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Sample records for macrolophus pygmaeus rambur

  1. Biological control of Tetranychus urticae by Phytoseiulus macropilis and Macrolophus pygmaeus in tomato greenhouses.

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    Gigon, Vincent; Camps, Cédric; Le Corff, Josiane

    2016-01-01

    Biological control against phytophagous arthropods has been widely used under greenhouse conditions. Its success is dependent on a number of factors related to the abiotic conditions and to the interactions between pests and biological control agents. In particular, when multiple predator species are introduced to suppress one pest, competitive interactions might occur, including intraguild predation (IGP). In tomato crops, the spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch is a very problematic phytophagous mite and its control is not yet satisfactory. In 2012 and 2013, the ability of a potential new predatory mite Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks) was assessed, alone and in the presence of Macrolophus pygmaeus Rambur. Macrolophus pygmaeus is a polyphagous mirid supposed to predate on P. macropilis. Both years, under greenhouse conditions, the effectiveness of the two predators was compared between the following treatments: T. urticae, T. urticae + P. macropilis, T. urticae + M. pygmaeus, and T. urticae + P. macropilis + M. pygmaeus. The number of arthropods per tomato plant over time indicated that P. macropilis well-controlled the population of T. urticae, whereas M. pygmaeus had a very limited impact. Furthermore, there was no evidence of IGP between the two predators but in the presence of M. pygmaeus, P. macropilis tended to have a more clumped spatial distribution. Further studies should clarify the number and location of inoculation points to optimize the control of T. urticae by P. macropilis.

  2. Beyond Predation: The Zoophytophagous Predator Macrolophus pygmaeus Induces Tomato Resistance against Spider Mites.

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    Pappas, Maria L; Steppuhn, Anke; Geuss, Daniel; Topalidou, Nikoleta; Zografou, Aliki; Sabelis, Maurice W; Broufas, George D

    2015-01-01

    Many predatory insects that prey on herbivores also feed on the plant, but it is unknown whether plants affect the performance of herbivores by responding to this phytophagy with defence induction. We investigate whether the prior presence of the omnivorous predator Macrolophus pygmaeus (Rambur) on tomato plants affects plant resistance against two different herbivore species. Besides plant-mediated effects of M. pygmaeus on herbivore performance, we examined whether a plant defence trait that is known to be inducible by herbivory, proteinase inhibitors (PI), may also be activated in response to the interactions of this predator with the tomato plant. We show that exposing tomato plants to the omnivorous predator M. pygmaeus reduced performance of a subsequently infesting herbivore, the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch, but not of the greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood). The spider-mite infested tomato plants experience a lower herbivore load, i.e., number of eggs deposited and individuals present, when previously exposed to the zoophytophagous predator. This effect is not restricted to the exposed leaf and persists on exposed plants for at least two weeks after the removal of the predators. The decreased performance of spider mites as a result of prior exposure of the plant to M. pygmaeus is accompanied by a locally and systemically increased accumulation of transcripts and activity of proteinase inhibitors that are known to be involved in plant defence. Our results demonstrate that zoophytophagous predators can induce plant defence responses and reduce herbivore performance. Hence, the suppression of populations of certain herbivores via consumption may be strengthened by the induction of plant defences by zoophytophagous predators.

  3. Beyond Predation: The Zoophytophagous Predator Macrolophus pygmaeus Induces Tomato Resistance against Spider Mites.

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    Maria L Pappas

    Full Text Available Many predatory insects that prey on herbivores also feed on the plant, but it is unknown whether plants affect the performance of herbivores by responding to this phytophagy with defence induction. We investigate whether the prior presence of the omnivorous predator Macrolophus pygmaeus (Rambur on tomato plants affects plant resistance against two different herbivore species. Besides plant-mediated effects of M. pygmaeus on herbivore performance, we examined whether a plant defence trait that is known to be inducible by herbivory, proteinase inhibitors (PI, may also be activated in response to the interactions of this predator with the tomato plant. We show that exposing tomato plants to the omnivorous predator M. pygmaeus reduced performance of a subsequently infesting herbivore, the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch, but not of the greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood. The spider-mite infested tomato plants experience a lower herbivore load, i.e., number of eggs deposited and individuals present, when previously exposed to the zoophytophagous predator. This effect is not restricted to the exposed leaf and persists on exposed plants for at least two weeks after the removal of the predators. The decreased performance of spider mites as a result of prior exposure of the plant to M. pygmaeus is accompanied by a locally and systemically increased accumulation of transcripts and activity of proteinase inhibitors that are known to be involved in plant defence. Our results demonstrate that zoophytophagous predators can induce plant defence responses and reduce herbivore performance. Hence, the suppression of populations of certain herbivores via consumption may be strengthened by the induction of plant defences by zoophytophagous predators.

  4. LC30 effects of thiamethoxam and pirimicarb, on population parameters and biological characteristics of Macrolophus pygmaeus (Hemiptera: Miridae)

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    Shima Rahmani; Solmaz Azimi; Mona Moghadasi

    2016-01-01

    Chemical pesticides have important role in integrated pest management strategies. However, they can adversely affect on natural enemies as non-target organisms, even in sublethal concentrations. In this study, sublethal effects of two insecticides, thiamethoxam and pirimicarb, were examined on demographic parameters of an important predator, Macrolophus pygmaeus. Bioassay results indicated that LC30 of thiamethoxam and pirimicarb, applied on the third instar larvae, were 451.6 and 2013.4 mg (...

  5. Population genetic structure of the biological control agent Macrolophus pygmaeus in Mediterranean agroecosystems.

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    Streito, Jean-Claude; Clouet, Cécile; Hamdi, Faten; Gauthier, Nathalie

    2017-10-01

    Biological control of agricultural pests relies on knowledge of agroecosystem functionality, particularly when affected by the use of mass-produced biological agents. Incorporating pre- and/or post-release information such as genetic diversity and structure on these agents using molecular-based approaches could advance our knowledge of how they perform in agroecosystems. We evaluated the population genetics of Macrolophus pygmaeus, the most widely used predatory mirid against many arthropod pests of greenhouse crops in the Mediterranean region, using the mitochondrial Cytb sequence and microsatellite data, and population genetics and phylogeny approaches. We investigated commercially mass-produced insects (i.e., commercial insects either mass-reared in the laboratory for many generations, or purchased by farmers and released in the greenhouses) and "wild" insects (i.e., that occur naturally outside or are collected in nature for release in the greenhouses). The mirids were mainly collected in agroecosystems in which solanaceous plants are grown in northern Spain, southern France and Greece. Both molecular markers and approaches distinguished 2 genetically differentiated populations. The less genetically diverse population, hereafter named the "commercial" strain included all individuals from laboratory mass-rearings and most releases of commercially bred individuals. The most genetically diverse population mainly comprised individuals originating from noncultivated environments, or from releases of "wild" individuals. Rare examples of hybridization between M. pygmaeus from the 2 populations were observed and asymmetric gene flow was revealed. These findings provide new insights into what happens to M. pygmaeus released in the agroecosystems we studied, and show that it is possible to monitor some commercial strains. © 2016 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  6. Fitness and predation potential of Macrolophus pygmaeus reared under artificial conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bjorn Vandekerkhove; Veronic De Puysseleyr; Maarten Bonte; Patrick De Clercq

    2011-01-01

    The biological parameters ofMacrolophuspygmaeus Rambur after prolonged rearing in the absence of plant materials were compared with those of conventionally plant-reared predators.When eggs of Ephestia kuehniella Zeller were provided as food,developmental and reproductive fitness of M.pygmaeus reared for over 30 consecutive generations using artificial living and oviposition substrates was similar to that of predators kept on tobacco leaves.Plantless-reared fifth instars of the predator also had similar predation rates on second instars of the tobacco aphid,Myzus persicae nicotianae Blackman,as their peers maintained on plant materials.In a further experiment,predation on aphid prey by fifth instar M.pygmaeus fed one of two egg yolk-based artificial diets was compared with that of nymphs fed E.kuehniella eggs.Despite their lower body weights,predators produced on either artificial diet killed similar numbers of prey as their counterparts reared on lepidopteran eggs.Our study indicates that artificial rearing systems may be useful to further rationalize the production of this economically important biological control agent.

  7. Predation of the Peach Aphid Myzus persicae by the mirid Predator Macrolophus pygmaeus on Sweet Peppers: Effect of Prey and Predator Density

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    Lara De Backer

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Integrated Pest Management strategies are widely implemented in sweet peppers. Aphid biological control on sweet pepers includes curative applications of parasitoids and generalist predators, but with limited efficiency. Macrolophus pygmaeus is a zoophytophagous predator which has been reported to predate on aphids, but has traditionally been used to control other pests, including whiteflies. In this work, we evaluate the effectiveness of M. pygmaeus in controlling Myzus persicae (Homoptera: Aphididae by testing different combinations of aphid and predator densities in cage-experiments under greenhouse conditions. The impact of the presence of an alternative factitious prey (E. kuehniella eggs was also investigated. Macrolophus pygmaeus, at densities of four individuals/plant, caused rapid decline of newly established aphid populations. When aphid infestations were heavy, the mirid bug reduced the aphid numbers but did not fully eradicate aphid populations. The availability of a factitious prey did not influence M. pygmaeus predation on aphids. Based on our data, preventive application of M. pygmaeus, along with a supplementary food source , is recommended to control early infestations of aphids.

  8. LC30 effects of thiamethoxam and pirimicarb, on population parameters and biological characteristics of Macrolophus pygmaeus (Hemiptera: Miridae

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    Shima Rahmani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Chemical pesticides have important role in integrated pest management strategies. However, they can adversely affect on natural enemies as non-target organisms, even in sublethal concentrations. In this study, sublethal effects of two insecticides, thiamethoxam and pirimicarb, were examined on demographic parameters of an important predator, Macrolophus pygmaeus. Bioassay results indicated that LC30 of thiamethoxam and pirimicarb, applied on the third instar larvae, were 451.6 and 2013.4 mg (ai L-1, respectively. The two insecticides extended the pre-adult duration, significantly. Demographic parameters were analyzed by two-sex life table. The results showed that all of the main demographic traits (r, λ, R0 and T have been changed significantly and there are also some changes in other parameters such as age-specific survival rate (lx and life expectancy (ex. Intrinsic rate of increase in control was 0.15 but it reduced to 0.10 and 0.99 day-1 in thiamethoxam and pirimicarb treatments, respectively. Also, finite rate of increase in control, thiamethoxam and pirimicarb treatments was 1.11, 1.08 and 1.03 day-1 respectively. Reproductive rate in control showed 36.75 offspring/individual but this statistic in thiamethoxam and pirimicarb treatments was 19.62 and 18.24, respectively. Mean generation time was 22.69 days in control but it extended in both treatments and illustrated 27.79 and 31.24 days in thiamethoxam and pirimicarb treatments, respectively. Thus, obtained results in this study showed that although pirimicarb and thiamethoxam are selective insecticides, they have potential to affect on the predator, M. pygmaeus severely, and need to take care in IPM programs.

  9. Microbial community of predatory bugs of the genus Macrolophus (Hemiptera: Miridae

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    Machtelinckx Thijs

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The predatory mirids of the genus Macrolophus are key natural enemies of various economically important agricultural pests. Both M. caliginosus and M. pygmaeus are commercially available for the augmentative biological control of arthropod pests in European greenhouses. The latter species is known to be infected with Wolbachia -inducing cytoplasmic incompatibility in its host- but the presence of other endosymbionts has not been demonstrated. In the present study, the microbial diversity was examined in various populations of M. caliginosus and M. pygmaeus by 16S rRNA sequencing and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Results Besides Wolbachia, a co-infection of 2 Rickettsia species was detected in all M. pygmaeus populations. Based on a concatenated alignment of the 16S rRNA gene, the gltA gene and the coxA gene, the first is phylogenetically related to Rickettsia bellii, whereas the other is closely related to Rickettsia limoniae. All M. caliginosus populations were infected with the same Wolbachia and limoniae-like Rickettsia strain as M. pygmaeus, but did not harbour the bellii-like Rickettsia strain. Interestingly, individuals with a single infection were not found. A PCR assay on the ovaries of M. pygmaeus and M. caliginosus indicated that all endosymbionts are vertically transmitted. The presence of Wolbachia and Rickettsia in oocytes was confirmed by a fluorescence in situ hybridisation. A bio-assay comparing an infected and an uninfected M. pygmaeus population suggested that the endosymbionts had minor effects on nymphal development of their insect host and did not influence its fecundity. Conclusion Two species of the palaearctic mirid genus Macrolophus are infected with multiple endosymbionts, including Wolbachia and Rickettsia. Independent of the origin, all tested populations of both M. pygmaeus and M. caliginosus were infected with three and two endosymbionts, respectively. There was no indication that

  10. The larva of Athripsodes genei (Rambur 1842) (Trichoptera, Leptoceridae).

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    Waringer, Johann; Graf, Wolfram

    2014-09-29

    This paper describes the previously unknown larva of Athripsodes genei (Rambur 1842). Information on the morphology of the 5th larval instar is given and the most important diagnostic features are illustrated. In the context of existing identification keys the larva of A. genei keys together with A. albifrons (Linnaeus 1758), A. commutatus (Rostock 1874), A. leucophaeus (Rambur 1842) and Athripsodes tavaresi (Navás 1916). These species differ in the number of ventral edge setae at the 1st tibia and in the shape and colour of the submentum. With respect to zoogeography, Athripsodes genei is a (micro-)endemic of the collin and planar regions of Sardinia and Corsica (Graf et al. 2008). According to mandible morphology, A. genei is a collector-gatherer, shredder and, to a minor extent, also a predator.

  11. Review of the genus Singilis Rambur, 1837 of North Africa and Iberian Peninsula (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Lebiini).

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    Anichtchenko, Alexander

    2017-02-09

    The paper deals with the taxonomy of bicolor-group of species of genus Singilis Rambur, 1837 known from North Africa and South Spain. The species S. soror Rambur, 1837 is treated as polytipic and one new combination and new synonymy are proposed: S. soror melillensis Escalera, 1914 comb. n., S. pardoi Mateu, 1954 syn. n. = Singilis soror riffensis Mateu, 1954 syn. n. = S. soror soror Rambur, 1837. A new subspecies from Algeria is described: S. soror oranensis ssp. n. A key to species and subspecies is provided and the taxonomic position of these taxa is discussed.

  12. Revision of Chinese Dilaridae (Insecta: Neuroptera) (Part II): Species of the genus Dilar Rambur from Tibet.

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    Zhang, Wei; Liu, Xingyue; Aspöck, Horst; Aspöck, Ulrike

    2014-10-30

    Three species of the genus Dilar Rambur, 1838, are recorded and described from Tibet in southwestern China, including Dilar geometroides H. Aspöck & U. Aspöck, 1968, Dilar harmandi (Navás, 1909), and Dilar tibetanus Yang, 1987, with the former two species recorded in Tibet for the first time. All three species are redescribed. Dilar aspersus Yang, 1988, and Dilar pusillus Yang, 1992, are synonymized with Dilar geometroides Aspöck & Aspöck, 1968, and Dilar tibetanus Yang, 1987, respectively. A key to the Dilar species from Tibet is provided.

  13. How orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus) innovate for water.

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    Russon, Anne E; Kuncoro, Purwo; Ferisa, Agnes; Handayani, Dwi Putri

    2010-02-01

    We report an observational field study that aimed to identify innovative processes in rehabilitant orangutans' (Pongo pygmaeus) water innovations on Kaja Island, Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. We tested for the basic model of innovating (make small changes to old behavior), 4 contributors (apply old behavior to new ends, accidents, independent working out, social cross-fertilization), development, and social rank. Focal observations of Kaja rehabilitants' behavior over 20 months yielded 18 probable innovations from among 44 water variants. We identified variants by function and behavioral grain, innovations by prevalence, and innovative processes by relations between innovations, other behaviors, and social encounters. Findings indicate innovating by small changes and some involvement of all 4 contributors; midrank orangutans were the most innovative; and rehabilitants' adolescent age profile, orphaning, and intense sociality probably enhanced innovativeness. Important complexities include: orangutan innovating may favor certain behavioral levels and narrowly defined similarities, and it may constitute a phase-like process involving a succession of changes and contributors. Discussion focuses on links with great ape cognition and parallels with innovating in humans and other nonhuman species.

  14. Impact of cuticle photoluminescence on the color morphism of a male damselfly Ischnura senegalensis (Rambur, 1842)

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    Chuang, Chin-Jung; Liu, Cheng-Der; Patil, Ranjit A.; Wu, Chi-Chung; Chang, Yao-Chih; Peng, Chih-Wen; Chao, Ting-Kwuan; Liou, Je-Wen; Liou, Yung; Ma, Yuan-Ron

    2016-12-01

    In this study the damselfly Ischnura senegalensis (Rambur, 1842) was first found to produce strong photoluminescence (PL) emissions from various colored-body portions, such as the eighth abdominal segment of the tail. The colors of the colored-body portions can be enhanced or modified by the PL emissions for assistance in reducing intrasexual and male harassment, and improving mature mating and conspecific identity. Therefore, the PL emissions that contribute to the color modification and coloration are involved in the cuticle evolution of the damselflies. The micro-PL confocal images verify that the PL emissions can strongly influence the surface colors of the cuticle, and demonstrate why the damselfly Ischnura senegalensis is called a bluetail.

  15. Feeding preference of Macrolophus caliginosus (Heteroptera: Miridae) on Bemisia tabaci and Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae).

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    Bonato, Olivier; Couton, Louise; Fargues, Jacques

    2006-08-01

    A study of predation choices of Macrolophus caliginosus Wagner (Heteroptera: Miridae) late instars and adults, when offered various developmental stages (eggs and nymphs) of the recently established whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae), was made based on two preference indices. In addition, prey choices of late instars when presented with three ratios of Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) and B. tabaci at a similar developmental stage (eggs, young or late instars) were assessed. M. caliginosus preferred older nymphs of B. tabaci than any other stage. It also chose T. vaporariorum over B. tabaci, unless the latter consisted of > 75% of the available prey. These results suggested that M. caliginosus might interfere with parasitoids such as Encarsia, Eretmocerus, or Amitus spp. because all three species emerge from the host pupal case. Furthermore, in mixed infestations, M. caliginosus preference for T. vaporariorum might either negatively affect the control of B. tabaci, or, contrarily, enhance the predator population, before a B. tabaci outbreak occurs in the greenhouse.

  16. Morphometric analysis of population samples of soldier caste of Odontotermes obesus (Rambur (Isoptera, Termitidae, Macrotermitinae

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    Manzoor, F.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to study morphometric variations in Odontotermes obesus (Rambur, samples from nineteen nests were statistically analyzed for mean, standard deviation, standard error, coefficient of variability and confidence interval (95% and analysis of variance (Model II ANOVA, The mean values of the different population samples were compared with the student t-test, following the Minitab version and Sokal & Rohlf (1973. In the study of external characters, measurements form a very important component, particularly for identification of species. However, the reliability of the measurements depends on the extent of variability which the structures show within and between colonies. For each individual soldier, the following nine parameters were measured: i length of head; ii width of head at mandibles; iii width of head at the posterolateral ends of antennal carinae; iv maximum width of head; v length of left mandible; vi tooth of left mandible from tip; vii length of pronotum; viii width of pronotum; ix length of postmentum; and x width of postmentum.

  17. Olfactory response of predatory Macrolophus caliginosus Wagner (Heteroptera: Miridae) to the odours host plant infested by Bemisia tabaci

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    Saad, Khalid A.; Roff, M. N. Mohamad; Salam, Mansour; Hanifah Mohd, Y.; Idris, A. B.

    2014-09-01

    Plant infested with herbivores, release volatile that can be used by natural enemies to locate their herbivorous prey. Laboratory studies were carried out to determine the olfactory responses of predator Macrolophus caliginosus Wagner (Heteroptera: Miridae), to chili plant infected with eggs, nymphs of Bemisia tabaci, using Y-tube olfactometer. The results shown that predator, M. caliginosus has ability to discriminate between non-infested and infested plant by B. tabaci. Moreover, the predator preferred plants with nymphs over plants with eggs. This suggested that M. caliginous uses whitefly-induced volatile as reliable indicators to distinguish between infested chili plants by nymphs, eggs and non-infested plants. These results enhance our understanding of the olfactory cues that guide foraging by M. caliginosus to plant with and without Bemisia tabaci.

  18. Effects of Sublethal Concentrations of Insecticides on the Functional Response of Two Mirid Generalist Predators.

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    Angeliki F Martinou

    Full Text Available The use of agrochemicals particularly pesticides, can hamper the effectiveness of natural enemies, causing disruption in the ecosystem service of biological control. In the current study, the effects of the insecticides thiacloprid and chlorantraniliprole on the functional response curves were assessed for two mirid predator nymphs, Macrolophus pygmaeus Rambur and Nesidiocoris tenuis Reuter. In the absence of insecticides, both predators exhibited a type II functional response when feeding on eggs of the moth Ephestia kuehniella. N. tenuis seems to be a more efficient predator than M. pygmaeus, as model estimated handling time was significantly lower for the former than for the latter. Residual exposure of M. pygmaeus to sublethal concentrations of either insecticide was associated with a change in the asymptote but not the type of the functional response curve. Thiacloprid seems to be the least compatible with M. pygmaeus, as it led to both a significant reduction of the attack rate and an increase in handling time. In contrast, chlorantraniliprole exposure significantly increased the handling time, but not the attack rate of the predator. Residual exposure of N. tenuis to sublethal concentrations of either insecticide did not have a significant effect on the type nor the parameters of the functional response model. The results show that pesticide residues that do not have lethal effects on beneficial arthropods can reduce prey consumption depending on predator species and on likely risks associated with toxicity.

  19. Field Evaluation of Some Insecticides on Whitefly (Trialeurodes vaporariorum and Predator (Macrolophus caliginosus on Brinjal and Tomato Plants

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    Mohd Rasdi, Z.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect treatments with the recommended application rates of avermectin, buprofezin, white oil, lambda-cyhalothrin and cyromazine on Trialeurodes vaporariorum Westwood (Aleyrodidae: Homoptera was evaluated. Pesticides were applied against larvae infesting brinjal (Solanum melongena L. and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill plants in a natural environment of the Cameron Highlands, Pahang, Malaysia. We also examined whether these pesticides affect the whitefly predator, Macrolophus caliginosus Wagner (Heteroptera: Miridae. Tested pesticides significantly reduced the larval populations of the whitefly and affect throughout the survey period. Similar effects were observed on the predator except for the white oil. Avermectin was the most effective insecticide against the population of T. vaporariorum. However, it was highly toxic to the predator, M. caliginosus. Considering relatively low mammalian toxicity of buprofezin and white oil, these two insecticides were more suitable for controlling whiteflies, particularly during fruiting period. Proper selection of effective pesticides against the pest, but less harmful to natural enemies and also good timing of their applications are essential in formulating an Integrated Pest Management (IPM programme for whiteflies.

  20. Spirochaeta odontotermitis sp. nov., an obligately anaerobic, cellulolytic, halotolerant, alkaliphilic spirochaete isolated from the termite Odontotermes obesus (Rambur) gut.

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    Sravanthi, T; Tushar, L; Sasikala, Ch; Ramana, Ch V

    2015-12-01

    A Gram-stain-negative spirochaete (strain JC202T) was isolated from the gut of the termite Odontotermes obesus (Rambur) from Rann of Kutch, Gujarat, India. This strain was obligately anaerobic, mesophilic, halotolerant and required alkaline conditions for growth. Strain JC202T was resistant to rifampicin and kanamycin, but sensitive to gentamicin, tetracycline, ampicillin and chloramphenicol. Strain JC202T possessed phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, glycolipid and six unidentified lipids. C18 : 1ω7c was the predominant cellular fatty acid with significant proportions of C16 : 0, C18 : 1ω9c, C14 : 0, C18 : 0, C16 : 1ω5c, C18 : 1ω5c and C20 : 1ω9c. The DNA G+C content of strain JC202T was 59 mol%. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain JC202T is considered to belong to the genus Spirochaeta with Spirochaeta sphaeroplastigenens JC133T (100 % similarity), Spirochaeta alkalica Z-7491T (99.92 %), Spirochaeta americana ATCC BAA-392T (99.47 %) and other members of the genus Spirochaeta ( odontotermitis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JC202T ( = KCTC 15324T = NBRC 110104T).

  1. Attention following and nonverbal referential communication in bonobos (Pan paniscus), chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus)

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    Madsen, Elainie Alenkær

    2011-01-01

    A central issue in the study of primate communication is the extent to which individuals adjust their behaviour to the attention and signals of others, and manipulate others’ attention to communicate about external events. I investigated whether 13 chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes spp.), 11 bonobos (Pan paniscus), and 7 orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus pygmaeus) followed conspecific attention and led others to distal locations. Individuals were presented with a novel stimulus, to test if they would lea...

  2. Observations on the endemic pygmy three-toed sloth, Bradypus pygmaeus of Isla Escudo de Veraguas, Panama.

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    Sam Kaviar

    Full Text Available Our objective was to ascertain the population status of the Pygmy Three-toed Sloth, Bradypus pygmaeus, an IUCN Critically Endangered species, on Isla Escudo de Veraguas, Panama. Bradypus pygmaeus are thought to be folivorous mangrove specialists; therefore we conducted a visual systematic survey of all 10 mangrove thickets on the island. The total mangrove habitat area was measured to be 1.67 ha, comprising 0.024% of the total island area. The population survey found low numbers of B. pygmaeus in the mangrove thickets and far lower numbers outside of them. The connectivity of subpopulations between these thickets on the island is not established, as B. pygmaeus movement data is still lacking. We found 79 individuals of B. pygmaeus; 70 were found in mangroves and 9 were observed just beyond the periphery of the mangroves in non-mangrove tree species. Low population number, habitat fragmentation and habitat loss could lead to inbreeding, a loss of genetic diversity, and extinction of B. pygmaeus.

  3. Nano-formulation enhances insecticidal activity of natural pyrethrins against Aphis gossypii (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and retains their harmless effect to non-target predators.

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    Papanikolaou, Nikos E; Kalaitzaki, Argyro; Karamaouna, Filitsa; Michaelakis, Antonios; Papadimitriou, Vassiliki; Dourtoglou, Vassilis; Papachristos, Dimitrios P

    2017-02-16

    The insecticidal activity of a new nano-formulated natural pyrethrin was examined on the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae), and the predators Coccinella septempunctata L. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and Macrolophus pygmaeus Rambur (Hemiptera: Miridae), in respect with the nano-scale potential to create more effective and environmentally responsible pesticides. Pyrethrin was nano-formulated in two water-in-oil micro-emulsions based on safe biocompatible materials, i.e., lemon oil terpenes as dispersant, polysorbates as stabilizers, and mixtures of water with glycerol as the dispersed aqueous phase. Laboratory bioassays showed a superior insecticidal effect of the pyrethrin micro-emulsions compared to two commercial suspension concentrates of natural pyrethrins against the aphid. The nano-formulated pyrethrins were harmless, in terms of caused mortality and survival time, to L3 larvae and four-instar nymphs of the predators C. septempunctata and M. pygmaeus, respectively. We expect that these results can contribute to the application of nano-technology in optimization of pesticide formulation, with further opportunities in the development of effective plant protection products compatible with integrated pest management practices.

  4. Morphological identification of the Soprano Pipistrelle (Pipistrellus pygmaeus Leach, 1825 in Croatia.

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    Igor Pavlinić

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract After the discovery of two different phonic types within the common pipistrelle (Pipistrellus pipistrellus, mtDNA analysis confirmed the existence of two separate species named as common pipistrelle (P. pipistrellus and soprano pipistrelle (P. pygmaeus. The discrimination of these two cryptic species using external characters and measures has proved to be somewhat problematic. We examined two colonies of soprano pipistrelle from Donji Miholjac, Croatia. As a result, only two characters proved to be of help for field identification: wing venation (89% of cases and penis morphology and colour for males. The difference in length between the 2nd and 3rd phalanxes of the 3rd finger should be discarded as diagnostic trait between P. pipistrellus and P. pygmaeus in Croatia. Riassunto Identificazione su basi morfologiche del pipistrello pigmeo (Pipistrellus pygmeaus, Leach, 1825 in Croazia. A seguito della descrizione di due differenti "tipi fonici" nel pipistrello nano (Pipistrellus pipistrellus e della successiva conferma su basi genetiche dell'esistenza di due specie distinte, designate come pipistrello nano (P. pipistrellus e pipistrello pigmeo (P. pygmaeus, la distinzione delle due specie in base a caratteristiche morfologiche esterne si è dimostrata un problema di difficile soluzione. Sulla base delle caratteristiche distintive e delle differenze biometriche proposte da altri Autori, sono state esaminate due colonie di pipistrello pigmeo a Donji Miholjac, in Croazia. I risultati ottenuti evidenziano che, tra tutti i potenziali caratteri sinora proposti, solo due risultano utili per un'identificazione diretta sul campo: la venatura delle ali, risultata utile alla discriminazione nell'89% degli esemplari analizzati, e la colorazione e morfologia del pene nei maschi. La

  5. Prey-capture success revealed by echolocation signals in pipistrelle bats (Pipistrellus pygmaeus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Surlykke, Annemarie; Futtrup, Vibeke; Tougaard, Jakob

    2003-01-01

    Three Pipistrellus pygmaeus bats were trained to capture prey on the wing while flying in the laboratory. The bats' capture behaviour and capture success were determined and correlated with acoustic analyses of post-buzz echolocation signals. Three acoustic parameters revealed capture success: in...

  6. Confirmación de la reproducción de Gomphus graslinii (Rambur, 1844 y odonatofauna fluvial de los Prepirineos del este de Navarra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torralba-Burrial, A., Armendariz, C., Rabina, E., Llamas, A., Nores, C.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gomphus graslinii (Rambur, 1844 es una libélula amenazada incluida en el Catálogo Español de Especies Amenazadas y en la Directiva Hábitats de la Unión Europea. Presenta una distribución sumamente fragmentada en la Península Ibérica, siendo muy escasas las poblaciones conocidas y citas publicadas en su cuadrante nororiental, entre ellas dos citas de especímenes adultos en Navarra. Se ha buscado en ríos prepirenaicos del oriente navarro, muestreándose 23 tramos en la zona y aportándose datos sobre su reproducción en dos tramos del río Salazar. Se proporcionan también datos de otras 24 especies de odonatos, incluyendo a Gomphus simillimus Selys, 1840 y Coenagrion caerulescens (Fonscolombe, 1838, consideradas como vulnerables en el Atlas y Libro Rojo de los Invertebrados de España.

  7. Preference and Prey Switching in a Generalist Predator Attacking Local and Invasive Alien Pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworski, Coline C.; Bompard, Anaïs; Genies, Laure; Amiens-Desneux, Edwige; Desneux, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Invasive pest species may strongly affect biotic interactions in agro-ecosystems. The ability of generalist predators to prey on new invasive pests may result in drastic changes in the population dynamics of local pest species owing to predator-mediated indirect interactions among prey. On a short time scale, the nature and strength of such indirect interactions depend largely on preferences between prey and on predator behavior patterns. Under laboratory conditions we evaluated the prey preference of the generalist predator Macrolophus pygmaeus Rambur (Heteroptera: Miridae) when it encounters simultaneously the local tomato pest Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) and the invasive alien pest Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). We tested various ratios of local vs. alien prey numbers, measuring switching by the predator from one prey to the other, and assessing what conditions (e.g. prey species abundance and prey development stage) may favor such prey switching. The total predation activity of M. pygmaeus was affected by the presence of T. absoluta in the prey complex with an opposite effect when comparing adult and juvenile predators. The predator showed similar preference toward T. absoluta eggs and B. tabaci nymphs, but T. absoluta larvae were clearly less attacked. However, prey preference strongly depended on prey relative abundance with a disproportionately high predation on the most abundant prey and disproportionately low predation on the rarest prey. Together with the findings of a recent companion study (Bompard et al. 2013, Population Ecology), the insight obtained on M. pygmaeus prey switching may be useful for Integrated Pest Management in tomato crops, notably for optimal simultaneous management of B. tabaci and T. absoluta, which very frequently co-occur on tomato. PMID:24312646

  8. Meat-eating by a wild Bornean orang-utan (Pongo pygmaeus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Benjamin J W; Dench, Rosalie J; Morrogh-Bernard, Helen C; Bustani, Unyil; Chivers, David J

    2015-10-01

    We present the first evidence for consumption of meat by a wild Bornean orang-utan (Pongo pygmaeus). Meat-eating has been reported in Sumatran orang-utans, specifically the hunting and consumption of slow lorises (Nycticebus coucang), but loris-hunting behaviour has not been observed in the Bornean species and meat of any species is essentially absent from their diet, with only two anecdotal reports of vertebrate meat consumption prior to this current finding in over 40 years of study. In August 2012 an unhabituated adult flanged male orang-utan was observed eating an adult horse-tailed squirrel (Sundasciurus hippurus) carcass in the Sabangau peat-swamp forest, Central Kalimantan. We suspect this to be a case of scavenging, never reported previously in a Bornean orang-utan.

  9. A cytogenetical study on Economidichthys pygmaeus Holly, 1929 (Pisces, Gobiidae, an endemic freshwater goby from Western Greece

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    Massimiliano Rampin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A cytogenetic study was carried out on the chromosomes and the nuclear DNA content of the freshwater goby Economidichthys pygmaeus (Pisces, Gobiidae. The species is characterized by a 2n=46 karyotype consisting of 12 submetacentric and 11 subtelocentric chromosome pairs (NF=70. Major (45S rDNA genes are terminal-centromeric located on the short arm of a single medium-small sized submetacentric pair as assessed by in situ hybridization, CMA3 staining, and Ag-NOR banding. The haploid (C-value nuclear DNA content is 0.93±0.003 picograms. The cytogenetical data of E. pygmaeus were compared with those ones already available for other related gobies.

  10. A cytogenetical study on Economidichthys pygmaeus Holly, 1929 (Pisces, Gobiidae), an endemic freshwater goby from Western Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampin, Massimiliano; Gkenas, Christos; Malavasi, Stefano; Libertini, Angelo

    2011-01-01

    A cytogenetic study was carried out on the chromosomes and the nuclear DNA content of the freshwater goby Economidichthys pygmaeus (Pisces, Gobiidae). The species is characterized by a 2n=46 karyotype consisting of 12 submetacentric and 11 subtelocentric chromosome pairs (NF=70). Major (45S) rDNA genes are terminal-centromeric located on the short arm of a single medium-small sized submetacentric pairas assessed by in situ hybridization, CMA3 staining, and Ag-NOR banding. The haploid (C-value) nuclear DNA content is 0.93±0.003 picograms. The cytogenetical data of Economidichthys pygmaeus were compared with those ones already available for other related gobies.

  11. Applying standard perikymata profiles to Pongo pygmaeus canines to estimate perikymata counts between linear enamel hypoplasias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, Mackie

    2017-05-01

    Recently, studies have interpreted regular spacing and average number of perikymata between dental enamel defects in orangutans to reflect seasonal episodes of physiological stress. To estimate the amount of time between developmental defects (enamel hypoplasia), studies have relied on perikymata counts. Unfortunately, perikymata are frequently not continuously visible between defects, significantly reducing data sets. A method is presented here for estimating the number of perikymata between defects using standard perikymata profiles (SPP) that allow the number of perikymata between all pairs of defects across a tooth to be analyzed. The SPP method should allow the entire complement of defects to be analyzed within the context of an individual's crown formation time. The average number of perikymata were established per decile and charted to create male and female Pongo pygmaeus SPPs. The position of the beginning of each defect was recorded for lower canines from males (n = 6) and females (n = 17). The number of perikymata between defects estimated by the SPP was compared to the actual count (where perikymata were continuously visible). The number of perikymata between defects estimated by the SPPs was accurate within three perikymata and highly correlated with the actual counts, significantly increasing the number of analyzable defect pairs. SPPs allow all defect pairs to be included in studies of defect timing, not just those with continuously visible perikymata. Establishing an individual's entire complement of dental defects makes it possible to calculate the regularity (and potential seasonality) of defects. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. The limits of endowment effects in great apes (Pan paniscus, Pan troglodytes, Gorilla gorilla, Pongo pygmaeus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanngiesser, Patricia; Santos, Laurie R; Hood, Bruce M; Call, Josep

    2011-11-01

    The endowment effect describes the bias that people often value things that they possess more than things they do not possess. Thus, they are often reluctant to trade items in their possession for items of equivalent value. Some nonhuman primates appear to share this bias with humans, but it remains an open question whether they show endowment effects to the same extent as humans do. We investigated endowment effects in all four great ape species (Pan paniscus, Pan troglodytes, Gorilla gorilla, Pongo pygmaeus) by varying whether apes were endowed with food items (Experiment 1, N = 22) or tools that were instrumental in retrieving food (Experiment 2, N = 23). We first assessed apes' preferences for items of a pair and their willingness to trade items in their possession. We then endowed apes with one item of a pair and offered them to trade for the other item. Apes showed endowment effects for food, but not for tools. In Experiment 3, we endowed bonobos (N = 4) and orangutans (N = 5) with either one or 12 food items. Endowment effects did not differ between species and were not influenced by the number of endowed food items. Our findings suggest that endowment effects in great apes are restricted to immediate food gratification and remain unaffected by the quantity of food rewards. However, endowment effects do not seem to extend to other, nonconsumable possessions even when they are instrumental in retrieving food. In general, apes do not show endowment effects across a range of different commodities as humans typically do.

  13. Ape conservation physiology: fecal glucocorticoid responses in wild Pongo pygmaeus morio following human visitation.

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    Michael P Muehlenbein

    Full Text Available Nature-based tourism can generate important revenue to support conservation of biodiversity. However, constant exposure to tourists and subsequent chronic activation of stress responses can produce pathological effects, including impaired cognition, growth, reproduction, and immunity in the same animals we are interested in protecting. Utilizing fecal samples (N = 53 from 2 wild habituated orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus morio (in addition to 26 fecal samples from 4 wild unhabituated orangutans in the Lower Kinabatangan Wildlife Sanctuary of Sabah, Malaysian Borneo, we predicted that i fecal glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations would be elevated on the day after tourist visitation (indicative of normal stress response to exposure to tourists on the previous day compared to samples taken before or during tourist visitation in wild, habituated orangutans, and ii that samples collected from habituated animals would have lower fecal glucocorticoid metabolites than unhabituated animals not used for tourism. Among the habituated animals used for tourism, fecal glucocorticoid metabolite levels were significantly elevated in samples collected the day after tourist visitation (indicative of elevated cortisol production on the previous day during tourist visitation. Fecal glucocorticoid metabolite levels were also lower in the habituated animals compared to their age-matched unhabituated counterparts. We conclude that the habituated animals used for this singular ecotourism project are not chronically stressed, unlike other species/populations with documented permanent alterations in stress responses. Animal temperament, species, the presence of coping/escape mechanisms, social confounders, and variation in amount of tourism may explain differences among previous experiments. Acute alterations in glucocorticoid measures in wildlife exposed to tourism must be interpreted conservatively. While permanently altered stress responses can be detrimental

  14. Ape conservation physiology: fecal glucocorticoid responses in wild Pongo pygmaeus morio following human visitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehlenbein, Michael P; Ancrenaz, Marc; Sakong, Rosman; Ambu, Laurentius; Prall, Sean; Fuller, Grace; Raghanti, Mary Ann

    2012-01-01

    Nature-based tourism can generate important revenue to support conservation of biodiversity. However, constant exposure to tourists and subsequent chronic activation of stress responses can produce pathological effects, including impaired cognition, growth, reproduction, and immunity in the same animals we are interested in protecting. Utilizing fecal samples (N = 53) from 2 wild habituated orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus morio) (in addition to 26 fecal samples from 4 wild unhabituated orangutans) in the Lower Kinabatangan Wildlife Sanctuary of Sabah, Malaysian Borneo, we predicted that i) fecal glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations would be elevated on the day after tourist visitation (indicative of normal stress response to exposure to tourists on the previous day) compared to samples taken before or during tourist visitation in wild, habituated orangutans, and ii) that samples collected from habituated animals would have lower fecal glucocorticoid metabolites than unhabituated animals not used for tourism. Among the habituated animals used for tourism, fecal glucocorticoid metabolite levels were significantly elevated in samples collected the day after tourist visitation (indicative of elevated cortisol production on the previous day during tourist visitation). Fecal glucocorticoid metabolite levels were also lower in the habituated animals compared to their age-matched unhabituated counterparts. We conclude that the habituated animals used for this singular ecotourism project are not chronically stressed, unlike other species/populations with documented permanent alterations in stress responses. Animal temperament, species, the presence of coping/escape mechanisms, social confounders, and variation in amount of tourism may explain differences among previous experiments. Acute alterations in glucocorticoid measures in wildlife exposed to tourism must be interpreted conservatively. While permanently altered stress responses can be detrimental, preliminary results

  15. Suitability of the pest-plant system Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)-tomato for Trichogramma (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) parasitoids and insights for biological control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chailleux, Anaïs; Biondi, Antonio; Han, Peng; Tabone, Elisabeth; Desneux, Nicolas

    2013-12-01

    The South American tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is a major pest that has recently invaded Afro-Eurasia. Biological control, especially by Trichogramma parasitoids, is considered to be promising as a management tool for this pest. However, further development of Trichogramma-based biocontrol strategies would benefit from assessing the impact of released parasitoid offspring on the pest. Under laboratory conditions, we 1) compared the parasitism of five Trichogramma species-strains on the pest-plant system T. absoluta-tomato, and 2) assessed various biological traits of parasitoids, mass-reared on a factitious host (Ephestia kuehniella Zeller), when developing on T. absoluta. In addition, we evaluated the overall efficiency of two specific Trichogramma species when released under greenhouse conditions in combination with a common natural enemy in tomato crop, the predator Macrolophus pygmaeus Rambur. Parasitoids emerging from T. absoluta on tomato showed lower parasitism rates and poor biological traits, for example, wing deformations, reduced longevity, when compared with the control reared on the factitious host. Under greenhouse conditions, the parasitoids that developed on T. absoluta after initial releases contributed little to biological control of T. absoluta, and parasitism tended to be lower when the predator was present. However, a slightly higher T. absoluta control level was achieved by combining the predator and release of the parasitoid Trichogramma achaeae Nagaraja and Nagarkatti. This study shows that Trichogramma parasitoids may not build up populations on the T. absoluta-tomato system, but that Trichogramma parasitoids can be used in combination with M. pygmaeus to enhance biological control of the pest in tomato crops.

  16. Myotis alcathoe Helversen and Heller, 2001 y Pipistrellus pygmaeus (Leach, 1825, nuevas especies de quirópteros para Navarra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcalde, J.T.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En el periodo 1998-2007 se han efectuado diversos muestreos nocturnos de la fauna de los quirópteros de Navarra. Para ello se han utilizado redes finas, trampas de arpa y detectores de ultrasonidos. Además se han realizado análisis de ADN mitocondrial para confirmar algunas determinaciones de especies crípticas. En este trabajo se presentan datos de dos nuevas especies de quirópteros halladas en Navarra : Myotis alcathoe y Pipistrellus pygmaeus. La primera se ha encontrado en bosques húmeods y maduros (robledales y hayedos del norte de la región, donde se ha comprobado su cría. P. pygmaeus se ha localizado disperso por buena parte de Navarra y ligado a zonas de ribera de los principales ríos ; cría en edificios y en grietas de árboles. También se menciona el hallazgo por vez primera, de una hembra albina de esta especie.

  17. Projected near-future CO2 levels increase activity and alter defensive behaviours in the tropical squid Idiosepius pygmaeus

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    Blake L. Spady

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Carbon dioxide (CO2 levels projected to occur in the oceans by the end of this century cause a range of behavioural effects in fish, but whether other highly active marine organisms, such as cephalopods, are similarly affected is unknown. We tested the effects of projected future CO2 levels (626 and 956 µatm on the behaviour of male two-toned pygmy squid, Idiosepius pygmaeus. Exposure to elevated CO2 increased the number of active individuals by 19–25% and increased movement (number of line-crosses by nearly 3 times compared to squid at present-day CO2. Squid vigilance and defensive behaviours were also altered by elevated CO2 with >80% of individuals choosing jet escape responses over defensive arm postures in response to a visual startle stimulus, compared with 50% choosing jet escape responses at control CO2. In addition, more escape responses were chosen over threat behaviours in body pattern displays at elevated CO2 and individuals were more than twice as likely to use ink as a defence strategy at 956 µatm CO2, compared with controls. Increased activity could lead to adverse effects on energy budgets as well as increasing visibility to predators. A tendency to respond to a stimulus with escape behaviours could increase survival, but may also be energetically costly and could potentially lead to more chases by predators compared with individuals that use defensive postures. These results demonstrate that projected future ocean acidification affects the behaviours of a tropical squid species.

  18. Trophic relationships between predators, whiteflies and their parasitoids in tomato greenhouses: a molecular approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Ripoll, R; Gabarra, R; Symondson, W O C; King, R A; Agustí, N

    2012-08-01

    The whiteflies Bemisia tabaci Gennadius and Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) are two of the main pests in tomato crops. Their biological control in Mediterranean IPM systems is based on the predators Macrolophus pygmaeus (Rambur) and Nesidiocoris tenuis Reuter (Hemiptera: Miridae), as well as on the parasitoids Eretmocerus mundus (Mercet) and Encarsia pergandiella Howard (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae). These natural enemies may interact with each other and their joint use could interfere with the biological control of those whitefly pests. Analysis of predator-prey interactions under field conditions is therefore essential in order to optimize whitefly control. Species-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-primers were designed to detect DNA fragments of these whiteflies and parasitoids within both predator species in tomato greenhouses. We demonstrated that both predators feed on both whitefly species, as well as on both parasitoids under greenhouse conditions. Prey molecular detection was possible where prey abundance was very low or even where predation was not observed under a microscope. Whitefly DNA detection was positively correlated with adult whitefly abundance in the crop. However, a significant relationship was not observed between parasitoid DNA detection and the abundance of parasitoid pupae, even though the predation rate on parasitoids was high. This unidirectional intraguild predation (predators on parasitoids) could potentially reduce their combined impact on their joint prey/host. Prey molecular detection provided improved detection of prey consumption in greenhouse crops, as well as the possibility to identify which prey species were consumed by each predator species present in the greenhouse, offering a blueprint with wider applicability to other food webs.

  19. Vergelijking roofwantsen en roofmijten in aubergine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Messelink, G.J.; Holstein, van R.; Kok, L.W.

    2012-01-01

    Referaat In twee kassen met een aubergineteelt is gevolgd hoe biologische bestrijders zich vestigen in het gewas en hoe de plagen zich ontwikkelen. Het uitgangspunt daarbij was om alle plagen zolang mogelijk biologisch te bestrijden. De roofwantsen Orius majusculus en Macrolophus pygmaeus (= caligin

  20. Nest density as determinants for habitat utilizations of Bornean orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus wurmbii in degraded forests of Gunung Palung National Park, West Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIDIK PRASETYO

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Prasetyo D, Sugardjito J (2011 Nest density as determinants for habitat utilizations of Bornean orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus wurmbii in degraded forests of Gunung Palung National Park, West Kalimantan. Biodiversitas 12: 164-170. Conversion of forests into non-forests areas particularly for the development of timber industry and oil palm plantation in Ketapang district, West Kalimantan province was drastically increased recently. We have conducted an assessmment for the density of Bornean orangutans Pongo pygmaeus wurmbii L. in degraded forests of the boundary of Gunung Palung National Park, West Kalimantan in 2004 and 2005. We used line-transects nest-count to survey 39,6 km length at 13 sites including 7 in side the park and the other 6 situated out side the park which holds a difference status of forest management. The differences of nest density between degraded forests habitat was calculated. The old degraded forest which has been logged for 5 years or more, were containing more new nests in a cluster compared to the recently as well as currently logged. The highest number of orangutan’s nests could be found in the old degraded forest in side the park, whereas the lowest one was obtained in the currently logged protection forest with the density of 3.70 ind/km2 and 0.06 ind/km2 respectively. We compare these results with the survey undertaken previously in the area when the logging and forest conversion activities have just begun in the region in 2001.

  1. Habitat selection and natural enemy function of Chrysopa pallens rambur in agroforestry systems%农林复合环境大草蛉生境选择取向及天敌效能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨钊; 赵广亮; 闫国增; 周在豹; 田作宝; 魏婉红; 张东; 李凯

    2015-01-01

    大草蛉( Chrysopa pallens Rambur)是华北农区优势天敌昆虫之一。华北农区农林复合系统中作物农田、林带所组成的农林生境,就其中的大草蛉对栖息环境、产卵地点、越冬场所等不同生境的选择取向及天敌追随效能展开了多角度研究,结果表明:(1)大草蛉成虫对作物蚜虫具有明显的追随效应,其幼虫对作物蚜虫的空间跟随作用显著,且在不同空间层次均有控制作物蚜虫的表现(空间重叠度指数:P幼空间>0.65);大草蛉的采食虫态期与蚜虫的发生期同步(时间重叠度指数:P卵时间0.05,α=0.05);(4)大草蛉在栖息生境中具有季节移动性和偏好选择性双重特点:夏秋两季作物生长期内大草蛉从林带迁飞往农田,偏好在大豆、花生田中栖息( LSD法:P=0.005 0.65) . The predatory stage of C. pallens was synchronized with aphid emergences (temporal niche overlap index: PEgg·Temporal< 0.65). Second, forest belts adjacent to agronomic fields were the main overwintering places for C. pallens after the autumn harvest ( Pα= 0.001,α = 0.05) , which was important for maintaining the C. pallens population. Third, by cocooning as prepupae to overwinter in forest belts, the larvae of C. pallens primarily used bark cracks, topsoil, and fallen leaves and branches as overwintering places. There was no noticeable preference among these three types of overwintering habitats (Pα= 0.466, α = 0.05). Fourth, C. pallens migrated seasonally due to changes in habitat preference. During crop growth in summer and autumn, C. pallens migrated from forest belts to agronomic fields, preferring soybean and peanut habitats, where high-densities of aphids first appeared (LSD: Pα= 0.005, α = 0.01). After the fall harvest, and during winter and spring, C. pallens generally occupied forest belts, which were the only places left to overwinter after the crops were harvested. C. pallens preferred poplar coppice shoots, possibly

  2. Odor familiarity and female preferences for males in a threatened primate, the pygmy loris Nycticebus pygmaeus: applications for genetic management of small populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Heidi S; Swaisgood, R R; Fitch-Snyder, H

    2003-11-01

    Here we use sexual selection theory to develop a logistically simple, yet effective, method for the manipulation of female reproductive behavior for conservation goals. Mate choice leading to nonrandom mating patterns can exacerbate the loss of genetic diversity in small populations. On theoretical grounds, females should choose high-quality mates. A prediction stemming from chemical communication theory is that competitive males will be better able to saturate an area with scent marks. If this is true, females should mate preferentially with males whose odors they encounter most frequently. We tested this hypothesis with the pygmy loris, Nycticebus pygmaeus, a threatened and poorly studied nocturnal prosimian. For several weeks females were exposed repeatedly to the urine from a particular male, and were then allowed to choose between a male whose odors were familiar and one whose odors were novel. Females showed an unusually strong preference for the familiar-odor male, as indicated by several behavioral measures of mate preference. Conservation managers can use this method as a tool to obtain reproductive pairings that will maximize genetic compatibility and diversity. For example, unsuccessful males may be given the opportunity to reproduce. In captive populations, studbook managers often select pairs in order to optimize outbreeding, but these selected pairings may not coincide with the preferences of the individual animals involved. Although several authors have made theoretical arguments for manipulating mate choice for conservation, this is a novel test of a proximate mechanism that can be manipulated, cultivating applications rather than mere implications.

  3. Tool-use and tool-making by captive, group-living orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus abelii) at an artificial termite mound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamichi, Masayuki

    2004-01-30

    The present study examined the use and making of tools to obtain foodstuffs in artificial-mound holes by five captive, group-living Sumatran orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus abelii). Three adult orangutans frequently stripped leaves and twigs from a branch provided (tool-making), and then inserted the tool into a hole to obtain foodstuffs (tool-using). A 5-year-old female juvenile usually used the tools that adult orangutans had previously used, but rarely made tools herself. A 2-year-old male infant did not use any tools. The adult orangutans tend to leave one to several leaves at the top of the branch than to leave many leaves on the branch or to strip all leaves. It seemed likely that tools with appropriate leaves are easier to insert into holes and obtain more foodstuffs, compared with branches with many leaves or sticks without any leaves. When the orangutans were unable to insert a tool into a hole, they usually modified the tool and/or changed their tool-using technique, such as changing how they grasped the tool. These findings are discussed from the perspectives of the orangutan's behavioral flexibility regarding tool-use skills and hierarchical organization in food-processing techniques.

  4. Saliva Crystallization Occurs in Female Bornean Orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus): Could It Be a New Option for Monitoring of Menstrual Cycle in Captive Great Apes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubátová, Anna; Fedorova, Tamara

    2016-01-01

    Saliva crystallization was previously studied in both humans and animals with various results. The study aimed to confirm of the presence of saliva crystallization in female Bornean orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus), to evaluate the quality of samples which were collected from animals and processed by keepers, and to test preliminarily if the saliva crystallization could be connected with menstrual cycle and could serve as a cheap, quick and simple method for the basic monitoring of their reproductive status. The research was carried out from September 2014 to January 2015. Sampling of saliva was done in three female orangutans from three zoological gardens (Dvur Kralove, Usti nad Labem, Bojnice) daily, mostly by tongue prints on glass slides with ground edges or by sampling directly from the mouth using plastic spoons from which the saliva was transferred onto glass slides. Samples were evaluated by light microscopy with ×400 magnification. The quality of the sample and type of crystallization was assessed for two different approaches. In total, 246 samples were evaluated. We confirmed the presence of saliva crystallization in orangutans. The quality of samples was variable however acceptable. Unfortunately, it was impossible to detect exact fertile period in two females. However in one orangutan female, when the crystallization was evaluated by the approach typically used in humans, we discovered that saliva crystallization during the fertile period significantly differed from saliva crystallization in the non-fertile period. This points out the possibility of using saliva crystallization for detection of the fertile period in orangutans. However, further research was recommended.

  5. Laboratorial and physiological validation of comercial kits for quantification of fecal corticoids of captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes and orangutangs (Pongo pygmaeus under environmental enriched conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Schilbach Pizzutto

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foi realizado estudo comparativo dos níveis de corticóides fecais (CF de chimpanzé (Pan troglodytes e orangotango (Pongo pygmaeus. Foram analisadas amostras coletadas em duas fases distintas, relacionadas com a introdução de técnicas de enriquecimento ambiental, a saber: Base (antes da introdução e Habituação (imediatamente após. Realizamos as validações do conjunto comercial para radioimunoensaio ImmunuChemTM Double Antibody Corticosterone da MP Biomedicals, para mensuração de CF. A validação laboratorial dos conjuntos diagnósticos para uso em extrato fecal de primatas foi realizada pelo método de paralelismo, no qual, para cada espécie, concentrações conhecidas de corticosterona foram adicionadas a um pool de extratos fecais, sendo estas amostras analisadas em seguida. As inclinações das curvas obtidas nestes ensaios e da curva padrão do ensaio foram então comparadas. Os resultados obtidos para chimpanzé e orangotango, foram respectivamente, Y= 17,23+1,31*X;R^2=0,98 e Y=11,14+1,29*X; R^2=0,99. Para a validação fisiológica, foi utilizada a introdução de técnicas de enriquecimento ambiental como causador de aumento dos níveis de CF, conseqüentes à indução de resposta do tipo estresse. Os resultados foram expressos em médias e erros-padrão da média. As concentrações médias destes corticóides foram: chimpanzés: Base (5,90 +/-2,41x10³ ng/g de fezes, Habituação (14,92 +/- 4,66x10³ ng/g de fezes e para o orangotango: Base (91,1 +/- 30,0x10³ ng/g de fezes, Habituação (185,1 +/- 57x10³ng/g de fezes. Houve diferença significativa (P<0,05 para os valores destes CF para ambas as espécies entre as duas fases estudadas.

  6. Fangst af netvinger (Neuroptera) med lysfælde på Zoologisk Museums tag

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole Fogh; Karsholt, Ole

    2014-01-01

    In the period 1992-2001 Neuroptera were collected in a light trap located at the roof of the Zoological Museum of Copenhagen 17,5 m above the ground. A total of 4878 specimens were collected belonging to 27 species (Tabel 1). Most interesting were the findings of the two species Parasemidalis...... fuscipennis (Reuter, 1894) and Sympherobius pygmaeus (Rambur, 1842). Only very few specimens were known from Denmark until know. In 2012 Neuroptera were also collected at the roof of the Zoological Museum of Copenhagen (Tabel 2). The Neuroptera caught in the light trap represents 41%of the known Danish...

  7. Observations on a gynochromatic (? male of the dragonfly, Rhodothemis rufa (Rambur, 1842 (Odonata: Libellulidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond J. Andrew

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The dragonfly Rhodothemis rufa exhibits a conspicuous sexual dimorphism in its body colour.  The mature male is characterized by the homogenous striking brilliant red body while the mature female is dull brown with a prominent mid-dorsal light yellow streak running from the top of the head through the thorax and down to the fifth segment of the abdomen.  The sexes can easily be identified from quite a long distance.  On 7 November 2012, we observed the unusual sight of a female Rhodothemis rufa chasing another female and forming a tandem link which was followed by copulation.  This peculiar reproductive behavior instigated us to net the specimen.  On inspection we  found that although it appeared a female, it had well developed external male genitalia in the form of the secondary copulatory apparatus on the venter of the second and third abdomen, a pair of coxites on the ninth abdominal tergum and an additional infra anal appendage at the terminal tip of the abdomen.  The testes contained a large number of lobules filled with mature spermatozoa, and the vasa differentia also contained mature sperms.  The sperm sac was filled with sperms embedded in seminal fluid.  Observations indicate that this could be a rare case of a gynochromatic male of Rhodothemis rufa which has retained the colour patterning of the female even after sexual maturity and concomitantly exhibiting active sexual behaviour, although the case of it being a subadult male which has yet to attain its typical red coloration cannot be ruled out.  

  8. Evaluation of Different Groundnut Arachis hypogea L. Cultivars Against Termites, Odontotermes obesus (Rambur in Rawalpindi, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Usman Malik

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Six groundnut (Arachis hypogea L. cultivars i.e. Golden, BARI-2000, Australian, BARD-479, ICG-7326 and 2KCGC20 were evaluated against the attack of Odontotermes obesus in terms of percentage infestation of workers and soldiers, their damage and impact on the yield. The maximum mean populations of O. obesus workers were recorded on 2KCGC20 (30.82±2.75 workers/plot and Australian (30.65±2.92 workers/plot, followed by BARI 2000 (19.55±2.51 workers/plot, Golden (17.30±2.27 workers/plot and BARD-479 (16.82±2.06 workers/plot. The minimum mean population of O. obesus workers was found on ICG-7326 cultivars (14.85±1.81 workers/plot. The maximum mean population infestation of O. obesus soldiers was recorded on 2KCGC20 cultivar (4.88±0.25 soldiers/plot followed by Australian (4.15±.30, soldiers/per plot, BARD-479 (2.00±.17 soldiers/plot, ICG-7326 (1.70±.14 soldiers/plot, BARD 2000 (2.40±.25 soldiers/ plot. The minimum mean population of O. obesus soldiers was found on Gold (1.87±.17 soldiers/plot. Population of O. obesus workers was positively related with the damage and negatively related the yield in all the groundnut cultivars.

  9. Evaluation of Different Groundnut Arachis hypogea L. Cultivars Against Termites, Odontotermes obesus (Rambur) in Rawalpindi, Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Usman Malik; Humayun Javed; Mahmood Ayyaz

    2015-01-01

    Six groundnut (Arachis hypogea L.) cultivars i.e. Golden, BARI-2000, Australian, BARD-479, ICG-7326 and 2KCGC20 were evaluated against the attack of Odontotermes obesus in terms of percentage infestation of workers and soldiers, their damage and impact on the yield. The maximum mean populations of O. obesus workers were recorded on 2KCGC20 (30.82±2.75 workers/plot) and Australian (30.65±2.92 workers/plot), followed by BARI 2000 (19.55±2.51 workers/plot), Golden (17.30±2.27 workers/plot) and B...

  10. Confirmation of the presence of Ischnura senegalensis (Rambur, 1842 on the Canary Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez–Guillén R. A.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The presence of one or two species of damselflies of the genus Ischnura in the Canary Islands has been a matter of debate in the recent years. The first published records listed I. senegalensis as the only zygopteran inhabiting the archipelago, but this proved to be wrong, and until recently, all specimens of Ischnura captured in the islands were unanimously regarded as belonging to I. saharensis. Recent photographic evidence, however, is compatible with the presence of I. senegalensis. In this study, we give morphological and genetic evidence of the presence of I. senegalensis in the Canary Islands, and we discuss the importance of voucher specimens to correctly identify very similar species.

  11. An analysis of building behaviour of the termite Macrotermes subhyalinus (Rambur)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruinsma, O.H.

    1979-01-01

    Although the work presented in this study is little more than a first survey of the causal factors involved in construction behaviour of Macrotermessubhyalinus , it clearly indicates a fertile field of research which has scarcely been explored. Past studies have concentrated on the rel

  12. A new species of the genus Dilar Rambur (Neuroptera: Dilaridae) from Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    John D. Oswald; Nathan M. Schiff

    2001-01-01

    Dilar macleodi is described as a new species from lowland rainforest habitat in the Malaysian State of Sarawak on the island of Borneo. Diagnoses are provided to distinguish D. macleodi from the four other dilarid species that have been reported from the peninsula of Indochina or the Malay Archipelago.

  13. Gynacantha subinterrupta Rambur, 1842: an addition to the odonates (Insecta: Odonata: Aeshnidae of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kawsar Khan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Gynacantha subinterrupta Rambu 1842 is first time recorded from Bangladesh. The species is described from two male specimens collected from Tilagor Eco Park, Sylhet.  Description, identification keys and distribution range of the species is provided.  

  14. Observations on a gynochromatic (? male of the dragonfly, Rhodothemis rufa (Rambur, 1842 (Odonata: Libellulidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond J. Andrew

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The dragonfly Rhodothemis rufa exhibits a conspicuous sexual dimorphism in its body colour.  The mature male is characterized by the homogenous striking brilliant red body while the mature female is dull brown with a prominent mid-dorsal light yellow streak running from the top of the head through the thorax and down to the fifth segment of the abdomen.  The sexes can easily be identified from quite a long distance.  On 7 November 2012, we observed the unusual sight of a female Rhodothemis rufa chasing another female and forming a tandem link which was followed by copulation.  This peculiar reproductive behavior instigated us to net the specimen.  On inspection we  found that although it appeared a female, it had well developed external male genitalia in the form of the secondary copulatory apparatus on the venter of the second and third abdomen, a pair of coxites on the ninth abdominal tergum and an additional infra anal appendage at the terminal tip of the abdomen.  The testes contained a large number of lobules filled with mature spermatozoa, and the vasa differentia also contained mature sperms.  The sperm sac was filled with sperms embedded in seminal fluid.  Observations indicate that this could be a rare case of a gynochromatic male of Rhodothemis rufa which has retained the colour patterning of the female even after sexual maturity and concomitantly exhibiting active sexual behaviour, although the case of it being a subadult male which has yet to attain its typical red coloration cannot be ruled out.  

  15. Permanent genetic resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 December 2010-31 January 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agata, Kiyokazu; Alasaad, Samer; Almeida-Val, Vera Maria Fonseca; Alvarez-Dios, J A; Barbisan, F; Beadell, Jon S; Beltrán, J F; Benítez, M; Bino, G; Bleay, Colin; Bloor, P; Bohlmann, Jörg; Booth, Warren; Boscari, E; Caccone, Adalgisa; Campos, Tatiana; Carvalho, B M; Climaco, Gisele Torres; Clobert, Jean; Congiu, L; Cowger, Christina; Dias, G; Doadrio, I; Farias, Izeni Pires; Ferrand, N; Freitas, Patrícia D; Fusco, G; Galetti, Pedro M; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian; Gaunt, Michael W; Ocampo, Zaneli Gomez; Gonçalves, H; Gonzalez, E G; Haye, Pilar; Honnay, O; Hyseni, Chaz; Jacquemyn, H; Jowers, Michael J; Kakezawa, Akihiro; Kawaguchi, Eri; Keeling, Christopher I; Kwan, Ye-Seul; La Spina, Michelangelo; Lee, Wan-Ok; Leśniewska, M; Li, Yang; Liu, Haixia; Liu, Xiaolin; Lopes, S; Martínez, P; Meeus, S; Murray, Brent W; Nunes, Aline G; Okedi, Loyce M; Ouma, Johnson O; Pardo, B G; Parks, Ryan; Paula-Silva, Maria Nazaré; Pedraza-Lara, C; Perera, Omaththage P; Pino-Querido, A; Richard, Murielle; Rossini, Bruno C; Samarasekera, N Gayathri; Sánchez, Antonio; Sanchez, Juan A; Santos, Carlos Henrique Dos Anjos; Shinohara, Wataru; Soriguer, Ramón C; Sousa, Adna Cristina Barbosa; Sousa, Carolina Fernandes Da Silva; Stevens, Virginie M; Tejedo, M; Valenzuela-Bustamante, Myriam; Van de Vliet, M S; Vandepitte, K; Vera, M; Wandeler, Peter; Wang, Weimin; Won, Yong-Jin; Yamashiro, A; Yamashiro, T; Zhu, Changcheng

    2011-05-01

    This article documents the addition of 238 microsatellite marker loci to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Alytes dickhilleni, Arapaima gigas, Austropotamobius italicus, Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici, Cobitis lutheri, Dendroctonus ponderosae, Glossina morsitans morsitans, Haplophilus subterraneus, Kirengeshoma palmata, Lysimachia japonica, Macrolophus pygmaeus, Microtus cabrerae, Mytilus galloprovincialis, Pallisentis (Neosentis) celatus, Pulmonaria officinalis, Salminus franciscanus, Thais chocolata and Zootoca vivipara. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Acanthina monodon, Alytes cisternasii, Alytes maurus, Alytes muletensis, Alytes obstetricans almogavarii, Alytes obstetricans boscai, Alytes obstetricans obstetricans, Alytes obstetricans pertinax, Cambarellus montezumae, Cambarellus zempoalensis, Chorus giganteus, Cobitis tetralineata, Glossina fuscipes fuscipes, Glossina pallidipes, Lysimachia japonica var. japonica, Lysimachia japonica var. minutissima, Orconectes virilis, Pacifastacus leniusculus, Procambarus clarkii, Salminus brasiliensis and Salminus hilarii.

  16. Enteric Parasites of Orangutans (Pongo Pygmaeus) in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-10-27

    filter-paper method for the diagnosis of Ancyclostonia duodenale, Necator americunus, and Strongyloides stercoralis . TErHN. REP. S- 25:27-30. Washington...Rehabilitation Center in Bohorok Sumatra included twenty-one with Balan- tidium, twenty-one with Strongyloides , ten with hookworms (no genus identi- fied... Strongyloides , six had Trichuris, one had Entamoeba, and two had Ascaris (Table I). COMMENTS The authors recognize that nematodes were not examined in

  17. Habitat Suitability Modeling of Bornean Orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus pygmaeus in Betung Kerihun National Park, Danau Sentarum and Corridor, West Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari Prayogo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Conservation areas such as national parks became the last safe area for biodiversity in Indonesia, especially for orangutan, because they have permanent status, and other forest areas may change at any time. Currently, there have been tremendous numbers of land use changes in orangutan habitats such as the development of roads, large scale plantations, settlements, farming as well as logging.  However, the available national parks still offer secure places for orangutans. This research was conducted to study the impact of spatial land use policy on the habitat distribution of orangutans. A remote sensing technology was used to study the habitat distribution and suitability of orangutan in Betung Kerihun National Park (BKNP, Danau Sentarum National Park (DSNP and a corridor which connects these 2 parks. Seven parameters have been observed to characterize the habitat of orangutans. Habitat suitability levels of three research sites i.e. BKNP, corridor, and DSNP were 53.72%, 42.94%, and 3.34% which is considered as high, moderate, and low level of habitat suitability, respectively. These results were obtained with 93.63% of validation.Keywords: orangutan, habitat suitability, remote sensing technology, validation

  18. First description of reproductive behavior of the Amazonian damselfly Chalcopteryx rutilans (Rambur (Odonata, Polythoridae Primeira descrição do comportamento reprodutivo da libélula amazônica Chalcopteryx rutilans (Rambur (Odonata, Polythoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela C. Resende

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Polythoridae comprise a widespread group of species in the New World tropics, but little is known about their behavior or life history. Here, we described the reproductive behavior of Amazonian Chalchopteryx rutilans, using mark-recapture techniques. Males were resident and territorial, though we found disputes (complex flight manoeuvres to be rare. Trunks (rotting wood were important to male persistence in sites, as these are the locations preferred by females for oviposition. The mating system of C. rutilans may be comparable to the resource limitation category, described by Conrad & Pritchard (1992, where males cannot control female access to oviposition sites. So, female choice becomes important and apparently, the observed displays (in which males flash the coppery coloration of their hind wings may be related to attraction of females to territories, as in a lek system.A família Polythoridae compreende diversas espécies tropicais, das quais muito pouco se conhece sobre o comportamento ou história de vida. Neste trabalho, nós descrevemos o comportamento reprodutivo da espécie amazônica Calchopteryx rutilans, utilizando técnica de marcação e recaptura. Os machos foram residentes e territorialistas, apesar das disputas (que envolvem manobras de vôo complexas serem raras. A ocorrência de troncos caídos sobre os igarapés foi importante para a persistência dos machos nos territórios, uma vez que as fêmeas utilizam estes locais para postura dos ovos. O sistema de acasalamento de C. rutilans parece similar ao "sistema com limitação de recurso", descrito por Conrad & Pritchard (1992, onde os machos não são capazes de controlar o acesso das fêmeas aos recursos de oviposição. Nestes casos, as fêmeas podem escolher os machos e, aparentemente, as freqüentes exibições dos machos (mostrando a coloração interna cobreada de suas asas podem estar relacionadas à atração de fêmeas aos territórios, semelhante ao sistema tipo lek.

  19. Hydrogen cyanide-producing rhizobacteria kill subterranean termite Odontotermes obesus (Rambur) by cyanide poisoning under in vitro conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, K Kanchana; Seth, Nidhi; Kothamasi, Shalini; Kothamasi, David

    2007-01-01

    The subterranean termite Odontotermes obesus is an important pest of the Indian subcontinent, causing extensive damage to major agricultural crops and forest plantation trees. Control of termites by strategies employing their parasites has limitations because they have evolved a complex social structure, immune responses, and adaptive behavior toward pathogen-infected individuals. Nonparasitic rhizobacteria that produce harmful metabolites might facilitate the biocontrol of termites. In the present investigation, three different species of hydrogen cyanide-producing rhizobacteria were tested for their potential to kill O. obesus. The three bacterial species were found to be effective in killing the termites under in vitro conditions.

  20. The larva of Parasetodes respersellus (Rambur 1841) with notes on its habitat and European distribution (Trichoptera: Leptoceridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Móra, Arnold; Juhász, Péter; Kiss, Béla; Müller, Zoltán; Málnás, Kristóf

    2014-07-29

    Two larvae collected from the River Tisza were recognized to belong to the genus Parasetodes according to the available generic description. The fact that Parasetodes respersellus is the only European/Western Palaearctic representative of the genus enabled us to describe the hitherto unknown larva of this species based on the collected specimens. Diagnostic features to distinguish the genus from other Central European genera are discussed. Possible species-specific characters are compared with those of other previously described species of the genus. Some notes on larval habitat and the European distribution of P. respersellus are given. 

  1. Taxonomy Icon Data: Bornean orangutan [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available te Pongo_pygmaeus_L.png Pongo_pygmaeus_NL.png Pongo_pygmaeus_S.png Pongo_pygmaeus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Pongo+pygmaeus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Pongo+pygm...aeus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Pongo+pygmaeus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Pongo+pygmaeus&t=NS ...

  2. Barcoding Fauna Bavarica: 78% of the Neuropterida fauna barcoded!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérome Morinière

    Full Text Available This publication provides the first comprehensive DNA barcode data set for the Neuropterida of Central Europe, including 80 of the 102 species (78% recorded from Bavaria (Germany and three other species from nearby regions (Austria, France and the UK. Although the 286 specimens analyzed had a heterogeneous conservation history (60% dried; 30% in 80% EtOH; 10% fresh specimens in 95% EtOH, 237 (83% generated a DNA barcode. Eleven species (13% shared a BIN, but three of these taxa could be discriminated through barcodes. Four pairs of closely allied species shared barcodes including Chrysoperla pallida Henry et al., 2002 and C. lucasina Lacroix, 1912; Wesmaelius concinnus (Stephens, 1836 and W. quadrifasciatus (Reuter, 1894; Hemerobius handschini Tjeder, 1957 and H. nitidulus Fabricius, 1777; and H. atrifrons McLachlan, 1868 and H. contumax Tjeder, 1932. Further studies are needed to test the possible synonymy of these species pairs or to determine if other genetic markers permit their discrimination. Our data highlight five cases of potential cryptic diversity within Bavarian Neuropterida: Nineta flava (Scopoli, 1763, Sympherobius pygmaeus (Rambur, 1842, Sisyra nigra (Retzius, 1783, Semidalis aleyrodiformis (Stephens, 1836 and Coniopteryx pygmaea Enderlein, 1906 are each split into two or three BINs. The present DNA barcode library not only allows the identification of adult and larval stages, but also provides valuable information for alpha-taxonomy, and for ecological and evolutionary research.

  3. Barcoding Fauna Bavarica: 78% of the Neuropterida fauna barcoded!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morinière, Jérome; Hendrich, Lars; Hausmann, Axel; Hebert, Paul; Haszprunar, Gerhard; Gruppe, Axel

    2014-01-01

    This publication provides the first comprehensive DNA barcode data set for the Neuropterida of Central Europe, including 80 of the 102 species (78%) recorded from Bavaria (Germany) and three other species from nearby regions (Austria, France and the UK). Although the 286 specimens analyzed had a heterogeneous conservation history (60% dried; 30% in 80% EtOH; 10% fresh specimens in 95% EtOH), 237 (83%) generated a DNA barcode. Eleven species (13%) shared a BIN, but three of these taxa could be discriminated through barcodes. Four pairs of closely allied species shared barcodes including Chrysoperla pallida Henry et al., 2002 and C. lucasina Lacroix, 1912; Wesmaelius concinnus (Stephens, 1836) and W. quadrifasciatus (Reuter, 1894); Hemerobius handschini Tjeder, 1957 and H. nitidulus Fabricius, 1777; and H. atrifrons McLachlan, 1868 and H. contumax Tjeder, 1932. Further studies are needed to test the possible synonymy of these species pairs or to determine if other genetic markers permit their discrimination. Our data highlight five cases of potential cryptic diversity within Bavarian Neuropterida: Nineta flava (Scopoli, 1763), Sympherobius pygmaeus (Rambur, 1842), Sisyra nigra (Retzius, 1783), Semidalis aleyrodiformis (Stephens, 1836) and Coniopteryx pygmaea Enderlein, 1906 are each split into two or three BINs. The present DNA barcode library not only allows the identification of adult and larval stages, but also provides valuable information for alpha-taxonomy, and for ecological and evolutionary research.

  4. Contribution to the knowledge of the geographical races of Pongo pygmaeus (Hoppius)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bemmel, van A.C.V.

    1968-01-01

    Keeping and breeding animals which are threatened with extinction in their natural habitat, should be one of the most important tasks of zoological gardens today. Efforts should be focussed on finding the zootechnical solution of problems which will arise inevitably, especially if rare species, or t

  5. Contribution to the knowledge of the geographical races of Pongo pygmaeus (Hoppius)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bemmel, van A.C.V.

    1968-01-01

    Keeping and breeding animals which are threatened with extinction in their natural habitat, should be one of the most important tasks of zoological gardens today. Efforts should be focussed on finding the zootechnical solution of problems which will arise inevitably, especially if rare species, or

  6. The Ontogeny of Gap Crossing Behaviour in Bornean Orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus wurmbii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackie Chappell

    Full Text Available For orangutans, the largest predominantly arboreal primates, discontinuous canopy presents a particular challenge. The shortest gaps between trees lie between thin peripheral branches, which offer the least stability to large animals. The affordances of the forest canopy experienced by orangutans of different ages however, must vary substantially as adult males are an order of magnitude larger in size than infants during the early stages of locomotor independence. Orangutans have developed a diverse range of locomotor behaviour to cross gaps between trees, which vary in their physical and cognitive demands. The aims of this study were to examine the ontogeny of orangutan gap crossing behaviours and to determine which factors influence the distance orangutans crossed. A non-invasive photographic technique was used to quantify forearm length as a measure of body size. We also recorded locomotor behaviour, support use and the distance crossed between trees. Our results suggest that gap crossing varies with both physical and cognitive development. More complex locomotor behaviours, which utilized compliant trunks and lianas, were used to cross the largest gaps, but these peaked in frequency much earlier than expected, between the ages of 4 and 5 years old, which probably reflects play behaviour to perfect locomotor techniques. Smaller individuals also crossed disproportionately large gaps relative to their size, by using support deformation. Our results suggest that orangutans acquire the full repertoire of gap crossing techniques, including the more cognitively demanding ones, before weaning, but adjust the frequency of the use of these techniques to their increasing body size.

  7. A fieldstudy on Sumatran Orang Utans (Pougo pygmaeus abelii Lesson 1827) : ecology, behaviour and conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijksen, H.D.

    1978-01-01

    The results of a three year research project on the ecology, behaviour and conservation of the Sumatran orang utan are discussed. The 150 hectares Ketambe study area lie within the boundaries of the Gunung Leuser. reserve in Aceh Tenggara, and consists of mixed rainforest typical of hilly regions.Th

  8. The Ontogeny of Gap Crossing Behaviour in Bornean Orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus wurmbii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, Jackie; Phillips, Abigail C; van Noordwijk, Maria A; Mitra Setia, Tatang; Thorpe, Susannah K S

    2015-01-01

    For orangutans, the largest predominantly arboreal primates, discontinuous canopy presents a particular challenge. The shortest gaps between trees lie between thin peripheral branches, which offer the least stability to large animals. The affordances of the forest canopy experienced by orangutans of different ages however, must vary substantially as adult males are an order of magnitude larger in size than infants during the early stages of locomotor independence. Orangutans have developed a diverse range of locomotor behaviour to cross gaps between trees, which vary in their physical and cognitive demands. The aims of this study were to examine the ontogeny of orangutan gap crossing behaviours and to determine which factors influence the distance orangutans crossed. A non-invasive photographic technique was used to quantify forearm length as a measure of body size. We also recorded locomotor behaviour, support use and the distance crossed between trees. Our results suggest that gap crossing varies with both physical and cognitive development. More complex locomotor behaviours, which utilized compliant trunks and lianas, were used to cross the largest gaps, but these peaked in frequency much earlier than expected, between the ages of 4 and 5 years old, which probably reflects play behaviour to perfect locomotor techniques. Smaller individuals also crossed disproportionately large gaps relative to their size, by using support deformation. Our results suggest that orangutans acquire the full repertoire of gap crossing techniques, including the more cognitively demanding ones, before weaning, but adjust the frequency of the use of these techniques to their increasing body size.

  9. The Ontogeny of Gap Crossing Behaviour in Bornean Orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus wurmbii)

    OpenAIRE

    Jackie Chappell; Phillips, Abigail C.; van Noordwijk, Maria A; Tatang Mitra Setia; Thorpe, Susannah K. S.

    2015-01-01

    For orangutans, the largest predominantly arboreal primates, discontinuous canopy presents a particular challenge. The shortest gaps between trees lie between thin peripheral branches, which offer the least stability to large animals. The affordances of the forest canopy experienced by orangutans of different ages however, must vary substantially as adult males are an order of magnitude larger in size than infants during the early stages of locomotor independence. Orangutans have developed a ...

  10. Gestural communication in orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus and Pongo abelii) : a cognitive approach

    OpenAIRE

    Cartmill, Erica A.

    2009-01-01

    While most human language is expressed verbally, the gestures produced concurrent to speech provide additional information, help listeners interpret meaning, and provide insight into the cognitive processes of the speaker. Several theories have suggested that gesture played an important, possibly central, role in the evolution of language. Great apes have been shown to use gestures flexibly in different situations and to modify their gestures in response to changing contexts. However, it has...

  11. PERILAKU DAN JENIS PAKAN ORANGUTAN KALIMANTAN (PONGO PYGMAEUS LINNAEUS, 1760 DL KALIMANTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PURWO KUNCORO

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Data collection was conducted using focal animal instantaneous. The daily activity data were group based on their ethogram and was adopting "The Standard of Orangutan's collection" from Morrogh-Bernard et al. (2002. The research collected 739 hours 29 minutes of dawn to dusk observations. The daily activity was determined by activity proportion. Rehabilitated Orangutans was found to have higher proportion of social activity (79,29% than the one of self-action activity (23,71%. The daily activity proportions consisted of 10,44% (females and 14,13% (males for movement, 29,01% (females and 30,66% (males for resting, 12,34% (females and 4,90% (males for social activities, 3,36% (females and 2,49% (males for self activities, and also 44,85% (females and 47,82% (males for foraging with 96 plants species and 1 termite species as food sources.

  12. Production and Comprehension of Gestures between Orang-Utans (Pongo pygmaeus in a Referential Communication Game.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Moore

    Full Text Available Orang-utans played a communication game in two studies testing their ability to produce and comprehend requestive pointing. While the 'communicator' could see but not obtain hidden food, the 'donor' could release the food to the communicator, but could not see its location for herself. They could coordinate successfully if the communicator pointed to the food, and if the donor comprehended his communicative goal and responded pro-socially. In Study 1, one orang-utan pointed regularly and accurately for peers. However, they responded only rarely. In Study 2, a human experimenter played the communicator's role in three conditions, testing the apes' comprehension of points of different heights and different degrees of ostension. There was no effect of condition. However, across conditions one donor performed well individually, and as a group orang-utans' comprehension performance tended towards significance. We explain this on the grounds that comprehension required inferences that they found difficult - but not impossible. The finding has valuable implications for our thinking about the development of pointing in phylogeny.

  13. Production and Comprehension of Gestures between Orang-Utans (Pongo pygmaeus) in a Referential Communication Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Richard; Call, Josep; Tomasello, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Orang-utans played a communication game in two studies testing their ability to produce and comprehend requestive pointing. While the 'communicator' could see but not obtain hidden food, the 'donor' could release the food to the communicator, but could not see its location for herself. They could coordinate successfully if the communicator pointed to the food, and if the donor comprehended his communicative goal and responded pro-socially. In Study 1, one orang-utan pointed regularly and accurately for peers. However, they responded only rarely. In Study 2, a human experimenter played the communicator's role in three conditions, testing the apes' comprehension of points of different heights and different degrees of ostension. There was no effect of condition. However, across conditions one donor performed well individually, and as a group orang-utans' comprehension performance tended towards significance. We explain this on the grounds that comprehension required inferences that they found difficult - but not impossible. The finding has valuable implications for our thinking about the development of pointing in phylogeny.

  14. A field study on Sumatran orang utans (Pongo pygmaeus abelii Lesson 1827) : ecology, behaviour and conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijksen, H.D.

    1978-01-01

    The results of a three year research project on the ecology, behaviour and conservation of the Sumatran orang utan are discussed. The 150 hectares Ketambe study area lie within the boundaries of the Gunung Leuser. reserve in Aceh Tenggara, and consists of mixed rainforest typical of hilly

  15. Do Gorillas ("Gorilla gorilla") and Orangutans ("Pongo pygmaeus") Fail to Represent Objects in the Context of Cohesion Violations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacchione, Trix; Call, Josep

    2010-01-01

    Recent research suggests that witnessing events of fission (e.g., the splitting of a solid object) impairs human infants', human adults', and non-human primates' object representations. The present studies investigated the reactions of gorillas and orangutans to cohesion violation across different types of fission events implementing a behavioral…

  16. Functional anatomy and adaptation of male gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) with comparison to male orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zihlman, Adrienne L; McFarland, Robin K; Underwood, Carol E

    2011-11-01

    Great apes diversified during the Miocene in Old World forests. Two lineages, gorillas in Africa and orangutans in Asia, have sexual dimorphisms of super-sized males, though they presumably diverged from a smaller common ancestor. We test the hypothesis that they increased in body mass independently and convergently, and that their many postcranial differences reflect locomotor differences. Whole body dissections of five adult male gorillas and four adult male orangutans allowed quantification of body mass distribution to limb segments, of body composition (muscle, bone, skin, and fat relative to total body mass), and of muscle distribution and proportions. Results demonstrate that gorilla forelimb anatomy accommodates shoulder joint mobility for vertical climbing and reaching while maintaining joint stability during quadrupedal locomotion. The heavily muscled hind limbs are equipped for propulsion and weight-bearing over relatively stable substrates on the forest floor. In contrast, orangutan forelimb length, muscle mass, and joint construction are modified for strength and mobility in climbing, bridging, and traveling over flexible supports through the forest canopy. Muscles of hip, knee, and ankle joints provide rotational and prehensile strength essential for moving on unstable and discontinuous branches. We conclude that anatomical similarities are due to common ancestry and that differences in postcranial anatomy reflect powerful selection for divergent locomotor adaptations. These data further support the evolutionary conclusion that gorillas fall with chimpanzees and humans as part of the African hominoid radiation; orangutans are a specialized outlier.

  17. Alterations in the mantle epithelium during transition from hatching gland to adhesive organ of Idiosepius pygmaeus (Mollusca, Cephalopoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyran, Norbert; Klepal, Waltraud; Städler, Yannick; Schönenberger, Jürg; von Byern, Janek

    2015-02-01

    Epithelial gland systems play an important role in marine molluscs in fabricating lubricants, repellents, fragrances, adhesives or enzymes. In cephalopods the typically single layered epithelium provides a highly dynamic variability and affords a rapid rebuilding of gland cells. While the digestive hatching gland (also named Hoyle organ) is obligatory for most cephalopods, only four genera (Nautilus, Sepia, Euprymna and Idiosepius) produce adhesive secretions by means of glandular cells in an adhesive area on the mantle or tentacles. In Idiosepius this adhesive organ is restricted to the posterior part of the fin region on the dorsal mantle side and well developed in the adult stage. Two gland cell types could be distinguished, which produce different contents of the adhesive. During the embryonic development the same body area is occupied by the temporary hatching gland. The question arises, in which way the hatching gland degrades and is replaced by the adhesive gland. Ultrastructural analyses as well as computer tomography scans were performed to monitor the successive post hatching transformation in the mantle epithelium from hatching gland degradation to the formation of the adhesive organ. According to our investigations the hatching gland cells degrade within about 1 day after hatching by a type of programmed cell death and leave behind a temporary cellular gap in this area. First glandular cells of the adhesive gland arise 7 days after hatching and proceed evenly over the posterior mantle epithelium. In contrast, the accompanying reduction of a part of the dorsal mantle musculature is already established before hatching. The results demonstrate a distinct independence between the two gland systems and illustrate the early development of the adhesive organ as well as the corresponding modifications within the mantle.

  18. Effect of Different Artificial Diets on the Development and Fecundity of the Green Lacewing Chrysopa pallens (Rambur)%人工饲料对大草蛉生长发育和繁殖力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    党国瑞; 张莹; 陈红印; 张礼生; 王孟卿; 刘晨曦

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of rice moth {Corcyra cephalonica), eggs and yellow mealworms {Tenebrio molitor) protein based artificial diet on the life history parameters of green lacewing {Chrysopa pallens). [Method] Adult C. pallens were provided with artificial diet and subsequently larvae were supplied with rice moth eggs. In addition, both soybean aphids (Aphis glycines) and rice moth eggs were fed to larvae and adults, respectively, to assess the life table parameters. [Result] Rice moth eggs had no significant effect on the cocoon size, body length, survival rate, and adult longevity of C. pallens as compared with the soybean aphids. In contrast, larval and cocoon developmental durations and pre-oviposition period were prolonged. On the contrary, when reared on artificial diet, adult longevity and reproductive phase of C. pallens prolonged and survival rate, ovipositional rate and fecundity declined. However, their egg hatchability rate observed higher when fed with artificial diet. [Conclusion] Among the three tested food, rice moth eggs were suitable diet for the mass rearing C. pallens in laboratory. It was also established that mealworms protein could be used as a main componental artificial diet for mass-rearing of C. pallens adults.%[目的]研究应用米蛾卵和以黄粉虫蛋白为主要成分的人工饲料对大草蛉的饲养效果.[方法]用米蛾卵饲喂大草蛉幼虫、用基于黄粉虫蛋白的人工饲料饲养成虫,记录相关生物学参数,以米蛾卵和大豆蚜分别饲喂大草蛉幼虫至成虫为对照.[结果]米蛾卵饲喂大草蛉效果良好,茧的大小、成虫体长、结茧率、羽化率、成虫获得率、卵孵化率、成虫寿命和总产卵量均和对照无显著差异,但幼虫发育历期、茧的发育历期和产卵前期延长,发育整齐度稍下降.以人工饲料饲养的大草蛉成虫寿命、成虫产卵前期和产卵天数明显延长,卵孵化率明显上升.但是成虫存活率,雌虫产卵率显著下降,总产卵量略有降低.[结论]米蛾卵可以作为实验室繁殖大草蛉的人工饲料,以黄粉虫为主要成分的大草蛉成虫人工饲料具有开发价值.

  19. 78 FR 67389 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-12

    ... gorilla (Gorilla gorilla), and Bornean orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus pygmaeus) from the Primate Brain Bank..., Bonita Springs, FL; PRT-19966B The applicant requests a permit to import a sport-hunted trophy of...

  20. Nieuwe en interessante Nederlandse wantsen III (Hemiptera: Heteroptera)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aukema, B.; Hermes, D.

    2009-01-01

    In dit artikel wordt een overzicht gegeven van 38 soorten nieuwe of anderszins interessante Nederlandse wantsen. Corythucha ciliata (Tingidae), Macrolophus rubi, Orthotylus ochrotrichus (Miridae), Amphiareus constrictus, Buchananiella continua, Cardiasthetus fasciiventris, Lyctocoris dimidiatus (Ant

  1. Population-specific use of the same tool-assisted alarm call between two wild orangutan populations (Pongo pygmaeus wurmbii indicates functional arbitrariness [corrected].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano R Lameira

    Full Text Available Arbitrariness is an elementary feature of human language, yet seldom an object of comparative inquiry. While arbitrary signals for the same function are relatively frequent between animal populations across taxa, the same signal with arbitrary functions is rare and it remains unknown whether, in parallel with human speech, it may involve call production in animals. To investigate this question, we examined a particular orangutan alarm call - the kiss-squeak - and two variants - hand and leaf kiss-squeaks. In Tuanan (Central Kalimantan, Indonesia, the acoustic frequency of unaided kiss-squeaks is negatively related to body size. The modified variants are correlated with perceived threat and are hypothesized to increase the perceived body size of the sender, as the use of a hand or leaves lowers the kiss-squeak's acoustic frequency. We examined the use of these variants in the same context in another orangutan population of the same sub-species and with partially similar habitat at Cabang Panti (West Kalimantan, Indonesia. Identical analyses of data from this site provided similar results for unaided kiss-squeaks but dissimilar results for hand and leaf kiss-squeaks. Unaided kiss-squeaks at Cabang Panti were emitted as commonly and showed the same relationship to body size as in Tuanan. However, at Cabang Panti, hand kiss-squeaks were extremely rare, while leaf-use neither conveyed larger body size nor was related to perceived threat. These findings indicate functional discontinuity between the two sites and therefore imply functional arbitrariness of leaf kiss-squeaks. These results show for the first time the existence of animal signals involving call production with arbitrary function. Our findings are consistent with previous studies arguing that these orangutan call variants are socially learned and reconcile the role of gestures and calls within evolutionary theories based on common ancestry for speech and music.

  2. Differences in the visual perception of symmetric patterns in orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus abelii and two human cultural groups: a comparative eye-tracking study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cordelia eMühlenbeck

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Symmetric structures are of importance in relation to aesthetic preference. To investigate whether the preference for symmetric patterns is unique to humans, independent of their cultural background, we compared two human populations with distinct cultural backgrounds (Namibian hunter-gatherers and German town dwellers with one species of non-human great apes (orangutans in their viewing behavior regarding symmetric and asymmetric patterns in two levels of complexity. In addition, the human participants were asked to give their aesthetic evaluation of a subset of the presented patterns. The results showed that humans of both cultural groups fixated on symmetric patterns for a longer period of time, regardless of the pattern’s complexity. On the contrary, orangutans did not clearly differentiate between symmetric and asymmetric patterns, but were much faster in processing the presented stimuli and scanned the complete screen, while both human groups rested on the symmetric pattern after a short scanning time. The aesthetic evaluation test revealed that the fixation preference for symmetric patterns did not match with the aesthetic evaluation in the Hai//om group, whereas in the German group aesthetic evaluation was in accordance with the fixation preference in 60 percent of the cases. It can be concluded that humans prefer well-ordered structures in visual processing tasks, most likely because of a positive processing bias for symmetry, which orangutans did not show in this task, and that, in humans, an aesthetic preference does not necessarily accompany the fixation preference.

  3. Population-specific use of the same tool-assisted alarm call between two wild orangutan populations (Pongo pygmaeus wurmbii) indicates functional arbitrariness [corrected].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lameira, Adriano R; Hardus, Madeleine E; Nouwen, Kim J J M; Topelberg, Eva; Delgado, Roberto A; Spruijt, Berry M; Sterck, Elisabeth H M; Knott, Cheryl D; Wich, Serge A

    2013-01-01

    Arbitrariness is an elementary feature of human language, yet seldom an object of comparative inquiry. While arbitrary signals for the same function are relatively frequent between animal populations across taxa, the same signal with arbitrary functions is rare and it remains unknown whether, in parallel with human speech, it may involve call production in animals. To investigate this question, we examined a particular orangutan alarm call - the kiss-squeak - and two variants - hand and leaf kiss-squeaks. In Tuanan (Central Kalimantan, Indonesia), the acoustic frequency of unaided kiss-squeaks is negatively related to body size. The modified variants are correlated with perceived threat and are hypothesized to increase the perceived body size of the sender, as the use of a hand or leaves lowers the kiss-squeak's acoustic frequency. We examined the use of these variants in the same context in another orangutan population of the same sub-species and with partially similar habitat at Cabang Panti (West Kalimantan, Indonesia). Identical analyses of data from this site provided similar results for unaided kiss-squeaks but dissimilar results for hand and leaf kiss-squeaks. Unaided kiss-squeaks at Cabang Panti were emitted as commonly and showed the same relationship to body size as in Tuanan. However, at Cabang Panti, hand kiss-squeaks were extremely rare, while leaf-use neither conveyed larger body size nor was related to perceived threat. These findings indicate functional discontinuity between the two sites and therefore imply functional arbitrariness of leaf kiss-squeaks. These results show for the first time the existence of animal signals involving call production with arbitrary function. Our findings are consistent with previous studies arguing that these orangutan call variants are socially learned and reconcile the role of gestures and calls within evolutionary theories based on common ancestry for speech and music.

  4. Non-enculturated orangutans´ (Pongo pygmaeus) use of experimenter-given manual and facial cues in an object-choice task

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byrnit, Jill

    2004-01-01

    Adskillige forsøg er blevet udført for at undersøge hvorvidt andre aber end mennesket er i stad til at bruge forsøgsleder-givne manuelle og visuelle tegn til at lede deres opmærksomhed mod et objekt med mad i. Modsat, hvad det er tilfældet med halvaber og mindre aber, har menneskeaber gentagne ga...

  5. Comparing the performances of apes (Gorilla gorilla, Pan troglodytes, Pongo pygmaeus and human children (Homo sapiens in the floating peanut task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Hanus

    Full Text Available Recently, Mendes et al. [1] described the use of a liquid tool (water in captive orangutans. Here, we tested chimpanzees and gorillas for the first time with the same "floating peanut task." None of the subjects solved the task. In order to better understand the cognitive demands of the task, we further tested other populations of chimpanzees and orangutans with the variation of the peanut initially floating or not. Twenty percent of the chimpanzees but none of the orangutans were successful. Additional controls revealed that successful subjects added water only if it was necessary to obtain the nut. Another experiment was conducted to investigate the reason for the differences in performance between the unsuccessful (Experiment 1 and the successful (Experiment 2 chimpanzee populations. We found suggestive evidence for the view that functional fixedness might have impaired the chimpanzees' strategies in the first experiment. Finally, we tested how human children of different age classes perform in an analogous experimental setting. Within the oldest group (8 years, 58 percent of the children solved the problem, whereas in the youngest group (4 years, only 8 percent were able to find the solution.

  6. 倭蜂猴的产热及细胞呼吸特征%THE CHARACTERISTICS OF NONSHIVERING THERMOGENESIS AND CELLULAR RESPIRATION IN LESSER SLOW LORIS (NYCTICEBUS PYGMAEUS)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王政昆; 刘璐; 李庆芬; 孙儒泳

    2000-01-01

    倭蜂猴的最大非颤抖性产热较低,但占调节性产热的比例较高;褐色脂肪组织(BAT)重量也较其他灵长类大,产热活性也较强;肝脏线粒体氧化能力较低,与其具有较低的 BMR和体温波动较大有关.倭蜂猴相对较低的NST和低水平的RMR对其夜行性和节约能量极为有利.

  7. Direct and indirect reputation formation in nonhuman great apes (Pan paniscus, Pan troglodytes, Gorilla gorilla, Pongo pygmaeus) and human children (Homo sapiens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Esther; Keupp, Stefanie; Hare, Brian; Vaish, Amrisha; Tomasello, Michael

    2013-02-01

    Humans make decisions about when and with whom to cooperate based on their reputations. People either learn about others by direct interaction or by observing third-party interactions or gossip. An important question is whether other animal species, especially our closest living relatives, the nonhuman great apes, also form reputations of others. In Study 1, chimpanzees, bonobos, orangutans, and 2.5-year-old human children experienced a nice experimenter who tried to give food/toys to the subject and a mean experimenter who interrupted the food/toy giving. In studies 2 and 3, nonhuman great apes and human children could only passively observe a similar interaction, in which a nice experimenter and a mean experimenter interacted with a third party. Orangutans and 2.5-year-old human children preferred to approach the nice experimenter rather than the mean one after having directly experienced their respective behaviors. Orangutans, chimpanzees, and 2.5-year-old human children also took into account experimenter actions toward third parties in forming reputations. These studies show that the human ability to form direct and indirect reputation judgment is already present in young children and shared with at least some of the other great apes.

  8. Comparing the performances of apes (Gorilla gorilla, Pan troglodytes, Pongo pygmaeus) and human children (Homo sapiens) in the floating peanut task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanus, Daniel; Mendes, Natacha; Tennie, Claudio; Call, Josep

    2011-01-01

    Recently, Mendes et al. [1] described the use of a liquid tool (water) in captive orangutans. Here, we tested chimpanzees and gorillas for the first time with the same "floating peanut task." None of the subjects solved the task. In order to better understand the cognitive demands of the task, we further tested other populations of chimpanzees and orangutans with the variation of the peanut initially floating or not. Twenty percent of the chimpanzees but none of the orangutans were successful. Additional controls revealed that successful subjects added water only if it was necessary to obtain the nut. Another experiment was conducted to investigate the reason for the differences in performance between the unsuccessful (Experiment 1) and the successful (Experiment 2) chimpanzee populations. We found suggestive evidence for the view that functional fixedness might have impaired the chimpanzees' strategies in the first experiment. Finally, we tested how human children of different age classes perform in an analogous experimental setting. Within the oldest group (8 years), 58 percent of the children solved the problem, whereas in the youngest group (4 years), only 8 percent were able to find the solution.

  9. What cognitive strategies do orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus) use to solve a trial-unique puzzle-tube task incorporating multiple obstacles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tecwyn, Emma C; Thorpe, Susannah K S; Chappell, Jackie

    2012-01-01

    Apparently sophisticated behaviour during problem-solving is often the product of simple underlying mechanisms, such as associative learning or the use of procedural rules. These and other more parsimonious explanations need to be eliminated before higher-level cognitive processes such as causal reasoning or planning can be inferred. We presented three Bornean orangutans with 64 trial-unique configurations of a puzzle-tube to investigate whether they were able to consider multiple obstacles in two alternative paths, and subsequently choose the correct direction in which to move a reward in order to retrieve it. We were particularly interested in how subjects attempted to solve the task, namely which behavioural strategies they could have been using, as this is how we may begin to elucidate the cognitive mechanisms underpinning their choices. To explore this, we simulated performance outcomes across the 64 trials for various procedural rules and rule combinations that subjects may have been using based on the configuration of different obstacles. Two of the three subjects solved the task, suggesting that they were able to consider at least some of the obstacles in the puzzle-tube before executing action to retrieve the reward. This is impressive compared with the past performances of great apes on similar, arguably less complex tasks. Successful subjects may have been using a heuristic rule combination based on what they deemed to be the most relevant cue (the configuration of the puzzle-tube ends), which may be a cognitively economical strategy.

  10. The risk of disease to great apes: simulating disease spread in orang-utan (Pongo pygmaeus wurmbii) and chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) association networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carne, Charlotte; Semple, Stuart; Morrogh-Bernard, Helen; Zuberbühler, Klaus; Lehmann, Julia

    2014-01-01

    All great ape species are endangered, and infectious diseases are thought to pose a particular threat to their survival. As great ape species vary substantially in social organisation and gregariousness, there are likely to be differences in susceptibility to disease types and spread. Understanding the relation between social variables and disease is therefore crucial for implementing effective conservation measures. Here, we simulate the transmission of a range of diseases in a population of orang-utans in Sabangau Forest (Central Kalimantan) and a community of chimpanzees in Budongo Forest (Uganda), by systematically varying transmission likelihood and probability of subsequent recovery. Both species have fission-fusion social systems, but differ considerably in their level of gregariousness. We used long-term behavioural data to create networks of association patterns on which the spread of different diseases was simulated. We found that chimpanzees were generally far more susceptible to the spread of diseases than orang-utans. When simulating different diseases that varied widely in their probability of transmission and recovery, it was found that the chimpanzee community was widely and strongly affected, while in orang-utans even highly infectious diseases had limited spread. Furthermore, when comparing the observed association network with a mean-field network (equal contact probability between group members), we found no major difference in simulated disease spread, suggesting that patterns of social bonding in orang-utans are not an important determinant of susceptibility to disease. In chimpanzees, the predicted size of the epidemic was smaller on the actual association network than on the mean-field network, indicating that patterns of social bonding have important effects on susceptibility to disease. We conclude that social networks are a potentially powerful tool to model the risk of disease transmission in great apes, and that chimpanzees are particularly threatened by infectious disease outbreaks as a result of their social structure.

  11. 78 FR 76171 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-16

    ... research on the incidence of disease in the wild population. This notification covers activities to be...: Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) Pygmy slow loris (Nycticebus pygmaeus) Jackass penguin (Spheniscus...

  12. 78 FR 25296 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-30

    ... maximus) born in captivity from Calgary Zoo, Garden & Prehistoric Park, Alberta, Canada, for the purpose... include American crocodile) Varanidae Species Lesser slow loris (Nycticebus pygmaeus) Dhole (Cuon...

  13. Evaluation of mirid predatory bugs and release strategy for aphid control in sweet pepper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Messelink, G.J.; Bloemhard, C.M.J.; Hoogerbrugge, H.; Schelt, van J.; Ingegno, B.L.; Tavella, L.

    2015-01-01

    Zoophytophagous predators of the family Miridae (Heteroptera), which feed both on plant and prey, often maintain a close relationship with certain host plants. In this study, we aimed to select a suitable mirid predatory bug for aphid control in sweet pepper. Four species were compared: Macrolophus

  14. Population growth of three mirid predatory bugs feeding on eggs and larvae of Tuta absoluta on tomato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, Diego B.; Bueno, Vanda H.P.; Montes, Flavio C.; Lenteren, van Joop C.

    2016-01-01

    Tuta absoluta Meyrick quickly developed into a significant pest of tomatoes worldwide. While the mirid bugs Macrolophus basicornis (Stal), Engytatus varians (Distant) and Campyloneuropsis infumatus (Carvalho) prey on this tomato borer, their biology have not been well characterized. Using a mixtu

  15. Do nymphs and adults of three Neotropical zoophytophagous mirids damage leaves and fruits of tomato?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, D.B.; Bueno, V.H.P.; Calvo, F.J.; Lenteren, Van J.C.

    2017-01-01

    The predators Macrolophus basicornis (Stal), Engytatus varians (Distant) and Campyloneuropsis infumatus (Carvalho) consume large numbers of tomato pests such as Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) and Tuta absoluta (Meyrick). However, they are zoophytophagous and feed on plant parts as well. We evaluated the

  16. Odonatos asociados al curso superior y medio del río Suquía, Córdoba, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana I. ZAPATA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta la primera lista de la odonatofauna regional de Córdoba con 24 especies. Acanthagrion lancea Selys, Telebasis willinki Fraser (Zygopte- ra: Coenagrionidae, Erythrodiplax nigricans (Rambur, E. umbrata (Linnaeus, Mi- athyria marcella (Selys in Sagra, Orthemis nodiplaga Karsch, Pantala flavencens (Fabricius y P. hymenaea (Say (Anisoptera: Libellulidae constituyen primeros re- gistros de la provincia.

  17. 77 FR 43108 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ... include citations to, and analyses of, the applicable laws and regulations. We will not consider or... orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus) and proboscis monkey (Nasalis larvatus) biological samples from Malaysia for...

  18. Anti-termite tests with thermocoustic board

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. G. Khalsa

    1964-10-01

    Full Text Available A sample of Thermocoustic Insulation Board was tested for termite proofness against two species of termites, viz. Heterotermes indicola Wasmann and Cyclotermes obesus Rambur. When kept in contact with the board the termites (H. indicola did not feed on it and died with in 9 to 15 days. If few termites penetrated through the board, but could hardly crawl. In graveyard tests, board remained unattacked for nearly two years.

  19. Check list of first recorded dragonfly (Odonata: Anisoptera fauna of District Lower Dir, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzana Perveen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The dragonflies (Odonata: Anisoptera are large, intermediate to small size, having different colours and variable morphological characters. They also carry ornamental and environmental indicator values. The first recorded, the collection of 318 dragonflies was made during May-July 2011 from district Lower Dir, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Among them 11 species of dragonflies were identified belonging to 3 families. The golden-ringed, Cordulegaster brevistigma brevistigma Selys is belonging to family Cordulegasteridae and Clubtails, Onychogomphus bistrigatus Selys is belonging to family Gomophidaed. The spine-legged redbolt, Rhodothemis rufa (Rambur; black-tailed skimmer, Orthetrum cancellatum Linnaeus; blue or black-percher, Diplacodes lefebvrei (Ramber; ground-skimmer, Diplacodes trivialis Rambur; common red-skimmer, Orthetrum pruinosum neglectum (Rambur; triangle-skimmer, Orthetrum triangulare triangulare (Selys; common-skimmer, Sympetrum decoloratum Selys; slender-skimmer, Orthetrum Sabina (Drury and wandering-glider or global-skimmer, Pantala flavescens (Fabricius are belonging to family Libellulidae. It is concluded that there is a diversity to explain dragonfly fauna from district Lower Dir.

  20. Comparative and demographic analysis of orang-utan genomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Locke, Devin P.; Hillier, LaDeana W.; Warren, Wesley C.

    2011-01-01

    ‘Orang-utan’ is derived from a Malay term meaning ‘man of the forest’ and aptly describes the southeast Asian great apes native to Sumatra and Borneo. The orang-utan species, Pongo abelii (Sumatran) and Pongo pygmaeus (Bornean), are the most phylogenetically distant great apes from humans, thereb...

  1. UniProt search blastx result: AK287696 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK287696 J065129N03 Q5REK0|FMO2_PONPY Dimethylaniline monooxygenase [N-oxide-forming] 2 (EC 1.14.13.8) (Pulm...onary flavin-containing monooxygenase 2) (FMO 2) (Dimethylaniline oxidase 2) (FMO 1B1) - Pongo pygmaeus (Orangutan) 8.00E-14 ...

  2. UniProt search blastx result: AK287578 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK287578 J065038J02 Q5REK0|FMO2_PONPY Dimethylaniline monooxygenase [N-oxide-forming] 2 (EC 1.14.13.8) (Pulm...onary flavin-containing monooxygenase 2) (FMO 2) (Dimethylaniline oxidase 2) (FMO 1B1) - Pongo pygmaeus (Orangutan) 1.00E-14 ...

  3. Fatal Metacestode Infection in Bornean Orangutan Caused by Unknown Versteria Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendron-Fitzpatrick, Annette; Deering, Kathleen M.; Wallace, Roberta S.; Clyde, Victoria L.; Lauck, Michael; Rosen, Gail E.; Bennett, Andrew J.; Greiner, Ellis C.; O’Connor, David H.

    2014-01-01

    A captive juvenile Bornean orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus) died from an unknown disseminated parasitic infection. Deep sequencing of DNA from infected tissues, followed by gene-specific PCR and sequencing, revealed a divergent species within the newly proposed genus Versteria (Cestoda: Taeniidae). Versteria may represent a previously unrecognized risk to primate health. PMID:24377497

  4. Definitive hosts of a fatal Versteria species (Cestoda: Taeniidae) in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    We previously reported fatal metacestode infection in a captive orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus) with a novel taeniid tapeworm, Versteria sp. Data from ermine (Mustela erminea) and mink (Neovison vison) implicate mustelids as definitive North America hosts and expand known Versteria diversity. The orangu...

  5. Reintroduction of Orangutans: A New Approach. A Study on the Behaviour and Ecology of Reintroduced Orangutans in the Sungai Wain Nature Reserve, East Kalimantan Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fredriksson, Gabriella

    1995-01-01

    The reintroduction of ex-captive orangutans Pongo pygmaeus) is part of a comprehensive conservation program to preserve this species and it’s habitat. During the last decades the orangutan has been under severe threat throughout it’s range- Northern Sumatra, Kalimantan and East Malaysia- due to mass

  6. UniProt search blastx result: AK288055 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK288055 J075152G12 Q5RBG4|TIP60_PONPY Histone acetyltransferase HTATIP (EC 2.3.1.4...8) (EC 2.3.1.-) (60 kDa Tat interactive protein) (Tip60) - Pongo pygmaeus (Orangutan) 3.00E-95 ...

  7. UniProt search blastx result: AK288537 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK288537 J090045J06 Q5RAI9|SC22B_PONPY Vesicle-trafficking protein SEC22b (SEC22 vesicle-traffic...king protein homolog B) (SEC22 vesicle-trafficking protein-like 1) - Pongo pygmaeus (Orangutan) 5.00E-49 ...

  8. Two new species of the genus Centromacronema Ulmer 1905 (Hydropsychidae: Macronematinae) from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Everton S; Calor, Adolfo R

    2016-07-08

    Centromacronema is an endemic genus from the Neotropics, with distribution ranging from Mexico to southern Brazil. The genus comprises 15 described species, but only two of them have been recorded in Brazil: Centromacronema               auripenne (Rambur 1842) and C. obscurum (Ulmer 1905). Two new species are herein described and illustrated from   Brazil, C. pioneira n. sp. from Serra da Jiboia, Bahia state, including the first description of a female for the genus, and C. poyanawa n. sp. from Serra do Divisor, Acre state.

  9. Odonatos de Gipuzkoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MEZQUITA-ARANBURU, I, OCHARAN, F.J.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Se aportan datos sobre 42 especies de Odonatos encontrados en Gipuzkoa (País Vasco, España durante un estudio llevado a cabo entre los años 2006 y 2011, y además se hace una revisión bibliográfica. En total se inventarían 43 especies, 21 de Zygoptera (9 de ellas citadas por primera vez para Gipuzkoa y 22 de Anisoptera (13 de ellas primeras citas para Gipuzkoa. Particularmente interesantes resultan las citas de Coenagrion mercuriale (Charpentier, 1840, Coenagrion scitulum (Rambur, 1842, Oxygastra curtisii (Dale, 1834 y Orthetrum albistylum (Sélys, 1848.

  10. Odonata (Insecta diversity of southern Gujarat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darshana M. Rathod

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of the Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies was studied in seven districts of southern area of Gujarat State in India during 2014 to 2015.  A total of 55 species belonging to two suborders and 37 genera under eight families were recorded.  A total of 18 species of Zygoptera (damselflies and 37 species of Anisoptera (dragonflies were recorded.  Dang and Navsari districts were surveyed intensively and a maximum of 47 and 35 species were recorded respectively, whereas the districts that were surveyed less intensively, i.e., Bharuch (26, Valsad (21, Surat (29, Narmada (25 and Tapi (27 had comparatively low species richness.  Thirty-two species are being reported for the first time from southern Gujarat, raising the total list of odonates to 60.  Fifteen species namely, Lestes elatus Hagen in Selys, 1862; Elattoneura nigerrima (Laidlaw, 1917; Dysphaea ethela Fraser, 1924; Paracercion malayanum (Selys, 1876; Pseudagrion spencei Fraser, 1922; Burmagomphus laidlawi- Fraser, 1924; Cyclogomphus ypsilon Selys, 1854; Microgomphus torquatus (Selys, 1854; Onychogomphus acinaces (Laidlaw, 1922; Hylaeothemis indica Fraser, 1946; Lathrecista asiatica (Fabricius, 1798; Rhodothemis rufa (Rambur, 1842; Tramea limbata (Desjardins, 1832; Trithemis kirbyi Selys, 1891 and Zyxomma petiolatum Rambur, 1842 are recorded for the first time from Gujarat State raising the number of odonates of Gujarat State to 80 species.  

  11. NOVEDADES EN HOUSSAYANTHUS Y SERJANIA (SAPINDACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Silvia Ferrucci

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Sobre la base de Urvillea sparrei Barkl, el combiriation nueva Houssayanthus sparrei (Barkl. Ferrucci se establece, y su taxonomía es discutida en relación con las otras especies del género: H.macrolophus (Radlk. Hunzik. y H.fiebrigii (Barkl. Hunzik.Cromosoma. número de H.sparrei se informa (12 II. Un nuevo nombre, Serjania herteri Ferrucci se propone para S.australis (St. Hil. Herter no Spreng.

  12. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OGAR-01-0515 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OGAR-01-0515 gb|AAF89359.1|AF172239_1 chemokine receptor CXCR4 [Nycticebus cou...cang] gb|AAF89360.1|AF172240_1 chemokine receptor CXCR4 [Nycticebus intermedius] gb|AAF89361.1|AF172241_1 chemokine receptor CXCR4 [Nycticebus pygmaeus] AAF89359.1 0.0 96% ...

  13. Computational study of the evolutionary relationships of the ionotropic receptors NMDA, AMPA and kainate in four species of primates.

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno-Pedraza, Francy Johanna; Grupo de Bioquímica Molecular Computacional y Bioinformática, Departamento de Bioquímica, Facultad de Ciencias. Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Carrera 7 No. 43-82 Ed. 52, Bogotá,; Lareo, Leonardo René; Grupo de Bioquímica Molecular Computacional y Bioinformática, Departamento de Bioquímica, Facultad de Ciencias. Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Carrera 7 No. 43-82 Ed. 52, Bogotá,; Reyes-Montaño, Edgar Antonio; Grupo de Investigación en Proteínas (GRIP) Departamento de Química, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Ciudad Universitaria, Edificio 451, Bogotá

    2010-01-01

    Objective. To identify the influence of changes on the secondary structure and evolutionary relationship of NMDA, AMPA and kainate receptors in Homo sapiens, Pan troglodytes, Pongo pygmaeus and Macaca mulatta. Materials and methods. We identified 91 sequences for NMDA, AMPA and kainate receptors and analyzed with software for predicting secondary structure, phosphorylation sites, multiple alignments, selection of protein evolution models and phylogenetic prediction. Results. We found that s...

  14. A comparative study of tooth root morphology in the great apes, modern man and early hominids

    OpenAIRE

    Abbott, S A

    1984-01-01

    This thesis sets out to document and analyse some aspects of the metric and morphological variation of tooth roots within the Hominoidea. Samples of the extant species Gorilla gorilla, Pan troglodytes, Pongo pygmaeus and Homo sapiens formed the basis of this study, but fossil hominid specimens from the East African Plio/Pleistocene sites of Koobi Fora, Laetoli, Olduvai and Peninj were also included. The maximum of 182 root, crown and jaw measurements were taken for each s...

  15. Personality assessment in the Great Apes: comparing ecologically valid behavior measures, behavior ratings, and adjective ratings

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Three methods of personality assessment (behavior measures, behavior ratings, adjective ratings) were compared in 20 zoo-housed Great Apes: bonobos (Pan paniscus), chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus), gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla), and orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus abelii). To test a new bottom-up approach, the studied trait constructs were systematically generated from the species’ behavioral repertoires. The assessments were reliable, temporally stable, and showed substantial cross-method...

  16. [Infection of the mollusc Littorina saxatilis with parthenites of trematodes and their impact on a shell form: analysis of populations inhabiting the littoral coast of the White Sea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliberdina, M V; Granovich, A I

    2003-01-01

    12 rocky shore populations of Littorina saxatilis from three islands of Chupa Inlet (Kandalaksha Bay, White Sea) were examined for infection with trematodes. Morphometric characters (6 indexes of the shell and aperture shape) of molluscs were investigated for all these populations. Exposed and sheltered sites were considered at every island and high and low littoral samples were fulfilled at every site. Seven species of trematodes, Podocotyle atomon, Cryptocotyle lingua, Renicola sp., Himasthla sp., Microphallus piriformes, M. pygmaeus, M. pseudopygmaeus, were found. Uneven distribution of trematodes was confirmed by log-linear analysis. Sheltered populations of L. saxatilis have the greater infection prevalence than exposed ones. This is due to the heavy infection with M. piriformes and M. pygmaeus. The prevalences by these trematodes are up to 52.97% and 27.16% respectively in sheltered populations of the host. The prevalence of M. piriformes tend to be higher at the upper shore level of sheltered sites. In a contrast, the prevalence of M. pygmaeus is significantly higher at the low part of such sites. Factor analysis shows a significant association of the indices of L. saxatilis shell shape with three factors. The first one is associated with the "elongation" of a shell and reveals L. saxatilis from the exposed rocky shore to be more elongated than the molluscs from sheltered sites. The second one is connected with the "aperture shape" index. There is an association of this factor with the shore level position of samples. The third factor reflects the affect of trematodes on the shell shape. The molluscs infected with M. piriformes show "elongated" shell shape and relatively smaller aperture. Shall peculiarities of the hosts infected with M. piriformes and M. pygmaeus are somewhat different. The results of the factor analysis is justified by the series of analysis of variances on the values of shell indices (MANOVA) according to the factors "exposure", "shore

  17. Intraspecific variation and sexual dimorphism in cranial and dental variables among higher primates and their bearing on the hominid fossil record.

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, B A; Li, Y; Willoughby, C

    1991-01-01

    The extent and nature of dental and cranial sexual dimorphisms in extant hominoids have been investigated using reliably sexed samples of Homo sapiens (n = 75), Pan troglodytes (n = 51), Gorilla gorilla (n = 64) and Pongo pygmaeus (n = 43). Seventy nine measurements (35 dental, 16 mandibular and 28 cranial) formed the basis of the study. The patterns of mean differences and dispersions between the taxa were compared across the anatomical regions and the group structures of the separate sex sa...

  18. Personality in the behaviour of great apes: temporal stability, cross-situational consistency and coherence in response

    OpenAIRE

    Uher, Jana; Asendorpf, Jens B; Call, Josep

    2008-01-01

    Using a multidisciplinary approach, the present study complements ethological behaviour measurements with basic theoretical concepts, methods and approaches of the personality psychological trait paradigm. Its adoptability and usefulness for animal studies are tested exemplarily on a sample of 20 zoo-housed great apes (five of each of the following species): bonobos, Pan paniscus; chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes verus; gorillas, Gorilla gorilla gorilla; and orang-utans, Pongo pygmaeus abelii. Da...

  19. Espécies raras de Phallales (Agaricomycetidae, Basidiomycetes) no Nordeste do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Leite,Anileide Gomes; Silva,Bianca Denise Barbosa; Araújo,Ricardo Souza; Baseia,Iuri Goulart

    2007-01-01

    Seis espécies interessantes de Phallales são registradas para a Mata Atlântica: Aseroë floriformis Baseia & Calonge, Geastrum setiferum Baseia, Ileodictyon cibarium Tulasne ex Raoul, Laternea triscapa Turpin, Phallus pygmaeus Baseia e Staheliomyces cinctus E. Fischer. Adicionalmente, são fornecidas chave de identificação e comentários sobre a taxonomia e ecologia dessas espécies.

  20. Variation in thermal tolerance and routine metabolism among spring- and stream-dwelling freshwater sculpins (Teleostei: Cottidae) of the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, S.J.; Haney, D.C.; Timmerman, C.M.

    1997-01-01

    Evolutionary theory predicts that some aquatic organisms may adapt by directional selection to limiting physical environmental conditions, yet empirical data are conflicting. We sought to test the assumption that sculpins (family Cottidae) inhabiting thermally stable springs of the southeastern United States differ in temperature tolerance and metabolism from populations inhabiting more thermally labile stream habitats. Spring populations of pygmy sculpins (Coitus pygmaeus) and Ozark sculpins (C. hypselurus) differed interspecifically in thermal tolerance from populations of stream-dwelling mottled (C. bairdi) and Tallapoosa sculpins (C. tallapoosae), and both stream and spring populations of banded sculpins (C. carolinae). No intra- or interspecific differences in thermal tolerance were found among populations of C. bairdi, C. tallapoosae, or C. carolinae. Coitus pygmaeus acclimated to 15??C differed intraspecifically in routine metabolism from fish acclimated to 20?? and 25??C. Cottus pygmaeus and stream-dwelling C. bairdi and C. carolinae acclimated to temperatures of 20?? and 25??C showed no interspecific differences in routine metabolism. Our results suggest that some spring-adapted populations or species may be more stenothermal than stream-dwelling congeners, but a greater understanding of the interactions of other physical and biological factors is required to better explain micro- and macrohabitat distributions of eastern North American sculpins.

  1. The caddisfly fauna (Insecta, Trichoptera) of the rivers of the Black Sea basin in Kosovo with distributional data for some rare species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahimi, Halil; Kučinić, Mladen; Gashi, Agim; Grapci-Kotori, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Adult caddisflies were collected from 12 stations in the Black Sea basin in Kosovo using UV light traps. Sixty-five of the seventy-six species reported in this paper are first records for the Kosovo caddisfly fauna. The unexpected discovery of several species during this investigation: Agapetus delicatulus McLachlan, 1884, Psychomyia klapaleki Malicky, 1995, Tinodes janssensi Jacquemart, 1957, Hydropsyche emarginata Navas, 1923, Drusus botosaneanui Kumanski, 1968, Potamophylax rotundipennis (Brauer, 1857), Potamophylax schmidi Marinković-Gospodnetić, 1970, Ceraclea albimacula (Rambur, 1842), Helicopsyche bacescui Orghidan & Botosaneanu, 1953, Adicella filicornis (Pictet, 1834), Beraea maurus (Curtis, 1834) and Beraeamyia hrabei Mayer, 1937 illustrates that collections from poorly investigated areas in Europe will almost certainly revise the existing knowledge on the distribution of these and other species. PMID:22539915

  2. Evaluation of the effects of thiamethoxam on three species of African termite (Isoptera: Termitidae) crop pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgarde, S; Rouland-Lefevre, C

    2002-06-01

    Thiamethoxam formulated as ACTARA 25 WG has been tested on three species of higher African termites: Trinervitermes trinervius Rambur, Odontotermes smeathmani Fuller, and Amitermes evuncifer Silvestri, which are pests of the principal tropical food crops (e.g., rice, maize, sorghum, sugarcane). The doses used ranged from 0.03 to 10 ppm. The effective dose for these termites was 0.3 ppm, which resulted in 100% mortality within 2-8 d, depending on the species studied. Excluding O. smeathmani, which consumed the product, thiamethoxam proved to be an anti-feedant but not repellent to T. trinervius and A. evuncifer. For all species studied, mortality was not dependent on consumption of the products, which acts principally by contact. In O. smeathmani, thiamethoxam could be transmitted in the colony from contaminated individuals to healthy individuals.

  3. Effect of chlorpyrifos and monocrotophos on locomotor behaviour and acetylcholinesterase activity of subterranean termites, Odontotermes obesus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkateswara Rao, J; Parvathi, K; Kavitha, P; Jakka, N M; Pallela, R

    2005-04-01

    The acute toxicity of chlorpyrifos and monocrotophos to subterranean termites, Odontotermes obesus (Rambur), has been studied by a paper contact method. The LC50 values for chlorpyrifos and monocrotophos were 0.046 and 0.148 microg cm(-2), respectively. Chlorpyrifos was 3.22-fold more toxic than monocrotophos. The effect of the pesticides on locomotor behaviour (velocity) and head acetylcholinesterase (AChE: EC 3.1.1.7) activity was estimated in LC50-exposed termites at intervals of 4, 8, 12, 16, 20 and 24 h. Chlorpyrifos- and monocrotophos-treated termites showed, respectively, 97 and 88% reduction in locomotor behaviour (velocity) after 24 h. At all time intervals the chlorpyrifos-treated termites exhibited more AChE inhibition and showed greater distorted behaviour than those exposed to monocrotophos. In vitro studies indicated that the I50 value (50% inhibition) for chlorpyrifos against AChE was 8.75 times that of monocrotophos.

  4. Diplacodes lefebvrii in Sardinia, a new species for the Italian fauna (Odonata: Libellulidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Rattu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Diplacodes lefebvrii (Rambur, 1842 is a libellulid dragonfly, which is common and widespread in Africa and across the Indian Ocean. While this species is fairly common in the south and east of the Mediterranean, its European range is confined to Cyprus, the island of Rhodes and the south of the Iberian Peninsula. Here we report the first record of D. lefebvrii for Italy, which was captured near Cagliari (Sardinia on 11.IX.2013. In October 2014, a population of the same species was observed at a small wetland on the island “Isola di San Pietro” (Sardinia. Here the observed sex ratio of D. lefebvrii was strongly biased in favour of females and only a single male was observed.

  5. Nuevos registros de Odonata y Ephemeroptera para el noroeste de Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José S. RODRÍGUEZ

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan nuevos registros de 14 especies de Odonata y dos especies de Ephemeroptera, incluyendo dos registros nuevos de Argentina: Nephepeltia leonardina Rácenis (Anisoptera: Libellulidae y Alloretochus peruanicus (Soldán (Ephemeroptera: Caenidae. Las distribuciones de Aphylla theodorina (Navás (Anisoptera: Gomphidae y Caenis tenella (Navás (Ephemeroptera: Caenidae se extienden hasta las Yungas (ambas previamente conocidas para el NE de Argentina. También se presentan nuevos registros geográficos de: Neoneura confundens Wasscher & Van’t Bosch (Coenagrionidae; Anax amazili (Burmeister (Aeshnidae; Brachymesia furcata (Hagen, Erythemis plebeja (Burmeister, Erythrodiplax melanorubra Borror, E. nigricans (Rambur, Macrothemis imitans imitans Karsch, M. musiva Calvert, Miathyria marcella (Selys y Micrathyria hesperis Ris (Libellulidae; Progomphus complicatus Selys y Progomphus joergenseni Ris (Gomphidae.

  6. Abundance and diversity of Odonata in temporary water bodies of Coimbatore and Salem districts in Tamil Nadu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Arulprakash

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Odonata diversity was assessed in 13 temporary water bodies of Coimbatore and Salem districts in Tamil Nadu. Assessment revealed the presence of 21 species of Odonata (14 species of Anisoptera and seven species of Zygoptera belonging to 17 genera under four families. Libellulidae (Anisoptera was represented by the maximum number of species and individuals. Pantala flavescens (Libellulidae was the most abundant among 21 species. Among the temporary water bodies, the maximum number of individuals as well as species was recorded from Utkulam tank (Coimbatore district. Odonata diversity was higher in Kamalapuram tanks 1 and 2 (Salem district and lower in Ukkadam tank (Coimbatore District. Diplacodes trivialis (Rambur, Orthetrum sabina (Drury and Pantala flavescens (Fabricius were identified as temporary water body specialists because of their presence in all the 13 temporary water bodies sampled.

  7. Odonate Diversity of Manjeera Wildlife Sanctuary with notes on Female Polymorphism of Neurothemis tullia (Drury, 1773 (Odonata: Libellulidae and Some Species Hitherto Unreported From Andhra Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kante Krishna Prasad

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A total of 28 species of odonates, including 18 species of dragonflies (Suborder Anisoptera belonging to 3 families and 10 species of damselflies (Suborder Zygoptera belonging to two families were recorded from the Manjeera Wildlife Sanctuary between December 2010 to October 2012. The highest diversity of odonates was that of family Libellulidae (50%, followed by Coenagrionidae (32.14%, Aeshnidae (10.71%, Gomphidae (3.57% and Platycnemididae (3.57%. Four taxa, namely - Anaciaeschna jaspidea (Burmeister, 1839, Coenagrion dyeri (Fraser, 1924, Pseudagrion decorum (Rambur, 1842 and Rhodischnura nursei (Morton, 1907 are reported for the first time from Andhra Pradesh. We are also reporting for the first time the female polymorphism of Neurothemis tullia (Drury, 1773 (Anisoptera; Libellulidae from the Manjeera Wildlife Sanctuary, Medak District, Andhra Pradesh.

  8. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) Observation on the Penis of 12 Species of Dragonflies%十二种蜻蜓阳茎的扫描电镜观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩凤英

    2000-01-01

    应用扫描电子显微镜和光学体现显微镜研究了蜻科12属12种的阳茎.这12种蜻蜓分别是:异色多纹蜻DeieliaphaonSelys,玉带蜻PseudothemiszonataBurmeister,黄翅蜻BrvachythemiscontamtnataFabricius,斜痣蜻TrameavirginiaRamber,晓褐蜻TrithemisauroraBurmeister,锥腹蜻AcisomapanorpoidesRambur,小斑蜻LibellulaquadrimaculataLinnaeus,六斑曲缘蜻Palpopleurasex-maculataFabricius,黄蜻PantalaflavescensFabricius,黑丽翅蜻RhyothemisfulignosaSelys,红蜻Crocothemisservilia,Drury,蓝额疏脉蜻BrachydiplaxchalybeaBrauer.另外还同赤蜻属Sympetrum及灰蜻属OrtAetrum作了比较,发现属间均有明显差异.

  9. Differential responses of cryptic bat species to the urban landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lintott, Paul R; Barlow, Kate; Bunnefeld, Nils; Briggs, Philip; Gajas Roig, Clara; Park, Kirsty J

    2016-04-01

    Urbanization is a key global driver in the modification of land use and has been linked to population declines even in widespread and relatively common species. Cities comprise a complex assortment of habitat types yet we know relatively little about the effects of their composition and spatial configuration on species distribution. Although many bat species exploit human resources, the majority of species are negatively impacted by urbanization. Here, we use data from the National Bat Monitoring Programme, a long-running citizen science scheme, to assess how two cryptic European bat species respond to the urban landscape. A total of 124 × 1 km(2) sites throughout Britain were surveyed. The landscape surrounding each site was mapped and classified into discrete biotope types (e.g., woodland). Generalized linear models were used to assess differences in the response to the urban environment between the two species, and which landscape factors were associated with the distributions of P. pipistrellus and P. pygmaeus. The relative prevalence of P. pygmaeus compared to P. pipistrellus was greater in urban landscapes with a higher density of rivers and lakes, whereas P. pipistrellus was frequently detected in landscapes comprising a high proportion of green space (e.g., parklands). Although P. pipistrellus is thought to be well adapted to the urban landscape, we found a strong negative response to urbanization at a relatively local scale (1 km), whilst P. pygmaeus was detected more regularly in wooded urban landscapes containing freshwater. These results show differential habitat use at a landscape scale of two morphologically similar species, indicating that cryptic species may respond differently to anthropogenic disturbance. Even species considered relatively common and well adapted to the urban landscape may respond negatively to the built environment highlighting the future challenges involved in maintaining biodiversity within an increasingly urbanized

  10. New records of Helophoridae, Hydrochidae, and Hydrophilidae (Coleoptera) from New Brunswick, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Reginald P.; Sweeney, Jon D.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The following three species of Helophoridae are newly recorded for New Brunswick, Canada: Helophorus (Kyphohelophorus) turberculatus Gyllenhal, Helophorus (Rhopaleloporus) oblongus LeConte, Helophorus (Rhopaleloporus) marginicollis Smetana. Hydrochus subcupreus Randall, family Hydrochidae, and the following 15 species of Hydrophilidae are newly reported for the province: Berosus fraternus LeConte, Berosus peregrinus (Herbst), Berosus sayi Hansen, Paracymus despectus (LeConte), Chaetarthria atra (LeConte), Cymbiodyta acuminata Fall, Cymbiodyta blanchardi Horn, Cymbiodyta minima Notman, Enochrus (Lumetus) hamiltoni Horn, Enochrus (Methydrus) consors (LeConte), Enochrus (Methydrus) consortus Green, Enochrus (Methydrus) pygmaeus nebulosus (Say), Cercyon (Cercyon) cinctus Smetana, Cercyon (Cercyon) herceus frigidus Smetana, Cercyon (Dicyrtocercyon) ustulatus (Preyssler). PMID:27110166

  11. UniProt search blastx result: AK289220 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK289220 J100065H20 Q5RB02|CATC_PONPY Dipeptidyl-peptidase 1 precursor (EC 3.4.14.1) (Dipeptidyl-pep...tidase I) (DPP-I) (DPPI) (Cathepsin C) (Cathepsin J) (Dipeptidyl transferase) [Contains: Dipeptidyl-pep...tidase 1 exclusion domain chain (Dipeptidyl-peptidase I exclusion domain chain); Dipeptidyl-pept...idase 1 heavy chain (Dipeptidyl-peptidase I heavy chain); Dipeptidyl-peptidase 1 light chain (Dipep...tidyl-peptidase I light chain)] - Pongo pygmaeus (Orangutan) 4.00E-22 ...

  12. Brackish-water submergence of the common periwinkle, Littorina littorea, and its digenean parasites in the Baltic Sea and in the Kattegat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauckner, G.

    1984-03-01

    North Sea and Baltic Sea populations of Littorina littorea differ with respect to their vertical distribution. In the North Sea L. littorea is strictly intertidal while in the Baltic Sea maximum population densities occur in the sublittoral. Levels of infestation with larval digenetic trematodes diminish qualitatively (number of species recorded) and quantitatively (number of hosts infested) with decreasing salinity. Both the host and two parasite species — Cryptocotyle lingua and Microphallus pygmaeus — display ‘brackish-water submergence’ under conditions of reduced surface salinity.

  13. Differential responses to woodland character and landscape context by cryptic bats in urban environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul R Lintott

    Full Text Available Urbanisation is one of the most dramatic forms of land use change which relatively few species can adapt to. Determining how and why species respond differently to urban habitats is important in predicting future biodiversity loss as urban areas rapidly expand. Understanding how morphological or behavioural traits can influence species adaptability to the built environment may enable us to improve the effectiveness of conservation efforts. Although many bat species are able to exploit human resources, bat species richness generally declines with increasing urbanisation and there is considerable variation in the responses of different bat species to urbanisation. Here, we use acoustic recordings from two cryptic, and largely sympatric European bat species to assess differential responses in their use of fragmented urban woodland and the surrounding urban matrix. There was a high probability of P. pygmaeus activity relative to P. pipistrellus in woodlands with low clutter and understory cover which were surrounded by low levels of built environment. Additionally, the probability of recording P. pygmaeus relative to P. pipistrellus was considerably higher in urban woodland interior or edge habitat in contrast to urban grey or non-wooded green space. These results show differential habitat use occurring between two morphologically similar species; whilst the underlying mechanism for this partitioning is unknown it may be driven by competition avoidance over foraging resources. Their differing response to urbanisation indicates the difficulties involved when attempting to assess how adaptable a species is to urbanisation for conservation purposes.

  14. Upper respiratory tract disease in captive orangutans (Pongo sp.): prevalence in 20 European zoos and predisposing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, N; Pirovino, M; Zingg, R; Clauss, M; Kaup, F J; Heistermann, M; Hatt, J M; Steinmetz, H W

    2011-12-01

    Upper respiratory tract disease (URTD) is a significant cause of morbidity in captive orangutans (Pongo abelii, Pongo pygmaeus), and the pathogenesis is often unknown.  The prevalence of respiratory disease in captive European orangutans (201 animals; 20 zoos) and possible predisposing factors were investigated. Bornean orangutans (P. pygmaeus) showed chronic respiratory signs significantly more often (13.8%) than Sumatran (P. abelii; 3.6%), and males (15.8%) were more often afflicted than females (3.9%). Hand-reared animals (21%) developed air sacculitis more often than parent-reared animals (5%). Diseased animals were more often genetically related to animals with respiratory diseases (93%) than to healthy animals (54%). None of the environmental conditions investigated had a significant effect on disease prevalence. Results suggest a higher importance of individual factors for the development of URTD than environmental conditions. Bornean, male and hand-reared orangutans and animals related to diseased animals need increased medical surveillance for early detection of respiratory disease. © 2011 University of Zurich.

  15. Do nymphs and adults of three Neotropical zoophytophagous mirids damage leaves and fruits of tomato?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, D B; Bueno, V H P; Calvo, F J; van Lenteren, J C

    2017-04-01

    The predators Macrolophus basicornis (Stal), Engytatus varians (Distant) and Campyloneuropsis infumatus (Carvalho) consume large numbers of tomato pests such as Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) and Tuta absoluta (Meyrick). However, they are zoophytophagous and feed on plant parts as well. We evaluated the type and effect of injury caused by nymphs and adults of these mirids on tomato seedlings and fruit in the absence of prey. For each mirid species, seedlings were exposed to groups of 20 nymphs or adults for 72 h, and fruits were exposed for 48 h to groups of four nymphs or adults. Type and the number of injury on stems, petioles and leaflets of tomato seedlings and fruits were recorded after removal of insects. Nymphs and adults of these mirids caused necrotic rings on the leaflets, but no injury was observed on stem and petioles. The necrotic rings on leaflets consisted of blemishes, characterized by feeding punctures surrounded by a yellowish, bleached area. The number of necrotic rings did not exceed one per individual mirid and seedlings developed normally. Nymphs also caused feeding punctures on tomato fruit, but in even lower numbers than on leaflets. Two weeks after the start of the experiment the tomato fruit still looked fresh and feeding punctures had disappeared. Adults did not cause any injury to tomato fruit. The results indicate that nymphs and adults of these zoophytophagous mirids cause little injury to tomato seedlings and fruit, even when present in high densities and in the absence of prey, making them interesting candidates for biological control.

  16. Phylogeny of the higher Libelluloidea (Anisoptera: Odonata): an exploration of the most speciose superfamily of dragonflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, Jessica; May, Michael; Kjer, Karl

    2007-10-01

    Although libelluloid dragonflies are diverse, numerous, and commonly observed and studied, their phylogenetic history is uncertain. Over 150 years of taxonomic study of Libelluloidea Rambur, 1842, beginning with Hagen (1840), [Rambur, M.P., 1842. Neuropteres. Histoire naturelle des Insectes, Paris, pp. 534; Hagen, H., 1840. Synonymia Libellularum Europaearum. Dissertation inaugularis quam consensu et auctoritate gratiosi medicorum ordinis in academia albertina ad summos in medicina et chirurgia honores.] and Selys (1850), [de Selys Longchamps, E., 1850. Revue des Odonates ou Libellules d'Europe [avec la collaboration de H.A. Hagen]. Muquardt, Bruxelles; Leipzig, 1-408.], has failed to produce a consensus about family and subfamily relationships. The present study provides a well-substantiated phylogeny of the Libelluloidea generated from gene fragments of two independent genes, the 16S and 28S ribosomal RNA (rRNA), and using models that take into account non-independence of correlated rRNA sites. Ninety-three ingroup taxa and six outgroup taxa were amplified for the 28S fragment; 78 ingroup taxa and five outgroup taxa were amplified for the 16S fragment. Bayesian, likelihood and parsimony analyses of the combined data produce well-resolved phylogenetic hypotheses and several previously suggested monophyletic groups were supported by each analysis. Macromiinae, Corduliidae s. s., and Libellulidae are each monophyletic. The corduliid (s.l.) subfamilies Synthemistinae, Gomphomacromiinae, and Idionychinae form a monophyletic group, separate from the Corduliinae. Libellulidae comprises three previously accepted subfamilies (Urothemistinae, a very restricted Tetrathemistinae, and a modified Libellulinae) and five additional consistently recovered groups. None of the other previously proposed subfamilies are supported. Bayesian analyses run with an additional 71 sequences obtained from GenBank did not alter our conclusions. The evolution of adult and larval morphological

  17. New records for the Kosovo caddisfly fauna with the description of a new species, Drusus dardanicus sp. nov. (Trichoptera: Limnephilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahimi, Halil; Kučinić, Mladen; Vitecek, Simon; Waringer, Johann; Graf, Wolfram; Previšić, Ana; Bálint, Miklós; Keresztes, Lujza; Pauls, Steffen U

    2015-10-20

    The Balkan Peninsula is one of the most important European hotspots of freshwater biodiversity. The region is, however, to a large extent insufficiently investigated. Here we present data on distribution of caddisflies in one particularly understudied area, the Republic of Kosovo. Our data include the first records of Adicella altandroconia Botosaneanu & Novak and Halesus tessellatus (Rambur) for the Kosovo caddisfly fauna, and a new locality for the recently described Ecclisopteryx keroveci Previšić, Graf, & Vitecek. Further, we describe the new caddisfly species Drusus dardanicus sp. nov. from the Kopaonik Mountains. The new species belongs to the D. discophorus Species Group and differs morphologically from its most similar congeners (D. discophorus Radovanović, D. balcanicus Kumanski, and D. bureschi Kumanski) mainly in exhibiting (1) subtrianglar superior appendages; (2) a narrow, dorsal spinate area of tergite VIII; and (3) evenly rounded tips of intermediate appendages in caudal view. In phylogenetic analysis, D. dardanicus sp. nov. is well delineated and recovered as a sister taxon to D. osogovicus Kumanski, a species recorded from Bulgaria. The recent discovery of a new species and other rare or microendemic species presents important contributions to the knowledge on the rich freshwater biodiversity in Kosovo. These species face increasing anthropogenic pressure and threats to their conservation.

  18. Laboratory and field evaluation of Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae for controlling subterranean termites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, A; Ahmed, S; Shahid, M

    2011-01-01

    The efficacy of the Metarhizium anisopliae strain ARSEF 6911 was determined in the laboratory and field against two sugarcane pests, Microtermes obesi Holmgren and Odontotermes obesus Rambur (Termitidae: Isoptera). The susceptibility of both termite species to different conidial suspensions (1 × 10(10), 1 × 10(8), 1 × 10(6) and 1 × 10(4) conidia/ml) was determined in laboratory. All conidial suspensions were able to induce mortality. Termite mortality caused by the fungal suspensions was dose dependent. There were no significant differences in the LT50 values between species. Field evaluation of M. anisopliae alone or in combination with diesel oil and thiamethoxam was carried out in two growing seasons (autumn 2005 and spring 2006) at two sites located in Punjab, Pakistan. Dipping the sugarcane setts in these suspensions was tried to determine their effects on germination and percentage of bud damage to sugarcane setts. All treatments significantly reduced termite infestation compared to the untreated control. The combined treatment of M. anisopliae and diesel oil significantly reduced insect damage by attaining higher germination > 55% and lower bud damage < 5.50% at both sites in both seasons. The results suggest that the application of M. anisopliae and diesel oil in combination might be a useful treatment option for the management of termites in sugarcane.

  19. Levantamento de Odonata (Insecta ao longo das margens do Rio Dois de Setembro, Município de Ecoporanga, noroeste do Estado do Espírito Santo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivani Vieira Damaceno

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available É apresentado um levantamento das odonatas coletadas às margens do Rio Dois de Setembro, Município de Ecoporanga, noroeste do Estado do Espírito Santo. As coletas foram feitas de Junho de 2011 a Fevereiro de 2012, com auxílio de redes entomológicas aéreas, em cinco pontos ao longo das margens do rio, incluindo ambientes com distintos graus de antropização. Foram coletados 421 exemplares, representando 34 espécies. Dentre as espécies mais encontradiças estão Erythrodiplax basalis(Kirby, 1897; Erythrodiplax umbrata Linnaeus, 1758;Hetaerina auripennis (Burmeister, 1839; Perithemis lais(Perty, 1834. A ocorrência das seguintes espécies é registrada pela primeira vez para o Estado do Espírito Santo: Acanthagrion cuyabae Calvert, 1909; Enallagmanovaehispaniae Calvert, 1907; Lestes forficula Rambur, 1842.

  20. Physical and chemical properties of some imported woods and their degradation by termites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanbhag, Rashmi R; Sundararaj, R

    2013-01-01

    The influence of physical and chemical properties of 20 species of imported wood on degradation of the wood by termites under field conditions was studied. The wood species studied were: Sycamore maple, Acer pseudoplatanus L. (Sapindales: Sapindaceae) (from two countries), Camphor, Dryobalanops aromatic C.F.Gaertner (Malvales: Dipterocarpaceae), Beech, Fagus grandifolia Ehrhart (Fagales: Fagaceae), F. sylvatica L. (from two countries), Oak, Quercus robur L., Ash, Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl (Lamiales: Oleaceae), F. excelsior L., Padauk, Pterocarpus soyauxii Taubert (Fabales: Fabaceae), (from two countries), Jamba, Xylia dolabrifiormis Roxburgh, Shorea laevis Ridley (Malvales: Dipterocarpaceae), S. macoptera Dyer, S. robusta Roth, Teak, Tectona grandis L.f. (Lamiales: Lamiaceae) (from five countries), and rubber tree, Hevea brasiliensis Müller Argoviensis (Malpighiales: Euphorbiaceae) from India. The termites present were: Odontotermes horni (Wasmann) (Isoptera: Termitidae), O. feae, O. wallonensis, and O. obeus (Rambur). A significant conelation was found between density, cellulose, lignin, and total phenolic contents of the wood and degradation by termites. The higher the density of the wood, the lower the degradation. Similarly, higher amount of lignin and total phenolic contents ensured higher resistance, whereas cellulose drives the termites towards the wood.

  1. Integrative analyses unveil speciation linked to host plant shift in Spialia butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Roldán, Juan L; Dapporto, Leonardo; Dincă, Vlad; Vicente, Juan C; Hornett, Emily A; Šíchová, Jindra; Lukhtanov, Vladimir A; Talavera, Gerard; Vila, Roger

    2016-09-01

    Discovering cryptic species in well-studied areas and taxonomic groups can have profound implications in understanding eco-evolutionary processes and in nature conservation because such groups often involve research models and act as flagship taxa for nature management. In this study, we use an array of techniques to study the butterflies in the Spialia sertorius species group (Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae). The integration of genetic, chemical, cytogenetic, morphological, ecological and microbiological data indicates that the sertorius species complex includes at least five species that differentiated during the last three million years. As a result, we propose the restitution of the species status for two taxa often treated as subspecies, Spialia ali (Oberthür, 1881) stat. rest. and Spialia therapne (Rambur, 1832) stat. rest., and describe a new cryptic species Spialia rosae Hernández-Roldán, Dapporto, Dincă, Vicente & Vila sp. nov. Spialia sertorius (Hoffmannsegg, 1804) and S. rosae are sympatric and synmorphic, but show constant differences in mitochondrial DNA, chemical profiles and ecology, suggesting that S. rosae represents a case of ecological speciation involving larval host plant and altitudinal shift, and apparently associated with Wolbachia infection. This study exemplifies how a multidisciplinary approach can reveal elusive cases of hidden diversity.

  2. A survey of scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea occurring on olives in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rramzi Mansour

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A survey performed in 2009 within 52 Tunisian olive groves, located in 17 different olive-growing sites, revealed the occurrence of six scale insects on olives. The identified species were: the armoured scales Aspidiotus nerii Bouché, Lepidosaphes ulmi (L., and Parlatoria oleae (Colvée, the soft scales Saissetia oleae (Olivier and Filippia follicularis (Targioni Tozzetti and the mealybug species Peliococcus cycliger (Leonardi. The soft scale F. follicularis is a new record for the Tunisian insect fauna. A mong these species, S. oleae was the predominant scale insect occurring throughout olive groves of northeastern Tunisia, whereas the mealybug P. cycliger was by far the most abundant species within olives groves of the Northwest region of Tunisia. However, P. oleae was the least abundant species, being present in only one olive-growing site in northeastern Tunisia. L arvae of the noctuid moth Eublemma scitula (Rambur were reported feeding on S. oleae and the coccinellid Chilocorus bipustulatus L . was found feeding on both S. oleae and A. nerii. The two hymenopteran species Scutellista cyanea Motschulsky and Metaphycus spp. were recorded as the main parasitoids of S. oleae.

  3. Laboratory and field evaluation of Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae for controlling subterranean termites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussain, A. [South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou (China). College of Natural Resources and Environment; Ahmed, S. [South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou (China). Dept. of Agricultural Entomology; Shahid, M., E-mail: solvia_aah@yahoo.co [University of Agriculture, Faisalabad (Pakistan). Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry

    2011-03-15

    The efficacy of the Metarhizium anisopliae strain ARSEF 6911 was determined in the laboratory and field against two sugarcane pests, Microtermes obesi Holmgren and Odontotermes obesus Rambur (Termitidae: Isoptera). The susceptibility of both termite species to different conidial suspensions (1 x 10{sup 10}, 1 x 10{sup 8}, 1 x 10{sup 6} and 1 x 10{sup 4} conidia/ml) was determined in laboratory. All conidial suspensions were able to induce mortality. Termite mortality caused by the fungal suspensions was dose dependent. There were no significant differences in the LT{sub 50} values between species. Field evaluation of M. anisopliae alone or in combination with diesel oil and thyamethoxam was carried out in two growing seasons (autumn 2005 and spring 2006) at two sites located in Punjab, Pakistan. Dipping the sugarcane setts in these suspensions was tried to determine their effects on germination and percentage of bud damage to sugarcane setts. All treatments significantly reduced termite infestation compared to the untreated control. The combined treatment of M. anisopliae and diesel oil significantly reduced insect damage by attaining higher germination > 55% and lower bud damage < 5.50% at both sites in both seasons. The results suggest that the application of M. anisopliae and diesel oil in combination might be a useful treatment option for the management of termites in sugarcane. (author)

  4. 茂兰喀斯特森林溪流蜻蜓目昆虫资源调查初报%Odonata in Stream of Maolan Karst Forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    兰洪波; 冉景丞

    2014-01-01

    通过调查和鉴定,从茂兰喀斯特森林溪流采集到蜻蜓63种,隶属11科,其中,蜻科25种,春蜓科4种,蟌科7种,蜓科6种,扇蟌科5种,大蜻科2种,色蟌科3种,溪蟌科4种,丽蟌科2种,隼蟌科4种,山蟌科1种;跳长尾蜓、黑尾灰蜻、黑丽翅蜻、红痣绿色蟌、大溪蟌、点斑隼蟌、白腹小蟌属于贵州新记录种。%Based on investigations and identifications, 63 species of 11 families were found in Odonata of stream in Maolan karst forest, among which there were 25 Libellulidae, 4 Gomphidae, 7 Coenagriidae, 6 Aeshnidae Rambur, 5 Platyenemidi-dae, 2 Macromidae, 3 Agriidae, 4 Epallagidae, 2 Amphipterygidae, 4 Libellaginidae, 1 Megapodagriidae. There were new records of Guizhou in Gynacantha saltatrix,Orthetrum glaucum, Rhyothemis fuliginosa, Mnais earnshawi,Philoganga vetusta,Li-bellago lineata,Agriocnemis lacteola.

  5. Physical and Chemical Properties of Some Imported Woods and their Degradation by Termites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanbhag, Rashmi R.; Sundararaj, R.

    2013-01-01

    The influence of physical and chemical properties of 20 species of imported wood on degradation of the wood by termites under field conditions was studied. The wood species studied were: Sycamore maple, Acer pseudoplatanus L. (Sapindales: Sapindaceae) (from two countries), Camphor, Dryobalanops aromatic C.F.Gaertner (Malvales: Dipterocarpaceae), Beech, Fagus grandifolia Ehrhart (Fagales: Fagaceae), F. sylvatica L. (from two countries), Oak, Quercus robur L., Ash, Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl (Lamiales: Oleaceae), F. excelsior L., Padauk, Pterocarpus soyauxii Taubert (Fabales: Fabaceae), (from two countries), Jamba, Xylia dolabrifiormis Roxburgh, Shorea laevis Ridley (Malvales: Dipterocarpaceae), S. macoptera Dyer, S. robusta Roth, Teak, Tectona grandis L.f. (Lamiales: Lamiaceae) (from five countries), and rubber tree, Hevea brasiliensis Müller Argoviensis (Malpighiales: Euphorbiaceae) from India. The termites present were: Odontotermes horni (Wasmann) (Isoptera: Termitidae), O. feae, O. wallonensis, and O. obeus (Rambur). A significant conelation was found between density, cellulose, lignin, and total phenolic contents of the wood and degradation by termites. The higher the density of the wood, the lower the degradation. Similarly, higher amount of lignin and total phenolic contents ensured higher resistance, whereas cellulose drives the termites towards the wood. PMID:23906349

  6. Unravelling the effects of contemporary and historical range expansion on the distribution of genetic diversity in the damselfly Coenagrion scitulum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaegers, J; Mergeay, J; Therry, L; Bonte, D; Larmuseau, M H D; Stoks, R

    2014-04-01

    Although genetic diversity provides the basic substrate for evolution, there are a limited number of studies that assess the impact of recent climate change on intraspecific genetic variation. This study aims to unravel the degree to which historical and contemporary factors shape genetic diversity and structure across a large part of the range of the range-expanding damselfly Coenagrion scitulum (Rambur, 1842). A total of 525 individuals from 31 populations were genotyped at nine microsatellites, and a subset was sequenced at two mitochondrial genes. We inferred the importance of geography, environmental factors, and recent range expansion on genetic diversity and structure. Genetic diversity decreased going westwards, suggesting a signature of historical post-glacial expansion from east to west and the presence of eastern refugia. Although genetic differentiation decreased going northwards, it increased in the northern edge populations, suggesting a role of contemporary range expansion on the genetic make-up of populations. The phylogeographical context was proven to be essential in understanding and identifying the genetic signatures of local contemporary processes. Within this framework, our results highlight that recent range expansion of a good disperser can decrease genetic diversity and increase genetic differentiation which should be considered when devising suitable conservation strategies.

  7. Primate phylogeny studied by comparative determinant analysis. A preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, K

    1993-01-01

    In this preliminary report the divergence times for the major primate groups are given, calculated from a study by comparative determinant analysis of 69 proteins (equaling 0.1% of the whole genetic information). With an origin of the primate order set at 80 million years before present, the ages of the last common ancestors (LCAs) of man and the major primate groups obtained this way are as follows: Pan troglodytes 5.2; Gorilla gorilla 7.4; Pongo pygmaeus 19.2; Hylobates lar 20.3; Old World monkeys 31.4; Lagothrix lagotricha 46.0; Cebus albifrons 59.5; three lemur species 67.0, and Galago crassicaudatus 73.3 million years. The LCA results and the approach are shortly discussed. A full account of this extended investigation including results on nonprimate mammals and on the determinant structures and the immunologically derived evolutionary rates of the proteins analyzed will be published elsewhere.

  8. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-GACU-07-0028 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-GACU-07-0028 ref|NP_071640.1| histamine receptor H2 [Homo sapiens] ref|NP_001009124.1| histamine...ptor (H2R) (Gastric receptor I) gb|AAA58647.1| histamine H2 receptor dbj|BAA08618.1| Human histamine H2 rece...ptor [Homo sapiens] dbj|BAA84279.1| histamine H2 receptor [Homo sapiens] dbj|BAA94469.1| histamine H2 recept...or [Homo sapiens] dbj|BAA94470.1| histamine H2 receptor [Pan troglodytes] dbj|BAA94471.1| histamine... H2 receptor [Gorilla gorilla] dbj|BAA94472.1| histamine H2 receptor [Pongo pygmaeus] gb|AAN01270.1| histamine

  9. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PABE-26-0353 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PABE-26-0353 ref|NP_071640.1| histamine receptor H2 [Homo sapiens] ref|NP_001009124.1| histamine...ptor (H2R) (Gastric receptor I) gb|AAA58647.1| histamine H2 receptor dbj|BAA08618.1| Human histamine H2 rece...ptor [Homo sapiens] dbj|BAA84279.1| histamine H2 receptor [Homo sapiens] dbj|BAA94469.1| histamine H2 recept...or [Homo sapiens] dbj|BAA94470.1| histamine H2 receptor [Pan troglodytes] dbj|BAA94471.1| histamine... H2 receptor [Gorilla gorilla] dbj|BAA94472.1| histamine H2 receptor [Pongo pygmaeus] gb|AAN01270.1| histamine

  10. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-CJAC-01-1608 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CJAC-01-1608 ref|NP_071640.1| histamine receptor H2 [Homo sapiens] ref|NP_001009124.1| histamine...ptor (H2R) (Gastric receptor I) gb|AAA58647.1| histamine H2 receptor dbj|BAA08618.1| Human histamine H2 rece...ptor [Homo sapiens] dbj|BAA84279.1| histamine H2 receptor [Homo sapiens] dbj|BAA94469.1| histamine H2 recept...or [Homo sapiens] dbj|BAA94470.1| histamine H2 receptor [Pan troglodytes] dbj|BAA94471.1| histamine... H2 receptor [Gorilla gorilla] dbj|BAA94472.1| histamine H2 receptor [Pongo pygmaeus] gb|AAN01270.1| histamine

  11. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TNIG-07-0012 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TNIG-07-0012 ref|NP_071640.1| histamine receptor H2 [Homo sapiens] ref|NP_001009124.1| histamine...ptor (H2R) (Gastric receptor I) gb|AAA58647.1| histamine H2 receptor dbj|BAA08618.1| Human histamine H2 rece...ptor [Homo sapiens] dbj|BAA84279.1| histamine H2 receptor [Homo sapiens] dbj|BAA94469.1| histamine H2 recept...or [Homo sapiens] dbj|BAA94470.1| histamine H2 receptor [Pan troglodytes] dbj|BAA94471.1| histamine... H2 receptor [Gorilla gorilla] dbj|BAA94472.1| histamine H2 receptor [Pongo pygmaeus] gb|AAN01270.1| histamine

  12. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PTRO-06-0048 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PTRO-06-0048 ref|NP_071640.1| histamine receptor H2 [Homo sapiens] ref|NP_001009124.1| histamine...ptor (H2R) (Gastric receptor I) gb|AAA58647.1| histamine H2 receptor dbj|BAA08618.1| Human histamine H2 rece...ptor [Homo sapiens] dbj|BAA84279.1| histamine H2 receptor [Homo sapiens] dbj|BAA94469.1| histamine H2 recept...or [Homo sapiens] dbj|BAA94470.1| histamine H2 receptor [Pan troglodytes] dbj|BAA94471.1| histamine... H2 receptor [Gorilla gorilla] dbj|BAA94472.1| histamine H2 receptor [Pongo pygmaeus] gb|AAN01270.1| histamine

  13. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OCUN-01-0233 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OCUN-01-0233 ref|NP_071640.1| histamine receptor H2 [Homo sapiens] ref|NP_001009124.1| histamine...ptor (H2R) (Gastric receptor I) gb|AAA58647.1| histamine H2 receptor dbj|BAA08618.1| Human histamine H2 rece...ptor [Homo sapiens] dbj|BAA84279.1| histamine H2 receptor [Homo sapiens] dbj|BAA94469.1| histamine H2 recept...or [Homo sapiens] dbj|BAA94470.1| histamine H2 receptor [Pan troglodytes] dbj|BAA94471.1| histamine... H2 receptor [Gorilla gorilla] dbj|BAA94472.1| histamine H2 receptor [Pongo pygmaeus] gb|AAN01270.1| histamine

  14. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PMAR-01-0423 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PMAR-01-0423 ref|NP_071640.1| histamine receptor H2 [Homo sapiens] ref|NP_001009124.1| histamine...ptor (H2R) (Gastric receptor I) gb|AAA58647.1| histamine H2 receptor dbj|BAA08618.1| Human histamine H2 rece...ptor [Homo sapiens] dbj|BAA84279.1| histamine H2 receptor [Homo sapiens] dbj|BAA94469.1| histamine H2 recept...or [Homo sapiens] dbj|BAA94470.1| histamine H2 receptor [Pan troglodytes] dbj|BAA94471.1| histamine... H2 receptor [Gorilla gorilla] dbj|BAA94472.1| histamine H2 receptor [Pongo pygmaeus] gb|AAN01270.1| histamine

  15. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MMUS-13-0101 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MMUS-13-0101 ref|NP_071640.1| histamine receptor H2 [Homo sapiens] ref|NP_001009124.1| histamine...ptor (H2R) (Gastric receptor I) gb|AAA58647.1| histamine H2 receptor dbj|BAA08618.1| Human histamine H2 rece...ptor [Homo sapiens] dbj|BAA84279.1| histamine H2 receptor [Homo sapiens] dbj|BAA94469.1| histamine H2 recept...or [Homo sapiens] dbj|BAA94470.1| histamine H2 receptor [Pan troglodytes] dbj|BAA94471.1| histamine... H2 receptor [Gorilla gorilla] dbj|BAA94472.1| histamine H2 receptor [Pongo pygmaeus] gb|AAN01270.1| histamine

  16. The bats (Chiroptera; Mammalia of Mordovia: specific structure and features of distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg N. Artaev

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the specific structure and distribution of the bats made in the territory of the Republic of Mordovia (Central Russia from the first half of the 20th century to the present. Occurence, relative abundance and patterns of distribution are briefly assessed for rare species. On this base, recommendations for inclusion these bats in the regional Red Data Book are presented. .In Mordovia twelve species of bats have been observed. There are widespread and numerous species: Pipistrellus nathusii, Myotis daubentonii, M. dasycneme, Nyctalus noctula and Vespertilio murinus. Widespread but less numerous species are: Myotis brandtii and Plecotus auritus. Finally, rare species are: Myotis nattereri, Nyctalus lasiopterus, N. leisleri, Pipistrellus pygmaeus and P. kuhlii.

  17. [The influence of the degree of infestation with trematode parthenites on the structure of penial glands in the mollusks Littorina saxatilis of different age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganzha, E V; Starunova, Z I

    2011-01-01

    Histological and confocal microscopy studies of the structure of penial glands in the Littorina saxatilis males were carried out. The examined mollusks belong to two age groups and were at different stages of spontaneous infection with a trematode from the pygmaeus species group (Microphallus piriformes). Based on comparative analysis of microscopic sections of copulative organs in infested and non-infested mollusks, data on the modifications in histological structure ofpenial glands were obtained. From these data we can suggest that the infestation have an influence on all parts of the gland. Decrease of secret production and reduction of muscular capsule (down to its disappearance) were observed. We suppose that changes in the penial glands structure prevent their normal functioning. In the mollusks infested on reaching the sexual maturity, gradual reduction of distal part of reproductive system was observed, while in the mollusks infested before the sexual maturity, development of ancillary part of reproductive system was blocked.

  18. Molecular systematics of higher primates: genealogical relations and classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, M M; Koop, B F; Slightom, J L; Goodman, M; Tennant, M R

    1988-01-01

    We obtained 5' and 3' flanking sequences (5.4 kilobase pairs) from the psi eta-globin gene region of the rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) and combined them with available nucleotide data. The completed sequence, representing 10.8 kilobase pairs of contiguous noncoding DNA, was compared to the same orthologous regions available for human (Homo sapiens, as represented by five different alleles), common chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), gorilla (Gorilla gorilla), and orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus). The nucleotide sequence for Macaca mulatta provided the outgroup perspective needed to evaluate better the relationships of humans and great apes. Pairwise comparisons and parsimony analysis of these orthologues clearly demonstrated (i) that humans and great apes share a high degree of genetic similarity and (ii) that humans, chimpanzees, and gorillas form a natural monophyletic group. These conclusions strongly favor a genealogical classification for higher primates consisting of a single family (Hominidae) with two subfamilies (Homininae for Homo, Pan, and Gorilla and Ponginae for Pongo). PMID:3174657

  19. Revision of the "euryglossiform" species of the Afrotropical bee genus Scrapter Lepeletier & Serville, 1828 (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Colletidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Kuhlmann

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The South African endemic bees of the "euryglossiform" species of the genus Scrapter Lepeletier & Serville, 1828 are revised and illustrated. The species-group is defined for the first time and comprises 20 species, 16 of which are described here as new: Scrapter exiguus sp. nov. ♀, ♂, S. gessorum sp. nov. ♀, S. inexpectatus sp. nov. ♀, S. luteistigma sp. nov. ♀, ♂, S. minutissimus sp. nov. ♂, S. minutuloides sp. nov. ♀, S. minutus sp. nov. ♀, S. nanus sp. nov. ♀, ♂, S. nigerrimus sp. nov. ♀, S. nigritarsis sp. nov. ♀, S. papkuilsi sp. nov. ♀, ♂, S. punctatus sp. nov. ♀, ♂, S. pygmaeus sp. nov. ♀, S. roggeveldi sp. nov. ♀, ♂, S. spinipes sp. nov. ♀, ♂ and S. ulrikae sp. nov. ♀, ♂. For S. acanthophorus Davies, 2005 and S. sittybon Davies, 2005 the female is here described for the first time. A key to all species is provided.

  20. Comparative cytogenetics of two of the smallest Amazonian fishes: Fluviphylax simplex Costa, 1996 and Fluviphylax zonatus Costa, 1996 (Cyprinodontiformes, Poeciliidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Souza

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Fluviphylax Whitley, 1965 is comprized of five valid species (F. pygmaeus Myers et Carvalho, 1955, F. zonatus, F. simplex, F. obscurus Costa, 1996, and F. palikur Costa et Le Bail, 1999, which are endemic to the Amazon region. These fishes are the smallest known South American vertebrates and among the smallest know vertebrates on Earth. All species but the type F. pygmaeus have been described in late 1990’s, and much remains unknown about the biology, taxonomy and systematics of this group of fishes. The aims of the present study were to establish the diploid and haploid number of F. zonatus and F. simplex, and to find species-specific markers for the discrimination of taxa. The diploid number for both species was 48 chromosomes, with no sex chromosome heteromorphism. Fluviphylax zonatus exhibited the karyotypic formula 4m+8sm+22st+14a and FN=82, and F. simplex exhibited 4m+16sm+18st+10a and FN=86. The determination of the total mean length of the chromosomes and their grouping into five size classes demonstrated different chromosome composition of the two species. This difference was further supported by the distribution of constitutive heterochromatin. The meiotic analysis revealed 24 bivalents in both species, but F. zonatus exhibited chromosomes with late pairing of the telomeric portions in the pachytene. These data reveal that cytogenetic characterization is useful and important for the discrimination of these species. Our study further indicates that this method could be employed in the analysis of other species of small fishes that are difficult to distinguish using traditional morphological traits or are morphologically cryptic.

  1. Y-Chromosome variation in hominids: intraspecific variation is limited to the polygamous chimpanzee.

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    Gabriele Greve

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We have previously demonstrated that the Y-specific ampliconic fertility genes DAZ (deleted in azoospermia and CDY (chromodomain protein Y varied with respect to copy number and position among chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes. In comparison, seven Y-chromosomal lineages of the bonobo (Pan paniscus, the chimpanzee's closest living relative, showed no variation. We extend our earlier comparative investigation to include an analysis of the intraspecific variation of these genes in gorillas (Gorilla gorilla and orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus, and examine the resulting patterns in the light of the species' markedly different social and mating behaviors. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis (FISH of DAZ and CDY in 12 Y-chromosomal lineages of western lowland gorilla (G. gorilla gorilla and a single lineage of the eastern lowland gorilla (G. beringei graueri showed no variation among lineages. Similar findings were noted for the 10 Y-chromosomal lineages examined in the Bornean orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus, and 11 Y-chromosomal lineages of the Sumatran orangutan (P. abelii. We validated the contrasting DAZ and CDY patterns using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR in chimpanzee and bonobo. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: High intraspecific variation in copy number and position of the DAZ and CDY genes is seen only in the chimpanzee. We hypothesize that this is best explained by sperm competition that results in the variant DAZ and CDY haplotypes detected in this species. In contrast, bonobos, gorillas and orangutans-species that are not subject to sperm competition-showed no intraspecific variation in DAZ and CDY suggesting that monoandry in gorillas, and preferential female mate choice in bonobos and orangutans, probably permitted the fixation of a single Y variant in each taxon. These data support the notion that the evolutionary history of a primate Y chromosome is not simply encrypted in its DNA

  2. Bayesian inference reveals ancient origin of simian foamy virus in orangutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Michael J C; Switzer, William M; Schillaci, Michael A; Klegarth, Amy R; Campbell, Ellsworth; Ragonnet, Manon; Joanisse, Isabelle; Caminiti, Kyna; Lowenberger, Carl A; Galdikas, Birute Mary F; Hollocher, Hope; Sandstrom, Paul A; Brooks, James I

    2017-03-05

    Simian foamy viruses (SFVs) infect most nonhuman primate species and appears to co-evolve with its hosts. This co-evolutionary signal is particularly strong among great apes, including orangutans (genus Pongo). Previous studies have identified three distinct orangutan SFV clades. The first of these three clades is composed of SFV from P. abelii from Sumatra, the second consists of SFV from P. pygmaeus from Borneo, while the third clade is mixed, comprising an SFV strain found in both species of orangutan. The existence of the mixed clade has been attributed to an expansion of P. pygmaeus into Sumatra following the Mount Toba super-volcanic eruption about 73,000years ago. Divergence dating, however, has yet to be performed to establish a temporal association with the Toba eruption. Here, we use a Bayesian framework and a relaxed molecular clock model with fossil calibrations to test the Toba hypothesis and to gain a more complete understanding of the evolutionary history of orangutan SFV. As with previous studies, our results show a similar three-clade orangutan SFV phylogeny, along with strong statistical support for SFV-host co-evolution in orangutans. Using Bayesian inference, we date the origin of orangutan SFV to >4.7 million years ago (mya), while the mixed species clade dates to approximately 1.7mya, >1.6 million years older than the Toba super-eruption. These results, combined with fossil and paleogeographic evidence, suggest that the origin of SFV in Sumatran and Bornean orangutans, including the mixed species clade, likely occurred on the mainland of Indo-China during the Late Pliocene and Calabrian stage of the Pleistocene, respectively.

  3. Forearm articular proportions and the antebrachial index in Homo sapiens, Australopithecus afarensis and the great apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Frank L'Engle; Cunningham, Deborah L; Amaral, Lia Q

    2015-12-01

    When hominin bipedality evolved, the forearms were free to adopt nonlocomotor tasks which may have resulted in changes to the articular surfaces of the ulna and the relative lengths of the forearm bones. Similarly, sex differences in forearm proportions may be more likely to emerge in bipeds than in the great apes given the locomotor constraints in Gorilla, Pan and Pongo. To test these assumptions, ulnar articular proportions and the antebrachial index (radius length/ulna length) in Homo sapiens (n=51), Gorilla gorilla (n=88), Pan troglodytes (n=49), Pongo pygmaeus (n=36) and Australopithecus afarensis A.L. 288-1 and A.L. 438-1 are compared. Intercept-adjusted ratios are used to control for size and minimize the effects of allometry. Canonical scores axes show that the proximally broad and elongated trochlear notch with respect to size in H. sapiens and A. afarensis is largely distinct from G. gorilla, P. troglodytes and P. pygmaeus. A cluster analysis of scaled ulnar articular dimensions groups H. sapiens males with A.L. 438-1 ulna length estimates, while one A.L. 288-1 ulna length estimate groups with Pan and another clusters most closely with H. sapiens, G. gorilla and A.L. 438-1. The relatively low antebrachial index characterizing H. sapiens and non-outlier estimates of A.L. 288-1 and A.L. 438-1 differs from those of the great apes. Unique sex differences in H. sapiens suggest a link between bipedality and forearm functional morphology.

  4. Y-Chromosome Variation in Hominids: Intraspecific Variation Is Limited to the Polygamous Chimpanzee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greve, Gabriele; Alechine, Evguenia; Pasantes, Juan J.; Hodler, Christine; Rietschel, Wolfram; Robinson, Terence J.; Schempp, Werner

    2011-01-01

    Background We have previously demonstrated that the Y-specific ampliconic fertility genes DAZ (deleted in azoospermia) and CDY (chromodomain protein Y) varied with respect to copy number and position among chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). In comparison, seven Y-chromosomal lineages of the bonobo (Pan paniscus), the chimpanzee's closest living relative, showed no variation. We extend our earlier comparative investigation to include an analysis of the intraspecific variation of these genes in gorillas (Gorilla gorilla) and orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus), and examine the resulting patterns in the light of the species' markedly different social and mating behaviors. Methodology/Principal Findings Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis (FISH) of DAZ and CDY in 12 Y-chromosomal lineages of western lowland gorilla (G. gorilla gorilla) and a single lineage of the eastern lowland gorilla (G. beringei graueri) showed no variation among lineages. Similar findings were noted for the 10 Y-chromosomal lineages examined in the Bornean orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus), and 11 Y-chromosomal lineages of the Sumatran orangutan (P. abelii). We validated the contrasting DAZ and CDY patterns using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in chimpanzee and bonobo. Conclusion/Significance High intraspecific variation in copy number and position of the DAZ and CDY genes is seen only in the chimpanzee. We hypothesize that this is best explained by sperm competition that results in the variant DAZ and CDY haplotypes detected in this species. In contrast, bonobos, gorillas and orangutans—species that are not subject to sperm competition—showed no intraspecific variation in DAZ and CDY suggesting that monoandry in gorillas, and preferential female mate choice in bonobos and orangutans, probably permitted the fixation of a single Y variant in each taxon. These data support the notion that the evolutionary history of a primate Y chromosome is not simply encrypted in its DNA

  5. Mitogenomics phylogenetic relationships of the current sloth's genera and species (Bradypodidae and Megalonychidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-García, Manuel; Chacón, Diego; Plese, Tinka; Schuler, Ingrid; Shostell, Joseph Mark

    2017-01-27

    We sequenced the complete mitogenome of 39 sloths (19 Bradypus variegatus, 4 B. tridactylus, 1 B. pygmaeus, 1 B. torquatus, 4 Choloepus didactylus, and 10 C. hoffmanni). A Bayesian tree (BI) indicated a temporal split between Bradypus and Choloepus around 31 million years ago (MYA, Oligocene) and the other major splits within each genera during the Miocene and Pliocene. A haplotype network (MJN) estimated a lower temporal split between the sloth genera (around 23.5 MYA). Both methods detected the ancestor of B. torquatus as the first to diverge within Bradypus (21 for BI and 19 MJN), followed by that of the ancestor of B. tridactylus. The split of B. pygmaeus from the common ancestor with B. variegatus was around 12 MYA (BI) or 4.3 MYA (MJN). The splits among the previous populations of B. variegatus began around 8 MYA (BI) or 3.6 MYA (MJN). The trans-Andean population was the first to diverge from the remaining cis-Andean populations of B. variegatus. The genetic differentiation of the trans-Andean B. variegatus population relative to the cis-Andean B. variegatus is similar to that found for different species of sloths. The mitogenomic analysis resolved the differentiation of C. hoffmanni from the C. didactylus individuals of the Guiana Shield. However, one C. didactylus from the Colombian Amazon specimen was inside the C. hoffmanni clade. This could be the first example of possible natural hybridization in the Amazon of both Choloepus taxa or the existence of un-differentiable phenotypes of these two species in some Amazonian areas.

  6. Phytotoxicity of tolylfluanid in tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gielen, S; Vogels, L; Seels, B; Aerts, R

    2006-01-01

    The use of Euparen Multi (tolylfluanid) for controlling Botrytis cinerea in tomatoes has been decreased the last decade for several reasons. Because of the lack of different fungicides with a good efficacy it is important that growers can use different fungicides to prevent development of resistance of Botrytis cinerea against many fungicides. Tolylfluanid has negative side effects on some insect populations that are used for biological control. It is known that Euparen Multi and Euparen can have a negative effect on some predatory mites (Schmidt and Zeller, 1998) such as Phytoseiulus persimilis and some parasitic wasps like Encarsia formosa, Eretmocerus eremicus, Diglyphus isaea and Dacnusa sibirica. Recently investigation indicates that this fungicide is harmless for the predatory bug Macrolophus caliginosus (Biobest, 2006) frequently used in the cultivation of tomatoes as a predator for whitefly (Trialeurodes vaporariorum). To investigate if tolylfluanid has a phytotoxic effect on tomato plants an experiment was performed. Young tomato plants were used, who are more sensitive. These plants were subdivided in different groups, from which each one was sprayed with a different concentration of tolylfluanid. The highest concentrations of tolylfluanid were used to stimulate the visibility of the possible phytotoxic effects. Results of this experiment demonstrate that there wasn't a difference between the different groups that were sprayed with tolylfluanid or the control group. This indicates that tolylfluanid doesn't seem to be phytotoxic. It is also important to mention that this experiment was done in the fall when the intensity of the sunlight was decreasing. There still exists the possibility that extreme irradiation in combination with tolylfluanid can provoke a phototoxic effect on young tomato plants.

  7. Compatibility among entomopathogenic hyphocreales and two beneficial insects used to control Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Hemiptera: Aleurodidae) in Mediterranean greenhouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdi, Faten; Fargues, Jacques; Ridray, Gilles; Jeannequin, Benoît; Bonato, Olivier

    2011-09-01

    The effect of the combined use of Encarsia formosa or Macrolophus caliginosus and one of three marketed mycoinsecticides, Mycotal® (Leucanicillium muscarium-based), Naturalis-L™ (Beauveria bassiana-based) and PreFeRal® (Isaria fumosorosea-based), on the control of the whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum, was studied under laboratory and greenhouse conditions. The results of both types of tests, the bioassays and the greenhouse trials, for all combinations of E. Formosa with each of the three mycoinsecticides showed that the total mortality of larval populations of T. vaporariorum was not affected. The mortality of T. vaporariorum larvae treated in the second instar revealed the capacity for both B. bassiana- and L. muscarium-based formulations and E. formosa to kill the host either separately or in association. Because of its higher pathogenic activity (under our test conditions), L. muscarium provoked a large proportion of mycoses in larvae exposed to parasitization. In contrast, the efficacy of parasitization was higher in larvae treated with B. bassiana and exposed to E. formosa because of a lower pathogenic activity of the fungus. Bioassays carried out with third-instar larvae of T. vaporariorum showed a low susceptibility to both tested fungi. Consequently, mortalities recorded in larvae subjected to the combined treatments by consecutive exposures or at 2-4 days post-parasitization were mainly caused by the development of the parasitoid. Greenhouse trials showed that fungus-induced mortality of T. vaporariorum in plants treated with L. muscarium, I. fumosorosea, and B. Bassiana was significant compare to control. L. muscarium, B. bassiana and I. fumosorosea killed young whitefly larvae and limited parasitization to 10% or less. Second-instar larvae of M. caliginosus were not susceptible to L. muscarium and B. bassiana formulations with any mode of contamination: direct spraying of larvae, spraying on the foliar substrate or by contaminated T. vaporariorum

  8. Nuevas citas y ampliación de la distribución conocida de Ropalóceros en la Comunidad Valenciana y provincia de Teruel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montagud, S.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors summarize data for 18 species of Rhopalocera to complete knowledge of their distribution and biology in Comunidad Valenciana and Teruel province. These species have been selected for two reasons: 1 Danaus plexippus (Linnaeus, 1758, Erebia meolans (de Prunner, 1798, Polyommatus (Meleageria daphnis (Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775, Laeosopis roboris (Esper, 1789, Nordmannia acaciae (Fabricius, 1787 and Plebeius hespericus (Rambur, 1839 are new records for Comunidad Valenciana and 2 Euchloe belemia (Esper, 1800, Pieris mannii (Mayer, 1851, Zegris eupheme (Esper, 1804, Colotis evagore (Klug, 1829, Aporia crataegi (Linnaeus 1758, Erebia epistygne (Hübner, 1819, Melitaea cinxia (Linnaeus, 1758, Libythea celtis (Laicharting, 1782, Glaucopsyche (Iolana iolas (Ochsenheimer, 1816, Scolitantides orion (Pallas, 1771, Neozephyrus quercus (Linnaeus, 1758 and Plebeius (Aricia morronensis Ribbe, 1910, for these species, known distribution is considerably extended and interesting data about their biology are provided.

    Se aporta información sobre 18 especies de ropalóceros presentes en la Comunidad Valenciana y provincia de Teruel. Algunas de estas especies se dan a conocer por vez primera de esta región, como es el caso de Danaus plexippus (Linnaeus, 1758, Erebia meolans (de Prunner, 1798, Polyommatus (Meleageria daphnis (Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775, Laeosopis roboris (Esper, 1789, Nordmannia acaciae (Fabricius, 1787 y Plebeius hespericus (Rambur, 1839. Para el resto se amplía considerablemente su distribución conocida y/o se acompaña de algunos comentarios de interés sobre su biología: Euchloe belemia (Esper, 1800, Pieris mannii (Mayer, 1851, Zegris eupheme (Esper, 1804, Colotis evagore (Klug, 1829, Aporia crataegi (Linnaeus 1758,

  9. Summary on the family Platycnemididae study (Odonata,Zygoptera) in China%中国扇蟌科蜻蜓研究现状--蜻蜓目:均翅亚目

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万永勤; 张宏杰

    2016-01-01

    The family of Platycnemididae is a species relatively few in number.The researchers can only rely on identification and classification of the morphological features to conduct relevant studies.This paper has overviewed the research history and domestic research status of Platycnemididae,as well as the classification errors or disputes.The paper proposed that Platycnemis pierrati Navas,Copera.tokyoensis Asahina and Platyc-nemis.foliosa Navas is the junior synonym of Copera.marginipes Rambur,Copera.rubripes Navas and Platyc-nemis.foliacea Selys,respectively.The classification of Coeliccia cyanomelas Ris,Coeliccia didyma Selys,and C.sexmaculatus Wang should be promoted for further study.%扇蟌科是蜻蜓目均翅亚目的一个种类相对较少的科,主要依赖形态学特征分类方法进行鉴定分类研究。综述了扇蟌科蜻蜓研究历史和国内研究现状,对文献中提出的分类错误或争议问题进行了归纳整理:Platycnemis pierrati Navas、东京狭扇蟌( Copera.tokyoensis Asahi-na)和Platycnemis.foliosa Navas分别是黄狭扇蟌( Copera.marginipes Rambur)、黑狭扇蟌( Cop-era.rubripes Navas )和白扇蟌( Platycnemis.foliacea Selys )的次定同物异名;黄纹长腹扇蟌( Coeliccia cyanomelas Ris)、四斑长腹扇蟌( C.didyma Selys)以及六斑长腹扇蟌( C.sexmaculatus Wang)分类问题需进一步研究。

  10. The distribution of dragonfly larvae in a South Carolina stream: relationships with sediment type, body size, and the presence of other larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthen, Wade B; Horacek, Henry Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Dragonfly larvae were sampled in Little Creek, Greenville, SC. The distributions of five common species were described relative to sediment type, body size, and the presence of other larvae. In total, 337 quadrats (1 m by 0.5 m) were sampled by kick seine. For each quadrat, the substrate was classified as sand, sand-cobble mix, cobble, coarse, or rock, and water depth and distance from bank were measured. Larvae were identified to species, and the lengths of the body, head, and metafemur were measured. Species were distributed differently across sediment types: sanddragons, Progomphus obscurus (Rambur) (Odonata: Gomphidae), were common in sand; twin-spotted spiketails, Cordulegaster maculata Selys (Odonata: Cordulegastridae), preferred a sand-cobble mix; Maine snaketails, Ophiogomphus mainensis Packard (Odonata: Gomphidae), preferred cobble and coarse sediments; fawn darners, Boyeria vinosa (Say) (Odonata: Aeshnidae), preferred coarse sediments; and Eastern least clubtails, Stylogomphus albistylus (Hagen) (Odonata: Gomphidae), preferred coarse and rock sediments. P. obscurus and C. maculata co-occurred more frequently than expected by chance, as did O. mainensis, B. vinosa, and S. albistylus. Mean size varied among species, and species preferences contributed to differences in mean size across sediment types. There were significant negative associations among larval size classes: small larvae (15 mm) than expected by chance, and large larvae were alone in quadrats more frequently than other size classes. Species may select habitats at a large scale based on sediment type and their functional morphology, but small scale distributions are consistent with competitive displacement or intraguild predation.

  11. Nannophya pygmaea (Odonata: Libellulidae), an endangered dragonfly in Korea, prefers abandoned paddy fields in the early seral stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jihyun; Nam, Jong Min; Kim, Heungtae; Bae, Yeon Jae; Kim, Jae Geun

    2010-04-01

    To characterize habitats of Nannophya pygmaea Rambur (the northern pygmyfly; Odonata: Lilbellulidae), which is endangered in Korea, we analyzed characteristics of surface water and soil, landscape properties, and vegetation types in 22 habitats in eight areas of Korea where nymphs of N. pygmaea have been found since 2005. We divided the habitats into two groups: DS (dwelling site) habitats, where N. pygmaea was observed at the time of the study, and PDS (past dwelling site) habitats, where N. pygmaea recently lived but is no longer found. The habitats were mostly located in former paddy fields on mountain slopes that have been abandoned for 3-7 yr. The main water sources for these habitats were ground water and surface runoff, and the water level was stable at 3-7 cm in depth. The habitats ranged from 300 to 1000 m(2) and were dominated by Juncus effusus, which formed tussock mounds. According to the hydrosere model of succession, N. pygmaea appeared mostly in the early stages of plant succession (the period approximately 3-7 yr after the initiation of succession in former paddy fields) and N. pygmaea preferred habitats displaying the water and soil characteristics that are typical of the early stages of succession in abandoned paddy fields. These results indicate that the primary habitats of N. pygmaea in Korea are recently abandoned paddy fields that are in an oligotrophic state. As succession proceeds in these habitats, N. pygmaea disappears. A habitat management program should be launched to conserve the habitats and populations of N. pygmaea.

  12. 巨猿、化石人和智人牙齿的波动不对称:人类进化中压力源变化的意义%Fluctuating Dental Asymmetry in Great Apes, Fossil Hominins, and Modern Humans: Implications for Changing Stressors during Human Evolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael J. Frederick; Gordon G. Gallup, Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Fluctuating asymmetry (FA), defined by random, stress-induced deviations from perfect bilateral symmetry, is an indication of the inability to buffer against developmental disturbances, such as poor early nutrition. One method of measuring FA involves comparing individual tooth sizes on opposing sides of the mouth. In this study tooth measurements were compiled for 296 individuals from 10 species, including chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes),orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus), gorillas (Gorilla gorilla), modern humans (Homo sapiens), and a number of fossil hominins. The orangutan sample had significantly lower levels of dental FA than the gorilla, chimpanzee, Homo erectus, neandertal, or modern human samples. In contrast, the human and neandertal samples had significantly higher dental FA levels than any of the great ape samples. Some explanations relating to relaxed selection pressures are suggested.%波动不对称(FA)是压力的随机性引发双侧完美对称偏离的现象,这是个体无力免受发展中不利因素(如早期营养不良)侵害的一个标志.比较个体口腔两侧牙齿的大小是一种测量FA的方法.本研究汇集了10个物种共296名个体的牙齿测量结果,测量对象包括黑猩猩(学名Pan troglodytes)、猩猩(学名Pongo pygmaeus)、大猩猩(学名Gorilla gorilla)、智人(学名Homo sapiens),以及许多化石人.分析发现,猩猩样本牙齿的FA水平要显著低于大猩猩、黑猩猩、直立人、尼安德特人和智人样本的FA水平.而与之相反的是,智人与尼安德特人样本的牙齿FA水平要显著高于其它任何一种巨猿样本的FA水平.该文提出了有关缓和的选择压力的解释.

  13. Impact of trematode parasitism on the fauna of a North Sea tidal flat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauckner, G.

    1984-03-01

    The impact of larval trematodes on the fauna of a North Sea tidal flat is considered at the individual and at the population level, depicting the digenean parasites of the common periwinkle, Littorina littorea, and their life cycles, as an example. On the German North Sea coast, L. littorea is first intermediate host for 6 larval trematodes representing 6 digenean families — Cryptocotyle lingua (Heterophyidae), Himasthla elongata (Echinostomatidae), Renicola roscovita (Renicolidae), Microphallus pygmaeus (Microphallidae), Podocotyle atomon (Opecoelidae) and Cercaria lebouri (Notocotylidae). All except P. atomon utilize shore birds as final hosts; adult P. atomon parasitize in the intestine of teleosts, mainly pleuronectid flatfish. Second intermediate hosts of C. lingua are various species of fish; the cercariae of H. elongata encyst in molluscs and polychaetes, those of R. roscovita in molluscs; M. pygmaeus has an abbreviated life cycle; C. lebouri encysts free on solid surfaces; and the fish trematode P. atomon utilizes benthic crustaceans, mainly amphipods, as second intermediate hosts. On the tidal flats of the Königshafen (Sylt), up to 77% of the periwinkles have been found to be infested by larval trematodes. Maximum infestations in individual samples were 23% for C. lingua, 47% for H. elongata and 44% for R. roscovita. The digeneans cause complete ‘parasitic castration’ of their carriers and hence exclude a considerable proportion of the snails from the breeding population. Infestation reduces the longevity of affected hosts, and size-related, trematode-induced differential mortality causes changes in the normal size-frequency distribution of individual snail-age classes. Young flatfish Pleuronectes platessa from the Königshafen are 100% infested with metacercariae of C. lingua. Heavy infestation of the gills causes obstruction of blood vessels and respiratory impairment; metacercariae in the eyes and optic nerves cause visual and neurological

  14. Caracterización morfólogica del M2 de primates Hominoidea a partir de análisis de Fourier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galbany, Jordi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Los análisis de Fourier permiten caracterizar el contorno del diente a partir de un número determinado de puntos y extraer una serie de parámetros para un posterior análisis multivariante. No obstante, la gran complejidad que presentan algunas conformaciones obliga a comprobar cuántos puntos son necesarios para una correcta representación de ésta. El objetivo de este trabajo es aplicar y validar los análisis de Fourier (Polar y Elíptico en el estudio de la forma dental a partir de diferentes puntos de contorno y explorar la variabilidad morfométrica en diferentes géneros. Se obtuvieron fotografías digitales de la superficie oclusal en segundos molares inferiores (M2s de 4 especies de Primates (Hylobates moloch, Gorilla beringei graueri, Pongo pygmaeus pygmaeus y Pan troglodytes schweirfurthii y se definió su contorno con 30, 40, 60, 80, 100 y 120 puntos y su representación formal a 10 armónicos. El análisis de la variabilidad morfométrica se analizó mediante la aplicación de Análisis Discriminantes y un NP-MANOVA a partir de matrices de distancias para determinar la variabilidad y porcentajes de clasificación correcta a nivel metodológico y taxonómico. Los resultados indicaron que los análisis de forma con series de Fourier permiten analizar la variabilidad morfométrica de M2s en géneros de Hominoidea, con independencia del número de puntos de contorno (30 a 120. Los porcentajes de clasificación son más variables e inferiores con el uso de la serie Polar (≈60-90 que con la Elíptica (75-100%. Un número entre 60-100 puntos de contorno mediante el método elíptico garantiza una descripción correcta de la forma del diente.

  15. Biological agents for whitefly control in Sardinian greenhouse tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nannini, M; Foddi, F; Manca, L; Pisci, R; Sanna, F

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of alternative options for biocontrol of whiteflies in greenhouse tomatoes, an experiment was carried out during the cropping season 2005-2006 in one of Sardinia's major horticultural districts (S. Margherita di Pula, Cagliari, Italy). Twelve long-cycle and 17 short-cycle tomato crops (8 autumn and 9 spring crops) were surveyed. All of them were treated for insect pest control at the beginning of the growing season, but in 19 out of 29 cases whitefly natural enemies were also released (BCA greenhouses), at least four weeks after the last treatment. The following release programmes were tested: on autumn crops, 1 Macrolophus caliginosus and 12 Eretmocerus mundus/m2; on long-cycle crops, 1 M. caliginosus (released in autumn or spring) and 24 Encarsia formosa/m2 or 48 E. formosa/m2; on spring crops, 1 M. caliginosus and 24 E. formosa/m2 or 48 E. formosa/m2. The cost of each option was fixed at approximately 0.25 Euros/m2. The remaining greenhouses were maintained as controls (no BCA greenhouses). While whitefly and mirid populations were monitored monthly, whitefly species composition and mortality of immature stages were estimated at least twice during the growing season. On short-cycle autumn crops, the release of M. caliginosus and E. mundus produced negligible results in terms of Bemisia tabaci control. On long-cycle and spring crops, even though in June mortality rates in BCA greenhouses were found to be 2- to 3-fold higher than in no-BCA greenhouses, Trialeurodes vaporariorum population growth was not significantly affected by natural enemies. Among the beneficials tested, E. formosa proved to be the most effective; E. mundus and M. caliginosus did not establish well, probably owing to the persistence of insecticide residues, scarce prey availability and intense plant de-leafing. The presence of indigenous natural enemies of whiteflies was observed in most sites, but in general they contributed little to biological control. The

  16. Influence of metal(loid) bioaccumulation and maternal transfer on embryo-larval development in fish exposed to a major coal ash spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greeley, Mark S; Adams, S Marshall; Elmore, Logan R; McCracken, Mary K

    2016-04-01

    In December 2008, an earthen retaining wall at the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Kingston Fossil Fuel Plant failed and released 4.1 millionm(3) of coal ash to rivers flowing into Watts Bar Reservoir in east Tennessee, United States (U.S.). As part of a comprehensive effort to evaluate the risks to aquatic resources from this spill - the largest in U.S. history - we compared bioaccumulation and maternal transfer of selenium (Se), arsenic (As), and mercury (Hg) in adult redear sunfish (Lepomis macrolophus), collected two years after the spill from both coal-ash exposed and non-exposed areas of the Emory and Clinch Rivers, with the success of embryo-larval development in their offspring. Whole body and ovary concentrations of Se in female sunfish at three study sites downstream of the spill were significantly elevated (site means=4.9-5.3 and 6.7-9.0mg/kg d.w. whole body and ovary concentrations, respectively) compared with concentrations in fish from reference sites upstream of the spill site (2.2-3.2mg/kg d.w. for whole bodies and 3.6-4.8mg/kg d.w. for ovaries). However, Se concentrations in coal ash-exposed areas remain below proposed U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) criteria for the protection of aquatic life. Site-to-site variation in fish concentrations of As and Hg were not well-correlated with ash-exposure, reflecting the multiple sources of these metal(loid)s in the affected watersheds. In 7-day laboratory tests of embryos and larvae derived from in vitro crosses of eggs and sperm from these field-collected sunfish, fertilization success, hatching success, embryo-larval survival, and incidences of developmental abnormalities did not differ significantly between ash-exposed and non-exposed fish. Furthermore, these developmental endpoints were not correlated with whole body or ovary concentrations of Se, As, or Hg in the maternal fish, or with fish size, ovary weight, or gonadal-somatic indices. Results from this and related studies associated

  17. A re-evaluation of localized hypoplasia of the primary canine as a marker of craniofacial osteopenia in European Upper Paleolithic infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, M; Newell, E

    2000-01-01

    Localized hypoplasia of the primary canine (LHPC) occurs in prehistoric and contemporary populations with prevalence varying from 0 to 89%. One of the highest prevalences ever reported is Upper Paleolithic infants from Europe where 70% are affected. In that LHPC is found in relatively high proportions of contemporary children with reported or suspected malnutrition, it is important to investigate the etiology of LHPC. Previous research indicates that LHPC occurs in two steps: craniofacial osteopenia results in temporary fenestration of the cortical bone overlying the primary canine crypt; secondly, minor physical trauma to the perioral region impacts on the unprotected forming tooth crown resulting in a small pit visible on the labial surface of the erupted tooth. Investigation of the prenatal diet of mothers whose children are shown later to have LHPC found mothers are significantly low in vitamin A. Hitherto an animal model for this problem has been lacking. Recently Newell and Skinner have recognized that LHPC occurs very commonly in orangutans. Recent study of infant jaws from Pongo pygmaeus (n=75) and Pan paniscus (n=39) shows all stages of fenestration and healing of the labial bone of the primary canine crypt. 85% of orangutan and 62% of bonobos show LHPC. Current research is directed at bioavailability of vitamin A to ape infants. LHPC is a marker of malnutrition; a common factor that could link orangutan and Upper Paleolithic mothers is low dietary fat intake. A minimal level of dietary fat is required for gut absorption of both vitamin A and carotenoids.

  18. Femoral morphology and femoropelvic musculoskeletal anatomy of humans and great apes: a comparative virtopsy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Naoki; Ponce de León, Marcia S; Nishimura, Takeshi; Zollikofer, Christoph P E

    2011-09-01

    The proximal femoral morphology of fossil hominins is routinely interpreted in terms of muscular topography and associated locomotor modes. However, the detailed correspondence between hard and soft tissue structures in the proximal femoral region of extant great apes is relatively unknown, because dissection protocols typically do not comprise in-depth osteological descriptions. Here, we use computed tomography and virtopsy (virtual dissection) for non-invasive examination of the femoropelvic musculoskeletal anatomy in Pan troglodytes, P. paniscus, Gorilla gorilla, Pongo pygmaeus, and Homo sapiens. Specifically, we analyze the topographic relationship between muscle attachment sites and surface structures of the proximal femoral shaft such as the lateral spiral pilaster. Our results show that the origin of the vastus lateralis muscle is anterior to the insertion of gluteus maximus in all examined great ape specimens and humans. In gorillas and orangutans, the insertion of gluteus maximus is on the inferior (anterolateral) side of the lateral spiral pilaster. In chimpanzees, however, the maximus insertion is on its superior (posteromedial) side, similar to the situation in modern humans. These findings support the hypothesis that chimpanzees and humans exhibit a shared-derived musculoskeletal topography of the proximal femoral region, irrespective of their different locomotor modes, whereas gorillas and orangutans represent the primitive condition. Caution is thus warranted when inferring locomotor behavior from the surface topography of the proximal femur of fossil hominins, as the morphology of this region may contain a strong phyletic signal that tends to blur locomotor adaptation.

  19. Analysis of the hominoid os coxae by Cartesian coordinates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHenry, H M; Corruccini, R S

    1978-02-01

    This study is based upon 48 3-dimensional coordinates taken on 4 fossil hominid and 127 extant hominoid coxal bones. The follis include Sts 14, SK 3155, MLD 7, and MLD 25. The comparative sample consists of 42 Homo sapiens, 27 Pan troglodytes, 29 Gorilla gorilla and 29 Pongo pygmaeus. The coordinates improve the metrical representation of the bone beyond what can be done with linear measurements because the shape complexity of the os coxae is so great. The coordinates are rotated and translated so that all bones are in a standard position. The coordinates are then standardized for each specimen by dividing all coordinates by the pooled standard deviation of X, Y, and Z coordinates. These data are treated to standard statistical analyses including analysis of variance, Penrose size and shape statistics, principal coordinates and components, and canonical variates analysis. The data are then further altered by using some specimen as a standard and rotating each specimen until the total squared distance between its coordinates and those of the standard are minimized. The same statistics are applied to these "best fit" data. The results show a high degree of agreement between the methods. The hominid os coxae are dundamentally different from the other hominoids and the fossil hominids share the basic hominid configuration but with some unique differences.

  20. Tubes, tables and traps: great apes solve two functionally equivalent trap tasks but show no evidence of transfer across tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Ordas, Gema; Call, Josep; Colmenares, Fernando

    2008-07-01

    Previous studies on tool using have shown that presenting subjects with certain modifications in the experimental setup can substantially improve their performance. However, procedural modifications (e.g. trap table task) may not only remove task constraints but also simplify the problem conceptually. The goal of this study was to design a variation of the trap-table that was functionally equivalent to the trap-tube task. In this new task, the subjects had to decide where to insert the tool and in which direction the reward should be pushed. We also administered a trap-tube task that allowed animals to push or rake the reward with the tool to compare the subjects' performance on both tasks. We used a larger sample of subjects than in previous studies and from all the four species of great apes (Gorilla gorilla, Pan troglodytes, Pan paniscus, and Pongo pygmaeus). The results showed that apes performed better in the trap-platform task than in the trap-tube task. Subjects solved the tube task faster than in previous studies and they also preferred to rake in rather than to push the reward out. There was no correlation in the level of performance between both tasks, and no indication of interspecies differences. These data are consistent with the idea that apes may possess some specific causal knowledge of traps but may lack the ability to establish analogical relations between functional equivalent tasks.

  1. Cave-dwelling bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera and conservation concerns in South central Mindanao, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krizler C. Tanalgo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The stable microclimate in caves provides a relatively constant habitat for many bat species in the Philippines, but human encroachment continues to disrupt this habitat and imperil many of the species roosting in the caves.  In South central Mindanao, the diversity and conservation status of cave bats remain undocumented and unexplored.  We employed mist-netting to capture bats from five different caves within the town of Kabacan, northern Cotabato, Philippines.  A total of 14 bat species were identified including the Philippine endemics Hipposideros pygmaeus and Ptenochirus jagori and the threatened Megaerops wetmorei. However, despite the declining conservation status of the bats, local disturbance such as bat hunting for bush meat and unregulated tourism are currently taking place in the caves.  Large species such as Eonycteris spelaea and Rousettus amplexicaudatus are killed almost every day for food and trade.  Therefore, the high species richness, and the presence of endemic and threatened species coupled with the occurrence of anthropogenic disturbances in caves suggests the need for an urgent and effective conservation intervention involving the local government and public community. 

  2. Fossil Orangutan-like hominoid teeth from Late Pleistocene human site of Mulanshan cave in Chongzuo of Guangxi and implications on taxonomy and evolution of orangutan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO LingXia; WANG CuiBin; JIN ChangZhu; QIN DaGong; PAN WenShi

    2009-01-01

    Fossil records indicate orangutan-like hominoids have been widely distributed in south China during Pleistocene,although currently only surviving in the tropical forests of Kalimantan and Sumatra in Indonesia.This paper describes the recently discovered hominoid fossil teeth from human site of Mulanshan cave in Chongzuo of Guangxi,whose geological age is the Late Pleistocene,about 11000 yeas age based on associated mammal fauna and U-series dating.Compared with those of modern and subfossil orangutans from Indonesia,other fossil great apes from China,the hominoid teeth from Mulanshan cave are orangutan-like,but show somehow different from Indonesia's orangutans,the average sizes of cheek teeth larger and occlusal enamel wrinkles less and simpler.They are classified temporarily as the subspecies of Pongo pygmaeus weidenreichi.Concerning the variations of morphological features and dental sizes of orangutan-like teeth from southern China and neighboring northern Vietnam,different subspecies or species or genus possibly,but the key evidence is necessary to be identified.

  3. A survey of husbandry practices for lorisid primates in North American zoos and related facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Grace; Kuhar, Christopher W; Dennis, Patricia M; Lukas, Kristen E

    2013-01-01

    Zoos and related facilities in North America currently manage five species in the primate family Lorisidae: the greater (Nycticebus coucang), Bengal (N. bengalensis) and pygmy (N. pygmaeus) slow lorises, red slender loris (Loris tardigradus), and potto (Perodicticus potto). We used an online survey to describe institutional housing and husbandry practices for these species and assess the extent to which practices are consistent with established guidelines. Our results show that most captive lorisids are housed solitarily or in pairs. Most individuals occupy a single exhibit space in a building dedicated to nocturnal animals. Facilities are commonly meeting recommendations for abiotic exhibit design and are providing animals with an enriched environment. However, pottos and slender lorises currently occupy exhibit spaces smaller than the recommended minimum, and the impact of cleaning protocols on olfactory communication should be critically evaluated. Few facilities are taking advantage of the benefits of positive reinforcement training for promoting animal welfare. Research is greatly needed on the effects of exhibit lighting on behavior, health, and reproduction; and to determine how best to manage the social needs of lorisids with naturally dispersed social structures. Although captive populations of slender lorises, pottos, and slow lorises are declining, we suggest that improved husbandry knowledge has the potential to positively influence population sustainability and to enhance future efforts to manage the growing pygmy loris population. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Diet traditions in wild orangutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastian, Meredith L; Zweifel, Nicole; Vogel, Erin R; Wich, Serge A; van Schaik, Carel P

    2010-10-01

    This study explores diet differences between two populations of wild Bornean orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus wurmbii) to assess whether a signal of social learning can be detected in the observed patterns. The populations live in close proximity and in similar habitats but are separated by a river barrier that is impassable to orangutans in the study region. We found a 60% between-site difference in diet at the level of plant food items (plant species-organ combinations). We also found that individuals at the same site were more likely to eat the same food items than expected by chance. These results suggest the presence of diet (food selection) traditions. Detailed tests of three predictions of three models of diet acquisition allowed us to reject a model based on exclusive social learning but could not clearly distinguish between the remaining two models: one positing individual exploration and learning of food item selection and the other one positing preferential social learning followed by individual fine tuning. We know that maturing orangutans acquire their initial diet through social learning and then supplement it by years of low-level, individual sampling. We, therefore, conclude that the preferential social learning model produces the best fit to the geographic patterns observed in this study. However, the very same taxa that socially acquire their diets as infants and show evidence for innovation-based traditions in the wild paradoxically may have diets that are not easily distinguished from those acquired exclusively through individual learning. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Arbuscular mycorrhizas are present on Spitsbergen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsham, K K; Eidesen, P B; Davey, M L; Axelsen, J; Courtecuisse, E; Flintrop, C; Johansson, A G; Kiepert, M; Larsen, S E; Lorberau, K E; Maurset, M; McQuilkin, J; Misiak, M; Pop, A; Thompson, S; Read, D J

    2017-07-10

    A previous study of 76 plant species on Spitsbergen in the High Arctic concluded that structures resembling arbuscular mycorrhizas were absent from roots. Here, we report a survey examining the roots of 13 grass and forb species collected from 12 sites on the island for arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) colonisation. Of the 102 individuals collected, we recorded AM endophytes in the roots of 41 plants of 11 species (Alopecurus ovatus, Deschampsia alpina, Festuca rubra ssp. richardsonii, putative viviparous hybrids of Poa arctica and Poa pratensis, Poa arctica ssp. arctica, Trisetum spicatum, Coptidium spitsbergense, Ranunculus nivalis, Ranunculus pygmaeus, Ranunculus sulphureus and Taraxacum arcticum) sampled from 10 sites. Both coarse AM endophyte, with hyphae of 5-10 μm width, vesicles and occasional arbuscules, and fine endophyte, consisting of hyphae of 1-3 μm width and sparse arbuscules, were recorded in roots. Coarse AM hyphae, vesicles, arbuscules and fine endophyte hyphae occupied 1.0-30.7, 0.8-18.3, 0.7-11.9 and 0.7-12.8% of the root lengths of colonised plants, respectively. Principal component analysis indicated no associations between the abundances of AM structures in roots and edaphic factors. We conclude that the AM symbiosis is present in grass and forb roots on Spitsbergen.

  6. The genomic structure of the human Charcot-Leyden crystal protein gene is analogous to those of the galectin genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyer, K.D. [National Inst. of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)]|[Georgetown Univ. Medical Center, Washington, DC (United States); Handen, J.S.; Rosenberg, H.F. [National Inst. of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1997-03-01

    The Charcot-Leyden crystal (CLC) protein, or eosinophil lysophospholipase, is a characteristic protein of human eosinophils and basophils; recent work has demonstrated that the CLC protein is both structurally and functionally related to the galectin family of {beta}-galactoside binding proteins. The galectins as a group share a number of features in common, including a linear ligand binding site encoded on a single exon. In this work, we demonstrate that the intron-exon structure of the gene encoding CLC is analogous to those encoding the galectins. The coding sequence of the CLC gene is divided into four exons, with the entire {beta}-galactoside binding site encoded by exon III. We have isolated CLC {beta}-galactoside binding sites from both orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus) and murine (Mus musculus) genomic DNAs, both encoded on single exons, and noted conservation of the amino acids shown to interact directly with the {beta}-galactoside ligand. The most likely interpretation of these results suggests the occurrence of one or more exon duplication and insertion events, resulting in the distribution of this lectin domain to CLC as well as to the multiple galectin genes. 35 refs., 3 figs.

  7. Syntenic homology of human unique DNA sequences within chromossome regions 5q31, 10q22, 13q32-33 and 19q13.1 in the great apes

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    Vallente-Samonte Rhea U.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Homologies between chromosome banding patterns and DNA sequences in the great apes and humans suggest an apparent common origin for these two lineages. The availability of DNA probes for specific regions of human chromosomes (5q31, 10q22, 13q32-33 and 19q13.1 led us to cross-hybridize these to chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes, PTR, gorilla (Gorilla gorilla, GGO and orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus, PPY chromosomes in a search for equivalent regions in the great apes. Positive hybridization signals to the chromosome 5q31-specific DNA probe were observed at HSA 5q31, PTR 4q31, GGO 4q31 and PPY 4q31, while fluorescent signals using the chromosome 10q22-specific DNA probe were noted at HSA 10q22, PTR 8q22, GGO 8q22 and PPY 7q22. The chromosome arms showing hybridization signals to the Quint-EssentialTM 13-specific DNA probe were identified as HSA 13q32-33, PTR 14q32-33, GGO 14q32-33 and PPY 14q32-33, while those presenting hybridization signals to the chromosome 19q13.1-specific DNA probe were identified as HSA 19q13.1, PTR 20q13, GGO 20q13 and PPY 20q13. All four probes presumably hybridized to homologous chromosomal locations in the apes, which suggests a homology of certain unique DNA sequences among hominoid species.

  8. Accessing Local Knowledge to Identify Where Species of Conservation Concern Occur in a Tropical Forest Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmanaba, Michael; Sheil, Douglas; Basuki, Imam; Liswanti, Nining

    2013-08-01

    Conventional biodiversity surveys play an important role in ensuring good conservation friendly management in tropical forest regions but are demanding in terms of expertise, time, and budget. Can local people help? Here, we illustrate how local knowledge can support low cost conservation surveys. We worked in the Malinau watershed, East Kalimantan, Indonesia, an area currently at risk of extensive forest loss. We selected eight species of regional conservation interest: rafflesia ( Rafflesia spp.), black orchid ( Coelogyne pandurata), sun bear ( Helarctos malayanus), tarsier ( Tarsius bancanus), slow loris ( Nycticebus coucang), proboscis monkey ( Nasalis larvatus), clouded leopard ( Neofelis diardi/N. nebulosa), and orang-utan ( Pongo pygmaeus). We asked 52 informants in seven villages if, where and when they had observed these species. We used maps, based on both geo-referenced and sketched features, to record these observations. Verification concerns and related issues are discussed. Evaluations suggest our local information is reliable. Our study took 6 weeks and cost about USD 5000. Extensive expert based field surveys across the same region would cost one or two orders of magnitude more. The records extend the known distribution for sun bear, tarsier, slow loris, and clouded leopard. Reports of rafflesia, proboscis monkey, and orang-utan are of immediate conservation significance. While quality concerns should never be abandoned, we conclude that local people can help expand our knowledge of large areas in an effective, reliable, and low cost manner and thus contribute to improved management.

  9. Fur: A non-invasive approach to monitor metal exposure in bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernout, Béatrice V; McClean, Colin J; Arnold, Kathryn E; Walls, Michael; Baxter, Malcolm; Boxall, Alistair B A

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a novel assessment of the use of fur as a non-invasive proxy to biomonitor metal contamination in insectivorous bats. Concentrations of metals (cadmium, copper, lead and zinc) were measured using ICP-MS in tissues (kidneys, liver, stomach and stomach content, bones and fur) obtained from 193 Pipistrellus pipistrellus/pygmaeus bats. The bats were collected across a gradient of metal pollution in England and Wales. The utility of small samples of fur as an indicator of metal exposure from the environment was demonstrated with strong relationships obtained between the concentrations of non-essential metals in fur with concentrations in stomach content, kidneys, liver and bones. Stronger relationships were observed for non-essential metals than for essential metals. Fur analyses might therefore be a useful non-invasive proxy for understanding recent, as well as long term and chronic, metal exposure of live animals. The use of fur may provide valuable information on the level of endogenous metal exposure and contamination of bat populations and communities.

  10. Estudio computacional de las relaciones evolutivas de los receptores ionotrópicos NMDA, AMPA y kainato en cuatro especies de primates

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    Francy Johanna Moreno-Pedraza

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Computational study of the evolutionary relationships of the ionotropic receptors NMDA, AMPA and kainate in four species ofprimates. Objective. To identify the influence of changes on the secondary structure and evolutionary relationship of NMDA, AMPA andkainate receptors in Homo sapiens, Pan troglodytes, Pongo pygmaeus and Macaca mulatta. Materials and methods. We identified 91sequences for NMDA, AMPA and kainate receptors and analyzed with software for predicting secondary structure, phosphorylation sites,multiple alignments, selection of protein evolution models and phylogenetic prediction. Results. We found that subunits GLUR5, NR2A,NR2C and NR3A showed structural changes in the C-terminal region and formation or loss of phosphorylation sites in this zone.Additionally the phylogenetic prediction suggests that the NMDA NR2 subunits are the closest to the ancestral node that gives rise to theother subunits. Conclusions. Changes in structure and phosphorylation sites in GLUR5, NR2A, NR2C and NR3A subunits suggestvariations in the interaction of the C-terminal region with kinase proteins and with proteins with PDZ domains, which could affect thetrafficking and anchoring of the subunits. On the other hand, the phylogenetic prediction suggests that the changes that occurred in the NR2subunits gave rise to the other subunits of glutamate ionotropic receptors, primarily because the NMDA and particularly the NR2D subunitsare the most closely related to the ancestral node that possibly gave rise to the iGluRs.

  11. Redescription and resurrection of Bertiella satyri (Cestoda, Anoplocephalidae) parasitizing the orangutan (Pongo abelii) in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foitová, Ivona; Mašová, Sárka; Tenora, František; Koubková, Božena; Hodová, Iveta; Vyskočilová, Martina; Baruš, Vlastimil; Nurcahyo, Wisnu

    2011-09-01

    The tapeworm species Bertiella satyri from a semi-wild Sumatran orangutan (Pongo abelii: Ponginae) is redescribed and the sequence of its 18S rDNA is presented. The tapeworms parasitizing the genera Pan, Pongo, Homo and Hylobates from Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris and from Muséum d´Histoire Naturelle, Genève are also presented. The validity of B. satyri is confirmed. B. satyri (BSA) differs from the most similar species Bertiella studeri (BSTU) in the following characteristics: (1) testes number, BSTU 300-400; BSA 116-124, (2) genital opening, BSTU regularly alternate; BSA irregularly alternate, (3) Cirrus-sac, BSTU short, 0.250-0.320, does not reach excretory ducts; BSA long, 0.630 × 0.495, reaches excretory ducts, (4) egg size, BSTU 0.053-0.060; BSA 0.030-0.051, (5) host BSTU Pan troglodytes, Africa; BSA Pongo pygmaeus, P. abelii, Indonesia (Borneo, Sumatra). Both species differ according to our material and the name B. satyri (Blanchard, 1891) is resurrected.

  12. Accessing local knowledge to identify where species of conservation concern occur in a tropical forest landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmanaba, Michael; Sheil, Douglas; Basuki, Imam; Liswanti, Nining

    2013-08-01

    Conventional biodiversity surveys play an important role in ensuring good conservation friendly management in tropical forest regions but are demanding in terms of expertise, time, and budget. Can local people help? Here, we illustrate how local knowledge can support low cost conservation surveys. We worked in the Malinau watershed, East Kalimantan, Indonesia, an area currently at risk of extensive forest loss. We selected eight species of regional conservation interest: rafflesia (Rafflesia spp.), black orchid (Coelogyne pandurata), sun bear (Helarctos malayanus), tarsier (Tarsius bancanus), slow loris (Nycticebus coucang), proboscis monkey (Nasalis larvatus), clouded leopard (Neofelis diardi/N. nebulosa), and orang-utan (Pongo pygmaeus). We asked 52 informants in seven villages if, where and when they had observed these species. We used maps, based on both geo-referenced and sketched features, to record these observations. Verification concerns and related issues are discussed. Evaluations suggest our local information is reliable. Our study took 6 weeks and cost about USD 5000. Extensive expert based field surveys across the same region would cost one or two orders of magnitude more. The records extend the known distribution for sun bear, tarsier, slow loris, and clouded leopard. Reports of rafflesia, proboscis monkey, and orang-utan are of immediate conservation significance. While quality concerns should never be abandoned, we conclude that local people can help expand our knowledge of large areas in an effective, reliable, and low cost manner and thus contribute to improved management.

  13. Distribución de los murciélagos de los géneros pipistrellus, Hypsugo y Eptesicus (Mammalia, Chiroptera en el País Vasco Occidental

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    AIHARTZA, J., GARIN, I.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemos determinado la distribución de los murciélagos de los géneros Pipistrellus, Hypsugo y Eptesicus en Araba, Biakaia eta Gipuzkoa. Para ello se han muestreado sistemáticamente todas las cuadrículas UTM de 10x10 km entre 1995y 2000 combinando la búsqueda directa en refugios, el empleo de redes y trampas de arpa, y los detectores de ultrasonidos. P. pipistrellus es muy frecuente y aparece prácticamente en todas las cuadrículas y, además, todas las identificaciones mediante detectores correspondieron al fonotipo de 45 kHz ; no se obtuvieron datos sobre P. pygmaeus (fonotipo 55 kHz. P. kuhlii es una especie muy frecuente y de distribución amplia, aunque con lagunas en algunas zonas de montaña como el extremo oriental de Araba y sur de Gipuzkoa. Unicamente se obtuvieron 3 citas de P. nathusii, concordantes con su carácter migratorio en nuestro entorno. H. savii se encontró al sur de Araba, cerca de zonas de montaña y de los pueblos. E. serotinus es de distribución amplia, más abundante en zonas de montaña o sus estribaciones con amplias zonas rocosas.

  14. [Modification of the structure of penial glands in males of the intertidal molluscs Littorina saxatilis and L. obtusata under the influence of the infestation by trematode parthenites].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganzha, E V; Granovich, A I

    2008-01-01

    Sporocycts of the "pygmaeus" microphallides (Microphallus piriformes) are localized in hepatopancreas and gonads of Littorina molluscs causing total parasitic castration. A histological study of penial glands in Littorina saxatilis and L. obtusata males infested with trematodes M. piriformes has been made. Copulatory organs of noninfested molluscs, molluscs after recent contamination (with not completely formed daughter sporocysts), and molluscs containing mature metacercariae inside daughter sporocysts were examined. Based on the data obtained, probable dynamics of the histological structure of infested glandular apparatus was established. It was shown, that the trematode infestation have an influence on the muscular and secretory parts of penial glands. The wall of the penial gland muscular capsule becomes more fine in infested L. saxatilis. On the contrary, this wall is vastly thicker in infested L. obtusata, as compared with noninfested individuals. Glandular cells of the molluscs' penial glands decreases the amount of granular secret in both species. In L. obtusata the number of secretory cells is shown to be reduced up to their total disappearance. The above pathological changes probably prevent normal function of penial glands.

  15. Does sympathy motivate prosocial behaviour in great apes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebal, Katja; Vaish, Amrisha; Haun, Daniel; Tomasello, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Prosocial behaviours such as helping, comforting, or sharing are central to human social life. Because they emerge early in ontogeny, it has been proposed that humans are prosocial by nature and that from early on empathy and sympathy motivate such behaviours. The emerging question is whether humans share these abilities to feel with and for someone with our closest relatives, the great apes. Although several studies demonstrated that great apes help others, little is known about their underlying motivations. This study addresses this issue and investigates whether four species of great apes (Pongo pygmaeus, Gorilla gorilla, Pan troglodytes, Pan paniscus) help a conspecific more after observing the conspecific being harmed (a human experimenter steals the conspecific's food) compared to a condition where no harming occurred. Results showed that in regard to the occurrence of prosocial behaviours, only orangutans, but not the African great apes, help others when help is needed, contrasting prior findings on chimpanzees. However, with the exception of one population of orangutans that helped significantly more after a conspecific was harmed than when no harm occurred, prosocial behaviour in great apes was not motivated by concern for others.

  16. Does sympathy motivate prosocial behaviour in great apes?

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    Katja Liebal

    Full Text Available Prosocial behaviours such as helping, comforting, or sharing are central to human social life. Because they emerge early in ontogeny, it has been proposed that humans are prosocial by nature and that from early on empathy and sympathy motivate such behaviours. The emerging question is whether humans share these abilities to feel with and for someone with our closest relatives, the great apes. Although several studies demonstrated that great apes help others, little is known about their underlying motivations. This study addresses this issue and investigates whether four species of great apes (Pongo pygmaeus, Gorilla gorilla, Pan troglodytes, Pan paniscus help a conspecific more after observing the conspecific being harmed (a human experimenter steals the conspecific's food compared to a condition where no harming occurred. Results showed that in regard to the occurrence of prosocial behaviours, only orangutans, but not the African great apes, help others when help is needed, contrasting prior findings on chimpanzees. However, with the exception of one population of orangutans that helped significantly more after a conspecific was harmed than when no harm occurred, prosocial behaviour in great apes was not motivated by concern for others.

  17. Phylogenetic Analysis of Entomoparasitic Nematodes, Potential Control Agents of Flea Populations in Natural Foci of Plague

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshel, E. I.; Aleshin, V. V.; Eroshenko, G. A.; Kutyrev, V. V.

    2014-01-01

    Entomoparasitic nematodes are natural control agents for many insect pests, including fleas that transmit Yersinia pestis, a causative agent of plague, in the natural foci of this extremely dangerous zoonosis. We examined the flea samples from the Volga-Ural natural focus of plague for their infestation with nematodes. Among the six flea species feeding on different rodent hosts (Citellus pygmaeus, Microtus socialis, and Allactaga major), the rate of infestation varied from 0 to 21%. The propagation rate of parasitic nematodes in the haemocoel of infected fleas was very high; in some cases, we observed up to 1,000 juveniles per flea specimen. Our study of morphology, life cycle, and rDNA sequences of these parasites revealed that they belong to three distinct species differing in the host specificity. On SSU and LSU rRNA phylogenies, these species representing three genera (Rubzovinema, Psyllotylenchus, and Spilotylenchus), constitute a monophyletic group close to Allantonema and Parasitylenchus, the type genera of the families Allantonematidae and Parasitylenchidae (Nematoda: Tylenchida). We discuss the SSU-ITS1-5.8S-LSU rDNA phylogeny of the Tylenchida with a special emphasis on the suborder Hexatylina. PMID:24804197

  18. Geographic profiling and animal foraging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Comber, Steven C; Nicholls, Barry; Rossmo, D Kim; Racey, Paul A

    2006-05-21

    Geographic profiling was originally developed as a statistical tool for use in criminal cases, particularly those involving serial killers and rapists. It is designed to help police forces prioritize lists of suspects by using the location of crime scenes to identify the areas in which the criminal is most likely to live. Two important concepts are the buffer zone (criminals are less likely to commit crimes in the immediate vicinity of their home) and distance decay (criminals commit fewer crimes as the distance from their home increases). In this study, we show how the techniques of geographic profiling may be applied to animal data, using as an example foraging patterns in two sympatric colonies of pipistrelle bats, Pipistrellus pipistrellus and P. pygmaeus, in the northeast of Scotland. We show that if model variables are fitted to known roost locations, these variables may be used as numerical descriptors of foraging patterns. We go on to show that these variables can be used to differentiate patterns of foraging in these two species.

  19. Hiding from the moonlight: luminosity and temperature affect activity of Asian nocturnal primates in a highly seasonal forest.

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    Carly Starr

    Full Text Available The effect of moonlight and temperature on activity of slow lorises was previously little known and this knowledge might be useful for understanding many aspects of their behavioural ecology, and developing strategies to monitor and protect populations. In this study we aimed to determine if the activity of the pygmy loris (Nycticebus pygmaeus is affected by ambient temperature and/or moonlight in a mixed deciduous forest. We radio-collared five females and five males in the Seima Protection Forest, Cambodia, in February to May, 2008 and January to March, 2009 and recorded their behaviour at 5 minutes intervals, totalling 2736 observations. We classified each observation as either inactive (sleeping or alert or active behaviour (travel, feeding, grooming, or others. Moon luminosity (bright/dark and ambient temperature were recorded for each observation. The response variable, activity, was binary (active or inactive, and a logit link function was used. Ambient temperature alone did not significantly affect mean activity. Although mean activity was significantly affected by moonlight, the interaction between moonlight and temperature was also significant: on bright nights, studied animals were increasingly more active with higher temperature; and on dark nights they were consistently active regardless of temperature. The most plausible explanation is that on bright cold nights the combined risk of being seen and attacked by predators and heat loss outweigh the benefit of active behaviours.

  20. Orientation toward humans predicts cognitive performance in orang-utans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damerius, Laura A.; Forss, Sofia I. F.; Kosonen, Zaida K.; Willems, Erik P.; Burkart, Judith M.; Call, Josep; Galdikas, Birute M. F.; Liebal, Katja; Haun, Daniel B. M.; van Schaik, Carel P.

    2017-01-01

    Non-human animals sometimes show marked intraspecific variation in their cognitive abilities that may reflect variation in external inputs and experience during the developmental period. We examined variation in exploration and cognitive performance on a problem-solving task in a large sample of captive orang-utans (Pongo abelii & P. pygmaeus, N = 103) that had experienced different rearing and housing conditions during ontogeny, including human exposure. In addition to measuring exploration and cognitive performance, we also conducted a set of assays of the subjects’ psychological orientation, including reactions towards an unfamiliar human, summarized in the human orientation index (HOI), and towards novel food and objects. Using generalized linear mixed models we found that the HOI, rather than rearing background, best predicted both exploration and problem-solving success. Our results suggest a cascade of processes: human orientation was accompanied by a change in motivation towards problem-solving, expressed in reduced neophobia and increased exploration variety, which led to greater experience, and thus eventually to higher performance in the task. We propose that different experiences with humans caused individuals to vary in curiosity and understanding of the physical problem-solving task. We discuss the implications of these findings for comparative studies of cognitive ability. PMID:28067260

  1. Atlas de distribución y estado de conservación de los Anfibios de la Comunidad de Madrid

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    Martínez-Solano, I.

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Successful management and conservation planning depend upon the availability, integration and updating of information provided by different disciplines. This paper compiles relevant information for the conservation of amphibians in Comunidad de Madrid (Spain. We obtained chorological information from 1384 sampling localities throughout the region of Madrid, and reviewed relevant scientific literature for the management of amphibian populations in this area. We found at least one amphibian species in 70,3% of sampled localities. Results are illustrated in distribution maps of all 18 species found: Salamandra salamandra, Pleurodeles waltl, Mesotriton alpestris, Lissotriton boscai, Triturus marmoratus, Triturus pygmaeus, Alytes obstetricans, Alytes cisternasii, Discoglossus galganoi, Discoglossus jeanneae, Pelobates cultripes, Pelodytes punctatus, Hyla arborea, Hyla meridionalis, Bufo bufo, Bufo calamita, Rana iberica and Rana perezi. Distribution maps are presented in five-kilometer side UTM grids cells. We compare and integrate our results with previous studies and outline groups of populations representing independent management units, for which we propose risk categories according to the criteria established by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN at the regional level. Finally, we point out the main threats for the survival of amphibian populations and discuss possible actions to improve their conservation status.

    La planificación de estrategias de gestión y conservación eficaces depende de la disponibilidad, integración y actualización de información procedente de diversas disciplinas. En este trabajo se recopila información relevante para la conservación de los anfibios de la Comunidad de Madrid. Hemos obtenido información corológica de un total de 1384 puntos de muestreo repartidos por toda la geografía madrileña y revisado la literatura científica de interés para la gestión de las

  2. Characterizing forest reduction in Ketapang district, West Kalimantan, Indonesia

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    ASEP SUNJAYA ADHIKERANA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Adhikerana AS, Sugardjito J (2010 Characterizing forest reduction in Ketapang district, West Kalimantan, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 11: 46-54. We have characterized deforestation in the Ketapang district forests when we implemented the Orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus wurmbii Conservation in Trans-boundary Landscape between Central and West Kalimantan provinces. For the purpose of evaluating the changes in land use and land cover in the study areas, a series of Landsat imageries have been analyzed. Each of the Landsat imagery data set for all study areas was initially classified using unsupervised classification into 13 different land-cover types. Ground truth checks were undertaken for Ketapang district forests and Sungai Puteri peat swamp forest, from which the results were used for the supervised land use classification of these two study areas. Between 1992 and 2000 there was only small conversion of primary forest into secondary forests. During this period barren land remained extensive about 30.17% of the total area of Ketapang district. Both agriculture and plantation areas substantially increased 56% and 55% respectively during 2003, while at the same time the extent of both primary and peat swamp forests were considerably reduced up to 15% and 28% respectively. The most striking conversion was from secondary forest to agricultural land and from peat swamp forest to swamp areas. A fraction of lowland forest was also converted into oil-palm plantation which was extended with considerable size into agricultural land. The patterns of land use changes detected in this study indicated a number of possible causes that trigger deforestation in this district include, the local government policy and market demand.

  3. Declining orangutan encounter rates from Wallace to the present suggest the species was once more abundant.

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    Erik Meijaard

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bornean orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus currently occur at low densities and seeing a wild one is a rare event. Compared to present low encounter rates of orangutans, it is striking how many orangutan each day historic collectors like Alfred Russel Wallace were able to shoot continuously over weeks or even months. Does that indicate that some 150 years ago encounter rates with orangutans, or their densities, were higher than now? METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We test this hypothesis by quantifying encounter rates obtained from hunting accounts, museum collections, and recent field studies, and analysing whether there is a declining trend over time. Logistic regression analyses of our data support such a decline on Borneo between the mid-19th century and the present. Even when controlled for variation in the size of survey and hunting teams and the durations of expeditions, mean daily encounter rates appear to have declined about 6-fold in areas with little or no forest disturbance. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This finding has potential consequences for our understanding of orangutans, because it suggests that Bornean orangutans once occurred at higher densities. We explore potential explanations-habitat loss and degradation, hunting, and disease-and conclude that hunting fits the observed patterns best. This suggests that hunting has been underestimated as a key causal factor of orangutan density and distribution, and that species population declines have been more severe than previously estimated based on habitat loss only. Our findings may require us to rethink the biology of orangutans, with much of our ecological understanding possibly being based on field studies of animals living at lower densities than they did historically. Our approach of quantifying species encounter rates from historic data demonstrates that this method can yield valuable information about the ecology and population density of species in the past, providing new

  4. Molecular evolution of prolactin in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallis, O Caryl; Mac-Kwashie, Akofa O; Makri, Georgia; Wallis, Michael

    2005-05-01

    Pituitary prolactin, like growth hormone (GH) and several other protein hormones, shows an episodic pattern of molecular evolution in which sustained bursts of rapid change contrast with long periods of slow evolution. A period of rapid change occurred in the evolution of prolactin in primates, leading to marked sequence differences between human prolactin and that of nonprimate mammals. We have defined this burst more precisely by sequencing the coding regions of prolactin genes for a prosimian, the slow loris (Nycticebus pygmaeus), and a New World monkey, the marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). Slow loris prolactin is very similar in sequence to pig prolactin, so the episode of rapid change occurred during primate evolution, after the separation of lines leading to prosimians and higher primates. Marmoset prolactin is similar in sequence to human prolactin, so the accelerated evolution occurred before divergence of New World monkeys and Old World monkeys/apes. The burst of change was confined largely to coding sequence (nonsynonymous sites) for mature prolactin and is not marked in other components of the gene sequence. This and the observations that (1) there was no apparent loss of function during the episode of rapid evolution, (2) the rate of evolution slowed toward the basal rate after this burst, and (3) the distribution of substitutions in the prolactin molecule is very uneven support the idea that this episode of rapid change was due to positive adaptive selection. In the slow loris and marmoset there is no evidence for duplication of the prolactin gene, and evidence from another New World monkey (Cebus albifrons) and from the chimpanzee and human genome sequences, suggests that this is the general position in primates, contrasting with the situation for GH genes. The chimpanzee prolactin sequence differs from that of human at two residues and comparison of human and chimpanzee prolactin gene sequences suggests that noncoding regions associated with regulating

  5. Migratory bats respond to artificial green light with positive phototaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Christian C; Roeleke, Manuel; Marggraf, Lara; Pētersons, Gunārs; Voigt-Heucke, Silke L

    2017-01-01

    Artificial light at night is spreading worldwide at unprecedented rates, exposing strictly nocturnal animals such as bats to a novel anthropogenic stressor. Previous studies about the effect of artificial light on bats focused almost exclusively on non-migratory species, yet migratory animals such as birds are known to be largely affected by light pollution. Thus, we conducted a field experiment to evaluate if bat migration is affected by artificial light at night. In late summer, we presented artificial green light of 520 nm wavelength to bats that were migrating south along the shoreline of the Baltic Sea. Using a light on-off treatment, we observed that the activity of Pipistrellus nathusii and P. pygmaeus, the two most abundant migratory species at our site, increased by more than 50% in the light-on compared to the light-off treatment. We observed an increased number of feeding buzzes during the light-on compared to the light-off treatment for P. nathusii. However, feeding activity was low in general and did not increase disproportionately during the light-on treatment in relation to the overall echolocation call activity of bats. Further, P. nathusii were attracted towards the green light at a distance of about 23 m, which is way beyond the echolocation detection range for insects of Nathusius' bats. We therefore infer that migratory bats were not attracted to artificial green light because of high insect densities, but instead by positive phototaxis. We conclude that artificial light at night may potentially impact bat migration in a yet unrecognized way.

  6. Diversity, distribution and ecology of benthic molluscan communities on the Portuguese continental shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, R.; Sampaio, L.; Quintino, V.; Rodrigues, A. M.

    2014-10-01

    The diversity, ecology and distribution patterns of the Portuguese continental shelf malacofauna and its relationship with abiotic factors were studied from samples covering the western and the southern coast. A total of 2544 specimens were identified corresponding to 169 taxa, mostly bivalves (62% of the total taxa). Abra alba was the most abundant and the most frequent species. The alpha diversity ranged from one species to 21 spp. 0.1 m- 2. The highest abundance and diversity were obtained in coarser sediments. Multivariate analysis based on the abundance data identified five major malacological groups: (a) Angulus pygmaeus and Thracia villosiuscula in the coarser sediments of the western inner and mid shelf; (b) Calyptraea chinensis and Leptochiton cancellatus in the heterogeneous and organically enriched sediments of the southern shelf; (c) Angulus fabula, Spisula subtruncata and Pharus legumen in the near shore exposed fine sands; (d) A. alba in muddy fine sands, mainly in the northwestern shelf and (e) Saccella commutata in the southwestern deeper shelf. The malacofauna could be used as a proxy for the major benthic communities known to occur in this area, except in muddy patches, where molluscs were absent or low abundant. Median grain-size, gravel content, depth and hydrodynamic regime were the environmental factors best related to the malacofauna spatial distribution patterns. This study sets the first record of Astarte borealis, Leptochiton asellus, Mercenaria mercenaria and Montacuta phascolionis in the Portuguese shelf and the most northern limit for Anadara polii, Glycymeris nummaria, and Leptochiton algesirensis along the northwestern shelf. This study also gives new ecological insights for several species, in terms of bathymetric range distribution, as well as habitat type and highlighted the transitional characteristics of the molluscan communities from this particular northeastern Atlantic area where boreal, temperate and subtropical faunas can

  7. Mapping the nasal airways: using histology to enhance CT-based three-dimensional reconstruction in Nycticebus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deleon, Valerie Burke; Smith, Timothy D

    2014-11-01

    Three-dimensional reconstructions of imaging data are an increasingly common approach for studying anatomical structure. However, certain aspects of anatomy, including microscopic structure and differentiating tissue types, continue to benefit from traditional histological analyses. We present here a detailed methodology for combining data from microCT and histological imaging to create 3D virtual reconstructions for visualization and further analyses. We used this approach to study the distribution of olfactory mucosa on ethmoturbinal I of an adult pygmy slow loris, Nycticebus pygmaeus. MicroCT imaging of the specimen was followed by processing, embedding, and sectioning for histological analysis. We identified corresponding features in the CT and histological data, and used these to reconstruct the plane of section in the CT volume. The CT volume was then digitally re-sliced, such that orthogonal sections of the CT image corresponded to histological sections. Histological images were annotated for the features of interest (in this case, the contour of soft tissue on ethmoturbinal I and the extent of olfactory mucosa), and annotations were transferred to binary masks in the CT volume. These masks were combined with density-based surface reconstructions of the skull to create an enhanced 3D virtual reconstruction, in which the bony surfaces are coded for mucosal function. We identified a series of issues that may be raised in this approach, for example, deformation related to histological processing, and we make recommendations for addressing these issues. This method provides an evidence-based approach to 3D visualization and analysis of microscopic features in an anatomic context.

  8. Recent surveys in the forests of Ulu Segama Malua, Sabah, Malaysia, show that orang-utans (P. p. morio can be maintained in slightly logged forests.

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    Marc Ancrenaz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Today the majority of wild great ape populations are found outside of the network of protected areas in both Africa and Asia, therefore determining if these populations are able to survive in forests that are exploited for timber or other extractive uses and how this is managed, is paramount for their conservation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In 2007, the "Kinabatangan Orang-utan Conservation Project" (KOCP conducted aerial and ground surveys of orang-utan (Pongo pygmaeus morio nests in the commercial forest reserves of Ulu Segama Malua (USM in eastern Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. Compared with previous estimates obtained in 2002, our recent data clearly shows that orang-utan populations can be maintained in forests that have been lightly and sustainably logged. However, forests that are heavily logged or subjected to fast, successive coupes that follow conventional extraction methods, exhibit a decline in orang-utan numbers which will eventually result in localized extinction (the rapid extraction of more than 100 m(3 ha(-1 of timber led to the crash of one of the surveyed sub-populations. Nest distribution in the forests of USM indicates that orang-utans leave areas undergoing active disturbance and take momentarily refuge in surrounding forests that are free of human activity, even if these forests are located above 500 m asl. Displaced individuals will then recolonize the old-logged areas after a period of time, depending on availability of food sources in the regenerating areas. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These results indicate that diligent planning prior to timber extraction and the implementation of reduced-impact logging practices can potentially be compatible with great ape conservation.

  9. Ten years of orangutan-related wildlife crime investigation in West Kalimantan, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, Cathryn; Rahman, Edi; Knott, Cheryl

    2016-12-13

    Poaching for the pet trade is considered one of the main threats to orangutan survival, especially to the Bornean species (Pongo pygmaeus). However, there have been few attempts to quantify the number of individuals taken from the wild or to evaluate the drivers of the trade. Most orangutan poaching is thought to be opportunistic in nature, occurring in conjunction with deforestation for large-scale agriculture. Using data from our long-term wildlife crime field investigation program collected from 2004 to 2014, we evaluated the prevalence of orangutan poaching and its spatial distribution in and around Gunung Palung National Park, in the regencies (districts) of Ketapang and Kayong Utara, West Kalimantan, Indonesia. Over the project period, investigators uncovered 145 cases of orangutans being illegally held captive for the pet trade. There was a significant correlation between the extent of oil palm and the number of cases reported from each sub-district in the landscape, supporting the widely held hypothesis that orangutan poaching is opportunistic, and we found no evidence of orangutan trading rings (i.e., international traders) targeting Gunung Palung National Park. Over the past decade, there only has been one prosecution of orangutan trading in West Kalimantan, and weak law enforcement by Indonesian authorities remains the most significant challenge in addressing wildlife trade. We offer four recommendations to address this, including that Indonesia dedicate at least $3 million more to addressing orangutan poaching and trade in Kalimantan and that the country's wildlife protection laws be revised and strengthened, with the new laws socialized to a wide audience, including government officials and all aspects of civil society. As oil palm begins to expand into Africa, this study also may help predict how this will affect gorillas, chimpanzees, and bonobos, encouraging proactive conservation action. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Body mass of wild Bornean orangutans living in human-dominated landscapes: Implications for understanding their ecology and conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayadin, Yaya; Spehar, Stephanie N

    2015-06-01

    Body mass is a key determinant of a species' ecology, including locomotion, foraging strategies, and energetics. Accurate information on the body mass of wild primates allows us to develop explanatory models for relationships among body size, ecology, and behavior and is crucial for reconstructing the ecology and behavior of fossil primates and hominins. Information on body mass can also provide indirect information on health and can be an important tool for conservation in the context of increasingly widespread habitat disturbance. This study reports body mass data recorded for wild Northeast Bornean orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus morio) during relocation efforts in forestry and oil palm plantations in East Kalimantan, Indonesia. The average mass of flanged adult males (n = 12, 74 ± 9.78 kg) and adult females (n = 7, 35.29 ± 7.32 kg) from this study were 13.6% and 9% lower, respectively, than the only other published wild Bornean orangutan body mass measurements, but the range of weights for both males and females was larger for this study. This pattern could be due to sampling error, data collection differences, or the influence of habitat disturbance, specifically a lack of access to resources, on individual health. When necessary relocations present the opportunity, we encourage researchers to prioritize the collection of body size data for the purposes of understanding ecology but also as an indirect means of monitoring population viability. As primate habitat becomes increasingly fragmented and altered by humans such data will become critical to our ability to make informed conservation decisions. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Orangutans modify facial displays depending on recipient attention

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    Bridget M. Waller

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Primate facial expressions are widely accepted as underpinned by reflexive emotional processes and not under voluntary control. In contrast, other modes of primate communication, especially gestures, are widely accepted as underpinned by intentional, goal-driven cognitive processes. One reason for this distinction is that production of primate gestures is often sensitive to the attentional state of the recipient, a phenomenon used as one of the key behavioural criteria for identifying intentionality in signal production. The reasoning is that modifying/producing a signal when a potential recipient is looking could demonstrate that the sender intends to communicate with them. Here, we show that the production of a primate facial expression can also be sensitive to the attention of the play partner. Using the orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus Facial Action Coding System (OrangFACS, we demonstrate that facial movements are more intense and more complex when recipient attention is directed towards the sender. Therefore, production of the playface is not an automated response to play (or simply a play behaviour itself and is instead produced flexibly depending on the context. If sensitivity to attentional stance is a good indicator of intentionality, we must also conclude that the orangutan playface is intentionally produced. However, a number of alternative, lower level interpretations for flexible production of signals in response to the attention of another are discussed. As intentionality is a key feature of human language, claims of intentional communication in related primate species are powerful drivers in language evolution debates, and thus caution in identifying intentionality is important.

  12. Phylogeny of the sand goby group (Gobionellidae, Teleostei based on mitochondrial gene sequences and morphological data

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    Christos Gkenas

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The sand gobies are a monophyletic group of small, nearshore marine to freshwater fishes, including 43 species in four genera that inhabit Europe and the Mediterranean Sea. Herein, we evaluate the phylogenetic relationships of the sand goby group based on molecular and morphological data. We sequenced fragments of mitochondrial gene, cytochrome c oxidase I, from 87 specimens from 20 localities collected from Greece and the Venice lagoon. We examine morphometric and meristic variation on 269 sand goby specimens from 17 localities using multivariate analysis. Principal component analysis demonstrated that variables accounting for most of the interspecific differentiation were first dorsal fin length, anal fin length and size of the head among species. Discriminant analysis revealed that about 91% of the examined fish could be correctly classified into the seven species considered. The most important morphometric variables for species differentiation were the shape of the head, the distance between the two dorsal fins and the width of the caudal peduncle. Phylogenetic analysis supported the systematic classification of genus Economidichthys through the clustering of E. pygmaeus and E. trichonis. The split-up of K. caucasica populations from the Ionian Sea including K. milleri with the K. caucasica populations from the Aegean Sea demonstrated a paraphyletic problem. Within these groupings there is limited genetic differentiation between Ionian populations. In terms of taxonomic implications, our data suggest that K. caucasica from the Ionian Sea and K. milleri should be regarded as synonyms. Finally, the genus Pomatoschistus is divided into three clades corresponding to the species P. minutus, P. marmoratus and P canestrinii. The differentiation between the samples of the Aegean and Ionian Sea is likely a result of the hydrogeologic characteristics and climatic conditions that existed during the Pleistocene.

  13. The ecology of Echinococcus multilocularis (Cestoda: Taeniidae) on St. Lawrence Island, Alaska. II. Helminth populations in the definitive host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rausch, R L; Fay, F H; Williamson, F S

    1990-01-01

    The helminths of 1,579 arctic foxes from St. Lawrence Island were investigated by standard methods. The foxes, obtained mainly during the winter from fur trappers, harbored 22 species of helminths. Four of those were trematodes, viz., Maritrema afanassjewi Belopol'skaia, 1952, Orthosplanchnus pygmaeus Iurakhno, 1967, Plagiorchis elegans (Rudolphi, 1802) and Alaria marcianae (LaRue, 1917), each of which occurred in a single host. Two species of cestodes, Diphyllobothrium dendriticum (Nitzsch, 1824) and Mesocestoides kirbyi Chandler, 1940, were uncommon (in 2.7 and 1.3% of the foxes, respectively). Taenia polyacantha Leuckart, 1856 and Echinococcus multilocularis Leuckart, 1863 were present in about 80% of the foxes, and Taenia crassiceps (Zeder, 1800) in less than 10%. The specimens of Taenia spp. from the autumn-winter sample were usually destrobilate. In about 2% of the foxes, acanthocephalans of six species occurred. Four of those, of the genus Corynosoma Lühe, 1904, were common in marine mammals of the region; a fifth, Corynosoma clavatum Goss, 1940, has been reported previously only from marine birds of the Southern Hemisphere; and the sixth, Polymorphus cf. minutus (Goeze, 1782), has been found widely in waterfowl of the Northern Hemisphere. Of the nematodes, Sobolophyme baturini Petrov, 1930, Cylicospirura felineus (Chandler, 1925), and Physaloptera sp. were rare (with each in only one to three foxes). Trichinella nativa Boev et Britov, 1972 and Crenosoma vulpis (Dujardin, 1844) were uncommon (1.5 and 4%, respectively). The nematodes most often present were Toxascaris leonina (von Linstow, 1902) (89%) and Uncinaria stenocephala (Railliet, 1884) (40%). Several of the rare to uncommon helminths probably were transported to the island by foxes immigrating from the adjacent continents via the pack ice.

  14. Species association of hepatitis B virus (HBV in non-human apes; evidence for recombination between gorilla and chimpanzee variants.

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    Sinéad Lyons

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B virus (HBV infections are widely distributed in humans, infecting approximately one third of the world's population. HBV variants have also been detected and genetically characterised from Old World apes; Gorilla gorilla (gorilla, Pan troglodytes (chimpanzee, Pongo pygmaeus (orang-utan, Nomascus nastusus and Hylobates pileatus (gibbons and from the New World monkey, Lagothrix lagotricha (woolly monkey. To investigate species-specificity and potential for cross species transmission of HBV between sympatric species of apes (such as gorillas and chimpanzees in Central Africa or between humans and chimpanzees or gorillas, variants of HBV infecting captive wild-born non-human primates were genetically characterised. 9 of 62 chimpanzees (11.3% and two from 11 gorillas (18% were HBV-infected (15% combined frequency, while other Old world monkey species were negative. Complete genome sequences were obtained from six of the infected chimpanzee and both gorillas; those from P. t .ellioti grouped with previously characterised variants from this subspecies. However, variants recovered from P. t. troglodytes HBV variants also grouped within this clade, indicative of transmission between sub-species, forming a paraphyletic clade. The two gorilla viruses were phylogenetically distinct from chimpanzee and human variants although one showed evidence for a recombination event with a P.t.e.-derived HBV variant in the partial X and core gene region. Both of these observations provide evidence for circulation of HBV between different species and sub-species of non-human primates, a conclusion that differs from the hypothesis if of strict host specificity of HBV genotypes.

  15. Development of foraging skills in two orangutan populations: needing to learn or needing to grow?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuppli, Caroline; Forss, Sofia I F; Meulman, Ellen J M; Zweifel, Nicole; Lee, Kevin C; Rukmana, Evasari; Vogel, Erin R; van Noordwijk, Maria A; van Schaik, Carel P

    2016-01-01

    Orangutans have one of the slowest-paced life histories of all mammals. Whereas life-history theory suggests that the time to reach adulthood is constrained by the time needed to reach adult body size, the needing-to-learn hypothesis instead suggests that it is limited by the time needed to acquire adult-level skills. To test between these two hypotheses, we compared the development of foraging skills and growth trajectories of immature wild orangutans in two populations: at Tuanan (Pongo pygmaeus wurmbii), Borneo, and Suaq Balimbing (Pongo abelii), Sumatra. We collected behavioral data on diet repertoire, feeding rates and ranging competence during focal follows, and estimated growth through non-invasive laser photogrammetry. We found that adult-like diet repertoires are attained around the age of weaning and that female immatures increase their repertoire size faster than their male peers. Adult-level feeding rates of easy techniques are reached just after weaning, but several years later for more difficult techniques, albeit always before adulthood (i.e. age at first reproduction). Independent immatures had faster feeding rates for easy to process items than their mothers, with male immatures achieving faster feeding rates earlier in development relative to females. Sumatran immatures reach adult-level feeding rates 2-3 years later than their Bornean peers, in line with their higher dietary complexity and later weaning. The range-use competence of independently ranging and weaned immatures is similar to that of adult females. Body size measurements showed, immatures grow until female age of first reproduction. In conclusion, unlike in humans, orangutan foraging skills are in place prior to reproduction. Growth trajectories suggest that energetic constraints, rather than skills, best explain the length of immaturity. However, skill competence for dietary independence is reached later where the adult niche is more complex, which is consistent with the relatively

  16. Human-Specific SNP in Obesity Genes, Adrenergic Receptor Beta2 (ADRB2), Beta3 (ADRB3), and PPAR γ2 (PPARG), during Primate Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takenaka, Akiko; Nakamura, Shin; Mitsunaga, Fusako; Inoue-Murayama, Miho; Udono, Toshifumi; Suryobroto, Bambang

    2012-01-01

    Adrenergic-receptor beta2 (ADRB2) and beta3 (ADRB3) are obesity genes that play a key role in the regulation of energy balance by increasing lipolysis and thermogenesis. The Glu27 allele in ADRB2 and the Arg64 allele in ADRB3 are associated with abdominal obesity and early onset of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) in many ethnic groups. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARG) is required for adipocyte differentiation. Pro12Ala mutation decreases PPARG activity and resistance to NIDDM. In humans, energy-expense alleles, Gln27 in ADRB2 and Trp64 in ADRB3, are at higher frequencies than Glu27 and Arg64, respectively, but Ala12 in PPARG is at lower frequency than Pro12. Adaptation of humans for lipolysis, thermogenesis, and reduction of fat accumulation could be considered by examining which alleles in these genes are dominant in non-human primates (NHP). All NHP (P. troglodytes, G. gorilla, P. pygmaeus, H. agilis and macaques) had energy-thrifty alleles, Gly16 and Glu27 in ADRB2, and Arg64 in ADRB3, but did not have energy-expense alleles, Arg16, Gln27 and Trp64 alleles. In PPARG gene, all NHP had large adipocyte accumulating type, the Pro12 allele. Conclusions These results indicate that a tendency to produce much more heat through the energy-expense alleles developed only in humans, who left tropical rainforests for savanna and developed new features in their heat-regulation systems, such as reduction of body hair and increased evaporation of water, and might have helped the protection of entrails from cold at night, especially in glacial periods. PMID:22937051

  17. Persistent viremia by a novel parvovirus in a slow loris (Nycticebus coucang with diffuse histiocytic sarcoma

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    Marta eCanuti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is one of the leading health concerns for human and animal health. Since the tumorigenesis process is not completely understood and it is known that some viruses can induce carcinogenesis, it is highly important to identify novel oncoviruses and extensively study underlying oncogenic mechanisms. Here, we investigated a case of diffuse histiocytic sarcoma in a 22 years old slow loris (Nycticebus coucang, using a broad spectrum virus discovery technique. A novel parvovirus was discovered and the phylogenetic analysis performed on its fully sequenced genome demonstrated that it represents the first member of a novel genus. The possible causative correlation between this virus and the malignancy was further investigated and 20 serum and 61 organ samples from 25 animals (N. coucang and N. pygmaeus were screened for the novel virus but only samples collected from the originally infected animal were positive. The virus was present in all tested organs (intestine, liver, spleen, kidneys and lungs and in all banked serum samples collected up to 8 years before death. All attempts to identify a latent viral form (integrated or episomal were unsuccessful and the increase of variation in the viral sequences during the years was consistent with absence of latency. Since it is well known that parvoviruses are dependent on cell division to successfully replicate, we hypothesized that the virus could have benefitted from the constantly dividing cancer cells and may not have been the cause of the histiocytic sarcoma. It is also possible to conjecture that the virus had a role in delaying the tumor progression and this report might bring new exciting opportunities in recognizing viruses to be used in cancer virotherapy.

  18. Correlative 3D-imaging of Pipistrellus penis micromorphology: Validating quantitative microCT images with undecalcified serial ground section histomorphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herdina, Anna Nele; Plenk, Hanns; Benda, Petr; Lina, Peter H C; Herzig-Straschil, Barbara; Hilgers, Helge; Metscher, Brian D

    2015-06-01

    Detailed knowledge of histomorphology is a prerequisite for the understanding of function, variation, and development. In bats, as in other mammals, penis and baculum morphology are important in species discrimination and phylogenetic studies. In this study, nondestructive 3D-microtomographic (microCT, µCT) images of bacula and iodine-stained penes of Pipistrellus pipistrellus were correlated with light microscopic images from undecalcified surface-stained ground sections of three of these penes of P. pipistrellus (1 juvenile). The results were then compared with µCT-images of bacula of P. pygmaeus, P. hanaki, and P. nathusii. The Y-shaped baculum in all studied Pipistrellus species has a proximal base with two club-shaped branches, a long slender shaft, and a forked distal tip. The branches contain a medullary cavity of variable size, which tapers into a central canal of variable length in the proximal baculum shaft. Both are surrounded by a lamellar and a woven bone layer and contain fatty marrow and blood vessels. The distal shaft consists of woven bone only, without a vascular canal. The proximal ends of the branches are connected with the tunica albuginea of the corpora cavernosa via entheses. In the penis shaft, the corpus spongiosum-surrounded urethra lies in a ventral grove of the corpora cavernosa, and continues in the glans under the baculum. The glans penis predominantly comprises an enlarged corpus spongiosum, which surrounds urethra and baculum. In the 12 studied juvenile and subadult P. pipistrellus specimens the proximal branches of the baculum were shorter and without marrow cavity, while shaft and distal tip appeared already fully developed. The present combination with light microscopic images from one species enabled a more reliable interpretation of histomorphological structures in the µCT-images from all four Pipistrellus species.

  19. Human-specific SNP in obesity genes, adrenergic receptor beta2 (ADRB2, Beta3 (ADRB3, and PPAR γ2 (PPARG, during primate evolution.

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    Akiko Takenaka

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Adrenergic-receptor beta2 (ADRB2 and beta3 (ADRB3 are obesity genes that play a key role in the regulation of energy balance by increasing lipolysis and thermogenesis. The Glu27 allele in ADRB2 and the Arg64 allele in ADRB3 are associated with abdominal obesity and early onset of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM in many ethnic groups. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARG is required for adipocyte differentiation. Pro12Ala mutation decreases PPARG activity and resistance to NIDDM. In humans, energy-expense alleles, Gln27 in ADRB2 and Trp64 in ADRB3, are at higher frequencies than Glu27 and Arg64, respectively, but Ala12 in PPARG is at lower frequency than Pro12. Adaptation of humans for lipolysis, thermogenesis, and reduction of fat accumulation could be considered by examining which alleles in these genes are dominant in non-human primates (NHP. All NHP (P. troglodytes, G. gorilla, P. pygmaeus, H. agilis and macaques had energy-thrifty alleles, Gly16 and Glu27 in ADRB2, and Arg64 in ADRB3, but did not have energy-expense alleles, Arg16, Gln27 and Trp64 alleles. In PPARG gene, all NHP had large adipocyte accumulating type, the Pro12 allele. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that a tendency to produce much more heat through the energy-expense alleles developed only in humans, who left tropical rainforests for savanna and developed new features in their heat-regulation systems, such as reduction of body hair and increased evaporation of water, and might have helped the protection of entrails from cold at night, especially in glacial periods.

  20. South to south learning in great ape conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoneveld-de Lange, Nicolien; Meijaard, Erik; Löhr, Ansje

    2016-06-01

    Despite evidence that killing of Bornean Orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus) in South-East Asia is a major threat to the species, few researchers and non-governmental conservationists have addressed it in management and research, and there is virtually no implementation of anti-killing strategies. In large parts of the Congo Basin, Central Africa, instead, illegal killing of great apes is acknowledged to be their largest threat, and many conservation strategies have been used to reduce killing pressure. However, since these strategies have not been subject to systematic and comprehensive review, it remains unclear which of them have been successful and why. Knowledge of the success, failure, and practices of common conservation strategies to manage great ape killing is critical to ensure adaptive conservation management in the Congo Basin. Understanding the Congo context also facilitates simultaneously highlighting great ape killing in Borneo and suggesting solutions to manage orangutan killing. Here, we compile and analyze the available literature on great ape conservation strategies for reducing killing rates in the Congo Basin. Through a systematic literature review of 198 publications, we find that the most widely employed conservation strategies in the Congo Basin are legislation and law enforcement, protected area management, community-based conservation, alternatives to bushmeat consumption and trade, ecotourism, education, and capacity building. Despite lack of rigorous post-intervention evaluation of conservation impact, we derive several recommendations for addressing the orangutan killing issue in Borneo. A critical lesson, widely applicable to developing countries for conservationists and not limited to Congo Basin realities, is the need for rigorous post-intervention evaluations compared to pre-intervention baselines and over appropriate time frames. Am. J. Primatol. 78:669-678, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Human-specific SNP in obesity genes, adrenergic receptor beta2 (ADRB2), Beta3 (ADRB3), and PPAR γ2 (PPARG), during primate evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takenaka, Akiko; Nakamura, Shin; Mitsunaga, Fusako; Inoue-Murayama, Miho; Udono, Toshifumi; Suryobroto, Bambang

    2012-01-01

    Adrenergic-receptor beta2 (ADRB2) and beta3 (ADRB3) are obesity genes that play a key role in the regulation of energy balance by increasing lipolysis and thermogenesis. The Glu27 allele in ADRB2 and the Arg64 allele in ADRB3 are associated with abdominal obesity and early onset of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) in many ethnic groups. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARG) is required for adipocyte differentiation. Pro12Ala mutation decreases PPARG activity and resistance to NIDDM. In humans, energy-expense alleles, Gln27 in ADRB2 and Trp64 in ADRB3, are at higher frequencies than Glu27 and Arg64, respectively, but Ala12 in PPARG is at lower frequency than Pro12. Adaptation of humans for lipolysis, thermogenesis, and reduction of fat accumulation could be considered by examining which alleles in these genes are dominant in non-human primates (NHP). All NHP (P. troglodytes, G. gorilla, P. pygmaeus, H. agilis and macaques) had energy-thrifty alleles, Gly16 and Glu27 in ADRB2, and Arg64 in ADRB3, but did not have energy-expense alleles, Arg16, Gln27 and Trp64 alleles. In PPARG gene, all NHP had large adipocyte accumulating type, the Pro12 allele. These results indicate that a tendency to produce much more heat through the energy-expense alleles developed only in humans, who left tropical rainforests for savanna and developed new features in their heat-regulation systems, such as reduction of body hair and increased evaporation of water, and might have helped the protection of entrails from cold at night, especially in glacial periods.

  2. Serological evidence of Ebola virus infection in Indonesian orangutans.

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    Chairul A Nidom

    Full Text Available Ebola virus (EBOV and Marburg virus (MARV belong to the family Filoviridae and cause severe hemorrhagic fever in humans and nonhuman primates. Despite the discovery of EBOV (Reston virus in nonhuman primates and domestic pigs in the Philippines and the serological evidence for its infection of humans and fruit bats, information on the reservoirs and potential amplifying hosts for filoviruses in Asia is lacking. In this study, serum samples collected from 353 healthy Bornean orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus in Kalimantan Island, Indonesia, during the period from December 2005 to December 2006 were screened for filovirus-specific IgG antibodies using a highly sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA with recombinant viral surface glycoprotein (GP antigens derived from multiple species of filoviruses (5 EBOV and 1 MARV species. Here we show that 18.4% (65/353 and 1.7% (6/353 of the samples were seropositive for EBOV and MARV, respectively, with little cross-reactivity among EBOV and MARV antigens. In these positive samples, IgG antibodies to viral internal proteins were also detected by immunoblotting. Interestingly, while the specificity for Reston virus, which has been recognized as an Asian filovirus, was the highest in only 1.4% (5/353 of the serum samples, the majority of EBOV-positive sera showed specificity to Zaire, Sudan, Cote d'Ivoire, or Bundibugyo viruses, all of which have been found so far only in Africa. These results suggest the existence of multiple species of filoviruses or unknown filovirus-related viruses in Indonesia, some of which are serologically similar to African EBOVs, and transmission of the viruses from yet unidentified reservoir hosts into the orangutan populations. Our findings point to the need for risk assessment and continued surveillance of filovirus infection of human and nonhuman primates, as well as wild and domestic animals, in Asia.

  3. Brachyceran Diptera (Insecta) in Cretaceous ambers, Part IV, Significant New Orthorrhaphous Taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaldi, David A; Arillo, Antonio; Cumming, Jeffrey M; Hauser, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Thirteen species of basal Brachycera (11 described as new) are reported, belonging to nine families and three infraorders. They are preserved in amber from the Early Cretaceous (Neocomian) of Lebanon, Albian of northern Spain, upper Albian to lower Cenomanian of northern Myanmar, and Late Cretaceous of New Jersey USA (Turonian) and Alberta, Canada (Campanian). Taxa are as follows, with significance as noted: In Stratiomyomorpha: Stratiomyidae (Cretaceogaster pygmaeus Teskey [2 new specimens in Canadian amber], Lysistrata emerita Grimaldi & Arillo, gen. et sp. n. [stem-group species of the family in Spanish amber]), and Xylomyidae (Cretoxyla azari Grimaldi & Cumming, gen. et sp. n. [in Lebanese amber], and an undescribed species from Spain). In Tabanomorpha: Tabanidae (Cratotabanus newjerseyensis Grimaldi, sp. n., in New Jersey amber). In Muscomorpha: Acroceridae (Schlingeromyia minuta Grimaldi & Hauser, gen. et sp. n. and Burmacyrtus rusmithi Grimaldi & Hauser gen. etsp. n., in Burmese amber, the only definitive species of the family from the Cretaceous); Mythicomyiidae (Microburmyia analvena Grimaldi & Cumming gen. et sp. n. and Microburmyia veanalvena Grimaldi & Cumming, sp. n., stem-group species of the family, both in Burmese amber); Apsilocephalidae or near (therevoid family-group) (Kumaromyia burmitica Grimaldi & Hauser, gen. et sp. n. [in Burmese amber]); Apystomyiidae (Hilarimorphites burmanica Grimaldi & Cumming, sp. n. [in Burmese amber], whose closest relatives are from the Late Jurassic of Kazachstan, the Late Cretaceous of New Jersey, and Recent of California). Lastly, two species belonging to families incertae sedis, both in Burmese amber: Tethepomyiidae (Tethepomyia zigrasi Grimaldi & Arillo sp. n., the aculeate oviscapt of which indicates this family was probably parasitoidal and related to Eremochaetidae); and unplaced to family is Myanmyia asteiformia Grimaldi, gen. et sp. n., a minute fly with highly reduced venation. These new taxa significantly

  4. A cryptic species of the Tylonycteris pachypus complex (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) and its population genetic structure in southern China and nearby regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chujing; Yu, Wenhua; Xu, Zhongxian; Qiu, Yuanxiong; Chen, Miao; Qiu, Bing; Motokawa, Masaharu; Harada, Masashi; Li, Yuchun; Wu, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Three distinct bamboo bat species (Tylonycteris) are known to inhabit tropical and subtropical areas of Asia, i.e., T. pachypus, T. robustula, and T. pygmaeus. This study performed karyotypic examinations of 4 specimens from southern Chinese T. p. fulvidus populations and one specimen from Thai T. p. fulvidus population, which detected distinct karyotypes (2n=30) compared with previous karyotypic descriptions of T. p. pachypus (2n=46) and T. robustula (2n=32) from Malaysia. This finding suggested a cryptic Tylonycteris species within T. pachypus complex in China and Thailand. Morphometric studies indicated the difficulty in distinguishing the cryptic species and T. p. pachypus from Indonesia apart from the external measurements, which might be the reason for their historical misidentification. Based on 623 bp mtDNA COI segments, a phylogeographic examination including T. pachypus individuals from China and nearby regions, i.e., Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia, was conducted to examine the population genetic structure. Genealogical and phylogeographical results indicated that at least two diverged lineages existed in these regions (average 3.4 % of Kimura 2-parameter distances) and their population structure did not match the geographic pattern. These results suggested that at least two historical colonizations have occurred by the cryptic species. Furthermore, through integration of traditional and geometric morphological results, morphological differences on zygomatic arches, toothrows and bullae were detected between two lineages in China. Given the similarity of vegetation and climate of Guangdong and Guangxi regions, we suggested that such differences might be derived from their historical adaptation or distinct evolutionary history rather than the differences of habitats they occurred currently.

  5. Dental development and life history in living African and Asian apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Jay; Schwartz, Gary T

    2010-01-19

    Life-history inference is an important aim of paleoprimatology, but life histories cannot be discerned directly from the fossil record. Among extant primates, the timing of many life-history attributes is correlated with the age at emergence of the first permanent molar (M1), which can therefore serve as a means to directly compare the life histories of fossil and extant species. To date, M1 emergence ages exist for only a small fraction of extant primate species and consist primarily of data from captive individuals, which may show accelerated dental eruption compared with free-living individuals. Data on M1 emergence ages in wild great apes exist for only a single chimpanzee individual, with data for gorillas and orangutans being anecdotal. This paucity of information limits our ability to make life-history inferences using the M1 emergence ages of extinct ape and hominin species. Here we report reliable ages at M1 emergence for the orangutan, Pongo pygmaeus (4.6 y), and the gorilla, Gorilla gorilla (3.8 y), obtained from the dental histology of wild-shot individuals in museum collections. These ages and the one reported age at M1 emergence in a free-living chimpanzee of approximately 4.0 y are highly concordant with the comparative life histories of these great apes. They are also consistent with the average age at M1 emergence in relation to the timing of life-history events in modern humans, thus confirming the utility of M1 emergence ages for life-history inference and providing a basis for making reliable life-history inferences for extinct apes and hominins.

  6. CATFISH KECIL UNIK, Corydoras sp. UNTUK AKUARIUM, TINGKAH LAKU BIOLOGI DAN REPRODUKSINYA

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    Darti Satyani

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Corydoras sp. termasuk dalam familia Collichthyidae, kelas Siluridae dan sangat dikenal olah para hobiis ikan hias air tawar. Genus Corydoras yang berasal dari Amerika Selatan ini mempunyai banyak spesies tetapi yang banyak beredar dan sudah dibudidayakan ada 10 spesies yaitu C. aeneus, C. adolfoi, C. barbatus, C. paleatus, C. panda, C. pygmaeus, C. rabauti, C. septentrionalis, C. sterbai, dan C. sychri. Selain ukurannya yang umumnya kecil (maksimum 7,5 cm dibandingkan dengan jenis catfish lain, jenis ini mempunyai dua baris sisik keras. Bentuk badannya kompak agak pipih ke samping dengan mulut menghadap ke bawah. Hidup merayap di dasar pada suhu 24°C--28°C (tergantung spesiesnya; pH 7,0--7,5; dan hardness sekitar 10° dH. Disebut “tukang bersih-bersih” karena senang membersihkan dinding akuarium dengan mulutnya. Tingkah laku reproduksinya amat unik. Sebelum ovulasi induk betina akan menempatkan mulutnya kearah genital induk jantan yang dikenal dengan “posisi T” dan akan mengisap spermanya. Sperma ini akan dilepas melewati usus bersama dengan lepasnya telur kedalam “kantong” yang dibentuk oleh kedua sirip perutnya. Pembuahan efektif terjadi di sini. Kemudian telur akan dilekatkan ke substrat atau objek (daun, batu datar, dan sebagainya yang sebelumnya telah dibersihkan oleh induk jantannya. Telur yang ditinggalkan akan menetas di substrat bila kondisi airnya sesuai dan cukup baik.

  7. Rapid population collapse of the critically endangered Valencia letourneuxi in Kalamas basin of Northwest Greece

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    Ioannis Paschos

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess the current status of the critically endangered Valencia letourneuxi in Kalamas River basin, an extensive field survey including twelve sampling stations was undertaken using back-pack electrofishing device, D-shaped frame net and small mesh size nets in October 2008. In total, 552 fish specimens were collected, belonging to ten freshwater fish species, plus mullets (collectively grouped as Mugil spp.. V. letourneuxi was found at one station (Anakoli ditch (8.3% of sampling stations, at very low relative density (0.95%, where it co-occurred with the loach Cobitis hellenica, the goby Economidichthys pygmaeus and the introduced Eastern mosquitofish Gambusia holbrooki, with the last at very high relative densities. Moreover, water samples from selected stations were phasmatophotometrically analysed for ΝΗ3-Ν, ΝΗ3, ΝΗ4, ΝΟ2-Ν, ΝΟ2, ΝaΝΟ2, NO3-N, NO3, PO4, P and P2O5. Overall, V. letourneuxi was extirpated from one of its two previously known populations in this basin and its single surviving population was characterized by low local relative density and steep decline in relation to recent records (2005. Moreover, the presence at very high densities of the G. holbrooki as well as the increased eutrophication (due to high ammonia and phosphorus inputs in its highly modified habitat, suggest a rapid population collapse with significant risk of extirpation from Kalamas basin in the near future. The necessary conservation measures are outlined.

  8. Damselflies of the genus Argia of the Guiana Shield (Odonata: Coenagrionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Rosser W; Von Ellenrieder, Natalia

    2015-11-16

    (Holotype ♂: Brazil, Amazonas State, Manaus, about 5 miles N of Flores on route to Campos Sales, small creek in virgin forest, about 3°0'S, 60°1' W, 15 vi 1922, J.H. Williamson & J.W. Strohm leg., in UMMZ), and A. recurvata (Holotype ♂: Venezuela, Amazonas State, San Carlos de Río Negro, 1°55' N, 67°4' W, 97 m, 14-21 iii 1984, J. De Marmels leg., in MIZA). The status of Argia impura Rambur, 1842, is discussed and the following nomenclatural changes are proposed: Argia stigmatica Navás, 1934 and A. umbriaca Fraser, 1946 are considered junior synonyms of Argia indicatrix Calvert, 1902, and Argia eliptica Selys, 1865 and A. icterica Navás, 1934 are considered junior synonyms of A. oculata Hagen in Selys, 1865.

  9. Estudio taxonómico preliminar de los Grylloidea de España (Insecta, Orthoptera

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    Gorochov, A. V.

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper a taxonomic and faunistic study of the superfamily of Grylloidea of Spain including the Balearic and Canary Islands is carried on. Sixty species and subspecies are reported for the study area, six of them new to science: Petaloptila (P. fermini, P. (P. isabelae, P. (Zapetaloptila venosa, P. (Z. barrancoi, Paramogoplistes dentatus sp. n. and Grylloderes orlovskajae adventicius subsp. n.; likewise are erected two new subgenera Italoptila and Zapetaloptila. One correct synonymy of the genus Grylloderes Bolívar, 1894 (=Platygryllus Chopard, 1961, syn. dist., seven specific synonymies are established: Gryllomorpha (G. dalmatina (Ocskay, 1832 (=Gryllomorpha dalmatina strumae Andreeva, 1982, syn. n., Petaloptila (P. aliena (Brunner-Wattenwyl, 1882 (=Discoptila eitschbergeri Harz, 1976, syn. n., Acheta hispanicus Rambur, 1839 (=Gryllus erythrospilus Walker, 1869, syn. n., Gryllus hispanicus var. fusculus Bolívar, 1927, syn. n., Eumodicogryllus bordigalensis (Latreille, 1802 (=Gryllodes ferdinandi Bolívar, 1899, syn. n., Gryllus chinensis var. intermedia Bolívar, 1927, syn. n., Eugryllodes pipiens (Dufour, 1820 (=Gryllodes pipiens var. provincialis Azam, 1901, syn. n. and besides five new status and one new combination. Three species [Eumodicogryllus theryi (Chopard, 1943, Sciobia natalia Gorochov, 1985 and Oecanthus dulcisonans Gorochov, 1993] are recorded for the first time for the Iberian Peninsula, being the former two also new for Europe, one (Svercus p. palmetorum Krauss, 1902 for Peninsular Spain, three [Natula averni (Costa, 1855, comb. n., Acanthogryllus acus Gorochov, 1988, under this name, and Pseudomogoplistes vicentae Gorochov, 1996], for the Canary Islands, being latter recorded also for the first time for Algeria and

  10. 蜂猴、倭蜂猴肢端特征%Characteristics of the limb in slow loris and pygmy loris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢朝晖; 胡建业; 周孟业; 邓大军

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To explore the morphological characteristics of the limbs in slow loris (Nycticebus coucang)and pygmy loris (Nycticebus pygmaeus).Methods:7 adult slow loris (2 male,5 female) and 4 adult pygmy loris (3 male,1 female) were observed and their length of the digit was measured.Results:The limbs in the slow loris were bigger than those in the pygmy loris.Both the second digit in the slow loris and the pygmy loris had 1-1.2 cm nail in the length curling to middle part,others digits were flat.The order of the length of the digit in the forelimb was 4>3>5>1>2 and 4>3>5>2>1 in the hindlimb in the slow loris.There existed differences between the lengths of the digit of the forelimb and hindlimb in the slow loris.However,the order of the digit of the forelimb and hindlimb in length was 4>3>5>1>2 in pygmy loris.Conclusion:Those distinctive morphological differences in forelimb and hindlimb between the slow loris and pygmy loris are related with the species feature.%目的:研究蜂猴、倭蜂猴肢端形态的种属特征.方法:本研究通过观察成年7只蜂猴(2雄,5雌)和4只倭蜂猴(3雄,1雌),测量了它们的指(趾)骨长度,并将所得数据进行了分析.结果:蜂猴肢端大于倭蜂猴;蜂猴和倭蜂猴的第2趾端均有长1~1.2cm卷向内侧的细长趾甲,而其他指(趾)甲均呈扁平状.蜂猴的指骨长度顺序依次为4>3>5>1>2,趾骨顺序为4>3>5>2>1,指骨与趾骨长度排序有差异;倭蜂猴的指骨与趾骨排序无差异,都是4>3>5>1>2.结论:蜂猴和倭蜂猴其肢端形态差异与种属特征相关.

  11. Ocular oxyspirurosis of primates in zoos: intermediate host, worm morphology, and probable origin of the infection in the Moscow zoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, E; Spiridonov, S; Bain, O

    2007-12-01

    Over the last century, only two cases of ocular oxyspirurosis were recorded in primates, both in zoos, and two species were described: in Berlin, Germany, Oxyspirura (O.) conjunctivalis from the lemurid Microcebus murinus, later also found in the lorisid Loris gracilis; in Jacksonville, Florida, O. (O.) youngi from the cercopithecid monkey Erythrocebus patas. In the present case from the Moscow zoo, oxyspirurosis was recorded in several species of Old World lemuriforms and lorisiforms, and some South American monkeys. i) The intermediate host was discovered to be a cockroach, as for O. (O.) mansoni, a parasite of poultry. The complete sequence identity between ITS-1 rDNA from adult nematodes of the primate and that of the larval worms from the vector, Nauphoete cinerea, confirmed their conspecificity. ii) Parasites from Moscow zoo recovered from Nycticebus c. coucang were compared morphologically to those from other zoos. The length and shape of the gubernaculum, used previously as a distinct character, were found to be variable. However, the vulvar bosses arrangement, the distal extremity of left spicule and the position of papillae of the first postcloacal pair showed that the worms in the different samples were not exactly identical and that each set seemed characteristic of a particular zoo. iii) The presence of longitudinal cuticular crests in the infective stage as well as in adult worms was recorded. Together with several other morphological and biological characters (long tail and oesophagus, cockroach vector), this confirmed that Oxyspirura is not closely related to Thelazia, another ocular parasite genus. iv) The disease in the Moscow zoo is thought to have started with Nycticebus pygmaeus imported fromVietnam, thus the suggestion was that Asiatic lorisids were at the origin of the Moscow set of cases. The natural host(s) for the Berlin and Jacksonville cases remain unknown but they are unlikely to be the species found infected in zoos. Consequently the

  12. Ocular oxyspirurosis of primates in zoos: intermediate host, worm morphology, and probable origin of the infection in the Moscow zoo

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    Ivanova E.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the last century, only two cases of ocular oxyspirurosis were recorded in primates, both in zoos, and two species were described: in Berlin, Germany, Oxyspirura (O. conjunctivalis from the lemurid Microcebus murinus, later also found in the lorisid Loris gracilis; in Jacksonville, Florida, O. (O. youngi from the cercopithecid monkey Erythrocebus patas. In the present case from the Moscow zoo, oxyspirurosis was recorded in several species of Old World lemuriforms and lorisiforms, and some South American monkeys. i The intermediate host was discovered to be a cockroach, as for O. (O. mansoni, a parasite of poultry. The complete sequence identity between ITS-1 rDNA from adult nematodes of the primate and that of the larval worms from the vector, Nauphoete cinerea, confirmed their conspecificity. ii Parasites from Moscow zoo recovered from Nycticebus c. coucang were compared morphologically to those from other zoos. The length and shape of the gubernaculum, used previously as a distinct character, were found to be variable. However, the vulvar bosses arrangement, the distal extremity of left spicule and the position of papillae of the first postcloacal pair showed that the worms in the different samples were not exactly identical and that each set seemed characteristic of a particular zoo. iii The presence of longitudinal cuticular crests in the infective stage as well as in adult worms was recorded. Together with several other morphological and biological characters (long tail and oesophagus, cockroach vector, this confirmed that Oxyspirura is not closely related to Thelazia, another ocular parasite genus. iv The disease in the Moscow zoo is thought to have started with Nycticebus pygmaeus imported fromVietnam, thus the suggestion was that Asiatic lorisids were at the origin of the Moscow set of cases. The natural host(s for the Berlin and Jacksonville cases remain unknown but they are unlikely to be the species found infected in zoos

  13. Mesozooplankton community structure and variability in the Scotia Sea: A seasonal comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Peter; Atkinson, Angus; Tarling, Geraint

    2012-01-01

    Mesozooplankton distribution and community structure was investigated during 3 cruises to the Scotia Sea in austral spring, summer and autumn. Three mesh sizes of Bongo nets were used during each cruise with a 53 μm mesh net yielding on average 1.76 times higher densities (median 923,000 ind. m -2, 0-400 m) than a 100 μm net and 7.42 times more than a 200 μm net across all cruises. Small copepods dominated numerically across all nets with Oithona spp., Oncaea spp., Ctenocalanus citer and Microcalanus pygmaeus being particularly abundant, with sample densities of up to 3.5×10 6 ind. m -2 recorded within the top 400 m. A more even distribution of biomass among net sizes was apparent, with median net ratios (1.15-1.25) smaller and more even than for abundance. To the south of the Scotia Sea plankton maxima occurred in autumn, consistent with a later spawning in many species, whereas further north, abundance in 53 and 100 μm nets varied little across seasons, although in the 200 μm net there was a clear summer maximum. Median biomass increased through summer and by autumn was twice than found during spring in all parts of the Scotia Sea. Cluster analysis indicated two main station groups in all 3 seasons. To the south of the Southern boundary of the ACC (SB-ACC), Group 1 contained stations, that lay within the seasonal sea-ice zone and where zooplankton abundance and biomass was persistently low. In contrast at Group 2 stations, north of the Southern Antarctic Circumpolar Current Front (SACCF) abundance and biomass was consistently higher. Differences between the two groups were largely apparent at the population rather than at the taxonomic level. LHPR hauls to 1000 m indicated that the large seasonal migrant copepods Calanoides acutus and Rhincalanus gigas were at a more advanced stage of development in the north in spring and summer where they were generally present in the upper water column. In autumn, at all stations, C. acutus was dominated by later stages

  14. Distribución y estado de conservación de los quirópteros en Aragón

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    Alcalde, J. T.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In the period 2004-2006 a sampling of bats took place in Aragón. Traps were set in 47 forests and 67 potential shelters were inspected. Mist nets, harp traps, ultrasound detectors and video cameras were used. A total of 1197 specimens, belonging to 24 species, were captured; 529 records were obtained and the presence of at least 120 breeding colonies was identified (32 of them the common pipistrelle (Pipistrellus pipistrellus, 110 records and 30 breeding colonies, Savi’s pipistrelle (Hypsugo savii, 63 records and 11 colonies and Kuhl’s pipistrelle (Pipistrellus kuhlii, 48 records and 13 colonies. Reproduction data have been found for all species except for Myotis capaccinii, Myotis cf. nattereri, Nyctalus lasiopterus, Nyctalus leisleri and Eptesicus serotinus. The species found can be divided into four large groups: one of general and continuous distribution (P. pipistrellus, P. kuhlii, H. savii, E. serotinus and P. austriacus, another of general but discontinuous distribution (R. ferrumequinum, R. hipposideros, R. euryale, M. myotis, M. blythii, M. escalerae, M. emarginatus, M. daubentonii, P. pygmaeus, M. schreibersii and T. teniotis, a third of forest species, which were found only in some of the extensive wooded areas (Pyrenees, Moncayo and the south of Teruel: M. mystacinus, M. cf. nattereri, P. auritus, B. barbastellus, N. lasiopterus and N. leisleri and finally two very rare species in the region (M. capaccinii and P. macrobullaris. The distribution of these species in Aragon is shown and their status in relation to data obtained and the bibliography is reviewed.

    En el período 2004-2006 se ha realizado un muestreo de los quirópteros de Aragón. Se ha trampeado en 47 bosques y se han inspeccionado 67 refugios potenciales. Para ello se han utilizado redes finas, trampas de arpa, detectores de ultrasonidos, focos y cámaras de grabaci

  15. Levantamento de espécies de Odonata associadas à tanques de piscicultura e efeito de Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis sobre ninfas de Pantala flavescens (Fabricius, 1798 - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v26i1.1655 Odonata species survey associated with psiculture tanks and Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis effect on Pantala flavescens (Fabricius, 1798 nymphs (Odonata: Libellulidae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v26i1.1655

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    Douglas Moisés Quintilhiano

    2004-04-01

    foram alimentadas com larvas de mosquito da Família Culicidae e peixes recém-nascidos da espécie Poecilia cf. vivípara (Schneider, 1801. Foram identificadas as seguintes espécies: Ischnura fluvialis Selys, 1876; Aphylla theodorina (Navas, 1933; Brachymesia furcata (Hagen, 1861; Erythrodiplax fusca (Rambur, 1842; Miathyria marcella (Selys, 1857; Micrathyria almeidai Santos, 1945; Micrathyria hesperis Ris, 1911; Orthemis discolor (Burmeister, 1839; Perithemis mooma Kirby, 1889 e P. flavescens. Não houve efeito significativo do produto microbiano sobre a espécie estudadaSeveral psiculture stations that deal with fingerlings or ornamental fishes rearing have presented some problems with larvae preying, post-larvae and fingerlings by Odonata Order insect nymphs. Thus, the aim of this work was to survey the Odonata species present in fish-raising tanks in two towns of the Midwest region of Minas Gerais, and also to evaluate the effect of Bacillus thuringiensis var. Barjac israelensis on Pantala flavescens nymphs (Fabricius, 1798 (Odonata: Libellulidae. Fortnightly collections were performed over a three month period. The adult insects were captured with entomological nets and the nymphs with fine mesh sieves, coupled to wooden handles. The captured nymphs were taken to the laboratory where they were individualized in 2L plastic foam boxes and sealed in its upper extremity with tulle. Soon after the adults emergence, they were killed, packed into envelopes and sent to be identified. The laboratory experiments were conducted in an acclimatized room at 25 ± 2°C, RH of 70 ± 10% and 12-hour photophase. Second instar P. flavescens nymphs were packed individually into plastic foam boxes containing 500mL of chlorine free water each one. When they were in the third, fifth and seventh instars, they were treated with B. thuringiensis var. israelensis through the microbial product Vectobac® in granulate formulation. The product was directly applied to the rearing container

  16. 广西平乐鸡母岩发现的晚更新世人类牙齿化石%LATE PLEISTOCENE HOMININ TEETH FROM THE JIMUYAN CAVE,PINGLE COUNTY, GUANGXI,SOUTH CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王頠; 黄超林; 谢绍文; 鄢成林

    2011-01-01

    Five hominin teeth are recently discovered at the Jimuyan Cave in Pingle County, Southern China. The Jimuyan Cave is located at Juntang Village(24° 29' 52. 8" N,110° 50' 0. 79" E) ,20km southeast to the Pingle Town,with 163. 2m above the sea level. Mammalian fauna of the cave consists of eleven species,including: Macaca sp. ,Pongo pygmaeus weidenreichi, Hystrix cf. Subcristata, Ursus thibetanus ,Ahuropoda melanoleuca baconi ,Stegodon orhentalis, Tapirus sinensis,Sus scrofa,Muntiacus sp.,Cervus sp. And Bovidae gen. Et sp. Indet. This faunal assemblage contains four genera that are either extinct or no longer present in this region, including Stegodon, Tapirus, Ailuropoda and Pongo, which is distinctly different from that of Holocene, however similar to that of Late Pleistocene in Southern China. Thus, age of this fauna is dated to Late Pleistocene by biostratigraphy comparison. The hominin teeth in Jimuyan Cave are morphologically different from those of already known Homo erectus and Early Homo sapiens, nevertheless, similar to those of Late Homo sapiens in South China. This finding presents significant fossil evidence for the study of modern hunan origin and evolution in East Asia.The origin of modern humans is a controversial scientific topic at present. Based on fossil evidence of Homo sapiens in Africa are more ancient than that in Eastern Asia. With the results of molecular biology analysis, most of the anthropologists and geneticists support the hypothesis of modern humans originated in Africa. So far,the oldest fossils come from Omo-Kibish and Herto in Ethiopia, with the age of 160ka and 190ka respectively. The characteristics of these fossil skulls are intervenient between Homo sapiens and Homo heidelbergensis. Some of the hominin fossils,dated to 74 ~ 134ka,have been discovered at Klasies estuary in South Africa, but it is difficult to confirm whether these materials belong to modern human. Fossil hominin unearthed at Qafzeh and Skhul in Israel, Middle

  17. La Chirotterofauna della Puglia

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    Michele Bux

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Le conoscenze sulla chirotterofauna pugliese sono a tutt?oggi frammentarie, in quanto in letteratura sono disponibili dati parziali su aree ristrette o molto datati. Nel presente studio si espongono i primi risultati di una campagna sistematica di ricerca sulla chirotterofauna della Puglia, finalizzata all'aggiornamento dell'elenco faunistico e alla valutazione dello stato di conservazione delle popolazioni di Chirotteri. La ricerca si avvale per lo più di segnalazioni originali, ma anche di prospezioni di collezioni museali e dati di bibliografia. Per la gestione dei dati è stato realizzato un database informatizzato. Sono stati raccolti in totale 209 records relativi a 18 specie (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum, R. hipposideros, R. euryale, R. mehely, Myotis blythii, M. capaccini, M. daubentoni, M. emarginatus, M. myotis, Pipistrellus kuhli, P. pipistrellus/pygmaeus, Nyctalus leisleri, N. noctula, Hypsugo savii, Eptesicus serotinus, Plecotus austriacus, Miniopterus schreibersi e Tadarida teniotis, pari al 58% delle specie note per l'Italia. Il 30% (63 records delle segnalazioni è antecedente al 1960, il 7% (15 records è relativo al periodo compreso tra il 1961 e il 1980 e il 63% (131 records è successivo al 1980. Due specie Rhinolophus mehelyi e Myotis daubentoni non sono state più segnalate dopo il 1980, mentre una sola specie, Myotis emarginatus, è stata segnalata dopo il 1980. Il 60% dei records hanno riguardato 6 specie (R. ferrumequinum, R. hipposideros, R. euryale, P. kuhli, H. savii e M. schreibersi probabilmente in relazione alla loro maggiore diffusione e abbondanza e alla maggiore facilità di osservazione e studio, almeno per le specie dalle abitudini troglofile. I dati raccolti consentono una

  18. Primi dati sulla chirotterofauna del Parco Nazionale del Circeo (Lazio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Mastrobuoni

    2003-10-01

    specie rilevate fra il 1994 ed il 2001: Myotis emarginatus, Pipistrellus pygmaeus ed Hypsugo savii. La ricerca di rifugi invernali, condotta da ottobre 2002 a marzo 2003, non ha dato esito positivo. L?indagine relativa ai rifugi estivi, condotta nel 2002 ed attualmente in corso per il 2003, ha invece permesso di individuare una colonia mista di Rinolofidi e Vespertilionidi (settembre 2002 ed una colonia riproduttiva di Myotis daubentonii (giugno 2003; in alcuni siti sono stati trovati maschi isolati o in piccoli gruppi. I risultati finora ottenuti costituiscono sicuramente solo un primo quadro della chirotterofauna del Parco Nazionale del Circeo. Al fine di compilare una puntuale checklist dei Chirotteri e monitorare la ricchezza in specie e la diversità di questo gruppo di mammiferi del Parco, la presente ricerca continuerà anche nel corso del 2003; i risultati delle indagini di campo vengono anche utilizzati per pianificare azioni di conservazione nelle aree prioritarie per i Chirotteri.

  19. Fungal Planet description sheets: 469-557.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crous, P W; Wingfield, M J; Burgess, T I; Hardy, G E St J; Crane, C; Barrett, S; Cano-Lira, J F; Le Roux, J J; Thangavel, R; Guarro, J; Stchigel, A M; Martín, M P; Alfredo, D S; Barber, P A; Barreto, R W; Baseia, I G; Cano-Canals, J; Cheewangkoon, R; Ferreira, R J; Gené, J; Lechat, C; Moreno, G; Roets, F; Shivas, R G; Sousa, J O; Tan, Y P; Wiederhold, N P; Abell, S E; Accioly, T; Albizu, J L; Alves, J L; Antoniolli, Z I; Aplin, N; Araújo, J; Arzanlou, M; Bezerra, J D P; Bouchara, J-P; Carlavilla, J R; Castillo, A; Castroagudín, V L; Ceresini, P C; Claridge, G F; Coelho, G; Coimbra, V R M; Costa, L A; da Cunha, K C; da Silva, S S; Daniel, R; de Beer, Z W; Dueñas, M; Edwards, J; Enwistle, P; Fiuza, P O; Fournier, J; García, D; Gibertoni, T B; Giraud, S; Guevara-Suarez, M; Gusmão, L F P; Haituk, S; Heykoop, M; Hirooka, Y; Hofmann, T A; Houbraken, J; Hughes, D P; Kautmanová, I; Koppel, O; Koukol, O; Larsson, E; Latha, K P D; Lee, D H; Lisboa, D O; Lisboa, W S; López-Villalba, Á; Maciel, J L N; Manimohan, P; Manjón, J L; Marincowitz, S; Marney, T S; Meijer, M; Miller, A N; Olariaga, I; Paiva, L M; Piepenbring, M; Poveda-Molero, J C; Raj, K N A; Raja, H A; Rougeron, A; Salcedo, I; Samadi, R; Santos, T A B; Scarlett, K; Seifert, K A; Shuttleworth, L A; Silva, G A; Silva, M; Siqueira, J P Z; Souza-Motta, C M; Stephenson, S L; Sutton, D A; Tamakeaw, N; Telleria, M T; Valenzuela-Lopez, N; Viljoen, A; Visagie, C M; Vizzini, A; Wartchow, F; Wingfield, B D; Yurchenko, E; Zamora, J C; Groenewald, J Z

    2016-12-01

    Tacinga inamoena), Geastrum ishikawae on sandy soil, Geastrum pusillipilosum on soil, Gymnopus pygmaeus on dead leaves and sticks, Inonotus hymenonitens on decayed angiosperm trunk, Pyricularia urashimae on Urochloa brizantha, and Synnemellisia aurantia on Passiflora edulis. Chile: Tubulicrinis australis on Lophosoria quadripinnata.France: Cercophora squamulosa from submerged wood, and Scedosporium cereisporum from fluids of a wastewater treatment plant. Hawaii: Beltraniella acaciae, Dactylaria acaciae, Rhexodenticula acaciae, Rubikia evansii and Torula acaciae (all on Acacia koa).India: Lepidoderma echinosporum on dead semi-woody stems, and Rhodocybe rubrobrunnea from soil. Iran: Talaromyces kabodanensis from hypersaline soil. La Réunion: Neocordana musarum from leaves of Musa sp. Malaysia: Anungitea eucalyptigena on Eucalyptus grandis × pellita, Camptomeriphila leucaenae (incl. Camptomeriphila gen. nov.) on Leucaena leucocephala, Castanediella communis on Eucalyptus pellita, Eucalyptostroma eucalypti (incl. Eucalyptostroma gen. nov.) on Eucalyptus pellita, Melanconiella syzygii on Syzygium sp., Mycophilomyces periconiae (incl. Mycophilomyces gen. nov.) as hyperparasite on Periconia on leaves of Albizia falcataria, Synnemadiella eucalypti (incl. Synnemadiella gen. nov.) on Eucalyptus pellita, and Teichospora nephelii on Nephelium lappaceum.Mexico: Aspergillus bicephalus from soil. New Zealand: Aplosporella sophorae on Sophora microphylla, Libertasomyces platani on Platanus sp., Neothyronectria sophorae (incl. Neothyronectria gen. nov.) on Sophora microphylla, Parastagonospora phoenicicola on Phoenix canariensis, Phaeoacremonium pseudopanacis on Pseudopanax crassifolius, Phlyctema phoenicis on Phoenix canariensis, and Pseudoascochyta novae-zelandiae on Cordyline australis.Panama: Chalara panamensis from needle litter of Pinus cf. caribaea. South Africa: Exophiala eucalypti on leaves of Eucalyptus sp., Fantasmomyces hyalinus (incl. Fantasmomyces gen. nov.) on Acacia

  20. Down-core changes in molluscan death assemblages at Panzano Bay, an impacted area in the northern Adriatic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haselmair, Alexandra; Gallmetzer, Ivo; Stachowitsch, Michael; Tomasovych, Adam; Zuschin, Martin

    2016-04-01

    We use a historical ecology approach to shed light on the environmental history of the northern Adriatic Sea over the last hundreds to thousands of years. We focus on down-core changes in molluscan death assemblages, which serve as proxies for ecological shifts over time. The northern Adriatic Sea is particularly suited to study ecosystem modification under human pressure because it is among the most degraded marine ecosystems worldwide. We chose a sampling station in Panzano Bay, close the Isonzo River mouth and not far from the major industrial harbours of Trieste (Italy) and Koper (Slovenia), and traced down-core changes in molluscan community structure in correlation to major anthropogenic impacts that occurred here during the last centuries. Five sediment cores (1.5 m in length and diameters of 90 and 160 mm) were taken at a water depth of 12 m. We analysed grain size composition, the concentration of heavy metals and organic pollutants, and radiometrically dated the sediment using 210Pb. Furthermore, we dated shells of the abundant bivalve species Corbula gibba using 14C calibrated amino acid-racemisation (AAR). The whole molluscan community in the cores was analysed for species composition, abundance, taxonomic similarity, evidence for ecological interactions (i.e., frequencies of drilling predation) and taphonomic conditions of shells. The granulometric analysis shows that silt and clay dominate equally throughout the cores. Radiometric sediment dating revealed an average sedimentation rate of 2.5 mm/yr during the last 120 years. Shell dating points to a comparable overall core age, with only a few shell specimens being older than 500 years in the deepest core layer. In total, 10,452 mollusc individuals were analysed and 104 species identified. The most abundant bivalve species are Kurtiella bidentata, Corbula gibba and Abra nitida. Turritella communis and Nassarius pygmaeus are the most frequent gastropod species. Down-core changes in species composition