WorldWideScience

Sample records for macromedia flash player

  1. Pengembangan Program Macromedia Flash 8 untuk Pembelajaran Fisika di SMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiji Susilowati

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian adalah membuat dan mengevaluasi media pembelajaran fisika SMA menggunakan program Macromedia Flash 8. Subjek coba pada penelitian ini berjumlah 40 orang yang terdiri dari 10 siswa untuk uji coba instrumen penelitian, 10 siswa untuk ujicoba kelompok kecdl, dan 20 siswa untuk uji coba lapangan. Pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan mengguna­kan kuesioner dan tes fisika (pre-test dan post-test. Evaluasi terhadap program ditinjau dari aspek pembelajaran dan aspek media. Kritik dan saran digunakan untuk memperbaiki program. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa program Macromedia Flash 8 untuk pembelajaran fisika di SMA: (1 dirancang sesuai dengan prinsip-prinsip desain pembelajaran, (2 terbukti mampu menaikkan skor rerata tes fisika siswa sebesar 55,42%, (3 memiliki efisiensi waktu yang tinggi, (4 ditinjau dari aspek media Hinilai cukup bagus/menarik (dinilai/dikategorikan sedang oleh siswa, (5 ditinjau dari aspek pembelajaran secara keseluruhan program ini dinilai tinggi/jelas dimengerti oleh siswa, (6 ditinjau dari aspek media dinilai menarik (bagus/kategori tinggi oleh guru fisika, dan (7 ditinjau dari aspek pembelajaran juga dinilai menarik (bagus/kategori tinggi oleh guru fisika. Kata kunci: media pembelajaran fisika diSMA.

  2. MEDIA PEMBELAJARAN ANIMASI PENYERBUKAN PADA TUMBUHAN MENGGUNAKAN MACROMEDIA FLASH 8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasono Wibowo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Proses pembelajaran khususnya  didalam mata pelajaran biologi bagi sebagian siswa dianggap kurang menarik, terutama yang menyangkut tentang siklus kehidupan. Para siswa kurang bisa menangkap apa yang disampaikan oleh guru, karena ilustrasi penyampaian materi kurang bisa memberikan gambaran yang jelas. Untuk itu harus ada media pembelajaran yang bisa membuat siswa tertarik dan dapat memahami dengan mudah. Pembuatan media pembelajaran animasi penyerbukan pada tumbuhan dengan menggunakan Macromedia Flash 8 adalah salah satu cara yang bisa dilakukan. Tujuan dari tulisan ini adalah untuk memungkinkan siswa mudah dan tertarik untuk belajar dan memahami mata pelajaran biologi khususnya tentang siklus penyerbukan  pada tanaman. Program bantu belajar ini dibuat menggunakan model Waterfall metode desain dan system analisis rekayasa perangkat lunak analisis persyaratan, desain, program, pengujian dan pemeliharaan program untuk menambah pengetahuan tentang gambaran bagaimana penyerbukan pada tanaman dilakukan dalam bentuk animasi dan soal latihan. Kata kunci : belajar, penyerbukan, animasi, multimedia.

  3. Development and Evaluation of MOOSES games in Flash/Macromedia

    OpenAIRE

    Ekse, Magnus Førland

    2010-01-01

    Video games are very popular today and the electronic entertainment industry is in many areas equal to the more mature entertainment industries like film and music in terms of usage and revenues. The MOOSES (Multiplayer On One Screen Entertainment System) allows players to play on one big screen together with the use of their mobile phone as a game controller. The framework was designed for easy development of multiplayer games in Java and C++.Flash is a very popular technology on the Interne...

  4. Pengembangan Bahan Ajar Materi Garis dan Sudut Menggunakan Macromedia Flash dan Moodle Kelas VII Sekolah Menengah Pertama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widyastuti Akhmadan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian pengembangan yang bertujuan untuk (1 menghasilkan bahan ajar matematika yang dikembangkan dengan menggunakan software Macromedia Flash dan Moodle yang valid dan praktis untuk mengajarkan materi garis dan sudut kepada siswa kelas VII SMP; (2 mengetahui efek potensialnya terhadap hasil belajar. Metode penelitian terdiri dari 3 tahap yaitu (1 self evaluation, meliputi tahap analisis dan desain bahan ajar; (2 prototyping, meliputi tahap evaluasi dan revisi; (3 field test. Pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan walk through dan dokumentasi nilai akhir siswa diperoleh dari nilai tugas dan nilai tes yaitu sebesar 79,56 nilai tersebut dikategorikan memiliki hasil belajar yang baik. Kesimpulan dari penelitian ini adalah (1 bahan ajar yang dikembangkan dengan menggunakan software Macromedia Flash dan Moodle dalam penelitian ini dikategorikan valid dan praktis; (2 dari rata-rata nilai akhir siswa sebesar 79,56 dengan kategori baik disimpulkan bahwa bahan ajar yang dikembangkan memiliki efek potensial terhadap hasil belajar siswa. Kata Kunci: development research, Macromedia Flash, Moodle, garis, sudut This study is categorized as developmental research that aims at (1 producing a valid and practical teaching material in Mathematics subject which was developed by utilizing Macromedia Flash and Moodle and learnt by seventh graders of class VII of Junior High School; (2 examining its potential effect to learning outcome. The research method contains three phases which are: (1 self evaluation, that includes analyzing and designing material processes; (2 prototyping, includes evaluating and revising processes; (3 field test. Data collection was undertaken by walk through and documentation of students achievement obtained through task and posttest which was scored 79.56 and was categorized as good outcome as well. The conclusion drawn based on this study were (1 teaching material developed by utilizing Macromedia Flash and Moodle

  5. PENGGUNAAN MEDIA ANIMASI MACROMEDIA FLASH UNTUK MENINGKATKAN KUALITAS PEMBELAJARAN IPA SISWA TUNARUNGU KELAS II SDLB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lela Margarita

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to improve the quality of science with the usage of the macromedia flash animation media for students with hearing impairment in the grade IIof Elementary Special School. The method used was Clasroom Action Research (CAR with qualitative design. The results of the data analysis showed that the subjects experienced an enhancement in the results of student’s activities in cycle I 50,90% increasing in cycle II 73,66%, the results of student learning in cycle I 64,99% increasing in cycle II 73,93%. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan dengan tujuan untuk meningkatkan kualitas pembelajaran IPA dengan menggunakan media animasi macromedia flash bagi siswa tunarungu kelas II SDLB. Metode penelitian yang digunakan Classroom Action Research (CAR adalah dengan model kualitatif. Hasil analisis data menunjukkan bahwa subjek mengalami peningkatan pada pembelajaran IPA yang dapat dilihat dari peningkatan aktivitas dan hasil belajar pada siklus I dan siklus II. Persentase aktivitas siswa siklus I 50,90% meningkat siklus II 73,66% Sedangkan hasil belajar siklus I 64,99% meningkat siklus II 73,93%.

  6. Pengembangan Media Pembelajaran Fisika Berbasis Animasi komputer Untuk Sekolah Menengah Atas Berbasis Macromedia Flash 8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Rahman Aththibby

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The research was motivated by the learning process of physics is less interest, but phyisics learning will be easier to accepted with students if the learning process is packed more interesting. This study aimed to make the physics learning media based computer animation  from the topic of Newton laws used software Macromedia Flash 8,and to know the validation of physics learning media based computer animation.  This media was conducted by ADDIE model. The result of this study showed that: 1 it has been made the physics learning media based computer animation, 2 general assesment of the obtained result are very good products, making it feasible to use in their  physics lesson in senior high school,.

  7. EFFORTS TO IMPROVE THE ABILITY TO USE MEASURING INSTRUMENT STUDENT LEARNING THROUGH MEDIA MACROMEDIA FLASH IN CLASS X MECHANICAL MACHINING SMK 1 SEDAYU ACADEMIC YEAR 2012/2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puput Hananto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to describe the effect of instructional media makromedia flash in improving the students practical skill on subjects Measure Measuring Precision Mechanics class X Mechanical Engineering SMK 1 Sedayu Academic Year 2012/2013. This study included in Classroom Action Research (CAR. This study was conducted in two cycles, in 1 cycle has 3 times with the research subjects are class X students of SMK 1 Sedayu TPm totaling 32 students. The data were obtained from observations during learning activities by using observation sheets, tests, documents and photographs. Results obtained were analyzed with descriptive statistical analysis. The results showed that the ability of the students to practice using instructional media on subjects macromedia flash Measuring with Precision Mechanical Measuring Instrument has increased as follows: the initial capabilities obtained an average value of 65.9 after treatment in the first cycle the average value becomes 76.1. While the values obtained in the second cycle to 84.8 average. Based on the study results, the authors suggest that teachers improve the application of instructional media in learning macromedia flash so the ability to practice and student achievement will increase.

  8. PENGGUNAAN MEDIA PEMBELAJARAN BERBASIS MACROMEDIA FLASH DAN ALAT PERAGA UNTUK MENINGKATKANMOTIVASI DAN AKIVITAS BELAJAR SISWA KELAS XI ADMINISTRASI PERKANTORAN PADA POKOK BAHASAN SISTEM KEARSIPAN SMK NEGERI 1 BAWANG BANJARNEGARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partono Partono

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available It is needed the learning media based on Macromedia Flash and Teaching Aid in the teaching learning process to improve students’ motivation and activity. It was a class action research. the subject of the research was XI grade Office Administration Students in SMKN 1 Bawang Banjarnegara. It was a cycle design which consisted of planning, action, observation and reflection. The data were collected by questionnaire and observation sheets. The result of the study showed that the average of students motivation was 64.3% on the 1st cycle and rose to 72.0% on the 2nd cycle and then increased up to 91,2% on the 3rd cycle which was on very high category. Whereas, the students’ activities on the 1st cycle was 40% increased up to 70% on the 2nd cycle was, and rose 88% on the 3rd cycle on the very high category. Consequently, the increase of  students motivation and activities gave impact to students’ learning result. It was 69.8 with classical completeness was 54,8% on the 1st cycle, then increased up to 72,2 with the classical completeness was 83.9 on the 2nd cycle, and the finally rose to 85.2 with the classical completeness was 93.5% on the 3rd cycle.

  9. PENGARUH MEDIA PEMBELAJARAN ADOBE FLASH PLAYER DAN INFOKUS TERHADAP PEMAHAMAN KONSEP MATEMATIS SISWA KELAS VII SMP PGRI 11 PALEMBANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Destinar Destinar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui ada tidaknya pengaruh media pembelajaran Adobe Flash Player dan Infokus terhadap pemahaman konsep matematis siswa Kelas VII. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah metode eksperimen, yang terdiri dari 3 kelompok yaitu kelompok kelas yang diajar dengan Adobe Flash Player dan Infokus, kelompok kelas yang diajar hanya dengan infokus dan kelompok kelas yang diajar tanpa media. Setelah itu ketiga kelompok tersebut diberikan tes akhir untuk mengetahui pemahaman konsep matematis dari masing-masing kelompok. Dari hasil tes akhir diperoleh Dari hasil tes akhir diperoleh rata-rata pemahaman konsep matematis kelompok yang diajar dengan Adobe Flash Player dan Infokus secara signifikan lebih tinggi dari pada rata-rata pemahaman konsep matematis kelompok yang diajar dengan Infokus. Rata-rata pemahaman konsep matematis kelompok yang diajar dengan Adobe Flash Player dan Infokus secara signifikan lebih tinggi dari pada rata-rata pemahaman konsep matematis kelompok yang diajar dengan tanpa media. Rata-rata pemahaman konsep matematis kelompok yang diajar dengan Infokus secara signifikan lebih tinggi dari pada rata-rata pemahaman konsep matematis kelompok yang diajar dengan tanpa media. Sehingga dapat disimpulkan terdapat pengaruh yang signifikan pemahaman konsep matematis siswa ditinjau dari media pembelajaran yang digunakan.  Kata Kunci : Adobe Flash Player, Infokus, Pemahaman Konsep Matematis. 

  10. Flash!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Govert

    2002-04-01

    About three times a day our sky flashes with a powerful pulse of gamma ray bursts (GRB), invisible to human eyes but not to astronomers' instruments. The sources of this intense radiation are likely to be emitting, within the span of seconds or minutes, more energy than the sun will in its entire 10 billion years of life. Where these bursts originate, and how they come to have such incredible energies, is a mystery scientists have been trying to solve for three decades. The phenomenon has resisted study -- the flashes come from random directions in space and vanish without trace -- until very recently. In what could be called a cinematic conflation of Flash Gordon and The Hunt for Red October, Govert Schilling's Flash!: The Hunt for the Biggest Explosions in the Universe describes the exciting and ever-changing field of GRB research. Based on interviews with leading scientists, Flash! provides an insider's account of the scientific challenges involved in unravelling the enigmatic nature of GRBs. A science writer who has followed the drama from the very start, Schilling describes the ambition and jealousy, collegiality and competition, triumph and tragedy, that exists among those who have embarked on this recherche. Govert Schilling is a Dutch science writer and astronomy publicist. He is a contributing editor of Sky and Telescope magazine, and regularly writes for the news sections of Science and New Scientist. Schilling is the astronomy writer for de Volkskrant, one of the largest national daily newspapers in The Netherlands, and frequently talks about the Universe on Dutch radio broadcasts. He is the author of more than twenty popular astronomy books, and hundreds of newspaper and magazine articles on astronomy.

  11. Flash Platform Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    than would be performed in software”[108]. Uro Tinic, one of the Flash player’s engineers, further clarifies exactly what Flash player 10 hardware...www.adobe.com/products/flashplayer/features/ (Access date: 28 Sep 2009). [109] Uro , T. What Does GPU Acceleration Mean? (online), http...133] Shorten, A. (2009), Design to Development: Flash Catalyst to Flash Builder, In Proceedings of Adobe Max 2009, Los Angeles, CA. 142 DRDC

  12. Website Making Foundation Al-husna Using Macromedia Dreamweaver 4.0

    OpenAIRE

    Eka Febriyanti; Don Elsyafitra., SKom

    2005-01-01

    Website is one of the means to publish a firm or individual who has information to beknown by the wider community, especially users of internet service. At this writing willdiscuss ways in making website.The method used in this writing is to use Macromedia Dreamweaver 4.0 on Windows1998 and Internet Explorer as your browser Exploler 5. Reasons for using MacromediaDreamweaver 4.0 is to be able to design a website according to the author wishes.A good website is a website that can attract the a...

  13. Sosialisasi Panduan Elektronis Pembelajaran Tajwid Berbasis Macromedia Flash (Tempat : Pondok Pesantren Modern Islam Assalaam Surakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aris Rakhmadi

    2017-01-01

    has through some steps. The steps are references searching, data collecting, systematic creating, and testing. This process involves data collecting from tajwid books and video recording. The capacity of this system is 179 MB including 1.655 files consisting of 1 .exe file. 769 .swf files, 734 .flv video files, 151 mp3 files, and 3 folders. The resulted video has an extention .flv which has a size as big as 250 x 180 pixel. Frame Rate 15 fps, and Bit Rate 260 kbps. The resulted audio extents mp3 that has a Bit Rate 128 kbps, stereo channel and resolusion 16 bit. The questioners that are devided to the 20 users show that this programm is better and completer than tajwid books sold.

  14. Multimedia Application for Facility Information on Cassette Trand's Music Stores Using Macromedia Flash 8

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholas Ardiansyah; Rahayu Noveandini, SKom, MMSI

    2010-01-01

    Interesting development of the computer with the various trends that have increasedas never stopped. One thing that this trend is about the use of multimedia, where tocreate a multimedia application programs in search of songs - songs that not onlylisten but can see the songs that we choose to use as a means of information hasattracted the attention of society at a record store that is "Shop Cassette Trend's Music".

  15. Professional Flash Lite Mobile Development

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, J G

    2010-01-01

    Discover how to create Flash Lite mobile apps from the ground up. Adobe Flash is an ideal choice for developing rich interactive content for "Flash-enabled" mobile devices; and with this book, you'll learn how to create unique applications with Flash Lite. Through a series of code samples and extensive example applications, you'll explore the core concepts, key features, and best practices of the Flash Lite player. Coverage reveals various ways to develop Flash mobile content, create applications with a cross-platform programming framework based on the Model, View and Controller conc

  16. Detection of Malicious Flash Banner Advertisements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirill Alekseevich Samosadnyy

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses the problem of detecting malicious flash advertisements. As a result, detection method based on dynamic analysis that modify flash application and execute it in Adobe Flash player is proposed and evaluated on synthetic and real world examples.

  17. Hot Flashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hot flashes Overview Hot flashes are sudden feelings of warmth, which are usually most intense over the face, neck and chest. Your skin might redden, as if you're blushing. Hot flashes can also cause sweating, and if you ...

  18. Flash Learning Games Wow Students and Instructors: Moving Toward An Academic Gaming Portal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan H Lim

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes and discusses the rationale, background, design, and implementation of Flash learning games. The paper explains why Macromedia Flash has been selected as the authoring tool in the development of highly interactive learning games for online learning. The background evolutionary process of developing the learning games points out why it has been a daunting task to create compelling learning games that impact learning. Designing learning game objects that allow other educators to customize game content is the core of this paper. The author envisions this academic gaming project will evolve into an academic gaming portal, developed in conjunction with other major institutional partners.

  19. Flash grundkursus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    Flash er et programmeringssprog  og kan som sådant ikke noget i sig selv. Kursets mål er, at give den studerende et grundlæggende kendskab til Flash, så det kan bruges til præsentationer på skærm og til produktion af hjemmesider. På kurset arbejdes der med billede, grafik, lyd, video og interakti...

  20. Non Volatile Flash Memory Radiation Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irom, Farokh; Nguyen, Duc N.; Allen, Greg

    2012-01-01

    Commercial flash memory industry has experienced a fast growth in the recent years, because of their wide spread usage in cell phones, mp3 players and digital cameras. On the other hand, there has been increased interest in the use of high density commercial nonvolatile flash memories in space because of ever increasing data requirements and strict power requirements. Because of flash memories complex structure; they cannot be treated as just simple memories in regards to testing and analysis. It becomes quite challenging to determine how they will respond in radiation environments.

  1. Flash evaporator

    OpenAIRE

    1997-01-01

    A device and method for flash evaporating a reagent includes an evaporation chamber that houses a dome on which evaporation occurs. The dome is solid and of high thermal conductivity and mass, and may be heated to a temperature sufficient to vaporize a specific reagent. The reagent is supplied from an external source to the dome through a nozzle, and may be supplied as a continuous stream, as a shower, and as discrete drops. A carrier gas may be introduced into the evaporation chamber and cre...

  2. DIRCM FLASH Flight Tests

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Molocher, Bernhard; Kaltenecker, Anton; Thum-Jaeger, Andrea; Regensburger, Martin; Formery, Martin

    2005-01-01

    .... FLASH operation is as follows: After handover following an alarm from the missile warning system FLASH enters autonomous passive tracking mode for tracking a missiles and sending a laser beam onto the missile...

  3. Diseño de un tema de lengua y literatura inglesas a través de Flash y Dreamweaver de Macromedia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª. Elena Gómez Parra

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo pretende hacer una revisión de la metodología que se utiliza en los sistemas de educación a distancia, al mismo tiempo que trata el tema de la introducción del profesor en el uso de los sistemas hipermedia y/o multimedia para el desarrollo de la praxis docente. Ello supone un gran reto hoy día, avalado por la UE en la formulación específica del Plan de Convergencia Europea para el sistema universitario de este nuevo milenio. Partimos de la premisa de que la formación del docente en las TICs es una condición sine qua non para el éxito del nuevo sistema universitario (formado por tutorías presenciales, virtuales y material de apoyo para su estudio y reflexión. Apoyándonos en las premisas del Marco Común Europeo de Referencia para las Lenguas, apuntaremos el esquema base del desarrollo de una lección perteneciente a un temario de Lengua y literatura inglesas para alumnos universitarios.

  4. Tutorial Pengenalan Adobe Photoshop Menggunakan Adobe Flash CS3

    OpenAIRE

    Mayoka, Rio

    2011-01-01

    Kajian ini bertujuan untuk membangun sebuah aplikasi yang dapat menjadi alat bantu dalam pembelajaran Adobe Photoshop, dimana terdapat beberapa materi pengenalan dasar Adobe Photoshop. Aplikasi ini suatu gagasan dengan membuat tutorial beranimasi yang interatif. Aplikasi ini dibuat dengan menggunakan Adobe Flash CS3 dan dapat dijalankan dengan Flash player. Aplikasi ini dapat membantu para penggunanya dalam memahami pengenalan Adobe Photoshop, terutama pengenalan tool pada Adob...

  5. Simplified production of multimedia based radiological learning objects using the flash format

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jedrusik, P.; Preisack, M.; Dammann, F.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: evaluation of the applicability of the flash format for the production of radiological learning objects used in an e-learning environment. Material and methods: five exemplary learning objects with different didactic purposes referring to radiological diagnostics are presented. They have been intended for the use within the multimedia, internet-based e-learning environment LaMedica. Interactive learning objects were composed using the Flash 5.0 software (Macromedia, San Francisco, USA) on the basis of digital CT and MR images, digitized conventional radiographs and different graphical elements prepared as TIFF files or in a vector graphics format. Results: after a short phase of initial skill adaptation training, a radiologist author was soon able to create independently all learning objects. The import of different types of images and graphical elements was carried out without complications. Despite manifold design options, handling of the program is easy due to clear arrangement and structure, thus enabling the creation of simple as well as complex learning objects that provided a high degree of attractiveness and interaction. Data volume and bandwidth demand for online use was significantly reduced by the flash format compression without a substantial loss of visual quality. (orig.)

  6. [Nikola Tesla: flashes of inspiration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarejo-Galende, Albero; Herrero-San Martín, Alejandro

    2013-01-16

    Nikola Tesla (1856-1943) was one of the greatest inventors in history and a key player in the revolution that led to the large-scale use of electricity. He also made important contributions to such diverse fields as x-rays, remote control, radio, the theory of consciousness or electromagnetism. In his honour, the international unit of magnetic induction was named after him. Yet, his fame is scarce in comparison with that of other inventors of the time, such as Edison, with whom he had several heated arguments. He was a rather odd, reserved person who lived for his inventions, the ideas for which came to him in moments of inspiration. In his autobiography he relates these flashes with a number of neuropsychiatric manifestations, which can be seen to include migraine auras, synaesthesiae, obsessions and compulsions.

  7. NAND flash memory technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Aritome, Seiichi

    2016-01-01

    This book discusses basic and advanced NAND flash memory technologies, including the principle of NAND flash, memory cell technologies, multi-bits cell technologies, scaling challenges of memory cell, reliability, and 3-dimensional cell as the future technology. Chapter 1 describes the background and early history of NAND flash. The basic device structures and operations are described in Chapter 2. Next, the author discusses the memory cell technologies focused on scaling in Chapter 3, and introduces the advanced operations for multi-level cells in Chapter 4. The physical limitations for scaling are examined in Chapter 5, and Chapter 6 describes the reliability of NAND flash memory. Chapter 7 examines 3-dimensional (3D) NAND flash memory cells and discusses the pros and cons in structure, process, operations, scalability, and performance. In Chapter 8, challenges of 3D NAND flash memory are dis ussed. Finally, in Chapter 9, the author summarizes and describes the prospect of technologies and market for the fu...

  8. Pro Android Flash

    CERN Document Server

    Chin, Stephen; Campesato, Oswald

    2011-01-01

    Did you know you can take your Flash skills beyond the browser, allowing you to make apps for Android, iOS and the BlackBerry Tablet OS? Build dynamic apps today starting with the easy-to-use Android smartphones and tablets. Then, take your app to other platforms without writing native code. Pro Android Flash is the definitive guide to building Flash and other rich Internet applications (RIAs) on the Android platform. It covers the most popular RIA frameworks for Android developers - Flash and Flex - and shows how to build rich, immersive user experiences on both Android smartphones and tablet

  9. Flash-Type Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshak, William J.

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the significant progress made in the flash-type discrimination algorithm development. The contents include: 1) Highlights of Progress for GLM-R3 Flash-Type discrimination Algorithm Development; 2) Maximum Group Area (MGA) Data; 3) Retrieval Errors from Simulations; and 4) Preliminary Global-scale Retrieval.

  10. Veto players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warntjen, Andreas; Dowding, Keith

    2010-01-01

    Veto players are political actors whose consent is necessary to adopt a new policy. Put otherwise, they have veto power which allows them to prevent a change to the status quo. The concept is crucial to the influential veto player theory developed by George Tsebelis. Building on earlier work in

  11. Floods and Flash Flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floods and flash flooding Now is the time to determine your area’s flood risk. If you are not sure whether you ... If you are in a floodplain, consider buying flood insurance. Do not drive around barricades. If your ...

  12. Timing in a FLASH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoek, M.; Cardinali, M.; Corell, O.; Dickescheid, M.; Ferretti B., M. I.; Lauth, W.; Schlimme, B. S.; Sfienti, C.; Thiel, M.

    2017-12-01

    A prototype detector, called FLASH (Fast Light Acquiring Start Hodoscope), was built to provide precise Time-of-Flight (TOF) measurements and reference timestamps for detector setups at external beam lines. Radiator bars, made of synthetic fused silica, were coupled to a fast MCP-PMT with 64 channels and read out with custom electronics using Time-over-Threshold (TOT) for signal characterization. The TRB3 system, a high-precision TDC implemented in an FPGA, was used as data acquisition system. The performance of a system consisting of two FLASH units was investigated at a dedicated test experiment at the Mainz Microtron (MAMI) accelerator using its 855 MeV electron beam. The TOT measurement enabled time walk corrections and an overall TOF resolution of ∼70 ps could be achieved which translates into a resolution of ∼50 ps per FLASH unit. The intrinsic resolution of the frontend electronics including the TDC was measured to be less than 25 ps.

  13. Foundation Flash Cartoon Animation

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Tim; Rosson, Allan S

    2008-01-01

    One of Flash s most common uses is still animation for cartoons, games, advertising etc, and this book takes a fresh look at the topic, breaking it down pre-production, production, and post production, and looking at each section in detail, and covering topics such as storyboarding, character libraries and camera mechanics like no Flash book has before. The book is written by members of the Emmy award winning ANIMAX team, who have created work for clients such as Disney, AOL, Fox, WWE, ESPN, and Sesame workshop. This book is an opportunity for them to share their secrets, and is written to sui

  14. Flash x-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Q.; Pellinen, D.

    1976-01-01

    The complementary techniques of flash x-ray radiography (FXR) and flash x-ray diffraction (FXD) provide access to a unique domain in nondestructive materials testing. FXR is useful in studies of macroscopic properties during extremely short time intervals, and FXD, the newer technique, is used in studies of microscopic properties. Although these techniques are similar in many respects, there are some substantial differences. FXD generally requires low-voltage, line-radiation sources and extremely accurate timing; FXR is usually less demanding. Phenomena which can be profitably studied by FXR often can also be studied by FXD to permit a complete materials characterization

  15. Theory of optical flashes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    London, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    The theory of optical flashes created by x- and γ-ray burst heating of stars in binaries is reviewed. Calculations of spectra due to steady-state x-ray reprocessing and estimates of the fundamental time scales for the non-steady case are discussed. The results are applied to the extant optical data from x-ray and γ-ray bursters. Finally, I review predictions of flashes from γ-ray bursters detectable by a state of the art all-sky optical monitor

  16. Learning Flash CS4 Professional

    CERN Document Server

    Shupe, Rich

    2009-01-01

    Learning Flash CS4 Professional offers beginners and intermediate Flash developers a unique introduction to the latest version of Adobe's powerful multimedia application. This easy-to-read book is loaded with full-color examples and hands-on tasks to help you master Flash CS4's new motion editor, integrated 3D system, and character control using the new inverse kinematics bones animation system. No previous Flash experience is necessary.

  17. Jaan Toomik Flash Artis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1999-01-01

    1999. a. mai-juuni 'Flash Artis' on ajakirja Eesti korrespondendi Ando Keskküla artikkel Jaan Toomikust. Jaan Toomik on kutsutud esinema Londoni The Photographers' Gallery grupinäitusele, tema videot 'Father and Son' näidatakse Londonis avataval näitusel 'Near and Elsewhere' 11.-24. juunini

  18. Inessa Josing Flash Artis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1999-01-01

    'Flash Art'i' 1998. a. nov.-dets. numbris Rosa Martínezi artiklis suvisest Manifesta II näitusest Luxembourg'is on positiivselt mainitud ka Inessa Josingut. Illustratsiooniks toodud seitsmest fotost ühel on I. Josingu aknakujundus 'What Must I Do to be Saved?'

  19. Physics Flash August 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kippen, Karen Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-25

    Physics Flash is the newsletter for the Physics Division at Los Alamos National Laboratory. This newsletter is for August 2016. The following topics are covered: "Accomplishments in the Trident Laser Facility", "David Meyerhofer elected as chair-elect APS Nominating Committee", "HAWC searches for gamma rays from dark matter", "Proton Radiography Facility commissions electromagnetic magnifier", and "Cosmic ray muon computed tomography of spent nuclear fuel in dry storage casks."

  20. The lightning flash

    CERN Document Server

    Cooray, Vernon

    2014-01-01

    With contributions from today's leading lightning engineers and researchers, this updated 2nd edition of Vernon Cooray's classic text, The Lightning Flash provides the reader with an essential introduction to lightning and its impact on electrical and electronic equipment. Providing the reader with a thorough background into almost every aspect of lightning and its impact on electrical and electronic equipment, this new edition is updated throughout and features eight new chapters that bring the science up to date.

  1. Deconstructing continuous flash suppression

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Eunice; Blake, Randolph

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we asked to what extent the depth of interocular suppression engendered by continuous flash suppression (CFS) varies depending on spatiotemporal properties of the suppressed stimulus and CFS suppressor. An answer to this question could have implications for interpreting the results in which CFS influences the processing of different categories of stimuli to different extents. In a series of experiments, we measured the selectivity and depth of suppression (i.e., elevation in co...

  2. Coherent imaging at FLASH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, H N; Bajt, S; Duesterer, S; Treusch, R; Barty, A; Benner, W H; Bogan, M J; Frank, M; Hau-Riege, S P; Woods, B W; Boutet, S; Cavalleri, A; Hajdu, J; Iwan, B; Seibert, M M; Timneanu, N; Marchesini, S; Sakdinawat, A; Sokolowski-Tinten, K

    2009-01-01

    We have carried out high-resolution single-pulse coherent diffractive imaging at the FLASH free-electron laser. The intense focused FEL pulse gives a high-resolution low-noise coherent diffraction pattern of an object before that object turns into a plasma and explodes. In particular we are developing imaging of biological specimens beyond conventional radiation damage resolution limits, developing imaging of ultrafast processes, and testing methods to characterize and perform single-particle imaging.

  3. Physics Flash December 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kippen, Karen Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). ADEPS Communications

    2016-12-01

    This is the December 2016 issue of Physics Flash, the newsletter of the Physics Division of Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). In this issue, the following topics are covered: Novel liquid helium technique to aid highly sensitive search for a neutron electrical dipole moment; Silverleaf: Prototype Red Sage experiments performed at Q-site; John L. Kline named 2016 APS Fellow; Physics students in the news; First Entropy Engine quantum random number generator hits the market; and celebrating service.

  4. Flashing inception in flowing liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, O.C. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The inception of net vaporization in flashing flows is examined. It is suggested that the flashing inception can be expressed as two additive effects. One is due to the static decompression which is a function of the spinodal limit and also of the expansion rate. The other effect which is a function of Reynolds number and flashing index, is due to the turbulent fluctuations of the flowing liquid. It is shown that by taking a three standard deviation band on the turbulent velocity fluctuations, an adequate representation of the inverse mass flux effect on flashing inception for existing data is obtained

  5. Flash X-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Eiichi

    2003-01-01

    Generation of quasi-monochromatic X-ray by production of weakly ionized line plasma (flash X-ray), high-speed imaging by the X-ray and high-contrast imaging by the characteristic X-ray absorption are described. The equipment for the X-ray is consisted from the high-voltage power supply and condenser, turbo molecular pump, and plasma X-ray tube. The tube has a long linear anticathode to produce the line plasma and flash X-ray at 20 kA current at maximum. X-ray spectrum is measured by the imaging plate equipped in the computed radiography system after diffracted by a LiF single crystal bender. Cu anticathode generates sharp peaks of K X-ray series. The tissue images are presented for vertebra, rabbit ear and heart, and dog heart by X-ray fluoroscopy with Ce anticathode. Generation of K-orbit characteristic X-ray with extremely low bremsstrahung is to be attempted for medical use. (N.I.)

  6. Laser-flash calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Y.; Nakamura, J.-I.

    1982-01-01

    The heat capacity of vanadium has been measured by laser-flash calorimetry in the temperature region from 80 to 1000 K. The results are compared with available low- and high-temperature heat capacities, and revised thermodynamic values of vanadium are given. No heat-capacity anomaly has been found in the pure vanadium sample over the temperature range investigated, while a small heat-capacity discontinuity, less than 1.2 J.K -1 .mol -1 , has been observed at 220 to 230 K on the same sample but electropolished before measurement. This anomaly disappeared after annealing at 1000 K in vacuo for 1 h and is attributable to the introduction of a small amount of hydrogen during electropolishing. (author)

  7. Flashing oscillation in pool water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takamasa, Tomoji; Kondo, Koichi; Hazuku, Tatsuya

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental study of high-pressure saturated water discharging into the pool water. The purpose of the experiment is to clarify the phenomena that occur in blow-down of high-pressure saturated water from the pressure vessel into the water-filled containment in the case of a wall-crack accident or a LOCA in an advanced reactor. The results revealed that a flashing oscillation (FO) occurs when high-pressure saturated water discharges into the pool water, under specified experimental settings. The range of the flashing oscillates between a point very close to and some distance from the vent hole. The pressures in the vent tube and pool water vary according to the flashing oscillation. The pressure oscillation and frequency of flashing position might be caused by the balancing action between the supply of saturated water, flashing at the control volume and its condensation on the steam-water interface. A linear analysis was conducted using a spherical flashing bubble model. The period of the flashing oscillation in the experiments can be explained by theoretical analysis

  8. Flashing coupled density wave oscillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Shengyao; Wu Xinxin; Zhang Youjie

    1997-07-01

    The experiment was performed on the test loop (HRTL-5), which simulates the geometry and system design of the 5 MW reactor. The phenomenon and mechanism of different kinds of two-phase flow instabilities, namely geyser instability, flashing instability and flashing coupled density wave instability are described. The especially interpreted flashing coupled density wave instability has never been studied well, it is analyzed by using a one-dimensional non-thermo equilibrium two-phase flow drift model computer code. Calculations are in good agreement with the experiment results. (5 refs.,5 figs., 1 tab.)

  9. Observers can reliably identify illusory flashes in the illusory flash paradigm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erp, J.B.F. van; Philippi, T.G.; Werkhoven, P.

    2013-01-01

    In the illusory flash paradigm, a single flash may be experienced as two flashes when accompanied by two beeps or taps, and two flashes may be experienced as a single flash when accompanied by one beep or tap. The classic paradigm restricts responses to '1' and '2' (2-AFC), ignoring possible

  10. Flashing inception in flowing liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, O.C. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The inception of net vaporization in flashing flows is examined. It is suggested that the flashing inception can be expressed as two additive effects. One is due to the static decompression which is a function of the initial temperature and also the expansion rate. The other effect which is a function of Reynolds number and flashing index, is due to the turbulent fluctuations of the flowing liquid. It is shown that by taking a three standard deviation band on the turbulent velocity fluctuations, an adequate representation of the inverse mass flux effect on flashing inception for existing data is obtained. The turbulence effects are combined with the correlation of Alamgir and Lienhard to provide predictive methods recommended for the case where both static and convective decompression effects exist

  11. Research of coal flash hydropyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Z.; Zhu, H.; Wu, Y.; Tang, L.; Cheng, L.; Xu, Z. [East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai (China)

    2001-02-01

    Using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses the organic sufur of seven different Chinese coals and their semi-cokes from flash hydropyrolysis were studied. The results showed that the organic sulfur in coal was alkyal sulfur and thiophene with the peak of XPS located in 163.1-163.5 eV and 164.1-164.5 eV. The relative thiophene content in coal increased with the coal rank. The type of organic sulfur in semi-coke in flash hydropyrolysis was generally thiophene species; its XPS peak also located in 164.1-164.5 eV, and was in accord with its corresponding coal. Total alkyl sulfur and some thiophene sulfur were removed during the flash hydropyrolysis process. The alkyl sulfur had very high activity in hydrogenation reaction. Flash hydropyrolysis was an important new clean-coal technique and had notable desulfurization effect. 13 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. New flash mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sackmann, I.

    1980-01-01

    It was found that even for stars evolved away from the red giant branch, a new mixing of nucleo-synthesis products from the hydrogen-burning shells into surface layers was possible, from the penetration of the contaminated intershell region with the H- and He-ionization convection zones. This is due to the helium shell flash driving an immense expansion of an inner carbon pocket, namely, by a factor of 12,000 in radius, a drop in density of about 10 12 , and a cooling of inner pockets normally near 10 8 K to 23,000 K. The surface would be enriched in carbon ( 12 C), helium ( 4 He), and s-process elements, but not significantly in nitrogen ( 14 N), oxygen ( 16 O), or the isotope 13 C. This new type of mixing might provide the missing clue for FG Sagittae. Such a mixing had been suggested by the observations of FG Sagittae, but had been unexplainable by theory up to now

  13. Deconstructing continuous flash suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Eunice; Blake, Randolph

    2012-03-08

    In this paper, we asked to what extent the depth of interocular suppression engendered by continuous flash suppression (CFS) varies depending on spatiotemporal properties of the suppressed stimulus and CFS suppressor. An answer to this question could have implications for interpreting the results in which CFS influences the processing of different categories of stimuli to different extents. In a series of experiments, we measured the selectivity and depth of suppression (i.e., elevation in contrast detection thresholds) as a function of the visual features of the stimulus being suppressed and the stimulus evoking suppression, namely, the popular "Mondrian" CFS stimulus (N. Tsuchiya & C. Koch, 2005). First, we found that CFS differentially suppresses the spatial components of the suppressed stimulus: Observers' sensitivity for stimuli of relatively low spatial frequency or cardinally oriented features was more strongly impaired in comparison to high spatial frequency or obliquely oriented stimuli. Second, we discovered that this feature-selective bias primarily arises from the spatiotemporal structure of the CFS stimulus, particularly within information residing in the low spatial frequency range and within the smooth rather than abrupt luminance changes over time. These results imply that this CFS stimulus operates by selectively attenuating certain classes of low-level signals while leaving others to be potentially encoded during suppression. These findings underscore the importance of considering the contribution of low-level features in stimulus-driven effects that are reported under CFS.

  14. Flashing light in microalgae biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Ghosh, Said; Fixler, Dror; Dubinsky, Zvy; Iluz, David

    2016-03-01

    Flashing light can enhance photosynthesis and improve the quality and quantity of microalgal biomass, as it can increase the products of interest by magnitudes. Therefore, the integration of flashing light effect into microalgal cultivation systems should be considered. However, microalgae require a balanced mix of the light/dark cycle for higher growth rates, and respond to light intensity differently according to the pigments acquired or lost during the growth. This review highlights recently published results on flashing light effect on microalgae and its applications in biotechnology, as well as the recently developed bioreactors designed to fulfill this effect. It also discusses how this knowledge can be applied in selecting the optimal light frequencies and intensities with specific technical properties for increasing biomass production and/or the yield of the chemicals of interest by microalgae belonging to different genera. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Principles of arc flash protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirschmann, R. B.

    2003-04-01

    Recent developments in NFPA 70E, the electrical safety standards in the United States and Canada, designed to provide for a safe industrial work environment, are discussed. The emphasis in this instance is on arc explosions. Development of an arc flash protective program is discussed under various major components of an electrical safety program. These are: appropriate qualifications and training for workers, safe work practices, appropriate hazard assessment practices for any task exceeding 50V where there is the potential of an arc flash accident, flash protection equipment commensurate with the hazard associated with the task to be performed, layering in protective clothing over all body surfaces, and strict adherence to rules regarding use of safety garments and equipment.

  16. Flash sintering of ceramic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dancer, C. E. J.

    2016-10-01

    During flash sintering, ceramic materials can sinter to high density in a matter of seconds while subjected to electric field and elevated temperature. This process, which occurs at lower furnace temperatures and in shorter times than both conventional ceramic sintering and field-assisted methods such as spark plasma sintering, has the potential to radically reduce the power consumption required for the densification of ceramic materials. This paper reviews the experimental work on flash sintering methods carried out to date, and compares the properties of the materials obtained to those produced by conventional sintering. The flash sintering process is described for oxides of zirconium, yttrium, aluminium, tin, zinc, and titanium; silicon and boron carbide, zirconium diboride, materials for solid oxide fuel applications, ferroelectric materials, and composite materials. While experimental observations have been made on a wide range of materials, understanding of the underlying mechanisms responsible for the onset and latter stages of flash sintering is still elusive. Elements of the proposed theories to explain the observed behaviour include extensive Joule heating throughout the material causing thermal runaway, arrested by the current limitation in the power supply, and the formation of defect avalanches which rapidly and dramatically increase the sample conductivity. Undoubtedly, the flash sintering process is affected by the electric field strength, furnace temperature and current density limit, but also by microstructural features such as the presence of second phase particles or dopants and the particle size in the starting material. While further experimental work and modelling is still required to attain a full understanding capable of predicting the success of the flash sintering process in different materials, the technique non-etheless holds great potential for exceptional control of the ceramic sintering process.

  17. Quick Guide to Flash Catalyst

    CERN Document Server

    Elmansy, Rafiq

    2011-01-01

    How do you transform user interface designs created in Photoshop or Illustrator into interactive web pages? It's easier than you think. This guide shows you how to use Adobe Flash Catalyst to create interactive UIs and website wireframes for Rich Internet Applications-without writing a single line of code. Ideal for web designers, this book introduces Flash Catalyst basics with detailed step-by-step instructions and screenshots that illustrate every part of the process. You'll learn hands-on how to turn your static design or artwork into working user interfaces that can be implemented in Fla

  18. Hot Flashes amd Night Sweats (PDQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Professionals Questions to Ask about Your Treatment Research Hot Flashes and Night Sweats (PDQ®)–Patient Version Overview ... quality of life in many patients with cancer. Hot flashes and night sweats may be side effects ...

  19. Flash CS4: The Missing Manual

    CERN Document Server

    Grover, Chris

    2008-01-01

    Unlock the power of Flash and bring gorgeous animations to life onscreen. Flash CS4: The Missing Manual includes a complete primer on animation, a guided tour of the program's tools and capabilities, lots of new illustrations, and more details on working with video. Beginners will learn to use the software in no time, and experienced Flash designers will improve their skills.

  20. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FLASH POINTS OF SOME BINARY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    B. S. Chandravanshi

    Miscellaneous binary blends containing solvent neutral-150 (SN-150), ... viscosity, the flash point test has always been a standard part of a lubricant's specification. ... between structure and flash points of organic compounds [5-12] and fuels [13, 14]. ... in binary mixtures, the gaps between flash points would be high enough.

  1. Jaan Toomik ajakirjas Flash Art

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1999-01-01

    Kunstiajakirja "Flash Art" maikuu numbris Ando Keskküla artikkel, mis annab ülevaate J. Toomiku loomingust ja peatub pikemalt tema olulisematel töödel. 10. juunist J. Toomiku isiknäitus Londoni fotograafide galeriis. Eksponeeritud video "Uisutaja"

  2. Ingmar Muusikuse foto Flash Artis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1999-01-01

    Flash Arti 1999. a. oktoobrinumbris virtuaalse näituse rubriigis Ando Keskküla artikkel radikaalsemast eesti kunstist ja kunstielust postsotsialistlikul ajastul. Illustratsiooniks Liina Siibi fotokompositsioonid, Ingmar Muusikuse foto Raoul Kurvitza, Ene-Liis Semperi ja Kiwa Eesti Panga performance'ist

  3. Undergraduate Separations Utilizing Flash Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, G.

    2000-02-01

    This article describes the procedures used to carry out four flash chromatography experiments: the isolation of the carotenes, chlorophylls and xanthophylls from a spinach extract; the separation of ß-carotene from tetraphenyl cyclopentadienone; the isolation of (+) and (-) carvone from caraway and spearmint oil; and the purification of benzil from benzoin. Apparatus used is nonbreakable, easy to use, and inexpensive.

  4. Foundation Flash CS4 for Designers

    CERN Document Server

    Green, Tom

    2008-01-01

    In this book, you'll learn:* How to create effective animations using the new Motion Editor and animation tools * How to use the new 3D features to animate objects in 3D space * Best-practice tips and techniques from some of the top Flash practitioners on the planet * How to create captioned video and full-screen video, and deploy HD video using Flash * Techniques for using the Flash UI components as well as XML documents to create stunning,interactive presentations If you're a Flash designer looking for a solid overview of Flash CS4, this book is for you. Through the use of solid and practica

  5. On multiphase negative flash for ideal solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Wei; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2012-01-01

    simpler than the corresponding normal flash algorithm. Unlike normal flash, multiphase negative flash for ideal solutions can diverge if the feasible domain for phase amounts is not closed. This can be judged readily during the iteration process. The algorithm can also be extended to the partial negative......There is a recent interest to solve multiphase negative flash problems where the phase amounts can be negative for normal positive feed composition. Solving such a negative flash problem using successive substitution needs an inner loop for phase distribution calculation at constant fugacity...... coefficients. It is shown that this inner loop, named here as multiphase negative flash for ideal solutions, can be solved either by Michelsen's algorithm for multiphase normal flash, or by its variation which uses F−1 phase amounts as independent variables. In either case, the resulting algorithm is actually...

  6. Spurious dispersion effects at FLASH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prat, Eduard

    2009-07-01

    The performance of the Free-Electron Laser (FEL) process imposes stringent demands on the transverse trajectory and size of the electron beam. Since transverse dispersion changes off-energy particle trajectories and increases the effective beam size, dispersion must be controlled. This thesis treats the concept of dispersion in linacs, and analyses the impact of dispersion on the electron beam and on the FEL process. It presents generation mechanisms for spurious dispersion, quantifying its importance for FLASH (Free-electron Laser in Hamburg) and the XFEL (European X-ray Free-Electron Laser). A method for measuring and correcting dispersion and its implementation in FLASH is described. Experiments of dispersion e ects on the transverse beam quality and on the FEL performance are presented. (orig.)

  7. Flash x-ray cinematography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stein, W.E.

    1976-01-01

    Experiments intended to provide an overview of the potential capabilities and limitations of flash x-ray cinematography as a diagnostic technique for a Fast Reactor Safety Test Facility are described. The results provide estimates of the x-ray pulse intensity required to obtain adequate radiographs of an array of fuel pins in a typical reactor configuration. An estimate of the upper limit on the pulse duration imposed by the reactor background radiation was also determined. X-ray cinematography has been demonstrated at a repetition rate limited only by the recording equipment on hand at the time of these measurements. These preliminary results indicate that flash x-ray cinematography of the motion of fuel in a Fast Reactor Test Facility is technically feasible

  8. Spurious dispersion effects at FLASH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prat, Eduard

    2009-07-15

    The performance of the Free-Electron Laser (FEL) process imposes stringent demands on the transverse trajectory and size of the electron beam. Since transverse dispersion changes off-energy particle trajectories and increases the effective beam size, dispersion must be controlled. This thesis treats the concept of dispersion in linacs, and analyses the impact of dispersion on the electron beam and on the FEL process. It presents generation mechanisms for spurious dispersion, quantifying its importance for FLASH (Free-electron Laser in Hamburg) and the XFEL (European X-ray Free-Electron Laser). A method for measuring and correcting dispersion and its implementation in FLASH is described. Experiments of dispersion e ects on the transverse beam quality and on the FEL performance are presented. (orig.)

  9. Hot flashes and sleep in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, Karen E

    2004-12-01

    Sleep disturbances during menopause are often attributed to nocturnal hot flashes and 'sweats' associated with changing hormone patterns. This paper is a comprehensive critical review of the research on the relationship between sleep disturbance and hot flashes in women. Numerous studies have found a relationship between self-reported hot flashes and sleep complaints. However, hot flash studies using objective sleep assessment techniques such as polysomnography, actigraphy, or quantitative analysis of the sleep EEG are surprisingly scarce and have yielded somewhat mixed results. Much of this limited evidence suggests that hot flashes are associated with objectively identified sleep disruption in at least some women. At least some of the negative data may be due to methodological issues such as reliance upon problematic self-reports of nocturnal hot flashes and a lack of concurrent measures of hot flashes and sleep. The recent development of a reliable and non-intrusive method for objectively identifying hot flashes during the night should help address the need for substantial additional research in this area. Several areas of clinical relevance are described, including the effects of discontinuing combined hormone therapy (estrogen plus progesterone) or estrogen-only therapy, the possibility of hot flashes continuing for many years after menopause, and the link between hot flashes and depression.

  10. A Durable Flash Memory Search Tree

    OpenAIRE

    Clay III, James; Wortman, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    We consider the task of optimizing the B-tree data structure, used extensively in operating systems and databases, for sustainable usage on multi-level flash memory. Empirical evidence shows that this new flash memory tree, or FM Tree, extends the operational lifespan of each block of flash memory by a factor of roughly 27 to 70 times, while still supporting logarithmic-time search tree operations.

  11. Evaluation of Flash Bainite in 4130 Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Technical Report ARWSB-TR-11011 Evaluation of Flash Bainite in 4130 Steel G. Vigilante M. Hespos S. Bartolucci...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Evaluation of Flash Bainite in 4130 Steel 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...need to be addressed, the Flash Bainite processing of 4130 steel demonstrates promise for applications needing a combination of high strength with

  12. Construction and performance of large flash chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, F.E.; Bogert, D.; Fisk, R.; Stutte, L.; Walker, J.K.; Wolfson, J.; Abolins, M.; Ernwein, J.; Owen, D.; Lyons, T.

    1979-01-01

    The construction and performance of 12' x 12' flash chambers used in a 340 ton neutrino detector under construction at Fermilab is described. The flash chambers supply digital information with a spatial resolution of 0.2'', and are used to finely sample the shower development of the reaction products of neutrino interactions. The flash chambers are easy and inexpensive to build and are electronically read out

  13. Menopausal Hot Flashes and White Matter Hyperintensities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurston, Rebecca C.; Aizenstein, Howard J.; Derby, Carol A.; Sejdić, Ervin; Maki, Pauline M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Hot flashes are the classic menopausal symptom. Emerging data links hot flashes to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, yet how hot flashes are related to brain health is poorly understood. We examined the relationship between hot flashes - measured via physiologic monitor and self-report - and white matter hyperintensities (WMH) among midlife women. Methods Twenty midlife women ages 40-60 without clinical CVD, with their uterus and both ovaries, and not taking hormone therapy were recruited. Women underwent 24 hours of ambulatory physiologic and diary hot flash monitoring to quantify hot flashes; magnetic resonance imaging to assess WMH burden; 72 hours of actigraphy and questionnaires to quantify sleep; and a blood draw, questionnaires, and physical measures to quantify demographics and CVD risk factors. Test of a priori hypotheses regarding relations between physiologically-monitored and self-reported wake and sleep hot flashes and WMH were conducted in linear regression models. Results More physiologically-monitored hot flashes during sleep were associated with greater WMH, controlling for age, race, and body mass index [beta(standard error)=.0002 (.0001), p=.03]. Findings persisted controlling for sleep characteristics and additional CVD risk factors. No relations were observed for self-reported hot flashes. Conclusions More physiologically-monitored hot flashes during sleep were associated with greater WMH burden among midlife women free of clinical CVD. Results suggest that relations between hot flashes and CVD risk observed in the periphery may extend to the brain. Future work should consider the unique role of sleep hot flashes in brain health. PMID:26057822

  14. Modelling and mitigation of Flash Crashes

    OpenAIRE

    Fry, John; Serbera, Jean-Philippe

    2017-01-01

    The algorithmic trading revolution has had a dramatic effect upon markets. Trading has become faster, and in some ways more efficient, though potentially at the cost higher volatility and increased uncertainty. Stories of predatory trading and flash crashes constitute a new financial reality. Worryingly, highly capitalised stocks may be particularly vulnerable to flash crashes. Amid fears of high-risk technology failures in the global financial system we develop a model for flash crashes....

  15. Flash CS5 The Missing Manual

    CERN Document Server

    Grover, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Once you know how to use Flash, you can create everything from simple animations to high-end desktop applications, but it's a complex tool that can be difficult to master on your own-unless you have this Missing Manual. This book will help you learn all you need to know about Flash CS5 to create animations that bring your ideas to life. Learn animation basics. Find everything you need to know to get started with FlashMaster the Flash tools. Learn the animation and effects toolset, with clear explanations and hands-on examplesUse 3D effects. Rotate and put objects in motion in three dimensions

  16. Search Engine Optimization for Flash Best Practices for Using Flash on the Web

    CERN Document Server

    Perkins, Todd

    2009-01-01

    Search Engine Optimization for Flash dispels the myth that Flash-based websites won't show up in a web search by demonstrating exactly what you can do to make your site fully searchable -- no matter how much Flash it contains. You'll learn best practices for using HTML, CSS and JavaScript, as well as SWFObject, for building sites with Flash that will stand tall in search rankings.

  17. The haptic and the visual flash-lag effect and the role of flash characteristics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knut Drewing

    Full Text Available When a short flash occurs in spatial alignment with a moving object, the moving object is seen ahead the stationary one. Similar to this visual "flash-lag effect" (FLE it has been recently observed for the haptic sense that participants judge a moving hand to be ahead a stationary hand when judged at the moment of a short vibration ("haptic flash" that is applied when the two hands are spatially aligned. We further investigated the haptic FLE. First, we compared participants' performance in two isosensory visual or haptic conditions, in which moving object and flash were presented only in a single modality (visual: sphere and short color change, haptic: hand and vibration, and two bisensory conditions, in which the moving object was presented in both modalities (hand aligned with visible sphere, but the flash was presented only visually or only haptically. The experiment aimed to disentangle contributions of the flash's and the objects' modalities to the FLEs in haptics versus vision. We observed a FLE when the flash was visually displayed, both when the moving object was visual and visuo-haptic. Because the position of a visual flash, but not of an analogue haptic flash, is misjudged relative to a same visuo-haptic moving object, the difference between visual and haptic conditions can be fully attributed to characteristics of the flash. The second experiment confirmed that a haptic FLE can be observed depending on flash characteristics: the FLE increases with decreasing intensity of the flash (slightly modulated by flash duration, which had been previously observed for vision. These findings underline the high relevance of flash characteristics in different senses, and thus fit well with the temporal-sampling framework, where the flash triggers a high-level, supra-modal process of position judgement, the time point of which further depends on the processing time of the flash.

  18. Rh-flash acquisition card

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourrion, O.

    2003-01-01

    The rh-flash card main purpose is to convert and store the image of the analog data present at input into an output buffer, namely in a given timing window besides a stop signal (like a digital oscilloscope). It is conceived in VME format 1U wide with an additional connector. Novelty of this card is its ability to sample at a high frequency, due to flash coders, and this at a high repetition rate. To do that the card allows the storage of the data considered 'useful' and that is done by storing only the data exceeding a certain threshold. This can be useful for instance for viewing peaks in a spectrum, and obtaining their relative location. The goal is to stock and process the data sampled before and after the arrival of a stop signal (what entails a storage depth). A threshold is defined and any peak exceeding its level will really be stored in the output buffer which is readable through the VME bus. The peak values will be stored as well as m preceding and n subsequent values (both programmable). Obviously, if the threshold is zero the system of data processing is off and all data will be stored. The document is structured on six sections titled: 1. Description; 2. Specifications; 3. Explaining the design of channels; 4. Explaining the shared part of the design; 5. Addressing (→ user guide); 6. Software precautions. (author)

  19. NO signatures from lightning flashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stith, J.; Dye, J.; Ridley, B.; Laroche, P.; Defer, E.; Baumann, K.; Hübler, G.; Zerr, R.; Venticinque, M.

    1999-07-01

    In situ measurements of cloud properties, NO, and other trace gases were made in active thunderstorms by two research aircraft. Concurrent measurements from a three-dimensional (3-D) VHF interferometer and the 2-D National Lightning Detection Network were used to determine lightning frequency and location. The CHILL Doppler radar and the NOAA-WP-3D Orion X band Doppler radar were also used to measure storm characteristics. Two case studies from the (STERAO) Stratosphere-Troposphere Experiments: Radiation, Aerosols, and Ozone project in northeastern Colorado during the summer of 1996 are presented. Narrow spikes (0.11-0.96 km across), containing up to 19 ppbv of NO, were observed in the storms. Most were located in or downwind of electrically active regions where the NO produced by lightning would be expected. However, it was difficult to correlate individual flashes with NO spikes. A simple model of the plume of NO from lightning is used to estimate NO production from the mean mixing ratio measured in these spikes. The estimates range from 2.0×1020 to 1.0×1022 molecules of NO per meter of flash length.

  20. uFlip: Understanding Flash IO Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouganim, Luc; Jonsson, Bjørn; Bonnet, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    want to establish what kind of IOs should be favored (or avoided) when designing algorithms and architectures for flash-based systems. In this paper, we focus on flash IO patterns, that capture relevant distribution of IOs in time and space, and our goal is to quantify their performance. We define uFLIP...

  1. Au Contraire: Gifted in a Flash (Mob)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delisle, James R.

    2012-01-01

    A "flash mob" is defined by Wikipedia as "a large group of people who assemble suddenly in a public place, perform an unusual and pointless act for a brief time, then disperse." Fueled by social media and Smartphones, flash mobs have been used, primarily, as entertaining diversions by addicted techies with (apparently) tons of time on their hands.…

  2. Flash memory in embedded Java programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsholm, Stephan Erbs

    This paper introduces a Java execution environment with the capability for storing constant heap data in Flash, thus saving valuable RAM. The extension is motivated by the structure of three industrial applications which demonstrate the need for storing constant data in Flash on small embedded...

  3. FLASH Interface; a GUI for managing runtime parameters in FLASH simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Christopher; Tzeferacos, Petros; Weide, Klaus; Lamb, Donald; Flocke, Norbert; Feister, Scott

    2017-10-01

    We present FLASH Interface, a novel graphical user interface (GUI) for managing runtime parameters in simulations performed with the FLASH code. FLASH Interface supports full text search of available parameters; provides descriptions of each parameter's role and function; allows for the filtering of parameters based on categories; performs input validation; and maintains all comments and non-parameter information already present in existing parameter files. The GUI can be used to edit existing parameter files or generate new ones. FLASH Interface is open source and was implemented with the Electron framework, making it available on Mac OSX, Windows, and Linux operating systems. The new interface lowers the entry barrier for new FLASH users and provides an easy-to-use tool for experienced FLASH simulators. U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), NNSA ASC/Alliances Center for Astrophysical Thermonuclear Flashes, U.S. DOE NNSA ASC through the Argonne Institute for Computing in Science, U.S. National Science Foundation.

  4. Organic flash cycles for efficient power production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Tony; Mao, Samuel S.; Greif, Ralph

    2016-03-15

    This disclosure provides systems, methods, and apparatus related to an Organic Flash Cycle (OFC). In one aspect, a modified OFC system includes a pump, a heat exchanger, a flash evaporator, a high pressure turbine, a throttling valve, a mixer, a low pressure turbine, and a condenser. The heat exchanger is coupled to an outlet of the pump. The flash evaporator is coupled to an outlet of the heat exchanger. The high pressure turbine is coupled to a vapor outlet of the flash evaporator. The throttling valve is coupled to a liquid outlet of the flash evaporator. The mixer is coupled to an outlet of the throttling valve and to an outlet of the high pressure turbine. The low pressure turbine is coupled to an outlet of the mixer. The condenser is coupled to an outlet of the low pressure turbine and to an inlet of the pump.

  5. Terrestrial gamma-ray flashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marisaldi, Martino; Fuschino, Fabio; Labanti, Claudio; Tavani, Marco; Argan, Andrea; Del Monte, Ettore; Longo, Francesco; Barbiellini, Guido; Giuliani, Andrea; Trois, Alessio; Bulgarelli, Andrea; Gianotti, Fulvio; Trifoglio, Massimo

    2013-08-01

    Lightning and thunderstorm systems in general have been recently recognized as powerful particle accelerators, capable of producing electrons, positrons, gamma-rays and neutrons with energies as high as several tens of MeV. In fact, these natural systems turn out to be the highest energy and most efficient natural particle accelerators on Earth. Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes (TGFs) are millisecond long, very intense bursts of gamma-rays and are one of the most intriguing manifestation of these natural accelerators. Only three currently operative missions are capable of detecting TGFs from space: the RHESSI, Fermi and AGILE satellites. In this paper we review the characteristics of TGFs, including energy spectrum, timing structure, beam geometry and correlation with lightning, and the basic principles of the associated production models. Then we focus on the recent AGILE discoveries concerning the high energy extension of the TGF spectrum up to 100 MeV, which is difficult to reconcile with current theoretical models.

  6. Terrestrial gamma-ray flashes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marisaldi, Martino; Fuschino, Fabio; Labanti, Claudio; Tavani, Marco; Argan, Andrea; Del Monte, Ettore; Longo, Francesco; Barbiellini, Guido; Giuliani, Andrea; Trois, Alessio; Bulgarelli, Andrea; Gianotti, Fulvio; Trifoglio, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Lightning and thunderstorm systems in general have been recently recognized as powerful particle accelerators, capable of producing electrons, positrons, gamma-rays and neutrons with energies as high as several tens of MeV. In fact, these natural systems turn out to be the highest energy and most efficient natural particle accelerators on Earth. Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes (TGFs) are millisecond long, very intense bursts of gamma-rays and are one of the most intriguing manifestation of these natural accelerators. Only three currently operative missions are capable of detecting TGFs from space: the RHESSI, Fermi and AGILE satellites. In this paper we review the characteristics of TGFs, including energy spectrum, timing structure, beam geometry and correlation with lightning, and the basic principles of the associated production models. Then we focus on the recent AGILE discoveries concerning the high energy extension of the TGF spectrum up to 100 MeV, which is difficult to reconcile with current theoretical models

  7. EEHG at FLASH and DELTA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molo, Robert; Hoener, Markus; Huck, Holger; Hacker, Kirsten; Khan, Shaukat; Schick, Andreas; Ungelenk, Peter; Zeinalzadeh, Maryam [Center for Synchrotron Radiation (DELTA), TU Dortmund University (Germany); Meulen, Peter van der; Salen, Peter [Stockholm University (Sweden); Angelova Hamberg, Gergana; Ziemann, Volker [Uppsala University (Sweden)

    2013-07-01

    The echo-enabled harmonic generation (EEHG) scheme utilizes two modulators with two magnetic chicanes in order to generate an electron density modulation with high harmonic content. In contrast to free-electron lasers (FEL) based on self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE), the radiation of an EEHG FEL has better longitudinal coherence and is naturally synchronized with an external laser, which is advantageous for pump-probe applications. At the free-electron laser in Hamburg (FLASH), an EEHG experiment is currently under preparation. The short-pulse facility at DELTA (a 1.5-GeV synchrotron light source operated by the TU Dortmund University) based on coherent harmonic generation (CHG) will be upgraded using the EEHG technique in order to reach shorter wavelengths.

  8. Statistical Evolution of the Lightning Flash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoghzoghy, F. G.; Cohen, M.; Said, R.; Inan, U. S.

    2012-12-01

    Natural lightning is one of the most fascinating and powerful electrical processes on Earth. To date, the physics behind this natural phenomenon are not fully understood, due primarily to the difficulty of obtaining measurements inside thunderstorms and to the wide range of timescales involved (from nanoseconds to seconds). Our aim is to use accurate lightning geo-location data from the National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN) to study statistical patterns in lightning, taking advantage of the fact that millions of lightning flashes occur around the globe every day. We present two sets of results, one involving the patterns of flashes in a storm, and a second involving the patterns of strokes in a flash. These patterns can provide a surrogate measure of the timescales and the spatial extents of the underlying physical processes. First, we study the timescales of charge buildup inside thunderstorms. We find that, following a lightning flash, the probability of another neighboring flash decreases and takes tens of seconds to recover. We find that this suppression effect is a function of flash type, stroke peak current, cloud-to-ground (CG) stroke multiplicity, and other lightning and geographical parameters. We find that the probabilities of subsequent flashes are more suppressed following oceanic lightning, or following flashes with higher peak currents and/or higher multiplicities (for CG flashes). Second, we use NLDN data to study the evolution of the strokes within a CG flash. A CG flash typically includes multiple return strokes, which can occur in the same channel or in multiple channels within a few kilometers. We cluster NLDN stroke data into flashes and produce the probability density function of subsequent strokes as a function of distance and time-delays relative to the previous stroke. Using this technique, we investigate processes which occur during the CG lightning flash with nanosecond to millisecond timescales. For instance, our results suggest

  9. Player-Character Dynamics in Multi- Player Role Playing Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tychsen, Anders; McIlwain, D.; Brolund, T.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a comprehensive empirical study of the impact of integrating complex game characters in multi-player Role Playing Games across tabletop and digital formats. Players were provided with characters that had detailed background history, personality and goals. Player...

  10. Sport specific fitness testing of elite badminton players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, M K; Wong, A S; So, R C; Siu, O T; Steininger, K; Lo, D T

    1995-01-01

    There is a scarcity of descriptive data on the performance capacity of elite badminton players, whose fitness requirements are quite specific. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the physiological response of elite badminton players in a sport-specific fitness test. Twelve Hong Kong national badminton team players performed a field test on a badminton court. Six light bulbs were connected to a programming device causing individual bulbs to light up in a given sequence. The players were instructed to react to the flashes by running towards them, and striking shuttles mounted in the vicinity of the bulbs. Exercise intensity was controlled by altering the interval between successive lightings. A low correlation (r = 0.65) was found between the results of the field test and the rank-order list of subjects, based on an objective on-field physiological assessment and subjective ranking. This may be explained by the requirements of other factors besides physical fitness which contribute to success in elite level badminton competition. These factors may include, for example, technical skill, mental power, and aesthetic judgements on the court. Maximum mean (s.d.) heart rate data (187(8) beats.min-1) and blood lactate values (10.4(2.9) mmol.l-1) in this study showed that players were under maximal load during the field test. From the testing data, it seems reasonable to speculate that the intensity of level 3 (20 light pulses.min-1; 3.0 s.pulse-1) and level 4 (22 light pulses.min-1; 2.7 s.pulse-1) simulates the requirement of actual games energy expenditure of the Hong Kong badminton players exercising at close to their anaerobic threshold. The results also show that an estimate of fitness can be derived from measurements involving exercise closely resembling that which is specific for the sports activity in question. Improved training advice and guidance may result from such studies. PMID:8800846

  11. The Player Engagement Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoenau-Fog, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    , categories and triggers involved in this process. By applying grounded theory to the analysis of the responses, a process-oriented player engagement framework was developed and four main components consisting of objectives, activities, accomplishments and affects as well as the corresponding categories...

  12. Teaching Beginning Trombone Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallis, Todd L.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the process of introducing the trombone to beginning students and addresses the issue of warming-up. Provides resources for beginning trombone methods, band methods, and daily warm-up studies. Includes resources for scale studies and etudes for beginning to intermediate trombone players. (CMK)

  13. MR colonography with fecal tagging: comparison between 2D turbo FLASH and 3D FLASH sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papanikolaou, Nickolas; Grammatikakis, John; Maris, Thomas; Prassopoulos, Panos; Gourtsoyiannis, Nicholas; Lauenstein, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare inversion recovery turbo 2D fast low-angle shot (FLASH) and 3D FLASH sequences for fecal-tagged MR colonography studies. Fifteen consecutive patients with indications for colonoscopy underwent MR colonography with fecal tagging. An inversion recovery turbo-FLASH sequence was applied and compared in terms of artifacts presence, efficiency for masking residual stool, and colonic wall conspicuity with a fat-saturated 3D FLASH sequence. Both sequences were acquired following administration of paramagnetic contrast agent. Contrast-to-noise ratio and relative contrast between colonic wall and lumen were calculated and compared for both sequences. Turbo 2D FLASH provided fewer artifacts, higher efficiency for masking the residual stool, and colonic wall conspicuity equivalent to 3D FLASH. An inversion time of 10 ms provided homogeneously low signal intensity of the colonic lumen. Contrast to noise between colonic wall and lumen was significantly higher in the 3D FLASH images, whereas differences in relative contrast were not statistically significant. An optimized inversion-recovery 2D turbo-FLASH sequence provides better fecal tagging results and should be added to the 3D FLASH sequence when designing dark-lumen MR colonography examination protocols. (orig.)

  14. A global flash flood forecasting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baugh, Calum; Pappenberger, Florian; Wetterhall, Fredrik; Hewson, Tim; Zsoter, Ervin

    2016-04-01

    The sudden and devastating nature of flash flood events means it is imperative to provide early warnings such as those derived from Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) forecasts. Currently such systems exist on basin, national and continental scales in Europe, North America and Australia but rely on high resolution NWP forecasts or rainfall-radar nowcasting, neither of which have global coverage. To produce global flash flood forecasts this work investigates the possibility of using forecasts from a global NWP system. In particular we: (i) discuss how global NWP can be used for flash flood forecasting and discuss strengths and weaknesses; (ii) demonstrate how a robust evaluation can be performed given the rarity of the event; (iii) highlight the challenges and opportunities in communicating flash flood uncertainty to decision makers; and (iv) explore future developments which would significantly improve global flash flood forecasting. The proposed forecast system uses ensemble surface runoff forecasts from the ECMWF H-TESSEL land surface scheme. A flash flood index is generated using the ERIC (Enhanced Runoff Index based on Climatology) methodology [Raynaud et al., 2014]. This global methodology is applied to a series of flash floods across southern Europe. Results from the system are compared against warnings produced using the higher resolution COSMO-LEPS limited area model. The global system is evaluated by comparing forecasted warning locations against a flash flood database of media reports created in partnership with floodlist.com. To deal with the lack of objectivity in media reports we carefully assess the suitability of different skill scores and apply spatial uncertainty thresholds to the observations. To communicate the uncertainties of the flash flood system output we experiment with a dynamic region-growing algorithm. This automatically clusters regions of similar return period exceedence probabilities, thus presenting the at-risk areas at a spatial

  15. Method for programming a flash memory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brosky, Alexander R.; Locke, William N.; Maher, Conrado M.

    2016-08-23

    A method of programming a flash memory is described. The method includes partitioning a flash memory into a first group having a first level of write-protection, a second group having a second level of write-protection, and a third group having a third level of write-protection. The write-protection of the second and third groups is disabled using an installation adapter. The third group is programmed using a Software Installation Device.

  16. Flash spectroscopy of purple membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, A H; Nagle, J F; Lozier, R H

    1987-04-01

    Flash spectroscopy data were obtained for purple membrane fragments at pH 5, 7, and 9 for seven temperatures from 5 degrees to 35 degrees C, at the magic angle for actinic versus measuring beam polarizations, at fifteen wavelengths from 380 to 700 nm, and for about five decades of time from 1 microsecond to completion of the photocycle. Signal-to-noise ratios are as high as 500. Systematic errors involving beam geometries, light scattering, absorption flattening, photoselection, temperature fluctuations, partial dark adaptation of the sample, unwanted actinic effects, and cooperativity were eliminated, compensated for, or are shown to be irrelevant for the conclusions. Using nonlinear least squares techniques, all data at one temperature and one pH were fitted to sums of exponential decays, which is the form required if the system obeys conventional first-order kinetics. The rate constants obtained have well behaved Arrhenius plots. Analysis of the residual errors of the fitting shows that seven exponentials are required to fit the data to the accuracy of the noise level.

  17. Improving Flash Flood Prediction in Multiple Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broxton, P. D.; Troch, P. A.; Schaffner, M.; Unkrich, C.; Goodrich, D.; Wagener, T.; Yatheendradas, S.

    2009-12-01

    Flash flooding is a major concern in many fast responding headwater catchments . There are many efforts to model and to predict these flood events, though it is not currently possible to adequately predict the nature of flash flood events with a single model, and furthermore, many of these efforts do not even consider snow, which can, by itself, or in combination with rainfall events, cause destructive floods. The current research is aimed at broadening the applicability of flash flood modeling. Specifically, we will take a state of the art flash flood model that is designed to work with warm season precipitation in arid environments, the KINematic runoff and EROSion model (KINEROS2), and combine it with a continuous subsurface flow model and an energy balance snow model. This should improve its predictive capacity in humid environments where lateral subsurface flow significantly contributes to streamflow, and it will make possible the prediction of flooding events that involve rain-on-snow or rapid snowmelt. By modeling changes in the hydrologic state of a catchment before a flood begins, we can also better understand the factors or combination of factors that are necessary to produce large floods. Broadening the applicability of an already state of the art flash flood model, such as KINEROS2, is logical because flash floods can occur in all types of environments, and it may lead to better predictions, which are necessary to preserve life and property.

  18. Measuring hot flash phenomenonology using ambulatory prospective digital diaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, William I.; Thurston, Rebecca C.

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study provides the description, protocol, and results from a novel prospective ambulatory digital hot flash phenomenon diary. Methods This study included 152 midlife women with daily hot flashes who completed an ambulatory electronic hot flash diary continuously for the waking hours of 3 consecutive days. In this diary, women recorded their hot flashes and accompanying characteristics and associations as the hot flashes occurred. Results Self-reported hot flash severity on the digital diaries indicated that the majority of hot flashes were rated as mild (41.3%) or moderate (43.7%). Severe (13.1%) and very severe (1.8%) hot flashes were less common. Hot flash bother ratings were rated as mild (43%), or moderate (33.5%), with fewer hot flashes reported bothersome (17.5%) or very bothersome (6%). The majority of hot flashes were reported as occurring on the on the face (78.9%), neck (74.7%), and chest (61.3%). Prickly skin was reported concurrently with 32% of hot flashes, 7% with anxiety and 5% with nausea. A novel finding, 38% of hot flashes were accompanied by a premonitory aura. Conclusion A prospective electronic digital hot flash diary allows for a more precise quantitation of hot flashes while overcoming many of the limitations of commonly employed retrospective questionnaires and paper diaries. Unique insights into the phenomenology, loci and associated characteristics of hot flashes were obtained using this device. The digital hot flash phenomenology diary is recommended for future ambulatory studies of hot flashes as a prospective measure of the hot flash experience. PMID:27404030

  19. FPGA Flash Memory High Speed Data Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, April

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to design and implement a VHDL ONFI Controller module for a Modular Instrumentation System. The goal of the Modular Instrumentation System will be to have a low power device that will store data and send the data at a low speed to a processor. The benefit of such a system will give an advantage over other purchased binary IP due to the capability of allowing NASA to re-use and modify the memory controller module. To accomplish the performance criteria of a low power system, an in house auxiliary board (Flash/ADC board), FPGA development kit, debug board, and modular instrumentation board will be jointly used for the data acquisition. The Flash/ADC board contains four, 1 MSPS, input channel signals and an Open NAND Flash memory module with an analog to digital converter. The ADC, data bits, and control line signals from the board are sent to an Microsemi/Actel FPGA development kit for VHDL programming of the flash memory WRITE, READ, READ STATUS, ERASE, and RESET operation waveforms using Libero software. The debug board will be used for verification of the analog input signal and be able to communicate via serial interface with the module instrumentation. The scope of the new controller module was to find and develop an ONFI controller with the debug board layout designed and completed for manufacture. Successful flash memory operation waveform test routines were completed, simulated, and tested to work on the FPGA board. Through connection of the Flash/ADC board with the FPGA, it was found that the device specifications were not being meet with Vdd reaching half of its voltage. Further testing showed that it was the manufactured Flash/ADC board that contained a misalignment with the ONFI memory module traces. The errors proved to be too great to fix in the time limit set for the project.

  20. Active Learning for Player Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Noor; Abou-Zleikha, Mohamed; Shaker, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Learning models of player behavior has been the focus of several studies. This work is motivated by better understanding of player behavior, a knowledge that can ultimately be employed to provide player-adapted or personalized content. In this paper, we propose the use of active learning for player...... experience modeling. We use a dataset from hundreds of players playing Infinite Mario Bros. as a case study and we employ the random forest method to learn mod- els of player experience through the active learning approach. The results obtained suggest that only part of the dataset (up to half the size...... that the method can be used online during the content generation process where the mod- els can improve and better content can be presented as the game is being played....

  1. The Hedonic Haptic Player

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallgårda, Anna; Boer, Laurens; Cahill, Ben

    2017-01-01

    In this design case we present the Hedonic Haptic Player—a wearable device that plays different patterns of vibrations on the body as a form of music for the skin. With this we begin to explore the enjoyability of vibrations in a wearable set-up. Instead of implementing vibrations as a haptic...... output for some form of communication we want to explore their hedonistic value. The process leading up to the Hedonic Haptic player served as a first step in getting a grasp of the design space of vibrotactile stimuli in a broader sense. This is reported as seven episodes of explorations. The Hedonic...

  2. A void distribution model-flashing flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riznic, J.; Ishii, M.; Afgan, N.

    1987-01-01

    A new model for flashing flow based on wall nucleations is proposed here and the model predictions are compared with some experimental data. In order to calculate the bubble number density, the bubble number transport equation with a distributed source from the wall nucleation sites was used. Thus it was possible to avoid the usual assumption of a constant bubble number density. Comparisons of the model with the data shows that the model based on the nucleation site density correlation appears to be acceptable to describe the vapor generation in the flashing flow. For the limited data examined, the comparisons show rather satisfactory agreement without using a floating parameter to adjust the model. This result indicated that, at least for the experimental conditions considered here, the mechanistic predictions of the flashing phenomenon is possible on the present wall nucleation based model

  3. Mechanisms of nucleation in flashing flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, F.; Giot, M.

    1989-01-01

    The mechanisms of nucleation have been analysed. Starting from the assumption that the activation of micro-cavities in the wall surfaces is the most probable nucleation mechanism in practical flashing system, the authors study in detail the nucleation in a micro-cavity. A three step nucleation criterion is proposed, namely: trapping cavity, activable cavity and active cavity. Then, a new nucleation model is presented. The output of the model is the prediction of the bubble departure frequency versus the thermodynamic state of the liquid and the geometry of the cavity. The model can also predict the nucleation site density if the nature of the wall and the surface roughness are know. The prediction have been successfully compared with some preliminary experimental results. By combining the present model with Jones'theory, the flashing inception is correctly predicted. The use of this nucleation model for the complete modelling of a flashing non-equilibrium flow is in progress

  4. An Analysis of Total Lightning Flash Rates Over Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzetti, Thomas O.; Fuelberg, Henry E.

    2017-12-01

    Although Florida is known as the "Sunshine State", it also contains the greatest lightning flash densities in the United States. Flash density has received considerable attention in the literature, but lightning flash rate has received much less attention. We use data from the Earth Networks Total Lightning Network (ENTLN) to produce a 5 year (2010-2014) set of statistics regarding total flash rates over Florida and adjacent regions. Instead of tracking individual storms, we superimpose a 0.2° × 0.2° grid over the study region and count both cloud-to-ground (CG) and in-cloud (IC) flashes over 5 min intervals. Results show that the distribution of total flash rates is highly skewed toward small values, whereas the greatest rate is 185 flashes min-1. Greatest average annual flash rates ( 3 flashes min-1) are located near Orlando. The southernmost peninsula, North Florida, and the Florida Panhandle exhibit smaller average annual flash rates ( 1.5 flashes min-1). Large flash rates > 100 flashes min-1 can occur during any season, at any time during the 24 h period, and at any location within the domain. However, they are most likely during the afternoon and early evening in East Central Florida during the spring and summer months.

  5. Flash Builder 4 and Flex 4 Bible

    CERN Document Server

    Gassner, David

    2010-01-01

    A complete and thorough reference for developers on the new Flex 4 platform. Create desktop applications that behave identically on Windows, Mac OS X, and Linux with Adobe's new Flash Builder 4 platform and this in-depth guide. The book's tutorials and explanations walk you step-by-step through Flash Builder's new, faster tools; the new framework for generating code; how to connect to popular application servers; upgrading from Flex 3; and much more.: Shows you how to create rich applications for the Web and desktop with the very latest version of Flex, with detailed coverage for both new and

  6. Foundation Flash CS5 for Designers

    CERN Document Server

    Green, T

    2010-01-01

    Flash is one of the most engaging, innovative, and versatile technologies available - allowing the creation of anything from animated banners and simple cartoons to Rich Internet Applications, interactive videos, and dynamic user interfaces for web sites, kiosks, devices, or DVDs. The possibilities are endless, and now it just got better. Flash CS5 boasts a host of new features, including better support for mobile devices, a whole new animation engine enabling full manipulation of tweens and paths, custom easing, improved inverse kinematics, a revamped timeline, built-in 3D, and much more. Thi

  7. Mathematical modeling of the flash converting process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, H.Y.; Perez-Tello, M.; Riihilahti, K.M. [Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    1996-12-31

    An axisymmetric mathematical model for the Kennecott-Outokumpu flash converting process for converting solid copper matte to copper is presented. The model is an adaptation of the comprehensive mathematical model formerly developed at the University of Utah for the flash smelting of copper concentrates. The model incorporates the transport of momentum, heat, mass, and reaction kinetics between gas and particles in a particle-laden turbulent gas jet. The standard k-{epsilon} model is used to describe gas-phase turbulence in an Eulerian framework. The particle-phase is treated from a Lagrangian viewpoint which is coupled to the gas-phase via the source terms in the Eulerian gas-phase governing equations. Matte particles were represented as Cu{sub 2}S yFeS, and assumed to undergo homogeneous oxidation to Cu{sub 2}O, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, and SO{sub 2}. A reaction kinetics mechanism involving both external mass transfer of oxygen gas to the particle surface and diffusion of oxygen through the porous oxide layer is proposed to estimate the particle oxidation rate Predictions of the mathematical model were compared with the experimental data collected in a bench-scale flash converting facility. Good agreement between the model predictions and the measurements was obtained. The model was used to study the effect of different gas-injection configurations on the overall fluid dynamics in a commercial size flash converting shaft. (author)

  8. A hybrid ferroelectric-flash memory cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae Hyo; Byun, Chang Woo; Seok, Ki Hwan; Kim, Hyung Yoon; Chae, Hee Jae; Lee, Sol Kyu; Son, Se Wan; Ahn, Donghwan; Joo, Seung Ki

    2014-09-01

    A ferroelectric-flash (F-flash) memory cells having a metal-ferroelectric-nitride-oxynitride-silicon structure are demonstrated, and the ferroelectric materials were perovskite-dominated Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT) crystallized by Pt gate electrode. The PZT thin-film as a blocking layer improves electrical and memorial performance where programming and erasing mechanism are different from the metal-ferroelectric-insulator-semiconductor device or the conventional silicon-oxide-nitride-oxide-silicon device. F-flash cells exhibit not only the excellent electrical transistor performance, having 442.7 cm2 V-1 s-1 of field-effect mobility, 190 mV dec-1 of substhreshold slope, and 8 × 105 on/off drain current ratio, but also a high reliable memory characteristics, having a large memory window (6.5 V), low-operating voltage (0 to -5 V), faster P/E switching speed (50/500 μs), long retention time (>10 years), and excellent fatigue P/E cycle (>105) due to the boosting effect, amplification effect, and energy band distortion of nitride from the large polarization. All these characteristics correspond to the best performances among conventional flash cells reported so far.

  9. Electro-optical muzzle flash detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieg, Jürgen; Eisele, Christian; Seiffer, Dirk

    2016-10-01

    Localizing a shooter in a complex scenario is a difficult task. Acoustic sensors can be used to detect blast waves. Radar technology permits detection of the projectile. A third method is to detect the muzzle flash using electro-optical devices. Detection of muzzle flash events is possible with focal plane arrays, line and single element detectors. In this paper, we will show that the detection of a muzzle flash works well in the shortwave infrared spectral range. Important for the acceptance of an operational warning system in daily use is a very low false alarm rate. Using data from a detector with a high sampling rate the temporal signature of a potential muzzle flash event can be analyzed and the false alarm rate can be reduced. Another important issue is the realization of an omnidirectional view required on an operational level. It will be shown that a combination of single element detectors and simple optics in an appropriate configuration is a capable solution.

  10. Mathematical modeling of the flash converting process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, H Y; Perez-Tello, M; Riihilahti, K M [Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    1997-12-31

    An axisymmetric mathematical model for the Kennecott-Outokumpu flash converting process for converting solid copper matte to copper is presented. The model is an adaptation of the comprehensive mathematical model formerly developed at the University of Utah for the flash smelting of copper concentrates. The model incorporates the transport of momentum, heat, mass, and reaction kinetics between gas and particles in a particle-laden turbulent gas jet. The standard k-{epsilon} model is used to describe gas-phase turbulence in an Eulerian framework. The particle-phase is treated from a Lagrangian viewpoint which is coupled to the gas-phase via the source terms in the Eulerian gas-phase governing equations. Matte particles were represented as Cu{sub 2}S yFeS, and assumed to undergo homogeneous oxidation to Cu{sub 2}O, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, and SO{sub 2}. A reaction kinetics mechanism involving both external mass transfer of oxygen gas to the particle surface and diffusion of oxygen through the porous oxide layer is proposed to estimate the particle oxidation rate Predictions of the mathematical model were compared with the experimental data collected in a bench-scale flash converting facility. Good agreement between the model predictions and the measurements was obtained. The model was used to study the effect of different gas-injection configurations on the overall fluid dynamics in a commercial size flash converting shaft. (author)

  11. Flash-Aware Page Replacement Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangxia Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the limited main memory resource of consumer electronics equipped with NAND flash memory as storage device, an efficient page replacement algorithm called FAPRA is proposed for NAND flash memory in the light of its inherent characteristics. FAPRA introduces an efficient victim page selection scheme taking into account the benefit-to-cost ratio for evicting each victim page candidate and the combined recency and frequency value, as well as the erase count of the block to which each page belongs. Since the dirty victim page often contains clean data that exist in both the main memory and the NAND flash memory based storage device, FAPRA only writes the dirty data within the victim page back to the NAND flash memory based storage device in order to reduce the redundant write operations. We conduct a series of trace-driven simulations and experimental results show that our proposed FAPRA algorithm outperforms the state-of-the-art algorithms in terms of page hit ratio, the number of write operations, runtime, and the degree of wear leveling.

  12. Interactions between Brief Flashed Lines at Threshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-11

    ORAIAIN 6 OFC ’PO 4 4M FMNTRIGOGNZTO lol in AFI, C 203 2- 44 . NAME OF PFN IG PORAIION lbOFFICE SYMBOL 7il PRO4MEN MINTRUNT INCNIATON NM ,.. .oAFOSR...Cass, P. C. (1986) Facilitatory interactionE between flashed lines. Perceptinn. jj,443-460. omith, P.A. and Cass, P C. (1967) Aliasing in the

  13. In Situ Flash Pyrolysis of Straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Niels

    In-Situ Flash Pyrolysis of Straw Ph.D. dissertation by Niels Bech Submitted: April 2007. Supervisors: Professor Kim Dam-Johansen, Associate Professor Peter Arendt Jensen Erfaringerne med forbrænding af halm opnået gennem et årti har vist, at en proces der kan koncentrere energien på marken, fjerne...

  14. Flash flood modelling for ungauged catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garambois, P.-A.; Roux, H.; Larnier, K.; Dartus, D.

    2012-04-01

    Flash flood is a very intense and quick hydrologic response of a catchment to rainfall. This phenomenon has a high spatial-temporal variability as its generating storm, often hitting small catchments (few km2). Data collected by (Gaume et al. 2009) about 500 flash floods over the last 50 years showed that they could occur everywhere in Europe and more often in the Mediterranean regions, Alpine regions and continental Europe. Given the small spatial-temporal scales and high variability of flash floods, their prediction remains a hard exercise as the necessary data are often scarce. Flash flood prediction on ungauged catchments is one of the challenges of hydrological modelling as defined by (Sivapalan et al. 2003). Several studies have been headed up with the MARINE model (Modélisation de l'Anticipation du Ruissellement et des Inondations pour des évèNements Extrêmes) for the Gard region (France), (Roux et al. 2011), (Castaings et al. 2009). This physically based spatially distributed rainfall runoff model is dedicated to flash flood prediction. The study aims at finding a methodology for flash flood prediction at ungauged locations in the Cévennes-Vivarais region in particular. The regionalization method is based on multiple calibrations on gauged catchments in order to extract model structures (model + parameter values) for each catchment. Several mathematical methods (multiple regressions, transfer functions, krigging…) will then be tested to calculate a regional parameter set. The study also investigates the usability of additional hydrologic indices at different time scales to constrain model predictions from parameters obtained using these indices, and this independently of the model considered. These hydrologic indices gather information on hydrograph shape or catchment dynamic for instance. Results explaining global catchments behaviour are expected that way. The spatial-temporal variability of storms is also described through indices and linked with

  15. Physiologically assessed hot flashes and endothelial function among midlife women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurston, Rebecca C; Chang, Yuefang; Barinas-Mitchell, Emma; Jennings, J Richard; von Känel, Roland; Landsittel, Doug P; Matthews, Karen A

    2017-08-01

    Hot flashes are experienced by most midlife women. Emerging data indicate that they may be associated with endothelial dysfunction. No studies have tested whether hot flashes are associated with endothelial function using physiologic measures of hot flashes. We tested whether physiologically assessed hot flashes were associated with poorer endothelial function. We also considered whether age modified associations. Two hundred seventy-two nonsmoking women reporting either daily hot flashes or no hot flashes, aged 40 to 60 years, and free of clinical cardiovascular disease, underwent ambulatory physiologic hot flash and diary hot flash monitoring; a blood draw; and ultrasound measurement of brachial artery flow-mediated dilation to assess endothelial function. Associations between hot flashes and flow-mediated dilation were tested in linear regression models controlling for lumen diameter, demographics, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and estradiol. In multivariable models incorporating cardiovascular disease risk factors, significant interactions by age (P hot flashes (beta [standard error] = -2.07 [0.79], P = 0.01), and more frequent physiologic hot flashes (for each hot flash: beta [standard error] = -0.10 [0.05], P = 0.03, multivariable) were associated with lower flow-mediated dilation. Associations were not accounted for by estradiol. Associations were not observed among the older women (age 54-60 years) or for self-reported hot flash frequency, severity, or bother. Among the younger women, hot flashes explained more variance in flow-mediated dilation than standard cardiovascular disease risk factors or estradiol. Among younger midlife women, frequent hot flashes were associated with poorer endothelial function and may provide information about women's vascular status beyond cardiovascular disease risk factors and estradiol.

  16. An unusual characteristic "flower-like" pattern: flash suppressor burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurcan, Altun

    2012-04-01

    The case on contact shots from firearms with a flash suppressor is rare. When a rifle fitted with a flash suppressor is fired, the emerging soot-laden gas in the barrel escapes from the slits of the flash suppressor. If the shot is contact or near contact, the flash suppressor will produce a characteristic "flower-like" pattern of seared, blackened zones around the entrance. This paper presents the injury pattern of the flash suppressor in a 29-year-old man who committed suicide with a G3 automatic infantry rifle.

  17. Flash flood forecasting, warning and risk management: the HYDRATE project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borga, M.; Anagnostou, E.N.; Bloeschl, G.; Creutin, J.-D.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We characterize flash flood events in various regions of Europe. → We provide guidance to improve observations and monitoring of flash floods. → Flash floods are associated to orography and are influenced by initial soil moisture conditions. → Models for flash flood forecasting and flash flood hazard assessment are illustrated and discussed. → We examine implications for flood risk policy and discuss recommendations received from end users. - Abstract: The management of flash flood hazards and risks is a critical component of public safety and quality of life. Flash-floods develop at space and time scales that conventional observation systems are not able to monitor for rainfall and river discharge. Consequently, the atmospheric and hydrological generating mechanisms of flash-floods are poorly understood, leading to highly uncertain forecasts of these events. The objective of the HYDRATE project has been to improve the scientific basis of flash flood forecasting by advancing and harmonising a European-wide innovative flash flood observation strategy and developing a coherent set of technologies and tools for effective early warning systems. To this end, the project included actions on the organization of the existing flash flood data patrimony across Europe. The final aim of HYDRATE was to enhance the capability of flash flood forecasting in ungauged basins by exploiting the extended availability of flash flood data and the improved process understanding. This paper provides a review of the work conducted in HYDRATE with a special emphasis on how this body of research can contribute to guide the policy-life cycle concerning flash flood risk management.

  18. The Astro Learning Design Player

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharples, Paul; Wilson, Scott; Popat, Kris; Griffiths, David; Beauvoir, Phillip

    2010-01-01

    Sharples, Paul Wilson, S., Popat, K., Griffiths, D., Beauvoir, P. (2009) The Astro Learning Design Player. This software is distributed under the three clause BSD license, copyright TENCompetence Foundation

  19. Electrical Safety and Arc Flash Protections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Camp

    2008-03-04

    Over the past four years, the Electrical Safety Program at PPPL has evolved in addressing changing regulatory requirements and lessons learned from accident events, particularly in regards to arc flash hazards and implementing NFPA 70E requirements. This presentation will discuss PPPL's approaches to the areas of electrical hazards evaluation, both shock and arc flash; engineered solutions for hazards mitigation such as remote racking of medium voltage breakers, operational changes for hazards avoidance, targeted personnel training and hazard appropriate personal protective equipment. Practical solutions for nominal voltage identification and zero voltage checks for lockout/tagout will also be covered. Finally, we will review the value of a comprehensive electrical drawing program, employee attitudes expressed as a personal safety work ethic, integrated safety management, and sustained management support for continuous safety improvement.

  20. Electrical Safety and Arc Flash Protections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camp, R.

    2008-01-01

    Over the past four years, the Electrical Safety Program at PPPL has evolved in addressing changing regulatory requirements and lessons learned from accident events, particularly in regards to arc flash hazards and implementing NFPA 70E requirements. This presentation will discuss PPPL's approaches to the areas of electrical hazards evaluation, both shock and arc flash; engineered solutions for hazards mitigation such as remote racking of medium voltage breakers, operational changes for hazards avoidance, targeted personnel training and hazard appropriate personal protective equipment. Practical solutions for nominal voltage identification and zero voltage checks for lockout/tagout will also be covered. Finally, we will review the value of a comprehensive electrical drawing program, employee attitudes expressed as a personal safety work ethic, integrated safety management, and sustained management support for continuous safety improvement.

  1. Sn whiskers removed by energy photo flashing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, N.; Yang, M.; Novak, J.; Igor, P.; Osterman, M.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Sn whiskers were sintered by intense light flashing (Photosintering). ► Photosintering can effectively eliminate Sn whiskers. ► Photosintering would not damage electronic devices. ► Photosintering is a very promising approach to improve Sn-based electronic surface termination. - Abstract: Sn whiskers have been known to be the major issue resulting in electronic circuit shorts. In this study, we present a novel energy photo flashing approach (photosintering) to shorten and eliminate Sn whiskers. It has been found that photosintering is very effective to modify and remove Sn whiskers; only a sub-millisecond duration photosintering can amazingly get rid of over 90 vol.% of Sn whiskers. Moreover, this photosintering approach has also been proved to cause no damages to electronic devices, suggesting it is a potentially promising way to improve Sn-based electronic surface termination.

  2. Study of coal flash hydropyrolysis denitrogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Lihua; Zhu, Zibin; Zhu, Hongbin; Zhang, Chengfang [Research Institute of Inorganic Chemical Technology, East China University of Science and Technology, 130 Meilong Road, Shanghai 200237 (China)

    2003-05-15

    The hydrodenitrogenation efficiency of 14 types of coals and the reaction mechanism of Zalainouer coal were studied in an experimental entrained bed reactor by flash hydropyrolysis (FHP). The results showed that flash hydropyrolysis is an efficient method for denitrogenation, and that the denitrogenation percentage increases with an increase in temperature and hydrogen pressure. For example, the denitrogenation percentage can reach up to about 60% for Zalainouer coal at 700 C and 6.0 MPa hydrogen pressure. The denitrogenation efficiency of different coal types is related to H/C. According to the conclusion of the study, the denitrogenation percentage increases with the increase in H/C ratio, reaching about 12% when H/C is equal to 0.6, and 40-55% when H/C is above 1.0. The results indicate that FHP is an efficient technique for removing nitrogen in coal.

  3. Pressure drop in flashing flow through obstructions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinle, M.E.; Johnston, B.S.

    1985-01-01

    An experiment was designed to investigate the pressure drop for flashing flow across obstructions of different geometries at various flow rates. Tests were run using two different orifices to determine if the two-phase pressure drop could be characterized by the single phase loss coefficient and the general behavior of the two-phase multiplier. For the geometries studied, it was possible to correlate the multiplier in a geometry-independent fashion

  4. Flash CS3 The Missing Manual

    CERN Document Server

    Grover, Chris

    2008-01-01

    Flash CS3, the latest version of the premier tool for creating web animations and interactive web sites, can be intimidating to learn. This entertaining reference tutorial provides a reader-friendly animation primer and a guided tour of all the program's tools and capabilities. Beginners will learn to use the software in no time, and experienced users will quickly take their skills to the next level.

  5. Flashing evaporation under different pressure levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, Yixiang; Lucas, Dirk; Krepper, Eckhard; Rzehak, Roland

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • CFD simulation based on two-fluid model for flashing boiling inside a vertical pipe. • Effect of pressure level on the maximum thermal energy available for evaporation. • Effect of presumed bubble size on the onset of flashing as well as evaporation rate. • Effect of pressure level on the critical bubble size that can start stable flashing. • Effect of pressure level on nucleation rate and mechanism. - Abstract: Flashing evaporation of water inside a vertical pipe under four pressure levels is investigated both experimentally and numerically. In the experiment depressurization is realized through a blow-off valve, and the evaporation rate is controlled by the opening rate and degree of the valve. In the CFD simulation phase change is assumed to be caused by thermal heat transfer between steam–water interface and the surrounding water. Consequently, the evaporation rate is determined by heat transfer coefficient, interfacial area density as well as liquid superheat degree. The simulated temporal course of cross-section averaged steam volume fraction is compared with the measured one. It is found that the increasing rate and maximum value of steam volume fraction is over-predicted under low-pressure conditions, which is mainly caused by the neglect of bubble growth in the mono-dispersed simulation. The agreement is notably improved by performing poly-dispersed simulations with the inhomogeneous MUSIG approach (IMUSIG). On the other hand an underestimation of the maximum steam volume fraction is observed in high-pressure cases, since the contribution of nucleation to the total steam generation rate becomes large as the system pressure increases. Reliable models for nucleation rate as well as bubble detachment size are indispensable for reliable predictions. An effect of the system pressure level on the nucleation mechanism is observed in the experiment

  6. Flashing subdiffusive ratchets in viscoelastic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharchenko, Vasyl; Goychuk, Igor

    2012-01-01

    We study subdiffusive ratchet transport in periodically and randomly flashing potentials. A central Brownian particle is elastically coupled to the surrounding auxiliary Brownian quasi-particles, which account for the influence of the viscoelastic environment. Similar to standard dynamical modeling of Brownian motion, the external force influences only the motion of the central particle, not affecting directly the environmental degrees of freedom. Just a handful of auxiliary Brownian particles suffices to model subdiffusion over many temporal decades. Time modulation of the potential violates the symmetry of thermal detailed balance and induces an anomalous subdiffusive current which exhibits a remarkably small dispersion at low temperatures, as well as a number of other surprising features such as saturation at low temperatures, and multiple inversions of the transport direction upon a change of the driving frequency in the non-adiabatic regime. It is shown that the subdiffusive current is finite at zero temperature for random flashing and can be finite for periodic flashing for a certain frequency window. Our study generalizes classical Brownian motors towards operating in sticky viscoelastic environments such as the cytosol of biological cells or dense polymer solutions. (paper)

  7. High precision timing in a FLASH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoek, Matthias; Cardinali, Matteo; Dickescheid, Michael; Schlimme, Soeren; Sfienti, Concettina; Spruck, Bjoern; Thiel, Michaela [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    A segmented highly precise start counter (FLASH) was designed and constructed at the Institute for Nuclear Physics in Mainz. Besides determining a precise reference time, a Time-of-Flight measurement can be performed with two identical FLASH units. Thus, particle identification can be provided for mixed hadron beam environments. The detector design is based on the detection of Cherenkov light produced in fused silica radiator bars with fast multi-anode MCP-PMTs. The segmentation of the radiator improves the timing resolution while allowing a coarse position resolution along one direction. Both, the arrival time and the Time-over-Threshold are determined by the readout electronics, which enables walk correction of the arrival time. The performance of two FLASH units was investigated in test experiments at the Mainz Microton (MAMI) using an electron beam with an energy of 855 MeV and at CERN's PS T9 beam line with a mixed hadron beam with momenta between 3-8 GeV/c. Effective Time-walk correction methods based on Time-over-Threshold were developed for the data analysis. The achieved Time-Of-Flight resolution after applying all corrections was found to be 70 ps. Furthermore, the PID and position resolution capabilities are discussed in this contribution.

  8. Geographical distribution of hot flash frequencies: considering climatic influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sievert, Lynnette Leidy; Flanagan, Erin K

    2005-10-01

    Laboratory studies suggest that hot flashes are triggered by small elevations in core body temperature acting within a reduced thermoneutral zone, i.e., the temperature range in which a woman neither shivers nor sweats. In the present study, it was hypothesized that women in different populations develop climate-specific thermoneutral zones, and ultimately, population-specific frequencies of hot flashes at menopause. Correlations were predicted between hot flash frequencies and latitude, elevation, and annual temperatures. Data on hot flash frequencies were drawn from 54 studies. Pearson correlation analyses and simple linear regressions were applied, first using all studies, and second using a subset of studies that included participants only to age 60 (n = 36). Regressions were repeated with all studies, controlling for method of hot flash assessment. When analyses were restricted to studies that included women up to age 60, average temperature of the coldest month was a significant predictor of hot flash frequency (P hottest and coldest temperatures was also a significant predictor (P coldest month, difference between hottest and coldest temperatures, and mean annual temperature were significant predictors of hot flash frequency. Women reported fewer hot flashes in warmer temperatures, and more hot flashes with increasing seasonality. These results suggest that acclimatization to coldest temperatures or sensitivity to seasonality may explain part of the population variation in hot flash frequency.

  9. A COMPARISON OF THE ANTHROPOMETRIC PARAMETERS BETWEEN BASKETBALL PLAYERS, HANDBALL PLAYERS AND VOLLEYBALL PLAYERS

    OpenAIRE

    Florian Miftari; Juel Jarani; Dhimitraq Stratoberdha; Hazir Salihu

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the anthropometric measurement to the professional players of the three different disciplines of basketball, handball and volleyball. . For each player anthropometric measurements such as weight, body height, waist circumference, BMI and skinfold calculation on different sports are performed. Differences in terms of anthropometric measurements were assessed by independent static tests and the differences for each variable for each sport were evaluated ...

  10. GeckoFTL: Scalable Flash Translation Techniques For Very Large Flash Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dayan, Niv; Bonnet, Philippe; Idreos, Stratos

    2016-01-01

    The volume of metadata needed by a flash translation layer (FTL) is proportional to the storage capacity of a flash device. Ideally, this metadata should reside in the device's integrated RAM to enable fast access. However, as flash devices scale to terabytes, the necessary volume of metadata...... thereby harming performance and device lifetime. In this paper, we identify a key component of the metadata called the Page Validity Bitmap (PVB) as the bottleneck. PVB is used by the garbage-collectors of state-of-the-art FTLs to keep track of which physical pages in the device are invalid. PVB...... constitutes 95% of the FTL's RAM-resident metadata, and recovering PVB after power fails takes a significant proportion of the overall recovery time. To solve this problem, we propose a page-associative FTL called GeckoFTL, whose central innovation is replacing PVB with a new data structure called Logarithmic...

  11. Frontal Lobe Function in Chess Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Nejati

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Chess is considered as a cognitive game because of severe engagement of the mental resources during playing. The purpose of this study is evaluation of frontal lobe function of chess players with matched non-players. Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST data showed no difference between the player and non-player groups in preservation error and completed categories but surprisingly showed significantly lower grade of the player group in correct response. Our data reveal that chess players dont have any preference in any stage of Stroop test. Chess players dont have any preference in selective attention, inhibition and executive cognitive function. Chess players' have lower shifting abilities than non-players.

  12. Frontal lobe function in chess players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejati, Majid; Nejati, Vahid

    2012-01-01

    Chess is considered as a cognitive game because of severe engagement of the mental resources during playing. The purpose of this study is evaluation of frontal lobe function of chess players with matched non-players. Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) data showed no difference between the player and non-player groups in preservation error and completed categories but surprisingly showed significantly lower grade of the player group in correct response. Our data reveal that chess players don't have any preference in any stage of Stroop test. Chess players don't have any preference in selective attention, inhibition and executive cognitive function. Chess players' have lower shifting abilities than non-players.

  13. A Comparative Study of Reduced-Variables-Based Flash and Conventional Flash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Wei; Stenby, Erling Halfdan; Michelsen, Michael Locht

    2013-01-01

    ) with zero binary-interaction parameters (BIPs) and later generalized to situations with nonzero-BIP matrices. Most of the studies in the last decade suggest that the reduced-variables methods are much more efficient than the conventional flash method. However, Haugen and Beckner (2011) questioned...... with the conventional minimization-based flash. A test with the use of the SPE 3 example (Kenyon and Behie 1987) showed that the best reduction in time was less than 20% for the extreme situation of 25 components and just one row/column with nonzero BIPs. A better performance can be achieved by a simpler implementation...... directly using the sparsity of the BIP matrix....

  14. Flash memories economic principles of performance, cost and reliability optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Richter, Detlev

    2014-01-01

    The subject of this book is to introduce a model-based quantitative performance indicator methodology applicable for performance, cost and reliability optimization of non-volatile memories. The complex example of flash memories is used to introduce and apply the methodology. It has been developed by the author based on an industrial 2-bit to 4-bit per cell flash development project. For the first time, design and cost aspects of 3D integration of flash memory are treated in this book. Cell, array, performance and reliability effects of flash memories are introduced and analyzed. Key performance parameters are derived to handle the flash complexity. A performance and array memory model is developed and a set of performance indicators characterizing architecture, cost and durability is defined.   Flash memories are selected to apply the Performance Indicator Methodology to quantify design and technology innovation. A graphical representation based on trend lines is introduced to support a requirement based pr...

  15. Physical fitness of elite Belgian soccer players by player position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, Jan; Vaeyens, Roel; Steyaert, Adelheid; Vanden Bossche, Luc; Bourgois, Jan

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain an insight into the physical and physiological profile of elite Belgian soccer players with specific regard to the player's position on the field. The sample consisted of 289 adult players from 6 different first division teams. The players were divided into 5 subgroups (goalkeepers, center backs, full backs, midfielders, and strikers) according to their self-reported best position on the field. The subjects performed anaerobic (10-m sprint, 5 × 10-m shuttle run [SR], squat jump [SJ], and countermovement jump [CMJ]) and aerobic (incremental running protocol) laboratory tests. The strikers had significantly shorter sprinting times (5-, 5- to 10-m time, and SR) compared with the midfielders, center backs, and goalkeepers, whereas the full backs were also significantly faster compared with the goalkeepers and the center backs. The goalkeepers and the center backs displayed higher jumping heights (total mean SJ = 40.7 ± 4.6 cm and CMJ = 43.1 ± 4.9 cm) compared with the other 3 positions, whereas the strikers also jumped higher than the full backs and the midfielders did. Regarding the aerobic performance, both full backs and the midfielders (61.2 ± 2.7 and 60.4 ± 2.8 ml · min(-1) · kg(-1), respectively) had a higher VO2max compared with the strikers, center backs, and goalkeepers (56.8 ± 3.1, 55.6 ± 3.5, and 52.1 ± 5.0 ml · min(-1) · kg(-1), respectively). From this study, it could be concluded that players in different positions have different physiological characteristics. The results of this study might provide useful insights for individualized conditional training programs for soccer players. Aside from the predominant technical and tactical skills, a physical profile that is well adjusted to the position on the field might enhance game performance.

  16. Simple flash evaporator for making thin films of compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemanadhan, M.; Bapanayya, Ch.; Agarwal, S. C. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 208016 (India)

    2010-07-15

    A simple and compact arrangement for flash evaporation is described. It uses a cell phone vibrator for powder dispensing that can be incorporated into a vacuum deposition chamber without any major alterations. The performance of the flash evaporation system is checked by making thin films of the optical memory chalcogenide glass Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} (GST). Energy dispersive x-ray analysis shows that the flash evaporation preserves the stoichiometry in thin films.

  17. An investigation of player to player character identification via personal pronouns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hichens, Michael; Drachen, Anders; Richards, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    The player character is an important feature of many games, where it is through the character that the player interacts with game world. There has been considerable interest in the relationship between the player and the player character. Much of this work has examined the identification of players......, third) as an indication of the relationship between player and character. Results indicate that the presence of story and information about the player character had no effect on identification with the plater character. However, characteristics of the players, particularly gender and general experience...... in playing video games, did have a statistically significant affect, indicating that different levels of identification are more dependent on the player than on the game. This indicates that players are not a homogeneous group with respect to player character identification and is an important consideration...

  18. History of hot flashes and aortic calcification among postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurston, Rebecca C; Kuller, Lewis H; Edmundowicz, Daniel; Matthews, Karen A

    2010-03-01

    Menopausal hot flashes are considered largely a quality-of-life issue. However, emerging research also links hot flashes to cardiovascular risk. In some investigations, this risk is particularly apparent among women using hormone therapy. The aim of this study was to determine whether a longer history of reported hot flashes over the study period was associated with greater aortic and coronary artery calcification. Interactions with hormone therapy use were examined in an exploratory fashion. Participants included 302 women participating in the Healthy Women Study, a longitudinal study of cardiovascular risk during perimenopause and postmenopause, which was initiated in 1983. Hot flashes (any/none) were assessed when women were 1, 2, 5, and 8 years postmenopausal. Electron beam tomography measures of coronary artery calcification and aortic calcification were completed in 1997-2004. Associations between the number of visits with report of hot flashes, divided by the number of visits attended, and aortic or coronary artery calcification (transformed) were examined in linear regression models. Interactions by hormone therapy use were evaluated. Among women using hormone therapy, a longer history of reported hot flashes was associated with increased aortic calcification, controlling for traditional cardiovascular risk factors (b = 2.87, SE = 1.21, P history of hot flashes and coronary artery calcification. Among postmenopausal women using hormone therapy, a longer history of reported hot flashes measured prospectively was associated with increased aortic calcification, controlling for traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Hot flashes may signal adverse cardiovascular changes among certain postmenopausal women.

  19. Flashes and floaters - a practical approach to assessment and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahawita, Shyalle; Simon, Sumu; Gilhotra, Jolly

    2014-04-01

    Flashes and floaters are common ophthalmic issues for which patients may initially present to their general practitioner. It may be a sign of benign, 
age-related changes of the vitreous or more serious retinal detachment. This article provides a guide to the assessment and management of a patient presenting with flashes and floaters. Although most patients presenting with flashes and floaters have benign 
age-related changes, they must be referred to an ophthalmologist to rule out sight-threatening conditions. Key examination features include the nature of the flashes and floaters, whether one or both eyes are affected and changes in visual acuity or visual field.

  20. The echo-enabled harmonic generation options for FLASH II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Haixiao; Decking, Winfried; Faatz, Bart

    2011-03-01

    FLASH II is an upgrade to the existing free electron laser (FEL) FLASH. The echo-enabled harmonic generation (EEHG) scheme is proposed to be a potential seeding option of FLASH II. In this paper, the possibility of EEHG operation of FLASH II is investigated for the first time. With a combination of existing numerical codes, i.e. a laser-beam interaction code in an undulator (LBICU), a beam tracking code in a chicane (ELEGANT) and an universal FEL simulating code (GENESIS), the effects of beam energy chirp and coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) on EEHG operation are studied as well. In addition, several interesting issues concerning EEHG simulation are discussed. (orig.)

  1. The Evolution and Structure of Extreme Optical Lightning Flashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Michael; Rudlosky, Scott; Deierling, Wiebke

    2017-12-27

    This study documents the composition, morphology, and motion of extreme optical lightning flashes observed by the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS). The furthest separation of LIS events (groups) in any flash is 135 km (89 km), the flash with the largest footprint had an illuminated area of 10,604 km 2 , and the most dendritic flash has 234 visible branches. The longest-duration convective LIS flash lasted 28 s and is overgrouped and not physical. The longest-duration convective-to-stratiform propagating flash lasted 7.4 s, while the longest-duration entirely stratiform flash lasted 4.3 s. The longest series of nearly consecutive groups in time lasted 242 ms. The most radiant recorded LIS group (i.e., "superbolt") is 735 times more radiant than the average group. Factors that impact these optical measures of flash morphology and evolution are discussed. While it is apparent that LIS can record the horizontal development of the lightning channel in some cases, radiative transfer within the cloud limits the flash extent and level of detail measured from orbit. These analyses nonetheless suggest that lightning imagers such as LIS and Geostationary Lightning Mapper can complement ground-based lightning locating systems for studying physical lightning phenomena across large geospatial domains.

  2. Flash CS5.5 The Missing Manual

    CERN Document Server

    Grover, Chris

    2011-01-01

    You can build everything from simple animations to full-fledged iOS and Android apps with Flash CS5.5, but learning this complex program can be difficult-unless you have this fully updated, bestselling guide. Learn how to create gorgeous Flash effects even if you have no programming experience. With Flash CS5.5: The Missing Manual, you'll move from the basics to power-user tools with ease. Learn animation basics. Discover how to turn simple ideas into stunning animations.Master Flash's tools. Learn the animation and effects tools with clear explanations and hands-on examples.Use 3D effects. R

  3. Secure Multi-Player Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fehr, Serge

    While classically cryptography is concerned with the problem of private communication among two entities, say players, in modern cryptography multi-player protocols play an important role. And among these, it is probably fair to say that secret sharing, and its stronger version verifiable secret...... sharing (VSS), as well as multi-party computation (MPC) belong to the most appealing and/or useful ones. The former two are basic tools to achieve better robustness of cryptographic schemes against malfunction or misuse by “decentralizing” the security from one single to a whole group of individuals...... (captured by the term threshold cryptography). The latter allows—at least in principle—to execute any collaboration among a group of players in a secure way that guarantees the correctness of the outcome but simultaneously respects the privacy of the participants. In this work, we study three aspects...

  4. Muzzle flash localization for the dismounted soldier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy Scott, Will

    2015-05-01

    The ability to accurately and rapidly know the precise location of enemy fire would be a substantial capability enhancement to the dismounted soldier. Acoustic gun-shot detections systems can provide an approximate bearing but it is desired to precisely know the location (direction and range) of enemy fire; for example to know from `which window' the fire is coming from. Funded by the UK MOD (via Roke Manor Research) QinetiQ is developing an imaging solution built around an InGaAs camera. This paper presents work that QinetiQ has undertaken on the Muzzle Flash Locator system. Key technical challenges that have been overcome are explained and discussed in this paper. They include; the design of the optical sensor and processing hardware to meet low size, weight and power requirements; the algorithm approach required to maintain sensitivity whilst rejecting false alarms from sources such as close passing insects and sun glint from scene objects; and operation on the move. This work shows that such a sensor can provide sufficient sensitivity to detect muzzle flash events to militarily significant ranges and that such a system can be combined with an acoustic gunshot detection system to minimize the false alarm rate. The muzzle flash sensor developed in this work operates in real-time and has a field of view of approximately 29° (horizontal) by 12° (vertical) with a pixel resolution of 0.13°. The work has demonstrated that extension to a sensor with realistic angular rotation rate is feasible.

  5. Fermi GBM Observations of Terrestrial Gamma Flashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.; Briggs, M. S.; Connaughton, V.; Fishman, G. J.; Bhat, P. N.; Paciesas, W. S.; Preece, R. D.; Kippen, R. M.; vonKienlin, A.; Dwyer, J. R.; hide

    2010-01-01

    In its first two years of operation, the Fermi Gamma Ray Burst Monitor (GBM) has observed 79 Terrestrial Gamma Flashes (TGFs). The thick Bismuth Germanate (BGO) detectors are excellent for TGF spectroscopy, having a high probability of recording the full energy of an incident photon, spanning a broad energy range from 150 keV to 40 MeV, and recording a large number of photons per TGF. Correlations between GBM TGF triggers and lightning sferics detected with the World-Wide Lightning Location Network indicate that TGFs and lightning are simultaneous to within tens of microseconds.

  6. Helium Extraction from LNG End Flash

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Donghoi

    2014-01-01

    Helium is an invaluable element as it is widely used in industry such as cryo-genics and welding due to its unique properties. However, helium shortage is expected in near future because of increasing demand and the anxiety of sup-ply. Consequently, helium production has attracted the attention of industry. The main source of He is natural gas and extracting it from LNG end-flash is considered as the most promising way of producing crude helium. Thus, many process suppliers have proposed proc...

  7. Flash floods in Catalonia: a recurrent situation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llasat, M. C.; Lindbergh, S.; Llasat-Botija, M.; Rodríguez, A.; Zaragoza, A.

    2009-09-01

    A database with information about the social impact produced by all the flood events recorded in Catalonia between 1982 and 2007 has been built. Original information comes from the INUNGAMA database (1900-2000) presented by Barnolas and Llasat (2007), the PRESSGAMA database (1982-2007) (Llasat et al., in rev.) and information from different published works (Barriendos et al, 2003; Barriendos and Pomés, 1993). Social impact has been obtained systematically in basis to news press data and, occasionally, in basis to insurance data. Flood events have been classified in ordinary floods, extraordinary floods and catastrophic ones, following the proposal of Llasat et al (2005). However, having in mind the flash floods effects, some new categories concerning casualties and car damages have also been introduced. The spatial and temporal distribution of these flood events has been analysed. Results have been compared with those obtained for the period 1900-2000 (Barnolas and Llasat, 2007) and 1350-2000 (Barrera et al, 2006). In order to better estimate the social impact and vulnerability some indicators have been defined and analyzed for some specific cases and a specific region. Besides the indicators applied in the INUNCAT Plan to obtain a cartography of flood risk in Catalonia, other ones like the number of cars affected or the number of request received by the meteorological service, has been also taken into account. These indicators allow analyzing global and temporal trends as well as characterizing the events. The selected region has been the Maresme, which is a flood prone region with a great density of population and that experiences every year one or more flash floods. The annual number of floods shows a positive trend that cannot be justified by the rainfall trend. Both vulnerability and hazard components have been considered and a discussion about the flood prevention measures is presented. The third part of this work has been centred in the analysis and

  8. Exploring Branded Flash Mobs : A study of the impact of branded flash mobs on consumer behavior and consumer experience

    OpenAIRE

    Grant, Philip

    2014-01-01

    The desire of every marketer is to develop and maintain strong customer relationships. One way this can be accomplished is through effective advertising. Marketers have recently begun to brand flash mobs as a way to effectuate strong brand relationships. Even so, it is unclear whether or not the branding of flash mobs supports or frustrates this pursuit. Therefore, the goal of this thesis is to help marketers understand the potential impact that branded flash mobs may have on consumer behavio...

  9. The Effectiveness Evaluation among Different Player-Matching Mechanisms in a Multi-Player Quiz Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Fu-Hsing

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate whether different player-matching mechanisms in educational multi-player online games (MOGs) can affect students' learning performance, enjoyment perception and gaming behaviors. Based on the multi-player quiz game, TRIS-Q, developed by Tsai, Tsai and Lin (2015) using a free player-matching (FPM) mechanism, the same…

  10. Case studies of selected Project "Flash" events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Nicolaides

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Flooding is a consequence of the prevailing meteorological situation, the intensity and duration of precipitation, geomorphology, human activities over a geographical region and other factors. Floods result in damage and destruction of infrastructure and private property and, in some cases, in fatalities. Flash floods are sudden and quite localized in extend, characterized by excessive amounts of rainfall within a short period of time and are distinguished from other floods by their degree of severity. The broader knowledge concerning flash floods is useful for the better understanding of the underlying thermodynamic and dynamic mechanisms, as well as the associated physical processes. The wider understanding of flashfloods can form part of an integrated system for short and very short forecasting of these events. In the present study, the synoptic, dynamic and thermodynamic conditions during the development of a baroclinic depression which affected the area of Cyprus on 6 November 2005 are studied. The depression was associated with extreme weather phenomena, such as thunderstorms, a water spout and high precipitation accumulations. The results indicate the importance of the dynamic parameters in the system's development and the thermodynamic analysis has shown the convective potential of the atmosphere.

  11. Flash pyrolysis fuel oil: BIO-POK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gust, S [Neste Oy, Porvoo (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Flash pyrolysis oil from Ensyn Tech., Canada and Union Fenosa, Spain was combusted with simple pressure atomisation equipment commonly used with light fuel oils in intermediate size (0.1-1 MW) boilers. With a number of modifications to the combustion system, carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrous oxide (NO{sub x}) could be reduced to acceptable levels: CO < 30 ppm and NO{sub x} < 140 ppm. Particulate emissions which were initially very high (Bacharach 4-5) were reduced (Bach. 2-3) by system changes but are still higher than from light fuel oil (Bach. <1). The modifications to the combustion system were: acid resistant progressive cavity pump, higher oil preheat temperature and higher oil pressure than for light fuel oils, refractory section between burner and boiler warmed up to at least 800 deg C. In addition, it was necessary to store pyrolysis oil samples under inert conditions to prevent oxidation and to rinse nozzles with alcohol after shutdown to prevent coking. The complexity and cost of these system modifications are considered to be too great for current grades of flash pyrolysis oil to be sold as a light fuel oil replacement. Improvements to fuel quality will be necessary. The main improvements are lowering of viscosity and improving of stability

  12. Flash Infrared Thermography Contrast Data Analysis Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshti, Ajay

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides information on an IR Contrast technique that involves extracting normalized contrast versus time evolutions from the flash thermography inspection infrared video data. The analysis calculates thermal measurement features from the contrast evolution. In addition, simulation of the contrast evolution is achieved through calibration on measured contrast evolutions from many flat-bottom holes in the subject material. The measurement features and the contrast simulation are used to evaluate flash thermography data in order to characterize delamination-like anomalies. The thermal measurement features relate to the anomaly characteristics. The contrast evolution simulation is matched to the measured contrast evolution over an anomaly to provide an assessment of the anomaly depth and width which correspond to the depth and diameter of the equivalent flat-bottom hole (EFBH) similar to that used as input to the simulation. A similar analysis, in terms of diameter and depth of an equivalent uniform gap (EUG) providing a best match with the measured contrast evolution, is also provided. An edge detection technique called the half-max is used to measure width and length of the anomaly. Results of the half-max width and the EFBH/EUG diameter are compared to evaluate the anomaly. The information provided here is geared towards explaining the IR Contrast technique. Results from a limited amount of validation data on reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) hardware are included in this paper.

  13. Flash pyrolysis fuel oil: BIO-POK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gust, S. [Neste Oy, Porvoo (Finland)

    1995-12-31

    Flash pyrolysis oil from Ensyn Tech., Canada and Union Fenosa, Spain was combusted with simple pressure atomisation equipment commonly used with light fuel oils in intermediate size (0.1-1 MW) boilers. With a number of modifications to the combustion system, carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrous oxide (NO{sub x}) could be reduced to acceptable levels: CO < 30 ppm and NO{sub x} < 140 ppm. Particulate emissions which were initially very high (Bacharach 4-5) were reduced (Bach. 2-3) by system changes but are still higher than from light fuel oil (Bach. <1). The modifications to the combustion system were: acid resistant progressive cavity pump, higher oil preheat temperature and higher oil pressure than for light fuel oils, refractory section between burner and boiler warmed up to at least 800 deg C. In addition, it was necessary to store pyrolysis oil samples under inert conditions to prevent oxidation and to rinse nozzles with alcohol after shutdown to prevent coking. The complexity and cost of these system modifications are considered to be too great for current grades of flash pyrolysis oil to be sold as a light fuel oil replacement. Improvements to fuel quality will be necessary. The main improvements are lowering of viscosity and improving of stability

  14. Radiation damage in flash memory cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claeys, C.; Ohyama, H.; Simoen, E.; Nakabayashi, M.; Kobayashi, K.

    2002-01-01

    Results are presented of a study on the effects of total ionization dose and displacement damage, induced by high-energy electrons, protons and alphas, on the performance degradation of flash memory cells integrated in a microcomputer. A conventional stacked-gate n-channel flash memory cell using a 0.8 μm n-polysilicon gate technology is employed. Irradiations by 1-MeV electrons and 20-MeV protons and alpha particles were done at room temperature. The impact of the fluence on the input characteristics, threshold voltage shift and drain and gate leakage was investigated. The threshold voltage change for proton and alpha irradiations is about three orders of magnitude larger than that for electrons. The performance degradation is mainly caused by the total ionization dose (TID) damage in the tunnel oxide and in the interpoly dielectric layer and by the creation of interface traps at the Si-SiO 2 interface. The impact of the irradiation temperature on the device degradation was studied for electrons and gammas, pointing out that irradiation at room temperature is mostly the worst case. Finally, attention is given to the impact of isochronal and isothermal annealing on the recovery of the degradation introduced after room temperature proton and electron irradiation

  15. Honeywell optical investigations on FLASH program

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rourke, Ken; Peterson, Eric; Yount, Larry

    1995-05-01

    The increasing performance and reduction of life cycle cost requirements placed on commercial and military transport aircraft are resulting in more complex, highly integrated aircraft control and management systems. The use of fiber optic data transmission media can make significant contributions in achieving these performance and cost goals. The Honeywell portion of Task 2A on the Fly-by-Light Advanced System Hardware (FLASH) program is evaluating a Primary Flight Control System (PFCS) using pilot and copilot inputs from Active Hand Controllers (AHC) which are optically linked to the primary flight Control Computers (PFCC). Customer involvement is an important element of the Task 2A activity. Establishing customer requirements and perspectives on productization of systems developed under FLASH are key to future product success. The Honeywell elements of the PFCS demonstrator provide a command path that is optically interfaced from crew inputs to commands of distributed, smart actuation subsystems commands. Optical communication architectures are implemented using several protocols including the new AS-1773A 20 Mbps data bus standard. The interconnecting fiber optic cable plant is provided by our Task 1A teammate McDonnell Douglas Aerospace (West). Fiber optic cable plant fabrication uses processed, tools and materials reflecting necessary advances in manufacturing required to make fly-by-light avionics systems marketable.

  16. System of ispFlash configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourrion, Olivier

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this module is to allow the use of FPGA components instead of EPLD components which for an equivalent or even inferior capacity are more expensive. For instance, the idea is to replace CPLD components having 512 macro-cells by one FPGA spartan II of Xilinx. However, due to the configuration's volatility, one configuration means is needed to put under voltage. A solution appears to be the using of a high capacity Flash memory coupled to a CPLD of small size to comply with the FPGA configuration protocol; also, one has to provide an in situ configuration means for this memory. Obviously, a product having an equivalent functionality already exists, since Xilinx and ALTERA supply PROMs of serial configuration. Unfortunately, they are expensive and a dealer is implied while the FLASH, the small CPLD and the FPGA spartan II are currently available. In conclusion, by using this assembly, which requires a small supplementary surface and a delay of upmost 240 ms (for the largest FPGA 1 Mbit), one obtains a solution cheaper and more performing than an EPLD of high capacity

  17. Sophisticated Players and Sophisticated Agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rustichini, A.

    1998-01-01

    A sophisticated player is an individual who takes the action of the opponents, in a strategic situation, as determined by decision of rational opponents, and acts accordingly. A sophisticated agent is rational in the choice of his action, but ignores the fact that he is part of a strategic

  18. The NBA’s Maximum Player Salary and the Distribution of Player Rents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly M. Hastings

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The NBA’s 1999 Collective Bargaining Agreement (CBA included provisions capping individual player pay in addition to team payrolls. This study examines the effect the NBA’s maximum player salary on player rents by comparing player pay from the 1997–1998 and 2003–2004 seasons while controlling for player productivity and other factors related to player pay. The results indicate a large increase in the pay received by teams’ second highest and, to a lesser extent, third highest paid players. We interpret this result as evidence that the adoption of the maximum player salary shifted rents from stars to complementary players. We also show that the 1999 CBA’s rookie contract provisions reduced salaries of early career players.

  19. Critical flashing flows in nozzles with subcooled inlet conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abuaf, N.; Jones, O.C. Jr.; Wu, B.J.C.

    1983-01-01

    Examination of a large number of experiments dealing with flashing flows in converging and converging-diverging nozzles reveals that knowledge of the flashing inception point is the key to the prediction of critical flow rates. An extension of the static flashing inception correlation of Jones [16] and Alamgir and Lienhard [17] to flowing systems has allowed the determination of the location of flashing inception in nozzle flows with subcooled inlet conditions. It is shown that in all the experiments examined with subcooled inlet regardless of the degree of inlet subcooling, flashing inception invariably occurred very close to the throat. A correlation is given to predict flashing inception in both pipes and nozzles which matches all data available, but is lacking verification in intermediate nozzle geometries where turbulence may be important. A consequence of this behavior is that the critical mass flux may be correlated to the pressure difference between the nozzle inlet and flashing inception, through a single phase liquid discharge coefficient and an accurate prediction of the flashing inception pressure at the throat. Comparison with the available experiments indicate that the predicted mass fluxes are within 5 percent of the measurements

  20. Assessment of vulnerability to extreme flash floods in design storms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eung Seok; Choi, Hyun Il

    2011-07-01

    There has been an increase in the occurrence of sudden local flooding of great volume and short duration caused by heavy or excessive rainfall intensity over a small area, which presents the greatest potential danger threat to the natural environment, human life, public health and property, etc. Such flash floods have rapid runoff and debris flow that rises quickly with little or no advance warning to prevent flood damage. This study develops a flash flood index through the average of the same scale relative severity factors quantifying characteristics of hydrographs generated from a rainfall-runoff model for the long-term observed rainfall data in a small ungauged study basin, and presents regression equations between rainfall characteristics and the flash flood index. The aim of this study is to develop flash flood index-duration-frequency relation curves by combining the rainfall intensity-duration-frequency relation and the flash flood index from probability rainfall data in order to evaluate vulnerability to extreme flash floods in design storms. This study is an initial effort to quantify the flash flood severity of design storms for both existing and planned flood control facilities to cope with residual flood risks due to extreme flash floods that have ocurred frequently in recent years.

  1. Phototoxic effects of commercial photographic flash lamp on rat eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Makoto; Shinoda, Kei; Ohde, Hisao; Tezuka, Keiji; Hida, Tetsuo

    2006-11-01

    To determine whether exposure of the cornea and retina of rats to flashes from a commercial photographic flash lamp is phototoxic. Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 10, 100, or 1,000 flashes of the OPTICAM 16M photographic flash lamp (Fujikoeki, Japan) placed 0.1, 1, or 3 m from the eyes. Corneal damage was assessed by a fluorescein staining score, and the retinal damage by eletroretinography (ERG) and histology before and 24 h after exposure. Exposure of the eyes to 1,000 flashes at 0.1 m increased the fluorescein staining score significantly (P = 0.009, the Mann-Whitney test). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the cornea showed a detachment of the epithelial cells from the surface after this exposure. The amplitude of the a-wave was decreased significantly by 23.0% (P = 0.026) of the amplitude before the exposure, and the b-wave by 19.7% (P = 0.0478) following 1,000 flashes at 0.1 m but not by the other exposures. TUNEL-positive cells were present in the outer nuclear layer only after the extreme exposure, but no significant decrease in retinal thickness was seen under any condition. The fluorescein staining score and ERGs recovered to control levels within 1 week. Light exposure to a photographic flash lamp does not induce damage to the cornea and retina except when they are exposed to 1,000 flashes at 0.1 m.

  2. Microstructure of wood charcoal prepared by flash heating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kurosaki, F; Ishimaru, K; Hata, T; Bronsveld, P; Kobayashi, E; Imamura, Y

    2003-01-01

    Carbonized wood prepared by flash heating at 800 degreesC for I h shows a different microstructure and surface chemical structure than char formed after slow heating at 4 degreesC/min to 800 degreesC for I h. Flash heating produces pores that are surrounded by aggregates of carbon structures 25 to

  3. Flash radiographic technique applied to fuel injector sprays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vantine, H.C.

    1977-01-01

    A flash radiographic technique, using 50 ns exposure times, was used to study the pattern and density distribution of a fuel injector spray. The experimental apparatus and method are described. An 85 kVp flash x-ray generator, designed and fabricated at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, is utilized. Radiographic images, recorded on standard x-ray films, are digitized and computer processed

  4. Flash-induced fading: Dependence on colour and shape similarity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vergeer, M.L.T.; Lier, R.J. van

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the effects of perceptual grouping by colour and shape similarity on flash-induced perceptual fading. This flash-induced fading effect (Kanai et al, 2003 Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 15 664 - 672) is considered as a time-locked variant of the Troxler effect. In the original

  5. NELIOTA: First temperature measurement of lunar impact flashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanos, A. Z.; Avdellidou, C.; Liakos, A.; Xilouris, E. M.; Dapergolas, A.; Koschny, D.; Bellas-Velidis, I.; Boumis, P.; Charmandaris, V.; Fytsilis, A.; Maroussis, A.

    2018-04-01

    We report the first scientific results from the NELIOTA (NEO Lunar Impacts and Optical TrAnsients) project, which has recently begun lunar monitoring observations with the 1.2-m Kryoneri telescope. NELIOTA aims to detect faint impact flashes produced by near-Earth meteoroids and asteroids and thereby help constrain the size-frequency distribution of near-Earth objects in the decimeter to meter range. The NELIOTA setup, consisting of two fast-frame cameras observing simultaneously in the R and I bands, enables - for the first time - direct analytical calculation of the flash temperatures. We present the first ten flashes detected, for which we find temperatures in the range 1600 to 3100 K, in agreement with theoretical values. Two of these flashes were detected on multiple frames in both filters and therefore yield the first measurements of the temperature drop for lunar flashes. In addition, we compute the impactor masses, which range between 100 g and 50 kg.

  6. Flood hazard assessment in areas prone to flash flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvočka, Davor; Falconer, Roger A.; Bray, Michaela

    2016-04-01

    Contemporary climate projections suggest that there will be an increase in the occurrence of high-intensity rainfall events in the future. These precipitation extremes are usually the main cause for the emergence of extreme flooding, such as flash flooding. Flash floods are among the most unpredictable, violent and fatal natural hazards in the world. Furthermore, it is expected that flash flooding will occur even more frequently in the future due to more frequent development of extreme weather events, which will greatly increase the danger to people caused by flash flooding. This being the case, there will be a need for high resolution flood hazard maps in areas susceptible to flash flooding. This study investigates what type of flood hazard assessment methods should be used for assessing the flood hazard to people caused by flash flooding. Two different types of flood hazard assessment methods were tested: (i) a widely used method based on an empirical analysis, and (ii) a new, physically based and experimentally calibrated method. Two flash flood events were considered herein, namely: the 2004 Boscastle flash flood and the 2007 Železniki flash flood. The results obtained in this study suggest that in the areas susceptible to extreme flooding, the flood hazard assessment should be conducted using methods based on a mechanics-based analysis. In comparison to standard flood hazard assessment methods, these physically based methods: (i) take into account all of the physical forces, which act on a human body in floodwater, (ii) successfully adapt to abrupt changes in the flow regime, which often occur for flash flood events, and (iii) rapidly assess a flood hazard index in a relatively short period of time.

  7. The October 2014 United States Treasury bond flash crash and the contributory effect of mini flash crashes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary S Levine

    Full Text Available We investigate the causal uncertainty surrounding the flash crash in the U.S. Treasury bond market on October 15, 2014, and the unresolved concern that no clear link has been identified between the start of the flash crash at 9:33 and the opening of the U.S. equity market at 9:30. We consider the contributory effect of mini flash crashes in equity markets, and find that the number of equity mini flash crashes in the three-minute window between market open and the Treasury Flash Crash was 2.6 times larger than the number experienced in any other three-minute window in the prior ten weekdays. We argue that (a this statistically significant finding suggests that mini flash crashes in equity markets both predicted and contributed to the October 2014 U.S. Treasury Bond Flash Crash, and (b mini-flash crashes are important phenomena with negative externalities that deserve much greater scholarly attention.

  8. The October 2014 United States Treasury bond flash crash and the contributory effect of mini flash crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Zachary S; Hale, Scott A; Floridi, Luciano

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the causal uncertainty surrounding the flash crash in the U.S. Treasury bond market on October 15, 2014, and the unresolved concern that no clear link has been identified between the start of the flash crash at 9:33 and the opening of the U.S. equity market at 9:30. We consider the contributory effect of mini flash crashes in equity markets, and find that the number of equity mini flash crashes in the three-minute window between market open and the Treasury Flash Crash was 2.6 times larger than the number experienced in any other three-minute window in the prior ten weekdays. We argue that (a) this statistically significant finding suggests that mini flash crashes in equity markets both predicted and contributed to the October 2014 U.S. Treasury Bond Flash Crash, and (b) mini-flash crashes are important phenomena with negative externalities that deserve much greater scholarly attention.

  9. WMO World Record Lightning Extremes: Longest Reported Flash Distance and Longest Reported Flash Duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Timothy J; Pédeboy, Stéphane; Rison, William; Cerveny, Randall S; Montanyà, Joan; Chauzy, Serge; MacGorman, Donald R; Holle, Ronald L; Ávila, Eldo E; Zhang, Yijun; Carbin, Gregory; Mansell, Edward R; Kuleshov, Yuriy; Peterson, Thomas C; Brunet, Manola; Driouech, Fatima; Krahenbuhl, Daniel S

    2017-06-01

    A World Meteorological Organization weather and climate extremes committee has judged that the world's longest reported distance for a single lightning flash occurred with a horizontal distance of 321 km (199.5 mi) over Oklahoma in 2007, while the world's longest reported duration for a single lightning flash is an event that lasted continuously for 7.74 seconds over southern France in 2012. In addition, the committee has unanimously recommended amendment of the AMS Glossary of Meteorology definition of lightning discharge as a "series of electrical processes taking place within 1 second" by removing the phrase "within one second" and replacing with "continuously." Validation of these new world extremes (a) demonstrates the recent and on-going dramatic augmentations and improvements to regional lightning detection and measurement networks, (b) provides reinforcement regarding the dangers of lightning, and (c) provides new information for lightning engineering concerns.

  10. Flash hydropyrolysis of bituminous coal . III. Research on flash hydropyrolysis tar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, M.; Zhu, Z.; He, Y.; Ding, N.; Tang, L. [East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai (China)

    2000-02-01

    Tar sample obtained by flash hydropyrolysis (FHP) from Dongshen coal at high pressure entrained reactor was investigated. An effect of flash hydropyrolysis temperature on the main components in tar was studied and the quality of the tar was compared with high temperature coke oven tar. The results showed that: the yields of liquid hydrocarbon in FHP tar were more than 15%, which is twofold of that in coke oven tar; the FHP tar has high oil fraction and low pitch; high phenol components and pure condensed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, and low aliphatic hydrocarbon. The components of the FHP tar were simpler than that of high temperature coke oven tar. Therefore, FHP has improved the quantity and quality of tar. 11 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  11. Neural basis of superior performance of action videogame players in an attention-demanding task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Jyoti; Zinni, Marla; Bavelier, Daphne; Hillyard, Steven A

    2011-01-19

    Steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs) were recorded from action videogame players (VGPs) and from non-videogame players (NVGPs) during an attention-demanding task. Participants were presented with a multi-stimulus display consisting of rapid sequences of alphanumeric stimuli presented at rates of 8.6/12 Hz in the left/right peripheral visual fields, along with a central square at fixation flashing at 5.5 Hz and a letter sequence flashing at 15 Hz at an upper central location. Subjects were cued to attend to one of the peripheral or central stimulus sequences and detect occasional targets. Consistent with previous behavioral studies, VGPs detected targets with greater speed and accuracy than NVGPs. This behavioral advantage was associated with an increased suppression of SSVEP amplitudes to unattended peripheral sequences in VGPs relative to NVGPs, whereas the magnitude of the attended SSVEPs was equivalent in the two groups. Group differences were also observed in the event-related potentials to targets in the alphanumeric sequences, with the target-elicited P300 component being of larger amplitude in VGPS than NVGPs. These electrophysiological findings suggest that the superior target detection capabilities of the VGPs are attributable, at least in part, to enhanced suppression of distracting irrelevant information and more effective perceptual decision processes.

  12. Sphinx, the high speed flash radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    Sphinx (Nanosecond Pulse X-Photon Source) is the most compact (0.1 m 3 ) existing system which can generates short pulses (10 to 30 nanoseconds) of 5 to 180 keV X-photon radiation with a repeating cadence of 100 pulses per second and doses which can reach 2 mR at 1 m. This system was developed by the Research Group on Energetics of Ionized Media (GREMI) from the CNRS (French National Center for Scientific Research) and the University of Orleans (France). Sphinx is the smallest device from a series of compact X-ray sources ranging from 5 to 400 keV. These devices can have several possible applications such as the study of ultra-fast phenomena, the high cadence flash radiography in medicine, biology, materials studies, pre-ionizing of gas lasers, self-excitation and photo-ionization of atoms, molecules or aggregates. (J.S.)

  13. Coherence properties of the radiation from FLASH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneidmiller, E.A.; Yurkov, M.V.

    2015-02-01

    FLASH is the first free electron laser user facility operating in the vacuum ultraviolet and soft x-ray wavelength range. Many user experiments require knowledge of the spatial and temporal coherence properties of the radiation. In this paper we present an analysis of the coherence properties of the radiation for the fundamental and for the higher odd frequency harmonics. We show that temporal and spatial coherence reach maximum close to the FEL saturation but may degrade significantly in the post-saturation regime. We also find that the pointing stability of short FEL pulses is limited due to the fact that non-azimuthal FEL eigenmodes are not sufficiently suppressed. We discuss possible ways for improving the degree of transverse coherence and the pointing stability.

  14. Article coated with flash bonded superhydrophobic particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, John T [Clinton, TN; Blue, Craig A [Knoxville, TN; Kiggans, Jr., James O [Oak Ridge, TN

    2010-07-13

    A method of making article having a superhydrophobic surface includes: providing a solid body defining at least one surface; applying to the surface a plurality of diatomaceous earth particles and/or particles characterized by particle sizes ranging from at least 100 nm to about 10 .mu.m, the particles being further characterized by a plurality of nanopores, wherein at least some of the nanopores provide flow through porosity, the particles being further characterized by a plurality of spaced apart nanostructured features that include a contiguous, protrusive material; flash bonding the particles to the surface so that the particles are adherently bonded to the surface; and applying a hydrophobic coating layer to the surface and the particles so that the hydrophobic coating layer conforms to the nanostructured features.

  15. Collimation techniques for dense object flash radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, K.H.

    1984-08-01

    In explosively driven experiments, flash radiography can record a wealth of information about material densities and boundaries. Obtaining accurate quantitative data from these radiographs requires careful design of the experiment so that one can control and measure the scattered radiation background that is a part of any experiment. We have used collimators at the x-ray source to match the incident x-ray flux to the transmission of the object, thereby reducing the production of scattered radiation while still preserving a complete view of the object. Multi-hole collimators (at the film plane) with a length-to-diameter ratio of approx. 20:1 have been used to measure the scattered radiation field with several exposure geometries and with various shielding methods

  16. Flash photolysis-shock tube studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael, J.V. [Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States)

    1993-12-01

    Even though this project in the past has concentrated on the measurement of thermal bimolecular reactions of atomic species with stable molecules by the flash or laser photolysis-shock tube (FP- or LP-ST) method using atomic resonance absorption spectrometry (ARAS) as the diagnostic technique, during the past year the authors have concentrated on studies of the thermal decompositions of selected chlorocarbon molecules. These studies are necessary if the degradation of chlorine containing organic molecules by incineration are to be understood at the molecular level. Clearly, destruction of these molecules will not only involve abstraction reactions, when possible, but also thermal decomposition followed by secondary reactions of the initially formed atoms and radicals. Studies on the thermal decomposition of CH{sub 3}Cl are complete, and the curve-of-growth for Cl-atom atomic resonance absorption has been determined. The new thermal decomposition studies are similar to those already reported for CH{sub 3}Cl.

  17. Measurement of g Using a Flashing LED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzella, T.; Sundermier, J.; Sinacore, J.; Owen, C.; Takai, H.

    2008-10-01

    In one of the classic free-fall experiments, a small mass is attached to a strip of paper tape and both are allowed to fall through a spark timer, where sparks are generated at regular time intervals. Students analyze marks (dots) left on the tape by the timer, thereby generating distance-versus-time data, which they analyze to extract the acceleration due to gravity g with good results. The apparatus, however, is cumbersome and often frustrating for students. High-tech versions of this experiment are done with an object dropped and followed by a motion sensor connected to a computer. The sensor relies on ultrasonic ranging to record distance and time data, which may then be displayed graphically. Students inspect the graphs to determine the value of g. Although the results are excellent, the emphasis on the computer's ability to collect and analyze data leaves little analysis for the students to perform.2 Furthermore, neither technique gives an intuitive display of what is happening. The motivation for our work was to overcome these issues by developing an innovative method for measuring g. In our version of the experiment, students drop a flashing LED at a known frequency and record its trajectory using long exposure photography with a digital camera. Proper choice of flashing LED timing parameters produces an image that allows for an accurate measurement of g and at the same time helps to explain what happens during free fall. The experiment remains high-tech in the sense that students learn to use updated equipment to record data and to carry out the analysis.

  18. A new French flash flood warning service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Saint-Aubin Céline

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The French State services in charge of flood forecasting supervise about 22,000 km among the 120,000 km of the French rivers within a warning procedure called Vigilance Crues (http://www.vigicrues.gouv.fr. Some recent dramatic flood events on small watershed not covered by Vigilance Crues highlight the need for a new warning procedure to anticipate violent flash floods that regularly affect rapid river-basins. Thus the concept emerged of an automatic warning service specifically dedicated to local crisis managers. This service will be less elaborated than Vigilance Crues, probably with false alarms and missed events sometimes, but it will deliver a first information. The generation of the warning is based on a simple rainfall-runoff hydrological model developed by Irstea on all French rivers, fed with radar-gauge rainfall grids provided by Meteo-France. Every fifteen minutes, the hydrological model estimates the discharges on the rivers eligible to the service and determine if certain thresholds corresponding to a high or very high flood are likely to be exceeded. The last step of the real-time system is to determine which municipalities are concerned with flood risk and send them an automatic warning by voice call, optionally by sms or email. A specific web interface is available for users to monitor the evolution of the flood risk on maps that are updated every 15 minutes. This new flash flood warning service will be operational early 2017 as a free service for about 8,000 French municipalities.

  19. Adapting playware to multiple players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Þorsteinsson, Arnar Tumi; Lund, Henrik Hautop; Mastorakis, Nikos

    2011-01-01

    With the creation of playware as intelligent hardware and software that creates play, it is possible to adapt the play tool to the individual user, and even to multiple users playing at the same time with the play tool. In this paper, we show how it is possible to implement adaptivity in modular...... to such differences, and argues that adaptivity is needed to make games fit to the individual users in both single-player games and multi-player games. As a case study, we implemented such adaptivity on modular interactive tiles for the single-user game ColorTimer, and for the multiple-user games PingPong, in which...

  20. Spondylolysis in young tennis players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz‐Cotorro, A; Balius‐Matas, R; Estruch‐Massana, A; Angulo, J Vilaró

    2006-01-01

    The general aetiology, diagnosis, and treatment of spondylolysis, a bone defect in the pars interarticularis of the vertebra, are reviewed. A retrospective study of young tennis players diagnosed between 2000 and 2004 with spondylolysis with or without spondylolisthesis, assessed by radiography and planar bone scintigraphy, is described. If the radiographic results were negative, computed tomography was performed. Sixty six cases were evaluated: 53 L5 lesions, eight L4 lesions, two L3 lesions, and one bilateral lesion at the L2 level. Two more lesions at two levels were found (bilateral L5 and unilateral L4 and L3 on the right side). Classification, treatment, and outcome of the cases are reported. A combination of radiography, planar bone scintigraphy, and SPECT is useful for evaluating spondylolysis in tennis players and recommending treatment. Use of a brace did not appear to achieve significant results. PMID:16632576

  1. Numerical analyses of flashing jet structure and droplet size characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Riqiang; Jiang Shengyao; Koshizuka, Seiichi; Oka, Yoshiaki; Yamaguchi, Akira; Takata, Takashi

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, flashing jets are numerically simulated using the MPS method. The boiling mode for flashing is identified as surface boiling mode, based on the postulation of jets from a short nozzle under high depressurization. The Homogeneous Non-equilibrium Relaxation Model (HRM) is used for calculating the evaporation rate of flashing. The numerical simulation results show that flashing jets comprise an inner intact core which is surrounded by two-phase droplet flow. The effect of degree of superheat on the jet topological geometry is investigated. With increasing degree of superheat, the topological shape of flashing jets evolves from cylindrical core for low degree of superheat to cone-shaped core for high degree of superheat, and meanwhile the extinction length comes to decrease and tends asymptotically constant as the injection temperature approaches the saturation temperature corresponding to the injection pressure. The analyses of the droplet size distribution engendered from primary breakup of flashing jets show that: two peaks exist for droplet size distribution at lower degree of superheat; however, merely one peak for higher degree of superheat. From droplet size distribution, it is revealed that the primary breakup mechanism of flashing jets can be attributed to dominant mechanical breakup mode plus enhancement via surface evaporation. (author)

  2. Simulated CONUS Flash Flood Climatologies from Distributed Hydrologic Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamig, Z.; Gourley, J. J.; Vergara, H. J.; Kirstetter, P. E.; Hong, Y.

    2016-12-01

    This study will describe a CONUS flash flood climatology created over the period from 2002 through 2011. The MRMS reanalysis precipitation dataset was used as forcing into the Ensemble Framework For Flash Flood Forecasting (EF5). This high resolution 1-sq km 5-minute dataset is ideal for simulating flash floods with a distributed hydrologic model. EF5 features multiple water balance components including SAC-SMA, CREST, and a hydrophobic model all coupled with kinematic wave routing. The EF5/SAC-SMA and EF5/CREST water balance schemes were used for the creation of dual flash flood climatologies based on the differing water balance principles. For the period from 2002 through 2011 the daily maximum streamflow, unit streamflow, and time of peak streamflow was stored along with the minimum soil moisture. These variables are used to describe the states of the soils right before a flash flood event and the peak streamflow that was simulated during the flash flood event. The results will be shown, compared and contrasted. The resulting model simulations will be verified on basins less than 1,000-sq km with USGS gauges to ensure the distributed hydrologic models are reliable. The results will also be compared spatially to Storm Data flash flood event observations to judge the degree of agreement between the simulated climatologies and observations.

  3. Motivational profile quality players handball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Martínez Moreno

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the sport context, elite category, it is necessary to know all the factors, which in one way or another, affect the athletes throughout the different competitions. The object of study is to know the motivational profile of elite handball players. The sample consisted of 495 players, of whom 47.8% were boys and 52.2% girls, their ages ranged from 12 to 16 years, with an average of 13.8 years (dt = 1.0. Descriptive statistical analyzes of the sample, absolute and relative frequencies were performed for the qualitative variables and for the quantitative values minimum, maximum, mean, standard deviation, Cronbach's alpha. Correlation between variables, with the Pearson correlation coefficient. The MANCOVA test was performed to determine if there were differences between the dimensions of the questionnaire, according to age and years of practice. The results reveal that handball players elite category of the sample object of study have mainly intrinsic motivation, achieving high scores on general motivation, motivation achievement and motivation stimulation. In addition to moderately high values in introjected regulation and very low values in demotivation.

  4. Weak positive cloud-to-ground flashes in Northeastern Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Raul E.; Maier, Michael W.; Garcia-Miguel, Juan A.; Holle, Ronald L.

    1991-01-01

    The frequency distributions of the peak magnetic field associated with the first detected return stroke of positive and negative cloud-to-ground (CG) flashes were studied using lightning data from northeastern Colorado. These data were obtained during 1985 with a medium-to-high gain network of three direction finders (DF's). The median signal strength of positive flashes was almost two times that of the negatives for flashes within 300 km of the DF's, which have an inherent detection-threshold bias that tends to discriminate against weak signals. This bias increases with range, and affects the detection of positive and negative flashes in different ways, because of the differing character of their distributions. Positive flashes appear to have a large percentage of signals clustered around very weak values that are lost to the medium-to-high gain Colorado Detection System very quickly with increasing range. The resulting median for positive signals could thus appear to be much larger than the median for negative signals, which are more clustered around intermediate values. When only flashes very close to the DF's are considered, however, the two distributions have almost identical medians. The large percentage of weak positive signals detected close to the DF's has not been explored previously. They have been suggested to come from intracloud discharges and thus are improperly classified as CG flashes. Evidence in hand, points to their being real positive, albeit weak CG flashes. Whether or not they are real positive ground flashes, it is important to be aware of their presence in data from magnetic DF networks.

  5. Frequency and seasonality of flash floods in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trobec Tajan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to assess and analyse the dynamics of flash flooding events in Slovenia. The paper examines in particular the frequency of flash floods and their seasonal distribution. The methodology is based on the analysis of historical records and modern flood data. The results of a long-term frequency analysis of 138 flash floods that occurred between 1550 and 2015 are presented. Because of the lack of adequate historical flood data prior to 1950 the main analysis is based on data for the periodbetween1951 and2015, while the analysis of data for the period between1550 and1950 is added as a supplement to the main analysis. Analysis of data for the period after 1950 shows that on average 1.3 flash floods occur each year in Slovenia. The linear trend for the number of flash floods is increasing but is not statistically significant. Despite the fact that the majority of Slovenian rivers have one of the peaks in spring and one of the lows in summer, 90% of flash floods actually occur during meteorological summer or autumn - i.e. between June and November, which shows that discharge regimes and flood regimes are not necessarily related. Because of the lack of flood records from the more distant past as well as the large variability of flash flood events in the last several decades, we cannot provide a definitive answer to the question about possible changes in their frequency and seasonality by relying solely on the detected trends. Nevertheless, considering the results of analysis and future climate change scenarios the frequency of flash floods in Slovenia could increase while the period of flash flood occurrence could be extended.

  6. [Dietary behaviours of volleyball and basketball players].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczepańska, Elzbieta; Spałkowska, Agnieszka

    2012-01-01

    In sports, such as basketball and volleyball, players must demonstrate the speed, strength, stamina and concentration. Correct nutrition affects the strength of the muscles and the extension of capacity. It is also necessary for the proper functioning of the nervous system and determines the rate of regeneration after physical effort. The aim of this study was to assess dietary behaviours of professional volleyball and basketball players and compare the prevalence of correct behaviours in both groups. 209 professional volleyball and basketball players from sports clubs localized in six Silesian cities were survived with the mean of author questionnaire. The chi-square test was used to examine differences in the prevalence of the correct behaviours among players. Analysis of the results obtained showed that 52% of the players had 4-5 meals a day. 35% of respondents had wholemeal bread and/or groats daily. Milk and dairy products daily ate 71% of surveyed players, meat and sausages 70% respectively. 41% of respondents had cottage cheese and 28% had fish several times a week. Vegetables and fruit were eaten by 21% and respectively 23% of respondents. Sweets were eaten daily by 40% of surveyed, while fast-food were eaten several times a week by 17% of players. Nutrients for athletes were used by 32%, and vitamin supplementation by 48% of respondents. Prevalence of correct dietary behaviour in the group of professional volleyball and basketball players differed. Basketball players statistically more frequently than volleyball players had 4-5 meals a day, had wholemeal bread and/or thick groats, milk and dairy products, meat and sausages, especially poultry. They had raw vegetables and fruit several times a day. They drank more than 2.5 liters of fluids per day. They also significantly more frequently than volleyball players consumed the fast-food occasionally or never. Dietary behaviours of surveyed players were incorrect. Comparison of prevalence of proper behaviours

  7. Characteristics of Laser Flash Technique for Thermal Diffusivity Measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, D. G.; Kim, H. M.; Hong, G. P

    2008-08-15

    In relation to selection of thermal conductivity measurement technology, various thermal conductivity measurement technique are investigated for characteristics of each technique and it's measurable range. For the related laser flash techniques, various technical characteristics are reviewed and discussed. Especially, Parker adiabatic model are reviewed because of importance for basic theory of the thermal diffusivity determination. Finite pulse time effect, heat loss effect and non-uniform heating effect, which are main technical factors for laser flash technique, are considered. Finally, characteristics of constituent elements for laser flash measurement system are reviewed and investigated in detail.

  8. Gamma ray flashes add to mystery of upper atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmospheric electricity research has come a long way since Benjamin Franklin's kite-flying days. But what researchers have been learning lately about above-thunderstorm electricity has wrought a whole new era of mysteries.For a start, last summer a Colorado meteorologist sparked interest in a terrestrial phenomenon that the community first observed more than 100 years ago: optical flashes that occur above thunderstorms—at least 30 km above Earth. Walter Lyons with the Ft. Collins-based Mission Research Corporation, demonstrated that such flashes are not anomalies, as conventional scientific wisdom had held. He filmed hundreds of flashes during a 2-week period.

  9. Freeware eLearning Flash-ECG for learning electrocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanov, Kalle; Kuusi, Timo

    2009-06-01

    Electrocardiographic (ECG) analysis can be taught in eLearning programmes with suitable software that permits the effective use of basic tools such as a ruler and a magnifier, required for measurements. The Flash-ECG (Research & Development Unit for Medical Education, University of Helsinki, Finland) was developed to enable teachers and students to use scanned and archived ECGs on computer screens and classroom projectors. The software requires only a standard web browser with a Flash plug-in and can be integrated with learning environments (Blackboard/WebCT, Moodle). The Flash-ECG is freeware and is available to medical teachers worldwide.

  10. Cardiac and vascular imaging with snapshot FLASH MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthaei, D.; Haase, A.; Norris, D.; Leibfritz, D.; Henrich, D.; Duhmke, E.

    1989-01-01

    Acceleration of fast low-angle-shot (FLASH) MR imaging to about 200 msec measuring time on dedicated MR systems is called snapshot FLASH MR imaging. It snaps real-time series of MR images of the MR relaxation and of physiologic motions with nearly absent motion and susceptibility artifacts. Results in animals (4.7T) and human volunteers (2.0T) show plain vascular and cardiac snapshot FLASH MR images obtained as single shot, triggered reconstructed motion, or real-time films. The reduction of artifacts and the high resolution (triggered, three-dimensional moving heart images are possible) result in favorable applications in myocardial and great vascular disease

  11. Vitamin D Deficiency Among Professional Basketball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Matthew P; Lombardo, Stephen J; Kharrazi, F Daniel

    2016-07-01

    Vitamin D plays an important role in several systems of the human body. Various studies have linked vitamin D deficiency to stress and insufficiency fractures, muscle recovery and function, and athletic performance. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in the elite athletic population has not been extensively studied, and very few reports exist among professional athletes. There is a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency among players attending the National Basketball Association (NBA) Combine. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. This is a retrospective review of data previously collected as part of the routine medical evaluation of players in the NBA Combines from 2009 through 2013. Player parameters evaluated were height, weight, body mass index (BMI), and vitamin D level. Statistical analysis using t tests and analysis of variance was used to detect any correlation between the player parameters and vitamin D level. Vitamin D levels were categorized as deficient (32 ng/mL). After institutional review board approval was submitted to the NBA, the NBA released deidentified data on 279 players who participated in the combines from 2009 through 2013. There were 90 players (32.3%) who were deficient, 131 players (47.0%) who were insufficient, and 58 players (20.8%) who were sufficient. A total of 221 players (79.3%) were either vitamin D deficient or insufficient. Among all players included, the average vitamin D level was 25.6 ± 10.2 ng/mL. Among the players who were deficient, insufficient, and sufficient, the average vitamin D levels were 16.1 ± 2.1 ng/mL, 25.0 ± 3.4 ng/mL, and 41.6 ± 8.6 ng/mL, respectively. Player height and weight were significantly increased in vitamin D-sufficient players compared with players who were not sufficient (P = .0008 and .009, respectively). Player age and BMI did not significantly differ depending on vitamin D status (P = .15 and .77, respectively). There is a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency

  12. Photosynthetic efficiency of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii in flashing light

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vejrazka, C.; Janssen, M.G.J.; Streefland, M.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2011-01-01

    Efficient light to biomass conversion in photobioreactors is crucial for economically feasible microalgae production processes. It has been suggested that photosynthesis is enhanced in short light path photobioreactors by mixing-induced flashing light regimes. In this study, photosynthetic

  13. Interim report on flash floods, Area 5 - Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French, R.H.

    1980-09-01

    Examination of the presently available data indicates that consideration must be given to the possibility of flash floods when siting waste management facilities in Area 5 of the Nevada Test Site. 6 figures, 7 tables

  14. The Essential Guide to 3D in Flash

    CERN Document Server

    Olsson, Ronald A

    2010-01-01

    If you are an ActionScript developer or designer and you would like to work with 3D in Flash, this book is for you. You will learn the core Flash 3D concepts, using the open source Away3D engine as a primary tool. Once you have mastered these skills, you will be able to realize the possibilities that the available Flash 3D engines, languages, and technologies have to offer you with Flash and 3D.* Describes 3D concepts in theory and their implementation using Away3D* Dives right in to show readers how to quickly create an interactive, animated 3D scene, and builds on that experience throughout

  15. The design of the light-flash warning light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junli

    2018-05-01

    In today's society, the warning light has been used widely in people's daily life and various industries and agricultures. It is important to protect people's life and security. Light-flashing warning light is a kind of warning light control equipment which can control warning light automatically open and work in the state of blinking after dark, and it can automatically shut down after the dawn. It can achieve the flashing light automatic control and dual function. At present, light-flashing warning lights are mainly used in the projects of municipal construction. It is helpful to warn people and vehicles that passed in the construction site and ensure personal safety through using light-flashing warning light. Its design is simple, its performance is stable and it is also very convince to use it.

  16. FORGING DEFECTS ANALYSIS IN SUSPENSION ARMAND FLASH CONTROL

    OpenAIRE

    Mr Jadhav Vijay B. , Prof. Mundhe V.L. , Dr. Narve N.G.

    2018-01-01

    The suspension arms in the process of fogging are made by different material and in that processes get various problems are found. In that paper list out that problem and solving flash wastage problem.

  17. Hot Flashes and Quality of Life among Breast Cancer Patients

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jacobs, Linda A

    2005-01-01

    This ongoing longitudinal study examines hot flashes and Quality of Life (QoL) in breast cancer (BC) patients undergoing initial treatment, and develops a taxonomy of the medical and Complementary and Alternative Medicine...

  18. Dynamic simulation of flash drums using rigorous physical property calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. M. Gonçalves

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of flash drums is simulated using a formulation adequate for phase modeling with equations of state (EOS. The energy and mass balances are written as differential equations for the internal energy and the number of moles of each species. The algebraic equations of the model, solved at each time step, are those of a flash with specified internal energy, volume and mole numbers (UVN flash. A new aspect of our dynamic simulations is the use of direct iterations in phase volumes (instead of pressure for solving the algebraic equations. It was also found that an iterative procedure previously suggested in the literature for UVN flashes becomes unreliable close to phase boundaries and a new alternative is proposed. Another unusual aspect of this work is that the model expressions, including the physical properties and their analytical derivatives, were quickly implemented using computer algebra.

  19. Some design aspects of multistage flash distillation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Mohammad.

    1975-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of the design variables of multistage flash (MSF) process on the performance and/or the cost of the desalting plant, and to establish certain design trends

  20. Flash-flood potential assessment and mapping by integrating the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Romulus Costache

    2017-06-16

    Jun 16, 2017 ... torrential phenomena considered for the study (training area) and for the results' testing (validating ... Service (USA). At that ... to improve the quality of flash-flood forecasts. ...... offers the possibility to obtain more credible and.

  1. Flash 3D Rendezvous and Docking Sensor, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — 3D Flash Ladar is a breakthrough technology for many emerging and existing 3D vision areas, and sensor improvements will have an impact on nearly all these fields....

  2. Portable flash X-ray systems: applications and techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryant, L.E.

    1976-01-01

    Three portable flash x-ray equipments are described, and applications such as jet and high explosive studies, bullet impact and lead casting experiments are given as well as techniques for triggering and protection of equipment and film

  3. Space Qualified, Radiation Hardened, Dense Monolithic Flash Memory, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Space Micro proposes to build a radiation hardened by design (RHBD) flash memory, using a modified version of our RH-eDRAM Memory Controller to solve all the single...

  4. Swimming literacy field hockey woman player ground.

    OpenAIRE

    Baštová, Miroslava

    2012-01-01

    Title: Swimming literacy field hockey woman player ground. Objectives: To obtain and analyze data on the level ground swimming literacy field hockey woman player. Their perception swimming literacy for life, the use of non-specific regeneration and as a training resource. Methods: Analysis of scientific literature, survey, case study, data analysis and graphical presentation of results. Results of the work: field hockey player as swimming literate, benefits swimming but not used as a means of...

  5. The Prevalence of Injuries in Professional Turkish Soccer Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaner, Faruk; Gumusdag, Hayrettin; Kartal, Alparslan; Gumus, M.; Gullu, A.; Imamoglu, O.

    2011-01-01

    Study aim: To assess the prevalence and anatomical sites of injuries in professional soccer players in one game season. Material and methods: A cohort of 510 professional male soccer players consisting of 48 goalkeepers, 194 defence players, 189 mid-field players and 79 forward players of the 1st and 2nd Turkish Professional Soccer Leagues in…

  6. Flash x-radiography for material motion detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choate, L.M.; Buckalew, W.H.; Posey, L.D.

    1977-01-01

    A significant part of the experimental program dealing with the behavior of prototypic LMFBR fuel pin bundles under mild to severe power transients is that of the observation of fuel/cladding/coolant motion. The feasibility of using electron beam flash x-radiography as a diagnostic tool for safety test facilities is presently under evaluation. A summary of the objectives and approach of the flash x-radiography program is presented

  7. New principle of feeding for flash evaporation MOCVD devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaul, A.R.; Seleznev, B.V.

    1993-01-01

    A novel scheme of flash evaporation feeding for MOCVD processes of multi-component oxide films deposition is proposed. The scheme comprises 1) microdozage of organic solution of solid volatile precursors on the glass fiber belt, 2) evaporation of the solvent and 3) flash evaporation of MOC microdoses from the belt. The functioning of the designed feeder is described and the features of proposed scheme in comparison to existing feeding principles are discussed. (orig.)

  8. Looking for the best flash floods indicators in Mediterranean Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llasat, Maria-Carmen; Llasat-Botija, Montserrat; Turco, Marco

    2010-05-01

    Flash floods are a recurrent hazard in Mediterranean Region. From a global point of view, a distinction between two kinds of floods can be made (Llasat, 2009): a) Short-lived and strongly convective events (cases recorded between 2005 and 2006. This sample has been increased with some selected cases of the European project HYDRATE. Information from all the flash-floods recorded in Catalonia (Spain) since 1982, completed with data about population density and so on, has also been considered.

  9. Automated Studies of Continuing Current in Lightning Flashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Claros, Jose

    Continuing current (CC) is a continuous luminosity in the lightning channel that lasts longer than 10 ms following a lightning return stroke to ground. Lightning flashes following CC are associated with direct damage to power lines and are thought to be responsible for causing lightning-induced forest fires. The development of an algorithm that automates continuing current detection by combining NLDN (National Lightning Detection Network) and LEFA (Langmuir Electric Field Array) datasets for CG flashes will be discussed. The algorithm was applied to thousands of cloud-to-ground (CG) flashes within 40 km of Langmuir Lab, New Mexico measured during the 2013 monsoon season. It counts the number of flashes in a single minute of data and the number of return strokes of an individual lightning flash; records the time and location of each return stroke; performs peak analysis on E-field data, and uses the slope of interstroke interval (ISI) E-field data fits to recognize whether continuing current (CC) exists within the interval. Following CC detection, duration and magnitude are measured. The longest observed C in 5588 flashes was 631 ms. The performance of the algorithm (vs. human judgement) was checked on 100 flashes. At best, the reported algorithm is "correct" 80% of the time, where correct means that multiple stations agree with each other and with a human on both the presence and duration of CC. Of the 100 flashes that were validated against human judgement, 62% were hybrid. Automated analysis detects the first but misses the second return stroke in many cases where the second return stroke is followed by long CC. This problem is also present in human interpretation of field change records.

  10. The Role of Serotonin in Hot Flashes after Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    physiological mechanisms involved in hot flashes c.fter breast cancer will enable us to develop more targeted behavioral and/or pharmacological therapi ...s to be used in lieu of, or in addition to, currently available therapies so that we can eradicate hot flashes and improve the quality of life for...flavorings were most palatable - chocolate mint and orange. We rejected a lemon flavoring as being unpalatable. We eliminated the mid-day snack per

  11. Auditory memory function in expert chess players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattahi, Fariba; Geshani, Ahmad; Jafari, Zahra; Jalaie, Shohreh; Salman Mahini, Mona

    2015-01-01

    Chess is a game that involves many aspects of high level cognition such as memory, attention, focus and problem solving. Long term practice of chess can improve cognition performances and behavioral skills. Auditory memory, as a kind of memory, can be influenced by strengthening processes following long term chess playing like other behavioral skills because of common processing pathways in the brain. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the auditory memory function of expert chess players using the Persian version of dichotic auditory-verbal memory test. The Persian version of dichotic auditory-verbal memory test was performed for 30 expert chess players aged 20-35 years and 30 non chess players who were matched by different conditions; the participants in both groups were randomly selected. The performance of the two groups was compared by independent samples t-test using SPSS version 21. The mean score of dichotic auditory-verbal memory test between the two groups, expert chess players and non-chess players, revealed a significant difference (p≤ 0.001). The difference between the ears scores for expert chess players (p= 0.023) and non-chess players (p= 0.013) was significant. Gender had no effect on the test results. Auditory memory function in expert chess players was significantly better compared to non-chess players. It seems that increased auditory memory function is related to strengthening cognitive performances due to playing chess for a long time.

  12. Chess players' fame versus their merit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simkin, M V; Roychowdhury, V P

    2015-12-12

    We investigate a pool of international chess title holders born between 1901 and 1943. Using Elo ratings, we compute for every player his expected score in a game with a randomly selected player from the pool. We use this figure as the player's merit. We measure players' fame as the number of Google hits. The correlation between fame and merit is 0.38. At the same time, the correlation between the logarithm of fame and merit is 0.61. This suggests that fame grows exponentially with merit.

  13. Theoretical Characterizaiton of Visual Signatures (Muzzle Flash)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashinski, D. O.; Scales, A. N.; Vanderley, D. L.; Chase, G. M.; di Nallo, O. E.; Byrd, E. F. C.

    2014-05-01

    We are investigating the accuracy of theoretical models used to predict the visible, ultraviolet and infrared spectra of product materials ejected from the muzzle of currently fielded systems. Recent advances in solid propellants has made the management of muzzle signature (flash) a principle issue in weapons development across the calibers. A priori prediction of the electromagnetic spectra of formulations will allow researchers to tailor blends that yield desired signatures and determine spectrographic detection ranges. We are currently employing quantum chemistry methods at various levels of sophistication to optimize molecular geometries, compute vibrational frequencies, and determine the optical spectra of specific gas-phase molecules and radicals of interest. Electronic excitations are being computed using Time Dependent Density Functional Theory (TD-DFT). A comparison of computational results to experimental values found in the literature is used to assess the affect of basis set and functional choice on calculation accuracy. The current status of this work will be presented at the conference. Work supported by the ARL, and USMA.

  14. Flash pyrolysis fuel oil: bio-pok

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gust, S [Neste Oy, Porvoo (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    Samples of flash pyrolysis liquid produced by Union Fenosa, Spain from pine and straw and samples produced by Ensyn of Canada from mixed hardwoods were combusted with simple pressure atomization equipment commonly used with light fuel oils in intermediate size (0.1-1 MW) boilers. With a number of modifications to the combustion system, carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrous oxide (NO{sub x}) could be reduced to acceptable levels: CO < 30 ppm and NO{sub x} < 140 ppm. Particulate emissions which were initially very high (Bacharach 4-5) were reduced (Bach. 2-3) by system improvements but are still higher than from light fuel oil (Bach. <1). The modifications to the combustion system were: refractory section between burner and boiler, acid resistant progressive cavity pump, higher liquid preheat temperature and higher pressure than for light fuel oils. The main problems with pyrolysis liquids concerns their instability or reactivity. At temperatures above 100 deg C they begin to coke, their viscosity increases during storage and oxygen from air causes skin formation. This requires that special handling procedures are developed for fuel storage, delivery and combustion systems. (orig.)

  15. Production of bio-oil with flash pyrolysis; Biooeljyn tuotanto flash-pyrolyysillae ja sen poltto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyroenen, T [Vapo Oy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    The target of the R and D work is to study the production of bio-oils using Flash-pyrolysis technology and utilisation of the bio-oil in oil-fuelled boilers. The PDU-unit was installed at VTT Energy in Otaniemi in April 1996. The first test were carried out in June. In the whole project Vapo Oy is responsible for: acquiring the 20 kg/h PDU-device for development; follow up of the engine tests; the investment of 5 MW demonstration plant; to carry on the boiler and engine tests with Finnish bio-oils. (orig.)

  16. Bipolar cloud-to-ground lightning flash observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saba, Marcelo M. F.; Schumann, Carina; Warner, Tom A.; Helsdon, John H.; Schulz, Wolfgang; Orville, Richard E.

    2013-10-01

    lightning is usually defined as a lightning flash where the current waveform exhibits a polarity reversal. There are very few reported cases of cloud-to-ground (CG) bipolar flashes using only one channel in the literature. Reports on this type of bipolar flashes are not common due to the fact that in order to confirm that currents of both polarities follow the same channel to the ground, one necessarily needs video records. This study presents five clear observations of single-channel bipolar CG flashes. High-speed video and electric field measurement observations are used and analyzed. Based on the video images obtained and based on previous observations of positive CG flashes with high-speed cameras, we suggest that positive leader branches which do not participate in the initial return stroke of a positive cloud-to-ground flash later generate recoil leaders whose negative ends, upon reaching the branch point, traverse the return stroke channel path to the ground resulting in a subsequent return stroke of opposite polarity.

  17. Spectral measurements of muzzle flash with multispectral and hyperspectral sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastek, M.; Dulski, R.; Trzaskawka, P.; Piątkowski, T.; Polakowski, H.

    2011-08-01

    The paper presents some practical aspects of the measurements of muzzle flash signatures. Selected signatures of sniper shot in typical scenarios has been presented. Signatures registered during all phases of muzzle flash were analyzed. High precision laboratory measurements were made in a special ballistic laboratory and as a result several flash patterns were registered. The field measurements of a muzzle flash were also performed. During the tests several infrared cameras were used, including the measurement class devices with high accuracy and frame rates. The registrations were made in NWIR, SWIR and LWIR spectral bands simultaneously. An ultra fast visual camera was also used for visible spectra registration. Some typical infrared shot signatures were presented. Beside the cameras, the LWIR imaging spectroradiometer HyperCam was also used during the laboratory experiments and the field tests. The signatures collected by the HyperCam device were useful for the determination of spectral characteristics of the muzzle flash, whereas the analysis of thermal images registered during the tests provided the data on temperature distribution in the flash area. As a result of the measurement session the signatures of several types handguns, machine guns and sniper rifles were obtained which will be used in the development of passive infrared systems for sniper detection.

  18. Cooperation: New Players in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Hugon

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In the context of globalisation and the current global financial crisis, new players are emerging in cooperation in Africa. These partners loosen financial constraints and conditionalities, increase the room for manoeuvre and stimulate commodity markets. On the other hand, they also increase the risks of renewed indebtedness and potentially weaken the coordination of aid policies. Do these partnerships call the new cooperation practices of OECD countries into question? Do they justify the return to a realpolitik or are they repeating the earlier mistakes of industrial powers? Can these mistakes be corrected? The question also arises as to whether the global crisis, which has a profound effect on Africa, will lead to a withdrawal or to a passing of the baton on to new, emerging powers. This article highlights the new geopolitical issues concerning Africa in a multipolar world, then discusses the new players involved in cooperation in Africa, before going on to explore the horizons that are opening up for cooperation in Africa, in particular with regard to the global crisis.

  19. "Know What to Do If You Encounter a Flash Flood": Mental Models Analysis for Improving Flash Flood Risk Communication and Public Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazrus, Heather; Morss, Rebecca E; Demuth, Julie L; Lazo, Jeffrey K; Bostrom, Ann

    2016-02-01

    Understanding how people view flash flood risks can help improve risk communication, ultimately improving outcomes. This article analyzes data from 26 mental models interviews about flash floods with members of the public in Boulder, Colorado, to understand their perspectives on flash flood risks and mitigation. The analysis includes a comparison between public and professional perspectives by referencing a companion mental models study of Boulder-area professionals. A mental models approach can help to diagnose what people already know about flash flood risks and responses, as well as any critical gaps in their knowledge that might be addressed through improved risk communication. A few public interviewees mentioned most of the key concepts discussed by professionals as important for flash flood warning decision making. However, most interviewees exhibited some incomplete understandings and misconceptions about aspects of flash flood development and exposure, effects, or mitigation that may lead to ineffective warning decisions when a flash flood threatens. These include important misunderstandings about the rapid evolution of flash floods, the speed of water in flash floods, the locations and times that pose the greatest flash flood risk in Boulder, the value of situational awareness and environmental cues, and the most appropriate responses when a flash flood threatens. The findings point to recommendations for ways to improve risk communication, over the long term and when an event threatens, to help people quickly recognize and understand threats, obtain needed information, and make informed decisions in complex, rapidly evolving extreme weather events such as flash floods. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  20. Jet models of X-Ray Flashes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamb, D.Q.; Donaghy, T.Q.; Graziani, C.

    2005-01-01

    One third of all HETE-2-localized bursts are X-Ray Flashes (XRFs), a class of events first identified by Heise in which the fluence in the 2-30 keV energy band exceeds that in the 30-400 keV energy band We summarize recent HETE-2 and other results on the properties of XRFs. These results show that the properties of XRFs, X-ray-rich gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), and GRBs form a continuum, and thus provide evidence that all three kinds of bursts are closely related phenomena. As the most extreme burst population, XRFs provide severe constraints on burst models and unique insights into the structure of GRB jets, the GRB rate, and the nature of Type Ib/Ic supernovae. We briefly mention a number of the physical models that have been proposed to explain XRFs. We then consider two fundamentally different classes of phenomenological jet models: universal jet models, in which it is posited that all GRBs jets are identical and that differences in the observed properties of the bursts are due entirely to differences in the viewing angle; and variable-opening angle jet models, in which it is posited that GRB jets have a distribution of jet opening angles and that differences in the observed properties of the bursts are due to differences in the emissivity and spectra of jets having different opening angles. We consider three shapes far the emissivity as a function of the viewing angle θ ν from the axis of the jet: power law, top hat (or uniform) , and Gaussian (or Fisher). We then discuss the effect of relativistic beaming on each of these models. We show that observations can distinguish between these various models

  1. Computing Decoupled Residuals for Compact Disc Players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Stoustrup, Jakob; Andersen, Palle

    2006-01-01

    a pair of residuals generated by Compact Disc Player. However, these residuals depend on the performance of position servos in the Compact Disc Player. In other publications of the same authors a pair of decoupled residuals is derived. However, the computation of these alternative residuals has been...

  2. Fault Predictive Control of Compact Disk Players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Wickerhauser, Mladen Victor

    2006-01-01

    Optical disc players such as CD-players have problems playing certain discs with surface faults like scratches and fingerprints. The problem is to be found in the servo controller which positions the optical pick-up, such that the laser beam is focused on the information track. A scheme handling...

  3. Quantum Two Player Game in Thermal Environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Dajka

    Full Text Available A two-player quantum game is considered in the presence of thermal decoherence. It is shown how the thermal environment modeled in terms of rigorous Davies approach affects payoffs of the players. The conditions for either beneficial or pernicious effect of decoherence are identified. The general considerations are exemplified by the quantum version of Prisoner Dilemma.

  4. Player behavioural modelling for video games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lankveld, G.; Spronck, P.H.M.; Bakkes, S.C.J.

    2012-01-01

    Player behavioural modelling has grown from a means to improve the playing strength of computer programs that play classic games (e.g., chess), to a means for impacting the player experience and satisfaction in video games, as well as in cross-domain applications such as interactive storytelling. In

  5. Outcomes of microfracture in professional basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerynik, Douglas L; Lewullis, Gabriel E; Joves, Brian C; Palmer, Michael P; Tom, James A

    2009-09-01

    Surgical treatment for chondral defects of the knee in competitive running and jumping athletes remains controversial. This study evaluated the performance outcomes of professional basketball players in the National Basketball Association (NBA) who underwent microfracture. Data from 24 professional basketball players from 1997 to 2006 was obtained and analyzed. NBA player efficiency ratings (PER) were calculated for two seasons before and after injury. A control group of 24 players was used for comparison. Study group and control group demographics including age, NBA experience, and minutes per game demonstrated no statistical difference. Mean time to return to an NBA game was 30.0 weeks from the time of surgery. The first season after returning to competition PER and minutes per game decreased by 3.5 (P 0.05) and 3.0 min (P NBA game. On return to competition player performance and minutes per game are diminished.

  6. An embouchure aid for saxophone player

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho-Jin Moon

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to introduce the method that can relieve vibrating forces to oral environment by making an embouchure aid. Thin plastic crown forms were fabricated to prevent tooth abrasion and irritation to lip mucosa for the saxophone player. After application to the player, the most comfort form was chosen and delivered to 3 professional saxophone players. After 5 mon, the players responded to the survey. This embouchure aid did not disturb playing and gave comfort to lower lip. In general, the players preferred thin soft type and thought it caused little effect on sound. Far too little attention has been paid to the problems encountered by single-reed wind instrumentalist who suffer from tooth abrasion and irritation to lip mucosa. The embouchure aid not only prevent tooth damage but also diminish the discomfort of tight embouchure.

  7. Finite stage asymmetric repeated games: Both players' viewpoints

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Lichun; Feron, Eric; Shamma, Jeff S.

    2017-01-01

    the opponents' corresponding best responses depends only on the informed player's history action sequences. Moreover, efficient LP formulations to compute both player's security strategies are provided.

  8. Finite stage asymmetric repeated games: Both players' viewpoints

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Lichun

    2017-01-05

    In asymmetric zero-sum games, one player has superior information about the game over the other. It is known that the informed players (maximizer) face the tradeoff of exploiting its superior information at the cost of revealing its superior information, but the basic point of the uninformed player (minimizer)\\'s decision making remains unknown. This paper studies the finite stage asymmetric repeated games from both players\\' viewpoints, and derives that not only security strategies but also the opponents\\' corresponding best responses depends only on the informed player\\'s history action sequences. Moreover, efficient LP formulations to compute both player\\'s security strategies are provided.

  9. Executive Functioning in Highly Talented Soccer Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verburgh, Lot; Scherder, Erik J. A.; van Lange, Paul A.M.; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2014-01-01

    Executive functions might be important for successful performance in sports, particularly in team sports requiring quick anticipation and adaptation to continuously changing situations in the field. The executive functions motor inhibition, attention and visuospatial working memory were examined in highly talented soccer players. Eighty-four highly talented youth soccer players (mean age 11.9), and forty-two age-matched amateur soccer players (mean age 11.8) in the age range 8 to 16 years performed a Stop Signal task (motor inhibition), the Attention Network Test (alerting, orienting, and executive attention) and a visuospatial working memory task. The highly talented soccer players followed the talent development program of the youth academy of a professional soccer club and played at the highest national soccer competition for their age. The amateur soccer players played at a regular soccer club in the same geographical region as the highly talented soccer players and play in a regular regional soccer competition. Group differences were tested using analyses of variance. The highly talented group showed superior motor inhibition as measured by stop signal reaction time (SSRT) on the Stop Signal task and a larger alerting effect on the Attention Network Test, indicating an enhanced ability to attain and maintain an alert state. No group differences were found for orienting and executive attention and visuospatial working memory. A logistic regression model with group (highly talented or amateur) as dependent variable and executive function measures that significantly distinguished between groups as predictors showed that these measures differentiated highly talented soccer players from amateur soccer players with 89% accuracy. Highly talented youth soccer players outperform youth amateur players on suppressing ongoing motor responses and on the ability to attain and maintain an alert state; both may be essential for success in soccer. PMID:24632735

  10. Executive functioning in highly talented soccer players.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lot Verburgh

    Full Text Available Executive functions might be important for successful performance in sports, particularly in team sports requiring quick anticipation and adaptation to continuously changing situations in the field. The executive functions motor inhibition, attention and visuospatial working memory were examined in highly talented soccer players. Eighty-four highly talented youth soccer players (mean age 11.9, and forty-two age-matched amateur soccer players (mean age 11.8 in the age range 8 to 16 years performed a Stop Signal task (motor inhibition, the Attention Network Test (alerting, orienting, and executive attention and a visuospatial working memory task. The highly talented soccer players followed the talent development program of the youth academy of a professional soccer club and played at the highest national soccer competition for their age. The amateur soccer players played at a regular soccer club in the same geographical region as the highly talented soccer players and play in a regular regional soccer competition. Group differences were tested using analyses of variance. The highly talented group showed superior motor inhibition as measured by stop signal reaction time (SSRT on the Stop Signal task and a larger alerting effect on the Attention Network Test, indicating an enhanced ability to attain and maintain an alert state. No group differences were found for orienting and executive attention and visuospatial working memory. A logistic regression model with group (highly talented or amateur as dependent variable and executive function measures that significantly distinguished between groups as predictors showed that these measures differentiated highly talented soccer players from amateur soccer players with 89% accuracy. Highly talented youth soccer players outperform youth amateur players on suppressing ongoing motor responses and on the ability to attain and maintain an alert state; both may be essential for success in soccer.

  11. Lunar Impact Flash Locations from NASA's Lunar Impact Monitoring Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, D. E.; Suggs, R. M.; Kupferschmidt, L.; Feldman, J.

    2015-01-01

    Meteoroids are small, natural bodies traveling through space, fragments from comets, asteroids, and impact debris from planets. Unlike the Earth, which has an atmosphere that slows, ablates, and disintegrates most meteoroids before they reach the ground, the Moon has little-to-no atmosphere to prevent meteoroids from impacting the lunar surface. Upon impact, the meteoroid's kinetic energy is partitioned into crater excavation, seismic wave production, and the generation of a debris plume. A flash of light associated with the plume is detectable by instruments on Earth. Following the initial observation of a probable Taurid impact flash on the Moon in November 2005,1 the NASA Meteoroid Environment Office (MEO) began a routine monitoring program to observe the Moon for meteoroid impact flashes in early 2006, resulting in the observation of over 330 impacts to date. The main objective of the MEO is to characterize the meteoroid environment for application to spacecraft engineering and operations. The Lunar Impact Monitoring Program provides information about the meteoroid flux in near-Earth space in a size range-tens of grams to a few kilograms-difficult to measure with statistical significance by other means. A bright impact flash detected by the program in March 2013 brought into focus the importance of determining the impact flash location. Prior to this time, the location was estimated to the nearest half-degree by visually comparing the impact imagery to maps of the Moon. Better accuracy was not needed because meteoroid flux calculations did not require high-accuracy impact locations. But such a bright event was thought to have produced a fresh crater detectable from lunar orbit by the NASA spacecraft Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO). The idea of linking the observation of an impact flash with its crater was an appealing one, as it would validate NASA photometric calculations and crater scaling laws developed from hypervelocity gun testing. This idea was

  12. Venlafaxine and desvenlafaxine in the management of menopausal hot flashes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson ED

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Vasomotor flushes are common complaints of women during and after menopause, affecting about 75 percent of this population. Estrogen therapy is the most effective treatment for hot flashes. However, there are a significant number of women who have contraindications or choose not to use estrogen due to potential risks such as breast cancer and thromboembolic disorders. These women need alternative options. The selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, venlafaxine and desvenlafaxine, have shown efficacy in alleviating hot flashes.Objective: The purpose of this review is to assess the efficacy and tolerability of these two agents for treatment of hot flashes in healthy postmenopausal women.Methods: A literature search of the MEDLINE and Ovid databases from inception to June 2011 was conducted. Randomized controlled trials, published in English, with human participants were included. Studies included postmenopausal women, and trials with breast cancer only populations were excluded.Results: Venlafaxine reduced hot flashes by 37 to 61 percent and desvenlafaxine by 55 to 69 percent. Both agents were well tolerated. The most common adverse effects were headache, dry mouth, nausea, insomnia, somnolence, and dizziness.Conclusion: Based on the evidence, venlafaxine and desvenlafaxine are both viable options for reducing the frequency and severity of hot flashes.

  13. Search for the radio occulation flash at Jupiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.M.; Tyler, G.L.; Eshleman, V.R.; Wood, G.E.; Lindall, G.F.

    1981-01-01

    The 'evolute flash' a focusing effect caused by the curvature of a planet's limb, was sought in the radio data taken during the occulation of Voyager 1 by Jupiter, using a modified matched-filter technique. The expected frequency structure of the flash signal is double branched, while the intensity structure is highly localized in time. The search for the signal was carried out over a 6.4 s period. The signal parameters were varied to span the uncertainties introduced by imperfect knowledge of the orbit of the spacecraft and the shape of Jupiter. Several peaks at the 8 standard deviation level were present in the filter output. However, these peaks were separated in time by up to 3.3 s, and none could be identified as the flash. From this negative result a lower bound on the absorption along a ray with periapsis near the 4 bar level in Jupiter's atmosphere can be established at 25 dB. Employing the new Voyager results on the structure of the atmosphere of Jupiter and the mixing ratio of the absorbent ammonia, as well as the improved knowledge of flash characteristics resulting from this study, we estimate that the flash would have been detected if the distance behind the planet where the spacecraft trajectory crossed the evolute were at least 20 Jupiter radii, as compared with a value near 7 in the experiment. For focusing at this greater distance, the atmospheric pressure at the ray periapsis would be between 1.5 and 2 bar

  14. Desorption of deuterium from beryllium codeposits using flash heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, J.H., E-mail: jyu@ferp.ucsd.edu [Center for Energy Research, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0417 (United States); Baldwin, M.J.; Doerner, R.P. [Center for Energy Research, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0417 (United States); Pitts, R.A. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Smirnov, R.D. [Center for Energy Research, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0417 (United States); Xu, H.W. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States)

    2013-07-15

    As a result of safety concerns, limits will be placed on the allowable tritium inventory retained inside the ITER vacuum vessel. The primary motivation for the present work is to test the proposed method of removing tritium from main chamber codeposits using radiative heat flashing from controlled ITER plasma shutdowns. Detritiation of Be codeposits is studied in the PISCES-B facility using flash-heating by a 10 ms laser with up to 2 MJ/m{sup 2} of absorbed energy density. Three types of codeposits are flash-heated with layer thickness ranging from 0.1 to 1.2 μm. Less than 25% of the D in the Be layer escapes at ITER-relevant flash energy densities and with peak surface temperature up to ∼900 °C. Repetitive flashing with peak surface temperature of 400–500 °C results in an increased population of higher energy trap sites, implying that transient heating which causes appropriate surface temperature excursion redistributes D among codeposit trap sites.

  15. Environmental Effects on Data Retention in Flash Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Rich; Flowers, David; Bergevin, Keith

    2017-01-01

    Flash technology is being utilized in fuzed munition applications and, based on the development of digital logic devices in the commercial world, usage of flash technology will increase. Antifuse technology, prevalent in non-volatile field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), will eventually be phased out as new devices have not been developed for approximately a decade. The reliance on flash technology presents a long-term reliability issue for both DoD and NASA safety- and mission-critical applications. A thorough understanding of the data retention failure modes and statistics associated with Flash data retention is of vital concern to the fuze safety community. A key retention parameter for a flash cell is the threshold voltage (VTH), which is an indirect indicator of the amount of charge stored on the cells floating gate. This paper will present the results of our on-going tests: long-term storage at 150 C for a small population of devices, neutron radiation exposure, electrostatic discharge (ESD) testing, and the trends of large populations (over 300 devices for each condition) exposed to three difference temperatures: 25 C, 125 C, and 150 C.

  16. Flash photolysis of rhodopsin in the cat retina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ripps, H.; Mehaffey, L.; Siegel, I.M.; Ernst, W.; Kemp, C.M.

    1981-01-01

    The bleaching of rhodopsin by short-duration flashes of a xenon discharge lamp was studied in vivo in the cat retina with the aid of a rapid, spectral-scan fundus reflectometer. Difference spectra recorded over a broad range of intensities showed that the bleaching efficacy of high-intensity flashes was less than that of longer duration, steady lights delivering the same amount of energy. Both the empirical results and those derived from a theoretical analysis of flash photolysis indicate that, under the conditions of these experiments, the upper limit of the flash bleaching of rhodopsin in cat is approximately 90%. Although the fact that a full bleach could not be attained is attributable to photoreversal, i.e., the photic regeneration of rhodopsin from its light-sensitive intermediates, the 90% limit is considerably higher than the 50% (or lower) value obtained under other experimental circumstances. Thus, it appears that the duration (approximately 1 ms) and spectral composition of the flash, coupled with the kinetic parameters of the thermal and photic reactions in the cat retina, reduce the light-induced regeneration of rhodopsin to approximately 10%

  17. Multi-Level Bitmap Indexes for Flash Memory Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Kesheng; Madduri, Kamesh; Canon, Shane

    2010-07-23

    Due to their low access latency, high read speed, and power-efficient operation, flash memory storage devices are rapidly emerging as an attractive alternative to traditional magnetic storage devices. However, tests show that the most efficient indexing methods are not able to take advantage of the flash memory storage devices. In this paper, we present a set of multi-level bitmap indexes that can effectively take advantage of flash storage devices. These indexing methods use coarsely binned indexes to answer queries approximately, and then use finely binned indexes to refine the answers. Our new methods read significantly lower volumes of data at the expense of an increased disk access count, thus taking full advantage of the improved read speed and low access latency of flash devices. To demonstrate the advantage of these new indexes, we measure their performance on a number of storage systems using a standard data warehousing benchmark called the Set Query Benchmark. We observe that multi-level strategies on flash drives are up to 3 times faster than traditional indexing strategies on magnetic disk drives.

  18. Theoretical investigation of flash vaporisation in a screw expander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasuthevan, Hanushan; Brümmer, Andreas

    2017-08-01

    In the present study flash vaporisation of liquid injection in a twin screw expander for a Trilateral Flash Cycle (TFC) is examined theoretically. The TFC process comprises a pressure increase in the working fluid, followed by heating the liquid close to boiling point. The hot liquid is injected into the working chamber of a screw expander. During this process the pressure of the liquid drops below the saturation pressure, while the temperature of the liquid remains virtually constant. Hence the liquid is superheated and in a metastable state. The liquid jet seeks to achieve a stable state in thermodynamic equilibrium and is therefore partially vaporised. This effect is referred to as flash vaporisation. Accordingly, a two-phase mixture, consisting of vapour and liquid, exists in the working chamber. Thermodynamic simulations were carried out using water as the working fluid for representative screw expander geometry. The simulations presented are performed from two different aspects during the filling process of a screw expander. The first case is the vaporisation of the injected liquid in a state of thermodynamic equilibrium, whereby the two-phase mixture is treated entirely as a compressible and homogeneous gas. The second case considers flashing efficiency. It describes the quantity of flashed vapour and consists of a liquid and vapour domain. Both models are compared and analysed with respect to the operational behaviour of a screw expander.

  19. Public participation: Picking the players

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeill, L.; Jernigan, G.

    1995-01-01

    When citizens become involved in the public policy decision-making process, who picks the players? Are there any criteria for determining which members of the public should sit at the table? These are questions frequently asked by new participants and observers of the public involvement process. In the interest of trust and credibility, the process must be one of self-selection. Any exclusion on the part of the sponsoring organization would probably be interpreted by the public and the press as manipulative self-interest. Clearly, at times there are irrational people attending public meetings or submitting written comments. But if an organization begins excluding participants, the risk increases that the process will be perceived as a travesty

  20. Incidence of Stingers in Young Rugby Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Takayuki; Ota, Chihiro; Yoneda, Takeshi; Maki, Nobukazu; Urayama, Shingo; Nagao, Masashi; Nagayama, Masataka; Kaketa, Takefumi; Takazawa, Yuji; Kaneko, Kazuo

    2015-11-01

    A stinger is a type of neurapraxia of the cervical roots or brachial plexus and represents a reversible peripheral nerve injury. The incidence of and major risk factors for stingers among young rugby players remain uninvestigated. To investigate the incidence, symptoms, and intrinsic risk factors for stingers in elite rugby union teams of young players. Descriptive epidemiology study. A total of 569 male rugby players, including 358 players from 7 high school teams and 211 players from 2 university teams, were investigated using self-administered preseason and postseason questionnaires. The prevalence of a history of stingers was 33.9% (95% CI, 30.3-37.9), and 20.9% (119/569) of players experienced at least 1 episode of a stinger during the season (34.2 [95% CI, 26.2-42.1] events per 1000 player-hours of match exposure). The reinjury rate for stingers per season was 37.3% (95% CI, 30.4-44.2). Using the multivariate Poisson regression method, a history of stingers in the previous season and the grade and position of the player were found to be risk factors for stingers during the current season. The mean severity of injury was 2.9 days, with 79.3% (191/241) of the players not losing any time from playing after sustaining a stinger injury and 5.8% (14/241) of the players recovering within more than 14 days. The most frequent symptom was numbness in the unilateral upper extremity, and the most severe symptom was weakness of grasping (mean severity, 6 days). A logistic regression analysis indicated that a history of stingers in the previous season and an injury with more than 3 symptoms, especially motor weakness, were correlated with the severity of injury. Young rugby players with a history of stingers have a significantly high rate of repeat injuries. Although nearly 80% of the players experienced only minimal (0-1 day) time loss injuries, neurological deficits sometimes last beyond 1 month. A history of stingers was identified to be the strongest risk factor for

  1. Replacing HDDs with Solid-State Flash Disks in PXIbus-Based Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Z W; Zeng, L

    2006-01-01

    New security features, constantly decreasing prices, solid-state Flash disks are becoming a popular alternative for replacing failure-prone mechanical Hard Disk Drives (HDDs) in PXIbus-based military systems. The key component in high-capacity solid-state Flash disks is NAND Flash, but with a specification that shows only 100,000-300,000 write/erase cycles, engineers may be concerned that the lifetime of Flash disks cannot meet their application requirements. With the right Flash management, Flash disks are able to provide the reliability and endurance that military applications need

  2. Modeling midwave infrared muzzle flash spectra from unsuppressed and flash-suppressed large caliber munitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steward, Bryan J.; Perram, Glen P.; Gross, Kevin C.

    2012-07-01

    Time-resolved infrared spectra of firings from a 152 mm howitzer were acquired over an 1800-6000 cm-1 spectral range using a Fourier-transform spectrometer. The instrument collected primarily at 32 cm-1 spectral and 100 Hz temporal resolutions. Munitions included unsuppressed and chemically flash suppressed propellants. Secondary combustion occurred with unsuppressed propellants resulting in flash emissions lasting ˜100 ms and dominated by H2O and CO2 spectral structure. Non-combusting plume emissions were one-tenth as intense and approached background levels within 20-40 ms. A low-dimensional phenomenological model was used to reduce the data to temperatures, soot absorbances, and column densities of H2O, CO2, CH4, and CO. The combusting plumes exhibit peak temperatures of ˜1400 K, areas of greater than 32 m2, low soot emissivity of ˜0.04, with nearly all the CO converted to CO2. The non-combusting plumes exhibit lower temperatures of ˜1000 K, areas of ˜5 m2, soot emissivity of greater than 0.38 and CO as the primary product. Maximum fit residual relative to peak intensity are 14% and 8.9% for combusting and non-combusting plumes, respectively. The model was generalized to account for turbulence-induced variations in the muzzle plumes. Distributions of temperature and concentration in 1-2 spatial regions demonstrate a reduction in maximum residuals by 40%. A two-region model of combusting plumes provides a plausible interpretation as a ˜1550 K, optically thick plume core and ˜2550 K, thin, surface-layer flame-front. Temperature rate of change was used to characterize timescales and energy release for plume emissions. Heat of combustion was estimated to be ˜5 MJ/kg.

  3. Protective equipment use among female rugby players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comstock, R Dawn; Fields, Sarah K; Knox, Christy L

    2005-07-01

    Our objective was to assess the prevalence of protective equipment use and the motivation for using protective equipment among a sample of US female rugby players. We surveyed a convenience sample of 234 current US female rugby players from 14 teams participating in a US women's rugby tournament, obtaining self-reported demographic, rugby exposure, and protective equipment use information. Mouthguards were the most commonly used piece of protective equipment: 90.8% of players reported having always worn a mouthguard while playing or practicing rugby within their most recent 3 months of play. Fewer than 15% of players reported having always worn other types of protective equipment. Equipment use varied by playing position. Whereas over 80% of players in all other positions always wore a mouthguard, 66.7% of scrum halves reported always wearing one. Both backs and forwards reported wearing shoulder pads, but only forwards reported always wearing padded headgear. Mouthguards, padded headgear, and shoulder pads were worn "to prevent injury," whereas ankle braces, neoprene sleeves, and athletic tape on joints were worn "to protect a current/recent injury." This is the first study of female rugby players to assess the prevalence of protective equipment use by playing position and the motivation for using protective equipment. With the exception of mouthguards, US female rugby players infrequently use protective equipment. Protective equipment use varies by playing position. Some types of protective equipment appear to be used as primary prevention mechanisms, whereas others are used as secondary or tertiary prevention mechanisms.

  4. Musculoskeletal injuries among Malaysian badminton players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariff, A H; George, J; Ramlan, A A

    2009-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the pattern of musculoskeletal injuries sustained by Malaysian badminton players. This is a retrospective case notes review of all badminton players who attended the National Sports Institute (NSI) Clinic, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, and were diagnosed with musculoskeletal injuries. In a two and a half year period, from January 2005 to June 2007, 469 musculoskeletal injuries were diagnosed among badminton players at the NSI Clinic. The mean age of the players who attended the clinic was 19.2 (range 13-52) years. Approximately 60 percent of the injuries occurred in players younger than 20 years of age. The majority of injuries (91.5 percent) were categorised as mild overuse injury and mostly involved the knee. The majority of the injuries sustained by badminton players in this study were due to overuse, primarily in the knee. The majority of the injuries were diagnosed in younger players and occurred during training/practice sessions. There was no difference in terms of incidence and types of injuries between the genders.

  5. Flash Points of Secondary Alcohol and n-Alkane Mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esina, Zoya N; Miroshnikov, Alexander M; Korchuganova, Margarita R

    2015-11-19

    The flash point is one of the most important characteristics used to assess the ignition hazard of mixtures of flammable liquids. To determine the flash points of mixtures of secondary alcohols with n-alkanes, it is necessary to calculate the activity coefficients. In this paper, we use a model that allows us to obtain enthalpy of fusion and enthalpy of vaporization data of the pure components to calculate the liquid-solid equilibrium (LSE) and vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE). Enthalpy of fusion and enthalpy of vaporization data of secondary alcohols in the literature are limited; thus, the prediction of these characteristics was performed using the method of thermodynamic similarity. Additionally, the empirical models provided the critical temperatures and boiling temperatures of the secondary alcohols. The modeled melting enthalpy and enthalpy of vaporization as well as the calculated LSE and VLE flash points were determined for the secondary alcohol and n-alkane mixtures.

  6. Boiling water reactor stability revisited: The effects of flashing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadigaroglu, G. [Institute of Energy Technology, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, ETH, ETH-Zentrum, CLT-C1, CH-8092 Zurich (Switzerland)]. E-mail: yadi@ethz.ch; Askari, B. [Institute of Energy Technology, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, ETH, ETH-Zentrum, CLT-C1, CH-8092 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2005-05-01

    There are numerous investigations of two-phase flow stability with particular emphasis to BWR stability; these have become increasingly sophisticated and complete over the years. The basic features of a new development and frequency-domain code capable of considering all the channels (bundles) in a BWR, flashing of the coolant at low pressure, full coupling with 3D, two-group neutronics, etc. are described. The basic thermal-hydraulic model is used to study the effects of flashing on stability in a BWR-like channel. The behavior of the channel is highly dynamic. Contrary to what could have been intuitively guessed, the effect of flashing is stabilizing; the reasons and mechanisms leading to this are discussed.

  7. Boiling water reactor stability revisited: The effects of flashing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadigaroglu, G.; Askari, B.

    2005-01-01

    There are numerous investigations of two-phase flow stability with particular emphasis to BWR stability; these have become increasingly sophisticated and complete over the years. The basic features of a new development and frequency-domain code capable of considering all the channels (bundles) in a BWR, flashing of the coolant at low pressure, full coupling with 3D, two-group neutronics, etc. are described. The basic thermal-hydraulic model is used to study the effects of flashing on stability in a BWR-like channel. The behavior of the channel is highly dynamic. Contrary to what could have been intuitively guessed, the effect of flashing is stabilizing; the reasons and mechanisms leading to this are discussed

  8. Model of UV flashes due to gigantic blue jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milikh, G M; Shneider, M N

    2008-01-01

    Analysis of UV flashes observed by the UV detector on board the 'Tatiana' microsatellite suggests, based on their location, pulse width and energy of the source of the photons, that the flashes were generated by gigantic blue jets (GBJs). Presented in this paper is a numerical model of UV flashes due to a bunch of long streamers which form a leader, a prong such as that observed in a GBJ. Using a previously developed model of upward propagation of a long streamer in the exponential atmosphere the paper describes temporal evolution of the UV flux generated by a bunch of long streamers, in the given spectral range 300-400 nm used by the UV detector on board 'Tatiana'. The model is in agreement with the observations.

  9. Visualization on triangle concept using Adobe Flash Professional SC6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagita, Laela; Ratih Kusumarini, Adha

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop teaching aids using Adobe Flash Professional CS6 emphasize on Triangle concept. A new alternative way to deliver a basic concept in geometry with visualization is software Adobe Flash Professional CS 6. Research method is research and development with 5 phase of Ploom’s model, namely (1) preliminary, (2) design, (3) realization/ construction, (4) test, evaluation and revision, and 5) implementation. The results showed that teaching aids was valid, practice, and effective. Validity: expert judgement for material score is 3.95 and media expert judgement produce an average score of 3,2, both in the category are valid. Practically: the average of questionnaire response is 4,04 (good). Effectiveness: n-gain test value is 0,36 (medium). It concluded that developed of teaching aids using Adobe Flash CS6 on triangle can improve student achievement.

  10. Flash trajectory imaging of target 3D motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinwei; Zhou, Yan; Fan, Songtao; He, Jun; Liu, Yuliang

    2011-03-01

    We present a flash trajectory imaging technique which can directly obtain target trajectory and realize non-contact measurement of motion parameters by range-gated imaging and time delay integration. Range-gated imaging gives the range of targets and realizes silhouette detection which can directly extract targets from complex background and decrease the complexity of moving target image processing. Time delay integration increases information of one single frame of image so that one can directly gain the moving trajectory. In this paper, we have studied the algorithm about flash trajectory imaging and performed initial experiments which successfully obtained the trajectory of a falling badminton. Our research demonstrates that flash trajectory imaging is an effective approach to imaging target trajectory and can give motion parameters of moving targets.

  11. Flash Flood Type Identification within Catchments in Beijing Mountainous Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, W.

    2017-12-01

    Flash flood is a common type of disaster in mountainous area, Flash flood with the feature of large flow rate, strong flushing force, destructive power, has periodically caused loss to life and destruction to infrastructure in mountainous area. Beijing as China's political, economic and cultural center, the disaster prevention and control work in Beijing mountainous area has always been concerned widely. According to the transport mechanism, sediment concentration and density, the flash flood type identification within catchment can provide basis for making the hazards prevention and mitigation policy. Taking Beijing as the study area, this paper extracted parameters related to catchment morphological and topography features respectively. By using Bayes discriminant, Logistic regression and Random forest, the catchments in Beijing mountainous area were divided into water floods process, fluvial sediment transport process and debris flows process. The results found that Logistic regression analysis showed the highest accuracy, with the overall accuracy of 88.2%. Bayes discriminant and Random forest had poor prediction effects. This study confirmed the ability of morphological and topography features to identify flash flood process. The circularity ratio, elongation ratio and roughness index can be used to explain the flash flood types effectively, and the Melton ratio and elevation relief ratio also did a good job during the identification, whereas the drainage density seemed not to be an issue at this level of detail. Based on the analysis of spatial patterns of flash flood types, fluvial sediment transport process and debris flow process were the dominant hazards, while the pure water flood process was much less. The catchments dominated by fluvial sediment transport process were mainly distributed in the Yan Mountain region, where the fault belts were relatively dense. The debris flow process prone to occur in the Taihang Mountain region thanks to the abundant

  12. Towards Player-Driven Procedural Content Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Noor; Yannakakis, Georgios N.; Togelius, Julian

    2012-01-01

    Generating immersive game content is one of the ultimate goals for a game designer. This goal can be achieved by realizing the fact that players’ perception of the same game differ according to a number of factors including: players’ personality, playing styles, expertise and culture background....... While one player might find the game immersive, others may quit playing as a result of encountering a seemingly insoluble problem. One promising avenue towards optimizing the gameplay experience for individual game players is to tailor player experience in real-time via automatic game content generation......-driven content generation....

  13. Inception and development of voids in flashing liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, O.C. Jr.

    1979-06-01

    Recent work aimed at correctly describing nonequilibrium vapor generation rates in flashing liquids in decompressing flows similar to those which might be encountered in a loss of coolant accident in a nuclear reactor is summarized. Analysis is reviewed which describes the flashing inception superheat in terms of the turbulence intensity for a given expansion rate and initial temperature, and interfacial area density and interfacial heat flux, and the volumetric vapor generation rates. Comparisons with existing data are included and further experiments being undertaken are described, including typical recent results

  14. Fenomena Kerak Dalam Desalinasi Dengan Multi Stage Flash Distillation (Msf)

    OpenAIRE

    Alimah, Siti

    2006-01-01

    SCALING PHENOMENA IN DESALINATION WITH MULTI STAGE FLASH DISTILLATION (MSF). Assessment of scaling phenomena in MSF desalination has been carried out. Scale is one of predominantly problem in multi stage flash (MSF) desalination installation. The main types of scale in MSF are carbonat calcium (CaC03), hydroxide magnesium (Mg(OH)2) dan sulphate calcium (CaS04). CaC03 dan Mg(OH)2 scales result from the thermal decomposition of bicarbonate ion, however sulphate calcium scale result from reactio...

  15. [Contact shot from infantry weapons with a flash-suppressor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdekamp, Markus Grosse; Braunwarth, Roland; Schmidt, Ulrike; Schmidt, Wolfgang; Pollak, Stefan

    2003-01-01

    The number of reports on contact shots from firearms with a flash suppressor attached to the muzzle is small. On the basis of a case report (suicidal shot to the forehead with a Kalschnikow AKMS 47 assault rifle) the morphological peculiarities (characteristics soot pattern, relatively small powder cavity and only minor skin tears in the presence of a bony support) are presented and the conclusions to be drawn from the findings regarding the flash-suppressor, the shot distance, the angle of the shot and the way of holding the weapon are discussed.

  16. Effect of Soybeans on Hot Flashes in Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Mozaffari-khosravi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hot flashes are common and discomfortable signs of menopause that present with blazing sweatiness, sense of hotness, tachycardia and agitation. Hot flashes cause disturbances in daily activity and quality of night sleep. In spite of the effect of Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT on hot flashes, nowadays, there are diverse opinions about HRT and the reason is that it has chronic complications. In addition, the acceptance of HRT by Iranian women is very low. Study of numerous texts has shown that isofliavone present in soybean is a phytoestrogen that could be effective in control of hot flashes. The purpose of the study is to examine the changes in time periods of hot flashes in response to consumption of 74 mg Isoflavone/day present in 60 grams soybeans in menopausal women. Methods: This study was a clinical trial with before and after design that included 31 postmenopausal women. The participants were assessed with respect to daily hot flashes at baseline and after one, two and three months of intervention. Participants consumed daily 60 grams soybeans for 3 months. Blood samples were taken at the start and end of intervention for determining levels of gonadotropins and estradiol. Data was analyzed by SPSS software. Results: There was a decrease in time period of hot flashes from baseline of 5.88±2.61 to 3.45±1.82 after one month, 2.73±1.57 after two months and 2.16±1.48 after three months of consumption of soybeans (P<0.001. There was decrease in levels of FSH, LH & estradiol after 3 months, but this decrease was not significant, except in the case of estradiol. Conclusion: In line with various studies proposing the use of soybeans in the form of concentrate, drink or capsule, this study suggests that consumption of soybeans (60 gr daily as snacks may be a safe and effective method for controlling hot flashes in postmenopausal women..

  17. The Anthropometric Characteristics of Futsal Players Compared with Professional Soccer Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burdukiewicz Anna

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of the study was to compare the morphological characteristics of experienced futsal players with professional soccer players. Methods. The research sample included 22 university futsal players and 22 professional soccer players. Parameters including body height and mass, skinfold thicknesses of the trunk and extremities, lower limb length, trunk width, humerus and femur bone breadths, and the circumferences of the chest, hips, thighs, and calves were used to calculate various somatic indices. Somatotyping was performed using the Heath–carter method. Differences in the characteristics between the futsal and soccer players were analyzed using Student’s t test. Intragroup analysis was also performed on futsal players depending on player position and compared with the arithmetic means and standard deviations of all variables of the entire sample. Results. compared with their soccer-playing peers, the futsal players were shorter, weighed less, had shorter lower limbs, narrower hips, and smaller hip circumference and bone breadth values. In contrast, higher levels of body fat and endomorphy were noted in this group. The proportion of mesomorphs and ectomorphs were similar in both groups. Futsal goalkeepers were differentiated by greater subcutaneous adiposity and body mass. Defenders had the slimmest body shape, with relatively narrower shoulders and hips, smaller bone breadths, and lower levels of adiposity. The body build of wingers was slightly larger. Pivoters were characterized by greater body height and larger values for the characteristics measuring the lateral trunk dimensions. Conclusions. The observed morphological differences between futsal and soccer players were mainly in body height and height-associated characteristics. This indicates that no specialized approach in futsal recruitment is currently used. This points to the need to develop a specialized approach in the player recruitment stage, as the tactical and

  18. Menstrual cycle disorders in female volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wodarska, M; Witkoś, J; Drosdzol-Cop, A; Dąbrowska, J; Dąbrowska-Galas, M; Hartman, M; Plinta, R; Skrzypulec-Plinta, V

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relation between increased physical activity and menstrual disorders in adolescent female volleyball players. The study was conducted on 210 Polish female volleyball players, aged 13-17 years, the authorship questionnaire was used. The results of the study showed that irregular menstruation occurred in 19% of girls, spotting between menstrual periods in 27% and heavy menstruation was reported in 33% of girls. Out of all volleyball female players participating in the study, 94 girls (45%) declared absence of menstrual periods after regular cycles. Statistical analysis showed that the more training hours per week, the bigger probability of the occurrence of irregular menstruation. It was concluded that the number of hours of volleyball training per week affects regularity of menstrual cycles in female volleyball players. The absence of menstruation might be caused by the duration of training per week or years of training.

  19. Are squash players protecting their eyes?

    OpenAIRE

    Eime, R; Finch, C; Sherman, C; Garnham, A

    2002-01-01

    Methods: A survey of 303 players (aged ≥18 years) was conducted at three squash venues in Melbourne, Australia over a three week period in June 2000 to obtain information about protective eyewear use.

  20. High School Football Players Use Their Helmets to Tackle Other Players Despite Knowing the Risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriyama, Andrew M; Nakatsuka, Austin S; Yamamoto, Loren G

    2017-03-01

    There is greater attention to head-related injuries and concussions in American football. The helmet's structural safety and the way that football players use their helmets are important in preventing head injuries. Current strategies include penalizing players for high-risk behavior such as leading with their helmet or hitting an opposing player above the shoulder. Passive strategies include helmet modification to better protect the head of the players or to change the playing style of the players. Hawai'i high school varsity football players were surveyed to determine how they use their helmets and how a new helmet design would affect their style of play. One hundred seventy-seven surveys were completed; 79% said that they used their helmet to hit an opposing player during a tackle and 46% said they made this contact intentionally. When asked about modifying helmets with a soft material on the outside, 48% said they thought putting a soft cover over a regular helmet would protect their head better. However, many participants said that putting a soft cover over their regular helmet was a bad idea for various reasons. Most young football players use their helmets to block or tackle despite being taught they would be penalized or potentially injured if they did so. By gaining a better understanding of why and how players use their helmets and how they would respond to new helmet designs, steps can be taken to reduce head injuries for all levels of play.

  1. Technical player profiles related to the physical fitness of young female volleyball players predict team performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dávila-Romero, C; Hernández-Mocholí, M A; García-Hermoso, A

    2015-03-01

    This study is divided into three sequential stages: identification of fitness and game performance profiles (individual player performance), an assessment of the relationship between these profiles, and an assessment of the relationship between individual player profiles and team performance during play (in championship performance). The overall study sample comprised 525 (19 teams) female volleyball players aged 12-16 years and a subsample (N.=43) used to examine study aims one and two was selected from overall sample. Anthropometric, fitness and individual player performance (actual game) data were collected in the subsample. These data were analyzed through clustering methods, ANOVA and independence chi-square test. Then, we investigated whether the proportion of players with the highest individual player performance profile might predict a team's results in the championship. Cluster analysis identified three volleyball fitness profiles (high, medium, and low) and two individual player performance profiles (high and low). The results showed a relationship between both types of profile (fitness and individual player performance). Then, linear regression revealed a moderate relationship between the number of players with a high volleyball fitness profile and a team's results in the championship (R2=0.23). The current study findings may enable coaches and trainers to manage training programs more efficiently in order to obtain tailor-made training, identify volleyball-specific physical fitness training requirements and reach better results during competitions.

  2. Shoulder instability in professional football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclere, Lance E; Asnis, Peter D; Griffith, Matthew H; Granito, David; Berkson, Eric M; Gill, Thomas J

    2013-09-01

    Shoulder instability is a common problem in American football players entering the National Football League (NFL). Treatment options include nonoperative and surgical stabilization. This study evaluated how the method of treatment of pre-NFL shoulder instability affects the rate of recurrence and the time elapsed until recurrence in players on 1 NFL team. Retrospective cohort. Medical records from 1980 to 2008 for 1 NFL team were reviewed. There were 328 players included in the study who started their career on the team and remained on the team for at least 2 years (mean, 3.9 years; range, 2-14 years). The history of instability prior to entering the NFL and the method of treatment were collected. Data on the occurrence of instability while in the NFL were recorded to determine the rate and timing of recurrence. Thirty-one players (9.5%) had a history of instability prior to entering the NFL. Of the 297 players with no history of instability, 39 (13.1%) had a primary event at a mean of 18.4 ± 22.2 months (range, 0-102 months) after joining the team. In the group of players with prior instability treated with surgical stabilization, there was no statistical difference in the rate of recurrence (10.5%) or the timing to the instability episode (mean, 26 months) compared with players with no history of instability. Twelve players had shoulder instability treated nonoperatively prior to the NFL. Five of these players (41.7%) had recurrent instability at a mean of 4.4 ± 7.0 months (range, 0-16 months). The patients treated nonoperatively had a significantly higher rate of recurrence (P = 0.02) and an earlier time of recurrence (P = 0.04). The rate of contralateral instability was 25.8%, occurring at a mean of 8.6 months. Recurrent shoulder instability is more common in NFL players with a history of nonoperative treatment. Surgical stabilization appears to restore the rate and timing of instability to that of players with no prior history of instability.

  3. Flash flood disasters analysis and evaluation: a case study of Yiyang County in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haichen; Zhang, Xiaolei; Li, Qing; Qin, Tao; Lei, Xiaohui

    2018-03-01

    Global climate change leads to the more extreme precipitation and more flash flood disasters, which is a serious threat to the mountain inhabitants. To prevent flash flood disasters, China started flash flood disaster control planning and other projects from 2006. Among those measures, non-engineering measures are effective and economical. This paper introduced the framework of flash flood disaster analysis and evaluation in China, followed by a case study of Yiyang County.

  4. Understanding gaming floor influences on player behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Griffiths, MD

    2009-01-01

    Efforts to entice and retain player activity within a casino gaming environment require bringing to bear a range of sensory and physical influences. The challenge is to accomplish the operators’ objectives while at the same time ensuring any potential negative effects on the player are minimised. How casinos keep this in balance is at the heart of how the gaming floor works, and assessing such matters is becoming a necessary part of social responsibility.

  5. Decomposition of Multi-player Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dengji; Schiffel, Stephan; Thielscher, Michael

    Research in General Game Playing aims at building systems that learn to play unknown games without human intervention. We contribute to this endeavour by generalising the established technique of decomposition from AI Planning to multi-player games. To this end, we present a method for the automatic decomposition of previously unknown games into independent subgames, and we show how a general game player can exploit a successful decomposition for game tree search.

  6. Brain damage in former association football players

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sortland, O.; Tysvaer, A.T.

    1989-01-01

    Thirty-three former football players from the National Football Team of Norway were examined by cerebral computer tomography (CT). The CT studies, evaluated for brain atrophy, visually and by linear measurements compared two different normal materials. One third of the players were found to have central cerebral atrophy. It is concluded that the atrophy probably was caused by repeated small head injuries during the football play, mainly in connection with heading the ball. (orig.)

  7. Clustering Professional Basketball Players by Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Riki

    2017-01-01

    Basketball players are traditionally grouped into five distinct positions, but these designationsare quickly becoming outdated. We attempt to reclassify players into new groupsbased on personal performance in the 2016-2017 NBA regular season. Two dimensionalityreduction techniques, t-Distributed Stochastic Neighbor Embedding (t-SNE) and principalcomponent analysis (PCA), were employed to reduce 18 classic metrics down to two dimensionsfor visualization. k-means clustering discovered four grou...

  8. Bridging Media with the Help of Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitsche, Michael; Drake, Matthew; Murray, Janet

    We suggest harvesting the power of multiplayer design to bridge content across different media platforms and develop player-driven cross-media experiences. This paper first argues to partially replace complex AI systems with multiplayer design strategies to provide the necessary level of flexibility in the content generation for cross-media applications. The second part describes one example project - the Next Generation Play (NGP) project - that illustrates one practical approach of such a player-driven cross-media content generation. NGP allows players to collect virtual items while watching a TV show. These items are re-used in a multiplayer casual game that automatically generates new game worlds based on the various collections of active players joining a game session. While the TV experience is designed for the single big screen, the game executes on multiple mobile phones. Design and technical implementation of the prototype are explained in more detail to clarify how players carry elements of television narratives into a non-linear handheld gaming experience. The system describes a practical way to create casual game adaptations based on players' personal preferences in a multi-user environment.

  9. The audiological health of horn players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Wayne J; O'Brien, Ian; Bradley, Andrew P

    2013-01-01

    Among orchestral musicians, horn players are one of the most at-risk groups for noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). To investigate this group further, pure tone audiometry and a 14-item questionnaire were used to assess the hearing health, as well as attitudes and practices regarding hearing conservation, among 142 French horn players attending an international horn conference in Brisbane, Australia. Of this study's French horn players, 11.1% to 22.2%, and 17.7% to 32.9% of those aged ≤40 years, showed some form of hearing loss (corrected for age and gender) typical of NIHL, using conservative versus lenient criteria, respectively. Stepwise multiple regression analyses showed no obvious predictor of hearing loss in this study's participants. Of the 18% of participants who reported using hearing protection, 81% used this protection "sometimes" and 50% used generic, foam, or other inferior forms of protection. Continued efforts to better manage the hearing health of horn players is warranted particularly as any hearing loss will affect a horn player's ability to perform and therefore his or her livelihood. Managing the hearing health of horn players will be challenging, however, with no simple predictor of NIHL loss being identified in this study's sample.

  10. Player Skill Decomposition in Multiplayer Online Battle Arenas

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Zhengxing; Sun, Yizhou; El-nasr, Magy Seif; Nguyen, Truong-Huy D.

    2017-01-01

    Successful analysis of player skills in video games has important impacts on the process of enhancing player experience without undermining their continuous skill development. Moreover, player skill analysis becomes more intriguing in team-based video games because such form of study can help discover useful factors in effective team formation. In this paper, we consider the problem of skill decomposition in MOBA (MultiPlayer Online Battle Arena) games, with the goal to understand what player...

  11. 49 CFR 234.253 - Flashing light units and lamp voltage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flashing light units and lamp voltage. 234.253... Maintenance, Inspection, and Testing Inspections and Tests § 234.253 Flashing light units and lamp voltage. (a... voltage shall be tested when installed and at least once every 12 months thereafter. (c) Each flashing...

  12. Flash floods warning technique based on wireless communication networks data

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Noam; Alpert, Pinhas; Messer, Hagit

    2010-05-01

    Flash floods can occur throughout or subsequent to rainfall events, particularly in cases where the precipitation is of high-intensity. Unfortunately, each year these floods cause severe property damage and heavy casualties. At present, there are no sufficient real time flash flood warning facilities found to cope with this phenomenon. Here we show the tremendous potential of flash floods advanced warning based on precipitation measurements of commercial microwave links. As was recently shown, wireless communication networks supply high resolution precipitation measurements at ground level while often being situated in flood prone areas, covering large parts of these hazardous regions. We present the flash flood warning potential of the wireless communication system for two different cases when floods occurred at the Judean desert and at the northern Negev in Israel. In both cases, an advanced warning regarding the hazard could have been announced based on this system. • This research was supported by THE ISRAEL SCIENCE FOUNDATION (grant No. 173/08). This work was also supported by a grant from the Yeshaya Horowitz Association, Jerusalem. Additional support was given by the PROCEMA-BMBF project and by the GLOWA-JR BMBF project.

  13. Delays due to gas diffusion in flash boiling nucleation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanbury, W.T.; McCartney, W.S.

    1976-01-01

    A theoretical model to account for the time delay between decompression and nucleation in flash boiling is presented and analyzed. It shows that gas diffusion can be responsible for delayed nucleation when the critical radius for nucleation and the suspended particle size are of the same order of magnitude

  14. Hot Flashes and Quality of Life among Breast Cancer Patients

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jacobs, Linda A

    2005-01-01

    ... (CAM) interventions used by them. Women are assessed for hot flash intensity/frequency, use of medical and CAM interventions, emotional distress, physical and social functioning, and QoL at diagnosis and at 6, 9, 12, 15, and 18 months...

  15. RAND-Based Formulations for Isothermal Multiphase Flash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paterson, Duncan; Michelsen, Michael L.; Stenby, Erling H.

    2018-01-01

    Two algorithms are proposed for isothermal multiphase flash. These are referred to as modified RAND and vol-RAND. The former uses the chemical potentials and molar-phase amounts as the iteration variables, while the latter uses chemical potentials and phase volumes to cosolve a pressure...

  16. Reduced order modeling of flashing two-phase jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurecky, William, E-mail: william.gurecky@utexas.edu; Schneider, Erich, E-mail: eschneider@mail.utexas.edu; Ballew, Davis, E-mail: davisballew@utexas.edu

    2015-12-01

    Highlights: • Accident simulation requires ability to quickly predict two-phase flashing jet's damage potential. • A reduced order modeling methodology informed by experimental or computational data is described. • Zone of influence volumes are calculated for jets of various upstream thermodynamic conditions. - Abstract: In the event of a Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) in a pressurized water reactor, the escaping coolant produces a highly energetic flashing jet with the potential to damage surrounding structures. In LOCA analysis, the goal is often to evaluate many break scenarios in a Monte Carlo style simulation to evaluate the resilience of a reactor design. Therefore, in order to quickly predict the damage potential of flashing jets, it is of interest to develop a reduced order model that relates the damage potential of a jet to the pressure and temperature upstream of the break and the distance from the break to a given object upon which the jet is impinging. This work presents framework for producing a Reduced Order Model (ROM) that may be informed by measured data, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations, or a combination of both. The model is constructed by performing regression analysis on the pressure field data, allowing the impingement pressure to be quickly reconstructed for any given upstream thermodynamic condition within the range of input data. The model is applicable to both free and fully impinging two-phase flashing jets.

  17. Bio-oil from Flash Pyrolysis of Agricultural Residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, Norazana

    This thesis describes the production of bio-oils from flash pyrolysis of agricultural residues, using a pyrolysis centrifugal reactor (PCR). By thermal degradation of agricultural residues in the PCR, a liquid oil, char and non-condensable gases are produced. The yield of each fraction...

  18. Flash chemistry: flow chemistry that cannot be done in batch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Jun-ichi; Takahashi, Yusuke; Nagaki, Aiichiro

    2013-11-04

    Flash chemistry based on high-resolution reaction time control using flow microreactors enables chemical reactions that cannot be done in batch and serves as a powerful tool for laboratory synthesis of organic compounds and for production in chemical and pharmaceutical industries.

  19. Implementation of Power Efficient Flash Analogue-to-Digital Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taninki Sai Lakshmi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An efficient low power high speed 5-bit 5-GS/s flash analogue-to-digital converter (ADC is proposed in this paper. The designing of a thermometer code to binary code is one of the exacting issues of low power flash ADC. The embodiment consists of two main blocks, a comparator and a digital encoder. To reduce the metastability and the effect of bubble errors, the thermometer code is converted into the gray code and there after translated to binary code through encoder. The proposed encoder is thus implemented by using differential cascade voltage switch logic (DCVSL to maintain high speed and low power dissipation. The proposed 5-bit flash ADC is designed using Cadence 180 nm CMOS technology with a supply rail voltage typically ±0.85 V. The simulation results include a total power dissipation of 46.69 mW, integral nonlinearity (INL value of −0.30 LSB and differential nonlinearity (DNL value of −0.24 LSB, of the flash ADC.

  20. Update on The Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory (UFFO) Pathfinder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grossan, B.; Brandt, Søren; Budtz-Jørgensen, Carl

    2011-01-01

    The Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory (UFFO) uses an X/gamma and an optical/UV instrument to observe gamma-ray bursts (GRB) starting milliseconds after burst trigger and location. The X/gamma instrument, a standard coded-mask camera, locates the GRB and triggers the system. The optical/UV instrument, ...

  1. The Status of the Ultra Fast Flash Observatory - Pathfinder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nam, J. W.; Ahmad, S.; Ahn, K. B.

    2014-01-01

    The Ultra Fast Flash Observatory (UFFO) is a project to study early optical emissions from Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs). The primary scientific goal of UFFO is to see if GRBs can be calibrated with their rising times, so that they could be used as new standard candles. In order to minimize delay in op...

  2. Continuous Flash Suppression: Stimulus Fractionation rather than Integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moors, Pieter; Hesselmann, Guido; Wagemans, Johan; van Ee, Raymond

    2017-10-01

    Recent studies using continuous flash suppression suggest that invisible stimuli are processed as integrated, semantic entities. We challenge the viability of this account, given recent findings on the neural basis of interocular suppression and replication failures of high-profile CFS studies. We conclude that CFS reveals stimulus fractionation in visual cortex. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Flash release an alternative for releasing complex MEMS devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deladi, S.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    2004-01-01

    A novel time-saving and cost-effective release technique has been developed and is described. The physical nature of the process is explained in combination with experimental observations. The results of the flash release process are compared with those of freeze-drying and supercritical CO2

  4. High-frequency Trading, Algorithmic Finance, and the Flash Crash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The Flash Crash of 6 May 2010 has an interesting status in discussions of high-frequency trading, i.e. fully automated, superfast computerized trading: it is invoked both as an important illustration of how this field of algorithmic trading operates and, more often, as an example of how fully aut...... about resonance in quantitative finance....

  5. Recovery of Flash Memories for Reliable Mobile Storages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daesung Moon

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available As the mobile appliance is applied to many ubiquitous services and the importance of the information stored in it is increased, the security issue to protect the information becomes one of the major concerns. However, most previous researches focused only on the communication security, not the storage security. Especially, a flash memory whose operational characteristics are different from those of HDD is used increasingly as a storage device for the mobile appliance because of its resistance to physical shock and lower power requirement. In this paper, we propose a flash memory management scheme targeted for guaranteeing the data integrity of the mobile storage. By maintaining the old data specified during the recovery window, we can recover the old data when the mobile appliance is attacked. Also, to reduce the storage requirement for the recovery, we restrict the number of versions to be copied, called Degree of Integrity (DoI. Especially, we consider both the reclaim efficiency and the wear leveling which is a unique characteristic of the flash memory. Based on the performance evaluation, we confirm that the proposed scheme can be acceptable to many applications as a flash memory management scheme for improving data integrity.

  6. Collecting response times using Amazon Mechanical Turk and Adobe Flash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simcox, Travis; Fiez, Julie A

    2014-03-01

    Crowdsourcing systems like Amazon's Mechanical Turk (AMT) allow data to be collected from a large sample of people in a short amount of time. This use has garnered considerable interest from behavioral scientists. So far, most experiments conducted on AMT have focused on survey-type instruments because of difficulties inherent in running many experimental paradigms over the Internet. This study investigated the viability of presenting stimuli and collecting response times using Adobe Flash to run ActionScript 3 code in conjunction with AMT. First, the timing properties of Adobe Flash were investigated using a phototransistor and two desktop computers running under several conditions mimicking those that may be present in research using AMT. This experiment revealed some strengths and weaknesses of the timing capabilities of this method. Next, a flanker task and a lexical decision task implemented in Adobe Flash were administered to participants recruited with AMT. The expected effects in these tasks were replicated. Power analyses were conducted to describe the number of participants needed to replicate these effects. A questionnaire was used to investigate previously undescribed computer use habits of 100 participants on AMT. We conclude that a Flash program in conjunction with AMT can be successfully used for running many experimental paradigms that rely on response times, although experimenters must understand the limitations of the method.

  7. Visual reinforcement audiometry: an Adobe Flash based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atherton, Steve

    2010-09-01

    Visual Reinforcement Audiometry (VRA) is a key behavioural test for young children. It is central to the diagnosis of hearing-impaired infants (1) . Habituation to the visual reinforcement can give misleading results. Medical Illustration ABM University Health Board has designed a collection of Flash animations to overcome this.

  8. Machine protection for FLASH and the European XFEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froehlich, Lars

    2009-05-15

    The Free-Electron Laser in Hamburg (FLASH) and the future European X-Ray Free-Electron Laser (XFEL) are sources of brilliant extremeultraviolet and X-ray radiation pulses. Both facilities are based on superconducting linear accelerators (linacs) that can produce and transport electron beams of high average power. With up to 90 kW or up to 600 kW of power, respectively, these beams hold a serious potential to damage accelerator components. This thesis discusses several passive and active machine protection measures needed to ensure safe operation. At FLASH, dark current from the rf gun electron source has activated several accelerator components to unacceptable radiation levels. Its transport through the linac is investigated with detailed tracking simulations using a parallelized and enhanced version of the tracking code Astra; possible remedies are evaluated. Beam losses can lead to the demagnetization of permanent magnet insertion devices. A number of beam loss scenarios typical for FLASH are investigated with shower simulations. A shielding setup is designed and its efficiency is evaluated. For the design parameters of FLASH, it is concluded that the average relative beam loss in the undulators must be controlled to a level of about 10{sup -8}. FLASH is equipped with an active machine protection system (MPS) comprising more than 80 photomultiplier-based beam loss monitors and several subsystems. The maximum response time to beam losses is less than 4 {mu}s. Setup procedures and calibration algorithms for MPS subsystems and components are introduced and operational problems are addressed. Finally, an architecture for a fully programmable machine protection system for the XFEL is presented. Several options for the topology of this system are reviewed, with the result that an availability goal of at least 0.999 for the MPS is achievable with moderate hardware requirements. (orig.)

  9. Machine protection for FLASH and the European XFEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froehlich, Lars

    2009-05-01

    The Free-Electron Laser in Hamburg (FLASH) and the future European X-Ray Free-Electron Laser (XFEL) are sources of brilliant extremeultraviolet and X-ray radiation pulses. Both facilities are based on superconducting linear accelerators (linacs) that can produce and transport electron beams of high average power. With up to 90 kW or up to 600 kW of power, respectively, these beams hold a serious potential to damage accelerator components. This thesis discusses several passive and active machine protection measures needed to ensure safe operation. At FLASH, dark current from the rf gun electron source has activated several accelerator components to unacceptable radiation levels. Its transport through the linac is investigated with detailed tracking simulations using a parallelized and enhanced version of the tracking code Astra; possible remedies are evaluated. Beam losses can lead to the demagnetization of permanent magnet insertion devices. A number of beam loss scenarios typical for FLASH are investigated with shower simulations. A shielding setup is designed and its efficiency is evaluated. For the design parameters of FLASH, it is concluded that the average relative beam loss in the undulators must be controlled to a level of about 10 -8 . FLASH is equipped with an active machine protection system (MPS) comprising more than 80 photomultiplier-based beam loss monitors and several subsystems. The maximum response time to beam losses is less than 4 μs. Setup procedures and calibration algorithms for MPS subsystems and components are introduced and operational problems are addressed. Finally, an architecture for a fully programmable machine protection system for the XFEL is presented. Several options for the topology of this system are reviewed, with the result that an availability goal of at least 0.999 for the MPS is achievable with moderate hardware requirements. (orig.)

  10. Flashing liquid jets and two-phase droplet dispersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleary, Vincent; Bowen, Phil; Witlox, Henk

    2007-01-01

    The large-scale release of a liquid contained at upstream conditions above its local atmospheric boiling point is a scenario often given consideration in process industry risk analysis. Current-hazard quantification software often employs simplistic equilibrium two-phase approaches. Scaled water experiments have been carried out measuring droplet velocity and droplet size distributions for a range of exit orifice aspect ratios (L/d) and conditions representing low to high superheat. 2D Phase-Doppler Anemometry has been utilised to characterise droplet kinematics and spray quality. Droplet size correlations have been developed for non-flashing, the transition between non-flashing and flashing, and fully flashing jets. Using high-speed shadowography, transition between regimes is defined in terms of criteria identified in the external flow structure. An overview companion paper provides a wider overview of the problem and reports implementation of these correlations into consequence models and subsequent validation. The fluid utilised throughout is water, hence droplet correlations are developed in non-dimensional form to allow extrapolation to other fluids through similarity scaling, although verification of model performance for other fluids is required in future studies. Data is reduced via non-dimensionalisation in terms of the Weber number and Jakob number, essentially representing the fluid mechanics and thermodynamics of the system, respectively. A droplet-size distribution correlation has also been developed, conveniently presented as a volume undersize distribution based on the Rosin-Rammler distribution. Separate correlations are provided for sub-cooled mechanical break-up and fully flashing jets. This form of correlation facilitates rapid estimates of likely mass rainout quantities, as well as full distribution information for more rigorous two-phase thermodynamic modelling in the future

  11. On the chlorophill a fluorescence yield in chloroplasts upon excitation with twin turnover flashes (TTF) and high frequency flash trains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vredenberg, W.J.; Prasil, O.; Durchan, M.

    2007-01-01

    Chlorophyll fluorescence is routinely taken as a quantifiable measure of the redox state of the primary quinone acceptor QA of PSII. The variable fluorescence in thylakoids increases in a single turnover flash (STF) from its low dark level F o towards a maximum F mSTF when QA becomes reduced. We

  12. Menopausal Hot Flashes and Carotid Intima Media Thickness Among Midlife Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurston, Rebecca C; Chang, Yuefang; Barinas-Mitchell, Emma; Jennings, J Richard; Landsittel, Doug P; Santoro, Nanette; von Känel, Roland; Matthews, Karen A

    2016-12-01

    There has been a longstanding interest in the role of menopause and its correlates in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in women. Menopausal hot flashes are experienced by most midlife women; emerging data link hot flashes to CVD risk indicators. We tested whether hot flashes, measured via state-of-the-art physiologic methods, were associated with greater subclinical atherosclerosis as assessed by carotid ultrasound. We considered the role of CVD risk factors and estradiol concentrations in these associations. A total of 295 nonsmoking women free of clinical CVD underwent ambulatory physiologic hot flash assessments; a blood draw; and carotid ultrasound measurement of intima media thickness and plaque. Associations between hot flashes and subclinical atherosclerosis were tested in regression models controlling for CVD risk factors and estradiol. More frequent physiologic hot flashes were associated with higher carotid intima media thickness (for each additional hot flash: β [SE]=0.004 [0.001]; P=0.0001; reported hot flash: β [SE]=0.008 [0.002]; P=0.002, multivariable) and plaque (eg, for each additional hot flash, odds ratio [95% confidence interval] plaque index ≥2=1.07 [1.003-1.14]; P=0.04, relative to no plaque, multivariable] among women reporting daily hot flashes; associations were not accounted for by CVD risk factors or by estradiol. Among women reporting hot flashes, hot flashes accounted for more variance in intima media thickness than most CVD risk factors. Among women reporting daily hot flashes, frequent hot flashes may provide information about a woman's vascular status beyond standard CVD risk factors and estradiol. Frequent hot flashes may mark a vulnerable vascular phenotype among midlife women. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. Spatial-temporal characteristics of lightning flash size in a supercell storm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhixiao; Zheng, Dong; Zhang, Yijun; Lu, Gaopeng

    2017-11-01

    The flash sizes of a supercell storm, in New Mexico on October 5, 2004, are studied using the observations from the New Mexico Lightning Mapping Array and the Albuquerque, New Mexico, Doppler radar (KABX). First, during the temporal evolution of the supercell, the mean flash size is anti-correlated with the flash rate, following a unary power function, with a correlation coefficient of - 0.87. In addition, the mean flash size is linearly correlated with the area of reflectivity > 30 dBZ at 5 km normalized by the flash rate, with a correlation coefficient of 0.88. Second, in the horizontal, flash size increases along the direction from the region near the convection zone to the adjacent forward anvil. The region of minimum flash size usually corresponds to the region of maximum flash initiation and extent density. The horizontal correspondence between the mean flash size and the flash extent density can also be fitted by a unary power function, and the correlation coefficient is > 0.5 in 50% of the radar volume scans. Furthermore, the quality of fit is positively correlated to the convective intensity. Third, in the vertical direction, the height of the maximum flash initiation density is close to the height of maximum flash extent density, but corresponds to the height where the mean flash size is relatively small. In the discussion, the distribution of the small and dense charge regions when and where convection is vigorous in the storm, is deduced to be responsible for the relationship that flash size is temporally and spatially anti-correlated with flash rate and density, and the convective intensity.

  14. Rules of engagement : influence of co-player presence on player involvement in digital games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gajadhar, B.J.; Kort, de Y.A.W.; IJsselsteijn, W.A.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents an empirical study of social setting as a determinant of player involvement in competitive play. We conceptualize player experience as comprising of components of involvement and enjoyment. Involvement relates to the attentional pull of games encompassing feelings of immersion,

  15. Prospective Player-Reported Injuries in Female Youth Fast-Pitch Softball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Matthew V; Davis, Randi; Brophy, Robert H; Prather, Heidi; Garbutt, Jane; Wright, Rick W

    2015-01-01

    There is a scarcity of literature evaluating injuries in youth fast-pitch softball players. To perform a descriptive analysis of player-reported injuries in youth fast-pitch softball position players and pitchers during a single select-level season. Prospective observation cohort study. Level 3. Ninety-eight athletes (48 pitchers, 50 position players) were followed for a single select fast-pitch softball season. Study participants completed web-based surveys every 3 weeks reporting injuries related to participation in fast-pitch softball. Injury was defined as pain causing cessation of participation in the current game or practice that prevents the player's return to that session or any pain that causes cessation of a player's customary participation on the day after the day of onset. The median age of the study participants was 14 years (range, 9-18 years). There were 49 reported injuries in 98 athletes. The average age was 13 years for those not injured and 14 years for those who were injured (P softball players. Better off-season and preseason conditioning may be a key factor for reducing pitching injuries. Recognition of injury patterns in fast-pitch softball players is critical to developing strategies to keep these athletes competing safely. © 2015 The Author(s).

  16. Sports injuries in Plus League volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieśla, E; Dutkiewicz, R; Mgłosiek, M; Nowak-Starz, G; Markowska, M; Jasiński, P; Dudek, J

    2015-06-01

    Although physical activity brings a range of lifelong health benefits, it may also lead to injuries that pose a significant threat to health. It is particularly noticeable in people involved in professional sports where sport-related injuries commonly occur and are associated with intense exercise which aims to improve physical fitness. The article attempts to determine incidence of sports injuries reported by Plus League volleyball players, as well as to identify their most common types and causes. The research project involved 90 Plus League volleyball players aged 18-37 with the average age of 25.11 (SD±5.378). A method of diagnostic survey was applied to collect empirical data by means of questionnaire developed by the authors (researchers). The results were statistically analysed and verified with the analysis of variance (ANOVA) and χ2 test at the significance level (or critical P-value) of P≤0.05. Over 87% of the respondents suffered from at least one sport-related injury. In total, 362 injuries occurred, on average 4.02 injuries per one volleyball player. The most common sports injuries involved ankle or talocrural joint (46 injuries), knee and lower leg muscles (30), interphalangeal articulations of fingers (30) as well as shoulder joint. More than half of the injuries (57%) occurred twice or three times. Volleyball players commonly sustain injuries through contact with an opposing player in competition. Sport-specific injuries may also occur due to exhaustion, lack of rest and undertreated injuries. The most common volleyball-related injuries are primarily talocrural joint, hand and shoulder injuries. Common types of injuries that can affect volleyball players include muscles, joints and ligaments injuries, sprains and strains as well as bruises. Most of these injuries are caused by exhaustion, contact with an opposing player during competition and fatigue. The incidence of sport-related injuries seems to be influenced by such factors as somatic

  17. An unusual characteristic “flower-like” pattern: flash suppressor burns

    OpenAIRE

    Gurcan, Altun

    2012-01-01

    The case on contact shots from firearms with a flash suppressor is rare. When a rifle fitted with a flash suppressor is fired, the emerging soot-laden gas in the barrel escapes from the slits of the flash suppressor. If the shot is contact or near contact, the flash suppressor will produce a characteristic “flower-like” pattern of seared, blackened zones around the entrance. This paper presents the injury pattern of the flash suppressor in a 29-year-old man who committed suicide with a G3 aut...

  18. An unusual characteristic “flower-like” pattern: flash suppressor burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurcan, Altun

    2012-01-01

    The case on contact shots from firearms with a flash suppressor is rare. When a rifle fitted with a flash suppressor is fired, the emerging soot-laden gas in the barrel escapes from the slits of the flash suppressor. If the shot is contact or near contact, the flash suppressor will produce a characteristic “flower-like” pattern of seared, blackened zones around the entrance. This paper presents the injury pattern of the flash suppressor in a 29-year-old man who committed suicide with a G3 automatic infantry rifle. PMID:23935280

  19. Professional Flash Mobile Development Creating Android and iPhone Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Wagner, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Professional Flash Mobile Development: Creating Android and iPhone ApplicationsEverything Flash developers need to know to create native Android and iPhone appsThis Wrox guide shows Flash developers how to create native applications for Android and iPhone mobile devices using Flash. Packed with practical examples, it shows how to build a variety of apps and integrate them with core mobile services such as Accelerometer, GPS, Photo Library,and more.Offers Flash developers the tools to create apps for the Android and iPhone mobile devicesSho

  20. Flash memory management system and method utilizing multiple block list windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, James (Inventor); Gender, Thomas K. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    The present invention provides a flash memory management system and method with increased performance. The flash memory management system provides the ability to efficiently manage and allocate flash memory use in a way that improves reliability and longevity, while maintaining good performance levels. The flash memory management system includes a free block mechanism, a disk maintenance mechanism, and a bad block detection mechanism. The free block mechanism provides efficient sorting of free blocks to facilitate selecting low use blocks for writing. The disk maintenance mechanism provides for the ability to efficiently clean flash memory blocks during processor idle times. The bad block detection mechanism provides the ability to better detect when a block of flash memory is likely to go bad. The flash status mechanism stores information in fast access memory that describes the content and status of the data in the flash disk. The new bank detection mechanism provides the ability to automatically detect when new banks of flash memory are added to the system. Together, these mechanisms provide a flash memory management system that can improve the operational efficiency of systems that utilize flash memory.

  1. PENGEMBANGAN EVALUASI PEMBELAJARAN BERBASIS MULTIMEDIA DENGAN FLASH, PHP, DAN MySQL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Sutopo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Computer-Based Testing (CBT program was launched for years to give test takers the options of taking computerized version of test. The application which generates academic score is developed as a server-side with Adobe Flash. Flash is well known as a powerful and dynamic front-end for the Web. However, Flash is also great interface for server-side applications. PHP can launch server-side script using Flash as a front-end and pass variables back and forth between Flash and the PHP pages. Along with PHP, MySQL can be used to store data and later retrieve it. Using Flash as a front-end, data and variables are passed between the MySQL database, PHP, and Flash to enhance application's functionality in managing databases.

  2. Application of adobe flash media to optimize jigsaw learning model on geometry material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imam, P.; Imam, S.; Ikrar, P.

    2018-05-01

    This study aims to determine and describe the effectiveness of the application of adobe flash media for jigsaw learning model on geometry material. In this study, the modified jigsaw learning with adobe flash media is called jigsaw-flash model. This research was conducted in Surakarta. The research method used is mix method research with exploratory sequential strategy. The results of this study indicate that students feel more comfortable and interested in studying geometry material taught by jigsaw-flash model. In addition, students taught using the jigsaw-flash model are more active and motivated than the students who were taught using ordinary jigsaw models. This shows that the use of the jigsaw-flash model can increase student participation and motivation. It can be concluded that the adobe flash media can be used as a solution to reduce the level of student abstraction in learning mathematics.

  3. Adobe Flash as a medium for online experimentation: a test of reaction time measurement capabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimers, Stian; Stewart, Neil

    2007-08-01

    Adobe Flash can be used to run complex psychological experiments over the Web. We examined the reliability of using Flash to measure reaction times (RTs) using a simple binary-choice task implemented both in Flash and in a Linux-based system known to record RTs with millisecond accuracy. Twenty-four participants were tested in the laboratory using both implementations; they also completed the Flash version on computers of their own choice outside the lab. RTs from the trials run on Flash outside the lab were approximately 20 msec slower than those from trials run on Flash in the lab, which in turn were approximately 10 msec slower than RTs from the trials run on the Linux-based system (baseline condition). RT SDs were similar in all conditions, suggesting that although Flash may overestimate RTs slightly, it does not appear to add significant noise to the data recorded.

  4. Comparison of rapid descriptive sensory methodologies: Free-Choice Profiling, Flash Profile and modified Flash Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Bredie, Wender L P; Sherman, Emma; Harbertson, James F; Heymann, Hildegarde

    2018-04-01

    Rapid sensory methods have been developed as alternatives to traditional sensory descriptive analysis methods. Among them, Free-Choice Profiling (FCP) and Flash Profile (FP) are two that have been known for many years. The objectives of this work were to compare the rating-based FCP and ranking-based FP method; to evaluate the impact of adding adjustments to FP approach; to investigate the influence of the number of assessors on the outcome of modified FP. To achieve these aims, a conventional descriptive analysis (DA), FCP, FP and a modified version of FP were carried out. Red wines made by different grape maturity and ethanol concentration were used for sensory testing. This study showed that DA provided a more detailed and accurate information on products through a quantitative measure of the intensity of sensory attributes than FCP and FP. However, the panel hours for conducting DA were higher than that for rapid methods, and FP was even able to separate the samples to a higher degree than DA. When comparing FCP and FP, this study showed that the ranking-based FP provided a clearer separation of samples than rating-based FCP, but the latter was an easier task for most assessors. When restricting assessors on their use of attributes in FP, the sample space became clearer and the ranking task was simplified. The FP protocol with restricted attribute sets seems to be a promising approach for efficient screening of sensory properties in wine. When increasing the number of assessors from 10 to 20 for conducting the modified FP, the outcome tended to be slightly more stable, however, one should consider the degree of panel training when deciding the optimal number of assessors for conducting FP. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Injuries in Spanish female soccer players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Del Coso

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Epidemiologic research to learn the incidence, type, location, and severity of female soccer injuries and the risk factors for sustaining a sport injury is the first step in developing preventive policies. The aim of this study was to analyze the incidence of injuries in the population of female soccer players in Spain. Methods: The injuries incurred by 25,397 female soccer players were registered by the medical staff of the Spanish Football Federation during 1 season. A standardized medical questionnaire was used to classify the injury according to type, severity, location, and injury mechanism. A total of 2108 injuries was reported with an incidence of 0.083 injuries per player per season. Most injuries were in the lower limbs (74.0%, mainly affecting knee (30.4% and ankle joints (17.9%. Results: The proportion of injuries derived from contact with another player was higher during matches (33.7% than during training (11.4%; p  0.05. Conclusion: Most female soccer injuries were located at the knee and ankle; the injury mechanism determined the playing time lost; and the player's age did not affect injury characteristics. Keywords: Ankle, Epidemiology, Knee, Sport injuries, Women

  6. Player Modeling for Intelligent Difficulty Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missura, Olana; Gärtner, Thomas

    In this paper we aim at automatically adjusting the difficulty of computer games by clustering players into different types and supervised prediction of the type from short traces of gameplay. An important ingredient of video games is to challenge players by providing them with tasks of appropriate and increasing difficulty. How this difficulty should be chosen and increase over time strongly depends on the ability, experience, perception and learning curve of each individual player. It is a subjective parameter that is very difficult to set. Wrong choices can easily lead to players stopping to play the game as they get bored (if underburdened) or frustrated (if overburdened). An ideal game should be able to adjust its difficulty dynamically governed by the player’s performance. Modern video games utilise a game-testing process to investigate among other factors the perceived difficulty for a multitude of players. In this paper, we investigate how machine learning techniques can be used for automatic difficulty adjustment. Our experiments confirm the potential of machine learning in this application.

  7. Game Performance Evaluation in Male Goalball Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molik, Bartosz; Morgulec-Adamowicz, Natalia; Kosmol, Andrzej; Perkowski, Krzysztof; Bednarczuk, Grzegorz; Skowroński, Waldemar; Gomez, Miguel Angel; Koc, Krzysztof; Rutkowska, Izabela; Szyman, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    Goalball is a Paralympic sport exclusively for athletes who are visually impaired and blind. The aims of this study were twofold: to describe game performance of elite male goalball players based upon the degree of visual impairment, and to determine if game performance was related to anthropometric characteristics of elite male goalball players. The study sample consisted of 44 male goalball athletes. A total of 38 games were recorded during the Summer Paralympic Games in London 2012. Observations were reported using the Game Efficiency Sheet for Goalball. Additional anthropometric measurements included body mass (kg), body height (cm), the arm span (cm) and length of the body in the defensive position (cm). The results differentiating both groups showed that the players with total blindness obtained higher means than the players with visual impairment for game indicators such as the sum of defense (p = 0.03) and the sum of good defense (p = 0.04). The players with visual impairment obtained higher results than those with total blindness for attack efficiency (p = 0.04), the sum of penalty defenses (p = 0.01), and fouls (p = 0.01). The study showed that athletes with blindness demonstrated higher game performance in defence. However, athletes with visual impairment presented higher efficiency in offensive actions. The analyses confirmed that body mass, body height, the arm span and length of the body in the defensive position did not differentiate players’ performance at the elite level. PMID:26834872

  8. Game Performance Evaluation in Male Goalball Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molik Bartosz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Goalball is a Paralympic sport exclusively for athletes who are visually impaired and blind. The aims of this study were twofold: to describe game performance of elite male goalball players based upon the degree of visual impairment, and to determine if game performance was related to anthropometric characteristics of elite male goalball players. The study sample consisted of 44 male goalball athletes. A total of 38 games were recorded during the Summer Paralympic Games in London 2012. Observations were reported using the Game Efficiency Sheet for Goalball. Additional anthropometric measurements included body mass (kg, body height (cm, the arm span (cm and length of the body in the defensive position (cm. The results differentiating both groups showed that the players with total blindness obtained higher means than the players with visual impairment for game indicators such as the sum of defense (p = 0.03 and the sum of good defense (p = 0.04. The players with visual impairment obtained higher results than those with total blindness for attack efficiency (p = 0.04, the sum of penalty defenses (p = 0.01, and fouls (p = 0.01. The study showed that athletes with blindness demonstrated higher game performance in defence. However, athletes with visual impairment presented higher efficiency in offensive actions. The analyses confirmed that body mass, body height, the arm span and length of the body in the defensive position did not differentiate players’ performance at the elite level.

  9. Initial Breakdown Pulse Amplitudes in Intracloud and Cloud-to-Ground Lightning Flashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, T. C.; Smith, E. M.; Stolzenburg, M.; Karunarathne, S.; Siedlecki, R. D., II

    2017-12-01

    This study analyzes the largest initial breakdown (IB) pulse in flashes from three storms in Florida. The study was motivated in part by the possibility that IB pulses of IC flashes may cause of terrestrial gamma-ray flashes (TGFs). The range-normalized, zero-to-peak amplitude of the largest IB pulse within each flash was determined along with its altitude, duration, and occurrence time in the flash. Appropriate data were available for 40 intracloud (IC) and 32 cloud-to-ground (CG) flashes. Histograms of the magnitude of the largest IB pulse amplitude by flash type were similar, with mean (median) values of 1.49 (1.05) V/m for IC flashes and -1.35 (-0.87) V/m for CG flashes. The mean amplitude of the largest IC IB pulses are substantially smaller (roughly an order of magnitude smaller) than the few known pulse amplitudes of TGF events and TGF candidate events. The largest IB pulse in 30 IC flashes showed a weak inverse relation between pulse amplitude and altitude. Amplitude of the largest IB pulse for 25 CG flashes showed no altitude correlation. Duration of the largest IB pulse in ICs averaged twice as long as in CGs (96 μs versus 46 μs); all of the CG durations were <100 μs. Among the ICs, there is a positive relation between largest IB pulse duration and amplitude; the linear correlation coefficient is 0.385 with outliers excluded. The largest IB pulse in IC flashes typically occurred at a longer time after the first IB pulse (average 4.1 ms) than was the case in CG flashes (average 0.6 ms). In both flash types, the largest IB pulse was the first IB pulse in about 30% of the cases.

  10. Motivation and Sport Injuries in Handball Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laguna, María

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to test whether different levels of motivation are related to the injuries suffered by elite athletes. The sample consists of 80 professional handball players of ASOBAL League, with a mean age of 24.83 years (+ 5.21. Motivation was assessed through the CPRD scale (Gimeno, Buceta & Pérez-Llantada; 1999 and a self-report questionnaire was used to register sports injuries. The results indicate that there is a relationship between motivational levels and the risk for injury. Specifically, players with high motivated players had a greater number of moderate injuries. Although it may seem paradoxical, it is possible that an excessively high motivation leads to overachievement and risk behaviors, which in turn facilitate the appearance of lesions.

  11. Cricket club looking for new players

    CERN Multimedia

    Cricket Club

    2016-01-01

    The CERN Cricket Club, having lost several key players, has had a very difficult season so far and is desperately in need of new players. Having qualified for the Cricket Switzerland semi-finals for the last two years (unfortunately losing both), this year we are bottom of the Western Pool, having played the last two league matches with only 10 players. If you are interested in playing cricket please join us at net practice, which takes place on the Prevessin site each Thursday evening from 18:00 to around 20:00 (weather permitting) or send me an e-mail (see below). Please have a look at the Cricket Club web site for more information: http://cern.ch/Club-Cricket/ Chris Onions, President of the CERN Cricket Club   (christopher.onions@gmail.com)

  12. There is no game without a player

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lasse Juel

    on the subject matter from the catalogue of game theory. All four suggestions exclude the player from the relationship. This paper introduces a phenomenological point of view and includes the player in order to understand the relationship between structure and dressing. It argues that players constitute a bridge......This paper is a search for meaning or to be more precise a study of how meaning is produced between ontology and fiction in computer games. It sets out to investigate the relationship between formal abstract game structures and game representation (dressing) by presenting four suggestions...... or the center which establishes, upholds and renegotiate the relationship between formal game structure and game dressing. It also argues that players’ interaction with both structure and dressing produce meaning and the production of meaning is the relationship between formal abstract game structures and game...

  13. Modelling Virtual Camera Behaviour Through Player Gaze

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Picardi, Andrea; Burelli, Paolo; Yannakakis, Georgios N.

    2012-01-01

    industry and game AI research focus on the devel- opment of increasingly sophisticated systems to automate the control of the virtual camera integrating artificial intel- ligence algorithms within physical simulations. However, in both industry and academia little research has been carried out......In a three-dimensional virtual environment, aspects such as narrative and interaction largely depend on the placement and animation of the virtual camera. Therefore, virtual camera control plays a critical role in player experience and, thereby, in the overall quality of a computer game. Both game...... on the relationship between virtual camera, game-play and player behaviour. We run a game user experiment to shed some light on this relationship and identify relevant dif- ferences between camera behaviours through different game sessions, playing behaviours and player gaze patterns. Re- sults show that users can...

  14. Mean Field Games with a Dominating Player

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bensoussan, A., E-mail: axb046100@utdallas.edu [The University of Texas at Dallas, International Center for Decision and Risk Analysis, Jindal School of Management (United States); Chau, M. H. M., E-mail: michaelchaumanho@gmail.com; Yam, S. C. P., E-mail: scpyam@sta.cuhk.edu.hk [The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Department of Statistics (Hong Kong, People’s Republic of China) (China)

    2016-08-15

    In this article, we consider mean field games between a dominating player and a group of representative agents, each of which acts similarly and also interacts with each other through a mean field term being substantially influenced by the dominating player. We first provide the general theory and discuss the necessary condition for the optimal controls and equilibrium condition by adopting adjoint equation approach. We then present a special case in the context of linear-quadratic framework, in which a necessary and sufficient condition can be asserted by stochastic maximum principle; we finally establish the sufficient condition that guarantees the unique existence of the equilibrium control. The proof of the convergence result of finite player game to mean field counterpart is provided in Appendix.

  15. Towards Player-Driven Procedural Content Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Noor

    Generating immersive game content is one of the ultimate goals for a game designer. This goal can be achieved taken into account that players’ perceptions of the same game differ according to a number of factors including: players’ personality, playing styles, expertise and cultural background. One...... promising avenue towards optimizing the gameplay experience for individual game players - and thereby attempt to close the affective loop in games - is to automatically tailor the game content in real-time. To realize player-driven procedural content generation one needs to specify the aspects of the game...... that have a key influence on the gameplay experience, identify the relationship between these aspects and player experience and define a mechanism for tailoring the game content to each individual needs. In this dissertation we attempt to address the following research questions towards the aim...

  16. Big Data for Business Ecosystem Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perko Igor

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the provided research, some of the Big Data most prospective usage domains connect with distinguished player groups found in the business ecosystem. Literature analysis is used to identify the state of the art of Big Data related research in the major domains of its use-namely, individual marketing, health treatment, work opportunities, financial services, and security enforcement. System theory was used to identify business ecosystem major player types disrupted by Big Data: individuals, small and mid-sized enterprises, large organizations, information providers, and regulators. Relationships between the domains and players were explained through new Big Data opportunities and threats and by players’ responsive strategies. System dynamics was used to visualize relationships in the provided model.

  17. Mechanistic model for void distribution in flashing flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riznic, J.; Ishii, M.; Afgan, N.

    1987-01-01

    A problem of discharging of an initially subcooled liquid from a high pressure condition into a low pressure environment is quite important in several industrial systems such as nuclear reactors and chemical reactors. A new model for the flashing process is proposed here based on the wall nucleation theory, bubble growth model and drift-flux bubble transport model. In order to calculate the bubble number density, the bubble number transport equation with a distributed source from the wall nucleation sites is used. The model predictions in terms of the void fraction are compared to Moby Dick and BNL experimental data. It shows that satisfactory agreements could be obtained from the present model without any floating parameter to be adjusted with data. This result indicates that, at least for the experimental conditions considered here, the mechanistic prediction of the flashing phenomenon is possible based on the present wall nucleation based model. 43 refs., 4 figs

  18. Visualizing Library Statistics using Open Flash Chart 2 and Drupal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura K. Wiegand

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Libraries continue to need to demonstrate their value to stakeholders, and while statistics alone do not represent value, they are an important element. We found ourselves, and our stakeholders, uninspired by our infrequently updated bulleted list of statistics on our website and so set out to create a more dynamic and visually appealing look at our statistics. This article outlines how we used our content management system, Drupal, Open Flash Chart and custom programming to convert library statistics into Flash charts, including how to populate the graphs with dynamic data from external sources. The end result is our Library Statistics Dashboard (http://library.uncw.edu/facts_planning/dashboard that visually demonstrates the use, activity and resources in the library via interactive and visually interesting graphs.

  19. Adaptive aperture for Geiger mode avalanche photodiode flash ladar systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liang; Han, Shaokun; Xia, Wenze; Lei, Jieyu

    2018-02-01

    Although the Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode (GM-APD) flash ladar system offers the advantages of high sensitivity and simple construction, its detection performance is influenced not only by the incoming signal-to-noise ratio but also by the absolute number of noise photons. In this paper, we deduce a hyperbolic approximation to estimate the noise-photon number from the false-firing percentage in a GM-APD flash ladar system under dark conditions. By using this hyperbolic approximation function, we introduce a method to adapt the aperture to reduce the number of incoming background-noise photons. Finally, the simulation results show that the adaptive-aperture method decreases the false probability in all cases, increases the detection probability provided that the signal exceeds the noise, and decreases the average ranging error per frame.

  20. Measurement and analysis of coherent synchrotron radiation effects at FLASH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beutner, B.

    2007-12-01

    The vacuum-ultra-violet Free Electron Laser in Hamburg (FLASH) is a linac driven SASE-FEL. High peak currents are produced using magnetic bunch compression chicanes. In these magnetic chicanes, the energy distribution along an electron bunch is changed by eff ects of Coherent Synchrotron Radiation (CSR). Energy changes in dispersive bunch compressor chicanes lead to transverse displacements along the bunch. These CSR induced displacements are studied using a transverse deflecting RF-structure. Experiments and simulations concerning the charge dependence of such transverse displacements are presented and analysed. In these experiments an over-compression scheme is used which reduces the peak current downstream the bunch compressor chicanes. Therefore other self interactions like space charge forces which might complicate the measurements are suppressed. Numerical simulations are used to analyse the beam dynamics under the influence of CSR forces. The results of these numerical simulations are compared with the data obtained in the over-compression experiments at FLASH. (orig.)

  1. Biodiesel Production by Reactive Flash: A Numerical Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Regalado-Méndez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Reactive flash (RF in biodiesel production has been studied in order to investigate steady-state multiplicities, singularities, and effect of biodiesel quality when the RF system approaches to bubble point. The RF was modeled by an index-2 system of differential algebraic equations, the vapor split (ϕ was computed by modified Rachford-Rice equation and modified Raoult’s law computed bubble point, and the continuation analysis was tracked on MATCONT. Results of this study show the existence of turning points, leading to a unique bubble point manifold, (xBiodiesel,T=(0.46,478.41 K, which is a globally stable flashing operation. Also, the results of the simulation in MATLAB® of the dynamic behavior of the RF show that conversion of triglycerides reaches 97% for a residence time of 5.8 minutes and a methanol to triglyceride molar flow ratio of 5 : 1.

  2. Measurement and analysis of coherent synchrotron radiation effects at FLASH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beutner, B.

    2007-12-15

    The vacuum-ultra-violet Free Electron Laser in Hamburg (FLASH) is a linac driven SASE-FEL. High peak currents are produced using magnetic bunch compression chicanes. In these magnetic chicanes, the energy distribution along an electron bunch is changed by eff ects of Coherent Synchrotron Radiation (CSR). Energy changes in dispersive bunch compressor chicanes lead to transverse displacements along the bunch. These CSR induced displacements are studied using a transverse deflecting RF-structure. Experiments and simulations concerning the charge dependence of such transverse displacements are presented and analysed. In these experiments an over-compression scheme is used which reduces the peak current downstream the bunch compressor chicanes. Therefore other self interactions like space charge forces which might complicate the measurements are suppressed. Numerical simulations are used to analyse the beam dynamics under the influence of CSR forces. The results of these numerical simulations are compared with the data obtained in the over-compression experiments at FLASH. (orig.)

  3. uFLIP: Understanding the Energy Consumption of Flash Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørling, Matias; Bonnet, Philippe; Bouganim, Luc

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the energy consumption of flash devices is important for two reasons. First, energy is emerging as a key metric for data management systems. It is thus important to understand how we can reason about the energy consumption of flash devices beyond their approximate aggregate...... consumption (low power consumption in idle mode, average Watt consumption from the data sheets). Second, when measured at a sufficiently fine granularity, the energy consumption of a given device might complement the performance characteristics derived from its response time profile. Indeed, background work...... which is not directly observable with a response time profile appears clearly when energy is used as a metric. In this paper, we discuss the results from the {uFLIP} benchmark applied to four different {SSD} devices using both response time and energy as metric....

  4. Total Lightning Flash Activity Response to Aerosol over China Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengguo Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Twelve years of measurements of aerosol optical depth (AOD, cloud fraction, cloud top height, ice cloud optical thickness and lightning flash density from 2001 to 2012 have been analyzed to investigate the effect of aerosols on electrical activity over an area of China. The results show that increasing aerosol loading inspires the convective intensity, and then increases the lightning flash density. The spatial distribution of the correlation between aerosol loading and electrical activity shows a remarkable regional difference over China. The high-correlation regions embody the positive aerosol microphysical effect on the intensity of the electrical activity, while the large-scale processes may play the main role in convection development and producing lightning in low-correlation regions.

  5. Flash flood modeling with the MARINE hydrological distributed model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estupina-Borrell, V.; Dartus, D.; Ababou, R.

    2006-11-01

    Flash floods are characterized by their violence and the rapidity of their occurrence. Because these events are rare and unpredictable, but also fast and intense, their anticipation with sufficient lead time for warning and broadcasting is a primary subject of research. Because of the heterogeneities of the rain and of the behavior of the surface, spatially distributed hydrological models can lead to a better understanding of the processes and so on they can contribute to a better forecasting of flash flood. Our main goal here is to develop an operational and robust methodology for flash flood forecasting. This methodology should provide relevant data (information) about flood evolution on short time scales, and should be applicable even in locations where direct observations are sparse (e.g. absence of historical and modern rainfalls and streamflows in small mountainous watersheds). The flash flood forecast is obtained by the physically based, space-time distributed hydrological model "MARINE'' (Model of Anticipation of Runoff and INondations for Extreme events). This model is presented and tested in this paper for a real flash flood event. The model consists in two steps, or two components: the first component is a "basin'' flood module which generates flood runoff in the upstream part of the watershed, and the second component is the "stream network'' module, which propagates the flood in the main river and its subsidiaries. The basin flash flood generation model is a rainfall-runoff model that can integrate remotely sensed data. Surface hydraulics equations are solved with enough simplifying hypotheses to allow real time exploitation. The minimum data required by the model are: (i) the Digital Elevation Model, used to calculate slopes that generate runoff, it can be issued from satellite imagery (SPOT) or from French Geographical Institute (IGN); (ii) the rainfall data from meteorological radar, observed or anticipated by the French Meteorological Service (M

  6. Fermi GBM Observations of Terrestrial Gamma-Ray Flashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.; Briggs, M. S.; Connaughton, V.; Fishman, G. J.; Bhat, P. N.; Paciesas, W. S.; Preece, R.; Kippen, R. M.; vonKienlin, A.; Dwyer, J. R.; hide

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation explores the relationship between Terrestrial Gamma-Ray Flashes (TGF) and lightning. Using data from the World-Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN), and the gamma ray observations from Fermi's Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM), the study reviews any causal relationship between TGFs and lightning. The conclusion of the study is that the TGF and lightning are simultaneous with out a causal relationship.

  7. Cuinse2 Thin Film For Solar Cell By Flash Evaporation

    OpenAIRE

    A.H. Soepardjo

    2009-01-01

    Deposition of thin films for material solar cell CuInSe2 are relatively simple. In this research mainly focused on the use of flash evaporation method, and the material created can then be characterized by optical and electrical properties. The optical characterization is done by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS), and transmission and reflection by UV-VIS spectrophotometry. Electrical characterization is done by utilizing the Hall effect equipment. From these chara...

  8. Flash flood swift water rescues, Texas, 2005–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaidehi Shah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Although rainfall patterns are complex and difficult to predict, climate models suggest precipitation in Texas will occur less frequently and with greater intensity in the future. In combination with rapid population growth and development, extreme rainfall events are likely to lead to flash floods and necessitate swift water rescues. Swift water rescues are used to retrieve person(s from swift water flowing at a rate of 1 knot or greater. Data were obtained from the Texas Fire Marshal’s Office and analyzed to describe spatial and temporal characteristics of rescues. Between 2005 and 2014, 3256 swift water rescues were reported from 136 of 254 (54% counties. Over half (54.6%, n = 1777 occurred in counties known as Flash Flood Alley, which includes Texas’ largest and fastest growing cities. Less than 1.0% (n = 18 were reported from 49 counties designated as completely rural, or with an urban population less than 2500. Increases in swift water rescues were seen between March and September and during major weather events such as tropical storms. Because county-level data was utilized and demographic data was missing in all but 2% (n = 47 of the incidents, our ability to identify populations at risk or target interventions in the future using this data is limited. Despite the frequency of flash flood events and swift water rescues in Texas, knowledge gaps persist that should be addressed through the conduct of interdisciplinary research by epidemiologists and climatologists and by disseminating evidence-based health education and safety programs, particularly in rapidly growing counties that make up Texas’ Flash Flood Alley.

  9. On the Mechanism of Microwave Flash Sintering of Ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yury V. Bykov

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The results of a study of ultra-rapid (flash sintering of oxide ceramic materials under microwave heating with high absorbed power per unit volume of material (10–500 W/cm3 are presented. Ceramic samples of various compositions—Al2O3; Y2O3; MgAl2O4; and Yb(LaO2O3—were sintered using a 24 GHz gyrotron system to a density above 0.98–0.99 of the theoretical value in 0.5–5 min without isothermal hold. An analysis of the experimental data (microwave power; heating and cooling rates along with microstructure characterization provided an insight into the mechanism of flash sintering. Flash sintering occurs when the processing conditions—including the temperature of the sample; the properties of thermal insulation; and the intensity of microwave radiation—facilitate the development of thermal runaway due to an Arrhenius-type dependency of the material’s effective conductivity on temperature. The proper control over the thermal runaway effect is provided by fast regulation of the microwave power. The elevated concentration of defects and impurities in the boundary regions of the grains leads to localized preferential absorption of microwave radiation and results in grain boundary softening/pre-melting. The rapid densification of the granular medium with a reduced viscosity of the grain boundary phase occurs via rotation and sliding of the grains which accommodate their shape due to fast diffusion mass transport through the (quasi-liquid phase. The same mechanism based on a thermal runaway under volumetric heating can be relevant for the effect of flash sintering of various oxide ceramics under a dc/ac voltage applied to the sample.

  10. Terrestrial gamma ray flash production by active lightning leader channels

    OpenAIRE

    İnan, Umran Savaş; Carlson, B. E.; Lehtinen, N. G.

    2017-01-01

    The production of terrestrial gamma ray flashes (TGFs) requires a seed energetic electron source and a strong electric field. Lightning leaders naturally provide seed electrons by cold runaway and strong electric fields by charge accumulation on the channel. We model possible TGF production in such fields by simulating the charges and currents on the channel. The resulting electric fields then drive simulations of runaway relativistic electron avalanche and photon emission. Photon spectra and...

  11. Terrestrial gamma ray flash production by lightning current pulses

    OpenAIRE

    İnan, Umran Savaş; Carlson, B. E.; Lehtinen, N. G.

    2017-01-01

    Terrestrial gamma ray flashes (TGFs) are brief bursts of gamma rays observed by satellites, typically in coincidence with detectable lightning. We incorporate TGF observations and the key physics behind current TGF production theories with lightning physics to produce constraints on TGF production mechanisms. The combined constraints naturally suggest a mechanism for TGF production by current pulses in lightning leader channels. The mechanism involves local field enhancements due to charge re...

  12. Characterization of carbon nanolayers flash evaporated on PET and PTFE

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Švorčík, V.; Hubička, T.; Slepička, P.; Siegel, J.; Kolská, Z.; Bláhová, O.; Macková, Anna; Hnatowicz, Vladimír

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 7 (2009), s. 1770-1778 ISSN 0008-6223 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06041; GA ČR GA106/09/0125 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : carbon nano-layers * flash evaporation * PET Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 4.504, year: 2009

  13. Lessons learned from Khartoum flash flood impacts: An integrated assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Mohamad Ibrahim; Elagib, Nadir Ahmed; Horn, Finlay; Saad, Suhair A G

    2017-12-01

    This study aims at enabling the compilation of key lessons for decision makers and urban planners in rapidly urbanizing cities regarding the identification of representative, chief causal natural and human factors for the increased level of flash flood risk. To achieve this, the impacts of flash flood events of 2013 and 2014 in the capital of Sudan, Khartoum, were assessed using seven integrated approaches, i.e. rainfall data analysis, document analysis of affected people and houses, observational fieldwork in the worst flood affected areas, people's perception of causes and mitigation measures through household interviews, reported drinking water quality, reported water-related diseases and social risk assessment. Several lessons have been developed as follows. Urban planners must recognize the devastating risks of building within natural pathways of ephemeral watercourses. They must also ensure effective drainage infrastructures and physio-geographical investigations prior to developing urban areas. The existing urban drainage systems become ineffective due to blockage by urban waste. Building of unauthorized drainage and embankment structures by locals often cause greater flood problems than normal. The urban runoff is especially problematic for residential areas built within low-lying areas having naturally low infiltration capacity, as surface water can rapidly collect within hollows and depressions, or beside elevated roads that preclude the free flow of floodwater. Weak housing and infrastructure quality are especially vulnerable to flash flooding and even to rainfall directly. Establishment of services infrastructure is imperative for flash flood disaster risk reduction. Water supply should be from lower aquifers to avoid contaminant groundwater. Regular monitoring of water quality and archiving of its indicators help identify water-related diseases and sources of water contamination in the event of environmental disasters such as floods. Though the

  14. Flash-x-radiography for fuel motion studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choate, L.M.; Halbleib, J.A. Sr.; Posey, L.D.

    1976-01-01

    The paper is primarily intended to be a status report on recent activities in the Flash X-ray Radiography/Cinematography area. Studies in the area of source definition as well as associated experimental limitations are discussed. The implications of machine current upon precision uncertainty in measurements of changes in areal density are presented. The radiographic techniques presently being evaluated are discussed. Performance estimates representative of this type of diagnostic tool are presented. Comparison with other results is made

  15. Player and Game Characteristics and Head Impacts in Female Youth Ice Hockey Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Nick; Taha, Tim; Greenwald, Richard; Keightley, Michelle

    2017-08-01

      Despite the growing popularity of ice hockey among female youth and interest in the biomechanics of head impacts in sport, the head impacts sustained by this population have yet to be characterized.   To describe the number of, biomechanical characteristics of, and exposure to head impacts of female youth ice hockey players during competition and to investigate the influences of player and game characteristics on head impacts.   Cohort study.   Twenty-seven female youth ice hockey players (mean age = 12.5 ± 0.52 years) wore instrumented ice hockey helmets during 66 ice hockey games over a 3-year period. Data specific to player, game, and biomechanical head impact characteristics were recorded. A multiple regression analysis identified factors most associated with head impacts of greater frequency and severity.   A total of 436 total head impacts were sustained during 6924 minutes of active ice hockey participation (0.9 ± 0.6 impacts per player per game; range, 0-2.1). A higher body mass index (BMI) significantly predicted a higher number of head impacts sustained per game (P = .008). Linear acceleration of head impacts was greater in older players and those who played the forward position, had a greater BMI, and spent more time on the ice (P = .008), whereas greater rotational acceleration was present in older players who had a greater BMI and played the forward position (P = .008). During tournament games, increased ice time predicted increased severity of head impacts (P = .03).   This study reveals for the first time that head impacts are occurring in female youth ice hockey players, albeit at a lower rate and severity than in male youth ice hockey players, despite the lack of intentional body checking.

  16. Turbulent spots and scalar flashes in pipe transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrian, Ronald; Wu, Xiaohua; Moin, Parviz

    2017-11-01

    Recent study (Wu et al., PNAS, 1509451112, 2015) demonstrated the feasibility and accuracy of direct computation of the Osborne Reynolds' pipe transition experiment without the unphysical axially periodic boundary condition. Here we use this approach to address three questions: (1) What are the dynamics of turbulent spot generation in pipe transition? (2) How is the succession of scalar flashes, as observed and sketched by Osborne Reynolds, created? (3) What happens to the succession of flashes further downstream? In this study, the inlet disturbance is of radial-mode type imposed through a narrow, three-degree numerical wedge; and the simulation Reynolds number is 6500. Numerical dye is introduced at the inlet plane locally very close to the pipe axis, similar to the needle injection by O. Reynolds. Inception of infant turbulent spots occurs when normal, forward inclined hairpin packets form near the walls from the debris of the inlet perturbations. However, the young and mature turbulent spots consist almost exclusively of reverse, backward leaning hairpin vortices. Scalar flashes appear successively downstream and persist well into the fully-developed turbulent region. Their creation mechanism is addressed. RJA gratefully acknowledges support of the National Science Foundation with NSF Award CBET-0933848.

  17. The SWARF high energy flash X-ray facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, J.F.; Dove, E.W.D.

    1976-06-01

    A description is presented of the SWARF flash radiography facility at AWRE Foulness, which is stated to be the most powerful flash x-ray system available, in the U.K. The machine consists essentially of a Marx generator, a coaxial Blumlein system and an x-ray tube. The voltage output from the Marx generator (about 2.5 MV from an 80 kV input) is applied to a large re-entrant Blumlein pulse-forming line. Near maximum voltage, an adjustable oil switch short-circuits one end of the Blumlein generator and so applies a square voltage pulse of 65 ns duration to the x-ray tube. The x-rays are produced from a tantalum target which forms the anode of a vacuum field emission diode. The facility consists of two field machines positioned so that radiographs can be obtained from different angles. The description is given under the following heads: modus operandi; constructional details; oil installation; electrical details; commissioning, calibration and electrical data; flash radiography in explosives research; operational control of facility, film packs; radiographic results; further developments; overall performance. (U.K.)

  18. Spray structure as generated under homogeneous flash boiling nucleation regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, M.; Levy, Y.; Sher, E.

    2014-01-01

    We show the effect of the initial pressure and temperature on the spatial distribution of droplets size and their velocity profile inside a spray cloud that is generated by a flash boiling mechanism under homogeneous nucleation regime. We used TSI's Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer (PDPA) to characterize the spray. We conclude that the homogeneous nucleation process is strongly affected by the initial liquid temperature while the initial pressure has only a minor effect. The spray shape is not affected by temperature or pressure under homogeneous nucleation regime. We noted that the only visible effect is in the spray opacity. Finally, homogeneous nucleation may be easily achieved by using a simple atomizer construction, and thus is potentially suitable for fuel injection systems in combustors and engines. - Highlights: • We study the characteristics of a spray that is generated by a flash boiling process. • In this study, the flash boiling process occurs under homogeneous nucleation regime. • We used Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer (PDPA) to characterize the spray. • The SMD has been found to be strongly affected by the initial liquid temperature. • Homogeneous nucleation may be easily achieved by using a simple atomizer unit

  19. Detection and spectral measurements of coherent synchrotron radiation at FLASH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behrens, Christopher

    2010-02-15

    The operation of high-gain free-electron laser (FEL) underlies tremendous demands on high quality electron beams with high peak currents. At the Free-Electron-Laser in Hamburg (FLASH), two magnetic bunch compressors are used to compress the electron bunches longitudinally. In the bunch compressor magnets, these short electron bunches generate coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR). This CSR contains information on the longitudinal bunch profile, which is relevant for driving an FEL. In order to investigate coherent synchrotron radiation at the second bunch compressor BC3 at FLASH, a new setup behind the last dipole was installed. For the detection of coherent synchrotron radiation, which is emitted in the infrared regime, pyroelectric detectors were used. These pyroelectric detectors have been calibrated at the free-electron laser FELIX in the wavelength range from 5 {mu}m to 110 {mu}m. For characterisation of the emitted radiation, a transverse scanning device was used to measure the transverse intensity distribution. Various transmission filters were used to obtain additional information about the spectral content. In order to get spectral information with high resolution over a wide wavelength range, a rotating mirror spectrometer using reflective blazed gratings was installed. Using this spectrometer, the first spectral measurements of coherent synchrotron radiation at FLASH in a wavelength range from 10 {mu}m to 160 {mu}m were done. (orig.)

  20. Out-of-phase flashing induced instabilities in CIRCUS facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian Pablo Marcel; Van der Hagen, T.H.J.J. [Interfaculty Reactor Institute, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 15, 2629 JB Delft (Netherlands)

    2005-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Flashing-induced instabilities are very important during the startup phase of natural-circulation boiling water reactors. To study this type of instability an axial fully scaled facility named CIRCUS was constructed. Experiments at low power and low pressure (typical startup conditions) are carried out on this steam/water natural circulation loop with two parallel risers. A detailed measurement of the void-fraction profile is possible by using needle-probes and the use of glass tubes for the riser and core sections allow to use optical techniques for velocity measurements. The flashing and the mechanism of flashing-induced instabilities are analyzed paying special attention on the strong coupling effect between the two riser channels. It is clear from the experiments that the out-of-phase instability is much more susceptible to occur than the in-phase instability in a system with two parallel risers. The instability region is found as soon as the operational boundary between single-phase and two-phase operation is crossed. The relation between the period of the oscillations and the fluid transient time is also investigated. The stability map constructed using this experimental data is also discussed. (authors)

  1. Detection and spectral measurements of coherent synchrotron radiation at FLASH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrens, Christopher

    2010-02-01

    The operation of high-gain free-electron laser (FEL) underlies tremendous demands on high quality electron beams with high peak currents. At the Free-Electron-Laser in Hamburg (FLASH), two magnetic bunch compressors are used to compress the electron bunches longitudinally. In the bunch compressor magnets, these short electron bunches generate coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR). This CSR contains information on the longitudinal bunch profile, which is relevant for driving an FEL. In order to investigate coherent synchrotron radiation at the second bunch compressor BC3 at FLASH, a new setup behind the last dipole was installed. For the detection of coherent synchrotron radiation, which is emitted in the infrared regime, pyroelectric detectors were used. These pyroelectric detectors have been calibrated at the free-electron laser FELIX in the wavelength range from 5 μm to 110 μm. For characterisation of the emitted radiation, a transverse scanning device was used to measure the transverse intensity distribution. Various transmission filters were used to obtain additional information about the spectral content. In order to get spectral information with high resolution over a wide wavelength range, a rotating mirror spectrometer using reflective blazed gratings was installed. Using this spectrometer, the first spectral measurements of coherent synchrotron radiation at FLASH in a wavelength range from 10 μm to 160 μm were done. (orig.)

  2. MR study of intracranial disease with three-dimensional FLASH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Runge, V.M.; Wood, M.L.; Kaufman, D.M.; Nelson, K.L.; Traill, M.R.; Wolpert, S.M.

    1987-01-01

    A three-dimensional FLASH technique was used to study 36 patients with intracranial disease at 1 T (Siemens Magnetom). This included 15 cases of intracranial neoplastic disease, four with the application of intravenous Gd-DTPA. Contiguous thin sections (1-2 mm thick) were acquired of the entire intracranial contents using one acquisition (scan time of 5-15 minutes). A MIPRON (KONTRON Instruments) image processing work station was used for rapid image display and 3D reconstruction. 3D FLASH was found to be superior to spin-echo imaging at 1 T for the detection of hemorrhage. 3D acquisition also provided superior localization of neoplastic disease. The T1 contrast achieved was comparable to spin-echo technique with a repetition time/echo time of .6/17. The advantages in terms of lesion localization and thin-section imaging with high spatial resolution of the entire brain may lead to use of 3D FLASH in place of conventional spin-echo imaging

  3. Energetic and exergetic Improvement of geothermal single flash cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navid Nazari

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a detailed analysis of a new method for improving energetic and exergetic efficiencies of single flash cycle. The thermodynamic process of the new method consists of extracting a fraction of hot wellhead geothermal brine for the purpose of superheating saturated steam entering the turbine. Computer programming scripts were developed and optimized based on mathematical proposed models for the different components of the systems. The operating parameters such as separator temperature, geofluid wellhead enthalpy and geothermal source temperature are varied to investigate their effects on both net power output and turbine exhaust quality of the systems. Also, full exergy assessment was performed for the new design. The results of separator temperature optimization revealed that specific net power output of the new design can be boosted up to 8% and turbine exhaust quality can be diminished up to 50% as compared to common single flash cycle. In addition, for wells with higher discharge enthalpy, superheating process improve specific net power output even up to 10%. Finally, it was observed that the overall system exergy efficiency was approximately raised 3%. Article History: Received January 5th 2016; Received in revised form June 25th 2016; Accepted July 3rd 2016; Available online How to Cite This Article: Nazari, N. and Porkhial, S. (2016. Energetic and Exergetic Improvement of Geothermal Single Flash Cycle. Int. Journal of Renewable Energy Development, 5(2,129-138. http://dx.doi.org/10.14710/ijred.5.2.129-138 

  4. Education Foundation Pouk Tomang Website Using Macromedia Dreamweaver Mx

    OpenAIRE

    Ramses Sitorus; Cut Asiana Gemawaty, Skom., MMSi

    2003-01-01

    Everything has been more rapid because of technological developments, one of the Internet. Internet has made it easier - especially for ease of profitable Internet service users. Information is now so easy to obtain thanks to the Internet, education can use this technology for entering the competition in providing information about schools and education quality in it. With the proposed project, expected Tomang POUK Education Foundation which is engaged in education can also benefit.

  5. Gun muzzle flash detection using a CMOS single photon avalanche diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merhav, Tomer; Savuskan, Vitali; Nemirovsky, Yael

    2013-10-01

    Si based sensors, in particular CMOS Image sensors, have revolutionized low cost imaging systems but to date have hardly been considered as possible candidates for gun muzzle flash detection, due to performance limitations, and low SNR in the visible spectrum. In this study, a CMOS Single Photon Avalanche Diode (SPAD) module is used to record and sample muzzle flash events in the visible spectrum, from representative weapons, common on the modern battlefield. SPADs possess two crucial properties for muzzle flash imaging - Namely, very high photon detection sensitivity, coupled with a unique ability to convert the optical signal to a digital signal at the source pixel, thus practically eliminating readout noise. This enables high sampling frequencies in the kilohertz range without SNR degradation, in contrast to regular CMOS image sensors. To date, the SPAD has not been utilized for flash detection in an uncontrolled environment, such as gun muzzle flash detection. Gun propellant manufacturers use alkali salts to suppress secondary flashes ignited during the muzzle flash event. Common alkali salts are compounds based on Potassium or Sodium, with spectral emission lines around 769nm and 589nm, respectively. A narrow band filter around the Potassium emission doublet is used in this study to favor the muzzle flash signal over solar radiation. This research will demonstrate the SPAD's ability to accurately sample and reconstruct the temporal behavior of the muzzle flash in the visible wavelength under the specified imaging conditions. The reconstructed signal is clearly distinguishable from background clutter, through exploitation of flash temporal characteristics.

  6. Acupuncture as Treatment of Hot Flashes and the Possible Role of Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Clara E. Spetz Holm

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms behind hot flashes in menopausal women are not fully understood. The flashes in women are probably preceded by and actually initiated by a sudden downward shift in the set point for the core body temperature in the thermoregulatory center that is affected by sex steroids, β-endorphins, and other central neurotransmitters. Treatments that influence these factors may be expected to reduce hot flashes. Since therapy with sex steroids for hot flashes has appeared to cause a number of side effects and risks and women with hot flashes and breast cancer as well as men with prostate cancer and hot flashes are prevented from sex steroid therapy there is a great need for alternative therapies. Acupuncture affecting the opioid system has been suggested as an alternative treatment option for hot flashes in menopausal women and castrated men. The heat loss during hot flashes may be mediated by the potent vasodilator and sweat gland activator calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP the concentration of which increases in plasma during flashes in menopausal women and, according to one study, in castrated men with flushes. There is also evidence for connections between the opioid system and the release of CGRP. In this paper we discuss acupuncture as a treatment alternative for hot flashes and the role of CGRP in this context.

  7. Flash pyrolysis, a process for utilizing contaminated wood; Flash-Pyrolyse - eine Moeglichkeit der stofflichen Verwertung von kontaminiertem Holz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, D.; Wehlte, S.; Faix, O. [Bundesforschungsanstalt fuer Forst- und Holzwirtschaft, Hamburg (Germany). Inst. fuer Holzchemie und Chemische Technologie des Holzes

    1996-12-31

    Flash pyrolysis of wood treated with common pesticides poses no technical probelms. Product yields, with a maximum oil yield at 475 C, are similar to those of untreated wood. Most of the heavy metals are retained by the coal while a small part aheres to the coal layer of the sand bed. The resulting pyrolysis oil contains neither chromium nor copper. (orig) [Deutsch] Die Flash-Pyrolyse der mit den gaengigsten Schutzmitteln behandelten Hoelzer bereitet verfahrenstechnisch keine Probleme. Auch die Produktausbeuten, mit einem oelmaximum bei 475 C, aehneln denen von naturbelassenem Holz. Der groesste Teil der Schwermetalle wurde an die Kohle gebunden, ein geringer Teil blieb auf der Kohleschicht des Sandes haften. Im Hauptprodukt Pyrolyseoel konnten weder Chrom noch Kupfer nachgewiesen werden. (orig)

  8. Flash pyrolysis, a process for utilizing contaminated wood; Flash-Pyrolyse - eine Moeglichkeit der stofflichen Verwertung von kontaminiertem Holz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, D; Wehlte, S; Faix, O [Bundesforschungsanstalt fuer Forst- und Holzwirtschaft, Hamburg (Germany). Inst. fuer Holzchemie und Chemische Technologie des Holzes

    1997-12-31

    Flash pyrolysis of wood treated with common pesticides poses no technical probelms. Product yields, with a maximum oil yield at 475 C, are similar to those of untreated wood. Most of the heavy metals are retained by the coal while a small part aheres to the coal layer of the sand bed. The resulting pyrolysis oil contains neither chromium nor copper. (orig) [Deutsch] Die Flash-Pyrolyse der mit den gaengigsten Schutzmitteln behandelten Hoelzer bereitet verfahrenstechnisch keine Probleme. Auch die Produktausbeuten, mit einem oelmaximum bei 475 C, aehneln denen von naturbelassenem Holz. Der groesste Teil der Schwermetalle wurde an die Kohle gebunden, ein geringer Teil blieb auf der Kohleschicht des Sandes haften. Im Hauptprodukt Pyrolyseoel konnten weder Chrom noch Kupfer nachgewiesen werden. (orig)

  9. Cardiac autonomic function and hot flashes among perimenopausal and postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Carolyn J; Mendes, Wendy Berry; Schembri, Michael; Grady, Deborah; Huang, Alison J

    2017-07-01

    Abnormalities in autonomic function are posited to play a pathophysiologic role in menopausal hot flashes. We examined relationships between resting cardiac autonomic activity and hot flashes in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women. Autonomic function was assessed at baseline and 12 weeks among perimenopausal and postmenopausal women (n = 121, mean age 53 years) in a randomized trial of slow-paced respiration for hot flashes. Pre-ejection period (PEP), a marker of sympathetic activation, was measured with impedance cardiography. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), a marker of parasympathetic activation, was measured with electrocardiography. Participants self-reported hot flash frequency and severity in 7-day symptom diaries. Analysis of covariance models were used to relate autonomic function and hot flash frequency and severity at baseline, and to relate changes in autonomic function to changes in hot flash frequency and severity over 12 weeks, adjusting for age, body mass index, and intervention assignment. PEP was not associated with hot flash frequency or severity at baseline or over 12 weeks (P > 0.05 for all). In contrast, there was a trend toward greater frequency of moderate-to-severe hot flashes with higher RSA at baseline (β = 0.43, P = 0.06), and a positive association between change in RSA and change in frequency of moderate-to-severe hot flashes over 12 weeks (β = 0.63, P = 0.04). Among perimenopausal and postmenopausal women with hot flashes, variations in hot flash frequency and severity were not explained by variations in resting sympathetic activation. Greater parasympathetic activation was associated with more frequent moderate-to-severe hot flashes, which may reflect increased sensitivity to perceiving hot flashes.

  10. Self-determined motivation in rehabilitating professional rugby union players

    OpenAIRE

    Carson, F.; Polman, Remco C.J.

    2017-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to explore the views of professional rugby union players during the early rehabilitation, late rehabilitation and return to play stages, following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. Methods A qualitative dominant, mixed methodological approach was utilized with five players who had suffered an ACL injury requiring reconstructive surgery. A longitudinal approach, concurrent with each player?s rehabilitation, consisting of twice monthly intervie...

  11. Effect of coach change on professional tennis players

    OpenAIRE

    Nekolová, Barbora

    2014-01-01

    Title: Effect of coach change on professional tennis players Objectives of work: The aim of the thesis is to analyze the impact of coach change on professional tennis players from the psychology perspective, social relationship and player's attitude to the sport itself. The impact of the coach change on player's approach to tennis, game results, personal life and interpersonal relationships will be examined. Method: The methods that will be used are narrative interviews - annotated transcript...

  12. Assessment of Cardiovascular Risk in Collegiate Football Players and Nonathletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrosielski, Devon A.; Rosenbaum, Daryl; Wooster, Benjamin M.; Merrill, Michael; Swanson, John; Moore, J. Brian; Brubaker, Peter H.

    2010-01-01

    Collegiate American football players may be at risk for cardiovascular disease. Objective: To compare cardiovascular disease risk factors and cardiovascular structure and function parameters of football players, stratified by position, to a group of sedentary, nonathletes. Participants: Twenty-six collegiate football players and 13 nonathletes…

  13. Coping strategies of soccer players | Plaatjie | South African Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study focused on coping strategies used by soccer (football) players by exploring the role of the environment, ethnicity and culture in players' response to stressful situations. An interpretive-qualitative research methodology was applied with a sample of 33 professional soccer players. The subjects were representative ...

  14. Exploring Online Game Players' Flow Experiences and Positive Affect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Yu-Tzu; Lin, Sunny S. J.; Cheng, Chao-Yang; Liu, Eric Zhi-Feng

    2011-01-01

    The authors conducted two studies to explore online game players' flow experiences and positive affect. Our findings indicated that online game are capable of evoking flow experiences and positive affect, and games of violent or nonviolent type may not arouse players' aggression. The players could be placed into four flow conditions: flow,…

  15. High School Rugby Players' Perception of Coaching Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broodryk, Retief; van den Berg, Pieter Hendrick

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study were firstly to determine the players' perceptions of their respective coaches' coaching effectiveness and secondly, determine the difference between big and small schools of the players' perceptions of their respective coaches' coaching effectiveness. Four hundred and seventy six players from 22 schools were asked to fill…

  16. Morphological evolution of Springbok rugby players: Implications for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The physique of rugby players has evolved over the course of the Twentieth Century. A novel morphological dataset was constructed of all Springbok rugby players until 2014. Although most of the change in body structure, particularly body weight, occurs during the era of professionalism, white Springbok rugby players ...

  17. Training Patterns of Wheelchair Basketball Players in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatar, Yasar

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze technical drills, warm-up and cool-down exercises used by wheelchair basketball players of the Turkish league in relation to training sessions. 33 male wheelchair basketball players participated in the study (mean age 26.6[plus or minus]5,95 years). All players reported that they used warm-up exercises before…

  18. Foot morphology of Turkish football players according to foot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Football is the most popular sport in the world. Foot morphology and foot preference are important factors in football player's performance. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the foot morphology of elite football players with different foot preferences. 407 male football players participated in this study. 328 of ...

  19. Injury prevention for adult male soccer players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beijsterveldt, A.M.C.

    2013-01-01

    Soccer causes the largest number of injuries each year (18% of all sports injuries) in the Netherlands. The aim of this dissertation is to contribute to the body of evidence on injury prevention for adult male soccer players. Chapter 1 is a general introduction and presents the “sequence of

  20. The players in the French photovoltaic sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houot, G.

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews all the players of the photovoltaic industry in France (silicon producers, electrical component manufacturers, solar system manufacturers, design offices, solar system wholesalers, installers, and solar farm operators). For each company the following is reported: name, activity sector, historical background, staff, turnover, achievement and projects. (A.C.)

  1. Body composition of italian female hockey players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Pavan

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this work the anthropometric features and the body composition of Italian hockey players, members of the Female National team, were analysed. The purpose of the research was to verify if morphological features could influence the performance of different positional groups. Materials and Methods: Each player was measured for her total and sitting height, weight, 9 skinfolds thickness and bioelectrical impedance analysis. Different equations were used to calculate the Fat% from skinfolds thickness. Results: Average height is not a crucial advantage for this sport. On the contrary the proportion trunk-limb seems to play an important role for the performance of the midfield players. Percentage of body fat of the hockey players was lower than the Fat% of the non-athletes women of the same age. Significant differences were found between Fat% determined by skinfolds thickness and Fat% obtained by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Conclusions: The results of this study indicate that there are significant differences in anthropometric features and in body composition between positional groups, stressing the importance of a specific training program. Keywords: field hockey, bioelectrical impedance, skinfolds thickness, anthropometry.

  2. Are squash players protecting their eyes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eime, R M; Finch, C F; Sherman, C A; Garnham, A P

    2002-09-01

    To determine factors associated with adult squash players' protective eyewear behaviours. A survey of 303 players (aged >or =18 years) was conducted at three squash venues in Melbourne, Australia over a three week period in June 2000 to obtain information about protective eyewear use. Of 303 participants the response rate was 98.1%; 66.1% were males, with a mean age of 40.5 years. The majority (68.4%) had played squash for 10 years or more. Although 18.8% of players reported using protective eyewear, only 8.9% reported wearing approved eyewear. Both age group (peye injuries (50.0%) and knowledge of eye injury risk (33.9%). A commonly reported barrier was restriction of vision (34.2%). These findings demonstrate a low prevalence of voluntary use of appropriate protective eyewear. Future prevention strategies incorporating education campaigns should focus on increasing players' knowledge of risks. The barriers to use and misconceptions about which types of eyewear is most protective need to be addressed as a priority.

  3. Acromioclavicular disruption in first class rugby players.

    OpenAIRE

    Webb, J; Bannister, G

    1992-01-01

    In a random sample of 105 first class rugby players, 45% gave a history of injury of the acromioclavicular joint. All continued to play at the highest level. The effects of the injury appeared to be minimal. Supraspinatus impingement syndrome commonly associated with acromioclavicular pathology was sought, but not found.

  4. Kinanthropometric characteristics in teenager basketball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Abella del Campo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Basketball is a sport with a high heterogeneity anthropometric as playing position. Point guard is usually the lowest player but also the fastest. Guard is similar to point guard, faster and more agile than the others. Small forward has an intermediate height between the inside and outside players and it combines height with velocity. And center (pivot has a physical role, it has the highest and more muscle mass. The aim of this study is to describe the kinanthropometric profile of male cadet “Valencia Basket Club”. Material and Methods: A total of 20 male cadet basketball players were evaluated (15.35±0.59 years old. An anthropometrist level 1 took anthropometric measures according to the methodology of the International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK. Body composition was calculated according to the kinanthropometry consensus of the Kinanthropometry Spanish Group (GREC, somatotype with Heath-Carter’s method and adiposemuscular and cardiovascular risk index. Results: Differences in values of weight, height, skinfold and body composition from variables of sample and position were observed. Lower values were from point guard position and higher values were from center position. An increasing trend of these parameters was established in the following order: point guard, guard, small forward and center. Conclusions: The Valencia Basket Club cadet player overall somatotype is balance ectomorph. To know kinanthropometric profile may be beneficial to develop specific training and nutrition plans as well as to see evolution and characteristics for optimal performance

  5. Modeling attacking of high skills volleyball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Gamaliy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to determine the model indicators of technical and tactical actions in the attack highly skilled volleyball players. Material and Methods: the study used statistical data of major international competitions: Olympic Games – 2012 World Championships – 2010, World League – 2010–2014 European Championship – 2010–2014. A total of 130 analyzed games. Methods were used: analysis and generalization of scientific and methodological literature, analysis of competitive activity highly skilled volleyball players, teacher observation, modeling technical and tactical actions in attacking highly skilled volleyball players. Results: it was found that the largest volume application of technical and tactical actions in the attack belongs to the group tactics «supple movement», whose indicator is 21,3%. The smallest amount of application belongs to the group tactics «flight level» model whose indicators is 5,4%, the efficiency of 3,4%, respectively. It is found that the power service in the jump from model parameters used in 51,6% of cases, the planning targets – 21,7% and 4,4% planning to reduce. Attacks performed with the back line, on model parameters used in the amount of 20,8% efficiency –13,7%. Conclusions: we prove that the performance of technical and tactical actions in the attack can be used as model in the control system of training and competitive process highly skilled volleyball players

  6. Football players, asset management & the unexploited potential of enhanced player engagement in football management & marketing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortsen, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    This article gives insights into why and how football brands (e.g. clubs and governing bodies) can benefit from enhancing the activation of players in football management and football marketing initiatives.......This article gives insights into why and how football brands (e.g. clubs and governing bodies) can benefit from enhancing the activation of players in football management and football marketing initiatives....

  7. Football players, asset management & the unexploited potential of enhanced player engagement in football management & marketing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortsen, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    This article gives insights into why and how football brands (e.g. clubs and governing bodies) can benefit from enhancing the activation of players in football management and football marketing initiatives.......This article gives insights into why and how football brands (e.g. clubs and governing bodies) can benefit from enhancing the activation of players in football management and football marketing initiatives....

  8. Impact locations and concussion outcomes in high school football player-to-player collisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Zachary Y; Collins, Christy L; Mihalik, Jason P; Marshall, Stephen W; Guskiewicz, Kevin M; Comstock, R Dawn

    2014-09-01

    Little research has examined concussion outcomes in terms of impact location (ie, the area on the head in which the impact occurred). This study describes the epidemiology of concussions resulting from player-to-player collision in high school football by impact location. National High School Sports-Related Injury Surveillance Study data (2008/2009-2012/2013) were analyzed to calculate rates and describe circumstances of football concussion (eg, symptomology, symptom resolution time, return to play) resulting from player-to-player collisions by impact location (ie, front-, back-, side-, and top-of-the-head). Most concussions resulting from player-to-player collisions occurred from front-of-the-head (44.7%) and side-of-the-head (22.3%) impacts. Number of symptoms reported, prevalence of reported symptoms, symptom resolution time, and length of time to return to play were not associated with impact location. However, a larger proportion of football players sustaining concussions from top-of-the-head impacts experienced loss of consciousness (8.0%) than those sustaining concussions from impacts to other areas of the head (3.5%) (injury proportion ratio 2.3; 95% confidence interval 1.2-4.2; P = .008). Players had their head down at the time of impact in a higher proportion of concussions caused by top-of-the-head impacts (86.4%) than concussions from impacts to other areas of the head (24.0%) (injury proportion ratio 3.6; 95% confidence interval 3.2-4.0; P impact location. Recommended strategies for reducing the proportion of top-of-the-head impacts include improved education regarding tackling with proper "head-up" technique. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  9. The architecture of the chess player's brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hänggi, Jürgen; Brütsch, Karin; Siegel, Adrian M; Jäncke, Lutz

    2014-09-01

    The game of chess can be seen as a typical example for an expertise task requiring domain-specific training and experience. Despite intensive behavioural studies the neural underpinnings of chess performance and expertise are not entirely understood. A few functional neuroimaging studies have shown that expert chess players recruit different psychological functions and activate different brain areas while they are engaged in chess-related activities. Based on this functional literature, we predicted to find morphological differences in a network comprised by parietal and frontal areas and especially the occipito-temporal junction (OTJ), fusiform gyrus, and caudate nucleus. Twenty expert chess players and 20 control subjects were investigated using voxel-based and surface-based morphometry as well as diffusion tensor imaging. Grey matter volume and cortical thickness were reduced in chess players compared with those of control men in the OTJ and precunei. The volumes of both caudate nuclei were not different between groups, but correlated inversely with the years of chess playing experience. Mean diffusivity was increased in chess players compared with that of controls in the left superior longitudinal fasciculus and the Elo score (a chess tournament ranking) was inversely related to mean diffusivity within the right superior longitudinal fasciculus. To the best of our knowledge we showed for the first time that there are specific differences in grey and white matter morphology between chess players and control subjects in brain regions associated with cognitive functions important for playing chess. Whether these anatomical alterations are the cause or consequence of the intensive and long-term chess training and practice remains to be shown in future studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Body Image Amongst Elite Rugby Union Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Claire; Hindle, Chloe; McLay-Cooke, Rebecca; Slater, Joanne; Brown, Rachel; Smith, Brett; Baker, Dane; Healey, Philip; Black, Katherine

    2017-11-16

    There is limited information on the risk of eating disorders and body image of elite male athletes. However, research suggests there are some athletes who have poor body image and they may be at increased risk of developing eating disorders. Therefore, the current study investigated risk of eating disorders, body image, and the relationship with age, in elite rugby union players during their pre-season training period.This cross-sectional study was undertaken at the start of the pre-season amongst elite rugby union players in New Zealand. Twenty-six professional rugby union players completed a 49-item questionnaire on body image and disordered eating. A 'body image score' was calculated from questionnaire subscales including 'drive for thinness', 'bulimia' and 'body dissatisfaction', with total scores above twenty indicative of poor body image.Body image scores varied from 8-39 out of a possible 0-100. Disordered eating behaviours were reported, including binge eating at least once a week (15%, n=4/26), pathogenic weight control use (4%, n=1/26) and avoidance of certain foods (77%, n=20/26). There was a statistically significant inverse association between the bulimia subscale and age (P = 0.034).At the start of the pre-season training period, many elite rugby union players experience disturbances in body image. The prevalence of disordered eating behaviours is of concern, and needs to be minimised due to the negative impact on health and performance. A focus on assessment and education of younger male rugby players may be required in order to reduce disordered eating patterns.

  11. Physiological characteristics of elite soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumilty, D

    1993-08-01

    Soccer is one of the most popular sports in the world. There is still much uncertainty and debate surrounding its physiological requirements because emphasis is on skills to the neglect of fitness, conservative training methods and the difficulty of studying the sport scientifically. The frequently found values for total distance covered in a game of about 10 km and an above-average, though not outstanding, maximum oxygen uptake of 60 ml/kg/min suggest a moderate overall aerobic demand. A comparison of top teams and players with less able participants indicates that the components of anaerobic fitness-speed, power, strength and the capacity of the lactic acid system may differentiate better between the 2 groups. Generally, there is a reduction in the level of activity in the second half of games compared with the first. There is some evidence that increased aerobic fitness may help counteract this. Progressively lower muscle glycogen stores are one likely cause of reduction in activity, and nutrition also appears to be a key factor in minimising performance deterioration, both in terms of overall diet and, more particularly, the ingestion of carbohydrates immediately before, during and after a game. There are evolutionary trends in the sport such as greater frequency of games, changes in the roles of players, and new strategies and tactics which are placing increasing demands on the all-round fitness of players. Many studies indicate scope for improvement in player fitness. The challenge for coaches and players is to meet these fitness requirements without sacrificing the skill work which makes the sport unique.

  12. Prospective Player-Reported Injuries in Female Youth Fast-Pitch Softball Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Matthew V.; Davis, Randi; Brophy, Robert H.; Prather, Heidi; Garbutt, Jane; Wright, Rick W.

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is a scarcity of literature evaluating injuries in youth fast-pitch softball players. Purpose: To perform a descriptive analysis of player-reported injuries in youth fast-pitch softball position players and pitchers during a single select-level season. Study Design: Prospective observation cohort study. Level of Evidence: Level 3. Methods: Ninety-eight athletes (48 pitchers, 50 position players) were followed for a single select fast-pitch softball season. Study participants completed web-based surveys every 3 weeks reporting injuries related to participation in fast-pitch softball. Injury was defined as pain causing cessation of participation in the current game or practice that prevents the player’s return to that session or any pain that causes cessation of a player’s customary participation on the day after the day of onset. Results: The median age of the study participants was 14 years (range, 9-18 years). There were 49 reported injuries in 98 athletes. The average age was 13 years for those not injured and 14 years for those who were injured (P softball players. Better off-season and preseason conditioning may be a key factor for reducing pitching injuries. Clinical Relevance: Recognition of injury patterns in fast-pitch softball players is critical to developing strategies to keep these athletes competing safely. PMID:26502442

  13. The Adjoint Method for Gradient-based Dynamic Optimization of UV Flash Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritschel, Tobias Kasper Skovborg; Capolei, Andrea; Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a novel single-shooting algorithm for gradient-based solution of optimal control problems with vapor-liquid equilibrium constraints. Dynamic optimization of UV flash processes is relevant in nonlinear model predictive control of distillation columns, certain two-phase flow pro......-component flash process which demonstrate the importance of the optimization solver, the compiler, and the linear algebra software for the efficiency of dynamic optimization of UV flash processes....

  14. Metabolic activity in the insular cortex and hypothalamus predicts hot flashes: an FDG-PET study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joffe, Hadine; Deckersbach, Thilo; Lin, Nancy U; Makris, Nikos; Skaar, Todd C; Rauch, Scott L; Dougherty, Darin D; Hall, Janet E

    2012-09-01

    Hot flashes are a common side effect of adjuvant endocrine therapies (AET; leuprolide, tamoxifen, aromatase inhibitors) that reduce quality of life and treatment adherence in breast cancer patients. Because hot flashes affect only some women, preexisting neurobiological traits might predispose to their development. Previous studies have implicated the insula during the perception of hot flashes and the hypothalamus in thermoregulatory dysfunction. The aim of the study was to understand whether neurobiological factors predict hot flashes. [18F]-Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) brain scans coregistered with structural magnetic resonance imaging were used to determine whether metabolic activity in the insula and hypothalamic thermoregulatory and estrogen-feedback regions measured before and in response to AET predict hot flashes. Findings were correlated with CYP2D6 genotype because of CYP2D6 polymorphism associations with tamoxifen-induced hot flashes. We measured regional cerebral metabolic rate of glucose uptake (rCMRglu) in the insula and hypothalamus on FDG-PET. Of 18 women without hot flashes who began AET, new-onset hot flashes were reported by 10 (55.6%) and were detected objectively in nine (50%) participants. Prior to the use of all AET, rCMRglu in the insula (P ≤ 0.01) and hypothalamic thermoregulatory (P = 0.045) and estrogen-feedback (P = 0.007) regions was lower in women who reported developing hot flashes. In response to AET, rCMRglu was further reduced in the insula in women developing hot flashes (P ≤ 0.02). Insular and hypothalamic rCMRglu levels were lower in intermediate than extensive CYP2D6 metabolizers. Trait neurobiological characteristics predict hot flashes. Genetic variability in CYP2D6 may underlie the neurobiological predisposition to hot flashes induced by AET.

  15. Flash-Point prediction for binary partially miscible aqueous-organic mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Liaw, Horng-Jang; Chen, Chien Tsun; Gerbaud, Vincent

    2008-01-01

    Flash point is the most important variable used to characterize fire and explosion hazard of liquids. Herein, partially miscible mixtures are presented within the context of liquid-liquid extraction processes and heterogeneous distillation processes. This paper describes development of a model for predicting the flash point of binary partially miscible mixtures of aqueous-organic system. To confirm the predictive efficiency of the derived flash points, the model was verified by comparing the ...

  16. Interactions of numerical and temporal stimulus characteristics on the control of response location by brief flashes of light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetterman, J Gregor; Killeen, P Richard

    2011-09-01

    Pigeons pecked on three keys, responses to one of which could be reinforced after 3 flashes of the houselight, to a second key after 6, and to a third key after 12. The flashes were arranged according to variable-interval schedules. Response allocation among the keys was a function of the number of flashes. When flashes were omitted, transitions occurred very late. Increasing flash duration produced a leftward shift in the transitions along a number axis. Increasing reinforcement probability produced a leftward shift, and decreasing reinforcement probability produced a rightward shift. Intermixing different flash rates within sessions separated allocations: Faster flash rates shifted the functions sooner in real time, but later in terms of flash count, and conversely for slower flash rates. A model of control by fading memories of number and time was proposed.

  17. Construction of a flash-photolysis apparatus having a short discharge time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devillers, C.

    1964-01-01

    Flash photolysis aims at reaching directly the primary mechanisms resulting from the action of light on an absorbent matter. This makes it necessary to produce a flash as short and as bright as possible. Our main effort was directed towards reducing the duration of the flash by decreasing the self-inductance of the discharge circuit. A description of this circuit and study of the characteristics of the apparatus are followed by a short description of the two analytical methods: flash spectrography and absorption spectrophotometry at a given wave-length. (author) [fr

  18. Prospective study of injury in volleyball players: 6 year results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, M F; Ezechieli, M; Classen, L; Kieffer, O; Miltner, O

    2015-01-01

    The volleyball game has a high complexity and thus entails a lot of strain to the players. Due to this high and different training and competition strain comprehensive and individual training plans should be developed with competing training objectives in order to prevent injuries. The aim of the study was to analyse prospectively over six seasons the acute and overuse injuries of a German male professional volleyball team. The study included 34 male national league players from season the 2007/08 to 2012/13. All players received a sport medicine examination and a functional diagnosis before each season. Based on the results the players received an individual training plan. The players suffered 186 injuries. The prevalence of acute injuries was 1.94 per player and overuse injuries 0.64 per player. The incidence of acute injuries was 3.3/1000 h volleyball and overuse injuries 1.08/1000 h volleyball. The largest number of injuries was found in the spine. The players had most likely minor injuries. The players had significantly fewer injuries in their second season (1.92) than in their first season (3.25; p= 0.004). It could be concluded that volleyball is a sport with a relative low prevalence of injuries compared to other team sports. The prevalence of injury is 2.58 per player. Due to an injury a player dropped out 16.91 days per season. An individual training program seems to reduce the incidence of injury.

  19. Modeling of Pulses in Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Celestin, Sebastien; Pasko, Victor

    2015-04-01

    Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes (TGFs) are high-energy photon bursts originating from the Earth's atmosphere that are associated with lightning activities. After their discovery in 1994 by the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) detector aboard the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory [Fishman et al., Science, 264, 1313, 1994], this phenomenon has been further observed by the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) [Smith et al., Science, 307, 1085, 2005], the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope [Briggs et al., JGR, 115, A07323, 2010] and the Astrorivelatore Gamma a Immagini Leggero (AGILE) satellite [Marisaldi et al., JGR, 115, A00E13, 2010]. Photon spectra corresponding to the mechanism of relativistic runaway electron avalanches (RREAs) usually provide a very good agreement with satellite observations [Dwyer and Smith, GRL, 32, L22804, 2005]. On the other hand, Celestin and Pasko [JGR, 116, A03315, 2011] have shown theoretically that the large flux of thermal runaway electrons generated by streamers during the negative corona flash stage of stepping lightning leaders in intracloud lightning flashes could be responsible for TGFs. Recently, based on analysis of the temporal profiles of 278 TGF events observed by the Fermi Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor, Foley et al. [JGR, 119, 5931, 2014] have suggested that 67% of TGF pulses detected are asymmetric and these asymmetric pulses are consistent with the production mechanism of TGFs by relativistic feedback discharges. In the present work, we employ a Monte Carlo model to study the temporal distribution of photons at low-orbit satellite altitudes during TGF events. Using the pulse fitting method described in [Foley et al., 2014], we further investigate the characteristics of TGF pulses. We mainly focus on the effects of Compton scattering on the symmetry properties and the rise and fall times of TGF pulses.

  20. The relativistic feedback discharge model of terrestrial gamma ray flashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Joseph R.

    2012-02-01

    As thunderclouds charge, the large-scale fields may approach the relativistic feedback threshold, above which the production of relativistic runaway electron avalanches becomes self-sustaining through the generation of backward propagating runaway positrons and backscattered X-rays. Positive intracloud (IC) lightning may force the large-scale electric fields inside thunderclouds above the relativistic feedback threshold, causing the number of runaway electrons, and the resulting X-ray and gamma ray emission, to grow exponentially, producing very large fluxes of energetic radiation. As the flux of runaway electrons increases, ionization eventually causes the electric field to discharge, bringing the field below the relativistic feedback threshold again and reducing the flux of runaway electrons. These processes are investigated with a new model that includes the production, propagation, diffusion, and avalanche multiplication of runaway electrons; the production and propagation of X-rays and gamma rays; and the production, propagation, and annihilation of runaway positrons. In this model, referred to as the relativistic feedback discharge model, the large-scale electric fields are calculated self-consistently from the charge motion of the drifting low-energy electrons and ions, produced from the ionization of air by the runaway electrons, including two- and three-body attachment and recombination. Simulation results show that when relativistic feedback is considered, bright gamma ray flashes are a natural consequence of upward +IC lightning propagating in large-scale thundercloud fields. Furthermore, these flashes have the same time structures, including both single and multiple pulses, intensities, angular distributions, current moments, and energy spectra as terrestrial gamma ray flashes, and produce large current moments that should be observable in radio waves.

  1. The imaging performance of flash memory masks characterized with AIMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Setten, Eelco; Wismans, Onno; Grim, Kees; Finders, Jo; Dusa, Mircea; Birkner, Robert; Richter, Rigo; Scherübl, Thomas

    2009-04-01

    Flash memory is an important driver of the lithography roadmap, with its dramatic acceleration in dimensional shrink, pushing for ever smaller feature sizes. The introduction of hyper-NA immersion lithography has brought the 45nm node and below within reach for memory makers using single exposure. At these feature sizes mask topology and the material properties of the film stack on the mask play an important role on imaging performance. Furthermore, the break up of the array pitch regularity in the NAND-type flash memory cell by two thick wordlines and a central space, leads to feature-center placement (overlay) errors, that are inherent to the design. An integral optimization approach is needed to mitigate these effects and to control both the CD and placement errors tightly. In this paper we will show that aerial image measurements at mask-level are useful for characterizing the gate layer of a NAND-Flash design before exposure. The aerial image measurements are performed with the AIMSTM 45-193i. and compared to CD measurements on the wafer obtained with an XT:1900Gi hyper-NA immersion system. An excellent correlation is demonstrated for feature-center placement errors and CD variations across the mask (see Figure 1) for several features in the gate layer down to 40nm half pitch. This shows the potential to use aerial image measurements at mask-level in combination with correction techniques on the photomask, like the CDC200 tool in combination with exposure tool correction techniques, such as DoseMapperTM, to improve both across field and across wafer CD uniformity of critical layers.

  2. The development of a flash flood severity index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Amanda J.; Gourley, Jonathan J.; Hardy, Jill; Henderson, Jen J.; Parhi, Pradipta; Rahmani, Vahid; Reed, Kimberly A.; Schumacher, Russ S.; Smith, Brianne K.; Taraldsen, Matthew J.

    2016-10-01

    Flash flooding is a high impact weather event that requires clear communication regarding severity and potential hazards among forecasters, researchers, emergency managers, and the general public. Current standards used to communicate these characteristics include return periods and the United States (U.S.) National Weather Service (NWS) 4-tiered river flooding severity scale. Return periods are largely misunderstood, and the NWS scale is limited to flooding on gauged streams and rivers, often leaving out heavily populated urban corridors. To address these shortcomings, a student-led group of interdisciplinary researchers came together in a collaborative effort to develop an impact-based Flash Flood Severity Index (FFSI). The index was proposed as a damage-based, post-event assessment tool, and preliminary work toward the creation of this index has been completed and presented here. Numerous case studies were analyzed to develop the preliminary outline for the FFSI, and three examples of such cases are included in this paper. The scale includes five impact-based categories ranging from Category 1 very minor flooding to Category 5 catastrophic flooding. Along with the numerous case studies used to develop the initial outline of the scale, empirical data in the form of semi-structured interviews were conducted with multiple NWS forecasters across the country and their responses were analyzed to gain more perspective on the complicated nature of flash flood definitions and which tools were found to be most useful. The feedback from these interviews suggests the potential for acceptance of such an index if it can account for specific challenges.

  3. Integrated flash flood vulnerability assessment: Insights from East Attica, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagiorgos, Konstantinos; Thaler, Thomas; Heiser, Micha; Hübl, Johannes; Fuchs, Sven

    2016-10-01

    In the framework of flood risk assessment, vulnerability is a key concept to assess the susceptibility of elements at risk. Besides the increasing amount of studies on flash floods available, in-depth information on vulnerability in Mediterranean countries was missing so far. Moreover, current approaches in vulnerability research are driven by a divide between social scientists who tend to view vulnerability as representing a set of socio-economic factors, and natural scientists who view vulnerability in terms of the degree of loss to an element at risk. Further, vulnerability studies in response to flash flood processes are rarely answered in the literature. In order to close this gap, this paper implemented an integrated vulnerability approach focusing on residential buildings exposed to flash floods in Greece. In general, both physical and social vulnerability was comparable low, which is interpreted as a result from (a) specific building regulations in Greece as well as general design principles leading to less structural susceptibility of elements at risk exposed, and (b) relatively low economic losses leading to less social vulnerability of citizens exposed. The population show high risk awareness and coping capacity to response to natural hazards event and in the same time the impact of the events are quite low, because of the already high use of local protection measures. The low vulnerability score for East Attica can be attributed especially to the low physical vulnerability and the moderate socio-economic well-being of the area. The consequence is to focus risk management strategies mainly in the reduction of the social vulnerability. By analysing both physical and social vulnerability an attempt was made to bridge the gap between scholars from sciences and humanities, and to integrate the results of the analysis into the broader vulnerability context.

  4. I Fought the Law: Transgressive Play and The Implied Player

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarseth, Espen J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to understand Game Studies through the contested notion of the “player” both inside and outside “the game object” – that is the object that game users perceive and respond to when they play. Building on Hans-Georg Gadamer’s notion of games as a subject that “masters...... the players”, the paper will go beyond the traditional split between the social sciences’ real players and the aesthetics/humanities critical author-as-player, and present a theory of the player and player studies that incorporates the complex tensions between the real, historical player and the game’s human...... components. Since games are both aesthetic and social phenomena, a theory of the player must combine both social and aesthetic perspectives to be successful. The tension between the humanities and the social sciences over who controls the idea of the player can be found mirrored also in the struggle between...

  5. Temperature distribution study in flash-annealed amorphous ribbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moron, C.; Garcia, A.; Carracedo, M.T.

    2003-01-01

    Negative magnetrostrictive amorphous ribbons have been locally current annealed with currents from 1 to 8 A and annealing times from 14 ms to 200 s. In order to obtain information about the sample temperature during flash or current annealing, a study of the temperature dispersion during annealing in amorphous ribbons was made. The local temperature variation was obtained by measuring the local intensity of the infrared emission of the sample with a CCD liquid nitrogen cooled camera. A distribution of local temperature has been found in spite of the small dimension of the sample

  6. Homogeneous nonequilibrium critical flashing flow with a cavity flooding model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.Y.; Schrock, V.E.

    1989-01-01

    The primary purpose of the work presented here is to describe the model for pressure undershoot at incipient flashing in the critical flow of straight channels (Fanno-type flow) for subcooled or saturated stagnation conditions on a more physical basis. In previous models, a modification of the pressure undershoot prediction of Alamgir and Lienhard was used. Their method assumed nucleation occurs on the bounding walls as a result of molecular fluctuations. Without modification it overpredicts the pressure undershoot. In the present work the authors develop a mechanistic model for nucleation from wall cavities. This physical concept is more consistent with experimental data

  7. Accuracy of a Flash Glucose Monitoring System in Diabetic Dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Corradini, S.; Pilosio, B.; Dondi, F.; Linari, G.; Testa, S.; Brugnoli, F.; Gianella, P.; Pietra, M.; Fracassi, F.

    2016-01-01

    Background A novel flash glucose monitoring system (FGMS) (FreeStyle Libre, Abbott, UK) was recently developed for humans. It continuously measures the interstitial glucose (IG) concentrations for 14 days. Objectives To assess the clinical and analytical accuracy of the FGMS in diabetic dogs. Animals Ten client?owned diabetic dogs on insulin treatment. Methods Prospective and observational study. The FGMS was placed on the neck for up to 14 days. During the 1st?2nd, 6?7th, and 13?14th days fr...

  8. Frequency upshift via flash ionization phenomena using semiconductor plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishida A.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We have demonstrated frequency upshift in the terahertz region by flash ionization. The magnitude of upshift frequency is tuned by the laser intensity. A proof of principle experiment has been performed with a plasma creation time scale much shorter than the period of the electromagnetic wave and a plasma length longer than its wavelength. Frequency upshifted from 0.35 to 3.5 THz by irradiating a ZnSe crystal with a ultra-short laser pulse has been observed.

  9. Identification af explosive power factors as predictors of player quality in young female volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grgantov, Zoran; Milić, Mirjana; Katić, Ratko

    2013-05-01

    With the purpose of determining the factor structure of explosive power, as well as the influence of each factor on situational efficiency, 56 young female volleyball players were tested using 14 tests for assessing nonspecific and specific explosive power. By factor analysis, 4 significant factors were isolated which explained the total of over 80% of the common variability in young female volleyball players. The first factor was defined as volleyball-specific jumping, the second factor as nonspecific jumping and sprinting, the third factor as throwing explosive power, while the fourth factor was interpreted as volleyball-specific throwing and spiking speed from the ground. Results obtained by regression analysis in the latent space of explosive power indicate that the identified factors are good predictors of player quality in young female volleyball players. The fourth factor defined as throwing and spiking speed from the ground had the largest influence on player quality, followed by volleyball-specific jumping and nonspecific jumping and sprinting, and to a much lesser extent, by throwing explosive power The results obtained in this age group bring to the fore the ability of spiking and serving a ball of high speed, which hinders the opponents from playing those balls in serve reception and field defence. This ability, combined with a high standing vertical jump reach and spike approach vertical jump reach (which is the basis of the 1st varimax factor) enables successful performance of all volleyball elements by which points are won in complex 1 (spike) and complex 2 (serve and block). Even though the 2nd factor (nonspecific jumping and sprinting) has a slightly smaller impact on situational efficiency in young players, this ability provides preconditions i.e. preparation for successful realisation of all volleyball elements, so greater attention must be paid to perfecting it in young female volleyball players.

  10. A Study and Taxonomy of Vulnerabilities in Web Based Animation and Interactivity Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    of Adobe Flash and Related Products Adobe Flash, formerly known as Macromedia Flash, is a multimedia medium that is used to embed interactive...can be organized as a desktop function using Adobe Flash 4 b. Related Products That Use Embedded Versions of Flash Various different products use...brand, and are no longer supported. Adobe Flex, also known as Adobe Flex Builder , is an integrated development environment built on Eclipse (an open

  11. A comparison of static near stereo acuity in youth baseball/softball players and non-ball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, Lauren M; Rosengren, Kenneth J; Martin, Daniel F; Boden, Scott D

    2009-03-01

    Although many aspects of vision have been investigated in professional baseball players, few studies have been performed in developing athletes. The issue of whether youth baseball players have superior stereopsis to nonplayers has not been addressed specifically. The purpose of this study was to determine if youth baseball/softball players have better stereo acuity than non-ball players. Informed consent was obtained from 51 baseball/softball players and 52 non-ball players (ages 10 to 18 years). Subjects completed a questionnaire, and their static near stereo acuity was measured using the Randot Stereotest (Stereo Optical Company, Chicago, Illinois). Stereo acuity was measured as the seconds of arc between the last pair of images correctly distinguished by the subject. The mean stereo acuity score was 25.5 +/- 1.7 seconds of arc in the baseball/softball players and 56.2 +/- 8.4 seconds of arc in the non-ball players. This difference was statistically significant (P softball players had significantly better static stereo acuity than non-ball players, comparable to professional ball players.

  12. Common Injuries of Collegiate Tennis Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Wisdom Magtajas Valleser

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine the common injuries of Filipino collegiate tennis players; 110 varsity tennis players with a mean of 20 years old (SD ± 1.7 with an average playing experience of 12 years participated in the study. There was a 100% occurrence of at least one injury with an average rate of 5.98 injuries per person. The authors observed that the most commonly injured anatomical region is the lower extremity; ankles were recorded as the most commonly injured part. Other commonly injured areas included the shoulders and lower back. Furthermore, the most common injury type is tendinitis, sprains, and strains. The recorded injuries were mostly associated with overuse injuries, and the findings were similar to those of most other studies on tennis injuries. A larger sample size may provide more conclusive findings on tennis injuries, particularly in different levels of competition, such as recreational or professional athletes.

  13. Evolutionary game theory: molecules as players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohl, Katrin; Hummert, Sabine; Werner, Sarah; Basanta, David; Deutsch, Andreas; Schuster, Stefan; Theissen, Günter; Schroeter, Anja

    2014-12-01

    In this and an accompanying paper we review the use of game theoretical concepts in cell biology and molecular biology. This review focuses on the subcellular level by considering viruses, genes, and molecules as players. We discuss in which way catalytic RNA can be treated by game theory. Moreover, genes can compete for success in replication and can have different strategies in interactions with other genetic elements. Also transposable elements, or "jumping genes", can act as players because they usually bear different traits or strategies. Viruses compete in the case of co-infecting a host cell. Proteins interact in a game theoretical sense when forming heterodimers. Finally, we describe how the Shapley value can be applied to enzymes in metabolic pathways. We show that game theory can be successfully applied to describe and analyse scenarios at the molecular level resulting in counterintuitive conclusions.

  14. Predicting Player Churn In the Wild

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadiji, Fabian; Sifa, Rafet; Drachen, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Free-to-Play or "freemium" games represent a fundamental shift in the business models of the game industry, facilitated by the increasing use of online distribution platforms and the introduction of increasingly powerful mobile platforms. The ability of a game development company to analyze...... a crucial value, allowing developers to obtain data-driven insights to inform design, development and marketing strategies. One of the key challenges is modeling and predicting player churn. This paper presents the first cross-game study of churn prediction in Free-to-Play games. Churn in games is discussed...... and derive insights from behavioral telemetry is crucial to the success of these games which rely on in-game purchases and in-game advertising to generate revenue, and for the Company to remain competitive in a global marketplace. The ability to model, understand and predict future player behavior has...

  15. The potential risk of personal stereo players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammershøi, Dorte; Ordoñez, Rodrigo Pizarro; Reuter, Karen

    2010-01-01

    The technological development within personal stereo systems,such as MP3 players, e. g. iPods, has changed music listening habits from home entertainment to everyday and everywhere use. The technology has developed considerably, since the introduction of cassette players and CD walkmen. High......-level low-distortion music is produced by minimal devices which can play for long periods. In this paper, the existing literature on effects of personal stereo systems is reviewed, incl. studies of exposure levels, and effects on hearing. Generally, it is found that the levels being used are of concern......, which in one study is demonstrated to relate to the specific use in situations with high levels of background noise. Another study demonstrates that the effect of using personal stereo is comparable to that of being exposed to noise in industry. The results are discussed in view of the measurement...

  16. Player Transformation of Educational Multiplayer Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, Rikke; Misfeldt, Morten

    2004-01-01

    transformed the game to accommodate social interaction. With these transformed ways of playing the game, they managed to get to the top of the high score list while avoiding the educational parts of the game. Players transforming educational games to escape learning elements can be a problem when these games...... are used for formal education. In this paper we argue that player transformation of educational games can, however, be the basis of exciting and unconventional learning of valuable things, such as how to transform information technology to better accommodate social interaction.......Children's great interest in multiplayer games has led to attempts to design educational multiplayer games. In this study, we have studied a test of an educational multiplayer game designed for mathematics education for children aged nine to twelve. In our observations, it became clear that pupils...

  17. Player-Specific Conflict Handling Ontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charline Hondrou

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an ontology that leads the player of a serious game - regarding conflict handling - to the educative experience from which they will benefit the most. It provides a clearly defined tree of axioms that maps the player’s visually manifested affective cues and emotional stimuli from the serious game to conflict handling styles and proposes interventions. The importance of this ontology lies in the fact that it promotes natural interaction (non-invasive methods and at the same time makes the game as player-specific as it can be for its educational goal. It is an ontology that can be adapted to different educational theories and serve various educational purposes.

  18. Telemetry and Communication IP Video Player

    Science.gov (United States)

    OFarrell, Zachary L.

    2011-01-01

    Aegis Video Player is the name of the video over IP system for the Telemetry and Communications group of the Launch Services Program. Aegis' purpose is to display video streamed over a network connection to be viewed during launches. To accomplish this task, a VLC ActiveX plug-in was used in C# to provide the basic capabilities of video streaming. The program was then customized to be used during launches. The VLC plug-in can be configured programmatically to display a single stream, but for this project multiple streams needed to be accessed. To accomplish this, an easy to use, informative menu system was added to the program to enable users to quickly switch between videos. Other features were added to make the player more useful, such as watching multiple videos and watching a video in full screen.

  19. RURAL FLASH-FLOOD BEHAVIOR IN GOUYAVE WATERSHED, GRENADA, CARIBBEAN ISLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmat Aris Pratomo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Flash-flood is considered as one of the most common natural disasters in Grenada, a tropical small state island in Caribbean Island. Grenada has several areas which are susceptible to flooding. One of them is Gouyave town which is located in the north-west of Grenada. Its land-use types are highly dominated by green areas, especially in the upper-part of the region. The built-up areas can only be found in the lower-part of Gouyave watershed, near the coastal area. However, there were many land conversions from natural land-use types into built-up areas in the upper-part region. They affected the decrease of water infiltration and the increase of potential run-off, making these areas susceptible to flash-flood. In addition, it is also influenced by the phenomenon of climate change. Changes in extreme temperature increase higher potential of hurricanes or wind-storm, directly related to the potential escalation of flash-flood. To develop effective mitigation strategies, understanding the behavior of flash-flood is required. The purpose of this paper was to observe the behavior of flash-flood in Gouyave watershed in various return periods using OpenLISEM software. It was used to develop and analyse the flash-flood characteristics. The result showed that the climatic condition (rainfall intensity and land-use are influential to the flash-flood event. Flash-flood occurs in 35 and 100 years return period. Flash-flood inundates Gouyave’s area in long duration, with below 1 m flood depth. The flood propagation time is slow. This condition is also influenced by the narrower and longer of Gouyave basin shape. To develop flash-flood reduction strategies, the overall understanding of flash-flood behavior is important. If the mitigation strategy is adapted to their behavior, the implementation will be more optimum.

  20. Management Of The Critically Injured Football Player

    OpenAIRE

    Feld, Francis

    1993-01-01

    Evaluation and treatment of a football player who has sustained life-threatening injuries is a rare but significant challenge for the sports medicine team. Early recognition and intervention in these injuries is crucial. Helmets and shoulder pads complicate management of these patients. In this article, I present a rapid and simple assessment method used by paramedics for trauma patients. Treatment focuses on when football equipment should be removed and how the equipment complicates Advanced...

  1. Do economic players shape up fashion trends?

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan, Syed Akif; Subhani, Muhammad Imtiaz; Osman, Ms. Amber

    2012-01-01

    The behavior of following the most in vogue and admired styles of dressing has been there since the ancient times. With time, people have moved on with the rapid change in the surroundings. Both the genders acknowledge fashion. Fashion is an extension of regular clothing. This paper investigates the role of economical players which includes per capita income and inflations in shaping up the various trends/ fashion trends/ trends in clothing and their consumptions for Pakistan, India, United S...

  2. The El Dorado of Handball? Foreign Female Players Stay, while Domestic Players Return from Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topič, Mojca Doupona; Šibila, Marko

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The main purpose of this research was to study the characteristics of migration in European women’s handball based on the Slovenian example and to find the differences between the foreigners coming to Slovenia and the Slovenians transferring to foreign clubs. The research was based on 16 open face-to-face semi-structured interviews (8 Slovenians (age 29.5 ± 6.2 years) and 8 foreigners (age 35.5 ± 8.7 years)). We found out that the most powerful factor in foreigners was the financial one, while within Slovenian players it was their personal desire for progression within their sport, the club’s reputation and poor conditions in their previous club. The results confirm that when making a decision on transfer, all players had the support of family and friends, while the clubs of foreign players were not as supportive. Most interviewees considered their careers successful and did not regret going abroad. The research indicates that the largest differences discovered between Slovenians and foreigners were that foreign female players chose to stay in the new country (Slovenia), while domestic players returned home after few years playing abroad. In conclusion, the results show that in top-level handball there are important differences between migration models which are based on nationality and also that the migration models change throughout time, which is largely connected with the socioeconomic events in the country of origin or transfer. PMID:28149349

  3. The El Dorado of Handball? Foreign Female Players Stay, while Domestic Players Return from Abroad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bon Marta

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this research was to study the characteristics of migration in European women’s handball based on the Slovenian example and to find the differences between the foreigners coming to Slovenia and the Slovenians transferring to foreign clubs. The research was based on 16 open face-to-face semi-structured interviews (8 Slovenians (age 29.5 ± 6.2 years and 8 foreigners (age 35.5 ± 8.7 years. We found out that the most powerful factor in foreigners was the financial one, while within Slovenian players it was their personal desire for progression within their sport, the club’s reputation and poor conditions in their previous club. The results confirm that when making a decision on transfer, all players had the support of family and friends, while the clubs of foreign players were not as supportive. Most interviewees considered their careers successful and did not regret going abroad. The research indicates that the largest differences discovered between Slovenians and foreigners were that foreign female players chose to stay in the new country (Slovenia, while domestic players returned home after few years playing abroad. In conclusion, the results show that in top-level handball there are important differences between migration models which are based on nationality and also that the migration models change throughout time, which is largely connected with the socioeconomic events in the country of origin or transfer.

  4. Resting ECG findings in elite football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohm, Philipp; Ditzel, Roman; Ditzel, Heribert; Urhausen, Axel; Meyer, Tim

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate ECG abnormalities in a large sample of elite football players. Data from 566 elite male football players (57 of them of African origin) above 16 years of age were screened retrospectively (age: 20.9 ± 5.3 years; BMI: 22.9 ± 1.7 kg · m(-2), training history: 13.8 ± 4.7 years). The resting ECGs were analysed and classified according to the most current ECG categorisation of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) (2010) and a classification of Pelliccia et al. (2000) in order to assess the impact of the new ESC-approach. According to the classification of Pelliccia, 52.5% showed mildly abnormal ECG patterns and 12% were classified as distinctly abnormal ECG patterns. According to the classification of the ESC, 33.7% showed 'uncommon ECG patterns'. Short-QT interval was the most frequent ECG pattern in this group (41.9%), followed by a shortened PR-interval (19.9%). When assessed with a QTc cut-off-point of 340 ms (instead of 360 ms), only 22.2% would have had 'uncommon ECG patterns'. Resting ECG changes amongst elite football players are common. Adjustment of the ESC criteria by adapting proposed time limits for the ECG (e.g. QTc, PR) should further reduce the rate of false-positive results.

  5. Hip and Groin Injuries in Baseball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlynarek, Ryan A; Coleman, Struan H

    2018-03-01

    To discuss the clinical significance of the most common hip and groin injuries in baseball players, as well as an algorithmic approach to diagnosis and treatment of these injuries. (a) Limitations in throwing velocity, pitch control, and bat swing speed may be secondary to decreased mobility and strength within the proximal kinetic chain, which must harness power from the lower extremities and core. (b) Approximately 5.5% of all baseball injuries per year involve the hip/groin and may lead to a significant amount of time spent on the disabled list. Injuries involving the hip and groin are relatively common in baseball players. Our knowledge of the mechanics of overhead throwing continues to evolve, as does our understanding of the contribution of power from the lower extremities and core. It is paramount that the team physician be able to accurately diagnose and treat injuries involving the hip/groin, as they may lead to significant disability and inability to return to elite levels of play. This review focuses on hip- and groin-related injuries in the baseball player, including femoroacetabular impingement, core muscle injury, and osteitis pubis.

  6. NDDP multi-stage flash desalination process simulator design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterjee, M.; Sashi Kumar, G.N.; Mahendra, A.K.; Sanyal, A.; Gouthaman, G.

    2006-05-01

    A majority of large-scale desalination plants all over the world employ multi-stage flash (MSF) distillation process. Many of these MSF desalination plants have been set up near to nuclear power plants (generally called as nuclear desalination plants) to effectively utilize the low-grade steam from the power plants as the source of energy. A computer program called MSFSIM has been developed to simulate the MSF desalination plant operation both for steady state and various transients including start up. This code predicts the effect of number of stages, flashing temperature, velocity of brine flowing through the tubes of brine heater and evaporators, temperature of the condensing thin film etc. on the plant performance ratio. Such a code can be used for the design of a new plant and to predict its operating and startup characteristics. The code has been extensively validated with available start up data from the pilot MSF desalination plant of 425-m3/day capacity at Trombay, Mumbai. A MSF desalination plant of 4500-m3/day capacity is under construction by BARC at Kalpakkam, which will utilize the steam from Madras Atomic Power Station (MAPS). In this present work extensive parametric study of the 4500-m3/day capacity desalination plant at Kalpakkam has been done using the code MSFSIM for optimizing the operating parameters in order to maximize the performance ratio for stable plant operation. The aim of the work is prediction of plant performance under different operating conditions. (author)

  7. Flash characteristics of plasma induced by hypervelocity impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Kai [State Key Laboratory of Explosion Science and Technology, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Beijing Automotive Technology Center, Beijing 100021 (China); Long, Renrong, E-mail: longrenrong@bit.edu.cn, E-mail: qmzhang@bit.edu.cn; Zhang, Qingming, E-mail: longrenrong@bit.edu.cn, E-mail: qmzhang@bit.edu.cn; Xue, Yijiang; Ju, Yuanyuan [State Key Laboratory of Explosion Science and Technology, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2016-08-15

    Using a two-stage light gas gun, a series of hypervelocity impact experiments was conducted in which 6.4-mm-diameter spherical 2024-aluminum projectiles impact 23-mm-thick targets made of the same material at velocities of 5.0, 5.6, and 6.3 km/s. Both an optical pyrometer composed of six photomultiplier tubes and a spectrograph were used to measure the flash of the plasma during hypervelocity impact. Experimental results show that, at a projectile velocity of 6.3 km/s, the strong flash lasted about 10 μs and reached a temperature of 4300 K. Based on the known emission lines of AL I, spectral methods can provide the plasma electron temperature. An electron-temperature comparison between experiment and theoretical calculation indicates that single ionization and secondary ionization are the two main ionizing modes at velocities 5.0–6.3 km/s.

  8. Devolatilization characteristics of biomass at flash heating rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiu Shuangning; Li Zhihe; Li Baoming; Yi Weiming; Bai Xueyuan [China Agricultural University, Beijing (China). College of Water Conservancy and Civil Engineering

    2006-03-15

    The devolatilization characteristics of biomass (wheat straw, coconut shell, rice husk and cotton stalk) during flash pyrolysis has been investigated on a plasma heated laminar entrained flow reactor (PHLEFR) with average heating rates of 10{sup 4} K/s. These experiments were conducted with steady temperatures between 750 and 900 K, and the particle residence time varied from about 0.115 to 0.240 s. The ash tracer method was introduced to calculate the yield of volatile products at a set temperature and the residence time. This experimental study showed that the yield of volatile products depends both on the final pyrolysis temperature and the residence time. From the results, a comparative analysis was done for the biomasses, and a one-step global model was used to simulate the flash pyrolytic process and predict the yield of volatile products during pyrolysis. The corresponding kinetic parameters of the biomasses were also analyzed and determined. These results were essential for designing a suitable pyrolysis reactor. 24 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. A deafening flash! Visual interference of auditory signal detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassnidge, Christopher; Cecconi Marcotti, Claudia; Freeman, Elliot

    2017-03-01

    In some people, visual stimulation evokes auditory sensations. How prevalent and how perceptually real is this? 22% of our neurotypical adult participants responded 'Yes' when asked whether they heard faint sounds accompanying flash stimuli, and showed significantly better ability to discriminate visual 'Morse-code' sequences. This benefit might arise from an ability to recode visual signals as sounds, thus taking advantage of superior temporal acuity of audition. In support of this, those who showed better visual relative to auditory sequence discrimination also had poorer auditory detection in the presence of uninformative visual flashes, though this was independent of awareness of visually-evoked sounds. Thus a visually-evoked auditory representation may occur subliminally and disrupt detection of real auditory signals. The frequent natural correlation between visual and auditory stimuli might explain the surprising prevalence of this phenomenon. Overall, our results suggest that learned correspondences between strongly correlated modalities may provide a precursor for some synaesthetic abilities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The mutagenic potential of high flash aromatic naphtha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiner, C A; Edwards, D A; McKee, R H; Swanson, M; Wong, Z A; Schmitt, S; Beatty, P

    1989-06-01

    Catalytic reforming is a refining process that converts naphthenes to aromatics by dehydrogenation to make higher octane gasoline blending components. A portion of this wide boiling range hydrocarbon stream can be separated by distillation and used for other purposes. One such application is a mixture of predominantly 9-carbon aromatic molecules (C9 aromatics, primarily isomers of ethyltoluene and trimethylbenzene), which is removed and used as a solvent--high-flash aromatic naphtha. A program was initiated to assess the toxicological properties of high-flash aromatic naphtha since there may be human exposure through inhalation or external body contact. The current study was conducted partly to assess the potential for mutagenic activity and also to assist in an assessment of carcinogenic potential. The specific tests utilized included the Salmonella/mammalian microsome mutagenicity assay, the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HGPRT) forward mutation assay in CHO cells, in vitro chromosome aberration and sister chromatid exchange (SCE) assays in CHO cells, and an in vivo chromosome aberration assay in rat bone marrow.

  11. Flash vaporization during earthquakes evidenced by gold deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weatherley, Dion K.; Henley, Richard W.

    2013-04-01

    Much of the world's known gold has been derived from arrays of quartz veins. The veins formed during periods of mountain building that occurred as long as 3 billion years ago, and were deposited by very large volumes of water that flowed along deep, seismically active faults. The veins formed under fluctuating pressures during earthquakes, but the magnitude of the pressure fluctuations and their influence on mineral deposition is not known. Here we use a simple thermo-mechanical piston model to calculate the drop in fluid pressure experienced by a fluid-filled fault cavity during an earthquake. The geometry of the model is constrained using measurements of typical fault jogs, such as those preserved in the Revenge gold deposit in Western Australia, and other gold deposits around the world. We find that cavity expansion generates extreme reductions in pressure that cause the fluid that is trapped in the jog to expand to a very low-density vapour. Such flash vaporization of the fluid results in the rapid co-deposition of silica with a range of trace elements to form gold-enriched quartz veins. Flash vaporization continues as more fluid flows towards the newly expanded cavity, until the pressure in the cavity eventually recovers to ambient conditions. Multiple earthquakes progressively build economic-grade gold deposits.

  12. Development of BNL Heat Transfer Facility 1: flashing experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonhardt, W.J.; Klein, J.H.; Zimmer, G.A.; Abuaf, N.; Jones, O.C. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    A major area of interest to reactor safety technology is the prediction of actual vapor generation rates under conditions of thermal nonequilibrium as would be encountered during a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) in a light water reactor. In support of the development of advanced codes dealing with LOCA induced flashing, analytical models of the nonequilibrium vapor generation processes of interest have been formulated, and an experimental facility has been constructed to provide data to verify these models. This facility is known as BNL Heat Transfer Facility. The experimental facility consists of a flow loop, test section and the data acquisition and analysis system. The main portion of the flow loop is constructed from three inch nominal (7.6 cm) stainless steel pipe. High purity water is circulated through the loop using a centrifugal pump rated 1500 l/min at 600 kPa. Very close and stable control of all loop parameters is required since flashing is sensitive to very small changes in such parameters as flow rate, subcooling, and pressure

  13. FLASH: A finite element computer code for variably saturated flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baca, R.G.; Magnuson, S.O.

    1992-05-01

    A numerical model was developed for use in performance assessment studies at the INEL. The numerical model, referred to as the FLASH computer code, is designed to simulate two-dimensional fluid flow in fractured-porous media. The code is specifically designed to model variably saturated flow in an arid site vadose zone and saturated flow in an unconfined aquifer. In addition, the code also has the capability to simulate heat conduction in the vadose zone. This report presents the following: description of the conceptual frame-work and mathematical theory; derivations of the finite element techniques and algorithms; computational examples that illustrate the capability of the code; and input instructions for the general use of the code. The FLASH computer code is aimed at providing environmental scientists at the INEL with a predictive tool for the subsurface water pathway. This numerical model is expected to be widely used in performance assessments for: (1) the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study process and (2) compliance studies required by the US Department of Energy Order 5820.2A

  14. Investigation of flashing de-aeration with and without recirculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjellstroem, B.; Toecksberg, B.

    1977-06-01

    A series of experiments with flashing de-areation has been carried out at the institute of Thermal Energytechnology of the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm. The results of the experiments with flashing de-areation without recirculation of the condensate show very low contents of dissolved oxygen in the de-aerated water. The results indicate that the de-aeration process is independent of the pressure. De-aeration efficiencies over 99 percent were measured. The continued experiments with recirculation of the condensate show a considerably deteriorated de-aeration performance together with a marked pressure dependency. A simple theoretical model has been formulated which explains these results. Comparisons between the experimental data and calculations with this model indicate that a conservative estimation of the oxygen content of the outgoing water can be obtained if the oxygen content of the recirculated condensate is calculated for the partial pressure of noncondensible gases equal to the total pressure in the condensor. It seems also possible to estimate a lower limit for the oxygen content of the outgoing water. The range of oxygen content between those limits is about a factor of 10 for the conditions investigated. Further studies of the uptake of oxygen during condensation seem necessary if a more accurate prediction is desired

  15. Nuclear fusion and carbon flashes on neutron stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taam, R. E.; Picklum, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    This paper reports on detailed calculations of the thermal evolution of the carbon-burning shells in the envelopes of accreting neutron stars for mass-accretion rates of 1 hundred-billionth to 2 billionths of a solar mass per yr and neutron-star masses of 0.56 and 1.41 solar masses. The work of Hansen and Van Horn (1975) is extended to higher densities, and a more detailed treatment of nuclear processing in the hydrogen- and helium-burning regions is included. Results of steady-state calculations are presented, and results of time-dependent computations are examined for accretion rates of 3 ten-billionths and 1 billionth of solar mass per yr. It is found that two evolutionary sequences lead to carbon flashes and that the carbon abundance at the base of the helium shell is a strong function of accretion rate. Upper limits are placed on the accretion rates at which carbon flashes will be important.

  16. Optimal proximity correction: application for flash memory design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y. O.; Huang, D. L.; Sung, K. T.; Chiang, J. J.; Yu, M.; Teng, F.; Chu, Lung; Rey, Juan C.; Bernard, Douglas A.; Li, Jiangwei; Li, Junling; Moroz, V.; Boksha, Victor V.

    1998-06-01

    Proximity Correction is the technology for which the most of IC manufacturers are committed already. The final intended result of correction is affected by many factors other than the optical characteristics of the mask-stepper system, such as photoresist exposure, post-exposure bake and development parameters, etch selectivity and anisotropy, and underlying topography. The most advanced industry and research groups already reported immediate need to consider wafer topography as one of the major components during a Proximity Correction procedure. In the present work we are discussing the corners rounding effect (which eventually cause electrical leakage) observed for the elements of Poly2 layer for a Flash Memory Design. It was found that the rounding originated by three- dimensional effects due to variation of photoresist thickness resulting from the non-planar substrate. Our major goal was to understand the reasons and correct corner rounding. As a result of this work highly effective layout correction methodology was demonstrated and manufacturable Depth Of Focus was achieved. Another purpose of the work was to demonstrate complete integration flow for a Flash Memory Design based on photolithography; deposition/etch; ion implantation/oxidation/diffusion; and device simulators.

  17. A Bayesian Network approach for flash flood risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutkhamouine, Brahim; Roux, Hélène; Pérès, François

    2017-04-01

    Climate change is contributing to the increase of natural disasters such as extreme weather events. Sometimes, these events lead to sudden flash floods causing devastating effects on life and property. Most recently, many regions of the French Mediterranean perimeter have endured such catastrophic flood events; Var (October 2015), Ardèche (November 2014), Nîmes (October 2014), Hérault, Gard and Languedoc (September 2014), and Pyrenees mountains (Jun 2013). Altogether, it resulted in dozens of victims and property damages amounting to millions of euros. With this heavy loss in mind, development of hydrological forecasting and warning systems is becoming an essential element in regional and national strategies. Flash flood forecasting but also monitoring is a difficult task because small ungauged catchments ( 10 km2) are often the most destructive ones as for the extreme flash flood event of September 2002 in the Cévennes region (France) (Ruin et al., 2008). The problem of measurement/prediction uncertainty is particularly crucial when attempting to develop operational flash-flood forecasting methods. Taking into account the uncertainty related to the model structure itself, to the model parametrization or to the model forcing (spatio-temporal rainfall, initial conditions) is crucial in hydrological modelling. Quantifying these uncertainties is of primary importance for risk assessment and decision making. Although significant improvements have been made in computational power and distributed hydrologic modelling, the issue dealing with integration of uncertainties into flood forecasting remains up-to-date and challenging. In order to develop a framework which could handle these uncertainties and explain their propagation through the model, we propose to explore the potential of graphical models (GMs) and, more precisely, Bayesian Networks (BNs). These networks are Directed Acyclic Graphs (DAGs) in which knowledge of a certain phenomenon is represented by

  18. A Conceptual Flash Flood Early Warning System for Africa, Based on Terrestrial Microwave Links and Flash Flood Guidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joost C. B. Hoedjes

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A conceptual flash flood early warning system for developing countries is described. The system uses rainfall intensity data from terrestrial microwave communication links and the geostationary Meteosat Second Generation satellite, i.e., two systems that are already in place and operational. Flash flood early warnings are based on a combination of the Flash Flood Guidance method and a hydrological model. The system will be maintained and operated through a public-private partnership, which includes a mobile telephone operator, a national meteorological service and an emergency relief service. The mobile telephone operator acts as both the supplier of raw input data and the disseminator of early warnings. The early warning system could significantly reduce the number of fatalities due to flash floods, improve the efficiency of disaster risk reduction efforts and play an important role in strengthening the resilience to climate change of developing countries in Africa. This paper describes the system that is currently being developed for Kenya.

  19. EVALUATING AUSTRALIAN FOOTBALL LEAGUE PLAYER CONTRIBUTIONS USING INTERACTIVE NETWORK SIMULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Sargent

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the contribution of Australian Football League (AFL players to their team's on-field network by simulating player interactions within a chosen team list and estimating the net effect on final score margin. A Visual Basic computer program was written, firstly, to isolate the effective interactions between players from a particular team in all 2011 season matches and, secondly, to generate a symmetric interaction matrix for each match. Negative binomial distributions were fitted to each player pairing in the Geelong Football Club for the 2011 season, enabling an interactive match simulation model given the 22 chosen players. Dynamic player ratings were calculated from the simulated network using eigenvector centrality, a method that recognises and rewards interactions with more prominent players in the team network. The centrality ratings were recorded after every network simulation and then applied in final score margin predictions so that each player's match contribution-and, hence, an optimal team-could be estimated. The paper ultimately demonstrates that the presence of highly rated players, such as Geelong's Jimmy Bartel, provides the most utility within a simulated team network. It is anticipated that these findings will facilitate optimal AFL team selection and player substitutions, which are key areas of interest to coaches. Network simulations are also attractive for use within betting markets, specifically to provide information on the likelihood of a chosen AFL team list "covering the line".

  20. Production of bio-oils from wood by flash pyrolysis; Herstellung von Bio-Oelen aus Holz in einer Flash-Pyrolyseanlage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, D; Ollesch, T [Bundesforschungsanstalt fuer Forst- und Holzwirtschaft, Hamburg (Germany). Inst. fuer Holzchemie und Chemische Technologie des Holzes; Gerdes, C; Kaminsky, W [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Technische und Makromolekulare Chemie (ITMCh)

    1998-09-01

    Flash pyrolysis is a medium-temperature process (around 475 C) in which biomass is heated up rapidly in the absence of oxygen. The pyrolysis products are cooled down rapidly, condensing into a reddish-brown liquid with around half the calorific value of a conventional heating oil. In contrast to conventional charcoal production, flash pyrolysis is a modern process whose process parameters enure high liquid yields. Modern fluidized-bed reactors for flash pyrolysis of biomass tend to have high heating rates and short times of residue. In the `Hamburg process`, fluidized-bed reactors are used successfully for pyrolysis of plastics. A flash pyrolysis plant for biomass treatment was constructed in cooperation with Hamburg University with funds provided by the `Bundesstiftung Umwelt`. This contribution describes the first series of experiments, mass balances and oil analyses using beech wood as material to be pyrolyzed. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Flash-Pyrolyse ist ein Mitteltemperatur-Prozess (ca. 475 C), in dem Biomasse unter Sauerstoffausschluss sehr schnell erhitzt wird. Die entstehenden Pyrolyseprodukte werden schnell abgekuehlt und kondensieren zu einer roetlich-braunen Fluessigkeit, die etwa die Haelfte des Heizwertes eines konventionellen Heizoeles besitzt. Flash-Pyrolyse ist, im Gegensatz zur konventionellen Holzverkohlung, ein modernes Verfahren, dessen spezielle Verfahrensparameter hohe Fluessigausbeuten ermoeglichen. Hohe Aufheizraten, verbunden mit kurzen Verweilzeiten, werden mit stationaeren Wirbelbettreaktoren erzielt die gegenwaertig vorwiegend fuer die Flash-Pyrolyse von Biomasse eingesetzt werden. Im `Hamburger Verfahren` haben sich Wirbelbettreaktoren im Bereich der Kunststoffpyrolyse bewaehrt. Daher wurde in Zusammenarbeit mit der Universitaet Hamburg und finanzieller Foerderung der Bundesstiftung Umwelt eine Flash-Pyrolyseanlage fuer Biomasse gebaut: In dieser Arbeit werden erste Versuchsreihen, Massenbilanzen und Oelanalysen aus der Pyrolyse von

  1. Flash Study Analysis and the Music Learning Pro-Files Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremata, Radio; Pignato, Joseph; Powell, Bryan; Smith, Gareth Dylan

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces the Music Learning Profiles Project, and its methodological approach, flash study analysis. Flash study analysis is a method that draws heavily on extant qualitative approaches to education research, to develop broad understandings of music learning in diverse contexts. The Music Learning Profiles Project (MLPP) is an…

  2. A Modern Apparatus for Performing Flash Chromatography: An Experiment for the Organic Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumiec, Gregory R.; Del Padre, Angela N.; Hooper, Matthew M.; Germaine, Alison St.; DeBoef, Brenton

    2013-01-01

    A modern apparatus for performing flash chromatography using commercially available, prepacked silica cartridges has been developed. The key advantage of this system, when compared to traditional flash chromatography, is its use of commercially available silica cartridges, which obviates the need for students to handle silica gel. The apparatus…

  3. Urban flash flood vulnerability : spatial assessment and adaptation : a case study in Istanbul, Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reyes-Acevedo, Martin Alejandro; Flacke, J.; Brussel, M.J.G.

    2011-01-01

    The Ayamama River basin in Istanbul is a densely populated urban area that is frequently impacted by flash floods causing damage to people and infrastructure. The IPCC expects that under climate change conditions, more intense precipitation will occur, leading to a higher risk of flash floods.

  4. Increasing the computational speed of flash calculations with applications for compositional, transient simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Claus P.; Krejbjerg, Kristian; Michelsen, Michael Locht

    2006-01-01

    Approaches are presented for reducing the computation time spent on flash calculations in compositional, transient simulations. In a conventional flash calculation, the majority of the simulation time is spent on stability analysis, even for systems far into the single-phase region. A criterion has...

  5. Flash Floods Simulation using a Physical-Based Hydrological Model at Different Hydroclimatic Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saber, Mohamed; Kamil Yilmaz, Koray

    2016-04-01

    Currently, flash floods are seriously increasing and affecting many regions over the world. Therefore, this study will focus on two case studies; Wadi Abu Subeira, Egypt as arid environment, and Karpuz basin, Turkey as Mediterranean environment. The main objective of this work is to simulate flash floods at both catchments considering the hydrometeorological differences between them which in turn effect their flash flood behaviors. An integrated methodology incorporating Hydrological River Basin Environmental Assessment Model (Hydro-BEAM) and remote sensing observations was devised. Global Satellite Mapping of Precipitation (GSMAP) were compared with the rain gauge network at the target basins to estimate the bias in an effort to further use it effectively in simulation of flash floods. Based on the preliminary results of flash floods simulation on both basins, we found that runoff behaviors of flash floods are different due to the impacts of climatology, hydrological and topographical conditions. Also, the simulated surface runoff hydrographs are reasonably coincide with the simulated ones. Consequently, some mitigation strategies relying on this study could be introduced to help in reducing the flash floods disasters at different climate regions. This comparison of different climatic basins would be a reasonable implication for the potential impact of climate change on the flash floods frequencies and occurrences.

  6. Comparison of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE gene polymorphisms elite basketball players and volleyball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emin Süel

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study is to research the differences of genotype polymorphism between the elite male and elite female basketball player, volleyball player and control group. Material and Methods: 58 basketball players (ages 24.25±4.99 years, height 188.22±12.31 cm and weight 80.62±16.34 kg, 64 volleyball players (ages 22.82±5.40 years, height 188.67±9.69 cm and weight 77.82±12.14 kg and 122 sedentary subjects (control group were participated randomly in the study. 5cc blood was taken control and control groups for measuring the ACE gene polymorphism. Chi-square and analysis of variance (ANOVA, Levene’s Tests, and frequencies of allele were used for statistical evaluation at significance level p0.05, basketball, volleyball and control group (p>0.05, male basketball, volleyball and control group (p>0.05, female basketball, volleyball and control group (p>0.05 and male and female athletes (p>0.05 respectively. There were no significance differences in male athletes between the genotype distribution and physical performance tests, such as 20m shuttle-run (F=1.31, vertical jump (F=0.22, and 20m sprint test (F=0.44. There were also no significance differences in female athletes between the genotype distribution and physical performance tests, such as 20m shuttle-run (F=2.03, vertical jump (F=0.10, and 20m sprint test (F=1.17. Conclusion: ACE polymorphism genotype distribution in terms of elite female and male volleyball players with elite female and male basketball players are the same.

  7. Speeding up the flash calculations in two-phase compositional flow simulations - The application of sparse grids

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Yuanqing; Kowitz, Christoph; Sun, Shuyu; Salama, Amgad

    2015-01-01

    Flash calculations have become a performance bottleneck in the simulation of compositional flow in subsurface reservoirs. We apply a sparse grid surrogate model to substitute the flash calculation and thus try to remove the bottleneck from

  8. Continuous background light significantly increases flashing-light enhancement of photosynthesis and growth of microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Ghosh, Said; Fixler, Dror; Dubinsky, Zvy; Iluz, David

    2015-01-01

    Under specific conditions, flashing light enhances the photosynthesis rate in comparison to continuous illumination. Here we show that a combination of flashing light and continuous background light with the same integrated photon dose as continuous or flashing light alone can be used to significantly enhance photosynthesis and increase microalgae growth. To test this hypothesis, the green microalga Dunaliella salina was exposed to three different light regimes: continuous light, flashing light, and concomitant application of both. Algal growth was compared under three different integrated light quantities; low, intermediate, and moderately high. Under the combined light regime, there was a substantial increase in all algal growth parameters, with an enhanced photosynthesis rate, within 3days. Our strategy demonstrates a hitherto undescribed significant increase in photosynthesis and algal growth rates, which is beyond the increase by flashing light alone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Status of flash radiography in the USA today and future possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryant, L.E. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    A listing of presently employed flash x-ray generators is given including low-energy, commercially available systems and high-energy very specialized installations in government laboratories. These flash x-ray sources are compared as to radiographic characteristics. Imaging techniques and materials are surveyed and compared as to their advantages and limitations. A variety of applications of flash radiography are cited including explosive, ballistic, diffraction, crash injury, and fuel injection. Probable near term advances in special techniques are mentioned in cine radiography and film image enhancement. Possible future developments are speculated upon such as flash radiographic applications of computerized axial tomography. The recent recognition of flash radiography at professional society conferences is reviewed

  10. Violation of Bloch's Law That Specifies Reciprocity of Intensity and Duration with Brief Light Flashes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Greene

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available For more than a century researchers have been reporting that the visual impact of a very brief flash is determined by the quantity of photons that the flash delivers. This has been variously described as the Bunsen-Roscoe Law or Bloch's Law, often specified as reciprocity of intensity × duration. Prior research found no evidence for such reciprocity when microsecond-duration flashes from a light-emitting diode array were used to display the major contours of nameable shapes. The present work tested with flash durations ranging up to 100 ms and also found no reciprocity. This departure from classic principles might be due to the specific range of wavelengths of the light-emitting diodes and to a mesopic level of ambient light, which together would preclude activation of rods. The reciprocity of intensity and duration may only be valid with full dark adaptation and very dim flashes that activate rods.

  11. Vascular Health in American Football Players: Cardiovascular Risk Increased in Division III Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah L. Feairheller

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies report that football players have high blood pressure (BP and increased cardiovascular risk. There are over 70,000 NCAA football players and 450 Division III schools sponsor football programs, yet limited research exists on vascular health of athletes. This study aimed to compare vascular and cardiovascular health measures between football players and nonathlete controls. Twenty-three athletes and 19 nonathletes participated. Vascular health measures included flow-mediated dilation (FMD and carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT. Cardiovascular measures included clinic and 24 hr BP levels, body composition, VO2 max, and fasting glucose/cholesterol levels. Compared to controls, football players had a worse vascular and cardiovascular profile. Football players had thicker carotid artery IMT (0.49 ± 0.06 mm versus 0.46 ± 0.07 mm and larger brachial artery diameter during FMD (4.3±0.5 mm versus 3.7±0.6 mm, but no difference in percent FMD. Systolic BP was significantly higher in football players at all measurements: resting (128.2±6.4 mmHg versus 122.4±6.8 mmHg, submaximal exercise (150.4±18.8 mmHg versus 137.3±9.5 mmHg, maximal exercise (211.3±25.9 mmHg versus 191.4±19.2 mmHg, and 24-hour BP (124.9±6.3 mmHg versus 109.8±3.7 mmHg. Football players also had higher fasting glucose (91.6±6.5 mg/dL versus 86.6±5.8 mg/dL, lower HDL (36.5±11.2 mg/dL versus 47.1±14.8 mg/dL, and higher body fat percentage (29.2±7.9% versus 23.2±7.0%. Division III collegiate football players remain an understudied population and may be at increased cardiovascular risk.

  12. How Players Lose Interest in Playing a Game

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauckhage, Christian; Kersting, Kristian; Sifa, Rafet

    2012-01-01

    introduce methods from random process theory into game data mining in order to draw inferences about player engagement. Given large samples (over 250,000 players) of behavioral telemetry data from five different action-adventure and shooter games, we extract information as to how long individual players......Analyzing telemetry data of player behavior in computer games is a topic of increasing interest for industry and research, alike. When applied to game telemetry data, pattern recognition and statistical analysis provide valuable business intelligence tools for game development. An important problem...... in this area is to characterize how player engagement in a game evolves over time. Reliable models are of pivotal interest since they allow for assessing the long-term success of game products and can provide estimates of how long players may be expected to keep actively playing a game. In this paper, we...

  13. Decreased shoulder function and pain common in recreational badminton players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahlström, M; Söderman, K

    2007-06-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence and consequences of painful conditions in the shoulder region in recreational badminton players. A questionnaire study was performed on 99 players, of whom 57 were also assessed with Constant score. Previous or present pain in the dominant shoulder was reported by 52% of the players. Sixteen percent of the players had on-going shoulder pain associated with badminton play. A majority of these players reported that their training habits were affected by the pain. Total Constant score was lower in the painful shoulders. Furthermore, range of active pain-free shoulder abduction was decreased. However, isometric shoulder strength test showed no differences when compared with pain-free shoulders. Even though the pain caused functional problems, the players were still playing with on-going symptoms. The diagnoses were mostly unknown, although history and clinical tests indicate problems resembling subacromial impingement.

  14. A Survey on Common Injuries in Recreational Badminton Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Muttalib

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this descriptive study is to determine the incidence of injuries among recreational badminton players. We evaluated 86 recreational badminton players in the city of Malacca; 35 were excluded for fitting the exclusion criteria. The average recreational badminton player was 36.13 years old and had been playing badminton for the past 17.84 years at a frequency of 2.11 times per week. 39.21% of the recreational badminton players complained of recent injuries in relation to playing badminton. Our data showed that the most common injury sustained by recreational badminton players was pain and stiffness at the shoulder joint. None of the injuries sustained by the players in our data were serious enough to warrant any form of surgical intervention. We conclude that badminton is a sport of relatively low risk and that the majority of related injuries were chronic overuse injuries.

  15. Implikasi Multimedia Interaktif Berbasis Flash Terhadap Motivasi dan Prestasi Belajar Matematika

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edi Irawan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available [Bahasa]: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji efektivitas penggunaan multimedia berbasis flash pada mata kuliah statistika ditinjau dari motivasi belajar dan prestasi belajar mahasiswa. Penelitian ini adalah penelitian eksperimen semu dengan desain pretest-posttest nonequivalent group design. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan di STKIP PGRI Pacitan pada tahun 2016. Instrumen yang digunakan adalah tes prestasi belajar dan angket motivasi belajar mahasiswa. Teknik analisis data yang digunakan adalah uji one sample t-test, uji T2 Hotelling’s, dan uji t-Bonferroni. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penggunaan multimedia berbasis flash pada mata kuliah statistika lebih efektif daripada pembelajaran menggunakan media powerpoint ditinjau dari motivasi belajar dan prestasi belajar mahasiswa. Prestasi belajar statistika mahasiswa yang menggunakan media flash lebih baik daripada mahasiswa yang menggunakan media powerpoint. Demikian halnya pada aspek motivasi belajar, mahasiswa yang menggunakan flash mengalami peningkatan motivasi yang lebih signifikan daripada mahasiswa yang menggunakan media powerpoint. Kata kunci: Multimedia Flash; Motivasi Belajar; Prestasi Belajar; Statistika [English]: This study aims to test the effectiveness of the use of flash-based multimedia in the course of statistics toward learning motivation and student achievement. This research is a quasi-experimental research with pretest-posttest nonequivalent group design. This research was conducted at STKIP PGRI Pacitan in 2016. The instrument used was the test of student achievement and questionnaire of student's motivation. Data analysis techniques used one sample t-test, T2 Hotelling's test, and t-Bonferroni test. The results showed that the use of flash-based multimedia in the course of statistics is more effective than learning using powerpoint in terms of learning motivation and student achievement. Students’ achievement in statistics using flash media are better than students

  16. How to know and choose online games: differences between current and potential players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Ching-I; Lo, Shao-Kang; Wang, Pe-Cheng

    2007-12-01

    This study investigated how different adolescent players acquire game information and the criteria they use in choosing online games and found that (1) current players generally use comprehensive information sources more than potential players do; (2) current players rely on free trials and smooth display of motion graphics as choice criteria more than potential players do; (3) potential players rely on the look of advertisements more than current players do; (4) both current and potential players most likely use word-of-mouth and gaming programs on TV as information sources; and (5) endorser attractiveness is ranked the least important among six choice criteria by both current and potential players.

  17. Sex-specific differences in injury types among basketball players

    OpenAIRE

    Ito E; Iwamoto J; Azuma K; Matsumoto H

    2014-01-01

    Eri Ito, Jun Iwamoto, Koichiro Azuma, Hideo MatsumotoInstitute for Integrated Sports Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: The purpose of the present study was to investigate sex-specific differences in injury types among basketball players. According to our database, during the 20-year period between October 1991 and June 2011, 1,219 basketball players (640 males and 579 females) consulted our sports medicine clinic; in total, 1,414 injuries in basketball player...

  18. Nutritional Habits & Knowledge in the Division I Collegiate Football Player

    OpenAIRE

    Hale, Mallory

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Athlete’s nutritional habits and knowledge can directly affect their performance. The purpose of this study is to investigate the nutritional habits and knowledge of the Division I collegiate football player. Methods: The participants of this study are male Division I college football players at Utah State University. The athletes included 45 players ranging from 18-26 and include freshman through seniors. Results: Over eighty six percent of the athletes were unaware that a ...

  19. Analyzing In-Game Movements of Soccer Players at Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Gyarmati, Laszlo; Hefeeda, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    It is challenging to get access to datasets related to the physical performance of soccer players. The teams consider such information highly confidential, especially if it covers in-game performance.Hence, most of the analysis and evaluation of the players' performance do not contain much information on the physical aspect of the game, creating a blindspot in performance analysis. We propose a novel method to solve this issue by deriving movement characteristics of soccer players. We use eve...

  20. Arthroscopic rotator cuff repair in elite rugby players

    OpenAIRE

    Tambe, Amol; Badge, Ravi; Funk, Lennard

    2009-01-01

    Background: Rugby is an increasingly popular collision sport. A wide spectrum of injuries can be sustained during training and match play. Rotator cuff injury is uncommon in contact sports and there is little published literature on the treatment of rotator cuff tears in rugby players. Aims: We therefore reviewed the results and functional outcomes of arthroscopic rotator cuff repair in elite rugby players. Materials and Methods: Eleven professional rugby players underwent arthroscopic ...

  1. Heart rate and activity profile for young female soccer players

    OpenAIRE

    Barbero Álvarez, José Carlos; Gómez López, Maite; Barbero Álvarez, Verónica; Granda Vera, Juan; Castagna, Carlo

    2008-01-01

    The physical and physiological demands of high-level male soccer have been studied extensively, while few studies have investigated the demands placed on females during match-play, however, there is no information available about the heart rate and activity profile of young female soccer players during match play. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine cardiovascular (heart-rates HR) and physical demands of young female soccer players during a match. Players were observed during a fr...

  2. Online Game Elements, Players and the Bond Between Them

    OpenAIRE

    Schweizer, Sandra

    2017-01-01

    The results are guidelines for game developers to improve their game design. Through using the guidelines of the paper, developers know how to implement appealing online game elements which appeal to the player and draw them in. The result of the thesis are socializing, achievements and immersion are motivated the player to play online games, as well as the way online games stimulate the player's brain.

  3. Energy and macronutrient intakes of professional football (soccer) players.

    OpenAIRE

    Maughan, R J

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the dietary habits of professional soccer players at two Scottish Premier League clubs during the competitive season. METHODS: A study of the dietary intake of 51 professional soccer players with two different clubs was carried out by the seven day weighed intake method. RESULTS: Physical characteristics of the two groups of players were similar, with only small differences in age and body mass but no difference in height and body fat. Mean (SD) daily energy intake for c...

  4. Extension of modified RAND to multiphase flash specifications based on state functions other than (T,P)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paterson, Duncan; Michelsen, Michael Locht; Yan, Wei

    2017-01-01

    The recently proposed modified RAND formulation is extended from isothermal multiphase flash to several other state function based flash specifications. The obtained general formulation is applicable to chemical equilibrium although this study is focused on flash with only phase equilibrium. It i...

  5. Towards Player Adaptivity in a Serious Game for Conflict Resolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grappiolo, C.; Cheong, Yun-Gyung; Togelius, J.

    2011-01-01

    to resolve this type of conflict, the underlying system generates level content automatically which adapts to player experience and behaviour. Preliminary results demonstrate the efficiency of the procedural content generation mechanism in guiding the training of players towards targeted learning objectives.......We present a technology demonstrator for an adaptive serious game for teaching conflict resolution and discuss the research questions associated with the project. The prototype is a single-player 3D mini-game which simulates a resource management conflict scenario. In order to teach the player how...

  6. Exploring Stereotypical Perceptions of Female Players in Digital Gaming Contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, Linda K; Gresty, Claire E; Stubbs-Ennis, Natasha

    2017-12-01

    Gender stereotypes are still reported to exist in digital gaming contexts, despite the fact that participation of females is relatively equal to that of males. The current research explored a number of factors and their impact upon stereotypical perceptions and attitudes toward female players. This included avatar gender, gender identity by gaming context, as well as more general gender-role beliefs. We undertook two studies, each utilizing an online questionnaire targeted toward online players. Study 1 recruited online gamers (N = 489) and compared competence perceptions of players, which varied by player gender (male, female) and avatar gender (male, female), whereby four conditions were established. Overall, player competence was perceived to be highest when male avatars were used, specifically when female players were depicted in this way. Study 2 explored the relationships between male social identity and gender-role beliefs, with sexist attitudes in gaming, and whether this varied by gaming context (massively multiplayer online [MMO] vs. first-person shooter [FPS]). Male online gamers (N = 193) were recruited, of which 112 were MMO players, and 81 were FPS players. It was found that identifying as male social identity was not related to sexist attitudes in either gaming context. However, more general gender-role beliefs were related to sexist attitudes. The findings indicate that although certain stereotypes exist (e.g., competence perceptions), these are not necessarily harvested by players' identities within communities, but may derive through more operational functions such as avatar gender.

  7. A dynamic game of a transboundary pollutant with asymmetric players

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, W.E.; Patrick, R.H.; Tolwinski, B.

    1993-01-01

    Modeling transboundary pollutants in a dynamic game framework provides a foundation for analyzing the impact of various policy options. The focus of this analysis is on the results of a tax/subsidy scheme used to address the transboundary problem of global climate change. A nonzero-sum dynamic game with asymmetric players is used to evaluate the policy impact of the tax/subsidy scheme on the respective player's value functions and strategies as determined by a Nash equilibrium feedback solution. The asymmetry of the players is reflected in their respective attitudes toward global climate change with one player benefiting from the change and the other losing. 17 refs., 5 tabs

  8. Profiling in basketball: physical and physiological characteristics of elite players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostojic, Sergej M; Mazic, Sanja; Dikic, Nenad

    2006-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe structural and functional characteristics of elite Serbian basketball players and to evaluate whether players in different positional roles have different physical and physiological profiles. Five men's basketball teams participated in the study and competed in the professional First National League. Physiological measurements were taken of 60 players during the final week of their preparatory training for competition. According to positional roles, players were categorized as guards (n = 20), forwards (n = 20), and centers (n = 20). Guards were older (p Vertical jump power was significantly higher in centers (p basketball.

  9. Head Impact Exposure in Junior and Adult Australian Football Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Hecimovich

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study measured and compared the frequency, magnitude, and distribution of head impacts sustained by junior and adult Australian football players, respectively, and between player positions over a season of games. Twelve junior and twelve adult players were tracked using a skin-mounted impact sensor. Head impact exposure, including frequency, magnitude, and location of impacts, was quantified using previously established methods. Over the collection period, there were no significant differences in the impact frequency between junior and adult players. However, there was a significant increase in the frequency of head impacts for midfielders in both grades once we accounted for player position. A comparable amount of head impacts in both junior and adult players has implications for Australian football regarding player safety and medical coverage as younger players sustained similar impact levels as adult players. The other implication of a higher impact profile within midfielders is that, by targeting education and prevention strategies, a decrease in the incidence of sports-related concussion may result.

  10. Warm dense matter and Thomson scattering at FLASH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faeustlin, Roland Rainer

    2010-05-01

    X-ray free electron lasers are powerful tools to investigate moderately to strongly correlated solid density low temperature plasmas, named warm dense matter. These plasmas are of most interest for astrophysics and laser plasma interaction, particularly inertial confinement fusion. This work utilizes the ultrashort soft x-ray pulse duration and high brilliance of the free electron laser in Hamburg, FLASH, to generate warm dense matter and to study its ultrafast processes. The techniques applied are absorption measurement, emission spectroscopy and Thomson scattering. Radiative hydrodynamics and Thomson scattering simulations are used to investigate the impact of temperature and density gradients in the sample and to fit the experimental data. The measurements result in a comprehensive picture of soft x-ray matter interaction related to warm dense matter and yield insight into ultrafast equilibration and relaxation mechanisms, in particular impact ionization and radiative recombination. (orig.)

  11. Operational flash flood forecasting platform based on grid technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thierion, V.; Ayral, P.-A.; Angelini, V.; Sauvagnargues-Lesage, S.; Nativi, S.; Payrastre, O.

    2009-04-01

    Flash flood events of south of France such as the 8th and 9th September 2002 in the Grand Delta territory caused important economic and human damages. Further to this catastrophic hydrological situation, a reform of flood warning services have been initiated (set in 2006). Thus, this political reform has transformed the 52 existing flood warning services (SAC) in 22 flood forecasting services (SPC), in assigning them territories more hydrological consistent and new effective hydrological forecasting mission. Furthermore, national central service (SCHAPI) has been created to ease this transformation and support local services in their new objectives. New functioning requirements have been identified: - SPC and SCHAPI carry the responsibility to clearly disseminate to public organisms, civil protection actors and population, crucial hydrologic information to better anticipate potential dramatic flood event, - a new effective hydrological forecasting mission to these flood forecasting services seems essential particularly for the flash floods phenomenon. Thus, models improvement and optimization was one of the most critical requirements. Initially dedicated to support forecaster in their monitoring mission, thanks to measuring stations and rainfall radar images analysis, hydrological models have to become more efficient in their capacity to anticipate hydrological situation. Understanding natural phenomenon occuring during flash floods mainly leads present hydrological research. Rather than trying to explain such complex processes, the presented research try to manage the well-known need of computational power and data storage capacities of these services. Since few years, Grid technology appears as a technological revolution in high performance computing (HPC) allowing large-scale resource sharing, computational power using and supporting collaboration across networks. Nowadays, EGEE (Enabling Grids for E-science in Europe) project represents the most important

  12. Planetary Produced Axionlike Particles and Gamma-Ray Flashes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liolios, Anastasios

    2008-01-01

    Axion-like particles could be created in nuclear disintegrations and deexitations of natural radionuclides present in the interior of the planets. For the Earth and the other planets with a surrounding magnetosphere, axion production could result to gamma and X-ray emission, originating from axion to photon conversion in the planetary magnetic fields. The estimated planetary axion fluxes as well as the related gamma ray fluxes from Earth and the giant planets of our solar system are given along with the axion coupling to ordinary matter. A possible connection with the enigmatic Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes (TGFs) discovered in 1994 by CGRO/BATSE and also detected with the RHESSI satellite, is also discussed.

  13. Cuinse2 Thin Film For Solar Cell By Flash Evaporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.H. Soepardjo

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Deposition of thin films for material solar cell CuInSe2 are relatively simple. In this research mainly focused on the use of flash evaporation method, and the material created can then be characterized by optical and electrical properties. The optical characterization is done by X-ray Diffraction (XRD, Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS, and transmission and reflection by UV-VIS spectrophotometry. Electrical characterization is done by utilizing the Hall effect equipment. From these characterization, the atomic structure, absorption coefficient, energy gap, material type, composition of each elements and the mobility of CuInSe2 can be measured and determined. During process evaporation were carried out at substrate temperatures the range between 20ºC-415ºC.

  14. Simulating Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes using SWORD (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwon, C.; Grove, J.; Dwyer, J. R.; Mattson, K.; Polaski, D.; Jackson, L.

    2013-12-01

    We report on simulations of the relativistic feedback discharges involved with the production of terrestrial gamma-ray flashes (TGFs). The simulations were conducted using Geant4 using the SoftWare for the Optimization of Radiation Detectors (SWORD) framework. SWORD provides a graphical interface for setting up simulations in select high-energy radiation transport engines. Using Geant4, we determine avalanche length, the energy spectrum of the electrons and gamma-rays as they leave the field region, and the feedback factor describing the degree to which the production of energetic particles is self-sustaining. We validate our simulations against previous work in order to determine the reliability of our results. This work is funded by the Office of Naval Research.

  15. Flash photoionization of gamma-ray burst environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Band, David L.; Hartmann, Dieter H.

    1992-01-01

    The H-alpha line emission that a flash-photoionized region emits is calculated. Archival transients, as well as various theoretical predictions, suggest that there may be significant ionizing flux. The limits on the line flux which might be observable indicate that the density must be fairly high for the recombination radiation to be observable. The intense burst radiation is insufficient to melt the dust which will be present in such a dense medium. This dust may attenuate the observable line emission, but does not attenuate the ionizing radiation before it ionizes the neutral medium surrounding the burst source. The dust can also produce a light echo. If there are indeed gamma-ray bursts in dense clouds, then it is possible that the burst was triggered by Bondi-Hoyle accretion from the dense medium, although it is unlikely on statistical grounds that all bursts occur in clouds.

  16. A non-invasive online photoionization spectrometer for FLASH2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braune, Markus; Brenner, Günter; Dziarzhytski, Siarhei; Juranić, Pavle; Sorokin, Andrey; Tiedtke, Kai

    2016-01-01

    The stochastic nature of the self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) process of free-electron lasers (FELs) effects pulse-to-pulse fluctuations of the radiation properties, such as the photon energy, which are determinative for processes of photon-matter interactions. Hence, SASE FEL sources pose a great challenge for scientific investigations, since experimenters need to obtain precise real-time feedback of these properties for each individual photon bunch for interpretation of the experimental data. Furthermore, any device developed to deliver the according information should not significantly interfere with or degrade the FEL beam. Regarding the spectral properties, a device for online monitoring of FEL wavelengths has been developed for FLASH2, which is based on photoionization of gaseous targets and the measurements of the corresponding electron and ion time-of-flight spectra. This paper presents experimental studies and cross-calibration measurements demonstrating the viability of this online photoionization spectrometer.

  17. PLZT thermal/flash protective goggles: device concepts and constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutchen, J.T.

    1979-01-01

    In 1975 Sandia Laboratories began the design and development of PLZT Goggles for the US Air Force to provide protection from temporary flashblindness and permanent retinal burns caused by the brilliant flash of nuclear explosions. The user requirements, system and physical constraints, and use/storage environments were all considered in arriving at the final design goals. When the program began, there was no industrial capability to manufacture large-aperture PLZT materials or bonded lens assemblies. The technology has been established from a laboratory baseline in a brief period, and operational testing and evaluation by the Air Force has been completed. The goggles, identified as the EEU-2/P,, are now in production

  18. Optical emission from Al target irradiated by FLASH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stránský, M; Rohlena, K

    2014-01-01

    The following text touches on some peculiarities in optical emission spectroscopy results from experiments on the free-electron laser FLASH [1, 2]. Aluminum targets were irradiated with 13.5 nm ∼ 25 fs pulses at intensities of 10 13 and 10 16 W/cm 2 (20 and 1 μm foci). Surprisingly, only neutral atom lines for the case with wider focus and traces of ion lines in the tighter focus case were observed with the optical emission spectroscopy (200–600 nm range), [2]. The motivating idea behind this work is the suggestion in [1] by Zastrau that the optical spectrometer sees only emissions from a cold expanding lower-density (< 10 22 cm −3 ) plasma plume. In this contribution the notion of UV range screening is analyzed in detail.

  19. Visual Discomfort From Flash Afterimages of Riloid Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hare, Louise

    2017-06-01

    Op-art-based stimuli have been shown to be uncomfortable, possibly due to a combination of fixational eye movements (microsaccades) and excessive cortical responses. Efforts have been made to measure illusory phenomena arising from these stimuli in the absence of microsaccades, but there has been no attempt thus far to decouple the effects of the cortical response from the effect of fixational eye movements. This study uses flash afterimages to stabilise the image on the retina and thus reduce the systematic effect of eye movements, in order to investigate the role of the brain in discomfort from op-art-based stimuli. There was a relationship between spatial frequency and the magnitude of the P300 response, showing a similar pattern to that of discomfort judgements, which suggests that there might be a role of discomfort and excessive neural responses independently from the effects of microsaccades.

  20. Effects of tunnel oxide process on SONOS flash memory characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Dong Hua; Park, Il Han; Yun, Jang-Gn; Park, Byung-Gook

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, various process conditions of tunnel oxides are applied in SONOS flash memory to investigate their effects on charge transport during the program/erase operations. We focus the key point of analysis on Fermi-level (E F ) variation at the interface of silicon substrate and tunnel oxide. The Si-O chemical bonding information which describes the interface oxidation states at the Si/SiO 2 is obtained by the core-level X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Moreover, relative E F position is determined by measuring the Si 2p energy shift from XPS spectrums. Experimental results from memory characteristic measurement show that MTO tunnel oxide structure exhibits faster erase speed, and larger memory window during P/E cycle compared to FTO and RTO tunnel oxide structures. Finally, we examine long-term charge retention characteristic and find that the memory windows of all the capacitors remain wider than 2 V after 10 5 s.

  1. Warm dense matter and Thomson scattering at FLASH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faeustlin, Roland Rainer

    2010-05-15

    X-ray free electron lasers are powerful tools to investigate moderately to strongly correlated solid density low temperature plasmas, named warm dense matter. These plasmas are of most interest for astrophysics and laser plasma interaction, particularly inertial confinement fusion. This work utilizes the ultrashort soft x-ray pulse duration and high brilliance of the free electron laser in Hamburg, FLASH, to generate warm dense matter and to study its ultrafast processes. The techniques applied are absorption measurement, emission spectroscopy and Thomson scattering. Radiative hydrodynamics and Thomson scattering simulations are used to investigate the impact of temperature and density gradients in the sample and to fit the experimental data. The measurements result in a comprehensive picture of soft x-ray matter interaction related to warm dense matter and yield insight into ultrafast equilibration and relaxation mechanisms, in particular impact ionization and radiative recombination. (orig.)

  2. Scattering Correction For Image Reconstruction In Flash Radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Liangzhi; Wang, Mengqi; Wu, Hongchun; Liu, Zhouyu; Cheng, Yuxiong; Zhang, Hongbo

    2013-01-01

    Scattered photons cause blurring and distortions in flash radiography, reducing the accuracy of image reconstruction significantly. The effect of the scattered photons is taken into account and an iterative deduction of the scattered photons is proposed to amend the scattering effect for image restoration. In order to deduct the scattering contribution, the flux of scattered photons is estimated as the sum of two components. The single scattered component is calculated accurately together with the uncollided flux along the characteristic ray, while the multiple scattered component is evaluated using correction coefficients pre-obtained from Monte Carlo simulations.The arbitrary geometry pretreatment and ray tracing are carried out based on the customization of AutoCAD. With the above model, an Iterative Procedure for image restORation code, IPOR, is developed. Numerical results demonstrate that the IPOR code is much more accurate than the direct reconstruction solution without scattering correction and it has a very high computational efficiency

  3. The Use of MCNP in Flash Radiographic Applications at AWE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quillin, S.; Crotch, I.; McAlpin, S.; O'Malley, J.

    AWE performs experiments to investigate the hydrodynamic behavior of explosive metal systems in order to underwrite the UK nuclear deterrent. The experiments involve the manufacture of a device to mock up some aspect of the weapon. Inert simulant materials replace fissile weapon components. The device is then detonated under remote control within specially designed explosive containment buildings called firing chambers. During the experiment a very brief, intense, collimated flash of high energy x-rays are used to take a snapshot of the implosion (see Fig. 1). Prom the resulting image measurements of the dynamic configuration and density distribution of the components in the device are inferred. These are then used to compare with calculations of the hydrodynamic operation of the weapon and understand how the device would perform under various conditions. This type of experiment is known as a core punch experiment.

  4. Scattering Correction For Image Reconstruction In Flash Radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Liangzhi; Wang, Mengqi; Wu, Hongchun; Liu, Zhouyu; Cheng, Yuxiong; Zhang, Hongbo [Xi' an Jiaotong Univ., Xi' an (China)

    2013-08-15

    Scattered photons cause blurring and distortions in flash radiography, reducing the accuracy of image reconstruction significantly. The effect of the scattered photons is taken into account and an iterative deduction of the scattered photons is proposed to amend the scattering effect for image restoration. In order to deduct the scattering contribution, the flux of scattered photons is estimated as the sum of two components. The single scattered component is calculated accurately together with the uncollided flux along the characteristic ray, while the multiple scattered component is evaluated using correction coefficients pre-obtained from Monte Carlo simulations.The arbitrary geometry pretreatment and ray tracing are carried out based on the customization of AutoCAD. With the above model, an Iterative Procedure for image restORation code, IPOR, is developed. Numerical results demonstrate that the IPOR code is much more accurate than the direct reconstruction solution without scattering correction and it has a very high computational efficiency.

  5. Measurements in shock physics: R and D in flash radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abraham, I.; Caron, M.; Etchessahar, B.; Le Dain, L.; Negre, J.P.; Partouche-Sebban, D.; Pichoff, N.; Toury, M.

    2010-01-01

    Within the simulation program of Cea-Dam, the radiographs produced by the AIRIX facility (induction Linac for flash radiography and X-ray imaging), provide fundamental experimental data for studying the dynamic behaviour of non nuclear materials under the effects of chemical explosive detonation. In order to improve the precision on the observed phenomena (locations of materials interfaces, development of instabilities, etc.), various research and development works have been performed on the modelling of the radiographic image formation, on the optimization of the radiographic chain and on the algorithms for image processing. This article presents in particular the studies on the various technologies of X-sources, on the new configurations of radiographic chains, and on the new digital imagers. (authors)

  6. The Status of the Ultra Fast Flash Observatory – Pathfinder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, J.W.; Ahmad, S.; Ahn, K.B.; Barrillon, P.; Brandt, S.; Budtz-Jrgensen, C.; Castro-Tirado, A.J.; Chang, C.-H.; Chang, C.-Y.; Chang, Y.Y.; Chen, C.R.; Chen, P.; Cho, M.; Choi, H.S.; Choi, Y.J.; Connel, P.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Eyles, C.; Grossan, B.; Huang, J.J.

    2014-01-01

    The Ultra Fast Flash Observatory (UFFO) is a project to study early optical emissions from Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs). The primary scientific goal of UFFO is to see if GRBs can be calibrated with their rising times, so that they could be used as new standard candles. In order to minimize delay in optical follow-up measurements, which is now about 100 sec after trigger from the Swift experiment, we rotate a mirror to redirect light path so that optical measurement can be performed within a second after the trigger. We have developed a pathfinder mission, UFFO-pathfinder to launch on board the Lomonosov satellite in 2012. In this talk, I will present scientific motivations and descriptions of the design and development of UFFO-pathfinder

  7. Racism in soccer? Perception of challenges of black and white players by white referees, soccer players, and fans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner-Egger, Pascal; Gygax, Pascal; Ribordy, Farfalla

    2012-02-01

    This experiment investigated challenge evaluations in soccer and their relation to prejudice: more precisely, whether skin colour may influence judgments of soccer tackles. Three groups of participants (soccer players, referees,and soccer fans) were asked to evaluate challenges, featuring Black and White players as aggressors and victims in a mixed-design study. Results showed that participants made some differentiations between Black and White players in a challenge evaluation task. Participants were more likely to consider within-group challenges as fouls and were faster to consider challenges made by Black players as fouls. On the other hand, fouls made by White players were seen as more severe. There were no major differences between the participating groups, suggesting that the observed effects were independent of how good players were or whether the participants were referees or not.

  8. Efficacy of Escitalopram for Hot Flashes in Healthy Menopausal Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Ellen W.; Guthrie, Katherine A.; Caan, Bette; Sternfeld, Barbara; Cohen, Lee S.; Joffe, Hadine; Carpenter, Janet S.; Anderson, Garnet L.; Larson, Joseph C.; Ensrud, Kristine E.; Reed, Susan; Newton, Katherine M.; Sherman, Sheryl; Sammel, Mary D.; La Croix, Andrea Z.

    2011-01-01

    Context Concerns for the risks of hormone therapy have resulted in its decline and a demand for non-hormonal treatments with demonstrated efficacy for hot flashes. Objective Determine the efficacy and tolerability of 10–20 mg/day escitalopram, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, in alleviating the frequency, severity and bother of menopausal hot flashes. Design, Setting and Patients Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel arm trial for 8 weeks in a sample stratified by race (African American n=95; white n=102) and conducted at 4 MsFlash network sites between July 2009 and June 2010. Of 205 women randomized, 194 (95%) completed week 8 (intervention endpoint), and 183 completed post-treatment follow-up. Main Outcome Measures Primary outcomes were the frequency and severity of hot flashes assessed by prospective daily diaries. Secondary outcomes were hot flash "bother" recorded on daily diaries and clinical improvement (hot flash frequency >=50% decrease from baseline). Results Hot flash frequency was 9.78/day (SD 5.60) at baseline. At week 8, reduction in hot flash frequency was greater in the escitalopram group versus placebo (−4.60, SD 4.28 and −3.20, SD 4.76, respectively, P=0.004). Fifty-five percent of the escitalopram group (versus 36% of the placebo group) reported >=50% decreases in hot flash frequency (P=0.009). Differences in decreases in the severity and bother of hot flashes were significant (P=0.003 and P=0.013, respectively), paralleling the decreases in hot flash frequency. Three weeks after treatment ended, hot flash frequency increased in the escitalopram group to the level of the placebo group, which remained stable in the follow-up interval (P=0.020). Overall discontinuation due to side effects was 4% (7 drug, 2 placebo). Conclusion Escitalopram 10–20 mg/day provides non-hormonal off-label treatment for menopausal hot flashes that is effective and well-tolerated in healthy women. PMID:21245182

  9. Flash flood characterisation of the Haor area of Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, B.; Suman, A.

    2012-04-01

    Haors are large bowl-shaped flood plain depressions located mostly in north-eastern part of Bangladesh covering about 25% of the entire region. During dry season haors are used for agriculture and during rainy season it is used as fisheries. Haors have profound ecological importance. About 8000 migratory wild birds visit the area annually. Some of the haors are declared at Ramsar sites. Haors are frequently affected by the flash floods due to hilly topography and steep slope of the rivers draining the area. These flash floods spill onto low-lying flood plain lands in the region, inundating crops, damaging infrastructure by erosion and often causing loss of lives and properties. Climate change is exacerbating the situation. For appropriate risk mitigation mechanism it is necessary to explore flood characteristics of that region. The area is not at all studied well. Under a current project a numerical 1D2D model based on MIKE Flood is developed to study the flooding characteristics and estimate the climate change impacts on the haor region. Under this study the progression of flood levels at some key haors in relation to the water level data at specified gauges in the region is analysed. As the region is at the border with India so comparing with the gauges at the border with India is carried out. The flooding in the Haor area is associated with the rainfall in the upstream catchment in India (Meghalaya, Barak and Tripura basins in India). The flood propagation in some of the identified haors in relation to meteorological forcing in the three basins in India is analysed as well. Subsequently, a ranking of haors is done based on individual risks. Based on the IPCC recommendation the precipitation scenario in the upstream catchments under climate change is considered. The study provides the fundamental inputs for preparing a flood risk management plan of the region.

  10. Green FLASH: energy efficient real-time control for AO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratadour, D.; Dipper, N.; Biasi, R.; Deneux, H.; Bernard, J.; Brule, J.; Dembet, R.; Doucet, N.; Ferreira, F.; Gendron, E.; Laine, M.; Perret, D.; Rousset, G.; Sevin, A.; Bitenc, U.; Geng, D.; Younger, E.; Andrighettoni, M.; Angerer, G.; Patauner, C.; Pescoller, D.; Porta, F.; Dufourcq, G.; Flaischer, A.; Leclere, J.-B.; Nai, A.; Palazzari, P.; Pretet, D.; Rouaud, C.

    2016-07-01

    The main goal of Green Flash is to design and build a prototype for a Real-Time Controller (RTC) targeting the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) Adaptive Optics (AO) instrumentation. The E-ELT is a 39m diameter telescope to see first light in the early 2020s. To build this critical component of the telescope operations, the astronomical community is facing technical challenges, emerging from the combination of high data transfer bandwidth, low latency and high throughput requirements, similar to the identified critical barriers on the road to Exascale. With Green Flash, we will propose technical solutions, assess these enabling technologies through prototyping and assemble a full scale demonstrator to be validated with a simulator and tested on sky. With this R&D program we aim at feeding the E-ELT AO systems preliminary design studies, led by the selected first-light instruments consortia, with technological validations supporting the designs of their RTC modules. Our strategy is based on a strong interaction between academic and industrial partners. Components specifications and system requirements are derived from the AO application. Industrial partners lead the development of enabling technologies aiming at innovative tailored solutions with potential wide application range. The academic partners provide the missing links in the ecosystem, targeting their application with mainstream solutions. This increases both the value and market opportunities of the developed products. A prototype harboring all the features is used to assess the performance. It also provides the proof of concept for a resilient modular solution to equip a large scale European scientific facility, while containing the development cost by providing opportunities for return on investment.

  11. Flash floods in small Alpine catchments in a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breinl, Korbinian; Di Baldassarre, Giuliano

    2017-04-01

    Climate change is expected to increase the frequency and intensity of hazardous meteorological and hydrological events in numerous mountainous areas. The mountain environment is becoming more and more important for urbanization and the tourism-based economy. Here we show new and innovative methodologies for assessing intensity and frequency of flash floods in small Alpine catchments, in South Tyrol (Italy), under climate change. This research is done within the STEEP STREAMS project, whereby we work closely with decision makers in Italian authorities, and the final goal is to provide them with clear guidelines on how to adapt current structural solutions for mitigating hazardous events under future climate conditions. To this end, we develop a coupled framework of weather generation (i.e. extrapolation of observations and trained with climate projections), time series disaggregation and hydrological modelling using the conceptual HBV model. One of the key challenges is the transfer of comparatively coarse RCM projections to small catchments, whose sizes range from only about 10km2 to 100km2. We examine different strategies to downscale the RCM data from e.g. the EURO-CORDEX dataset using our weather generator. The selected projections represent combinations of warmer, milder, drier and wetter conditions. In general, our main focus is to develop an improved understanding of the impact of the multiple sources of uncertainty in this modelling framework, and make these uncertainties tangible. The output of this study (i.e. discharge with a return period and associated uncertainty) will allow hydraulic and sediment transport modelling of flash floods and debris flows.

  12. Measuring the electron bunch timing with femtosecond resolution at FLASH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bock, Marie Kristin

    2013-03-01

    Bunch arrival time monitors (BAMs) are an integral part of the laser-based synchronisation system which is being developed at the Free Electron Laser in Hamburg (FLASH).The operation principle comprises the measurement of the electron bunch arrival time relative to the optical timing reference, which is provided by actively length-stabilised fibre-links of the synchronisation system. The monitors are foreseen to be used as a standard diagnostic tool, not only for FLASH but also for the future European X-Ray Free-Electron Laser (European XFEL). The present bunch arrival time monitors have evolved from proof-of-principle experiments to beneficial diagnostic devices, which are almost permanently available during standard machine operation. This achievement has been a major objective of this thesis. The developments went in parallel to improvements in the reliable and low-maintenance operation of the optical synchronisation system. The key topics of this thesis comprised the characterisation and optimisation of the opto-mechanical front-ends of both, the fibre-links and the BAMs. The extent of applications involving the bunch arrival time information has been enlarged, providing automated measurements for properties of the RF acceleration modules, for instance, the RF on-crest phase determination and the measurement of energy fluctuations. Furthermore, two of the currently installed BAMs are implemented in an active phase and gradient stabilisation of specific modules in order to minimise the arrival time jitter of the electron bunches at the location of the FEL undulators, which is crucial for a high timing resolution of pump-probe experiments.

  13. 450mm wafer patterning with jet and flash imprint lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ecron; Hellebrekers, Paul; Hofemann, Paul; LaBrake, Dwayne L.; Resnick, Douglas J.; Sreenivasan, S. V.

    2013-09-01

    The next step in the evolution of wafer size is 450mm. Any transition in sizing is an enormous task that must account for fabrication space, environmental health and safety concerns, wafer standards, metrology capability, individual process module development and device integration. For 450mm, an aggressive goal of 2018 has been set, with pilot line operation as early as 2016. To address these goals, consortiums have been formed to establish the infrastructure necessary to the transition, with a focus on the development of both process and metrology tools. Central to any process module development, which includes deposition, etch and chemical mechanical polishing is the lithography tool. In order to address the need for early learning and advance process module development, Molecular Imprints Inc. has provided the industry with the first advanced lithography platform, the Imprio® 450, capable of patterning a full 450mm wafer. The Imprio 450 was accepted by Intel at the end of 2012 and is now being used to support the 450mm wafer process development demands as part of a multi-year wafer services contract to facilitate the semiconductor industry's transition to lower cost 450mm wafer production. The Imprio 450 uses a Jet and Flash Imprint Lithography (J-FILTM) process that employs drop dispensing of UV curable resists to assist high resolution patterning for subsequent dry etch pattern transfer. The technology is actively being used to develop solutions for markets including NAND Flash memory, patterned media for hard disk drives and displays. This paper reviews the recent performance of the J-FIL technology (including overlay, throughput and defectivity), mask development improvements provided by Dai Nippon Printing, and the application of the technology to a 450mm lithography platform.

  14. Measuring the electron bunch timing with femtosecond resolution at FLASH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bock, Marie Kristin

    2013-03-15

    Bunch arrival time monitors (BAMs) are an integral part of the laser-based synchronisation system which is being developed at the Free Electron Laser in Hamburg (FLASH).The operation principle comprises the measurement of the electron bunch arrival time relative to the optical timing reference, which is provided by actively length-stabilised fibre-links of the synchronisation system. The monitors are foreseen to be used as a standard diagnostic tool, not only for FLASH but also for the future European X-Ray Free-Electron Laser (European XFEL). The present bunch arrival time monitors have evolved from proof-of-principle experiments to beneficial diagnostic devices, which are almost permanently available during standard machine operation. This achievement has been a major objective of this thesis. The developments went in parallel to improvements in the reliable and low-maintenance operation of the optical synchronisation system. The key topics of this thesis comprised the characterisation and optimisation of the opto-mechanical front-ends of both, the fibre-links and the BAMs. The extent of applications involving the bunch arrival time information has been enlarged, providing automated measurements for properties of the RF acceleration modules, for instance, the RF on-crest phase determination and the measurement of energy fluctuations. Furthermore, two of the currently installed BAMs are implemented in an active phase and gradient stabilisation of specific modules in order to minimise the arrival time jitter of the electron bunches at the location of the FEL undulators, which is crucial for a high timing resolution of pump-probe experiments.

  15. Making star teams out of star players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankins, Michael; Bird, Alan; Root, James

    2013-01-01

    Top talent is an invaluable asset: In highly specialized or creative work, for instance, "A" players are likely to be six times as productive as "B" players. So when your company has a crucial strategic project, why not multiply all that firepower and have a team of your best performers tackle it? Yet many companies hesitate to do this, believing that all-star teams don't work: Big egos will get in the way. The stars won't be able to work with one another. They'll drive the team Leader crazy. Mankins, Bird, and Root of Bain & Company believe it's time to set aside that thinking. They have seen all-star teams do extraordinary work. But there is a right way and a wrong way to organize them. Before you can even begin to assemble such a team, you need to have the right talent management practices, so you hire and develop the best people and know what they're capable of. You have to give the team appropriate incentives and leaders and support staffers who are stars in their own right. And projects that are ill-defined or small scale are not for all-star teams. Use them only for critical missions, and make sure their objectives are clear. Even with the right setup, things can still go wrong. The wise executive will take steps to manage egos, prune non-team-players, and prevent average coworkers from feeling completely undervalued. She will also invest a lot of time in choosing the right team Leader and will ask members for lots of feedback to monitor how that leader is doing.

  16. Does ovulation affect performance in tennis players?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otaka, Machiko; Chen, Shu-Man; Zhu, Yong; Tsai, Yung-Shen; Tseng, Ching-Yu; Fogt, Donovan L; Lim, Boon-Hooi; Huang, Chih-Yang; Kuo, Chia-Hua

    2018-01-01

    Scientific data on the performance of collegiate female tennis players during the menstrual phases are scarce. Double-blind, counter-balanced, crossover trials were conducted to examine whether tennis performance was affected during menstruation, with and without dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) supplementation. Ten Division 1 collegiate tennis players (aged 18-22 years) were evenly assigned into placebo-supplemented and DHEA-supplemented (25 mg/day) trials. Treatments were exchanged among the participants after a 28-day washout. Tennis serve performance was assessed on the first day of menstrual bleeding (day 0/28) and on days 7, 14 and 21. Mood state was unaltered during the menstrual cycles in both trials. The lowest tennis serve performance score (speed times accuracy) occurred on day 14 (P=0.06 vs day 0; P=0.01 vs day 21) in both placebo and DHEA trials. Decreased performance on day 14 was explained by decreased accuracy (P=0.03 vs day 0/28; P=0.01 vs day 21), but not velocity itself. Isometric hip strength, but not quadriceps strength, was moderately lower on day 14 (P=0.08). Increasing plasma DHEA-S (by ~65%) during the DHEA-supplemented trial had no effects on mood state, sleep quality or tennis serve performance. We have shown that menses does not affect serve performance of collegiate tennis players. However, the observed decrement in the accuracy of serve speed near ovulation warrants further investigation.

  17. The Importance of Vitaminsfor Soccer Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskici, Günay

    2015-12-01

    Soccer is one of the most widely played and complex sports in the world, where success depends on technical, tactical and physical skills of the players. Studies to improve performance in soccer have often focused on technique and tactics. However, nutrition is one of the most important factors influencing athletic performance of the players. The duration of matches is long and the training is intense. This leads to increased requirements for energy and nutrients, as well as increased reactive oxygen radicals and hence increased muscle damage. Vitamins are micronutrients that a living organism requires in trace quantities for health. As these assume crucial functions in the body, the performance of the player is negatively affected particularly during long-term deficiency. Beta-carotene, C and E vitamins are antioxidants that protect against oxygen radicals. In case of their deficiency, oxidative stress and muscle fatigue increases. Vitamin D is involved in maintaining mineral balance, and it increases absorption of dietary calcium and phosphorus. In case of vitamin D deficiency, injuries resulting from the musculoskeletal system might increase. B Vitamins (B1, B2, niacin, B6, B12, biotin, folic acid and pantothenic acid) perform duties such as energy production, absorption and transport of iron and blood cell production. Athletes who follow an energy-restricted and imbalanced diet might develop vitamin deficiency. In such a case, supplements can be used as recommended by the doctor/dietician. It is further reported that supplement use by athletes who have an adequate and balanced nutrition does not increase performance.

  18. An early warning system for flash floods in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cools, J.; Abdelkhalek, A.; El Sammany, M.; Fahmi, A. H.; Bauwens, W.; Huygens, M.

    2009-09-01

    This paper describes the development of the Flash Flood Manager, abbreviated as FlaFloM. The Flash Flood Manager is an early warning system for flash floods which is developed under the EU LIFE project FlaFloM. It is applied to Wadi Watier located in the Sinai peninsula (Egypt) and discharges in the Red Sea at the local economic and tourist hub of Nuweiba city. FlaFloM consists of a chain of four modules: 1) Data gathering module, 2) Forecasting module, 3) Decision support module or DSS and 4) Warning module. Each module processes input data and consequently send the output to the following module. In case of a flash flood emergency, the final outcome of FlaFloM is a flood warning which is sent out to decision-makers. The ‘data gathering module’ collects input data from different sources, validates the input, visualise data and exports it to other modules. Input data is provided ideally as water stage (h), discharge (Q) and rainfall (R) through real-time field measurements and external forecasts. This project, however, as occurs in many arid flash flood prone areas, was confronted with a scarcity of data, and insufficient insight in the characteristics that release a flash flood. Hence, discharge and water stage data were not available. Although rainfall measurements are available through classical off line rain gauges, the sparse rain gauges network couldn’t catch the spatial and temporal characteristics of rainfall events. To overcome this bottleneck, we developed rainfall intensity raster maps (mm/hr) with an hourly time step and raster cell of 1*1km. These maps are derived through downscaling from two sources of global instruments: the weather research and forecasting model (WRF) and satellite estimates from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). The ‘forecast module’ comprises three numerical models that, using data from the gathering module performs simulations on command: a rainfall-runoff model, a river flow model, and a flood model. A

  19. Payoff Shares in Two-Player Contests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Häfner

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In imperfectly discriminating contests with symmetric valuations, equilibrium payoffs are positive shares of the value of the prize. In contrast to a bargaining situation, players’ shares sum to less than one because a residual share of the value is lost due to rent dissipation. In this paper, we consider contests with two players and investigate the relationship between these equilibrium shares and the parameters of a class of asymmetric Tullock contest success functions. Our main finding is that any players’ shares that sum up to less than one can arise as the unique outcome of a pure-strategy Nash equilibrium for appropriate parameters.

  20. [International cooperation on aging: areas and players].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidorenko, A V; Mikhaĭlova, O N

    2014-01-01

    This review article is devoted to the issues of international cooperation on ageing. It aims at describing the basic areas of cooperation and introducing its major players. Within the limited length of a journal article it is hardly possible to offer an exhaustive presentation of all available information; thus the article strives to provide a general orientation within the selected themes. The authors are hopeful that the presented materials will be of interest to the policy oriented researchers, policy makers and professionals working in the field of ageing and related areas such as social security, health and social services etc., as well as to the activists of non-governmental organizations.

  1. Intermittent claudication in a professional rugby player.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, A E; Lewis, W A

    1992-04-01

    Intermittent claudication in a professional rugby player is described. The typical features of a delayed and difficult diagnosis of an external iliac artery stenosis were found. The noninvasive diagnostic protocol used to investigate this young patient with a minimal arterial lesion enabled accurate localization and angioplasty to be performed at the same time as diagnostic angiography. The patient was symptom free with normal arterial pressures on follow-up. It is suggested that appropriate noninvasive investigations should be performed before angiography in young people with minimal lesions.

  2. DIFFERENCES IN FUNCTIONAL AND MOTOR ABILITIES OFYOUNG FOOTBALL PLAYERS, BASKETBALL AND VOLLEYBALL PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franja Fratrić

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this research is to determine whether and what differences exist between the three groups of subjects (high-quality football, volleyball and basketball cadets and youth age, in the motoric and functional abilities, as well as to identify dif- ferences between subgroups within each sport. The sample consists of 61 volleyball, 31 basketball player and football player 31 (total n = 123 male, cadet and youth age are members of local clubs. Subjects were born between 01.01.1991 and 12.12.1994. The sample of variables are the values of 17 tests for the evaluation of functional and mobile status. The Motor-functional status on the basis of the results of secondary value of foot- ball, basketball and volleyball make a clear conclusion that the football players showed the best results in almost all the tests and that they had the smallest disbalance in the power of certain groups of muscles.The football players hve the highest homogeneity.

  3. Comparison of Shoulder Strength in Routinely Trained Badminton Players and Non-Badminton Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong Zhen Feng

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Shoulder pain is a common reason for patients to seek medical help in any healthcare center. Shoulder pain is influenced by a few factors such as gender, posture during daily activities, aging and psychological factors. Based on the study of Epidemiology of Injuries and Prevention Strategies in Competitive Swimmers, shoulder pain due to shoulder injuries can be reduced by strengthening the shoulder muscle. Badminton has become one of the most popular sports in Asia, especially in Indonesia. This study was conducted to determine if badmintonis able to strengthen the shoulder muscle group. Methods: A cross-sectional analytic experimental study was conducted on September 2015 at Lodaya Badminton Training Center and Bale Padjadjaran of Universitas Padjadjaran. Subjects were 30 healthy male routinely trained badminton players and 30 non-badminton players who voluntarily follow the rstudy procedures. Strength measurement procedures were provided to the subjects after getting informed consent.  Data analysis was performed using T-test. Results: The shoulder strength  in routinely trained badminton players was significantly different from  non-badminton players (P<0.05. Conclusions: Shoulder strength can be improved through routine training of badminton to reduce risk of shoulder injury.   DOI: 10.15850/amj.v4n2.1083

  4. Comparative characteristics of psychophysiological features skilled basketball players-women with hearing and skilled basketball players healthy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozina Zh.L.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A comparative analysis of the psychophysiological features of skilled basketball players with normal hearing and impaired hearing aid. The study involved two women's basketball team to 12 people each. The study used a complex computer psychodiagnosis. The complex includes 20 psychophysiological and 18 personal psychological tests. The indicators of the time simple and complex reaction and average tapping test healthy skilled basketball players and basketball players are hearing impaired. There was a significant higher rates of visual-motor speed and reaction-tapping test in basketball players with hearing compared to healthy athletes. This is explained by compensatory mechanisms that occur in connection with the violation of the audition.

  5. Comparative characteristics of psychophysiological features skilled basketball players-women with hearing and skilled basketball players healthy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zh.L. Kozina

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A comparative analysis of the psychophysiological features of skilled basketball players with normal hearing and impaired hearing aid. The study involved two women's basketball team to 12 people each. The study used a complex computer psychodiagnosis. The complex includes 20 psychophysiological and 18 personal psychological tests. The indicators of the time simple and complex reaction and average tapping test healthy skilled basketball players and basketball players are hearing impaired. There was a significant higher rates of visual-motor speed and reaction-tapping test in basketball players with hearing compared to healthy athletes. This is explained by compensatory mechanisms that occur in connection with the violation of the audition.

  6. ANALYSIS AND COMPARISON OF ADOLESCENT ATHLETES' MOTIVATION: BASKETBALL PLAYERS VS. FOOTBALL PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartolom\\u00E9 J. Almagro

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The motivation of an athlete is determinant for the athletic engagement of the adolescent. The present study attempts to analyze the motivation of adolescent basketball and football players from the perspectives of Achievement Goal Theory (Nicholls, 1989 and Self-Determination Theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985. The study's sample was composed of 248 athletes from 12 to 17 years of age. Half were from basketball and half were from football. The instruments that were utilized were: the Spanish version of the Sport Motivation Scale (SMS (Núñez, Martín-Albo, Navarro, & González, 2006, the Spanish version of the Perceived Motivational Climate in Sport Questionnaire-2 (PMSCQ-2 (Balaguer, Mayo, Atienza, & Duda, 1997, and the adapted Spanish translation (Moreno, Moreno, & Cervelló, 2007 of the Intention to be Physically Active Scale (IPAS by Hein, Müür, and Koka (2004. The comparison of the means of the variables between football and basketball players was done utilizing the student t-test for independent samples. Significant differences were found for variables such as: intrinsic motivation (IM toward accomplishment, external regulation, amotivation, task, ego, and Self-Determination Index (SDI. Basketball players obtained higher values in the SDI, in task, and in IM toward accomplishment than football players. The search for premature performance in football and coaches' educations can help to explain these differences. The importance of these differences reside in the relationship between these motivational variables and the adherence to athletic practice. In conclusion, basketball demonstrated better values in motivational variables, which demonstrates that training sessions are more oriented toward task than ego, that players have more intrinsic and self-determined motivation, and therefore, the adherence of the young athletes will be greater in this sport.

  7. Motorist actions at a crosswalk with an in-pavement flashing light system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karkee, Ganesh J; Nambisan, Shashi S; Pulugurtha, Srinivas S

    2010-12-01

    An in-pavement flashing light system is used at crosswalks to alert motorists and pedestrians of possible conflicts and to influence their behavior to enhance safety. The relative behaviors of the drivers and the pedestrians affect safety. An evaluation of motorist behavior at a pedestrian crosswalk with an in-pavement flashing light system is presented in this manuscript. Field observations provide the basis to evaluate motorist behavior at a crosswalk with an in-pavement flashing light system. Outcomes of pedestrian and motorists actions were observed to quantify measures of effectiveness (MOEs) such as yielding behavior of motorists, vehicle speeds, and yielding distance from the crosswalk. A before-and-after study design was used. The before condition was prior to the activation of the in-pavement flashing light system and the after condition was after the activation of the in-pavement flashing light system. The study was conducted on a relatively low-volume roadway located in the Henderson, Nevada. The significance of the differences in the MOEs between the 2 study periods was evaluated using statistical analysis tools such as a one-tailed test for proportions and the Welch-Satterthwaite t-test. The results show that the installation of the in-pavement flashing light system increased the yielding behavior of motorists significantly (P pavement flashing light system is seen to be effective to improve motorists' yielding behavior and the speeds of vehicles were also observed to decrease in the presence of pedestrians.

  8. Evaluating Non-In-Place Update Techniques for Flash-Based Transaction Processing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongkun; Goda, Kazuo; Kitsuregawa, Masaru

    Recently, flash memory is emerging as the storage device. With price sliding fast, the cost per capacity is approaching to that of SATA disk drives. So far flash memory has been widely deployed in consumer electronics even partly in mobile computing environments. For enterprise systems, the deployment has been studied by many researchers and developers. In terms of the access performance characteristics, flash memory is quite different from disk drives. Without the mechanical components, flash memory has very high random read performance, whereas it has a limited random write performance because of the erase-before-write design. The random write performance of flash memory is comparable with or even worse than that of disk drives. Due to such a performance asymmetry, naive deployment to enterprise systems may not exploit the potential performance of flash memory at full blast. This paper studies the effectiveness of using non-in-place-update (NIPU) techniques through the IO path of flash-based transaction processing systems. Our deliberate experiments using both open-source DBMS and commercial DBMS validated the potential benefits; x3.0 to x6.6 performance improvement was confirmed by incorporating non-in-place-update techniques into file system without any modification of applications or storage devices.

  9. A pilot study of magnetic therapy for hot flashes after breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Janet S; Wells, Nancy; Lambert, Beth; Watson, Peggy; Slayton, Tami; Chak, Bapsi; Hepworth, Joseph T; Worthington, W Bradley

    2002-04-01

    The purpose of this randomized placebo-controlled crossover pilot study was to evaluate the effectiveness and acceptability of magnetic therapy for hot flashes among breast cancer survivors. Participants completed a 24-hour baseline hot-flash monitoring session, wore the magnetic devices or placebo for 3 days, completed an after-treatment hot-flash monitoring session, experienced a 10-day washout period, and then crossed over to the opposite study arm. Magnetic devices and placebos were placed on 6 acupressure sites corresponding to hot-flash relief. Complete data were available from 11 survivors of breast cancer. Results indicated magnetic therapy was no more effective than placebo in decreasing hot-flash severity, and contrary to expectations, placebo was significantly more effective than magnets in decreasing hot-flash frequency, bother, interference with daily activities, and overall quality of life. Implications for clinical practice and future research include the need to explore alternative interventions aimed at alleviating hot flashes in this population.

  10. Flashing of high-pressure saturated water into the pool water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takamasa, Tomoji; Kondo, Koichi; Aya, Izuo.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental study on a saturated high-pressure water discharging into a water pool. The purpose of the experiment is to clarify the phenomena that occur by a blow-down of the water from the pressure vessel into the water-filled containment in the case of a wall-crack accident or a LOCA in a passive safety reactor. The results show that a flashing oscillation (FO) occurs when the water discharges into the pool, under specified experimental conditions. The range of the flashing location oscillates between a point very close to and some distance away from the vent hole. The pressures in the vent tube and water pool constantly fluctuate due to the flashing oscillation. The pressure oscillation and alternating flashing location might be caused by the balancing action between the supply of saturated water, flashing at the control volume and steam condensation on the steam-water interface. The frequencies of FO, or frequencies of pressure oscillation and alternating flashing location, increased as water subcooling increased, and as discharging pressure and vent hole diameter decreased. A linear analysis was conducted using a spherical flashing bubble model in which the motion of bubble is controlled by steam condensation. The effects of these parameters on the period of FO in the experiments can be predicted well by the analysis. (author)

  11. Digital Device Architecture and the Safe Use of Flash Devices in Munitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Richard B.; Flowers, David; Bergevin, Keith

    2017-01-01

    Flash technology is being utilized in fuzed munition applications and, based on the development of digital logic devices in the commercial world, usage of flash technology will increase. Digital devices of interest to designers include flash-based microcontrollers and field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). Almost a decade ago, a study was undertaken to determine if flash-based microcontrollers could be safely used in fuzes and, if so, how should such devices be applied. The results were documented in the Technical Manual for the Use of Logic Devices in Safety Features. This paper will first review the Technical Manual and discuss the rationale behind the suggested architectures for microcontrollers and a brief review of the concern about data retention in flash cells. An architectural feature in the microcontroller under study will be discussed and its use will show how to screen for weak or failed cells during manufacture, storage, or immediately prior to use. As was done for microcontrollers a decade ago, architectures for a flash-based FPGA will be discussed, showing how it can be safely used in fuzes. Additionally, architectures for using non-volatile (including flash-based) storage will be discussed for SRAM-based FPGAs.

  12. Sex-specific differences in injury types among basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Eri; Iwamoto, Jun; Azuma, Koichiro; Matsumoto, Hideo

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate sex-specific differences in injury types among basketball players. According to our database, during the 20-year period between October 1991 and June 2011, 1,219 basketball players (640 males and 579 females) consulted our sports medicine clinic; in total, 1,414 injuries in basketball players (729 injuries in males and 685 injuries in females) were recorded. The mean age of patients was 19.6 years. The most common injury site was the knee, followed by the foot and ankle, lower back, and upper extremities. There was a higher proportion of female players presenting with a knee injury, compared with male players (50.4% vs 41.7%), and a lower proportion of female players presenting with an upper extremity injury (5.1% vs 9.7%). The proportion of anterior cruciate ligament injury in the 10-19-year-old age group was higher among female players than among male players (45.9% vs 22.1%), while the proportions of Osgood-Schlatter disease in the 10-19-year-old age group and jumper's knee (patellar and femoral tendinopathy) in the 20-29-year-old age group were higher among male players than among female players (12.5% vs 1.8% and 14.6% vs 3.7%, respectively). However, the proportions of other injuries did not differ significantly between male and female players. The present observational study, which was performed using a retrospective case-series design, showed the existence of sex-specific differences in knee injuries sustained while participating in basketball.

  13. Sex-specific differences in injury types among basketball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ito E

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Eri Ito, Jun Iwamoto, Koichiro Azuma, Hideo MatsumotoInstitute for Integrated Sports Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: The purpose of the present study was to investigate sex-specific differences in injury types among basketball players. According to our database, during the 20-year period between October 1991 and June 2011, 1,219 basketball players (640 males and 579 females consulted our sports medicine clinic; in total, 1,414 injuries in basketball players (729 injuries in males and 685 injuries in females were recorded. The mean age of patients was 19.6 years. The most common injury site was the knee, followed by the foot and ankle, lower back, and upper extremities. There was a higher proportion of female players presenting with a knee injury, compared with male players (50.4% vs 41.7%, and a lower proportion of female players presenting with an upper extremity injury (5.1% vs 9.7%. The proportion of anterior cruciate ligament injury in the 10–19-year-old age group was higher among female players than among male players (45.9% vs 22.1%, while the proportions of Osgood–Schlatter disease in the 10–19-year-old age group and jumper's knee (patellar and femoral tendinopathy in the 20–29-year-old age group were higher among male players than among female players (12.5% vs 1.8% and 14.6% vs 3.7%, respectively. However, the proportions of other injuries did not differ significantly between male and female players. The present observational study, which was performed using a retrospective case-series design, showed the existence of sex-specific differences in knee injuries sustained while participating in basketball.Keywords: sports injury, sex, anterior cruciate ligament injury, Osgood–Schlatter disease, basketball

  14. Strength asymmetry of the shoulders in elite volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadzic, Vedran; Sattler, Tine; Veselko, Matjaž; Markovic, Goran; Dervisevic, Edvin

    2014-01-01

    Volleyball players are reported to have shoulder strength imbalances. Previous authors have primarily investigated small samples of male players at a single skill level, without considering playing position, and with inconsistent findings. To evaluate shoulder strength asymmetry and a history of shoulder injury in a large sample of professional volleyball players of both sexes across different playing positions and skill levels. Descriptive laboratory study. A sample of 183 volleyball players (99 men, 84 women). We assessed shoulder internal-rotator and external-rotator concentric strength at 60°/s using an isokinetic dynamometer and dominant-nondominant differences in shoulder strength and strength ratios using repeated-measures analyses of variance. Peak torque was normalized for body mass and external-rotation/internal-rotation concentric strength. Internal-rotation strength was asymmetric in favor of the dominant side in both sexes, regardless of previous shoulder injury status. Male volleyball players had a lower shoulder strength ratio on the dominant side, regardless of previous shoulder injury status. However, this finding was valid only when hand dominance was taken into account. Female volleyball players playing at a higher level (ie, first versus second division) were 3.43 times more likely to have an abnormal strength ratio. Playing position was not associated with an abnormal shoulder strength ratio or strength asymmetry. In male volleyball players, the external-rotation/internal-rotation strength ratio of the dominant shoulder was lower, regardless of playing position, skill level, or a previous shoulder injury. In female players, the ratio was less only in those at a higher skill level. Although speculative, these findings generally suggest that female volleyball players could have a lower risk of developing shoulder-related problems than male volleyball players. Isokinetic shoulder testing may reveal important information about the possible risk

  15. N-player quantum games in an EPR setting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James M Chappell

    Full Text Available The N-player quantum games are analyzed that use an Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR experiment, as the underlying physical setup. In this setup, a player's strategies are not unitary transformations as in alternate quantum game-theoretic frameworks, but a classical choice between two directions along which spin or polarization measurements are made. The players' strategies thus remain identical to their strategies in the mixed-strategy version of the classical game. In the EPR setting the quantum game reduces itself to the corresponding classical game when the shared quantum state reaches zero entanglement. We find the relations for the probability distribution for N-qubit GHZ and W-type states, subject to general measurement directions, from which the expressions for the players' payoffs and mixed Nash equilibrium are determined. Players' N x N payoff matrices are then defined using linear functions so that common two-player games can be easily extended to the N-player case and permit analytic expressions for the Nash equilibrium. As a specific example, we solve the Prisoners' Dilemma game for general N ≥ 2. We find a new property for the game that for an even number of players the payoffs at the Nash equilibrium are equal, whereas for an odd number of players the cooperating players receive higher payoffs. By dispensing with the standard unitary transformations on state vectors in Hilbert space and using instead rotors and multivectors, based on Clifford's geometric algebra (GA, it is shown how the N-player case becomes tractable. The new mathematical approach presented here has wide implications in the areas of quantum information and quantum complexity, as it opens up a powerful way to tractably analyze N-partite qubit interactions.

  16. Mitochondrial flash as a novel biomarker of mitochondrial respiration in the heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Guohua; Liu, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Huiliang; Sheu, Shey-Shing; Wang, Wang

    2015-10-01

    Mitochondrial respiration through electron transport chain (ETC) activity generates ATP and reactive oxygen species in eukaryotic cells. The modulation of mitochondrial respiration in vivo or under physiological conditions remains elusive largely due to the lack of appropriate approach to monitor ETC activity in a real-time manner. Here, we show that ETC-coupled mitochondrial flash is a novel biomarker for monitoring mitochondrial respiration under pathophysiological conditions in cultured adult cardiac myocyte and perfused beating heart. Through real-time confocal imaging, we follow the frequency of a transient bursting fluorescent signal, named mitochondrial flash, from individual mitochondria within intact cells expressing a mitochondrial matrix-targeted probe, mt-cpYFP (mitochondrial-circularly permuted yellow fluorescent protein). This mt-cpYFP recorded mitochondrial flash has been shown to be composed of a major superoxide signal with a minor alkalization signal within the mitochondrial matrix. Through manipulating physiological substrates for mitochondrial respiration, we find a close coupling between flash frequency and the ETC electron flow, as measured by oxygen consumption rate in cardiac myocyte. Stimulating electron flow under physiological conditions increases flash frequency. On the other hand, partially block or slowdown electron flow by inhibiting the F0F1 ATPase, which represents a pathological condition, transiently increases then decreases flash frequency. Limiting electron entrance at complex I by knocking out Ndufs4, an assembling subunit of complex I, suppresses mitochondrial flash activity. These results suggest that mitochondrial electron flow can be monitored by real-time imaging of mitochondrial flash. The mitochondrial flash frequency could be used as a novel biomarker for mitochondrial respiration under physiological and pathological conditions. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  17. Nonlinear dynamic model of a gear-rotor-bearing system considering the flash temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Xiangfeng; Zhu, Lingyun; Qi, Changjun

    2017-12-01

    The instantaneous flash temperature is an important factor for gears in service. To investigate the effect of the flash temperature of a tooth surface on the dynamics of the spur gear system, a modified nonlinear dynamic model of a gear-rotor-bearing system is established. The factors such as the contact temperature of the tooth surface, time-varying stiffness, tooth surface friction, backlash, the comprehensive transmission error and so on are considered. The flash temperature of a tooth surface of pinion and gear is formulated according to Blok's flash temperature theory. The mathematical expression of the contact temperature of the tooth surface varied with time is derived and the tooth profile deformation caused by the change of the flash temperature of the tooth surface is calculated. The expression of the mesh stiffness varied with the flash temperature of the tooth surface is derived based on Hertz contact theory. The temperature stiffness is proposed and added to the nonlinear dynamic model of the system. The influence of load on the flash temperature of the tooth surface is analyzed in the parameters plane. The variation of the flash temperature of the tooth surface is studied. The numerical results indicate that the calculated method of the flash temperature of the gear tooth surface is effective and it can reflect the rules for the change of gear meshing temperature and sliding of the gear tooth surface. The effects of frequency, backlash, bearing clearance, comprehensive transmission error and time-varying stiffness on the nonlinear dynamics of the system are analyzed according to the bifurcation diagrams, Top Lyapunov Exponent (TLE) spectrums, phase portraits and Poincaré maps. Some nonlinear phenomena such as periodic bifurcation, grazing bifurcation, quasi-periodic bifurcation, chaos and its routes to chaos are investigated and the critical parameters are identified. The results provide an understanding of the system and serve as a useful reference

  18. A Novel Dual Traffic/Flash Flood Monitoring System Using Passive Infrared/Ultrasonic Sensors

    KAUST Repository

    Mousa, Mustafa; Odat, Enas M.; Claudel, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Floods are the most common type of natural disaster, causing thousands of casualties every year. Among these events, urban flash floods are particularly deadly because of the short timescales on which they occur, and because of the high concentration of population in cities. Since most flash flood casualties are caused by a lack of information, it is critical to generate accurate and detailed warnings of flash floods. However, deploying an infrastructure that solely monitor flash floods makes little economic sense, since the average periodicity of catastrophic flash floods exceeds the lifetime of a typical sensor network. To address this issue, we propose a new sensing device that can simultaneously monitor urban flash floods and another phenomenon of interest (traffic congestion on the present case). This sensing device is based on the combination of an ultrasonic rangefinder with one or multiple remote temperature sensors. We show an implementation of this device, and illustrate its performance in both traffic flow and flash flood sensing. Field data shows that the sensor can detect vehicles with a 99% accuracy, in addition to estimating their speed and classifying them in function of their length. The same sensor can also monitor urban water levels with an accuracy of less than 2 cm. Two of the sensors have been deployed in a flood prone area, where they captured the only (minor) flash flood that occurred over the one-year test period, with no false detection, and an agreement in the estimated water level estimate (during the flash flood event) of about 2 cm.

  19. A Novel Dual Traffic/Flash Flood Monitoring System Using Passive Infrared/Ultrasonic Sensors

    KAUST Repository

    Mousa, Mustafa

    2015-10-19

    Floods are the most common type of natural disaster, causing thousands of casualties every year. Among these events, urban flash floods are particularly deadly because of the short timescales on which they occur, and because of the high concentration of population in cities. Since most flash flood casualties are caused by a lack of information, it is critical to generate accurate and detailed warnings of flash floods. However, deploying an infrastructure that solely monitor flash floods makes little economic sense, since the average periodicity of catastrophic flash floods exceeds the lifetime of a typical sensor network. To address this issue, we propose a new sensing device that can simultaneously monitor urban flash floods and another phenomenon of interest (traffic congestion on the present case). This sensing device is based on the combination of an ultrasonic rangefinder with one or multiple remote temperature sensors. We show an implementation of this device, and illustrate its performance in both traffic flow and flash flood sensing. Field data shows that the sensor can detect vehicles with a 99% accuracy, in addition to estimating their speed and classifying them in function of their length. The same sensor can also monitor urban water levels with an accuracy of less than 2 cm. Two of the sensors have been deployed in a flood prone area, where they captured the only (minor) flash flood that occurred over the one-year test period, with no false detection, and an agreement in the estimated water level estimate (during the flash flood event) of about 2 cm.

  20. Efficacy of a biobehavioral intervention for hot flashes: a randomized controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Debra L; Schroeder, Kelliann C Fee; Banerjee, Tanima; Wolf, Sherry; Keith, Timothy Z; Elkins, Gary

    2017-07-01

    The need for effective nonhormonal treatments for hot flash management without unwanted side effects continues. The primary aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the effect of combining a nonhormonal pharmacologic agent with a behavioral treatment for hot flash reduction. Seventy-one postmenopausal women were randomized to one of four groups: venlafaxine 75 mg + hypnosis (VH) versus venlafaxine 75 mg + sham hypnosis (VSH) versus a placebo pill + hypnosis (PH) versus placebo pill + sham hypnosis (PSH). Women recorded hot flash severity and frequency in a daily diary, in real time. The intrapatient difference in hot flash score (frequency × severity) at 8 weeks was analyzed using a General Estimating Equation model, using VSH as the referent arm, controlling for baseline hot flashes. The active arms including PH or VH were not statistically significantly different than VSH (P = 0.34, P = 0.05, respectively). Women in each active arm reported hot flash reductions of about 50%, with the PSH group reporting a 25% reduction. Women receiving the PSH reported statistically significantly smaller reductions in hot flash score than women in the referent VSH arm (P = 0.001). There were no significant negative side effects during the course of the study. Hypnosis alone reduced hot flashes equal to venlafaxine alone, but the combination of hypnosis and venlafaxine did not reduce hot flashes more than either treatment alone. More research is needed to clarify whether combining hypnosis with a different antidepressant would provide synergistic benefits.