due to its flavouring. Rather, other attributes of Ensure must be more important, such as its intrinsic flavour, liquid formulation, macronutrient composition, and ease of ingestion, digestion and absorption.

  7. Nutrition Education by a Registered Dietitian Improves Dietary Intake and Nutrition Knowledge of a NCAA Female Volleyball Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valliant, Melinda W.; Pittman Emplaincourt, Heather; Wenzel, Rachel Kieckhaefer; Garner, Bethany Hilson

    2012-01-01

    Eleven female participants from a NCAA Division I volleyball team were evaluated for adequate energy and macronutrient intake during two off-seasons. Total energy and macronutrient intake were assessed by food records and results were compared against estimated needs using the Nelson equation. Dietary intervention was employed regarding the individual dietary needs of each athlete as well as a pre- and post-sports nutrition knowledge survey. Post dietary intervention, total energy, and macronutrient intake improved, as well as a significant improvement in sports nutrition knowledge (p < 0.001). Nutrition education is useful in improving dietary intake and nutrition knowledge of female athletes. PMID:22822449

  8. Daily intake of macronutrients in a group of institutionalized elderly people in León. Spain Ingestión diaria de macronutrientes por un grupo de ancianos ingresados en residencias de León. España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. T. García-Arias

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring of energy distribution of the three macronutrients of diet could be beneficial in order to improve the physiological status of elderly people. The objective of this study is to analyse total daily energy intake as well as the caloric contribution of the macronutrients and alcohol, which make up basic diet of five nursing homes in León (Spain. Dietary consumption was evaluated in a group of 107 elderly people, aged 65-98 years. A precise weighing method was used to conduct the control of food intake covering seven days. Protein, carbohydrates, fat, alcohol, dietary fiber and cholesterol intake were obtained. Weight, and Height also were measured. Total dietary energy intake was significantly higher in men (130.5% than in women (115.6%, with regard to recommended value. Relative contribution of macronutrients to total energy intake is extremely unbalanced. Energy derived from protein was very high (16.7%, energy derived from fat was also very high, and significantly higher for females (39.6% than for males (34.4%, whereas the proportion derived from carbohydrates was very low, although also significantly higher in females (41.5% than in males (35.8%, due to the high energy percentage that make up the alcohol intake in males (9.1%. A review of the diet offered by nursing homes, not only directed at the adjustment of total energy intake but also with respect to alcohol intake and macronutrient content of foodstuffs used in the elaboration of the menus, would be required in order not to unbalance the caloric profile of the diet.La supervisión de la distribución energética de los tres macronutrientes de la dieta podría mejorar el estado fisiológico de los ancianos. El objetivo de este estudio es analizar la ingestión energética diaria total y la contribución calórica de los macronutrientes y del alcohol, que representan la alimentación básica de cinco residencias para ancianos de León (España. Se ha examinado el consumo

  9. Insulin, macronutrient intake, and physical activity: are potential indicators of insulin resistance associated with mortality from breast cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borugian, Marilyn J; Sheps, Samuel B; Kim-Sing, Charmaine; Van Patten, Cheri; Potter, John D; Dunn, Bruce; Gallagher, Richard P; Hislop, T Gregory

    2004-07-01

    High levels of insulin have been associated with increased risk of breast cancer, and poorer survival after diagnosis. Data and sera were collected from 603 breast cancer patients, including information on diet and physical activity, medical history, family history, demographic, and reproductive risk factors. These data were analyzed to test the hypothesis that excess insulin and related factors are directly related to mortality after a diagnosis of breast cancer. The cohort was recruited from breast cancer patients treated at the British Columbia Cancer Agency between July 1991 and December 1992. Questionnaire and medical record data were collected at enrollment and outcomes were ascertained by linkage to the BC Cancer Registry after 10 years of follow-up. The primary outcome of interest was breast cancer-specific mortality (n = 112). Lifestyle data were analyzed using Cox proportional hazards regression models to relate risk factors to outcomes, controlling for potential confounders, such as age and stage at diagnosis. Data for biological variables were analyzed as a nested case-control study due to limited serum volumes, with at least one survivor from the same cohort as a control for each breast cancer death, matched on stage and length of follow-up. High levels of insulin were associated with poorer survival for postmenopausal women [odds ratio, 1.9; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.7-6.6, comparing highest to lowest tertile, P trend = 0.10], while high dietary fat intake was associated with poorer survival for premenopausal women (relative risk, 4.8; 95% CI, 1.3-18.1, comparing highest to lowest quartile). Higher dietary protein intake was associated with better survival for all women (relative risk, 0.4; 95% CI, 0.2-0.8, comparing highest to lowest quartile).

  10. The Dietary Composition and Source of Macronutrients Determine Obesity Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Myrmel, Lene Secher

    to an elevation in energy intake, these alterations include increased consumption of refined carbohydrates and a relative decrease in protein consumption. The relative intake of dietary fat has not increased during the last decades, but the proportion of vegetable oils has increased at the expense of saturated...... fat and marine oils. To further investigate the importance of the macronutrient composition on obesity development, we have performed a series of mice experiments. Our results demonstrate that both the amount and source of macronutrients influence obesity development and related disorders. The anti...... fed salmon in a Western diet. However, a high dietary content of sucrose or other high glycemic index carbohydrates attenuate the anti-obesogenic effect of n-3 PUFAs. When casein is used as the protein source, a high protein:carbohydrate ratio prevents high fat diet induced obesity, this is observed...

  11. The excesive intake of macronutrients: does it influence the sportive performances of young cyclists? La excesiva ingesta de macronutrientes: ¿influye en el rendimiento deportivo de jóvenes ciclistas?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Sánchez-Benito

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose was to determine whether 34 young Spanish males belonging to a cyclist team, follows the optimal macronutrients intake based on the ecommended dietary guidelines. The deficits in nutrition jeopardise the sportive performances, but what about the diets with excessive intake of macronutrients? Furthermore, is there an association between their sportive achievements and the psychological profile? Surely, but the problem is to determine which psychological variables are involved. Method: Nutritional evaluation based on Nutrients intake questionnaire of 7 consecutive days. Results: Cyclists consume an excessive quantity of proteins and lipids in their diets. The average consumption of proteins is 16,36% of their caloric intake (the recommended quantity is less than 10%. The average consumption of fats is 38,71% (the recommended is less than 30%. The same tendency is found in the homologous Spanish young people of the enKID study, where the percentage of energy from fat and saturated fat is much higher than the recommended one. The cyclists consume insufficient quantities of carbohydrates (average is 44, 94% of their caloric intake, the recommended is more than 60%, therefore the reload of their glycogen stores may not be complete on each competition stage. No association has been found between the excessive intake of referred macronutrients and the achieved sport performances. Conclusion: This work contributes to the knowledge of the diets of very active young cyclists. Excessive intake of proteins and fats do not jeopardise their sportive performances. The commonly studied psychological variables in sport, are not determinant of sportive achievements of young cyclists; additional work is needed to determine the psychological profile playing a determinant role in success of young cyclists.El propósito ha sido determinar si un equipo de 34 ciclistas españoles jóvenes sigue las pautas recomendadas en la ingesta de macronutrientes. El d

  12. Fiber fermentability effects on energy and macronutrient digestibility, fecal traits, postprandial metabolite responses, and colon histology of overweight cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, M M; Kessler, A M; de Sá, L R M; Vasconcellos, R S; Filho, F O Roberti; Nogueira, S P; Oliveira, M C C; Carciofi, A C

    2012-07-01

    Considering the different potential benefits of divergent fiber ingredients, the effect of 3 fiber sources on energy and macronutrient digestibility, fermentation product formation, postprandial metabolite responses, and colon histology of overweight cats (Felis catus) fed kibble diets was compared. Twenty-four healthy adult cats were assigned in a complete randomized block design to 2 groups of 12 animals, and 3 animals from each group were fed 1 of 4 of the following kibble diets: control (CO; 11.5% dietary fiber), beet pulp (BP; 26% dietary fiber), wheat bran (WB; 24% dietary fiber), and sugarcane fiber (SF; 28% dietary fiber). Digestibility was measured by the total collection of feces. After 16 d of diet adaptation and an overnight period without food, blood glucose, cholesterol, and triglyceride postprandial responses were evaluated for 16 h after continued exposure to food. On d 20, colon biopsies of the cats were collected under general anesthesia. Fiber addition reduced food energy and nutrient digestibility. Of all the fiber sources, SF had the least dietary fiber digestibility (P fiber solubility and fermentation rates, fiber sources can induce different physiological responses in cats, reduce energy digestibility, and favor glucose metabolism (SF), or improve gut health (BP).

  13. Appetite and Energy Intake in Humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lone Brinkmann

    on appetite sensations, ad libitum energy intake and gastro-intestinal satiety hormones. 3. To compare the effect of dark chocolate versus milk chocolate on appetite sensations and ad libitum energy intake. In paper 1, the participants who received sucrose supplements had lower ratings of fullness and higher....... The data 7 indicated that there was no difference in fat absorption after the two fat rich meals, although this was not measured directly. In paper 3, higher ratings of satiety and lower ratings of hunger and prospective consumption were recorded after consumption of the dark chocolate than after the milk...... chocolate. Ratings of the desire to eat something sweet, salty, fatty, and savoury were all lower after consumption of the dark chocolate than after the milk chocolate. The results suggest that it could be beneficial to use dark chocolate as a substitute for milk chocolate. In summary, these results suggest...

  14. Validity of the Remote Food Photography Method (RFPM) for estimating energy and nutrient intake in near real-time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, C. K.; Correa, J. B.; Han, H.; Allen, H. R.; Rood, J.; Champagne, C. M.; Gunturk, B. K.; Bray, G. A.

    2014-01-01

    Two studies are reported; a pilot study to demonstrate feasibility followed by a larger validity study. Study 1’s objective was to test the effect of two ecological momentary assessment (EMA) approaches that varied in intensity on the validity/accuracy of estimating energy intake with the Remote Food Photography Method (RFPM) over six days in free-living conditions. When using the RFPM, Smartphones are used to capture images of food selection and plate waste and to send the images to a server for food intake estimation. Consistent with EMA, prompts are sent to the Smartphones reminding participants to capture food images. During Study 1, energy intake estimated with the RFPM and the gold standard, doubly labeled water (DLW), were compared. Participants were assigned to receive Standard EMA Prompts (n=24) or Customized Prompts (n=16) (the latter received more reminders delivered at personalized meal times). The RFPM differed significantly from DLW at estimating energy intake when Standard (mean±SD = −895±770 kcal/day, p<.0001), but not Customized Prompts (−270±748 kcal/day, p=.22) were used. Error (energy intake from the RFPM minus that from DLW) was significantly smaller with Customized vs. Standard Prompts. The objectives of Study 2 included testing the RFPM’s ability to accurately estimate energy intake in free-living adults (N=50) over six days, and energy and nutrient intake in laboratory-based meals. The RFPM did not differ significantly from DLW at estimating free-living energy intake (−152±694 kcal/day, p=0.16). During laboratory-based meals, estimating energy and macronutrient intake with the RFPM did not differ significantly compared to directly weighed intake. PMID:22134199

  15. Eating rate of commonly consumed foods promotes food and energy intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viskaal-van Dongen, M.; Kok, F.J.; Graaf, de C.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the eating rate of commonly consumed foods and the associations with food intake and macronutrient composition. Ingestion time (s) of 50 g of 45 foods was measured to assess eating rate (g/min), after which ad libitum food intake (g) was measured. Thirteen men and 24 women (aged 23.3

  16. Macronutrient considerations for the sport of bodybuilding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Charles P; Frank, Laura L; Evans, William J

    2004-01-01

    Participants in the sport of bodybuilding are judged by appearance rather than performance. In this respect, increased muscle size and definition are critical elements of success. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the literature and provide recommendations regarding macronutrient intake during both 'off-season' and 'pre-contest' phases. Body builders attempt to increase muscle mass during the off-season (no competitive events), which may be the great majority of the year. During the off-season, it is advantageous for the bodybuilder to be in positive energy balance so that extra energy is available for muscle anabolism. Additionally, during the off-season, adequate protein must be available to provide amino acids for protein synthesis. For 6-12 weeks prior to competition, body builders attempt to retain muscle mass and reduce body fat to very low levels. During the pre-contest phase, the bodybuilder should be in negative energy balance so that body fat can be oxidised. Furthermore, during the pre-contest phase, protein intake must be adequate to maintain muscle mass. There is evidence that a relatively high protein intake (approximately 30% of energy intake) will reduce lean mass loss relative to a lower protein intake (approximately 15% of energy intake) during energy restriction. The higher protein intake will also provide a relatively large thermic effect that may aid in reducing body fat. In both the off-season and pre-contest phases, adequate dietary carbohydrate should be ingested (55-60% of total energy intake) so that training intensity can be maintained. Excess dietary saturated fat can exacerbate coronary artery disease; however, low-fat diets result in a reduction in circulating testosterone. Thus, we suggest dietary fats comprise 15-20% of the body builders' off-season and pre-contest diets. Consumption of protein/amino acids and carbohydrate immediately before and after training sessions may augment protein synthesis, muscle glycogen

  17. Balancing of protein and lipid intake by a mammalian carnivore, the mink, Mustela vison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayntz, David; Nielsen, Vivi Hunnicke; Sørensen, Allan

    2009-01-01

    mink and found a pronounced ability to balance and regulate intake of protein and lipid. When faced with one of several different pairings of complementary foods varying in protein to lipid composition, mink apportioned intake between the two foods to defend a near constant ratio and amount (intake...... target) of the two macronutrients. When given only one food of fixed nutrient composition, mink balanced macronutrient intake relative to the intake target, without showing the excessive energy intake on diets with a low percentage of protein and energy deficit on diets with a high percentage of protein......Many herbivores and omnivores can balance their intake of macronutrients when faced with nutritionally variable environments. Carnivores, however, are widely believed to optimize their rates of prey capture and energy intake rather than balancing nutrients. We tested nutrient balancing in captive...

  18. Effects of alcohol on food and energy intake in human subjects: evidence for passive and active over-consumption of energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeomans, Martin R

    2004-08-01

    The effects of alcohol on food and energy intake in human subjects have been the subject of a number of controlled studies recently. Unlike the evidence for other macronutrients, there is minimal evidence for any compensatory reduction in food intake in response to energy ingested as alcohol. In contrast, all studies testing intake within 1 h of preload ingestion report a higher intake of food following alcohol relative to energy-matched controls, although this short-term stimulatory effect is not evident if the test meal is delayed beyond 1 h. This time-course suggests that short-term stimulation of appetite may be mediated by the pharmacological action of alcohol on the appetite control system, either through enhanced orosensory reward or impaired satiety. In the long term, energy ingested as alcohol is additive to energy from other sources, suggesting that moderate alcohol consumption results in long-term passive over-consumption alongside short-term active over-consumption of energy through appetite stimulation. Despite the consistency of enhanced energy intake after moderate alcohol, evidence of an association between alcohol in the diet and obesity remains contentious, although the most recent results suggest that alcohol intake correlates with BMI. Future research needs to address this issue and clarify the mechanisms underlying appetite stimulation by alcohol.

  19. Influence of pork and pork by-products on macronutrient and energy digestibility and palatability in large exotic felids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iske, C J; Morris, C L; Kappen, K L

    2016-09-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate digestibility and palatability of a new commercial pork-based raw diet for zoo-managed felids. Currently 2 protein sources (beef or horse) comprise the majority of commercial raw meat diet formulations for exotic carnivores in zoological institutions. Pork-based diets have traditionally not been widely utilized and thus nutrient digestibility of pork has not been adequately evaluated in exotic carnivores. The objectives of this study were 1) to determine if a pork-based diet had similar apparent total tract macronutrient digestibility and fecal scores as standard zoo carnivore diets formulated with either horse or beef, in large exotic felids and 2) evaluate palatability of pork for use in zoos. Ten exotic felids were used including cheetahs (; 3), jaguars (; = 3), leopards (; 2), puma (; 1), and Bengal tiger (; 1). Dietary treatments consisted of 4 raw meat diets: 1 horse-based (Horse), 2 beef-based (B1, B2), and 1 pork-based diet (Pork). Fecal scores also were evaluated (1 = hard to 5 = watery/liquid). This randomized crossover design study consisted of 4 periods, each 10 d for treatment adaptation followed by 4 d of sample collection. Dry matter and crude protein apparent digestibility values were greater ( matter digestibility was greater ( < 0.05) in felids fed Pork (90.8%) than felids fed Horse (88.5%). Apparent fat digestibility values were high across all treatments but were greater ( < 0.05) in felids fed Pork (98.5%) compared with felids fed B1 (95.5%) or B2 (96.5%). Gross energy digestibility values were greater in felids fed Pork (92.4%) compared with B1 (90.2%). Average fecal scores were 2.30, 2.94, 3.42, and 3.54 for Horse, Pork, B1 and B2, respectively; and were different ( < 0.05) between treatments with exception of B1 and B2 that did not differ. Felids approached the pork diet first in 65.6% of observations and tasted the pork diet first in 71.9% of observations, compared with a beef-based raw diet. Based

  20. Consumo de energia e macronutrientes por adolescentes de escolas públicas e privadas Energy and macronutrients consumption by adolescents from public private schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ileana Mourão KAZAPI

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a adequação do consumo de energia e macronutrientes em adolescentes de escolas públicas (EPU e privadas (EPR do município de Florianópolis, SC. A amostra constou de 797 estudantes: 466 (228 meninas e 238 meninos de EPU e 331 (175 meninas e 156 meninos de EPR. Os dados foram obtidos através do método recordatório de 24 horas. Observou-se que aproximadamente 50% dos adolescentes apresentaram consumo energético insuficiente e mais da metade tiveram um consumo adequado de carboidratos. Entre os adolescentes do sexo masculino que apresentaram alto consumo de carboidratos, houve maior prevalência na rede pública (12,6% EPU e 3,8% EPR. Mais da metade dos estudantes apresentaram alto consumo de proteínas (54,3% EPU e 58,9% EPR, havendo maior prevalência entre os de sexo masculino (61,7% masculino e 50,6% feminino. Apenas 30,5% dos estudantes das EPU e 36,5% das EPR apresentaram consumo adequado de lipídios; ressalta-se o elevado percentual de adolescentes com alto consumo deste nutriente (33,9% EPU e 39,0% EPR. Entre os estudantes que apresentaram baixo consumo de lipídios, houve maior prevalência dos adolescentes do sexo masculino (35,3% masculino e 26,8% feminino, estudantes da EPU (41,6% EPU e 25,6% EPR. Pode-se concluir que o padrão alimentar apresentado por estes adolescentes pode estar associado a riscos para a saúde na vida adulta.The aim of this study was to evaluate the adequacy of energy and macronutrients consumption in adolescent students from public (EPU and private schools (EPR of Florianópolis, state of Santa Catarina. The sample consisted of 797 students: 466 (228 female and 238 male from public schools and 331 (175 female and 156 male from private schools. The informations were obtained using the 24-hour recall method. It was observed that around 50% of the adolescents presented insufficient energy intake and more than 50% of them had adequate consumption of carbohydrates. The

  1. Intake of dietary supplements and malnutrition in patients in intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehnoosh Samadi

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Since consuming dietary supplements besides the regular hospital meals increased intake of energy and macronutrients and reduced the MI significantly, it was concluded that it helped supply nutritional requirements more effectively and improved the malnutrition in ICU.

  2. Macronutrient and calcium intakes of rural left-behind children living in Ziyang%资阳市农村留守儿童宏量营养素和钙摄入现况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝刚; 张瑞; 张莎; 封平; 尹开武; 周欢

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解农村留守儿童营养素摄人情况以及相关影响因素,为开展营养干预、改善农村儿童营养状况提供依据.方法 分层整群抽取四川省资阳市2所农村小学二~五年级学生共计472名,使用调查问卷收集家庭构成,并采用7d连续膳食个人食物登记法收集调查对象的饮食状况.结果 非留守、双亲留守、单亲留守儿童的总能量摄入量与推荐值之比分别为0.57,0.56,0.52,总能量、脂肪、钙的摄入量差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05或P<0.01);回归分析显示,留守类别、吃零食情况是影响农村儿童总能量摄入的重要因素.结论 农村留守儿童膳食营养素中的总能量、蛋白质、脂肪、钙的摄人量均不足.应着重针对留守儿童及其吃零食行为等方面进行膳食营养干预.%Objective To investigate the macronutrient and calcium intake status and related factors among left-behind children living in rural areas.Methods By applying the stratified cluster sampling,472 children and adolescents in grade 2-5were enrolled in rural areas to complete the questionnaires about general status and nutrient intake status.Results The ratios of gross energy intake and its RNIs for no-left-behind children,left-behind children with parents,and left-behind children with single parent were 0.57,0.56 and 0.52,and variance analysis showed that the difference was statistically significant(P < 0.05),same were the fat and calcium's intake.Regression analysis showed that the main related factors were left type,the conditions of eating snacks and so on.Conclusion The nutrient intake status of rural children especially in gross energy,fat and calcium was worrying,especially for left-behind children.So the nutrition intervention should focus on left-behind children and their behavior of eating snacks.

  3. Lesser suppression of energy intake by orally ingested whey protein in healthy older men compared with young controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giezenaar, Caroline; Trahair, Laurence G; Rigda, Rachael; Hutchison, Amy T; Feinle-Bisset, Christine; Luscombe-Marsh, Natalie D; Hausken, Trygve; Jones, Karen L; Horowitz, Michael; Chapman, Ian; Soenen, Stijn

    2015-10-15

    Protein-rich supplements are used widely for the management of malnutrition in young and older people. Protein is the most satiating of the macronutrients in young. It is not known how the effects of oral protein ingestion on energy intake, appetite, and gastric emptying are modified by age. The aim of the study was to determine the suppression of energy intake by protein compared with control and underlying gastric-emptying and appetite responses of oral whey protein drinks in eight healthy older men (69-80 yr) compared with eight young male controls (18-34 yr). Subjects were studied on three occasions to determine the effects of protein loads of 30 g/120 kcal and 70 g/280 kcal compared with a flavored water control-drink (0 g whey protein) on energy intake (ad libitum buffet-style meal), and gastric emptying (three-dimensional-ultrasonography) and appetite (0-180 min) in a randomized, double-blind, cross-over design. Energy intake was suppressed by the protein compared with control (P = 0.034). Suppression of energy intake by protein was less in older men (1 ± 5%) than in young controls (15 ± 2%; P = 0.008). Cumulative energy intake (meal+drink) on the protein drink days compared with the control day increased more in older (18 ± 6%) men than young (1 ± 3%) controls (P = 0.008). Gastric emptying of all three drinks was slower in older men (50% gastric-emptying time: 68 ± 5 min) than young controls (36 ± 5 min; P = 0.007). Appetite decreased in young, while it increased in older (P protein-induced suppression of energy intake by whey protein compared with young controls, so that in the elderly men, protein ingestion increased overall energy intake more than in the young men.

  4. Macronutrient contributions of insects to the diets of hunter-gatherers: a geometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raubenheimer, David; Rothman, Jessica M; Pontzer, Herman; Simpson, Stephen J

    2014-06-01

    We present a geometric model for examining the macronutrient contributions of insects in the diets of pre-agricultural humans, and relate the findings to some contemporary societies that regularly eat insects. The model integrates published data on the macronutrient composition of insects and other foods in the diets of humans, recommended human macronutrient intakes, and estimated macronutrient intakes to examine the assumption that insects provided to pre-agricultural humans an invertebrate equivalent of vertebrate-derived meats, serving primarily as a source of protein. Our analysis suggests that insects vary more widely in their macronutrient content than is likely to be the case for most wild vertebrate meats, spanning a broad range of protein, fat and carbohydrate concentrations. Potentially, therefore, in terms of their proportional macronutrient composition, insects could serve as equivalents not only of wild meat, but of a range of other foods including some shellfish, nuts, pulses, vegetables and even fruits. Furthermore, humans might systematically manipulate the composition of edible insects to meet specific needs through pre-ingestive processing, such as cooking and selective removal of body parts. We present data suggesting that in modern societies for which protein is the more limiting macronutrient, pre-ingestive processing of edible insects might serve to concentrate protein. It is likely, however, that the dietary significance of insects was different for Paleolithic hunter-gatherers who were more limited in non-protein energy. Our conclusions are constrained by available data, but highlight the need for further studies, and suggest that our model provides an integrative framework for conceiving these studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Caffeine consumption around an exercise bout: effects on energy expenditure, energy intake, and exercise enjoyment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Matthew M; Hall, Susan; Leveritt, Michael; Grant, Gary; Sabapathy, Surendran; Desbrow, Ben

    2014-10-01

    Combining an exercise and nutritional intervention is arguably the optimal method of creating energy imbalance for weight loss. This study sought to determine whether combining exercise and caffeine supplementation was more effective for promoting acute energy deficits and manipulations to substrate metabolism than exercise alone. Fourteen recreationally active participants (mean ± SD body mass index: 22.7 ± 2.6 kg/m2) completed a resting control trial (CON), a placebo exercise trial (EX), and a caffeine exercise trial (EX+CAF, 2 × 3 mg/kg of caffeine 90 min before and 30 min after exercise) in a randomized, double-blinded design. Trials were 4 h in duration with 1 h of rest, 1 h of cycling at ∼65% power at maximum O2 consumption or rest, and a 2-h recovery. Gas exchange, appetite perceptions, and blood samples were obtained periodically. Two hours after exercise, participants were offered an ad libitum test meal where energy and macronutrient intake were recorded. EX+CAF resulted in significantly greater energy expenditure and fat oxidation compared with EX (+250 kJ; +10.4 g) and CON (+3,126 kJ; +29.7 g) (P Caffeine also led to exercise being perceived as less difficult and more enjoyable (P caffeine with exercise creates a greater acute energy deficit, and the implications of this protocol for weight loss or maintenance over longer periods of time in overweight/obese populations should be further investigated. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  6. [Nutrients and energy intake assessment in the critically ill patient on enteral nutritional therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abilés, J; Lobo, G; Pérez de la Cruz, A; Rodríguez, M; Aguayo, E; Cobo, M A; Moreno-Torres, R; Aranda, A; Llopis, J; Sánchez, C; Planells, E

    2005-01-01

    The critically ill patient is especially susceptible to malnutrition due to his/her hypermetabolic state that leads to an increase in the nutritional requirementes, which many times are not compensated with the administered enteral formulas. The assessment of nutritional intake is essential in this kind of patients to know to what level their energetic and nutritional requirements are fulfilled, improving and monitoring in the most individualized possible way to indicated clinical and nutritional therapu. This is a retrospective study in which all patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit of Virgen de las Nieves Hospital were studied from January to December of 2003, aged more than 18 years, and on enteral nutrition. A total of 90 patients (52 men and 38 women) were studied, 81% of which were older than 50 years, and 57% had hospital stays longer than 8 days, with a 21% mortality rate. Intake was assessed from time of admission and throughout the whole hospitalization period. Energetic requirements were calculated according to the modified Long's formula and micronutrients intakes were compared to existing general recommendations for the Spanish, European and American populations, and to vitaminic requirements in critically ill patients. Percentages of mean energy and nutrients intakes in relation to theoretical calculated requirements for both genders are presented in figure 1. Mean energy intake was 1,326 cal in men and 917 cal in women. With regards to micronutrients intake, the values found for proteins, falts, and carbohydrates were lower than 50% of the requirements for both genders. The percentage of adequacy as referred to requirements for vitamins and minerals intake is shown in figure 2. Reference recommendations used correspond to sufficient intakes to cover the healthy individual requirements, therefore, the values obtained in our study show and adequacy greater than 75%, with the exception of particular elements such as vitamin A and magnesium

  7. Effect of exercise and protein intake on energy expenditure in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barenys, M; Recasens, M A; Martí-Henneberg, C; Salas-Salvadó, J

    1993-12-01

    In order to evaluate the influence of physical exercise and protein intake on Resting Metabolic Rate (RMR) and Postprandial Energy Expenditure (PEE), 16 healthy, normal-weight, 15 year-old, adolescent males at the same stage of pubertal development were studied. They were assigned to two dietary groups receiving the same energy intake (1.3 x by measured RMR) and different proportions of macronutrients (13% protein, 39% fat, 48% CHO in Group A; 30% protein, 32% fat, 38% CHO in Group B). An increase in postprandial energy expenditure, relative to basal, was observed in all individuals. The postprandial energy expenditure was higher in group B than in group A. Postprandial Post-exercise Thermogenesis (expressed as Kcal/3 h) was significantly higher in group B than group A (p hyperproteic diet followed by moderately-intensive exercise induces increases in EE and decreases in RQ in the postprandial post-exercise period and is accompanied by increase in the RMR the following day.

  8. Reproducibility of 24-h post-exercise changes in energy intake in overweight and obese women using current methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gemma L; Lean, Michael E; Hankey, Catherine R

    2012-07-01

    Direct observation(s) of energy intake (EI) via buffet meals served in the laboratory are often carried out within short-term exercise intervention studies. The reproducibility of values obtained has not been assessed either under resting control conditions or post-exercise, in overweight and obese females. A total of fourteen sedentary, pre-menopausal females (BMI 30.0 (SD 5.1) kg/m²) completed four trials; two exercise and two control. Each trial lasted 24 h spanning over 2 d; conducted from afternoon on day 1 and morning on day 2. An exercise session to expend 1.65 MJ was completed on day 1 of exercise trials, and three buffet meals were served during each trial. Reproducibility of post-exercise changes in energy and macronutrient intakes was assessed at each individual buffet meal by intraclass correlation coefficient (r(i)). Only the r(i) values for post-exercise changes in energy (r(i) 0.44 (95 % CI - 0.03, 0.77), P = 0.03) and fat intake (r(i) 0.51 (95 % CI 0.04, 0.81), P = 0.02) at the lunch buffet meal achieved statistical significance; however, these r i values were weak and had large associated 95 % CI, which indicates a large degree of variability associated with these measurements. Energy and macronutrient intakes at the breakfast and evening buffet meals were not reproducible. This study concludes that the frequently used laboratory-based buffet meal method of assessing EI does not produce reliable, reproducible post-exercise changes in EI in overweight and obese women.

  9. Predicting metabolic adaptation, body weight change, and energy intake in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Kevin D

    2010-03-01

    Complex interactions between carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism underlie the body's remarkable ability to adapt to a variety of diets. But any imbalances between the intake and utilization rates of these macronutrients will result in changes in body weight and composition. Here, I present the first computational model that simulates how diet perturbations result in adaptations of fuel selection and energy expenditure that predict body weight and composition changes in both obese and nonobese men and women. No model parameters were adjusted to fit these data other than the initial conditions for each subject group (e.g., initial body weight and body fat mass). The model provides the first realistic simulations of how diet perturbations result in adaptations of whole body energy expenditure, fuel selection, and various metabolic fluxes that ultimately give rise to body weight change. The validated model was used to estimate free-living energy intake during a long-term weight loss intervention, a variable that has never previously been measured accurately.

  10. Macronutrient Distribution and Dietary Sources in the Spanish Population: Findings from the ANIBES Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Ruiz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to analyze dietary macronutrient intake and its main sources according to sex and age. Results were derived from the ANIBES (“Anthropometry, Intake and Energy Balance in Spain” cross-sectional study using a nationally-representative sample of the Spanish population (9–75 years old. Mean dietary protein intake was 74.5 ± 22.4 g/day, with meat and meat products as the main sources (33.0%. Mean carbohydrate intake was 185.4 ± 60.9 g/day and was higher in children and adolescents; grains (49%, mainly bread, were the main contributor. Milk and dairy products (23% ranked first for sugar intake. Mean lipid intake was 78.1 ± 26.1 g/day and was higher in younger age groups; contributions were mainly from oils and fats (32.5%; olive oil 25.6% and meat and meat products (22.0%. Lipid profiles showed relatively high monounsaturated fatty acid intake, of which olive oil contributed 38.8%. Saturated fatty acids were mainly (>70% combined from meat and meat products, milk and dairy products and oils and fats. Polyunsaturated fatty acids were mainly from oils and fats (31.5%. The macronutrient intake and distribution in the Spanish population is far from population reference intakes and nutritional goals, especially for children and adolescents.

  11. Macronutrient Distribution and Dietary Sources in the Spanish Population: Findings from the ANIBES Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Emma; Ávila, José Manuel; Valero, Teresa; del Pozo, Susana; Rodriguez, Paula; Aranceta-Bartrina, Javier; Gil, Ángel; González-Gross, Marcela; Ortega, Rosa M.; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio

    2016-01-01

    Our aim was to analyze dietary macronutrient intake and its main sources according to sex and age. Results were derived from the ANIBES (“Anthropometry, Intake and Energy Balance in Spain”) cross-sectional study using a nationally-representative sample of the Spanish population (9–75 years old). Mean dietary protein intake was 74.5 ± 22.4 g/day, with meat and meat products as the main sources (33.0%). Mean carbohydrate intake was 185.4 ± 60.9 g/day and was higher in children and adolescents; grains (49%), mainly bread, were the main contributor. Milk and dairy products (23%) ranked first for sugar intake. Mean lipid intake was 78.1 ± 26.1 g/day and was higher in younger age groups; contributions were mainly from oils and fats (32.5%; olive oil 25.6%) and meat and meat products (22.0%). Lipid profiles showed relatively high monounsaturated fatty acid intake, of which olive oil contributed 38.8%. Saturated fatty acids were mainly (>70%) combined from meat and meat products, milk and dairy products and oils and fats. Polyunsaturated fatty acids were mainly from oils and fats (31.5%). The macronutrient intake and distribution in the Spanish population is far from population reference intakes and nutritional goals, especially for children and adolescents. PMID:27011202

  12. Equilibrium energy intake estimated by dietary energy intake and body weight changes in young Japanese females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Kayoko; Nishimuta, Mamoru; Hamaoka, Takafumi; Kodama, Naoko; Yoshitake, Yutaka

    2012-01-01

    To determine the energy intake (EI) required to maintain body weight (equilibrium energy intake: EEI), we investigated the relationship between calculated energy intake and body weight changes in female subjects participating in 14 human balance studies (n=149) conducted at the National Institute of Health and Nutrition (Tokyo). In four and a half studies (n=43), sweat was collected from the arm to estimate loss of minerals through sweating during exercise on a bicycle ergometer; these subjects were classified in the exercise group (Ex G). In nine and a half experiments (n=106) subjects did not exercise, and were classified in the sedentary group (Sed G). The relationship between dietary energy intake (EI) and body weight (BW) changes (ΔBW) was analyzed and divided by four variables: body weight (BW), lean body mass (LBM), standard body weight (SBW), and body surface area (BSA). Equilibrium energy intake (EEI) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for EEI in Ex G were 34.3 and 32.8-35.9 kcal/kg BW/d, 32.0 and 30.8-33.1 kcal/kg SBW/d, 46.3 and 44.2-48.5 kcal/kg LBW/d, and 1,200 and 1,170-1,240 kcal/m(2) BSA/d, respectively. EEI and 95% CI for EEI in Sed G were 34.5 and 33.9-35.1 kcal/kg BW/d, 31.4 and 30.9-32.0 kcal/kg SBW/d, 44.9 and 44.1-45.8 kcal/kg LBM/d, and 1,200 and 1,180-1,210 kcal/m2 BSA/d, respectively. EEIs obtained in this study are 3 to 5% higher than estimated energy requirement (EER) for Japanese. In five out of six analyses, EER in a population (female, 18-29 y, physical activity level: 1.50) was under 95% CI of EEI obtained in this study.

  13. Hypothalamic FTO is associated with the regulation of energy intake not feeding reward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radomska Katarzyna J

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polymorphism in the FTO gene is strongly associated with obesity, but little is known about the molecular bases of this relationship. We investigated whether hypothalamic FTO is involved in energy-dependent overconsumption of food. We determined FTO mRNA levels in rodent models of short- and long-term intake of palatable fat or sugar, deprivation, diet-induced increase in body weight, baseline preference for fat versus sugar as well as in same-weight animals differing in the inherent propensity to eat calories especially upon availability of diverse diets, using quantitative PCR. FTO gene expression was also studied in organotypic hypothalamic cultures treated with anorexigenic amino acid, leucine. In situ hybridization (ISH was utilized to study FTO signal in reward- and hunger-related sites, colocalization with anorexigenic oxytocin, and c-Fos immunoreactivity in FTO cells at initiation and termination of a meal. Results Deprivation upregulated FTO mRNA, while leucine downregulated it. Consumption of palatable diets or macronutrient preference did not affect FTO expression. However, the propensity to ingest more energy without an effect on body weight was associated with lower FTO mRNA levels. We found that 4-fold higher number of FTO cells displayed c-Fos at meal termination as compared to initiation in the paraventricular and arcuate nuclei of re-fed mice. Moreover, ISH showed that FTO is present mainly in hunger-related sites and it shows a high degree of colocalization with anorexigenic oxytocin. Conclusion We conclude that FTO mRNA is present mainly in sites related to hunger/satiation control; changes in hypothalamic FTO expression are associated with cues related to energy intake rather than feeding reward. In line with that, neurons involved in feeding termination express FTO. Interestingly, baseline FTO expression appears linked not only with energy intake but also energy metabolism.

  14. Flaxseed energy and macronutrients balance Influencia de la energía de la linaza en el equilibrio de macronutrientes

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    C. Gonçalves de Oliveira

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background/objectives: Flaxseed has functional properties in the reduction of the risk of chronic non-communicable diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes and cancer. Regardless of its high energy density, the consumption of flaxseed tends to promote body weight maintenance. The purpose of this study was to evaluate energy and macronutrient balance after flaxseed consumption. Subjects/methods: Twenty four healthy volunteers were allocated into 3 experimental groups, when they consumed flaxseed (FS, defatted flaxseed flour (FF, or flaxseed oil (FO. During the control period they were provided a diet without flaxseed products for 7-9 days. Following that diets containing 70 g of one of the flaxseed products were consumed for another 7-9 day- period. Test foods were consumed exclusively in the laboratory and fecal excretion was collected during the study. There was a higher energy excretion (P Introducción/objetivos: La linaza tiene propiedades funcionales en la reducción del riesgo de enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles tales como las enfermedades cardiovasculares, diabetes y cáncer. A pesar de su alta densidad de energía, el consumo de linaza tiende a favorecer el mantenimiento del peso corporal. El propósito de este estudio fue evaluar la energía y el equilibrio de macronutrientes después del consumo de linaza. Materiales y métodos: Veinticuatro voluntarios sanos fueron distribuidos en 3 grupos experimentales, cuando consumieron linaza (LI, harina de linaza desgrasada (LD, o aceite de linaza (AL. Durante el período de control se les proporcionó una dieta de 7-9 días sin productos de linaza. Enseguida, durante otro período de 7-9 días, fueron consumidas dietas que contenían 70g de uno de los productos de linaza. Los alimentos de prueba fueron consumidos exclusivamente en el laboratorio y la excreción fecal se recogió durante el estudio. Hubo una excreción de energía más alta (P < 0,05 en los grupos LD y LI, en

  15. Acute exercise and subsequent energy intake. A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Matthew M; Desbrow, Ben; Sabapathy, Surendran; Leveritt, Michael

    2013-04-01

    The precise magnitude of the effect of acute exercise on subsequent energy intake is not well understood. Identifying how large a deficit exercise can produce in energy intake and whether this is compensated for, is important in design of long-term exercise programs for weight loss and weight maintenance. Thus, this paper sought to review and perform a meta-analysis on data from the existing literature. Twenty-nine studies, consisting of 51 trials, were identified for inclusion. Exercise duration ranged from 30 to 120min at intensities of 36-81% VO(2)max, with trials ranging from 2 to 14h, and ad libitum test meals offered 0-2h post-exercise. The outcome variables included absolute energy intake and relative energy intake. A random effects model was employed for analysis due to expected heterogeneity. Results indicated that exercise has a trivial effect on absolute energy intake (n=51; ES=0.14, 95% CI: -0.005 to 0.29) and a large effect on relative energy intake (creating an energy deficit, n=25; ES=-1.35, 95% CI: -1.64 to -1.05). Despite variability among studies, results suggest that exercise is effective for producing a short-term energy deficit and that individuals tend not to compensate for the energy expended during exercise in the immediate hours after exercise by altering food intake.

  16. Effect of a 3-day high-fat feeding period on carbohydrate balance and ad libitum energy intake in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galgani, J E; de Jonge, L; Most, M M; Bray, G A; Smith, S R

    2010-05-01

    A reduction in glycogen after the switch to an isoenergetic high-fat diet (HFD) might promote a compensatory increase in food intake to reestablish carbohydrate balance. We assessed the effect of an isoenergetic switch from a 49%-carbohydrate to 50%-fat diet on nutrient balance and ad libitum food intake. We hypothesized that carbohydrate balance would be inversely related to ad libitum energy intake. In 47 men and 11 women (22.6+/-0.4 years; 26.1+/-0.5 kg m(-2)), fuel balance was measured in a respiration chamber over 4 days. During the first day, an isoenergetic, high-carbohydrate diet was provided followed by a 3-day isoenergetic, HFD. At the end of this period and after 16 h of fasting, three options of foods (cookies, fruit salad and turkey sandwich) were offered ad libitum for 4 h. The relationships between post-chamber ad libitum intake and macronutrient oxidation and balance measured day-to-day and over the 4-day respiration chamber stay were studied. After switching to a HFD, 24-h respiratory quotient decreased from 0.87+/-0.02 to 0.83+/-0.02 (Plibitum energy intake. However, we detected that 4-day carbohydrate balance was a positive and independent predictor of post-chamber ad libitum energy intake (R (2)=0.10; P=0.01), whereas no significant influence of fat and protein balances was found. In response to an isoenergetic change from a high-carbohydrate to HFD, higher carbohydrate balance related to increased energy intake.

  17. [Epidemiologic studies on nutrition role in develomeat of osteoarthrosis. Report 1. Analysis of actual intake of nutrients and energy in depend on financial position and in come patients osteoarthrosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodyrev, V N; Martinchik, A N

    2010-01-01

    The study gives the characteristic of the social situation of patients with osteoarthrosis (OA), among which is dominated by people with disabilities and senior citizens (60%), most of which belongs to the poor. The actual nutrition of patients with OA is characterized by low energy intake and macronutrients. Feeding low-income patients with OA was characterized by inadequate intake of ascorbic acid and calcium, whereas the intake of vitamin A, E and beta-carotene was higher in patients with OA compared with the control group.

  18. Relationship of the reported intakes of fat and fatty acids to body weight in US adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietary fat composition may modulate energy expenditure and body weight. Little is known about the relationship between fatty acid intake and body weight at a population level. The purposes of this study were to compare intakes of energy, macronutrients, and individual fatty acids across BMI categor...

  19. Energy density, energy intake, and body weight regulation in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, J Philip; Roberts, Susan B

    2014-11-01

    The role of dietary energy density (ED) in the regulation of energy intake (EI) is controversial. Methodologically, there is also debate about whether beverages should be included in dietary ED calculations. To address these issues, studies examining the effects of ED on EI or body weight in nonelderly adults were reviewed. Different approaches to calculating dietary ED do not appear to alter the direction of reported relations between ED and body weight. Evidence that lowering dietary ED reduces EI in short-term studies is convincing, but there are currently insufficient data to determine long-term effectiveness for weight loss. The review also identified key barriers to progress in understanding the role of ED in energy regulation, in particular the absence of a standard definition of ED, and the lack of data from multiple long-term clinical trials examining the effectiveness of low-ED diet recommendations for preventing both primary weight gain and weight regain in nonobese individuals. Long-term clinical trials designed to examine the impact of dietary ED on energy regulation, and including multiple ED calculation methods within the same study, are still needed to determine the importance of ED in the regulation of EI and body weight. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  20. Sleep, brain energy levels, and food intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworak, M.; Kim, T.; McCarley, R.W.; Basheer, R.

    2013-01-01

    Background The feeling of hunger and feeding, a wake–state-dependent behavior, is regulated by specific centers within the hypothalamus. While paraventricular nucleus (PVN), arcuate nucleus (ARC), and dorso- and ventromedial hypothalamus (DMH/VMH) regulate feeding, the lateral hypothalamus (LH) is associated both with feeding and wake/REM sleep regulation. In order to examine the effects of sleep and wakefulness on food intake and body weight, we also measured hypothalamic ATP concentrations, which are known to be involved in feeding behavior and sleep–wake regulation. Methods In rats, food intake and body weight was measured during a 24-h light–dark cycle and during 6 h of sleep deprivation (SD) performed by gentle handling. Tissue samples from the PVN, ARC/DMH/VMH, and LH were collected after 6 h of SD and from time-matched diurnal controls. ATP was measured by luciferin-luciferase bioluminescence assay. Results Across the 24-h light–dark period, rats consumed approximately 28.13±4.48 g of food and gained 5.22±1.65 g with a positive correlation between food intake and body weight. During SD, while food intake increased significantly +147.31±6.13%, they lost weight significantly (–93.29±13.64%) when compared to undisturbed controls. SD resulted in a significant decrease in ATP levels only in LH (–44.60±21.13%) with no change in PVN, ARC/DMH/VMH region when compared with undisturbed controls. Conclusion The results indicate a strong overall correlation between ATP concentrations in the LH and individual food intake and suggest a sleep–wake dependent neuronal control of food intake and body weight. PMID:23585726

  1. Self-reported energy intake by FFQ compared with actual energy intake to maintain body weight in 516 adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siebelink, E.; Geelen, A.; Vries, de J.H.M.

    2011-01-01

    It is generally assumed that a FFQ is not suitable to estimate the absolute levels of individual energy intake. However, in epidemiological studies, reported nutrients by FFQ are often corrected for this intake. The objective of the present study was to assess how accurately participants report thei

  2. A systematic review of factors affecting energy intake of adolescent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Adolescent girls, energy intake, physical activity level, socio-economic status, nutrition education. .... overweight among children was higher in middle SES as compared to higher SES .... Greece and UK have the highest (>40%)107.

  3. The role of macronutrient intake in reducing the risk of obesity and overweight among carriers of different polymorphisms of FTO gene. A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przeliorz-Pyszczek, Anna; Regulska-Ilow, Bożena

    Obesity is a growing problem worldwide. The risk of the excessive body weight occurrence is a multifactorial issue. Environmental factors, lifestyle habits, diet, physical activity level, as well as genetic predisposition can increase obesity risk. One of the genes studied – the FTO gene - plays a crucial role in obesity occurrence. Individuals who carry risk alleles of specific single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) have a greater risk of being overweight. Recent studies revealed that specific macronutrient diet composition can influence differently on the FTO expression. The aim of this article is to review the recent literature on the topic of the FTO gene, its influence on overweight and obesity prevalence and the role of diet in modifying its impact on the risk of the excessive body weight occurrence. There are not many studies focusing on the dietary intervention influence on the FTO gene expression. As far as it has been researched it seems that the proper dietary habits can modify the FTO gene risk allele influence on obesity susceptibility.

  4. Energy intake and energy expenditure for determining excess weight gain in pregnant women

    Science.gov (United States)

    To conduct a secondary analysis designed to test whether gestational weight gain is the result of increased energy intake or adaptive changes in energy expenditures. In this secondary analysis, energy intake and energy expenditure of 45 pregnant women (body mass index [BMI] 18.5-24.9 [n=33] and BMI ...

  5. Genetic regulation of feed intake and energy balance in poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, M P

    2003-06-01

    Intensive selection by poultry breeders over many generations for economically important production traits such as growth rate and meat production has been accompanied by significant changes in feed intake and energy balance. For example, the modern commercial broiler, selected for rapid growth and enhanced muscle mass, does not adequately regulate voluntary feed intake to achieve energy balance. When given unrestricted access to feed, broilers exhibit hyperphagia leading to an excessive accumulation of energy (fat) stores, making these birds prone to obesity and other health-related problems. Humoral and neural pathways have been identified and studied in mammals that link appetite and energy balance. A series of highly integrated regulatory mechanisms exists for both of these processes involving complex interactions between peripheral tissues and the central nervous system. Within the central nervous system, the brainstem and the hypothalamus play critical roles in the regulation of feed intake and energy balance. Genes encoding key regulatory factors such as hormones, neuropeptides, receptors, enzymes, transcription factors, and binding/transport proteins constitute the molecular basis for regulatory systems that derive from integrated sensing, signaling, and metabolic pathways. However, we do not yet have a complete understanding of the genetic basis for this regulation in poultry. This review examines what is currently known about the regulation of feed intake and energy balance in poultry. A better understanding of the genes associated with controlling feed intake and energy balance and how their expression is regulated by nutritional and hormonal stimuli will offer new insights into current poultry breeding and management practices.

  6. Human Milk Microbial Community Structure Is Relatively Stable and Related to Variations in Macronutrient and Micronutrient Intakes in Healthy Lactating Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Janet E; Carrothers, Janae M; Lackey, Kimberly A; Beatty, Nicola F; York, Mara A; Brooker, Sarah L; Shafii, Bahman; Price, William J; Settles, Matthew L; McGuire, Mark A; McGuire, Michelle K

    2017-09-01

    Background: The human milk microbiome has been somewhat characterized, but little is known about changes over time and relations with maternal factors such as nutrient intake.Objective: We sought to characterize the human milk microbiome and described associations with maternal nutrient intake, time postpartum, delivery mode, and body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)).Methods: Milk samples (n = 104) and 24-h diet recalls were collected 9 times from 21 healthy lactating women from day 2 to 6 mo postpartum. Women were classified by BMI as healthy weight (milk microbiome was relatively constant over time, although there were small changes in some of the lesser-abundant genera. Relative abundances of several taxa were associated with BMI, delivery mode, and infant sex. For instance, overweight and obese mothers produced milk with a higher relative abundance of Granulicatella than did healthy-weight women (1.8% ± 0.6% compared with 0.4% ± 0.2%, respectively; P milk microbiome are complex and may include maternal nutrient intake, maternal BMI, delivery mode, and infant sex. Future studies designed to investigate the relation between maternal nutrient intake and the milk microbiome should strive to also evaluate dietary supplement usage and analyze the collected milk for its nutrient content.

  7. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells as a source to detect markers of homeostatic alterations caused by the intake of diets with an unbalanced macronutrient composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diaz-Rua, R.; Keijer, J.; Caimari, A.; Schothorst, van E.M.; Oliver, P.; Palou, A.

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) are accessible in humans and their gene expression pattern was shown to reflect overall physiological response of the body to a specific stimulus, such as diet. We aimed to study the impact of sustained intake (4 months) of diets with an unbalanced

  8. Small Rice Bowl-Based Meal Plan for Energy and Marcronutrient Intake in Korean Men with Type 2 Diabetes: A Pilot Study

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    Hee Jung Ahn

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundKoreans eat rice, which is usually served in a rice bowl. We investigated the effect of a meal plan using small rice bowls on the total energy intake (TEI and the marcronutrient intake in Korean men with type 2 diabetes.MethodsA total of 62 men with type 2 diabetes were divided by body mass index (BMI (normal weight [NW], BMI60%. The 3-day dietary records were analyzed for TEI and proportions of macronutrients, before and 2 weeks after a small-sized (300 mL rice bowl based education was given.ResultsThere were no significant differences in the age and BMI within the sub-groups by BMI and PCI groups. In baseline, the ratio of TEI to recommended total energy intake (RTR of OW and OB were higher than that of NW. The PCI of HC was higher than that of LC and alcohol intake of HC was lower than that of LC. After education, the reduction of RTREI in OB was higher than that in OW and NW. The reduction of PCI in HC was higher than that of LC.ConclusionA small rice bowl based meal plan was effective for the reduction of energy intake and control of marcronutrient intake in Korean obese men with type 2 diabetes consuming a high carbohydrate diet.

  9. Relationship between Serum Leptin, Ghrelin and Dietary Macronutrients in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

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    Bahram Pourghassem Gargari

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is the most common endocrinopathy in women. It may involve an impairment in physiologic regulation of leptin and ghrelin. There is limited, controversial data on the relation of dietary components with leptin and ghrelin in PCOS, so the current study has been conducted to explore the effects of different macronutrients on serum levels of leptin and ghrelin in PCOS and healthy subjects. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, we randomly choose 30 PCOS patients and 30 healthy age and body mass index (BMI matched controls. Intake of macronutrients [protein, total fat, saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, carbohydrate, dietary fiber] and energy were assessed using 3-day, 24-hour food recall and food frequency questionnaires (FFQ. Fasting hormonal status was measured for each participant. Results: PCOS women had higher levels of serum leptin, insulin, testosterone, and luteinizing hormone (LH, whereas sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG was lower compared to healthy women. There was no significant difference in mean ghrelin concentrations between the groups. Among PCOS women, independent of BMI and total energy intake, we observed an inverse association between leptin concentration and total dietary fat (β=-0.16, P<0.05 and saturated fatty acid (SFA intake (β=-0.58, P<0.05. This relationship was not seen in the healthy subjects. There was no significant association between ghrelin and macronutrients in PCOS and healthy participants. Conclusion: Certain habitual dietary components such as fat and SFA may decrease serum leptin, whereas ghrelin is not influenced by these in PCOS women. More studies are needed to better clarify the effects of dietary macronutrients on serum leptin and ghrelin.

  10. Effect of skipping breakfast on subsequent energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitsky, David A; Pacanowski, Carly R

    2013-07-02

    The objective was to examine the effect of consuming breakfast on subsequent energy intake. Participants who habitually ate breakfast and those who skipped breakfast were recruited for two studies. Using a randomized crossover design, the first study examined the effect of having participants consume either (a) no breakfast, (b) a high carbohydrate breakfast (335 kcals), or (c) a high fiber breakfast (360 kcals) on three occasions and measured ad libitum intake at lunch. The second study again used a randomized crossover design but with a larger, normal carbohydrate breakfast consumed ad libtum. Intake averaged 624 kcals and subsequent food intake was measured throughout the day. Participants ate only foods served from the Cornell Human Metabolic Research Unit where all foods were weighed before and after consumption. In the first study, neither eating breakfast nor the kind of breakfast consumed had an effect on the amount consumed at lunch despite a reduction in hunger ratings. In the second study, intake at lunch as well as hunger ratings were significantly increased after skipping breakfast (by 144 kcal), leaving a net caloric deficit of 408 kcal by the end of the day. These data are consistent with published literature demonstrating that skipping a meal does not result in accurate energy compensation at subsequent meals and suggests that skipping breakfast may be an effective means to reduce daily energy intake in some adults.

  11. Effects of snacks on energy intake: An evolutionary perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, de C.

    2006-01-01

    The question addressed in this paper is whether the consumption of snacks contributes to higher energy intake and body weight in humans. Currently available snacks have a higher energy density than most of the foods that were available in Paleolithic diets. Humans have a weak defense against overeat

  12. Accuracy of reporting food energy intake: influence of ethnicity and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-09-24

    Sep 24, 2009 ... positive energy balance in the form of food energy intake (EI) that is higher than physical .... of Cape Town) was used to calculate Chi-squared test for trend of the adequate ..... sociodemographic factors, Tehran, Iran. Vascular ...

  13. Protein-energy intake and malnutrition in Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, P; Gee, M; Grace, M; Sherbaniuk, R W; Wensel, R H; Thomson, A B

    1984-12-01

    A detailed nutrient assessment was made of 23 male and 24 female patients with Crohn's disease who entered sequentially into an outpatient clinic. Assessment included 48-hour dietary recall, anthropometric measurements, and biochemical and hematological tests appropriate to characterize protein-energy malnutrition. Approximately 40% of patients had energy intakes equal to only two-thirds of the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA). Three men and five women had relative body weights less than 85% of standard, but body weight was not correlated with energy intake. Relative body weight was correlated with arm muscle circumference in both male and female patients and with triceps skinfold and total lymphocyte count in women. Although the mean protein intake was greater than 150% of the RDA, evidence of protein malnutrition included low arm muscle circumference in 14% of the men and 15% of the women, low serum albumin concentration in 13% of the women, and low total lymphocyte count in one-half of the patients. The Crohn's disease activity index was correlated significantly with serum albumin, energy intake, and duration of disease in men and with serum ferritin and hemoglobin concentration in women. Thus, a reduced relative body weight or reduced serum albumin was not uncommon in patients with Crohn's disease but did not necessarily occur in those with reduced intakes of protein and energy. However, a low relative body weight may indicate need for further nutritional assessment.

  14. Impact of Ramadan fasting on energy intake and anthropometry of type 2 diabetics-Study in two regions of the central highlands and southeastern Algeria

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    Meriem Bencharif

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:During the month of Ramadan, muslims change their lifestyle. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of Ramadan fasting on the energy intake and anthropometry of type 2 diabetics. Methods:Epidemiological study by questionnaire were collected before (T0, during (T1 and after (T3 Ramadan 2013. The data were collected during medical consultations in sanitary establishments in two regions of the central highlands (Boussaâda and the south-east of Algeria (Djamaâ. The survey card concerned a food recording and anthropometry repeated during the 3 time periods mentioned before. Results:The study concerned 476 diabetics (255 women, 221 men with the mean age of 54.9±4.7 years old. 66.4% of diabetics of Boussaâda and 61.8% of Djamaâ followed nutritional education sessions preparing for fasting (p˃0.05. The number of fasting days during the month of Ramadan is 24.0±1.7days. By comparing both of the regions, no significant difference was observed in the energy intake distribution and in macronutriments of the diabetics (p>0.05. By comparing the 3 periods, the diabetics of Boussaâda had an energy intake significantly increased at T1 (p=0.000. In Djamaâ, the energy intake decreased from T0 to T2 (p=0.000. The energy distribution of macronutrients remained stable (p>0.05 between the three periods. Body mass index, waist circumference and the waist-to-hip ratio were significantly decreased from T0 to T2 (p

  15. Total Water Intake from Beverages and Foods Is Associated with Energy Intake and Eating Behaviors in Korean Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung Won; Shin, Dayeon; Song, Won O

    2016-10-04

    Water is essential for the proper functioning of the body. Even though a recommendation exists for adequate water intake for Koreans, studies identifying actual water intake from all beverages and foods consumed daily in the Korean population are limited. Thus, we estimated total water intake from both beverages and foods and its association with energy intake and eating behaviors in Korean adults. We used a nationally representative sample of 25,122 Korean adults aged ≥19 years, from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2012. We performed multiple regression analyses, adjusting for sociodemographic and health-related variables to investigate the contribution of overall energy and dietary intakes and eating behaviors to total water intake. The mean total water intake excluding plain water was 1071 g (398 g from beverages and 673 g from foods) and the estimated plain water intake was 1.3 L. Among Korean adults, 82% consumed beverages (excluding plain water) and these beverages contributed to 10% of daily energy intake and 32% of total water intake from beverages and foods. For every 100 kcal/day in energy intake, water intake consumed through beverages and foods increased by 18 g and 31 g, respectively. Water intake from beverages and foods was positively associated with energy from fat and dietary calcium, but inversely associated with energy density and energy from carbohydrates. When there was a 5% increase in energy intake from snacks and eating outside the home, there was an increase in water intake from beverages of 13 g and 2 g, respectively. Increased daily energy intake, the number of eating episodes, and energy intake from snacks and eating outside the home predicted higher water intake from beverages and foods. Our results provide evidence suggesting that various factors, including sociodemographic status, dietary intakes, and eating behaviors, could be important contributors to the water intake of Korean adults. Findings

  16. Total Water Intake from Beverages and Foods Is Associated with Energy Intake and Eating Behaviors in Korean Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Won Lee

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Water is essential for the proper functioning of the body. Even though a recommendation exists for adequate water intake for Koreans, studies identifying actual water intake from all beverages and foods consumed daily in the Korean population are limited. Thus, we estimated total water intake from both beverages and foods and its association with energy intake and eating behaviors in Korean adults. We used a nationally representative sample of 25,122 Korean adults aged ≥19 years, from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008–2012. We performed multiple regression analyses, adjusting for sociodemographic and health-related variables to investigate the contribution of overall energy and dietary intakes and eating behaviors to total water intake. The mean total water intake excluding plain water was 1071 g (398 g from beverages and 673 g from foods and the estimated plain water intake was 1.3 L. Among Korean adults, 82% consumed beverages (excluding plain water and these beverages contributed to 10% of daily energy intake and 32% of total water intake from beverages and foods. For every 100 kcal/day in energy intake, water intake consumed through beverages and foods increased by 18 g and 31 g, respectively. Water intake from beverages and foods was positively associated with energy from fat and dietary calcium, but inversely associated with energy density and energy from carbohydrates. When there was a 5% increase in energy intake from snacks and eating outside the home, there was an increase in water intake from beverages of 13 g and 2 g, respectively. Increased daily energy intake, the number of eating episodes, and energy intake from snacks and eating outside the home predicted higher water intake from beverages and foods. Our results provide evidence suggesting that various factors, including sociodemographic status, dietary intakes, and eating behaviors, could be important contributors to the water intake of Korean

  17. Beverage Consumption Habits in Italian Population: Association with Total Water Intake and Energy Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenza Mistura

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to investigate total water intake (TWI from water, beverages and foods among Italian adults and the elderly. Methods: Data of 2607 adults and the elderly, aged 18–75 years from the last national food consumption survey, INRAN-SCAI 2005-06, were used to evaluate the TWI. The INRAN-SCAI 2005-06 survey was conducted on a representative sample of 3323 individuals aged 0.1 to 97.7 years. A 3-day semi-structured diary was used for participants to record the consumption of all foods, beverages and nutritional supplements. Results: On average, TWI was 1.8 L for men and 1.7 L for women. More than 75% of women and 90% of men did not comply with the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA Adequate Intake. The contribution of beverages to the total energy intake (EI was 6% for the total sample. Water was the most consumed beverage, followed by alcoholic beverages for men and hot beverages for women. Conclusion: According to the present results, adults and elderly Italians do not reach the adequate intake for water as suggested by the EFSA and by the national reference level of nutrient and energy intake. Data on water consumption should also be analyzed in single socio-demographic groups in order to identify sub-groups of the population that need more attention and to plan more targeted interventions.

  18. Relationships between glucose, energy intake and dietary composition in obese adults with type 2 diabetes receiving the cannabinoid 1 (CB1 receptor antagonist, rimonabant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heppenstall Charlotte

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Weight loss is often difficult to achieve in individuals with type 2 diabetes and anti-obesity drugs are often advocated to support dietary intervention. Despite the extensive use of centrally acting anti-obesity drugs, there is little evidence of how they affect dietary composition. We investigated changes in energy intake and dietary composition of macro- and micronutrients following therapy with the endocannabinoid receptor blocker, rimonabant. Methods 20 obese patients with type 2 diabetes were studied before and after 6 months dietary intervention with rimonabant. Dietary intervention was supervised by a diabetes dietician. Five-day food diaries were completed at baseline and at 6 months and dietary analysis was performed using computer software (Dietplan 6. Results After 6 months, (compared with baseline there were reductions in weight (107 ± 21Kg versus 112 ± 21, p  Conclusions In obese patients with type 2 diabetes, rimonabant in combination with dietary intervention led to reduced intake of energy and most macronutrients. Despite this, macronutrient composition of the diet was unaltered. These dietary changes (especially carbohydrate restriction were associated with weight loss and favourable metabolic effects.

  19. Changes in intakes of total and added sugar and their contribution to energy intake in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Ock K; Chung, Chin E; Wang, Ying; Padgitt, Andrea; Song, Won O

    2010-08-01

    This study was designed to document changes in total sugar intake and intake of added sugars, in the context of total energy intake and intake of nutrient categories, between the 1970s and the 1990s, and to identify major food sources contributing to those changes in intake. Data from the NHANES I and III were analyzed to obtain nationally representative information on food consumption for the civilian, non-institutionalized population of the U.S. from 1971 to 1994. In the past three decades, in addition to the increase in mean intakes of total energy, total sugar, added sugars, significant increases in the total intake of carbohydrates and the proportion of carbohydrates to the total energy intake were observed. The contribution of sugars to total carbohydrate intake decreased in both 1-18 y and 19+ y age subgroups, and the contribution of added sugars to the total energy intake did not change. Soft drinks/fluid milk/sugars and cakes, pastries, and pies remained the major food sources for intake of total sugar, total carbohydrates, and total energy during the past three decades. Carbonated soft drinks were the most significant sugar source across the entire three decades. Changes in sugar consumption over the past three decades may be a useful specific area of investigation in examining the effect of dietary patterns on chronic diseases.

  20. Changes in Intakes of Total and Added Sugar and their Contribution to Energy Intake in the U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won O. Song

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to document changes in total sugar intake and intake of added sugars, in the context of total energy intake and intake of nutrient categories, between the 1970s and the 1990s, and to identify major food sources contributing to those changes in intake. Data from the NHANES I and III were analyzed to obtain nationally representative information on food consumption for the civilian, non-institutionalized population of the U.S. from 1971 to 1994. In the past three decades, in addition to the increase in mean intakes of total energy, total sugar, added sugars, significant increases in the total intake of carbohydrates and the proportion of carbohydrates to the total energy intake were observed. The contribution of sugars to total carbohydrate intake decreased in both 1–18 y and 19+ y age subgroups, and the contribution of added sugars to the total energy intake did not change. Soft drinks/fluid milk/sugars and cakes, pastries, and pies remained the major food sources for intake of total sugar, total carbohydrates, and total energy during the past three decades. Carbonated soft drinks were the most significant sugar source across the entire three decades. Changes in sugar consumption over the past three decades may be a useful specific area of investigation in examining the effect of dietary patterns on chronic diseases.

  1. Heparanase affects food intake and regulates energy balance in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Karlsson-Lindahl

    Full Text Available Mutation of the melanocortin-receptor 4 (MC4R is the most frequent cause of severe obesity in humans. Binding of agouti-related peptide (AgRP to MC4R involves the co-receptor syndecan-3, a heparan sulfate proteoglycan. The proteoglycan can be structurally modified by the enzyme heparanase. Here we tested the hypothesis that heparanase plays a role in food intake behaviour and energy balance regulation by analysing body weight, body composition and food intake in genetically modified mice that either lack or overexpress heparanase. We also assessed food intake and body weight following acute central intracerebroventricular administration of heparanase; such treatment reduced food intake in wildtype mice, an effect that was abolished in mice lacking MC4R. By contrast, heparanase knockout mice on a high-fat diet showed increased food intake and maturity-onset obesity, with up to a 40% increase in body fat. Mice overexpressing heparanase displayed essentially the opposite phenotypes, with a reduced fat mass. These results implicate heparanase in energy balance control via the central melanocortin system. Our data indicate that heparanase acts as a negative modulator of AgRP signaling at MC4R, through cleavage of heparan sulfate chains presumably linked to syndecan-3.

  2. Associations of gestational exposure to famine with energy balance and macronutrient density of the diet at age 58 years differ according to the reference population used

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stein, A.D.; Rundle, A.; Wada, N.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Lumey, L.H.

    2009-01-01

    Individuals exposed to the Dutch Famine of 1944-45 during gestation have increased adiposity, which might be due to changes in energy intake, physical activity, or metabolic efficiency.We studied 357 persons born between January 1945 and March 1946 whose mothers experienced famine during or immediat

  3. Energy density, energy intake regulation and body weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obesity is one of the major health crises of our time. The majority of adult Americans are now either overweight or obese, and recent research indicates that obesity is approaching smoking as the major cause of disability and premature death. National improvements in dietary intake, and in particu...

  4. Exercise, energy intake, glucose homeostasis, and the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Praag, Henriette; Fleshner, Monika; Schwartz, Michael W; Mattson, Mark P

    2014-11-12

    Here we summarize topics covered in an SFN symposium that considered how and why exercise and energy intake affect neuroplasticity and, conversely, how the brain regulates peripheral energy metabolism. This article is not a comprehensive review of the subject, but rather a view of how the authors' findings fit into a broader context. Emerging findings elucidate cellular and molecular mechanisms by which exercise and energy intake modify the plasticity of neural circuits in ways that affect brain health. By enhancing neurogenesis, synaptic plasticity and neuronal stress robustness, exercise and intermittent energy restriction/fasting may optimize brain function and forestall metabolic and neurodegenerative diseases. Moreover, brain-centered glucoregulatory and immunomodulating systems that mediate peripheral health benefits of intermittent energetic challenges have recently been described. A better understanding of adaptive neural response pathways activated by energetic challenges will enable the development and optimization of interventions to reduce the burden of disease in our communities.

  5. Body weight gain in free-living Pima Indians: effect of energy intake vs expenditure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tataranni, P A; Harper, I T; Snitker, S;

    2003-01-01

    Obesity results from a chronic imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure. However, experimental evidence of the relative contribution of interindividual differences in energy intake and expenditure (resting or due to physical activity) to weight gain is limited.......Obesity results from a chronic imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure. However, experimental evidence of the relative contribution of interindividual differences in energy intake and expenditure (resting or due to physical activity) to weight gain is limited....

  6. Effects of high and low glycemic load meals on energy intake, satiety and hunger in obese Hispanic-American youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, Nazrat M; Klein, Catherine J; Palmer, Matilde G; McCarter, Robert; He, Jianping; Ebbeling, Cara B; Ludwig, David S; Yanovski, Jack A

    2011-06-01

    Some short-term pediatric studies have suggested beneficial effects of low glycemic load (LGL) meals on feelings of hunger and on energy intake. However, the effects of LGL diets have not been systematically studied in obese Hispanic children, who stand to benefit from successful interventions. To examine the effects of LGL and high-GL (HGL) meals on appetitive responses and ad libitum energy intake of obese Hispanic youth. A total of 88 obese Hispanic youth aged 7-15 years were enrolled in a community-based obesity intervention program and randomly assigned to consume meals designed as either LGL (n = 45) or HGL (n = 43). After 12 weeks, participants were admitted for a 24-hour metabolic study. Following the morning test meal, subjects serially reported hunger, fullness, and satiety using a visual analog scale. Blood insulin and glucose were measured. After 5 hours, participants were fed another test meal and given a snack platter from which to eat ad libitum. All test food was weighed and the energy, macronutrients, and glycemic load (GL) of consumed foods were calculated. The HGL group had significantly higher insulin (p = 0.0005) and glucose (p = 0.0001) responses to the breakfast meal compared with the LGL group. There were no significant between-group differences in energy consumed from the snack platter (1303 vs. 1368 kcal, p = 0.5), or in the subjective feelings of hunger (p = 0.3), fullness (p = 0.5) or satiety (p = 0.3) between the two groups. Our study provides no evidence that, for obese Hispanic youth, changing the GL of the diet affects short-term hunger, fullness, satiety, or energy intake. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01068197.

  7. Reduced neural response to food cues following exercise is accompanied by decreased energy intake in obese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearnbach, S N; Silvert, L; Keller, K L; Genin, P M; Morio, B; Pereira, B; Duclos, M; Boirie, Y; Thivel, D

    2016-01-01

    Acute exercise has been found to favor a transient anorexigenic effect in obese adolescents. Although the role of some gastro-peptides has been suggested as an explanation for this observed reduced energy intake after exercise, it is unknown whether neural pathways involved in the regulation of food intake are modulated in youth. Body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) and aerobic capacities were assessed in 19 obese adolescent boys. Participants were randomized to remain at rest in a sitting position (CON condition) or to exercise 45 min at 65% of their maximal capacities (EX condition) by the end of the morning. An attentional computer task with electroencephalography recording was completed immediately after the exercise or sitting period to measure an event-related component (P3b) reflecting the level of cognitive engagement in the processing of food cues. A lunch test-meal was offered ad libitum and appetite feelings assessed at regular intervals using visual analog scales. The 45-min cycling exercise set at 65% VO2max induced a mean energy expenditure of 399±75 kcal. Both absolute (Pintake were significantly reduced after EX (1037±260 and 639±256 kcal, respectively) compared with CON (1116±243 and 1011±239 kcal, respectively). The energy ingested derived from each macronutrient and self-reported appetite remained unchanged. Although the amplitudes of the P3b component evoked by food and non-food visual stimuli were not significantly different during CON, the response to food cues was significantly reduced compared with non-food stimuli after exercise (Pfood cues compared with non-food ones in obese adolescents that may contribute to their subsequently reduced energy intake.

  8. [Daily calorie and macronutrient consumption in girls of different somatotypes with different shares of body fat, muscle and bone components].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fefelova, V V; Fefelova, Yu A; Koloskova, T P; Kazakova, T V; Sergeeva, E Yu

    2016-01-01

    211 practically healthy girls, the students of Krasnoyarsk Medical University in the ages of 16 to 20 years, have been examined. We determined their somatotypes (euriplastic, athletic, subathletic and stenoplastic) and body composition (fat, muscle, bone component). Actual nutrition in these subjects was studied by the method. of 24-hour nutrition recall involving foodstuffs models. Energy consumption in cohorts with different somatotypes did not differ from one another and ranged from 1880 to 2115 kilocalories per day, that corresponded to normal physiological needs in women of this age with the coefficient of physical activity as 1.4 (students). Only the intake of fat (% of calories) exceeded the performance standards. As for macronutrients, the majority of indicators of nutrient intake did not differ significantly among girls with different somatotype, except for fat intake in girls with athletic and stenoplastic somatotypes (psomatotypes (psomatotypes with statistically considerable, differences in both overall dimensions (body mass and length) and the ratios between fat, muscle and bone as somatic components. In general, macronutrient consumption did not show any differences as well. Thus, apart from the energy and macronutrient consumption, definite meaning within the process of the formation of body composition can belong to the characteristics of the changes following nutrition load on lipoid spectrum of blood serum as well 'as the peculiarities of the distribution of substrate flow among cell metabolic paths, appropriate of definite somatotypes.

  9. The 24-h energy intake of obese adolescents is spontaneously reduced after intensive exercise: a randomized controlled trial in calorimetric chambers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Thivel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Physical exercise can modify subsequent energy intake and appetite and may thus be of particular interest in terms of obesity treatment. However, it is still unclear whether an intensive bout of exercise can affect the energy consumption of obese children and adolescents. OBJECTIVE: To compare the impact of high vs. moderate intensity exercises on subsequent 24-h energy intake, macronutrient preferences, appetite sensations, energy expenditure and balance in obese adolescent. DESIGN: This randomized cross-over trial involves 15 obese adolescent boys who were asked to randomly complete three 24-h sessions in a metabolic chamber, each separated by at least 7 days: (1 sedentary (SED; (2 Low-Intensity Exercise (LIE (40% maximal oxygen uptake, VO(2max; (3 High-Intensity Exercise (HIE (75%VO(2max. RESULTS: Despite unchanged appetite sensations, 24-h total energy intake following HIE was 6-11% lower compared to LIE and SED (p<0.05, whereas no differences appeared between SED and LIE. Energy intake at lunch was 9.4% and 8.4% lower after HIE compared to SED and LIE, respectively (p<0.05. At dinner time, it was 20.5% and 19.7% lower after HIE compared to SED and LIE, respectively (p<0.01. 24-h energy expenditure was not significantly altered. Thus, the 24-h energy balance was significantly reduced during HIE compared to SED and LIE (p<0.01, whereas those of SED and LIE did not differ. CONCLUSIONS: In obese adolescent boys, HIE has a beneficial impact on 24-h energy balance, mainly due to the spontaneous decrease in energy intake during lunch and dinner following the exercise bout. Prescribing high-intensity exercises to promote weight loss may therefore provide effective results without affecting appetite sensations and, as a result, food frustrations. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrial.gov NCT01036360.

  10. Effect of photoperiod on body mass, and daily energy intake and energy expenditure in young rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, P; Visser, H; Daan, S

    1997-01-01

    In this experiment we investigate the effect of photoperiod on locomotor activity, body mass, food intake, growth efficiency (relationship between body mass change and food intake), energy expenditure, and body composition in growing Wistar rats. Two groups of animals were subjected to either a

  11. Macronutrient optimization and seasonal diet mixing in a large omnivore, the grizzly bear: a geometric analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean C P Coogan

    Full Text Available Nutrient balance is a strong determinant of animal fitness and demography. It is therefore important to understand how the compositions of available foods relate to required balance of nutrients and habitat suitability for animals in the wild. These relationships are, however, complex, particularly for omnivores that often need to compose balanced diets by combining their intake from diverse nutritionally complementary foods. Here we apply geometric models to understand how the nutritional compositions of foods available to an omnivorous member of the order Carnivora, the grizzly bear (Ursus arctos L., relate to optimal macronutrient intake, and assess the seasonal nutritional constraints on the study population in west-central Alberta, Canada. The models examined the proportion of macronutrients that bears could consume by mixing their diet from food available in each season, and assessed the extent to which bears could consume the ratio of protein to non-protein energy previously demonstrated using captive bears to optimize mass gain. We found that non-selective feeding on ungulate carcasses provided a non-optimal macronutrient balance with surplus protein relative to fat and carbohydrate, reflecting adaptation to an omnivorous lifestyle, and that optimization through feeding selectively on different tissues of ungulate carcasses is unlikely. Bears were, however, able to dilute protein intake to an optimal ratio by mixing their otherwise high-protein diet with carbohydrate-rich fruit. Some individual food items were close to optimally balanced in protein to non-protein energy (e.g. Hedysarum alpinum roots, which may help explain their dietary prevalence. Ants may be consumed particularly as a source of lipids. Overall, our analysis showed that most food available to bears in the study area were high in protein relative to lipid or carbohydrate, suggesting the lack of non-protein energy limits the fitness (e.g. body size and reproduction and

  12. Breast milk macronutrient composition and the associated factors in urban Chinese mothers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Titi; Zhang Yumei; Ning Yibing; You Lili; Ma Defu; Zheng Yingdong; Yang Xiaoguang

    2014-01-01

    Background Infancy is a critical period of growth and physiological development,in which breast milk is the best source of nutrients.Compared to western countries,research on breast milk of Chinese population are limited.Thus,it is necessary to measure breast milk energy and macronutrient concentrations of healthy urban Chinese mothers at different lactation stages,to expand the database of milk composition of Chinese population,and to examine whether dietary or other maternal factors can affect the levels of macronutrients in breast milk.Methods Breast milk of full expression of one side breast from 436 urban Chinese lactating mothers at 5-11 days,12-30 days,31-60 days,61-120 days,and 121-240 days postpartum was obtained at 9:00 a.m.to 11:00 a.m.Total energy,lactose,protein,and fat contents were measured.24-hour dietary recall was surveyed,and maternal nutrient intakes were analyzed.Results Milk composition changed over the course of lactation and large individual variations were documented.The concentrations were 61.3 kcal/dl for total energy,7.1 g/dl for lactose,0.9 g/dl for protein,and 3.4 g/dl for fat in mature milk.Stage of lactation was a strong factor affecting milk composition.Minimal evidence was found for associations between maternal current dietary intake and milk macronutrient concentration,consistently with prior research.Maternal body mass index (BMI) was positively associated with milk fat content,to a greater extent than did dietary intake.All other maternal characteristics were not significant for milk composition.Conclusion These findings suggest that milk composition is generally weakly associated with maternal factors except for stage of lactation,and is likely to be more susceptible to long-term maternal nutritional status than short-term dietary fluctuation.

  13. Macronutrient optimization and seasonal diet mixing in a large omnivore, the grizzly bear: a geometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coogan, Sean C P; Raubenheimer, David; Stenhouse, Gordon B; Nielsen, Scott E

    2014-01-01

    Nutrient balance is a strong determinant of animal fitness and demography. It is therefore important to understand how the compositions of available foods relate to required balance of nutrients and habitat suitability for animals in the wild. These relationships are, however, complex, particularly for omnivores that often need to compose balanced diets by combining their intake from diverse nutritionally complementary foods. Here we apply geometric models to understand how the nutritional compositions of foods available to an omnivorous member of the order Carnivora, the grizzly bear (Ursus arctos L.), relate to optimal macronutrient intake, and assess the seasonal nutritional constraints on the study population in west-central Alberta, Canada. The models examined the proportion of macronutrients that bears could consume by mixing their diet from food available in each season, and assessed the extent to which bears could consume the ratio of protein to non-protein energy previously demonstrated using captive bears to optimize mass gain. We found that non-selective feeding on ungulate carcasses provided a non-optimal macronutrient balance with surplus protein relative to fat and carbohydrate, reflecting adaptation to an omnivorous lifestyle, and that optimization through feeding selectively on different tissues of ungulate carcasses is unlikely. Bears were, however, able to dilute protein intake to an optimal ratio by mixing their otherwise high-protein diet with carbohydrate-rich fruit. Some individual food items were close to optimally balanced in protein to non-protein energy (e.g. Hedysarum alpinum roots), which may help explain their dietary prevalence. Ants may be consumed particularly as a source of lipids. Overall, our analysis showed that most food available to bears in the study area were high in protein relative to lipid or carbohydrate, suggesting the lack of non-protein energy limits the fitness (e.g. body size and reproduction) and population density

  14. Efficiency of energy utilisation and voluntary feed intake in ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolkamp, B J

    2010-07-01

    Energy requirements of animals are most readily expressed in terms of net energy (NE), while the energy yield of feed is, at least initially, expressed in terms of metabolisable energy (ME). Energy evaluation systems 'translate' NE requirements into ME requirements (ME systems) or assign NE values to feeds (NE systems). Efficiency of ME utilisation is higher for maintenance than for production and the NE yield of a feed varies, therefore, with ME intake. In addition, energetic efficiency for maintenance and production is thought to be different for lactating and non-lactating animals and to be affected by diet quality. As a result, there are currently many national energy evaluation systems that are complex, differ in their approach and are, as a result, difficult to compare. As ruminants in most production systems are fed ad libitum, this is also the most appropriate intake level at which to estimate energetic efficiency. Analyses of older as well as more recent data suggest that ad libitum feeding (i) abolishes the effects of diet quality on energetic efficiency (almost) completely, (ii) abolishes the differences between lactating and non-lactating animals (almost) entirely and (iii) results in overall energetic efficiencies that are always close to 0.6. The paper argues that there is now sufficient information to develop an international energy evaluation system for ad libitum fed ruminants. Such a system should (i) unify ME and NE systems, (ii) avoid the systematic bias and large errors that can be associated with current systems (iii) be simpler than current systems and (iv) have as a starting point a constant efficiency of ME utilisation, with a value of around 0.6. The remarkably constant efficiency of ME utilisation in ad libitum fed ruminants could be the result of energetic efficiency as well as feed intake regulation being affected by the same variables or of a direct role of energetic efficiency in feed intake regulation. Models to predict intake on the

  15. Binge Abstinence is Associated with Reduced Energy Intake After Treatment in Patients with Binge Eating Disorder and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masheb, Robin M.; Dorflinger, Lindsey M.; Rolls, Barbara J.; Mitchell, Diane C.; Grilo, Carlos M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Binge eating disorder (BED) is strongly associated with obesity and related medical and psychiatric morbidities. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has consistently been shown to reduce binge eating frequency and improve psychological functioning, as well as to produce abstinence rates of roughly 50%. This study examined the relationship between binge abstinence and dietary and psychological outcomes after CBT for BED. Methods Fifty adult patients with BED received 6-month treatments using a combination of CBT and dietary counseling. Trained interviewers conducted two 24-hour dietary recall interviews on randomly selected days at baseline and at 6 months. Results Participants had significant reductions in energy, macronutrient, and sugar intake and an increase in fruit intake. They reported significant reductions in BMI and binge eating frequency (from mean = 14.24 to mean = 1.90 binge eating episodes during the previous 28 days), as well as improvements in psychological functioning. Those who became binge abstinent reported eating roughly 400 fewer calories per day and experienced greater improvements in psychological functioning than those who did not. Conclusions Findings from this study suggest that individuals who achieve complete cessation from binge eating have significantly improved dietary and psychological outcomes that could potentially improve weight status, compared with those who continue to binge eat post-treatment. PMID:27797154

  16. Binge abstinence is associated with reduced energy intake after treatment in patients with binge eating disorder and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masheb, Robin M; Dorflinger, Lindsey M; Rolls, Barbara J; Mitchell, Diane C; Grilo, Carlos M

    2016-12-01

    Binge eating disorder (BED) is strongly associated with obesity and related medical and psychiatric morbidities. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has consistently been shown to reduce binge eating frequency and improve psychological functioning, as well as to produce abstinence rates of roughly 50%. This study examined the relationship between binge abstinence and dietary and psychological outcomes after CBT for BED. Fifty adult patients with BED received 6-month treatments using a combination of CBT and dietary counseling. Trained interviewers conducted two 24-hour dietary recall interviews on randomly selected days at baseline and at 6 months. Participants had significant reductions in energy, macronutrient, and sugar intake and an increase in fruit intake. They reported significant reductions in BMI and binge eating frequency (from mean = 14.24 to mean = 1.90 binge eating episodes during the previous 28 days), as well as improvements in psychological functioning. Those who became binge abstinent reported eating roughly 400 fewer calories per day and experienced greater improvements in psychological functioning than those who did not. Findings from this study suggest that individuals who achieve complete cessation from binge eating have significantly improved dietary and psychological outcomes that could potentially improve weight status, compared with those who continue to binge eat post-treatment. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  17. Energy intake estimation from counts of chews and swallows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Juan M; Higgins, Janine A; Schuckers, Stephanie C; Bellisle, France; Pan, Zhaoxing; Melanson, Edward L; Neuman, Michael R; Sazonov, Edward

    2015-02-01

    Current, validated methods for dietary assessment rely on self-report, which tends to be inaccurate, time-consuming, and burdensome. The objective of this work was to demonstrate the suitability of estimating energy intake using individually-calibrated models based on Counts of Chews and Swallows (CCS models). In a laboratory setting, subjects consumed three identical meals (training meals) and a fourth meal with different content (validation meal). Energy intake was estimated by four different methods: weighed food records (gold standard), diet diaries, photographic food records, and CCS models. Counts of chews and swallows were measured using wearable sensors and video analysis. Results for the training meals demonstrated that CCS models presented the lowest reporting bias and a lower error as compared to diet diaries. For the validation meal, CCS models showed reporting errors that were not different from the diary or the photographic method. The increase in error for the validation meal may be attributed to differences in the physical properties of foods consumed during training and validation meals. However, this may be potentially compensated for by including correction factors into the models. This study suggests that estimation of energy intake from CCS may offer a promising alternative to overcome limitations of self-report. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The effect of hydration status on appetite and energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corney, Robert Anthony; Sunderland, Caroline; James, Lewis John

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of hypohydration produced by exercise and sub-optimal rehydration on appetite and energy intake. Ten males lost ~2% body mass through evening exercise in the heat (35°C). Over the next 13 h, participants were re-fed and either rehydrated (RE: water equal to 175% of body mass loss (BML)) or remained hypohydrated (HYPO: 200 ml water), until the following morning. Urine samples, blood samples and subjective feelings were collected pre-exercise, post-exercise and 13 h post-exercise, with an ad libitum breakfast provided 13 h post-exercise. Total BML at 13 h post-exercise was greater during HYPO (2.8 (0.5)%) than RE (0.5 (0.5)%). Energy intake at the ad libitum breakfast was similar between trials (RE: 4237 (1459) kJ; HYPO: 4612 (1487) kJ; P = 0.436), with no difference in energy consumed in foods (P = 0.600) or drinks (P = 0.147). Total water ingestion at the ad libitum breakfast meal was greater during HYPO (1641 (367) ml) than RE (797 (275) ml) (P < 0.001), with this being explained by increased water intake through fluids (P < 0.001). Thirteen hours post-exercise, participants reported greater thirst (P < 0.001) and lower fullness (P < 0.01) during HYPO. Alterations in hydration status produced by exercise are unlikely to influence post-exercise food intake and consequently other aspects of recovery or adaptation.

  19. Ileal brake activation: macronutrient-specific effects on eating behavior?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avesaat, van M.; Troost, F.J.; Ripken, D.; Hendriks, H.F.; Masclee, A.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background:Activation of the ileal brake, by infusing lipid directly into the distal part of the small intestine, alters gastrointestinal (GI) motility and inhibits food intake. The ileal brake effect on eating behavior of the other macronutrients is currently unknown.Objective:The objective of this

  20. Ileal brake activation: Macronutrient-specific effects on eating behavior?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avesaat, M. van; Troost, F.J.; Ripken, D.; Hendriks, H.F.; Aam, M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Activation of the ileal brake, by infusing lipid directly into the distal part of the small intestine, alters gastrointestinal (GI) motility and inhibits food intake. The ileal brake effect on eating behavior of the other macronutrients is currently unknown. OBJECTIVE: The objective of t

  1. Ileal brake activation: macronutrient-specific effects on eating behavior?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avesaat, van M.; Troost, F.J.; Ripken, D.; Hendriks, H.F.; Masclee, A.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background:Activation of the ileal brake, by infusing lipid directly into the distal part of the small intestine, alters gastrointestinal (GI) motility and inhibits food intake. The ileal brake effect on eating behavior of the other macronutrients is currently unknown.Objective:The objective of this

  2. When, how much and what foods are eaten are related to total daily food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, John M

    2009-10-01

    Intake in the morning is associated with a reduction in the total intake for the day, while intake at night is associated with greater overall daily intake. These associations are macronutrient specific, with morning carbohydrate intake associated with reduced daily carbohydrate intake, morning fat intake associated with reduced daily fat intake and morning protein intake associated with reduced daily protein intake. Since different types of foods contain differing proportions of macronutrients, the present study investigated the associations of different types of foods ingested at various times of day with total daily and macronutrient intakes. The intakes of 388 male and 621 female free-living individuals reported in 7 d diet diaries were reanalysed. The intakes of twenty-four different types of foods and seven different drinks occurring during the morning (04.00-10.29 hours), afternoon (10.30-16.59 hours) and evening (17.00-02.00 hours) were identified and related to overall daily intakes. Dairy foods, ice cream, beef, other meats, potatoes, pastry, nuts, chips and snacks, condiments, alcohol and soda were significantly associated with higher total intake over the day, while fruit, soup, breakfast cereal, pasta, pizza, water, coffee/tea and diet soda were either not associated or were associated with lower overall intake. Dietary energy density appeared to mediate the associations between particular foods and beverages and overall energy intake. This suggests that eating low-density foods in the morning and avoiding high-density foods at night might aid in reducing overall intake and may be useful in dietary interventions for overweight and obesity.

  3. (H2O)-H-2 turnover method as a means to detect bias in estimations of intake of nonbreast milk liquids in breast-fed infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haisma, H; Coward, WA; Albernaz, E; Barros, A; Victora, CG; Wright, A; Visser, GH

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Firstly, to compare food, and macronutrient intake as obtained from a single 24-h recall and a frequency questionnaire (FQ) covering a 14-day period in breast-fed infants aged 4 months of age. Secondly, nonbreast milk water intake (NB-WI, ml/day) was used as an estimation of energy and ma

  4. Impact of breakfast on daily energy intake - an analysis of absolute versus relative breakfast calories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagenpfeil Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The role of breakfast energy in total daily energy intake is a matter of debate. Acute feeding experiments demonstrated that high breakfast energy leads to greater overall intake supported by cross-sectional data of a free-living population. On the other hand, a large intraindividual analysis has indicated that a high proportion of breakfast to overall intake is associated with lower daily energy intake. To evaluate these apparently contradictory results in greater detail both ways of analysis were applied to the same data set of dietary records. Methods On an intraindividual basis total daily energy intake was related to the absolute values of breakfast energy intake or to the ratio of breakfast to overall intake, respectively. Food intake of 280 obese and 100 normal weight subjects was analyzed who recorded over 10 (obese or 14 (normal weight consecutive days, respectively. Results Increasing breakfast energy was associated with greater overall intake in normal weight and obese subjects. The increasing ratio of breakfast to total daily energy intake was associated with a significant reduction of overall intake on days where post-breakfast energy was significantly reduced. Correlational and multiple regression analysis support the concept that absolute breakfast calories have the strongest influence on daily energy intake. Conclusion Reduced breakfast energy intake is associated with lower total daily intake. The influence of the ratio of breakfast to overall energy intake largely depends on the post-breakfast rather than breakfast intake pattern. Therefore, overweight and obese subjects should consider the reduction of breakfast calories as a simple option to improve their daily energy balance.

  5. Effect of diet energy level and genomic residual feed intake on pre-bred dairy heifer feed intake and growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to determine the growth, feed intake, and feed efficiency of pre-bred dairy heifers with different predicted genomic residual feed intakes as lactating cows (RFI), and offered diets with different energy levels. Pre-bred heifers (128, ages 4-9 months) were blocked by ...

  6. Nutritional state, energy intakes and energy expenditure of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genton, L; Viatte, V; Janssens, J-P; Héritier, A-C; Pichard, C

    2011-10-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) alters nutritional state, energy intake and energy expenditure. This article aims at reviewing present knowledge on these topics in order to determine energy requirements for maintaining a neutral energy balance in ALS patients. Maintaining a neutral energy balance prevents malnutrition and its complications and may improve physical functioning, quality of life and survival. Prevalence of malnutrition varies between 16 and 55% in ALS patients. Energy intakes are below recommended dietary allowances in 70% of ALS patients at least. These elements suggest a chronic negative energy balance with an imbalance between requirements and intakes. While insufficient intakes can be compensated with nutritional support, the energy requirements are unclear. Studies generally report hypermetabolism in ALS patients. Estimation of total energy expenditure and as a corollary energy needs, necessitates taking into account this hypermetabolism, physical activity and possibly mechanical ventilation. The review suggests a flow chart for optimal nutritional follow-up in clinics. Further studies are required to assess whether optimal nutritional follow-up improves outcome.

  7. Post-meal perceivable satiety and subsequent energy intake with intake of partially hydrolysed guar gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Theertham Pradyumna; Hayakawa, Mariko; Minami, Tadayasu; Ishihara, Noriyuki; Kapoor, Mahendra Parkash; Ohkubo, Tsutomu; Juneja, Lekh Raj; Wakabayashi, Kazuo

    2015-05-14

    Partially hydrolysed guar gum (PHGG), a soluble dietary fibre, has been shown to provide many health benefits. Previous studies had suggested that the combination of PHGG with protein provided a significant satiation effect on visual analogue scales (VAS). What was lacking was only the effect of administration of small doses of PHGG on post-meal satiation and subsequent energy intake. The objectives of the present investigations were to find the subjective perception of post-meal satiety with acute and long term administration of small amounts of PHGG alone with food, its effects on subsequent energy intake and the comparative effects among different types of soluble fibres. The following three separate studies were conducted: in study 1, healthy subjects (n 12) consumed PHGG along with breakfast, lunch and an evening snack; in study 2, healthy subjects (n 24) consumed 2 g of PHGG or dextrin along with yogurt as breakfast for 2 weeks; in study 3, healthy subjects (n 6) took 6 g each of either PHGG or indigestible dextrin or inulin along with lunch. In all the studies, various satiety parameters were measured on VAS before and after consumption of PHGG. The addition of PHGG showed significant (P satiety effects compared to the control and/or an equal amount of carbohydrate or other types of soluble fibre. Study 2 also indicated that the prolonged consumption of PHGG may significantly (P satiety effects for comfortable appetite control.

  8. Daily energy intake, energy expenditure and activity patterns of selected Malaysian sportsmen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, M N; Wannudri, W; Zawiah, H

    1995-09-01

    Seventeen members of the national sepaktakraw squad undergoing centralised training participated in a comprehensive study to determine their daily food intake, activity patterns and energy requirements. Food intake was recorded as a mean of 3-days weighed food intake and the nutrient contents were calculated using a local food composition table. The energy cost of standardised activities was determined by indirect calorimetry while time and motion study was used to estimate the daily energy expenditure of each subject. The mean daily energy intake was 2784±373 kcal (11.6±1.6 MJ) while the mean daily energy expenditure was 3004±298 kcal (12.6±1.2 MJ), with a negative energy balance of 220 kcal ((0.9 MJ). Intake of other nutrients were adequate when compared with the Malaysian RDA, with the exception of niacin. The results of the activity pattern study indicated that the subjects spent about 80% of the day doing light activities while 20% of the day was devoted to their training programme comprising of moderate to heavy activities. This data set represents the first of its kind in Malaysia and should provide impetus for further research in this area which would help establish dietary guidelines for Malaysian sportsmen.

  9. Evaluation of drinks contribution to energy intake in summer and winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malisova, Olga; Bountziouka, Vassiliki; Zampelas, Antonis; Kapsokefalou, Maria

    2015-05-15

    All drinks hydrate and most also provide nutrients and energy. Our objective was to evaluate the contribution of drinks to total energy intake in summer and winter. Data were obtained using the Water Balance Questionnaire (WBQ) from a sample of the general population in Athens, Greece (n = 984), 473 individuals (42 ± 18 years) in summer and 511 individuals (38 ± 20 years) in winter stratified by sex and age. The WBQ embeds a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire of 58 foods and the Short International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Data were analyzed for the contribution of drinks to total energy intake. In winter, total energy intake was 2082 ± 892 kcal/day; energy intake from drinks was 479 ± 286 kcal/day and energy expenditure 1860 ± 390 kcal/day. In summer, total energy intake was 1890 ± 894 kcal/day, energy intake from drinks 492 ± 499 kcal/day and energy expenditure 1830 ± 491 kcal/day. Energy intake from drinks in summer was higher than in winter (p drinks, milk, chocolate milk and alcoholic drinks contributed approximately 75% of energy from drinks. Fruit juice and sugar-sweetened drinks, including soft drinks and fruit juice based drinks, were consumed less frequently contributing up to 25% of drink energy intake. Drinks contribute approximately 1/4 of total energy intake depending on the energy content of the drink and frequency of consumption. Coffee, dairy and alcoholic drinks were the main energy contributors.

  10. Energy Intake and Energy Expenditure for Determining Excess Weight Gain in Pregnant Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, L. Anne; Butte, Nancy F.; Ravussin, Eric; Han, Hongmei; Burton, Jeffrey H.; Redman, Leanne M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To conduct a secondary analysis designed to test whether gestational weight gain is due to increased energy intake or adaptive changes in energy expenditures. Methods In this secondary analysis, energy intake and energy expenditure of 45 pregnant women (BMI 18.5–24.9 kg/m2, n=33 and BMI ≥ 25, n=12) were measured preconceptionally 22, and 36 weeks of gestation. Energy intake was calculated as the sum of total energy expenditure measured by doubly labeled water and energy deposition determined by the 4-compartment body composition model. Weight, body composition, and metabolic chamber measurement were completed preconceptionally, 9, 22, and 36 weeks of gestation. Basal metabolic rate was measured by indirect calorimetry in a room calorimeter and activity energy expenditure by doubly labeled water. Results Energy intake from 22 to 36 weeks of gestation was significantly higher in high gainers (n=19) (3437 ± 99 kcal/d) versus low + ideal gainers (n=26) (2687 ± 110 pbody composition changes with gestational weight gain was not significantly different between high gainers and low + ideal gainers (151 ± 33 vs. 129 ± 36 kcal/d; p=.66). Activity energy expenditure decreased throughout pregnancy in both groups (low + ideal gainers: −150 ± 70 kcal/d; p=.04 and high gainers: −230 ± 92 kcal/day; p=.01), but there was no difference between high gainers and low + ideal gainers (p=.49). Conclusion Interventions designed to increase adherence to the IOM guidelines for weight gain in pregnancy may have increased efficacy if focused on limiting energy intake while increasing nutrient density and maintaining levels of physical activity. PMID:27054928

  11. Comparing dietary macronutrient composition and food sources between native and diasporic Ghanaian adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Gibson

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dietary acculturation may contribute to the increased burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs in diasporic populations of African ancestry. Objective: To assess nutritional composition and the contribution that traditional foods make to the diets of native and UK-dwelling Ghanaian adults. Design: An observational study of Ghanaian adults living in Accra (n=26 and London (n=57 was undertaken. Three-day food records were translated to nutrient data using culturally sensitive methods and comparisons were made for energy, macronutrients, and dietary fibre between cohorts. The contribution of traditional foods to dietary intake was measured and the foods contributing to each nutrient were identified. Results: Compared to native Ghanaians, UK-Ghanaians derived a significantly higher proportion of energy from protein (16.9±3.9 vs. 14.1±2.8%, p=0.001, fat (29.9±7.9 vs. 24.4±8.5%, p=0.005, and saturated fat (8.5±3.4 vs. 5.8±3.7%, p<0.001 and a significantly lower energy from carbohydrate (52.2±7.7 vs. 61.5±9.3%, p<0.001. Dietary fibre intake was significantly higher in the UK-Ghanaian diet compared to the native Ghanaian diet (8.3±3.1 vs. 6.7±2.2 g/1,000 kcal, p=0.007. There was significantly less energy, macronutrients, and fibre derived from traditional foods post-migration. Non-traditional foods including breakfast cereals, wholemeal bread, and processed meats made a greater contribution to nutrient intake post-migration. Conclusions: Our findings show the migrant Ghanaian diet is characterised by significantly higher intakes of fat, saturated fat, and protein and significantly lower intakes of carbohydrate; a macronutrient profile which may promote increased risk of NCDs amongst UK-Ghanaians. These differences in the nutrient profile are likely to be modulated by the consumption of ‘Western’ foods observed in migrant communities.

  12. Nutrient intake of Swiss toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Thomas A; Casetti, Luca; Haueter, Petra; Müller, Pascal; Nydegger, Andreas; Spalinger, Johannes

    2017-08-10

    During the first years of life, food preferences are shaped that might last throughout a person's entire life affecting his/her health in the long term. However, knowledge on early feeding habits is still limited for toddlers. Therefore, the goal of the present study was to: (1) assess toddlers' nutrient intake; (2) compare the findings to past studies as well as to national feeding recommendations and (3) identify major food sources for energy and macronutrients. A food survey using a 4-day diary was conducted. The dietary software nut.s(®) was used to analyse the data. A cohort of 188 healthy toddlers (aged 1-3 years) was analysed. The energy intake of most toddlers was below the recommended daily intake (RDI) but in accordance with earlier studies. Protein intake was three- to fourfold higher than the RDI and reached the proposed upper limit of 15% of total energy intake. Fat intake was in accordance with the RDI, but the balance of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids should be improved. Carbohydrate intake met the RDI. For the micronutrients, iron and vitamin D intakes showed critical values. As in other European countries, the diet of Swiss toddlers in general seems adequate but does not meet all nutritional requirements. In particular, the quality of the fats and vitamin D supplementation should be improved. For proteins and iron, additional research is needed to gain more confidence in the recommendations.

  13. Macronutrient Balance and Dietary Glycemic Index in Pregnancy Predict Neonatal Body Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie V. Kizirian

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The influence of maternal macronutrient balance and dietary glycemic index (GI on neonatal body composition has received little study. We hypothesized that the overall quantity and quality of macronutrients, particularly carbohydrate, in the maternal diet could have trimester-specific effects on neonatal growth and body composition in women at risk of gestational diabetes. Maternal diet was assessed using 3-day food records in mid (n = 96 and late (n = 88 pregnancy as part of the GI Baby 3 study. Neonatal body composition was assessed by air-displacement plethysmography within 48 h of birth, adjusted for length, and expressed as fat mass index (FMI and fat-free mass index (FFMI. In mid pregnancy, higher maternal intake of carbohydrate energy was negatively correlated with infant FFMI (p = 0.037. In late pregnancy, higher dietary GI was associated with lower FFMI (p = 0.010 and higher carbohydrate energy predicted lower FMI (p = 0.034. Higher fat intake (%E and saturated fat, but not protein, also predicted neonatal body composition (higher FFMI in mid pregnancy and higher FMI in late pregnancy. Depending on pregnancy stage, a high carbohydrate-low fat diet, particularly from high glycemic sources, may reduce neonatal indices of both lean mass and adiposity.

  14. Macronutrient Balance and Dietary Glycemic Index in Pregnancy Predict Neonatal Body Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizirian, Nathalie V.; Markovic, Tania P.; Muirhead, Roslyn; Brodie, Shannon; Garnett, Sarah P.; Louie, Jimmy C. Y.; Petocz, Peter; Ross, Glynis P.; Brand-Miller, Jennie C.

    2016-01-01

    The influence of maternal macronutrient balance and dietary glycemic index (GI) on neonatal body composition has received little study. We hypothesized that the overall quantity and quality of macronutrients, particularly carbohydrate, in the maternal diet could have trimester-specific effects on neonatal growth and body composition in women at risk of gestational diabetes. Maternal diet was assessed using 3-day food records in mid (n = 96) and late (n = 88) pregnancy as part of the GI Baby 3 study. Neonatal body composition was assessed by air-displacement plethysmography within 48 h of birth, adjusted for length, and expressed as fat mass index (FMI) and fat-free mass index (FFMI). In mid pregnancy, higher maternal intake of carbohydrate energy was negatively correlated with infant FFMI (p = 0.037). In late pregnancy, higher dietary GI was associated with lower FFMI (p = 0.010) and higher carbohydrate energy predicted lower FMI (p = 0.034). Higher fat intake (%E) and saturated fat, but not protein, also predicted neonatal body composition (higher FFMI in mid pregnancy and higher FMI in late pregnancy). Depending on pregnancy stage, a high carbohydrate-low fat diet, particularly from high glycemic sources, may reduce neonatal indices of both lean mass and adiposity. PMID:27164136

  15. Macronutrient composition of the diet and prospective weight change in participants of the EPIC-PANACEA study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Claire Vergnaud

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The effect of the macronutrient composition of the usual diet on long term weight maintenance remains controversial. METHODS: 373,803 subjects aged 25-70 years were recruited in 10 European countries (1992-2000 in the PANACEA project of the EPIC cohort. Diet was assessed at baseline using country-specific validated questionnaires and weight and height were measured at baseline and self-reported at follow-up in most centers. The association between weight change after 5 years of follow-up and the iso-energetic replacement of 5% of energy from one macronutrient by 5% of energy from another macronutrient was assessed using multivariate linear mixed-models. The risk of becoming overweight or obese after 5 years was investigated using multivariate Poisson regressions stratified according to initial Body Mass Index. RESULTS: A higher proportion of energy from fat at the expense of carbohydrates was not significantly associated with weight change after 5 years. However, a higher proportion of energy from protein at the expense of fat was positively associated with weight gain. A higher proportion of energy from protein at the expense of carbohydrates was also positively associated with weight gain, especially when carbohydrates were rich in fibre. The association between percentage of energy from protein and weight change was slightly stronger in overweight participants, former smokers, participants ≥60 years old, participants underreporting their energy intake and participants with a prudent dietary pattern. Compared to diets with no more than 14% of energy from protein, diets with more than 22% of energy from protein were associated with a 23-24% higher risk of becoming overweight or obese in normal weight and overweight subjects at baseline. CONCLUSION: Our results show that participants consuming an amount of protein above the protein intake recommended by the American Diabetes Association may experience a higher risk of becoming

  16. A pilot study to determine whether using a lightweight, wearable micro-camera improves dietary assessment accuracy and offers information on macronutrients and eating rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettitt, Claire; Liu, Jindong; Kwasnicki, Richard M; Yang, Guang-Zhong; Preston, Thomas; Frost, Gary

    2016-01-14

    A major limitation in nutritional science is the lack of understanding of the nutritional intake of free-living people. There is an inverse relationship between accuracy of reporting of energy intake by all current nutritional methodologies and body weight. In this pilot study we aim to explore whether using a novel lightweight, wearable micro-camera improves the accuracy of dietary intake assessment. Doubly labelled water (DLW) was used to estimate energy expenditure and intake over a 14-d period, over which time participants (n 6) completed a food diary and wore a micro-camera on 2 of the days. Comparisons were made between the estimated energy intake from the reported food diary alone and together with the images from the micro-camera recordings. There was an average daily deficit of 3912 kJ using food diaries to estimate energy intake compared with estimated energy expenditure from DLW (P=0·0118), representing an under-reporting rate of 34 %. Analysis of food diaries alone showed a significant deficit in estimated daily energy intake compared with estimated intake from food diary analysis with images from the micro-camera recordings (405 kJ). Use of the micro-camera images in conjunction with food diaries improves the accuracy of dietary assessment and provides valuable information on macronutrient intake and eating rate. There is a need to develop this recording technique to remove user and assessor bias.

  17. Store turnover as a predictor of food and beverage provider turnover and associated dietary intake estimates in very remote Indigenous communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wycherley, Thomas; Ferguson, Megan; O'Dea, Kerin; McMahon, Emma; Liberato, Selma; Brimblecombe, Julie

    2016-12-01

    Determine how very-remote Indigenous community (RIC) food and beverage (F&B) turnover quantities and associated dietary intake estimates derived from only stores, compare with values derived from all community F&B providers. F&B turnover quantity and associated dietary intake estimates (energy, micro/macronutrients and major contributing food types) were derived from 12-months transaction data of all F&B providers in three RICs (NT, Australia). F&B turnover quantities and dietary intake estimates from only stores (plus only the primary store in multiple-store communities) were expressed as a proportion of complete F&B provider turnover values. Food types and macronutrient distribution (%E) estimates were quantitatively compared. Combined stores F&B turnover accounted for the majority of F&B quantity (98.1%) and absolute dietary intake estimates (energy [97.8%], macronutrients [≥96.7%] and micronutrients [≥83.8%]). Macronutrient distribution estimates from combined stores and only the primary store closely aligned complete provider estimates (≤0.9% absolute). Food types were similar using combined stores, primary store or complete provider turnover. Evaluating combined stores F&B turnover represents an efficient method to estimate total F&B turnover quantity and associated dietary intake in RICs. In multiple-store communities, evaluating only primary store F&B turnover provides an efficient estimate of macronutrient distribution and major food types. © 2016 Public Health Association of Australia.

  18. The impact of dietary energy intake on cognitive aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark P Mattson

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Rodents that are insulin resistant and obese as the result of genetic factors, overeating and/or a sedentary lifestyle, exhibit cognitive deficits that worsen with advancing age compared to their more svelte counterparts. Data from epidemiological and clinical studies suggest similar adverse effects of excessive dietary energy intake and insulin resistance on cognition in humans. Our findings from studies of animal models suggest that dietary energy restriction can enhance neural plasticity and reduce the vulnerability of the brain to age-related dysfunction and disease. Dietary energy restriction may exert beneficial effects on the brain by engaging adaptive cellular stress response pathways resulting in the up-regulation of genes that encode proteins that promote neural plasticity and cell survival (e.g., neurotrophic factors, protein chaperones and redox enzymes. Two energy state-sensitive factors that are proving particularly important in regulating energy balance and improving/preserving cognitive function are brain-derived neurotrophic factor and glucagon-like peptide 1. Alternate day calorie restriction, novel insulin-sensitizing and neuroprotective agents, and drugs that activate adaptive stress response pathways, are examples of approaches for preserving cognitive function that show promise in preclinical studies.

  19. From the past to future: from energy expenditure to energy intake to energy expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, M J; Geisler, C

    2017-03-01

    Although most recent research on energy balance focusses on energy intake (EI) there is still need to think about both sides of the energy balance. Current research on energy expenditure (EE) relates to metabolic adaptation to negative energy balance, mitochondrial metabolism associated with aging, obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus, the role of EE in hunger and appetite control, non-shivering thermogenesis and brown adipose tissue activity, cellular bioenergetics as a target of obesity treatment and the evolutionary and ecological determinants of EE in humans and other primates. As far as regulation of energy balance is concerned there is recent evidence that EE rather than body weight is under tight control. Biologically, EE is maintained within a narrow physiological range. An EE-set point has been proposed as the width between the upper and lower boundaries of the individual EE range. Regulation of EE may fail in very obese patients with an EI above their upper boundary and after drastic weight loss when patients may go far below their lower EE boundary and thus are loosing control. In population studies, fat-free mass (FFM) and its composition (that is, the proportion of high to low metabolic rate organs) are major determinants of EE. It is tempting to speculate that tight biologic control of EE is related to brain energy need, which is preserved at the cost of peripheral metabolism. There is a moderate heritability of EE, which is independent of the heritability of FFM. In future, metabolic phenotyping should focus on the EE-FFM relationship rather than on EE-values alone.

  20. Macronutrients and Health—Steps to Ameliorating the Nutrition transition Trap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D.C.K.ROBERTS

    2001-01-01

    Countries that have made the health transition from a communicable disease base to a non-communicable disease base find themselves gripped in an epidemic of wealth created diseases mediated by altered macronutrient intakes,energy intakes and reduction in physical activity.Avoiding the negative impact of the nutrition transition while accepting the positive aspects of the wealth transition can best be achieved by focussing on publicising the benefits of a low fat diet in the context of an active lifestyle.How this is achieved should reflect ecologically sound food production appropriate to national needs.Countries that achieve this will be in the best position to capitalize on the reduction in communicable disease rates without causing a rise in non-communicalble disease rates.

  1. Macronutrients and Health—Steps to Ameliorating the Nutrition Transition Trap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Countries that have made the health transition from acommunicable disease base to a non-communicable disease base find themselves gripped in an epidemic of wealth created diseases mediated by altered macronutrient intakes, energy intakes and reduction in physical activity. Avoiding the negative impact of the nutrition transition while accepting the positive aspects of the wealth transition can best be achieved by focussing on publicising the benefits of a low fat diet in the context of an active lifestyle. How this is achieved should reflect ecologically sound food production appropriate to national needs. Countries that achieve this will be in the best position to capitalize on the reduction in communicable disease rates without causing a rise in non-communicable disease rates.

  2. Removing energy from a beverage influences later food intake more than the same energy addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrickerd, K; Salleh, N B; Forde, C G

    2016-10-01

    Designing reduced-calorie foods and beverages without compromising their satiating effect could benefit weight management, assuming that consumers do not compensate for the missing calories at other meals. Though research has demonstrated that compensation for overfeeding is relatively limited, the extent to which energy reductions trigger adjustments in later food intake is less clear. The current study tested satiety responses (characterised by changes in appetite and later food intake) to both a covert 200 kcal reduction and an addition of maltodextrin to a soymilk test beverage. Twenty-nine healthy male participants were recruited to consume three sensory-matched soymilk beverages across four non-consecutive study days: a medium energy control (ME: 300 kcal) and a lower energy (LE: 100 kcal) and higher energy (HE: 500 kcal) version. The ME control was consumed twice to assess individual consistency in responses to this beverage. Participants were unaware of the energy differences across the soymilks. Lunch intake 60 min later increased in response to the LE soymilk, but was unchanged after consuming the HE version. These adjustments accounted for 40% of the energy removed from the soymilk and 13% of the energy added in. Rated appetite was relatively unaffected by the soymilk energy content. No further adjustments were noted for the rest of the day. These data suggest that adult men tested were more sensitive to calorie dilution than calorie addition to a familiar beverage.

  3. Comparing dietary macronutrient composition and food sources between native and diasporic Ghanaian adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Rachel; Knight, Annemarie; Asante, Matilda; Thomas, Jane; Goff, Louise M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Dietary acculturation may contribute to the increased burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in diasporic populations of African ancestry. Objective To assess nutritional composition and the contribution that traditional foods make to the diets of native and UK-dwelling Ghanaian adults. Design An observational study of Ghanaian adults living in Accra (n=26) and London (n=57) was undertaken. Three-day food records were translated to nutrient data using culturally sensitive methods and comparisons were made for energy, macronutrients, and dietary fibre between cohorts. The contribution of traditional foods to dietary intake was measured and the foods contributing to each nutrient were identified. Results Compared to native Ghanaians, UK-Ghanaians derived a significantly higher proportion of energy from protein (16.9±3.9 vs. 14.1±2.8%, p=0.001), fat (29.9±7.9 vs. 24.4±8.5%, p=0.005), and saturated fat (8.5±3.4 vs. 5.8±3.7%, pwholemeal bread, and processed meats made a greater contribution to nutrient intake post-migration. Conclusions Our findings show the migrant Ghanaian diet is characterised by significantly higher intakes of fat, saturated fat, and protein and significantly lower intakes of carbohydrate; a macronutrient profile which may promote increased risk of NCDs amongst UK-Ghanaians. These differences in the nutrient profile are likely to be modulated by the consumption of ‘Western’ foods observed in migrant communities. PMID:26610275

  4. Assessment of physical activity, energy expenditure and energy intakes of young men practicing aerobic sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierniuk, Alicja; Włodarek, Dariusz

    2014-01-01

    Adequate nutrition and energy intake play key rule during the training period and recovery time. The assessment of athlete's energetic needs should be calculated individually, based on personal energy expenditure and Sense Wear PRO3 Armband (SWA) mobile monitor is a useful tool to achieve this goal. However, there is still few studies conducted with use of this monitor. To assess individual energy needs of athletes by use of SWA and to determine whether their energy intake fulfils the body's energy expenditure. Subjects were 15 male students attending Military University of Technology in Warsaw, aged 19-24 years, practicing aerobic. The average body mass was 80.7 ± 7.7 kg and average height was 186.9 ± 5.2 cm, (BMI 23.09 ± 1.85 kg/m2). Assessment of physical activity and energy expenditure (TEE) was established using SWA, which was placed on the back side of dominant hand and worn continuously for 48 hours (during the training and non-training day). The presented results are the average values of these 2 days. Assessment of athletes' physical activity level was established by use of metabolic equivalent of task (MET) and number of steps (NS). Estimation of energy intake was based on three-day dietary recalls (two weekdays and one day of the weekend), evaluated using the Polish Software 'Energia' package. The average TEE of examined athletes was 3877 ± 508 kcal/day and almost half of this energy was spend on physical activity (1898 ± 634 kcal/day). The number of steps was on average 19498 ± 5407 and average MET was 2.05 ± 2.09. The average daily energy intake was 2727 ± 576 kcal. Athletes consumed inadequate amount of energy in comparison to their energy expenditure. Examined group did not have an adequate knowledge about their energy requirement, which shows the need of nutritional consulting and education among these athletes. athletes, aerobic sports, energy expenditure, energy intake.

  5. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia and obesity : increased energy intake or decreased physical activity?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, H.; Postma, A.; Stolk, R. P.; Kamps, W. A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Obesity is a well-known problem in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia ( ALL), and it might be the result of an excess in energy intake, reduced energy expenditure, or both. The aim of this study is to describe energy intake and physical activity during treatment for ALL with inter

  6. Differential vascular dysfunction in response to diets of differing macronutrient composition: a phenomenonological study

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    Cassidy Roslyn

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vascular dysfunction can develop from consumption of an energy-rich diet, even prior to the onset of obesity. However, the roles played by different dietary components remain uncertain. While attempting to develop models of obesity in a separate study, we observed that two high-energy diets of differing macronutrient compositions affected vascular function differently in overweight rats. Methods Male Wistar rats (n = 6/group were fed diets providing varying percentages of energy from fat and carbohydrate (CHO. For 10 weeks, they were fed either chow, as control diet (10% of energy from fat; 63% from CHO, chow supplemented with chocolate biscuit (30% fat; 56% CHO or a high-fat diet (45% fat; 35% CHO. Blood concentrations of biochemical markers of obesity were measured, and epididymal fat pads weighed as a measure of adiposity. Mesenteric arteries were dissected and their contractile and relaxant properties analysed myographically. Data were tested by analysis of variance (ANOVA. Results Weight gain and plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin and leptin were similar in all groups. However, biscuit-fed animals showed increased food intake (+27%; p p p p p Conclusion Vascular dysfunction resulting from consumption of a high-fat or combined relatively high-fat/high-CHO diet occurs through different physiological processes, which may be attributable to their differing macronutrient compositions. Combining potentially atherogenic macronutrients induces more extensive vascular impairment than that of high-fat alone, and may be attributable to the more marked dyslipidaemia observed with such a diet. Thus, these findings help clarify the role of dietary components in vascular impairment, which has implications for clinical approaches to preventing cardiovascular disease.

  7. Dietary macronutrients and food consumption as determinants of long-term weight change in adult populations: a systematic literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikael Fogelholm

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This systematic literature review examined the role of dietary macronutrient composition, food consumption and dietary patterns in predicting weight or waist circumference (WC change, with and without prior weight reduction. The literature search covered year 2000 and onwards. Prospective cohort studies, case–control studies and interventions were included. The studies had adult (18–70 y, mostly Caucasian participants. Out of a total of 1,517 abstracts, 119 full papers were identified as potentially relevant. After a careful scrutiny, 50 papers were quality graded as A (highest, B or C. Forty-three papers with grading A or B were included in evidence grading, which was done separately for all exposure-outcome combinations. The grade of evidence was classified as convincing, probable, suggestive or no conclusion. We found probable evidence for high intake of dietary fibre and nuts predicting less weight gain, and for high intake of meat in predicting more weight gain. Suggestive evidence was found for a protective role against increasing weight from whole grains, cereal fibre, high-fat dairy products and high scores in an index describing a prudent dietary pattern. Likewise, there was suggestive evidence for both fibre and fruit intake in protection against larger increases in WC. Also suggestive evidence was found for high intake of refined grains, and sweets and desserts in predicting more weight gain, and for refined (white bread and high energy density in predicting larger increases in WC. The results suggested that the proportion of macronutrients in the diet was not important in predicting changes in weight or WC. In contrast, plenty of fibre-rich foods and dairy products, and less refined grains, meat and sugar-rich foods and drinks were associated with less weight gain in prospective cohort studies. The results on the role of dietary macronutrient composition in prevention of weight regain (after prior weight loss were inconclusive.

  8. Consumo de macronutrientes e ingestão inadequada de micronutrientes em adultos Consumo de macronutrientes e ingestión inadecuada de micronutrientes en adultos Macronutrient consumption and inadequate micronutrient intake in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosangela Alves Pereira

    2013-02-01

    nutrientes y la prevalencia de ingestión inadecuada de micronutrientes entre adultos brasileños. MÉTODOS: Se analizaron datos de la Pesquisa Nacional de Alimentación de la Investigación de Presupuesto Familiar 2008-2009. El consumo de alimentos fue evaluado por dos días no consecutivos de registro alimenticio. Un total de 21.003 individuos (52,5% mujeres entre 20 y 59 años de edad participó del estudio. La ingesta usual de nutrientes fue estimada por el método propuesto por el National Cancer Institute. Las prevalencias de ingestión inadecuada de micronutrientes fueron obtenidas por el método de la necesidad promedio estimada (EAR como punto de corte. Para manganeso y potasio, la Ingestión Adecuada (IA fue usada como punto de corte. La ingestión de sodio fue comparada con el nivel de ingestión máxima tolerable (UL. La prevalencia de ingestión inadecuada de hierro fue determinada por abordaje probabilístico. RESULTADOS: El promedio de consumo energético fue de 2.083 kcal entre los hombres y 1698 kcal entre las mujeres. Prevalencias de ingesta inadecuada mayores o iguales a 70% fueron observadas para calcio entre los hombre y magnesio, vitamina A, sodio en ambos sexos. Prevalencias mayores o iguales a 90% fueron encontradas para calcio entre las mujeres y vitaminas D y E en ambos sexos. Prevalencias menores que 5% fueron encontradas para hierro entre los hombres y niacina para hombres y mujeres. En general, la prevalencia de ingesta inadecuada fue más acentuada en el área rural y en la región Noreste. CONCLUSIONES: El consumo de energía es mayor entre individuos residentes en áreas urbanas y de la región norte. Los grupos con mayor riesgo de ingestión inadecuada de micronutrientes son las mujeres y los que residen en el área rural y en la región Noreste.OBJECTIVE: To estimate energy and nutrient intake and prevalence of inadequate micronutrient intake among Brazilian adults. METHODS: Data from the National Dietary Survey, from the 2008-2009 Household

  9. Intake of energy and nutrients; harmonization of Food Composition Databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Victoria, Emilio; Martinez de Victoria, Ignacio; Martinez-Burgos, M Alba

    2015-02-26

    Food composition databases (FCDBs) provide detailed information about the nutritional composition of foods. The conversion of food consumption into nutrient intake need a Food composition database (FCDB) which lists the mean nutritional values for a given food portion. The limitations of FCDBs are sometimes little known by the users. Multicentre studies have raised several methodology challenges which allow to standardize nutritional assessments in different populations and geographical areas for food composition and nutrient intake. Differences between FCDBs include those attributed to technical matters, such as description of foods, calculation of energy and definition of nutrients, analytical methods, and principles for recipe calculation. Such differences need to be identified and eliminated before comparing data from different studies, especially when dietary data is related to a health outcome. There are ongoing efforts since 1984 to standardize FCDBs over the world (INFOODS, EPIC, EuroFIR, etc.). Food composition data can be gathered from different sources like private company analysis, universities, government laboratories and food industry. They can also be borrowed from scientific literature or even from the food labelling. There are different proposals to evaluate the quality of food composition data. For the development of a FCDB it is fundamental document in the most detailed way, each of the data values of the different components and nutrients of a food. The objective of AECOSAN (Agencia Española de Consumo Seguridad Alimentaria y Nutrición) and BEDCA (Base de Datos Española de Composición de Alimentos) association was the development and support of a reference FCDB in Spain according to the standards to be defined in Europe. BEDCA is currently the only FCDB developed in Spain with compiled and documented data following EuroFIR standards.

  10. Anthropometric assessment of the nutritional status of children and adolescents residing in selected Polish orphanages based on their energy intake and physical activity level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pysz, Katarzyna; Leszczyńska, Teresa; Kopeć, Aneta

    2015-01-01

    Actions to the prevention of overweight and obesity should be first addressed to the youngest population and their parents, guardians as well as teachers. The major objectives of prevention and treatment of overweight and obesity programme should be focused on modification of nutritional habits and promotion of physical activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritional status, intake of energy and macronutrients as well as the physical activity of students from orphanages in Krakow. Study was performed in 5 orphanages located in Krakow (Poland), which were under control of Social Welfare Centre in Krakow. The study involved 153 students, 67 girls and 86 boys, aged from 7 to 20 years. Nutritional status was assessed by anthropometric measurements. The protein and total fat content in diets was measured by chemical analyses and carbohydrates were calculated by difference. Physical activity level of children and adolescents was assessed by questionnaire. Over 80% of boys and about 90% of girls had a normal body mass. Students have spent their free time on additional physical activity from 1h 34 min/day to 5 h 12 min/day. They also have spent their free time on sedentary activities on average 4 h/day. Daily diets of students did not met recommendations for energy, carbohydrates and fats. Intake of protein was too high and exceeded the estimated average requirement even over three times. Despite the insufficient intake of fat and carbohydrates, students generally showed a proper BMI value. This suggests that excess intake of protein was used for maturation process and was additional source of energy. Reported additional physical activity was satisfactory.

  11. Modeling energy intake by adding homeostatic feedback and drug intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gennemark, Peter; Hjorth, Stephan; Gabrielsson, Johan

    2015-02-01

    Energy intake (EI) is a pivotal biomarker used in quantification approaches to metabolic disease processes such as obesity, diabetes, and growth disorders. Eating behavior is however under both short-term and long-term control. This control system manifests itself as tolerance and rebound phenomena in EI, when challenged by drug treatment or diet restriction. The paper describes a model with the capability to capture physiological counter-regulatory feedback actions triggered by energy imbalances. This feedback is general as it handles tolerance to both increases and decreases in EI, and works in both acute and chronic settings. A drug mechanism function inhibits (or stimulates) EI. The deviation of EI relative to a reference level (set-point) serves as input to a non-linear appetite control signal which in turn impacts EI in parallel to the drug intervention. Three examples demonstrate the potential usefulness of the model in both acute and chronic dosing situations. The model shifts the predicted concentration-response relationship rightwardly at lower concentrations, in contrast to models that do not handle functional adaptation. A fourth example further shows that the model may qualitatively explain differences in rate and extent of adaptation in observed EI and its concomitants in both rodents and humans.

  12. Independent, additive effects of five dietary variables on ad libitum energy intake in a residential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Lorien E; McCrory, Megan A; Rasmussen, Helen; Greenberg, Andrew S; Fuss, Paul J; Saltzman, Edward; Roberts, Susan B

    2014-09-01

    To examine the relationship between dietary characteristics of self-selected foods and energy balance in a cafeteria-style dining hall. Ad libitum dietary intake from a self-selection menu was measured over two days in 151 adults (70% female, mean age 41 years, mean BMI 24.9 kg/m(2) ). The associations of dietary variables with energy balance (calculated as measured energy intake/predicted energy requirements, pER) were assessed. Measured energy intake was significantly correlated with pER (R(2) =0.83, P obese individuals. There are independent associations of dietary protein, liquid calories, energy density, dietary variety, and glycemic index with energy balance, indicating additive effects of these dietary factors on energy intake and energy balance. Intervention studies are needed to determine whether dietary prescriptions combining these dietary factors facilitate long-term prevention of weight gain. © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  13. Evaluation of Drinks Contribution to Energy Intake in Summer and Winter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Malisova

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available All drinks hydrate and most also provide nutrients and energy. Our objective was to evaluate the contribution of drinks to total energy intake in summer and winter. Data were obtained using the Water Balance Questionnaire (WBQ from a sample of the general population in Athens, Greece (n = 984, 473 individuals (42 ± 18 years in summer and 511 individuals (38 ± 20 years in winter stratified by sex and age. The WBQ embeds a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire of 58 foods and the Short International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Data were analyzed for the contribution of drinks to total energy intake. In winter, total energy intake was 2082 ± 892 kcal/day; energy intake from drinks was 479 ± 286 kcal/day and energy expenditure 1860 ± 390 kcal/day. In summer, total energy intake was 1890 ± 894 kcal/day, energy intake from drinks 492 ± 499 kcal/day and energy expenditure 1830 ± 491 kcal/day. Energy intake from drinks in summer was higher than in winter (p < 0.001 and in men higher than in women in both seasons (p < 0.001 in summer, p = 0.02 in winter. Coffee, coffee drinks, milk, chocolate milk and alcoholic drinks contributed approximately 75% of energy from drinks. Fruit juice and sugar-sweetened drinks, including soft drinks and fruit juice based drinks, were consumed less frequently contributing up to 25% of drink energy intake. Drinks contribute approximately 1/4 of total energy intake depending on the energy content of the drink and frequency of consumption. Coffee, dairy and alcoholic drinks were the main energy contributors.

  14. Response of appetite and potential appetite regulators following intake of high energy nutritional supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Sadia; Gerasimidis, Konstantinos; Wright, Charlotte; Tsiountsioura, Melina; Arvanitidou, Eirini-Iro; Malkova, Dalia

    2015-12-01

    The net clinical benefit of high-energy nutritional supplements (HENSDs) consumption is lower than expected. To investigate the extent to which consumption of oral HENSD in the fasted state reduces energy intake in slim females during consecutive breakfast and lunch, and whether this relates to changes in appetite and metabolic appetite regulators. Twenty three females of 24.4 ± 2.8 years with BMI of 18.2 ± 0.8 kg/m(2) consumed HENSD (2.5 MJ) or PLACEBO (0.4 MJ) in fasted state in a single blind randomized cross-over study. Appetite and metabolic rate measurements and blood collection were conducted prior to and during 240 min after the intake of the supplements. Energy intake was recorded during ad libitum buffet breakfast and lunch served 60 min and 240 min post supplementation respectively. Energy intake during breakfast was significantly (P energy intake was 1.07 ± 0.34 MJ higher in the HENSD compared to PLACEBO. Plasma concentration of CCK and PYY and insulin and were significantly (P energy expended above resting metabolic rate was significantly (P energy expenditure was not significantly different between the two trials. Oral high-energy nutritional supplements have a partial and relatively short lived suppressive action on energy intake and can be expected to increase net energy intake by approximately half the energy value of the supplement consumed. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Nutrient Intake in Italian Infants and Toddlers from North and South Italy: The Nutrintake 636 Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuccotti, Gian Vincenzo; Cassatella, Cristina; Morelli, Ambra; Cucugliato, Maria Cristina; Catinello, Giuseppina; del Balzo, Valeria; Guidarelli, Lucia; Agostoni, Carlo; Mameli, Chiara; Troiano, Ersilia; Bedogni, Giorgio

    2014-01-01

    We performed a cross-sectional study to compare the intake of energy, macronutrients, fiber, sodium and iron and the anthropometric status of infants and toddlers living in North (Milano) and South Italy (Catania). Nutrient intake was evaluated using a 7-day weighed food record. Out of 400 planned children aged 6 to 36 months, 390 (98%) were recruited, 189 in Milano and 201 in Catania. The mean (standard deviation) age was 17 (9) months in Milano and 17 (10) months in Catania. Anthropometry, energy intake and macronutrient intake were similar in Milano and Catania. However, iron intake was 27% lower and fiber intake 16% higher in Milano than in Catania. Despite normal anthropometry and energy intake, in the pooled sample there was a high intake of proteins, simple carbohydrates, saturated fats and sodium, and a low intake of iron and fiber compared to Italian reference values. This is the first study to report the macro- and micro-nutrient intake of children aged <12 months using the 7-day weighed food record and one of the very few studies that have employed such reference method in children from the general population. PMID:25111122

  16. Selected Intakes as Ratios of Energy Intake, U.S. Population, 2001-04

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NCI Method provides the capability to estimate the distribution of usual food intakes in the US population to greatly enhance the ability to monitor diets relative to recommendations and to assess the scope of dietary deficiencies and excesses.

  17. Selected Intakes of Energy from Empty Calories, U.S. Population, 2001-04

    Science.gov (United States)

    This section provides information on population distributions of energy intakes from solid fats, alcoholic beverages and added sugars. These sources of energy comprise a major portion of the discretionary calories consumed by the US population.

  18. Acute oral administration of lauric acid reduces energy intake in healthy male

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feltrin, K. L.; Brennan, I.M.; Rades, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    12 would result in a dose-related suppression of appetite and subsequent energy intake at breakfast and lunch. Methods 14 healthy men were studied on four separate occasions in double-blind, randomised fashion. Following ingestion of C12 (2 g (77 kJ), 4 g (153 kJ), or 6 g (230 kJ)) or control, energy...... intake at breakfast (30 min after C12 ingestion), perceptions of appetite, nausea and bloating (for 180 min following breakfast), and energy intake at lunch (180 min after breakfast), were measured. Results C12 ingestion did not induce nausea or bloating. While there was no effect of C12 on energy intake...... at breakfast, energy intake at lunch was reduced significantly after ingestion of both C12(2 g) (by 13.7%, P

  19. Are post-exercise appetite sensations and energy intake coupled in children and adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thivel, David; Chaput, Jean-Philippe

    2014-06-01

    The effect of physical activity on energy balance is not restricted to its induced energy expenditure but also affects the control of energy intake and appetite. Although it is now clear that physical exercise affects subsequent energy intake and appetite, the mechanisms involved remain uncertain. Most previous studies have assessed both post-exercise energy intake and appetite but mainly focussed their analyses on food consumption, and it remains unclear whether changes in appetite provide an accurate reflection of changes in energy intake. This brief review aims to analyse conjointly the effective energy intake and appetite sensation responses to acute exercise in children and adolescents to examine whether or not these responses to exercise are coupled. After an overview of the available literature, we conclude that acute exercise has an uncoupling effect on energy intake and appetite sensations in both lean and overweight/obese youth. Although methodological issues between studies can be highlighted, lack of consideration of inter-individual variability in terms of energy intake and appetite could be one of the main explanations for such a conclusion. It now appears necessary to further consider the impact of acute exercise and then chronic physical activity on an individual basis in the regulation of energy balance to prescribe successful weight loss programmes.

  20. Apparent total tract energy and macronutrient digestibility of one- to three-day-old, adult ground, extruded, and canned chicken-based diets in domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, K R; Morris, C L; Burke, S L; Swanson, K S

    2014-08-01

    There has been a recent increase in the popularity of feeding unconventional diets, including whole prey diets, to domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus). Data are needed that allow animal caretakers to choose and formulate diets that meet the nutritional requirements of their cats. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of feeding 1- to 3-d-old whole chicks (WHO), ground adult chicken product (GRO), a chicken-based canned diet (CAN), and a chicken-based extruded diet (EXT) on apparent total tract energy and macronutrient digestibility, N balance, and blood metabolites of domestic cats (n = 11). Macronutrient, energy, and moisture concentrations of diets varied greatly (e.g., CP: 35 to 72% DM); however, cats fed all diets maintained BW and N balance. In general, cats fed WHO had lower nutrient digestibility than those fed CAN and EXT. Cats fed GRO had greater nutrient digestibility than cats fed commercial diets. For example, apparent OM and GE digestibility coefficients were greater (P ≤ 0.05) for cats fed CAN (86 and 88%, respectively), EXT (88 and 88%), and GRO (94 and 95%) compared with those fed WHO (83 and 83%) and greater (P ≤ 0.05) for cats fed GRO compared with those fed CAN and EXT. Many blood metabolites were modified by diet, but most remained within reference ranges for domestic cats. Serum cholesterol was elevated above the reference range for all treatments and greater (P ≤ 0.05) for cats fed WHO compared with those fed CAN, EXT, and GRO. Serum creatinine concentrations were above the reference range for all treatments and greater (P ≤ 0.05) for cats fed GRO compared with those fed CAN or WHO. These data indicate that the whole prey tested herein maintained short-term health and are adequately digestible for use in companion animal diets. Research is needed to determine the global and long-term health implications of feeding whole or ground diets to domestic cats, which may be different in terms of macronutrient, energy, and moisture

  1. Snacking for a cause: nutritional insufficiencies and excesses of U.S. children, a critical review of food consumption patterns and macronutrient and micronutrient intake of U.S. children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Julie; Slavin, Joanne

    2014-10-30

    The objective of this review was to identify dietary insufficiencies and excesses in children aged two to 11 in the United States (U.S.) and eating habits that merit concern in terms of nutrient and energy density to improve overall diet quality. Data from the What We Eat in America (WWEIA) tables from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were examined as well as survey data from the School Nutrition Dietary Assessment Study (SNDA). Analysis of survey data revealed that children consume insufficient Vitamin D, calcium, and potassium and excess energy, carbohydrates, and sodium. Dietary modifications are necessary to prevent serious deficiencies and the development of chronic illness. Snacking has steadily increased in this population since the 1970s, and snacks provide necessary nutrients. However, carbohydrates and added sugars tend to be over-consumed at snacking occasions. Replacement of current snack choices with nutrient-dense foods could lower the risks of nutrient deficiencies and help lower excess nutrient consumption. Increased consumption of low sugar dairy foods, especially yogurt, at snack times could increase intake of important micronutrients without contributing to dietary excesses.

  2. Snacking for a Cause: Nutritional Insufficiencies and Excesses of U.S. Children, a Critical Review of Food Consumption Patterns and Macronutrient and Micronutrient Intake of U.S. Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Hess

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this review was to identify dietary insufficiencies and excesses in children aged two to 11 in the United States (U.S. and eating habits that merit concern in terms of nutrient and energy density to improve overall diet quality. Data from the What We Eat in America (WWEIA tables from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES were examined as well as survey data from the School Nutrition Dietary Assessment Study (SNDA. Analysis of survey data revealed that children consume insufficient Vitamin D, calcium, and potassium and excess energy, carbohydrates, and sodium. Dietary modifications are necessary to prevent serious deficiencies and the development of chronic illness. Snacking has steadily increased in this population since the 1970s, and snacks provide necessary nutrients. However, carbohydrates and added sugars tend to be over-consumed at snacking occasions. Replacement of current snack choices with nutrient-dense foods could lower the risks of nutrient deficiencies and help lower excess nutrient consumption. Increased consumption of low sugar dairy foods, especially yogurt, at snack times could increase intake of important micronutrients without contributing to dietary excesses.

  3. Energy intake of rats fed a cafeteria diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prats, E; Monfar, M; Castellà, J; Iglesias, R; Alemany, M

    1989-02-01

    The proportion of lipid, carbohydrate and protein energy self-selected by male and female rats from a cafeteria diet has been studied for a 48-day period (36-day in female rats). The diet consisted in 12 different items and was offered daily, in excess and under otherwise standard conditions, to rats--caged in groups of three--from weaning to adulthood. Groups of control animals were studied in parallel and compared with the cafeteria groups. Cafeteria diet fed groups of rats ingested more energy and lowered their metabolic efficiency with age. Male rats ate more than females and increased their body weight even after female practically stopped growing. There was a wide variation in the aliments consumed each day by the cafeteria-fed rats. However, the proportion of lipid, protein and carbohydrate the rats ate remained constant. Male rats ingested more lipid than females. Carbohydrate consumption was constant in control and cafeteria fed groups of rats independently of sex. Protein consumption was higher in cafeteria rats than in controls, but the differences were not so important as with liquid. Fiber content of the cafeteria diet was lower than that of the control diet. The cafeteria diet selected by the rats was, thus, hypercaloric and hyperlipidic, with practically the same amount of carbohydrate than the control diet, slightly hyperproteic and, nevertheless, remarkably constant in its composition with respect to time. Cafeteria rats had a higher water intake than controls. All these trends were maintained despite the observed changes in the animals' tastes and their differential consumption of the ailments of the diet.

  4. Effect of dairy calcium or supplementary calcium intake on postprandial fat metabolism, appetite, and subsequent energy intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, J.K.; Nielsen, S.; Holst, J.J.

    2007-01-01

    Background: High calcium intake has been shown to increase fecal fat excretion. Objective: Our aim was to examine whether a high calcium intake from dairy products or from supplements affects postprandial fat metabolism and appetite through fat malabsorption. Design: Four different isocaloric meals...... were tested in 18 subjects according to a randomized crossover design. The test meals contained high (HC meal: 172 mg/MJ), medium (MC meal: 84 mg/MJ), or low (LC meal: 15 mg/MJ) amounts of calcium from dairy products or a high amount of calcium given as a calcium carbonate supplement (Suppl meal: 183...... and approximate to 15% lower after the MC meal (P = 0.0495) and approximate to 17% lower after the HC meal (P = 0.02) than after the Suppl meal. No consistent effects of calcium on appetite sensation, or on energy intake at the subsequent meal, or on the postprandial responses of cholecystokinin, glucagon...

  5. Acutely decreased thermoregulatory energy expenditure or decreased activity energy expenditure both acutely reduce food intake in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl J Kaiyala

    Full Text Available Despite the suggestion that reduced energy expenditure may be a key contributor to the obesity pandemic, few studies have tested whether acutely reduced energy expenditure is associated with a compensatory reduction in food intake. The homeostatic mechanisms that control food intake and energy expenditure remain controversial and are thought to act over days to weeks. We evaluated food intake in mice using two models of acutely decreased energy expenditure: 1 increasing ambient temperature to thermoneutrality in mice acclimated to standard laboratory temperature or 2 exercise cessation in mice accustomed to wheel running. Increasing ambient temperature (from 21 °C to 28 °C rapidly decreased energy expenditure, demonstrating that thermoregulatory energy expenditure contributes to both light cycle (40 ± 1% and dark cycle energy expenditure (15 ± 3% at normal ambient temperature (21 °C. Reducing thermoregulatory energy expenditure acutely decreased food intake primarily during the light cycle (65 ± 7%, thus conflicting with the delayed compensation model, but did not alter spontaneous activity. Acute exercise cessation decreased energy expenditure only during the dark cycle (14 ± 2% at 21 °C; 21 ± 4% at 28 °C, while food intake was reduced during the dark cycle (0.9 ± 0.1 g in mice housed at 28 °C, but during the light cycle (0.3 ± 0.1 g in mice housed at 21 °C. Cumulatively, there was a strong correlation between the change in daily energy expenditure and the change in daily food intake (R(2 = 0.51, p<0.01. We conclude that acutely decreased energy expenditure decreases food intake suggesting that energy intake is regulated by metabolic signals that respond rapidly and accurately to reduced energy expenditure.

  6. Optimizing protein and energy intake in hospitals by improving individualized meal serving, hosting and the eating environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Mette; Beermann, Tina; Mortensen, Marie Nerup

    2017-01-01

    ). Energy intake improved for the entire group, albeit not significantly (P = 0.862). Patients reported being happy with the interventions regarding individualized food serving, nurse communication, and improved meal environments. CONCLUSION: Only insignificant improvements to overall energy intake were...

  7. Exercise-Trained Men and Women: Role of Exercise and Diet on Appetite and Energy Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Stephanie M.; Hand, Taryn M.; Manore, Melinda M.

    2014-01-01

    The regulation of appetite and energy intake is influenced by numerous hormonal and neural signals, including feedback from changes in diet and exercise. Exercise can suppress subjective appetite ratings, subsequent energy intake, and alter appetite-regulating hormones, including ghrelin, peptide YY, and glucagon-like peptide 1(GLP-1) for a period of time post-exercise. Discrepancies in the degree of appetite suppression with exercise may be dependent on subject characteristics (e.g., body fatness, fitness level, age or sex) and exercise duration, intensity, type and mode. Following an acute bout of exercise, exercise-trained males experience appetite suppression, while data in exercise-trained women are limited and equivocal. Diet can also impact appetite, with low-energy dense diets eliciting a greater sense of fullness at a lower energy intake. To date, little research has examined the combined interaction of exercise and diet on appetite and energy intake. This review focuses on exercise-trained men and women and examines the impact of exercise on hormonal regulation of appetite, post-exercise energy intake, and subjective and objective measurements of appetite. The impact that low-energy dense diets have on appetite and energy intake are also addressed. Finally, the combined effects of high-intensity exercise and low-energy dense diets are examined. This research is in exercise-trained women who are often concerned with weight and body image issues and consume low-energy dense foods to keep energy intakes low. Unfortunately, these low-energy intakes can have negative health consequences when combined with high-levels of exercise. More research is needed examining the combined effect of diet and exercise on appetite regulation in fit, exercise-trained individuals. PMID:25389897

  8. Exercise-Trained Men and Women: Role of Exercise and Diet on Appetite and Energy Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie M. Howe

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The regulation of appetite and energy intake is influenced by numerous hormonal and neural signals, including feedback from changes in diet and exercise. Exercise can suppress subjective appetite ratings, subsequent energy intake, and alter appetite-regulating hormones, including ghrelin, peptide YY, and glucagon-like peptide 1(GLP-1 for a period of time post-exercise. Discrepancies in the degree of appetite suppression with exercise may be dependent on subject characteristics (e.g., body fatness, fitness level, age or sex and exercise duration, intensity, type and mode. Following an acute bout of exercise, exercise-trained males experience appetite suppression, while data in exercise-trained women are limited and equivocal. Diet can also impact appetite, with low-energy dense diets eliciting a greater sense of fullness at a lower energy intake. To date, little research has examined the combined interaction of exercise and diet on appetite and energy intake. This review focuses on exercise-trained men and women and examines the impact of exercise on hormonal regulation of appetite, post-exercise energy intake, and subjective and objective measurements of appetite. The impact that low-energy dense diets have on appetite and energy intake are also addressed. Finally, the combined effects of high-intensity exercise and low-energy dense diets are examined. This research is in exercise-trained women who are often concerned with weight and body image issues and consume low-energy dense foods to keep energy intakes low. Unfortunately, these low-energy intakes can have negative health consequences when combined with high-levels of exercise. More research is needed examining the combined effect of diet and exercise on appetite regulation in fit, exercise-trained individuals.

  9. Exercise-trained men and women: role of exercise and diet on appetite and energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Stephanie M; Hand, Taryn M; Manore, Melinda M

    2014-11-10

    The regulation of appetite and energy intake is influenced by numerous hormonal and neural signals, including feedback from changes in diet and exercise. Exercise can suppress subjective appetite ratings, subsequent energy intake, and alter appetite-regulating hormones, including ghrelin, peptide YY, and glucagon-like peptide 1(GLP-1) for a period of time post-exercise. Discrepancies in the degree of appetite suppression with exercise may be dependent on subject characteristics (e.g., body fatness, fitness level, age or sex) and exercise duration, intensity, type and mode. Following an acute bout of exercise, exercise-trained males experience appetite suppression, while data in exercise-trained women are limited and equivocal. Diet can also impact appetite, with low-energy dense diets eliciting a greater sense of fullness at a lower energy intake. To date, little research has examined the combined interaction of exercise and diet on appetite and energy intake. This review focuses on exercise-trained men and women and examines the impact of exercise on hormonal regulation of appetite, post-exercise energy intake, and subjective and objective measurements of appetite. The impact that low-energy dense diets have on appetite and energy intake are also addressed. Finally, the combined effects of high-intensity exercise and low-energy dense diets are examined. This research is in exercise-trained women who are often concerned with weight and body image issues and consume low-energy dense foods to keep energy intakes low. Unfortunately, these low-energy intakes can have negative health consequences when combined with high-levels of exercise. More research is needed examining the combined effect of diet and exercise on appetite regulation in fit, exercise-trained individuals.

  10. Effect of Energy Intake during Dry Period on Production Performance of Postparturient Cows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yan-fei; WANG Zhe; NIU Shu-ling

    2004-01-01

    24 healthy periparturient cows were randomly allocated into three groups and fed 100% energy diet (NRC standard diets), 120% energy diet and 80% energy diet, respectively, beginning at 28 days prior to anticipated parturition. After parturition, all the cows were provided with the lactation ration ad libitum until the day 56 postpartum.The objectives of the study were to investigate the effect of energy intake during the dry period on the production performance in the postpartum cows. The results indicated that the cows fed with high energy diet during the dry period had a lower dry material intake (DMI) and reduced milk production and a significant body weight (BW) loss compared with the cows fed with 80% energy diet and 100% energy diet, The results suggested that energy intake during the dry period was an important factor that influences and regulates DMI, milk production and energy equilibration of postparturient cows.

  11. Energy-containing nutritional supplements can affect usual energy intake postsupplementation in institutionalized seniors with probable Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrott, Matthew D; Young, Karen W H; Greenwood, Carol E

    2006-09-01

    To determine whether increases in caloric intake associated with consumption of a mid-morning nutritional supplement for 3 weeks were maintained in the week after stopping the supplement and to investigate the effects of body mass index (BMI) and cognitive and behavioral measures on this response. Secondary analysis of a previously published randomized, crossover, nonblinded clinical trial. A fully accredited geriatric care facility affiliated with the University of Toronto. Thirty institutionalized seniors with probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) who ate independently. Investigator-weighed food intake, body weight, cognitive (Severe Impairment Battery; Global Deterioration Scale) and behavioral (Neuropsychiatric Inventory--Nursing Home version; London Psychogeriatric Rating Scale) assessments. Individuals who responded successfully to supplementation as indicated by increases in daily energy intake were likely to maintain 58.8% of that increase postsupplementation, although stopping the supplement was associated with decreased habitual energy intake in low-BMI individuals who reduced their daily intakes during supplementation in response to the extra calories. Cognitive/behavioral tests were not reliable predictors of postsupplement intake. Institutionalized seniors with probable AD are likely to alter their usual energy intakes to maintain changes resulting from 3 weeks of supplementation. This effect may allow for rotating supplementation schedules in nursing homes that could reduce staff burden, but only for those individuals who are most likely to respond favorably. These data indicate that nutritional supplements and diet plans should be carefully prescribed in low-BMI individuals to limit variability in total energy provided and thus prevent lower-than-normal intake.

  12. Under- and Over-Reporting of Energy Intake in Slovenian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobe, Helena; Krzisnik, Ciril; Mis, Natasa Fidler

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine under- and over-reporting of energy intake (EI) among adolescents and to compare relative food and nutrient intakes of under-reporters (UR), over-reporters (OR), and the whole population to acceptable reporters (AR). Design: All adolescents completed food frequency questionnaires at regional health centers, and a subgroup…

  13. Effect of diet energy level and genomic residual feed intake on dairy heifer performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to determine the growth, feed intake, and feed efficiency of dairy heifers with different genomically predicted residual feed intakes (RFI), and offered diets differing in energy density. Post-bred Holstein heifers (N=128; ages 14-20 months) were blocked by initial we...

  14. Differences of energy intake and energy expenditure of elite Taekwondo players receiving summer vs. winter intensive training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kang Ok

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the energy expenditure and energy intake as an experiment of energy balance of elite Taekwondo players receiving summer vs. winter intensive training. The summer training group (STG, n = 15) and the winter training group (WTG, n = 18) wore an accelerometer for the measurement of energy expenditure and maintained a daily dietary record for measurement of energy intake, for seven consecutive days during summer or winter intensive training. The total energy expenditure (TEE) (834.1 kcal, p Taekwondo players should be considered.

  15. Antioxidant enzymatic defenses and oxidative damage in Dentex dentex fed on different dietary macronutrient levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Jiménez, Amalia; Hidalgo, M Carmen; Morales, Amalia E; Arizcun, Marta; Abellán, Emilia; Cardenete, Gabriel

    2009-11-01

    A wide range of antioxidant mechanisms are present in fish maintaining an adequate "oxidative balance". When this balance tilts in favor of the oxidant agents "oxidative stress" arises with detrimental effects in molecules of great biological importance. Little has been reported about the influence of different dietary energy sources on antioxidant defenses in fish. The influence of different dietary macronutrient combinations on the key antioxidant enzyme activity, the oxidative damage to lipids and proteins and the possible modifications in the SOD isoenzymatic pattern were evaluated in liver, white muscle, heart and erythrocytes of common dentex (Dentex dentex). Four experimental diets with different protein:lipid:carbohydrate ratios (43/16/28; 43/24/4; 38/19/28 and 38/24/13) were formulated. In general, neither different dietary macronutrient levels nor the interaction among them induces substantial modifications in enzymatic antioxidant defense mechanisms. Two constitutive SOD isoforms, CuZn-SOD I and Mn-SOD, were detected in the tissues analyzed in all experimental groups, independently of diet formulation, but, a third SOD isoenzyme, CuZn-SOD II seems to be induced in white muscle by higher dietary protein levels. Densitometric analyses of western blotting membranes revealed higher CuZn-SOD expression in the heart of dentex fed on lower dietary protein levels, although these differences did not correlate with the SOD activity. Finally, a direct relation exists between the lipid or protein intake level and occurrence of oxidative damage in different tissue components.

  16. Nutrient intake of first generation Gujarati Asian Indian immigrants in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonnalagadda, Satya S; Diwan, Sadhna

    2002-10-01

    To examine the nutrient intake of Gujarati Asian Indian immigrants in the U.S. and the influence of length of residence in the U.S. and socioeconomic status (SES) on their macronutrient intake. Subjects were male (n = 90) and female (n = 99) Gujarati Asian Indian immigrants over the age of 45. Each participant completed a 24-hour dietary recall. Dietary recalls were analyzed using Food Processor nutrient analysis software. Participants were classified into recent immigrants (10 years length of residence in the U.S.) and into low, medium and high education groups, based on highest level of education achieved, to examine the influence of these variables on their macronutrient intake. The macronutrient contributions to the total energy intake of these Gujarati Asian Indian immigrants were as follows: carbohydrate 57%, protein 12% and total fat 33%. The diets were low in cholesterol (/=25 g/day). Reported intakes of vitamin D, calcium (women only), potassium (women only), copper and zinc were less than two-thirds of the recommendations. Significant differences (p Gujarati Asian Indian immigrants. The nutrient intakes of these Gujarati Asian Indian immigrants indicate both inadequacies and excesses of select macro and micronutrients. These nutrient inadequacies and excesses can impact overall health and risk of chronic diseases of these individuals. Further investigation of the influence of the diets of these immigrants on their health is warranted.

  17. Beverages contribute extra calories to meals and daily energy intake in overweight and obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelhans, Bradley M; Bleil, Maria E; Waring, Molly E; Schneider, Kristin L; Nackers, Lisa M; Busch, Andrew M; Whited, Matthew C; Pagoto, Sherry L

    2013-10-02

    Caloric beverages may promote obesity by yielding energy without producing satiety, but prior laboratory and intervention studies are inconclusive. This study examined whether the diets of free-living overweight and obese women show evidence that calories from beverages are offset by reductions in solid food within individual eating occasions and across entire days. Eighty-two women weighed and recorded all consumed foods and beverages for seven days. Beverages were coded as high-calorie (≥ 0.165 kcal/g) or low-calorie (high-calorie or low-calorie beverages and those with no reported beverage. Energy intake from solid food was also unrelated to the number of high-calorie or low-calorie beverages consumed per day. On average, eating occasions that included a high-calorie beverage were 169 kcal higher in total energy than those with no reported beverage, and 195 kcal higher in total energy than those that included a low-calorie beverage. Each high-calorie beverage consumed per day contributed an additional 147 kcal to women's daily energy intake, whereas low-calorie beverage intake was unrelated to daily energy intake. Beverages contributed to total energy intake in a near-additive fashion among free-living overweight and obese women, suggesting a need to develop more effective interventions to reduce caloric beverage intake in the context of weight management, and to potentially reexamine dietary guidelines.

  18. No evidence of differential effects of SFA, MUFA or PUFA on post-ingestive satiety and energy intake: a randomised trial of fatty acid saturation

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Strik, Caroline M

    2010-05-24

    Abstract Background High fat diets have long been associated with weight gain and obesity, and the weak satiety response elicited in response to dietary lipids is likely to play a role. Suppression of appetite and food intake has consistently been shown to be diminished with high fat relative to either high protein or carbohydrate meals. There is however some evidence that the satiating capacity of lipids may be modulated when physicochemical properties are altered, but studies investigating the effect of lipid saturation on appetite have generated inconsistent findings. This study investigated the effects of changes in fatty acid saturation on post-ingestive satiety and energy intake. Methods High-fat (HF) test breakfasts (2.0 MJ) containing 26 g lipid were given to 18 healthy, lean men in a 3 treatment randomised cross-over design, each treatment separated by a washout of at least 3 days. The breakfasts were high in saturated (SFA, 65% of total fat), polyunsaturated (PUFA, 76%) or monounsaturated (MUFA, 76%) fatty acids, and comprised 2 savoury muffins. Participants rated appetite sensations using visual analogue scales (VAS) to assess palatability immediately following the meals, and hunger and fullness prior to the HF breakfast and throughout the day. Energy intake was measured by covert weighing of a lunch meal which was served 3.5 h after the breakfast, and from which the participants ate ad libitum. Results There was no difference in VAS ratings of pleasantness, visual appearance, smell, taste, aftertaste and overall palatability between the 3 high-fat test breakfasts. However, there was also no differential effect of the 3 treatments on ratings of hunger, fullness, satisfaction or prospective food consumption during the 3.5 h following the breakfast meal and over the full 6 h experiment. Energy and macronutrient intake at lunch also did not differ between treatments (mean, sem; SFA: 5275.9 ± 286.5 kJ; PUFA: 5227.7 ± 403.9 kJ; MUFA: 5215.6 ± 329.5 kJ; P

  19. No evidence of differential effects of SFA, MUFA or PUFA on post-ingestive satiety and energy intake: a randomised trial of fatty acid saturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McArdle Brian H

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High fat diets have long been associated with weight gain and obesity, and the weak satiety response elicited in response to dietary lipids is likely to play a role. Suppression of appetite and food intake has consistently been shown to be diminished with high fat relative to either high protein or carbohydrate meals. There is however some evidence that the satiating capacity of lipids may be modulated when physicochemical properties are altered, but studies investigating the effect of lipid saturation on appetite have generated inconsistent findings. This study investigated the effects of changes in fatty acid saturation on post-ingestive satiety and energy intake. Methods High-fat (HF test breakfasts (2.0 MJ containing 26 g lipid were given to 18 healthy, lean men in a 3 treatment randomised cross-over design, each treatment separated by a washout of at least 3 days. The breakfasts were high in saturated (SFA, 65% of total fat, polyunsaturated (PUFA, 76% or monounsaturated (MUFA, 76% fatty acids, and comprised 2 savoury muffins. Participants rated appetite sensations using visual analogue scales (VAS to assess palatability immediately following the meals, and hunger and fullness prior to the HF breakfast and throughout the day. Energy intake was measured by covert weighing of a lunch meal which was served 3.5 h after the breakfast, and from which the participants ate ad libitum. Results There was no difference in VAS ratings of pleasantness, visual appearance, smell, taste, aftertaste and overall palatability between the 3 high-fat test breakfasts. However, there was also no differential effect of the 3 treatments on ratings of hunger, fullness, satisfaction or prospective food consumption during the 3.5 h following the breakfast meal and over the full 6 h experiment. Energy and macronutrient intake at lunch also did not differ between treatments (mean, sem; SFA: 5275.9 ± 286.5 kJ; PUFA: 5227.7 ± 403.9 kJ; MUFA: 5215.6

  20. Association of energy and fat intake with prostate carcinoma risk: Results from the Netherlands Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurman, A.G.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Dorant, E.; Brants, H.A.M.; Goldbohm, R.A.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND. The roles of energy and fat intake as risk factors for prostate carcinoma are still questionable. Therefore, these factors were evaluated in the Netherlands Cohort Study described in this article.

  1. Association of energy and fat intake with prostate carcinoma risk: Results from the Netherlands Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurman, A.G.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Dorant, E.; Brants, H.A.M.; Goldbohm, R.A.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND. The roles of energy and fat intake as risk factors for prostate carcinoma are still questionable. Therefore, these factors were evaluated in the Netherlands Cohort Study described in this article.

  2. Relationship between energy intake and chewing index of diets fed to pregnant ewes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Vestergaard; Nadeau, E.; Markussen, Bo

    2015-01-01

    The objective was to determine whether a linear relationship exists between the metabolizable energy (ME) intake of pregnant ewes and a dietary chewing index (CI). The relationship was studied using five feeding trials with intake data from 108 pregnant ewes, 4 to 1 weeks before lambing, giving...... a total of 324 observations. All ewes were fed grass silage ad libitum, supplemented with concentrates either separately or in a total mixed ration (TMR). The ewes were of different breeds, were between 2 and 7 years old, had a mean body weight (BW) in the 4th week before lambing of 95.1 kg (SD = 9...... × ME02 × CIcor, where MEI is the daily metabolizable energy intake, ME0 is considered the theoretical maximum intake capacity of the animal in a theoretical situation with no physical constraint on intake, and parameter k represents the decline in MEI with the increasing CIcor of the ration. The model...

  3. Exogenous recombinant human growth hormone effects during suboptimal energy and zinc intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duro Debora

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Energy and Zinc (Zn deficiencies have been associated with nutritional related growth retardation as well as growth hormone (GH resistance. In this study, the relationship between suboptimal energy and/or Zn intake and growth in rats and their response to immunoreactive exogenous recombinant human GH (GHi, was determined. Results Rats treated with GHi and fed ad-libitum energy and Zn (100/100 had increased IGFBP-3 (p Conclusion These results suggest that GHi enhances weight gain in rats with suboptimal energy and Zn intake but does not modify energy expenditure or physical activity index. Suboptimal Zn intake did not exacerbate the reduced growth or decrease in energy expenditure observed with energy restriction.

  4. Body composition and energy intake: do overweight women overeat and underreport?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lissner, L; Habicht, J P; Strupp, B J; Levitsky, D A; Haas, J D; Roe, D A

    1989-02-01

    The relationship between energy consumption and body composition was evaluated in 63 women by use of energy-intake values that were precisely measured in a metabolic unit and corrected for deviations from energy balance. Energy requirement for the maintenance of body weight was not significantly correlated with adiposity expressed as percent body fat. However, energy requirement was positively associated with lean mass (p less than 0.0001) whereas fat mass added no predictive value to the same multivariate regression equation. Self-reported energy intake (before the experiments) was not correlated with lean mass and was underestimated by lean subjects at least as much as by obese subjects. Discrepant findings in the literature concerning relationships between obesity and energy intake may be explained by reporting error and by the relative lean mass of obese vs nonobese women but not by systematic underreporting unique to obese subjects.

  5. Effects of sweetness and energy in drinks on food intake following exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, N A; Appleton, K; Rogers, P J; Blundell, J E

    1999-04-01

    Exercise is known to cause physiological changes that could affect the impact of nutrients on appetite control. This study was designed to assess the effect of drinks containing either sucrose or high-intensity sweeteners on food intake following exercise. Using a repeated-measures design, three drink conditions were employed: plain water (W), a low-energy drink sweetened with artificial sweeteners aspartame and acesulfame-K (L), and a high-energy, sucrose-sweetened drink (H). Following a period of challenging exercise (70% VO2 max for 50 min), subjects consumed freely from a particular drink before being offered a test meal at which energy and nutrient intakes were measured. The degree of pleasantness (palatability) of the drinks was also measured before and after exercise. At the test meal, energy intake following the artificially sweetened (L) drink was significantly greater than after water and the sucrose (H) drinks (p drink, the high-energy (H) drink suppressed intake by approximately the energy contained in the drink itself. However, there was no difference between the water (W) and the sucrose (H) drink on test meal energy intake. When the net effects were compared (i.e., drink + test meal energy intake), total energy intake was significantly lower after the water (W) drink compared with the two sweet (L and H) drinks. The exercise period brought about changes in the perceived pleasantness of the water, but had no effect on either of the sweet drinks. The remarkably precise energy compensation demonstrated after the higher energy sucrose drink suggests that exercise may prime the system to respond sensitively to nutritional manipulations. The results may also have implications for the effect on short-term appetite control of different types of drinks used to quench thirst during and after exercise.

  6. Effects of oral and gastric stimulation on appetite and energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijlens, Anne G M; Erkner, Alfrun; Alexander, Erin; Mars, Monica; Smeets, Paul A M; de Graaf, Cees

    2012-11-01

    Appetite is regulated by many factors, including oro-sensory and gastric signals. There are many studies on contributions of and possible interaction between sensory and gastric stimulation, but there are few studies in humans using simultaneous oral and gastric stimulation. We investigated the effect of simultaneous, but independently manipulated, oral and gastric stimulation on appetite ratings and energy intake. We hypothesized that compared with no stimulation, oral and gastric stimulation would equally and additively decrease appetite ratings and energy intake. Healthy men (n = 26, 21 ± 2 years, BMI 22 ± 3 kg/m(2)) participated in a randomized crossover trial with four experimental conditions and a control condition. Experimental conditions consisted of oral stimulation, with either 1 or 8 min modified sham feeding (MSF), and gastric stimulation, with either 100 or 800 ml intragastrically infused liquid (isocaloric, 99 kcal, 100 ml/min). The control condition consisted of no oral or gastric stimulation. Outcome measures were energy intake 30 min after the treatment and appetite ratings. Compared with the control condition, energy intake decreased significantly after the 8 min/100 ml (19% lower, P = 0.001) and 8 min/800 ml conditions (15% lower, P = 0.02), but not after the 1 min/100 ml (14% lower, P = 0.06) and 1 min/800 ml conditions (10% lower, P = 0.39). There was no interaction of oral and gastric stimulation on energy intake. Hunger and fullness differed across all conditions (P ≤ 0.01). In conclusion, duration of oral exposure was at least as important in decreasing energy intake as gastric filling volume. Oral and gastric stimulation did not additively decrease energy intake. Longer oro-sensory stimulation, therefore, may be an important contributor to a lower energy intake.

  7. Morbidity from excessive intake of high energy fluids: the 'squash drinking syndrome'.

    OpenAIRE

    Hourihane, J. O.; Rolles, C J

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To identify children suffering morbidity from excessive intake of energy from fluids. DESIGN--Prospective enrolment of outpatients in a supervised reduction of energy rich fluid intake. SETTING--Outpatient paediatric clinic. SUBJECTS--Eight children (four boys, mean age 20.8 months, mean duration of symptoms seven months) who were referred with non-specific symptoms such as poor appetite, poor behaviour at mealtimes, poor weight gain, and loose stools. RESULTS--All children were ab...

  8. Is protein-energy intake adequate during dialysis treatment in hemodialysis patients ?

    OpenAIRE

    Trudeke (G) I. Struijk-Wielinga; Najoua Zanaki; Maryam Hdoudou; Peter J.M. Weijs

    2012-01-01

    Protein-energy wasting (PEW) is a strong predictor of mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease. Although PEW is caused by non nutritional conditions, research indicates that nutritional support that targets adequate protein intake improves outcome. During dialysis therapy in-centre meals and snacks are provided. The question is whether these meals provide adequate protein and energy intake considering external (at home) consumed meals? Indirect calorimetry and physical activity Le...

  9. The effect of dietary carbohydrate:fat ratio on energy intake by adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Stratum, P; Lussenburg, R N; van Wezel, L A; Vergroesen, A J; Cremer, H D

    1978-02-01

    The effect of the dietary carbohydrate:fat (C:F) ratio on the spontaneous energy intake by healthy adults was investigated by comparing a high-carbohydrate diet (fat 24%, carbohydrate 58%, protein 18% of energy) and a high-fat diet (fat 47%, carbohydrate 35%, protein 18% of energy) in a 2 X 2 week cross-over design. Subjects were 22 healthy nuns in a Trappist convent with very regular activities. The diets consisted of combinations of liquid formula (75%) and standardized snacks (25%). The difference in C:F ratio was concealed: energy density, taste and appearance were similar. Energy consumption was recorded continuously. The mean daily energy intakes remained constant: 8276 kJ (1978 kcal). The difference in mean daily energy intake between diets was 73 kJ +/- 180 (SEM). Small changes in body weight were observed, but these are argued not to indicate definitive effects. It is concluded that changing the C:F ratio within commonly occurring ranges does not influence the spontaneous energy intake of healthy adults. The composition of the dietary fat was kept constant. Under practical conditions a change in the C:F ratio will also induce a change in the fatty acid composition of the diet, which might affect the energy intake regulation. Other experiments are required to see whether the C:F ratio can affect body composition or other physiological parameters in the long run.

  10. Growth rates and energy intake of hand-reared cheetah cubs (Acinonyx jubatus) in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, K M; Rutherfurd, S M; Morton, R H

    2012-04-01

    Growth rate is an important factor in neonatal survival. The aim of this study was to determine growth rates in hand-reared cheetah cubs in South Africa fed a prescribed energy intake, calculated for growth in the domestic cat. Growth was then compared with previously published data from hand-reared cubs in North America and the relationship between growth and energy intake explored. Daily body weight (BW) gain, feed and energy intake data was collected from 18 hand-reared cheetah cubs up to 120 days of age. The average pre-weaning growth rate was 32 g/day, which is lower than reported in mother-reared cubs and hand-reared cubs in North American facilities. However, post-weaning growth increased to an average of 55 g/day. Growth was approximately linear prior to weaning, but over the entire age range it exhibited a sigmoidal shape with an asymptotic plateau averaging 57 kg. Energy intake associated with pre-weaning growth was 481 kJ ME/kg BW(0.75). Regression analysis described the relationship between metabolic BW, metabolisable energy (ME) intake, and hence daily weight gain. This relationship may be useful in predicting energy intake required to achieve growth rates in hand-reared cheetah cubs similar to those observed for their mother-reared counterparts. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Energy Thermodynamics Revisited: Energy intake strategies for optimizing athlete body composition and performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Benardot

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A key feature of physical activity is that it results in an increased rate of energy expenditure and, as a result of metabolic inefficiencies that lead to high heat production, an increase in the requirement to dissipate the added heat through sweat.  Nevertheless, surveys commonly find that athletes fail to optimally satisfy both energy and fluid needs, causing them to perform at levels below their conditioned capacities.  To some extent this problem results from an excess reliance on the sensations of ‘hunger’ and ‘thirst’ to guide energy and fluid intakes, but there are also common misunderstandings of the best eating strategies for achieving optimal body composition and performance.  The need to improve the strength-to-weight ratio to enable an enhanced ability to overcome sport-related resistance can be misinterpreted as a need to be ‘small’, which may result in an under-consumption of energy through restrained eating and special ‘diets’.  The outcome, however, is nearly always the precise opposite of the desired effect, with lower strength-to-weight ratios that result in an ever-increasing downward spiral in energy and fluid consumption.  This paper focuses on within-day energy balance eating and drinking strategies that are now successfully followed by many elite-level athletes.  These strategies can help athletes avoid the common errors of under-consumption while simultaneously improving both body composition and performance.

  12. Nutritional Adequacy of Dietary Intake in Women with Anorexia Nervosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan K. Raatz

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Understanding nutrient intake of anorexia nervosa (AN patients is essential for the treatment. Therefore, estimates of total energy and nutrient consumption were made in a group of young women (19 to 30 years with restricting and binge purge subtypes of AN participating in an ecological momentary assessment study. Participants completed three nonconsecutive 24-hour diet recalls. Mean nutrient intakes were stratified by subtype and by quartiles of energy intake and compared to the age specific Dietary Reference Intake (DRI levels, as well as to the reported intakes from the What We Eat In America (WWEIA dietary survey 2011–2012. Reported intake was determined for energy, macronutrients, and micronutrients. The mean body mass index (BMI for all participants was 17.2 ± 0.1 kg/m2. Reported nutrient intake was insufficient for participants in quartiles 1–3 of both AN subtypes when compared to the DRIs. Intake reported by participants in quartile 4 of both subgroups met requirements for most nutrients and even met or exceeded estimated energy needs. Counseling of AN patients should be directed to total food consumption to improve energy intake and to reduce individual nutritional gaps.

  13. Nutritional adequacy of dietary intake in women with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raatz, Susan K; Jahns, Lisa; Johnson, LuAnn K; Crosby, Ross; Mitchell, James E; Crow, Scott; Peterson, Carol; Le Grange, Daniel; Wonderlich, Stephen A

    2015-05-15

    Understanding nutrient intake of anorexia nervosa (AN) patients is essential for the treatment. Therefore, estimates of total energy and nutrient consumption were made in a group of young women (19 to 30 years) with restricting and binge purge subtypes of AN participating in an ecological momentary assessment study. Participants completed three nonconsecutive 24-hour diet recalls. Mean nutrient intakes were stratified by subtype and by quartiles of energy intake and compared to the age specific Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) levels, as well as to the reported intakes from the What We Eat In America (WWEIA) dietary survey 2011-2012. Reported intake was determined for energy, macronutrients, and micronutrients. The mean body mass index (BMI) for all participants was 17.2 ± 0.1 kg/m2. Reported nutrient intake was insufficient for participants in quartiles 1-3 of both AN subtypes when compared to the DRIs. Intake reported by participants in quartile 4 of both subgroups met requirements for most nutrients and even met or exceeded estimated energy needs. Counseling of AN patients should be directed to total food consumption to improve energy intake and to reduce individual nutritional gaps.

  14. Usual energy intake mediated the relationship between food reinforcement and BMI

    Science.gov (United States)

    The relative reinforcing value of food (RRVfood) is correlated with overweight status and energy consumed, as those who find food more reinforcing are heavier and consume more energy. One hypothesis relating these variables is that food reinforcement is related to BMI through usual energy intake. ...

  15. Comparison of INTAKE24 (an Online 24-h Dietary Recall Tool) with Interviewer-Led 24-h Recall in 11-24 Year-Old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Jennifer; Simpson, Emma; Poliakov, Ivan; Matthews, John N S; Olivier, Patrick; Adamson, Ashley J; Foster, Emma

    2016-06-09

    Online dietary assessment tools offer a convenient, low cost alternative to traditional dietary assessment methods such as weighed records and face-to-face interviewer-led 24-h recalls. INTAKE24 is an online multiple pass 24-h recall tool developed for use with 11-24 year-old. The aim of the study was to undertake a comparison of INTAKE24 (the test method) with interviewer-led multiple pass 24-h recalls (the comparison method) in 180 people aged 11-24 years. Each participant completed both an INTAKE24 24-h recall and an interviewer-led 24-h recall on the same day on four occasions over a one-month period. The daily energy and nutrient intakes reported in INTAKE24 were compared to those reported in the interviewer-led recall. Mean intakes reported using INTAKE24 were similar to the intakes reported in the interviewer-led recall for energy and macronutrients. INTAKE24 was found to underestimate energy intake by 1% on average compared to the interviewer-led recall with the limits of agreement ranging from minus 49% to plus 93%. Mean intakes of all macronutrients and micronutrients (except non-milk extrinsic sugars) were within 4% of the interviewer-led recall. Dietary assessment that utilises technology may offer a viable alternative and be more engaging than paper based methods, particularly for children and young adults.

  16. The use of test day information to predict energy intake of dairy cows in early lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuer, C

    2004-03-01

    This study aimed to validate a previously developed model for the estimation of energy balance in high producing dairy cows from test day information during the first 12 wk of lactation. Monensin (an ionophor) increases the energy status of dairy cows. Gold standard for the validation was a higher energy status, indicated by lower blood ketone body concentrations, lower percent milk fat, and higher milk-yield of monensin-supplemented than control cows in 8 randomized block design feeding trials. Estimated energy intake (eE(intake)) was calculated as estimated energy balance (eEB) plus energy in actual milk produced (in units of MJ(nel)) plus a constant or variable amount of energy required for maintenance. The variable amount was based on BW, while the constant was the average BW in each parity group (1, 2, 3, 4+). Both eEB and eE(intake) were compared between groups of cows with and without monensin supplementation (n = 600 lactations). The trials started with a presupplement period during lactation wk 2 to 5 followed by a supplementation period during lactation wk 6 to 12. During the presupplement period, both eEB and eE(intake) were similar for all cows. At 2, 3, and 8 wk after starting the monensin supplementation, the eEB of the supplemented cows was significantly higher, while eE(intake) was significantly higher throughout the supplementation period. The results were similar for the 2 methods of calculating energy for maintenance, variable or constant. The feed conversion efficiency, calculated as kg of fat-protein corrected milk per MJ(nel) of eE(intake), was highest in first calving cows compared with cows having more lactations, and correlated with standard milk production at trial group level. It was concluded that eE(intake) was a valid measure of net energy absorption.

  17. Episodic future thinking reduces delay discounting and energy intake in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Tinuke Oluyomi; Said, Michele; Stanton, Christina M; Epstein, Leonard H

    2015-08-01

    Discounting of larger future rewards in favor of smaller immediate rewards is known as delay discounting. High delay discounting or a bias towards immediate gratification impedes self-regulation and is associated with maladaptive eating behaviors. Children in general show greater delay discounting than adults. Obese children in particular, have greater difficulty delaying gratification for edible rewards. Episodic future thinking (EFT) which is mental self-projection to pre-experience future events reduces delay discounting and reduces energy intake in overweight/obese adults. However, these EFT effects have not been examined in children. We evaluated the effects of EFT versus control episodic recent thinking (ERT) on delay discounting and ad libitum energy intake while thinking about episodic cues in 42 overweight/obese 9 to 14year olds. Results showed that EFT led to less delay discounting and lowered energy intake, and EFT had the greatest effect on reducing energy intake in children with a higher desire to restrict food intake. This suggests that EFT may be useful in pediatric obesity treatment programs to help children regulate energy intake. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Validity of energy intake estimated by digital photography plus recall in overweight and obese young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ptomey, Lauren T; Willis, Erik A; Honas, Jeffery J; Mayo, Matthew S; Washburn, Richard A; Herrmann, Stephen D; Sullivan, Debra K; Donnelly, Joseph E

    2015-09-01

    Recent reports have questioned the adequacy of self-report measures of dietary intake as the basis for scientific conclusions regarding the associations of dietary intake and health, and reports have recommended the development and evaluation of better methods for the assessment of dietary intake in free-living individuals. We developed a procedure that used pre- and post-meal digital photographs in combination with dietary recalls (DP+R) to assess energy intake during ad libitum eating in a cafeteria setting. To compare mean daily energy intake of overweight and obese young adults assessed by a DP+R method with mean total daily energy expenditure assessed by doubly labeled water (TDEE(DLW)). Energy intake was assessed using the DP+R method in 91 overweight and obese young adults (age = 22.9±3.2 years, body mass index [BMI; calculated as kg/m(2)]=31.2±5.6, female=49%) over 7 days of ad libitum eating in a university cafeteria. Foods consumed outside the cafeteria (ie, snacks, non-cafeteria meals) were assessed using multiple-pass recall procedures, using food models and standardized, neutral probing questions. TDEE(DLW) was assessed in all participants over the 14-day period. The mean energy intakes estimated by DP+R and TDEE(DLW) were not significantly different (DP+R=2912±661 kcal/d; TDEE(DLW)=2849±748 kcal/d, P=0.42). The DP+R method overestimated TDEE(DLW) by 63±750 kcal/d (6.8±28%). Results suggest that the DP+R method provides estimates of energy intake comparable to those obtained by TDEE(DLW). Copyright © 2015 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Validity of energy intake estimated by digital photography + recall in overweight and obese young adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ptomey, Lauren T.; Willis, Erik A.; Honas, Jeffery J.; Mayo, Matthew S.; Washburn, Richard A.; Herrmann, Stephen D.; Sullivan, Debra K.; Donnelly, Joseph E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Recent reports have questioned the adequacy of self-report measures of dietary intake as the basis for scientific conclusions regarding the associations of dietary intake and health, and reports have recommended the development and evaluation of better methods for the assessment of dietary intake in free-living individuals. We developed a procedure that utilized pre- and post-meal digital photographs in combination with dietary recalls (DP+R) to assess energy intake during ad libitum eating in a cafeteria setting. Objective To compare mean daily energy intake of overweight and obese young adults assessed by a DP+R method with mean total daily energy expenditure assessed by doubly labelled water (TDEEDLW). Methods Energy intake was assessed using the DP+R method in 91 overweight and obese young adults (age = 22.9±3.2 yrs., BMI=31.2 ± 5.6 kg·m2, female = 49%) over 7-days of ad libitum eating in a University cafeteria. Foods consumed outside the cafeteria (i.e., snacks, non-cafeteria meals) were assessed using multiple-pass recall procedures using food models and standardized, neutral probing questions. TDEEDLW was assessed in all participants over the 14-day period. Results The mean energy intakes estimated by DP+R and TDEEDLW were not significantly different (DP+R = 2912 ± 661 kcal/d; TDEEDLW = 2849 ± 748 kcal/d, p = 0.42). The DP+R method overestimated TDEEDLW by 63 ± 750 kcal/d (6.8 ± 28%). Conclusion Results suggest that the DP+R method provides estimates of energy intake comparable to those obtained by TDEEDLW. PMID:26122282

  20. Impact of insufficient sleep on total daily energy expenditure, food intake, and weight gain

    OpenAIRE

    Markwald, Rachel R.; Edward L. Melanson; Smith, Mark R.; Higgins, Janine; Perreault, Leigh; Eckel, Robert H.; Wright, Kenneth P.

    2013-01-01

    Insufficient sleep is associated with obesity, yet little is known about how repeated nights of insufficient sleep influence energy expenditure and balance. We studied 16 adults in a 14- to 15-d-long inpatient study and quantified effects of 5 d of insufficient sleep, equivalent to a work week, on energy expenditure and energy intake compared with adequate sleep. We found that insufficient sleep increased total daily energy expenditure by ∼5%; however, energy intake—especially at night after ...

  1. Regulation of Food Intake, Energy Balance, and Body Fat Mass: Implications for the Pathogenesis and Treatment of Obesity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Guyenet, Stephan J; Schwartz, Michael W

    2012-01-01

    .... Because the growing obesity epidemic is linked to a substantial increase in daily energy intake, a key priority is to delineate how mechanisms governing food intake and body fat content are altered...

  2. Clinical review: Regulation of food intake, energy balance, and body fat mass: implications for the pathogenesis and treatment of obesity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Guyenet, Stephan J; Schwartz, Michael W

    2012-01-01

    .... Because the growing obesity epidemic is linked to a substantial increase in daily energy intake, a key priority is to delineate how mechanisms governing food intake and body fat content are altered...

  3. Effect of psyllium gum and wheat bran on spontaneous energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, J; Levitsky, D A; VanSoest, P J; Robertson, J B; Kalkwarf, H J; Roe, D A

    1987-11-01

    Energy intake, fecal energy output, and gastrointestinal symptoms were measured in 12 females who consumed either approximately 23 g/d supplementary fiber or a 4 g/d fiber control. Fiber supplements were crackers containing psyllium gum, wheat bran, or a combination of the two fiber sources. After 1 wk on the control cracker, subjects consumed the three high-fiber crackers and the control cracker for 2-wk periods in a balanced design. Gum and combination supplements gave increased bloating and flatulence. Increase in abdominal pain was reported with gum supplement. Mean daily fecal energy was 96 kcal/d with control crackers and was increased by 63 kcal with high-fiber crackers. Gum and combination supplements significantly decreased intake of digestible energy by 153 and 115 kcal/d, respectively. This suppression was not dependent upon fiber intolerance. Wheat bran supplement had no effect on energy intake.

  4. Energy Intake, Profile, and Dietary Sources in the Spanish Population: Findings of the ANIBES Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Ruiz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Energy intake, and the foods and beverages contributing to that, are considered key to understanding the high obesity prevalence worldwide. The relative contributions of energy intake and expenditure to the obesity epidemic, however, remain poorly defined in Spain. The purpose of this study was to contribute to updating data of dietary energy intake and its main sources from food and beverages, according to gender and age. These data were derived from the ANIBES (“Anthropometry, Intake, and Energy Balance in Spain” study, a cross-sectional study of a nationally representative sample of the Spanish population (from 9–75 years old. A three-day dietary record, collected by means of a tablet device, was used to obtain information about food and beverage consumption and leftovers. The final sample comprised 2009 individuals (1,013 men, 996 women. The observed mean dietary energy intake was 7.6 ± 2.11 MJ/day (8.2 ± 2.22 MJ/day for men and 6.9 ± 1.79 MJ/day for women. The highest intakes were observed among adolescents aged 13–17 years (8.4 MJ/day, followed by children 9–12 years (8.2 ± 1.80 MJ/day, adults aged 18–64 (7.6 ± 2.14 MJ/day and older adults aged 65–75 years (6.8 ± 1.88 MJ/day. Cereals or grains (27.4%, meats and derivatives (15.2%, oils and fats (12.3%, and milk and dairy products (11.8% contributed most to daily energy intake. Energy contributions from non-alcoholic beverages (3.9%, fish and shellfish (3.6%, sugars and sweets (3.3% and alcoholic beverages (2.6% were moderate to minor. Contributions to caloric profile were 16.8%E from proteins; 41.1%E from carbohydrates, including 1.4%E from fiber; 38.5%E from fats; and 1.9%E from alcohol intake. We can conclude that energy intake is decreasing in the Spanish population. A variety of food and beverage groups contribute to energy intake; however, it is necessary to reinforce efforts for better adherence to the traditional Mediterranean diet.

  5. Effect of energy concentration of milk on voluntary intake of lean and obese piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangsness, P J; Soroka, G H

    1978-04-01

    Voluntary intake responses of neonatal lean and obese pigs, fed high and low energy diets, were measured. Piglets were maintained in individual cages from 4 to 22 days of age. The 18-day trial was divided into six 3-day ad libitum feeding periods. All piglets received a purified high energy diet (1.12 kcal/ml) in periods 1, 3, 5, and low energy diet (0.57 kcal/ml) in periods 2, 4, and 6. Average daily volume intakes for periods 1 to 6 were 36.8, 55.2, 41.4, 56.2, 38.4, and 47.8 ml/100 g body weight (BW), respectively. Average daily energy intakes were 40.5, 28.7, 45.5, 29.2, 42.2, and 24.9 kcal/100 g BW. Even though piglets consumed greater volumes of low energy diet, energy intake was not maintained during periods 2, 4, and 6. It is possible that gastrointestinal capacity limited intake before energy demand was met. Compared to lean piglets, obese piglets were hyperphagic and consumed more volume (52.0 versus 39.8 ml/100 g BW/day) and more energy (40.0 versus 30.4 kcal/100 g BW/day). It is conclused that neonatal lean and obese piglets possess a sensitive mechanism (s) to control food intake in response to changes in energy content of the diet. The control mechanism in the obese piglets appears to function at a higher level of energy demand than in the lean piglets.

  6. Direct effects of food cues seen during TV viewing on energy intake in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nee, Roselinde L; Larsen, Junilla K; Fisher, Jennifer O

    2016-06-01

    Few studies have examined direct effects of food cues presented within television (TV) programs on eating behavior in adults. This research experimentally determined whether exposure to food cues in TV programs affects energy intake during TV viewing among young women, independently from food cues presented in TV advertisements. The experiment involved a 2 (TV program with or without food cues) by 2 (TV advertisements with or without food cues) between-participants design. While watching TV, participants could freely eat peanut chocolate candies and crisps (potato chips). Participants were 121 young women (mean age = 19.6 years; mean BMI = 22.5). Participants who watched a TV program with food cues tended to have a lower total energy intake and ate significantly less peanut chocolate candies than participants who watched the same TV program without food cues. This effect was particularly pronounced among participants with a higher BMI. Food advertisements did not affect energy intake. Findings may indicate that subtle continuous food cues during TV programs could make young females more aware of their own eating and/or weight, leading to reduced intake of particularly sweet snack foods during TV viewing. Considering the non-significant trend for the effect of the TV program with food cues on total energy intake, findings should be replicated to provide possible tools for prevention campaigns using food cue reminders to watch one's intake.

  7. Beverage Consumption Habits and Association with Total Water and Energy Intakes in the Spanish Population: Findings of the ANIBES Study

    OpenAIRE

    Mariela Nissensohn; Almudena Sánchez-Villegas; Rosa M Ortega; Javier Aranceta-Bartrina; Ángel Gil; Marcela González-Gross; Gregorio Varela-Moreiras; Lluis Serra-Majem

    2016-01-01

    Background: Inadequate hydration is a public health issue that imposes a significant economic burden. In Spain, data of total water intake (TWI) are scarce. There is a clear need for a national study that quantifies water and beverage intakes and explores associations between the types of beverages and energy intakes. Methods: The Anthropometry, Intake and Energy Balance Study ANIBES is a national survey of diet and nutrition conducted among a representative sample of 2285 healthy participant...

  8. Energy Density, Energy Intake, and Body Weight Regulation in Adults12345

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, J. Philip; Roberts, Susan B.

    2014-01-01

    The role of dietary energy density (ED) in the regulation of energy intake (EI) is controversial. Methodologically, there is also debate about whether beverages should be included in dietary ED calculations. To address these issues, studies examining the effects of ED on EI or body weight in nonelderly adults were reviewed. Different approaches to calculating dietary ED do not appear to alter the direction of reported relations between ED and body weight. Evidence that lowering dietary ED reduces EI in short-term studies is convincing, but there are currently insufficient data to determine long-term effectiveness for weight loss. The review also identified key barriers to progress in understanding the role of ED in energy regulation, in particular the absence of a standard definition of ED, and the lack of data from multiple long-term clinical trials examining the effectiveness of low-ED diet recommendations for preventing both primary weight gain and weight regain in nonobese individuals. Long-term clinical trials designed to examine the impact of dietary ED on energy regulation, and including multiple ED calculation methods within the same study, are still needed to determine the importance of ED in the regulation of EI and body weight. PMID:25398750

  9. Acute and chronic effects of gum chewing on food reinforcement and energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swoboda, Christine; Temple, Jennifer L

    2013-04-01

    Although chewing gum has been considered a potential method for reducing energy intake, little empirical data exist to support this idea. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that chewing gum before eating reduces motivation to eat, hunger, and energy intake. In order to test this hypothesis, we conducted two experiments in which participants chewed gum prior to completing a food reinforcement task or before all eating occasions for two of three weeks. In Experiment 1, we found that chewing gum had no influence on the reinforcing value of food, but chewing mint gum reduced liking of and energy intake from fruit. In addition, chewing gum reduced self-reported hunger immediately after gum chewing and after eating compared with the no gum condition. In Experiment 2, gum chewing had no significant effect on total energy intake, but participants consumed fewer meals, consumed more energy per meal, and had a lower nutrient adequacy ratio during the gum chewing weeks. These studies provide no evidence that acute or chronic gum chewing reduces hunger or energy intake. In fact, chewing mint-flavored gum may deter consumption of fruit and reduce diet quality.

  10. Energy and nutrient intake in preschool and school age Mexican children: National Nutrition Survey 1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barquera Simón

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate energy and nutrient intake and adequacy in preschool and school age Mexican children, using the National Nutrition Survey 1999 (NNS-1999. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty four-h dietary recalls from pre-school (n=1 309 and school (n=2 611 children obtained from a representative sub-sample of the NNS-1999 were analyzed. Intakes and adequacies were estimated and compared across four regions, socio-economic strata, and between urban and rural areas, and indigenous vs. non-indigenous children. RESULTS: Median energy intake in pre-school children was 949 kcal and in school children 1 377 kcal, with adequacies 150% in both age groups. The North and Mexico City regions had the highest fat intake and the lowest fiber intake. Children in the South region, indigenous children, and those in the lowest socio-economic stratum had higher fiber and carbohydrate intakes and the lowest fat intake. These children also showed the highest risks of inadequacies for vitamin A, vitamin C, folate, iron, zinc and calcium. CONCLUSIONS: Mexico is experiencing a nutrition transition with internal inequalities across regions and socio-economic strata. Food policy must account for these differences in order to optimize resources directed at social programs.

  11. [Studies on the determinants of energy drinks intake by students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopacz, Agnieszka; Wawrzyniak, Agata; Hamułka, Jadwiga; Górnicka, Magdalena

    2012-01-01

    Energy drinks are among the most popular functional products. They contain bioactive substances which may produce beneficial effects on the body, but excessive consumption of energy drinks or use them in accordance with their intended use may be dangerous to health. The aim of the study was to assess determinants and circumstances of energy drinks consuming in selected group of students, their opinion and knowledge on energy drinks. The study was conducted in March 2011 in Warsaw and included 92 students from Warsaw University of Life Sciences (WULS) and from University of Physical Education (UPE). The data was collected using diagnostic survey. Energy drinks consumed 67% of the respondents. The most common reason for drinking energy drinks was to stay awake (45.2%). They most often drank them during the examination session (21.0%) and afterwards they experienced stimulation (72.9%), but also palpitations (32.2%) and insomnia (25.8%). Students who consumed energy drinks confirmed that they are effective (88.7%) and tasty (41.9%), but dangerous for health (43.5%). Majority of all users of energy drinks (80.7%) mixed them with alcohol. Every fourth respondent did not read the composition of the consumed beverages. Energy drinks have been a popular food product among students. After energy drinks consumption students often felt agitated but also experienced negative symptoms. Young people have to pay attention to the composition of energy drinks, what proves their consciousness.

  12. Short and long-term energy intake patterns and their implications for human body weight regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Carson C; Hall, Kevin D

    2014-07-01

    Adults consume millions of kilocalories over the course of a few years, but the typical weight gain amounts to only a few thousand kilocalories of stored energy. Furthermore, food intake is highly variable from day to day and yet body weight is remarkably stable. These facts have been used as evidence to support the hypothesis that human body weight is regulated by active control of food intake operating on both short and long time scales. Here, we demonstrate that active control of human food intake on short time scales is not required for body weight stability and that the current evidence for long term control of food intake is equivocal. To provide more data on this issue, we emphasize the urgent need for developing new methods for accurately measuring energy intake changes over long time scales. We propose that repeated body weight measurements can be used along with mathematical modeling to calculate long-term changes in energy intake and thereby quantify adherence to a diet intervention and provide dynamic feedback to individuals that seek to control their body weight.

  13. Effect of photoperiod on body weight gain, and daily energy intake and energy expenditure in Japanese quail (Coturnix c. Japonica)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, P; Visser, GH; Daan, S

    2000-01-01

    Effect of photoperiod and food duration on body weight gain, energy intake, energy expenditure, and sexual development were investigated in two strains of Japanese quail (Coturnix c. japonica), bred for meat (broilers) or egg production (layers), from 7 to 71 days of age. In a first experiment

  14. Comparisons of energy intake and energy expenditure in overweight and obese women with and without binge eating disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether there are differences in energy intake or energy expenditure that distinguish obese women with and without binge eating disorder (BED). Seventeen obese women with BED and 17 obese controls completed random 24-hour dietary recall interviews, and had ...

  15. Parametric recursive system identification and self-adaptive modeling of the human energy metabolism for adaptive control of fat weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Őri, Zsolt P

    2016-08-03

    A mathematical model has been developed to facilitate indirect measurements of difficult to measure variables of the human energy metabolism on a daily basis. The model performs recursive system identification of the parameters of the metabolic model of the human energy metabolism using the law of conservation of energy and principle of indirect calorimetry. Self-adaptive models of the utilized energy intake prediction, macronutrient oxidation rates, and daily body composition changes were created utilizing Kalman filter and the nominal trajectory methods. The accuracy of the models was tested in a simulation study utilizing data from the Minnesota starvation and overfeeding study. With biweekly macronutrient intake measurements, the average prediction error of the utilized carbohydrate intake was -23.2 ± 53.8 kcal/day, fat intake was 11.0 ± 72.3 kcal/day, and protein was 3.7 ± 16.3 kcal/day. The fat and fat-free mass changes were estimated with an error of 0.44 ± 1.16 g/day for fat and -2.6 ± 64.98 g/day for fat-free mass. The daily metabolized macronutrient energy intake and/or daily macronutrient oxidation rate and the daily body composition change from directly measured serial data are optimally predicted with a self-adaptive model with Kalman filter that uses recursive system identification.

  16. Actual and Prescribed Energy and Protein Intakes for Very Low Birth Weight Infants: An Observational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Deborah Marie

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To determine (1) whether prescribed and delivered energy and protein intakes during the first two weeks of life met Ziegler's estimated requirements for Very Low Birth Weight (VLBW) infants, (2) if actual energy during the first week of life correlated with time to regain birth weight and reach full enteral nutrition (EN) defined as…

  17. Actual and Prescribed Energy and Protein Intakes for Very Low Birth Weight Infants: An Observational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Deborah Marie

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To determine (1) whether prescribed and delivered energy and protein intakes during the first two weeks of life met Ziegler's estimated requirements for Very Low Birth Weight (VLBW) infants, (2) if actual energy during the first week of life correlated with time to regain birth weight and reach full enteral nutrition (EN) defined as…

  18. The effects of imposed sedentary behavior and exercise on energy intake in adolescents with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thivel, David; Metz, Lore; Aucouturier, Julien; Brakoniecki, Katrina; Duche, Pascale; Morio, Béatrice

    2013-10-01

    Exercise has been shown to decrease subsequent energy intake, without modification of appetite, in adolescents who are obese. This study compared the impact of acute exercise with imposed sedentary behaviors on the daily nutritional adaptations and energy balance of youths with obesity. Body composition and maximal oxygen uptake were assessed in 10 12- to 15-year-old adolescents with obesity. Energy consumption, appetite, and energy expenditure were assessed during 3 experimental sessions: (1) exercise session (EX), (2) bed rest session (BR), and (3) control session (CON). Total and morning energy expenditures were significantly higher during EX compared to CON and BR sessions (p exercise reduces daily energy balance in adolescents with obesity by mainly affecting ad libitum dinner energy consumption, imposed sedentary behaviors lead to increased energy intake and then positive energy balance. The impact of exercise or imposed sedentary behaviors on the energy balance of adolescents with obesity is not only related to the exercise-induced energy expenditure, but also to their energy intake.

  19. Impact of insufficient sleep on total daily energy expenditure, food intake, and weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markwald, Rachel R; Melanson, Edward L; Smith, Mark R; Higgins, Janine; Perreault, Leigh; Eckel, Robert H; Wright, Kenneth P

    2013-04-02

    Insufficient sleep is associated with obesity, yet little is known about how repeated nights of insufficient sleep influence energy expenditure and balance. We studied 16 adults in a 14- to 15-d-long inpatient study and quantified effects of 5 d of insufficient sleep, equivalent to a work week, on energy expenditure and energy intake compared with adequate sleep. We found that insufficient sleep increased total daily energy expenditure by ∼5%; however, energy intake--especially at night after dinner--was in excess of energy needed to maintain energy balance. Insufficient sleep led to 0.82 ± 0.47 kg (±SD) weight gain despite changes in hunger and satiety hormones ghrelin and leptin, and peptide YY, which signaled excess energy stores. Insufficient sleep delayed circadian melatonin phase and also led to an earlier circadian phase of wake time. Sex differences showed women, not men, maintained weight during adequate sleep, whereas insufficient sleep reduced dietary restraint and led to weight gain in women. Our findings suggest that increased food intake during insufficient sleep is a physiological adaptation to provide energy needed to sustain additional wakefulness; yet when food is easily accessible, intake surpasses that needed. We also found that transitioning from an insufficient to adequate/recovery sleep schedule decreased energy intake, especially of fats and carbohydrates, and led to -0.03 ± 0.50 kg weight loss. These findings provide evidence that sleep plays a key role in energy metabolism. Importantly, they demonstrate physiological and behavioral mechanisms by which insufficient sleep may contribute to overweight and obesity.

  20. Estimation of energy and nutritional intake of young men practicing aerobic sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierniuk, Alicja; Włodarek, Dariusz

    2013-01-01

    Keeping to a balanced diet plays a key role in maximizing the body's efficiency so that sports training becomes more effective. Previous studies have shown that an athletes' diet is often not properly balanced, and can thus negatively affect sporting performance. To assess the energy and nutrient intake in young men practicing aerobic sport and compare them with those recommended. Subjects were 25 male athletes, aged 19-25 years, practicing aerobic sports who were students at two Warsaw Universities; The Military University of Technology and University of Physical Education. The average body mass was 80.6 +/- 9.6 kg and average height was 187.0 +/- 7.6 cm, (BMI thus being 23.01 +/- 1.70 kg/m2). Dietary assessment was based on three-day dietary recalls consisting of two weekdays and one day of the weekend. The energy and macro/ micro-nutrient intake were evaluated using the Polish Software 'Energia' package and compared to recommendations and standards. Supplements were absent from the athletes' diets. The energy value of diets were too low in most instances; average %-age deficiency was 30.22 +/- 13.76%. Total protein intake, (mean 1.41 +/- 0.36 g per kg body weight) was inadequate in 40% of cases, whilst all showed appropriate intakes of animal protein. Most subjects' carbohydrate intake (84%) was deficient; median 3.28 g/kg body weight. Fibre intake, (median 17.17 g) was also insufficient in 76% cases. Total fat intake, (33.9% +/- 5.7 energy) was too high in 32% of cases. The %-age dietary energy obtained from saturated fatty acids was 12.18% +/- 2.53 and 5.72% +/- 1.43 from polyunsaturated fatty acids, where most subjects' diet (64%) was, as well, high in cholesterol. Furthermore, significant deficiencies were observed in the following: Vitamin A (44% of group below EAR), vitamin C (80% below EAR), vitamin D (92% below EAR), foliate (84% below EAR), calcium (52% below EAR) and magnesium (60% below EAR). Vitamin E intake was however higher than the AI level

  1. Associations between eating frequency and energy intake, energy density, diet quality and body weight status in adults from the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yong; Hollis, James H

    2016-06-01

    To investigate associations between eating frequency and energy intake, energy density, diet quality and body weight status in adults from the USA, combined data from the 2009-2010 and 2011-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used in this study. The first 24-h dietary recall data from eligible participants (4017 men and 3774 women) were used to calculate eating frequency, as well as energy intake, energy density and the Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI-2010), as a measure of diet quality. BMI and waist circumference were obtained from the NHANES body measures data. Adjusting for confounding socio-demographic characteristics and lifestyle factors, a higher eating frequency was significantly associated with higher energy intake in both men and women (both Penergy density in both men and women, regardless of whether beverage or water intake was included in the calculation of energy density (all Pwell as waist circumference in both men (P=0·032) and women (P=0·010). Results from the present study suggested that adults with a higher eating frequency in the USA had a healthier diet with lower energy density and better diet quality, and eating frequency was inversely associated with body weight status.

  2. Impact of nutritional labelling on 10-d energy intake, appetite perceptions and attitudes towards food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonneau, Elise; Perron, Julie; Drapeau, Vicky; Lamarche, Benoît; Doucet, Éric; Pomerleau, Sonia; Provencher, Véronique

    2015-12-28

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of nutritional labelling on energy intake, appetite perceptions and attitudes towards food. During a 10-d period, seventy normal-weight (BMIlabelling groups in which the only difference was the label posted on lunch meal entrée: (1) low-fat label, (2) energy label (energy content of the entrée and average daily needs) and (3) no label (control). Average energy intake was calculated by weighing all foods before v. after daily consumption. Hunger and fullness perceptions were rated on visual analogue scales immediately before and after each meal. Satiety efficiency was assessed through the calculation of the satiety quotient (SQ). The appreciation and perceived healthiness of the lunch entrées were rated on eight-point Likert scales. There was no difference in energy intake, SQ and attitudes towards food between the three labelling groups. Fasting hunger perception was higher in the low-fat label group compared with the two others groups (P=0·0037). No interactions between labelling groups and BMI categories were observed. In conclusion, although labelling does not seem to influence energy intake, a low-fat label may increase women's fasting hunger perceptions compared with an energy label or no label.

  3. The energy and nutrient intakes of different types of vegetarian: a case for supplements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, A; Lewis, J; Malhotra, N; Wheeler, E

    1993-01-01

    Vegetarians of three types were studied in Greater London: thirty-four meat-avoiders, fifty-two lacto-ovo-vegetarians, and thirty-eight vegans. Weighed dietary intake measures were made over 3 d. Cereals were the mainstay of the diet, supplemented by dairy products (demi-vegetarians and lacto-ovo-vegetarians), vegetables and fruit, and soya-bean products (vegans). Many vegans progressed by stages to complete avoidance of animal foods; some had retreated, but most were highly committed. Demi-vegetarians were the least involved in a 'vegetarian lifestyle'. All groups had mean energy intakes close to the current dietary reference values (DRV), with adequate protein intakes. Only vegans had fat intakes close to current recommendations; all groups had high dietary polyunsaturated:saturated fatty acid ratios. Mean intakes of all micronutrients studied for demi- and lacto-ovo-vegetarians met the UK DRV. Intakes of iodine, riboflavin, and vitamin B12 for vegans were below DRV; more than half considered their diets supplied all necessary vitamins. About 25% took some type of dietary supplement during the survey. The impact of low I intakes should be further studied, and it is recommended that 'new' vegetarians and vegans should use appropriate dietary supplements.

  4. Elevated energy expenditure and reduced energy intake in obese prepubertal children: paradox of poor dietary reliability in obesity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffeis, C; Schutz, Y; Zaffanello, M; Piccoli, R; Pinelli, L

    1994-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the validity of two common methods used to assess energy intake. A 3-day weighed dietary record and a dietary history were collected and compared with the total daily energy expenditure (TEE) assessed by the heart rate method in a group of 12 obese and 12 nonobese prepubertal children (mean age 9.3 +/- 1.1 years vs 9.3 +/- 0.4 years). The TEE value was higher in obese than in nonobese children (9.89 +/- 1.08 vs 8.13 +/- 1.39 MJ/day; p obese children (7.06 +/- 0.98 MJ/day; p obese children (8.37 +/- 1.35 MJ/day, p obese children underreport food intake and that the dietary record and the diet history are not valid means of assessing energy intake in obese prepubertal children.

  5. Description and evaluation of a net energy intake model as a function of dietary chewing index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, L.M.; Markussen, B.; Nielsen, N.I.

    2016-01-01

    Previously, a linear relationship has been found between net energy intake (NEI) and dietary chewing index (CI) of the diet for different types of cattle. Therefore, we propose to generalize and calibrate this relationship into a new model for direct prediction of NEI by dairy cows from CI values...... and a was estimated to have a value of 2, implying a constant maximum daily chewing time. The intercept NEI0 in the regression of NEI on CINE may be interpreted as metabolic net energy intake capacity of the cows fed without physical constraints on intake. Based on experimental data, the maximum chewing time...... was estimated as 1/(4 × k). The NEI0 values were parameterized as a linear function of metabolic body size, energy-corrected milk yield (kg/d), days in milk, and days in milk squared. Prediction accuracy was evaluated by mean square prediction error (MSPE) and its decomposition into central tendency, regression...

  6. Description and evaluation of a net energy intake model as a function of dietary chewing index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Laura Mie; Markussen, Bo; Nielsen, N. I.

    2016-01-01

    Previously, a linear relationship has been found between net energy intake (NEI) and dietary chewing index (CI) of the diet for different types of cattle. Therefore, we propose to generalize and calibrate this relationship into a new model for direct prediction of NEI by dairy cows from CI values...... a value of 2, implying a constant maximum daily chewing time. The intercept NEI0 in the regression of NEI on CINE may be interpreted as metabolic net energy intake capacity of the cows fed without physical constraints on intake. Based on experimental data, the maximum chewing time was estimated as 1....../(4 × k). The NEI0 values were parameterized as a linear function of metabolic body size, energy-corrected milk yield (kg/d), days in milk, and days in milk squared. Prediction accuracy was evaluated by mean square prediction error (MSPE) and its decomposition into central tendency, regression...

  7. Finding the right balance : An evaluation of the adequacy of energy and protein intake in childhood cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinksma, Aeltsje; Roodbol, Petrie F; Sulkers, Esther; de Bont, Eveline S J M; Burgerhof, Johannes G M; Tamminga, Rienk Y J; Jager-Wittenaar, Harriët; Tissing, Wim J E

    2015-01-01

    Background & aims: Despite a widespread belief that adequate dietary intake is needed to maintain weight during childhood cancer treatment, conclusive data about adequacy of intake are lacking. Therefore, we aimed to assess the adequacy of energy and protein intake in a heterogeneous childhood cance

  8. Finding the right balance: an evaluation of the adequacy of energy and protein intake in childhood cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinksma, Aeltsje; Roodbol, Petrie F.; Sulkers, Esther; Bont, Eveline S.J.M. de; Burgerhof, Johannes G.M.; Tamminga, Rienk Y.J.; Jager-Wittenaar, Harriet; Tissing, Wim J.E.

    2014-01-01

    Background & aims: Despite a widespread belief that adequate dietary intake is needed to maintain weight during childhood cancer treatment, conclusive data about adequacy of intake are lacking. Therefore, we aimed to assess the adequacy of energy and protein intake in a heterogeneous childhood cance

  9. Alimentos industrializados en la dieta de los preescolares mexicanos Contribution of processed foods to the energy, macronutrient and fiber intakes of Mexican children aged 1 to 4 years

    OpenAIRE

    Dinorah González-Castell; Teresa González-Cossío; Simón Barquera; Juan A Rivera

    2007-01-01

    OBJETIVOS: Clasificar los alimentos consumidos por preescolares mexicanos, en relación con su proceso de elaboración y temporalidad: a) industrializados modernos (IM), b) industrializados tradicionales (IT) y c) no industrializados (NI). MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Con base en información del recordatorio de 24 horas de la Encuesta Nacional de Nutrición 1999 en niños de 1-4 años (n=1 070) se analizó la contribución de cada categoría de alimentos en energía, macronutrimentos y fibra. RESULTADOS: La co...

  10. Under-reporting of dietary energy intake in five populations of the African diaspora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orcholski, Lindsay; Luke, Amy; Plange-Rhule, Jacob; Bovet, Pascal; Forrester, Terrence E; Lambert, Estelle V; Dugas, Lara R; Kettmann, Elizabeth; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon A; Cooper, Richard S; Schoeller, Dale A

    2015-02-14

    Studies on the role of diet in the development of chronic diseases often rely on self-report surveys of dietary intake. Unfortunately, many validity studies have demonstrated that self-reported dietary intake is subject to systematic under-reporting, although the vast majority of such studies have been conducted in industrialised countries. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether or not systematic reporting error exists among the individuals of African ancestry (n 324) in five countries distributed across the Human Development Index (HDI) scale, a UN statistic devised to rank countries on non-income factors plus economic indicators. Using two 24 h dietary recalls to assess energy intake and the doubly labelled water method to assess total energy expenditure, we calculated the difference between these two values ((self-report - expenditure/expenditure) × 100) to identify under-reporting of habitual energy intake in selected communities in Ghana, South Africa, Seychelles, Jamaica and the USA. Under-reporting of habitual energy intake was observed in all the five countries. The South African cohort exhibited the highest mean under-reporting ( - 52·1% of energy) compared with the cohorts of Ghana ( - 22·5%), Jamaica ( - 17·9%), Seychelles ( - 25·0%) and the USA ( - 18·5%). BMI was the most consistent predictor of under-reporting compared with other predictors. In conclusion, there is substantial under-reporting of dietary energy intake in populations across the whole range of the HDI, and this systematic reporting error increases according to the BMI of an individual.

  11. [Acute caffeine intoxication after intake of 'herbal energy capsules'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kromhout, H.E.; Landstra, A.M.; Luin, M. van; Setten, P.A. van

    2008-01-01

    Two males, 15 and 17 years old respectively, presented at the Emergency Department complaining of cramping abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting after ingestion of energy capsules. Physical examination revealed sinus tachycardia and slight abdominal pain. Laboratory examination showed substantial

  12. [Acute caffeine intoxication after intake of 'herbal energy capsules'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kromhout, H.E.; Landstra, A.M.; Luin, M. van; Setten, P.A. van

    2008-01-01

    Two males, 15 and 17 years old respectively, presented at the Emergency Department complaining of cramping abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting after ingestion of energy capsules. Physical examination revealed sinus tachycardia and slight abdominal pain. Laboratory examination showed substantial hypo

  13. Slower eating speed lowers energy intake in normal-weight but not overweight/obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Meena; Copeland, Jennifer; Dart, Lyn; Adams-Huet, Beverley; James, Ashlei; Rhea, Debbie

    2014-03-01

    The effect of eating speed on energy intake by weight status is unclear. To examine whether the effect of eating speed on energy intake is the same in normal-weight and overweight/obese subjects. The effect of slow and fast eating speed on meal energy intake was assessed in a randomized crossover design. Thirty-five normal-weight (aged 33.3±12.5 years; 14 women and 21 men) subjects and 35 overweight/obese (44.1±13.0 years; 22 women and 13 men) subjects were studied on 2 days during lunch in a metabolic kitchen. The subjects consumed the same meal, ad libitum, but at different speeds during the two eating conditions. The weight and energy content of the food consumed was assessed. Perceived hunger and fullness were assessed at specific times using visual analog scales. Effect of eating speed on ad libitum energy intake, eating rate (energy intake/meal duration), energy density (energy intake per gram of food and water consumed), and satiety were assessed by mixed-model repeated measures analysis. Meal energy intake was significantly lower in the normal-weight (804.5±438.9 vs 892.6±330.2 kcal; P=0.04) but not the overweight/obese (667.3±304.1 vs 724.8±355.5 kcal; P=0.18) subjects during the slow vs the fast eating condition. Both groups had lower meal energy density (P=0.005 and P=0.001, respectively) and eating rate (Pintake in the normal-weight but not in the overweight/obese group. It lowered eating rate and energy density in both groups. Eating slowly led to lower hunger ratings in both groups and increased fullness ratings in the normal-weight group at 60 minutes from when the meal began. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. [Effect of energy intake on production and reproduction characteristics in (breeding) sows].

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Hartog, L A

    1985-04-01

    A total number of 113 first-litter sows and 680 gilts of the Dutch Landrace were used in order to study the effect of energy intake on productive and reproductive characteristics. A high feeding level in normal sows after weaning is essential, not to increase the ovulation rate but rather to improve the condition of the sow and advance oestrus. The experiment with the gilts showed that from the point of view of the cost of the feed consumed and reproductive performance, an energy intake during rearing of more than 2.1 times maintenance will have an adverse effect when adequate protein is given.

  15. Sweetened beverage intake in association to energy and sugar consumption and cardiometabolic markers in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seferidi, P; Millett, C; Laverty, A A

    2017-01-23

    Artificially sweetened beverages (ASBs) are promoted as healthy alternatives to sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) in order to reduce sugar intake, but their effects on weight control and glycaemia have been debated. This study examines associations of SSBs and ASBs with energy and sugar intake and cardiometabolic measures. One thousand six hundred eighty-seven children aged 4-18 participated in the National Diet and Nutrition Survey Rolling Programme (2008/9-2011/12) in the UK. Linear regression was used to examine associations between SSBs and ASBs and energy and sugar, overall and from solid foods and beverages, and body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio and blood analytes. Fixed effects linear regression examined within-person associations with energy and sugar. Compared with non-consumption, SSB consumption was associated with higher sugar intake overall (6.1%; 4.2, 8.1) and ASB consumption with higher sugar intake from solid foods (1.7%; 0.5, 2.9) but not overall, mainly among boys. On SSB consumption days, energy and sugar intakes were higher (216 kcal; 163, 269 and 7.0%; 6.2, 7.8), and on ASB consumption days, sugar intake was lower (-1.0%; -1.8, -0.1) compared with those on non-consumption days. SSB and ASB intakes were associated with higher levels of blood glucose (SSB: 0.30 mmol L(-1) ; 0.11, 0.49 and ASB: 0.24 mmol L(-1) ; 0.06, 0.43) and SSB intake with higher triglycerides (0.29 mmol L(-1) ; 0.13, 0.46). No associations were found with other outcomes. Sugar-sweetened beverage intake was associated with higher sugar intake and both SSBs and ASBs with a less healthy cardiometabolic profile. These findings add to evidence that health policy should discourage all sweetened beverage consumption. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  16. Obesity by choice revisited: effects of food availability, flavor variety and nutrient composition on energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackroff, Karen; Bonacchi, Kristine; Magee, Michael; Yiin, Yeh-Min; Graves, Jonathan V; Sclafani, Anthony

    2007-10-22

    Recent work suggested that the energy intake and weight gain of rats maintained on chow and 32% sucrose solution could be increased by simply offering more sources of sucrose [Tordoff M.G. Obesity by choice: the powerful influence of nutrient availability on nutrient intake. Am J Physiol 2002;282:R1536-R1539.]. In Experiment 1 this procedure was replicated but the effect was not: rats given one bottle of sucrose and five bottles of water consumed as much sucrose as those given five bottles of sucrose and one of water. Adding different flavors to the sucrose did not increase intakes further in Experiment 2. The relative potency of sucrose and other optional foods was studied in Experiment 3. Sucrose solution stimulated more overeating and weight gain than fat (vegetable shortening), and offering both sucrose and shortening did not generate further increases in energy intake. Finally, foods commonly used to produce overeating and weight gain were compared. Sucrose was less effective than a high-fat milk diet, and offering cookies in addition to the milk did not increase energy intake further. The nature of optional foods (nutrient composition and physical form) was markedly more important than the number of food sources available to the animals, and is a better contender as the reason for "obesity by choice".

  17. Contribution of Food Groups to Energy and Nutrient Intakes in Five Developed Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Auestad

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Economic growth in developing countries and globalization of the food sector is leading to increasingly similar food consumption patterns worldwide. The aim of this study was to describe similarities and differences in the contributions of main food groups to energy and nutrient intakes in five developed countries across three continents. We obtained summary reports of national food consumption survey data from Australia, France, Denmark, the Netherlands, and the United States. Survey years spanned 2003–2012; sample size ranged from 1444 to 17,386. To mitigate heterogeneity of food groups across countries, we recategorized each survey’s reported food groups and subgroups into eight main food groups and, for three countries, a ninth “mixed dishes” group. We determined the percent contribution of each food group to mean daily intakes of energy, saturated fat, sodium, fiber, and ten vitamins and minerals that are commonly under-consumed. Differences in findings from surveys utilizing a foods-as-consumed versus a disaggregated or ingredients approach to food group composition and contributions from the milk and milk products group, a source of several under-consumed nutrients, were explored. Patterns of food group contributions to energy and nutrient intakes were generally similar across countries. Some differences were attributable to the analytical approach used by the surveys. For the meat/protein, milk and milk products, vegetables, and fruit groups, percent contributions to key nutrient intakes exceeded percent contributions to energy intake. The mixed dishes group provided 10%–20% of total daily energy and a similar 10%–25% of the daily intake of several nutrients. This descriptive study contributes to an understanding of food group consumption patterns in developed countries.

  18. Actual and prescribed energy and protein intakes for very low birth weight infants: An observational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allevato, Anthony J.

    Objectives: To determine (1) whether prescribed and delivered energy and protein intakes during the first two weeks of life met Ziegler's estimated requirements for Very Low Birth Weight (VLBW) infants, (2) if actual energy during the first week of life correlated with time to regain birth weight and reach full enteral nutrition (EN) defined as 100 kcal/kg/day, (3) if growth velocity from time to reach full EN to 36 weeks' postmenstrual age (PMA) met Ziegler's estimated fetal growth velocity (16 g/kg/day), and (4) growth outcomes at 36 weeks' PMA. Study design: Observational study of feeding, early nutrition and early growth of 40 VLBW infants protein (89% [3.1 g/kg/day]) were significantly less than theoretical estimated requirements. Delivered intakes were 15% less than prescribed because of numerous interruptions in delivery and medical complications. During the second week, the delivered intakes of energy (90% [86 kcal/kg/day]) and protein (102% [3.5 g/kg/day]) improved although the differences between prescribed and delivered were consistently 15%. Energy but not protein intake during the first week was significantly related to time to reach full EN. Neither energy nor protein intake significantly correlated with days to return to birth weight. The average growth velocity from the age that full EN was attained to 36 weeks' PMA (15 g/kg/day) was significantly less than the theoretical estimated fetal growth velocity (16 g/kg/day) (pintakes were consistently less than 15% of the prescribed intakes. Growth velocity between the age when full EN was achieved and 36 weeks' PMA was 6.7% lower than Ziegler's estimate. One-third to one-half of the infants have EUGR at 36 weeks' PMA.

  19. Contribution of Food Groups to Energy and Nutrient Intakes in Five Developed Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auestad, Nancy; Hurley, Judith S; Fulgoni, Victor L; Schweitzer, Cindy M

    2015-06-08

    Economic growth in developing countries and globalization of the food sector is leading to increasingly similar food consumption patterns worldwide. The aim of this study was to describe similarities and differences in the contributions of main food groups to energy and nutrient intakes in five developed countries across three continents. We obtained summary reports of national food consumption survey data from Australia, France, Denmark, the Netherlands, and the United States. Survey years spanned 2003-2012; sample size ranged from 1444 to 17,386. To mitigate heterogeneity of food groups across countries, we recategorized each survey's reported food groups and subgroups into eight main food groups and, for three countries, a ninth "mixed dishes" group. We determined the percent contribution of each food group to mean daily intakes of energy, saturated fat, sodium, fiber, and ten vitamins and minerals that are commonly under-consumed. Differences in findings from surveys utilizing a foods-as-consumed versus a disaggregated or ingredients approach to food group composition and contributions from the milk and milk products group, a source of several under-consumed nutrients, were explored. Patterns of food group contributions to energy and nutrient intakes were generally similar across countries. Some differences were attributable to the analytical approach used by the surveys. For the meat/protein, milk and milk products, vegetables, and fruit groups, percent contributions to key nutrient intakes exceeded percent contributions to energy intake. The mixed dishes group provided 10%-20% of total daily energy and a similar 10%-25% of the daily intake of several nutrients. This descriptive study contributes to an understanding of food group consumption patterns in developed countries.

  20. Impact of insufficient sleep on total daily energy expenditure, food intake, and weight gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markwald, Rachel R.; Melanson, Edward L.; Smith, Mark R.; Higgins, Janine; Perreault, Leigh; Eckel, Robert H.; Wright, Kenneth P.

    2013-01-01

    Insufficient sleep is associated with obesity, yet little is known about how repeated nights of insufficient sleep influence energy expenditure and balance. We studied 16 adults in a 14- to 15-d-long inpatient study and quantified effects of 5 d of insufficient sleep, equivalent to a work week, on energy expenditure and energy intake compared with adequate sleep. We found that insufficient sleep increased total daily energy expenditure by ∼5%; however, energy intake—especially at night after dinner—was in excess of energy needed to maintain energy balance. Insufficient sleep led to 0.82 ± 0.47 kg (±SD) weight gain despite changes in hunger and satiety hormones ghrelin and leptin, and peptide YY, which signaled excess energy stores. Insufficient sleep delayed circadian melatonin phase and also led to an earlier circadian phase of wake time. Sex differences showed women, not men, maintained weight during adequate sleep, whereas insufficient sleep reduced dietary restraint and led to weight gain in women. Our findings suggest that increased food intake during insufficient sleep is a physiological adaptation to provide energy needed to sustain additional wakefulness; yet when food is easily accessible, intake surpasses that needed. We also found that transitioning from an insufficient to adequate/recovery sleep schedule decreased energy intake, especially of fats and carbohydrates, and led to −0.03 ± 0.50 kg weight loss. These findings provide evidence that sleep plays a key role in energy metabolism. Importantly, they demonstrate physiological and behavioral mechanisms by which insufficient sleep may contribute to overweight and obesity. PMID:23479616

  1. Beverage consumption habits “24/7” among British adults: association with total water intake and energy intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gibson Sigrid

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Various recommendations exist for total water intake (TWI, yet it is seldom reported in dietary surveys. Few studies have examined how real-life consumption patterns, including beverage type, variety and timing relate to TWI and energy intake (EI. Methods We analysed weighed dietary records from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey of 1724 British adults aged 19–64 years (2000/2001 to investigate beverage consumption patterns over 24 hrs and 7 days and associations with TWI and EI. TWI was calculated from the nutrient composition of each item of food and drink and compared with reference values. Results Mean TWI was 2.53 L (SD 0.86 for men and 2.03 L (SD 0.71 for women, close to the European Food Safety Authority “adequate Intake” (AI of 2.5 L and 2 L, respectively. However, for 33% of men and 23% of women TWI was below AI and TWI:EI ratio was In multi-variable regression (adjusted for sex, age, body weight, smoking, dieting, activity level and mis-reporting, replacing 100 g of caloric beverages (milk, fruit juice, caloric soft drinks and alcohol with 100 g non-caloric drinks (diet soft drinks, hot beverages and water was associated with a reduction in EI of 15 kcal, or 34 kcal if food energy were unchanged. Using within-person data (deviations from 7-day mean each 100 g change in caloric beverages was associated with 29 kcal change in EI or 35 kcal if food energy were constant. By comparison the calculated energy content of caloric drinks consumed was 47 kcal/100 g. Conclusions TWI and beverage consumption are closely related, and some individuals appeared to have low TWI. Compensation for energy from beverages may occur but is partial. A better understanding of interactions between drinking and eating habits and their impact on water and energy balance would give a firmer basis to dietary recommendations.

  2. Suboptimal Weight Loss and Weight Regain after Gastric Bypass Surgery-Postoperative Status of Energy Intake, Eating Behavior, Physical Activity, and Psychometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amundsen, Tina; Strømmen, Magnus; Martins, Catia

    2017-05-01

    Suboptimal weight loss (SWL) and weight regain (WR) after gastric bypass surgery (GB) remains poorly understood. This study aims to compare GB patients experiencing SWL or significant WR (SigWR) with successful controls, regarding postoperative food intake, eating behavior, physical activity (PA), and psychometrics. Forty-nine patients with >1 year post-surgery were classified as either experiencing SWL (excess body weight loss, EWL, weight regain ≥15%, n = 38), with respective control groups. Energy intake (EI) was measured with a Food Frequency Questionnaire, eating behavior using the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire and the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire, and PA using both SenseWear Armbands and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Eating disorders, depression, and quality of life (QoL) were measured using the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire, Beck Depression Inventory II, and Impact of Weight on Quality of Life, respectively. EI, macronutrient distribution, and meal frequency were similar among groups. However, disinhibited eating behavior score was higher, while most subcategories from IWQOL were significantly lower in both SWL and SigWR groups compared with their respective controls. PA was significantly lower in the SWL and SigWR groups compared with the respective controls. There were no differences between groups regarding depression. Lower PA levels, disordered eating behavior and lower QoL are associated with unsuccessful weigh loss outcome after GB surgery. Longitudinal studies are needed to clarify the potential causal relationship between the previously described variables and SWL/SigWR after GB.

  3. Liquid versus solid energy intake in relation to body composition among Australian children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, M; Allman-Farinelli, M; Heitmann, B L

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The debate about whether energy consumed in liquid form is more obesogenic than energy consumed in solid form remains equivocal. We aimed to evaluate the effects of liquid versus solid energy intake and different beverage types on changes in childhood adiposity. METHODS: Our analyses...... included 8-year-old Australian children (n = 158) participating in the Childhood Asthma Prevention Study. Dietary information was collected using three 24-h recalls at age 9 years. Multivariate linear regression was used to evaluate the effects of liquid versus solid energy intake and different beverage...... types on changes in body mass index (BMI) Z-score from ages 8 to 11.5 years (△BMIz8-11.5y ) and percentage body fat (%BF) at age 11.5 years (%BF11.5y ). Substitution models were used to evaluate the effects of substituting other beverage types for sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB). RESULTS: Liquid energy...

  4. Effects of acute exercise on appetite hormones and ad libitum energy intake in men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagobian, Todd Alan; Yamashiro, Megan; Hinkel-Lipsker, Jake; Streder, Katherine; Evero, Nero; Hackney, Terry

    2013-01-01

    Acute exercise suppresses relative energy intake; however, it remains unclear whether this occurs in both men and women exposed to the same relative exercise treatment. Eleven healthy men (22 ± 2 years; 16% ± 6% body fat (BF); 26 ± 4 body mass index (BMI); 42.9 ± 6.5 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1) peak oxygen consumption ([Formula: see text]O(2peak))) and 10 healthy women (21 ± 2 years; 24 ± 2 BMI; 23% ± 3% BF; 39.9 ± 5.5 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1) [Formula: see text]O(2peak)) rested for 60 min or exercised on a cycle ergometer at 70% [Formula: see text]O(2peak) until 30% of total daily energy expenditure was expended (men, expenditure = 975 ± 195 kcal in 82 ± 13 min; women, expenditure = 713 ± 86 kcal in 84 ± 17 min) in a counterbalanced, crossover fashion. Appetite hormones and appetite ratings were assessed in response to each condition. Forty minutes after both conditions, ad libitum total and relative energy intake (energy intake minus energy cost of exercise) were assessed at a buffet meal. There was no significant sex or condition effect in appetite hormones (PYY(3-36), acylated ghrelin, insulin) and appetite ratings (hunger, satisfaction, fullness). Total energy intake in men was significantly higher (P men (672 ± 827, 1133 ± 619 kcal, respectively) and women (-121 ± 243, 530 ± 233 kcal, respectively). These data highlight the effectiveness of acute exercise to suppress relative energy intake regardless of sex.

  5. Low Energy Turnover of Physically Inactive Participants as a Determinant of Insufficient Mineral and Vitamin Intake in NHANES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydenreich, Juliane; Melzer, Katarina; Flury, Céline; Kayser, Bengt

    2017-07-14

    Micronutrient requirements do not scale linearly with physical activity-related energy expenditure (AEE). Inactive persons may have insufficient micronutrient intake because of low energy intake (EI). We extracted data from NHANES 2003-2006 on 4015 adults (53 ± 18 years (mean ± SD), 29 ± 6 kg/m², 48% women) with valid physical activity (accelerometry) and food intake (2 × 24 h-dietary recall) measures. Total energy expenditure (TEE) was estimated by summing the basal metabolic rate (BMR, Harris-Benedict), AEE, and 10% of TEE for the thermic effect of food, to calculate the physical activity levels (PAL = TEE/BMR). Energy intake (EI) was scaled to match TEE assuming energy balance. Adjusted food intake was then analyzed for energy and micronutrient content and compared to estimated average requirements. The NHANES population was physically insufficiently active. There were 2440 inactive (PAL energy turnover from insufficient PAL.

  6. Bayesian simultaneous equation models for the analysis of energy intake and partitioning in growing pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strathe, Anders Bjerring; Jørgensen, Henry; Kebreab, E

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT SUMMARY The objective of the current study was to develop Bayesian simultaneous equation models for modelling energy intake and partitioning in growing pigs. A key feature of the Bayesian approach is that parameters are assigned prior distributions, which may reflect the current state...... of nature. In the models, rates of metabolizable energy (ME) intake, protein deposition (PD) and lipid deposition (LD) were treated as dependent variables accounting for residuals being correlated. Two complementary equation systems were used to model ME intake (MEI), PD and LD. Informative priors were...... genders (barrows, boars and gilts) selected on the basis of similar birth weight. The pigs were fed four diets based on barley, wheat and soybean meal supplemented with crystalline amino acids to meet or exceed Danish nutrient requirement standards. Nutrient balances and gas exchanges were measured at c...

  7. Responses in live weight change to net energy intake in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Charlotte; Østergaard, Søren; Bertilsson, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this analysis was to estimate the effect of increased energy intake on daily live weight changes during the first 100 days of lactation of primiparous and multiparous cows. A data set with 78 observations (treatment means) was compiled from 6 production trials from Denmark, Norway...... and Sweden representing the breeds Danish Holstein, Norwegian Red and Swedish Red. We had access to individual data for feed intake and live weight changes (every second week) during the first 100 days after calving. The data was grouped into sub datasets according to parity; either primiparous...... change were made by linear mixed effects model with trial as random factor. For both primiparous and multiparous cows there was an increasing curvilinear response at a decreasing rate to increased net energy intake and the daily live weight change at day 30 was negative and at day 90 it was positive...

  8. A workplace feasibility study of the effect of a minimal fruit intervention on fruit intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alinia, Sevil; Lassen, Anne Dahl; Krogholm, Kirstine Suszkiewicz

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The main purpose of the study was to investigate the feasibility of using workplaces to increase the fruit consumption of participants by increasing fruit availability and accessibility by a minimal fruit programme. Furthermore, it was investigated whether a potential increase in fruit....... Vegetable, total energy and macronutrient intake remained unchanged through the intervention period for both groups. Conclusions: The present study showed that it is feasible to increase the average fruit intake at workplaces by simply increasing fruit availability and accessibility. Increased fruit intake...... intake would affect vegetable, total energy and nutrient intake. Design: A 5-month, controlled, workplace study where workplaces were divided into an intervention group (IG) and a control group (CG). At least one piece of free fruit was available per person per day in the IG. Total fruit and dietary...

  9. Dietary intake of elderly outpatients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudisio, Alice; Costanzo, Luisa; Di Gioia, Claudia; Delussu, Anna Sofia; Traballesi, Marco; Gemma, Antonella; Antonelli Incalzi, Raffaele

    2016-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is often associated with malnutrition, which is in turn associated with poor outcomes. Accordingly, in COPD patients adequate nutrition might improve several clinical and functional outcomes. Nevertheless, information about nutrient intake of older populations with COPD is still scanty. We analysed data of 523 elderly attending a geriatric ambulatory. Of these, 165 had a diagnosis of COPD, while 358 were control participants, matched for demographic characteristics and free from respiratory diseases. COPD was diagnosed according to the global initiative for chronic obstructive lung disease (GOLD) criteria. The intake of micro and macronutrients was recorded using the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition (EPIC) questionnaire. Nutrient intake of COPD patients was compared with that of the control group and with recommended dietary allowances RDA. COPD patients had a lower energy intake, as compared with control participants (29.4 vs 34.4 kcal/kg of ideal weight; P<.0001), due to reduced intake of carbohydrates and proteins. Accordingly, in the energy intake was lower than recommended in 52% of COPD patients, vs 30% of controls (P<.0001). The intake of calcium, potassium, folate, cholecalciferol, retinol, and thiamine was lower than RDA in over 75% of COPD patients. The diet of elderly COPD outpatients does not provide the recommended energy intake, nor does it meet the RDA for many micronutrients. Such deficits are more severe than in age matched non- respiratory subjects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluation of an Innovative Method for Calculating Energy Intake of Hospitalized Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Cox Sullivan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate a multi-component method for capturing nutrient intake, which used observation, photography, and an innovative computer program. To assess reliability and accuracy, multiple responsible employees (REs independently conducted nutrient intake assessments on simulated meals; each RE’s results relating to energy intake were compared to those from the other REs and to those obtained by pre- and post-meal weighing of the food items. System efficiency was assessed by having REs perform independent assessments on the same set of simulated meals using either the new or traditional hospital method for which the REs had to document each food item served and then find the items in a computer database–steps that were automated in the new method. Interrater reliability for energy intake estimated on clinic wards was excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.975, 95% CI 0.958 to 0.992 and there was a high level of agreement between the REs’ estimates and the true values determined by food weighing; per the method of Bland and Altman the mean difference between the two types of estimates was 0.3 kcal (95% CI, −8.1 to 8.7 kcal with limits of agreement of −79.5 kcal to 80.1 kcal. Compared to the traditional method, energy intake assessments could be completed using the multi-component method in less than a third of the time. These results indicate the multi-component method is an accurate, reliable, and efficient method of obtaining energy intake assessments for hospitalized patients.

  11. Evaluation of an Innovative Method for Calculating Energy Intake of Hospitalized Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox Sullivan, Sheila; Bopp, Melinda M; Roberson, Paula K; Lensing, Shelly; Sullivan, Dennis H

    2016-09-09

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a multi-component method for capturing nutrient intake, which used observation, photography, and an innovative computer program. To assess reliability and accuracy, multiple responsible employees (REs) independently conducted nutrient intake assessments on simulated meals; each RE's results relating to energy intake were compared to those from the other REs and to those obtained by pre- and post-meal weighing of the food items. System efficiency was assessed by having REs perform independent assessments on the same set of simulated meals using either the new or traditional hospital method for which the REs had to document each food item served and then find the items in a computer database-steps that were automated in the new method. Interrater reliability for energy intake estimated on clinic wards was excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.975, 95% CI 0.958 to 0.992) and there was a high level of agreement between the REs' estimates and the true values determined by food weighing; per the method of Bland and Altman the mean difference between the two types of estimates was 0.3 kcal (95% CI, -8.1 to 8.7 kcal) with limits of agreement of -79.5 kcal to 80.1 kcal. Compared to the traditional method, energy intake assessments could be completed using the multi-component method in less than a third of the time. These results indicate the multi-component method is an accurate, reliable, and efficient method of obtaining energy intake assessments for hospitalized patients.

  12. The endocannabinoid system: directing eating behavior and macronutrient metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Alan Watkins

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For many years, the brain has been the primary focus for research on eating behavior. More recently, the discovery of the endogenous endocannabinoids (EC and the endocannabinoid system (ECS, as well as the characterization of its actions on appetite and metabolism, has provided greater insight on the brain and food intake. The purpose of this review is to explain the actions of EC in the brain and other organs as well as their precursor polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA that are converted to these endogenous ligands. The binding of the EC to the cannabinoid receptors in the brain stimulates food intake, and the ECS participates in systemic macronutrient metabolism where the gastrointestinal system, liver, muscle, and adipose are involved. The EC are biosynthesized from two distinct families of dietary PUFA, namely the n-6 and n-3. Based on their biochemistry, these PUFA are well known to exert considerable physiological and health-promoting actions. However, little is known about how these different families of PUFA compete as precursor ligands of cannabinoid receptors to stimulate appetite or perhaps down-regulate the ECS to amend food intake and prevent or control obesity. The goal of this review is to assess the current available research on ECS and food intake, suggest research that may improve the complications associated with obesity and diabetes by dietary PUFA intervention, and further reveal mechanisms to elucidate the relationships between substrate for EC synthesis, ligand actions on receptors, and the physiological consequences of the ECS. Dietary PUFA are lifestyle factors that could potentially curb eating behavior, which may translate to changes in macronutrient metabolism, systemically and in muscle, benefiting health overall.

  13. The endocannabinoid system: directing eating behavior and macronutrient metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Bruce A; Kim, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    For many years, the brain has been the primary focus for research on eating behavior. More recently, the discovery of the endocannabinoids (EC) and the endocannabinoid system (ECS), as well as the characterization of its actions on appetite and metabolism, has provided greater insight on the brain and food intake. The purpose of this review is to explain the actions of EC in the brain and other organs as well as their precursor polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) that are converted to these endogenous ligands. The binding of the EC to the cannabinoid receptors in the brain stimulates food intake, and the ECS participates in systemic macronutrient metabolism where the gastrointestinal system, liver, muscle, and adipose are involved. The EC are biosynthesized from two distinct families of dietary PUFA, namely the n-6 and n-3. Based on their biochemistry, these PUFA are well known to exert considerable physiological and health-promoting actions. However, little is known about how these different families of PUFA compete as precursor ligands of cannabinoid receptors to stimulate appetite or perhaps down-regulate the ECS to amend food intake and prevent or control obesity. The goal of this review is to assess the current available research on ECS and food intake, suggest research that may improve the complications associated with obesity and diabetes by dietary PUFA intervention, and further reveal mechanisms to elucidate the relationships between substrate for EC synthesis, ligand actions on receptors, and the physiological consequences of the ECS. Dietary PUFA are lifestyle factors that could potentially curb eating behavior, which may translate to changes in macronutrient metabolism, systemically and in muscle, benefiting health overall.

  14. Physiology of energy intake: an inventory control model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Itallie, T B; Kissileff, H R

    1985-11-01

    An inventory control model is used to describe the regulation of depot fat and contribution made to the satiation process by putative feedback signals. In the two bin inventory control system, adipose tissue is viewed as a large storage reservoir which is periodically refilled by means of adjustments made in meal consumption. The gastrointestinal tract is viewed as a smaller bin which triggers renewed food ingestion when it becomes partially emptied. However, reduction in the contents of the adipose tissue bin below a critical level (reorder point quantity) generates a signal to the brain that appropriately modulates meal size and intermeal interval. Because this model evolved to cope with worst case situations, a strong bias for storage in time of plenty is inherent in the system. This fact helps to account for the high prevalence of obesity in energy-rich societies, where, in contrast to the situation that obtains in primitive societies, the energy cost of obtaining food is minimal.

  15. "Split Them!" Smaller Item Sizes of Cookies Lead to a Decrease in Energy Intake in Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchiori, David; Waroquier, Laurent; Klein, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Examine the influence of altering the size of snack food (ie, small vs large cookies) on short-term energy intake. Methods: First- and sixth-graders (n = 77) participated in a between-subjects experimental design. All participants were offered the same gram weight of cookies during an aft

  16. Direct effects of food cues seen during TV viewing on energy intake in young women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nee, R.L. van; Larsen, J.K.; Fisher, J.O.

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have examined direct effects of food cues presented within television (TV) programs on eating behavior in adults. This research experimentally determined whether exposure to food cues in TV programs affects energy intake during TV viewing among young women, independently from food cues p

  17. Residual feed intake in young chickens : effects on energy partitioning and immunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eerden, van E.

    2007-01-01

    Keywords: chicken, residual feed intake, resource allocation, immune response, Salmonella Enteritidis, energy partitioning.The continuous selection in farm animals for efficient production and high production levels may have led to animals that are "programmed" to put a lot of reso

  18. Maternal nutrient intakes and levels of energy underreporting during early pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGowan, C A

    2012-08-01

    Pregnancy is a critical period in a woman\\'s life where nutrition is of key importance for optimal pregnancy outcome. The aim of this study was to assess maternal nutrient intakes during early pregnancy and to examine potential levels of energy underreporting.

  19. Variation in energy intake and basal metabolic rate of a bird migrating in a wind tunnel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindström, Å.; Klaassen, M.R.J.; Kvist, A.

    1999-01-01

    1. We studied the changes in body mass, metabolizable energy intake rate (ME) and basal metabolic rate (BMR) of a Thrush Nightingale, Luscinia luscinia, following repeated 12-h migratory flights in a wind tunnel. In total the bird flew for 176 h corresponding to 6300 km. This is the first study wher

  20. "Split Them!" Smaller Item Sizes of Cookies Lead to a Decrease in Energy Intake in Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchiori, David|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/376283718; Waroquier, Laurent; Klein, Olivier

    Objective: Examine the influence of altering the size of snack food (ie, small vs large cookies) on short-term energy intake. Methods: First- and sixth-graders (n = 77) participated in a between-subjects experimental design. All participants were offered the same gram weight of cookies during an

  1. "Split Them!" Smaller Item Sizes of Cookies Lead to a Decrease in Energy Intake in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchiori, David; Waroquier, Laurent; Klein, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Examine the influence of altering the size of snack food (ie, small vs large cookies) on short-term energy intake. Methods: First- and sixth-graders (n = 77) participated in a between-subjects experimental design. All participants were offered the same gram weight of cookies during an afternoon tea at their school. For half of the…

  2. Sustained Self-Regulation of Energy Intake: Initial Hunger Improves Insulin Sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Ciampolini

    2010-01-01

    Results. In trained subjects, significant decreases were found in insulin sensitivity index, insulin and BG peaks, glycated haemoglobin, mean pre-meal BG, standard deviation of diary BG (BG as recorded by subjects' 7-day diary, energy intake, BMI, and body weight when compared to control subjects. Conclusion. The IHMP improved insulin sensitivity and other cardiovascular risk factors over a 5-month period.

  3. Direct effects of food cues seen during TV viewing on energy intake in young women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nee, R.L. van; Larsen, J.K.; Fisher, J.O.

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have examined direct effects of food cues presented within television (TV) programs on eating behavior in adults. This research experimentally determined whether exposure to food cues in TV programs affects energy intake during TV viewing among young women, independently from food cues p

  4. Direct effects of food cues seen during TV viewing on energy intake in young women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nee, R.L. van; Larsen, J.K.; Fisher, J.O.

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have examined direct effects of food cues presented within television (TV) programs on eating behavior in adults. This research experimentally determined whether exposure to food cues in TV programs affects energy intake during TV viewing among young women, independently from food cues

  5. Microencapsulated bitter compounds (from Gentiana lutea) reduce daily energy intakes in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mennella, Ilario; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Ferracane, Rosalia; Arlorio, Marco; Pattarino, Franco; Vitaglione, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Mounting evidence showed that bitter-tasting compounds modulate eating behaviour through bitter taste receptors in the gastrointestinal tract. This study aimed at evaluating the influence of microencapsulated bitter compounds on human appetite and energy intakes. A microencapsulated bitter

  6. "Split Them!" Smaller Item Sizes of Cookies Lead to a Decrease in Energy Intake in Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchiori, David; Waroquier, Laurent; Klein, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Examine the influence of altering the size of snack food (ie, small vs large cookies) on short-term energy intake. Methods: First- and sixth-graders (n = 77) participated in a between-subjects experimental design. All participants were offered the same gram weight of cookies during an aft

  7. "Split Them!" Smaller Item Sizes of Cookies Lead to a Decrease in Energy Intake in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchiori, David; Waroquier, Laurent; Klein, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Examine the influence of altering the size of snack food (ie, small vs large cookies) on short-term energy intake. Methods: First- and sixth-graders (n = 77) participated in a between-subjects experimental design. All participants were offered the same gram weight of cookies during an afternoon tea at their school. For half of the…

  8. Residual feed intake in young chickens : effects on energy partitioning and immunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eerden, van E.

    2007-01-01

    Keywords: chicken, residual feed intake, resource allocation, immune response, Salmonella Enteritidis, energy partitioning.The continuous selection in farm animals for efficient production and high production levels may have led to animals that are "programmed" to put a lot of

  9. [Optimization of energy intake in artificial nutrition: second lecture Jesús Culebras].

    Science.gov (United States)

    León Sanz, M

    2011-01-01

    A primary goal of nutritional support is to provide the energy requirements needed to sustain metabolic processes, maintain body temperature and tissue repair. The beginnings of artificial nutrition were characterized by high calorie nutritional formulae. The assimilation of physiological concepts, accumulating research data and clinical experience led to a progressive reduction of this intake. During the decade of the 90s of the past century, the concept of permissive underfeeding was proposed. Since then, there has been a controversy between supporters of an initial reduction of energy intake for the critical patient and advocates of a full administration of the estimated calorie needs since the very first days of admission to the Intensive Care Unit. This controversy has extended into clinical practice guidelines, showing a clear disagreement between recent recommendations of ASPEN and ESPEN. In the future we will see the publication of new studies that might better define the evidence on which to base the recommendations of caloric intake. There is also a clear need to deepen the knowledge about the optimal caloric intake in the non-critically ill patient requiring artificial nutrition. It is of great importance that these new concepts, which will arise undoubtedly, are incorporated quickly in the design of nutritional formulas produced by the pharmaceutical industry. Finally, it is important to encourage active participation in continuous educational activities in the field of Nutrition for achieving a rapid incorporation in daily practice of these new concepts of optimal caloric intake.

  10. Association between energy drink intake, sleep, stress, and suicidality in Korean adolescents: energy drink use in isolation or in combination with junk food consumption

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Park, Subin; Lee, Yeeun; Lee, Junghyun H

    2016-01-01

    .... This study aimed to investigate the associations between energy drink intake and mental health problems, in isolation or in combination with junk food consumption, in a nationally representative...

  11. Mood and the macro-nutrient composition of breakfast and the mid-day meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, David; Brock, Helen

    2010-12-01

    Six hundred and eighty-six individuals were approached at mid-day after they had chosen a meal in a cafeteria. They were asked to rate their mood during the morning and list what they had eaten that morning. Both males and females who had eaten breakfast rather than fasting reported that they had been happier and more relaxed during the morning. The macro-nutrient compositions of breakfast and lunch were calculated and related to mood during the morning. In males, but not females, the consumption of more carbohydrate in the morning was associated with feeling happy rather than sad and relaxed rather than stressed. Further examination demonstrated that in males the amount of fat, protein and total energy consumed was not associated with mood; that is there was a selective relationship between carbohydrate intake and mood. It was not possible to establish whether the nature of breakfast influenced mood or the pre-existing mood influenced the choice of breakfast although both explanations are plausible. In females, however, there was no relationship between carbohydrate intake and mood, possibly a reflection of the smaller amounts consumed. The suggestion that mood during the morning might influence food choice at mid-day was considered but no association was found.

  12. Macronutrient Composition of Menu Offerings in Fast Food Restaurants in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarlenski, Marian P; Wolfson, Julia A; Bleich, Sara N

    2016-10-01

    A high intake of fast food is associated with increased obesity risk. This study assessed recent changes in caloric content and macronutrient composition in large U.S. fast food restaurants. Data from the MenuStat project included 11,737 menu items in 37 fast food restaurants from 2012 to 2014. Generalized linear models were used to examine changes in the caloric content and corresponding changes in the macronutrient composition (non-sugar carbohydrates, sugar, unsaturated fat, saturated fat, and protein) of menu items over time. Additionally, macronutrient composition was compared in menu items newly introduced in 2013 and 2014, relative to 2012. Analyses, conducted in January 2016, controlled for restaurant and were stratified by menu categories. Overall, there was a 22-calorie reduction in food items from 2012 to 2014. Beverages had a 46-calorie increase, explained by an increase in calories from sugar (12 calories) and saturated fat (16 calories). Newly introduced main courses in 2014 had 59 calories fewer than those on 2012 menus, explained by a 54-calorie reduction in unsaturated fat, while other macronutrient content remained fairly constant. Newly introduced dessert items in 2014 had 90 calories more than those on 2012 menus, explained primarily by an increase of 57 calories of sugar. Overall, there were relatively minor changes in menu items' caloric and macronutrient composition. Although declines in caloric content among newly introduced fast food main courses may improve the public's caloric intake, it appears that the macronutrient composition of newly introduced items did not shift to a healthier profile. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of Oral Exposure Duration and Gastric Energy Content on Appetite Ratings and Energy Intake in Lean Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne G. M. Wijlens

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies show that longer oral exposure to food leads to earlier satiation and lowers energy intake. Moreover, higher energy content of food has been shown to lead to higher satiety. Up to now, it has not been studied systematically how oral exposure duration and gastric energy content interact in satiety regulation. Thirty-seven men (22 ± 4 years, 22 ± 2 kg/m2 participated in a randomized cross-over trial, in which we independently manipulated: (1 oral exposure duration by modified sham feeding (MSF for 1 or 8 min; and (2 energy content of gastric load (GL by a nasogastric tube: 100 kcal/500 mL or 700 kcal/500 mL. Outcome measures were appetite ratings and subsequent energy intake from an ad libitum meal. Energy intake was 35% lower after the GLs with 700 kcal than with 100kcal (p < 0.0001. All appetite ratings were lower in the 700 kcal than in the 100 kcal treatments (area under the curve (AUC; p-values ≤ 0.002; fullness was higher and prospective consumption was lower in the 8 min than in the 1 min MSF treatments (AUC; p-values ≤ 0.02. In conclusion, the current showed that a GL of 700 kcal/500 mL vs. 100 kcal/500 mL increased satiety and lowered energy intake. No additional effects of oral exposure duration could be observed, presumably due to the high contrast in energy between the manipulations. Future research should also focus on the role of oral exposure as such and not only the duration.

  14. Energy efficiency and its relationship with milk, body, and intake traits and energy status among primiparous Nordic Red dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäntysaari, P; Liinamo, A-E; Mäntysaari, E A

    2012-06-01

    Existing variation in energy efficiency and its relationship with milk yield and milk composition, body weight and body condition, feed intake, and energy status was studied in primiparous Nordic Red dairy cattle with data including 3,752 weekly records from 145 cows. Energy efficiency was defined as energy conversion efficiency (ECE) and as residual energy intake (REI) estimated based on Finnish feeding standards (REI₁) or from the current data (REI₂). The results indicated true phenotypic variation in energy efficiency of the cows. The proportion of total variance due to the animal was 0.35 for REI₁, 0.30 for REI₂, and 0.50 for ECE. The high efficiency based on ECE was associated with increased mobilization of body reserves (r = -0.50) and decreased dry matter intake (r = -0.51). With REI as an energy efficiency measure, the increased efficiency was associated with a large decrease in feed intake (REI₁: r = 0.60; REI2: r = 0.74) without any effect on body weight change (REI₁: r = 0.13; REI2: r = 0.00). Increased efficiency based on ECE and REI₁ was associated with increased milk yield (ECE: r = 0.58; REI₁: r = -0.41). A clear effect of stage of lactation on REI was found, which could be caused by true differences in utilization of metabolizable energy during lactation. However, it might also be related, in part, to the lack of knowledge of the composition of body weight change in the beginning of lactation.

  15. Role of dorsomedial hypothalamic NPY in modulating food intake and energy balance

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Liang; Scott, Karen A.; Hyun, Jayson; Tamashiro, Kellie L.; Tray, Nancy; Moran, Timothy H.; Bi,Sheng

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) serves as an important signaling peptide in the regulation of energy balance. To elucidate such actions, we used the adeno-associated virus (AAV) system to alter Npy gene expression in the DMH and examined the effects of these alterations on food intake and energy balance as well as explored its downstream signaling pathway. We found that AAV-mediated overexpression of NPY in the DMH of lean rats i...

  16. Contribution of energy restriction and macronutrient composition to changes in adipose tissue gene expression during dietary weight-loss programs in obese women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capel, Frédéric; Viguerie, Nathalie; Vega, Nathalie;

    2008-01-01

    CONTEXT: Hypoenergetic diets are used to reduce body fat mass and metabolic risk factors in obese subjects. The molecular changes in adipose tissue associated with weight loss and specifically related to the dietary composition are poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: We investigated adipose tissue gene...... diet. SUBJECTS: Two sets of 47 women in each dietary arm were selected among 648 subjects matched for anthropometric and biological parameters. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: We measured adipose tissue gene expression changes in one set using a candidate gene approach. The other set was used to survey 24...... expression from human obese women according to energy deficit and the fat and carbohydrate content of the diet. DESIGN AND SETTING: Obese subjects recruited among eight European clinical centers were followed up 10 wk of either a low-fat (high carbohydrate) or a moderate-fat (low carbohydrate) hypoenergetic...

  17. Energy and Protein Intake and Its Relationship with Pulmonary Function in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Yazdanpanah

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD is a public health problem worldwide. Increased energy and protein needs, decreased energy and protein intake are common in COPD patients. Adequate intake is essential to improve pulmonary function and immune system, prevention of weight loss and maintaining muscle mass and strength. Assessment of energy and protein intake and its relationship with pulmonary function in COPD patients was performed in this study. The study group included 63 COPD patients. For all subjects, evaluation of energy and protein intake by Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ and 24-hour recall, spirometry for measuring pulmonary function and determining disease severity were performed. The subjects were divided into three groups based on disease severity according to the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD stages. Relationship between energy and protein intake with pulmonary function was assessed. Energy and protein intake were lower than the calculated energy and protein demand for all groups. Significant relationship was found between the amount of protein intake extrapolated from food frequency questionnaire with Forced Vital Capacity (FVC (r=0.2, P=0.02 and Vital Capacity (VC (r=0.3, P=0.008. The results of the study suggest that accurate evaluation of protein and energy intake and requirements should be included in the goals of medical treatment of COPD patients.

  18. Effects of PYY3-36 and GLP-1 on energy intake, energy expenditure and appetite in overweight men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Julie Berg; Gregersen, Nikolaj Ture; Pedersen, Sue D

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To examine the effects of GLP-1 and PYY3-36, separately and in combination, on energy intake, energy expenditure, appetite sensations, glucose and fat metabolism, ghrelin and vital signs in healthy overweight men. Methods: 25 healthy, male subjects participated in this randomized, double...... of appetite sensations, energy expenditure and fat oxidation, vital signs and blood variables were collected throughout the infusion period. Results: No effect on energy intake was found after monoinfusions of PYY3-36 (-4.2±4.8%, P=0.8) or GLP-1 (-3.0±4.5%, P=0.9). However, the co-infusion reduced energy......-blinded, placebo-controlled 4-arm crossover study (BMI:29±3 kg/m2, age:33±9 years). On separate days they received a 150 min intravenous infusion of either a) 0.8pmol/kg/min PYY3-36, b) 1.0 pmol/kg/min GLP-1, c) a+b, or d) placebo. Ad libitum energy intake was assessed during the final 30 min. Measurements...

  19. Evaluation of a mid-infrared analyzer for the determination of the macronutrient composition of human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casadio, Ylenia S; Williams, Tracey M; Lai, Ching T; Olsson, Sofia E; Hepworth, Anna R; Hartmann, Peter E

    2010-11-01

    A mid-infrared human milk analyzer (HMA) is designed to measure the macronutrients in human milk over a wide range of concentrations. Human milk samples (N = 30, 4 different dilutions each) were used to compare the macronutrient levels determined by the HMA to those derived from traditional laboratory methods. There was a small but statistically significant difference in the levels of fat, protein, lactose, total solids, and energy for all samples. These differences were consistent with subtle differences in the chemical principles governing the assays. For higher macronutrient levels, a trend to greater differences between the HMA and the laboratory method was seen, particularly in samples with high fat concentration. The intra-assay variation for the HMA for all macronutrients was less than 4%. It is concluded that that with appropriate sample preparation, the mid-infrared HMA can provide a practical measurement of macronutrients in human milk.

  20. [Circadian energy intake evaluation of a group of office workers in Porto].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setas, Cristiana D; Pinhão, Sílvia C; Carvalho, Davide M; Correia, Flora C; Medina, José L

    2004-01-01

    The importance of food in health promotion and disease prevention is well known. The aims of our study were to evaluate the daily energy intake of an adult group; to study the association of a 24 hour recall (R24h) and a Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ); to analyse energy intake variation with obesity and to verify if our sample had an ingestion according to DRI's. We studied a convenience sample of Portuguese adult population of 154 office workers (121 women), with a mean of ages of 44.2 +/- 12.1 years. We used a self administered FFQ and a R24h to evaluate food habits. Middle number of meals was 4.8 +/- 1.0 meals (breakfast, lunch and dinner were the most frequent). Middle daily ingestion was 1908 +/- 559 kcal. Men had a superior energy intake at all meals, except at afternoon snack and supper. We did not find any relation between BMI and food intake, BMI is only related with age. We compared our sample ingestion with DRI's and verified that vitamins B1, B2, B12, B6, C, niacin, Fe and P, were totally reached, and the inverse was obtained in Zn, folate, vitamin D and E, pantothenic acid and biotin. We conclude that our sample ingestion of protein is higher than the recommended, carbohydrates is less consume than the recommended and only recommendations of fat and alcohol consumption were in agreement with WHO recommendations.

  1. Buying less and wasting less food. Changes in household food energy purchases, energy intakes and energy density between 2007 and 2012 with and without adjustment for food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whybrow, Stephen; Horgan, Graham W; Macdiarmid, Jennie I

    2017-05-01

    Consumers in the UK responded to the rapid increases in food prices between 2007 and 2009 partly by reducing the amount of food energy bought. Household food and drink waste has also decreased since 2007. The present study explored the combined effects of reductions in food purchases and waste on estimated food energy intakes and dietary energy density. The amount of food energy purchased per adult equivalent was calculated from Kantar Worldpanel household food and drink purchase data for 2007 and 2012. Food energy intakes were estimated by adjusting purchase data for food and drink waste, using waste factors specific to the two years and scaled for household size. Scotland. Households in Scotland (n 2657 in 2007; n 2841 in 2012). The amount of food energy purchased decreased between 2007 and 2012, from 8·6 to 8·2 MJ/adult equivalent per d (Pwaste, estimated food energy intake was not significantly different (7·3 and 7·2 MJ/adult equivalent per d for 2007 and 2012, respectively; P=0·186). Energy density of foods purchased increased slightly from 700 to 706 kJ/100 g (P=0·010). While consumers in Scotland reduced the amount of food energy that they purchased between 2007 and 2012, this was balanced by reductions in household food and drink waste over the same time, resulting in no significant change in net estimated energy intake of foods brought into the home.

  2. Snacking for a Cause: Nutritional Insufficiencies and Excesses of U.S. Children, a Critical Review of Food Consumption Patterns and Macronutrient and Micronutrient Intake of U.S. Children

    OpenAIRE

    Julie Hess; Joanne Slavin

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this review was to identify dietary insufficiencies and excesses in children aged two to 11 in the United States (U.S.) and eating habits that merit concern in terms of nutrient and energy density to improve overall diet quality. Data from the What We Eat in America (WWEIA) tables from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were examined as well as survey data from the School Nutrition Dietary Assessment Study (SNDA). Analysis of survey data revealed th...

  3. Dairy consumption and insulin resistance: the role of body fat, physical activity, and energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Larry A; Erickson, Andrea; LeCheminant, James D; Bailey, Bruce W

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between dairy consumption and insulin resistance was ascertained in 272 middle-aged, nondiabetic women using a cross-sectional design. Participants kept 7-day, weighed food records to report their diets, including dairy intake. Insulin resistance was assessed using the homeostatic model assessment (HOMA). The Bod Pod was used to measure body fat percentage, and accelerometry for 7 days was used to objectively index physical activity. Regression analysis was used to determine the extent to which mean HOMA levels differed across low, moderate, and high dairy intake categories. Results showed that women in the highest quartile of dairy consumption had significantly greater log-transformed HOMA values (0.41 ± 0.53) than those in the middle-two quartiles (0.22 ± 0.55) or the lowest quartile (0.19 ± 0.58) (F = 6.90, P = 0.0091). The association remained significant after controlling for each potential confounder individually and all covariates simultaneously. Adjusting for differences in energy intake weakened the relationship most, but the association remained significant. Of the 11 potential confounders, only protein intake differed significantly across the dairy categories, with those consuming high dairy also consuming more total protein than their counterparts. Apparently, high dairy intake is a significant predictor of insulin resistance in middle-aged, nondiabetic women.

  4. Dairy Consumption and Insulin Resistance: The Role of Body Fat, Physical Activity, and Energy Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry A. Tucker

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between dairy consumption and insulin resistance was ascertained in 272 middle-aged, nondiabetic women using a cross-sectional design. Participants kept 7-day, weighed food records to report their diets, including dairy intake. Insulin resistance was assessed using the homeostatic model assessment (HOMA. The Bod Pod was used to measure body fat percentage, and accelerometry for 7 days was used to objectively index physical activity. Regression analysis was used to determine the extent to which mean HOMA levels differed across low, moderate, and high dairy intake categories. Results showed that women in the highest quartile of dairy consumption had significantly greater log-transformed HOMA values (0.41 ± 0.53 than those in the middle-two quartiles (0.22 ± 0.55 or the lowest quartile (0.19 ± 0.58 (F = 6.90, P = 0.0091. The association remained significant after controlling for each potential confounder individually and all covariates simultaneously. Adjusting for differences in energy intake weakened the relationship most, but the association remained significant. Of the 11 potential confounders, only protein intake differed significantly across the dairy categories, with those consuming high dairy also consuming more total protein than their counterparts. Apparently, high dairy intake is a significant predictor of insulin resistance in middle-aged, nondiabetic women.

  5. Awareness of energy drink intake guidelines and associated consumption practices: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Amy; Droste, Nicolas; Pennay, Amy; Miller, Peter; Lubman, Dan I; Bruno, Raimondo

    2016-01-05

    Despite concern regarding harms of energy drink (ED) consumption, no research has been conducted to determine awareness and compliance with ED intake guidelines displayed on product packaging in Australia (a novel approach internationally). A convenience sample of 1922 people completed an online survey. Participants reported their knowledge of maximum recommended daily ED intake according to Australian guidelines. Guideline awareness was reported by 38, 23 and 19% of past year consumers, lifetime, and non-consumers, respectively. Amongst past year consumers, 'accurate estimators' reported greater ED intake and were more likely to exceed intake guidelines and consume alcohol mixed with ED (AmED). After controlling for demographics and frequency of use, guideline awareness predicted increased likelihood of exceeding guidelines in ED sessions, but was not associated with exceeding ED guidelines in AmED sessions. Australia is considered to have the most stringent regulatory approach to EDs internationally. However, advisory statements are not associated with greater awareness and compliance with intake guidelines. Failure to comply with standards for efficacious product labelling, and absence of broader education regarding guidelines, needs to be addressed.

  6. High Vegetable Fats Intake Is Associated with High Resting Energy Expenditure in Vegetarians

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    Tiziana Montalcini

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available It has been demonstrated that a vegetarian diet may be effective in reducing body weight, however, the underlying mechanisms are not entirely clear. We investigated whether there is a difference in resting energy expenditure between 26 vegetarians and 26 non-vegetarians and the correlation between some nutritional factors and inflammatory markers with resting energy expenditure. In this cross-sectional study, vegetarians and non-vegetarians were matched by age, body mass index and gender. All underwent instrumental examinations to assess the difference in body composition, nutrient intake and resting energy expenditure. Biochemical analyses and 12 different cytokines and growth factors were measured as an index of inflammatory state. A higher resting energy expenditure was found in vegetarians than in non-vegetarians (p = 0.008. Furthermore, a higher energy from diet, fibre, vegetable fats intake and interleukin-β (IL-1β was found between the groups. In the univariate and multivariable analysis, resting energy expenditure was associated with vegetarian diet, free-fat mass and vegetable fats (p < 0.001; Slope in statistic (B = 4.8; β = 0.42. After adjustment for cytokines, log10 interleukin-10 (IL-10 still correlated with resting energy expenditure (p = 0.02. Resting energy expenditure was positively correlated with a specific component of the vegetarian’s diet, i.e., vegetable fats. Furthermore, we showed that IL-10 was positively associated with resting energy expenditure in this population.

  7. The effect of preload/meal energy density on energy intake in a subsequent meal: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouhani, Mohammad Hossein; Surkan, Pamela J; Azadbakht, Leila

    2017-08-01

    To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of the effects of preload/meal energy density on energy intake in a subsequent meal(s). Multiple databases were searched for studies published through December 2016 on the effects of preload/meal energy density on energy intake in a subsequent meal(s). We extracted information on mean energy intake in a subsequent meal(s) and on variables that could contribute to between-subject heterogeneity. Forty and Thirty nine eligible studies were identified for our systematic review and meta-analysis, respectively. The meta-analysis showed that preload/meal energy density did not affect energy intake in a subsequent meal(s) (95% CI:-21.21, 21.29). As heterogeneity was remarkable among studies, we stratified the studies by intervention type into "meal" or "preload" classifications. In the "preload" subgroup, studies used either fixed energy or fixed weight preloads. The results reveal that in comparison to a high energy-dense (HED) preload, consuming a low energy-dense (LED) preload with same weight resulted in higher energy intake in a subsequent meal (95% CI: 9.72, 56.19). On the other hand, decreased energy intake was observed after consuming an LED preload compared to after consumption of an HED preload with same energy content (95% CI: -138.71, -57.33). In the "meal" subgroup, studies were categorized by different subsequent meal (i.e., "afternoon or evening", "lunch" and "dinner or post-dinner"). Meta-analysis showed that an LED meal resulted in more energy intake only in afternoon or evening meals (95% CI: 14.82, 31.22). In summary, the current analysis revealed that we can restrict the energy intake by consuming an LED preload. Moreover, consuming an LED preload could favorably affect preload+meal energy intake. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Eating dark and milk chocolate: a randomized crossover study of effects on appetite and energy intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, L B; Astrup, A

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To compare the effect of dark and milk chocolate on appetite sensations and energy intake at an ad libitum test meal in healthy, normal-weight men. Subjects/methods: A total of 16 young, healthy, normal-weight men participated in a randomized, crossover study. Test meals were 100 g of either milk (2285 kJ) or dark chocolate (2502 kJ). Visual-analogue scales were used to record appetite sensations before and after the test meal was consumed and subsequently every 30 min for 5 h. An ad libitum meal was served 2 h after the test meal had been consumed. Results: The participants felt more satiated, less hungry, and had lower ratings of prospective food consumption after consumption of the dark chocolate than after the milk chocolate. Ratings of the desire to eat something sweet, fatty or savoury were all lower after consumption of the dark chocolate. Energy intake at the ad libitum meal was 17% lower after consumption of the dark chocolate than after the milk chocolate (P=0.002). If the energy provided by the chocolate is included in the calculation, the energy intake after consumption of the dark chocolate was still 8% lower than after the milk chocolate (P=0.01). The dark chocolate load resulted in an overall energy difference of −584 kJ (95% confidence interval (−1027;−141)) during the test period. Conclusion: In the present study, dark chocolate promotes satiety, lowers the desire to eat something sweet, and suppresses energy intake compared with milk chocolate. PMID:23455041

  9. Eating dark and milk chocolate: a randomized crossover study of effects on appetite and energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, L B; Astrup, A

    2011-12-05

    To compare the effect of dark and milk chocolate on appetite sensations and energy intake at an ad libitum test meal in healthy, normal-weight men. A total of 16 young, healthy, normal-weight men participated in a randomized, crossover study. Test meals were 100 g of either milk (2285 kJ) or dark chocolate (2502 kJ). Visual-analogue scales were used to record appetite sensations before and after the test meal was consumed and subsequently every 30 min for 5 h. An ad libitum meal was served 2 h after the test meal had been consumed. The participants felt more satiated, less hungry, and had lower ratings of prospective food consumption after consumption of the dark chocolate than after the milk chocolate. Ratings of the desire to eat something sweet, fatty or savoury were all lower after consumption of the dark chocolate. Energy intake at the ad libitum meal was 17% lower after consumption of the dark chocolate than after the milk chocolate (P=0.002). If the energy provided by the chocolate is included in the calculation, the energy intake after consumption of the dark chocolate was still 8% lower than after the milk chocolate (P=0.01). The dark chocolate load resulted in an overall energy difference of -584 kJ (95% confidence interval (-1027;-141)) during the test period. In the present study, dark chocolate promotes satiety, lowers the desire to eat something sweet, and suppresses energy intake compared with milk chocolate.

  10. Energy intake adaptations to acute isoenergetic active video games and exercise are similar in obese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaput, J P; Schwartz, C; Boirie, Y; Duclos, M; Tremblay, A; Thivel, D

    2015-11-01

    Although the impact of passive video games (PVGs) on energy intake has been previously explored in lean adolescents, data are missing on the nutritional adaptations to passive and active video games (AVGs) in obese adolescents. It is also unknown whether isoenergetic AVGs and exercise (EX) differently affect food consumption in youth. Nineteen obese adolescent boys (12-15 years old) had to complete four 1-hour sessions in a crossover manner: control (CON; sitting on a chair), PVG (boxing game on Xbox 360), AVG (boxing game on Xbox Kinect 360) and EX (cycling). The EX was calibrated to generate the same energy expenditure as the AVG session. Energy expenditure was measured using a K4b2 portable indirect calorimeter. Ad libitum food intake (buffet-style meal) and appetite sensations (visual analogue scales) were assessed after the sessions. As expected, mean energy expenditure was similar between AVG (370±4 kcal) and EX (358±3 kcal), both of which were significantly higher than PVG (125±7 kcal) and CON (98±5 kcal) (Plibitum food intake after the sessions was not significantly different between CON (1174±282 kcal), PVG (1124±281 kcal), AVG (1098±265 kcal) and EX (1091±290 kcal). Likewise, the energy derived from fat, carbohydrate and protein was not significantly different between sessions, and appetite sensations were not affected. Energy intake and food preferences after an hour of AVG or PVG playing remain unchanged, and isoenergetic sessions of AVG and EX at moderate intensity induce similar nutritional responses in obese adolescent boys.

  11. Milk Consumption Following Exercise Reduces Subsequent Energy Intake in Female Recreational Exercisers

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    Penny Rumbold

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of skimmed milk as a recovery drink following moderate–vigorous cycling exercise on subsequent appetite and energy intake in healthy, female recreational exercisers. Utilising a randomised cross-over design, nine female recreational exercisers (19.7 ± 1.3 years completed a V̇O2peak test followed by two main exercise trials. The main trials were conducted following a standardised breakfast. Following 30 min of moderate-vigorous exercise (65% V̇O2peak, either 600 mL of skimmed milk or 600 mL of orange drink (475 mL orange juice from concentrate, 125 mL water, which were isoenergetic (0.88 MJ, were ingested, followed 60 min later with an ad libitum pasta meal. Absolute energy intake was reduced 25.2% ± 16.6% after consuming milk compared to the orange drink (2.39 ± 0.70 vs. 3.20 ± 0.84 MJ, respectively; p = 0.001. Relative energy intake (in relation to the energy content of the recovery drinks and energy expenditure was significantly lower after milk consumption compared to the orange drink (1.49 ± 0.72 vs. 2.33 ± 0.90 MJ, respectively; p = 0.005. There were no differences in AUC (× 1 h subjective appetite parameters (hunger, fullness and desire to eat between trials. The consumption of skimmed milk following 30 min of moderate-vigorous cycling exercise reduces subsequent energy intake in female recreational exercisers.

  12. Endogenous and dietary lipids influencing feed intake and energy metabolism of periparturient dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhla, B; Metges, C C; Hammon, H M

    2016-07-01

    The high metabolic priority of the mammary gland for milk production, accompanied by limited feed intake around parturition results in a high propensity to mobilize body fat reserves. Under these conditions, fuel selection of many peripheral organs is switched, for example, from carbohydrate to fat utilization to spare glucose for milk production and to ensure partitioning of tissue- and dietary-derived nutrients toward the mammary gland. For example, muscle tissue uses nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) but releases lactate and amino acids in a coordinated order, thereby providing precursors for milk synthesis or hepatic gluconeogenesis. Tissue metabolism and in concert, nutrient partitioning are controlled by the endocrine system involving a reduction in insulin secretion and systemic insulin sensitivity and orchestrated changes in plasma hormones such as insulin, adiponectin, insulin growth factor-I, growth hormone, glucagon, leptin, glucocorticoids, and catecholamines. However, the endocrine system is highly sensitive and responsive to an overload of fatty acids no matter if excessive NEFA supply originates from exogenous or endogenous sources. Feeding a diet containing rumen-protected fat from late lactation to calving and beyond exerts similar negative effects on energy intake, glucose and insulin concentrations as does a high extent of body fat mobilization around parturition in regard to the risk for ketosis and fatty liver development. High plasma NEFA concentrations are thought not to act directly at the brain level, but they increase the energy charge of the liver which is, signaled to the brain to diminish feed intake. Cows differing in fat mobilization during the transition phase differ in their hepatic energy charge, whole body fat oxidation, glucose metabolism, plasma ghrelin, and leptin concentrations and in feed intake several week before parturition. Hence, a high lipid load, no matter if stored, mobilized or fed, affects the endocrine system

  13. A meta-analysis of the effects of energy intake on risk of digestive cancers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Feng Yu; Yi-Qian wang; Jian Zou; Jie Dong

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To quantitatively assess the relationship between energy intake and the incidence of digestive cancers in a meta-analysis of cohort studies.METHODS:We searched MEDLINE,EMBASE,Science Citation Index Expanded,and the bibliographies of retrieved articles.Studies were included if they reported relative risks (RRs) and corresponding 95% CIs of digestive cancers with respect to total energy intake.When RRs were not available in the published article,they were computed from the exposure distributions.Data were extracted independently by two investigators and discrepancies were resolved by discussion with a third investigator.We performed fixed-effects meta-analyses and meta-regressions to compute the summary RR for highest versus lowest category of energy intake and for per unit energy intake and digestive cancer incidence by giving each study-specific RR a weight that was proportional to its precision.RESULTS:Nineteen studies consisting of 13 independent cohorts met the inclusion criteria.The studies included 995 577 participants and 5620 incident cases of digestive cancer with an average follow-up of 11.1 years.A significant inverse association was observed between energy intake and the incidence of digestive cancers.The RR of digestive cancers for the highest compared to the lowest caloric intake category was 0.90 (95% CI 0.81-0.98,P < 0.05).The RR for an increment of 239 kcai/d energy intake was 0.97 (95% CI 0.95-0.99,P < 0.05) in the fixed model.In subgroup analyses,we noted that energy intake was associated with a reduced risk of colorectal cancer (RR 0.90,95% CI 0.81-0.99,P < 0.05) and an increased risk of gastric cancer (RR 1.19,95% CI 1.08-1.31,P < 0.01).There appeared to be no association with esophageal (RR 0.96,95% CI 0.86-1.07,P > 0.05) or pancreatic (RR 0.79,95% CI 0.49-1.09,P > 0.05) cancer.Associations were also similar in studies from North America and Europe.The RR was 1.02 (95% CI 0.79-1.25,P >0.05) when considering the

  14. Children's body mass index, participation in school meals, and observed energy intake at school meals

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    Mackelprang Alyssa J

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data from a dietary-reporting validation study with fourth-grade children were analyzed to investigate a possible relationship of body mass index (BMI with daily participation in school meals and observed energy intake at school meals, and whether the relationships differed by breakfast location (classroom; cafeteria. Methods Data were collected in 17, 17, and 8 schools during three school years. For the three years, six, six, and seven of the schools had breakfast in the classroom; all other schools had breakfast in the cafeteria. Information about 180 days of school breakfast and school lunch participation during fourth grade for each of 1,571 children (90% Black; 53% girls was available in electronic administrative records from the school district. Children were weighed and measured, and BMI was calculated. Each of a subset of 465 children (95% Black; 49% girls was observed eating school breakfast and school lunch on the same day. Mixed-effects regression was conducted with BMI as the dependent variable and school as the random effect; independent variables were breakfast participation, lunch participation, combined participation (breakfast and lunch on the same day, average observed energy intake for breakfast, average observed energy intake for lunch, sex, age, breakfast location, and school year. Analyses were repeated for BMI category (underweight/healthy weight; overweight; obese; severely obese using pooled ordered logistic regression models that excluded sex and age. Results Breakfast participation, lunch participation, and combined participation were not significantly associated with BMI or BMI category irrespective of whether the model included observed energy intake at school meals. Observed energy intake at school meals was significantly and positively associated with BMI and BMI category. For the total sample and subset, breakfast location was significantly associated with BMI; average BMI was larger for

  15. Energy intake and growth of weanling horses in a cold loose housing system

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    E. AUTIO

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The demand for information relating to the nutrition of horses in a cold environment is increasing with the popularity of loose housing of horses. This study examined the energy intake and growth of 10 weanling horses from November to March (22 weeks in a loose housing system (paddock and insulated sleeping hall with deep-litter bed. The horses were measured weekly for body condition and body weight, and the feeding was adjusted according to a horse’s body condition. Metabolizable energy (ME intake was compared to Finnish (MTT 2006 and Swedish (SLU 2004 nutrient requirements for 6–12-month-old horses. ME intake (75.5 ± 11.8 MJ d-1, mean ± SD was on average 24.6% above the requirements. The intake varied in a non-linear fashion in the course of the winter: y = 0.086x2 – 0.902x + 71.5, where x is weeks from November to March (p

  16. ERICA: intake of macro and micronutrients of Brazilian adolescents

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    Amanda de Moura Souza

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe food and macronutrient intake profile and estimate the prevalence of inadequate micronutrient intake of Brazilian adolescents. METHODS Data from 71,791 adolescents aged from 12 to 17 years were evaluated in the 2013-2014 Brazilian Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA. Food intake was estimated using 24-hour dietary recall (24-HDR. A second 24-HDR was collected in a subsample of the adolescents to estimate within-person variability and calculate the usual individual intake. The prevalence of food/food group intake reported by the adolescents was also estimated. For sodium, the prevalence of inadequate intake was estimated based on the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL. The Estimated Average Requirement (EAR method used as cutoff was applied to estimate the prevalence of inadequate nutrient intake. All the analyses were stratified according to sex, age group and Brazilian macro-regions. All statistical analyses accounted for the sample weight and the complex sampling design. RESULTS Rice, beans and other legume, juice and fruit drinks, breads and meat were the most consumed foods among the adolescents. The average energy intake ranged from 2,036 kcal (girls aged from 12 to 13 years to 2,582 kcal (boy aged from14 to 17 years. Saturated fat and free sugar intake were above the maximum limit recommended ( 50.0%. Sodium intake was above the UL for more than 80.0% of the adolescents. CONCLUSIONS The diets of Brazilian adolescents were characterized by the intake of traditional Brazilian food, such as rice and beans, as well as by high intake of sugar through sweetened beverages and processed foods. This food pattern was associated with an excessive intake of sodium, saturated fatty acids and free sugar.

  17. The impact of obesity-related SNP on appetite and energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougkas, Anestis; Yaqoob, Parveen; Givens, D Ian; Reynolds, Christopher K; Minihane, Anne M

    2013-09-28

    An increasing number of studies have reported a heritable component for the regulation of energy intake and eating behaviour, although the individual polymorphisms and their ‘effect size’ are not fully elucidated. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between specific SNP and appetite responses and energy intake in overweight men. In a randomised cross-over trial, forty overweight men (age 32 (sd 09) years; BMI 27 (sd 2) kg/m2) attended four sessions 1 week apart and received three isoenergetic and isovolumetric servings of dairy snacks or water (control) in random order. Appetite ratings were determined using visual analogue scales and energy intake at an ad libitum lunch was assessed 90 min after the dairy snacks. Individuals were genotyped for SNP in the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO), leptin (LEP), leptin receptor (LEPR) genes and a variant near the melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) locus. The postprandial fullness rating over the full experiment following intake of the different snacks was 17·2 % (P= 0·026) lower in A carriers compared with TT homozygotes for rs9939609 (FTO, dominant) and 18·6 % (P= 0·020) lower in G carriers compared with AA homozygotes for rs7799039 (LEP, dominant). These observations indicate that FTO and LEP polymorphisms are related to the variation in the feeling of fullness and may play a role in the regulation of food intake. Further studies are required to confirm these initial observations and investigate the ‘penetrance’ of these genotypes in additional population subgroups.

  18. Total daily water intake in Guatemalan children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenegro-Bethancourt, Gabriela; Vossenaar, Marieke; Doak, Colleen M; Solomons, Noel W

    2009-12-01

    Water is an essential nutrient, but recommendations for total water requirements only emerged in 2005, in the context of estimated average population targets in the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) for US and Canadian societies. To assess total daily water acquisition, and the contribution of water acquired from all possible sources, among Guatemalan children. A total of 449 urban Guatemalan schoolchildren, aged 8 to 11 years, evenly divided between two socioeconomic strata, completed a 1-day pictorial registry of all foods and beverages consumed. Estimated energy intake, total water intake, and the contributions of water from drinking water, beverages, intrinsic and extrinsic water in foods, and the oxidation of macronutrients were assessed. The contribution of water from the examined water sources was 8% for drinking water, 49% for beverages, 29% for all foods, and 14% for metabolism of macronutrients, with only slight variance across sexes and social class. The average total daily water acquisition was 1,841 +/- 572 mL for boys and 1,834 +/- 484 mL for girls, which fall short of the North American DRI recommendations of 2.4 and 2.1 L, respectively There was correspondingly lower average consumption of dietary liquids. Foods play an important role in the acquisition of water from their hydration and metabolic oxidation, contributing 43.8% of the daily supply to these children. There is still a calculated shortfall of daily water acquisition, as compared with the DRI recommendations, which could be overcome by greater intake of plain water and low-energy fresh produce.

  19. Adequação do consumo energético e de macronutrientes de crianças menores de seis anos Adecuación del consumo energético y de macronutrientes de niños con menos de seis años en una ciudad en el sur de Brasil Adequacy of energy consumption and macronutrients of children under six years of age

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    Gabriel Missaggia Bonotto

    2012-12-01

    Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, en 2008. La muestra se constituyó por 799 niños con menos de seis años de edad. Para evaluar la ingestión calórica y el aporte porcentual de macronutrientes en el total de calorías de la dieta, se utilizaron las Ingestiones Dietéticas de Referencia del Instituto de Medicina. Los análisis incluyeron la descripción de la muestra y prueba de chi cuadrado para evaluación de las asociaciones, considerándose un nivel de significancia de 5%. RESULTADOS: La ingestión calórica deficiente fue más grande en los muchachos (58,0% y muchachas (63,0% con edad igual o inferior a seis meses. Se observó ingestión calórica excesiva en las edades entre 7 y 12 meses y uno y dos años: 61,3 y 73,5% en los muchachos y 56,0 y 74,1% en las muchachas, respectivamente. La mayoría de los niños con tres años de edad o más (44,9% muchachos y 47,4% muchachas presentó ingestión calórica adecuada para la edad. La ingestión energética de macronutrientes se presentó adecuada para carbohidratos y proteínas y señaló que 54,5% de los niños tenían ingestión deficiente de lípidos en la franja de edad de uno a tres años. CONCLUSIÓNS: Se evidenció la necesidad del estímulo de hábitos alimentares sanos que equilibren la ingestión energética y distribuyan el consumo de macronutrientes en ese grupo de edad.OBJECTIVE: To recognize the adequacy of dietary energy consumption and macronutrients of children under the age of six in the urban zone of Pelotas, in Southern Brazil. METHODS: A cross-sectional study that comprises the fourth evaluation of a temporal series study conducted in the city of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, in 2008. The sample consisted of 799 children under six years of age. In order to evaluate caloric intake rates and macronutrient percentage of contribution to the overall food diet calories, the dietary reference intakes (DRI of the Institute of Medicine were used. These analyses included descriptions of the sample and chi

  20. Processed Food Contributions to Energy and Nutrient Intake Differ among US Children by Race/Ethnicity

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    Heather A. Eicher-Miller

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study determined and compared the mean daily intake of energy and nutrients from processed foods by level of processing (minimally processed; processed for preservation, nutrient enhancement, and freshness; mixtures of combined ingredients; ready-to-eat processed foods; and prepared foods/meals among non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Mexican American US children. Data from participants 2–18 years old (n = 10,298 of the nationally representative cross-sectional National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2008 with a complete one day, 24-h dietary recall were used to determine mean intake of energy and nutrients recommended for increase and decrease, as per the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, among child race/ethnic groups by category of food processing. Regression analysis was used to estimate and compare covariate-adjusted (gender, age, and poverty-income-level least square means (p < 0.05/3 race/ethnic groups. All children, regardless of race or ethnicity consumed processed foods. Approximately 66% to 84% of total daily energy, saturated fat, cholesterol, fiber, total sugar, added sugars, calcium, vitamin D, potassium, and sodium intake are contributed by one of the five categories of processed foods. Clinicians and policy should primarily advise consideration of the energy and nutrient composition of foods, rather than the processing level, when selecting a healthy diet for children.

  1. Processed Food Contributions to Energy and Nutrient Intake Differ among US Children by Race/Ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eicher-Miller, Heather A; Fulgoni, Victor L; Keast, Debra R

    2015-12-02

    This study determined and compared the mean daily intake of energy and nutrients from processed foods by level of processing (minimally processed; processed for preservation, nutrient enhancement, and freshness; mixtures of combined ingredients; ready-to-eat processed foods; and prepared foods/meals) among non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Mexican American US children. Data from participants 2-18 years old (n = 10,298) of the nationally representative cross-sectional National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2008 with a complete one day, 24-h dietary recall were used to determine mean intake of energy and nutrients recommended for increase and decrease, as per the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, among child race/ethnic groups by category of food processing. Regression analysis was used to estimate and compare covariate-adjusted (gender, age, and poverty-income-level) least square means (p ethnic groups). All children, regardless of race or ethnicity consumed processed foods. Approximately 66% to 84% of total daily energy, saturated fat, cholesterol, fiber, total sugar, added sugars, calcium, vitamin D, potassium, and sodium intake are contributed by one of the five categories of processed foods. Clinicians and policy should primarily advise consideration of the energy and nutrient composition of foods, rather than the processing level, when selecting a healthy diet for children.

  2. Assessment of nutrient and water intake among adolescents from sports federations in the Federal District, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, Eliene F; Da Costa, Teresa H M; Nogueira, Julia A D; Vivaldi, Lúcio J

    2008-06-01

    Adolescents aged 11-14 years (n 326), belonging to organized sports federations in the Federal District, Brazil were interviewed. Subjects (n 107) provided four non-consecutive days of food consumption and 219 subjects provided two non-consecutive days of intake. The objective was to assess their nutrient and water intake according to dietary reference intake values and their energy and macronutrient intake by sex and sports groups they were engaged in: endurance, strength-skill or mixed, according to the guidelines established by the American College of Sport Medicine (ACSM). Dietary data were corrected for intra-individual variation. Total energy expenditure was higher among endurance athletes (P sports. Total energy intake was only significantly higher among endurance-engaged females (P = 0.05). Protein intake of males was above the guidelines established by the ACSM for all sports groups. All male sport groups fulfilled the intake levels of carbohydrate per kg body weight but only females engaged in endurance sports fulfilled carbohydrate guidelines. Intakes of micronutrients with low prevalence of adequate intake were: vitamins B1, E and folate, magnesium and phosphorus. Few adolescents ( sports and to improve their intake of micronutrients and water. Special attention should be given to female adolescent athletes.

  3. A Pre and Post Survey to Determine Effectiveness of a Dietitian-Based Nutrition Education Strategy on Fruit and Vegetable Intake and Energy Intake among Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pem, Dhandevi; Bhagwant, Suress; Jeewon, Rajesh

    2016-02-29

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a multicomponent nutrition education program among adults. A pretest-posttest design was used assessing Nutritional Knowledge (NK), BMI, Energy Intake (EI), Physical Activity Level (PAL), Dietary Intake (DI) and attitudes. 353 adults aged 19-55 years (178 control group (CG) and 175 intervention group (IG)) were recruited. IG participants attended nutrition education sessions evaluated through a post-test given at the end of the 12-week program. Statistical tests performed revealed that compared to CG, participants in IG increased fruit intake and decreased intake of snacks high in sugar and fat significantly (p 0.05). Factors influencing NK were age, gender and education level. "Taste" was the main barrier to the application of the nutrition education strategy. Findings are helpful to health practitioners in designing their intervention programs.

  4. Body size at birth is associated with food and nutrient intake in adulthood.

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    Mia-Maria Perälä

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Small body size at birth is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Dietary habits are tightly linked with these disorders, but the association between body size at birth and adult diet has been little studied. We examined the association between body size at birth and intake of foods and macronutrients in adulthood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We studied 1797 participants, aged 56 to 70, of the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study, whose birth weight and length were recorded. Preterm births were excluded. During a clinical study, diet was assessed with a validated food-frequency questionnaire. A linear regression model adjusted for potential confounders was used to assess the associations. Intake of fruits and berries was 13.26 g (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.56, 25.96 higher per 1 kg/m(3 increase in ponderal index (PI at birth, and 83.16 g (95% CI: 17.76, 148.56 higher per 1 kg higher birth weight. One unit higher PI at birth was associated with 0.14% of energy (E% lower intake of fat (95% CI: -0.26, -0.03 and 0.18 E% higher intake of carbohydrates (95% CI: 0.04, 0.32 as well as 0.08 E% higher sucrose (95% CI: 0.00, 0.15, 0.05 E% higher fructose (95% CI: 0.01, 0.09, and 0.18 g higher fiber (95% CI: 0.02, 0.34 intake in adulthood. Similar associations were observed between birth weight and macronutrient intake. CONCLUSIONS: Prenatal growth may modify later life food and macronutrient intake. Altered dietary habits could potentially explain an increased risk of chronic disease in individuals born with small body size.

  5. Body Size at Birth Is Associated with Food and Nutrient Intake in Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perälä, Mia-Maria; Männistö, Satu; Kaartinen, Niina E.; Kajantie, Eero; Osmond, Clive; Barker, David J. P.; Valsta, Liisa M.; Eriksson, Johan G.

    2012-01-01

    Background Small body size at birth is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Dietary habits are tightly linked with these disorders, but the association between body size at birth and adult diet has been little studied. We examined the association between body size at birth and intake of foods and macronutrients in adulthood. Methodology/Principal Findings We studied 1797 participants, aged 56 to 70, of the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study, whose birth weight and length were recorded. Preterm births were excluded. During a clinical study, diet was assessed with a validated food-frequency questionnaire. A linear regression model adjusted for potential confounders was used to assess the associations. Intake of fruits and berries was 13.26 g (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.56, 25.96) higher per 1 kg/m3 increase in ponderal index (PI) at birth, and 83.16 g (95% CI: 17.76, 148.56) higher per 1 kg higher birth weight. One unit higher PI at birth was associated with 0.14% of energy (E%) lower intake of fat (95% CI: -0.26, -0.03) and 0.18 E% higher intake of carbohydrates (95% CI: 0.04, 0.32) as well as 0.08 E% higher sucrose (95% CI: 0.00, 0.15), 0.05 E% higher fructose (95% CI: 0.01, 0.09), and 0.18 g higher fiber (95% CI: 0.02, 0.34) intake in adulthood. Similar associations were observed between birth weight and macronutrient intake. Conclusions Prenatal growth may modify later life food and macronutrient intake. Altered dietary habits could potentially explain an increased risk of chronic disease in individuals born with small body size. PMID:23049962

  6. Conserved and differential effects of dietary energy intake on the hippocampal transcriptomes of females and males.

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    Bronwen Martin

    Full Text Available The level of dietary energy intake influences metabolism, reproductive function, the development of age-related diseases, and even cognitive behavior. Because males and females typically play different roles in the acquisition and allocation of energy resources, we reasoned that dietary energy intake might differentially affect the brains of males and females at the molecular level. To test this hypothesis, we performed a gene array analysis of the hippocampus in male and female rats that had been maintained for 6 months on either ad libitum (control, 20% caloric restriction (CR, 40% CR, intermittent fasting (IF or high fat/high glucose (HFG diets. These diets resulted in expected changes in body weight, and circulating levels of glucose, insulin and leptin. However, the CR diets significantly increased the size of the hippocampus of females, but not males. Multiple genes were regulated coherently in response to energy restriction diets in females, but not in males. Functional physiological pathway analyses showed that the 20% CR diet down-regulated genes involved in glycolysis and mitochondrial ATP production in males, whereas these metabolic pathways were up-regulated in females. The 40% CR diet up-regulated genes involved in glycolysis, protein deacetylation, PGC-1alpha and mTor pathways in both sexes. IF down-regulated many genes in males including those involved in protein degradation and apoptosis, but up-regulated many genes in females including those involved in cellular energy metabolism, cell cycle regulation and protein deacetylation. Genes involved in energy metabolism, oxidative stress responses and cell death were affected by the HFG diet in both males and females. The gender-specific molecular genetic responses of hippocampal cells to variations in dietary energy intake identified in this study may mediate differential behavioral responses of males and females to differences in energy availability.

  7. Mid-infrared spectrometry of milk as a predictor of energy intake and efficiency in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McParland, S; Lewis, E; Kennedy, E; Moore, S G; McCarthy, B; O'Donovan, M; Butler, S T; Pryce, J E; Berry, D P

    2014-09-01

    Interest is increasing in the feed intake complex of individual dairy cows, both for management and animal breeding. However, energy intake data on an individual-cow basis are not routinely available. The objective of the present study was to quantify the ability of routinely undertaken mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy analysis of individual cow milk samples to predict individual cow energy intake and efficiency. Feed efficiency in the present study was described by residual feed intake (RFI), which is the difference between actual energy intake and energy used (e.g., milk production, maintenance, and body tissue anabolism) or supplied from body tissue mobilization. A total of 1,535 records for energy intake, RFI, and milk MIR spectral data were available from an Irish research herd across 36 different test days from 535 lactations on 378 cows. Partial least squares regression analyses were used to relate the milk MIR spectral data to either energy intake or efficiency. The coefficient of correlation (REX) of models to predict RFI across lactation ranged from 0.48 to 0.60 in an external validation data set; the predictive ability was, however, strongest (REX=0.65) in early lactation (milk). The inclusion of milk yield as a predictor variable improved the accuracy of predicting energy intake across lactation (REX=0.70). The correlation between measured RFI and measured energy balance across lactation was 0.85, whereas the correlation between RFI and energy balance, both predicted from the MIR spectrum, was 0.65. Milk MIR spectral data are routinely generated for individual cows throughout lactation and, therefore, the prediction equations developed in the present study can be immediately (and retrospectively where MIR spectral data have been stored) applied to predict energy intake and efficiency to aid in management and breeding decisions.

  8. High Vegetable Fats Intake Is Associated with High Resting Energy Expenditure in Vegetarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalcini, Tiziana; De Bonis, Daniele; Ferro, Yvelise; Carè, Ilaria; Mazza, Elisa; Accattato, Francesca; Greco, Marta; Foti, Daniela; Romeo, Stefano; Gulletta, Elio; Pujia, Arturo

    2015-07-17

    It has been demonstrated that a vegetarian diet may be effective in reducing body weight, however, the underlying mechanisms are not entirely clear. We investigated whether there is a difference in resting energy expenditure between 26 vegetarians and 26 non-vegetarians and the correlation between some nutritional factors and inflammatory markers with resting energy expenditure. In this cross-sectional study, vegetarians and non-vegetarians were matched by age, body mass index and gender. All underwent instrumental examinations to assess the difference in body composition, nutrient intake and resting energy expenditure. Biochemical analyses and 12 different cytokines and growth factors were measured as an index of inflammatory state. A higher resting energy expenditure was found in vegetarians than in non-vegetarians (p = 0.008). Furthermore, a higher energy from diet, fibre, vegetable fats intake and interleukin-β (IL-1β) was found between the groups. In the univariate and multivariable analysis, resting energy expenditure was associated with vegetarian diet, free-fat mass and vegetable fats (p vegetarian's diet, i.e., vegetable fats. Furthermore, we showed that IL-10 was positively associated with resting energy expenditure in this population.

  9. Diet and Macronutrient Optimization in Wild Ursids: A Comparison of Grizzly Bears with Sympatric and Allopatric Black Bears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Cecily M; Cain, Steven L; Pils, Shannon; Frattaroli, Leslie; Haroldson, Mark A; van Manen, Frank T

    2016-01-01

    When fed ad libitum, ursids can maximize mass gain by selecting mixed diets wherein protein provides 17 ± 4% of digestible energy, relative to carbohydrates or lipids. In the wild, this ability is likely constrained by seasonal food availability, limits of intake rate as body size increases, and competition. By visiting locations of 37 individuals during 274 bear-days, we documented foods consumed by grizzly (Ursus arctos) and black bears (Ursus americanus) in Grand Teton National Park during 2004-2006. Based on published nutritional data, we estimated foods and macronutrients as percentages of daily energy intake. Using principal components and cluster analyses, we identified 14 daily diet types. Only 4 diets, accounting for 21% of days, provided protein levels within the optimal range. Nine diets (75% of days) led to over-consumption of protein, and 1 diet (3% of days) led to under-consumption. Highest protein levels were associated with animal matter (i.e., insects, vertebrates), which accounted for 46-47% of daily energy for both species. As predicted: 1) daily diets dominated by high-energy vertebrates were positively associated with grizzly bears and mean percent protein intake was positively associated with body mass; 2) diets dominated by low-protein fruits were positively associated with smaller-bodied black bears; and 3) mean protein was highest during spring, when high-energy plant foods were scarce, however it was also higher than optimal during summer and fall. Contrary to our prediction: 4) allopatric black bears did not exhibit food selection for high-energy foods similar to grizzly bears. Although optimal gain of body mass was typically constrained, bears usually opted for the energetically superior trade-off of consuming high-energy, high-protein foods. Given protein digestion efficiency similar to obligate carnivores, this choice likely supported mass gain, consistent with studies showing monthly increases in percent body fat among bears in this

  10. Diet and macronutrient optimization in wild ursids: A comparison of grizzly bears with sympatric and allopatric black bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Cecily M; Cain, Steven L; Pils, Shannon R; Frattaroli, Leslie; Haroldson, Mark A.; van Manen, Frank T.

    2016-01-01

    When fed ad libitum, ursids can maximize mass gain by selecting mixed diets wherein protein provides 17 ± 4% of digestible energy, relative to carbohydrates or lipids. In the wild, this ability is likely constrained by seasonal food availability, limits of intake rate as body size increases, and competition. By visiting locations of 37 individuals during 274 bear-days, we documented foods consumed by grizzly (Ursus arctos) and black bears (Ursus americanus) in Grand Teton National Park during 2004–2006. Based on published nutritional data, we estimated foods and macronutrients as percentages of daily energy intake. Using principal components and cluster analyses, we identified 14 daily diet types. Only 4 diets, accounting for 21% of days, provided protein levels within the optimal range. Nine diets (75% of days) led to over-consumption of protein, and 1 diet (3% of days) led to under-consumption. Highest protein levels were associated with animal matter (i.e., insects, vertebrates), which accounted for 46–47% of daily energy for both species. As predicted: 1) daily diets dominated by high-energy vertebrates were positively associated with grizzly bears and mean percent protein intake was positively associated with body mass; 2) diets dominated by low-protein fruits were positively associated with smaller-bodied black bears; and 3) mean protein was highest during spring, when high-energy plant foods were scarce, however it was also higher than optimal during summer and fall. Contrary to our prediction: 4) allopatric black bears did not exhibit food selection for high-energy foods similar to grizzly bears. Although optimal gain of body mass was typically constrained, bears usually opted for the energetically superior trade-off of consuming high-energy, high-protein foods. Given protein digestion efficiency similar to obligate carnivores, this choice likely supported mass gain, consistent with studies showing monthly increases in percent body fat among bears in

  11. Diet and Macronutrient Optimization in Wild Ursids: A Comparison of Grizzly Bears with Sympatric and Allopatric Black Bears.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecily M Costello

    Full Text Available When fed ad libitum, ursids can maximize mass gain by selecting mixed diets wherein protein provides 17 ± 4% of digestible energy, relative to carbohydrates or lipids. In the wild, this ability is likely constrained by seasonal food availability, limits of intake rate as body size increases, and competition. By visiting locations of 37 individuals during 274 bear-days, we documented foods consumed by grizzly (Ursus arctos and black bears (Ursus americanus in Grand Teton National Park during 2004-2006. Based on published nutritional data, we estimated foods and macronutrients as percentages of daily energy intake. Using principal components and cluster analyses, we identified 14 daily diet types. Only 4 diets, accounting for 21% of days, provided protein levels within the optimal range. Nine diets (75% of days led to over-consumption of protein, and 1 diet (3% of days led to under-consumption. Highest protein levels were associated with animal matter (i.e., insects, vertebrates, which accounted for 46-47% of daily energy for both species. As predicted: 1 daily diets dominated by high-energy vertebrates were positively associated with grizzly bears and mean percent protein intake was positively associated with body mass; 2 diets dominated by low-protein fruits were positively associated with smaller-bodied black bears; and 3 mean protein was highest during spring, when high-energy plant foods were scarce, however it was also higher than optimal during summer and fall. Contrary to our prediction: 4 allopatric black bears did not exhibit food selection for high-energy foods similar to grizzly bears. Although optimal gain of body mass was typically constrained, bears usually opted for the energetically superior trade-off of consuming high-energy, high-protein foods. Given protein digestion efficiency similar to obligate carnivores, this choice likely supported mass gain, consistent with studies showing monthly increases in percent body fat among

  12. Interruption of scheduled, automatic feeding and reduction of excess energy intake in toddlers

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    Ciampolini M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mario Ciampolini,1 J Thomas Brenna,2 Valerio Giannellini,3 Stefania Bini11Preventive Gastroenterology Unit, Department of Paediatrics, Università di Firenze, Florence, Italy; 2Division of Nutritional Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA; 3Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Università di Firenze, Florence, ItalyBackground: Childhood obesity due to the consumption of excess calories is a severe problem in developed countries. In a previous investigation on toddlers, hospital laboratory measurements showed an association of food-demand behavior with constant lower blood glucose before meals than for scheduled meals. We hypothesize that maternal scheduling of meals for toddlers results in excess energy intake compared to feeding only on demand (previously “on request”.Objective: We tested the cross-sectional null hypothesis of no difference in energy intake between scheduled (automatic and demanded meals (administered after evaluation in 24 mother–toddler (21 months old at entry pairs with chronic, nonspecific diarrhea presenting at a clinic. We tested the same hypothesis in a subset of 14 toddlers by measuring the resting (sleeping metabolic rate 4 hours after lunch, as well as the total daily energy expenditure (TEE in 10 toddlers.Methods: We trained mothers to recognize meal demands (as in the previous investigation and to provide food in response, but required no blood glucose measurements before meals. Energy intake was assessed by a 10-day food diary, resting metabolic rate (RMR by respiratory analyses (indirect calorimetry in 14 toddlers, and TEE by doubly labeled water in 10 toddlers. Their blood parameters, anthropometry, and number of days with diarrhea were assessed before training and 50 days after training.Results: RMR decreased from 58.6 ± 7.8 to 49.0 ± 9.1 kcal/kg/d (P < 0.001 and TEE decreased from 80.1 ± 6.9 to 67.8 ± 10.0 kcal/kg/d (P < 0.001. Energy intake decreased from 85.7 ± 15.3 to 70.3 ± 15.8 kcal

  13. Whey protein consumption after resistance exercise reduces energy intake at a post-exercise meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteyne, Alistair; Martin, Alex; Jackson, Liam; Corrigan, Nick; Stringer, Ellen; Newey, Jack; Rumbold, Penny L S; Stevenson, Emma J; James, Lewis J

    2016-11-10

    Protein consumption after resistance exercise potentiates muscle protein synthesis, but its effects on subsequent appetite in this context are unknown. This study examined appetite and energy intake following consumption of protein- and carbohydrate-containing drinks after resistance exercise. After familiarisation, 15 resistance training males (age 21 ± 1 years, body mass 78.0 ± 11.9 kg, stature 1.78 ± 0.07 m) completed two randomised, double-blind trials, consisting of lower-body resistance exercise, followed by consumption of a whey protein (PRO 23.9 ± 3.6 g protein) or dextrose (CHO 26.5 ± 3.8 g carbohydrate) drink in the 5 min post-exercise. An ad libitum meal was served 60 min later, with subjective appetite measured throughout. Drinks were flavoured and matched for energy content and volume. The PRO drink provided 0.3 g/kg body mass protein. Ad libitum energy intake (PRO 3742 ± 994 kJ; CHO 4172 ± 1132 kJ; P = 0.007) and mean eating rate (PRO 339 ± 102 kJ/min; CHO 405 ± 154 kJ/min; P = 0.009) were lower during PRO. The change in eating rate was associated with the change in energy intake (R = 0.661, P = 0.007). No interaction effects were observed for subjective measures of appetite. The PRO drink was perceived as creamier and thicker, and less pleasant, sweet and refreshing (P consumption after resistance exercise reduces subsequent energy intake, and this might be partially mediated by a reduced eating rate. Whilst this reduced energy intake is unlikely to impair hypertrophy, it may be of value in supporting an energy deficit for weight loss.

  14. The dancer : Physical effort, muscle fibre types, and energy intake and expenditure

    OpenAIRE

    Dahlström, Monica

    1996-01-01

    The Dancer Physical Effort, Muscle Fibre Types, and Energy Intake and Expenditure Monica Dahlström From Karolinska Institutet, Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences and Technology, Division of Clinical Physiology, Huddinge University Hospital, Huddinge, Sweden. The aims of this thesis were: -to estimate aerobic fitness in dancers and analyse possible changes during a three-year dance course and after a detraining period. -to compare different dance style...

  15. Exercising in the Fasted State Reduced 24-Hour Energy Intake in Active Male Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L. Bachman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of fasting prior to morning exercise on 24-hour energy intake was examined using a randomized, counterbalanced design. Participants (12 active, white males, 20.8±3.0 years old, VO2max:   59.1±5.7 mL/kg/min fasted (NoBK or received breakfast (BK and then ran for 60 minutes at 60%  VO2max. All food was weighed and measured for 24 hours. Measures of blood glucose and hunger were collected at 5 time points. Respiratory quotient (RQ was measured during exercise. Generalized linear mixed models and paired sample t-tests examined differences between the conditions. Total 24-hour (BK: 19172±4542 kJ versus NoBK: 15312±4513 kJ; p<0.001 and evening (BK: 12265±4278 kJ versus NoBK: 10833±4065; p=0.039 energy intake and RQ (BK: 0.90±0.03 versus NoBK: 0.86±0.03; p<0.001 were significantly higher in BK than NoBK. Blood glucose was significantly higher in BK than NoBK before exercise (5.2±0.7 versus 4.5±0.6 mmol/L; p=0.025. Hunger was significantly lower for BK than NoBK before exercise, after exercise, and before lunch. Blood glucose and hunger were not associated with energy intake. Fasting before morning exercise decreased 24-hour energy intake and increased fat oxidation during exercise. Completing exercise in the morning in the fasted state may have implications for weight management.

  16. No effects of Korean pine nut triacylglycerol on satiety and energy intake

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    Verhoef Sanne PM

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Triacylglycerols (TAG have been shown to have potential appetite suppressing effects. This study examined the effects of 3 g and 6 g Korean pine nut triacylglycerols (PinnoThin on appetite and energy intake. Methods 130 g Isoenergetic yogurt containing either placebo (milk fat or PinnoThin TAG was consumed as a breakfast, after an overnight fast, in a double blind randomized crossover design. Appetite profile ratings were determined by visual analogue scale at regular intervals for a period of 4 h after the breakfast. In phase I, 6 g PinnoThin TAG and placebo was tested in thirty-three healthy women (mean ± SD, BMI 26.4 ± 3.8 kg/m2; age 28 ± 10 y to determine the appetite suppressing effect in time. In phase II, an additional dose of 3 g PinnoThin TAG, as well as 6 g PinnoThin TAG and placebo, was tested in thirty-four women (BMI 25.8 ± 2.9 kg/m2; age 25 ± 9 y to determine energy intake from an ad libitum lunch offered at 210 min after the breakfast, at which maximal differences in appetite profile ratings were present in phase I. Results Area under the curve of appetite profile ratings was not significantly different between the conditions. Energy intake was 9.5% lower after 6 g PinnoThin TAG compared with 3 g PinnoThin TAG, but there was no significant difference with the placebo. Conclusion A dosage of 6 g PinnoThin TAG is not sufficient to suppress appetite and energy intake. Trial registration Clinical Trials NCT01034605

  17. Residual feed intake in young chickens : effects on energy partitioning and immunity

    OpenAIRE

    Eerden, van der, M.M.

    2007-01-01

    Keywords: chicken, residual feed intake, resource allocation, immune response, Salmonella Enteritidis, energy partitioning.The continuous selection in farm animals for efficient production and high production levels may have led to animals that are "programmed" to put a lot of resources in production processes, at the expense of resources for maintenance processes, among which the immune system. When efficiently and non-efficiently producing animals in a population are discriminated, it is hy...

  18. Energy intake and expenditure assessed 'in-season' in an elite European rugby union squad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Warren J; Cavanagh, Bryce; Douglas, William; Donovan, Timothy F; Twist, Craig; Morton, James P; Close, Graeme L

    2015-01-01

    Rugby union (RU) is a complex high-intensity intermittent collision sport with emphasis placed on players possessing high lean body mass and low body fat. After an 8 to 12-week pre-season focused on physiological adaptations, emphasis shifts towards competitive performance. However, there are no objective data on the physiological demands or energy intake (EI) and energy expenditure (EE) for elite players during this period. Accordingly, in-season training load using global positioning system and session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE), alongside six-day assessments of EE and EI were measured in 44 elite RU players. Mean weekly distance covered was 7827 ± 954 m and 9572 ± 1233 m with a total mean weekly sRPE of 1776 ± 355 and 1523 ± 434 AU for forwards and backs, respectively. Mean weekly EI was 16.6 ± 1.5 and 14.2 ± 1.2 megajoules (MJ) and EE was 15.9 ± 0.5 and 14 ± 0.5 MJ. Mean carbohydrate (CHO) intake was 3.5 ± 0.8 and 3.4 ± 0.7 g.kg(-1) body mass, protein intake was 2.7 ± 0.3 and 2.7 ± 0.5 g.kg(-1) body mass, and fat intake was 1.4 ± 0.2 and 1.4 ± 0.3 g.kg(-1) body mass. All players who completed the food diary self-selected a 'low' CHO 'high' protein diet during the early part of the week, with CHO intake increasing in the days leading up to a match, resulting in the mean EI matching EE. Based on EE and training load data, the EI and composition seems appropriate, although further research is required to evaluate if this diet is optimal for match day performance.

  19. An obesity-associated FTO gene variant and increased energy intake in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecil, Joanne E; Tavendale, Roger; Watt, Peter; Hetherington, Marion M; Palmer, Colin N A

    2008-12-11

    Variation in the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene has provided the most robust associations with common obesity to date. However, the role of FTO variants in modulating specific components of energy balance is unknown. We studied 2726 Scottish children, 4 to 10 years of age, who underwent genotyping for FTO variant rs9939609 and were measured for height and weight. A subsample of 97 children was examined for possible association of the FTO variant with adiposity, energy expenditure, and food intake. In the total study group and the subsample, the A allele of rs9939609 was associated with increased weight (P=0.003 and P=0.049, respectively) and body-mass index (P=0.003 and P=0.03, respectively). In the intensively phenotyped subsample, the A allele was also associated with increased fat mass (P=0.01) but not with lean mass. Although total and resting energy expenditures were increased in children with the A allele (P=0.009 and P=0.03, respectively), resting energy expenditure was identical to that predicted for the age and weight of the child, indicating that there is no defect in metabolic adaptation to obesity in persons bearing the risk-associated allele. The A allele was associated with increased energy intake (P=0.006) independently of body weight. In contrast, the weight of food ingested by children who had the allele was similar to that in children who did not have the allele (P=0.82). The FTO variant that confers a predisposition to obesity does not appear to be involved in the regulation of energy expenditure but may have a role in the control of food intake and food choice, suggesting a link to a hyperphagic phenotype or a preference for energy-dense foods. 2008 Massachusetts Medical Society

  20. The Cross-Sectional Association of Energy Intake and Dietary Energy Density with Body Composition of Children in Southwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Zhou

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We examined whether dietary energy intake (EI and dietary energy density (ED were cross-sectionally associated with body composition of children living in Southwest China. Design and Methods: Multivariate regression analyses were performed on three day, 24 h dietary recall data and information on potential confounders from 1207 participants aged 8–14 years. EI was calculated from all foods and drinks and ED was classified into five categories. Body mass index (BMI z-scores, percentage of body fat (%BF, fat mass index (FMI, fat-free mass index (FFMI and ratio of waist to hip circumference (WHR were used to describe body composition. Results: Boys with higher total EI had higher BMI z-scores, %BF, and FMI than boys with lower total EI both before and after measurements were adjusted for confounders (age, fiber intake, physical activity, the timing of adding complementary foods, paternal education level and maternal BMI (p ≤ 0.04. However, EI was not associated with body composition in girls. Dietary ED, in any category, was not associated with body composition in either gender. Conclusions: Dietary ED was not associated with body composition of children in Southwest China, while dietary EI in boys, not girls, was positively associated with body composition. Reducing dietary energy intake may help to prevent obesity and related diseases in later life among boys living in Southwest China.

  1. Role of Macronutrients and Micronutrients in DNA Damage: Results From a Food Frequency Questionnaire

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    Carina Ladeira

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The links between diet and genomic instability have been under investigation for several decades, and evidence suggests a significant causal or preventive role for various dietary factors. This study investigates the influence of macronutrients (calories, protein, and glucides and micronutrients, such as vitamins and minerals, as assessed by a food frequency questionnaire, on genotoxicity biomarkers measured by cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus assay and comet assay. The results found significant positive and negative correlations. Micronucleus frequency tends to increase with higher intake of caffeine, calcium, magnesium, zinc, and protein ( P  < .05, Spearman correlation. Calorie and omega-6 intakes are negatively correlated with DNA damage measured by the comet assay. These results are somewhat controversial because some of the correlations found are contrary to dominant views in the literature; however, we suggest that unraveling the association between diet and genetic instability requires a much better understanding of the modulating role of macronutrients and micronutrients.

  2. Role of Macronutrients and Micronutrients in DNA Damage: Results From a Food Frequency Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladeira, Carina; Carolino, Elisabete; Gomes, Manuel C; Brito, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    The links between diet and genomic instability have been under investigation for several decades, and evidence suggests a significant causal or preventive role for various dietary factors. This study investigates the influence of macronutrients (calories, protein, and glucides) and micronutrients, such as vitamins and minerals, as assessed by a food frequency questionnaire, on genotoxicity biomarkers measured by cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus assay and comet assay. The results found significant positive and negative correlations. Micronucleus frequency tends to increase with higher intake of caffeine, calcium, magnesium, zinc, and protein (P < .05, Spearman correlation). Calorie and omega-6 intakes are negatively correlated with DNA damage measured by the comet assay. These results are somewhat controversial because some of the correlations found are contrary to dominant views in the literature; however, we suggest that unraveling the association between diet and genetic instability requires a much better understanding of the modulating role of macronutrients and micronutrients.

  3. Role of Macronutrients and Micronutrients in DNA Damage: Results From a Food Frequency Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladeira, Carina; Carolino, Elisabete; Gomes, Manuel C; Brito, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    The links between diet and genomic instability have been under investigation for several decades, and evidence suggests a significant causal or preventive role for various dietary factors. This study investigates the influence of macronutrients (calories, protein, and glucides) and micronutrients, such as vitamins and minerals, as assessed by a food frequency questionnaire, on genotoxicity biomarkers measured by cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus assay and comet assay. The results found significant positive and negative correlations. Micronucleus frequency tends to increase with higher intake of caffeine, calcium, magnesium, zinc, and protein (P < .05, Spearman correlation). Calorie and omega-6 intakes are negatively correlated with DNA damage measured by the comet assay. These results are somewhat controversial because some of the correlations found are contrary to dominant views in the literature; however, we suggest that unraveling the association between diet and genetic instability requires a much better understanding of the modulating role of macronutrients and micronutrients. PMID:28469462

  4. Presence of music while eating: Effects on energy intake, eating rate and appetite sensations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamalaki, Eirini; Zachari, Konstantina; Karfopoulou, Eleni; Zervas, Efthimios; Yannakoulia, Mary

    2017-01-01

    The role of music in energy and dietary intake of humans is poorly understood. The purpose of the present laboratory study was to examine the effect of background music, its presence and its intensity, on energy intake, eating rate and appetite feelings. The study had a randomized crossover design. Twenty-six normal weight and overweight/obese men participated in random order in three trials: the control trial (no music was playing), the 60dB and the 90dB music trials, while an ad libitum lunch was consumed. Visual analogue scales for hunger, fullness/satiety, as well as desire to eat were administered to the participants. Energy intake at the ad libitum lunch did not differ between trials, even when covariates were taken into account. There were no statistically significant differences between trials on meal characteristics, such as meal duration, number of servings, number of bites eaten and on appetite indices. Future studies are needed to replicate these results and investigate the effect of different types of music and/or sound. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Body mass, energy intake, and water consumption of rats and humans during space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, C. E.; Miller, M. M.; Baer, L. A.; Moran, M. M.; Steele, M. K.; Stein, T. P.

    2002-01-01

    Alteration of metabolism has been suggested as a major limiting factor to long-term space flight. In humans and primates, a negative energy balance has been reported. The metabolic response of rats to space flight has been suggested to result in a negative energy balance. We hypothesized that rats flown in space would maintain energy balance as indicated by maintenance of caloric intake and body mass gain. Further, the metabolism of the rat would be similar to that of laboratory-reared animals. We studied the results from 15 space flights lasting 4 to 19 d. There was no difference in average body weight (206 +/- 13.9 versus 206 +/- 14.8 g), body weight gain (5.8 +/- 0.48 versus 5.9 +/- 0.56 g/d), caloric intake (309 +/- 21.0 versus 309 +/- 20.1 kcal/kg of body mass per day), or water intake (200 +/- 8.6 versus 199 +/- 9.3 mL/kg of body mass per day) between flight and ground control animals. Compared with standard laboratory animals of similar body mass, no differences were noted. The observations suggested that the negative balance observed in humans and non-human primates may be due to other factors in the space-flight environment.

  6. Body mass, energy intake, and water consumption of rats and humans during space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, C. E.; Miller, M. M.; Baer, L. A.; Moran, M. M.; Steele, M. K.; Stein, T. P.

    2002-01-01

    Alteration of metabolism has been suggested as a major limiting factor to long-term space flight. In humans and primates, a negative energy balance has been reported. The metabolic response of rats to space flight has been suggested to result in a negative energy balance. We hypothesized that rats flown in space would maintain energy balance as indicated by maintenance of caloric intake and body mass gain. Further, the metabolism of the rat would be similar to that of laboratory-reared animals. We studied the results from 15 space flights lasting 4 to 19 d. There was no difference in average body weight (206 +/- 13.9 versus 206 +/- 14.8 g), body weight gain (5.8 +/- 0.48 versus 5.9 +/- 0.56 g/d), caloric intake (309 +/- 21.0 versus 309 +/- 20.1 kcal/kg of body mass per day), or water intake (200 +/- 8.6 versus 199 +/- 9.3 mL/kg of body mass per day) between flight and ground control animals. Compared with standard laboratory animals of similar body mass, no differences were noted. The observations suggested that the negative balance observed in humans and non-human primates may be due to other factors in the space-flight environment.

  7. Metabolic effects of a 24-week energy-restricted intervention combined with low or high dairy intake in overweight women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Hong; Lorenzen, Janne Kunchel; Astrup, Arne;

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effect of a 24-week energy-restricted intervention with low or high dairy intake (LD or HD) on the metabolic profiles of urine, blood and feces in overweight/obese women by NMR spectroscopy combined with ANOVA-simultaneous component analysis (ASCA). A significant effect of dairy...... intake was found on the urine metabolome. HD intake increased urinary citrate, creatinine and urea excretion, and decreased urinary excretion of trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) and hippurate relative to the LD intake, suggesting that HD intake was associated with alterations in protein catabolism, energy...... metabolism and gut microbial activity. In addition, a significant time effect on the blood metabolome was attributed to a decrease in blood lipid and lipoprotein levels due to the energy restriction. For the fecal metabolome, a trend for a diet effect was found and a series of metabolites, such as acetate...

  8. Influence factors of macronutrients and energy content of donor human milk%捐赠母乳宏量营养素和能量的影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈慧敏; 肖妮蓉; 刘喜红; 孙静; 吴锦晖; 萧敏华

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To explore the effect of holder pasteurization, frozen storage time and thawing methods on macronutrients and energy content of donor human milk, and to provide theoretical basis for the rational use of breast milk. Methods Thirty-three samples of donor human milk were collected and an aliquot of each sample was analyzed before and after pasteurization. The remaining milk after pasteurization was split into 9 aliquot , and frozen at -20 ℃. After 30, 60, and 90 days, the milk was thawed by three different methods of room tempe-rature, 4 ℃ refrigeration, and 37 ℃ water bath, respectively. The nutrient components of each aliquot were analyzed and compared. Results We observed a mild reduction in fat and energy content after pasteurization (P <0.05). A significant decrease of fat, protein and energy content with the prolonged storage time was observed (P <0.01), and during the whole process (pasteurization + frozen storage), the decrease of fat, protein and energy content was 36.6%, 32.6%and 22.6%, respectively. The protein was influenced mostly by different thawing methods and the content of protein reached highest while thawed at 4 ℃ refrigeration. Conclusions Holder pasteurization and frozen storage at-20℃significantly reduce fat, protein and energy content of donor human milk. The donor milk should be used as quickly as possible when applied for preterm infants and thawing at 4 ℃ refrigeration is recommended before delivery to newborn infants.%目的:探讨巴氏消毒、储存时间及解冻方式对捐赠母乳宏量营养素和能量的影响,为母乳库捐赠母乳的合理应用提供理论依据。方法:收集33例捐赠母乳样本,在巴氏消毒前后分析营养成分;将消毒后的每份样本平均分为9份,于-20℃冷冻储存30、60、90 d 时各取3份,分别用室温条件、4℃冷藏条件、37℃水浴快速解冻3种方式将母乳解冻后,测定营养成分并进行比较分析。结果:巴氏

  9. Dry period plane of energy: Effects on feed intake, energy balance, milk production, and composition in transition dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, S; Yepes, F A Leal; Overton, T R; Wakshlag, J J; Lock, A L; Ryan, C M; Nydam, D V

    2015-05-01

    The objective was to investigate the effect of different dry cow feeding strategies on the degree of ketonemia postpartum. Epidemiologic studies provide evidence of an association between elevated β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentrations in postpartum dairy cows and a decreased risk for reproductive success as well as increased risk for several diseases in early lactation, such as displacement of the abomasum and metritis. The plane of energy fed to cows in the prepartum period has been shown to influence ketogenesis and the degree of negative energy balance postpartum. Our hypothesis was that a high-fiber, controlled-energy diet (C) fed during the dry period would lead to a lower degree of hyperketonemia in the first weeks postpartum compared with either a high-energy diet (H), or a diet where an intermediate level of energy would only be fed in the close-up period (starting at 28d before expected parturition), following the same controlled-energy diet in the far-off period. Hyperketonemia in this study was defined as a blood BHBA concentration of ≥1.2mmol/L. Holstein cows (n=84) entering parity 2 or greater were enrolled using a randomized block design and housed in individual tiestalls. All treatment diets were fed for ad libitum intake and contained monensin. Cows received the same fresh cow ration after calving. Blood samples were obtained 3 times weekly before and after calving and analyzed for BHBA and nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA). Milk components, production, and dry matter intake were recorded and energy balance was calculated. Repeated measures ANOVA was conducted for the outcomes dry matter intake, energy balance, BHBA and NEFA concentrations, milk and energy-corrected milk yield, as well as milk composition. Predicted energy balance tended to be less negative postpartum in group C and cows in this group had fewer episodes of hyperketonemia compared with both the intermediate group and group H in the first 3 wk after calving. Postpartum BHBA and

  10. Effects of dietary starch and energy levels on maximum feed intake, growth and metabolism of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran Duy, A.; Smit, B.; Dam, van A.A.; Schrama, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to gain insight into how Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) regulate feed and energy intake in response to diets low and high in starch and cellulose. It was hypothesized that high-starch diets would reduce feed intake due to the effect of high blood glucose level, and th

  11. Does diet-beverage intake affect dietary consumption patterns? Results from the Choose Healthy Options Consciously Everyday (CHOICE) randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piernas, Carmen; Tate, Deborah F; Wang, Xiaoshan; Popkin, Barry M

    2013-03-01

    Little is understood about the effect of increased consumption of low-calorie sweeteners in diet beverages on dietary patterns and energy intake. We investigated whether energy intakes and dietary patterns were different in subjects who were randomly assigned to substitute caloric beverages with either water or diet beverages (DBs). Participants from the Choose Healthy Options Consciously Everyday randomized clinical trial (a 6-mo, 3-arm study) were included in the analysis [water groups: n = 106 (94% women); DB group: n = 104 (82% women)]. For energy, macronutrient, and food and beverage intakes, we investigated the main effects of time, treatment, and the treatment-by-time interaction by using mixed models. Overall, the macronutrient composition changed in both groups without significant differences between groups over time. Both groups reduced absolute intakes of total daily energy, carbohydrates, fat, protein, saturated fat, total sugar, added sugar, and other carbohydrates. The DB group decreased energy from all beverages more than the water group did only at month 3 (P-group-by-time fruit and vegetable intake at month 6 (P-group-by-time dessert intake than the water group did at month 6 (P-group-by-time desserts than the water group did. Our study does not provide evidence to suggest that a short-term consumption of DBs, compared with water, increases preferences for sweet foods and beverages. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01017783.

  12. Evaluation of Drinks Contribution to Energy Intake in Summer and Winter

    OpenAIRE

    Olga Malisova; Vassiliki Bountziouka; Antonis Zampelas; Maria Kapsokefalou

    2015-01-01

    All drinks hydrate and most also provide nutrients and energy. Our objective was to evaluate the contribution of drinks to total energy intake in summer and winter. Data were obtained using the Water Balance Questionnaire (WBQ) from a sample of the general population in Athens, Greece (n = 984), 473 individuals (42 ± 18 years) in summer and 511 individuals (38 ± 20 years) in winter stratified by sex and age. The WBQ embeds a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire of 58 foods and the...

  13. Evaluation of Drinks Contribution to Energy Intake in Summer and Winter

    OpenAIRE

    Olga Malisova; Vassiliki Bountziouka; Antonis Zampelas; Maria Kapsokefalou

    2015-01-01

    All drinks hydrate and most also provide nutrients and energy. Our objective was to evaluate the contribution of drinks to total energy intake in summer and winter. Data were obtained using the Water Balance Questionnaire (WBQ) from a sample of the general population in Athens, Greece (n = 984), 473 individuals (42 ± 18 years) in summer and 511 individuals (38 ± 20 years) in winter stratified by sex and age. The WBQ embeds a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire of 58 foods and the...

  14. Energy intakes of US children and adults by food purchase location and by specific food source

    OpenAIRE

    Drewnowski, Adam; Rehm, Colin D.

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Background: To our knowledge, no studies have examined energy intakes by food purchase location and food source using a representative sample of US children, adolescents and adults. Evaluations of purchase location and food sources of energy may inform public health policy.Methods: Analyses were based on the first day of 24-hour recall for 22,852 persons in the 2003-4, 2005-6, and 2007-8 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES). The most common food p...

  15. Energy intakes of US children and adults by food purchase location and by specific food source

    OpenAIRE

    Drewnowski, Adam; Rehm, Colin D.

    2013-01-01

    Background To our knowledge, no studies have examined energy intakes by food purchase location and food source using a representative sample of US children, adolescents and adults. Evaluations of purchase location and food sources of energy may inform public health policy. Methods Analyses were based on the first day of 24-hour recall for 22,852 persons in the 2003-4, 2005-6, and 2007-8 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES). The most common food purchase locations were st...

  16. High-intensity intermittent exercise attenuates ad-libitum energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, A Y; Wallman, K E; Fairchild, T J; Guelfi, K J

    2014-03-01

    To examine the acute effects of high-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE) on energy intake, perceptions of appetite and appetite-related hormones in sedentary, overweight men. Seventeen overweight men (body mass index: 27.7±1.6 kg m(-2); body mass: 89.8±10.1 kg; body fat: 30.0±4.3%; VO(2peak): 39.2±4.8 ml kg(-1) min(-1)) completed four 30-min experimental conditions using a randomised counterbalanced design. CON: resting control, MC: continuous moderate-intensity exercise (60% VO(2peak)), HI: high-intensity intermittent exercise (alternating 60 s at 100% VO(2peak) and 240 s at 50% VO(2peak)), VHI: very-high-intensity intermittent exercise (alternating 15 s at 170% VO(2peak) and 60 s at 32% VO(2peak)). Participants consumed a standard caloric meal following exercise/CON and an ad-libitum meal 70 min later. Capillary blood was sampled and perceived appetite assessed at regular time intervals throughout the session. Free-living energy intake and physical activity levels for the experimental day and the day after were also assessed. Ad-libitum energy intake was lower after HI and VHI compared with CON (P=0.038 and P=0.004, respectively), and VHI was also lower than MC (P=0.028). Free-living energy intake in the subsequent 38 h remained less after VHI compared with CON and MC (P≤0.050). These observations were associated with lower active ghrelin (P≤0.050), higher blood lactate (P≤0.014) and higher blood glucose (P≤0.020) after VHI compared with all other trials. Despite higher heart rate and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) during HI and VHI compared with MC (P≤0.004), ratings of physical activity enjoyment were similar between all the exercise trials (P=0.593). No differences were found in perceived appetite between trials. High-intensity intermittent exercise suppresses subsequent ad-libitum energy intake in overweight inactive men. This format of exercise was found to be well tolerated in an overweight population.

  17. Comparing intake estimations based on food composition data with chemical analysis in Malian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koréissi-Dembélé, Yara; Doets, Esmee L; Fanou-Fogny, Nadia; Hulshof, Paul Jm; Moretti, Diego; Brouwer, Inge D

    2017-06-01

    Food composition databases are essential for estimating nutrient intakes in food consumption surveys. The present study aimed to evaluate the Mali food composition database (TACAM) for assessing intakes of energy and selected nutrients at population level. Weighed food records and duplicate portions of all foods consumed during one day were collected. Intakes of energy, protein, fat, available carbohydrates, dietary fibre, Ca, Fe, Zn and vitamin A were assessed by: (i) estimating the nutrient intake from weighed food records based on an adjusted TACAM (a-TACAM); and (ii) chemical analysis of the duplicate portions. Agreement between the two methods was determined using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test and Bland-Altman plots. Bamako, Mali. Apparently healthy non-pregnant, non-lactating women (n 36) aged 15-36 years. Correlation coefficients between estimated and analysed values ranged from 0·38 to 0·61. At population level, mean estimated and analysed nutrient intakes differed significantly for carbohydrates (203·0 v. 243·5 g/d), Fe (9·9 v. 22·8 mg/d) and vitamin A (356 v. 246 µg retinol activity equivalents). At individual level, all estimated and analysed nutrient intakes differed significantly; the differences tended to increase with higher intakes. The a-TACAM is sufficiently acceptable for measuring average intakes of macronutrients, Ca and Zn at population level in low-intake populations, but not for carbohydrate, vitamin A and Fe intakes, and nutrient densities.

  18. Do breakfast skipping and breakfast type affect energy intake, nutrient intake, nutrient adequacy, and diet quality in young adults? NHANES 1999-2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to assess the impact of breakfast skipping and type of breakfast consumed on energy/nutrient intake, nutrient adequacy, and diet quality using a cross-sectional design. The setting was The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 1999-2002. The sub...

  19. Does eating environment have an impact on the protein and energy intake in the hospitalised elderly?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovski, Karon; Nenov, Aranka; Ottaway, Aurora; Skinner, Elizabeth

    2017-07-01

    This pilot study aimed to examine the difference in energy and protein intake of the midday meal in two different eating environments-the communal dining room and patient bedside-and to obtain feedback on patient preference at each location. Elderly patients in two rehabilitation wards were observed consuming the midday meal on two consecutive days: day 1 in the dining room and day 2 at the bedside. The patients' intake was recorded by a visual 5-point assessment scale and analysed for protein and energy content using the hospital food services nutrient analysis of the menu. Patients were also surveyed on preference of eating environment through a written survey. This study found that patients consumed 20% more energy and protein when dining in a communal environment (P = 0.006 and 0.01, respectively). Patients with a body mass index of less than 22 (P = 0.01 and 0.01, respectively) and those with significant cognitive impairment (P = 0.001 and 0.007, respectively) ate 30% more protein and energy in the dining room, and those identified at risk of malnutrition (Malnutrition Screening Tool (MST) ≥ 2) ate 42% more energy and 27% more protein in the dining room, although this was not statistically significant (P = 0.05 and 0.16). A total of 86% of surveyed patients favoured eating their midday meal in the dining room. This study supports the contention that a dining room environment can increase food intake, increase patients' opportunities to enjoy the social aspect of meal times, and potentially lead to weight gain and reduced malnutrition risk in the rehabilitation setting. © 2016 Dietitians Association of Australia.

  20. Overconsumption of Energy and Excessive Discretionary Food Intake Inflates Dietary Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilly A. Hendrie

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Population dietary guidelines have started to include information about the environmental impacts of food choices, but more quantifiable evidence is needed, particularly about the impacts associated with discretionary foods. This paper utilised the 2011–2012 Australian Health Survey food intake data along with a highly disaggregated input–output model to estimate the greenhouse gas emissions (GHGe of Australians’ dietary intake, and compare current patterns of eating which vary in diet quality and GHGe to the recommended diet. The average dietary GHGe were 18.72 ± 12.06 and 13.73 ± 8.72 kg CO2e/day for male and female adults, respectively. The correlation between total energy and GHGe was r = 0.54 (p < 0.001. Core foods contributed 68.4% and discretionary foods 29.4%. Within core foods, fresh meat and alternatives (33.9% was the greatest contributor. The modelling of current dietary patterns showed the contribution of discretionary foods to GHGe was 121% greater in the average diet and 307% greater in the “lower quality, higher GHGe” diet compared to the recommended diet. Reducing discretionary food intake would allow for small increases in emissions from core foods (in particular vegetables, dairy and grains, thereby providing a nutritional benefit at little environmental expense. Public health messages that promote healthy eating, eating to one’s energy needs and improved diet quality will also contribute to lowering GHGe.

  1. Stress augments food 'wanting' and energy intake in visceral overweight subjects in the absence of hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmens, Sofie G; Rutters, Femke; Born, Jurriaan M; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2011-05-03

    Stress may induce eating in the absence of hunger, possibly involving changes in food reward, i.e. 'liking' and 'wanting'. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of acute psychological stress on food reward, and on energy intake, in visceral overweight (VO) vs. normal weight (NW) subjects. Subjects (27 NW, age=26 ± 9 yrs, BMI=22 ± 2 kg/m²; 15 VO, age=36 ± 12 yrs, BMI=28 ± 1 kg/m²) came to the university twice, fasted, for either a rest or stress condition (randomized cross-over design). Per test-session 'liking' and 'wanting' for 72 items divided in six categories (bread, filling, drinks, dessert, snacks, and stationery (control)) were measured twice, each time followed by a wanted meal. Appetite profile (visual analogue scales, VAS), heart rate, mood state and level of anxiety (POMS/STAI questionnaires) were measured. High hunger and low satiety (64 ± 19, 22 ± 20 mmVAS) confirmed the fasted state. Elevated heart rate, anger and confusion scores (p ≤ 0.03) confirmed the stress vs. rest condition. Consumption of the first meal decreased hunger, increased satiety, and decreased ranking of 'liking' of bread vs. increased ranking of 'liking' of the control (pfood intake in the absence of hunger, resulting in an increased energy intake.

  2. Patterns of Food Parenting Practices and Children’s Intake of Energy-Dense Snack Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorus W. M. Gevers

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Most previous studies of parental influences on children’s diets included just a single or a few types of food parenting practices, while parents actually employ multiple types of practices. Our objective was to investigate the clustering of parents regarding food parenting practices and to characterize the clusters in terms of background characteristics and children’s intake of energy-dense snack foods. A sample of Dutch parents of children aged 4–12 was recruited by a research agency to fill out an online questionnaire. A hierarchical cluster analysis (n = 888 was performed, followed by k-means clustering. ANOVAs, ANCOVAs and chi-square tests were used to investigate associations between cluster membership, parental and child background characteristics, as well as children’s intake of energy-dense snack foods. Four distinct patterns were discovered: “high covert control and rewarding”, “low covert control and non-rewarding”, “high involvement and supportive” and “low involvement and indulgent”. The “high involvement and supportive” cluster was found to be most favorable in terms of children’s intake. Several background factors characterized cluster membership. This study expands the current knowledge about parental influences on children’s diets. Interventions should focus on increasing parental involvement in food parenting.

  3. Patterns of Food Parenting Practices and Children's Intake of Energy-Dense Snack Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevers, Dorus W M; Kremers, Stef P J; de Vries, Nanne K; van Assema, Patricia

    2015-05-27

    Most previous studies of parental influences on children's diets included just a single or a few types of food parenting practices, while parents actually employ multiple types of practices. Our objective was to investigate the clustering of parents regarding food parenting practices and to characterize the clusters in terms of background characteristics and children's intake of energy-dense snack foods. A sample of Dutch parents of children aged 4-12 was recruited by a research agency to fill out an online questionnaire. A hierarchical cluster analysis (n = 888) was performed, followed by k-means clustering. ANOVAs, ANCOVAs and chi-square tests were used to investigate associations between cluster membership, parental and child background characteristics, as well as children's intake of energy-dense snack foods. Four distinct patterns were discovered: "high covert control and rewarding", "low covert control and non-rewarding", "high involvement and supportive" and "low involvement and indulgent". The "high involvement and supportive" cluster was found to be most favorable in terms of children's intake. Several background factors characterized cluster membership. This study expands the current knowledge about parental influences on children's diets. Interventions should focus on increasing parental involvement in food parenting.

  4. Energy expenditure and intake during puberty in healthy nonobese adolescents: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hoi Lun; Amatoury, Mazen; Steinbeck, Katharine

    2016-10-01

    Puberty is a time of rapid growth and changing energy requirements and is a risk period for obesity. There is little high-quality evidence on the pubertal alterations of energy expenditure and intake, and this has limited our understanding of energy balance during this important life stage. The purpose of this study was to summarize existing evidence on pubertal energy expenditure and intake in healthy nonobese adolescents. Studies were identified through CINAHL, the Cochrane Library, Embase, MEDLINE, and Web of Science databases up to August 2015. Articles presenting objectively measured data for basal or resting metabolic rate (BMR/RMR), total daily energy expenditure (TDEE), and/or energy intake (EI) for ≥2 categories of puberty were included. Relevant data adjusted for fat-free mass (FFM) also were extracted. Data were dichotomized into prepubertal and pubertal groups and compared through the use of standardized mean differences (SMDs). Heterogeneous study methodologies precluded meta-analysis. The search netted 6770 articles, with 12 included for review. From these, 6 of 9 studies supported significantly higher absolute BMR/RMR during puberty (SMD: 1.10-5.93), and all of the studies favored significantly higher absolute TDEE during puberty (SMD: 0.46-9.55). These corresponded to a 12% difference and an 18% difference in absolute BMR/RMR and TDEE, respectively. Results adjusted for FFM were equivocal, with 3 studies favoring higher (1 significantly) and 3 favoring significantly lower adjusted BMR/RMR during puberty. Only 1 study reported EI, showing 41% and 25% greater absolute intakes in pubertal males and females, respectively. These differences were not significant after adjustment for FFM. Reasonably consistent evidence exists to support higher absolute BMR/RMR and TDEE in pubertal than in prepubertal adolescents. Differences are largely accounted for by FFM, among other potential factors such as growth- and puberty-related hormones. This review argues

  5. Association between Plain Water and Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Total Energy Intake among Mexican School-Age Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamah-Levy, Teresa; García-Chávez, Claudia Gabriela; Rodríguez-Ramírez, Sonia

    2016-12-18

    Water consumption promotes a decrease in total diet energy intake, and one explanation for this fact is the replacement of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) by plain water (PW). The objective of this study was to analyze the association between SSB and PW consumption as a part of the total energy intake. Dietary information was obtained by one 24 h recall of 2536 school-age children who participated in the National Nutrition Survey in Mexico. PW and SSB consumption was measured in mL and servings (240 mL), and consumption was stratified into two levels (energy intake. Models were adjusted for age, sex, the proportion of energy obtained from non-beverage food, area of residence, and socioeconomic status (based on information regarding housing conditions and ownership of home appliances). PW consumption at the national level was two servings/day, and was not associated with total energy intake. However, the combination of the high consumption of PW and the low consumption of SSB was associated with less total energy intake (p energy intake and preventing overconsumption among Mexican school-age children.

  6. Association between Plain Water and Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Total Energy Intake among Mexican School-Age Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Shamah-Levy

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Water consumption promotes a decrease in total diet energy intake, and one explanation for this fact is the replacement of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs by plain water (PW. The objective of this study was to analyze the association between SSB and PW consumption as a part of the total energy intake. Dietary information was obtained by one 24 h recall of 2536 school-age children who participated in the National Nutrition Survey in Mexico. PW and SSB consumption was measured in mL and servings (240 mL, and consumption was stratified into two levels (<2 and ≥2 servings/day. Linear regression models were used to evaluate the association between PW and SSB consumption in relation to total energy intake. Models were adjusted for age, sex, the proportion of energy obtained from non-beverage food, area of residence, and socioeconomic status (based on information regarding housing conditions and ownership of home appliances. PW consumption at the national level was two servings/day, and was not associated with total energy intake. However, the combination of the high consumption of PW and the low consumption of SSB was associated with less total energy intake (p < 0.05. Promoting higher PW and lower SSB consumption provides a useful public health strategy for reducing total energy intake and preventing overconsumption among Mexican school-age children.

  7. Energy and nutrient intakes of Swedish children in relation to consumption of and habits associated with school lunch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson Osowski, Christine; Becker, Wulf; Enghardt Barbieri, Heléne; Lindroos, Anna Karin

    2017-02-01

    School lunches are provided free in Sweden, although some children choose not to eat school lunch. The aim of this study was to analyse Swedish children's total energy and nutrient intakes on weekdays by the frequency of school lunch consumption and to analyse energy and nutrient intakes from school lunches by sex. Factors associated with children's school lunch habits were also studied. Children in grades 2 and 5 ( n=1905) completed a food diary (school lunch data available for 1840 children) and the mean energy and nutrient intakes per day and per school lunch were calculated. The children also completed questions on the frequency of school lunch consumption and school lunch habits. Logistic regression was used to assess factors associated with school lunch habits. Children who reported eating school lunch every day had significantly higher energy and absolute nutrient intakes than children reporting eating school lunch less than five times a week, but not standardized for energy. Boys had significantly higher energy and absolute nutrient intakes from school lunches than girls, but not standardized for energy. Younger children and children who liked school lunches had higher odds of eating school lunch every day. Children in grade 5, those with a foreign background and those disliking school lunches had higher odds of omitting the main lunch component. Regular school lunch consumption was associated with a higher total intake for most nutrients, but not a better nutrient density. School lunch habits were associated with age, ethnic background and liking school lunches.

  8. Time spent in home meal preparation affects energy and food group intakes among midlife women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Yen Li; Addo, O Yaw; Perry, Courtney D; Sudo, Noriko; Reicks, Marla

    2012-04-01

    Time spent in meal preparation may be indicative of the healthfulness of meals and therefore with weight status. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between amount of time spent preparing meals and meal food group and nutrient content by meal occasion (breakfast, lunch, and dinner) among 1036 midlife women. Participants completed a 1-day food record and eating occasion questionnaires for each meal occasion. ANCOVA was used to identify possible associations. Approximately half of the participants reported spending time spent preparing breakfast was associated with lower energy and fat intakes (ptime spent preparing lunch and dinner was associated with lower vegetable and sodium intakes (ptime spent preparing meals and meal content by weight status. Nutrition education should encourage home meal preparation while stressing the selection of healthier options. The differing associations by meal occasion suggest that interventions should be tailored according to meal type. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Passive and active roles of fat-free mass in the control of energy intake and body composition regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulloo, A G; Jacquet, J; Miles-Chan, J L; Schutz, Y

    2017-03-01

    While putative feedback signals arising from adipose tissue are commonly assumed to provide the molecular links between the body's long-term energy requirements and energy intake, the available evidence suggests that the lean body or fat-free mass (FFM) also plays a role in the drive to eat. A distinction must, however, be made between a 'passive' role of FFM in driving energy intake, which is likely to be mediated by 'energy-sensing' mechanisms that translate FFM-induced energy requirements to energy intake, and a more 'active' role of FFM in the drive to eat through feedback signaling between FFM deficit and energy intake. Consequently, a loss of FFM that results from dieting or sedentarity should be viewed as a risk factor for weight regain and increased fatness not only because of the impact of the FFM deficit in lowering the maintenance energy requirement but also because of the body's attempt to restore FFM by overeating-a phenomenon referred to as 'collateral fattening'. A better understanding of these passive and active roles of FFM in the control of energy intake will necessitate the elucidation of peripheral signals and energy-sensing mechanisms that drive hunger and appetite, with implications for both obesity prevention and its management.

  10. Small particle size lipid emulsions, satiety and energy intake in lean men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Y K; Budgett, S C; MacGibbon, A K; Quek, S Y; Kindleysides, S; Poppitt, S D

    2017-02-01

    Lipid emulsions have been proposed to suppress hunger and food intake. Whilst there is no consensus on optimal structural properties or mechanism of action, small particle size (small-PS) stable emulsions may have greatest efficacy. Fabuless®, a commercial lipid emulsion reported in some studies to decrease energy intake (EI), is a small-PS, 'hard' fat emulsion comprising highly saturated palm oil base (PS, 82nm). To determine whether small-PS dairy lipid emulsions can enhance satiety, firstly, we investigated 2 'soft' fat dairy emulsions generated using dairy and soy emulsifying agents (PS, 114nm and 121nm) and a non-emulsified dairy control. Secondly, we investigated a small-PS palmolein based 'hard' fat emulsion (fractionated palm oil, PS, 104nm) and non-emulsified control. This was a 6 arm, randomized, cross-over study in 18 lean men, with test lipids delivered in a breakfast meal: (i) Fabuless® emulsion (FEM); (ii) dairy emulsion with dairy emulsifier (DEDE); (iii) dairy emulsion with soy lecithin emulsifier (DESE); (iv) dairy control (DCON); (v) palmolein emulsion with dairy emulsifier (PEDE); (vi) palmolein control (PCON). Participants rated postprandial appetite sensations using visual analogue scales (VAS), and ad libitum energy intake (EI) was measured at a lunch meal 3.5h later. Dairy lipid emulsions did not significantly alter satiety ratings or change EI relative to dairy control (DEDE, 4035kJ; DESE, 3904kJ; DCON, 3985kJ; P>0.05) nor did palm oil based emulsion relative to non-emulsified control (PEDE, 3902 kJ; PCON, 3973kJ; P>0.05). There was no evidence that small-PS dairy lipid emulsions or commercial Fabuless altered short-term appetite or food intake in lean adults. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Developmental programming of energy balance regulation: is physical activity more 'programmable' than food intake?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shaoyu; Eclarinal, Jesse; Baker, Maria S; Li, Ge; Waterland, Robert A

    2016-02-01

    Extensive human and animal model data show that environmental influences during critical periods of prenatal and early postnatal development can cause persistent alterations in energy balance regulation. Although a potentially important factor in the worldwide obesity epidemic, the fundamental mechanisms underlying such developmental programming of energy balance are poorly understood, limiting our ability to intervene. Most studies of developmental programming of energy balance have focused on persistent alterations in the regulation of energy intake; energy expenditure has been relatively underemphasised. In particular, very few studies have evaluated developmental programming of physical activity. The aim of this review is to summarise recent evidence that early environment may have a profound impact on establishment of individual propensity for physical activity. Recently, we characterised two different mouse models of developmental programming of obesity; one models fetal growth restriction followed by catch-up growth, and the other models early postnatal overnutrition. In both studies, we observed alterations in body-weight regulation that persisted to adulthood, but no group differences in food intake. Rather, in both cases, programming of energy balance appeared to be due to persistent alterations in energy expenditure and spontaneous physical activity (SPA). These effects were stronger in female offspring. We are currently exploring the hypothesis that developmental programming of SPA occurs via induced sex-specific alterations in epigenetic regulation in the hypothalamus and other regions of the central nervous system. We will summarise the current progress towards testing this hypothesis. Early environmental influences on establishment of physical activity are likely an important factor in developmental programming of energy balance. Understanding the fundamental underlying mechanisms in appropriate animal models will help determine whether early life

  12. Underreporting of energy intake and associated factors in a Latino population at risk of developing type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olendzki, Barbara C; Ma, Yunsheng; Hébert, James R; Pagoto, Sherry L; Merriam, Philip A; Rosal, Milagros C; Ockene, Ira S

    2008-06-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the extent of underreporting of total energy intake and associated factors in a low-income, low-literacy, predominantly Caribbean Latino community in Lawrence, MA. Two hundred fifteen Latinos participated in a diabetes prevention study, for which eligibility included a >or=30% risk of developing diabetes in 7.5 years. Dietary self-reported energy intake was assessed using three randomly selected days of 24-hour diet recalls. Basal metabolic rate (BMR) was estimated using the Mifflin-St Jeor equation. Underreporting was determined by computing a ratio of energy intake to BMR, with a ratio of 1.55 expected for sedentary populations. Linear regression analyses were used to identify factors associated with underreporting (energy intake:BMR ratio). The population was predominately women (77%), middle-aged (mean 52+/-11 years), obese (78% had a body mass index >or=30); low-literate (62% diabetes (37% had siblings with diabetes). Reported total daily energy intake was 1,540+/-599 kcal, whereas estimated BMR was 1,495.7+/-245.1 kcal/day. When multiplied by an activity factor (1.20 for sedentariness), expected energy intake was 1,794+/-294.0 per day, indicating underreporting by an average of 254 kcal/day. Mean energy intake:BMR was 1.03+/-0.37, and was lower for participants with higher body mass index, siblings with diabetes, sedentary lifestyle, and those who were unemployed. Energy intake underreporting is prevalent in this low-income, low-literacy Caribbean Latino population. Future studies are needed to develop dietary assessment measures that minimize underreporting in this population.

  13. No effect of physiological concentrations of glucagon-like peptide-2 on appetite and energy intake in normal weight subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, L B; Flint, A; Raben, A

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of a GLP-2 infusion on appetite sensations and ad libitum energy intake in healthy, normal weight humans. DESIGN: The experiment was performed in a randomised, blinded, and placebo-controlled crossover design. Placebo or GLP-2 was infused (infusion rate of 25 pmol...... meals, or energy intake were different on the two occasions. Glucose, GLP-1, insulin, and GIP responses were also unaffected by the infusion, whereas glucagon levels were higher during the GLP-2 treatment (P

  14. Leptin regulates energy intake but fails to facilitate hibernation in fattening Daurian ground squirrels (Spermophilus dauricus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Xin; Tang, Gang-Bin; Sun, Ming-Yue; Yu, Chao; Song, Shi-Yi; Liu, Xin-Yu; Yang, Ming; Wang, De-Hua

    2016-04-01

    Body fat storage before hibernation affects the timing of immergence in Daurian ground squirrels (Spermophilus dauricus). Leptin is an adipose signal and plays vital role in energy homeostasis mainly by action in brain. To test the hypothesis that leptin plays a role in facilitating the process of hibernation, squirrels were administrated with recombinant murine leptin (1μg/day) through intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection for 12 days during fattening. From day 7 to 12, animals were moved into a cold room (5±1°C) with constant darkness which functioned as hibernaculum. Energy intake, body mass and core body temperature (Tb) were continuously monitored throughout the course of experiment. Resting metabolic rate (RMR) was measured under both warm and cold conditions. At the end of leptin administration, we measured the serum concentration of hormones related to energy regulation, mRNA expression of hypothalamic neuropeptides and uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) levels in brown adipose tissue (BAT). Our results showed that during leptin administration, the cumulative food intake and increase of body mass were suppressed while Tb and RMR were unaltered. The proportion of torpid squirrels was not different between two groups. At the end of leptin administration, the expressions of hypothalamic neuropeptide Y and agouti gene-related protein were suppressed. There were no differences in UCP1 mRNA expression or protein content in BAT between groups. Our data suggest that leptin can affect energy intake via hypothalamic neuropeptides, but is not involved in the initiation of hibernation in fattening Daurian ground squirrels.

  15. Validity and practicability of smartphone-based photographic food records for estimating energy and nutrient intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Kaimeng; Zhang, Lulu; Huang, Lisu; Tao, Yexuan

    2017-05-01

    Image-assisted dietary assessment methods are frequently used to record individual eating habits. This study tested the validity of a smartphone-based photographic food recording approach by comparing the results obtained with those of a weighed food record. We also assessed the practicality of the method by using it to measure the energy and nutrient intake of college students. The experiment was implemented in two phases, each lasting 2 weeks. In the first phase, a labelled menu and a photograph database were constructed. The energy and nutrient content of 31 randomly selected dishes in three different portion sizes were then estimated by the photograph-based method and compared with a weighed food record. In the second phase, we combined the smartphone-based photographic method with the WeChat smartphone application and applied this to 120 randomly selected participants to record their energy and nutrient intake. The Pearson correlation coefficients for energy, protein, fat, and carbohydrate content between the weighed and the photographic food record were 0.997, 0.936, 0.996, and 0.999, respectively. Bland-Altman plots showed good agreement between the two methods. The estimated protein, fat, and carbohydrate intake by participants was in accordance with values in the Chinese Residents' Nutrition and Chronic Disease report (2015). Participants expressed satisfaction with the new approach and the compliance rate was 97.5%. The smartphone-based photographic dietary assessment method combined with the WeChat instant messaging application was effective and practical for use by young people.

  16. Impact of hypothalamic reactive oxygen species in the control of energy metabolism and food intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne eDrougard

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Hypothalamus is a key area involved in the control of metabolism and food intake via the integrations of numerous signals (hormones, neurotransmitters, metabolites from various origins. These factors modify hypothalamic neurons activity and generate adequate molecular and behavioral responses to control energy balance. In this complex integrative system, a new concept has been developed in recent years, that includes reactive oxygen species (ROS as a critical player in energy balance. ROS are known to act in many signaling pathways in different peripheral organs, but also in hypothalamus where they regulate food intake and metabolism by acting on different types of neurons, including proopiomelanocortin (POMC and agouti-related protein (AgRP/neuropeptide Y (NPY neurons. Hypothalamic ROS release is under the influence of different factors such as pancreatic and gut hormones, adipokines (leptin, apelin,..., neurotransmitters and nutrients (glucose, lipids,.... The sources of ROS production are multiple including NADPH oxidase, but also the mitochondria which is considered as the main ROS producer in the brain. ROS are considered as signaling molecules, but conversely impairment of this neuronal signaling ROS pathway contributes to alterations of autonomic nervous system and neuroendocrine function, leading to metabolic diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes.In this review we focus our attention on factors that are able to modulate hypothalamic ROS release in order to control food intake and energy metabolism, and whose deregulations could participate to the development of pathological conditions. This novel insight reveals an original mechanism in the hypothalamus that controls energy balance and identify hypothalamic ROS signaling as a potential therapeutic strategy to treat metabolic disorders.

  17. Pelage insulation, litter size, and ambient temperature impact maternal energy intake and offspring development during lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Matthew J; Tuthill, Christiana; Kauffman, Alexander S; Zucker, Irving

    2010-05-11

    Energy balance during lactation critically influences survival and growth of a mother's offspring, and hence, her reproductive success. Most experiments have investigated the influence of a single factor (e.g., ambient temperature [T(a)] or litter size) on the energetics of lactation. Here, we determined the impact of multiple interventions, including increased conductive heat loss consequent to dorsal fur removal, cold exposure (T(a) of 5 degrees C versus 23 degrees C), and differential lactational load from litters of different sizes (2 or 4 pups), on maternal energy balance and offspring development of Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus). Lower T(a), fur removal, and larger litters were associated with increased maternal food consumption. Females exposed to multiple challenges (e.g., both fur loss and lower T(a)) ate substantially more food than those exposed to a single challenge, with no apparent ceiling to elevated food intake (increases up to 538%). Thus, energy intake of dams under these conditions does not appear to be limited by feeding behavior or the size of the digestive tract. Housing at 5 degrees C attenuated pup weight gain and increased pup mortality to more than 5 times that of litters housed at 23 degrees C. Increases in the dam's conductive heat loss induced by fur removal did not affect pup weight gain or survival, suggesting that effects of low T(a) on pup weight gain and survival reflect limitations in the pups' ability to ingest or incorporate energy.

  18. Plain Water and Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption in Relation to Energy and Nutrient Intake at Full-Service Restaurants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruopeng An

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Drinking plain water, such as tap or bottled water, provides hydration and satiety without adding calories. We examined plain water and sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB consumption in relation to energy and nutrient intake at full-service restaurants. Methods: Data came from the 2005–2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, comprising a nationally-representative sample of 2900 adults who reported full-service restaurant consumption in 24-h dietary recalls. Linear regressions were performed to examine the differences in daily energy and nutrient intake at full-service restaurants by plain water and SSB consumption status, adjusting for individual characteristics and sampling design. Results: Over 18% of U.S. adults had full-service restaurant consumption on any given day. Among full-service restaurant consumers, 16.7% consumed SSBs, 2.6% consumed plain water but no SSBs, and the remaining 80.7% consumed neither beverage at the restaurant. Compared to onsite SSB consumption, plain water but no SSB consumption was associated with reduced daily total energy intake at full-service restaurants by 443.4 kcal, added sugar intake by 58.2 g, saturated fat intake by 4.4 g, and sodium intake by 616.8 mg, respectively. Conclusion: Replacing SSBs with plain water consumption could be an effective strategy to balance energy/nutrient intake and prevent overconsumption at full-service restaurant setting.

  19. A Pre and Post Survey to Determine Effectiveness of a Dietitian-Based Nutrition Education Strategy on Fruit and Vegetable Intake and Energy Intake among Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhandevi Pem

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a multicomponent nutrition education program among adults. A pretest—posttest design was used assessing Nutritional Knowledge (NK, BMI, Energy Intake (EI, Physical Activity Level (PAL, Dietary Intake (DI and attitudes. 353 adults aged 19–55 years (178 control group (CG and 175 intervention group (IG were recruited. IG participants attended nutrition education sessions evaluated through a post-test given at the end of the 12-week program. Statistical tests performed revealed that compared to CG, participants in IG increased fruit intake and decreased intake of snacks high in sugar and fat significantly (p < 0.05. NK and attitudinal scores also increased significantly in the IG (p < 0.05. No intervention effect was found for vegetables intake, EI, BMI and PAL (p > 0.05. Factors influencing NK were age, gender and education level. “Taste” was the main barrier to the application of the nutrition education strategy. Findings are helpful to health practitioners in designing their intervention programs.

  20. A statistical approach based on substitution of macronutrients provides additional information to models analyzing single dietary factors in relation to type 2 diabetes in danish adults: the Inter99 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faerch, Kristine; Lau, Cathrine; Tetens, Inge; Pedersen, Oluf Borbye; Jørgensen, Torben; Borch-Johnsen, Knut; Glümer, Charlotte

    2005-05-01

    Most studies analyzing diet-disease relations focus on single dietary factors rather than combining different nutrients into the same statistical model. The objective of this study was to identify dietary factors associated with the probability of having diabetes identified by screening (SDM) in Danish men and women aged 30-60 y. A specific objective was to examine whether an alternative statistical approach could provide additional information to already existing statistical approaches used in nutritional epidemiology. Baseline data from the Danish population-based Inter99 study were used. The dietary intake of 262 individuals with SDM was compared with that of 4627 individuals with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) using 2 different types of multiple logistic regression models adjusted for potential confounders. The first model included single dietary factors, whereas the second model was based on substitution of macronutrients. In the models with single dietary factors, high intakes of carbohydrates, dietary fiber, and coffee were inversely associated with SDM (P < 0.01), whereas high intakes of total fat and saturated fat were positively associated with SDM (P < 0.05). A modest U-shaped association was found between alcohol consumption and SDM (P = 0.10) [corrected] Results from the substitution model showed that when 3% of energy (En%) as carbohydrate replaced 3 En% fat or alcohol, the probability of having SDM decreased by 9 and 10%, respectively (P < 0.01) [corrected] No other macronutrient substitutions resulted in significant associations. Hence, the statistical approach based on substitution of macronutrients provided additional information to the model analyzing single dietary factors.

  1. Nutritional analysis of dietary intake of professional female volleyball players during the competitive phase of the regular season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Mielgo-Ayuso

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: nutritional aspects women’s volleyball has been little studied and more in a specific period of training as the competitive period. The aim is to assess and know the caloric and macronutrients intake by professional volleyball players of the Spanish Superliga for 16 weeks of training for the competition phase and compare with the references marked for athlete population.Material and methods: the study included 10 female volleyball players (JVF (26.6±5.9 years and height 178.05±8.7cm, for a total of 16 weeks of training and competition. They all gave written informed consent. They completed a food intake frequency questionary of the 16 week study, data corroborated by a dietary record (CFCA of 7 consecutive days in week 9 and 16. We were calculated daily nutritional intake from CFCA with the food composition table of CESNID by Easy Diet software, the Spanish Association of Dietitians-Nutritionists (AEDN.Results: the energy and nutritional analysis of the female professional volleyball players shows that the amount of energy and macronutrients does not meet to the recommendations for sports collective.Conclusions: it is observed low energy and carbohydrates intake and high intake of protein and lipids. Recommended practical aspects for improving nutrition education in this professional sports group.

  2. The Effects of Different Energy and Protein Ratio to Sheep’s Nutrient Intake and Digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Mawati

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} The objective of this research was to study the effects of different energy and protein ratio towards sheep’s nutrient intake and digestibility. Twenty four male sheep’s, 6 – 7 months old with initial average live weight 13+1.56 kg, coefficient variant11.78% were used in this research. The complete feed ration which consisted of King Grass (Pennisetum purpureum, soybean powder, rice bran, dried cassava and molasses was used in this research. Protein content on each component was 10, 12 and 14% and total digestible nutrients (TDN 60 and 65%, respectively. Dry matter (DM and organic matter (OM intake, DM and OM digestibility were studied in this research. Analysis of variance (ANOVA was employed to analyze the data. Test of Small Difference (P<0.05 was then carried out if significant different occurred. The research results showed that Dry matter and OM ration intake showed significant different among treatments (P<0.05. The highest DM intake was obtained at crude protein (CP 14% and TDN 65% i.e. 695.54 g while the lowest value was CP 14% and TDN 65% i.e. 462.11 g. Thus different DM and OM intake were caused by different ration ingredients composition. Dry matter and OM ration digestibility were not show

  3. Increasing the percentage of energy from dietary sugar, fats, and alcohol in adults is associated with increased energy intake but has minimal association with biomarkers of cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Gregory L; Krueger, Patrick M

    2013-10-01

    The optimal diet composition to prevent obesity and its complications is unknown. Study aims were to determine the association of diet composition with energy intake, homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and C-reactive protein (CRP). Data were from the NHANES for eligible adults aged 20-74 y from 2005 to 2006 (n = 3073). Energy intake and diet composition were obtained by dietary recall. HOMA-IR was calculated from fasting insulin and glucose concentrations, and CRP was measured directly. Changes for a 1-point increase in percentage of sugar, saturated fatty acids (SFAs), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), and alcohol were determined across their means in exchange for a 1-point decrease in percentage of nonsugar carbohydrates. Regression analyses were performed, and means ± SEs were estimated. Increasing the percentage of sugar was associated with increased energy intake in men (23 ± 5 kcal; P intake. In women, increasing percentages of SFAs (27 ± 10 kcal; P = 0.02), PUFAs (43 ± 6 kcal; P intake. Increasing the percentage of alcohol was associated with increased energy intake in men (38 ± 7 kcal; P sugar, fats, and alcohol was associated with substantially increased energy intake but had minimal association with HOMA-IR and CRP.

  4. Sleep disturbances, body fat distribution, food intake and/or energy expenditure: pathophysiological aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Onge, Marie-Pierre; Shechter, Ari

    2014-01-01

    Data from cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have illustrated a relationship between short sleep duration (SSD) and weight gain. Individuals with SSD are heavier and gain more weight over time than normal-duration sleepers. This sleep-obesity relationship may have consequences for obesity treatments, as it appears that short sleepers have reduced ability to lose weight. Laboratory-based clinical studies found that experimental sleep restriction affects energy expenditure and intake, possibly providing a mechanistic explanation for the weight gain observed in chronic short sleepers. Specifically, compared to normal sleep duration, sleep restriction increases food intake beyond the energetic costs of increased time spent awake. Reasons for this increased energy intake after sleep restriction are unclear but may include disrupted appetite-regulating hormones, altered brain mechanisms involved in the hedonic aspects of appetite, and/or changes in sleep quality and architecture. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a disorder at the intersection of sleep and obesity, and the characteristics of the disorder illustrate many of the effects of sleep disturbances on body weight and vice versa. Specifically, while obesity is among the main risk factors for OSA, the disorder itself and its associated disturbances in sleep quality and architecture seem to alter energy balance parameters and may induce further weight gain. Several intervention trials have shown that weight loss is associated with reduced OSA severity. Thus, weight loss may improve sleep, and these improvements may promote further weight loss. Future studies should establish whether increasing sleep duration/improving sleep quality can induce weight loss.

  5. Limits to sustained energy intake XXV: milk energy output and thermogenesis in Swiss mice lactating at thermoneutrality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhi-Jun; Li, Li; Yang, Deng-Bao; Chi, Qing-Sheng; Hambly, Catherine; Speakman, John R.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies at 21 °C and 5 °C suggest that in Swiss mice sustained energy intake (SusEI) and reproductive performance are constrained by the mammary capacity to produce milk. We aimed to establish if this constraint also applied at higher ambient temperature (30 °C). Female Swiss mice lactating at 30 °C had lower asymptotic food intake and weaned lighter litters than those at 21 °C. Resting metabolic rate, daily energy expenditure, milk energy output and suckling time were all lower at 30 °C. In a second experiment we gave mice at 30 °C either 6 or 9 pups to raise. Female performance was independent of litter size, indicating that it is probably not controlled by pup demands. In a third experiment we exposed only the mother, or only the offspring to the elevated temperature. In this case the performance of the mother was only reduced when she was exposed, and not when her pups were exposed, showing that the high temperature directly constrains female performance. These data suggest that at 30 °C SusEI and reproductive performance are likely constrained by the capacity of females to dissipate body heat, and not indirectly via pup demands. Constraints seem to change with ambient temperature in this strain of mouse. PMID:27554919

  6. The Intake of Energy and Selected Nutrients by Thai Urban Sedentary Workers: An Evaluation of Adherence to Dietary Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katiya Ivanovitch

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid changes in Thailand’s nutrition and lifestyles have led to increasing diet-related pathologies among people with sedentary occupations. This study examines the extent to which the dietary intake of nutrients and energy by a sample of Thai sedentary workers conforms to the Thai Dietary Reference Intakes (Thai DRIs. The nutrients and energy intake estimates were based on self-reported information collected with a single 24-hour dietary recall and nonweighed 2-day food record. The study participants were Thai adults aged 20–50 years employed in sedentary occupations. A convenience sample of 215 healthy individuals (75 males and 140 females was based on four randomly selected worksites in the Bangkok metropolitan area. For male participants, the study found a median energy intake of 1,485 kcal/day, with 54.4% of energy coming from carbohydrate, 15.9% from protein, and 29.6% from fat. Females’ median energy intake was 1,428 kcal/day, 56% of which came from carbohydrate, 16.2% from protein, and 28.6% from fat. Both genders showed insufficient intake of fiber and most micronutrients. This study provides the material for preventive public health interventions focusing on nutrition-related diseases affecting Thailand’s rapidly growing sedentary workforce.

  7. Effects of maternal energy efficiency on broiler chicken growth, feed conversion, residual feed intake, and residual maintenance metabolizable energy requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, L F; Zuidhof, M J; Renema, R A; Naeima, A; Robinson, F E

    2011-12-01

    This study investigated the effect of maternal energy efficiency on broiler chicken growth and energy efficiency from 7 to 40 d of age. Residual feed intake (RFI) and residual maintenance ME requirement (RME) were used to measure energetic efficiency. Residual feed intake was defined as the difference between observed and predicted ME intake, and RME(m) as the difference between observed and predicted maintenance ME requirements. A total of 144 Ross-708 broiler breeder pullets were placed in individual laying cages at 16 wk of age. Hens with the greatest RFI (n = 32) and lowest RFI (n = 32) values from 20 to 56 wk of age were selected (maternal RFI; RFI(mat)). Selected hens were retrospectively assigned to a high- or low-RME(m) category (maternal RME(m); RME(mmat)). At 59 wk, eggs were collected for 8 d and pedigree hatched. A total of 338 broilers grouped by dam and sex were raised in 128 cages where feed intake, BW, and temperature were recorded from 7 to 40 d to calculate broiler feed conversion ratios, RFI, and RME(m). The design was a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial with 2 levels of RFI(mat), 2 levels of RME(mmat), and 2 sexes. Neither the RFI(mat) nor RME(mmat) category affected broiler offpring BW or total conversion ratio. The high-RFI(mat) × low-RME(mmat) broilers had decreased growth to 40 d. Low-RFI(mat) × low-RME(mmat) broilers had a lower RME(m) (-5.93 kcal of ME/kg(0.60) per day) and RFI (-0.86 kcal of ME/d) than high-RFI(mat) × low-RME(mmat) broilers (RME(m) = 1.70 kcal of ME/kg(0.60) per day; RFI = 0.38 kcal of ME/d). Overall, hens with low maintenance requirements (low RME(m)) produced more efficient broilers when other efficiency related traits, represented in a lower RFI, were present. Exclusion of high-RFI × low-RME(m) hens from selection programs may improve energy efficiency at the broiler level. The RME(m) methodology is a viable alternative to evaluate energy efficiency in broilers because it avoids confounding environmental effects and allows

  8. Eating dark and milk chocolate: a randomized crossover study of effects on appetite and energy intake

    OpenAIRE

    Sørensen, L B; Astrup, A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To compare the effect of dark and milk chocolate on appetite sensations and energy intake at an ad libitum test meal in healthy, normal-weight men. Subjects/methods: A total of 16 young, healthy, normal-weight men participated in a randomized, crossover study. Test meals were 100 g of either milk (2285 kJ) or dark chocolate (2502 kJ). Visual-analogue scales were used to record appetite sensations before and after the test meal was consumed and subsequently every 30 min for 5 h. An ...

  9. Patterns of Food Parenting Practices and Children’s Intake of Energy-Dense Snack Foods

    OpenAIRE

    Dorus W. M. Gevers; Kremers, Stef P. J.; Vries, Nanne K de; Patricia Van Assema

    2015-01-01

    Most previous studies of parental influences on children’s diets included just a single or a few types of food parenting practices, while parents actually employ multiple types of practices. Our objective was to investigate the clustering of parents regarding food parenting practices and to characterize the clusters in terms of background characteristics and children’s intake of energy-dense snack foods. A sample of Dutch parents of children aged 4–12 was recruited by a research agency to fil...

  10. Obesity therapy: altering the energy intake-and-expenditure balance sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Vivion E F; Yeo, Giles S H; O'Rahilly, Stephen

    2002-04-01

    Obesity is associated with numerous health complications, which range from non-fatal debilitating conditions such as osteoarthritis, to life-threatening chronic diseases such as coronary heart disease, diabetes and certain cancers. The psychological consequences of obesity can range from lowered self-esteem to clinical depression. Despite the high prevalence of obesity and the many advances in our understanding of how it develops, current therapies have persistently failed to achieve long-term success. This review focuses on how fat mass can be reduced by altering the balance between energy intake and expenditure.

  11. Effects of capsaicin, green tea and CH-19 sweet pepper on appetite and energy