WorldWideScience

Sample records for macromedia flash player

  1. Membuat Game Kuis Menggunakan Macromedia Flash 8

    OpenAIRE

    Lumban Gaol, Cindi N

    2016-01-01

    In the final project , the author makes an application quiz games . This application is a medium of learning that helps students to study for a quiz pep contained in this application relate to the lessons in school . Methods and design a quiz game designed by using software Macromedia Flash 8 as the programming language , script editor program , and is also used to design this application . This study was made aiming to broaden how to create a quiz game simple one. Word Keys : Mac...

  2. Pengembangan Program Macromedia Flash 8 untuk Pembelajaran Fisika di SMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiji Susilowati

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian adalah membuat dan mengevaluasi media pembelajaran fisika SMA menggunakan program Macromedia Flash 8. Subjek coba pada penelitian ini berjumlah 40 orang yang terdiri dari 10 siswa untuk uji coba instrumen penelitian, 10 siswa untuk ujicoba kelompok kecdl, dan 20 siswa untuk uji coba lapangan. Pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan mengguna­kan kuesioner dan tes fisika (pre-test dan post-test. Evaluasi terhadap program ditinjau dari aspek pembelajaran dan aspek media. Kritik dan saran digunakan untuk memperbaiki program. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa program Macromedia Flash 8 untuk pembelajaran fisika di SMA: (1 dirancang sesuai dengan prinsip-prinsip desain pembelajaran, (2 terbukti mampu menaikkan skor rerata tes fisika siswa sebesar 55,42%, (3 memiliki efisiensi waktu yang tinggi, (4 ditinjau dari aspek media Hinilai cukup bagus/menarik (dinilai/dikategorikan sedang oleh siswa, (5 ditinjau dari aspek pembelajaran secara keseluruhan program ini dinilai tinggi/jelas dimengerti oleh siswa, (6 ditinjau dari aspek media dinilai menarik (bagus/kategori tinggi oleh guru fisika, dan (7 ditinjau dari aspek pembelajaran juga dinilai menarik (bagus/kategori tinggi oleh guru fisika. Kata kunci: media pembelajaran fisika diSMA.

  3. Keefektifan CTL Berbantuan Macromedia Flash Terhadap Kemampuan Berpikir Kritis pada Materi Segiempat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.N. Kusumadewi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan pada penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui nilai rata-rata dan tingkat ketuntasan klasikal pada kemampuan berpikir kritis peserta didik dalam materi segiempat setelah diterapkan model Contextual Teaching and Learning/CTL berbantuan Macromedia Flash 8, dan membandingkan model CTL berbantuan Macromedia Flash 8 dengan model direct instruction pada kemampuan berpikir kritis materi segiempat kelas VII. Populasi pada penelitian ini adalah peserta didik kelas VII SMP Negeri 1 Semarang tahun pelajaran 2012/ 2013. Sampel dipilih dengan menggunakan teknik cluster sampling. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan menunjukkan bahwa rata-rata kemampuan berpikir kritis kelas eksperimen mencapai kriteria ketuntasan minimum (KKM. Persentase banyaknya peserta didik yang tuntas melebihi ketuntasan klasikal minimal. Kemampuan berpikir kritis pada kelas eksperimen lebih baik dibandingkan pada kelas kontrol.  Hal tersebut terlihat dari rata-rata nilai dan persentase peserta didik yang tuntas pada kelas eksperimen lebih tinggi daripada kelas kontrol. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian, dapat disimpulkan bahwa pembelajaran dengan model CTL berbantuan Macromedia Flash 8 efektif terhadap kemampuan berpikir kritis materi segiempat kelas VII.   The purpose of the experiment is to find out the students’ completeness mean score and percentage in critical thinking ability about quadrilateral in CTL model with Macromedia Flash 8, and to compare the CTL model with direct instruction model in students’ critical thinking ability at 7th grade. The popula­tion of this study was 7th grade students of SMP N 1 Semarang academic year 2012/2013. Study learning showed that means score of critical thinking ability in experiment class achieves minimum completeness criteria (KKM. Percentage of students that achieve KKM was also more than minimum classical completeness score. Critical thinking ability of the experiment class is better than control class. It is proven from mean score and

  4. PENGGUNAAN MEDIA ANIMASI MACROMEDIA FLASH UNTUK MENINGKATKAN KUALITAS PEMBELAJARAN IPA SISWA TUNARUNGU KELAS II SDLB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lela Margarita

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to improve the quality of science with the usage of the macromedia flash animation media for students with hearing impairment in the grade IIof Elementary Special School. The method used was Clasroom Action Research (CAR with qualitative design. The results of the data analysis showed that the subjects experienced an enhancement in the results of student’s activities in cycle I 50,90% increasing in cycle II 73,66%, the results of student learning in cycle I 64,99% increasing in cycle II 73,93%. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan dengan tujuan untuk meningkatkan kualitas pembelajaran IPA dengan menggunakan media animasi macromedia flash bagi siswa tunarungu kelas II SDLB. Metode penelitian yang digunakan Classroom Action Research (CAR adalah dengan model kualitatif. Hasil analisis data menunjukkan bahwa subjek mengalami peningkatan pada pembelajaran IPA yang dapat dilihat dari peningkatan aktivitas dan hasil belajar pada siklus I dan siklus II. Persentase aktivitas siswa siklus I 50,90% meningkat siklus II 73,66% Sedangkan hasil belajar siklus I 64,99% meningkat siklus II 73,93%.

  5. BAHAN AJAR KALKULUS 2 MENGGUNAKAN MACROMEDIA FLASH DAN MAPLE DI STKIP PGRI LUBUKLINGGAU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Retni Paradesa

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This research purposes to result calculus II instructional material using valid, practical, and has potential effect Macromedia Flash and Maple toward student’s learning result. Valid can be described from the validity assessment result based on content (in accordance with calculus II subject and construct (in accordance with media producing rule. It is practically described from the small group test result. Data collecting was carried out by document analysis and test. It was development research consist of three stages, i.e. analysis, design, and evaluation stage. The subject of the research was 28 second semester students in mathematics education program in STKIP PGRI Lubuklinggau. From the test teaching material potential effect towards the result can be gained 81.2 average welled categories.  Finally it can be concluded the effective developed teaching material in mathematic learning. Key Word: development research, calculus II

  6. KEFEKTIVITASAN MACROMEDIA FLASH PENDIDIKAN SEKS DALAM MEMPERSIAPKAN MASA PUBERTAS ANAK TUNAGRAHITA DI SLB B/C AL AZHAR WARU SIDOARJO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Puspa Dewi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sexual development of mental retardation’s children follows the physical development, thus experiencing a similar development with the normal ones. Those students have difficulty in understanding abstract information about the physical changes during puberty. Therefore, through the medium of learning macromedia flash, the sex education learning can be understood by them. This study aims to determine the effectiveness of using multimedia in teaching sex education as preparation for mental retardation’s students during puberty in SLB B/C SLB Al Azhar Waru Sidoarjo. The subjects were mental retardation’s students in that schools. Data collection techniques used in this research was shaped test objective tests. The design model used in this study is one group pretest-posttest design (treatment by subject design. Data analysis techniques used by the author in this research was a non-parametric analysis techniques that rank test Wilcoxon signed Sign marked tests (Wilcoxon Sign Rank Test. Based on the data analysis and discussion of the results of research, known that the Z count = -2070 with P = 0.038 at significance level of 5%. The results are smaller than 0.05 can be proven true. Based on those explanations it can be concluded that the alternative hypothesis which states "Learning to use Macromedia Flash is effective in teaching sex education for mental retardation’s students in SLB B / C Al Azhar Waru Sidoarjo" can be proven true. Keywords: Macromedia Flash, sex education, children with intellectual disability

  7. EFEKTIVITAS PENERAPAN MODEL PEMBELAJARAN TEAMS GAMES TOURNAMENTS BERBANTUAN MACROMEDIA FLASH UNTUK MENINGKATKAN HASIL BELAJAR KEWIRAUSAHAAN KOMPETENSI DASAR MEMBUAT KEPUTUSAN KELAS X SMK WIDYA PRAJA UNGARAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catur Kurnia Setiani

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui apakah metode pembelajaran Teams Games Tournaments berbantu macromedia flash dapat meningkatkan hasil belajar siswa, Penelitian ini adalah penelitian quasi eksperimen yang diawali menentukan populasi dan memilih sampel dari populasi. Populasi dalam penelitian ini adalah seluruh siswa kelas X SMK Widya Praja Ungaran, dan sampel penelitian ini yaitu kelas XBb 1 sebagai kelas eksperimen dan kelas XAk 1 sebagai kelas kontrol dengan menggunakan teknik simple random sampling. Pengujian hipotesis pertama dengan uji paired sample t-test menunjukan nilai sig sebesar 0.000, pengujian hipotesis kedua dan ketiga dengan uji independent sample t-test menunjukan nilai sig sebesar 0,563 yang artinya lebih kecil dari level of significant (α yaitu sebesar 0,05, sehingga terdapat peningkatan hasil belajar siswa. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa metode pembelajaran Teams Games Tournaments berbantu Macromedia flash dapat meningkatkan hasil belajar siswa, dan lebih efektif meningkatkan hasil belajar siswa pada mata pelajaran Kewirausahaan kompetensi dasar membuat keputusan. The purpose of this research is to find out whether the method of learning Teams Games Tournaments berbantu macromedia flash can improve student learning outcomes, the study was quasi experimental research that begins to determine population and selects a sample of the population. The population in this research is the whole grade SMK X Widya Praja Ungaran, and samples of this study are class XBb 1 as the experimental class and the class as a class XAk 1 control using simple random sampling technique he testing of hypotheses first with paired test sample t-test a sig 0.000, indicated value of the testing of hypotheses second and third test sample independent t-test showed the value of a sig 0,563 which means less than the level of significant (α , is equal to 0.05 so there are increasing results iearn students.The result showed that learning method

  8. PENGARUH MEDIA PEMBELAJARAN ADOBE FLASH PLAYER DAN INFOKUS TERHADAP PEMAHAMAN KONSEP MATEMATIS SISWA KELAS VII SMP PGRI 11 PALEMBANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Destinar Destinar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui ada tidaknya pengaruh media pembelajaran Adobe Flash Player dan Infokus terhadap pemahaman konsep matematis siswa Kelas VII. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah metode eksperimen, yang terdiri dari 3 kelompok yaitu kelompok kelas yang diajar dengan Adobe Flash Player dan Infokus, kelompok kelas yang diajar hanya dengan infokus dan kelompok kelas yang diajar tanpa media. Setelah itu ketiga kelompok tersebut diberikan tes akhir untuk mengetahui pemahaman konsep matematis dari masing-masing kelompok. Dari hasil tes akhir diperoleh Dari hasil tes akhir diperoleh rata-rata pemahaman konsep matematis kelompok yang diajar dengan Adobe Flash Player dan Infokus secara signifikan lebih tinggi dari pada rata-rata pemahaman konsep matematis kelompok yang diajar dengan Infokus. Rata-rata pemahaman konsep matematis kelompok yang diajar dengan Adobe Flash Player dan Infokus secara signifikan lebih tinggi dari pada rata-rata pemahaman konsep matematis kelompok yang diajar dengan tanpa media. Rata-rata pemahaman konsep matematis kelompok yang diajar dengan Infokus secara signifikan lebih tinggi dari pada rata-rata pemahaman konsep matematis kelompok yang diajar dengan tanpa media. Sehingga dapat disimpulkan terdapat pengaruh yang signifikan pemahaman konsep matematis siswa ditinjau dari media pembelajaran yang digunakan.  Kata Kunci : Adobe Flash Player, Infokus, Pemahaman Konsep Matematis. 

  9. How to Realize Flash Player in Authorware%Authorware中Flash动画播放器的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于万国; 都亚京; 孟伟

    2012-01-01

    利用Authorware的脚本语言实现Flash动画播放器的设计。该播放器除了实现了常规的控制外,还可以利用播放进度条来实现对Flash动画的控制,即可以通过拖曳播放头在进度条的位置改变影片的播放进度,同时播放的部分深色显示,并动态显示播放进度的百分比,增加了控制影片的灵活性和交互性。%Authorware scripting language can be used to realize Flash player. The players realized using button and the way of the combination of the progress bar to realize the control of Flash animation, including open Flash files, play, pause, fast forward, retreat quickly, the first frame, tail frame etc button control mode, can also drag play in progress through the position of the first article of the change Flash animation broadcast pace, and Flash animation broadcast progress can be displayed, that is part of the play that dark, at the same time, the percentage of the dynamic display of broadcast pace, then increased control Flash animation flexibility and interactivity.

  10. Animating an Equation: A Guide to Using FLASH in Mathematics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhoum, Ezzat G.

    2008-01-01

    Macromedia's FLASH development system can be a great tool for mathematics education. This article presents detailed Flash tutorials that were developed and taught by the author to a group of mathematics professors in a summer course in 2005. The objective was to educate the teachers in the techniques of animating equations and mathematical…

  11. ActionScript 30 Cookbook Solutions for Flash Platform and Flex Application Developers

    CERN Document Server

    Lott, Joey; Peters, Keith

    2008-01-01

    Well before Ajax and Windows Presentation Foundation, Macromedia Flash provided the first method for building rich" web pages. Now, Adobe is making Flash a full-fledged development environment, and learning ActionScript 3.0 is key. That's a challenge for even the most experienced Flash developer. This Cookbook offers more than 300 solutions to solve a wide range of coding dilemmas, so you can learn to work with the new version right away."

  12. How Macromedia Used Blogs to Build Its Developers' Communities: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jingli

    2008-01-01

    Business organizations are using blogs as a conversational technology to help build a community of practice where knowledge exchange and sharing actively take place. This case study examines how Macromedia used blogs to build its developers' communities and become more organizationally effective. Four major types of interactions between the…

  13. Media Pengetahuan Metamorfosis Kupu-Kupu dengan Adobe Flash

    OpenAIRE

    Adjie, Fauzan

    2015-01-01

    Kajian ini bertujuan untuk membangun sebuah sistem aplikasi pengenalan. Aplikasi pengethauan metamorfosis kupu - kupu ini dibuat dengan menggunakan perangkat lunak macromedia flash 5. Manfaat dari sistem pengenalan ini adalah membantu para siswa sekolah dasar maupun sekolah menengah atas untuk mengetahui metamorfosis kupu - kupu, khususnya pengetahuan alam. Isi yang di sampaikan mulai dari teori pengetahuan metamorfosis kupu - kupu, yaitu siklus hidup dan metamorfosis yang dimulai dari telur ...

  14. Media Pengetahuan Metamorfosis Kupu-Kupu dengan Adobe Flash

    OpenAIRE

    Adjie, Fauzan

    2015-01-01

    Kajian ini bertujuan untuk membangun sebuah sistem aplikasi pengenalan. Aplikasi pengethauan metamorfosis kupu - kupu ini dibuat dengan menggunakan perangkat lunak macromedia flash 5. Manfaat dari sistem pengenalan ini adalah membantu para siswa sekolah dasar maupun sekolah menengah atas untuk mengetahui metamorfosis kupu - kupu, khususnya pengetahuan alam. Isi yang di sampaikan mulai dari teori pengetahuan metamorfosis kupu - kupu, yaitu siklus hidup dan metamorfosis yang dimulai dari telur ...

  15. Professional Flash Lite Mobile Development

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, J G

    2010-01-01

    Discover how to create Flash Lite mobile apps from the ground up. Adobe Flash is an ideal choice for developing rich interactive content for "Flash-enabled" mobile devices; and with this book, you'll learn how to create unique applications with Flash Lite. Through a series of code samples and extensive example applications, you'll explore the core concepts, key features, and best practices of the Flash Lite player. Coverage reveals various ways to develop Flash mobile content, create applications with a cross-platform programming framework based on the Model, View and Controller conc

  16. Animación con Flash

    OpenAIRE

    Agelet Ordobàs, Ferran; Villar Posada, Feliciano

    2009-01-01

    Flash es una aplicación informática producida por la empresa de software norteamericana Macromedia, que se utiliza principalmente para la generación de páginas web animadas e interactivas. Este programa se está convirtiendo en un estándar para la creación de contenidos animados y altamente interactivos para ser distribuidos en la Red. Este tutorial pretende recorrer el camino necesario para llegar a conocer las posibilidades de la aplicación sin experiencia previa. El usuario interesado tiene...

  17. Flash Learning Games Wow Students and Instructors: Moving Toward An Academic Gaming Portal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan H Lim

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes and discusses the rationale, background, design, and implementation of Flash learning games. The paper explains why Macromedia Flash has been selected as the authoring tool in the development of highly interactive learning games for online learning. The background evolutionary process of developing the learning games points out why it has been a daunting task to create compelling learning games that impact learning. Designing learning game objects that allow other educators to customize game content is the core of this paper. The author envisions this academic gaming project will evolve into an academic gaming portal, developed in conjunction with other major institutional partners.

  18. The Production of the Beautiful Star Based on Flash ActionScript%基于Flash ActionScript制作美丽的星空

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周国福

    2009-01-01

    FLASH8是美国的MACROMEDIA公司推出的一款多媒体动画制作软件.它是一种交互式动画设计工具,用它可以将音乐,声效,动画方便地融合在一起,从而制作出高品质的动态效果.该文通过Flash 8动画编辑软件制作出美丽的星空效果.%FLASH8 by the United States MACROMEDIA company launched a multi-media animation software. It is an interactive ani-mation design tools, it not only easily take music, sound, animation to blend but also produce high-quality dynamic effects. This article manufactures the beautiful starry sky effect through the Flash 8 animation edition software.

  19. Semi-Automated Creation of Converged iTV Services: From Macromedia Director Simulations to Services Ready for Broadcast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Tsekleves

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available While sound and video may capture viewers′ attention, interaction can captivate them. This has not been available prior to the advent of Digital Television. In fact, what lies at the heart of the Digital Television revolution is this new type of interactive content, offered in the form of interactive Television (iTV services.On top of that, the new world of converged networks has created a demand for a new type of converged services on a range of mobile terminals (Tablet PCs, PDAs and mobile phones. This paper aims at presenting a new approach to service creation that allows for the semi-automatic translation of simulations and rapid prototypes created in the accessible desktop multimedia authoring package Macromedia Director into services ready for broadcast. This is achieved by a series of tools that de-skill and speed-up the process of creating digital TV user interfaces (UI and applications for mobile terminals.The benefits of rapid prototyping are essential for the production of these new types of services, and are therefore discussed in the first section of this paper. In the following sections, an overview of the operation of content, service, creation and management sub-systems is presented, which illustrates why these tools compose an important and integral part of a system responsible of creating, delivering and managing converged broadcast and telecommunications services. The next section examines a number of metadata languages candidates for describing the iTV services user interface and the schema language adopted in this project. A detailed description of the operation of the two tools is provided to offer an insight of how they can be used to de-skill and speed-up the process of creating digital TV user interfaces and applications for mobile terminals. Finally, representative broadcast oriented and telecommunication oriented converged service components are also introduced, demonstrating how these tools have been used to

  20. Tutorial Pengenalan Adobe Photoshop Menggunakan Adobe Flash CS3

    OpenAIRE

    Mayoka, Rio

    2011-01-01

    Kajian ini bertujuan untuk membangun sebuah aplikasi yang dapat menjadi alat bantu dalam pembelajaran Adobe Photoshop, dimana terdapat beberapa materi pengenalan dasar Adobe Photoshop. Aplikasi ini suatu gagasan dengan membuat tutorial beranimasi yang interatif. Aplikasi ini dibuat dengan menggunakan Adobe Flash CS3 dan dapat dijalankan dengan Flash player. Aplikasi ini dapat membantu para penggunanya dalam memahami pengenalan Adobe Photoshop, terutama pengenalan tool pada Adob...

  1. Simplified production of multimedia based radiological learning objects using the flash format; Vereinfachte Herstellung multimedialer radiologischer Lernobjekte mit dem Flash-Format

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jedrusik, P.; Preisack, M.; Dammann, F. [Radiologische Klinik, Univ. Tuebingen (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    Purpose: evaluation of the applicability of the flash format for the production of radiological learning objects used in an e-learning environment. Material and methods: five exemplary learning objects with different didactic purposes referring to radiological diagnostics are presented. They have been intended for the use within the multimedia, internet-based e-learning environment LaMedica. Interactive learning objects were composed using the Flash 5.0 software (Macromedia, San Francisco, USA) on the basis of digital CT and MR images, digitized conventional radiographs and different graphical elements prepared as TIFF files or in a vector graphics format. Results: after a short phase of initial skill adaptation training, a radiologist author was soon able to create independently all learning objects. The import of different types of images and graphical elements was carried out without complications. Despite manifold design options, handling of the program is easy due to clear arrangement and structure, thus enabling the creation of simple as well as complex learning objects that provided a high degree of attractiveness and interaction. Data volume and bandwidth demand for online use was significantly reduced by the flash format compression without a substantial loss of visual quality. (orig.)

  2. Veto players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warntjen, Andreas; Dowding, Keith

    2010-01-01

    Veto players are political actors whose consent is necessary to adopt a new policy. Put otherwise, they have veto power which allows them to prevent a change to the status quo. The concept is crucial to the influential veto player theory developed by George Tsebelis. Building on earlier work in form

  3. Veto players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warntjen, Andreas; Dowding, Keith

    2010-01-01

    Veto players are political actors whose consent is necessary to adopt a new policy. Put otherwise, they have veto power which allows them to prevent a change to the status quo. The concept is crucial to the influential veto player theory developed by George Tsebelis. Building on earlier work in form

  4. Foundation Flash Catalyst

    CERN Document Server

    Goralski, Greg

    2010-01-01

    This book offers an introduction to Flash Catalyst for designers with intermediate to advanced skills. It discusses where Catalyst sits within the production process and how it communicates with other programs. It covers all of the features of the Flash Catalyst workspace, teaching you how to create designs from scratch, how to build application designs and add functionality, and how to master the Catalyst/Flex workflow. * Introduces Flash Catalyst * Focuses on production process * Covers the interrelation between Flash Catalyst and Photoshop/Illustrator/Flex/Flash What you'll learn Starting f

  5. [Nikola Tesla: flashes of inspiration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarejo-Galende, Albero; Herrero-San Martín, Alejandro

    2013-01-16

    Nikola Tesla (1856-1943) was one of the greatest inventors in history and a key player in the revolution that led to the large-scale use of electricity. He also made important contributions to such diverse fields as x-rays, remote control, radio, the theory of consciousness or electromagnetism. In his honour, the international unit of magnetic induction was named after him. Yet, his fame is scarce in comparison with that of other inventors of the time, such as Edison, with whom he had several heated arguments. He was a rather odd, reserved person who lived for his inventions, the ideas for which came to him in moments of inspiration. In his autobiography he relates these flashes with a number of neuropsychiatric manifestations, which can be seen to include migraine auras, synaesthesiae, obsessions and compulsions.

  6. NAND flash memory technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Aritome, Seiichi

    2016-01-01

    This book discusses basic and advanced NAND flash memory technologies, including the principle of NAND flash, memory cell technologies, multi-bits cell technologies, scaling challenges of memory cell, reliability, and 3-dimensional cell as the future technology. Chapter 1 describes the background and early history of NAND flash. The basic device structures and operations are described in Chapter 2. Next, the author discusses the memory cell technologies focused on scaling in Chapter 3, and introduces the advanced operations for multi-level cells in Chapter 4. The physical limitations for scaling are examined in Chapter 5, and Chapter 6 describes the reliability of NAND flash memory. Chapter 7 examines 3-dimensional (3D) NAND flash memory cells and discusses the pros and cons in structure, process, operations, scalability, and performance. In Chapter 8, challenges of 3D NAND flash memory are dis ussed. Finally, in Chapter 9, the author summarizes and describes the prospect of technologies and market for the fu...

  7. Optical Flashes Preceding GRBs

    CERN Document Server

    Paczynski, B

    2001-01-01

    Only one optical flash associated with a gamma-ray burst has been detected so far by ROTSE. There are also upper limits obtained by several groups for several bursts. Recent model calculations indicate a possibility that optical flash may precede the GRB. Such flashes are undetectable in the currently popular observing mode, with optical instruments responding to GRB triggers. There is a need to develop all sky optical monitoring system capable of recognizing flashes in real time, and more powerful instruments that could respond robotically to optical triggers and carry out follow up observations.

  8. Pro Android Flash

    CERN Document Server

    Chin, Stephen; Campesato, Oswald

    2011-01-01

    Did you know you can take your Flash skills beyond the browser, allowing you to make apps for Android, iOS and the BlackBerry Tablet OS? Build dynamic apps today starting with the easy-to-use Android smartphones and tablets. Then, take your app to other platforms without writing native code. Pro Android Flash is the definitive guide to building Flash and other rich Internet applications (RIAs) on the Android platform. It covers the most popular RIA frameworks for Android developers - Flash and Flex - and shows how to build rich, immersive user experiences on both Android smartphones and tablet

  9. Flash渗透中国的动画产业%Flash Percolating through the Chinese Animation Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶蕾

    2007-01-01

    @@ 一、Flash的历史 Flash最早期的版本称为Future Splash Animator.当时Future Splash Animator最大的两个用户是微软(MicrosoFt)和迪斯尼(Disney).1996年11月,Future Splash Animator卖给了MM(Macromedia.com),同时改名为Flash1.0.这里不得不提到的人物是乔纳森·盖伊(Jonathan Gay),是他和他的六人小组首先创造了Future Splash Animator,也就是现在Flash真正的前身了.

  10. Flash-Type Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshak, William J.

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the significant progress made in the flash-type discrimination algorithm development. The contents include: 1) Highlights of Progress for GLM-R3 Flash-Type discrimination Algorithm Development; 2) Maximum Group Area (MGA) Data; 3) Retrieval Errors from Simulations; and 4) Preliminary Global-scale Retrieval.

  11. Understanding Green Flashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Andrew T.

    1998-05-01

    Most astronomers learn about green flashes from either Minnaert's old book (Dover, 1954) or O'Connell's ``The Green Flash....'' Both have defects. Minnaert's account mostly represents what was known in the 1920s; it repeats Mulder's 3-fold classification, which omits Joule's second type of flash --- the one most commonly seen from mountain observatories. O'Connell searched only the astronomical literature, missing Dietze's crucially important paper (Z.f.Met. 9, 169 (1955)) showing that the ``textbook'' mechanism cannot produce flashes visible to the naked eye. He also erred in thinking that distortions of the setting Sun arise in the upper atmosphere (they are due to the marine boundary layer), and copied an error from Feenstra Kuiper's thesis that misidentified a common mirage-like phenomenon as Wegener's ``blank strip'' (Young et al., Appl. Opt. 36, 2689 (1997).) Most phenomena shown in O'Connell's book are caused by inversion layers below eye level, not above as in Wegener's phenomenon. The two commonest forms of green flash are associated with the inferior mirage and the mock mirage, corresponding to Fisher's Type A and Type B sunsets, respectively. Superrefraction, advocated by Wood and by Rayleigh as the cause of large flashes, actually suppress them: the airmass is proportional to the refraction (by Laplace's extinction theorem), so no green is transmitted when refraction is much larger than average. Although there is a physical green flash that can be photographed, the colors seen at sunset are strongly modified by bleaching of the L cones. Most ``green'' sunset flashes are actually yellow. Writers should stop representing Jules Verne's ``ancient legend'' as fact, as it was invented by Verne as a plot device for his novel ``Le Rayon Vert.'' Green-flash photos and simulations will be shown. This material is based upon work supported by the NSF under Award No. ATM-9714357.

  12. Floods and Flash Flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floods and flash flooding Now is the time to determine your area’s flood risk. If you are not sure whether you ... If you are in a floodplain, consider buying flood insurance. Do not drive around barricades. If your ...

  13. Foundation Flash Cartoon Animation

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Tim; Rosson, Allan S

    2008-01-01

    One of Flash s most common uses is still animation for cartoons, games, advertising etc, and this book takes a fresh look at the topic, breaking it down pre-production, production, and post production, and looking at each section in detail, and covering topics such as storyboarding, character libraries and camera mechanics like no Flash book has before. The book is written by members of the Emmy award winning ANIMAX team, who have created work for clients such as Disney, AOL, Fox, WWE, ESPN, and Sesame workshop. This book is an opportunity for them to share their secrets, and is written to sui

  14. Learning Flash CS4 Professional

    CERN Document Server

    Shupe, Rich

    2009-01-01

    Learning Flash CS4 Professional offers beginners and intermediate Flash developers a unique introduction to the latest version of Adobe's powerful multimedia application. This easy-to-read book is loaded with full-color examples and hands-on tasks to help you master Flash CS4's new motion editor, integrated 3D system, and character control using the new inverse kinematics bones animation system. No previous Flash experience is necessary.

  15. Flash Builder and Flash Catalyst The New Workflow

    CERN Document Server

    Peeters, Steven

    2010-01-01

    The Flash Platform is changing. Flash Builder and Flash Catalyst have brought a new separation of design and coding to web development that enables a much more efficient and streamlined workflow. For designers and developers used to the close confines of Flash, this is a hugely liberating but at first alien concept. This book teaches you the new workflow for the Flash platform. It gives an overview of the technologies involved and provides you with real-world project examples and best-practice guidelines to get from design to implementation with the tools at hand. * Includes many examples* Foc

  16. Jaan Toomik Flash Artis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1999-01-01

    1999. a. mai-juuni 'Flash Artis' on ajakirja Eesti korrespondendi Ando Keskküla artikkel Jaan Toomikust. Jaan Toomik on kutsutud esinema Londoni The Photographers' Gallery grupinäitusele, tema videot 'Father and Son' näidatakse Londonis avataval näitusel 'Near and Elsewhere' 11.-24. juunini

  17. Inessa Josing Flash Artis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1999-01-01

    'Flash Art'i' 1998. a. nov.-dets. numbris Rosa Martínezi artiklis suvisest Manifesta II näitusest Luxembourg'is on positiivselt mainitud ka Inessa Josingut. Illustratsiooniks toodud seitsmest fotost ühel on I. Josingu aknakujundus 'What Must I Do to be Saved?'

  18. Inessa Josing Flash Artis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1999-01-01

    'Flash Art'i' 1998. a. nov.-dets. numbris Rosa Martínezi artiklis suvisest Manifesta II näitusest Luxembourg'is on positiivselt mainitud ka Inessa Josingut. Illustratsiooniks toodud seitsmest fotost ühel on I. Josingu aknakujundus 'What Must I Do to be Saved?'

  19. Jaan Toomik Flash Artis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1999-01-01

    1999. a. mai-juuni 'Flash Artis' on ajakirja Eesti korrespondendi Ando Keskküla artikkel Jaan Toomikust. Jaan Toomik on kutsutud esinema Londoni The Photographers' Gallery grupinäitusele, tema videot 'Father and Son' näidatakse Londonis avataval näitusel 'Near and Elsewhere' 11.-24. juunini

  20. Document Flash Thermography

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, Cory; Baker, Doran

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an extension of flash thermography techniques to the analysis of documents. Motivation for this research is to develop the ability to reveal covered writings in archaeological artifacts such as the Codex Selden or Egyptian Cartonnage. An emphasis is placed on evaluating several common existing signal processing techniques for their effectiveness in enhancing subsurface writings found within a set of test documents. These processing techniques include: contrast stretching, ...

  1. The lightning flash

    CERN Document Server

    Cooray, Vernon

    2014-01-01

    With contributions from today's leading lightning engineers and researchers, this updated 2nd edition of Vernon Cooray's classic text, The Lightning Flash provides the reader with an essential introduction to lightning and its impact on electrical and electronic equipment. Providing the reader with a thorough background into almost every aspect of lightning and its impact on electrical and electronic equipment, this new edition is updated throughout and features eight new chapters that bring the science up to date.

  2. Flash Lidar Data Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergkoetter, M. D.; Ruppert, L.; Weimer, C. S.; Ramond, T.; Lefsky, M. A.; Burke, I. C.; Hu, Y.

    2009-12-01

    Late last year, a prototype Flash LIDAR instrument flew on a series of airborne tests to demonstrate its potential for improved vegetation measurements. The prototype is a precursor to the Electronically Steerable Flash LIDAR (ESFL) currently under development at Ball Aerospace and Technology Corp. with funding from the NASA Earth Science Technology Office. ESFL may soon significantly expand our ability to measure vegetation and forests and better understand the extent of their role in global climate change and the carbon cycle - all critical science questions relating to the upcoming NASA DESDynI and ESA BIOMASS missions. In order to more efficiently exploit data returned from the experimental Flash Lidar system and plan for data exploitation from future flights, Ball funded a graduate student project (through the Ball Summer Intern Program, summer 2009) to develop and implement algorithms for post-processing of the 3-Dimensional Flash Lidar data. This effort included developing autonomous algorithms to resample the data to a uniform rectangular grid, geolocation of the data, and visual display of large swaths of data. The resampling, geolocation, surface hit detection, and aggregation of frame data are implemented with new MATLAB code, and the efficient visual display is achieved with free commercial viewing software. These efforts directly support additional tests flights planned as early as October 2009, including possible flights over Niwot Ridge, CO, for which there is ICESat data, and a sea-level coastal area in California to test the effect of higher altitude (above ground level) on the divergence of the beams and the beam spot sizes.

  3. Physics Flash December 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kippen, Karen Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). ADEPS Communications

    2016-12-01

    This is the December 2016 issue of Physics Flash, the newsletter of the Physics Division of Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). In this issue, the following topics are covered: Novel liquid helium technique to aid highly sensitive search for a neutron electrical dipole moment; Silverleaf: Prototype Red Sage experiments performed at Q-site; John L. Kline named 2016 APS Fellow; Physics students in the news; First Entropy Engine quantum random number generator hits the market; and celebrating service.

  4. Physics Flash August 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kippen, Karen Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-25

    Physics Flash is the newsletter for the Physics Division at Los Alamos National Laboratory. This newsletter is for August 2016. The following topics are covered: "Accomplishments in the Trident Laser Facility", "David Meyerhofer elected as chair-elect APS Nominating Committee", "HAWC searches for gamma rays from dark matter", "Proton Radiography Facility commissions electromagnetic magnifier", and "Cosmic ray muon computed tomography of spent nuclear fuel in dry storage casks."

  5. Flash Point Performance Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    7094 Grabner D3828B Seta Flash CL12-3453 42.5 43.8 43.8 47.7 44.3 47.3 42.0 42.5 43.8 43.8 47.7 45.3 47.2 42.0 CL12-3475 58.5 61.7 58.7 59.7 61.3...division of Petroleum Analyzers Company (PAC) Houston, TX 14. Herzog is division of PAC 15. Stanhope- Seta , London, UK 16. Grabner Instruments is a

  6. Methods of flash sintering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raj, Rishi; Cologna, Marco; Francis, John S.

    2016-05-10

    This disclosure provides methods of flash sintering and compositions created by these methods. Methods for sintering multilayered bodies are provided in which a sintered body is produced in less than one minute. In one aspect, each layer is of a different composition, and may be constituted wholly from a ceramic or from a combination of ceramic and metallic particles. When the body includes a layer of an anode composition, a layer of an electrolyte composition and a layer of a cathode composition, the sintered body can be used to produce a solid oxide fuel cell.

  7. Geomorphological factors of flash floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, Yulia

    2016-04-01

    Growing anthropogenic load, rise of extreme meteorological events frequency and total precipitation depth often lead to increasing danger of catastrophic fluvial processes worldwide. Flash floods are one of the most dangerous and less understood types of them. Difficulties of their study are mainly related to short duration of single events, remoteness and hard access to origin areas. Most detailed researches of flash floods focus on hydrological parameters of the flow itself and its meteorological factors. At the same time, importance of the basin geological and geomorphological structure for flash floods generation and the role they play in global sediment redistribution is yet poorly understood. However, understanding and quantitative assessment of these features is a real basis for a complete concept of factors, characteristics and dynamics of flash floods. This work is a review of published data on flash floods, and focuses on the geomorphological factors of the phenomenon. We consider both individual roles and interactions between different geomorphological features (the whole basin parameters, characteristics of the single slopes and valley bottom). Special attention is paid to critical values of certain factors. This approach also highlights the gaps or less studied factors of flash floods. Finally, all data is organized into a complex diagram that may be used for flash floods modeling. This also may help to reach a new level of flash flood predictions and risk assessment.

  8. Flashing LEDs for Microalgal Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Peter S C; Guerra, Rui; Pereira, Hugo; Schüler, Lisa M; Varela, João C S

    2017-08-30

    Flashing lights are next-generation tools to mitigate light attenuation and increase the photosynthetic efficiency of microalgal cultivation systems illuminated by light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Optimal flashing light conditions depend on the reaction kinetics and properties of the linear electron transfer chain, energy dissipation, and storage mechanisms of a phototroph. In particular, extremely short and intense light flashes potentially mitigate light attenuation in photobioreactors without impairing photosynthesis. Intelligently controlling flashing light units and selecting electronic components can maximize light emission and energy efficiency. We discuss the biological, physical, and technical properties of flashing lights for algal production. We combine recent findings about photosynthetic pathways, self-shading in photobioreactors, and developments in solid-state technology towards the biotechnological application of LEDs to microalgal production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Step & flash imprint lithography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas J. Resnick

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The escalating cost of next generation lithography (NGL is driven in part by the need for complex sources and optics. The cost for a single NGL tool could soon exceed $50 million, a prohibitive amount for many companies. As a result, several research groups are looking at alternative, low-cost methods for printing sub-100 nm features. Many of these methods are limited in their ability to do precise overlay. In 1999, Willson and Sreenivasan developed step and flash imprint lithography (S-FIL™. The use of a quartz template opens up the potential for optical alignment of the wafer and template. This paper reviews several key aspects of the S-FIL process, including template, tool, ultraviolet (UV-curable monomer, and pattern transfer. Two applications are also presented: contact holes and surface acoustic wave (SAW filters.

  10. Flash sintering of ceramic materials

    OpenAIRE

    Dancer, C. E. J.

    2016-01-01

    During flash sintering, ceramic materials can sinter to high density in a matter of seconds while subjected to electric field and elevated temperature. This process, which occurs at lower furnace temperatures and in shorter times than both conventional ceramic sintering and field-assisted methods such as spark plasma sintering, has the potential to radically reduce the power consumption required for the densification of ceramic materials. This paper reviews the experimental work on flash sint...

  11. Flash Professional CS5 Digital Classroom

    CERN Document Server

    Gerantabee, Fred

    2011-01-01

    Learn Flash in a flash with this full-color book and video training package! Adobe Flash is used by designers, game programmers, and hobbyists to create interactive Web sites, digital experiences, and mobile content. The latest release of Flash promises exciting new capabilities and this book-and-video training package makes learning the new features of Flash less intimidating. Fifteen self-paced lessons encourage you to discover essential skills and explore new aspects of Flash. The tutorials featured in the videos are each approximately five minutes long and supplement the concepts and topic

  12. The Player Engagement Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoenau-Fog, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Engagement is an essential element of the player experience, and the concept is described in various ways in the literature. To gain a more detailed comprehension of this multifaceted concept, and in order to better understand what aspects can be used to evaluate engaging game play and to design...... engaging user experiences, this study investigates one dimension of player engagement by empirically identifying the components associated with the desire to continue playing. Based on a description of the characteristics of player engagement, a series of surveys were developed to discover the components......, categories and triggers involved in this process. By applying grounded theory to the analysis of the responses, a process-oriented player engagement framework was developed and four main components consisting of objectives, activities, accomplishments and affects as well as the corresponding categories...

  13. Flashing light in microalgae biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Ghosh, Said; Fixler, Dror; Dubinsky, Zvy; Iluz, David

    2016-03-01

    Flashing light can enhance photosynthesis and improve the quality and quantity of microalgal biomass, as it can increase the products of interest by magnitudes. Therefore, the integration of flashing light effect into microalgal cultivation systems should be considered. However, microalgae require a balanced mix of the light/dark cycle for higher growth rates, and respond to light intensity differently according to the pigments acquired or lost during the growth. This review highlights recently published results on flashing light effect on microalgae and its applications in biotechnology, as well as the recently developed bioreactors designed to fulfill this effect. It also discusses how this knowledge can be applied in selecting the optimal light frequencies and intensities with specific technical properties for increasing biomass production and/or the yield of the chemicals of interest by microalgae belonging to different genera.

  14. Flash sintering of ceramic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dancer, C. E. J.

    2016-10-01

    During flash sintering, ceramic materials can sinter to high density in a matter of seconds while subjected to electric field and elevated temperature. This process, which occurs at lower furnace temperatures and in shorter times than both conventional ceramic sintering and field-assisted methods such as spark plasma sintering, has the potential to radically reduce the power consumption required for the densification of ceramic materials. This paper reviews the experimental work on flash sintering methods carried out to date, and compares the properties of the materials obtained to those produced by conventional sintering. The flash sintering process is described for oxides of zirconium, yttrium, aluminium, tin, zinc, and titanium; silicon and boron carbide, zirconium diboride, materials for solid oxide fuel applications, ferroelectric materials, and composite materials. While experimental observations have been made on a wide range of materials, understanding of the underlying mechanisms responsible for the onset and latter stages of flash sintering is still elusive. Elements of the proposed theories to explain the observed behaviour include extensive Joule heating throughout the material causing thermal runaway, arrested by the current limitation in the power supply, and the formation of defect avalanches which rapidly and dramatically increase the sample conductivity. Undoubtedly, the flash sintering process is affected by the electric field strength, furnace temperature and current density limit, but also by microstructural features such as the presence of second phase particles or dopants and the particle size in the starting material. While further experimental work and modelling is still required to attain a full understanding capable of predicting the success of the flash sintering process in different materials, the technique non-etheless holds great potential for exceptional control of the ceramic sintering process.

  15. Flash Builder building user interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Rocchi, Cesare

    2010-01-01

    Develop a working understanding of events and components, and containers and states so you can build and deploy RIAs in Flex. Work through a demo implementation of a login panel that employs feedback from the server side, to hone your understanding. Use the validators and the debugger to inspect your code execution. Building User Interaction is the second of five articles that will be compiled in the book, Data Visualization with Flash Builder: Designing RIA and AIR Applications with Remote Data Sources. Each full-color article illustrates specific aspects of Flash Builder data visualization

  16. Quick Guide to Flash Catalyst

    CERN Document Server

    Elmansy, Rafiq

    2011-01-01

    How do you transform user interface designs created in Photoshop or Illustrator into interactive web pages? It's easier than you think. This guide shows you how to use Adobe Flash Catalyst to create interactive UIs and website wireframes for Rich Internet Applications-without writing a single line of code. Ideal for web designers, this book introduces Flash Catalyst basics with detailed step-by-step instructions and screenshots that illustrate every part of the process. You'll learn hands-on how to turn your static design or artwork into working user interfaces that can be implemented in Fla

  17. Flash Builder charting and multimedia

    CERN Document Server

    Rocchi, Cesare

    2010-01-01

    Charting and multimedia are two vital tools for data-driven applications. Learn about the main components of the chart library included in Flash Builder, and see how to build and customize widely used charts. Turning your attention to the multimedia capabilities of the Flex framework, you will review the multimedia components built into the Flex library, and learn how to use ActionScript to manipulate video and audio files. Charting and Multimedia is the third of five articles that will be compiled in the book, Data Visualization with Flash Builder: Designing RIA and AIR Applications with Rem

  18. 3D Flash LIDAR Space Laser Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Scientific Concepts, Inc. (ASC) is a small business that has developed 3D Flash LIDAR systems for space and terrestrial applications. 3D Flash LIDAR is...

  19. Flash CS4: The Missing Manual

    CERN Document Server

    Grover, Chris

    2008-01-01

    Unlock the power of Flash and bring gorgeous animations to life onscreen. Flash CS4: The Missing Manual includes a complete primer on animation, a guided tour of the program's tools and capabilities, lots of new illustrations, and more details on working with video. Beginners will learn to use the software in no time, and experienced Flash designers will improve their skills.

  20. Evaluation of Flash Bainite in 4130 Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Technical Report ARWSB-TR-11011 Evaluation of Flash Bainite in 4130 Steel G. Vigilante M. Hespos S. Bartolucci...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Evaluation of Flash Bainite in 4130 Steel 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...STATEMENT 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT ARDEC independently evaluated a Flash Bainite process developed by Gary Cola, Jr., Sirius Protection

  1. Jaan Toomik ajakirjas Flash Art

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1999-01-01

    Kunstiajakirja "Flash Art" maikuu numbris Ando Keskküla artikkel, mis annab ülevaate J. Toomiku loomingust ja peatub pikemalt tema olulisematel töödel. 10. juunist J. Toomiku isiknäitus Londoni fotograafide galeriis. Eksponeeritud video "Uisutaja"

  2. Ingmar Muusikuse foto Flash Artis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1999-01-01

    Flash Arti 1999. a. oktoobrinumbris virtuaalse näituse rubriigis Ando Keskküla artikkel radikaalsemast eesti kunstist ja kunstielust postsotsialistlikul ajastul. Illustratsiooniks Liina Siibi fotokompositsioonid, Ingmar Muusikuse foto Raoul Kurvitza, Ene-Liis Semperi ja Kiwa Eesti Panga performance'ist

  3. Ingmar Muusikuse foto Flash Artis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1999-01-01

    Flash Arti 1999. a. oktoobrinumbris virtuaalse näituse rubriigis Ando Keskküla artikkel radikaalsemast eesti kunstist ja kunstielust postsotsialistlikul ajastul. Illustratsiooniks Liina Siibi fotokompositsioonid, Ingmar Muusikuse foto Raoul Kurvitza, Ene-Liis Semperi ja Kiwa Eesti Panga performance'ist

  4. Jaan Toomik ajakirjas Flash Art

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1999-01-01

    Kunstiajakirja "Flash Art" maikuu numbris Ando Keskküla artikkel, mis annab ülevaate J. Toomiku loomingust ja peatub pikemalt tema olulisematel töödel. 10. juunist J. Toomiku isiknäitus Londoni fotograafide galeriis. Eksponeeritud video "Uisutaja"

  5. Observers can reliably identify illusory flashes in the illusory flash paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Erp, Jan B F; Philippi, Tom G; Werkhoven, Peter

    2013-04-01

    In the illusory flash paradigm, a single flash may be experienced as two flashes when accompanied by two beeps or taps, and two flashes may be experienced as a single flash when accompanied by one beep or tap. The classic paradigm restricts responses to '1' and '2' (2-AFC), ignoring possible qualitative differences between real and illusory flashes and implicitly assuming that illusory flashes are indistinguishable from real flashes. We added a third response category 'different from that of either 1 or 2 flashes' (3-AFC). Eight naïve and 6 experienced observers responded to 160 real and 160 illusory flash trials. Experienced observers were exposed to 1,200 trials before the experiment but without receiving feedback on their performance. The third response category was used for only 4 % of the real flash trials and for 44 % of the illusory flash trials. Experienced observers did so more often (78 %) than naïve observers (18 %). This shows that observers can reliably identify illusory flashes and indicates that mere exposure to illusory flash trials (without feedback) is enough to detect and classify potential qualitative differences between real and illusory flashes.

  6. On multiphase negative flash for ideal solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Wei; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2012-01-01

    coefficients. It is shown that this inner loop, named here as multiphase negative flash for ideal solutions, can be solved either by Michelsen's algorithm for multiphase normal flash, or by its variation which uses F−1 phase amounts as independent variables. In either case, the resulting algorithm is actually...... simpler than the corresponding normal flash algorithm. Unlike normal flash, multiphase negative flash for ideal solutions can diverge if the feasible domain for phase amounts is not closed. This can be judged readily during the iteration process. The algorithm can also be extended to the partial negative...

  7. Foundation Flash CS4 for Designers

    CERN Document Server

    Green, Tom

    2008-01-01

    In this book, you'll learn:* How to create effective animations using the new Motion Editor and animation tools * How to use the new 3D features to animate objects in 3D space * Best-practice tips and techniques from some of the top Flash practitioners on the planet * How to create captioned video and full-screen video, and deploy HD video using Flash * Techniques for using the Flash UI components as well as XML documents to create stunning,interactive presentations If you're a Flash designer looking for a solid overview of Flash CS4, this book is for you. Through the use of solid and practica

  8. uFlip: Understanding Flash IO Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouganim, Luc; Jonsson, Bjørn; Bonnet, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    want to establish what kind of IOs should be favored (or avoided) when designing algorithms and architectures for flash-based systems. In this paper, we focus on flash IO patterns, that capture relevant distribution of IOs in time and space, and our goal is to quantify their performance. We define u......FLIP, a benchmark for measuring the response time of flash IO patterns. We also present a benchmarking methodology which takes into account the particular characteristics of flash devices. Finally, we present the results obtained by measuring eleven flash devices, and derive a set of design hints that should drive...

  9. From Sulfide Flash Smelting to a Novel Flash Ironmaking Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Hong Yong

    A novel flash ironmaking technology is under development at the University of Utah under the support of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI). The history of the development from the conception of the idea to the current status will be discussed. The flash ironmaking process produces iron directly from fine iron ore concentrates without requiring cokemaking and pelletization/sintering, which will enable the technology to significantly reduce energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions compared with blast furnace ironmaking. Unlike other gas-based ironmaking processes, this technology will not suffer from the problems of solid sticking and fusion. Current work is focused on the method of supplying the energy required to maintain the necessary temperature, as an intermediate step to determine the scalability for larger, industrial-scale pilot trials.

  10. Spurious dispersion effects at FLASH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prat, Eduard

    2009-07-15

    The performance of the Free-Electron Laser (FEL) process imposes stringent demands on the transverse trajectory and size of the electron beam. Since transverse dispersion changes off-energy particle trajectories and increases the effective beam size, dispersion must be controlled. This thesis treats the concept of dispersion in linacs, and analyses the impact of dispersion on the electron beam and on the FEL process. It presents generation mechanisms for spurious dispersion, quantifying its importance for FLASH (Free-electron Laser in Hamburg) and the XFEL (European X-ray Free-Electron Laser). A method for measuring and correcting dispersion and its implementation in FLASH is described. Experiments of dispersion e ects on the transverse beam quality and on the FEL performance are presented. (orig.)

  11. Multi-stage flash degaser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapier, Pascal M.

    1982-01-01

    A multi-stage flash degaser (18) is incorporated in an energy conversion system (10) having a direct-contact, binary-fluid heat exchanger to remove essentially all of the noncondensable gases from geothermal brine ahead of the direct-contact binary-fluid heat exchanger (22) in order that the heat exchanger (22) and a turbine (48) and condenser (32) of the system (10) can operate at optimal efficiency.

  12. Trajectory Codes for Flash Memory

    CERN Document Server

    Anxiao,; Langberg, Michael; Schwartz, Moshe; Bruck, Jehoshua

    2010-01-01

    Flash memory is well-known for its inherent asymmetry: the flash-cell charge levels are easy to increase but are hard to decrease. In a general rewriting model, the stored data changes its value with certain patterns. The patterns of data updates are determined by the data structure and the application, and are independent of the constraints imposed by the storage medium. Thus, an appropriate coding scheme is needed so that the data changes can be updated and stored efficiently under the storage-medium's constraints. In this paper, we define the general rewriting problem using a graph model. It extends many known rewriting models such as floating codes, WOM codes, buffer codes, etc. We present a new rewriting scheme for flash memories, called the trajectory code, for rewriting the stored data as many times as possible without block erasures. We prove that the trajectory code is asymptotically optimal in a wide range of scenarios. We also present randomized rewriting codes optimized for expected performance (g...

  13. FLASH2: Operation, beamlines, and photon diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plönjes, Elke, E-mail: elke.ploenjes@desy.de; Faatz, Bart; Kuhlmann, Marion; Treusch, Rolf [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestr. 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-07-27

    FLASH2, a major extension of the soft X-ray free-electron laser FLASH at DESY, turns FLASH into a multi-user FEL facility. A new undulator line is located in a separate accelerator tunnel and driven additionally by the FLASH linear accelerator. First lasing of FLASH2 was achieved in August 2014 with simultaneous user operation at FLASH1. The new FLASH2 experimental hall offers space for up to six experimental end stations, some of which will be installed permanently. The wide wavelength range spans from 4-60 nm and 0.8 nm in the 5{sup th} harmonic and in the future deep into the water window in the fundamental. While this is of high interest to users, it is challenging from the beamline instrumentation point of view. Online diagnostics - which are mostly pulse resolved - for beam intensity, position, wavelength, wave front, and pulse length have been to a large extent developed at FLASH(1) and have now been optimized for FLASH2. Pump-probe facilities for XUV-XUV, XUV optical and XUV-THz experiments will complete the FLASH2 user facility.

  14. Flash Sintering of Alumina-based Ceramics

    OpenAIRE

    Biesuz, Mattia

    2017-01-01

    Flash sintering is an electrical field-assisted consolidation technology and represents a very novel technique for producing ceramic materials, which allows to decrease sensibly both processing temperature and time. Starting from 2010, when flash sintering was discovered, different ceramic materials with a wide range of electrical properties have been successfully densified. Up to date, the research on flash sintering has been mainly focused on ionic and electronic conductors and on semicondu...

  15. Search Engine Optimization for Flash Best Practices for Using Flash on the Web

    CERN Document Server

    Perkins, Todd

    2009-01-01

    Search Engine Optimization for Flash dispels the myth that Flash-based websites won't show up in a web search by demonstrating exactly what you can do to make your site fully searchable -- no matter how much Flash it contains. You'll learn best practices for using HTML, CSS and JavaScript, as well as SWFObject, for building sites with Flash that will stand tall in search rankings.

  16. Adobe Flash Professional CS6 digital classroom

    CERN Document Server

    Team, AGI Creative

    2012-01-01

    Full-color book and video package teaches you Flash in a flash! If you want to design and maintain dynamic websites with Adobe Flash, this full-color book-and-video training package from expert instructors is the perfect place to start. Fifteen self-paced, step-by-step lessons are accompanied by video tutorials, and this powerful combination helps you master the basics, acquire essential skills, and learn what's new. Making all aspects of Flash less intimidating, this superb training tool covers topics such as using layers to build animation sequences, creating interactive web

  17. Flash CS5 The Missing Manual

    CERN Document Server

    Grover, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Once you know how to use Flash, you can create everything from simple animations to high-end desktop applications, but it's a complex tool that can be difficult to master on your own-unless you have this Missing Manual. This book will help you learn all you need to know about Flash CS5 to create animations that bring your ideas to life. Learn animation basics. Find everything you need to know to get started with FlashMaster the Flash tools. Learn the animation and effects toolset, with clear explanations and hands-on examplesUse 3D effects. Rotate and put objects in motion in three dimensions

  18. Database good function of Flash DataGrid component application in Director%Director中应用Flash DataGrid组件实现数据库良好功能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王怀仁

    2013-01-01

    Director和Flash是Macromedia公司推出的多媒体和视频动画强有力的开发工具,是目前设计网页动画和多媒体产品的首选软件.Director侧重做集成设计和复杂交互设计,Flash适合制作动画和简单交互,二者相辅相成,若能把它们的优点结合在一起,在开发的过程中就可以达到事半功倍的效果.Director与Flash的优势是进行网页动画和多媒体产品的开发,与Delphi、Visual FoxPro、Powerbuilder等开发工具相比,在数据库处理和复杂数据显示等方面存在明显不足.根据Director与Flash之间的亲缘关系及通过对它们通讯模式的研究发现,虽然可将Flash的网格(DataGrid)组件直接应用到Director中,但其上可用来直接设置的属性很少,且没有所必需的,如行列设置等.Lingo语言是Director与Flash之间进行沟通的桥梁,通过Lingo语言可实现Director与Flash之间互通控制,依据该特征,利用Lingo语言有效地完成了网格(DataGrid)组件的行列设置,并用其显示了数据库数据,从而使Director得到扩展并解决了Director在显示复杂数据方面的不足.%Director and Flash,which are both powerful developing tools of multimedia and video animation invented by Macromedia Director,are the prior softwares of the current wedpage animation design and multimedia products.Director focuses on integrated design and complex alternating design,while Flash is more suitable for producing animation and simple alternation.These two softwares are inseparably interconnected,so if their strengths are combined,better effects with less efforts can be achieved in the process of developing.Compared with such developing tools as Delphi、Visual FoxPro、Powerbuilder,Director and Flash are obviously in an inferior position as to database processing and complex data display,for their advantages lie in development of webpage animation and multimedia.As far as the closeness between Director and Flash and the findings of

  19. GeckoFTL: Scalable Flash Translation Techniques For Very Large Flash Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dayan, Niv; Bonnet, Philippe; Idreos, Stratos

    2016-01-01

    The volume of metadata needed by a flash translation layer (FTL) is proportional to the storage capacity of a flash device. Ideally, this metadata should reside in the device's integrated RAM to enable fast access. However, as flash devices scale to terabytes, the necessary volume of metadata...

  20. Active Learning for Player Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Noor; Abou-Zleikha, Mohamed; Shaker, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Learning models of player behavior has been the focus of several studies. This work is motivated by better understanding of player behavior, a knowledge that can ultimately be employed to provide player-adapted or personalized content. In this paper, we propose the use of active learning for player...... experience modeling. We use a dataset from hundreds of players playing Infinite Mario Bros. as a case study and we employ the random forest method to learn mod- els of player experience through the active learning approach. The results obtained suggest that only part of the dataset (up to half the size...... of the full dataset) is necessary for the construction of accu- rate models that are as accurate as those constructed from the full dataset. This indicates the potential of the method and its benefits in cases when obtaining the data is expensive or time, storage or effort consuming. The results also indicate...

  1. Active Learning for Player Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Noor; Abou-Zleikha, Mohamed; Shaker, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Learning models of player behavior has been the focus of several studies. This work is motivated by better understanding of player behavior, a knowledge that can ultimately be employed to provide player-adapted or personalized content. In this paper, we propose the use of active learning for player...... experience modeling. We use a dataset from hundreds of players playing Infinite Mario Bros. as a case study and we employ the random forest method to learn mod- els of player experience through the active learning approach. The results obtained suggest that only part of the dataset (up to half the size...... of the full dataset) is necessary for the construction of accu- rate models that are as accurate as those constructed from the full dataset. This indicates the potential of the method and its benefits in cases when obtaining the data is expensive or time, storage or effort consuming. The results also indicate...

  2. Rh-flash acquisition card

    CERN Document Server

    Bourrion, O

    2003-01-01

    The rh-flash card main purpose is to convert and store the image of the analog data present at input into an output buffer, namely in a given timing window besides a stop signal (like a digital oscilloscope). It is conceived in VME format 1U wide with an additional connector. Novelty of this card is its ability to sample at a high frequency, due to flash coders, and this at a high repetition rate. To do that the card allows the storage of the data considered 'useful' and that is done by storing only the data exceeding a certain threshold. This can be useful for instance for viewing peaks in a spectrum, and obtaining their relative location. The goal is to stock and process the data sampled before and after the arrival of a stop signal (what entails a storage depth). A threshold is defined and any peak exceeding its level will really be stored in the output buffer which is readable through the VME bus. The peak values will be stored as well as m preceding and n subsequent values (both programmable). Obviously,...

  3. Flash Expansion Threshold in Whirligig Swarms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William L Romey

    Full Text Available In the selfish herd hypothesis, prey animals move toward each other to avoid the likelihood of being selected by a predator. However, many grouped animals move away from each other the moment before a predator attacks. Very little is known about this phenomenon, called flash expansion, such as whether it is triggered by one individual or a threshold and how information is transferred between group members. We performed a controlled experiment with whirligig beetles in which the ratio of sighted to unsighted individuals was systematically varied and emergent flash expansion was measured. Specifically, we examined: the percentage of individuals in a group that startled, the resulting group area, and the longevity of the flash expansion. We found that one or two sighted beetles in a group of 24 was not enough to cause a flash expansion after a predator stimulus, but four sighted beetles usually initiated a flash expansion. Also, the more beetles that were sighted the larger the resulting group area and the longer duration of the flash expansion. We conclude that flash expansion is best described as a threshold event whose adaptive value is to prevent energetically costly false alarms while quickly mobilizing an emergent predator avoidance response. This is one of the first controlled experiments of flash expansion, an important emergent property that has applications to understanding collective motion in swarms, schools, flocks, and human crowds. Also, our study is a convincing demonstration of social contagion, how the actions of one individual can pass through a group.

  4. On Coding Efficiency for Flash Memories

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Xudong

    2012-01-01

    Recently, flash memories have become a competitive solution for mass storage. The flash memories have rather different properties compared with the rotary hard drives. That is, the writing of flash memories is constrained, and flash memories can endure only limited numbers of erases. Therefore, the design goals for the flash memory systems are quite different from these for other memory systems. In this paper, we consider the problem of coding efficiency. We define the "coding-efficiency" as the amount of information that one flash memory cell can be used to record per cost. Because each flash memory cell can endure a roughly fixed number of erases, the cost of data recording can be well-defined. We define "payload" as the amount of information that one flash memory cell can represent at a particular moment. By using information-theoretic arguments, we prove a coding theorem for achievable coding rates. We prove an upper and lower bound for coding efficiency. We show in this paper that there exists a fundamen...

  5. Heat wave flash droughts in decline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Kingtse C.; Lettenmaier, Dennis P.

    2015-04-01

    Flash drought is a term that was popularized during rapidly evolving droughts in the Central U.S. in 2012 that were associated with heat waves. We posit that there are two kinds of flash droughts, and we will focus on heat wave flash droughts, of which the 2012 events were typical. We find, based on an analysis of temperature observations and model-reconstructed soil moisture (SM) and evapotranspiration from 1916 to 2013, that heat wave flash droughts in the conterminous U.S. (CONUS) are most likely to occur over the Midwest and the Pacific Northwest during the growing season. We also find that the number of such events across the CONUS has been decreasing over the last century but rebounded after 2011. The long-term downward trends appear to be associated with generally increasing trends in SM resulting from increasing trends in precipitation over the areas where heat wave flash droughts are most likely to occur.

  6. Statistical Evolution of the Lightning Flash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoghzoghy, F. G.; Cohen, M.; Said, R.; Inan, U. S.

    2012-12-01

    Natural lightning is one of the most fascinating and powerful electrical processes on Earth. To date, the physics behind this natural phenomenon are not fully understood, due primarily to the difficulty of obtaining measurements inside thunderstorms and to the wide range of timescales involved (from nanoseconds to seconds). Our aim is to use accurate lightning geo-location data from the National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN) to study statistical patterns in lightning, taking advantage of the fact that millions of lightning flashes occur around the globe every day. We present two sets of results, one involving the patterns of flashes in a storm, and a second involving the patterns of strokes in a flash. These patterns can provide a surrogate measure of the timescales and the spatial extents of the underlying physical processes. First, we study the timescales of charge buildup inside thunderstorms. We find that, following a lightning flash, the probability of another neighboring flash decreases and takes tens of seconds to recover. We find that this suppression effect is a function of flash type, stroke peak current, cloud-to-ground (CG) stroke multiplicity, and other lightning and geographical parameters. We find that the probabilities of subsequent flashes are more suppressed following oceanic lightning, or following flashes with higher peak currents and/or higher multiplicities (for CG flashes). Second, we use NLDN data to study the evolution of the strokes within a CG flash. A CG flash typically includes multiple return strokes, which can occur in the same channel or in multiple channels within a few kilometers. We cluster NLDN stroke data into flashes and produce the probability density function of subsequent strokes as a function of distance and time-delays relative to the previous stroke. Using this technique, we investigate processes which occur during the CG lightning flash with nanosecond to millisecond timescales. For instance, our results suggest

  7. Terrestrial gamma-ray flashes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marisaldi, Martino, E-mail: marisaldi@iasfbo.inaf.it [INAF-IASF Bologna, Via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Fuschino, Fabio; Labanti, Claudio [INAF-IASF Bologna, Via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Tavani, Marco [INAF-IASF Roma, Via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Argan, Andrea [INAF, Viale del Parco Mellini 84, 00136 Roma (Italy); Del Monte, Ettore [INAF-IASF Roma, Via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Longo, Francesco; Barbiellini, Guido [Dipartimento di Fisica Università di Trieste and INFN Trieste, via A. Valerio 2, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); Giuliani, Andrea [INAF-IASF Milano, Via Bassini 15, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Trois, Alessio [INAF Osservatorio Astronomico di Cagliari, loc. Poggio dei Pini, strada 54, I-09012 Capoterra (Italy); Bulgarelli, Andrea; Gianotti, Fulvio; Trifoglio, Massimo [INAF-IASF Bologna, Via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy)

    2013-08-21

    Lightning and thunderstorm systems in general have been recently recognized as powerful particle accelerators, capable of producing electrons, positrons, gamma-rays and neutrons with energies as high as several tens of MeV. In fact, these natural systems turn out to be the highest energy and most efficient natural particle accelerators on Earth. Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes (TGFs) are millisecond long, very intense bursts of gamma-rays and are one of the most intriguing manifestation of these natural accelerators. Only three currently operative missions are capable of detecting TGFs from space: the RHESSI, Fermi and AGILE satellites. In this paper we review the characteristics of TGFs, including energy spectrum, timing structure, beam geometry and correlation with lightning, and the basic principles of the associated production models. Then we focus on the recent AGILE discoveries concerning the high energy extension of the TGF spectrum up to 100 MeV, which is difficult to reconcile with current theoretical models.

  8. Radiometry of flashing LED sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Don A.; Medley, Stephanie; Roberts, Adam

    2008-08-01

    A laboratory based technique has been devised for measuring the illumination characteristics of flashing light emitting diode (LED) sources. The difference between the photopic measurement of a continuous source and a flashing source is that some analytic method must be incorporated into the measurement to account for the response of the eye. Ohno et al have devised an analytic expression for the impulse response of the eye, which closely matches existing forms used for finding effective intensity1. These other forms are the Blondel-Rey equation, the Form Factor method, and the Allard method.4,5,6 Ohno's research suggests a modified Allard method, but offers no procedure for actually making the measurement. In this research, the modified Allard1 method approach has been updated using standard laboratory equipment such as a silicon detector in conjunction with a digital multi-meter and Labview® software to make this measurement. Labview® allows exact computation of the modified Allard method. However, an approximation scheme for the conversion from radiometric units to photopic units must be adopted. The LED spectral form is approximately a Gaussian line shape with full width at half maximum of about 15 to 30nm. The Gaussian curve makes converting from radiometric to photopic units difficult. To simplify, the technique presented here estimates the spectral form of the LEDs to be a Dirac delta function situated at the peak wavelength. This allows the conversion from watts to lumens to be a simple application of the luminous efficiency curve.2 For LEDs with a full width half maximum of 20nm, this scheme is found to be accurate to +/- 5%.

  9. Multi-Player Quantum Games

    CERN Document Server

    Benjamin, S C; Benjamin, Simon C.; Hayden, Patrick M.

    2001-01-01

    Game theory is a mature field of applied mathematics. It formalizes the conflict between competing agents, and has found applications ranging from economics through to biology. Recently the first efforts have been made to introduce quantum information into game theory. For two-player games, it has been found that when the allowed `moves' are extended to include everything quantum mechanically possible, then the predominant strategies in the game can disappear, and only reappear if the players degrade the quantum coherence. Here we present the first study of quantum games with more than two players. We demonstrate that such games can exhibit `coherent' equilibrium strategies which have no analogue in classical games, or even in two-player quantum games. These equilibria are generally of a cooperative nature: quantum players can exploit their environment highly efficiently through the use of collaborative strategies.

  10. Machine Learning Predictions of Flash Floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, R. A., III; Flamig, Z.; Gourley, J. J.; Hong, Y.

    2016-12-01

    This study concerns the development, assessment, and use of machine learning (ML) algorithms to automatically generate predictions of flash floods around the world from numerical weather prediction (NWP) output. Using an archive of NWP outputs from the Global Forecast System (GFS) model and a historical archive of reports of flash floods across the U.S. and Europe, we developed a set of ML models that output forecasts of the probability of a flash flood given a certain set of atmospheric conditions. Using these ML models, real-time global flash flood predictions from NWP data have been generated in research mode since February 2016. These ML models provide information about which atmospheric variables are most important in the flash flood prediction process. The raw ML predictions can be calibrated against historical events to generate reliable flash flood probabilities. The automatic system was tested in a research-to-operations testbed enviroment with National Weather Service forecasters. The ML models are quite successful at incorporating large amounts of information in a computationally-efficient manner and and result in reasonably skillful predictions. The system is largely successful at identifying flash floods resulting from synoptically-forced events, but struggles with isolated flash floods that arise as a result of weather systems largely unresolvable by the coarse resolution of a global NWP system. The results from this collection of studies suggest that automatic probabilistic predictions of flash floods are a plausible way forward in operational forecasting, but that future research could focus upon applying these methods to finer-scale NWP guidance, to NWP ensembles, and to forecast lead times beyond 24 hours.

  11. Flash memory in embedded Java programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsholm, Stephan Erbs

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces a Java execution environment with the capability for storing constant heap data in Flash, thus saving valuable RAM. The extension is motivated by the structure of three industrial applications which demonstrate the need for storing constant data in Flash on small embedded...... devices. The paper introduces the concept of host initialization of constant data to prepare a Flash image of constant data that can be kept outside the heap during runtime. The concept is implemented in an interpreter based Java execution environment....

  12. The flash-lag effect and the flash-drag effect in the same display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murai, Yuki; Murakami, Ikuya

    2016-09-01

    Visual motion distorts the perceived position of a stimulus. In the flash-drag effect (FDE), the perceived position of a flash appears to be shifted in the direction of nearby motion. In the flash-lag effect (FLE), a flash adjacent to a moving stimulus appears to lag behind. The FLE has been explained by several models, including the differential latency hypothesis, that a moving stimulus has a shorter processing latency than a flash does. The FDE even occurs when the flash is presented earlier than the moving stimulus, and it has been discussed whether this temporal property can be explained by the differential latency model. In the present study, we simultaneously quantified the FDE and FLE using the random jump technique (Murakami, 2001b) and compared their temporal properties. While the positional offset between a randomly jumping stimulus and a flashed stimulus determined the FLE, a drifting grating appeared next to the flash at various stimulus-onset asynchronies to induce the FDE. The grating presented up to 200 ms after the flash onset induced the FDE, whose temporal tuning was explained by a simple convolution model incorporating stochastic fluctuations of differential latency estimated from the FLE data and a transient-sustained temporal profile of motion signals. Thus, a common temporal mechanism to compute the stimulus position in reference to surrounding stimuli governs both the FDE and the FLE.

  13. Flash Point: Evaluation, Experimentation and Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, J. R.; Freeman, D. K.; Rowley, R. L.; Oscarson, J. L.; Giles, N. F.; Wilding, W. V.

    2010-05-01

    The flash point is an important indicator of the flammability of a chemical. For safety purposes, many data compilations report the lowest value and not the most likely. This practice, combined with improper documentation and poor data storage methods, has resulted in compilations filled with fire-hazard data that are inconsistent with related properties and between members of homologous chemical series. In this study, the flash points reported in the DIPPR® 801 database and more than 1,400 other literature values were critically reviewed based on measurement method, inter-property relations, and trends in chemical series. New measurements for seven compounds illustrate the differences between experimental flash points and data commonly found in fire-hazard compilations. With a critically reviewed set of experimental data, published predictive methods for the flash point were evaluated for accuracy.

  14. 3D Flash LIDAR Space Laser Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Scientific Concepts, Inc (ASC) is a small business, which has developed a compact, eye-safe 3D Flash LIDARTM Camera (FLC) well suited for real-time...

  15. Hot Flashes amd Night Sweats (PDQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other Funding Find NCI funding for small business innovation, technology transfer, and contracts Training Cancer Training at ... remedies for hot flashes. These include dong quai , milk thistle , red clover , licorice root extract , and chaste ...

  16. Method for programming a flash memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosky, Alexander R.; Locke, William N.; Maher, Conrado M.

    2016-08-23

    A method of programming a flash memory is described. The method includes partitioning a flash memory into a first group having a first level of write-protection, a second group having a second level of write-protection, and a third group having a third level of write-protection. The write-protection of the second and third groups is disabled using an installation adapter. The third group is programmed using a Software Installation Device.

  17. Hydrodynamic simulations of the core helium flash

    CERN Document Server

    Mocak, M; Weiss, A; Kifonidis, K; 10.1017/S1743921308022813

    2009-01-01

    We describe and discuss hydrodynamic simulations of the core helium flash using an initial model of a 1.25 M_sol star with a metallicity of 0.02 near at its peak. Past research concerned with the dynamics of the core helium flash is inconclusive. Its results range from a confirmation of the standard picture, where the star remains in hydrostatic equilibrium during the flash (Deupree 1996), to a disruption or a significant mass loss of the star (Edwards 1969; Cole & Deupree 1980). However, the most recent multidimensional hydrodynamic study (Dearborn 2006) suggests a quiescent behavior of the core helium flash and seems to rule out an explosive scenario. Here we present partial results of a new comprehensive study of the core helium flash, which seem to confirm this qualitative behavior and give a better insight into operation of the convection zone powered by helium burning during the flash. The hydrodynamic evolution is followed on a computational grid in spherical coordinates using our new version of th...

  18. The free-electron laser FLASH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Siegfried Schreiber; Bart Faatz

    2015-01-01

    FLASH at DESY, Hamburg, Germany is the first free-electron laser(FEL) operating in the extreme ultraviolet(EUV)and soft x-ray wavelength range. FLASH is a user facility providing femtosecond short pulses with an unprecedented peak and average brilliance, opening new scientific opportunities in many disciplines. The first call for user experiments has been launched in 2005. The FLASH linear accelerator is based on TESLA superconducting technology, providing several thousands of photon pulses per second to user experiments. Probing femtosecond-scale dynamics in atomic and molecular reactions using, for instance, a combination of x-ray and optical pulses in a pump and probe arrangement,as well as single-shot diffraction imaging of biological objects and molecules, are typical experiments performed at the facility. We give an overview of the FLASH facility, and describe the basic principles of the accelerator. Recently,FLASH has been extended by a second undulator beamline(FLASH2) operated in parallel to the first beamline, extending the capacity of the facility by a factor of two.

  19. The Edubox Learning Design Player

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tattersall, Colin; Vogten, Hubert; Hermans, Henry

    2005-01-01

    Tattersall, C., Vogten, H. & Hermans, H. (2005). The Edubox Learning Design Player. In: Koper, R. & Tattersall, C., Learning Design: A Handbook on Modelling and Delivering Networked Education and Training (pp. 303-310). Berlin-Heidelberg: Springer Verlag.

  20. The Astro Learning Design Player

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharples, Paul; Wilson, Scott; Popat, Kris; Griffiths, David; Beauvoir, Phillip

    2010-01-01

    Sharples, Paul Wilson, S., Popat, K., Griffiths, D., Beauvoir, P. (2009) The Astro Learning Design Player. This software is distributed under the three clause BSD license, copyright TENCompetence Foundation

  1. The Edubox Learning Design Player

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tattersall, Colin; Vogten, Hubert; Hermans, Henry

    2005-01-01

    Tattersall, C., Vogten, H. & Hermans, H. (2005). The Edubox Learning Design Player. In: Koper, R. & Tattersall, C., Learning Design: A Handbook on Modelling and Delivering Networked Education and Training (pp. 303-310). Berlin-Heidelberg: Springer Verlag.

  2. FPGA Flash Memory High Speed Data Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, April

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to design and implement a VHDL ONFI Controller module for a Modular Instrumentation System. The goal of the Modular Instrumentation System will be to have a low power device that will store data and send the data at a low speed to a processor. The benefit of such a system will give an advantage over other purchased binary IP due to the capability of allowing NASA to re-use and modify the memory controller module. To accomplish the performance criteria of a low power system, an in house auxiliary board (Flash/ADC board), FPGA development kit, debug board, and modular instrumentation board will be jointly used for the data acquisition. The Flash/ADC board contains four, 1 MSPS, input channel signals and an Open NAND Flash memory module with an analog to digital converter. The ADC, data bits, and control line signals from the board are sent to an Microsemi/Actel FPGA development kit for VHDL programming of the flash memory WRITE, READ, READ STATUS, ERASE, and RESET operation waveforms using Libero software. The debug board will be used for verification of the analog input signal and be able to communicate via serial interface with the module instrumentation. The scope of the new controller module was to find and develop an ONFI controller with the debug board layout designed and completed for manufacture. Successful flash memory operation waveform test routines were completed, simulated, and tested to work on the FPGA board. Through connection of the Flash/ADC board with the FPGA, it was found that the device specifications were not being meet with Vdd reaching half of its voltage. Further testing showed that it was the manufactured Flash/ADC board that contained a misalignment with the ONFI memory module traces. The errors proved to be too great to fix in the time limit set for the project.

  3. Single Particle Difraction at FLASH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogan, M.; Boutet, S.; Starodub, Dmitri; Decorwin-Martin, Philippe; /SLAC; Chapman, H.; Bajt, S.; Schulz, J.; /DESY; Hajdu, Janos; Seibert, M.M.; Iwan, Bianca; Timneanu, Nicusor; /Uppsala U.; Marchesini, Stefano; /LBL, Berkeley; Barty, Anton; Benner, W.Henry; Frank, Matthias; Hau-Riege, Stefan P.; Woods, Bruce; /LLNL, Livermore; Rohner, Urs; /Tofwerk AG, Thun

    2010-06-11

    Single-pulse coherent diffraction patterns have been collected from randomly injected single particles with a soft X-ray free-electron laser (FEL). The intense focused FEL pulse gives a high-resolution low-noise coherent diffraction pattern of the object before that object turns into a plasma and explodes. A diffraction pattern of a single particle will only be recorded when the particle arrival into the FEL interaction region coincides with FEL pulse arrival and detector integration. The properties of the experimental apparatus coinciding with these three events set the data acquisition rate. For our single particle FLASH diffraction imaging experiments: (1) an aerodynamic lens stack prepared a particle beam that consisted of particles moving at 150-200 m/s positioned randomly in space and time, (2) the 10 fs long FEL pulses were delivered at a fixed rate, and (3) the detector was set to integrate and readout once every two seconds. The effect of these experimental parameters on the rate of data acquisition using randomly injected particles will be discussed. Overall, the ultrashort FEL pulses do not set the limit of the data acquisition, more important is the effective interaction time of the particle crossing the FEL focus, the pulse sequence structure and the detector readout rate. Example diffraction patterns of randomly injected ellipsoidal iron oxide nanoparticles in different orientations are presented. This is the first single particle diffraction data set of identical particles in different orientations collected on a shot-to-shot basis. This data set will be used to test algorithms for recovering 3D structure from single particle diffraction.

  4. Karst flash floods: an example from the Dinaric karst (Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Bonacci

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Flash floods constitute one of the deadliest and costliest natural disasters worldwide. This paper explains the karst flash flood phenomenon, which represents a special kind of flash flood. As the majority of flash floods karst flash floods are caused by intensive short-term precipitation in an area whose surface rarely exceeds a few square kilometres. The characteristics of all flash floods are their short duration, small areal extent, high flood peaks and rapid flows, and heavy loss of life and property. Karst flash floods have specific characteristics due to special conditions for water circulation, which exist in karst terrains. During karst flash floods a sudden rise of groundwater levels occurs, which causes the appearance of numerous, unexpected, abundant and temporary karst springs. This paper presents in detail an example of a karst flash flood in the Marina bay (Dinaric karst region of Croatia, which occurred in December 2004.

  5. A Comparative Study of Reduced-Variables-Based Flash and Conventional Flash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Wei; Stenby, Erling Halfdan; Michelsen, Michael Locht

    2013-01-01

    the advantages of the reduced-variables methods in their recent paper. A fair comparison between the reduced-variables-based flash and the conventional flash is not straightforward because it is difficult to formulate the former as unconstrained minimization problems, and the flash calculation time is also...... related to the implementation quality. With the recent formulations by Nichita and Graciaa (2011), it is possible to code the reduced-variables methods without extensive modifications of Michelsen's conventional flash algorithm. A minimization-based reduced-variables algorithm was coded and compared...... with the conventional minimization-based flash. A test with the use of the SPE 3 example (Kenyon and Behie 1987) showed that the best reduction in time was less than 20% for the extreme situation of 25 components and just one row/column with nonzero BIPs. A better performance can be achieved by a simpler implementation...

  6. General review of flashing jet studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanco, Geanette; Holdø, Arne Erik; Munday, George

    2010-01-15

    The major concern on the management of superheated liquids, in industrial environments, is the large potential hazards involved in cases of any accidental release. There is a possibility that a violent phase change could take place inside the fluid released generating a flashing jet. This violent phase change might produce catastrophic consequences, such as explosions, fires or toxic exposure, in the installations and in the surroundings. The knowledge and understanding of the mechanisms involved in those releases become an important issue in the prevention of these consequences and the minimization of their impact. This work presents a comprehensive review of information about flashing processes. The review begins with a description of the single phase jet followed by a description of the two-phase flashing jet. The concepts and implications of the thermodynamic and mechanical effects on the behaviour of the jets are considered at the beginning of the review. Following the review is devoted to the classification of the different study approaches used to understand flashing processes in the past, highlighting various critical parameters on the behaviour and the hazard consequences of flashing jets. The review also contains an extensive compilation of experimental, theoretical and numerical data relating to these phenomena, which includes information on the distinct characteristics of the jet, since type of jet, velocity distribution, expansion angle and mass phase change all require individual estimation.

  7. General review of flashing jet studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polanco, Geanette, E-mail: gpolanco@usb.ve [Simon Bolivar University, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Holdo, Arne Erik, E-mail: Erik.Holdo@coventry.ac.uk [Narvik University College, Narvik (Norway); Munday, George, E-mail: G.Munday@isaaconsult.co.uk [Coventry University, Coventry (United Kingdom)

    2010-01-15

    The major concern on the management of superheated liquids, in industrial environments, is the large potential hazards involved in cases of any accidental release. There is a possibility that a violent phase change could take place inside the fluid released generating a flashing jet. This violent phase change might produce catastrophic consequences, such as explosions, fires or toxic exposure, in the installations and in the surroundings. The knowledge and understanding of the mechanisms involved in those releases become an important issue in the prevention of these consequences and the minimization of their impact. This work presents a comprehensive review of information about flashing processes. The review begins with a description of the single phase jet followed by a description of the two-phase flashing jet. The concepts and implications of the thermodynamic and mechanical effects on the behaviour of the jets are considered at the beginning of the review. Following the review is devoted to the classification of the different study approaches used to understand flashing processes in the past, highlighting various critical parameters on the behaviour and the hazard consequences of flashing jets. The review also contains an extensive compilation of experimental, theoretical and numerical data relating to these phenomena, which includes information on the distinct characteristics of the jet, since type of jet, velocity distribution, expansion angle and mass phase change all require individual estimation.

  8. Lightning flash multiplicity in eastern Mediterranean thunderstorms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yair, Y.; Shalev, S.; Erlich, Z.; Agrachov, A.; Katz, E.; Saaroni, H.; Price, C.; Ziv, B.

    2014-02-01

    Cloud-to-ground lightning flashes usually consist of one or several strokes coming in very short temporal succession and close spatial proximity. A commonly used method for converting stroke data into flashes is using the National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN) thresholds of maximum temporal separation of 0.5 s and maximum lateral distance of 10 km radius between successive strokes. In the present study, we tested a location-based algorithm with several spatial and temporal ranges, and analyzed stroke data obtained by the Israel Lightning Location System (ILLS) during one year (1.8.2009-31.7.2010). We computed the multiplicity, the percentage of single stroke flashes and the geographical distribution of average multiplicity values for thunderstorms in the Eastern Mediterranean region. Results show that for the NLDN thresholds, the percentage of single stroke flashes in Israel was 37% and the average multiplicity was 1.7. We reanalyzed the data with a spatial range that equals twice the ILLS location error and shorter times. For the new thresholds of maximum distance of 2.5 km and maximum allowed temporal separation of 0.2 s we find that the mean multiplicity of negative CGs is lowered to 1.4 and find a percentage of 58% of single stroke flashes. A unique severe storm from 30 October 2009 is analyzed and compared with the annual average of 2009/2010, showing that large deviations from the mean values can occur in specific events.

  9. Frontal Lobe Function in Chess Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Nejati

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Chess is considered as a cognitive game because of severe engagement of the mental resources during playing. The purpose of this study is evaluation of frontal lobe function of chess players with matched non-players. Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST data showed no difference between the player and non-player groups in preservation error and completed categories but surprisingly showed significantly lower grade of the player group in correct response. Our data reveal that chess players dont have any preference in any stage of Stroop test. Chess players dont have any preference in selective attention, inhibition and executive cognitive function. Chess players' have lower shifting abilities than non-players.

  10. Reduced Comparator Flash ADC for ECG Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saravanan. V. A

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A CMOS based low power 4-bit Flash Analog to Digital Converter (ADC design with reduced number of comparators than the conventional Flash Analog to Digital Converter and multiplexer based architecture is proposed. For improving the conversion rate, both the analog and digital parts of the ADC are fully modified and the architecture uses only 4 comparators instead of 15 as used in conventional flash ADC, thus saving considerable amount of power. The proposed 4-bit ADC is designed and simulated in TANNER tools with 1.2 V supply voltage using TSpice simulation. The proposed design consumes low power of 2.15mW and operates at a faster rate hence it is suitable for ECG applications.

  11. Mental models of flash floods and landslides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Klaus

    2007-06-01

    Perceptions of flash floods and landslides were analyzed in four communities of the Bavarian Alps using the mental model approach. Thirty-eight qualitative interviews, two telephone surveys with 600 respondents, and two onsite interviews (74/95 respondents) were conducted. Mental models concerning flash floods are much better developed than those for landslides because the key physical processes for flash floods are easier for the general public to recognize and understand. Mental models are influenced by the local conditions. People who have a better knowledge about the hazards are those who use many different sources to inform themselves, express fear about natural hazards, or have previous experience with hazards. Conclusions for how to improve information for the general public are discussed.

  12. Centrally active nonhormonal hot flash therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loprinzi, Charles L; Stearns, Vered; Barton, Debra

    2005-12-19

    Given the problems associated with hormonal therapy, and the prominent problem of hot flashes in menopausal women, there is a need for nonhormonal agents to alleviate hot flashes. Several compounds that appear to act on the central nervous system have been investigated. Potential mechanisms for their effects on hot flashes have been described. Bellergal (no longer available on the US market, where it was known as Bellergal-S), a combination preparation sedative that consists of low-dose phenobarbital, ergotamine tartrate, and levorotatory alkaloids of belladonna, is an old agent that was popular approximately 20 years ago; however, there is limited suggestion of efficacy for this agent. Clonidine, an older antihypertensive drug, is another centrally active agent that has been studied. Randomized trials have demonstrated that it clearly works for reducing hot flashes, but the magnitude of efficacy is somewhat limited. Toxicity from this agent limits its utility in the clinic. Methyldopa is another centrally active agent that has been studied but to a more limited degree. It appears to have minimal efficacy and too much toxicity to make it clinically useful. Anecdotal observations from a number of sources suggested that newer antidepressants can alleviate hot flashes. This led to pilot trials of venlafaxine and paroxetine, with results suggesting benefit from both drugs. Subsequently, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trials of venlafaxine, paroxetine, and fluoxetine were conducted. All 3 of these clinical trials demonstrated statistically significant reductions in hot flashes with these newer antidepressants compared with placebo. Pilot trials of citalopram and mirtazapine, 2 other newer antidepressants, have also suggested efficacy. Toxicity evaluations have suggested that these agents are, again, well tolerated by the majority of patients. A recent trial, however, was unable to demonstrate any benefit for fluoxetine or citalopram over a placebo

  13. Foundation Flash CS5 for Designers

    CERN Document Server

    Green, T

    2010-01-01

    Flash is one of the most engaging, innovative, and versatile technologies available - allowing the creation of anything from animated banners and simple cartoons to Rich Internet Applications, interactive videos, and dynamic user interfaces for web sites, kiosks, devices, or DVDs. The possibilities are endless, and now it just got better. Flash CS5 boasts a host of new features, including better support for mobile devices, a whole new animation engine enabling full manipulation of tweens and paths, custom easing, improved inverse kinematics, a revamped timeline, built-in 3D, and much more. Thi

  14. Cancer treatment: dealing with hot flashes and night sweats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000826.htm Cancer treatment: dealing with hot flashes and night sweats To ... this page, please enable JavaScript. Certain types of cancer treatments can cause hot flashes and night sweats. Hot ...

  15. Flash3D EDL Sensor Technology Advancement Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Scientific Concepts Inc. (ASC) is a small business, which has developed a number of 3D flash LADAR systems. Flash Ladar sensors are 3D video systems that...

  16. 3D Flash LIDAR EDL Resolution Improvement Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Scientific Concepts, Inc. (ASC) is a small business that has developed 3D Flash LIDAR systems for space and terrestrial applications. 3D Flash LIDAR is...

  17. Sunset science. III. Visual adaptation and green flashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, A T

    2000-12-01

    Photographs of green flashes do not preclude a role for physiological effects in these phenomena. While green flashes are certainly not after-images, there is compelling evidence that adaptation in the visual system strongly affects the perceived color of most sunset green flashes. Furthermore, the retinal image of the setting Sun is usually bright enough to bleach most of the red-sensitive photopigment in a few seconds, making the yellow stage of a sunset flash appear green. Even in air so hazy that no green light reaches the eye, a yellow flash may occur and appear green. Many, but not all, visual observations of sunset green flashes are of this yellow flash. The yellow portion of sunset green flashes helps explain their reported durations, which exceed those expected for the appearance of green light alone.

  18. Mainostoimiston Flash-tuotantoprosessin kehittäminen

    OpenAIRE

    Heinonen, Toni

    2012-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli kehittää mainostoimiston Flash-tuotantoprosessia. Mainostoimiston Flash-tuotanto on pääosin display-mainonnan eli bannereiden sekä Flashmainoskampanjasivustojen luontia. Lisäksi tarkoituksena oli tutkia mahdollisuutta soveltaa ohjelmistokehityksessä toimiviksi havaittujen ketterien prosessimallien soveltamista mainostoimiston Flash-tuotantoprosessiin. Työ aloitettiin kuvaamalla mainostoimiston nykyinen Flash-tuotantoprosessi tarkoitukseen ...

  19. Ultrafast-Contactless Flash Sintering using Plasma Electrodes

    OpenAIRE

    Theo Saunders; Salvatore Grasso; Reece, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel derivative of flash sintering, in which contactless flash sintering (CFS) is achieved using plasma electrodes. In this setup, electrical contact with the sample to be sintered is made by two arc plasma electrodes, one on either side, allowing current to pass through the sample. This opens up the possibility of continuous throughput flash sintering. Preheating, a usual precondition for flash sintering, is provided by the arc electrodes which heat the sample to 1400 ...

  20. Mathematical modeling of the flash converting process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, H.Y.; Perez-Tello, M.; Riihilahti, K.M. [Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    1996-12-31

    An axisymmetric mathematical model for the Kennecott-Outokumpu flash converting process for converting solid copper matte to copper is presented. The model is an adaptation of the comprehensive mathematical model formerly developed at the University of Utah for the flash smelting of copper concentrates. The model incorporates the transport of momentum, heat, mass, and reaction kinetics between gas and particles in a particle-laden turbulent gas jet. The standard k-{epsilon} model is used to describe gas-phase turbulence in an Eulerian framework. The particle-phase is treated from a Lagrangian viewpoint which is coupled to the gas-phase via the source terms in the Eulerian gas-phase governing equations. Matte particles were represented as Cu{sub 2}S yFeS, and assumed to undergo homogeneous oxidation to Cu{sub 2}O, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, and SO{sub 2}. A reaction kinetics mechanism involving both external mass transfer of oxygen gas to the particle surface and diffusion of oxygen through the porous oxide layer is proposed to estimate the particle oxidation rate Predictions of the mathematical model were compared with the experimental data collected in a bench-scale flash converting facility. Good agreement between the model predictions and the measurements was obtained. The model was used to study the effect of different gas-injection configurations on the overall fluid dynamics in a commercial size flash converting shaft. (author)

  1. In Situ Flash Pyrolysis of Straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Niels

    In-Situ Flash Pyrolysis of Straw Ph.D. dissertation by Niels Bech Submitted: April 2007. Supervisors: Professor Kim Dam-Johansen, Associate Professor Peter Arendt Jensen Erfaringerne med forbrænding af halm opnået gennem et årti har vist, at en proces der kan koncentrere energien på marken, fjerne...

  2. High-fidelity flash lidar model development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Glenn D.; Pierrottet, Diego F.; Amzajerdian, Farzin

    2014-06-01

    NASA's Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technologies (ALHAT) project is currently developing the critical technologies to safely and precisely navigate and land crew, cargo and robotic spacecraft vehicles on and around planetary bodies. One key element of this project is a high-fidelity Flash Lidar sensor that can generate three-dimensional (3-D) images of the planetary surface. These images are processed with hazard detection and avoidance and hazard relative navigation algorithms, and then are subsequently used by the Guidance, Navigation and Control subsystem to generate an optimal navigation solution. A complex, high-fidelity model of the Flash Lidar was developed in order to evaluate the performance of the sensor and its interaction with the interfacing ALHAT components on vehicles with different configurations and under different flight trajectories. The model contains a parameterized, general approach to Flash Lidar detection and reflects physical attributes such as range and electronic noise sources, and laser pulse temporal and spatial profiles. It also provides the realistic interaction of the laser pulse with terrain features that include varying albedo, boulders, craters slopes and shadows. This paper gives a description of the Flash Lidar model and presents results from the Lidar operating under different scenarios.

  3. Flash-Aware Page Replacement Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangxia Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the limited main memory resource of consumer electronics equipped with NAND flash memory as storage device, an efficient page replacement algorithm called FAPRA is proposed for NAND flash memory in the light of its inherent characteristics. FAPRA introduces an efficient victim page selection scheme taking into account the benefit-to-cost ratio for evicting each victim page candidate and the combined recency and frequency value, as well as the erase count of the block to which each page belongs. Since the dirty victim page often contains clean data that exist in both the main memory and the NAND flash memory based storage device, FAPRA only writes the dirty data within the victim page back to the NAND flash memory based storage device in order to reduce the redundant write operations. We conduct a series of trace-driven simulations and experimental results show that our proposed FAPRA algorithm outperforms the state-of-the-art algorithms in terms of page hit ratio, the number of write operations, runtime, and the degree of wear leveling.

  4. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FLASH POINTS OF SOME BINARY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    B. S. Chandravanshi

    and BS-150 in the formulation of engine oils, the recent mineral oils were chosen for study. On the other .... blend. Upon analysis of the data due to Figure 1 (b) it can be shown that the flash point of every. SN-150: .... complex compositions.

  5. The Effectiveness Evaluation among Different Player-Matching Mechanisms in a Multi-Player Quiz Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Fu-Hsing

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate whether different player-matching mechanisms in educational multi-player online games (MOGs) can affect students' learning performance, enjoyment perception and gaming behaviors. Based on the multi-player quiz game, TRIS-Q, developed by Tsai, Tsai and Lin (2015) using a free player-matching (FPM) mechanism, the same…

  6. The NBA’s Maximum Player Salary and the Distribution of Player Rents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly M. Hastings

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The NBA’s 1999 Collective Bargaining Agreement (CBA included provisions capping individual player pay in addition to team payrolls. This study examines the effect the NBA’s maximum player salary on player rents by comparing player pay from the 1997–1998 and 2003–2004 seasons while controlling for player productivity and other factors related to player pay. The results indicate a large increase in the pay received by teams’ second highest and, to a lesser extent, third highest paid players. We interpret this result as evidence that the adoption of the maximum player salary shifted rents from stars to complementary players. We also show that the 1999 CBA’s rookie contract provisions reduced salaries of early career players.

  7. Initial electric field changes of lightning flashes in two thunderstorms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Ryan; Marshall, Thomas; Karunarathne, Sumedhe; Stolzenburg, Maribeth

    2017-04-01

    The beginning of all 75 lightning flashes in two small thunderstorms was investigated using an array of electric field change (E-change) meters and an array of VHF sensors with the goal of determining if an initial E-change (IEC) preceded the initial breakdown (IB) pulses in each flash. IECs were found at the beginning of all 62 flashes in Storm 1 and all 13 flashes in Storm 2. Hence, it is concluded that an IEC is a fundamental part of most or all lightning initiations and that an IEC is needed prior to the first IB pulse in a flash. IEC durations averaged 0.23 ms for cloud-to-ground (CG) flashes (range 0.08-0.54 ms) and averaged 2.7 ms for normal intracloud (IC) flashes (range 0.04-9.8 ms). IEC point dipole moments averaged 26 C m for CG flashes (range 4-86 C m) and averaged -140 C m for normal IC flashes (range -8 to -650 C m). IEC current moments averaged 120 kA m for CG flashes (range 41-410 kA m) and averaged -91 kA m for normal IC flashes (range -2 to -630 kA m). E-change data support the suggestion that weak narrow bipolar event type events initiate some lightning flashes, but 41 of the 75 flashes had no detectable initiating pulse > 0.04 V m-1 range normalized to 100 km. Two flashes had two IECs; the second IEC of each flash initiated a new lightning channel that propagated in a new direction and at a higher altitude than the original development after the first IEC.

  8. Matter Flashed at Ultra Speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    "REM observations of GRB060418 and GRB060607A: the onset of the afterglow and the initial fireball Lorentz factor determination", by E. Molinari, S. D. Vergani, D. Malesani, S. Covino, et al. The paper is available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361:20077388 (A&A, 469, L13-L16, 2007). The REM team is formed by G. Chincarini, E. Molinari, F.M. Zerbi, L.A. Antonelli, S. Covino, P. Conconi, L. Nicastro, E. Palazzi, M. Stefanon, V. Testa, G. Tosti, F. Vitali, A. Monfardini, F. D'Alessio, P. D'Avanzo, D. Fugazza, G. Malaspina, S. Piranomonte, S.D. Vergani, P.A. Ward, S. Campana, P. Goldoni, D. Guetta, D. Malesani, N. Masetti, E.J.A. Meurs, L. Norci, E. Pian, A. Fernandez-Soto, L. Stella, G. Tagliaferri, G. Ihle, L. Gonzalez, A. Pizarro, P. Sinclair, and J. Valenzuela. Notes Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are short flashes of energetic gamma-rays lasting from less than a second to several minutes. They release a tremendous quantity of energy in this short time making them the most powerful events since the Big Bang. They come in two different flavours, long and short ones. Over the past few years, international efforts have convincingly shown that long gamma-ray bursts are linked with the ultimate explosion of massive stars (hypernovae; see e.g. ESO PR 16/03) while the short ones most likely originate from the violent collision of neutron stars and/or black holes (see e.g. ESO PR 26/05 and 32/05). Irrespective of the original source of the GRB energy, the injection of so much energy into a confined volume will cause a fireball to form. Gamma-ray photons have nearly a million times more energy than the 'visual' photons the eye can see. Strictly speaking, the Lorentz factor is the ratio between the total and rest-mass energy of the fireball. REM (Rapid Eye Mount) is a small (60 cm mirror diameter) rapid reaction automatic telescope dedicated to monitor the prompt afterglow of Gamma Ray Burst events. It is located at the ESO La Silla Observatory in Chile. For more information, see

  9. Next High Performance and Low Power Flash Memory Package Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jung-Hoon Lee

    2007-01-01

    In general, SAND flash memory has advantages in low power consumption, storage capacity, and fast erase/write performance in contrast to NOR flash. But, main drawback of the SAND flash memory is the slow access time for random read operations. Therefore, we proposed the new SAND flash memory package for overcoming this major drawback. We present a high performance and low power SAND flash memory system with a dual cache memory. The proposed SAND flash package consists of two parts, i.e., an SAND flash memory module, and a dual cache module. The new SAND flash memory system can achieve dramatically higher performance and lower power consumption compared with any conventional NAND-type flash memory module. Our results show that the proposed system can reduce about 78% of write operations into the flash memory cell and about 70% of read operations from the flash memory cell by using only additional 3KB cache space. This value represents high potential to achieve low power consumption and high performance gain.

  10. Perancangan Aplikasi Permainan Multiplayer Gobak Sodor Berbasis Flash Di Lingkup Jaringan Lokal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bellia Dwi Cahya Putri

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Traditional games wa played by people from ancient time. As the culture of Indonesia which has high value of togetherness, people play ittogether with a group. From all kind of traditional games in Indonesia, there is one called Gobak Sodor that well known as traditional games from Central Java. The game of Gobak Sodor made by Adobe Flash and ActionScript as programming language has two option to play the game as singleplayer and multiplayer. Multiplayer game need a server to connected both players which used smartfoxserver 2x as the server. The game developed by adopting MDLC method with four stage such as conceptualization, design process, requirements planning, and construction. The result of this scientific writing is an application of traditional game named Gobak Sodor as the media to educate people about one of traditional game in Indonesia.

  11. Using GHz Flash ADCs at STACEE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweerink, Jeffrey

    2002-04-01

    The Solar Tower Atmospheric Cherenkov Effect Experiment (STACEE) detects 50-500 GeV gamma rays by sampling the Cherenkov light wavefront generated as the gamma rays interact with the atmosphere. Using steerable heliostat mirrors and stationary secondary optics at the National Solar Thermal Test Facility in New Mexico, the Cherenkov light is recorded using fast electronics with good timing. One significant improvement of the full 64 channel STACEE detector over earlier prototypes is the addition of GHz flash ADCs on each channel. We are developing analysis techniques to extract timing and other pulse information from the flash ADCs in order to 1.) discriminate against the abundant cosmic ray background, and 2.) understand how well the shower direction and energy can be reconstructed. We describe the techniques and present results from data taken during the 2001-2002 observing season.

  12. Electrical Safety and Arc Flash Protections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Camp

    2008-03-04

    Over the past four years, the Electrical Safety Program at PPPL has evolved in addressing changing regulatory requirements and lessons learned from accident events, particularly in regards to arc flash hazards and implementing NFPA 70E requirements. This presentation will discuss PPPL's approaches to the areas of electrical hazards evaluation, both shock and arc flash; engineered solutions for hazards mitigation such as remote racking of medium voltage breakers, operational changes for hazards avoidance, targeted personnel training and hazard appropriate personal protective equipment. Practical solutions for nominal voltage identification and zero voltage checks for lockout/tagout will also be covered. Finally, we will review the value of a comprehensive electrical drawing program, employee attitudes expressed as a personal safety work ethic, integrated safety management, and sustained management support for continuous safety improvement.

  13. Direct flash steam geothermal power plant assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alt, T. E.

    1982-01-01

    The objective was to analyze the capacity and availability factors of an operating direct flash geothermal power plant. System and component specifications, operating procedures, maintenance history, malfunctions, and outage rate are discussed. The plant studied was the 75 MW(e) geothermal power plant at Cerro Prieto, Mexico, for the years 1973 to 1979. To describe and assess the plant, the project staff reviewed documents, visited the plant, and met with staff of the operating utility. The high reliability and availability of the plant was documented and actions responsible for the good performance were identified and reported. The results are useful as guidance to US utilities considering use of hot water geothermal resources for power generation through a direct flash conversion cycle.

  14. How to give a science flash talk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veldhuis, Djuke

    2015-01-01

    Whether you are applying for funding, telling a family member about your research or engaging the public, your success will depend on how well you communicate. Persuading people that your research should be prioritised and funded relies on being a solid negotiator and developing political nous; b......; but these skills are also rooted in communication. One way to do this is by challenging yourself to summarise your research in a short, sharp, three-minute elevator pitch, or ‘flash talk’....

  15. Flash CS3 The Missing Manual

    CERN Document Server

    Grover, Chris

    2008-01-01

    Flash CS3, the latest version of the premier tool for creating web animations and interactive web sites, can be intimidating to learn. This entertaining reference tutorial provides a reader-friendly animation primer and a guided tour of all the program's tools and capabilities. Beginners will learn to use the software in no time, and experienced users will quickly take their skills to the next level.

  16. Mechanisms of Flash Sintering in Cubic Zirconia

    OpenAIRE

    Downs, John Axel

    2013-01-01

    The recently discovered flash sintering technique has shown that the application of a sufficiently large dc electric field (E-field) to a ceramic during sintering can cause sintering at temperatures several hundred degrees below conventional temperatures with sintering rates that allow for sintering in seconds rather than hours. This technique has already been demonstrated in wide range of ceramic materials including ionic conductors, electronic conductors, semi-conductors and insulators. Th...

  17. Advances in flash flood monitoring using UAVs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perks, Matthew; Russell, Andrew; Large, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    UAVs have the potential to capture information about the earth's surface in dangerous and previously inaccessible locations. Through image acquisition of flash flood events and subsequent object-based analysis, highly dynamic and oft-immeasurable hydraulic phenomenon may be quantified at previously unattainable spatial and temporal resolutions. The potential for this approach to provide valuable information about the hydraulic conditions present during dynamic, high-energy flash floods has until now not been explored. In this paper we adopt a novel approach, utilising the Kande-Lucas-Tomasi (KLT) algorithm to track features present on the water surface which are related to the free-surface velocity. Following the successful tracking of features, a method analogous to the vector correction method has enabled accurate geometric rectification of velocity vectors. Uncertainties associated with the rectification process induced by unsteady camera movements are subsequently explored. Geo-registration errors are relatively stable and occur as a result of persistent residual distortion effects following image correction. The apparent ground movement of immobile control points between measurement intervals ranges from 0.05 - 0.13m. The application of this approach to assess the hydraulic conditions present in Alyth Burn, Scotland during a 1:200 year flash flood resulted in the generation of an average 4.2 measurements/m2 at a rate of 508 measurements/s. Analysis of these vectors provide a rare insight into the complexity of channel-overbank interactions during flash floods. The uncertainty attached to the calculated velocities is relatively low with a spatial average across the area of ± 0.15m/s. Little difference is observed in the uncertainty attached to out-of-bank velocities (± 0.15m/s), and within-channel velocities (± 0.16m/s), illustrating the consistency of the approach.

  18. Magnesia-Chrome Refractories for Flash Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yong; CHEN Kaixian; LU Xinghua; LIU Jianlong; SUN Jialin; HONG Yanruo

    2002-01-01

    The rapid development of our country's heavy nonferrous metallurgical technology and the revolution in new type of heavynon-ferrous metallurgical furnace have imposed more critical demand on the refractory materials ,i. e. high quality and long service life. This paper presents the domestic status of the refractories for flash furnace , briefly describes the wear of the refractory used , and it is considered that the domestic in refractories for flashfurnace can be surely realized.

  19. Adapting playware to multiple players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Þorsteinsson, Arnar Tumi; Lund, Henrik Hautop; Mastorakis, Nikos

    2011-01-01

    With the creation of playware as intelligent hardware and software that creates play, it is possible to adapt the play tool to the individual user, and even to multiple users playing at the same time with the play tool. In this paper, we show how it is possible to implement adaptivity in modular...... to such differences, and argues that adaptivity is needed to make games fit to the individual users in both single-player games and multi-player games. As a case study, we implemented such adaptivity on modular interactive tiles for the single-user game ColorTimer, and for the multiple-user games PingPong, in which...

  20. Psychological games of entangled players

    CERN Document Server

    Zak, Michail

    2012-01-01

    The paper introduces a new approach to theory of differential games in which entangled players try to predict and influence actions of their adversaries. The entanglement is generated be a joint probability density known by the players. Incase of complex density, its imaginary part represents a measure of uncertainty of the density distribution. The novelty of the approach is in non-Newtonian mathematical formalism thatis based upon a behavioral model of Livings. The model is quantum-inspired: it represented by a modified Madelung equation which the quantum potential is replaced by different, specially chosen "computational" potential. It consists of motor dynamics simulating actual behavior of the object, and mental dynamics representing evolution of the corresponding knowledge-based and incorporating this knowledge in the for m of information flows into the motor dynamics. Due to feedback from mental dynamics, motor dynamics attains quantum-like properties: its trajectory splits into a family of different t...

  1. A Comparative Study of Reduced Variables Based Flash and Conventional Flash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Michael Locht; Yan, Wei; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    Speeding up flash calculation is a central issue in compositional reservoir simulations since phase equilibrium calculation is the most time-consuming part in those simulations. The reduced variables methods, or the reduction methods, reformulate the original phase equilibrium problem with a smal......Speeding up flash calculation is a central issue in compositional reservoir simulations since phase equilibrium calculation is the most time-consuming part in those simulations. The reduced variables methods, or the reduction methods, reformulate the original phase equilibrium problem....... Most of the studies in the last decade suggest that the reduced variables methods are much more efficient than the conventional flash method. However, Haugen and Beckner questioned the advantages of the reduced variables methods in their recent paper (SPE 141399). A fair comparison between the reduced...... variables based flash and the conventional flash is not straightforward since the former is difficult to be formulated as unconstrained minimization and involves more complicated composition derivatives. With the recent formulations by Nichita and Graciaa (2010), it is possible to code the reduced variables...

  2. Extreme flash floods in Barcelona County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Barrera

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the catastrophic and extraordinary floods occurring in Barcelona County (Catalonia, NE Spain are studied, in order to characterise the temporal evolution of extreme flash floods in that area and their main features. These events usually cause economical losses and major problems for undertaking daily activity in Barcelona city. This kind of floods is a very common feature in the North-east of Spain and they are recorded every year in some point of Catalonia. This contribution also shows the frequency of those events, within the framework of all the floods that have occurred in Barcelona since the 14th century, but also describes the flooded area, urban evolution, impacts and the weather conditions for any of most severe events. The evolution of flood occurrence shows the existence of oscillations in the earlier and later modern age periods that can be attributed to climatic variability, evolution of the perception threshold and changes in vulnerability. A great increase of vulnerability can be assumed for the period 1850-1900. The analysis of the time evolution for the Barcelona rainfall series (1854-2000 shows that no trend exists, although, due to the changes in urban planning, flash-floods impact has changed over this time. The number of catastrophic flash floods has diminished, although the extraordinary ones have increased.

  3. Two-Player Graph Pebbling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prudente, Matthew James

    Given a graph G with pebbles on the vertices, we define a pebbling move as removing two pebbles from a vertex u, placing one pebble on a neighbor v, and discarding the other pebble, like a toll. The pebbling number pi( G) is the least number of pebbles needed so that every arrangement of pi(G) pebbles can place a pebble on any vertex through a sequence of pebbling moves. We introduce a new variation on graph pebbling called two-player pebbling. In this, players called the mover and the defender alternate moves, with the stipulation that the defender cannot reverse the previous move. The mover wins only if they can place a pebble on a specified vertex and the defender wins if the mover cannot. We define η(G), analogously, as the minimum number of pebbles such that given every configuration of the η( G) pebbles and every specified vertex r, the mover has a winning strategy. First, we will investigate upper bounds for η( G) on various classes of graphs and find a certain structure for which the defender has a winning strategy, no matter how many pebbles are in a configuration. Then, we characterize winning configurations for both players on a special class of diameter 2 graphs. Finally, we show winning configurations for the mover on paths using a recursive argument.

  4. Motivational profile quality players handball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Martínez Moreno

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the sport context, elite category, it is necessary to know all the factors, which in one way or another, affect the athletes throughout the different competitions. The object of study is to know the motivational profile of elite handball players. The sample consisted of 495 players, of whom 47.8% were boys and 52.2% girls, their ages ranged from 12 to 16 years, with an average of 13.8 years (dt = 1.0. Descriptive statistical analyzes of the sample, absolute and relative frequencies were performed for the qualitative variables and for the quantitative values minimum, maximum, mean, standard deviation, Cronbach's alpha. Correlation between variables, with the Pearson correlation coefficient. The MANCOVA test was performed to determine if there were differences between the dimensions of the questionnaire, according to age and years of practice. The results reveal that handball players elite category of the sample object of study have mainly intrinsic motivation, achieving high scores on general motivation, motivation achievement and motivation stimulation. In addition to moderately high values in introjected regulation and very low values in demotivation.

  5. [Dietary behaviours of volleyball and basketball players].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczepańska, Elzbieta; Spałkowska, Agnieszka

    2012-01-01

    In sports, such as basketball and volleyball, players must demonstrate the speed, strength, stamina and concentration. Correct nutrition affects the strength of the muscles and the extension of capacity. It is also necessary for the proper functioning of the nervous system and determines the rate of regeneration after physical effort. The aim of this study was to assess dietary behaviours of professional volleyball and basketball players and compare the prevalence of correct behaviours in both groups. 209 professional volleyball and basketball players from sports clubs localized in six Silesian cities were survived with the mean of author questionnaire. The chi-square test was used to examine differences in the prevalence of the correct behaviours among players. Analysis of the results obtained showed that 52% of the players had 4-5 meals a day. 35% of respondents had wholemeal bread and/or groats daily. Milk and dairy products daily ate 71% of surveyed players, meat and sausages 70% respectively. 41% of respondents had cottage cheese and 28% had fish several times a week. Vegetables and fruit were eaten by 21% and respectively 23% of respondents. Sweets were eaten daily by 40% of surveyed, while fast-food were eaten several times a week by 17% of players. Nutrients for athletes were used by 32%, and vitamin supplementation by 48% of respondents. Prevalence of correct dietary behaviour in the group of professional volleyball and basketball players differed. Basketball players statistically more frequently than volleyball players had 4-5 meals a day, had wholemeal bread and/or thick groats, milk and dairy products, meat and sausages, especially poultry. They had raw vegetables and fruit several times a day. They drank more than 2.5 liters of fluids per day. They also significantly more frequently than volleyball players consumed the fast-food occasionally or never. Dietary behaviours of surveyed players were incorrect. Comparison of prevalence of proper behaviours

  6. Vitamin D Deficiency Among Professional Basketball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Matthew P; Lombardo, Stephen J; Kharrazi, F Daniel

    2016-07-01

    Vitamin D plays an important role in several systems of the human body. Various studies have linked vitamin D deficiency to stress and insufficiency fractures, muscle recovery and function, and athletic performance. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in the elite athletic population has not been extensively studied, and very few reports exist among professional athletes. There is a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency among players attending the National Basketball Association (NBA) Combine. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. This is a retrospective review of data previously collected as part of the routine medical evaluation of players in the NBA Combines from 2009 through 2013. Player parameters evaluated were height, weight, body mass index (BMI), and vitamin D level. Statistical analysis using t tests and analysis of variance was used to detect any correlation between the player parameters and vitamin D level. Vitamin D levels were categorized as deficient (32 ng/mL). After institutional review board approval was submitted to the NBA, the NBA released deidentified data on 279 players who participated in the combines from 2009 through 2013. There were 90 players (32.3%) who were deficient, 131 players (47.0%) who were insufficient, and 58 players (20.8%) who were sufficient. A total of 221 players (79.3%) were either vitamin D deficient or insufficient. Among all players included, the average vitamin D level was 25.6 ± 10.2 ng/mL. Among the players who were deficient, insufficient, and sufficient, the average vitamin D levels were 16.1 ± 2.1 ng/mL, 25.0 ± 3.4 ng/mL, and 41.6 ± 8.6 ng/mL, respectively. Player height and weight were significantly increased in vitamin D-sufficient players compared with players who were not sufficient (P = .0008 and .009, respectively). Player age and BMI did not significantly differ depending on vitamin D status (P = .15 and .77, respectively). There is a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency

  7. Flash memories economic principles of performance, cost and reliability optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Richter, Detlev

    2014-01-01

    The subject of this book is to introduce a model-based quantitative performance indicator methodology applicable for performance, cost and reliability optimization of non-volatile memories. The complex example of flash memories is used to introduce and apply the methodology. It has been developed by the author based on an industrial 2-bit to 4-bit per cell flash development project. For the first time, design and cost aspects of 3D integration of flash memory are treated in this book. Cell, array, performance and reliability effects of flash memories are introduced and analyzed. Key performance parameters are derived to handle the flash complexity. A performance and array memory model is developed and a set of performance indicators characterizing architecture, cost and durability is defined.   Flash memories are selected to apply the Performance Indicator Methodology to quantify design and technology innovation. A graphical representation based on trend lines is introduced to support a requirement based pr...

  8. Modeling on Flash Flood Disaster Induced by Bed Load

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Shuyou; LIU Xingnian; HUANG Er; YANG Keiun

    2008-01-01

    Flash floods result from a complex interaction among hydro-meteorological, hydrologi-cal, and hydraulic processes across various spatial and temporal scales. Sichuan Province suffers flash floods frequently owing to mountain weather and topography. A flash flood and gravel bed load transport are two key relative problems in mountain river engineering. Bed materials are often encountered in alternate scouring and deposition in mountain fluvial processes during a flash flood.In this circumstance, CRS-1 bed load numerical model jointly with scale physical model is em-ployed to predict water level and gravel bed scour and deposition for design of flood control dykes and flash flood disaster mitigation. A case study on the mechanism of a flash flood disaster in-duced by bed load transport for a hydropower station in Sichuan Province is conducted. Finally,suggestions to protect the hydropower station are proposed.

  9. Onset conditions for flash sintering of UO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raftery, Alicia M.; Pereira da Silva, João Gustavo; Byler, Darrin D.; Andersson, David A.; Uberuaga, Blas P.; Stanek, Christopher R.; McClellan, Kenneth J.

    2017-09-01

    In this work, flash sintering was demonstrated on stoichiometric and non-stoichiometric uranium dioxide pellets at temperatures ranging from room temperature (26 °C) up to 600 °C . The onset conditions for flash sintering were determined for three stoichiometries (UO2.00, UO2.08, and UO2.16) and analyzed against an established thermal runaway model. The presence of excess oxygen was found to enhance the flash sintering onset behavior of uranium dioxide, lowering the field required to flash and shortening the time required for a flash to occur. The results from this study highlight the effect of stoichiometry on the flash sintering behavior of uranium dioxide and will serve as the foundation for future studies on this material.

  10. Player-character dynamics in multi-player Role Playing Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tychsen, Anders; McIlwain, Doris; Brolund, Thea

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a comprehensive empirical study of the impact of integrating complex game characters in multi-player Role Playing Games across tabletop and digital formats. Players were provided with characters that had detailed background history, personality and goals. Player...... and player engagement with their character and no correlation between enjoyment and similarity between player and character personality. © 2007 Authors & Digital Games Research Association (DiGRA)....... and character personality were assessed using the Extended Personal Attributes Questionnaire (EPAQ) and further questionnaires administered to measure player enjoyment and the player-character relationship. Results include a high level of player enjoyment across all formats, a high correlation between enjoyment...

  11. An investigation of player to player character identification via personal pronouns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hichens, Michael; Drachen, Anders; Richards, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    The player character is an important feature of many games, where it is through the character that the player interacts with game world. There has been considerable interest in the relationship between the player and the player character. Much of this work has examined the identification of players...... in playing video games, did have a statistically significant affect, indicating that different levels of identification are more dependent on the player than on the game. This indicates that players are not a homogeneous group with respect to player character identification and is an important consideration...... with their characters, generally taking either a textual analysis approach, or has been empirical work that has explicitly identified the idea of identification through survey instruments, etc. The work presented here takes a different empirical approach, focusing on the use of various pronoun forms (first, second...

  12. Multi-channel analyzer controlled by applet and flash

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Both java applet and flash were applied to emulate virtual panel of multi-channel pulse height analyzer (MCA), and Microsoft IE browser was used to control MCA through internet to measure the γ-ray energy spectrum of 137Cs. It Was shown that most of the work completed by applet can be done by flash too, and with flash, more beautiful panel of the remote controlled instruments can be easily designed.

  13. Multi—channel analyzer controlled by applet and flash

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANGWen-Da

    2002-01-01

    Both java applet and flash were applied to emulate virtual panel of multi-channel pulse height analyzer(MCA),and Microsoft IE browser was used to control MCA through internet to measure the γ-ray energy spectrum of 137Cs.It was shown that most of the work completed by applet can be done by flash too,and with flash,more beautiful panel of the remote controlled instruments can be easily designed.

  14. Serious eye injury in badminton players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, S P

    1987-10-01

    Serious eye injury can occur in badminton players and may become more frequent. The causes and nature of such injuries in this sport in six patients are discussed. All were playing competitive doubles matches. Penetrating eye injury due to a shattered glass spectacle lens occurred. Players should be advised not to wear spectacles with glass lenses. Ocular protection in this sport is desirable, and the forward player should hold the racket in front of the face.

  15. The Prevalence of Injuries in Professional Turkish Soccer Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaner, Faruk; Gumusdag, Hayrettin; Kartal, Alparslan; Gumus, M.; Gullu, A.; Imamoglu, O.

    2011-01-01

    Study aim: To assess the prevalence and anatomical sites of injuries in professional soccer players in one game season. Material and methods: A cohort of 510 professional male soccer players consisting of 48 goalkeepers, 194 defence players, 189 mid-field players and 79 forward players of the 1st and 2nd Turkish Professional Soccer Leagues in…

  16. The echo-enabled harmonic generation options for FLASH II

    CERN Document Server

    Deng, Haixiao; Faatz, Bart

    2011-01-01

    FLASH II is an upgrade to the existing free electron laser (FEL) FLASH. The echo-enabled harmonic generation (EEHG) scheme is proposed to be a potential seeding option of FLASH II. In this paper, the possibility of EEHG operation of FLASH II is investigated for the first time. With a combination of existing numerical codes, i.e. a laser-beam interaction code in an undulator (LBICU), a beam tracking code in a chicane (ELEGANT) and an universal FEL simulating code (GENESIS), the effects of beam energy chirp and coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) on EEHG operation are studied as well. In addition, several interesting issues concerning EEHG simulation are discussed.

  17. Flash CS5.5 The Missing Manual

    CERN Document Server

    Grover, Chris

    2011-01-01

    You can build everything from simple animations to full-fledged iOS and Android apps with Flash CS5.5, but learning this complex program can be difficult-unless you have this fully updated, bestselling guide. Learn how to create gorgeous Flash effects even if you have no programming experience. With Flash CS5.5: The Missing Manual, you'll move from the basics to power-user tools with ease. Learn animation basics. Discover how to turn simple ideas into stunning animations.Master Flash's tools. Learn the animation and effects tools with clear explanations and hands-on examples.Use 3D effects. R

  18. Chess players' fame versus their merit

    CERN Document Server

    Simkin, M V

    2015-01-01

    We investigate a pool of international chess title holders born between 1901 and 1943. Using Elo ratings we compute for every player his expected score in a game with a randomly selected player from the pool. We use this figure as player's merit. We measure players' fame as the number of Google hits. The correlation between fame and merit is 0.38. At the same time the correlation between the logarithm of fame and merit is 0.61. This suggests that fame grows exponentially with merit.

  19. Physiological characteristics of international female soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manson, Sarah A; Brughelli, Matt; Harris, Nigel K

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the physiological characteristics of Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) eligible international female soccer players aged 14-36 years and to determine if measures were significantly different for players selected (i.e., starters) to the starting line up for an FIFA tournament as compared with those not selected (i.e., nonstarters). Fifty-one (N = 18 Under 17; N = 18 Under 20; N = 15 Senior) international female soccer players participated in this study. The subjects underwent measurements of anthropometry (height and body mass), lower body strength (isokinetic testing), sprint kinetics and kinematics (nonmotorized treadmill), leg power (unilateral jumping), and maximal aerobic velocity (30:15 intermittent fitness test) during the final preparatory stage for an FIFA event. Outcomes of the age group data indicate that differences in physiological capacities are evident for the Under 17 players as compared with those for the Under 20 and Senior capped international players, suggesting a plateau in the acquisition of physical qualities as players mature. Starters tended to be faster (effect size [ES] = 0.55-1.0, p velocity (ES = 0.78-2.45, p velocity (ES = 0.87, p players, where maximal aerobic velocity was the primary difference between starters and nonstarters (ES = 0.83-2.45, p players. Coaches should emphasize the development of speed, maximal aerobic velocity, and leg strength in developing female soccer players.

  20. Laser Flash Photolysis Studies on Gallic Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Hong-Ping; ZHAO Hong-Wei; ZHANG Zhao-Xia; WANG Wen-Feng; YAO Si-De

    2006-01-01

    The transient species of gallic acid (GA) have been studied by 266 nm nanosecond laser flash photolysis in aqueous solution and acetonitrile. The intermediate with absorption at 320 nm was identified as excited triplet state (3GA*), the decay rates of which were obtained in aqueous solution and acetonitrile respectively. Energy transfer from 3GA* to β-carotene was observed and the energy transfer rate constant kent was determined to be 2.2 × 109 mol-1·L·s-1. GA underwent photoionization during photolysis and the quantum yield of photoionization was determined to be 0.12 at room temperature with KI as a reference.

  1. 3D flash lidar imager onboard UAV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Guoqing; Liu, Yilong; Yang, Jiazhi; Zhang, Rongting; Su, Chengjie; Shi, Yujun; Zhou, Xiang

    2014-11-01

    A new generation of flash LiDAR sensor called GLidar-I is presented in this paper. The GLidar-I has been being developed by Guilin University of Technology in cooperating with the Guilin Institute of Optical Communications. The GLidar-I consists of control and process system, transmitting system and receiving system. Each of components has been designed and implemented. The test, experiments and validation for each component have been conducted. The experimental results demonstrate that the researched and developed GLiDAR-I can effectively measure the distance about 13 m at the accuracy level about 11cm in lab.

  2. Influence of Pressure in Flash Sintering Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pcheliakov, D. A.; Yurlova, M. S.; Grigoryev, E. G.; Olevsky, E. A.

    An innovative pressure-assisted flash-sintering technique has been developed to investigate the effect of pressure applied on microstructure and the sintering behavior of titanium dioxide. There are numerous applications for titanium dioxide in ceramics including microeletronics, glass ceramics, refractive materials, structural ceramics and titanium-containing ceramic materials and chemical intermediates. The traditional sintering of titanium dioxide usually requires several hours at over 1200 °C. The conducted research indicates that titanium dioxide can be sintered to full density in only a few seconds at 800-1000 °C, when subjected to a DC electrical field at a certain temperature moment.

  3. Flash ADC data processing with correlation coefficients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blyth, D.; Gibson, M.; Mcfarland, D.; Comfort, J.R., E-mail: Joseph.Comfort@asu.edu

    2014-02-21

    The large growth of flash ADC techniques for processing signals, especially in applications of streaming data, raises issues such as data flow through an acquisition system, long-term storage, and greater complexity in data analysis. In addition, experiments that push the limits of sensitivity need to distinguish legitimate signals from noise. The use of correlation coefficients is examined to address these issues. They are found to be quite successful well into the noise region. The methods can also be extended to Field Programmable Gate Array modules for compressing the data flow and greatly enhancing the event rate capabilities.

  4. The attentional modulation of the flash-lag effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.V.C. Baldo

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available If a dot is flashed in perfect alignment with a pair of dots rotating around the visual fixation point, most observers perceive the rotating dots as being ahead of the flashing dot (flash-lag effect. This perceptual effect has been interpreted to result from the perceptual extrapolation of the moving dots, the differential visual latencies between flashing and moving stimuli, as well as the modulation of attentional mechanisms. Here we attempted to uncouple the attentional effects brought about by the spatial predictability of the flashing dot from the sensory effects dependent on its visual eccentricity. The stimulus was a pair of dots rotating clockwise around the fixation point. Another dot was flashed at either the upper right or the lower left of the visual field according to three separate blocked situations: fixed, alternate and random positions. Twenty-four participants had to judge, in all three situations, the location of the rotating dots in relation to the imaginary line connecting the flashing dot and the fixation point at the moment the dot was flashed. The flash-lag effect was observed in all three situations, and a clear influence of the spatial predictability of the flashing dot on the magnitude of the perceptual phenomenon was revealed, independently of sensory effects related to the eccentricity of the stimulus in the visual field. These findings are consistent with our proposal that, in addition to sensory factors, the attentional set modulates the magnitude of the differential latencies that give rise to the flash-lag phenomenon.

  5. Cooperation: New Players in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Hugon

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In the context of globalisation and the current global financial crisis, new players are emerging in cooperation in Africa. These partners loosen financial constraints and conditionalities, increase the room for manoeuvre and stimulate commodity markets. On the other hand, they also increase the risks of renewed indebtedness and potentially weaken the coordination of aid policies. Do these partnerships call the new cooperation practices of OECD countries into question? Do they justify the return to a realpolitik or are they repeating the earlier mistakes of industrial powers? Can these mistakes be corrected? The question also arises as to whether the global crisis, which has a profound effect on Africa, will lead to a withdrawal or to a passing of the baton on to new, emerging powers. This article highlights the new geopolitical issues concerning Africa in a multipolar world, then discusses the new players involved in cooperation in Africa, before going on to explore the horizons that are opening up for cooperation in Africa, in particular with regard to the global crisis.

  6. Flash Vacuum Pyrolysis - Techniques and Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentrup, Curt

    2017-07-04

    While pyrolysis reactions have been performed since ancient times and been crucial for the invention of several technologies, the methodology now commonly known as flash vacuum pyrolysis, FVP (or flash vacuum thermolysis, FVT) had its early beginnings in the 1940s and1950s, mainly through mass spectrometric detection of pyrolytically formed free radicals. In the 1960s many organic chemists started performing FVP experiments with the purpose of isolating new and interesting compounds and understanding pyrolysis processes. Meanwhile, many different types of apparatus and techniques have been developed, and it is the purpose of this review to present the most important methods as well as a survey of typical reactions and observations that can be achieved with the various techniques. This includes preparative FVP, chemical trapping reactions, matrix isolation and low temperature spectroscopy of reactive intermediates and unstable molecules, the use of online mass, photoelectron, microwave and millimeterwave spectroscopies, gas-phase laser pyrolysis, pulsed pyrolysis with supersonic jet expansion, very low pressure pyrolysis for kinetic investigations, solution-spray and falling-solid FVP for involatile compounds, and pyrolysis over solid supports and reagents. Moreover, the combination of FVP with matrix isolation and photochemistry is a powerful tool for investigations of reaction mechanism. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Flash pyrolysis fuel oil: BIO-POK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gust, S. [Neste Oy, Porvoo (Finland)

    1995-12-31

    Flash pyrolysis oil from Ensyn Tech., Canada and Union Fenosa, Spain was combusted with simple pressure atomisation equipment commonly used with light fuel oils in intermediate size (0.1-1 MW) boilers. With a number of modifications to the combustion system, carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrous oxide (NO{sub x}) could be reduced to acceptable levels: CO < 30 ppm and NO{sub x} < 140 ppm. Particulate emissions which were initially very high (Bacharach 4-5) were reduced (Bach. 2-3) by system changes but are still higher than from light fuel oil (Bach. <1). The modifications to the combustion system were: acid resistant progressive cavity pump, higher oil preheat temperature and higher oil pressure than for light fuel oils, refractory section between burner and boiler warmed up to at least 800 deg C. In addition, it was necessary to store pyrolysis oil samples under inert conditions to prevent oxidation and to rinse nozzles with alcohol after shutdown to prevent coking. The complexity and cost of these system modifications are considered to be too great for current grades of flash pyrolysis oil to be sold as a light fuel oil replacement. Improvements to fuel quality will be necessary. The main improvements are lowering of viscosity and improving of stability

  8. Honeywell optical investigations on FLASH program

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rourke, Ken; Peterson, Eric; Yount, Larry

    1995-05-01

    The increasing performance and reduction of life cycle cost requirements placed on commercial and military transport aircraft are resulting in more complex, highly integrated aircraft control and management systems. The use of fiber optic data transmission media can make significant contributions in achieving these performance and cost goals. The Honeywell portion of Task 2A on the Fly-by-Light Advanced System Hardware (FLASH) program is evaluating a Primary Flight Control System (PFCS) using pilot and copilot inputs from Active Hand Controllers (AHC) which are optically linked to the primary flight Control Computers (PFCC). Customer involvement is an important element of the Task 2A activity. Establishing customer requirements and perspectives on productization of systems developed under FLASH are key to future product success. The Honeywell elements of the PFCS demonstrator provide a command path that is optically interfaced from crew inputs to commands of distributed, smart actuation subsystems commands. Optical communication architectures are implemented using several protocols including the new AS-1773A 20 Mbps data bus standard. The interconnecting fiber optic cable plant is provided by our Task 1A teammate McDonnell Douglas Aerospace (West). Fiber optic cable plant fabrication uses processed, tools and materials reflecting necessary advances in manufacturing required to make fly-by-light avionics systems marketable.

  9. Nanocrystalline magnetic materials obtained by flash annealing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.K. Murakami

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to produce enhanced-remanence nanocrystalline magnetic material by crystallizing amorphous or partially amorphous Pr4.5Fe77B18.5 alloys by the flash annealing process, also known as the dc-Joule heating process, and to determine the optimal conditions for obtaining good magnetic coupling between the magnetic phases present in this material. Ribbons of Pr4.5Fe77B18.5 were produced by melt spinning and then annealed for 10-30 s at temperatures 500 - 640 °C by passing current through the sample to develop the enhanced-remanence nanocrystalline magnetic material. These materials were studied by X-ray diffraction, differential thermal analysis and magnetic measurements. Coercivity increases of up to 15% were systematically observed in relation to furnace-annealed material. Two different samples were carefully examined: (i a sample annealed at 600 °C which showed the highest coercive field Hc and remanence ratio Mr/Ms and (ii a sample annealed at 520 °C which showed phase separation in the second quadrant demagnetization curve. Our results are in agreement with other studies which show that flash annealing improves the magnetic properties of some amorphous ferromagnetic ribbons.

  10. Flash Infrared Thermography Contrast Data Analysis Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshti, Ajay

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides information on an IR Contrast technique that involves extracting normalized contrast versus time evolutions from the flash thermography inspection infrared video data. The analysis calculates thermal measurement features from the contrast evolution. In addition, simulation of the contrast evolution is achieved through calibration on measured contrast evolutions from many flat-bottom holes in the subject material. The measurement features and the contrast simulation are used to evaluate flash thermography data in order to characterize delamination-like anomalies. The thermal measurement features relate to the anomaly characteristics. The contrast evolution simulation is matched to the measured contrast evolution over an anomaly to provide an assessment of the anomaly depth and width which correspond to the depth and diameter of the equivalent flat-bottom hole (EFBH) similar to that used as input to the simulation. A similar analysis, in terms of diameter and depth of an equivalent uniform gap (EUG) providing a best match with the measured contrast evolution, is also provided. An edge detection technique called the half-max is used to measure width and length of the anomaly. Results of the half-max width and the EFBH/EUG diameter are compared to evaluate the anomaly. The information provided here is geared towards explaining the IR Contrast technique. Results from a limited amount of validation data on reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) hardware are included in this paper.

  11. The potential risk of personal stereo players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammershøi, Dorte; Ordoñez, Rodrigo Pizarro; Reuter, Karen

    2010-01-01

    The technological development within personal stereo systems, such as MP3 players, e. g. iPods, has changed music listening habits from home entertainment to everyday and everywhere use. The technology has developed considerably, since the introduction of cassette players and CD walkmen. High...

  12. The potential risk of personal stereo players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammershøi, Dorte; Ordoñez, Rodrigo Pizarro; Reuter, Karen

    2010-01-01

    The technological development within personal stereo systems,such as MP3 players, e. g. iPods, has changed music listening habits from home entertainment to everyday and everywhere use. The technology has developed considerably, since the introduction of cassette players and CD walkmen. High...

  13. Who Are the Players in Canadian Curriculum?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milburn, Geoffrey

    1987-01-01

    Labels range of persons advocating different theoretical positions of Canadian curriculum as "players." Describes players as "managers,""predictors,""transformers,""sleuths,""analysts." Values varied viewpoints for attention to language regarding curriculum, critical review of ideas/concepts, examination of current policies, awareness of history…

  14. QuizUp Single Player Web

    OpenAIRE

    Gunnar Marteinsson 1983; Kristinn Júlíusson 1993; Sonja Jónsdóttir 1992; Steinar Þór Árnason 1993

    2016-01-01

    In this report we discuss the B.Sc. project named QuizUp Single Player Web. The project was developed at Reykjavik University in the spring of 2016 in collaboration with Plain Vanilla Games, the makers of the world famous QuizUp app. We developed a Single Player Web application based on the original multiplayer game.

  15. Inferring Player Experiences Using Facial Expressions Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, C.T.; Bakkes, S.; Pisan, Y.; Blackmore, K.; Nesbitt, K.; Smith, S.P.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding player experiences is central to game design. Video captures of players is a common practice for obtaining rich reviewable data for analysing these experiences. However, not enough has been done in investigating ways of preprocessing the video for a more efficient analysis process. Thi

  16. Initial Electric Field Changes of Lightning Flashes in Two Thunderstorms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, T. C.; Stolzenburg, M.; Karunarathne, S.; Chapman, R.

    2015-12-01

    In a study of lightning initiation, Marshall et al. [2014, JGR Atmospheres] found that an initial electric field change (IEC) occurred before the initial breakdown (IB) pulses in 18 cloud-to-ground (CG) flashes and in 18 intracloud (IC) flashes. Because the IECs were small in amplitude and slowly developing (i.e., primarily electrostatic events), they were only detected by sensors within the reversal distance of each flash. In this presentation we report on a search for IECs in two small Florida thunderstorms that occurred close to several E-change sensors. One storm had 57 flashes; the other had only 13 flashes. The key result is that 69 of the 70 flashes began with detectable IECs. For the one flash without a detectable IEC, the closest sensor was at the reversal distance, presumably masking the IEC. Three of the flashes analyzed seemed to begin twice, in the sense that they had two sets of IB pulses; each beginning was preceded by an IEC.

  17. Algorithms for Lunar Flash Video Search, Measurement, and Archiving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, Wesley; Suggs, Robert; Cooke, Bill

    2007-01-01

    Lunar meteoroid impact flashes provide a method to estimate the flux of the large meteoroid flux and thus their hazard to spacecraft. Although meteoroid impacts on the Moon have been detected using video methods for over a decade, the difficulty of manually searching hours of video for the rare, extremely brief impact flashes has discouraged the technique's systematic implementation. A prototype has been developed for the purpose of automatically searching lunar video records for impact flashes, eliminating false detections, editing the returned possible flashes, Z and archiving and documenting the results. The theory and organization of the program is discussed with emphasis on the filtering out of several classes of false detections and retaining the brief portions of the raw video necessary for in depth analysis of the flashes detected. Several utilities for measurement, analysis, and location of the flashes on the moon included in the program are demonstrated. Application of the program to a year's worth of lunar observations is discussed along with examples of impact flashes as well as several classes of false impact flashes.

  18. Assessment of Vulnerability to Extreme Flash Floods in Design Storms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Il Choi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available There has been an increase in the occurrence of sudden local flooding of great volume and short duration caused by heavy or excessive rainfall intensity over a small area, which presents the greatest potential danger threat to the natural environment, human life, public health and property, etc. Such flash floods have rapid runoff and debris flow that rises quickly with little or no advance warning to prevent flood damage. This study develops a flash flood index through the average of the same scale relative severity factors quantifying characteristics of hydrographs generated from a rainfall-runoff model for the long-term observed rainfall data in a small ungauged study basin, and presents regression equations between rainfall characteristics and the flash flood index. The aim of this study is to develop flash flood index-duration-frequency relation curves by combining the rainfall intensity-duration-frequency relation and the flash flood index from probability rainfall data in order to evaluate vulnerability to extreme flash floods in design storms. This study is an initial effort to quantify the flash flood severity of design storms for both existing and planned flood control facilities to cope with residual flood risks due to extreme flash floods that have ocurred frequently in recent years.

  19. Sunshine Trading: Flashes of Trading Intent at the NASDAQ

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Skjeltorp (Johannes); E. Sojli (Elvira); W.W. Tham (Wing Wah)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractWe use the introduction and the subsequent removal of the flash order facility (an actionable indication of interest, IOI) from the NASDAQ as a natural experiment to investigate the impact of voluntary disclosure of trading intent on market quality. We find that flash orders significantl

  20. Assessment of vulnerability to extreme flash floods in design storms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eung Seok; Choi, Hyun Il

    2011-07-01

    There has been an increase in the occurrence of sudden local flooding of great volume and short duration caused by heavy or excessive rainfall intensity over a small area, which presents the greatest potential danger threat to the natural environment, human life, public health and property, etc. Such flash floods have rapid runoff and debris flow that rises quickly with little or no advance warning to prevent flood damage. This study develops a flash flood index through the average of the same scale relative severity factors quantifying characteristics of hydrographs generated from a rainfall-runoff model for the long-term observed rainfall data in a small ungauged study basin, and presents regression equations between rainfall characteristics and the flash flood index. The aim of this study is to develop flash flood index-duration-frequency relation curves by combining the rainfall intensity-duration-frequency relation and the flash flood index from probability rainfall data in order to evaluate vulnerability to extreme flash floods in design storms. This study is an initial effort to quantify the flash flood severity of design storms for both existing and planned flood control facilities to cope with residual flood risks due to extreme flash floods that have ocurred frequently in recent years.

  1. Microstructure of wood charcoal prepared by flash heating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kurosaki, F; Ishimaru, K; Hata, T; Bronsveld, P; Kobayashi, E; Imamura, Y

    2003-01-01

    Carbonized wood prepared by flash heating at 800 degreesC for I h shows a different microstructure and surface chemical structure than char formed after slow heating at 4 degreesC/min to 800 degreesC for I h. Flash heating produces pores that are surrounded by aggregates of carbon structures 25 to 1

  2. Finite stage asymmetric repeated games: Both players' viewpoints

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Lichun

    2017-01-05

    In asymmetric zero-sum games, one player has superior information about the game over the other. It is known that the informed players (maximizer) face the tradeoff of exploiting its superior information at the cost of revealing its superior information, but the basic point of the uninformed player (minimizer)\\'s decision making remains unknown. This paper studies the finite stage asymmetric repeated games from both players\\' viewpoints, and derives that not only security strategies but also the opponents\\' corresponding best responses depends only on the informed player\\'s history action sequences. Moreover, efficient LP formulations to compute both player\\'s security strategies are provided.

  3. Injuries in racket sports among Slovenian players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondric, Miran; Matković, Branka R; Furjan-Mandić, Gordana; Hadzić, Vedran; Dervisević, Edvin

    2011-06-01

    On the sample of 83 top Slovenian athletes we have studied the frequency of injuries among table tennis, tennis and badminton players, types of injuries and severity of injuries--the latter based on data of players absences from training and/or competition processes. The most liable parts to injuries are shoulder girdle (17.27%), spine (16.55%) and ankle (15.83%), while foot (10.07%) and wrist (12.23%) are slightly less liable to injuries. The most frequent injuries in racket sports pertain to muscle tissues. According to this data, the majority of injuries occur halfway through a training session or a competition event, mostly during a competition season. The injuries primarily pertain to muscle tissues; these are followed by joint and tendon injuries. There are no differences between male and female players. Compared to other racket sports players, table tennis players suffer from fewer injuries.

  4. Decreased Nerve Conduction Velocity in Football Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daryoush Didehdar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lower limbs nerves are exposed to mechanical injuries in the football players and the purpose of this study is to evaluate the influence of football on the lower leg nerves. Materials and Methods: Nerve conduction studies were done on 35 male college students (20 football players, 15 non active during 2006 to 2007 in the Shiraz rehabilitation faculty. Standard nerve conduction techniques using to evaluate dominant and non dominant lower limb nerves. Results: The motor latency of deep peroneal and tibial nerves of dominant leg of football players and sensory latency of superficial peroneal, tibial and compound nerve action potential of tibial nerve of both leg in football players were significantly prolonged (p<0.05. Motor and sensory nerve conduction velocity of tibial and common peroneal in football players were significant delayed (p<0.05. Conclusion: It is concluded that football is sport with high contact and it causes sub-clinical neuropathies due to nerve entrapment.

  5. Outcomes of microfracture in professional basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerynik, Douglas L; Lewullis, Gabriel E; Joves, Brian C; Palmer, Michael P; Tom, James A

    2009-09-01

    Surgical treatment for chondral defects of the knee in competitive running and jumping athletes remains controversial. This study evaluated the performance outcomes of professional basketball players in the National Basketball Association (NBA) who underwent microfracture. Data from 24 professional basketball players from 1997 to 2006 was obtained and analyzed. NBA player efficiency ratings (PER) were calculated for two seasons before and after injury. A control group of 24 players was used for comparison. Study group and control group demographics including age, NBA experience, and minutes per game demonstrated no statistical difference. Mean time to return to an NBA game was 30.0 weeks from the time of surgery. The first season after returning to competition PER and minutes per game decreased by 3.5 (P 0.05) and 3.0 min (P NBA game. On return to competition player performance and minutes per game are diminished.

  6. Executive functioning in highly talented soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verburgh, Lot; Scherder, Erik J A; van Lange, Paul A M; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2014-01-01

    Executive functions might be important for successful performance in sports, particularly in team sports requiring quick anticipation and adaptation to continuously changing situations in the field. The executive functions motor inhibition, attention and visuospatial working memory were examined in highly talented soccer players. Eighty-four highly talented youth soccer players (mean age 11.9), and forty-two age-matched amateur soccer players (mean age 11.8) in the age range 8 to 16 years performed a Stop Signal task (motor inhibition), the Attention Network Test (alerting, orienting, and executive attention) and a visuospatial working memory task. The highly talented soccer players followed the talent development program of the youth academy of a professional soccer club and played at the highest national soccer competition for their age. The amateur soccer players played at a regular soccer club in the same geographical region as the highly talented soccer players and play in a regular regional soccer competition. Group differences were tested using analyses of variance. The highly talented group showed superior motor inhibition as measured by stop signal reaction time (SSRT) on the Stop Signal task and a larger alerting effect on the Attention Network Test, indicating an enhanced ability to attain and maintain an alert state. No group differences were found for orienting and executive attention and visuospatial working memory. A logistic regression model with group (highly talented or amateur) as dependent variable and executive function measures that significantly distinguished between groups as predictors showed that these measures differentiated highly talented soccer players from amateur soccer players with 89% accuracy. Highly talented youth soccer players outperform youth amateur players on suppressing ongoing motor responses and on the ability to attain and maintain an alert state; both may be essential for success in soccer.

  7. Flash ionisation signature in coherent cyclotron emission from Brown Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Vorgul, Irena

    2016-01-01

    Brown dwarfs form mineral clouds in their atmospheres, where charged particles can produce large-scale discharges in form of lightning resulting in a substantial sudden increase of local ionisation. Brown dwarfs are observed to emit cyclotron radio emission. We show that signatures of strong transient atmospheric ionisation events (flash ionisation) can be imprinted on a pre-existing radiation. Detection of such flash ionisation events will open investigations into the ionisation state and atmospheric dynamics. Such ionisation events can also result from explosion shock waves, bursts or eruptions. We present an analytical model that describes the modulation of a pre-existing electromagnetic radiation by a time-dependent (flash) conductivity that is characteristic for flash ionisation events like lightning. Our conductivity model reproduces the conductivity function derived from observations of Terrestrial Gamma Ray Flashes, and is applicable to astrophysical objects with strong temporal variations in the loca...

  8. Lightning Mapping Array flash detection performance with variable receiver thresholds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmielewski, Vanna C.; Bruning, Eric C.

    2016-07-01

    This study characterizes Lightning Mapping Array performance for networks that participated in the Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry field program using new Monte Carlo and curvature matrix model simulations. These open-source simulation tools are readily adapted to real-time operations or detailed studies of performance. Each simulation accounted for receiver threshold and location, as well as a reference distribution of source powers and flash sizes based on thunderstorm observations and the mechanics of station triggering. Source and flash detection efficiency were combined with solution bias and variability to predict flash area distortion at long ranges. Location errors and detection efficiency were highly dependent on the station configuration and thresholds, especially at longer ranges, such that performance varied more than expected across different networks and with azimuth within networks. Error characteristics matched prior studies, which led to an increase in flash distortion with range. Predicted flash detection efficiency exceeded 95% within 100 km of all networks.

  9. Features of positive ground flashes observed in Kathmandu Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Pitri Bhakta; Sharma, Shriram; Baral, Kedarnath

    2016-07-01

    Lightning vertical electric fields pertinent to the subtropical thunderstorms occurring over the rugged terrain have been measured and recorded at a hilly station Kathmandu, Nepal. In the present work, waveforms of the positive ground flashes have been selected from all the records and were analyzed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that fine structure of electric field signature pertinent to the positive return stroke; have been analyzed and presented from Nepal. One hundred and thirty three (133) of the total of four hundred twenty-five (425) flashes were selected from seven thunderstorm days and analyzed. Of the data recorded for seven days, 133 flashes (31.3%) were positive flashes and 276 flashes (64.9%) were cloud flashes. Majority of the positive ground flashes were found to be single stroke ones, whereas, the average number of strokes per flash is found to be 1.1 with a maximum value of 4. Majority of the positive ground flashes were found either lacking the initial breakdown process and the leader stage or these processes could not be detected. The return strokes are found to be succeeded by large in cloud activity in the continuing current portion of the flash. The average zero-crossing time of the positive return strokes was found to be 60.45 μs with a range of 447.81 μs and the average rise time was found to be 9.44 μs with a range of 42.56 μs.

  10. Mechanisms of cutaneous vasodilation during the postmenopausal hot flash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, David A.; Hubing, Kimberley A.; Del Coso, Juan; Crandall, Craig G.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Menopausal hot flashes can seriously disrupt the lives of symptomatic women. The physiological mechanisms of the hot flash efferent responses, particularly in the cutaneous circulation, are not completely understood. The aim of this study was to examine the mechanisms of increases in skin blood flow during the postmenopausal hot flash in symptomatic women. Methods Healthy postmenopausal women rested in a temperature controlled laboratory while responses prior to and during hot flashes were recorded for three unique protocols. Protocols 1 and 2: Women were locally pretreated with an intradermal injection of botulinum toxin A (BTX; blocks the release of neurotransmitters from sympathetic cholinergic nerves) in the forearm (protocol 1) and in the glabellar region (protocol 2). Protocol 3: Skin sympathetic nerve activity from the peroneal nerve was recorded, along with skin blood flow and sweating within the region innervated by that neural signal. Skin blood flow was indexed using laser-Doppler flowmetry at BTX-treated and adjacent untreated control sites. The onset of a hot flash was objectively identified as a transient and pronounced elevation of sternal sweat rate. Results The elevation in forearm (protocol 1) and glabellar skin blood flow (protocol 2) during hot flashes were attenuated at BTX sites relative to adjacent untreated sites (P<0.05 for both protocols). In protocol 3, skin sympathetic nerve activity significantly increased during hot flashes and returned to pre-flash levels following the hot flashes. Conclusion Elevations in skin blood flow during the postmenopausal hot flash are neurally mediated primarily through BTX sensitive nerves; presumably sympathetic cholinergic. PMID:21107299

  11. Incidence of Stingers in Young Rugby Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Takayuki; Ota, Chihiro; Yoneda, Takeshi; Maki, Nobukazu; Urayama, Shingo; Nagao, Masashi; Nagayama, Masataka; Kaketa, Takefumi; Takazawa, Yuji; Kaneko, Kazuo

    2015-11-01

    A stinger is a type of neurapraxia of the cervical roots or brachial plexus and represents a reversible peripheral nerve injury. The incidence of and major risk factors for stingers among young rugby players remain uninvestigated. To investigate the incidence, symptoms, and intrinsic risk factors for stingers in elite rugby union teams of young players. Descriptive epidemiology study. A total of 569 male rugby players, including 358 players from 7 high school teams and 211 players from 2 university teams, were investigated using self-administered preseason and postseason questionnaires. The prevalence of a history of stingers was 33.9% (95% CI, 30.3-37.9), and 20.9% (119/569) of players experienced at least 1 episode of a stinger during the season (34.2 [95% CI, 26.2-42.1] events per 1000 player-hours of match exposure). The reinjury rate for stingers per season was 37.3% (95% CI, 30.4-44.2). Using the multivariate Poisson regression method, a history of stingers in the previous season and the grade and position of the player were found to be risk factors for stingers during the current season. The mean severity of injury was 2.9 days, with 79.3% (191/241) of the players not losing any time from playing after sustaining a stinger injury and 5.8% (14/241) of the players recovering within more than 14 days. The most frequent symptom was numbness in the unilateral upper extremity, and the most severe symptom was weakness of grasping (mean severity, 6 days). A logistic regression analysis indicated that a history of stingers in the previous season and an injury with more than 3 symptoms, especially motor weakness, were correlated with the severity of injury. Young rugby players with a history of stingers have a significantly high rate of repeat injuries. Although nearly 80% of the players experienced only minimal (0-1 day) time loss injuries, neurological deficits sometimes last beyond 1 month. A history of stingers was identified to be the strongest risk factor for

  12. Looking for Similarities Between Lowland (Flash) Floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauer, C.; Teuling, R.; Torfs, P.; Hobbelt, L.; Jansen, F.; Melsen, L.; Uijlenhoet, R.

    2012-12-01

    On 26 August 2010 the eastern part of The Netherlands and the bordering part of Germany were struck by a series of rainfall events. Over an area of 740 km2 more than 120 mm of rainfall were observed in 24 h. We investigated the unprecedented flash flood triggered by this exceptionally heavy rainfall event (return period > 1000 years) in the 6.5 km2 Hupsel Brook catchment, which has been the experimental watershed employed by Wageningen University since the 1960s. This study improved our understanding of the dynamics of such lowland flash floods (Brauer et al., 2011). These observations, however, only show how our experimental catchment behaved and the results cannot be extrapolated directly to different floods in other (neighboring) lowland catchments. Therefore, it is necessary to use the information collected in one well-monitored catchment in combination with data from other, less well monitored catchments to find common signatures which could describe the runoff response during a lowland flood as a function of catchment characteristics. Because of the large spatial extent of the rainfall event in August 2010, many brooks and rivers in the Netherlands and Germany flooded. With data from several catchments we investigated the influence of rainfall and catchment characteristics (such as slope, size and land use) on the reaction of discharge to rainfall. We also investigated the runoff response in these catchments during previous floods by analyzing the relation between storage and discharge and the recession curve. In addition to the flood in August 2010, two other floods occurred in The Netherlands in recently. The three floods occurred in different parts of the country, after different types of rainfall events and with different initial conditions. We selected several catchments during each flood to compare their response and find out if these cases are fundamentally different or that they were produced by the same underlying processes and can be treated in a

  13. 浅析OpenFlashChart的使用%Brief Introduction Usage of Open Flash Chart

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周伟伟; 童敏娟

    2012-01-01

    Open Flash Chart是基于Web网络应用图表技术,用简单方便配置提供出绚丽动画效果,并且图表类型丰富多彩、数据文件结构清晰而明了.通过Open Flash Chart可以生成线图、饼状图、柱状图、雷达图、区域图以及组合图表等.设定颜色、字体、背景等CSS样式,为用户提供了大量可选择的数据图表显示方式.

  14. Article coated with flash bonded superhydrophobic particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, John T [Clinton, TN; Blue, Craig A [Knoxville, TN; Kiggans, Jr., James O [Oak Ridge, TN

    2010-07-13

    A method of making article having a superhydrophobic surface includes: providing a solid body defining at least one surface; applying to the surface a plurality of diatomaceous earth particles and/or particles characterized by particle sizes ranging from at least 100 nm to about 10 .mu.m, the particles being further characterized by a plurality of nanopores, wherein at least some of the nanopores provide flow through porosity, the particles being further characterized by a plurality of spaced apart nanostructured features that include a contiguous, protrusive material; flash bonding the particles to the surface so that the particles are adherently bonded to the surface; and applying a hydrophobic coating layer to the surface and the particles so that the hydrophobic coating layer conforms to the nanostructured features.

  15. Flash photolysis-shock tube studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael, J.V. [Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States)

    1993-12-01

    Even though this project in the past has concentrated on the measurement of thermal bimolecular reactions of atomic species with stable molecules by the flash or laser photolysis-shock tube (FP- or LP-ST) method using atomic resonance absorption spectrometry (ARAS) as the diagnostic technique, during the past year the authors have concentrated on studies of the thermal decompositions of selected chlorocarbon molecules. These studies are necessary if the degradation of chlorine containing organic molecules by incineration are to be understood at the molecular level. Clearly, destruction of these molecules will not only involve abstraction reactions, when possible, but also thermal decomposition followed by secondary reactions of the initially formed atoms and radicals. Studies on the thermal decomposition of CH{sub 3}Cl are complete, and the curve-of-growth for Cl-atom atomic resonance absorption has been determined. The new thermal decomposition studies are similar to those already reported for CH{sub 3}Cl.

  16. Examining Player Anger in World of Warcraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Jane; Coulson, Mark; Foreman, Nigel

    This questionnaire study of the sources of anger in World of Warcraft applies classical quantitative measurement scale construction to a new problem, generating a host of questionnaire items that could find use in future studies, and identifying four major categories of events that cause negative effect among players. First, 33 players provided examples of in-game scenarios that had made them angry, and their responses were culled to create a 93-item battery rated by hundreds of player respondents in terms of anger intensity and anger frequency. An iterative process of factor analysis and scale reliability assessment led to a 28-item instrument measuring four anger-provoking factors: Raids/Instances, Griefers, Perceived Time Wasting, and Anti-social Players. These anger-causing scenarios were then illustrated by concrete examples from player and researcher experiences in World of Warcraft. One striking finding is that players become angry at other players' negative behavior, regardless of whether that behavior was intended to harm.

  17. Applied physiology of female soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J A; Brewer, J

    1993-09-01

    Women's soccer is in its infancy as a sport and research into its physiological demands and the physical characteristics of players is somewhat limited. There is now an increasing demand for scientific investigation of the female game and of the players, match analysis and role variations requiring particular attention. Current research suggests that the demands of the game for women are similar to those placed on male players. Women are reported to cover a similar distance (mean 8471m) to their male counterparts during a game and much the same proportions of the game appear to be devoted to exercise of varying intensities. Furthermore, female and male players appear to tax the aerobic and anaerobic energy systems to a similar level. The physical and physiological characteristics of female soccer players are comparable with those of other female games players and are more favourable than average for the population. Mean body fat percentages of between 19.7 and 22.0% and VO2max values of between 47.1 and 57.6 ml/kg/min have been reported for elite female players, while faster than average sprint times are also characteristic of them.

  18. A new French flash flood warning service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Saint-Aubin Céline

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The French State services in charge of flood forecasting supervise about 22,000 km among the 120,000 km of the French rivers within a warning procedure called Vigilance Crues (http://www.vigicrues.gouv.fr. Some recent dramatic flood events on small watershed not covered by Vigilance Crues highlight the need for a new warning procedure to anticipate violent flash floods that regularly affect rapid river-basins. Thus the concept emerged of an automatic warning service specifically dedicated to local crisis managers. This service will be less elaborated than Vigilance Crues, probably with false alarms and missed events sometimes, but it will deliver a first information. The generation of the warning is based on a simple rainfall-runoff hydrological model developed by Irstea on all French rivers, fed with radar-gauge rainfall grids provided by Meteo-France. Every fifteen minutes, the hydrological model estimates the discharges on the rivers eligible to the service and determine if certain thresholds corresponding to a high or very high flood are likely to be exceeded. The last step of the real-time system is to determine which municipalities are concerned with flood risk and send them an automatic warning by voice call, optionally by sms or email. A specific web interface is available for users to monitor the evolution of the flood risk on maps that are updated every 15 minutes. This new flash flood warning service will be operational early 2017 as a free service for about 8,000 French municipalities.

  19. Computing Decoupled Residuals for Compact Disc Players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Stoustrup, Jakob; Andersen, Palle

    2006-01-01

    In order to improve Compact Disc Players playability regarding playing Compact Discs with surface faults, like scratches and fingerprints etc, the attention has been put on fault tolerant control schemes. Almost every of those methods are based on fault detection. The standard approach is to use...... a pair of residuals generated by Compact Disc Player. However, these residuals depend on the performance of position servos in the Compact Disc Player. In other publications of the same authors a pair of decoupled residuals is derived. However, the computation of these alternative residuals has been...

  20. Towards Player-Driven Procedural Content Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Noor; Yannakakis, Georgios N.; Togelius, Julian

    2012-01-01

    Generating immersive game content is one of the ultimate goals for a game designer. This goal can be achieved by realizing the fact that players’ perception of the same game differ according to a number of factors including: players’ personality, playing styles, expertise and culture background....... While one player might find the game immersive, others may quit playing as a result of encountering a seemingly insoluble problem. One promising avenue towards optimizing the gameplay experience for individual game players is to tailor player experience in real-time via automatic game content generation......-driven content generation....

  1. Storage Coding for Wear Leveling in Flash Memories

    CERN Document Server

    Anxiao,; Mateescu, Robert; Yaakobi, Eitan; Bruck, Jehoshua; Siegel, Paul H; Vardy, Alexander; Wolf, Jack K

    2009-01-01

    Flash memory is a non-volatile computer memory comprised of blocks of cells, wherein each cell is implemented as either NAND or NOR floating gate. NAND flash is currently the most widely used type of flash memory. In a NAND flash memory, every block of cells consists of numerous pages; rewriting even a single page requires the whole block to be erased and reprogrammed. Block erasures determine both the longevity and the efficiency of a flash memory. Therefore, when data in a NAND flash memory are reorganized, minimizing the total number of block erasures required to achieve the desired data movement is an important goal. This leads to the flash data movement problem studied in this paper. We show that coding can significantly reduce the number of block erasures required for data movement, and present several optimal or nearly optimal data-movement algorithms based upon ideas from coding theory and combinatorics. In particular, we show that the sorting-based (non-coding) schemes require at least O(nlogn) erasu...

  2. Simulated CONUS Flash Flood Climatologies from Distributed Hydrologic Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamig, Z.; Gourley, J. J.; Vergara, H. J.; Kirstetter, P. E.; Hong, Y.

    2016-12-01

    This study will describe a CONUS flash flood climatology created over the period from 2002 through 2011. The MRMS reanalysis precipitation dataset was used as forcing into the Ensemble Framework For Flash Flood Forecasting (EF5). This high resolution 1-sq km 5-minute dataset is ideal for simulating flash floods with a distributed hydrologic model. EF5 features multiple water balance components including SAC-SMA, CREST, and a hydrophobic model all coupled with kinematic wave routing. The EF5/SAC-SMA and EF5/CREST water balance schemes were used for the creation of dual flash flood climatologies based on the differing water balance principles. For the period from 2002 through 2011 the daily maximum streamflow, unit streamflow, and time of peak streamflow was stored along with the minimum soil moisture. These variables are used to describe the states of the soils right before a flash flood event and the peak streamflow that was simulated during the flash flood event. The results will be shown, compared and contrasted. The resulting model simulations will be verified on basins less than 1,000-sq km with USGS gauges to ensure the distributed hydrologic models are reliable. The results will also be compared spatially to Storm Data flash flood event observations to judge the degree of agreement between the simulated climatologies and observations.

  3. Flash ionization signature in coherent cyclotron emission from brown dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorgul, I.; Helling, Ch.

    2016-05-01

    Brown dwarfs (BDs) form mineral clouds in their atmospheres, where charged particles can produce large-scale discharges in the form of lightning resulting in substantial sudden increase of local ionization. BDs are observed to emit cyclotron radio emission. We show that signatures of strong transient atmospheric ionization events (flash ionization) can be imprinted on a pre-existing radiation. Detection of such flash ionization events will open investigations into the ionization state and atmospheric dynamics. Such events can also result from explosion shock waves, material outbursts or (volcanic) eruptions. We present an analytical model that describes the modulation of a pre-existing electromagnetic radiation by a time-dependent (flash) conductivity that is characteristic for flash ionization events like lightning. Our conductivity model reproduces the conductivity function derived from observations of terrestrial gamma-ray flashes, and is applicable to astrophysical objects with strong temporal variations in the local ionization, as in planetary atmospheres and protoplanetary discs. We show that the field responds with a characteristic flash-shaped pulse to a conductivity flash of intermediate intensity. More powerful ionization events result in smaller variations of the initial radiation, or in its damping. We show that the characteristic damping of the response field for high-power initial radiation carries information about the ionization flash magnitude and duration. The duration of the pulse amplification or the damping is consistently shorter for larger conductivity variations and can be used to evaluate the intensity of the flash ionization. Our work suggests that cyclotron emission could be probe signals for electrification processes inside BD atmosphere.

  4. Weak positive cloud-to-ground flashes in Northeastern Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Raul E.; Maier, Michael W.; Garcia-Miguel, Juan A.; Holle, Ronald L.

    1991-01-01

    The frequency distributions of the peak magnetic field associated with the first detected return stroke of positive and negative cloud-to-ground (CG) flashes were studied using lightning data from northeastern Colorado. These data were obtained during 1985 with a medium-to-high gain network of three direction finders (DF's). The median signal strength of positive flashes was almost two times that of the negatives for flashes within 300 km of the DF's, which have an inherent detection-threshold bias that tends to discriminate against weak signals. This bias increases with range, and affects the detection of positive and negative flashes in different ways, because of the differing character of their distributions. Positive flashes appear to have a large percentage of signals clustered around very weak values that are lost to the medium-to-high gain Colorado Detection System very quickly with increasing range. The resulting median for positive signals could thus appear to be much larger than the median for negative signals, which are more clustered around intermediate values. When only flashes very close to the DF's are considered, however, the two distributions have almost identical medians. The large percentage of weak positive signals detected close to the DF's has not been explored previously. They have been suggested to come from intracloud discharges and thus are improperly classified as CG flashes. Evidence in hand, points to their being real positive, albeit weak CG flashes. Whether or not they are real positive ground flashes, it is important to be aware of their presence in data from magnetic DF networks.

  5. Gamma ray flashes add to mystery of upper atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmospheric electricity research has come a long way since Benjamin Franklin's kite-flying days. But what researchers have been learning lately about above-thunderstorm electricity has wrought a whole new era of mysteries.For a start, last summer a Colorado meteorologist sparked interest in a terrestrial phenomenon that the community first observed more than 100 years ago: optical flashes that occur above thunderstorms—at least 30 km above Earth. Walter Lyons with the Ft. Collins-based Mission Research Corporation, demonstrated that such flashes are not anomalies, as conventional scientific wisdom had held. He filmed hundreds of flashes during a 2-week period.

  6. FLASH is an essential component of Cajal bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcaroli, D; Dinsdale, D; Neale, M H; Bongiorno-Borbone, L; Ranalli, M; Munarriz, E; Sayan, A E; McWilliam, J M; Smith, T M; Fava, E; Knight, R A; Melino, G; De Laurenzi, V

    2006-10-03

    Cajal bodies are small nuclear organelles with a number of nuclear functions. Here we show that FLICE-associated huge protein (FLASH), originally described as a component of the apoptosis signaling pathway, is mainly localized in Cajal bodies and is essential for their structure. Reduction in FLASH expression by short hairpin RNA results in disruption of the normal architecture of the Cajal body and relocalization of its components. Because the function of FLASH in the apoptosis receptor signaling pathway has been strongly questioned, we have now identified a clear function for this protein.

  7. FLASH-OFDM-通信业的新宠

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李勇民

    2008-01-01

    OFDM技术是宽带无线接(BWA)领域内的一种重要技术,本文从介绍OFDM原理入手,突出了它抗干扰能力强、频谱利用率高等特点,而FLASH-OFDM则是OFDM技术中的一种.之后进一步介绍了FLASH-OFDM技术的协议模型,对物理层、MAC/路层和网络层进行了详细的介绍,从而得到了FLASH-OFDM技术的优越性.

  8. High School Football Players Use Their Helmets to Tackle Other Players Despite Knowing the Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriyama, Andrew M; Nakatsuka, Austin S

    2017-01-01

    There is greater attention to head-related injuries and concussions in American football. The helmet's structural safety and the way that football players use their helmets are important in preventing head injuries. Current strategies include penalizing players for high-risk behavior such as leading with their helmet or hitting an opposing player above the shoulder. Passive strategies include helmet modification to better protect the head of the players or to change the playing style of the players. Hawai‘i high school varsity football players were surveyed to determine how they use their helmets and how a new helmet design would affect their style of play. One hundred seventy-seven surveys were completed; 79% said that they used their helmet to hit an opposing player during a tackle and 46% said they made this contact intentionally. When asked about modifying helmets with a soft material on the outside, 48% said they thought putting a soft cover over a regular helmet would protect their head better. However, many participants said that putting a soft cover over their regular helmet was a bad idea for various reasons. Most young football players use their helmets to block or tackle despite being taught they would be penalized or potentially injured if they did so. By gaining a better understanding of why and how players use their helmets and how they would respond to new helmet designs, steps can be taken to reduce head injuries for all levels of play.

  9. Technical player profiles related to the physical fitness of young female volleyball players predict team performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dávila-Romero, C; Hernández-Mocholí, M A; García-Hermoso, A

    2015-03-01

    This study is divided into three sequential stages: identification of fitness and game performance profiles (individual player performance), an assessment of the relationship between these profiles, and an assessment of the relationship between individual player profiles and team performance during play (in championship performance). The overall study sample comprised 525 (19 teams) female volleyball players aged 12-16 years and a subsample (N.=43) used to examine study aims one and two was selected from overall sample. Anthropometric, fitness and individual player performance (actual game) data were collected in the subsample. These data were analyzed through clustering methods, ANOVA and independence chi-square test. Then, we investigated whether the proportion of players with the highest individual player performance profile might predict a team's results in the championship. Cluster analysis identified three volleyball fitness profiles (high, medium, and low) and two individual player performance profiles (high and low). The results showed a relationship between both types of profile (fitness and individual player performance). Then, linear regression revealed a moderate relationship between the number of players with a high volleyball fitness profile and a team's results in the championship (R2=0.23). The current study findings may enable coaches and trainers to manage training programs more efficiently in order to obtain tailor-made training, identify volleyball-specific physical fitness training requirements and reach better results during competitions.

  10. The Cheerleader and the Football Player.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Malati

    2001-01-01

    Describes an activity in physics using a narrative about a bet between a cheerleader who claims she can lift a 300-pound football player off the ground. Includes questions, teaching notes, and solutions. (MM)

  11. Menstrual cycle disorders in female volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wodarska, M; Witkoś, J; Drosdzol-Cop, A; Dąbrowska, J; Dąbrowska-Galas, M; Hartman, M; Plinta, R; Skrzypulec-Plinta, V

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relation between increased physical activity and menstrual disorders in adolescent female volleyball players. The study was conducted on 210 Polish female volleyball players, aged 13-17 years, the authorship questionnaire was used. The results of the study showed that irregular menstruation occurred in 19% of girls, spotting between menstrual periods in 27% and heavy menstruation was reported in 33% of girls. Out of all volleyball female players participating in the study, 94 girls (45%) declared absence of menstrual periods after regular cycles. Statistical analysis showed that the more training hours per week, the bigger probability of the occurrence of irregular menstruation. It was concluded that the number of hours of volleyball training per week affects regularity of menstrual cycles in female volleyball players. The absence of menstruation might be caused by the duration of training per week or years of training.

  12. Towards Generic Models of Player Experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Noor; Shaker, Mohammad; Abou-Zleikha, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    further examine whether generic features of player be- haviour can be defined and used to boost the modelling per- formance. The accuracies obtained in both experiments in- dicate a promise for the proposed approach and suggest that game-independent player experience models can be built.......-dependent and their applicability is usually limited to the system and the data used for model construction. Establishing models of user experience that are highly scalable while maintaing the performance constitutes an important research direction. In this paper, we propose generic models of user experience in the computer games...... domain. We employ two datasets collected from players in- teractions with two games from different genres where accu- rate models of players experience were previously built. We take the approach one step further by investigating the mod- elling mechanism ability to generalise over the two datasets. We...

  13. Video Player Keyboard Shortcuts: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/hotkeys.html Video Player Keyboard Shortcuts To use the sharing features on this ... enable JavaScript. MedlinePlus offers a set of accessible keyboard shortcuts for our latest Health videos on the ...

  14. Scouting the Elite, Unbreakable Football Player.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, M

    1981-02-01

    Some NFL football teams see physiological profiling as a means to protect and enhance their competitive and business success. Whether football players will benefit by increased performance and fewer injuries remains to be seen.

  15. Does the Quantum Player Always Win the Classical One?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Hai-Jun; FANG Xi-Ming

    2004-01-01

    @@ We study quantum games in which the players have different strategic spaces. We find that the player who can use a quantum strategic space does not always possess more payoffs than the player who is restricted to apply only classical strategies. We find the condition of the classical player getting more payoffs than the quantum player. We also find that the game exhibits intriguing structures.

  16. Heavy rainfall induced flash flood management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiler, Markus; Steinbrich, Andreas; Stölzle, Michael; Leistert, Hannes

    2016-04-01

    Heavy rain induced flash floods are still a serious hazard. In context of climate change even a rise of threat potential of flash flood must be suspected. To improve prediction of endangered areas hydraulic models was developed in the past that implement topography information in heigh resolution, gathered by laser scan applications. To run such models it is crucial to estimate the runoff input spatial distributed. However, this information is usually derived with relatively simple models lacking the process rigour that is required for prediction in engaged basins. Though available rain runoff models are able to model runoff response integral for measured catchments they do not indicate the spatial distribution of processes. Moreover they are commonly calibrated to measured runoff data and not applicable in other environments. Since runoff generation is commonly not measured, a calibration on it is hardly possible. In this study, we present a new approach for quantification of runoff generation in height spatial and temporal resolution. A suited model needs to work without calibration in every given environment under any given conditions. It is possible to develop such a model by combining spatial distributed input data of land surface properties (e.g. soil, geology, land use, …) with worldwide findings of runoff generation research. We developed such a model for the state of Baden-Württemberg, what has an extensive pool of spatial data. E.g. a digital elevation model of 1*1m² resolution, degree of sealing of the earth surface in 1*1m² resolution, soil properties (1:50.000) and geology (1:200.000). Within the state of Baden-Württemberg different regions are situated, with distinct environmental characteristics concerning as well climate, soil properties, land use, topography and geology. The model was tested and validated by modelling 36 observed flood events in 13 mesoscale catchments representing the different regions of Baden-Württemberg as well as by

  17. RETIRED MATCHES AMONG MALE PROFESSIONAL TENNIS PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristijan Breznik

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to explore the effect of characteristics of various games and players on the proportion of retired tennis matches in the Open Era of tennis. The data included over 420,000 matches played among 17,553 tennis players in the period from 1968 to the end of 2010. The influence of the surface type was clearly confirmed, with the proportion of retired matches being higher on hard and clay courts compared to grass and carpet surfaces. Similarly, more retired matches were observed in outdoor venues than in indoor ones. The impact of other variables, tournament types, rounds at which the game was played and both players' ranks, is more ambiguous. Our interpretation of the obtained results is presented in the paper. Network analytic methods were applied to extract players with the most retired matches in their careers. Eventually, we defined a group of top tennis players and gave a more precise insight into retired matches in that group. Correspondence analysis was used to visually display the two-mode network of top players and the proportion of retired matches by surface type

  18. Cortical thinning in former professional soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koerte, Inga K; Mayinger, Michael; Muehlmann, Marc; Kaufmann, David; Lin, Alexander P; Steffinger, Denise; Fisch, Barbara; Rauchmann, Boris-Stephan; Immler, Stefanie; Karch, Susanne; Heinen, Florian R; Ertl-Wagner, Birgit; Reiser, Maximilian; Stern, Robert A; Zafonte, Ross; Shenton, Martha E

    2016-09-01

    Soccer is the most popular sport in the world. Soccer players are at high risk for repetitive subconcussive head impact when heading the ball. Whether this leads to long-term alterations of the brain's structure associated with cognitive decline remains unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate cortical thickness in former professional soccer players using high-resolution structural MR imaging. Fifteen former male professional soccer players (mean age 49.3 [SD 5.1] years) underwent high-resolution structural 3 T MR imaging, as well as cognitive testing. Fifteen male, age-matched former professional non-contact sport athletes (mean age 49.6 [SD 6.4] years) served as controls. Group analyses of cortical thickness were performed using voxel-based statistics. Soccer players demonstrated greater cortical thinning with increasing age compared to controls in the right inferolateral-parietal, temporal, and occipital cortex. Cortical thinning was associated with lower cognitive performance as well as with estimated exposure to repetitive subconcussive head impact. Neurocognitive evaluation revealed decreased memory performance in the soccer players compared to controls. The association of cortical thinning and decreased cognitive performance, as well as exposure to repetitive subconcussive head impact, further supports the hypothesis that repetitive subconcussive head impact may play a role in early cognitive decline in soccer players. Future studies are needed to elucidate the time course of changes in cortical thickness as well as their association with impaired cognitive function and possible underlying neurodegenerative process.

  19. Robust Flash 3D-FPA Sensor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Scientific Concepts, Inc. (ASC) is a small business, which has developed a compact, eye-safe 3D Flash LIDARTM Camera (FLC) well suited for real-time...

  20. Flash3D EDL Sensor Technology Advancement Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — 3D Flash LIDAR is ideal for determining real-time spacecraft trajectory, speed, orientation, and range to the planet surface, as well as evaluating potential hazards...

  1. Flash 3D Rendezvous and Docking Sensor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — 3D Flash Ladar is a breakthrough technology for many emerging and existing 3D vision areas, and sensor improvements will have an impact on nearly all these fields....

  2. Space Qualified, Radiation Hardened, Dense Monolithic Flash Memory Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Space Micro proposes to build a radiation hardened by design (RHBD) flash memory, using a modified version of our RH-eDRAM Memory Controller to solve all the single...

  3. The Essential Guide to 3D in Flash

    CERN Document Server

    Olsson, Ronald A

    2010-01-01

    If you are an ActionScript developer or designer and you would like to work with 3D in Flash, this book is for you. You will learn the core Flash 3D concepts, using the open source Away3D engine as a primary tool. Once you have mastered these skills, you will be able to realize the possibilities that the available Flash 3D engines, languages, and technologies have to offer you with Flash and 3D.* Describes 3D concepts in theory and their implementation using Away3D* Dives right in to show readers how to quickly create an interactive, animated 3D scene, and builds on that experience throughout

  4. Photosynthetic efficiency of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii in flashing light

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vejrazka, C.; Janssen, M.G.J.; Streefland, M.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2011-01-01

    Efficient light to biomass conversion in photobioreactors is crucial for economically feasible microalgae production processes. It has been suggested that photosynthesis is enhanced in short light path photobioreactors by mixing-induced flashing light regimes. In this study, photosynthetic efficienc

  5. Quantitative observation of light flash sensations experiment MA-106

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budinger, T. F.; Tobias, C. A.; Schopper, E.; Schott, J. U.; Huesman, R. H.; Upham, F. T.; Wieskamp, T. F.; Kucala, J. M.; Goulding, F. S.; Landis, D. A.

    1976-01-01

    Light flashes caused by the interaction of cosmic particles with the visual apparatus have been observed by astronauts on all space missions since Apollo 11. This Apollo Soyuz Test Project experiment compared measurements of the observer's visual sensitivity with measurements of the ambient radiation environment and with the frequency and character of the flashes observed. The data obtained reveal a latitude dependence of the frequency of observed flashes. This distribution of flashes is correlated with the distribution of cosmic particles with stopping power greater than 15 keV/ micrometers in the eye. The interaction of dark adaptation, specific ionization, and range of particles in the retina as factors in the visualization of particle passage is discussed.

  6. Flash Cracking Reactor for Waste Plastic Processing Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to design, model, build, and test a novel flash cracking reactor to convert plastic waste, and potentially other unconventional hydrocarbon feedstocks,...

  7. Impact of rainfall spatial variability on Flash Flood Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douinot, Audrey; Roux, Hélène; Garambois, Pierre-André; Larnier, Kevin

    2014-05-01

    According to the United States National Hazard Statistics database, flooding and flash flooding have caused the largest number of deaths of any weather-related phenomenon over the last 30 years (Flash Flood Guidance Improvement Team, 2003). Like the storms that cause them, flash floods are very variable and non-linear phenomena in time and space, with the result that understanding and anticipating flash flood genesis is far from straightforward. In the U.S., the Flash Flood Guidance (FFG) estimates the average number of inches of rainfall for given durations required to produce flash flooding in the indicated county. In Europe, flash flood often occurred on small catchments (approximately 100 km2) and it has been shown that the spatial variability of rainfall has a great impact on the catchment response (Le Lay and Saulnier, 2007). Therefore, in this study, based on the Flash flood Guidance method, rainfall spatial variability information is introduced in the threshold estimation. As for FFG, the threshold is the number of millimeters of rainfall required to produce a discharge higher than the discharge corresponding to the first level (yellow) warning of the French flood warning service (SCHAPI: Service Central d'Hydrométéorologie et d'Appui à la Prévision des Inondations). The indexes δ1 and δ2 of Zoccatelli et al. (2010), based on the spatial moments of catchment rainfall, are used to characterize the rainfall spatial distribution. Rainfall spatial variability impacts on warning threshold and on hydrological processes are then studied. The spatially distributed hydrological model MARINE (Roux et al., 2011), dedicated to flash flood prediction is forced with synthetic rainfall patterns of different spatial distributions. This allows the determination of a warning threshold diagram: knowing the spatial distribution of the rainfall forecast and therefore the 2 indexes δ1 and δ2, the threshold value is read on the diagram. A warning threshold diagram is

  8. Photosynthetic efficiency of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii in flashing light

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vejrazka, C.; Janssen, M.G.J.; Streefland, M.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2011-01-01

    Efficient light to biomass conversion in photobioreactors is crucial for economically feasible microalgae production processes. It has been suggested that photosynthesis is enhanced in short light path photobioreactors by mixing-induced flashing light regimes. In this study, photosynthetic

  9. Distributed query processing in flash-based sensor networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianliang XU; Xueyan TANG; Wang-Chien LEE

    2008-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks are used in a large array of applications to capture,collect,and analyze physical environmental data.Many existing sensor systems instruct sensor nodes to report their measurements to central repositories outside the network,which is expensive in energy cost.Recent technological advances in flash memory have given rise to the development of storagecentric sensor networks,where sensor nodes are equipped with high-capacity flash memory storage such that sensor data can b.e stored and managed inside the network to reduce expensive communication.This novel architecture calls for new data management techniques to fully exploit distributed in-network data storage.This paper describes some of our research on distributed query processing in such flash-based sensor networks.Of particular interests are the issues that arise in the design of storage management and indexing structures combining sensor system workload and read/write/erase characteristics of flash memory.

  10. 3D Flash LIDAR EDL Resolution Improvement Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Scientific Concepts, Inc. (ASC) is a small business, which has developed a compact, eye-safe 3D Flash LIDARTM Camera (FLC) well suited for real-time...

  11. 3D Flash LIDAR Real-Time Embedded Processing Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — 3D Flash LIDAR (3DFL) is ideal for determining real-time spacecraft trajectory, speed and orientation to the planet surface, as well as evaluating potential hazards...

  12. Interim report on flash floods, Area 5 - Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    French, R.H.

    1980-09-01

    Examination of the presently available data indicates that consideration must be given to the possibility of flash floods when siting waste management facilities in Area 5 of the Nevada Test Site. 6 figures, 7 tables.

  13. Percepciones sobre seguridad ciudadana en Lima. Encuesta Flash

    OpenAIRE

    Zavaleta Martínez Vargas, Alfonso; Chávez, Virgilio; Tapia, Luis; Vertiz, Rosa

    2016-01-01

    La investigación presenta un aporte relacionado con "consumo de drogas cocaínicas, alcohol y violencia". Resultados de la encuesta flash "Seguridad Ciudadana" realizada por CEDRO en diciembre de 2015.

  14. 3D Flash LIDAR Real-Time Embedded Processing Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Scientific Concepts, Inc. (ASC) is a small business, which has developed a compact, eye-safe 3D Flash LIDARTM Camera (FLC) well suited for real-time...

  15. Dynamic simulation of flash drums using rigorous physical property calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. M. Gonçalves

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of flash drums is simulated using a formulation adequate for phase modeling with equations of state (EOS. The energy and mass balances are written as differential equations for the internal energy and the number of moles of each species. The algebraic equations of the model, solved at each time step, are those of a flash with specified internal energy, volume and mole numbers (UVN flash. A new aspect of our dynamic simulations is the use of direct iterations in phase volumes (instead of pressure for solving the algebraic equations. It was also found that an iterative procedure previously suggested in the literature for UVN flashes becomes unreliable close to phase boundaries and a new alternative is proposed. Another unusual aspect of this work is that the model expressions, including the physical properties and their analytical derivatives, were quickly implemented using computer algebra.

  16. Modeling Flash Floods in Small Ungaged Watersheds using Embedded GIS

    OpenAIRE

    Knocke, Ethan William

    2006-01-01

    Effective prediction of localized flash flood regions for an approaching rainfall event requires an in-depth knowledge of the land surface and stream characteristics of the forecast area. Flash Flood Guidance (FFG) is currently formulated once or twice a day at the county level by River Forecast Centers (RFC) in the U.S. using modeling systems that contain coarse, generalized land and stream characteristics and hydrologic runoff techniques that often are not calibrated for the forecast regio...

  17. Neural Coding of Green Flash in Retinal Bipolar Pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Caiping Hu

    2012-01-01

    What visual information do the graded potentials among retinal bipolar pathways actually transmit from photoreceptors to ganglion cells? The answer does not exist. Even the graded electric signals have not been understood completely. Here, this paper tries to analyze the encoding mechanisms of graded signals among the parallel bipolar pathways in response to brief green flash. The typical ON, OFF and ON-OFF bipolar cells simultaneously abstracted vectors from green flash stimulus with sine-li...

  18. Flash (Ultra-Rapid) Spark-Plasma Sintering of Silicon Carbide

    OpenAIRE

    Eugene A. Olevsky; Stephen M. Rolfing; Maximenko, Andrey L.

    2016-01-01

    A new ultra-rapid process of flash spark plasma sintering is developed. The idea of flash spark plasma sintering (or flash hot pressing - FHP) stems from the conducted theoretical analysis of the role of thermal runaway phenomena for material processing by flash sintering. The major purpose of the present study is to theoretically analyze the thermal runaway nature of flash sintering and to experimentally address the challenge of uncontrollable thermal conditions by the stabilization of the f...

  19. Coherence measurements and coherent diffractive imaging at FLASH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vartanyants, I A; Mancuso, A P; Singer, A; Yefanov, O M; Gulden, J, E-mail: ivan.vartaniants@desy.d [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany)

    2010-10-14

    We present an overview of recent experiments performed at the free-electron laser (FEL) FLASH at DESY in Hamburg. Experiments were focused on coherence measurements and coherent x-ray diffractive imaging (CXDI) of periodic and non-periodic biological samples. Young's double slit experiment was performed at FLASH to measure its coherence properties at a fundamental wavelength of 13.7 nm. Additionally, a uniformly redundant array was used to measure the coherence properties of the third harmonic (2.7 nm) of an 8 nm fundamental wavelength at FLASH. Coherent imaging of a two-dimensional (2D) finite crystal structure using a single pulse train of FLASH radiation was demonstrated. We show that the structure is reconstructed to the detector-limited resolution of 220 nm, given an adequate signal to noise ratio. We have also employed CXDI in a non-destructive regime to compare the images of a biological sample using single, femtosecond pulses of FLASH radiation. We have verified that images reconstructed using CXDI are similar for statistically different FEL pulses. We have also demonstrated Fourier transform holography of the same biological sample and present diffraction data measured at the third harmonic of FLASH, reaching into the water window.

  20. Flash floods in the Tatra Mountain streams: frequency and triggers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros-Cánovas, J A; Czajka, B; Janecka, K; Lempa, M; Kaczka, R J; Stoffel, M

    2015-04-01

    Flash floods represent a frequently recurring natural phenomenon in the Tatra Mountains. On the northern slopes of the mountain chain, located in Poland, ongoing and expected future changes in climate are thought to further increase the adverse impacts of flash floods. Despite the repeat occurrence of major floods in the densely populated foothills of the Polish Tatras, the headwaters have been characterized by a surprising lack of data, such that any analysis of process variability or hydrometeorological triggers has been largely hampered so far. In this study, dendrogeomorphic techniques have been employed in four poorly-gauged torrential streams of the northern slope of the Tatra Mountains to reconstruct temporal and spatial patterns of past events. Using more than 1100 increment cores of trees injured by past flash floods, we reconstruct 47 events covering the last 148 years and discuss synoptic situations leading to the triggering of flash floods with the existing meteorological and flow gauge data. Tree-ring analyses have allowed highlighting the seasonality of events, providing new insights about potential hydrometeorological triggers as well as a differentiating flash flood activity between catchments. Results of this study could be useful to design future strategies to deal with flash flood risks at the foothills of the Polish Tatras and in the Vistula River catchment.

  1. Establishment of the NIST flashing-light photometric unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Yoshihiro; Zong, Yuqin

    1997-09-01

    There is a need for accurate measurement of flashing lights for the proper maintenance of aircraft anticollision lights. A large variation in the measured intensities of anticollision lights has been a problem, and thus, NIST has undertaken the task to establish flashing-light photometric standards to provide calibration services in this area. A flashing-light photometric unit [lux second, (lx (DOT) s)] has been realized based on the NIST detector-based candela, using four standard photometers equipped with current integrators. Two different approaches have been taken to calibrate these standard photometers: one based on electrical calibration of the current integrator, and the other based on electronic pulsing of a steady-state photometric standard. The units realized using these two independent methods agreed to within 0.2%. The relative expanded uncertainty (k equals 2) of the standard photometers, in the measurement of the white xenon flash, is estimated to be 0.6%. The standard photometers are characterized for temporal response, linearity, and spectral responsivity, to be used for measurement of xenon flash sources of various waveforms and colors. Calibration services have been established at NIST for flashing-light photometers with white and red anticollision lights.

  2. Flash light sintering of nickel nanoparticles for printed electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sung-Hyeon [School of Mechanical Engineering, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-dong, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hak-Sung, E-mail: kima@hanyang.ac.kr [School of Mechanical Engineering, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-dong, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Nano Science and Technology, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-79 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a sintering process for nickel nanoparticles using flash light irradiation was investigated for multilayer ceramic capacitors, magnetic devices and printed electronics. The existence of a small amount of 10 nm size nanoparticles in the ink significantly improved the flash light absorption and induced the melting and sintering of the nanoparticles. Due to this phenomenon, uniform diameter nickel nanoparticles (50 nm) could not be sintered, while the nickel nanoparticles with varying diameters (5–500 nm) were sintered by flash light irradiation. In order to acquire high electrical conductivity in the sintered nickel nanoparticles, several flash light sintering parameters such as light energy and pulsed light patterns were optimized. Also, the nickel nano-ink was optimized by changing the weight fractions of organic binder in the ink. - Highlights: • Nickel nanoparticle was sintered by flash light irradiation technique. • The existence of 10 nm size nanoparticles improved the flash light absorption. • The melting temperature of the 10 nm size nanoparticles is significantly decreased. • The only nickel nanoparticles with varying diameters (5–500 nm) were sintered. • Several sintering parameters were optimized for conductivity of nickel nanoparticle.

  3. Production of bio-oil with flash pyrolysis; Biooeljyn tuotanto flash-pyrolyysillae ja sen poltto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyroenen, T. [Vapo Oy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    The target of the R and D work is to study the production of bio-oils using Flash-pyrolysis technology and utilisation of the bio-oil in oil-fuelled boilers. The PDU-unit was installed at VTT Energy in Otaniemi in April 1996. The first test were carried out in June. In the whole project Vapo Oy is responsible for: acquiring the 20 kg/h PDU-device for development; follow up of the engine tests; the investment of 5 MW demonstration plant; to carry on the boiler and engine tests with Finnish bio-oils. (orig.)

  4. Flash lidar performance testing: configuration and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poberezhskiy, Ilya; Johnson, Andrew; Chang, Daniel; Ek, Eric; Natzic, David; Spiers, Gary; Penniman, Steve; Short, Brad

    2012-06-01

    Future planetary and lunar landers can benefit from a hazard detection (HD) system that employs a lidar to create a highresolution 3D terrain map in the vicinity of the landing site and an onboard computer to process the lidar data and identify the safest landing site within the surveyed area. A divert maneuver would then be executed to land in this safe site. An HD system enables landing in regions with a relatively high hazard abundance that would otherwise be considered unacceptably risky, but are of high interest to the scientific community. A key component of a HD system is a lidar with the ability to generate a 3D terrain image with the required range precision in the prescribed time and fits within the project resource constraints. In this paper, we present the results obtained during performance testing of a prototype "GoldenEye" 3D flash lidar developed by ASC, Inc. The testing was performed at JPL with the lidar and the targets separated by 200 m. The analysis of the lidar performance obtained for different target types and albedos, pulse energies, and fields of view is presented and compared to key HD lidar requirements identified for the Mars 2018 lander.

  5. Studying white dwarf merger remnants with FLASH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenks, Malia

    2017-01-01

    There is still uncertainty as to the progenitor systems of type Ia supernova (SN Ia). Both single and double degenerate systems have been suggested as progenitors. In a double degenerate system a merger between the two white dwarfs, with total mass at or exceeding the Chandrasekhar mass, leads to the supernova. If the explosion occurs during the merging process it is a violent merger. If an explosion doesn't occur while the stars merge the system becomes a white dwarf of unstable mass. For mergers of this type with differing starting masses it has been shown that during the viscous evolution carbon burning starts far from the center and stably converts the star to oxygen and neon. In this case the star will eventually collapse to a neutron star and not produce an SN Ia. The case of similar mass mergers has been much less explored. Using the results of a smooth particle hydrodynamic merger we simulate the viscous evolution of models of different mass ratios with FLASH. These simulations test if a similar mass merger can lead to an SN Ia, and begin to probe where the transition from similar to dissimilar mass occurs.

  6. Flash pyrolysis fuel oil: bio-pok

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gust, S. [Neste Oy, Porvoo (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    Samples of flash pyrolysis liquid produced by Union Fenosa, Spain from pine and straw and samples produced by Ensyn of Canada from mixed hardwoods were combusted with simple pressure atomization equipment commonly used with light fuel oils in intermediate size (0.1-1 MW) boilers. With a number of modifications to the combustion system, carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrous oxide (NO{sub x}) could be reduced to acceptable levels: CO < 30 ppm and NO{sub x} < 140 ppm. Particulate emissions which were initially very high (Bacharach 4-5) were reduced (Bach. 2-3) by system improvements but are still higher than from light fuel oil (Bach. <1). The modifications to the combustion system were: refractory section between burner and boiler, acid resistant progressive cavity pump, higher liquid preheat temperature and higher pressure than for light fuel oils. The main problems with pyrolysis liquids concerns their instability or reactivity. At temperatures above 100 deg C they begin to coke, their viscosity increases during storage and oxygen from air causes skin formation. This requires that special handling procedures are developed for fuel storage, delivery and combustion systems. (orig.)

  7. Morphology of young handball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adair da Silva Lopes

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare anthropometric and body composition variables from the best male handball athletes competing in the Santa Catarina state youth competition to variables from the other athletes in the same competition, by game position. Seven of the twelve coaches participating in the Santa Catarina Open Youth Games 2004 (up to 18 years freely consented to select the seven best athletes in the competition (one goalkeeper, one pivot, two wingers and three backcourt players. In addition to these seven players, there were a further 79 team members taking part, bringing the total sample size to 86 athletes. The following variables were analyzed: body weight (MC, height (ES, arm span (ENV, hand breadth (DPA, wrist breadth (DRU, forearm circumference (PA, percentage fat (%G, fat mass (MG and lean body mass (MCM. Descriptive statistics (means and standard deviations were employed to classify the athletes according to court position. The chosen athletes were compared with the others using the single-sample t test (p RESUMO Este estudo objetivou comparar variáveis antropométricas e da composição corporal dos melhores atletas de uma competição juvenil (até 18 anos de handebol masculino de Santa Catarina, em relação aos demais atletas da competição por posição de jogo. Sete dentre os doze técnicos participantes dos Joguinhos Abertos de Santa Catarina 2004 aceitaram, voluntariamente, realizar a escolha da seleção dos sete melhores atletas da competição (um goleiro, um pivô, dois extremas e três armadores. Contabilizou-se, além dos sete atletas da seleção, mais 79 atletas titulares de suas equipes, totalizando na amostra, 86 atletas. Foram analisadas as variáveis: massa corporal (MC, estatura (ES, percentual de gordura (%G, massa de gordura (MG, massa corporal magra (MCM, envergadura (ENV, diâmetro palmar (DPA, diâmetro biestilóide rádio-ulnar (DRU e perímetro do antebraço (PA. Utilizou-se a estat

  8. Sports injuries in Plus League volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieśla, E; Dutkiewicz, R; Mgłosiek, M; Nowak-Starz, G; Markowska, M; Jasiński, P; Dudek, J

    2015-06-01

    Although physical activity brings a range of lifelong health benefits, it may also lead to injuries that pose a significant threat to health. It is particularly noticeable in people involved in professional sports where sport-related injuries commonly occur and are associated with intense exercise which aims to improve physical fitness. The article attempts to determine incidence of sports injuries reported by Plus League volleyball players, as well as to identify their most common types and causes. The research project involved 90 Plus League volleyball players aged 18-37 with the average age of 25.11 (SD±5.378). A method of diagnostic survey was applied to collect empirical data by means of questionnaire developed by the authors (researchers). The results were statistically analysed and verified with the analysis of variance (ANOVA) and χ2 test at the significance level (or critical P-value) of P≤0.05. Over 87% of the respondents suffered from at least one sport-related injury. In total, 362 injuries occurred, on average 4.02 injuries per one volleyball player. The most common sports injuries involved ankle or talocrural joint (46 injuries), knee and lower leg muscles (30), interphalangeal articulations of fingers (30) as well as shoulder joint. More than half of the injuries (57%) occurred twice or three times. Volleyball players commonly sustain injuries through contact with an opposing player in competition. Sport-specific injuries may also occur due to exhaustion, lack of rest and undertreated injuries. The most common volleyball-related injuries are primarily talocrural joint, hand and shoulder injuries. Common types of injuries that can affect volleyball players include muscles, joints and ligaments injuries, sprains and strains as well as bruises. Most of these injuries are caused by exhaustion, contact with an opposing player during competition and fatigue. The incidence of sport-related injuries seems to be influenced by such factors as somatic

  9. "Know What to Do If You Encounter a Flash Flood": Mental Models Analysis for Improving Flash Flood Risk Communication and Public Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazrus, Heather; Morss, Rebecca E; Demuth, Julie L; Lazo, Jeffrey K; Bostrom, Ann

    2016-02-01

    Understanding how people view flash flood risks can help improve risk communication, ultimately improving outcomes. This article analyzes data from 26 mental models interviews about flash floods with members of the public in Boulder, Colorado, to understand their perspectives on flash flood risks and mitigation. The analysis includes a comparison between public and professional perspectives by referencing a companion mental models study of Boulder-area professionals. A mental models approach can help to diagnose what people already know about flash flood risks and responses, as well as any critical gaps in their knowledge that might be addressed through improved risk communication. A few public interviewees mentioned most of the key concepts discussed by professionals as important for flash flood warning decision making. However, most interviewees exhibited some incomplete understandings and misconceptions about aspects of flash flood development and exposure, effects, or mitigation that may lead to ineffective warning decisions when a flash flood threatens. These include important misunderstandings about the rapid evolution of flash floods, the speed of water in flash floods, the locations and times that pose the greatest flash flood risk in Boulder, the value of situational awareness and environmental cues, and the most appropriate responses when a flash flood threatens. The findings point to recommendations for ways to improve risk communication, over the long term and when an event threatens, to help people quickly recognize and understand threats, obtain needed information, and make informed decisions in complex, rapidly evolving extreme weather events such as flash floods.

  10. Do media players cause interference with pacemakers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaker, Jay P; Patel, Mehul B; Shah, Ashok J; Liepa, Valdis V; Brunett, Joseph D; Jongnarangsin, Krit; Gardiner, Joseph C; Thakur, Ranjan

    2009-11-01

    Electrical devices generate electromagnetic fields that may interfere with pacemakers. Media players cause telemetry interference with pacemakers, but it is not known whether they cause direct interference with pacemakers. The purpose of this study was to examine the interaction between pacemakers and 3 different media players. In this prospective, randomized study, 54 patients with dual chamber pacemakers who were in sinus rhythm underwent baseline observation, followed by observation under telemetry communication. These patients were then randomly evaluated with 3 media players (iPod 3G, iPod Photo, and iPod Touch Apple, Cupertino, CA) with and without telemetry communication for 1 minute each. Patients were monitored for pacemaker malfunction using a single-channel ECG during exposure to media players. The pacemaker was interrogated after each exposure and an interrogation report was printed for evaluation. Pacemaker interference was categorized as type I, II, or III. Types I and II interference described telemetry interference and type III interference was defined as any direct interference with pacemaker function or programmed parameters. A total of 54 patients (29 men and 25 women; mean age 77.2 +/- 9.3 y) were evaluated. In total, of the 162 tests (for telemetry interference) 36.4% were positive (Type I and II). Type III interference was also evaluated in 162 tests and none showed any evidence of direct interference. Media players cause telemetry interference with pacemakers, but they do not directly interfere with pacemaker function.

  11. Game Performance Evaluation in Male Goalball Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molik Bartosz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Goalball is a Paralympic sport exclusively for athletes who are visually impaired and blind. The aims of this study were twofold: to describe game performance of elite male goalball players based upon the degree of visual impairment, and to determine if game performance was related to anthropometric characteristics of elite male goalball players. The study sample consisted of 44 male goalball athletes. A total of 38 games were recorded during the Summer Paralympic Games in London 2012. Observations were reported using the Game Efficiency Sheet for Goalball. Additional anthropometric measurements included body mass (kg, body height (cm, the arm span (cm and length of the body in the defensive position (cm. The results differentiating both groups showed that the players with total blindness obtained higher means than the players with visual impairment for game indicators such as the sum of defense (p = 0.03 and the sum of good defense (p = 0.04. The players with visual impairment obtained higher results than those with total blindness for attack efficiency (p = 0.04, the sum of penalty defenses (p = 0.01, and fouls (p = 0.01. The study showed that athletes with blindness demonstrated higher game performance in defence. However, athletes with visual impairment presented higher efficiency in offensive actions. The analyses confirmed that body mass, body height, the arm span and length of the body in the defensive position did not differentiate players’ performance at the elite level.

  12. Post-event analysis and flash flood hydrology in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hlavčová Kamila

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This work examines the main features of the flash flood regime in Central Europe as revealed by an analysis of flash floods that have occurred in Slovakia. The work is organized into the following two parts: The first part focuses on estimating the rainfall-runoff relationships for 3 major flash flood events, which were among the most severe events since 1998 and caused a loss of lives and a large amount of damage. The selected flash floods occurred on the 20th of July, 1998, in the Malá Svinka and Dubovický Creek basins; the 24th of July, 2001, at Štrbský Creek; and the 19th of June, 2004, at Turniansky Creek. The analysis aims to assess the flash flood peaks and rainfall-runoff properties by combining post-flood surveys and the application of hydrological and hydraulic post-event analyses. Next, a spatially-distributed hydrological model based on the availability of the raster information of the landscape’s topography, soil and vegetation properties, and rainfall data was used to simulate the runoff. The results from the application of the distributed hydrological model were used to analyse the consistency of the surveyed peak discharges with respect to the estimated rainfall properties and drainage basins. In the second part these data were combined with observations from flash flood events which were observed during the last 100 years and are focused on an analysis of the relationship between the flood peaks and the catchment area. The envelope curve was shown to exhibit a more pronounced decrease with the catchment size with respect to other flash flood relationships found in the Mediterranean region. The differences between the two relationships mainly reflect changes in the coverage of the storm sizes and hydrological characteristics between the two regions.

  13. Atmospheric Rivers, Floods, and Flash Floods in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelly, Klint T.

    Atmospheric Rivers (ARs) are long (>2000 km), narrow (<1000 km) corridors of enhanced vertically integrated water vapor (IWV) and enhanced IWV transport (IVT). The landfall of ARs along the U.S. West Coast have been linked to extreme precipitation and flooding/flash flooding in regions of complex topography. The objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between a 10 water-year (2005-2014) climatology of floods, flash floods, and landfalling ARs. The ARs in this study are defined using IVT following the Rutz et al. (2013) methodology, whereas floods and flash floods are identified by the National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) Storm Events Database. The results of this study indicate that landfalling ARs are present on a majority of days that there are floods in northern California. Landfalling ARs are predominantly present on a majority of days that there are flash flood reports during the cold-season (November-March); however, the North American monsoon is present on days that there are flash flood reports during the warm-season (April-October). Two exemplary case studies are provided to illustrate the hydrologic impact of landfalling ARs. The first case study illustrated a flood event that occurred in associated with three landfalling ARs that produced 800 mm in regions over the Russian River watershed in northern California and the second case study illustrated a flash flood event that occurred in association with a landfalling AR that produced ˜225 mm of precipitation in regions over the Santa Ynez xii watershed in which produced a flash flood over the southern portions of Santa Barbara County in southern California.

  14. Motivation and Sport Injuries in Handball Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laguna, María

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to test whether different levels of motivation are related to the injuries suffered by elite athletes. The sample consists of 80 professional handball players of ASOBAL League, with a mean age of 24.83 years (+ 5.21. Motivation was assessed through the CPRD scale (Gimeno, Buceta & Pérez-Llantada; 1999 and a self-report questionnaire was used to register sports injuries. The results indicate that there is a relationship between motivational levels and the risk for injury. Specifically, players with high motivated players had a greater number of moderate injuries. Although it may seem paradoxical, it is possible that an excessively high motivation leads to overachievement and risk behaviors, which in turn facilitate the appearance of lesions.

  15. Cricket club looking for new players

    CERN Multimedia

    Cricket Club

    2016-01-01

    The CERN Cricket Club, having lost several key players, has had a very difficult season so far and is desperately in need of new players. Having qualified for the Cricket Switzerland semi-finals for the last two years (unfortunately losing both), this year we are bottom of the Western Pool, having played the last two league matches with only 10 players. If you are interested in playing cricket please join us at net practice, which takes place on the Prevessin site each Thursday evening from 18:00 to around 20:00 (weather permitting) or send me an e-mail (see below). Please have a look at the Cricket Club web site for more information: http://cern.ch/Club-Cricket/ Chris Onions, President of the CERN Cricket Club   (christopher.onions@gmail.com)

  16. Big Data for Business Ecosystem Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perko Igor

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the provided research, some of the Big Data most prospective usage domains connect with distinguished player groups found in the business ecosystem. Literature analysis is used to identify the state of the art of Big Data related research in the major domains of its use-namely, individual marketing, health treatment, work opportunities, financial services, and security enforcement. System theory was used to identify business ecosystem major player types disrupted by Big Data: individuals, small and mid-sized enterprises, large organizations, information providers, and regulators. Relationships between the domains and players were explained through new Big Data opportunities and threats and by players’ responsive strategies. System dynamics was used to visualize relationships in the provided model.

  17. Adapting virtual camera behaviour through player modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burelli, Paolo; Yannakakis, Georgios N.

    2015-01-01

    Research in virtual camera control has focused primarily on finding methods to allow designers to place cameras effectively and efficiently in dynamic and unpredictable environments, and to generate complex and dynamic plans for cinematography in virtual environments. In this article, we propose...... a novel approach to virtual camera control, which builds upon camera control and player modelling to provide the user with an adaptive point-of-view. To achieve this goal, we propose a methodology to model the player’s preferences on virtual camera movements and we employ the resulting models to tailor...... the viewpoint movements to the player type and her game-play style. Ultimately, the methodology is applied to a 3D platform game and is evaluated through a controlled experiment; the results suggest that the resulting adaptive cinematographic experience is favoured by some player types and it can generate...

  18. Mean Field Games with a Dominating Player

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bensoussan, A., E-mail: axb046100@utdallas.edu [The University of Texas at Dallas, International Center for Decision and Risk Analysis, Jindal School of Management (United States); Chau, M. H. M., E-mail: michaelchaumanho@gmail.com; Yam, S. C. P., E-mail: scpyam@sta.cuhk.edu.hk [The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Department of Statistics (Hong Kong, People’s Republic of China) (China)

    2016-08-15

    In this article, we consider mean field games between a dominating player and a group of representative agents, each of which acts similarly and also interacts with each other through a mean field term being substantially influenced by the dominating player. We first provide the general theory and discuss the necessary condition for the optimal controls and equilibrium condition by adopting adjoint equation approach. We then present a special case in the context of linear-quadratic framework, in which a necessary and sufficient condition can be asserted by stochastic maximum principle; we finally establish the sufficient condition that guarantees the unique existence of the equilibrium control. The proof of the convergence result of finite player game to mean field counterpart is provided in Appendix.

  19. There is no game without a player

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lasse Juel

    on the subject matter from the catalogue of game theory. All four suggestions exclude the player from the relationship. This paper introduces a phenomenological point of view and includes the player in order to understand the relationship between structure and dressing. It argues that players constitute a bridge......This paper is a search for meaning or to be more precise a study of how meaning is produced between ontology and fiction in computer games. It sets out to investigate the relationship between formal abstract game structures and game representation (dressing) by presenting four suggestions...... or the center which establishes, upholds and renegotiate the relationship between formal game structure and game dressing. It also argues that players’ interaction with both structure and dressing produce meaning and the production of meaning is the relationship between formal abstract game structures and game...

  20. Modelling Virtual Camera Behaviour Through Player Gaze

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Picardi, Andrea; Burelli, Paolo; Yannakakis, Georgios N.

    2012-01-01

    In a three-dimensional virtual environment, aspects such as narrative and interaction largely depend on the placement and animation of the virtual camera. Therefore, virtual camera control plays a critical role in player experience and, thereby, in the overall quality of a computer game. Both game...... industry and game AI research focus on the devel- opment of increasingly sophisticated systems to automate the control of the virtual camera integrating artificial intel- ligence algorithms within physical simulations. However, in both industry and academia little research has been carried out...... on the relationship between virtual camera, game-play and player behaviour. We run a game user experiment to shed some light on this relationship and identify relevant dif- ferences between camera behaviours through different game sessions, playing behaviours and player gaze patterns. Re- sults show that users can...

  1. Individual recovery profiles in basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Jordi; Ramos-Castro, Juan; Rodas, Gil; Tarragó, Joan R; Capdevila, Lluís

    2015-01-01

    In the sport context, recovery has been characterized as a multifactor process (physiological, psychological, behavioral, social, etc.). This study takes a multidisciplinary approach to find psychophysiological markers of the stress-recovery process. It aims to determine how athletes' specific recovery actions relate to their perceptions of recovery, and Heart Rate Variability (HRV). A total of 196 assessments were analyzed from 6 players on a men's professional basketball team within the Liga LEB Oro basketball federation (2012/2013 season). Perceptions of recovery, recovery strategies, and HRV were recorded. The results show a pattern of individual differences in behavior related to athletes' recovery actions and HRV profiles throughout the season (p < .05). Moreover, we observed that each player had different recovery needs. In light of these results, we suggest an individualistic approach to evaluating and monitoring recovery to attend more accurately to each player's recovery needs.

  2. Cervical joint position sense in rugby players versus non-rugby players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinsault, Nicolas; Anxionnaz, Marion; Vuillerme, Nicolas

    2010-05-01

    To determine whether cervical joint position sense is modified by intensive rugby practice. A group-comparison study. University Medical Bioengineering Laboratory. Twenty young elite rugby players (10 forwards and 10 backs) and 10 young non-rugby elite sports players. Participants were asked to perform the cervicocephalic relocation test (CRT) to the neutral head position (NHP) that is, to reposition their head on their trunk, as accurately as possible, after full active left and right cervical rotation. Rugby players were asked to perform the CRT to NHP before and after a training session. Absolute and variable errors were used to assess accuracy and consistency of the repositioning for the three groups of Forwards, Backs and Non-rugby players, respectively. The 2 groups of Forwards and Backs exhibited higher absolute and variable errors than the group of Non-rugby players. No difference was found between the two groups of Forwards and Backs and no difference was found between Before and After the training session. The cervical joint position sense of young elite rugby players is altered compared to that of non-rugby players. Furthermore, Forwards and Backs demonstrated comparable repositioning errors before and after a specific training session, suggesting that cervical proprioceptive alteration is mainly due to tackling and not the scrum.

  3. Central Flash Analysis of the 29 June 2015 Occultation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Person, Michael J.; Bosh, A. S.; Sickafoose, A. A.; Zuluaga, C. A.; Levine, S. E.; Pasachoff, J. M.; Babcock, B. A.; Dunham, E. W.; McLean, I.; Wolf, J.; Abe, F.; Becklin, E.; Bida, T. A.; Bright, L. P.; Brothers, T. C.; Christie, G.; Collins, P. L.; Durst, R. F.; Gilmore, A. C.; Hamilton, R.; Harris, H. C.; Johnson, C.; Kilmartin, P. M.; Kosiarek, M. R.; Leppik, K.; Logsdon, S. E.; Lucas, R.; Mathers, S.; Morley, C. J. K.; Natusch, T.; Nelson, P.; Ngan, H.; Pfueller, E.; Roeser, H.-P.; Sallum, S.; Savage, M.; Seeger, C. H.; Siu, H.; Stockdale, C.; Suzuki, D.; Thanathibodee, T.; Tilleman, T.; Tristram, P. J.; Van Cleeve, J.; Varughese, C.; Weisenbach, L. W.; Widen, E.; Wiedemann, M.

    2015-11-01

    After an extensive prediction effort, the 29 June 2015 occultation by Pluto was observed from both airborne (Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy - SOFIA) and numerous ground-based telescopes (Bosh et al. - this meeting). Real-time prediction updates allowed placement of the SOFIA telescope with its four detectors deep within the central-flash region of the atmospheric occultation. Fortuitously, the Mount John University Observatory (Lake Tekapo, New Zealand) was also within the central-flash region (Pasachoff et al. - this meeting). This happenstance resulted in multiple central-flash detections in several colors from each facility allowing direct comparison of different areas of the central-flash evolute.Here we examine and discuss the central-flash signatures from the highest signal-to-noise light curves from each facility. The relative orientations and asymmetries in the central flashes allow us to use them to tightly constrain the lower atmospheric ellipticity and orientation of likely winds with respect to Pluto’s figure. The ratio of the two separate central flashes is also a strong constraint on the geometric solution for the full occultation data set, and the absolute height of the central flashes with respect to those expected for a clear isothermal atmosphere places constraints on haze densities and thermal gradients in Pluto’s lower atmosphere. We can also compare the central-flash signatures in several colors (similar to Sickafoose et. al - this meeting) to establish bounds on haze-particle sizes in the lower atmosphere.SOFIA is jointly operated by the Universities Space Research Association, Inc. (USRA), under NASA contract NAS2-97001, and the Deutsches SOFIA Institut (DSI) under DLR contract 50 OK 0901 to the University of Stuttgart. Support for this work was provided, in part, by NASA grants SSO NNX15AJ82G (Lowell Observatory), PA NNX10AB27G (MIT), and PA NNX12AJ29G (Williams College), as well as the National Research Foundation of

  4. Multi-Level Bitmap Indexes for Flash Memory Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Kesheng; Madduri, Kamesh; Canon, Shane

    2010-07-23

    Due to their low access latency, high read speed, and power-efficient operation, flash memory storage devices are rapidly emerging as an attractive alternative to traditional magnetic storage devices. However, tests show that the most efficient indexing methods are not able to take advantage of the flash memory storage devices. In this paper, we present a set of multi-level bitmap indexes that can effectively take advantage of flash storage devices. These indexing methods use coarsely binned indexes to answer queries approximately, and then use finely binned indexes to refine the answers. Our new methods read significantly lower volumes of data at the expense of an increased disk access count, thus taking full advantage of the improved read speed and low access latency of flash devices. To demonstrate the advantage of these new indexes, we measure their performance on a number of storage systems using a standard data warehousing benchmark called the Set Query Benchmark. We observe that multi-level strategies on flash drives are up to 3 times faster than traditional indexing strategies on magnetic disk drives.

  5. An Evaluation of Flash Cells Used in Critical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Richard B.; Flowers, David; Bergevin, Keith

    2016-01-01

    Due to the common use of Flash technology in many commercial and industrial Programmable Logic Devices (PLDs) such as FPGAs and mixed-signal microcontrollers, flash technology is being utilized in fuzed munition applications. This presents a long-term reliability issue for both DoD and NASA safety- and mission-critical applications. A thorough understanding of the data retention failure modes and statistics associated with Flash data retention is of vital concern to the fuze safety community. A key retention parameter for a flash cell is the threshold voltage (VTH), which is an indirect indicator of the amount of charge stored on the cells floating gate. Initial test results based on a study of charge loss in flash cells in an FPGA device is presented. Statistical data taken from a small sample set indicates quantifiable charge loss for devices stored at both room temperature and 150 C. Initial evaluation of the distribution of threshold voltage in a large sample set (800 devices) is presented. The magnitude of charge loss from exposure to electrostatic discharge and electromagnetic fields is measured and presented. Simulated data (and measured data as available) resultant from harsh-environment testing (neutron, heavy ion, EMP) is presented.

  6. Venlafaxine and desvenlafaxine in the management of menopausal hot flashes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson ED

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Vasomotor flushes are common complaints of women during and after menopause, affecting about 75 percent of this population. Estrogen therapy is the most effective treatment for hot flashes. However, there are a significant number of women who have contraindications or choose not to use estrogen due to potential risks such as breast cancer and thromboembolic disorders. These women need alternative options. The selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, venlafaxine and desvenlafaxine, have shown efficacy in alleviating hot flashes.Objective: The purpose of this review is to assess the efficacy and tolerability of these two agents for treatment of hot flashes in healthy postmenopausal women.Methods: A literature search of the MEDLINE and Ovid databases from inception to June 2011 was conducted. Randomized controlled trials, published in English, with human participants were included. Studies included postmenopausal women, and trials with breast cancer only populations were excluded.Results: Venlafaxine reduced hot flashes by 37 to 61 percent and desvenlafaxine by 55 to 69 percent. Both agents were well tolerated. The most common adverse effects were headache, dry mouth, nausea, insomnia, somnolence, and dizziness.Conclusion: Based on the evidence, venlafaxine and desvenlafaxine are both viable options for reducing the frequency and severity of hot flashes.

  7. Multi-Level Bitmap Indexes for Flash Memory Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Kesheng; Madduri, Kamesh; Canon, Shane

    2010-07-23

    Due to their low access latency, high read speed, and power-efficient operation, flash memory storage devices are rapidly emerging as an attractive alternative to traditional magnetic storage devices. However, tests show that the most efficient indexing methods are not able to take advantage of the flash memory storage devices. In this paper, we present a set of multi-level bitmap indexes that can effectively take advantage of flash storage devices. These indexing methods use coarsely binned indexes to answer queries approximately, and then use finely binned indexes to refine the answers. Our new methods read significantly lower volumes of data at the expense of an increased disk access count, thus taking full advantage of the improved read speed and low access latency of flash devices. To demonstrate the advantage of these new indexes, we measure their performance on a number of storage systems using a standard data warehousing benchmark called the Set Query Benchmark. We observe that multi-level strategies on flash drives are up to 3 times faster than traditional indexing strategies on magnetic disk drives.

  8. X-ray flashes in ROSAT PSPC data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, X.; Li, H.; Fenimore, E.E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Wang, Q.D. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)

    1998-12-01

    The authors find 24 short (200--2,500s) X-ray flashes from all the ROSAT Position Sensitive Proportional Counter (PSPC) observations above galactic latitude 30 degrees ({approximately} 9.6 Msec) and some observations toward low latitudes ({approximately} 2.4 Msec). The brightest flash is quite extraordinary. Its flux rises from nondetection by a factor of > 200 in less than 100 sec. Its spectrum can be fitted either by a thermal plasma model with kT {ge} 2.4 keV, or by a single power-law with the photon number index of {approx} {minus}1.7. Photon statistics are not sufficient to obtain spectra for other flashes. The flash event fields can vary from optically crowded regions to blank fields. Although eight flashes are found from observations from nearby galaxies, and three of them are within the optical extent of their corresponding galaxies, they could not statistically establish that there are two different populations between nearby galaxies and control fields.

  9. Flash on disk for low-power multimedia computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, Leo; Nathuji, Ripal; Schwan, Karsten

    2007-01-01

    Mobile multimedia computers require large amounts of data storage, yet must consume low power in order to prolong battery life. Solid-state storage offers low power consumption, but its capacity is an order of magnitude smaller than the hard disks needed for high-resolution photos and digital video. In order to create a device with the space of a hard drive, yet the low power consumption of solid-state storage, hardware manufacturers have proposed using flash memory as a write buffer on mobile systems. This paper evaluates the power savings of such an approach and also considers other possible flash allocation algorithms, using both hardware- and software-level flash management. Its contributions also include a set of typical multimedia-rich workloads for mobile systems and power models based upon current disk and flash technology. Based on these workloads, we demonstrate an average power savings of 267 mW (53% of disk power) using hardware-only approaches. Next, we propose another algorithm, termed Energy-efficient Virtual Storage using Application-Level Framing (EVS-ALF), which uses both hardware and software for power management. By collecting information from the applications and using this metadata to perform intelligent flash allocation and prefetching, EVS-ALF achieves an average power savings of 307 mW (61%), another 8% improvement over hardware-only techniques.

  10. Environmental Effects on Data Retention in Flash Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Rich; Flowers, David; Bergevin, Keith

    2017-01-01

    Flash technology is being utilized in fuzed munition applications and, based on the development of digital logic devices in the commercial world, usage of flash technology will increase. Antifuse technology, prevalent in non-volatile field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), will eventually be phased out as new devices have not been developed for approximately a decade. The reliance on flash technology presents a long-term reliability issue for both DoD and NASA safety- and mission-critical applications. A thorough understanding of the data retention failure modes and statistics associated with Flash data retention is of vital concern to the fuze safety community. A key retention parameter for a flash cell is the threshold voltage (VTH), which is an indirect indicator of the amount of charge stored on the cells floating gate. This paper will present the results of our on-going tests: long-term storage at 150 C for a small population of devices, neutron radiation exposure, electrostatic discharge (ESD) testing, and the trends of large populations (over 300 devices for each condition) exposed to three difference temperatures: 25 C, 125 C, and 150 C.

  11. Venlafaxine and desvenlafaxine in the management of menopausal hot flashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Emily D; Carroll, Dana G

    Vasomotor flushes are common complaints of women during and after menopause, affecting about 75 percent of this population. Estrogen therapy is the most effective treatment for hot flashes. However, there are a significant number of women who have contraindications or choose not to use estrogen due to potential risks such as breast cancer and thromboembolic disorders. These women need alternative options. The selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, venlafaxine and desvenlafaxine, have shown efficacy in alleviating hot flashes. Objective The purpose of this review is to assess the efficacy and tolerability of these two agents for treatment of hot flashes in healthy postmenopausal women. Methods A literature search of the MEDLINE and Ovid databases from inception to June 2011 was conducted. Randomized controlled trials, published in English, with human participants were included. Studies included postmenopausal women, and trials with breast cancer only populations were excluded. Results Venlafaxine reduced hot flashes by 37 to 61 percent and desvenlafaxine by 55 to 69 percent. Both agents were well tolerated. The most common adverse effects were headache, dry mouth, nausea, insomnia, somnolence, and dizziness. Conclusions Based on the evidence, venlafaxine and desvenlafaxine are both viable options for reducing the frequency and severity of hot flashes. PMID:24367464

  12. Theoretical investigation of flash vaporisation in a screw expander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasuthevan, Hanushan; Brümmer, Andreas

    2017-08-01

    In the present study flash vaporisation of liquid injection in a twin screw expander for a Trilateral Flash Cycle (TFC) is examined theoretically. The TFC process comprises a pressure increase in the working fluid, followed by heating the liquid close to boiling point. The hot liquid is injected into the working chamber of a screw expander. During this process the pressure of the liquid drops below the saturation pressure, while the temperature of the liquid remains virtually constant. Hence the liquid is superheated and in a metastable state. The liquid jet seeks to achieve a stable state in thermodynamic equilibrium and is therefore partially vaporised. This effect is referred to as flash vaporisation. Accordingly, a two-phase mixture, consisting of vapour and liquid, exists in the working chamber. Thermodynamic simulations were carried out using water as the working fluid for representative screw expander geometry. The simulations presented are performed from two different aspects during the filling process of a screw expander. The first case is the vaporisation of the injected liquid in a state of thermodynamic equilibrium, whereby the two-phase mixture is treated entirely as a compressible and homogeneous gas. The second case considers flashing efficiency. It describes the quantity of flashed vapour and consists of a liquid and vapour domain. Both models are compared and analysed with respect to the operational behaviour of a screw expander.

  13. Desorption of deuterium from beryllium codeposits using flash heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, J. H.; Baldwin, M. J.; Doerner, R. P.; Pitts, R. A.; Smirnov, R. D.; Xu, H. W.

    2013-07-01

    As a result of safety concerns, limits will be placed on the allowable tritium inventory retained inside the ITER vacuum vessel. The primary motivation for the present work is to test the proposed method of removing tritium from main chamber codeposits using radiative heat flashing from controlled ITER plasma shutdowns. Detritiation of Be codeposits is studied in the PISCES-B facility using flash-heating by a 10 ms laser with up to 2 MJ/m2 of absorbed energy density. Three types of codeposits are flash-heated with layer thickness ranging from 0.1 to 1.2 μm. Less than 25% of the D in the Be layer escapes at ITER-relevant flash energy densities and with peak surface temperature up to ˜900 °C. Repetitive flashing with peak surface temperature of 400-500 °C results in an increased population of higher energy trap sites, implying that transient heating which causes appropriate surface temperature excursion redistributes D among codeposit trap sites.

  14. Design of NAND FLASH File System Based on Loss of Balance Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinwu Ju

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available NAND FLASH is a commonly large capacity memory, which used in embedded systems .It often used to store the operating system kernel and file system. NAND FLASH memory has a limited number of block erase feature. Built file system in NAND FLASH, loss of balance method should be adopted. A balanced system of block erase operation, can extend the life of NAND FLASH and improve overall system reliability. The paper analyzes the characteristics of NAND FLASH work .presents a loss of balance algorithm which used in NAND FLASH memory , and given out the implementation of the algorithm design method.

  15. The Essential Guide to Flash CS4 with ActionScript

    CERN Document Server

    Milbourne, P

    2009-01-01

    For any professional designer or developer working in the world of web technologies or multimedia, Flash is the must-have application, and knowing how to use it effectively is vital. Add in ActionScript 3.0, and Flash becomes an even more powerful tool for the development of high-performance web applications. The Essential Guide to Flash CS4 with ActionScript introduces and explores the possibilities available to you through using Flash CS4. You will learn the aspects basics of Flash's working environment and, using a step-by-step approach, work through the features of Flash and ActionScript n

  16. Injury incidence and balance in rugby players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M, Jaco Ras; Puckree, Threethambal

    2014-01-01

    Objective : This study determined and correlated injury incidence and balance in rugby players. A prospective survey with balance testing was conducted on first year rugby academy players (N= 114). Injury incidence, static and dynamic balance were tested pre and post-season using a Biosway portable balance system. The data was analysed using paired and independent samples t-tests at pscrum-half (14.80%) playing position, injuries in the 2nd half of the match (57%), and during contact (67%). Conclusion : Injury incidence was related to static and dynamic balance in forward right direction only.

  17. Fault Predictive Control of Compact Disk Players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Wickerhauser, Mladen Victor

    2006-01-01

    Optical disc players such as CD-players have problems playing certain discs with surface faults like scratches and fingerprints. The problem is to be found in the servo controller which positions the optical pick-up, such that the laser beam is focused on the information track. A scheme handling ...... of the feature based control scheme, such that a prediction step is included. The proposed scheme is compared with the feature based control scheme, in the perspective of handling surface faults, by simulations. These simulations show the improvements given by the proposed algorithm....

  18. Sprint, agility, strength and endurance capacity in wheelchair basketball players

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yanci, J; Granados, C; Otero, M; Badiola, A; Olasagasti, J; Bidaurrazaga-Letona, I; Iturricastillo, A; Gil, Sm

    ...; and secondly, to analyse the physical characteristics measured by sprint, agility, strength and endurance field tests in wheelchair basketball (WB) players. 16 WB players (33.06 ± 7.36 years, 71.89...

  19. Jet Lag a Drag on Pro Baseball Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 163187.html Jet Lag a Drag on Pro Baseball Players Study found traveling across time zones linked ... might be more than just tiring for pro baseball players: The resulting jet lag may actually harm ...

  20. Modular, Microprocessor-Controlled Flash Lighting System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, Dwayne; Gray, Elizabeth; Skupinski, Robert; Stachowicz, Arthur; Birchenough, William

    2006-01-01

    A microprocessor-controlled lighting system generates brief, precisely timed, high-intensity flashes of light for scientific imaging at frame rates up to about 1 kHz. The system includes an array of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) that are driven in synchronism with an externally generated timing signal (for example, a timing signal generated by a video camera). The light output can be varied in peak intensity, pulse duration, pulse delay, and pulse rate, all depending on the timing signal and associated externally generated control signals. The array of LEDs comprises as many as 16 LED panels that can be attached together. Each LED panel is a module consisting of a rectangular subarray of 10 by 20 LEDs of advanced design on a printed-circuit board in a mounting frame with a power/control connector. The LED panels are controlled by an LED control module that contains an AC-to-DC power supply, a control board, and 8 LED-panel driver boards. In prior LED panels, the LEDs are packaged at less than maximum areal densities in bulky metal housings that reduce effective active areas. In contrast, in the present LED panels, the LEDs are packed at maximum areal density so as to afford 100-percent active area and so that when panels are joined side by side to form the array, there are no visible seams between them and the proportion of active area is still 100 percent. Each panel produces an illuminance of .5 x 10( exp 4) lux at a distance of 5.8 in. (approx.1.6 cm). The LEDs are driven according to a pulse-width-modulation control scheme that makes it safe to drive the LEDs beyond their rated steady-state currents in order to generate additional light during short periods. The drive current and the pulse-width modulation for each LED panel can be controlled independently of those of the other 15 panels. The maximum allowable duration of each pulse of drive current is a function of the amount of overdrive, the total time to be spent in overdrive operation, and the limitations

  1. Model of UV flashes due to gigantic blue jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milikh, G M [University of Maryland, College Park, MD, 20742 (United States); Shneider, M N [Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States)], E-mail: milikh@astro.umd.edu, E-mail: shneyder@princeton.edu

    2008-12-07

    Analysis of UV flashes observed by the UV detector on board the 'Tatiana' microsatellite suggests, based on their location, pulse width and energy of the source of the photons, that the flashes were generated by gigantic blue jets (GBJs). Presented in this paper is a numerical model of UV flashes due to a bunch of long streamers which form a leader, a prong such as that observed in a GBJ. Using a previously developed model of upward propagation of a long streamer in the exponential atmosphere the paper describes temporal evolution of the UV flux generated by a bunch of long streamers, in the given spectral range 300-400 nm used by the UV detector on board 'Tatiana'. The model is in agreement with the observations.0.

  2. Post-irradiation flashes and continuous emission from solid deuterium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forrest, J.A.; Brooks, R.L. [Guelph-Waterloo Program for Graduate Work in Physics, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, N1G2W1 (CANADA)

    1997-01-01

    Optical emission from proton-beam-irradiated solid deuterium near 800 nm has been studied after termination of the proton beam. The continuous red emission shows a residual intensity that persists over 30 min from termination of the beam. Optical flashes can also be thermally triggered over 10 min after termination of irradiation. Such triggered flashes are shown to quench the infrared absorption of Stark-shifted charge-induced features. Ultraviolet photons can stimulate this red emission after termination of irradiation with no measurable decrease in intensity for 40 min. The cause of this continuous emission and optical flashes is discussed in the light of these results. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  3. DERIVING FLASH FLOODS IN THE CASE OF SIMULATED PRECIPITATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GYŐRI MARIA-MIHAELA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Deriving flash floods in the case of simulated precipitations. The present study sets to determine the historical flash-floods on the Petriș watershed making use of the implemented mathematical models in a Hydrological Modeling System. In order to simulate the 1%, 2% and 10% exceedance probability flash-floods, the Intensity-Frequency-Duration (IDF curves have been built on the basis of 22 years of precipitation records (1988-2009. They serve as input data together with the hydrological parameters identified by the means of a Geographic Information Systems. The results, computed mainly on the basis of the Soil Conservation Service (SCS method, consist of hyetographs and hydrographs at the outlet of the main watershed, as well as to that of the ungauged tributaries of the Petriș River.

  4. X-ray Flashes from Off-axis Nonuniform Jets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Ping Jin; Da-Ming Wei

    2004-01-01

    It has been widely believed that the outflows in gamma-ray bursts are jetted and some jets may have structures like ∈(θ) ∝θ-κ. We check the possibility that X-ray flashes come from such jets. Both qualitative and quantitative analyses have shown that this model can reproduce most of the observational features of both X-ray flashes and gamma-ray bursts. Using the usual parameters of gamma-ray bursts, we have carried out numerical calculations for both uniform and nonuniform jets, of their fluxes, spectra and peak energies. It seems that nonuniform jets are more appropriate to these observational properties than uniform jets. We have also shown that in our model the observational ratio of gamma-ray bursts to X-ray flashes is about a few units.

  5. Storage Management Strategy of Flash-Based Platform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Taiyong; ZHAO Li; HU Shiguang; WANG Tao

    2009-01-01

    Storage management strategy can be expressed by a file system. Commercial file system for embedded application is generally complicated and resource wasted. In this paper, a specified file system adapted to embedded system with flash-based memory is developed. To guarantee the average usage of flash storage sectors, the strategy of wear leveling and adaptive damage management is introduced, in which a dynamic storage space management mode and the strategy of first in first out (FIFO) are adopted. Moreover, the strategy of redundancy design and fast-calculation and tracing is also adopted to extend the life of kernel sector, which can guarantee the reliable ser-vice of system booting. The practical application in an embedded CNC (computerized numerical control) platform proves that the file system has effective performance. Furthermore, the flash file system can be transplanted to dif-ferent embedded platforms by changing a few bottom hardware parameters with universality.

  6. A simple experiment that demonstrates the ``green flash''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtial, Johannes

    2012-11-01

    The green flash occurs when, under certain atmospheric conditions, the top segment of the low sun is visibly green. It is surrounded—in at least a few minds—by an air of mystery. I describe a simple experiment that demonstrates different aspects of the green flash. The experiment uses an odd-shaped, water-filled, fish tank to simulate the refractive properties of the atmosphere; milk powder added to the water mimicks the atmosphere's scattering properties. A circular white-light source is viewed through the fish tank and the combination of refraction and scattering makes one end of the light source look green. The setup also allows experimentation with mirage effects, thereby drawing attention to their often neglected contribution to the green flash.

  7. Training Patterns of Wheelchair Basketball Players in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatar, Yasar

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze technical drills, warm-up and cool-down exercises used by wheelchair basketball players of the Turkish league in relation to training sessions. 33 male wheelchair basketball players participated in the study (mean age 26.6[plus or minus]5,95 years). All players reported that they used warm-up exercises before…

  8. Automatic player detection and identification for sports entertainment applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahmood, Zahid; Ali, Tauseef; Khattak, Shadid; Hasan, Laiq; Khan, Samee U.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we develop an augmented reality sports broadcasting application for automatic detection, recognition of players during play, followed by display of personal information of players. The proposed application can be divided into four major steps. In first step, each player in the image i

  9. Synthetic Players: A Quest for Artificial Intelligence in Computer Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jouni Smed

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic players are the computer-controlled actors in a computer game. In this paper, we describe both the implementation issues and the behavioural expectations related to synthetic players. We recognize the role of synthetic players by analysing the components of games in general and computer games in particular.

  10. Assessment of Cardiovascular Risk in Collegiate Football Players and Nonathletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrosielski, Devon A.; Rosenbaum, Daryl; Wooster, Benjamin M.; Merrill, Michael; Swanson, John; Moore, J. Brian; Brubaker, Peter H.

    2010-01-01

    Collegiate American football players may be at risk for cardiovascular disease. Objective: To compare cardiovascular disease risk factors and cardiovascular structure and function parameters of football players, stratified by position, to a group of sedentary, nonathletes. Participants: Twenty-six collegiate football players and 13 nonathletes…

  11. Assessment of Cardiovascular Risk in Collegiate Football Players and Nonathletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrosielski, Devon A.; Rosenbaum, Daryl; Wooster, Benjamin M.; Merrill, Michael; Swanson, John; Moore, J. Brian; Brubaker, Peter H.

    2010-01-01

    Collegiate American football players may be at risk for cardiovascular disease. Objective: To compare cardiovascular disease risk factors and cardiovascular structure and function parameters of football players, stratified by position, to a group of sedentary, nonathletes. Participants: Twenty-six collegiate football players and 13 nonathletes…

  12. Understanding the Mismatch Between Coaches' and Players' Perceptions of Exertion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, Michel S.; Kersten, Anna W.; Frencken, Wouter G. P.

    2017-01-01

    A mismatch between the training exertion intended by a coach and the exertion perceived by players is well established in sports. However, it is unknown whether coaches can accurately observe exertion of individual players during training. Furthermore, the discrepancy in coaches' and players' percep

  13. High School Rugby Players' Perception of Coaching Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broodryk, Retief; van den Berg, Pieter Hendrick

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study were firstly to determine the players' perceptions of their respective coaches' coaching effectiveness and secondly, determine the difference between big and small schools of the players' perceptions of their respective coaches' coaching effectiveness. Four hundred and seventy six players from 22 schools were asked to fill…

  14. Preferred Leadership Behaviours of Male and Female Badminton Players

    OpenAIRE

    Rajkumar S HARMA

    2015-01-01

    Pr eferences for specific coaching behaviours of male and female Badminton players were measured by the modified and revised Leadership Scale for Sport. Eighty two (Males=61, Females=21) badminton players were selected from amongst the players representing th eir respective university teams in East - zone Inter - university Badminton (Men/Women) tournaments held at Bilaspur (CG). The present investigation noted ...

  15. Automatic player detection and identification for sports entertainment applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahmood, Zahid; Ali, Tauseef; Khattak, Shadid; Hasan, Laiq; Khan, Samee U.

    In this paper, we develop an augmented reality sports broadcasting application for automatic detection, recognition of players during play, followed by display of personal information of players. The proposed application can be divided into four major steps. In first step, each player in the image

  16. Dynamic Difficulty Balancing for Cautious Players and Risk Takers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Hawkins

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic balancing of game difficulty can help cater for different levels of ability in players. However, performance in some game tasks depends on not only the player's ability but also their desire to take risk. Taking or avoiding risk can offer players its own reward in a game situation. Furthermore, a game designer may want to adjust the mechanics differently for a risky, high ability player, as opposed to a risky, low ability player. In this work, we describe a novel modelling technique known as particle filtering which can be used to model various levels of player ability while also considering the player's risk profile. We demonstrate this technique by developing a game challenge where players are required to make a decision between a number of possible alternatives where only a single alternative is correct. Risky players respond faster but with more likelihood of failure. Cautious players wait longer for more evidence, increasing their likelihood of success, but at the expense of game time. By gathering empirical data for the player's response time and accuracy, we develop particle filter models. These models can then be used in real-time to categorise players into different ability and risk-taking levels.

  17. Understanding the Mismatch Between Coaches' and Players' Perceptions of Exertion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, Michel S; Kersten, Anna W; Frencken, Wouter G

    2016-01-01

    A mismatch between the intended training exertion by the coach and the perceived exertion by players is well established in sports. However, it is unknown if coaches are able to accurately observe exertion of individual players during training. Furthermore, the discrepancy in coaches' and players' p

  18. Kinanthropometric characteristics in teenager basketball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Abella del Campo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Basketball is a sport with a high heterogeneity anthropometric as playing position. Point guard is usually the lowest player but also the fastest. Guard is similar to point guard, faster and more agile than the others. Small forward has an intermediate height between the inside and outside players and it combines height with velocity. And center (pivot has a physical role, it has the highest and more muscle mass. The aim of this study is to describe the kinanthropometric profile of male cadet “Valencia Basket Club”. Material and Methods: A total of 20 male cadet basketball players were evaluated (15.35±0.59 years old. An anthropometrist level 1 took anthropometric measures according to the methodology of the International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK. Body composition was calculated according to the kinanthropometry consensus of the Kinanthropometry Spanish Group (GREC, somatotype with Heath-Carter’s method and adiposemuscular and cardiovascular risk index. Results: Differences in values of weight, height, skinfold and body composition from variables of sample and position were observed. Lower values were from point guard position and higher values were from center position. An increasing trend of these parameters was established in the following order: point guard, guard, small forward and center. Conclusions: The Valencia Basket Club cadet player overall somatotype is balance ectomorph. To know kinanthropometric profile may be beneficial to develop specific training and nutrition plans as well as to see evolution and characteristics for optimal performance

  19. Soccer skill development in talented players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huijgen, B C H; Elferink-Gemser, M T; Ali, A; Visscher, C

    2013-08-01

    The aim of the study was to gain insight into the development of soccer-specific skills and whether differences between talented players exist on the Loughborough Soccer Passing Test (LSPT). Two scores were derived from the LSPT: 1) execution time: time to complete 16 passes (speed) and 2) skill performance time: execution time including bonus and penalty time for accuracy. The study consisted of 2 parts, the first of which incorporated a quasi-longitudinal design with 270 talented players aged 10-18 years performing the LSPT (661 measurement occasions); multilevel modelling was applied. Secondly, differences between those players allowed to continue in the development program (selected, n=269) and players who were forced to leave (de-selected, n=50) were investigated using independent sample t-tests. The longitudinal data showed that the predicted execution time (i. e., speed) improved approximately 18% from age 10-18 years (Pskill performance time (i. e., combination of speed and accuracy) was predicted to improve approximately 32% (Pskill performance time (P0.05). In conclusion, in high-level youth soccer, the combination of speed and accuracy in soccer skills might be more important than speed alone. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Mental rotation performance in male soccer players.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Jansen

    Full Text Available It is the main goal of this study to investigate the visual-spatial cognition in male soccer players. Forty males (20 soccer players and 20 non-athletes solved a chronometric mental rotation task with both cubed and embodied figures (human figures, body postures. The results confirm previous results that all participants had a lower mental rotation speed for cube figures compared to embodied figures and a higher error rate for cube figures, but only at angular disparities greater than 90°. It is a new finding that soccer-players showed a faster reaction time for embodied stimuli. Because rotation speed did not differ between soccer-players and non-athletes this finding cannot be attributed to the mental rotation process itself but instead to differences in one of the following processes which are involved in a mental rotation task: the encoding process, the maintanence of readiness, or the motor process. The results are discussed against the background of the influence on longterm physical activity on mental rotation and the context of embodied cognition.

  1. Motivational Traits of Elite Young Soccer Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Craig; Meyers, Michael C.

    2004-01-01

    Among the most overlooked aspects in the development of elite young soccer players is that of specific psychological traits. Of those traits, motivation has important implications for programs whose objectives are identification and cultivation of young, skilled performers. The growth in popularity of soccer by youth and the successes experienced…

  2. Soccer Skill Development in Talented Players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijgen, B. C. H.; Elferink-Gemser, M. T.; Ali, A.; Visscher, C.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to gain insight into the development of soccer-specific skills and whether differences between talented players exist on the Loughborough Soccer Passing Test (LSPT). Two scores were derived from the LSPT: 1) execution time: time to complete 16 passes (speed) and 2) skill per

  3. FlashCam: A fully digital camera for CTA telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Pühlhofer, G; Biland, A; Florin, D; Föhr, C; Gadola, A; Hermann, G; Kalkuhl, C; Kasperek, J; Kihm, T; Koziol, J; Manalaysay, A; Marszalek, A; Rajda, P J; Schanz, T; Steiner, S; Straumann, U; Tenzer, C; Vogler, P; Vollhardt, A; Weitzel, Q; Winiarski, K; Zietara, K

    2012-01-01

    The future Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) will consist of several tens of telescopes of different mirror sizes. CTA will provide next generation sensitivity to very high energy photons from few tens of GeV to >100 TeV. Several focal plane instrumentation options are currently being evaluated inside the CTA consortium. In this paper, the current status of the FlashCam prototyping project is described. FlashCam is based on a fully digital camera readout concept and features a clean separation between photon detector plane and signal digitization/triggering electronics.

  4. Space and terrestrial radiation effects in flash memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagatin, Marta; Gerardin, Simone; Paccagnella, Alessandro

    2017-03-01

    We present a comprehensive review of the effects of ionizing radiation on advanced flash memories. The effects of ionizing radiation as well as the mechanisms underlying the observed phenomena are thoroughly discussed on both floating gate cells and the complex control circuitry. The covered effects are relevant for all floating-gate based flash memories that require very high levels of reliability, from critical applications at the terrestrial level to radiation-harsh environments, such as space, nuclear power plants, and high-energy physics experiments.

  5. Mitochondrial Flashes: Dump Superoxide and Dance with Protons Now.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demaurex, Nicolas; Schwarzländer, Markus

    2016-09-20

    Transient changes in the physiology of individual mitochondria have recently drawn much interest. The use of a circular permuted yellow fluorescent protein (cpYFP) to monitor mitochondrial flashes and their interpretation as superoxide bursts has added confusion, however. Reviewing mitochondrial flashes in this Forum, Wang et al. again deem cpYFP to be a specific and reversible superoxide indicator, dismissing evidence that purified cpYFP is insensitive to superoxide. This interpretation lacks reproducible evidence and conflicts with the parsimony principle. We offer a constructive, transparent pathway to reach definitive clarification of contradictory reports. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 25, 550-551.

  6. INVESTIGATION OF DIFFERENT MODELS OF COMBINED PARALLEL FLASH BINARY CYCLES

    OpenAIRE

    A. Jafar Yazdi*

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this paper is a comparative study of the different geothermal power plant concepts, based on the energy and exergy analysis. The cycles studied in this paper are the combination of single and double flash power plants with two different ORC cycles as basic Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC), ORC with IHE, regenerative ORC and regenerative ORC with an IHE. The main gain due to using combined flash-binary power plants with various types of ORCs is to achieve optimum and efficient energy uti...

  7. Development of Full Automatic Flash Butt Welding with Digital Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Rui; SUN Hexu; WANG Hongwen

    2006-01-01

    The hardware and software design of two digital control systems based on 80C196KB MCU for flash butt welder is introduced in this paper. The welding power supply is made of six-phase half-wave rectifier. The welding outer characteristic of welding machine is realized by digital PI algorithm with the voltage close-loop feedback. The flashing curve is finished by electric-hydraulic servo valve .The process control system transfers datum with power supply system by a serial communication interface. The parameters of the control systems are collected by photoelectrical seclusion to avoid the disturbing of the electromagnetism in welding process.

  8. Football players, asset management & the unexploited potential of enhanced player engagement in football management & marketing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortsen, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    This article gives insights into why and how football brands (e.g. clubs and governing bodies) can benefit from enhancing the activation of players in football management and football marketing initiatives.......This article gives insights into why and how football brands (e.g. clubs and governing bodies) can benefit from enhancing the activation of players in football management and football marketing initiatives....

  9. Football players, asset management & the unexploited potential of enhanced player engagement in football management & marketing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortsen, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    This article gives insights into why and how football brands (e.g. clubs and governing bodies) can benefit from enhancing the activation of players in football management and football marketing initiatives.......This article gives insights into why and how football brands (e.g. clubs and governing bodies) can benefit from enhancing the activation of players in football management and football marketing initiatives....

  10. Flash 3D Planetary Entry, Descent and Landing Sensor Hardening Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Scientific Concepts Inc. (ASC) is a small business that has developed a number of 3D flash LADAR systems. Flash Ladar Video Cameras are 3D video cameras...

  11. Flash 3D Enhancements for Autonomous Precision Landing and Hazard Detection and Avoidance Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Scientific Concepts, Inc. (ASC) has developed a 128 x 128 frame, 3D Flash LADAR video camera which produces 3-D point clouds at 30 Hz. Flash Ladar Video...

  12. Development of a 3D Flash LADAR Video Camera for Entry, Decent, and Landing Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Scientific Concepts, Inc. (ASC) has developed a 128 x 128 frame, 3D Flash LADAR video camera which produces 3-D point clouds at 30 Hz. Flash LADAR captures...

  13. Development of a 3D Flash LADAR Video Camera for Entry, Decent and Landing Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Scientific Concepts, Inc. (ASC) has developed a 128 x 128 frame, 3D Flash LADAR video camera capable of a 30 Hz frame rate. Because Flash LADAR captures an...

  14. 46 CFR 113.25-10 - Emergency red-flashing lights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... heard over the background noise, there must be a red-flashing light or rotating beacon, in addition to... system. (b) A red-flashing light or rotating beacon must be installed so that it is visible in the...

  15. Development of PIN Diode Detector Arrays for 3D Flash LIDAR Space Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Scientific Concepts, Inc. (ASC) has developed a number of 3D Flash LIDAR systems. Flash LIDAR sensors are 3D video systems that return range and intensity...

  16. Flash 3D Planetary Entry, Descent and Landing Sensor Hardening Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Scientific Concepts, Inc. (ASC) has developed a 128 x 128 frame, 3D Flash LADAR video camera which produces 3-D point clouds at 30 Hz. Flash Ladar Video...

  17. Anthropometric Characteristics of Spanish Professional Basketball Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaquera Alejandro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The study of elite basketball players’ anthropometric characteristics alongside those of body composition contributes significantly to their profiling as professional athletes and plays an important role in the selection process, as these characteristics can have a significant impact on performance. In the current study, 110 professional basketball players from a series of Spanish professional Leagues (ACB, LEB and EBA and youth level National Teams (U20 and U18 had their anthropometric profiles measured and compared to determine differences between them. Furthermore, all 110 players were divided into three different categories according to their playing position: guards, forwards and centres. The results obtained show no significant differences between players in different competitions in weight, height and the sum of skinfolds. Nonetheless, there were several differences related to body fat content (13.03% in ACB players and 10.52% in the lower categories and National Teams. There were also several differences found between the different playing positions amongst all playing levels in body mass (79.56 ± 2.41, 91.04 ± 1.51 and 104.56 ± 1.73 kg, height (182.28 ± 0.96, 195.65 ± 1.00 and 204.08 ± 0.67 cm, skinfold distribution and perimeters. However, there were no significant differences in body fat content between the different playing positions. The conclusions obtained from this study provide a better understanding to basketball specialists regarding the selection process of players at the elite level, especially on the transition from youth elite programs to men’s elite leagues.

  18. The architecture of the chess player's brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hänggi, Jürgen; Brütsch, Karin; Siegel, Adrian M; Jäncke, Lutz

    2014-09-01

    The game of chess can be seen as a typical example for an expertise task requiring domain-specific training and experience. Despite intensive behavioural studies the neural underpinnings of chess performance and expertise are not entirely understood. A few functional neuroimaging studies have shown that expert chess players recruit different psychological functions and activate different brain areas while they are engaged in chess-related activities. Based on this functional literature, we predicted to find morphological differences in a network comprised by parietal and frontal areas and especially the occipito-temporal junction (OTJ), fusiform gyrus, and caudate nucleus. Twenty expert chess players and 20 control subjects were investigated using voxel-based and surface-based morphometry as well as diffusion tensor imaging. Grey matter volume and cortical thickness were reduced in chess players compared with those of control men in the OTJ and precunei. The volumes of both caudate nuclei were not different between groups, but correlated inversely with the years of chess playing experience. Mean diffusivity was increased in chess players compared with that of controls in the left superior longitudinal fasciculus and the Elo score (a chess tournament ranking) was inversely related to mean diffusivity within the right superior longitudinal fasciculus. To the best of our knowledge we showed for the first time that there are specific differences in grey and white matter morphology between chess players and control subjects in brain regions associated with cognitive functions important for playing chess. Whether these anatomical alterations are the cause or consequence of the intensive and long-term chess training and practice remains to be shown in future studies.

  19. Dynamic Visual Acuity Training in Cricket Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renee Edgar, B.Optom

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dynamic visual acuity (DVA is the ability of an observer to correctly identify details of a moving target and is considered to be important for tasks like driving. Dynamic Visual Acuity is better in athletes involved in sports such as basketball and baseball; however, no previous studies have considered the sport of cricket. We conducted a study to determine whether there was any difference in DVA between cricket and non-cricket players. Method: Dynamic visual acuity was measured by asking subjects to identify the orientation of the gap of a moving Landolt C target as a four-alternative forced-choice task. The Landolt C targets had confusion bars surrounding them. The participants in the study were tested twice with a break of seven weeks. In between the two measurements, participants underwent two training sessions (similar to the testing sessions, each three weeks apart. Results: The initial mean DVA for cricket players was 107.7 deg/sec, and the mean DVA for non-cricket players was 105.5 deg/sec, with a target size of 6/15. The subjects who participated in training (cricketers and non-cricketers improved in DVA by 41 deg/sec in contrast to the improvement in the non-training subjects of 18 deg/sec (p=0.0032. The cricketers who participated in the training improved in DVA by 44 deg/sec, whereas the cricketers who did not participate in the training improved by 19 deg/sec (p=0.0167. Conclusions: We found no significant difference in initial DVA between the cricket players and the non-cricket players. The training resulted in an extremely significant improvement in DVA performance by both the cricketers and non-cricketers.

  20. Evaluating Australian football league player contributions using interactive network simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, Jonathan; Bedford, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on the contribution of Australian Football League (AFL) players to their team's on-field network by simulating player interactions within a chosen team list and estimating the net effect on final score margin. A Visual Basic computer program was written, firstly, to isolate the effective interactions between players from a particular team in all 2011 season matches and, secondly, to generate a symmetric interaction matrix for each match. Negative binomial distributions were fitted to each player pairing in the Geelong Football Club for the 2011 season, enabling an interactive match simulation model given the 22 chosen players. Dynamic player ratings were calculated from the simulated network using eigenvector centrality, a method that recognises and rewards interactions with more prominent players in the team network. The centrality ratings were recorded after every network simulation and then applied in final score margin predictions so that each player's match contribution-and, hence, an optimal team-could be estimated. The paper ultimately demonstrates that the presence of highly rated players, such as Geelong's Jimmy Bartel, provides the most utility within a simulated team network. It is anticipated that these findings will facilitate optimal AFL team selection and player substitutions, which are key areas of interest to coaches. Network simulations are also attractive for use within betting markets, specifically to provide information on the likelihood of a chosen AFL team list "covering the line ". Key pointsA simulated interaction matrix for Australian Rules football players is proposedThe simulations were carried out by fitting unique negative binomial distributions to each player pairing in a sideEigenvector centrality was calculated for each player in a simulated matrix, then for the teamThe team centrality measure adequately predicted the team's winning marginA player's net effect on margin could hence be estimated by replacing him in

  1. Audition influences color processing in the sound-induced visual flash illusion

    OpenAIRE

    Mishra, Jyoti; Martinez, Antigona; Hillyard, Steven A.

    2013-01-01

    Multisensory interactions can lead to illusory percepts, as exemplified by the sound-induced extra flash illusion (SIFI: Shams et al., 2000, 2002). In this illusion, an audio-visual stimulus sequence consisting of two pulsed sounds and a light flash presented within a 100 ms time window generates the visual percept of two flashes. Here, we used colored visual stimuli to investigate whether concurrent auditory stimuli can affect the perceived features of the illusory flash. Zero, one or two pu...

  2. Multi-Player and Multi-Choice Quantum Game

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜江峰; 李卉; 许晓栋; 周先意; 韩荣典

    2002-01-01

    We investigate a multi-player and multi-choice quantum game. We start from a two-player and two-choice game,and the result is better than its classical version. Then we extend this to N-player and N-choice cases. In the quantum domain, we provide a strategy with which players can always avoid the worst outcome. Also, by changing the value of the parameter of the initial state, the probabilities for players to obtain the best pay-off will be much higher than in its classical version.

  3. Two Applications of Flash Dynamic Technology Based on Flash-Website%基于Flash-Website的两个Flash动态技术的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    虞智辉

    2010-01-01

    随着Flash-Website技术的发展,Flash与网页的联系越来越紧密.因此,如何合理运用Flash技术为网站服务,就成了摆在网页制作者面前的一道实践题.从制作的实践出发,介绍2种Flash与网页技术相结合的制作技巧.

  4. Hot Flashes and Panic Attacks: A Comparison of Symptomatology, Neurobiology, Treatment, and a Role for Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanisch, Laura J.; Hantsoo, Liisa; Freeman, Ellen W.; Sullivan, Gregory M.; Coyne, James C.

    2008-01-01

    Despite decades of research, the causal mechanisms of hot flashes are not adequately understood, and a biopsychosocial perspective on hot flashes remains underdeveloped. This article explores overlooked parallels between hot flashes and panic attacks within 5 areas: course and symptomatology, physiological indicators, neurocircuitry and…

  5. Effect of Escitalopram on Hot Flash Interference: A Randomized, Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Janet S.; Guthrie, Katherine A.; Larson, Joseph C.; Freeman, Ellen W.; Joffe, Hadine; Reed, Susan D.; Ensrud, Kristine E.; LaCroix, Andrea Z.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the effect of escitalopram 10–20 mg/day versus placebo for reducing hot flash interference in daily life and understand correlates and predictors of reductions in hot flash interference, a key measure of quality of life. Design Multi-site, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Patients 205 midlife women (46% African-American) who met criteria participated. Setting MsFLASH clinical sites in Boston, Indianapolis, Oakland, and Philadelphia. Intervention After baseline, women were randomized to 1 pill of escitalopram 10 mg/day (n=104) or placebo (n=101) with follow-up at 4- and 8-weeks. At week 4, those not achieving 50% fewer hot flashes were increased to 2 pills daily (20 mg/day or 2 placebo pills). Main outcome measures The Hot Flash Related Daily Interference Scale; Correlates were variables from hot flash diaries; Predictors were baseline demographics, clinical variables, depression, anxiety, sleep quality, and hot flashes. Results Compared to placebo, escitalopram significantly reduced hot flash interference by 6.0 points at week 4 and 3.4 points at week 8 more than placebo (p=0.012). Reductions in hot flash interference correlated with changes in hot flash diary variables. However, baseline variables did not significantly predict reductions in hot flash interference. Conclusions Escitalopram 10–20mg/day for 8 weeks improves women’s quality of life and this benefit did not vary by demographic, clinical, mood, sleep, or hot flash variables. PMID:22480818

  6. Prospective study of injury in volleyball players: 6 year results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, M F; Ezechieli, M; Classen, L; Kieffer, O; Miltner, O

    2015-01-01

    The volleyball game has a high complexity and thus entails a lot of strain to the players. Due to this high and different training and competition strain comprehensive and individual training plans should be developed with competing training objectives in order to prevent injuries. The aim of the study was to analyse prospectively over six seasons the acute and overuse injuries of a German male professional volleyball team. The study included 34 male national league players from season the 2007/08 to 2012/13. All players received a sport medicine examination and a functional diagnosis before each season. Based on the results the players received an individual training plan. The players suffered 186 injuries. The prevalence of acute injuries was 1.94 per player and overuse injuries 0.64 per player. The incidence of acute injuries was 3.3/1000 h volleyball and overuse injuries 1.08/1000 h volleyball. The largest number of injuries was found in the spine. The players had most likely minor injuries. The players had significantly fewer injuries in their second season (1.92) than in their first season (3.25; p= 0.004). It could be concluded that volleyball is a sport with a relative low prevalence of injuries compared to other team sports. The prevalence of injury is 2.58 per player. Due to an injury a player dropped out 16.91 days per season. An individual training program seems to reduce the incidence of injury.

  7. Recognition accuracy by experienced men and women players of basketball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millslagle, Duane G

    2002-08-01

    This study examined 30 experienced basketball players' recognition accuracy by sex, playing position (guard, forward, and center), and situations in the game of basketball. The study used a perceptual cognitive paradigm in which subjects viewed slides of structured and unstructured game situations and accurately recognized the presence or absence of the basketball. A significant difference in recognition accuracy by sex, players' position, and structure of the game situation was found. Male players' recognition accuracy was better than the female players'. The recognition accuracy of subjects who played guard was better than that of subjects who played forward or center. The players' recognition accuracy was more accurate when observing structured plays versus unstructured plays. The conclusion of this study suggested that experienced basketball players differ in their cognitive and visual searching processes by sex and player position within the sport of basketball.

  8. The Status of the Ultra Fast Flash Observatory - Pathfinder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nam, J. W.; Ahmad, S.; Ahn, K. B.

    2014-01-01

    The Ultra Fast Flash Observatory (UFFO) is a project to study early optical emissions from Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs). The primary scientific goal of UFFO is to see if GRBs can be calibrated with their rising times, so that they could be used as new standard candles. In order to minimize delay in op...

  9. Measuring and Estimating Normalized Contrast in Infrared Flash Thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshti, Ajay M.

    2013-01-01

    Infrared flash thermography (IRFT) is used to detect void-like flaws in a test object. The IRFT technique involves heating up the part surface using a flash of flash lamps. The post-flash evolution of the part surface temperature is sensed by an IR camera in terms of pixel intensity of image pixels. The IR technique involves recording of the IR video image data and analysis of the data using the normalized pixel intensity and temperature contrast analysis method for characterization of void-like flaws for depth and width. This work introduces a new definition of the normalized IR pixel intensity contrast and normalized surface temperature contrast. A procedure is provided to compute the pixel intensity contrast from the camera pixel intensity evolution data. The pixel intensity contrast and the corresponding surface temperature contrast differ but are related. This work provides a method to estimate the temperature evolution and the normalized temperature contrast from the measured pixel intensity evolution data and some additional measurements during data acquisition.

  10. A comparison of radiometric calibration techniques for lunar impact flashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suggs, R. M.; Ehlert, S. R.; Moser, D. E.

    2017-09-01

    Video observations of lunar impact flashes have been made by a number of researchers since the late 1990's and the problem of determination of the impact energies has been approached in different ways Bellot Rubio et al. (2000a, b), Yanagisawa et al. (2008), Bouley et al. (2012), Suggs et al. (2014), Rembold and Ryan (2015), Ortiz et al. (2015), Madiedo et al. (2015). The wide spectral response of the unfiltered video cameras in use for all published measurements necessitates color correction for the standard filter magnitudes available for the comparison stars but this is not typically considered. In our approach, the published color of the comparison star and an estimate of the color of the impact flash is used to correct it to the chosen filter bandpass. Magnitudes corrected to standard filters are then used to determine the luminous energy in the filter bandpass according to the stellar atmosphere calibrations of Bessell et al. (1998). In this paper we compare the various photometric calibration techniques and calculation of luminous energy (radiometry) of impact flashes. This issue has significant implications for determination of luminous efficiency, predictions of impact crater sizes for observed flashes, and the determination of the flux of meteoroids in the 10 s of grams to kilograms mass range.

  11. Searching for neutrino radio flashes from the Moon with LOFAR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buitink, Stijn; Corstanje, Arthur; Enriquez, Emilio; Falcke, Heino; Frieswijk, Wilfred; Hörandel, Jörg; Mevius, Maaijke; Nelles, Anna; Thoudam, Satyendra; Schellart, Pim; Scholten, Olaf; ter Veen, Sander; van den Akker, Martin; LOFAR Collaboration, [No Value

    2013-01-01

    Ultra-high-energy neutrinos and cosmic rays produce short radio flashes through the Askaryan effect when they impact on the Moon. Earthbound radio telescopes can search the Lunar surface for these signals. A new generation of lowfrequency, digital radio arrays, spearheaded by LOFAR, will allow for s

  12. FLASH assembly of TALENs for high-throughput genome editing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyon, Deepak; Tsai, Shengdar Q; Khayter, Cyd; Foden, Jennifer A; Sander, Jeffry D; Joung, J Keith

    2012-05-01

    Engineered transcription activator–like effector nucleases (TALENs) have shown promise as facile and broadly applicable genome editing tools. However, no publicly available high-throughput method for constructing TALENs has been published, and large-scale assessments of the success rate and targeting range of the technology remain lacking. Here we describe the fast ligation-based automatable solid-phase high-throughput (FLASH) system, a rapid and cost-effective method for large-scale assembly of TALENs. We tested 48 FLASH-assembled TALEN pairs in a human cell–based EGFP reporter system and found that all 48 possessed efficient gene-modification activities. We also used FLASH to assemble TALENs for 96 endogenous human genes implicated in cancer and/or epigenetic regulation and found that 84 pairs were able to efficiently introduce targeted alterations. Our results establish the robustness of TALEN technology and demonstrate that FLASH facilitates high-throughput genome editing at a scale not currently possible with other genome modification technologies.

  13. Data Acquisition System of FlashADC on GTAF Facility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; Qi-wei; HE; Guo-zhu; HUANG; Xing; RUAN; Xi-chao; ZHOU; Zu-ying; ZHU; Xing-hua

    2013-01-01

    The data acquisition system of GTAF facility bases on the digitizer of FlashADC(DC271A,made by Acqiris Technologies Inc.),which can achieve the acquisition of experimental data and real-time monitoring of on-line measure by the capture of digital full pulse waveform from 40 BaF2 detectors.Fig.1

  14. Novel approach for low-cost muzzle flash detection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voskoboinik, Asher

    2008-04-01

    A low-cost muzzle flash detection based on CMOS sensor technology is proposed. This low-cost technology makes it possible to detect various transient events with characteristic times between dozens of microseconds up to dozens of milliseconds while sophisticated algorithms successfully separate them from false alarms by utilizing differences in geometrical characteristics and/or temporal signatures. The proposed system consists of off-the-shelf smart CMOS cameras with built-in signal and image processing capabilities for pre-processing together with allocated memory for storing a buffer of images for further post-processing. Such a sensor does not require sending giant amounts of raw data to a real-time processing unit but provides all calculations in-situ where processing results are the output of the sensor. This patented CMOS muzzle flash detection concept exhibits high-performance detection capability with very low false-alarm rates. It was found that most false-alarms due to sun glints are from sources at distances of 500-700 meters from the sensor and can be distinguished by time examination techniques from muzzle flash signals. This will enable to eliminate up to 80% of falsealarms due to sun specular reflections in the battle field. Additional effort to distinguish sun glints from suspected muzzle flash signal is made by optimization of the spectral band in Near-IR region. The proposed system can be used for muzzle detection of small arms, missiles and rockets and other military applications.

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF PRINCIPLES OF DCNET AND FLASH ENVIRONMENTS INTERACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Denisenko

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The question of implementation of the interface between the DCNET and Flash media is examined. Usage of the interface-based DCNET environment allows to reduce time and material costs for the development t and study of complicated technological system and to increase functional imaging capabilities compared to ActionScript.

  16. Grass Valley Venom FlashPak录像机

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Thomson新推出的Grass Valley Venom FIashPak录像机,可配合草谷VIPER Film Stream数字电影摄像机使用。Venom FlashPak是一款灵巧可靠的台式系统,可以记录VIPER摄影机输出的未压缩视频。

  17. High-frequency Trading, Algorithmic Finance, and the Flash Crash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The Flash Crash of 6 May 2010 has an interesting status in discussions of high-frequency trading, i.e. fully automated, superfast computerized trading: it is invoked both as an important illustration of how this field of algorithmic trading operates and, more often, as an example of how fully aut...

  18. Collecting response times using Amazon Mechanical Turk and Adobe Flash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simcox, Travis; Fiez, Julie A

    2014-03-01

    Crowdsourcing systems like Amazon's Mechanical Turk (AMT) allow data to be collected from a large sample of people in a short amount of time. This use has garnered considerable interest from behavioral scientists. So far, most experiments conducted on AMT have focused on survey-type instruments because of difficulties inherent in running many experimental paradigms over the Internet. This study investigated the viability of presenting stimuli and collecting response times using Adobe Flash to run ActionScript 3 code in conjunction with AMT. First, the timing properties of Adobe Flash were investigated using a phototransistor and two desktop computers running under several conditions mimicking those that may be present in research using AMT. This experiment revealed some strengths and weaknesses of the timing capabilities of this method. Next, a flanker task and a lexical decision task implemented in Adobe Flash were administered to participants recruited with AMT. The expected effects in these tasks were replicated. Power analyses were conducted to describe the number of participants needed to replicate these effects. A questionnaire was used to investigate previously undescribed computer use habits of 100 participants on AMT. We conclude that a Flash program in conjunction with AMT can be successfully used for running many experimental paradigms that rely on response times, although experimenters must understand the limitations of the method.

  19. Visual reinforcement audiometry: an Adobe Flash based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atherton, Steve

    2010-09-01

    Visual Reinforcement Audiometry (VRA) is a key behavioural test for young children. It is central to the diagnosis of hearing-impaired infants (1) . Habituation to the visual reinforcement can give misleading results. Medical Illustration ABM University Health Board has designed a collection of Flash animations to overcome this.

  20. Flash-lamp-pumped picosecond Nd:YAG regenerative amplifier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bingyuan Zhang; Gang Li; Meng Chen; Guoju Wang; Yonggang Wang; Xiaoyu Ma

    2005-01-01

    @@ A flash-lamp-pumped Nd:YAG regenerative amplifier has been developed at 1.06 μm, seeded with 10-ps pulses from a diode-end-pumped and mode-locked Nd:YAG oscillator with homemade semiconductor saturable absorber mirror(SESAM).

  1. An empirical explanation of the flash-lag effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtach, William T; Sung, Kyongje; Truong, Sandra; Purves, Dale

    2008-10-21

    When a flash of light is presented in physical alignment with a moving object, the flash is perceived to lag behind the position of the object. This phenomenon, known as the flash-lag effect, has been of particular interest to vision scientists because of the challenge it presents to understanding how the visual system generates perceptions of objects in motion. Although various explanations have been offered, the significance of this effect remains a matter of debate. Here, we show that: (i) contrary to previous reports based on limited data, the flash-lag effect is an increasing nonlinear function of image speed; and (ii) this function is accurately predicted by the frequency of occurrence of image speeds generated by the perspective transformation of moving objects. These results support the conclusion that perceptions of the relative position of a moving object are determined by accumulated experience with image speeds, in this way allowing for visual behavior in response to real-world sources whose speeds and positions cannot be perceived directly.

  2. FLASH FLOODS IN THE ILIŞUA BASIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. HOGNOGI

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Flash Floods in the Ilişua Basin. The Ilişua Valley is a right tributary of the Someşu Mare Valley and has its spring in the south-western part of the Tibleş Mountains. It is a perennial river, and its maximum flow sometimes exceeds the national multi-anual average. One manifestation of this high flow is represented by two types of flash floods: the ones caused by heavy rainfall and the ones caused by the both heavy precipitation and the melting of snow. These two types of flash floods have specific characteristics not only in terms of causes but also in the happening, the impact area and the scale or proportions of damage. These features are further explained in the analysis of two flash floods that have taken place on May 12-17, 1970 and June 20-21, 2006. The occurence of these extreme hydrological phenomena in the basin and their impact upon nature, people and infrastructure makes the need of more hydrological survey a fact.

  3. Flash floods, hydro-geomorphic response and risk management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braud, Isabelle; Borga, Marco; Gourley, Jonathan; Hürlimann, Marcel; Zappa, Massimilano; Gallart, Francesc

    2016-10-01

    Each year, natural disasters are responsible for fatalities and economic losses worldwide with 101 billion USD in economic losses and 7000 fatalities reported for 2014 (SwissRE, 2015). Even if earthquakes are responsible for most of these fatalities, flash floods and landslides are recognized as a significant source of threat to human lives (SwissRE, 2015). Jonkman (2005), in a global assessment of flood-related casualties, showed that flash floods lead to the highest mortality (number of fatalities divided by the number of affected people). They are also often associated with shallow landslides and geomorphic processes that can increase threat to human lives. Analysis of a global data set of fatalities from non-seismically triggered landslides (Petley, 2012) shows that 2620 fatal landslides were recorded worldwide in the period 2004-2010, causing a total of 32,322 recorded fatalities. In addition, heavy precipitation events, at the origin of flash floods and shallow landsliding are expected to increase in the future (e.g. Scoccimarro et al., 2016 for a recent study in Europe). Progress in flash floods and landslides understanding, forecasting and warning is therefore still needed to disentangle the complex interactions between hazards, exposure and vulnerability and to increase resilience (Borga et al., 2014).

  4. Modelling (flash) floods in a Dutch lowland catchment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brauer, C.C.; Teuling, A.J.; Overeem, A.; Velde, Y. van der; Hazenberg, P.; Warmerdam, P.M.M.; Kloosterman, P.; Uijlenhoet, R.

    2012-01-01

    On 26 August 2010 the eastern part of The Netherlands and the bordering part of Germany were struck by a series of rainfall events.We investigated the unprecedented flash flood triggered by this exceptionally heavy rainfall event (return period > 1000 years) in the 6.5 km2 Hupsel Brook catchment, wh

  5. Ultrafast-Contactless Flash Sintering using Plasma Electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Theo; Grasso, Salvatore; Reece, Michael J.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a novel derivative of flash sintering, in which contactless flash sintering (CFS) is achieved using plasma electrodes. In this setup, electrical contact with the sample to be sintered is made by two arc plasma electrodes, one on either side, allowing current to pass through the sample. This opens up the possibility of continuous throughput flash sintering. Preheating, a usual precondition for flash sintering, is provided by the arc electrodes which heat the sample to 1400 °C. The best results were produced with pre-compacted samples (bars 1.8 mm thick) of pure B4C (discharge time 2s, current 4A) and SiC:B4C 50 wt% (3s at 6A), which were fully consolidated under a heating rate approaching 20000 °C/min. For the composite a cylindrical volume of 14 mm3 was sintered to full density with limited grain growth.

  6. Monitoring of flash visual evoked potentials during neurosurgical operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedzich, C; Schramm, J

    1990-01-01

    In summary, our results suggest that flash VEP monitoring is not specific for visual acuity and has not proved helpful as an intraoperative warning system. The future challenge will be to devise a method which activates only those fibers specific to visual acuity and which provides reproducible and reliable information quickly enough that adjustments in patient management can be made.

  7. Recovery of Flash Memories for Reliable Mobile Storages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daesung Moon

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available As the mobile appliance is applied to many ubiquitous services and the importance of the information stored in it is increased, the security issue to protect the information becomes one of the major concerns. However, most previous researches focused only on the communication security, not the storage security. Especially, a flash memory whose operational characteristics are different from those of HDD is used increasingly as a storage device for the mobile appliance because of its resistance to physical shock and lower power requirement. In this paper, we propose a flash memory management scheme targeted for guaranteeing the data integrity of the mobile storage. By maintaining the old data specified during the recovery window, we can recover the old data when the mobile appliance is attacked. Also, to reduce the storage requirement for the recovery, we restrict the number of versions to be copied, called Degree of Integrity (DoI. Especially, we consider both the reclaim efficiency and the wear leveling which is a unique characteristic of the flash memory. Based on the performance evaluation, we confirm that the proposed scheme can be acceptable to many applications as a flash memory management scheme for improving data integrity.

  8. Implementation of Power Efficient Flash Analogue-to-Digital Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taninki Sai Lakshmi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An efficient low power high speed 5-bit 5-GS/s flash analogue-to-digital converter (ADC is proposed in this paper. The designing of a thermometer code to binary code is one of the exacting issues of low power flash ADC. The embodiment consists of two main blocks, a comparator and a digital encoder. To reduce the metastability and the effect of bubble errors, the thermometer code is converted into the gray code and there after translated to binary code through encoder. The proposed encoder is thus implemented by using differential cascade voltage switch logic (DCVSL to maintain high speed and low power dissipation. The proposed 5-bit flash ADC is designed using Cadence 180 nm CMOS technology with a supply rail voltage typically ±0.85 V. The simulation results include a total power dissipation of 46.69 mW, integral nonlinearity (INL value of −0.30 LSB and differential nonlinearity (DNL value of −0.24 LSB, of the flash ADC.

  9. RAFFS: Model Checking a Robust Abstract Flash File Store

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taverne, P.; Pronk, C.

    2009-01-01

    Accepted for publication in the Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Formal Engineering Methods, ICFEM 2009. This paper presents a case study in modeling and verifying a POSIX-like file store for Flash memory. This work fits in the context of Hoare’s verification challenge and, in pa

  10. Lightning flash density in relation to aerosol over Nanjing (China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Y. B.; Peng, L.; Shi, Z.; Chen, H. R.

    2016-06-01

    Time series data of lightning flash density, aerosol optical depth (AOD), surface temperature, convective available potential energy (CAPE) and thunderstorm days for 10 years (2002-2011), cloud-to-ground lightning (CG), and AOD of 5 years for summer season, i.e., June, July, and August over Nanjing, China, have been analyzed, to investigate the impact of aerosols on lightning. The results indicate that the radiative effect of aerosol may be one of the main reason for the decrease of the lightning flash density in a long period, while the aerosol microphysical effect may be a major role in the increase of the percent of + CG flashes (P+ CG). The dependence of surface temperature, CAPE, and thunderstorm days on AOD (R = - 0.748, - 0.741, - 0.744), and the negative correlation (R = - 0.634) between lightning flash density and AOD may lend support for the radiative effect of aerosol on lightning. In addition, elevated aerosols may change the charge distribution in thundercloud, hence enhancing the positive cloud-to-ground lightning (+ CG) activity, as P+ CG is positively correlated with AOD.

  11. Temporal uncertainty separates flashes from their background during saccades

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maij, F.; Brenner, E.M.; Smeets, J.B.J.

    2011-01-01

    It is known that spatial localization of flashed objects fails around the time of rapid eye movements (saccades). This mislocalization is often interpreted in terms of a combination of shifts and deformations of the brain's representation of space to account for the eye movement. Such temporary

  12. Temporal uncertainty separates flashes from their background during saccades.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maij, F.; Brenner, E.; Smeets, J.B.J.

    2011-01-01

    It is known that spatial localization of flashed objects fails around the time of rapid eye movements (saccades). This mislocalization is often interpreted in terms of a combination of shifts and deformations of the brain’s representation of space to account for the eye movement. Such temporary

  13. Sub-seasonal forecasting of flash droughts in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xing; Wang, Linying

    2016-04-01

    Short-term droughts during the crop growing seasons sometimes occur with abnormally high temperature, the decreasing soil moisture but increasing evapotranspiration (ET) often intensify the drought conditions. These droughts are recently termed as "flash droughts" due to their rapid development, unusual intensity and devastating impacts. For example, a flash drought that lasted for less than a month during the summer of 2013 affected 13 provinces in southern China and damaged over 2 million hectares of crops in two southern provinces alone. Currently, seasonal forecasting of flash droughts remains a grand challenge because they usually happened without persistent oceanic anomalies while mainly due to the short-term anomalies in the atmospheric circulations and the land surface conditions. Moreover, forecasting of a flash drought event is not only to predict a water deficit, but also to predict a heat extreme (i.e., abnormally high temperature) and the water-energy coupling anomaly between the land and atmosphere (e.g., ET anomaly). On the other hand, sub-seasonal to seasonal (S2S) forecasting that intends to bridge the weather and climate predictions for a seamless climate service is an emerging area and will also be essential for advancing the extended hydrological forecasting. Recently, a number of S2S projects including the second phase of the North American Multimodel Ensemble (NMME) project have been launched to understand the hydro-climate predictability from weeks to a season, and to explore its usefulness for the applications within the Global Framework for Climate Services. Therefore, the emerging S2S forecasting activities provide an unprecedent opportunity for improving the understanding of the predictability of flash drought, and sub-seasonal forecasting of flash drought will in turn be a good measure for assessing the phenomenological forecast skill of the S2S forecasting practices. In this presentation, a 29-year daily NCEP Climate Forecast System

  14. Identification af explosive power factors as predictors of player quality in young female volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grgantov, Zoran; Milić, Mirjana; Katić, Ratko

    2013-05-01

    With the purpose of determining the factor structure of explosive power, as well as the influence of each factor on situational efficiency, 56 young female volleyball players were tested using 14 tests for assessing nonspecific and specific explosive power. By factor analysis, 4 significant factors were isolated which explained the total of over 80% of the common variability in young female volleyball players. The first factor was defined as volleyball-specific jumping, the second factor as nonspecific jumping and sprinting, the third factor as throwing explosive power, while the fourth factor was interpreted as volleyball-specific throwing and spiking speed from the ground. Results obtained by regression analysis in the latent space of explosive power indicate that the identified factors are good predictors of player quality in young female volleyball players. The fourth factor defined as throwing and spiking speed from the ground had the largest influence on player quality, followed by volleyball-specific jumping and nonspecific jumping and sprinting, and to a much lesser extent, by throwing explosive power The results obtained in this age group bring to the fore the ability of spiking and serving a ball of high speed, which hinders the opponents from playing those balls in serve reception and field defence. This ability, combined with a high standing vertical jump reach and spike approach vertical jump reach (which is the basis of the 1st varimax factor) enables successful performance of all volleyball elements by which points are won in complex 1 (spike) and complex 2 (serve and block). Even though the 2nd factor (nonspecific jumping and sprinting) has a slightly smaller impact on situational efficiency in young players, this ability provides preconditions i.e. preparation for successful realisation of all volleyball elements, so greater attention must be paid to perfecting it in young female volleyball players.

  15. Machine protection for FLASH and the European XFEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froehlich, Lars

    2009-05-15

    The Free-Electron Laser in Hamburg (FLASH) and the future European X-Ray Free-Electron Laser (XFEL) are sources of brilliant extremeultraviolet and X-ray radiation pulses. Both facilities are based on superconducting linear accelerators (linacs) that can produce and transport electron beams of high average power. With up to 90 kW or up to 600 kW of power, respectively, these beams hold a serious potential to damage accelerator components. This thesis discusses several passive and active machine protection measures needed to ensure safe operation. At FLASH, dark current from the rf gun electron source has activated several accelerator components to unacceptable radiation levels. Its transport through the linac is investigated with detailed tracking simulations using a parallelized and enhanced version of the tracking code Astra; possible remedies are evaluated. Beam losses can lead to the demagnetization of permanent magnet insertion devices. A number of beam loss scenarios typical for FLASH are investigated with shower simulations. A shielding setup is designed and its efficiency is evaluated. For the design parameters of FLASH, it is concluded that the average relative beam loss in the undulators must be controlled to a level of about 10{sup -8}. FLASH is equipped with an active machine protection system (MPS) comprising more than 80 photomultiplier-based beam loss monitors and several subsystems. The maximum response time to beam losses is less than 4 {mu}s. Setup procedures and calibration algorithms for MPS subsystems and components are introduced and operational problems are addressed. Finally, an architecture for a fully programmable machine protection system for the XFEL is presented. Several options for the topology of this system are reviewed, with the result that an availability goal of at least 0.999 for the MPS is achievable with moderate hardware requirements. (orig.)

  16. Upper limits of flash flood stream power in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchi, Lorenzo; Cavalli, Marco; Amponsah, William; Borga, Marco; Crema, Stefano

    2016-11-01

    Flash floods are characterized by strong spatial gradients of rainfall inputs that hit different parts of a river basin with different intensity. Stream power values associated with flash floods therefore show spatial variations that depend on geological controls on channel geometry and sediment characteristics, as well as on the variations of flood intensity: this stresses the need for a field approach that takes into account the variability of the controlling factors. Post-flood assessment of peak discharge after major floods makes it possible to analyse stream power in fluvial systems affected by flash floods. This study analyses the stream power of seven intense (return period of rainfall > 100 years at least in some sectors of the river basin) flash floods that occurred in mountainous basins of central and southern Europe from 2007 to 2014. In most of the analysed cross sections, high values of unit stream power were observed; this is consistent with the high severity of the studied floods. The highest values of cross-sectional stream power and unit stream power usually occur in Mediterranean regions. This is mainly ascribed to the larger peak discharges that characterize flash floods in these regions. The variability of unit stream power with catchment area is clearly nonlinear and has been represented by log-quadratic relations. The values of catchment area at which maximum values of unit stream power occur show relevant differences among the studied floods and are linked to the spatial scale of the events. Values of stream power are generally consistent with observed geomorphic changes in the studied cross sections: bedrock channels show the highest values of unit stream power but no visible erosion, whereas major erosion has been observed in alluvial channels. Exceptions to this general pattern, which mostly occur in semi-alluvial cross sections, urge the recognition of local or event-specific conditions that increase the resistance of channel bed and

  17. Flash flood warning based on fully dynamic hydrology modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pejanovic, Goran; Petkovic, Slavko; Cvetkovic, Bojan; Nickovic, Slobodan

    2016-04-01

    Numerical hydrologic modeling has achieved limited success in the past due to, inter alia, lack of adequate input data. Over the last decade, data availability has improved substantially. For modelling purposes, high-resolution data on topography, river routing, and land cover and soil features have meanwhile become available, as well as the observations such as radar precipitation information. In our study, we have implemented the HYPROM model (Hydrology Prognostic Model) to predict a flash flood event at a smaller-scale basin in Southern Serbia. HYPROM is based on the full set of governing equations for surface hydrological dynamics, in which momentum components, along with the equation of mass continuity, are used as full prognostic equations. HYPROM also includes a river routing module serving as a collector for the extra surface water. Such approach permits appropriate representation of different hydrology scales ranging from flash floods to flows of large and slow river basins. The use of full governing equations, if not appropriately parameterized, may lead to numerical instability systems when the surface water in a model is vanishing. To resolve these modelling problems, an unconditionally stable numerical scheme and a method for height redistribution avoiding shortwave height noise have been developed in HYPROM, which achieve numerical convergence of u, v and h when surface water disappears. We have applied HYPROM, driven by radar-estimated precipitation, to predict flash flooding occurred over smaller and medium-size river basins. Two torrential rainfall cases have been simulated to check the accuracy of the model: the exceptional flooding of May 2014 in Western Serbia, and the convective flash flood of January 2015 in Southern Serbia. The second episode has been successfully predicted by HYPROM in terms of timing and intensity six hours before the event occurred. Such flash flood warning system is in preparation to be operationally implemented in the

  18. Flash chemistry: fast chemical synthesis by using microreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Jun-ichi; Nagaki, Aiichiro; Yamada, Takeshi

    2008-01-01

    This concept article provides a brief outline of the concept of flash chemistry for carrying out extremely fast reactions in organic synthesis by using microreactors. Generation of highly reactive species is one of the key elements of flash chemistry. Another important element of flash chemistry is the control of extremely fast reactions to obtain the desired products selectively. Fast reactions are usually highly exothermic, and heat removal is an important factor in controlling such reactions. Heat transfer occurs very rapidly in microreactors by virtue of a large surface area per unit volume, making precise temperature control possible. Fast reactions often involve highly unstable intermediates, which decompose very quickly, making reaction control difficult. The residence time can be greatly reduced in microreactors, and this feature is quite effective in controlling such reactions. For extremely fast reactions, kinetics often cannot be used because of the lack of homogeneity of the reaction environment when they are conducted in conventional reactors such as flasks. Fast mixing using micromixers solves such problems. The concept of flash chemistry has been successfully applied to various organic reactions including a) highly exothermic reactions that are difficult to control in conventional reactors, b) reactions in which a reactive intermediate easily decomposes in conventional reactors, c) reactions in which undesired byproducts are produced in the subsequent reactions in conventional reactors, and d) reactions whose products easily decompose in conventional reactors. The concept of flash chemistry can be also applied to polymer synthesis. Cationic polymerization can be conducted with an excellent level of molecular-weight control and molecular-weight distribution control.

  19. 因特网移动宽带接入解决方案FLASH-OFDM%FLASH-OFDM--Solution of Internet Mobile Broadband Access

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张磊

    2004-01-01

    从介绍OFDM技术入手,分析了VOFDM、WOFDM和FLASH-OFDM技术的性能特点,接着详细介绍了FLASH-OFDM技术的协议模型及其物理层、数据链路层和网络层,最后展望了FLASH-OFDM技术在未来移动通信系统中的应用.

  20. Player Transformation of Educational Multiplayer Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, Rikke; Misfeldt, Morten

    2004-01-01

    Children's great interest in multiplayer games has led to attempts to design educational multiplayer games. In this study, we have studied a test of an educational multiplayer game designed for mathematics education for children aged nine to twelve. In our observations, it became clear that pupils...... transformed the game to accommodate social interaction. With these transformed ways of playing the game, they managed to get to the top of the high score list while avoiding the educational parts of the game. Players transforming educational games to escape learning elements can be a problem when these games...... are used for formal education. In this paper we argue that player transformation of educational games can, however, be the basis of exciting and unconventional learning of valuable things, such as how to transform information technology to better accommodate social interaction....

  1. Common Injuries of Collegiate Tennis Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Wisdom Magtajas Valleser

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine the common injuries of Filipino collegiate tennis players; 110 varsity tennis players with a mean of 20 years old (SD ± 1.7 with an average playing experience of 12 years participated in the study. There was a 100% occurrence of at least one injury with an average rate of 5.98 injuries per person. The authors observed that the most commonly injured anatomical region is the lower extremity; ankles were recorded as the most commonly injured part. Other commonly injured areas included the shoulders and lower back. Furthermore, the most common injury type is tendinitis, sprains, and strains. The recorded injuries were mostly associated with overuse injuries, and the findings were similar to those of most other studies on tennis injuries. A larger sample size may provide more conclusive findings on tennis injuries, particularly in different levels of competition, such as recreational or professional athletes.

  2. Towards Generic Models of Player Experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Noor; Shaker, Mohammad; Abou-Zleikha, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    -dependent and their applicability is usually limited to the system and the data used for model construction. Establishing models of user experience that are highly scalable while maintaing the performance constitutes an important research direction. In this paper, we propose generic models of user experience in the computer games...... further examine whether generic features of player be- haviour can be defined and used to boost the modelling per- formance. The accuracies obtained in both experiments in- dicate a promise for the proposed approach and suggest that game-independent player experience models can be built.......Context personalisation is a flourishing area of research with many applications. Context personalisation systems usually employ a user model to predict the appeal of the context to a particular user given a history of interactions. Most of the models used are context...

  3. Macro-players in stock markets

    CERN Document Server

    Röhner, B M

    2005-01-01

    It is usually assumed that stock prices reflect a balance between large numbers of small individual sellers and buyers. However, over the past fifty years mutual funds and other institutional shareholders have assumed an ever increasing part of stock transactions: their assets, as a percentage of GDP, have been multiplied by more than one hundred. The paper presents evidence which shows that reactions to major shocks are often dominated by a small number of institutional players. Most often the market gets a wrong perception and inadequate understanding of such events because the relevant information (e.g. the fact that one mutual fund has sold several million shares) only becomes available weeks or months after the event, through reports to the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). Our observations suggest that there is a radical difference between small ($ 5% $) price changes which, on the contrary, may be caused by massive sales (or purchases) by a few players. This suggests that the mechanisms which a...

  4. Evolutionary game theory: molecules as players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohl, Katrin; Hummert, Sabine; Werner, Sarah; Basanta, David; Deutsch, Andreas; Schuster, Stefan; Theissen, Günter; Schroeter, Anja

    2014-12-01

    In this and an accompanying paper we review the use of game theoretical concepts in cell biology and molecular biology. This review focuses on the subcellular level by considering viruses, genes, and molecules as players. We discuss in which way catalytic RNA can be treated by game theory. Moreover, genes can compete for success in replication and can have different strategies in interactions with other genetic elements. Also transposable elements, or "jumping genes", can act as players because they usually bear different traits or strategies. Viruses compete in the case of co-infecting a host cell. Proteins interact in a game theoretical sense when forming heterodimers. Finally, we describe how the Shapley value can be applied to enzymes in metabolic pathways. We show that game theory can be successfully applied to describe and analyse scenarios at the molecular level resulting in counterintuitive conclusions.

  5. Professional Flash Mobile Development Creating Android and iPhone Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Wagner, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Professional Flash Mobile Development: Creating Android and iPhone ApplicationsEverything Flash developers need to know to create native Android and iPhone appsThis Wrox guide shows Flash developers how to create native applications for Android and iPhone mobile devices using Flash. Packed with practical examples, it shows how to build a variety of apps and integrate them with core mobile services such as Accelerometer, GPS, Photo Library,and more.Offers Flash developers the tools to create apps for the Android and iPhone mobile devicesSho

  6. Left ventricular biomechanics in professional football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Lueder, T G; Hodt, A; Gjerdalen, G F; Steine, K

    2017-04-04

    Chronic exercise induces adaptive changes of left ventricular (LV) ejection and filling capacities which may be detected by novel speckle-tracking echocardiography (STE) and tissue Doppler imaging (TDI)-based techniques. A total of 103 consecutive male elite Norwegian soccer players and 46 age-matched healthy controls underwent echocardiography at rest. STE was used to assess LV torsional mechanics and LV systolic longitudinal strain (LS). Diastolic function was evaluated by trans-mitral blood flow, mitral annular velocities by TDI, and LV inflow propagation velocity by color M-mode. Despite similar global LS, players displayed lower basal wall and higher apical wall LS values vs controls, resulting in an incremental base-to-apex gradient of LS. Color M-mode and TDI-derived data were similar in both groups. Peak systolic twist rate (TWR) was significantly lower in players (86.4±2.8 vs controls 101.9±5.2 deg/s, Pplayers (-124.5±4.2 vs -106.9±6.7 deg/s) and peaked earlier during the cardiac cycle (112.7±0.8 vs 117.4±2.4% of systole duration, both Pplayers. Augmented diastolic wall strain (DWS), a novel measure of LV compliance in players, was associated with improved myocardial mechanical efficiency. The described myocardial biomechanics may underlie augmented exertional cardiac function in athletes and may have a potential role to characterize athlete's heart by itself or to distinguish it from hypertensive or hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. The El Dorado of Handball? Foreign Female Players Stay, while Domestic Players Return from Abroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bon, Marta; Topič, Mojca Doupona; Šibila, Marko

    2016-04-01

    The main purpose of this research was to study the characteristics of migration in European women's handball based on the Slovenian example and to find the differences between the foreigners coming to Slovenia and the Slovenians transferring to foreign clubs. The research was based on 16 open face-to-face semi-structured interviews (8 Slovenians (age 29.5 ± 6.2 years) and 8 foreigners (age 35.5 ± 8.7 years)). We found out that the most powerful factor in foreigners was the financial one, while within Slovenian players it was their personal desire for progression within their sport, the club's reputation and poor conditions in their previous club. The results confirm that when making a decision on transfer, all players had the support of family and friends, while the clubs of foreign players were not as supportive. Most interviewees considered their careers successful and did not regret going abroad. The research indicates that the largest differences discovered between Slovenians and foreigners were that foreign female players chose to stay in the new country (Slovenia), while domestic players returned home after few years playing abroad. In conclusion, the results show that in top-level handball there are important differences between migration models which are based on nationality and also that the migration models change throughout time, which is largely connected with the socioeconomic events in the country of origin or transfer.

  8. Tibia and fibula fractures in soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, B P; Lohnes, J H; Nunley, J A; Garrett, W E

    1999-01-01

    We performed a retrospective review of 31 athletes who sustained a fracture of the lower leg from a direct blow while playing soccer. Fifteen fractures involved both the tibia and fibula 11 only the tibia, and 5 only the fibula. Information was collected using a standardized questionnaire. The mean follow-up from the time of injury was 30 months. Injuries typically occurred in young, competitive athletes during game situations. The mechanisms were broadly classified into several categories: contact during a slide tackle (13, 42%), a collision with the goalkeeper (8, 26%), two opposing players colliding while swinging for a loose ball (7, 23%), or a player being kicked by a standing opponent (3, 10%). The majority of fractures (26, 90%) occurred while the athletes were wearing shin guards. The point of impact was with the shin guard prior to the fracture in 16 cases (62%). Return to competitive soccer averaged 40 weeks for combined tibia and fibula fractures, 35 weeks for isolated tibia fractures, and 18 weeks for isolated fibula fractures. Injuries were associated with a high incidence of major complications (12 out of 31, 39%), especially in concurrent tibia and fibula fractures (8 out of 15, 50%). These findings suggest that lower leg fractures in soccer players are serious injuries, often necessitating a prolonged recovery time. In addition, this study questions the ability of shin guards to protect against fractures.

  9. EVALUATING AUSTRALIAN FOOTBALL LEAGUE PLAYER CONTRIBUTIONS USING INTERACTIVE NETWORK SIMULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Sargent

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the contribution of Australian Football League (AFL players to their team's on-field network by simulating player interactions within a chosen team list and estimating the net effect on final score margin. A Visual Basic computer program was written, firstly, to isolate the effective interactions between players from a particular team in all 2011 season matches and, secondly, to generate a symmetric interaction matrix for each match. Negative binomial distributions were fitted to each player pairing in the Geelong Football Club for the 2011 season, enabling an interactive match simulation model given the 22 chosen players. Dynamic player ratings were calculated from the simulated network using eigenvector centrality, a method that recognises and rewards interactions with more prominent players in the team network. The centrality ratings were recorded after every network simulation and then applied in final score margin predictions so that each player's match contribution-and, hence, an optimal team-could be estimated. The paper ultimately demonstrates that the presence of highly rated players, such as Geelong's Jimmy Bartel, provides the most utility within a simulated team network. It is anticipated that these findings will facilitate optimal AFL team selection and player substitutions, which are key areas of interest to coaches. Network simulations are also attractive for use within betting markets, specifically to provide information on the likelihood of a chosen AFL team list "covering the line".

  10. High-speed video and electric field observation of upward flashes in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saba, Marcelo M. F.; Schumann, Carina; Ferro, Marco A. S.; Paiva, Amanda R.; Jaques, Robson; Warner, Tom A.

    2015-04-01

    Upward flashes from tall towers in Brazil have been observed since January 2012. They have been responsible for damages on equipment installed nearby tall structures that caused their initiation. Almost all upward flashes were observed with high-speed cameras and electric field sensors; a combination of measurements that provides a very accurate classification and characterization of their properties. Although present during all seasons, upward flashes are predominant during summer. They are almost always initiated by a preceding positive cloud-to-ground flash. This study is based on an up-to-date database of 86 upward flashes observed during the last three years. The main characteristics described in this work are: time interval between triggering event and the upward leader initiation, characteristics of the triggering +CG flashes, upward leader characteristics (polarity, presence of recoil leaders and branching), initial continuous current (duration, presence of pulses and recoil leaders), flash duration and presence of subsequence of return stroke.

  11. Adobe Flash as a medium for online experimentation: a test of reaction time measurement capabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimers, Stian; Stewart, Neil

    2007-08-01

    Adobe Flash can be used to run complex psychological experiments over the Web. We examined the reliability of using Flash to measure reaction times (RTs) using a simple binary-choice task implemented both in Flash and in a Linux-based system known to record RTs with millisecond accuracy. Twenty-four participants were tested in the laboratory using both implementations; they also completed the Flash version on computers of their own choice outside the lab. RTs from the trials run on Flash outside the lab were approximately 20 msec slower than those from trials run on Flash in the lab, which in turn were approximately 10 msec slower than RTs from the trials run on the Linux-based system (baseline condition). RT SDs were similar in all conditions, suggesting that although Flash may overestimate RTs slightly, it does not appear to add significant noise to the data recorded.

  12. Flash Heating of Crustal Rocks at Seismic Slip Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsby, D. L.; Spagnuolo, E.; Smith, S. A.; Beeler, N. M.; Tullis, T. E.; Di Toro, G.; Nielsen, S. B.

    2012-12-01

    Recent experiments have demonstrated that rocks undergo extreme frictional weakening at near-earthquake slip rates due to the thermal degradation of the strength, or even melting, of microscopic asperity contacts on their sliding surfaces (Goldsby and Tullis, 2012). These previous experiments, conducted at constant normal stress and slip rates of up to ~0.4 m/s, revealed a 1/V dependence of friction on slip rate above a characteristic weakening velocity, Vw, in accord with theories of flash heating (e.g., Rice, 2006). The weakening velocity obtains values of ~0.1 m/s for many crustal silicate rocks (Goldsby and Tullis, 2012). Here we test two further predictions of flash-heating theory - that the degree of weakening saturates at slip rates approaching 1 m/s, and that the weakening behavior due to flash heating is independent of normal stress - by testing samples at slip rates of up to 1 m/s at different normal stresses. Experiments were conducted in a 1-atm, high-velocity friction apparatus at the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia in Rome. A sample consisted of a pair of hollow cylinders of Westerly granite or Frederick diabase subjected to a nominally constant normal stress of from 1 to 30 MPa and subjected to a variety of rate-stepping sequences. Data were acquired at rates of up to 1 MHz. As predicted, the experiments demonstrate that the degree of weakening due to flash heating saturates at slip rates approaching 1 m/s; in a few cases, friction even increases slightly with increasing slip rate near 1 m/s. The experiments also demonstrate that, within the scatter of the data, the value of Vw and the friction coefficient in the weakened state is independent of normal stress, the expected result if average contact sizes and contact stresses are independent of normal stress. The data thus further corroborate existing theories and experimental data for flash heating, allowing for a more reliable determination of the conditions under which flash heating

  13. Impact Flash Physics: Modeling and Comparisons With Experimental Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainey, E.; Stickle, A. M.; Ernst, C. M.; Schultz, P. H.; Mehta, N. L.; Brown, R. C.; Swaminathan, P. K.; Michaelis, C. H.; Erlandson, R. E.

    2015-12-01

    Hypervelocity impacts frequently generate an observable "flash" of light with two components: a short-duration spike due to emissions from vaporized material, and a long-duration peak due to thermal emissions from expanding hot debris. The intensity and duration of these peaks depend on the impact velocity, angle, and the target and projectile mass and composition. Thus remote sensing measurements of planetary impact flashes have the potential to constrain the properties of impacting meteors and improve our understanding of impact flux and cratering processes. Interpreting impact flash measurements requires a thorough understanding of how flash characteristics correlate with impact conditions. Because planetary-scale impacts cannot be replicated in the laboratory, numerical simulations are needed to provide this insight for the solar system. Computational hydrocodes can produce detailed simulations of the impact process, but they lack the radiation physics required to model the optical flash. The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) developed a model to calculate the optical signature from the hot debris cloud produced by an impact. While the phenomenology of the optical signature is understood, the details required to accurately model it are complicated by uncertainties in material and optical properties and the simplifications required to numerically model radiation from large-scale impacts. Comparisons with laboratory impact experiments allow us to validate our approach and to draw insight regarding processes that occur at all scales in impact events, such as melt generation. We used Sandia National Lab's CTH shock physics hydrocode along with the optical signature model developed at APL to compare with a series of laboratory experiments conducted at the NASA Ames Vertical Gun Range. The experiments used Pyrex projectiles to impact pumice powder targets with velocities ranging from 1 to 6 km/s at angles of 30 and 90 degrees with respect to

  14. Audition influences color processing in the sound-induced visual flash illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Jyoti; Martinez, Antigona; Hillyard, Steven A

    2013-12-18

    Multisensory interactions can lead to illusory percepts, as exemplified by the sound-induced extra flash illusion (SIFI: Shams, Kamitani, & Shimojo, 2000, 2002). In this illusion, an audio-visual stimulus sequence consisting of two pulsed sounds and a light flash presented within a 100 ms time window generates the visual percept of two flashes. Here, we used colored visual stimuli to investigate whether concurrent auditory stimuli can affect the perceived features of the illusory flash. Zero, one or two pulsed sounds were presented concurrently with either a red or green flash or with two flashes of different colors (red followed by green) in rapid sequence. By querying both the number and color of the participants' visual percepts, we found that the double flash illusion is stimulus specific: i.e., two sounds paired with one red or one green flash generated the percept of two red or two green flashes, respectively. This implies that the illusory second flash is induced at a level of visual processing after perceived color has been encoded. In addition, we found that the presence of two sounds influenced the integration of color information from two successive flashes. In the absence of any sounds, a red and a green flash presented in rapid succession fused to form a single orange percept, but when accompanied by two sounds, this integrated orange percept was perceived to flash twice on a significant proportion of trials. In addition, the number of concurrent auditory stimuli modified the degree to which the successive flashes were integrated to an orange percept vs. maintained as separate red-green percepts. Overall, these findings show that concurrent auditory input can affect both the temporal and featural properties of visual percepts. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A first look at global flash drought: long term change and short term predictability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xing; Wang, Linying; Ji, Peng

    2017-04-01

    "Flash drought" became popular after the unexpected 2012 central USA drought, mainly due to its rapid development, low predictability and devastating impacts on water resources and crop yields. A pilot study by Mo and Lettenmaier (2015) found that flash drought, based on a definition of concurrent heat extreme, soil moisture deficit and evapotranspiration (ET) enhancement at pentad scale, were in decline over USA during recent 100 years. Meanwhile, a recent work indicated that the occurrence of flash drought in China was doubled during the past 30 years, where a severe flash drought in the summer of 2013 ravaged 13 provinces in southern China. As global warming increases the frequency of heat waves and accelerates the hydrological cycle, the flash drought is expected to increase in general, but its trend might also be affected by interannual to decadal climate oscillations. To consolidate the hotspots of flash drought and the effects of climate change on flash drought, a global inventory is being conducted by using multi-source observations (in-situ, satellite and reanalysis), CMIP5 historical simulations and future projections under different forcing scenarios, as well as global land surface hydrological modeling for key variables including surface air temperature, soil moisture and ET. In particular, a global picture of the flash drought distribution, the contribution of naturalized and anthropogenic forcings to global flash drought change, and the risk of global flash drought in the future, will be presented. Besides investigating the long-term change of flash drought, providing reliable early warning is also essential to developing adaptation strategies. While regional drought early warning systems have been emerging in recent decade, forecasting of flash drought is still at an exploratory stage due to limited understanding of flash drought predictability. Here, a set of sub-seasonal to seasonal (S2S) hindcast datasets are being used to assess the short term

  16. Sympathetic enhancement in futsal players but not in football players after repeated sprint ability test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yung-Sheng; Liao, Chih-Jung; Lu, Wan-An; Kuo, Cheng-Deng

    2015-01-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) can disclose the specific adaptation of sympathovagal modulation to exercise. This study investigated the change in HRV measures after anaerobic and aerobic intermittent exercises in university football and futsal players. 36 male university students with physically active lifestyle (n=14), football (n=12), and futsal (n=10) participated in this study. The participants completed the repeated sprint ability (RSA) test and Yo-Yo (YY) intermittent recovery test level 1 in randomised order. ECG signals of the participants were recorded in supine position 15 min before and 30 min after exercises. Before exercise, and 5 and 30 min after exercise, the blood pressures were also taken. In the RSA protocol, the percentage changes in normalised high-frequency power (nHFP) were significantly decreased, while the percentage changes in the very low/high frequency power ratio (VLHR) and low/high frequency power ratio (LHR) were significantly increased in futsal players after exercise, as compared with the controls. No significant changes in all HRV indices were found in the YY protocol, except the respiratory frequency. After exercise, the percent decrease in vagal modulation in futsal players was significantly reduced, while the percentage increase in sympathetic modulation in futsal players was significantly enhanced in the RSA test, but not in the YY test, as compared with the control group. The increase in sympathetic activity and the decrease in vagal activity in the futsal players were greater than the corresponding increase and decrease in the football players in the RSA test.

  17. Vascular Health in American Football Players: Cardiovascular Risk Increased in Division III Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah L. Feairheller

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies report that football players have high blood pressure (BP and increased cardiovascular risk. There are over 70,000 NCAA football players and 450 Division III schools sponsor football programs, yet limited research exists on vascular health of athletes. This study aimed to compare vascular and cardiovascular health measures between football players and nonathlete controls. Twenty-three athletes and 19 nonathletes participated. Vascular health measures included flow-mediated dilation (FMD and carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT. Cardiovascular measures included clinic and 24 hr BP levels, body composition, VO2 max, and fasting glucose/cholesterol levels. Compared to controls, football players had a worse vascular and cardiovascular profile. Football players had thicker carotid artery IMT (0.49 ± 0.06 mm versus 0.46 ± 0.07 mm and larger brachial artery diameter during FMD (4.3±0.5 mm versus 3.7±0.6 mm, but no difference in percent FMD. Systolic BP was significantly higher in football players at all measurements: resting (128.2±6.4 mmHg versus 122.4±6.8 mmHg, submaximal exercise (150.4±18.8 mmHg versus 137.3±9.5 mmHg, maximal exercise (211.3±25.9 mmHg versus 191.4±19.2 mmHg, and 24-hour BP (124.9±6.3 mmHg versus 109.8±3.7 mmHg. Football players also had higher fasting glucose (91.6±6.5 mg/dL versus 86.6±5.8 mg/dL, lower HDL (36.5±11.2 mg/dL versus 47.1±14.8 mg/dL, and higher body fat percentage (29.2±7.9% versus 23.2±7.0%. Division III collegiate football players remain an understudied population and may be at increased cardiovascular risk.

  18. Vascular Health in American Football Players: Cardiovascular Risk Increased in Division III Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feairheller, Deborah L.; Aichele, Kristin R.; Oakman, Joyann E.; Neal, Michael P.; Cromwell, Christina M.; Lenzo, Jessica M.; Perez, Avery N.; Bye, Naomi L.; Santaniello, Erica L.; Hill, Jessica A.; Evans, Rachel C.; Thiele, Karla A.; Chavis, Lauren N.; Getty, Allyson K.; Wisdo, Tia R.; McClelland, JoAnna M.; Sturgeon, Kathleen; Chlad, Pam

    2016-01-01

    Studies report that football players have high blood pressure (BP) and increased cardiovascular risk. There are over 70,000 NCAA football players and 450 Division III schools sponsor football programs, yet limited research exists on vascular health of athletes. This study aimed to compare vascular and cardiovascular health measures between football players and nonathlete controls. Twenty-three athletes and 19 nonathletes participated. Vascular health measures included flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT). Cardiovascular measures included clinic and 24 hr BP levels, body composition, VO2 max, and fasting glucose/cholesterol levels. Compared to controls, football players had a worse vascular and cardiovascular profile. Football players had thicker carotid artery IMT (0.49 ± 0.06 mm versus 0.46 ± 0.07 mm) and larger brachial artery diameter during FMD (4.3 ± 0.5 mm versus 3.7 ± 0.6 mm), but no difference in percent FMD. Systolic BP was significantly higher in football players at all measurements: resting (128.2 ± 6.4 mmHg versus 122.4 ± 6.8 mmHg), submaximal exercise (150.4 ± 18.8 mmHg versus 137.3 ± 9.5 mmHg), maximal exercise (211.3 ± 25.9 mmHg versus 191.4 ± 19.2 mmHg), and 24-hour BP (124.9 ± 6.3 mmHg versus 109.8 ± 3.7 mmHg). Football players also had higher fasting glucose (91.6 ± 6.5 mg/dL versus 86.6 ± 5.8 mg/dL), lower HDL (36.5 ± 11.2 mg/dL versus 47.1 ± 14.8 mg/dL), and higher body fat percentage (29.2 ± 7.9% versus 23.2 ± 7.0%). Division III collegiate football players remain an understudied population and may be at increased cardiovascular risk. PMID:26904291

  19. Energy Balance during Taekwondo Practice in Elite Male Taekwondo Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kang Ok; Garber, Carol Ewing; Lee, Sukho; Kim, Yeon Soo

    2013-03-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate energy expenditure and dietary intake of nutrients during Taekwondo practice in elite Korean male Taekwondo players. Elite Korean male high school (high school player: HP; n = 59) and college players (college player: CP; n = 58) wore an accelerometer to measure energy expenditure and recorded their daily dietary intake for nutritional analysis over the course of five days. Nutritional adequacy ratios for total energy (0.82), vitamin C (0.97), calcium (0.78), and folate (0.75) were below recommended levels for all players. When comparing daily nutrient intake and energy expenditure between HP and CP, the HP group had significantly higher total calorie intake (402.7 kcal, p Taekwondo practice, the total energy expenditure (151.2 kcal, p = 0.001), total activity counts (130,674 counts, p = 0.038) and energy expenditure during Taekwondo practice (257.7 kcal, p Taekwondo players.

  20. Biodiesel Production by Reactive Flash: A Numerical Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Regalado-Méndez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Reactive flash (RF in biodiesel production has been studied in order to investigate steady-state multiplicities, singularities, and effect of biodiesel quality when the RF system approaches to bubble point. The RF was modeled by an index-2 system of differential algebraic equations, the vapor split (ϕ was computed by modified Rachford-Rice equation and modified Raoult’s law computed bubble point, and the continuation analysis was tracked on MATCONT. Results of this study show the existence of turning points, leading to a unique bubble point manifold, (xBiodiesel,T=(0.46,478.41 K, which is a globally stable flashing operation. Also, the results of the simulation in MATLAB® of the dynamic behavior of the RF show that conversion of triglycerides reaches 97% for a residence time of 5.8 minutes and a methanol to triglyceride molar flow ratio of 5 : 1.

  1. Flash pryolysis of biomass with reactive and nonreactive gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaram, M. S.; Steinberg, M.; Fallon, P. T.

    1982-10-01

    Studies were done on the flash pyrolysis of Douglas Fir wood in the presence of reactive and nonreactive gases including hydrogen, methane, and helium. Pyrolysis and gasification of the wood particles was done in one step, without catalysts. Almost complete (98%) gasification of the carbon in Douglas fir wood was achieved at 10000C and 500-psi hydrogen pressure. The reaction products were methane, ethane, ethylene, carbon monoxide, BTX, and water. Flash hydropyrolysis produced a large yield of hydrocarbon gases (up to 78% C) comprising methane and ethane. High yields of ethylene (up to 21% C) and BTX (up to 12% C) were obtained via methane pyrolysis of fir wood; a free radical mechanism is proposed to explain the enhanced yield of ethylene in a methane atmosphere.

  2. Measurement and analysis of coherent synchrotron radiation effects at FLASH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beutner, B.

    2007-12-15

    The vacuum-ultra-violet Free Electron Laser in Hamburg (FLASH) is a linac driven SASE-FEL. High peak currents are produced using magnetic bunch compression chicanes. In these magnetic chicanes, the energy distribution along an electron bunch is changed by eff ects of Coherent Synchrotron Radiation (CSR). Energy changes in dispersive bunch compressor chicanes lead to transverse displacements along the bunch. These CSR induced displacements are studied using a transverse deflecting RF-structure. Experiments and simulations concerning the charge dependence of such transverse displacements are presented and analysed. In these experiments an over-compression scheme is used which reduces the peak current downstream the bunch compressor chicanes. Therefore other self interactions like space charge forces which might complicate the measurements are suppressed. Numerical simulations are used to analyse the beam dynamics under the influence of CSR forces. The results of these numerical simulations are compared with the data obtained in the over-compression experiments at FLASH. (orig.)

  3. Measuring x-ray spectra of flash radiographic sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehring, Amanda E.; Espy, Michelle A.; Haines, Todd J.; Mendez, Jacob; Moir, David C.; Sedillo, Robert; Shurter, Roger P.; Volegov, Petr; Webb, Timothy J.

    2015-08-01

    A Compton spectrometer has been re-commissioned for measurements of flash radiographic sources. The determination of the energy spectrum of these sources is difficult due to the high count rates and short nature of the pulses (~50 ns). The spectrometer is a 300 kg neodymium-iron magnet which measures spectra in the <1 MeV to 20 MeV energy range. Incoming x-rays are collimated into a narrow beam incident on a converter foil. The ejected Compton electrons are collimated so that the forward-directed electrons enter the magnetic field region of the spectrometer. The position of the electrons at the magnet's focal plane is a function of their momentum, allowing the x-ray spectrum to be reconstructed. Recent measurements of flash sources are presented.

  4. Flash characteristics of plasma induced by hypervelocity impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Long, Renrong; Zhang, Qingming; Xue, Yijiang; Ju, Yuanyuan

    2016-08-01

    Using a two-stage light gas gun, a series of hypervelocity impact experiments was conducted in which 6.4-mm-diameter spherical 2024-aluminum projectiles impact 23-mm-thick targets made of the same material at velocities of 5.0, 5.6, and 6.3 km/s. Both an optical pyrometer composed of six photomultiplier tubes and a spectrograph were used to measure the flash of the plasma during hypervelocity impact. Experimental results show that, at a projectile velocity of 6.3 km/s, the strong flash lasted about 10 μs and reached a temperature of 4300 K. Based on the known emission lines of AL I, spectral methods can provide the plasma electron temperature. An electron-temperature comparison between experiment and theoretical calculation indicates that single ionization and secondary ionization are the two main ionizing modes at velocities 5.0-6.3 km/s.

  5. Visualizing Library Statistics using Open Flash Chart 2 and Drupal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura K. Wiegand

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Libraries continue to need to demonstrate their value to stakeholders, and while statistics alone do not represent value, they are an important element. We found ourselves, and our stakeholders, uninspired by our infrequently updated bulleted list of statistics on our website and so set out to create a more dynamic and visually appealing look at our statistics. This article outlines how we used our content management system, Drupal, Open Flash Chart and custom programming to convert library statistics into Flash charts, including how to populate the graphs with dynamic data from external sources. The end result is our Library Statistics Dashboard (http://library.uncw.edu/facts_planning/dashboard that visually demonstrates the use, activity and resources in the library via interactive and visually interesting graphs.

  6. Hartmann wavefront sensors and their application at FLASH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keitel, Barbara; Plönjes, Elke; Kreis, Svea; Kuhlmann, Marion; Tiedtke, Kai; Mey, Tobias; Schäfer, Bernd; Mann, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Different types of Hartmann wavefront sensors are presented which are usable for a variety of applications in the soft X-ray spectral region at FLASH, the free-electron laser (FEL) in Hamburg. As a typical application, online measurements of photon beam parameters during mirror alignment are reported on. A compact Hartmann sensor, operating in the wavelength range from 4 to 38 nm, was used to determine the wavefront quality as well as aberrations of individual FEL pulses during the alignment procedure. Beam characterization and alignment of the focusing optics of the FLASH beamline BL3 were performed with λ(13.5 nm)/116 accuracy for wavefront r.m.s. (w(rms)) repeatability, resulting in a reduction of w(rms) by 33% during alignment.

  7. Flash Flooding - Ways That Science and Adaptation Reduce Losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruntfest, E.

    2014-12-01

    Flash flood vulnerability is increasing. Predictability is more difficult as more flooding results after wildfires destroy hillside vegetation. Recent extreme events have occurred outside of seasonal norms with well beyond expected precipitation rates, and with unusual storm behavior where precipitation rates increase at the end of a storm. Engineers, social scientists, physical scientists, planners, emergency managers and others must collaborate in new ways to keep losses from rising. For example improved detection using cameras and gages must be complemented by understanding why people drive through flooded roads and what can be done to reduce the number of people on flooded roadways. Case studies of successful collaborations will be provided along with discussion of challenges and opportunities for expanding the innovative flash flood risk reduction strategies.

  8. uFLIP: Understanding the Energy Consumption of Flash Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørling, Matias; Bonnet, Philippe; Bouganim, Luc

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the energy consumption of flash devices is important for two reasons. First, energy is emerging as a key metric for data management systems. It is thus important to understand how we can reason about the energy consumption of flash devices beyond their approximate aggregate...... consumption (low power consumption in idle mode, average Watt consumption from the data sheets). Second, when measured at a sufficiently fine granularity, the energy consumption of a given device might complement the performance characteristics derived from its response time profile. Indeed, background work...... which is not directly observable with a response time profile appears clearly when energy is used as a metric. In this paper, we discuss the results from the {uFLIP} benchmark applied to four different {SSD} devices using both response time and energy as metric....

  9. Total Lightning Flash Activity Response to Aerosol over China Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengguo Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Twelve years of measurements of aerosol optical depth (AOD, cloud fraction, cloud top height, ice cloud optical thickness and lightning flash density from 2001 to 2012 have been analyzed to investigate the effect of aerosols on electrical activity over an area of China. The results show that increasing aerosol loading inspires the convective intensity, and then increases the lightning flash density. The spatial distribution of the correlation between aerosol loading and electrical activity shows a remarkable regional difference over China. The high-correlation regions embody the positive aerosol microphysical effect on the intensity of the electrical activity, while the large-scale processes may play the main role in convection development and producing lightning in low-correlation regions.

  10. uFLIP: Understanding the Energy Consumption of Flash Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørling, Matias; Bonnet, Philippe; Bouganim, Luc

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the energy consumption of flash devices is important for two reasons. First, energy is emerging as a key metric for data management systems. It is thus important to understand how we can reason about the energy consumption of flash devices beyond their approximate aggregate...... consumption (low power consumption in idle mode, average Watt consumption from the data sheets). Second, when measured at a sufficiently fine granularity, the energy consumption of a given device might complement the performance characteristics derived from its response time profile. Indeed, background work...... which is not directly observable with a response time profile appears clearly when energy is used as a metric. In this paper, we discuss the results from the {uFLIP} benchmark applied to four different {SSD} devices using both response time and energy as metric....

  11. Measurement of thermophysical properties of ceramics by the flash method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio S. C. Pinto

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The flash method, proposed by Parker, Butler, Jenkins and Abbott from the U.S. Navy Radiological Defense Laboratory in 1961, is the most popular method for measuring the thermal diffusivity of solids. In this method, the front surface of a small sample is subjected to a very short burst of radiant thermal energy. The resulting temperature rise on the opposite surface of the sample is measured and the thermal diffusivity is computed from the temperature rise versus time data. Also, the specific heat can be computed from the measured data, thus allowing for the calculation of the thermal conductivity. Several theoretical models are available for the flash method, which include adiabatic boundary conditions, heat losses, surface coating effects, among other aspects. In this paper, tests were made for the identification of thermo-physical properties of a Ceramic block. The Netzsch Nanoflash LFA 447/1 of LTTC/COPPE/UFRJ was used for the measurements.

  12. Flash flood modeling with the MARINE hydrological distributed model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Estupina-Borrell

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Flash floods are characterized by their violence and the rapidity of their occurrence. Because these events are rare and unpredictable, but also fast and intense, their anticipation with sufficient lead time for warning and broadcasting is a primary subject of research. Because of the heterogeneities of the rain and of the behavior of the surface, spatially distributed hydrological models can lead to a better understanding of the processes and so on they can contribute to a better forecasting of flash flood. Our main goal here is to develop an operational and robust methodology for flash flood forecasting. This methodology should provide relevant data (information about flood evolution on short time scales, and should be applicable even in locations where direct observations are sparse (e.g. absence of historical and modern rainfalls and streamflows in small mountainous watersheds. The flash flood forecast is obtained by the physically based, space-time distributed hydrological model "MARINE'' (Model of Anticipation of Runoff and INondations for Extreme events. This model is presented and tested in this paper for a real flash flood event. The model consists in two steps, or two components: the first component is a "basin'' flood module which generates flood runoff in the upstream part of the watershed, and the second component is the "stream network'' module, which propagates the flood in the main river and its subsidiaries. The basin flash flood generation model is a rainfall-runoff model that can integrate remotely sensed data. Surface hydraulics equations are solved with enough simplifying hypotheses to allow real time exploitation. The minimum data required by the model are: (i the Digital Elevation Model, used to calculate slopes that generate runoff, it can be issued from satellite imagery (SPOT or from French Geographical Institute (IGN; (ii the rainfall data from meteorological radar, observed or

  13. Heart rate and activity profile for young female soccer players

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The physical and physiological demands of high-level male soccer have been studied extensively, while few studies have investigated the demands placed on females during match-play, however, there is no information available about the heart rate and activity profile of young female soccer players during match play. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine cardiovascular (heart-rates HR) and physical demands of young female soccer players during a match. Players were observed during a fr...

  14. Temperamental Predictive Factors for Success in Korean Professional Baseball Players

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Kyoung Doo; Han, Doug Hyun; Hannon, James C.; Hall, Morgan S.; Choi, Jae Won

    2015-01-01

    Objective In this five-year cohort study, we hypothesize that factors of temperament and character in professional baseball players predict the speed of obtaining success and the quality of success as well as anxiety control. Methods Participants included 120 male rookie players from the Korea Baseball Organization (KBO) and 107 male non-players with no history of playing baseball. The personality/characters and state/trait anxieties of participants were assessed with the Temperament and Char...

  15. Nutritional Habits & Knowledge in the Division I Collegiate Football Player

    OpenAIRE

    Hale, Mallory

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Athlete’s nutritional habits and knowledge can directly affect their performance. The purpose of this study is to investigate the nutritional habits and knowledge of the Division I collegiate football player. Methods: The participants of this study are male Division I college football players at Utah State University. The athletes included 45 players ranging from 18-26 and include freshman through seniors. Results: Over eighty six percent of the athletes were unaware that a ...

  16. FLASH Assembly of TALENs Enables High-Throughput Genome Editing

    OpenAIRE

    Reyon, Deepak; Tsai, Shengdar Q.; Khayter, Cyd; Foden, Jennifer A.; Sander, Jeffry D.; Joung, J. Keith

    2012-01-01

    Engineered transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) have shown promise as facile and broadly applicable genome editing tools. However, no publicly available high-throughput method for constructing TALENs has been published and large-scale assessments of the success rate and targeting range of the technology remain lacking. Here we describe the Fast Ligation-based Automatable Solid-phase High-throughput (FLASH) platform, a rapid and cost-effective method we developed to enable ...

  17. Temporal Parameter Optimization in Four-Dimensional Flash Trajectory Imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xin-Wei; ZHOU Yan; FAN Song-Tao; LIU Yu-Liang

    2011-01-01

    In four-dimensional fiash trajectory imaging, temporal parameters include time delay, laser pulse width, gate time, pulse pair repetition frequency and the frame rate of CCD, which directly impact on the acquisition of target trajectories over time. We propose a method of optimizing the temporal parameters of flash trajectory imaging. All the temporal parameters can be estimated by the spatial parameters of the volumes of interest, target scale and velocity, and target sample number. The formulae for optimizing temporal parameters are derived, and the method is demonstrated in an experiment with a ball oscillating as a pendulum.%In four-dimensional flash trajectory imaging,temporal parameters include time delay,laser pulse width,gate time,pulse pair repetition frequency and the frame rate of CCD,which directly impact on the acquisition of target trajectories over time.We propose a method of optimizing the temporal parameters of flash trajectory imaging.All the temporal parameters can be estimated by the spatial parameters of the volumes of interest,target scale and velocity,and target sample number.The formulae for optimizing temporal parameters are derived,and the method is demonstrated in an experiment with a ball oscillating as a pendulum.Four-dimensional flash trajectory imaging (FTI)based on time-delay-modulated range-gated viewing can directly image the trajectories of moving objects with backgrounds filtered and deduce target 3D positions over time,[1] which has potentials in astronomy,remote sensing and biomedical applications.[2 4] Temporal parameters are crucial for FTI.An unreasonable setting of temporal parameters will lead to failure in obtaining target trajectories.However,in the previous work,[1] the optimization of temporal parameters has not been discussed in detail.Therefore,in this Letter we give a method of estimating the temporal parameters of FTI.

  18. Flash flood swift water rescues, Texas, 2005–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaidehi Shah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Although rainfall patterns are complex and difficult to predict, climate models suggest precipitation in Texas will occur less frequently and with greater intensity in the future. In combination with rapid population growth and development, extreme rainfall events are likely to lead to flash floods and necessitate swift water rescues. Swift water rescues are used to retrieve person(s from swift water flowing at a rate of 1 knot or greater. Data were obtained from the Texas Fire Marshal’s Office and analyzed to describe spatial and temporal characteristics of rescues. Between 2005 and 2014, 3256 swift water rescues were reported from 136 of 254 (54% counties. Over half (54.6%, n = 1777 occurred in counties known as Flash Flood Alley, which includes Texas’ largest and fastest growing cities. Less than 1.0% (n = 18 were reported from 49 counties designated as completely rural, or with an urban population less than 2500. Increases in swift water rescues were seen between March and September and during major weather events such as tropical storms. Because county-level data was utilized and demographic data was missing in all but 2% (n = 47 of the incidents, our ability to identify populations at risk or target interventions in the future using this data is limited. Despite the frequency of flash flood events and swift water rescues in Texas, knowledge gaps persist that should be addressed through the conduct of interdisciplinary research by epidemiologists and climatologists and by disseminating evidence-based health education and safety programs, particularly in rapidly growing counties that make up Texas’ Flash Flood Alley.

  19. On the Mechanism of Microwave Flash Sintering of Ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yury V. Bykov

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The results of a study of ultra-rapid (flash sintering of oxide ceramic materials under microwave heating with high absorbed power per unit volume of material (10–500 W/cm3 are presented. Ceramic samples of various compositions—Al2O3; Y2O3; MgAl2O4; and Yb(LaO2O3—were sintered using a 24 GHz gyrotron system to a density above 0.98–0.99 of the theoretical value in 0.5–5 min without isothermal hold. An analysis of the experimental data (microwave power; heating and cooling rates along with microstructure characterization provided an insight into the mechanism of flash sintering. Flash sintering occurs when the processing conditions—including the temperature of the sample; the properties of thermal insulation; and the intensity of microwave radiation—facilitate the development of thermal runaway due to an Arrhenius-type dependency of the material’s effective conductivity on temperature. The proper control over the thermal runaway effect is provided by fast regulation of the microwave power. The elevated concentration of defects and impurities in the boundary regions of the grains leads to localized preferential absorption of microwave radiation and results in grain boundary softening/pre-melting. The rapid densification of the granular medium with a reduced viscosity of the grain boundary phase occurs via rotation and sliding of the grains which accommodate their shape due to fast diffusion mass transport through the (quasi-liquid phase. The same mechanism based on a thermal runaway under volumetric heating can be relevant for the effect of flash sintering of various oxide ceramics under a dc/ac voltage applied to the sample.

  20. Fabric Fashion Flash Autumn-Winter 2011-2012

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Italian Trade Commission (I.C.E) joined Ornella Bignami releasing the FABRIC FASHION FLASH AUTUMN-WINTER 2011-2012, in Intertex Shanghai, October.Enriched by an uninterrupted dialogue within the profession for over 25 years, through a fine tuned skill in deciphering major trends and social changes, Ornella Bignami has earned a wide credibility in the field of textile industry, fashion and home textile products.

  1. Fluctuation theorem for the flashing ratchet model of molecular motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacoste, D.; Mallick, K.

    2009-08-01

    Molecular motors convert chemical energy derived from the hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) into mechanical energy. A well-studied model of a molecular motor is the flashing ratchet model. We show that this model exhibits a fluctuation relation known as the Gallavotti-Cohen symmetry. Our study highlights the fact that the symmetry is present only if the chemical and mechanical degrees of freedom are both included in the description.

  2. Towards Player Adaptivity in a Serious Game for Conflict Resolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grappiolo, C.; Cheong, Yun-Gyung; Togelius, J.

    2011-01-01

    to resolve this type of conflict, the underlying system generates level content automatically which adapts to player experience and behaviour. Preliminary results demonstrate the efficiency of the procedural content generation mechanism in guiding the training of players towards targeted learning objectives.......We present a technology demonstrator for an adaptive serious game for teaching conflict resolution and discuss the research questions associated with the project. The prototype is a single-player 3D mini-game which simulates a resource management conflict scenario. In order to teach the player how...

  3. Arthroscopic Shoulder Surgery in Female Professional Tennis Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Simon W.; Safran, Marc R.; Dakic, Jodie; Nguyen, Michael L.; Stroia, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Recent publications have highlighted the relatively poor outcome of other overhead athletes, particularly baseball players, with regard to return to sports at the same or higher level after shoulder surgery. However, true assessment of their ability when returning to sport is not as clear. Further, ability to return to other overhead sports has not been reported. Our objective was to assess outcome and time to return to previous level of function following shoulder surgery in professional tennis players. Methods: The records of all female tennis players on the Women’s Tennis Association (WTA) professional circuit between January 2008 and June 2010 were reviewed to identify players who underwent shoulder surgery on their dominant (serving) shoulder. Details of the surgery including date, procedures performed, and complications were recorded. The primary outcomes were ability and time to return to professional play, and if they were able to return to their previous level of function, as determined by singles ranking. Pre and post-operative singles rankings were used to determine rate and completeness of return to preoperative function. Their highest ranking pre-injury, post operatively, and the time to return to pre-injury ranking were evaluated. Results: During the study period eight professional women tennis players from the WTA underwent shoulder surgery on their dominant arm. All surgery was performed arthroscopically, 7 out of 8 players had more than one procedure performed during the surgery. In total, 3 players underwent debridement of a partial rotator cuff tear and 2 players underwent repair of a complete supraspinatus tear. Three players had an anterior labral repair or reconstruction for anterior instability, and one player underwent repair of a SLAP lesion. Two players underwent neurolysis of a suprascapular nerve, and three players in total underwent a subacromial decompression. All players (100%) returned to professional play. The mean

  4. A Multi-agent player for Settlers of Catan

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    There are many games that have been a challenge to Research in Artificial Intelligence. One such game is Settlers of Catan (SoC). The purpose of this thesis is to develop a Multi-agent player for SoC. Although it is difficult to focus on all the dimensions of the game during implementation, therefore a good enough solution is proposed. An emphasis is placed on building a good trader for the player. Once a working solution had been built, the player was tested against other players which inclu...

  5. Understanding the Mismatch Between Coaches' and Players' Perceptions of Exertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brink, Michel S; Kersten, Anna W; Frencken, Wouter G P

    2017-04-01

    A mismatch between the training exertion intended by a coach and the exertion perceived by players is well established in sports. However, it is unknown whether coaches can accurately observe exertion of individual players during training. Furthermore, the discrepancy in coaches' and players' perceptions has not been explained. To determine the relation between intended and observed training exertion by the coach and perceived training exertion by the players and establish whether on-field training characteristics, intermittent endurance capacity, and maturity status explain the mismatch. During 2 mesocycles of 4 wk (in November and March), rating of intended exertion (RIE), rating of observed exertion (ROE), and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were monitored in 31 elite young soccer players. External and internal training loads were objectively quantified with accelerometers (PlayerLoad) and heart-rate monitors (TRIMPmod). Results of an interval shuttle-run test (ISRT) and age at peak height velocity (APHV) were determined for all players. RIE, ROE, and RPE were monitored in 977 training sessions. The correlations between RIE and RPE (r = .58; P players will do and what they actually did on the field. When doing this, they consider the intermittent endurance capacity of individual players.

  6. Executive functions predict the success of top-soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestberg, Torbjörn; Gustafson, Roland; Maurex, Liselotte; Ingvar, Martin; Petrovic, Predrag

    2012-01-01

    While the importance of physical abilities and motor coordination is non-contested in sport, more focus has recently been turned toward cognitive processes important for different sports. However, this line of studies has often investigated sport-specific cognitive traits, while few studies have focused on general cognitive traits. We explored if measures of general executive functions can predict the success of a soccer player. The present study used standardized neuropsychological assessment tools assessing players' general executive functions including on-line multi-processing such as creativity, response inhibition, and cognitive flexibility. In a first cross-sectional part of the study we compared the results between High Division players (HD), Lower Division players (LD) and a standardized norm group. The result shows that both HD and LD players had significantly better measures of executive functions in comparison to the norm group for both men and women. Moreover, the HD players outperformed the LD players in these tests. In the second prospective part of the study, a partial correlation test showed a significant correlation between the result from the executive test and the numbers of goals and assists the players had scored two seasons later. The results from this study strongly suggest that results in cognitive function tests predict the success of ball sport players.

  7. Executive functions predict the success of top-soccer players.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torbjörn Vestberg

    Full Text Available While the importance of physical abilities and motor coordination is non-contested in sport, more focus has recently been turned toward cognitive processes important for different sports. However, this line of studies has often investigated sport-specific cognitive traits, while few studies have focused on general cognitive traits. We explored if measures of general executive functions can predict the success of a soccer player. The present study used standardized neuropsychological assessment tools assessing players' general executive functions including on-line multi-processing such as creativity, response inhibition, and cognitive flexibility. In a first cross-sectional part of the study we compared the results between High Division players (HD, Lower Division players (LD and a standardized norm group. The result shows that both HD and LD players had significantly better measures of executive functions in comparison to the norm group for both men and women. Moreover, the HD players outperformed the LD players in these tests. In the second prospective part of the study, a partial correlation test showed a significant correlation between the result from the executive test and the numbers of goals and assists the players had scored two seasons later. The results from this study strongly suggest that results in cognitive function tests predict the success of ball sport players.

  8. Player Collaboration in the Explorative Sound Environment ToneInk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne-Marie S.; Andersen, Hans Jørgen; Raudaskoski, Pirkko Liisa

    2016-01-01

    In the present paper, ToneInk, a prototype of a music based play scenario that investigates player collaboration, is introduced. ToneInk is an explorative sound environment that differs from the majority of music based games in that players can collaborate and be creative in the way they express...... mutual awareness, and in general were more passive when they needed to monitor a screen interface that supported the sound environment. Player collaboration was strongest when players negotiated rhythm, while the negotiation of melody was temporally offset and consisted of long individual explorations....

  9. Membongkar Veto Player dalam Politik Kepartaian Indonesia Menuju Pemilu 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arya Budi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The article explains about how party elites, then identified as veto players, in Indonesia’s 2014 election organize themselve into party organization. The authority institutionalization of the veto player creates a decisional and positional quadrant of each party in terms of party politics of 2014 election. The findings of veto player pattern in such a party politics confirm forms of a centripetal force of politics in party organization. Finally, veto player behavior causes a spectrum of political cybernetics among political parties based on its turbulence, cohesiveness, and switching elites.

  10. Spatial Frequency Modulates the Degree of Illusory Second Flash Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshima, Yasuhiro; Gyoba, Jiro

    2015-01-01

    When a brief single flash is presented simultaneously with two brief beeps, the number of presented flashes is often perceived as two. This phenomenon is referred to as the fission illusion. Several effects related to the fission illusion have been investigated using both psychophysical and neurophysiological methods. The present study examined the effects of spatial frequency on the fission illusion. At a low spatial frequency, transient channels respond preferably; conversely, sustained channels respond preferably at a high spatial frequency. Sustained channels differ in temporal properties from transient channels and are characterized by poor temporal resolution and slow-onset responses. In our previous study, visual stimuli presented at a slow processing speed were not conducive to the fission illusion. Therefore, we hypothesized that the fission illusion would not be difficult to observe when using high spatial frequencies. The results indicated that the degree of the perceived illusory second flash was reduced when spatial frequency was high as compared to when it was is low. Furthermore, according to signal detection theory, this difference between high and low spatial frequencies was not attributed to participants' response biases. Therefore, the fission illusion likely will not occur in conditions of slow processing speed and long response latencies in sustained channels, which respond preferably to high spatial frequency stimuli. Overall, the results indicated that the fission illusion was affected by temporal characteristics of lower-order sensory processing stages.

  11. Energetic and exergetic Improvement of geothermal single flash cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navid Nazari

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a detailed analysis of a new method for improving energetic and exergetic efficiencies of single flash cycle. The thermodynamic process of the new method consists of extracting a fraction of hot wellhead geothermal brine for the purpose of superheating saturated steam entering the turbine. Computer programming scripts were developed and optimized based on mathematical proposed models for the different components of the systems. The operating parameters such as separator temperature, geofluid wellhead enthalpy and geothermal source temperature are varied to investigate their effects on both net power output and turbine exhaust quality of the systems. Also, full exergy assessment was performed for the new design. The results of separator temperature optimization revealed that specific net power output of the new design can be boosted up to 8% and turbine exhaust quality can be diminished up to 50% as compared to common single flash cycle. In addition, for wells with higher discharge enthalpy, superheating process improve specific net power output even up to 10%. Finally, it was observed that the overall system exergy efficiency was approximately raised 3%. Article History: Received January 5th 2016; Received in revised form June 25th 2016; Accepted July 3rd 2016; Available online How to Cite This Article: Nazari, N. and Porkhial, S. (2016. Energetic and Exergetic Improvement of Geothermal Single Flash Cycle. Int. Journal of Renewable Energy Development, 5(2,129-138. http://dx.doi.org/10.14710/ijred.5.2.129-138 

  12. Detection and spectral measurements of coherent synchrotron radiation at FLASH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behrens, Christopher

    2010-02-15

    The operation of high-gain free-electron laser (FEL) underlies tremendous demands on high quality electron beams with high peak currents. At the Free-Electron-Laser in Hamburg (FLASH), two magnetic bunch compressors are used to compress the electron bunches longitudinally. In the bunch compressor magnets, these short electron bunches generate coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR). This CSR contains information on the longitudinal bunch profile, which is relevant for driving an FEL. In order to investigate coherent synchrotron radiation at the second bunch compressor BC3 at FLASH, a new setup behind the last dipole was installed. For the detection of coherent synchrotron radiation, which is emitted in the infrared regime, pyroelectric detectors were used. These pyroelectric detectors have been calibrated at the free-electron laser FELIX in the wavelength range from 5 {mu}m to 110 {mu}m. For characterisation of the emitted radiation, a transverse scanning device was used to measure the transverse intensity distribution. Various transmission filters were used to obtain additional information about the spectral content. In order to get spectral information with high resolution over a wide wavelength range, a rotating mirror spectrometer using reflective blazed gratings was installed. Using this spectrometer, the first spectral measurements of coherent synchrotron radiation at FLASH in a wavelength range from 10 {mu}m to 160 {mu}m were done. (orig.)

  13. Nonequilibrium vapor-generation model for flashing flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, P.; Abuaf, N.; Wu, B. J.C.

    1981-01-01

    A nonequilibrium vapor generation model for flashing flows is presented. The model consists of a flashing inception point, a bubbly flow regime followed by a bubbly-slug regime, an annular or annular-mist regime, and finally a dispersed-droplet regime. Existence of superheated liquid at the inception point and beyond is recognized. The vapor generation rate in each flow regime is calculated from the estimates for interfacial area density and net interfacial heat flux. However, the bubble number density at the flashing inception point was varied to obtain optimum fits with the void fraction data taken in a vertical converging-diverging nozzle. The interfacial area density at the inception point, thus determined, showed a rapid increase with the decrease in the liquid superheat at that point. This trend is correct since in the limit of thermal equilibrium flow where the liquid superheat approaches zero, the interfacial area for heat and mass transfer should approach infinity. 32 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Modelling (flash) floods in a Dutch lowland catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauer, C. C.; Teuling, A. J.; Overeem, A.; van der Velde, Y.; Hazenberg, P.; Warmerdam, P. M. M.; Kloosterman, P.; Uijlenhoet, R.

    2012-04-01

    On 26 August 2010 the eastern part of The Netherlands and the bordering part of Germany were struck by a series of rainfall events. We investigated the unprecedented flash flood triggered by this exceptionally heavy rainfall event (return period > 1000 years) in the 6.5 km2 Hupsel Brook catchment, which has been the experimental watershed employed by Wageningen University since the 1960s. This study improved our understanding of the dynamics of such lowland flash floods and the results have been published in HESS (Brauer et al., 2011). During this extreme event some thresholds became apparent that do not play a role during average conditions and are not incorporated in rainfall-runoff models. We present a detailed analysis of this extreme event, focusing on (1) the measured soil moisture, groundwater and discharge response of the catchment, (2) the thresholds we found, (3) the manner in which these processes and thresholds are incorporated in some well-known conceptual hydrological models and (4) how well these models are able to simulate the rainfall-runoff processes during the 2010 flash flood.

  15. Flash co-pyrolysis of biomass with plastic waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Cornelissen; S. Schreurs; G. Reggers; R. Carleer; J. Yperman [Hasselt University, Diepenbeek (Belgium). Lab of Applied Chemistry

    2007-07-01

    The Global Warming, the Kyoto Protocol and the emission of greenhouse gasses such as CO{sub 2} are the topics of environmental pleadings. The world's energy supply is limited due to the depletion of fossil fuels, which are still the most important energy sources consumed. The development of new and renewable energies is the key to change. The flash pyrolysis of biomass is a promising route for the production of solid, liquid and gaseous products. A high liquid production requires very low vapour residence time to minimise secondary reactions. Flash co-pyrolytic techniques, at low temperature, provide an alternative way to dispose and convert waste (like plastics) and biomass into high value feedstock. The specific benefits of this method potentially include: the reduction of the volume of the waste, the recovery of chemicals and the replacement of fossil fuels. Co-pyrolysing of PLA (although a biologically degradable polymer, polylactic acid), with biomass (such as willow) may be an alternative waste treatment option. This research indicates that during the flash co-pyrolysis of PLA and willow (even when contaminated with high amounts of heavy metals) a synergy is attained, resulting in a higher yield of bio-oil with a lower water content. 10 refs., 1 fig.

  16. Efficacy of desvenlafaxine succinate for menopausal hot flashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tella, Sri Harsha; Gallagher, John Christopher

    2014-11-01

    The concern for the development of breast cancer, stroke, cardiovascular disease and deep venous thrombosis with the use of hormonal therapy has led to the development of alternative nonhormonal forms of therapy like desvenlafaxine for the management of hot flashes. This review is based upon a PubMed search and clinical trials. The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of desvenlafaxine are reviewed. This review outlines the effects of desvenlafaxine in management of severity and frequency of vasomotor symptoms, sleep quality and quality of life in postmenopausal women. The potential adverse effects of desvenlafaxine are summarized. Based on the evidence from randomized clinical trials, desvenlafaxine is an alternate viable option for reducing the frequency and severity of hot flashes when other treatments fail. In clinical trials, it has been shown that desvenlafaxine reduced the frequency of hot flashes by 55 - 69%. In the trials so far it appears to have good safety and tolerability profile when the drug is initiated in titrating doses. The optimum dose is 100 mg/day and is to be started at 50 mg/day for 3 days and titrated to 100 mg/day. The most common adverse events reported were nausea, dry mouth, fatigue, constipation, diarrhea and somnolence.

  17. Ignition of Nanoparticles by a Compact Camera Flash

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    output for different power settings of a Canon 580 XE II camera  flash  as seen by the  DET36A  fast  photodiode detector.  M1/1 and M1/128 represents the...lamp at and below M1/64 output setting of the Xe‐ flash .   The curves in Figure 2 are produced by the temporal response of the DET36A  fast  photodiode...photographic applications the timescale in Figure 2 is  fast   enough at any setting, but as we will describe later the pulse duration of the Xe‐ flash

  18. Infrared Contrast Analysis Technique for Flash Thermography Nondestructive Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshti, Ajay

    2014-01-01

    The paper deals with the infrared flash thermography inspection to detect and analyze delamination-like anomalies in nonmetallic materials. It provides information on an IR Contrast technique that involves extracting normalized contrast verses time evolutions from the flash thermography infrared video data. The paper provides the analytical model used in the simulation of infrared image contrast. The contrast evolution simulation is achieved through calibration on measured contrast evolutions from many flat bottom holes in the subject material. The paper also provides formulas to calculate values of the thermal measurement features from the measured contrast evolution curve. Many thermal measurement features of the contrast evolution that relate to the anomaly characteristics are calculated. The measurement features and the contrast simulation are used to evaluate flash thermography inspection data in order to characterize the delamination-like anomalies. In addition, the contrast evolution prediction is matched to the measured anomaly contrast evolution to provide an assessment of the anomaly depth and width in terms of depth and diameter of the corresponding equivalent flat-bottom hole (EFBH) or equivalent uniform gap (EUG). The paper provides anomaly edge detection technique called the half-max technique which is also used to estimate width of an indication. The EFBH/EUG and half-max width estimations are used to assess anomaly size. The paper also provides some information on the "IR Contrast" software application, half-max technique and IR Contrast feature imaging application, which are based on models provided in this paper.

  19. Concussion knowledge in high school football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cournoyer, Janie; Tripp, Brady L

    2014-01-01

    Participating in sports while experiencing symptoms of a concussion can be dangerous. An athlete's lack of knowledge may be one factor influencing his or her decision to report symptoms. In an effort to enhance concussion education among high school athletes, legislation in Florida has attempted to address the issue through parental consent forms. To survey high school varsity football players to determine their level of knowledge about concussions after the initiation of new concussion-education legislation. Cross-sectional study. Descriptive survey administered in person during a team meeting. A total of 334 varsity football players from 11 high schools in Florida. Participants completed a survey and identified the symptoms and consequences of a concussion among distractors. They also indicated whether they had received education about concussions from a parent, formal education, neither, or both. The most correctly identified symptoms were headache (97%), dizziness (93%), and confusion (90%), and the most correctly identified consequence was persistent headache (93%). Participants reported receiving education from their parents (54%) or from a formal source (60%). Twenty-five percent reported never receiving any education regarding concussions. No correlations were found between the method of education and the knowledge of symptoms or consequences of concussion. The high school football players we surveyed did not have appropriate knowledge of the symptoms and consequences of concussions. Nausea or vomiting, neck pain, grogginess, difficulty concentrating, and personality or behavioral changes were often missed by participants, and only a small proportion correctly identified brain hemorrhage, coma, and death as possible consequences of inappropriate care after a concussion. Even with parents or guardians signing a consent form indicating they discussed concussion awareness with their child, 46% of athletes suggested they had not.

  20. A new game plan for C players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelrod, Beth; Handfield-Jones, Helen; Michaels, Ed

    2002-01-01

    It's a big driver of business success, but one that executives are loath to talk about: upgrading the talent pool by weeding out "C" players from management. These aren't the incompetent or unethical managers whom organizations dismiss without a backward glance; C performers deliver results that are acceptable--barely--but they fail to innovate or to inspire the people they lead. The authors of The War for Talent have studied what it takes to upgrade an organization's talent pool. In this article, they explore the hidden costs of tolerating under-performance and acknowledge the reasons why executives may shy away from dealing decisively with C players. They recommend that organizations take an "iron hand in a velvet glove" approach to managing subpar performers. That is, companies should establish rigorous, disciplined processes for assessing and dealing with low-performing managers but still treat them with respect. The authors outline three ironhanded steps. First, executives must identify C players by evaluating their talents and distributing employee performances along an assessment curve. Second, executives must agree on explicit action plans that articulate the improvements or changes that C performers must achieve within six to 12 months. And third, executives should hold managers accountable for carrying out the action plans. Without such discipline, procrastination, rationalization, and inaction will prevail. The authors also emphasize the need for the "velvet glove." Executives must ensure that low performers are treated with dignity, so they should offer candid feedback, instructive coaching, and generous severance packages and outplacement support. The authors' approach isn't about being tough on people; it's about being relentlessly focused on performance.

  1. Flash pyrolysis, a process for utilizing contaminated wood; Flash-Pyrolyse - eine Moeglichkeit der stofflichen Verwertung von kontaminiertem Holz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, D.; Wehlte, S.; Faix, O. [Bundesforschungsanstalt fuer Forst- und Holzwirtschaft, Hamburg (Germany). Inst. fuer Holzchemie und Chemische Technologie des Holzes

    1996-12-31

    Flash pyrolysis of wood treated with common pesticides poses no technical probelms. Product yields, with a maximum oil yield at 475 C, are similar to those of untreated wood. Most of the heavy metals are retained by the coal while a small part aheres to the coal layer of the sand bed. The resulting pyrolysis oil contains neither chromium nor copper. (orig) [Deutsch] Die Flash-Pyrolyse der mit den gaengigsten Schutzmitteln behandelten Hoelzer bereitet verfahrenstechnisch keine Probleme. Auch die Produktausbeuten, mit einem oelmaximum bei 475 C, aehneln denen von naturbelassenem Holz. Der groesste Teil der Schwermetalle wurde an die Kohle gebunden, ein geringer Teil blieb auf der Kohleschicht des Sandes haften. Im Hauptprodukt Pyrolyseoel konnten weder Chrom noch Kupfer nachgewiesen werden. (orig)

  2. Comparison of Shoulder Strength in Routinely Trained Badminton Players and Non-Badminton Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong Zhen Feng

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Shoulder pain is a common reason for patients to seek medical help in any healthcare center. Shoulder pain is influenced by a few factors such as gender, posture during daily activities, aging and psychological factors. Based on the study of Epidemiology of Injuries and Prevention Strategies in Competitive Swimmers, shoulder pain due to shoulder injuries can be reduced by strengthening the shoulder muscle. Badminton has become one of the most popular sports in Asia, especially in Indonesia. This study was conducted to determine if badmintonis able to strengthen the shoulder muscle group. Methods: A cross-sectional analytic experimental study was conducted on September 2015 at Lodaya Badminton Training Center and Bale Padjadjaran of Universitas Padjadjaran. Subjects were 30 healthy male routinely trained badminton players and 30 non-badminton players who voluntarily follow the rstudy procedures. Strength measurement procedures were provided to the subjects after getting informed consent.  Data analysis was performed using T-test. Results: The shoulder strength  in routinely trained badminton players was significantly different from  non-badminton players (P<0.05. Conclusions: Shoulder strength can be improved through routine training of badminton to reduce risk of shoulder injury.   DOI: 10.15850/amj.v4n2.1083

  3. Probabilistic one-player Ramsey games via deterministic two-player games

    CERN Document Server

    Belfrage, Michael; Spöhel, Reto

    2009-01-01

    Consider the following probabilistic one-player game: The board is a graph with $n$ vertices, which initially contains no edges. In each step, a new edge is drawn uniformly at random from all non-edges and is presented to the player, henceforth called Painter. Painter must assign one of $r$ available colors to each edge immediately, where $r \\geq 2$ is a fixed integer. The game is over as soon as a monochromatic copy of some fixed graph $F$ has been created, and Painter's goal is to 'survive' for as many steps as possible before this happens. We present a new technique for deriving upper bounds on the threshold of this game, i.e., on the typical number of steps Painter will survive with an optimal strategy. More specifically, we consider a deterministic two-player variant of the game where the edges are not chosen randomly, but by a second player Builder. However, Builder has to adhere to the restriction that, for some real number $d$, the ratio of edges to vertices in all subgraphs of the evolving board neve...

  4. DIFFERENCES IN FUNCTIONAL AND MOTOR ABILITIES OFYOUNG FOOTBALL PLAYERS, BASKETBALL AND VOLLEYBALL PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franja Fratrić

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this research is to determine whether and what differences exist between the three groups of subjects (high-quality football, volleyball and basketball cadets and youth age, in the motoric and functional abilities, as well as to identify dif- ferences between subgroups within each sport. The sample consists of 61 volleyball, 31 basketball player and football player 31 (total n = 123 male, cadet and youth age are members of local clubs. Subjects were born between 01.01.1991 and 12.12.1994. The sample of variables are the values of 17 tests for the evaluation of functional and mobile status. The Motor-functional status on the basis of the results of secondary value of foot- ball, basketball and volleyball make a clear conclusion that the football players showed the best results in almost all the tests and that they had the smallest disbalance in the power of certain groups of muscles.The football players hve the highest homogeneity.

  5. High-speed real-time magnetic resonance imaging of fast tongue movements in elite horn players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iltis, Peter W; Frahm, Jens; Voit, Dirk; Joseph, Arun A; Schoonderwaldt, Erwin; Altenmüller, Eckart

    2015-06-01

    This paper describes the use of high-speed real-time (RT) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in quantifying very rapid motor function within the oropharyngeal cavity of six elite horn players. Based on simultaneous sound recordings, the efficacy of RT-MRI films at 30 and 100 frames per second (fps) was assessed for tongue movements associated with double tonguing performance. Serial images with a nominal temporal resolution of 10.0 and 33.3 ms were obtained by highly undersampled radial fast low-angle shot (FLASH) sequences (5 and 17 spokes, respectively) using complementary sets of spokes for successive acquisitions (extending over 9 and 5 frames, respectively). Reconstructions of high-speed images were obtained by temporally regularized nonlinear inversion (NLINV) as previously described. A customized MATLAB toolkit was developed for the extraction of line profiles from MRI films to quantify temporal phenomena associated with task performance. The analyses reveal that for the present setting, which required the use of a temporal median filter to optimize image quality, acquisition rates of 30 fps are inadequate to accurately detect tongue movements during double tonguing, but that rates of 100 fps do allow for a precise quantification of movement. These data for the first time demonstrate the extreme performance of elite horn players. High-speed RT-MRI offers so far unavailable opportunities to study the oropharyngeal movements during brass playing with future potential for teaching and the treatment of patients suffering from dystonia.

  6. Meniscal ossicle in a professional soccer player.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogassawara, R; Zayni, R; Orhant, E; Noel, E; Fournier, Y; Hager, J-P; Chambat, P; Sonnery-Cottet, B

    2011-06-01

    Meniscal ossicles are an unusual finding and a rare cause for knee pain. They are often initially diagnosed as a loose body, chondrocalcinosis or meniscal calcification within the knee joint. Few cases have been reported in the literature. We present a case of a meniscal ossicle with an associated femoral cartilage lesion in a healthy 26-year-old male professional soccer player who presented with swelling and pain. The purpose of this article is to discuss the origins, radiological features, clinical symptoms and prognosis of meniscal ossicles.

  7. Payoff Shares in Two-Player Contests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Häfner

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In imperfectly discriminating contests with symmetric valuations, equilibrium payoffs are positive shares of the value of the prize. In contrast to a bargaining situation, players’ shares sum to less than one because a residual share of the value is lost due to rent dissipation. In this paper, we consider contests with two players and investigate the relationship between these equilibrium shares and the parameters of a class of asymmetric Tullock contest success functions. Our main finding is that any players’ shares that sum up to less than one can arise as the unique outcome of a pure-strategy Nash equilibrium for appropriate parameters.

  8. Acing common skin problems in tennis players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basler, R S; Garcia, M A

    1998-12-01

    The following measures can help prevent skin disorders in tennis players: wearing properly fitted shoes to avoid tennis toe, talon noir, and calluses; applying lubricants to protect against blisters and chafing; washing skin thoroughly to reduce the risk of acne mechanica; and wearing a hat and sunscreen to guard against photoinjury. 'Stringer's fingers' can be prevented by breaking the habit of adjusting the racket strings after each point. Should these disorders become troublesome, conservative treatments are usually effective. For example, calluses may be carefully pared, and pain from a subungual hemorrhage can be relieved by piercing the toenail with a hot paper clip.

  9. Predicting Player Churn In the Wild

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadiji, Fabian; Sifa, Rafet; Drachen, Anders;

    2014-01-01

    a crucial value, allowing developers to obtain data-driven insights to inform design, development and marketing strategies. One of the key challenges is modeling and predicting player churn. This paper presents the first cross-game study of churn prediction in Free-to-Play games. Churn in games is discussed...... with the individual retention model for each game in the dataset used, we develop a broadly applicable churn prediction model, which does not rely on gamedesign specific features. The presented classifiers are applied on a dataset covering five free-to-play games resulting in high accuracy churn prediction....

  10. Flow ensemble prediction for flash flood warnings at ungauged basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demargne, Julie; Javelle, Pierre; Organde, Didier; Caseri, Angelica; Ramos, Maria-Helena; de Saint Aubin, Céline; Jurdy, Nicolas

    2015-04-01

    Flash floods, which are typically triggered by severe rainfall events, are difficult to monitor and predict at the spatial and temporal scales of interest due to large meteorological and hydrologic uncertainties. In particular, uncertainties in quantitative precipitation forecasts (QPF) and quantitative precipitation estimates (QPE) need to be taken into account to provide skillful flash flood warnings with increased warning lead time. In France, the AIGA discharge-threshold flood warning system is currently being enhanced to ingest high-resolution ensemble QPFs from convection-permitting numerical weather prediction (NWP) models, as well as probabilistic QPEs, to improve flash flood warnings for small-to-medium (from 10 to 1000 km²) ungauged basins. The current deterministic AIGA system is operational in the South of France since 2005. It ingests the operational radar-gauge QPE grids from Météo-France to run a simplified hourly distributed hydrologic model at a 1-km² resolution every 15 minutes (Javelle et al. 2014). This produces real-time peak discharge estimates along the river network, which are subsequently compared to regionalized flood frequency estimates of given return periods. Warnings are then provided to the French national hydro-meteorological and flood forecasting centre (SCHAPI) and regional flood forecasting offices, based on the estimated severity of ongoing events. The calibration and regionalization of the hydrologic model has been recently enhanced to implement an operational flash flood warning system for the entire French territory. To quantify the QPF uncertainty, the COSMO-DE-EPS rainfall ensembles from the Deutscher Wetterdienst (20 members at a 2.8-km resolution for a lead time of 21 hours), which are available on the North-eastern part of France, were ingested in the hydrologic model of the AIGA system. Streamflow ensembles were produced and probabilistic flash flood warnings were derived for the Meuse and Moselle river basins and

  11. Match analysis and player characteristics in rugby sevens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Alex; Gill, Nicholas; Cronin, John

    2014-03-01

    Rugby sevens is a contact sport contested by two teams of seven players who compete over two 7-min halves, most frequently played in a tournament style. The IRB Sevens World Series is thought of as the preeminent rugby sevens competition in the world and has grown in competitiveness from its inception in 2000. The decision to include rugby sevens in the 2016 Olympics is likely to increase the global profile and participation in the game. Many rugby sevens players concurrently compete in 15-a-side rugby union as backs and loose forwards; however, a continued increase in the popularity of rugby sevens will likely see the emergence of the specialist rugby sevens player. Often thought of as the abbreviated version of rugby union, rugby sevens is played under nearly identical laws and on the same field dimensions as the 15-man code. However, research has shown the movement demands of rugby sevens and rugby union are dissimilar, with rugby sevens players spending a larger proportion of the game running at high intensity (≥ 5 m s(-1)). Given the dissimilarity in match demands in conjunction with differences in the competition structure between the codes, it appears the considerable depth of literature specific to performance in rugby union may be of little value for the preparation of rugby sevens players. Investigations of the physical characteristics of rugby sevens players show backs are lighter and shorter than forwards, while players across all positions possess a lean body composition. International rugby sevens players have similar speed characteristics to rugby union backs across distances of 10-30 m; however, rugby sevens players appear to have superior intermittent aerobic endurance. Despite being of likely importance, little is known of the strength and power characteristics of rugby sevens players. Research into the speed and aerobic endurance characteristics of rugby sevens players has not distinguished between backs and forwards and, as such, it is unclear

  12. Sex-specific differences in injury types among basketball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ito E

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Eri Ito, Jun Iwamoto, Koichiro Azuma, Hideo MatsumotoInstitute for Integrated Sports Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: The purpose of the present study was to investigate sex-specific differences in injury types among basketball players. According to our database, during the 20-year period between October 1991 and June 2011, 1,219 basketball players (640 males and 579 females consulted our sports medicine clinic; in total, 1,414 injuries in basketball players (729 injuries in males and 685 injuries in females were recorded. The mean age of patients was 19.6 years. The most common injury site was the knee, followed by the foot and ankle, lower back, and upper extremities. There was a higher proportion of female players presenting with a knee injury, compared with male players (50.4% vs 41.7%, and a lower proportion of female players presenting with an upper extremity injury (5.1% vs 9.7%. The proportion of anterior cruciate ligament injury in the 10–19-year-old age group was higher among female players than among male players (45.9% vs 22.1%, while the proportions of Osgood–Schlatter disease in the 10–19-year-old age group and jumper's knee (patellar and femoral tendinopathy in the 20–29-year-old age group were higher among male players than among female players (12.5% vs 1.8% and 14.6% vs 3.7%, respectively. However, the proportions of other injuries did not differ significantly between male and female players. The present observational study, which was performed using a retrospective case-series design, showed the existence of sex-specific differences in knee injuries sustained while participating in basketball.Keywords: sports injury, sex, anterior cruciate ligament injury, Osgood–Schlatter disease, basketball

  13. Strength asymmetry of the shoulders in elite volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadzic, Vedran; Sattler, Tine; Veselko, Matjaž; Markovic, Goran; Dervisevic, Edvin

    2014-01-01

    Volleyball players are reported to have shoulder strength imbalances. Previous authors have primarily investigated small samples of male players at a single skill level, without considering playing position, and with inconsistent findings. To evaluate shoulder strength asymmetry and a history of shoulder injury in a large sample of professional volleyball players of both sexes across different playing positions and skill levels. Descriptive laboratory study. A sample of 183 volleyball players (99 men, 84 women). We assessed shoulder internal-rotator and external-rotator concentric strength at 60°/s using an isokinetic dynamometer and dominant-nondominant differences in shoulder strength and strength ratios using repeated-measures analyses of variance. Peak torque was normalized for body mass and external-rotation/internal-rotation concentric strength. Internal-rotation strength was asymmetric in favor of the dominant side in both sexes, regardless of previous shoulder injury status. Male volleyball players had a lower shoulder strength ratio on the dominant side, regardless of previous shoulder injury status. However, this finding was valid only when hand dominance was taken into account. Female volleyball players playing at a higher level (ie, first versus second division) were 3.43 times more likely to have an abnormal strength ratio. Playing position was not associated with an abnormal shoulder strength ratio or strength asymmetry. In male volleyball players, the external-rotation/internal-rotation strength ratio of the dominant shoulder was lower, regardless of playing position, skill level, or a previous shoulder injury. In female players, the ratio was less only in those at a higher skill level. Although speculative, these findings generally suggest that female volleyball players could have a lower risk of developing shoulder-related problems than male volleyball players. Isokinetic shoulder testing may reveal important information about the possible risk

  14. Flash sintering of dielectric nanoparticles as a percolation phenomenon through a softened film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaim, Rachman; Chevallier, Geoffroy; Weibel, Alicia; Estournès, Claude

    2017-04-01

    Recent work [Biesuz et al., J. Appl. Phys. 120, 145107 (2016)] showed analogies between the flash sintering and dielectric breakdown in α-aluminas pre-sintered to different densities. Here, we show that flash sintering of dielectric nanoparticles can be described as a universal behavior by the percolation model. The electrical system is composed of particles and their contact point resistances, the latter softened first due to preferred local Joule heating and thermal runaway during the flash. Local softening has a hierarchical and invasive nature and propagates between the electrodes. The flash event signals the percolation threshold by invasive nature of the softened layer at the particle surfaces. Rapid densification is associated with local particle rearrangements due to attractive capillary forces induced by the softened film at the particle contacts. Flash sintering is a critical phenomenon with a self-organizing character. The experimental electric conductivity results from flash sintering are in full agreement with those calculated from the percolation model.

  15. Scapula Kinematics of Youth Baseball Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Gretchen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Literature has revealed the importance of quantifying resting scapular posture in overhead athletes as well as quantifying scapular kinematics during dynamic movement. Prior to this project much of the attention in throwing research had been focused on the position of the humerus without description of the positioning of the scapula. Therefore, it was the purpose of this study to present scapular kinematics during pitching in youth baseball players. Twenty-five youth baseball players (age 11.3 + 1.0 years; body height 152.4 + 9.0 cm; body mass 47.5 + 11.3 kg, with no history of injury, participated in the study. Scapular kinematics at the events of maximum humeral external rotation (MER and maximum humeral internal rotation (MIR during the pitching motion were assessed three-dimensionally while pitching fastballs for strikes. Results revealed that at the event of MER, the scapula was in a position of retraction, upward rotation and a posterior tilt. While at the event of MIR, the scapula was protracted, upward rotated and tilted anteriorly.

  16. Scapula Kinematics of Youth Baseball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Gretchen; Weimar, Wendi

    2015-12-22

    Literature has revealed the importance of quantifying resting scapular posture in overhead athletes as well as quantifying scapular kinematics during dynamic movement. Prior to this project much of the attention in throwing research had been focused on the position of the humerus without description of the positioning of the scapula. Therefore, it was the purpose of this study to present scapular kinematics during pitching in youth baseball players. Twenty-five youth baseball players (age 11.3 + 1.0 years; body height 152.4 + 9.0 cm; body mass 47.5 + 11.3 kg), with no history of injury, participated in the study. Scapular kinematics at the events of maximum humeral external rotation (MER) and maximum humeral internal rotation (MIR) during the pitching motion were assessed three-dimensionally while pitching fastballs for strikes. Results revealed that at the event of MER, the scapula was in a position of retraction, upward rotation and a posterior tilt. While at the event of MIR, the scapula was protracted, upward rotated and tilted anteriorly.

  17. Sport commitment in adolescent soccer players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelia Belando Pedreño

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to contribute to the postulates of the self-determination theory, the hierarchical model of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation by Vallerand, and social goals. A structural regression model was estimated to analyze the relations between social goals (responsibility and relationships, praise for autonomous behavior, satisfaction of the basic psychological needs and intrinsic motivation in commitment to sport. A sample of 264 young Spanish soccer players aged between 14 and 16 (M =14.74, SD =.77 participated in the study. Structural Equation Modeling results showed that the social responsibility goal, the social relationship goal and praise for autonomous behavior predicted perceived competence. Furthermore, the relationship goal also predicted the need for relatedness. Satisfaction of the basic psychological needs for competence and relatedness predicted intrinsic motivation. Intrinsic motivation positively predicted future commitment to sport. These results highlighted the importance of social goals, praise for autonomous behavior and psychological mediators in encouraging greater commitment in young soccer players. Future research should focus on the coach’s role in generating greater commitment to sport through the development of intervention methodologies based on social goals.

  18. Circulating leptin and adiponectin are associated with insulin resistance in healthy postmenopausal women with hot flashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wan-Yu; Chang, Chia-Chu; Chen, Dar-Ren; Kor, Chew-Teng; Chen, Ting-Yu; Wu, Hung-Ming

    2017-01-01

    Hot flashes have been postulated to be linked to the development of metabolic disorders. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between hot flashes, adipocyte-derived hormones, and insulin resistance in healthy, non-obese postmenopausal women. In this cross-sectional study, a total of 151 women aged 45-60 years were stratified into one of three groups according to hot-flash status over the past three months: never experienced hot flashes (Group N), mild-to-moderate hot flashes (Group M), and severe hot flashes (Group S). Variables measured in this study included clinical parameters, hot flash experience, fasting levels of circulating glucose, lipid profiles, plasma insulin, and adipocyte-derived hormones. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to evaluate the associations of hot flashes with adipocyte-derived hormones, and with insulin resistance. The study was performed in a hospital medical center. The mean (standard deviation) of body-mass index was 22.8(2.7) for Group N, 22.6(2.6) for Group M, and 23.5(2.4) for Group S, respectively. Women in Group S displayed statistically significantly higher levels of leptin, fasting glucose, and insulin, and lower levels of adiponectin than those in Groups M and N. Multivariate linear regression analysis revealed that hot-flash severity was significantly associated with higher leptin levels, lower adiponectin levels, and higher leptin-to-adiponectin ratio. Univariate linear regression analysis revealed that hot-flash severity was strongly associated with a higher HOMA-IR index (% difference, 58.03%; 95% confidence interval, 31.00-90.64; p adiponectin and was no longer significant after simultaneously adjusting for leptin and adiponectin. The present study provides evidence that hot flashes are associated with insulin resistance in postmenopausal women. It further suggests that hot flash association with insulin resistance is dependent on the combination of leptin and adiponectin variables.

  19. Protective Equipment and Player Characteristics Associated With the Incidence of Sport-Related Concussion in High School Football Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuine, Timothy A.; Hetzel, Scott; McCrea, Michael; Brooks, M. Alison

    2015-01-01

    Background The incidence of sport-related concussion (SRC) in high school football is well documented. However, limited prospective data are available regarding how player characteristics and protective equipment affect the incidence of SRC. Purpose To determine whether the type of protective equipment (helmet and mouth guard) and player characteristics affect the incidence of SRC in high school football players. Design Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Methods Certified athletic trainers (ATs) at each high school recorded the type of helmet worn (brand, model, purchase year, and recondition status) by each player as well as information regarding players’ demographics, type of mouth guard used, and history of SRC. The ATs also recorded the incidence and days lost from participation for each SRC. Incidence of SRC was compared for various helmets, type of mouth guard, history of SRC, and player demographics. Results A total of 2081 players (grades 9–12) enrolled during the 2012 and/or 2013 football seasons (2287 player-seasons) and participated in 134,437 football (practice or competition) exposures. Of these players, 206 (9%) sustained a total of 211 SRCs (1.56/1000 exposures). There was no difference in the incidence of SRC (number of helmets, % SRC [95% CI]) for players wearing Riddell (1171, 9.1% [7.6%–11.0%]), Schutt (680, 8.7% [6.7%–11.1%]), or Xenith (436, 9.2% [6.7%–12.4%]) helmets. Helmet age and recondition status did not affect the incidence of SRC. The rate of SRC (hazard ratio [HR]) was higher in players who wore a custom mouth guard (HR = 1.69 [95% CI, 1.20–2.37], P football players. Players who had sustained an SRC within the previous 12 months were more likely to sustain an SRC than were players without a history of SRC. Sports medicine providers who work with high school football players need to realize that factors other than the type of protective equipment worn affect the risk of SRC in high school players. PMID:25060072

  20. Gender Differences in Coping among Elite Table Tennis Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirimoglu, Huseyin

    2011-01-01

    The current study aims to investigate the explanatory power of social support and coping in relation to a competitive sport event between male and female table tennis players. 246 university students table tennis players (120 men and 126 women) from different region and part of Turkey were invited to participate in a survey study included the…

  1. Development of repeated sprint ability in talented youth basketball players.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wierike, S.C. te; Jong, M.C. de; Tromp, E.J.; Vuijk, P.J.; Lemmink, K.A.; Malina, R.M.; Elferink-Gemser, M.T.; Visscher, C.

    2013-01-01

    Factors affecting repeated sprint ability (RSA) were evaluated in a mixed-longitudinal sample of 48 elite basketball players 14 to 19 years of age (16.1±1.7 years). Players were observed on six occasions during the 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 seasons. Three basketball-specific field tests were administe

  2. Relative risk for concussions in young female soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, Sarah; Lechuga, David; Zachariah, Thomas; Beaulieu, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the relative risk and reported symptoms of concussions in 11- to 13-year-old, female soccer players. For this, a survey to compare the reported incidence of concussion in age-matched female soccer players to nonsoccer players was performed. The survey included 342 girls between the ages of 11 and 13: 195 were involved in an organized soccer team and 147 were not involved in organized soccer but were allowed to participate in any other sport or activity. A total of 94 of the 195 soccer players, or 48%, reported at least one symptom consistent with a concussion. The most prevalent symptom for these girls was headache (84%). A total of 34 of the 147 nonsoccer players, or 23%, reported at least one symptom consistent with a concussion in the previous six months. These results determined that the relative risk of probable concussions among 11- to 13-year-old, female soccer players is 2.09 (p concussions in young female soccer players is significantly higher than in a control group of nonsoccer players of the same sex and age.

  3. Development of repeated sprint ability in talented youth basketball players.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koen A.P.M. Lemmink; S.C. te Wierike; E.J. Tromp; M.T. Elferink-Gemser; M.C. de Jong; R.M. Malina; P.J. Vuijk; C. Visscher

    2013-01-01

    Factors affecting repeated sprint ability (RSA) were evaluated in a mixed-longitudinal sample of 48 elite basketball players 14 to 19 years of age (16.1±1.7 years). Players were observed on six occasions during the 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 seasons. Three basketball-specific field tests were

  4. [Muscular trunk stability in professional and amateur volleyball players].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miltner, O; Siebert, C; Tschaepe, R; Maus, U; Kieffer, O

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the efficiency of muscular activity in the trunk stabilisation of professional volleyball players compared to a group of amateur hobby players. The results were compared amongst the groups as well as with a reference group consisting of asymptomatic individuals. The question to be answered was whether or not professional volleyball players possess a characteristic strength profile in their trunk musculature and if differences exist with regard to the individuals' competitive playing level. In this comparative study 12 professional volleyball players (German Bundesliga) and 18 non-professional volleyball players were analysed with regard to their isometric strength profile in all three planes. The reference group was provided by the Proxomed company, which had previously analysed healthy untrained individuals (n = 1045) of various age groups. A sports-specific profile for the musculature of volleyball players revealed a significant reduction in the flexion and rotation strength as well as a well-developed lateral flexion strength (highly significant when compared to the reference group). With reference to the level played, better strength values in flexion and lateral flexion were found among the professional athletes. Professional volleyball players present with a characteristic trunk musculature strength profile. A detailed analysis of the muscle strength of the spine as part of a sports medicine work-up could prove helpful in preventing injuries and overuse problems in professional and hobby volleyball players.

  5. Player Collaboration in the Explorative Sound Environment ToneInk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne-Marie; Andersen, Hans Jørgen; Raudaskoski, Pirkko Liisa

    2016-01-01

    mutual awareness, and in general were more passive when they needed to monitor a screen interface that supported the sound environment. Player collaboration was strongest when players negotiated rhythm, while the negotiation of melody was temporally offset and consisted of long individual explorations....

  6. Differences in energy capacities between tennis players and runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Dario; Vucetić, Vlatko; Zugaj, Sanja

    2013-05-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to determine differences between elite athletes and tennis players in order to provide a clearer picture regarding the energy demands in modern tennis. Forty-eight (48) athletes and 24 tennis players from Croatian national leagues were compared in morphological and physiological parameters of an all-out incremental treadmill test with gas exchange measurements. Tennis players' HRmax (192.96+/-7.75 bpm) shows values that are most different to 400-meters sprinters (200.13+/-6.95 bpm). Maximum running speed of tennis players on the treadmill (vmax) is no different with the speed achieved by sprinters, while there are significant differences among other athletes. Values in running speed at anaerobic threshold (vAnT) show no statistically significant difference with the values for athlete sprinters and 400-m sprinters. Values of RvO2max for tennis players indicate significant similarities with athlete sprinters and 400-m sprinters while the values of RvO2AnT are nearly identical with the values for sprinters and show no statistically significant differences (ptennis players approximate most different those of the middle and long distance runners. This singles out the possible importance of the anaerobic capacity and the high level of sprint endurance in tennis players. Knowing these characteristics is the basis for planning and implementing training systems that will enable the increase and optimal usage of energy capacities of tennis players in possibly improving sports results.

  7. Translucent Players: Explaining Cooperative Behavior in Social Dilemmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerio Capraro

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last few decades, numerous experiments have shown that humans do not always behave so as to maximize their material payoff. Cooperative behavior when non-cooperation is a dominant strategy (with respect to the material payoffs is particularly puzzling. Here we propose a novel approach to explain cooperation, assuming what Halpern and Pass call translucent players. Typically, players are assumed to be opaque, in the sense that a deviation by one player in a normal-form game does not affect the strategies used by other players. But a player may believe that if he switches from one strategy to another, the fact that he chooses to switch may be visible to the other players. For example, if he chooses to defect in Prisoner's Dilemma, the other player may sense his guilt. We show that by assuming translucent players, we can recover many of the regularities observed in human behavior in well-studied games such as Prisoner's Dilemma, Traveler's Dilemma, Bertrand Competition, and the Public Goods game.

  8. Labor Market Structure and Salary Determination among Professional Basketball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Michael

    1988-01-01

    The author investigates the labor market structure and determinants of salaries for professional basketball players. An expanded version of the resource perspective is used. A three-tiered model of labor market segmentation is revealed for professional basketball players, but other variables also are important in salary determination. (Author/CH)

  9. The Mental Skills Training of University Soccer Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Hassan; Omar-Fauzee, Mohd-Sofian; Jamalis, Marjohan; Ab-Latif, Rozita; Cheric, Majid Chahrdah

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the kind of mental skills training needed most by the university soccer players. Eight male university football players (aged 25 to 36) from one large university in Kuala Lumpur agreed to participate in this study. On average, they have 10 years of playing experience. All of them have signed the informed…

  10. Differences in Soccer Kick Kinematics between Blind Players and Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giagazoglou, Paraskevi; Katis, Athanasios; Kellis, Eleftherios; Natsikas, Christos

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the kinematic differences during instep soccer kicks between players who were blind and sighted controls. Eleven male soccer players who were blind and nine male sighted performed instep kicks under static and dynamic conditions. The results indicated significantly higher (p less than 0.05) ball…

  11. Playing time between senior rugby players of different ethnic groups ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Discovery High Performance Centre, Sports Science Institute of South Africa, and MRC/UCT Research Unit for Exercise ... nutritional advice, life skills and technical rugby coaching. The ... Players were given feedback on their performance in each of the 3 ..... the skill acquisition that is required by a high-level adult player.

  12. Development of repeated sprint ability in talented youth basketball players.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koen A.P.M. Lemmink; S.C. te Wierike; E.J. Tromp; M.T. Elferink-Gemser; M.C. de Jong; R.M. Malina; P.J. Vuijk; C. Visscher

    2013-01-01

    Factors affecting repeated sprint ability (RSA) were evaluated in a mixed-longitudinal sample of 48 elite basketball players 14 to 19 years of age (16.1±1.7 years). Players were observed on six occasions during the 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 seasons. Three basketball-specific field tests were administe

  13. Analysis of motor activities of professional soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrzejewski, Marcin; Chmura, Jan; Pluta, Beata; Kasprzak, Andrzej

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the distance covered by professional soccer players during matches with the use of the computerized match analysis system Amisco Pro® (version 1.0.2, Nice, France). Kinematic examination included the specification of the distance covered by 31 players participating in 4 matches in the Union of European Football Association Cup competitions during the 2008-2009 season. Data were analyzed based on players' positions on the pitch, changes in the players' motor activity intensity level, and match period (first or second half). The results of statistical analysis revealed that the average total distance covered by all players (n = 31) was 11,288 ± 734 m. With respect to the player's position on the pitch, the midfielders traveled the longest average distance (11,770 ± 554 m) during the game. This was 3% longer than the distance achieved by the attackers at 11,377 ± 584 m, and 7% longer than that achieved by the defenders 10,932 ± 728 m. The analysis of physical loads on soccer players during a match is highly useful for training individualization. It provides a tool for effective planning and for recording the loads on players, which is an indispensable element of modern coaching.

  14. Calculation of flash temperature for hybrid ceramic ball bearing lubricated with solid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李秀娟; 王黎钦; 古乐; 齐毓霖

    2002-01-01

    The scuffing behavior of hybrid ceramic bearing lubricated with solid is greatly affected by the contact flash temperature. Formulas are dedused using Lee' s asperity flash temperature method, to calculate the flash temperature of ball bearing lubricated with solid. The maximum flash temperature is calculated for hybrid ceramic ball bearings. The results show that under given conditions, the flash temperature of inner race is higher than that of outer race, the flash temperature of the hybrid ceramic bearing is sensitive to the load, rotational speed and race curvature. The flash temperature of inner race at 20 000 r/min is 66.9% more than that that at 11 000 r/min, and with the load changing from 1.1 kN to 2 kN, the flash temperature inner race goes up to 165.7%. Very common for high speed ball bearings, when curvature coefficients of both inner and outer race change from 0. 515 to 0.56, the inner race flash temperature decreases from 421. 446℃ to 56.2℃.

  15. Mechanism of red-luminescence flash in CdS single crystals irradiated by electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogdanyuk, N.S.; Galushka, A.P.; Ostapenko, S.S.; Shejnkman, M.K. (AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev. Inst. Poluprovodnikov)

    1984-02-01

    Results of investigations into ''red''-luminescence flash (lambdasub(x)=720 nm) in cadmium sulfide, irradiated by electrons at 77 K, are presented. Measurement of spectra of stationary photoluminescence and its excitation, as well as flash luminescence, its pumping and stimulation along with temperature flash dependences enabled to suggest a new mechanism of optical luminescence stimulation, based on the model of complex center of flash luminescense. The mechanism consists in modulation of probabilities of intercenter electron transitions, when charge state of one of components of the complex center changes.

  16. Cost-Effective Test Solutions for Smart Card and Other Integrated Flash Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thomas M. Trexler

    2004-01-01

    @@ From its emergence in the late 1980s as a lower cost alternative to early EEPROM technologies, flash memory has evolved to higher densities and speedsand rapidly growing acceptance in mobile applications.In the process, flash memory devices have placed increased test requirements on manufacturers. Today, as flash device test grows in importance in China, manufacturers face growing pressure for reduced cost-oftest, increased throughput and greater return on investment for test equipment. At the same time, the move to integrated flash packages for contactless smart card applications adds a significant further challenge to manufacturers seeking rapid, low-cost test.

  17. A European precipitation index for extreme rain‐storm and flash flood early warning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alfieri, L; Thielen, J

    2015-01-01

    .... Despite recent notable advances in weather forecasting, most operational early warning systems for extreme rainstorms and flash floods are still based on rainfall measurements from rain gauges...

  18. THE FLASH FLOODS ANALYSIS, REPRESENTATIVE FOR NIRAJ RIVER BETWEEN 1970-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROŞCA SANDA

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The flash floods analysis, representative for Niraj River between 1970-2008. The need to know the characteristics of the flash floods is derived from the number and the intensity of floods occurred in the drainage basin of the Niraj river. Therefore, there were analyzed only the flash floods representatives for the years: 1970, 1995, 1998, 2001, 2008.The classification of the floods was realized according to the genesis and the flash flood hydrograph shape for the period 1970-2008, before and after the completion of the drainage basin planning/management depending on climatic, morphometric and morphological factors.

  19. Hot flashes and midlife symptoms in relation to levels of salivary cortisol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Linda M; Sievert, Lynnette L; Schwartz, Joseph E

    2017-02-01

    This study examined the relationship between salivary cortisol levels and hot flashes during midlife. Previous studies have shown that cortisol levels increase with hot flashes in the laboratory, and higher cortisol levels have been associated with more severe hot flashes. Salivary cortisol levels were also examined in relation to total number of midlife symptoms. Women aged 40-60 years (n=109) reported the presence or absence of 23 symptoms, including hot flashes, during the previous 2 weeks. Salivary samples were collected at waking, 30min after waking, 1h before bedtime, and at bedtime. The cortisol awakening response (CAR), cortisol daily decline (CDD), log transformed salivary cortisol levels at each time point, and mean cortisol levels were compared by hot flash report using t-tests. Logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the association between each cortisol measure and the presence or absence of hot flashes, after controlling for potential covariates. Salivary cortisol levels were not significantly associated with hot flashes or sum of symptoms. Hot flash report did not differentiate women who had a positive CAR from those who did not, or women who showed strong CDD from those who did not. Symptomatic women - defined by hot flash report or symptom total - were not found to have higher salivary cortisol levels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effectiveness of Automatic Control over Flash Distillation Kettle for Liquid-Phase Bulk Polymerization of Propylene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Linge; Ma Jiantong

    2004-01-01

    Automatic control over flash distillation section at SINOPEC Cangzhou Refinery has been realized, resulting in saving of propylene feedstock and emission reduction to harvest significant economic benefits.

  1. Flash Flooding and Green Stormwater Infrastructure in Philadelphia: Areas for Further Improvement

    OpenAIRE

    DOĞANAY, Ela; MAGAZINER, Jamie

    2017-01-01

    Flash flooding is one of the most dangerous and the most common catastrophes among the other types of floods occure in USA. Flash flooding may occur in any area that may not even be located in floodplain zone. Since the flash flooding can take a few minutes or a few hours with out any warning and has high damaging potential, in this study, it is focused on identifying areas prone to flash flooding in the Philadelphia city, which has many natural streams and high development rates. In this stu...

  2. The properties of optical lightning flashes and the clouds they illuminate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Michael; Deierling, Wiebke; Liu, Chuntao; Mach, Douglas; Kalb, Christina

    2017-01-01

    Optical lightning sensors like the Optical Transient Detector and Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) measure total lightning across large swaths of the globe with high detection efficiency. With two upcoming missions that employ these sensors - LIS on the International Space Station and the Geostationary Lightning Mapper on the GOES-R satellite - there has been increased interest in what these measurements can reveal about lightning and thunderstorms in addition to total flash activity. Optical lightning imagers are capable of observing the characteristics of individual flashes that include their sizes, durations, and radiative energies. However, it is important to exercise caution when interpreting trends in optical flash measurements because they can be affected by the scene. This study uses coincident measurements from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite to examine the properties of LIS flashes and the surrounding cloud regions they illuminate. These combined measurements are used to assess to what extent optical flash characteristics can be used to make inferences about flash structure and energetics. Clouds illuminated by lightning over land and ocean regions that are otherwise similar based on TRMM measurements are identified. Even when LIS flashes occur in similar clouds and background radiances, oceanic flashes are still shown to be larger, brighter, longer lasting, more prone to horizontal propagation, and to contain more groups than their land-based counterparts. This suggests that the optical trends noted in literature are not entirely the result of radiative transfer effects but rather stem from physical differences in the flashes.

  3. Neuropsychological consequence of soccer play in adolescent U.K. School team soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Richard; Rutherford, Andrew; Potter, Douglas; Fernie, Gordon

    2010-01-01

    To assess mild head injury effects in adolescent soccer players, neuropsychological performance across school team soccer players, rugby players and noncontact sport players was assessed in a quasi-experimental cross-sectional design. One hundred eighty-five males were tested (ages 13-16; response rate 55%) and 86 contributed data to the analyses after exclusion for recent concussion and overlapping sports participation. Soccer players showed lower premorbid intellectual functioning, but neither soccer players nor rugby players showed neuropsychological decrement compared with noncontact sport players. Cumulative heading did not predict neuropsychological performance. While no specific attribute of soccer was linked with neuropsychological impairment, head injury predicted reduced attention for all participants.

  4. Evaluating the heading in professional soccer players by playing positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkmen, Nurtekin

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the accuracy and coordination of heading in professional soccer players of different positions. A total of 243 professional soccer players were examined for the study. The Federation Internationale de Football Association Medical Assessment and Research Center (F-MARC) test battery was used to evaluate heading in soccer players. In the heading of the ball thrown from middle of the goal, forwards were better than goalkeepers (p heading of the ball thrown from the right side of the goalpost, defenders were better than goalkeepers (p heading of goalkeepers being worse than the others; goalkeepers use their hands in both training and matches, whereas for forwards and defensive players being better than goalkeepers depends mainly on their positions in soccer. Trainers and coaches should give place specific training programs to improve heading ability in the training schedule of soccer players at a professional level.

  5. Shoulder injuries in rugby players: mechanisms, examination, and rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgeson, Kevin; Stoneman, Paul

    2014-11-01

    The sport of rugby is growing in popularity for players at the high school and collegiate levels. This article will provided the sports therapist with an introduction to the management of shoulder injuries in rugby players. Rugby matches results in frequent impacts and leveraging forces to the shoulder region during the tackling, scrums, rucks and maul components of the game. Rugby players frequently sustain contusion and impact injuries to the shoulder region, including injuries to the sternoclavicular, acromioclavicular (AC), and glenohumeral (GH) joints. Players assessed during practices and matches should be screened for signs of fracture, cervical spine and brachial plexus injuries. A three phase program will be proposed to rehabilitate players with shoulder instabilities using rugby specific stabilization, proprioception, and strengthening exercises. A plan for return to play will be addressed including position-specific activities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. MISCONCEPTION REMEDIATION OF ATOMIC ORBITAL, MOLECULAR ORBITAL, AND HIBRIDIZIATION CONCEPTS BY COMPUTER ASISSTED INSTRUCTION WITH ANIMATION AND SIMULATION MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Mursiti

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The research of Computer Asissted Instruction with animation and simulation was used to misconception remediation of atomic orbital, molecular orbital, and hibridiziation concepts. The applicated instruction model was focused on concept approach with macromedia flash player and power point programme. The subject of this research were the 2nd semestre students of Chemistry Department. The data were collected by using of true-false pre-test and post- test followed by the reason of its. The analysis reveals that the Computer Asissted Instruction with animation and simulation model increased the understanding of atomic orbital, molecular orbital, and hibridiziation concepts or remediation of concepts missconception, shown by the significant score gained between before and after the implementation of Computer Asissted Instruction with animation and simulation model. The instruction model developed the students's generic skills too.   Keywords: animation simulation,misconception remediation, orbital, hibridization

  7. A Method for Using Player Tracking Data in Basketball to Learn Player Skills and Predict Team Performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Skinner

    Full Text Available Player tracking data represents a revolutionary new data source for basketball analysis, in which essentially every aspect of a player's performance is tracked and can be analyzed numerically. We suggest a way by which this data set, when coupled with a network-style model of the offense that relates players' skills to the team's success at running different plays, can be used to automatically learn players' skills and predict the performance of untested 5-man lineups in a way that accounts for the interaction between players' respective skill sets. After developing a general analysis procedure, we present as an example a specific implementation of our method using a simplified network model. While player tracking data is not yet available in the public domain, we evaluate our model using simulated data and show that player skills can be accurately inferred by a simple statistical inference scheme. Finally, we use the model to analyze games from the 2011 playoff series between the Memphis Grizzlies and the Oklahoma City Thunder and we show that, even with a very limited data set, the model can consistently describe a player's interactions with a given lineup based only on his performance with a different lineup.

  8. Integrated flash flood vulnerability assessment: Insights from East Attica, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagiorgos, Konstantinos; Thaler, Thomas; Heiser, Micha; Hübl, Johannes; Fuchs, Sven

    2016-10-01

    In the framework of flood risk assessment, vulnerability is a key concept to assess the susceptibility of elements at risk. Besides the increasing amount of studies on flash floods available, in-depth information on vulnerability in Mediterranean countries was missing so far. Moreover, current approaches in vulnerability research are driven by a divide between social scientists who tend to view vulnerability as representing a set of socio-economic factors, and natural scientists who view vulnerability in terms of the degree of loss to an element at risk. Further, vulnerability studies in response to flash flood processes are rarely answered in the literature. In order to close this gap, this paper implemented an integrated vulnerability approach focusing on residential buildings exposed to flash floods in Greece. In general, both physical and social vulnerability was comparable low, which is interpreted as a result from (a) specific building regulations in Greece as well as general design principles leading to less structural susceptibility of elements at risk exposed, and (b) relatively low economic losses leading to less social vulnerability of citizens exposed. The population show high risk awareness and coping capacity to response to natural hazards event and in the same time the impact of the events are quite low, because of the already high use of local protection measures. The low vulnerability score for East Attica can be attributed especially to the low physical vulnerability and the moderate socio-economic well-being of the area. The consequence is to focus risk management strategies mainly in the reduction of the social vulnerability. By analysing both physical and social vulnerability an attempt was made to bridge the gap between scholars from sciences and humanities, and to integrate the results of the analysis into the broader vulnerability context.

  9. The development of a flash flood severity index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Amanda J.; Gourley, Jonathan J.; Hardy, Jill; Henderson, Jen J.; Parhi, Pradipta; Rahmani, Vahid; Reed, Kimberly A.; Schumacher, Russ S.; Smith, Brianne K.; Taraldsen, Matthew J.

    2016-10-01

    Flash flooding is a high impact weather event that requires clear communication regarding severity and potential hazards among forecasters, researchers, emergency managers, and the general public. Current standards used to communicate these characteristics include return periods and the United States (U.S.) National Weather Service (NWS) 4-tiered river flooding severity scale. Return periods are largely misunderstood, and the NWS scale is limited to flooding on gauged streams and rivers, often leaving out heavily populated urban corridors. To address these shortcomings, a student-led group of interdisciplinary researchers came together in a collaborative effort to develop an impact-based Flash Flood Severity Index (FFSI). The index was proposed as a damage-based, post-event assessment tool, and preliminary work toward the creation of this index has been completed and presented here. Numerous case studies were analyzed to develop the preliminary outline for the FFSI, and three examples of such cases are included in this paper. The scale includes five impact-based categories ranging from Category 1 very minor flooding to Category 5 catastrophic flooding. Along with the numerous case studies used to develop the initial outline of the scale, empirical data in the form of semi-structured interviews were conducted with multiple NWS forecasters across the country and their responses were analyzed to gain more perspective on the complicated nature of flash flood definitions and which tools were found to be most useful. The feedback from these interviews suggests the potential for acceptance of such an index if it can account for specific challenges.

  10. The relativistic feedback discharge model of terrestrial gamma ray flashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Joseph R.

    2012-02-01

    As thunderclouds charge, the large-scale fields may approach the relativistic feedback threshold, above which the production of relativistic runaway electron avalanches becomes self-sustaining through the generation of backward propagating runaway positrons and backscattered X-rays. Positive intracloud (IC) lightning may force the large-scale electric fields inside thunderclouds above the relativistic feedback threshold, causing the number of runaway electrons, and the resulting X-ray and gamma ray emission, to grow exponentially, producing very large fluxes of energetic radiation. As the flux of runaway electrons increases, ionization eventually causes the electric field to discharge, bringing the field below the relativistic feedback threshold again and reducing the flux of runaway electrons. These processes are investigated with a new model that includes the production, propagation, diffusion, and avalanche multiplication of runaway electrons; the production and propagation of X-rays and gamma rays; and the production, propagation, and annihilation of runaway positrons. In this model, referred to as the relativistic feedback discharge model, the large-scale electric fields are calculated self-consistently from the charge motion of the drifting low-energy electrons and ions, produced from the ionization of air by the runaway electrons, including two- and three-body attachment and recombination. Simulation results show that when relativistic feedback is considered, bright gamma ray flashes are a natural consequence of upward +IC lightning propagating in large-scale thundercloud fields. Furthermore, these flashes have the same time structures, including both single and multiple pulses, intensities, angular distributions, current moments, and energy spectra as terrestrial gamma ray flashes, and produce large current moments that should be observable in radio waves.

  11. Modeling of Pulses in Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Celestin, Sebastien; Pasko, Victor

    2015-04-01

    Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes (TGFs) are high-energy photon bursts originating from the Earth's atmosphere that are associated with lightning activities. After their discovery in 1994 by the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) detector aboard the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory [Fishman et al., Science, 264, 1313, 1994], this phenomenon has been further observed by the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) [Smith et al., Science, 307, 1085, 2005], the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope [Briggs et al., JGR, 115, A07323, 2010] and the Astrorivelatore Gamma a Immagini Leggero (AGILE) satellite [Marisaldi et al., JGR, 115, A00E13, 2010]. Photon spectra corresponding to the mechanism of relativistic runaway electron avalanches (RREAs) usually provide a very good agreement with satellite observations [Dwyer and Smith, GRL, 32, L22804, 2005]. On the other hand, Celestin and Pasko [JGR, 116, A03315, 2011] have shown theoretically that the large flux of thermal runaway electrons generated by streamers during the negative corona flash stage of stepping lightning leaders in intracloud lightning flashes could be responsible for TGFs. Recently, based on analysis of the temporal profiles of 278 TGF events observed by the Fermi Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor, Foley et al. [JGR, 119, 5931, 2014] have suggested that 67% of TGF pulses detected are asymmetric and these asymmetric pulses are consistent with the production mechanism of TGFs by relativistic feedback discharges. In the present work, we employ a Monte Carlo model to study the temporal distribution of photons at low-orbit satellite altitudes during TGF events. Using the pulse fitting method described in [Foley et al., 2014], we further investigate the characteristics of TGF pulses. We mainly focus on the effects of Compton scattering on the symmetry properties and the rise and fall times of TGF pulses.

  12. Assessing Patterns in the Surface Electric Field Prior to First CG Flashes and After Last CG Flashes in Air-Mass Thunderstorms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D. E.; Beasley, W. H.; Hyland, P. T.

    2007-12-01

    In an effort to elicit patterns in the temporal and spatial evolution of the contours of surface electric field relevant to the occurrence of cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning, we have analyzed data from the network of 31 electric-field mills jointly operated by the John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS). To identify cases of interest, we used lightning ground-strike data, maps of in-cloud lightning discharges, rainfall data, and radar data. In particular, we have focused on two critical problems: 1) estimation of when and where the first CG flash in a storm might occur and 2) assessment of the likelihood of CG flashes occurring late in a storm after a long period without a CG flash. Our long-term goal is to understand the evolution of surface contours of electric field for periods of 30 minutes or more before the first flash of any kind and 30 minutes or more before and after the last flash of any kind. For practical reasons, we are reporting here on analysis of data for periods of 30 minutes before the first CG flash and 30 minutes after the last CG flash in each storm of interest. We have analyzed electric-field data from isolated air-mass convective storms that developed over KSC/CCAFS from late May through early September, 2004-2006. To identify thunderstorms that fit the air-mass, or "pop-up" criteria, we started by examining rainfall and CG lightning data, then looked at radar data. Then, for the storms selected, we performed a two-pass Barnes objective analysis on the electric-field data. Each analysis cycle resulted in one contour plot of 20-second averaged data, yielding 90 plots for each 30 minute interval, which we then animated. This resulted in 58 animations of the field contours prior to first CG flashes and 62 animations of the field contours after last CG flashes. Preliminary impressions from examinations of these cases suggest that the electric-field contours before the first flash exhibit a smooth transition

  13. A Flashing Model for Transport of Brownian Motors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵同军; 展永; 吴建海; 王永宏

    2002-01-01

    A flashing coloured noise model is proposed to describe the motion of a molecular motor. In this model,the overdamped Brownian particle moves in an asymmetric periodic potential with a tashing Ornstein-Ulenbeck coloured noise. The relationship between the current and the parameters-such as the intensity, the correlation time of coloured noise and the flip rate of the noise-is discussed using the Monte Carlo simulation method.Current reversal occurs with the change of the correlation time and the flip rate of coloured noise, which may be related to the directed motion and the current reversal of molecular motors.

  14. Coal flash pyrolysis. 5. Pyrolysis in an atmosphere of methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calkins, W.H.; Bonifaz, C.

    1984-12-01

    Flash pyrolysis of coal at temperatures above 700/sup 0/C and in the presence of methane produces substantially more ethylene and other low molecular weight hydrocarbons than are produced by pyrolysis of coal in the presence of nitrogen alone. Evidence is presented to show that the increase is due to pyrolysis of the methane quite independently of the coal, except with the possible catalysis by the coal, coke or mineral matter in the coal ash. This is contrary to recent reports in the literature.

  15. An Effective Approach to Flash Vacuum Thermolytic Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Lars; Egsgaard, Helge

    1980-01-01

    Flash vacuum thermolysis in combination with field ionization mass spectrometry, supplementary with collision activated spectra of the single field ionized molecules, is shown to be a facile and highly informative method for studying even very complex mixtures of primarily formed products...... in the gas phase thermolysis of organic molecules. The method allows quantitative detection of substances with half lifes t1/2 > 10−3 sec. A detailed description of the apparatus, which offers the possibility of studying gas phase thermolyses over a wide range of temperatures (300—1400 K), and the method...

  16. STUDY ON MULTIMEDIA ANIMATION SYSTEM OF ACUPOINT ANATOMY WITH FLASH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Bin; LUO Zhi-yong; PU Yu-feng; HONG Hong; ZUO Zhi-xiong

    2006-01-01

    Mastering anatomic structures of acupoints is of active significance for avoiding blindly needling and preventing accidents of acupuncture and moxibustion. This multimedia animation system of acupoint anatomy adopts Flash software as developing tool and can dynamically display anatomic layers of needle insertion, with objectivity, convenient operation and English-Chinese control, higher reliability, easy to study and master anatomic knowledge of acupoint anatomy, increase teaching efficiency, and richen teaching ways. This system can be used as a teaching tool of acupuncture and moxibustion, a software of studying anatomy of acupoints and an adjuvant tool of medical workers in studying anatomy.

  17. Frequency upshift via flash ionization phenomena using semiconductor plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishida A.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We have demonstrated frequency upshift in the terahertz region by flash ionization. The magnitude of upshift frequency is tuned by the laser intensity. A proof of principle experiment has been performed with a plasma creation time scale much shorter than the period of the electromagnetic wave and a plasma length longer than its wavelength. Frequency upshifted from 0.35 to 3.5 THz by irradiating a ZnSe crystal with a ultra-short laser pulse has been observed.

  18. Temperature distribution study in flash-annealed amorphous ribbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moron, C. E-mail: cmoron@eui.upm.es; Garcia, A.; Carracedo, M.T

    2003-01-01

    Negative magnetrostrictive amorphous ribbons have been locally current annealed with currents from 1 to 8 A and annealing times from 14 ms to 200 s. In order to obtain information about the sample temperature during flash or current annealing, a study of the temperature dispersion during annealing in amorphous ribbons was made. The local temperature variation was obtained by measuring the local intensity of the infrared emission of the sample with a CCD liquid nitrogen cooled camera. A distribution of local temperature has been found in spite of the small dimension of the sample.

  19. Sunset Times, El Niño and Green Flashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liller, William

    2010-01-01

    On 637 occasions since 1988, precise times of sunset over the Pacific Ocean have been observed from a coastal site in central Chile (lat. 32.9º S.) at an elevation of approximately 120 meters. The original intent was to find if there was a connection between these times and the presence of the El Niño Oscillation event owing to the variation in atmospheric refraction that would be expected with a change in sea surface temperature. While no such effect was found, other phenomena were noted including the occurence of the green flash.

  20. Bone Mineral Density of Adolescent Female Tennis Players and Nontennis Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevser Ermin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine differences in bone mineral density (BMD among adolescent female tennis players (TPs and nontennis players (NTPs and to assess body composition as a predictor variable of BMD. Nineteen female TPs and 19 female NTPs, ages 14 to 18 years, participated in this study. Lumbar spine, total hip, femoral neck, forearms BMD, and body composition were assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA. Lumbar spine and total hip BMD measurements for TP were greater than NTP. However, these differences were not statistically significant (=0.37 and 0.12, resp.. TP had significantly greater femoral neck BMD than NTPs (=0.02. This difference might play an important role in preventing osteoporosis and decreasing the risk of fractures at the hip later in life.

  1. Sympathetic enhancement in futsal players but not in football players after repeated sprint ability test

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yung-Sheng; Liao, Chih-Jung; Lu, Wan-An; Kuo, Cheng-Deng

    2015-01-01

    Background Heart rate variability (HRV) can disclose the specific adaptation of sympathovagal modulation to exercise. This study investigated the change in HRV measures after anaerobic and aerobic intermittent exercises in university football and futsal players. Method 36 male university students with physically active lifestyle (n=14), football (n=12), and futsal (n=10) participated in this study. The participants completed the repeated sprint ability (RSA) test and Yo-Yo (YY) intermittent r...

  2. Coach/player relationships in tennis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prapavessis, H; Gordon, S

    1991-09-01

    The present study examined the variables that predict coach/athlete compatibility. Compatibility among a sample of 52 elite tennis coach/player dyads was assessed using a sport adapted version of Schutz's (1966) Fundamental Interpersonal Relations Orientation-Behaviour (FIRO-B), a sport adapted version of Fiedler's (1967) Least Preferred Co-worker scale (LPC), and Chelladurai and Saleh's (1980) Leadership Scale for Sport (LSS). Self-ratings of the quality of the interaction were obtained from both coach and athlete. Multiple-regression analyses using self-rating scores as the dependent measure were carried out to determine which variables best predicted the degree of compatibility. The sole inventory that significantly predicted compatibility was the LSS. More specifically, the discrepancy between the athlete's preferences and perceptions on the autocratic dimension was the best predictor. Implications for tennis coaches and recommendations for future research in this area are discussed.

  3. Gamification in Fostering Creativity: Player Type Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Kalinauskas

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – to analyze gamification, as the method for promoting creativity in individual and collective levels with the respect to player types.Design/methodology/approach – This research serves as a general review/viewpoint which seeks to examine collective creativity as a phenomenon and gamification as the tool for promoting individual and collective creativity. The paper is based on the comparative analysis of scientific literature and related sources from game design, psychology, business and entertainment.Findings – Although the gamification is gaining more public attention, there is a lack of studies which would reveal its relations in fostering individual and collective creativity. One of the main goals of any gamified content is to raise the engagement into activities in non-game contexts. The objective of creative work is to come up with some ideas, methods or tools which would be significantly new and innovative in the case of a certain issue. The theory of “flow” is used widely in explaining the working principles of gamification. In this state, the information absorption rates are increased and the group or individual is immersed into performed activities. This may lead to prolonged periods while accumulating knowledge, and thus, improving creative capabilities in the specific domain. However, creative performance in different fields has various approaches. It is also related to personal characteristics. The success of gamification is also dependent on the types of “players” which participate in the activity. Having the common picture of personality type in creative performance and in game based tasks may allow creating gamification strategy for optimal engagement into creative work according to the features of a person.Research limitations/implications – There are very few empirical studies which would support correlation between experiencing the “flow” state and a raise of creativity. The idea of unified

  4. Cellular Players in Skeletal Muscle Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Cristina Ceafalan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle, a tissue endowed with remarkable endogenous regeneration potential, is still under focused experimental investigation mainly due to treatment potential for muscle trauma and muscular dystrophies. Resident satellite cells with stem cell features were enthusiastically described quite a long time ago, but activation of these cells is not yet controlled by any medical interventions. However, after thorough reports of their existence, survival, activation, and differentiation there are still many questions to be answered regarding the intimate mechanism of tissue regeneration. This review delivers an up-to-date inventory of the main known key players in skeletal muscle repair, revealed by various models of tissue injuries in mechanical trauma, toxic lesions, and muscular dystrophy. A better understanding of the spatial and temporal relationships between various cell populations, with different physical or paracrine interactions and phenotype changes induced by local or systemic signalling, might lead to a more efficient approach for future therapies.

  5. Morphological classification of novice female volleyball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José António Ribeiro Maia

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of physique have been the subject of several studies in sport sciences because high-level competitive sports place maximum demands on the physical constitution of players. Furthermore, the specifi c function performed by a player in a game may be related to a particular modality. The goals of this study were: (1 to describe and to compare, from a somatic point of view, the physiques of 71 female volleyball players at beginner levels A and B (aged 12-14 years; and (2 to identify the components of somatic structure that best differentiate the athletics by level of experience. In order to evaluate the players’ somatic structure,we performed 21 measurements including: weight and height, diameters, circumferences, upper and lower limb measurements and skinfolds thicknesses. Discriminant function analysis (DFA was used to identify the power of variables classifi cation. No difference was found in physique between level A and level B players. They were classifi ed by somatotype as mesomorphic endomorphs (A = 4.76 - 3.78 - 1.85; and B = 4.37 - 4.02 - 1.88. RESUMO As características morfológicas têm sido objeto de vários estudos em Ciências Desporto, pelo fato de o fenômeno do desporto de alta competição exigir o máximo da estrutura física dos atletas e pela expectativa da função que o atleta desempenha em jogo. O presente estudo teve como objetivo: (1 descrever e comparar, do ponto de vista somático, a estrutura morfológica de 71 atletas de voleibol do sexo feminino dos escalões de formação A e B (entre os 12 e 14 anos de idade; (2 identifi car os componentes da estrutura somática que melhor diferenciam as atletas de níveis distintos. Para a avaliação da estrutura somática das atletas foram efetuadas 21 avaliações, incluindo além do peso e altura, comprimento dos membros, perímetros, diâmetros e pregas de adiposidade subcutâneas. Com o intuito de verifi car o poder discriminatório das variáveis na

  6. Stem Cells and Neuroprotection: Understanding the Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Pearce

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of neuroprotective therapies begs the question of how such therapies could affect preexisting stem cell populations within the host, as well as those introduced through cell-replacement therapy. Multiple mechanisms may mediate stem cell responses to neuroprotectants such as host/donor age and gender, cellular lineage/differentiation status, and mitochondrial dynamics. Current therapeutic sources for stem cells are embryonic, somatic, or induced pluripotent, with very little known about the effects of gender, age, cell type, and mitochondrial dynamics. With the advent of therapies to stimulate and recruit endogenous stem cells or transplant donor cells into damage areas in the hopes of recuperative regeneration of lost neurons, it is important to discuss mechanisms that dictate the winning players in the neuroprotection game. This review will focus on our current understanding of the characteristics of renewing stem cells that may affect neuroprotection.

  7. Temporal Binding Window of the Sound-Induced Flash Illusion in Amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narinesingh, Cindy; Goltz, Herbert C; Wong, Agnes M F

    2017-03-01

    Amblyopia is a neurodevelopmental visual disorder caused by abnormal visual experience in childhood. In addition to known visual deficits, there is evidence for changes in audiovisual integration in amblyopia using explicit tasks. We examined audiovisual integration in amblyopia using an implicit task that is more relevant in a real-world context. A total of 11 participants with amblyopia and 16 controls were tested binocularly and monocularly on the sound-induced flash illusion, in which flashes and beeps are presented concurrently and the perceived number of flashes is influenced by the number of beeps. The task used 1 to 2 rapid peripheral flashes presented with 0 to 2 beeps, at 5 stimulus onset asynchronies, that is, beep (-200 milliseconds, -100 milliseconds) or flash leading (100 milliseconds, 200 milliseconds) or simultaneous (0 milliseconds). Participants reported the number of perceived flashes. Susceptibility was indicated by a "2 flashes" response to "fission" (1 flash, 2 beeps) or "1 flash" to "fusion" (2 flashes, 1 beep). For fission with the beep leading during binocular viewing, controls showed an expected decrease in illusion strength as stimulus onset asynchronies increased, whereas the illusion strength remained constant in participants with amblyopia, indicating a wider temporal binding window in amblyopia (P = 0.007). For fusion, participants with amblyopia showed reduced illusion strength during amblyopic eye viewing (P = 0.044) with the flash leading. Amblyopia is associated with the widening of the temporal binding window, specifically for fission when viewing binocularly with the beep leading. This suggests a developmental adaptation to delayed amblyopic eye visual processing to optimize audiovisual integration.

  8. RURAL FLASH-FLOOD BEHAVIOR IN GOUYAVE WATERSHED, GRENADA, CARIBBEAN ISLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmat Aris Pratomo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Flash-flood is considered as one of the most common natural disasters in Grenada, a tropical small state island in Caribbean Island. Grenada has several areas which are susceptible to flooding. One of them is Gouyave town which is located in the north-west of Grenada. Its land-use types are highly dominated by green areas, especially in the upper-part of the region. The built-up areas can only be found in the lower-part of Gouyave watershed, near the coastal area. However, there were many land conversions from natural land-use types into built-up areas in the upper-part region. They affected the decrease of water infiltration and the increase of potential run-off, making these areas susceptible to flash-flood. In addition, it is also influenced by the phenomenon of climate change. Changes in extreme temperature increase higher potential of hurricanes or wind-storm, directly related to the potential escalation of flash-flood. To develop effective mitigation strategies, understanding the behavior of flash-flood is required. The purpose of this paper was to observe the behavior of flash-flood in Gouyave watershed in various return periods using OpenLISEM software. It was used to develop and analyse the flash-flood characteristics. The result showed that the climatic condition (rainfall intensity and land-use are influential to the flash-flood event. Flash-flood occurs in 35 and 100 years return period. Flash-flood inundates Gouyave’s area in long duration, with below 1 m flood depth. The flood propagation time is slow. This condition is also influenced by the narrower and longer of Gouyave basin shape. To develop flash-flood reduction strategies, the overall understanding of flash-flood behavior is important. If the mitigation strategy is adapted to their behavior, the implementation will be more optimum.

  9. University Football Players, Postural Stability, and Concussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Barbara Sue

    2016-02-01

    Concussion in football athletes is certainly more prevalent and has potentially serious outcomes. With current concerns and increasing return-to-play issues, additional assessment focus is needed. Division 1 college football athletes, from 18 to 20.9 years (n = 177; age, 19.7 ± 1.2 years; height, 182.3 ± 4.5 cm; weight, 97.3 ± 10.6 kg), before fall practice, over a period of 3 years, underwent baseline postural stability testing (sensory organization test [SOT], NeuroCom). Individuals, who were diagnosed with a concussion (headache, dizziness, fatigue, confusion, or loss of consciousness) during practice or actual competition (n = 15; age, 18.9 ± 0.9 years; height, 181.8 ± 2.5 cm; weight, 86.6 ± 3.6 kg), underwent serial evaluation after injury and 24 hours after concussion. As soon as the player was considered asymptomatic, the test was completed on the first and 14th day. A control group of noninjured male athletes (n = 15; age, 19.1 ± 0.4 years; height, 178.2 ± 3.2 cm; weight, 78.6 ± 2.1 kg) were tested for the same time frame. This particular study was only one part of the total evaluation conducted for the concussed athlete's return to play. Results indicated that the concussion group had a statistically significant (p = 0.037) change from their baseline SOT score and the control group (p = 0.025). This change remained significant until day 14 of posttesting. These data indicate that the SOT, when available, may be a positive additional assessment of concussed college-aged football players. Professionals, when dealing with concussion in competitive sports, do need to continue to work together, but awareness of SOT assessments may also contribute to the return-to-play decisions.

  10. SPORTS SHOES PURCHASE INTENTION AMONG MALAYSIAN VOLLEYBALL PLAYERS VS. NON-VOLLEYBALL PLAYERS: A CONCEPTUAL PAPER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GOH PIN SIANG

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to advance the understanding of volleyball players’ purchase intention toward sport shoes by investigating the relationship between the independent variables (endorsement, advertising, pricing and electronic word-of-mouth and purchase intention. Descriptive research and causal research will be used as the research design, thus questionnaire and experimentation will be used to obtain data. Primary data in this study is attained by distributing the questionnaire to the Malaysian volleyball players throughout several volleyball tournament venues in Malaysia. The experiment will be conducted by comparing two groups of respondents, including volleyball players and non-volleyball players. This study is limited to several independent variables such as endorsement, advertising, pricing and electronic word-of-mouth. This study is significant for marketers for solving the challenges faced in the sport industry. It also helps to identify consumers’ purchase preferences for sport shoes. The marketer would understand more about their targeted customers’ intentions to purchase, thus the sport industry related with sport marketing in Malaysia might gain more profit.

  11. Cervical range of motion and proprioception in rugby players versus non-rugby players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lark, Sally D; McCarthy, Peter W

    2007-06-01

    In this study, we examined the effects of number of years of playing rugby on neck function. Active cervical spine range of motion and proprioception were assessed in 14 non-rugby-playing but trained sportsmen (mean age 28 years, s = 7) and 46 rugby players (26 rugby forwards: mean age 26 years, s = 5; mean years played 14 years; 20 backs: mean age 24 years, s = 5; mean years played 14 years). Active cervical range of motion in flexion, extension, left and right lateral flexion, plus left and right rotation were measured using a cervical range of motion device. The ability to reposition the head in a central position with eyes closed was taken as a measure of proprioception. Results show that rugby forwards generally had the least active cervical range of motion, particularly neck extension (forwards, 43 degrees ; backs, 55 degrees ; controls, 58 degrees ), with the decrement correlating with the number of years played. In addition, repositioning was significantly worse in rugby players after neck extension than non-rugby players (6 degrees vs. 3 degrees ). The active cervical range of motion of rugby forwards is similar to that of whiplash patients, suggesting that participation in rugby can have an effect on neck range of motion that is equivalent to chronic disability. Reduced active cervical range of motion could also increase the likelihood of injury and exacerbate age-related neck problems.

  12. Soccer and Relative Age Effect: A Walk among Elite Players and Young Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Jacob Sierra-Díaz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Grouping people according to chronological age is popular in fields such as education and sport. Athletes who are born in the first months of the year usually have cognitive and physical development differences in contrast to those born in the last months of the same year. That is why competitive teams tend to select older players more often than youngsters. Age differences between athletes born in the same year as well as an over-representation of older players are known as the Relative Age Effect. This effect is extensively described in young and elite team sports such as basketball, volleyball or, ice-hockey, as well as in soccer. The purpose of this study is to examine the state-of-the-art of the Relative Age Effect in youth and elite soccer players. This review summarizes recent research articles on the Relative Age Effect related to competitive soccer from 2010 to 2016. The systematic literature search was conducted in four databases: SPORTDiscus, Medline, EBSCO host and Google Scholar. Although causes and final solutions have not been clearly achieved yet, it is necessary to continue investigating this phenomenon in order to provide a starting point for future research.

  13. Flash droughts in a typical humid and subtropical basin: A case study in the Gan River Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuqing; You, Qinglong; Chen, Changchun; Li, Xin

    2017-08-01

    As opposed to traditional drought events, flash droughts evolve rapidly and are characterized by soil moisture deficits. The general lack of high resolution soil moisture and evapotranspiration data makes identifying flash droughts at short-term scales (pentads or weeks) nearly impossible, particularly at the basin scale. In this study, we investigated the spatial patterns, temporal characteristics, and related mechanisms of flash droughts in a humid and subtropical basin (Gan River Basin) in China. The variable infiltration capacity (VIC) model can accurately reflect hydrological processes in the Gan River Basin at daily and monthly time scales; here, flash droughts were determined based on VIC outputs (soil moisture and evapotranspiration) and meteorological observations (maximum temperature and precipitation) during the growing season (March-October) from 1961 to 2013. We classified flash droughts into two categories (heat wave and precipitation deficit flash droughts) based on the formation mechanisms. Heat wave flash droughts are high temperature driven events, high temperatures (heat waves) cause evapotranspiration to increase and soil moisture to decrease rapidly. The main driver of precipitation deficit flash droughts is precipitation deficits, which cause soil moisture to drop and in turn cause evapotranspiration anomalies to decrease and temperature to increase. The northern part of the basin is apparently vulnerable to heat wave flash droughts, whereas precipitation deficit flash droughts tend to occur across the central and southern parts of the basin. Precipitation deficit flash droughts are more common than heat wave flash droughts in general. Both types of flash droughts became significantly more frequent from 1997 to 2013. These increases in both types of flash droughts are likely attributable to climate-related variables such as temperature, precipitation, evapotranspiration, and soil moisture during 1997-2013. As evidenced by our investigation of

  14. Sport-specific factors predicting player retention in junior cricket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talpey, Scott; Croucher, Tom; Bani Mustafa, Ahmed; Finch, Caroline F

    2017-04-01

    Understanding factors that motivate young athletes to continue participation in sport can help key stakeholders cultivate an environment that fosters long-term participation. This investigation sought to determine the performance and participation factors that influenced continued participation in junior cricket. Administration-level data were collected each annual season across a seven-year period by a community-level junior cricket association in Australia and analysed to identify the performance and participation-based predictors of player retention. All players were males aged <16 years. Players were categorised according to whether they remained in (or departed from) the association at the end of each playing season. A multivariate logistic regression model with a stepwise variable selection was employed to identify significant independent predictors of player retention. The number of innings batted and overs bowled were significant participation-related contributors to junior cricket player retention. Performance factors such as the number of wickets taken and the number of runs scored also significantly influenced player retention. Finally, team age group, the number of previous seasons played and age were also significant factors in player retention. This demonstrates that sufficient opportunity for children to participate in the game and expression of skills competence are key factors for retention in cricket.

  15. Active tuning of stroke-induced vibrations by tennis players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadefaux, Delphine; Rao, Guillaume; Androuet, Philippe; Berton, Eric; Vigouroux, Laurent

    2017-08-01

    This paper investigates how tennis players control stroke-induced vibration. Its aim is to characterise how a tennis player deals with entering vibration waves or how he/she has the ability to finely adjust them. A specific experimental procedure was designed, based on simultaneously collecting sets of kinematic, vibration and electromyographic data during forehand strokes using various commercial rackets and stroke intensities. Using 14 expert players, a wide range of excitations at spectral and temporal levels were investigated. Energetic and spectral descriptors of stroke-induced vibration occurring at the racket handle and at the player's wrist and elbow were computed. Results indicated that vibrational characteristics are strongly governed by grip force and to a lower extent by the racket properties. Grip force management drives the amount of energy, as well as its distribution, into the forearm. Furthermore, hand-grip can be assimilated to an adaptive filter which can significantly modify the spectral parameters propagating into the player's upper limb. A significant outcome is that these spectral characteristics are as much dependent on the player as on the racket. This contribution opens up new perspectives in equipment manufacture by underlining the need to account for player/racket interaction in the design process.

  16. A Novel Music Player Controlling Design Based on Gesture Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study has proposed a novel music player controlling method based on gesture recognition, which translating the gesture interacting signal into a controlling instruction for the music player. Firstly, utilizing the laptop’s webcam to capture the image information, and then employing the image processing method to tackle it. The skin color detection was used to obtain the information of gesture candidates, and a background subtraction was introduced to eliminate the distributing information. Moreover, in order to ensure the rapid and effective implementation of music player proposed here, the barycenter of a gesture was calculated as one Recognized Reference Information (RRI; a ratio between the gesture’s width and height was also selected as the other RRI; the comparison of these two RRI values was utilized to obtain a pattern signal of the gesture which was corresponding to the controlling instruction for the Music Player. Eventually, a Music Player was programmed and the pattern signal generated by gesture recognition was used to control the Music Player as willing to realize four basic functions: “play”, “pause”, “previous” and “next”. A series of tests using our gesture recognition based Music Player was conducted under the condition with different kinds of complex backgrounds, and the results showed the satisfactory performance of our interactive designing.

  17. Physical performance of elite and subelite Spanish female futsal players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Arias, JA; Carrasco-Poyatos, M; Alcaraz, PE

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the parameters distinguishing top female futsal players from lower level players. Twenty-seven female futsal players participated in the study, composed of professional first division (elite; n = 15) players and semi-professional second division players (sub-elite; n = 14). Active and passive straight leg raise tests, isokinetic strength of the knee extensor and flexor muscles at 60° · s-1 angular velocity, squat and counter movement jumps, 30 m sprint, 30 m agility, repeated sprint ability test and maximum ball speed during shooting were measured. The elite players were more agile and kicked harder than sub-elite players in maximum ball speed during the shooting test (P ≤ 0.05). However, no significant differences between teams were observed in active and passive hamstring flexibility, jumping ability, repeated sprint ability test, 30 m sprint time, H/Q ratio and absolute and relative torque from 60° · s-1 angular velocity. Based on these findings we conclude that agility and maximum ball speed during shooting may be important determinant factors of Spanish female futsal actions and could distinguish ability at high-level games. PMID:27601786

  18. Physical performance of elite and subelite Spanish female futsal players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DJ Ramos-Campo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the parameters distinguishing top female futsal players from lower level players. Twenty-seven female futsal players participated in the study, composed of professional first division (elite; n=15 players and semi-professional second division players (sub-elite; n=14. Active and passive straight leg raise tests, isokinetic strength of the knee extensor and flexor muscles at 60º • s-1 angular velocity, squat and counter movement jumps, 30 m sprint, 30 m agility, repeated sprint ability test and maximum ball speed during shooting were measured. The elite players were more agile and kicked harder than sub-elite players in maximum ball speed during the shooting test (P≤0.05. However, no significant differences between teams were observed in active and passive hamstring flexibility, jumping ability, repeated sprint ability test, 30 m sprint time, H/Q ratio and absolute and relative torque from 60° • s-1 angular velocity. Based on these findings we conclude that agility and maximum ball speed during shooting may be important determinant factors of Spanish female futsal actions and could distinguish ability at high-level games.

  19. Throwing speed and accuracy in baseball and cricket players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeston, Jonathan; Rooney, Kieron

    2014-06-01

    Throwing speed and accuracy are both critical to sports performance but cannot be optimized simultaneously. This speed-accuracy trade-off (SATO) is evident across a number of throwing groups but remains poorly understood. The goal was to describe the SATO in baseball and cricket players and determine the speed that optimizes accuracy. 20 grade-level baseball and cricket players performed 10 throws at 80% and 100% of maximal throwing speed (MTS) toward a cricket stump. Baseball players then performed a further 10 throws at 70%, 80%, 90%, and 100% of MTS toward a circular target. Baseball players threw faster with greater accuracy than cricket players at both speeds. Both groups demonstrated a significant SATO as vertical error increased with increases in speed; the trade-off was worse for cricketers than baseball players. Accuracy was optimized at 70% of MTS for baseballers. Throwing athletes should decrease speed when accuracy is critical. Cricket players could adopt baseball-training practices to improve throwing performance.

  20. Tracking of Ball and Players in Beach Volleyball Videos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Gabriel; Herrera López, Patricia; Link, Daniel; Eskofier, Bjoern

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents methods for the determination of players' positions and contact time points by tracking the players and the ball in beach volleyball videos. Two player tracking methods are compared, a classical particle filter and a rigid grid integral histogram tracker. Due to mutual occlusion of the players and the camera perspective, results are best for the front players, with 74,6% and 82,6% of correctly tracked frames for the particle method and the integral histogram method, respectively. Results suggest an improved robustness against player confusion between different particle sets when tracking with a rigid grid approach. Faster processing and less player confusions make this method superior to the classical particle filter. Two different ball tracking methods are used that detect ball candidates from movement difference images using a background subtraction algorithm. Ball trajectories are estimated and interpolated from parabolic flight equations. The tracking accuracy of the ball is 54,2% for the trajectory growth method and 42,1% for the Hough line detection method. Tracking results of over 90% from the literature could not be confirmed. Ball contact frames were estimated from parabolic trajectory intersection, resulting in 48,9% of correctly estimated ball contact points. PMID:25426936