WorldWideScience

Sample records for macroinvertebrates electronic resource

  1. Long Term Resource Monitoring Program Annual Status Report, 1999: Macroinvertebrate Sampling in Six Reaches of the Upper Mississippi River System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sauer, Jennifer

    2000-01-01

    In 1992, macroinvertebrate sampling was initiated in Pools 4, 8, 13, 26, and the Open River reach of the Mississippi River, and La Orange Pool of the Illinois River as part of the Long Term Resource Monitoring Program...

  2. Land Use Influences Niche Size and the Assimilation of Resources by Benthic Macroinvertebrates in Tropical Headwater Streams.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Marcel Parreira de Castro

    Full Text Available It is well recognized that assemblage structure of stream macroinvertebrates changes with alterations in catchment or local land use. Our objective was to understand how the trophic ecology of benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages responds to land use changes in tropical streams. We used the isotope methodology to assess how energy flow and trophic relations among macroinvertebrates were affected in environments affected by different land uses (natural cover, pasture, sugar cane plantation. Macroinvertebrates were sampled and categorized into functional feeding groups, and available trophic resources were sampled and evaluated for the isotopic composition of 13C and 15N along streams located in the Cerrado (neotropical savanna. Streams altered by pasture or sugar cane had wider and more overlapped trophic niches, which corresponded to more generalist feeding habits. In contrast, trophic groups in streams with native vegetation had narrower trophic niches with smaller overlaps, suggesting greater specialization. Pasture sites had greater ranges of resources exploited, indicating higher trophic diversity than sites with natural cover and sugar cane plantation. We conclude that agricultural land uses appears to alter the food base and shift macroinvertebrate assemblages towards more generalist feeding behaviors and greater overlap of the trophic niches.

  3. Electronic Resource Management Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Ellingsen

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Computer applications which deal with electronic resource management (ERM are quite a recent development. They have grown out of the need to manage the burgeoning number of electronic resources particularly electronic journals. Typically, in the early years of e-journal acquisition, library staff provided an easy means of accessing these journals by providing an alphabetical list on a web page. Some went as far as categorising the e-journals by subject and then grouping the journals either on a single web page or by using multiple pages. It didn't take long before it was recognised that it would be more efficient to dynamically generate the pages from a database rather than to continually edit the pages manually. Of course, once the descriptive metadata for an electronic journal was held within a database the next logical step was to provide administrative forms whereby that metadata could be manipulated. This in turn led to demands for incorporating more information and more functionality into the developing application.

  4. Electronic Resource Management and Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Kimberly R.

    2015-01-01

    We have now reached a tipping point at which electronic resources comprise more than half of academic library budgets. Because of the increasing work associated with the ever-increasing number of e-resources, there is a trend to distribute work throughout the library even in the presence of an electronic resources department. In 2013, the author…

  5. Resource stoichiometry and availability modulate species richness and biomass of tropical litter macro-invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jochum, Malte; Barnes, Andrew D; Weigelt, Patrick; Ott, David; Rembold, Katja; Farajallah, Achmad; Brose, Ulrich

    2017-09-01

    High biodiversity and biomass of soil communities are crucial for litter decomposition in terrestrial ecosystems such as tropical forests. However, the leaf litter that these communities consume is of particularly poor quality as indicated by elemental stoichiometry. The impact of resource quantity, quality and other habitat parameters on species richness and biomass of consumer communities is often studied in isolation, although much can be learned from simultaneously studying both community characteristics. Using a dataset of 780 macro-invertebrate consumer species across 32 sites in tropical lowland rain forest and agricultural systems on Sumatra, Indonesia, we investigated the effects of basal resource stoichiometry (C:X ratios of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, S in local leaf litter), litter mass (basal resource quantity and habitat space), plant species richness (surrogate for litter habitat heterogeneity), and soil pH (acidity) on consumer species richness and biomass across different consumer groups (i.e. 3 feeding guilds and 10 selected taxonomic groups). In order to distinguish the most important predictors of consumer species richness and biomass, we applied a standardised model averaging approach investigating the effects of basal resource stoichiometry, litter mass, plant species richness and soil pH on both consumer community characteristics. This standardised approach enabled us to identify differences and similarities in the magnitude and importance of such effects on consumer species richness and biomass. Across consumer groups, we found litter mass to be the most important predictor of both species richness and biomass. Resource stoichiometry had a more pronounced impact on consumer species richness than on their biomass. As expected, taxonomic groups differed in which resource and habitat parameters (basal resource stoichiometry, litter mass, plant species richness and pH) were most important for modulating their community characteristics. The importance

  6. Managing electronic resources a LITA guide

    CERN Document Server

    Weir, Ryan O

    2012-01-01

    Informative, useful, current, Managing Electronic Resources: A LITA Guide shows how to successfully manage time, resources, and relationships with vendors and staff to ensure personal, professional, and institutional success.

  7. Electronic Resources Management Project Presentation 2012

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2012-11-05

    This presentation describes the electronic resources management project undertaken by the KAUST library. The objectives of this project is to migrate information from MS Sharepoint to Millennium ERM module. One of the advantages of this migration is to consolidate all electronic resources into a single and centralized location. This would allow for better information sharing among library staff.

  8. Implementing CORAL: An Electronic Resource Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    A 2010 electronic resource management survey conducted by Maria Collins of North Carolina State University and Jill E. Grogg of University of Alabama Libraries found that the top six electronic resources management priorities included workflow management, communications management, license management, statistics management, administrative…

  9. Electronic Resources Management System: Recommendation Report 2017

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-01-01

    This recommendation report provides an overview of the selection process for the new Electronic Resources Management System. The library has decided to move away from Innovative Interfaces Millennium ERM module. The library reviewed 3 system

  10. Electronic Resources Management Project Presentation 2012

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2012-01-01

    This presentation describes the electronic resources management project undertaken by the KAUST library. The objectives of this project is to migrate information from MS Sharepoint to Millennium ERM module. One of the advantages of this migration

  11. PRINCIPLES OF CONTENT FORMATION EDUCATIONAL ELECTRONIC RESOURCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О Ю Заславская

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers modern possibilities of information and communication technologies for the design of electronic educational resources. The conceptual basis of the open educational multimedia system is based on the modular architecture of the electronic educational resource. The content of the electronic training module can be implemented in several versions of the modules: obtaining information, practical exercises, control. The regularities in the teaching process in modern pedagogical theory are considered: general and specific, and the principles for the formation of the content of instruction at different levels are defined, based on the formulated regularities. On the basis of the analysis, the principles of the formation of the electronic educational resource are determined, taking into account the general and didactic patterns of teaching.As principles of the formation of educational material for obtaining information for the electronic educational resource, the article considers: the principle of methodological orientation, the principle of general scientific orientation, the principle of systemic nature, the principle of fundamentalization, the principle of accounting intersubject communications, the principle of minimization. The principles of the formation of the electronic training module of practical studies in the article include: the principle of systematic and dose based consistency, the principle of rational use of study time, the principle of accessibility. The principles of the formation of the module for monitoring the electronic educational resource can be: the principle of the operationalization of goals, the principle of unified identification diagnosis.

  12. Electronic Resources Management System: Recommendation Report 2017

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-05-01

    This recommendation report provides an overview of the selection process for the new Electronic Resources Management System. The library has decided to move away from Innovative Interfaces Millennium ERM module. The library reviewed 3 system as potential replacements namely: Proquest 360 Resource Manager, Ex Libris Alma and Open Source CORAL ERMS. After comparing and trialling the systems, it was decided to go for Proquest 360 Resource Manager.

  13. CHALLENGES OF ELECTRONIC INFORMATION RESOURCES IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses the role of policy for proper and efficient library services in the electronic era. It points out some of the possible dangers of embarking in electronic resources without a proper focus at hand. Thus, it calls for today's librarians and policy makers to brainstorm and come up with working policies suitable to ...

  14. Library training to promote electronic resource usage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Tove Faber; Tibyampansha, Dativa; Ibrahim, Glory

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Increasing the usage of electronic resources is an issue of concern for many libraries all over the world. Several studies stress the importance of information literacy and instruction in order to increase the usage. Design/methodology/approach: The present article presents the results...

  15. Electronic resource management systems a workflow approach

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Elsa K

    2014-01-01

    To get to the bottom of a successful approach to Electronic Resource Management (ERM), Anderson interviewed staff at 11 institutions about their ERM implementations. Among her conclusions, presented in this issue of Library Technology Reports, is that grasping the intricacies of your workflow-analyzing each step to reveal the gaps and problems-at the beginning is crucial to selecting and implementing an ERM. Whether the system will be used to fill a gap, aggregate critical data, or replace a tedious manual process, the best solution for your library depends on factors such as your current soft

  16. use of electronic resources by graduate students of the department

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    respondent's access electronic resources from the internet via Cybercafé .There is a high ... KEY WORDS: Use, Electronic Resources, Graduate Students, Cybercafé. INTRODUCTION ... Faculty of Education, University of Uyo, Uyo. Olu Olat ...

  17. L-Lake macroinvertebrate community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Specht, W.L.

    1996-06-01

    To characterize the present benthic macroinvertebrate community of L-Lake, Regions 5 and 7 of the reservoir were sampled in September 1995 at the same locations sampled in 1988 and 1989 during the L-Lake monitoring program. The macroinvertebrate community of 1995 is compared to that of 1988 and 1989. The species composition of L-Lake`s macroinvertebrate community has changed considerably since 1988-1989, due primarily to maturation of the reservoir ecosystem. L-Lake contains a reasonably diverse macroinvertebrate community that is capable of supporting higher trophic levels, including a diverse assemblage of fish species. The L-Lake macroinvertebrate community is similar to those of many other southeastern reservoirs, and there is no indication that the macroinvertebrate community is perturbed by chemical or physical stressors.

  18. L-Lake macroinvertebrate community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Specht, W.L.

    1996-06-01

    To characterize the present benthic macroinvertebrate community of L-Lake, Regions 5 and 7 of the reservoir were sampled in September 1995 at the same locations sampled in 1988 and 1989 during the L-Lake monitoring program. The macroinvertebrate community of 1995 is compared to that of 1988 and 1989. The species composition of L-Lake's macroinvertebrate community has changed considerably since 1988-1989, due primarily to maturation of the reservoir ecosystem. L-Lake contains a reasonably diverse macroinvertebrate community that is capable of supporting higher trophic levels, including a diverse assemblage of fish species. The L-Lake macroinvertebrate community is similar to those of many other southeastern reservoirs, and there is no indication that the macroinvertebrate community is perturbed by chemical or physical stressors

  19. Hydrologic controls on basin-scale distribution of benthic macroinvertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertuzzo, E.; Ceola, S.; Singer, G. A.; Battin, T. J.; Montanari, A.; Rinaldo, A.

    2013-12-01

    The presentation deals with the role of streamflow variability on basin-scale distributions of benthic macroinvertebrates. Specifically, we present a probabilistic analysis of the impacts of the variability along the river network of relevant hydraulic variables on the density of benthic macroinvertebrate species. The relevance of this work is based on the implications of the predictability of macroinvertebrate patterns within a catchment on fluvial ecosystem health, being macroinvertebrates commonly used as sensitive indicators, and on the effects of anthropogenic activity. The analytical tools presented here outline a novel procedure of general nature aiming at a spatially-explicit quantitative assessment of how near-bed flow variability affects benthic macroinvertebrate abundance. Moving from the analytical characterization of the at-a-site probability distribution functions (pdfs) of streamflow and bottom shear stress, a spatial extension to a whole river network is performed aiming at the definition of spatial maps of streamflow and bottom shear stress. Then, bottom shear stress pdf, coupled with habitat suitability curves (e.g., empirical relations between species density and bottom shear stress) derived from field studies are used to produce maps of macroinvertebrate suitability to shear stress conditions. Thus, moving from measured hydrologic conditions, possible effects of river streamflow alterations on macroinvertebrate densities may be fairly assessed. We apply this framework to an Austrian river network, used as benchmark for the analysis, for which rainfall and streamflow time-series and river network hydraulic properties and macroinvertebrate density data are available. A comparison between observed vs "modeled" species' density in three locations along the examined river network is also presented. Although the proposed approach focuses on a single controlling factor, it shows important implications with water resources management and fluvial

  20. Use of Electronic Resources in a Private University in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined awareness and constraints in the use of electronic resources by lecturers and students of Ajayi Crowther University, Oyo, Nigeria. It aimed at justifying the resources expended in the provision of electronic resources in terms of awareness, patronage and factors that may be affecting awareness and use ...

  1. Gender Analysis Of Electronic Information Resource Use: The Case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Based on the findings the study concluded that access and use of electronic information resources creates a “social digital divide” along gender lines. The study ... Finally, the library needs to change its marketing strategies on the availability of electronic information resources to increase awareness of these resources.

  2. Electronic Resource Management System. Vernetzung von Lizenzinformationen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Selbach

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In den letzten zehn Jahren spielen elektronische Ressourcen im Bereich der Erwerbung eine zunehmend wichtige Rolle: Eindeutig lässt sich hier ein Wandel in den Bibliotheken (fort vom reinen Printbestand zu immer größeren E-Only-Beständen feststellen. Die stetig wachsende Menge an E-Ressourcen und deren Heterogenität stellt Bibliotheken vor die Herausforderung, die E-Ressourcen effizient zu verwalten. Nicht nur Bibliotheken, sondern auch verhandlungsführende Institutionen von Konsortial- und Allianzlizenzen benötigen ein geeignetes Instrument zur Verwaltung von Lizenzinformationen, welches den komplexen Anforderungen moderner E-Ressourcen gerecht wird. Die Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG unterstützt ein Projekt des Hochschulbibliothekszentrums des Landes Nordrhein-Westfalen (hbz, der Universitätsbibliothek Freiburg, der Verbundzentrale des Gemeinsamen Bibliotheksverbundes (GBV und der Universitätsbibliothek Frankfurt, in dem ein bundesweit verfügbares Electronic Ressource Managementsystem (ERMS aufgebaut werden soll. Ein solches ERMS soll auf Basis einer zentralen Knowledge Base eine einheitliche Nutzung von Daten zur Lizenzverwaltung elektronischer Ressourcen auf lokaler, regionaler und nationaler Ebene ermöglichen. Statistische Auswertungen, Rechteverwaltung für alle angeschlossenen Bibliotheken, kooperative Datenpflege sowie ein über standardisierte Schnittstellen geführter Datenaustausch stehen bei der Erarbeitung der Anforderungen ebenso im Fokus wie die Entwicklung eines Daten- und Funktionsmodells. In the last few years the importance of electronic resources in library acquisitions has increased significantly. There has been a shift from mere print holdings to both e- and print combinations and even e-only subscriptions. This shift poses a double challenge for libraries: On the one hand they have to provide their e-resource collections to library users in an appealing way, on the other hand they have to manage these

  3. Electronic human resource management: Enhancing or entrancing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Poisat

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: This article provides an investigation into the current level of development of the body of knowledge related to electronic human resource management (e-HRM by means of a qualitative content analysis. Several aspects of e-HRM, namely definitions of e-HRM, the theoretical perspectives around e-HRM, the role of e-HRM, the various types of e-HRM and the requirements for successful e-HRM, are examined. Research purpose: The purpose of the article was to determine the status of e-HRM and examine the studies that report on the link between e-HRM and organisational productivity. Motivation for the study: e-HRM has the capacity to improve organisational efficiency and leverage the role of human resources (HR as a strategic business partner. Main findings: The notion that the implementation of e-HRM will lead to improved organisational productivity is commonly assumed; however, empirical evidence in this regard was found to be limited. Practical/managerial implications: From the results of this investigation it is evident that more research is required to gain a greater understanding of the influence of e-HRM on organisational productivity, as well as to develop measures for assessing this influence. Contribution: This article proposes additional areas to research and measure when investigating the effectiveness of e-HRM. It provides a different lens from which to view e-HRM assessment whilst keeping it within recognised HR measurement parameters (the HR value chain. In addition, it not only provides areas for measuring e-HRM’s influence but also provides important clues as to how the measurements may be approached.

  4. Utilization of electronic information resources by academic staff at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the utilization of Electronic Information resources by the academic staff of Makerere University in Uganda. It examined the academic staff awareness of the resources available, the types of resources provided by the Makerere University Library, the factors affecting resource utilization. The study was ...

  5. Users satisfaction with electronic information resources and services ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated users satisfaction on the use of electronic information resources and services in MTN Net libraries in ABU & UNIBEN. Two objectives and one null hypotheses were formulated and tested with respect to the users' satisfaction on electronic information resources and services in MTN Net libraries in ...

  6. The Role of the Acquisitions Librarian in Electronic Resources Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomerantz, Sarah B.

    2010-01-01

    With the ongoing shift to electronic formats for library resources, acquisitions librarians, like the rest of the profession, must adapt to the rapidly changing landscape of electronic resources by keeping up with trends and mastering new skills related to digital publishing, technology, and licensing. The author sought to know what roles…

  7. Selection and Evaluation of Electronic Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doğan Atılgan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Publication boom and issues related to controlling and accession of printed sources have created some problems after World War II. Consequently, publishing industry has encountered the problem of finding possible solution for emerged situation. Industry of electronic publishing has started to improve with the rapid increase of the price of printed sources as well as the problem of publication boom. The first effects of electronic publishing were appeared on the academic and scholarly publications then electronic publishing became a crucial part of all types of publications. As a result of these developments, collection developments and service policies of information centers were also significantly changed. In this article, after a general introduction about selection and evaluation processes of electronic publications, the subscribed databases by a state and a privately owned university in Turkey and their usage were examined.

  8. Improving Electronic Resources through Holistic Budgeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusik, James P.; Vargas, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    To establish a more direct link between its collections and the educational goals of Saint Xavier University, the Byrne Memorial Library has adopted a "holistic" approach to collection development. This article examines how traditional budget practices influenced the library's selection of resources and describes how holistic collection…

  9. Page 170 Use of Electronic Resources by Undergraduates in Two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    undergraduate students use electronic resources such as NUC virtual library, HINARI, ... web pages articles from magazines, encyclopedias, pamphlets and other .... of Nigerian university libraries have Internet connectivity, some of the system.

  10. Utilisation of Electronic Information Resources By Lecturers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assesses the use of information resources, specifically, electronic databases by lecturers/teachers in Universities and Colleges of Education in South Western Nigeria. Information resources are central to teachers' education. It provides lecturers/teachers access to information that enhances research and ...

  11. Preservation and conservation of electronic information resources of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The major holdings of the broadcast libraries of the Nigerian Television Authority (NTA) are electronic information resources; therefore, providing safe places for general management of these resources have aroused interest in the industry in Nigeria for sometimes. The need to study the preservation and conservation of ...

  12. Using XML Technologies to Organize Electronic Reference Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Huser, Vojtech; Del Fiol, Guilherme; Rocha, Roberto A.

    2005-01-01

    Provision of access to reference electronic resources to clinicians is becoming increasingly important. We have created a framework for librarians to manage access to these resources at an enterprise level, rather than at the individual hospital libraries. We describe initial project requirements, implementation details, and some preliminary results.

  13. Euler European Libraries and Electronic Resources in Mathematical Sciences

    CERN Document Server

    The Euler Project. Karlsruhe

    The European Libraries and Electronic Resources (EULER) Project in Mathematical Sciences provides the EulerService site for searching out "mathematical resources such as books, pre-prints, web-pages, abstracts, proceedings, serials, technical reports preprints) and NetLab (for Internet resources), this outstanding engine is capable of simple, full, and refined searches. It also offers a browse option, which responds to entries in the author, keyword, and title fields. Further information about the Project is provided at the EULER homepage.

  14. Building an electronic resource collection a practical guide

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Stuart D

    2004-01-01

    This practical book guides information professionals step-by-step through building and managing an electronic resource collection. It outlines the range of electronic products currently available in abstracting and indexing, bibliographic, and other services and then describes how to effectively select, evaluate and purchase them.

  15. Organizational matters of competition in electronic educational resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ирина Карловна Войтович

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the experience of the Udmurt State University in conducting competitions of educational publications and electronic resources. The purpose of such competitions is to provide methodological support to educational process. The main focus is on competition of electronic educational resources. The technology of such contests is discussed through detailed analysis of the main stages of the contest. It is noted that the main task of the preparatory stage of the competition is related to the development of regulations on competition and the definition of criteria for selection of the submitted works. The paper also proposes a system of evaluation criteria of electronic educational resources developed by members of the contest organizing committee and jury members. The article emphasizes the importance of not only the preparatory stages of the competition, but also measures for its completion, aimed at training teachers create quality e-learning resources.

  16. Why and How to Measure the Use of Electronic Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Bernon

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A complete overview of library activity implies a complete and reliable measurement of the use of both electronic resources and printed materials. This measurement is based on three sets of definitions: document types, use types and user types. There is a common model of definitions for printed materials, but a lot of questions and technical issues remain for electronic resources. In 2006 a French national working group studied these questions. It relied on the COUNTER standard, but found it insufficient and pointed out the need for local tools such as web markers and deep analysis of proxy logs. Within the French national consortium COUPERIN, a new working group is testing ERMS, SUSHI standards, Shibboleth authentication, along with COUNTER standards, to improve the counting of the electronic resources use. At this stage this counting is insufficient and its improvement will be a European challenge for the future.

  17. Access to electronic resources by visually impaired people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Craven

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Research into access to electronic resources by visually impaired people undertaken by the Centre for Research in Library and Information Management has not only explored the accessibility of websites and levels of awareness in providing websites that adhere to design for all principles, but has sought to enhance understanding of information seeking behaviour of blind and visually impaired people when using digital resources.

  18. Practical guide to electronic resources in the humanities

    CERN Document Server

    Dubnjakovic, Ana

    2010-01-01

    From full-text article databases to digitized collections of primary source materials, newly emerging electronic resources have radically impacted how research in the humanities is conducted and discovered. This book, covering high-quality, up-to-date electronic resources for the humanities, is an easy-to-use annotated guide for the librarian, student, and scholar alike. It covers online databases, indexes, archives, and many other critical tools in key humanities disciplines including philosophy, religion, languages and literature, and performing and visual arts. Succinct overviews of key eme

  19. Discipline, availability of electronic resources and the use of Finnish National Electronic Library - FinELib

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanna Torma

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This study elaborated relations between digital library use by university faculty, users' discipline and the availability of key resources in the Finnish National Electronic Library (FinELib, Finnish national digital library, by using nationwide representative survey data. The results show that the perceived availability of key electronic resources by researchers in FinELib was a stronger predictor of the frequency and purpose of use of its services than users' discipline. Regardless of discipline a good perceived provision of central resources led to a more frequent use of FinELib. The satisfaction with the services did not vary with the discipline, but with the perceived availability of resources.

  20. Access to electronic information resources by students of federal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper discusses access to electronic information resources by students of Federal Colleges of Education in Eha-Amufu and Umunze. Descriptive survey design was used to investigate sample of 526 students. Sampling technique used was a Multi sampling technique. Data for the study were generated using ...

  1. Electronic Commerce Resource Centers. An Industry--University Partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulledge, Thomas R.; Sommer, Rainer; Tarimcilar, M. Murat

    1999-01-01

    Electronic Commerce Resource Centers focus on transferring emerging technologies to small businesses through university/industry partnerships. Successful implementation hinges on a strategic operating plan, creation of measurable value for customers, investment in customer-targeted training, and measurement of performance outputs. (SK)

  2. ANALYTICAL REVIEW OF ELECTRONIC RESOURCES FOR THE STUDY OF LATIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Yu. Balalaieva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the current state of development of e-learning content in the Latin language. It is noted that the introduction of ICT in the educational space has expanded the possibility of studying Latin, opened access to digital libraries resources, made it possible to use scientific and educational potential and teaching Latin best practices of world's leading universities. A review of foreign and Ukrainian information resources and electronic editions for the study of Latin is given. Much attention was paid to the didactic potential of local and online multimedia courses of Latin, electronic textbooks, workbooks of interactive tests and exercises, various dictionaries and software translators, databases and digital libraries. Based on analysis of the world market of educational services and products the main trends in the development of information resources and electronic books are examined. It was found that multimedia courses with interactive exercises or workbooks with interactive tests, online dictionaries and translators are the most widely represented and demanded. The noticeable lagging of Ukrainian education and computer linguistics in quantitative and qualitative measures in this industry is established. The obvious drawback of existing Ukrainian resources and electronic editions for the study of Latin is their noninteractive nature. The prospects of e-learning content in Latin in Ukraine are outlined.

  3. Adoption and use of electronic information resources by medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the adoption and use of electronic information resources by medical science students of the University of Benin. The descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study and 390 students provided the data. Data collected were analysed with descriptive Statistics(Simple percentage and ...

  4. Modern ICT Tools: Online Electronic Resources Sharing Using Web ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modern ICT Tools: Online Electronic Resources Sharing Using Web 2.0 and Its Implications For Library And Information Practice In Nigeria. ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader). If you would like more ...

  5. Technical Communicator: A New Model for the Electronic Resources Librarian?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulseberg, Anna

    2016-01-01

    This article explores whether technical communicator is a useful model for electronic resources (ER) librarians. The fields of ER librarianship and technical communication (TC) originated and continue to develop in relation to evolving technologies. A review of the literature reveals four common themes for ER librarianship and TC. While the…

  6. Macroinvertebrates associated with two submerged macrophytes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Macroinvertebrates associated with two submerged macrophytes, Lagarosiphon ilicifolius and Vallisneria aethiopica , in the Sanyati Basin, Lake Kariba, Zimbabwe: effect of plant morphological complexity.

  7. MODEL OF AN ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCE OF NEW GENERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoliy V. Loban

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The mathematical structure of the modular architecture of an electronic educational resource (EER of new generation, which allows to decompose the process of studying the subjects of the course at a hierarchically ordered set of data (knowledge and procedures for manipulating them, to determine the roles of participants of process of training of and technology the development and use of EOR in the study procrate.

  8. Diversity patterns of temporary wetland macroinvertebrate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although macroinvertebrates are potentially useful for assessing the condition of temporary wetlands, little is yet known about them. Macroinvertebrate assemblages were assessed in 138 temporary wetlands in the south-western Cape, recording 126 taxa. However, predicted richness estimates were all higher than the ...

  9. Macroinvertebrate variation in endorheic depression wetlands in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aquatic macroinvertebrates are rarely used in wetland assessments due to their variation. However, in terms of biodiversity, these invertebrates form an important component of wetland fauna. Spatial and temporal variation of macroinvertebrate assemblages in endorheic depressions (locally referred to as 'pans') in ...

  10. Composition and dynamic of benthic macroinvertebrates community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the purpose to analyze the taxonomic composition, the structure of benthic macroinvertebrates community and the composite ... differences relative to the spatial and temporal variation in the taxonomic composition. ... changes in the structure of macroinvertebrates community ... 2007) with an annual growth rate of 2.4% rely.

  11. Trophic structure of macroinvertebrates in tropical pasture streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Neves da Silveira-Manzotti

    Full Text Available Abstract: Aim The aim of this study was to describe the diet of stream macroinvertebrates and to determine their trophic groups. Methods Invertebrates were sampled with D nets in three pasture streams. They were identified to genus level and submitted to gut content analysis, except for fluid feeders such as hemipterans, to which diet data was obtained from the literature. Trophic groups were determined based on a similarity analysis using the Bray-Curtis similarity coefficient. Results Five trophic groups were defined: fine-detritivores (feed mostly on fine particulate organic matter - FPOM, coarse-detritivores/herbivores (feed mostly on coarse particulate organic matter - CPOM - and plant material, omnivores, specialist-predators (prey upon aquatic insects only, and generalist-predators. Ephemeroptera, Diptera (except Tanypodinae, Coleoptera, and Trichoptera (except Smicridea were detritivores. The caddis Macronema (Trichoptera fed exclusively on plant detritus and Tanypodinae and Smicridea were classified as omnivores. The odonate families Calopterygidae and Gomphidae were classified as specialist-predators, while Macrobrachium (Decapoda, Belostoma, and Limnocoris (Hemiptera were generalist-predators. Conclusions The great quantity and frequency of occurrence of FPOM consumed by most taxa highlight the importance of this food resource for macroinvertebrate communities from tropical streams. Furthermore, observed variations on trophic group assignment for some taxa indicate the generalist and opportunistic nature of these aquatic invertebrates. Such findings reinforce the importance of conducting gut content analysis on macroinvertebrates to understand their role in the structure and functioning of tropical streams.

  12. End-of-life resource recovery from emerging electronic products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parajuly, Keshav; Habib, Komal; Cimpan, Ciprian

    2016-01-01

    Integrating product design with appropriate end-of-life (EoL) processing is widely recognized to have huge potentials in improving resource recovery from electronic products. In this study, we investigate both the product characteristics and EoL processing of robotic vacuum cleaner (RVC), as a case...... of emerging electronic product, in order to understand the recovery fate of different materials and its linkage to product design. Ten different brands of RVC were dismantled and their material composition and design profiles were studied. Another 125 RVCs (349 kg) were used for an experimental trial...... at a conventional ‘shred-and-separate’ type preprocessing plant in Denmark. A detailed material flow analysis was performed throughout the recycling chain. The results show a mismatch between product design and EoL processing, and the lack of practical implementation of ‘Design for EoL’ thinking. In the best...

  13. Analysis of Human Resources Management Strategy in China Electronic Commerce Enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Fang

    The paper discussed electronic-commerce's influence on enterprise human resources management, proposed and proved the human resources management strategy which electronic commerce enterprise should adopt from recruitment strategy to training strategy, keeping talent strategy and other ways.

  14. Effects of Electronic Information Resources Skills Training for Lecturers on Pedagogical Practices and Research Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhukuvhani, Crispen; Chiparausha, Blessing; Zuvalinyenga, Dorcas

    2012-01-01

    Lecturers use various electronic resources at different frequencies. The university library's information literacy skills workshops and seminars are the main sources of knowledge of accessing electronic resources. The use of electronic resources can be said to have positively affected lecturers' pedagogical practices and their work in general. The…

  15. Electronic Resources and Mission Creep: Reorganizing the Library for the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachokas, George

    2009-01-01

    The position of electronic resources librarian was created to serve as a specialist in the negotiation of license agreements for electronic resources, but mission creep has added more functions to the routine work of electronic resources such as cataloging, gathering information for collection development, and technical support. As electronic…

  16. Eucalypt plantations reduce the diversity of macroinvertebrates in small forested streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cordero–Rivera, A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Land use patterns of a river basin have a significant effect on the structure and function of river ecosystems. Changes in the composition of riparian plant communities modify the quantity, quality and seasonality of leaf–litter inputs, determining changes in macroinvertebrate colonization and activity. The main goal of this study was to test the effect of land–use modifications, and particularly the impact of eucalypt plantations, on the macroinvertebrate communities of sixteen headwater streams. Macroinvertebrates were counted and identified to family level. Land uses were classified in five categories using aerial photography: native forest, eucalypt plantations, agricultural land, shrubland, and urban areas. We found that macroinvertebrate diversity increased with basin size and with the proportion of basin covered by native forest. This variable correlated negatively with the land occupied by eucalypt plantations. Macroinvertebrate richness diminished with the increase of land surface covered by eucalypt plantations, and a similar tendency was observed with diversity. Furthermore, streams whose drainage basin was mainly covered by Eucalyptus were more likely to dry up in summer. This observation adds to evidence from previous studies that concluded that fast–growing tree plantations affect hydric resources, an important ecosystem service in the context of global warming. To minimize the impact of industrial sylviculture, we suggest that maintaining and/or restoring riparian forests could mitigate the effects of intensive eucalypt monocultures.

  17. Electronic Document Management: A Human Resource Management Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Groenewald

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available This case study serve as exemplar regarding what can go wrong with the implementation of an electronic document management system. Knowledge agility and knowledge as capital, is outlined against the backdrop of the information society and knowledge economy. The importance of electronic document management and control is sketched thereafter. The literature review is concluded with the impact of human resource management on knowledge agility, which includes references to the learning organisation and complexity theory. The intervention methodology, comprising three phases, follows next. The results of the three phases are presented thereafter. Partial success has been achieved with improving the human efficacy of electronic document management, however the client opted to discontinue the system in use. Opsomming Die gevalle studie dien as voorbeeld van wat kan verkeerd loop met die implementering van ’n elektroniese dokumentbestuur sisteem. Teen die agtergrond van die inligtingsgemeenskap en kennishuishouding word kennissoepelheid en kennis as kapitaal bespreek. Die literatuurstudie word afgesluit met die inpak van menslikehulpbronbestuur op kennissoepelheid, wat ook die verwysings na die leerorganisasie en kompleksietydsteorie insluit. Die metodologie van die intervensie, wat uit drie fases bestaan, volg daarna. Die resultate van die drie fases word vervolgens aangebied. Slegs gedeelte welslae is behaal met die verbetering van die menslike doeltreffendheid ten opsigte van elektroniese dokumentbestuur. Die klient besluit egter om nie voort te gaan om die huidige sisteem te gebruik nie.

  18. Modeling Aquatic Macroinvertebrate Richness Using Landscape Attributes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia S. Meixler

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We used a rapid, repeatable, and inexpensive geographic information system (GIS approach to predict aquatic macroinvertebrate family richness using the landscape attributes stream gradient, riparian forest cover, and water quality. Stream segments in the Allegheny River basin were classified into eight habitat classes using these three landscape attributes. Biological databases linking macroinvertebrate families with habitat classes were developed using life habits, feeding guilds, and water quality preferences and tolerances for each family. The biological databases provided a link between fauna and habitat enabling estimation of family composition in each habitat class and hence richness predictions for each stream segment. No difference was detected between field collected and modeled predictions of macroinvertebrate families in a paired t-test. Further, predicted stream gradient, riparian forest cover, and total phosphorus, total nitrogen, and suspended sediment classifications matched observed classifications much more often than by chance alone. High gradient streams with forested riparian zones and good water quality were predicted to have the greatest macroinvertebrate family richness and changes in water quality were predicted to have the greatest impact on richness. Our findings indicate that our model can provide meaningful landscape scale macroinvertebrate family richness predictions from widely available data for use in focusing conservation planning efforts.

  19. Electronic Safety Resource Tools -- Supporting Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Commercialization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barilo, Nick F.

    2014-09-29

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Hydrogen Safety Program conducted a planning session in Los Angeles, CA on April 1, 2014 to consider what electronic safety tools would benefit the next phase of hydrogen and fuel cell commercialization. A diverse, 20-person team led by an experienced facilitator considered the question as it applied to the eight most relevant user groups. The results and subsequent evaluation activities revealed several possible resource tools that could greatly benefit users. The tool identified as having the greatest potential for impact is a hydrogen safety portal, which can be the central location for integrating and disseminating safety information (including most of the tools identified in this report). Such a tool can provide credible and reliable information from a trustworthy source. Other impactful tools identified include a codes and standards wizard to guide users through a series of questions relating to application and specific features of the requirements; a scenario-based virtual reality training for first responders; peer networking tools to bring users from focused groups together to discuss and collaborate on hydrogen safety issues; and a focused tool for training inspectors. Table ES.1 provides results of the planning session, including proposed new tools and changes to existing tools.

  20. Controlling user access to electronic resources without password

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Fred Hewitt

    2015-06-16

    Described herein are devices and techniques for remotely controlling user access to a restricted computer resource. The process includes pre-determining an association of the restricted computer resource and computer-resource-proximal environmental information. Indicia of user-proximal environmental information are received from a user requesting access to the restricted computer resource. Received indicia of user-proximal environmental information are compared to associated computer-resource-proximal environmental information. User access to the restricted computer resource is selectively granted responsive to a favorable comparison in which the user-proximal environmental information is sufficiently similar to the computer-resource proximal environmental information. In at least some embodiments, the process further includes comparing user-supplied biometric measure and comparing it with a predetermined association of at least one biometric measure of an authorized user. Access to the restricted computer resource is granted in response to a favorable comparison.

  1. Surface-water hydrology and quality, and macroinvertebrate and smallmouth bass populations in four stream basins in southwestern Wisconsin, 1987-90

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graczyk, David J.; Lillie, Richard A.; Schlesser, Roger A.; Mason, John W.; Lyons, John D.; Kerr, Roger A.; Graczyk, David J.

    1993-01-01

    Data on streamflow, water quality, and macroinvertebrate and smallmouth bass (microptercus dolomieni) populations were collected from July 1987 through September 1990, in four streams in southwestern Wisconsin to determine the effect of surface-water hydrology and quality on populations of macroinvertebrates and smallmouth bass. The study was a joint project of the U.S. Geological Survey and the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources.

  2. The Internet School of Medicine: use of electronic resources by medical trainees and the reliability of those resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egle, Jonathan P; Smeenge, David M; Kassem, Kamal M; Mittal, Vijay K

    2015-01-01

    Electronic sources of medical information are plentiful, and numerous studies have demonstrated the use of the Internet by patients and the variable reliability of these sources. Studies have investigated neither the use of web-based resources by residents, nor the reliability of the information available on these websites. A web-based survey was distributed to surgical residents in Michigan and third- and fourth-year medical students at an American allopathic and osteopathic medical school and a Caribbean allopathic school regarding their preferred sources of medical information in various situations. A set of 254 queries simulating those faced by medical trainees on rounds, on a written examination, or during patient care was developed. The top 5 electronic resources cited by the trainees were evaluated for their ability to answer these questions accurately, using standard textbooks as the point of reference. The respondents reported a wide variety of overall preferred resources. Most of the 73 responding medical trainees favored textbooks or board review books for prolonged studying, but electronic resources are frequently used for quick studying, clinical decision-making questions, and medication queries. The most commonly used electronic resources were UpToDate, Google, Medscape, Wikipedia, and Epocrates. UpToDate and Epocrates had the highest percentage of correct answers (47%) and Wikipedia had the lowest (26%). Epocrates also had the highest percentage of wrong answers (30%), whereas Google had the lowest percentage (18%). All resources had a significant number of questions that they were unable to answer. Though hardcopy books have not been completely replaced by electronic resources, more than half of medical students and nearly half of residents prefer web-based sources of information. For quick questions and studying, both groups prefer Internet sources. However, the most commonly used electronic resources fail to answer clinical queries more than half

  3. An historical and geographic data set on the distribution of macroinvertebrates in Italian mountain lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Boggero

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Macroinvertebrates play a key role in freshwater food webs, acting as major links between organic matter resources, primary consumers (such as bacteria, and secondary consumers (e.g.fish, amphibians, birds, and reptiles. In this paper we present a data set encompassing all geographic and historical data available on macroinvertebrates of the Italian mountain lakes from 1902 to 2016. The data set, divided per Italian mountain range (Alps and Apennines and administrative region, covers more than a century of studies of many foreign and Italian scientists. The data set includes 2372 records and shows macroinvertebrate occurrence data in 176 Alpine and in 13 Apennine lakes, of which 178 of natural origin, 5 reservoirs, and 6 artificially extended. The data set lists 605 taxa, updated on the basis of their current taxonomic position. Only 353 taxa are identified at species level, highlighting the still poorly investigated biodiversity of Italian mountain lake macroinvertebrates. Since they function as key elements to characterize lake ecological status, our data set emphasizes the huge taxonomic effort that still has to be undertaken to fully characterize these ecosystems. The data set is available in csv (comma-separated values format.

  4. Developing Humanities Collections in the Digital Age: Exploring Humanities Faculty Engagement with Electronic and Print Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachaluba, Sarah Buck; Brady, Jessica Evans; Critten, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    This article is based on quantitative and qualitative research examining humanities scholars' understandings of the advantages and disadvantages of print versus electronic information resources. It explores how humanities' faculty members at Florida State University (FSU) use print and electronic resources, as well as how they perceive these…

  5. Electronic resource management practical perspectives in a new technical services model

    CERN Document Server

    Elguindi, Anne

    2012-01-01

    A significant shift is taking place in libraries, with the purchase of e-resources accounting for the bulk of materials spending. Electronic Resource Management makes the case that technical services workflows need to make a corresponding shift toward e-centric models and highlights the increasing variety of e-formats that are forcing new developments in the field.Six chapters cover key topics, including: technical services models, both past and emerging; staffing and workflow in electronic resource management; implementation and transformation of electronic resource management systems; the ro

  6. Electronic resources access and usage among the postgraduates of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and usage among the postgraduates of a Nigerian University of Technology. ... faced by postgraduates in using e-resources include takes too much time to find, ... Resources, Access, Use, Postgraduat, Students, University, Technology, Nigeria ... By Country · List All Titles · Free To Read Titles This Journal is Open Access.

  7. Benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages in mangroves and open ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages in mangroves and open intertidal areas on the Dar es Salaam coast, Tanzania. ... it is recommended that conservation efforts along the Tanzanian coast should focus here. Keywords: benthic macrofauna, community structure, littoral zone, Tanganyika, Western Indian Ocean ...

  8. Microplastic effect thresholds for freshwater benthic macroinvertebrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Redondo Hasselerharm, P.E.; Dede Falahudin, Dede; Peeters, E.T.H.M.; Koelmans, A.A.

    2018-01-01

    Now that microplastics have been detected in lakes, rivers and estuaries all over the globe, evaluating their effects on biota has become an urgent research priority. This is the first study that aims at determining the effect thresholds for a battery of six freshwater benthic macroinvertebrates

  9. Strategic Planning for Electronic Resources Management: A Case Study at Gustavus Adolphus College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulseberg, Anna; Monson, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    Electronic resources, the tools we use to manage them, and the needs and expectations of our users are constantly evolving; at the same time, the roles, responsibilities, and workflow of the library staff who manage e-resources are also in flux. Recognizing a need to be more intentional and proactive about how we manage e-resources, the…

  10. Initial Analyses of Change Detection Capabilities and Data Redundancies in the Long Term Resource Monitoring Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lubinski, Kenneth

    2001-01-01

    Evaluations of Long Term Resource Monitoring Program sampling designs for water quality, fish, aquatic vegetation, and macroinvertebrates were initiated in 1999 by analyzing data collected since 1992...

  11. impact of the use of electronic resources on research output

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    manda

    ... Julita Nawe. University of Dar Es Salaam Library, P.O. Box 35092, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania .... significantly, while 28.3% observed that quality of service to the community had improved .... resources and evaluate them is an important area.

  12. The Value of the Freshwater Snail Dip Scoop Sampling Method in Macroinvertebrates Bioassessment of Sugar Mill Wastewater Pollution in Mbandjock, Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Noumi

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Macroinvertebrates identification and enumeration may be used as a simple and affordable alternative to chemical analysis in water pollution monitoring. However, the ecological responses of various taxa to pollution are poorly known in resources-limited tropical countries. While freshwater macroinvertebrates have been used in the assessment of water quality in Europe and the Americas, investigations in Africa have mainly focused on snail hosts of human parasites. There is a need for sampling methods that can be used to assess both snails and other macroinvertebrates. The present study was designed to evaluate the usefulness of the freshwater snail dip scoop method in the study of macroinvertebrates for the assessment of the SOSUCAM sugar mill effluents pollution. Standard snail dip scoop samples were collected upstream and downstream of the factory effluent inputs, on the Mokona and Mengoala rivers. The analysis of the macroinvertebrate communities revealed the absence of Ephemeroptera and Trichoptera, and the thriving of Syrphidae in the sections of the rivers under high effluent load. The Shannon and Weaver diversity index was lower in these areas. The dip scoop sampling protocol was found to be a useful method for macroinvertebrates collection. Hence, this method is recommended as a simple, cost-effective and efficient tool for the bio-assessment of freshwater pollution in developing countries with limited research resources.

  13. Promoting a functional macroinvertebrate approach in the biomonitoring of Italian lotic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard W. Merritt

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Over fifty years of research on freshwater macroinvertebrates has been driven largely by the state of the taxonomy of these organisms. Significant advances have been and continue to be made in developing ever more refined keys to macroinvertebrate groups. When advances in macroinvertebrate ecological research are restricted by the level of detail in identifications, then analysis by function is a viable alternative. The focus on function, namely adaptations of macroinvertebrates to habitats and the utilization of food resources, has facilitated ecological evaluation of freshwater ecosystems. This classification is based not on what insects eat, but how they obtain their food. These categories are called 'functional feeding groups', as the name implies, denoting their functional role when describing how and where they feed. This is the basis for the functional feeding group (FFG method that was initially developed in the early 1960s. Taxonomy is applied only to the level of detail that allows assignment to one of five functional feeding group categories: detrital shredders, scrapers, filtering collectors, gatherers, and predators. The aim of this short communication, originating from the presentation of R.W. Merritt at the Biomonitoring Symposium in Rome, 2015, is to promote the use of a functional approach in biomonitoring, especially in Italian and European lotic systems. Here, we present two case studies and we discuss the advantages of the method, especially considering the great availability of quantitative data on macroinvertebrates after the implementation of the WFD 2000/60. We are confident that the increase of functional assessment of ecosystem attributes could have important and direct repercussions in the understanding and management of running waters.

  14. Preservation of and Permanent Access to Electronic Information Resources

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hodge, Gail

    2004-01-01

    The rapid growth in the creation and dissemination of electronic information has emphasized the digital environment's speed and ease of dissemination with little regard for its long-term preservation and access...

  15. Electronic conferencing for continuing medical education: a resource survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, R J

    1986-10-01

    The use of electronic technologies to link participants for education conferences is an option for providers of Continuing Medical Education. In order to profile the kinds of electronic networks currently offering audio- or videoteleconferences for physician audiences, a survey was done during late 1985. The information collected included range of services, fees, and geographic areas served. The results show a broad diversity of providers providing both interactive and didactic programming to both physicians and other health care professionals.

  16. Controlling user access to electronic resources without password

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Fred Hewitt

    2017-08-22

    Described herein are devices and techniques for remotely controlling user access to a restricted computer resource. The process includes obtaining an image from a communication device of a user. An individual and a landmark are identified within the image. Determinations are made that the individual is the user and that the landmark is a predetermined landmark. Access to a restricted computing resource is granted based on the determining that the individual is the user and that the landmark is the predetermined landmark. Other embodiments are disclosed.

  17. Electron beam pasteurised oil palm waste: a potential feed resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mat Rasol Awang; Hassan Hamdani Mutaat; Tamikazu Kume; Tachibana, H.

    2002-01-01

    Pasteurization of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) was performed using electron beam single sided irradiation. The dose profiles of oil palm EFB samples for different thickness in both directions X and Y were established. The results showed the usual characteristics dose uniformity as sample thickness decreased. The mean average absorbed dose on both sides at the surface and bottom of the samples for different thickness samples lead to establishing depth dose curve. Based on depth dose curve and operation conditions of electron beam machine, the process throughput for pasteurized oil palm EFB were estimated. (Author)

  18. Availability of Electronic Resources for Service Provision in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study also revealed that majority of the University libraries have adequate basic infrastructure for effective electronic information services. ... acquired by the library are put into maximal use by the library clientele, thereby ensuring the achievement of the library's objective which is satisfying the users, information needs.

  19. Utilization of bio-resources by low energy electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kume, Tamikazu

    2003-01-01

    Utilization of bio-resources by radiation has been investigated for recycling the natural resources and reducing the environmental pollution. Polysaccharides such as chitosan and sodium alginate were easily degraded by irradiation and induced various kinds of biological activities, i.g. anti-microbial activity, promotion of plant growth, suppression of heavy metal stress, phytoalexins induction. Radiation degraded chitosan was effective to enhance the growth of plants in tissue culture. It was demonstrated that the liquid sample irradiation system using low energy EB was effective for the preparation of degraded polysaccharides. Methylcellulose (MC) can be crosslinked under certain radiation condition as same as carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and produced the biodegradable hydrogel for medical and agricultural use. Treatment of soybean seeds by low energy EB enhanced the growth and the number of rhizobia on the root. (author)

  20. Altitudinal distribution limits of aquatic macroinvertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Philip B.; Morabowen, Andrés; Andino, Patricio

    2015-01-01

    1. Temperature and oxygen are recognised as the main drivers of altitudinal limits of species distributions. However, the two factors are linked, and both decrease with altitude, why their effects are difficult to disentangle. 2. This was experimentally addressed using aquatic macroinvertebrates...... relatively small differences in temperature and oxygen may produce effects explaining ecological patterns, and depending on the taxon, either water temperature or oxygen saturation, without clear interacting effects, are important drivers of altitudinal limits....

  1. Analysis of Pedagogic Potential of Electronic Educational Resources with Elements of Autodidactics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor A.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: in recent years didactic properties of electronic educational resources undergo considerable changes, nevertheless, the question of studying of such complete phenomenon as “an electronic educational resource with autodidactics elements” remains open, despite sufficient scientific base of researches of the terms making this concept. Article purpose – determination of essence of electronic educational resources with autodidactics elements. Materials and Methods: the main method of research was the theoretical analysis of the pedagogical and psychological literature on the problem under study. We used the theoretical (analysis, synthesis, comparison and generalization methods, the method of interpretation, pedagogical modeling, and empirical methods (observation, testing, conversation, interview, analysis of students’ performance, pedagogical experiment, peer review. Results: we detected the advantages of electronic educational resources in comparison with traditional ones. The concept of autodidactics as applied to the subject of research is considered. Properties of electronic educational resources with a linear and nonlinear principle of construction are studied.The influence of the principle of construction on the development of the learners’ qualities is shown. We formulated an integral definition of electronic educational resources with elements of autodidactics, namely, the variability, adaptivity and cyclicity of training. A model of the teaching-learning process with electronic educational resources is developed. Discussion and Conclusions: further development of a problem will allow to define whether electronic educational resources with autodidactics elements pedagogical potential for realization of educational and self-educational activity of teachers have, to modify technological procedures taking into account age features of students, their specialties and features of the organization of process of training of

  2. A Study on Developing Evaluation Criteria for Electronic Resources in Evaluation Indicators of Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Younghee

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to improve the current state of electronic resource evaluation in libraries. While the use of Web DB, e-book, e-journal, and other e-resources such as CD-ROM, DVD, and micro materials is increasing in libraries, their use is not comprehensively factored into the general evaluation of libraries and may diminish the reliability of…

  3. Managing Selection for Electronic Resources: Kent State University Develops a New System to Automate Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Kay

    2012-01-01

    Kent State University has developed a centralized system that manages the communication and work related to the review and selection of commercially available electronic resources. It is an automated system that tracks the review process, provides selectors with price and trial information, and compiles reviewers' feedback about the resource. It…

  4. Where Do Electronic Books Fit in the College Research Arsenal of Resources?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbier, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    Student use of electronic books has become an accepted supplement to traditional resources. Student use and satisfaction was monitored through an online course discussion board. Increased use of electronic books indicate this service is an accepted supplement to the print book collection.

  5. A Rapid Assessment of Macroinvertebrates Associated with Salvinia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salvinia molesta is an invasive species in the Okavango Delta. The plant forms monotypic covers in places where it occurs and thus affects macroinvertebrates diversity within them. Three habitats with low, moderate and heavy infestation by the weed were selected inside Moremi Game Reserve to study macroinvertebrates ...

  6. Effect of sewage oxidation pond effluent on macroinvertebrate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence on aquatic macroinvertebrates of sewage oxidation pond effluent discharge was investigated in a tropical forest stream in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. A total of 858 individual macroinvertebrates were collected. They belong to 8 taxa which represent 5 orders. The number of taxa was low when compared to the findings in ...

  7. Turnover patterns in fish versus macroinvertebrates — implications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spatial patterns in taxonomic richness and turnover for fish and aquatic macroinvertebrates are compared to assess the relative usefulness of each taxonomic group in mapping biodiversity patterns. Fish and aquatic macroinvertebrate species data for sites down the longitudinal axes of nine rivers in four provinces along the ...

  8. Compliance of secondary production and eco-exergy as indicators of benthic macroinvertebrates assemblages' response to canopy cover conditions in Neotropical headwater streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, Marden Seabra; Callisto, Marcos; Marques, João Carlos

    2018-02-01

    Riparian vegetation cover influences benthic assemblages structure and functioning in headwater streams, as it regulates light availability and autochthonous primary production in these ecosystems.Secondary production, diversity, and exergy-based indicators were applied in capturing how riparian cover influences the structure and functioning of benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages in tropical headwater streams. Four hypotheses were tested: (1) open canopy will determine the occurrence of higher diversity in benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages; (2) streams with open canopy will exhibit more complex benthic macroinvertebrate communities (in terms of information embedded in the organisms' biomass); (3) in streams with open canopy benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages will be more efficient in using the available resources to build structure, which will be reflected by higher eco-exergy values; (4) benthic assemblages in streams with open canopy will exhibit more secondary productivity. We selected eight non-impacted headwater streams, four shaded and four with open canopy, all located in the Neotropical savannah (Cerrado) of southeastern Brazil. Open canopy streams consistently exhibited significantly higher eco-exergy and instant secondary production values, exemplifying that these streams may support more complex and productive benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages. Nevertheless, diversity indices and specific eco-exergy were not significantly different in shaded and open canopy streams. Since all the studied streams were selected for being considered as non-impacted, this suggests that the potential represented by more available food resources was not used to build a more complex dissipative structure. These results illustrate the role and importance of the canopy cover characteristics on the structure and functioning of benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages in tropical headwater streams, while autochthonous production appears to play a crucial role as food

  9. The National Site Licensing of Electronic Resources: An Institutional Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohua Zhu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available While academic libraries in most countries are struggling to negotiate with publishers and vendors individually or collaboratively via consortia, a few countries have experimented with a different model, national site licensing (NSL. Because NSL often involves government and large-scale collaboration, it has the potential to solve many problems in the complex licensing world. However, not many nations have adopted it. This study uses historical research approach and the comparative case study research method to explore the seemingly low level of adoption. The cases include the Canadian National Site Licensing Project (CNSLP, the United Kingdom’s National Electronic Site Licensing Initiative (NESLI, and the United States, which has not adopted NSL. The theoretical framework guiding the research design and data collection is W. Richard Scott’s institutional theory, which utilizes three supporting pillars—regulative, normative, and cultural-cognitive—to analyze institutional processes. In this study, the regulative pillar and the normative pillar of NSL adoption— an institutional construction and change—are examined. Data were collected from monographs, research articles, government documents, and relevant websites. Based on the analysis of these cases, a preliminary model is proposed for the adoption of NSL. The factors that support a country’s adoption of NSL include the need for new institutions, a centralized educational policy-making system and funding system, supportive political trends, and the tradition of cooperation. The factors that may prevent a country from adopting NSL include decentralized educational policy and funding, diversity and the large number of institutions, the concern for the “Big Deal,” and the concern for monopoly.

  10. Benthic macroinvertebrates in Italian rice fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Lupi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Rice fields can be considered man-managed temporary wetlands. Five rice fields handled with different management strategies, their adjacent channels, and a spring were analysed by their benthic macroinvertebrate community to i evaluate the role of rice agroe- cosystem in biodiversity conservation; ii find indicator species which can be used to compare the ecological status of natural wetlands with rice agroecosystems; and iii find the influence of environmental variables on biodiversity. Different methods of data analysis with increasing degree of complexity – from diversity index up to sophisticated multivariate analysis – were used. The investigation provided a picture of benthic macroinvertebrates inhabiting rice agroecosystems where 173 taxa were identified, 89 of which detected in rice paddies. Among them, 4 phyla (Mollusca, Annelida, Nematomorpha, and Arthropoda, 8 classes (Bivalvia, Gastropoda, Oligochaeta, Hirudinea, Gordioida, Insecta, Branchiopoda, and Malacostraca, 24 orders, 68 families, 127 genera and 159 species have been found. Ten threatened and 3 invasive species were detected in the habitats examined. The information obtained by the different methods of data analysis allowed a more comprehensive view on the value of the components of rice agroecosystems. Data analyses highlighted significant differences between habitats (feeding channel and rice field, with higher diversity observed in channels, and emphasised the role of the water chemical-physical parameters. The period of water permanence in rice fields resulted to be only one of the factors influencing the community of benthic macroinvertebrates. The presence of rare/endangered species allowed characterising some stations, but it was less informative about management strategies in rice paddies because most of these species were absent in rice fields.

  11. Trophic relationships between macroinvertebrates and fish in a pampean lowland stream (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María V. López van Oosterom

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The diet and trophic relationships between the macroinvertebrates Phyllogomphoides joaquini Rodrigues Capítulo, 1992 and Coenagrionidae (Odonata, Chironomidae (Diptera, Diplodon delodontus (Lamarck, 1919 (Bivalvia: Hyriidae, and Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822 (Gastropoda: Ampulariidae and the fishes Pimelodella laticeps Eigenmann, 1917 (Heptapteridae and Bryconamericus iheringii (Boulenger, 1887 (Characidae in a temperate lowland lotic system in Argentina were assessed on the basis of gut contents and stable-isotope analyses. The feeding strategies were analyzed by the AMUNDSEN method. Relative food items contribution for the taxa studied indicated a generalist-type trophic strategy. In macroinvertebrates, in general, the values of stable isotope confirmed the result of the analysis of gut contents. With the fish, stable-isotope analysis demonstrated that both species are predators, although B. iheringii exhibited a more omnivorous behaviour. These feeding studies allowed us to determine the trophic relationships among taxa studied. Detritus and diatoms were a principal source of food for all the macroinvertebrates studied. In La Choza stream the particulate organic matter is a major no limited food resource, has a significant influence upon the community.

  12. Relationships among rotational and conventional grazing systems, stream channels, and macroinvertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, K.L.; Vondracek, B.

    2011-01-01

    Cattle grazing in riparian areas can reduce water quality, alter stream channel characteristics, and alter fish and macroinvertebrate assemblage structure. The U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Services has recommended Rotational Grazing (RG) as an alternative management method on livestock and dairy operations to protect riparian areas and water quality. We evaluated 13 stream channel characteristics, benthic macroinvertebrate larvae (BML), and chironomid pupal exuviae (CPE) from 18 sites in the Upper Midwest of the United States in relation to RG and conventional grazing (CG). A Biotic Composite Score comprised of several macroinvertebrate metrics was developed for both the BML assemblage and the CPE assemblage. Multi-Response Permutation Procedures (MRPP) indicated a significant difference in stream channel characteristics between RG and CG. Nonmetric Multidimensional Scaling indicated that RG sites were associated with more stable stream banks, higher quality aquatic habitat, lower soil compaction, and larger particles in the streambed. However, neither MRPP nor Mann-Whitney U tests demonstrated a difference in Biotic Composite Scores for BML or CPE along RG and CG sites. The BML and CPE metrics were significantly correlated, indicating that they were likely responding to similar variables among the study sites. Although stream channel characteristics appeared to respond to grazing management, BML and CPE may have responded to land use throughout the watershed, as well as local land use. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. (outside the USA).

  13. Aquatic macroinvertebrates of the Jablanica river, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanović Katarina S.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Research on the community of aquatic macroinvertebrates was carried out during 2005 and 2006 at four sampling sites along the Jablanica River, a right-hand tributary of the Kolubara River. Fifty-seven taxa were recorded in the course of the investigation. The most diverse group was Ephemeroptera, followed by Trichoptera and Plecoptera. Members of the Rhitrogena semicolorata group were the most abundant. Our results could be the basis for evaluation of the influence of damming of the Jablanica River on the status of its water and can serve as a model for studying the influ­ence of hydromorphological degradation of aquatic ecosystems.

  14. A survey of the use of electronic scientific information resources among medical and dental students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarnio Matti

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate medical and dental students' utilization of electronic information resources. Methods A web survey sent to 837 students (49.9% responded. Results Twenty-four per cent of medical students and ninteen per cent of dental students searched MEDLINE 2+ times/month for study purposes, and thiry-two per cent and twenty-four per cent respectively for research. Full-text articles were used 2+ times/month by thirty-three per cent of medical and ten per cent of dental students. Twelve per cent of respondents never utilized either MEDLINE or full-text articles. In multivariate models, the information-searching skills among students were significantly associated with use of MEDLINE and full-text articles. Conclusion Use of electronic resources differs among students. Forty percent were non-users of full-text articles. Information-searching skills are correlated with the use of electronic resources, but the level of basic PC skills plays not a major role in using these resources. The student data shows that adequate training in information-searching skills will increase the use of electronic information resources.

  15. Analytical Study of Usage of Electronic Information Resources at Pharmacopoeial Libraries in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Tyagi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to know the rate and purpose of the use of e-resource by the scientists at pharmacopoeial libraries in India. Among other things, this study examined the preferences of the scientists toward printed books and journals, electronic information resources, and pattern of using e-resources. Non-probability sampling specially accidental and purposive technique was applied in the collection of primary data through administration of user questionnaire. The sample respondents chosen for the study consists of principle scientific officer, senior scientific officer, scientific officer, and scientific assistant of different division of the laboratories, namely, research and development, pharmaceutical chemistry, pharmacovigilance, pharmacology, pharmacogonosy, and microbiology. The findings of the study reveal the personal experiences and perceptions they have had on practice and research activity using e-resource. The major findings indicate that of the total anticipated participants, 78% indicated that they perceived the ability to use computer for electronic information resources. The data analysis shows that all the scientists belonging to the pharmacopoeial libraries used electronic information resources to address issues relating to drug indexes and compendia, monographs, drugs obtained through online databases, e-journals, and the Internet sources—especially polices by regulatory agencies, contacts, drug promotional literature, and standards.

  16. Bioassessment of Choghakhor Wetland using Benthic Macroinvertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Fathi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In present study, besides investigating benthic communities and their demographics in Choghakhor wetland, the water quality has been evaluated and classified. Then, 10 stations were selected and sampling of benthos was done every 45 days since April 2010 to March 2011, with 3 replications at each station. Samples were obtained by Ekman grab Sampler (surface 400 cm2. The collected samples were separated and fixed by formalin (4%. The Macroinvertebrates samples were identified and counted in laboratory. Generally 25 families of benthic macroinvertebrates belonging to 5 classes and 12 orders were identified. The results were calculated as community measures, including total richness, Shannon - Wiener diversity index and Hilsenhoff Biological index at family level. The results obtained from temporal and spatial changes of data (Statgeraphics software and water qualitative classification using Shannon diversity index conformed to biological Hilsenhoff index. And finally, water quality of wetland was assessed to be polluted in average to high level. According to this study findings, it seems that, these indicators could be used as useful tools for evaluating water supplies quality.

  17. Considering Point-of-Care Electronic Medical Resources in Lieu of Traditional Textbooks for Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, LaDonna S; Wallace, Michelle M; Adams, Courtney R; Kaufman, Michelle L; Snyder, Courtney L

    2015-09-01

    Selecting resources to support didactic courses is a critical decision, and the advantages and disadvantages must be carefully considered. During clinical rotations, students not only need to possess strong background knowledge but also are expected to be proficient with the same evidence-based POC resources used by clinicians. Students place high value on “real world” learning and therefore may place more value on POC resources that they know practicing clinicians use as compared with medical textbooks. The condensed nature of PA education requires students to develop background knowledge and information literacy skills over a short period. One way to build that knowledge and those skills simultaneously is to use POC resources in lieu of traditional medical textbooks during didactic training. Electronic POC resources offer several advantages over traditional textbooks and should be considered as viable options in PA education.

  18. Elektronik Bilgi Kaynaklarının Seçimi / Selection of Electronic Information Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pınar Al

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available For many years, library users have used only from the printed media in order to get the information that they have needed. Today with the widespread use of the Web and the addition of electronic information resources to library collections, the use of information in the electronic environment as well as in printed media is started to be used. In time, such types of information resources as, electronic journals, electronic books, electronic encyclopedias, electronic dictionaries and electronic theses have been added to library collections. In this study, selection criteria that can be used for electronic information resources are discussed and suggestions are provided for libraries that try to select electronic information resources for their collections.

  19. Macroinvertebrate diversity in the karst Jadro River (Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rađa Biljana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of 10 years of investigation of the aquatic macroinvertebrate fauna along the karst Jadro River. The Jadro is a typical karst river. Benthic macroinvertebrates were collected along the river at 15 sites by standard methods of sampling, in addition to which several physicochemical parameters were also determined. Based on qualitative and quantitative composition of the macroinvertebrate fauna, correspondence analysis divided the river course into three sections: upstream, midcourse, and downstream. Forty-three taxa were recorded. Results of saprobiological analysis based on macrozoobenthos indicate that water of the Jadro River belongs to quality classes I and II.

  20. Use of electronic sales data to tailor nutrition education resources for an ethnically diverse population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyles, H; Rodgers, A; Ni Mhurchu, C

    2010-02-01

    Nutrition education may be most effective when personally tailored. Individualised electronic supermarket sales data offer opportunities to tailor nutrition education using shopper's usual food purchases. The present study aimed to use individualised electronic supermarket sales data to tailor nutrition resources for an ethnically diverse population in a large supermarket intervention trial in New Zealand. Culturally appropriate nutrition education resources (i.e. messages and shopping lists) were developed with the target population (through two sets of focus groups) and ethnic researchers. A nutrient database of supermarket products was developed using retrospective sales data and linked to participant sales to allow tailoring by usual food purchases. Modified Heart Foundation Tick criteria were used to identify 'healthier' products in the database suitable for promotion in the resources. Rules were developed to create a monthly report listing the tailored and culturally targeted messages to be sent to each participant, and to produce automated, tailored shopping lists. Culturally targeted nutrition messages (n = 864) and shopping lists (n = 3 formats) were developed. The food and nutrient database (n = 3000 top-selling products) was created using 12 months of retrospective sales data, and comprised 60%'healthier' products. Three months of baseline sales data were used to determine usual food purchases. Tailored resources were successfully mailed to 123 Māori, 52 Pacific and 346 non-Māori non-Pacific participants over the 6-month trial intervention period. Electronic supermarket sales data can be used to tailor nutrition education resources for a large number of ethnically diverse supermarket shoppers.

  1. REVIEW OF MOODLE PLUGINS FOR DESIGNING MULTIMEDIA ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES FROM LANGUAGE DISCIPLINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton M. Avramchuk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Today the problem of designing multimedia electronic educational resources from language disciplines in Moodle is very important. This system has a lot of different, powerful resources, plugins to facilitate the learning of students with language disciplines. This article presents an overview and comparative analysis of the five Moodle plugins for designing multimedia electronic educational resources from language disciplines. There have been considered their key features and functionality in order to choose the best for studying language disciplines in the Moodle. Plugins are compared by a group of experts according to the criteria: efficiency, functionality and easy use. For a comparative analysis of the plugins it is used the analytic hierarchy process.

  2. Effects of the Use of Electronic Human Resource Management (EHRM Within Human Resource Management (HRM Functions at Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chux Gervase Iwu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study set out to examine the effect of e-hrm systems in assisting human resource practitioners to execute their duties and responsibilities. In comparison to developed economies of the world, information technology adoption in sub-Saharan Africa has not been without certain glitches. Some of the factors that are responsible for these include poor need identification, sustainable funding, and insufficient skills. Besides these factors, there is also the issue of change management and users sticking to what they already know. Although, the above factors seem negative, there is strong evidence that information systems such as electronic human resource management present benefits to an organization. To achieve this, a dual research approach was utilized. Literature assisted immensely in both the development of the conceptual framework upon which the study hinged as well as in the development of the questionnaire items. The study also made use of an interview checklist to guide the participants. The findings reveal a mix of responses that indicate that while there are gains in adopting e-hrm systems, it is wiser to consider supporting resources as well as articulate the needs of the university better before any investment is made.

  3. The Electron Microscopy Outreach Program: A Web-based resource for research and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosinsky, G E; Baker, T S; Hand, G; Ellisman, M H

    1999-01-01

    We have developed a centralized World Wide Web (WWW)-based environment that serves as a resource of software tools and expertise for biological electron microscopy. A major focus is molecular electron microscopy, but the site also includes information and links on structural biology at all levels of resolution. This site serves to help integrate or link structural biology techniques in accordance with user needs. The WWW site, called the Electron Microscopy (EM) Outreach Program (URL: http://emoutreach.sdsc.edu), provides scientists with computational and educational tools for their research and edification. In particular, we have set up a centralized resource containing course notes, references, and links to image analysis and three-dimensional reconstruction software for investigators wanting to learn about EM techniques either within or outside of their fields of expertise. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  4. Evaluation of Macroinvertebrate Data Based on Autoecological Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juhász I.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Various data (biological, chemical, hydrological and morphological have been gathered within the frame of the monitoring of the Water Framework Directive from 2007 in Hungary. This data only used a status assessment of certain water bodies in Hungary. The macroinvertebrates indicate many environmental factors well; therefore, they are very useful in detecting changes in the status of an environment. The main aim in this research was to investigate changes in environmental variables and decide how these variables cause big changes in the macroinvertebrate fauna. The macroinvertebrate data was processed using the ASTERICS 4.0.4 program. The program calculated some important metrics (i.e., microhabitat distributions, longitudinal zonation, functional feeding guilds, etc.. These metrics were compared with the chemical and hydrological data. The main conclusion is that if we have enough of a frequency and quality of macroinvertebrate data, we can understand changes in the environment of an ecosystem.

  5. Are macroinvertebrates in high altitude streams affected by oxygen deficiency?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Dean; Rostgaard, S.; Vásconez, J. J.

    2003-01-01

    1. The solubility of oxygen in water increases with decreasing temperature. This has led to a general perception of cold, high mountain streams as more oxygen rich than warmer lowland streams, and that macroinvertebrates inhabiting high altitude streams have had no need to adapt to critical oxygen...... conditions. However, this fails to take into account that oxygen solubility declines with decreasing atmospheric pressure, which may be of importance at high altitudes. 2. Based on samples of macroinvertebrate benthos and in situ measurements of respiratory oxygen demand of macroinvertebrates in small...... the mean weight-specific respiratory rate of macroinvertebrates declined by only 50%, from 400 to 3800 m. We suggest that this disproportionately large gap between availability and demand of oxygen at high altitudes may imply a potential oxygen deficiency for the fauna, and we discuss how oxygen deficiency...

  6. The macroinvertebrates of Magela Creek, Northern Territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchant, R.

    1982-04-01

    The littoral zones of five permanent billabongs in Magela Creek were sampled monthly for macroinvertebrates. Greatest numbers of taxa and individuals were caught in the late wet season and early dry season in the shallow billabongs; in the deep billabongs, seasonal variations were not so marked. These changes appeared to be associated with the development of macrophytes, which offered food and shelter to the invertebrate fauna. The dominant groups were the Chironomidae, Oligochaetae and Ephemeroptera. The seasonal patterns of the catches were sufficiently consistent for future samples to be able to be compared with these initial ones with some confidence that any changes are real. This work is part of a larger study into the biota and water quality of Magela Creek designed to provide data on aquatic communities before mining of the Ranger uranium deposit starts

  7. Identifying and evaluating electronic learning resources for use in adult-gerontology nurse practitioner education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Hilaire J; Belza, Basia; Baker, Margaret; Christianson, Phyllis; Doorenbos, Ardith; Nguyen, Huong

    2014-01-01

    Enhancing existing curricula to meet newly published adult-gerontology advanced practice registered nurse (APRN) competencies in an efficient manner presents a challenge to nurse educators. Incorporating shared, published electronic learning resources (ELRs) in existing or new courses may be appropriate in order to assist students in achieving competencies. The purposes of this project were to (a) identify relevant available ELR for use in enhancing geriatric APRN education and (b) to evaluate the educational utility of identified ELRs based on established criteria. A multilevel search strategy was used. Two independent team members reviewed identified ELR against established criteria to ensure utility. Only resources meeting all criteria were retained. Resources were found for each of the competency areas and included formats such as podcasts, Web casts, case studies, and teaching videos. In many cases, resources were identified using supplemental strategies and not through traditional search or search of existing geriatric repositories. Resources identified have been useful to advanced practice educators in improving lecture and seminar content in a particular topic area and providing students and preceptors with additional self-learning resources. Addressing sustainability within geriatric APRN education is critical for sharing of best practices among educators and for sustainability of teaching and related resources. © 2014.

  8. USE OF ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES WHEN TRAINING IN WORK WITH SPREADSHEETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Х А Гербеков

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Today the tools for maintaining training courses based on opportunities of information and communication technologies are developed. Practically in all directions of preparation and on all subject matters electronic textbook and self-instruction manuals are created. Nevertheless the industry of computer educational and methodical materials actively develops and gets more and more areas of development and introduction. In this regard more and more urgent is a problem of development of the electronic educational resources adequate to modern educational requirements. Creation and the organization of training courses with use of electronic educational resources in particular on the basis of Internet technologies remains a difficult methodical task.In article the questions connected with development of electronic educational resources for use when studying the substantial line “Information technologies” of a school course of informatics in particular for studying of spreadsheets are considered. Also the analysis of maintenance of a school course and the unified state examination from the point of view of representation of task in him corresponding to the substantial line of studying “Information technologies” on mastering technology of information processing in spreadsheets and the methods of visualization given by means of charts and schedules is carried out.

  9. From Millennium ERM to Proquest 360 Resource Manager: Implementing a new Electronic Resources Management System ERMS in an International Graduate Research University in Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-01-01

    An overview of the Recommendation Study and the subsequent Implementation of a new Electronic Resources Management system ERMS in an international graduate research university in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. It covers the timeline, deliverables

  10. Availability, Level of Use and Constraints to Use of Electronic Resources by Law Lecturers in Public Universities in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amusa, Oyintola Isiaka; Atinmo, Morayo

    2016-01-01

    (Purpose) This study surveyed the level of availability, use and constraints to use of electronic resources among law lecturers in Nigeria. (Methodology) Five hundred and fifty-two law lecturers were surveyed and four hundred and forty-two responded. (Results) Data analysis revealed that the level of availability of electronic resources for the…

  11. GUIDELINES FOR EVALUATION OF PSYCHOLOGICAL AND PEDAGOGICAL QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina P. Lavrentieva

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights the causes of insufficient effective use of electronic learning resources and sets out the guidelines on ways to solve the aforementioned problems. The set of didactic, methodical, psychological, pedagogical, design and ergonomic quality requirements is considered for evaluation, selection and application of information and communication technologies in the educational process. The most appropriate mechanisms for the ICT introduction into the learning process are disclosed as it should meet the specific learning needs of the student and the objectives of the educational process. The guidance for psycho-educational assessment of quality of electronic educational resources is provided. It is argued that the effectiveness of the ICT use is to be improved by means of quality evaluation mechanisms involved into the educational process.

  12. Model of e-learning with electronic educational resources of new generation

    OpenAIRE

    A. V. Loban; D. A. Lovtsov

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of the article: improving of scientific and methodical base of the theory of the е-learning of variability. Methods used: conceptual and logical modeling of the е-learning of variability process with electronic educational resource of new generation and system analysis of the interconnection of the studied subject area, methods, didactics approaches and information and communication technologies means. Results: the formalization complex model of the е-learning of variability with elec...

  13. Cryptic biodiversity in streams: a comparison of macroinvertebrate communities based on morphological and DNA barcode identifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Species-level identifications are difficult or impossible for many larval aquatic macroinvertebrates. We described the taxonomic composition of macroinvertebrate communities from 5 coastal streams in 3 neighboring catchments in southern California. We compared taxonomic identific...

  14. Cryptic biodiversity in streams - a comparison of macroinvertebrate communities based on morphological and DNA barcode identifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquatic ecologists and entomologists have long known that species-level identifications were difficult, if not impossible, for many larval macroinvertebrates collected in streams. This study describes macroinvertebrate (primarily insect) communities from five coastal streams dist...

  15. Guam Community Coral Reef Monitoring Program, Macroinvertebrate Training Surveys in Guam in 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Guam community members gathered macroinvertebrate within a 25-meter x 2-meter belt transect. Members identified macroinvertebrates to species (when possible),...

  16. A systematic review of portable electronic technology for health education in resource-limited settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHenry, Megan S; Fischer, Lydia J; Chun, Yeona; Vreeman, Rachel C

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this study is to conduct a systematic review of the literature of how portable electronic technologies with offline functionality are perceived and used to provide health education in resource-limited settings. Three reviewers evaluated articles and performed a bibliography search to identify studies describing health education delivered by portable electronic device with offline functionality in low- or middle-income countries. Data extracted included: study population; study design and type of analysis; type of technology used; method of use; setting of technology use; impact on caregivers, patients, or overall health outcomes; and reported limitations. Searches yielded 5514 unique titles. Out of 75 critically reviewed full-text articles, 10 met inclusion criteria. Study locations included Botswana, Peru, Kenya, Thailand, Nigeria, India, Ghana, and Tanzania. Topics addressed included: development of healthcare worker training modules, clinical decision support tools, patient education tools, perceptions and usability of portable electronic technology, and comparisons of technologies and/or mobile applications. Studies primarily looked at the assessment of developed educational modules on trainee health knowledge, perceptions and usability of technology, and comparisons of technologies. Overall, studies reported positive results for portable electronic device-based health education, frequently reporting increased provider/patient knowledge, improved patient outcomes in both quality of care and management, increased provider comfort level with technology, and an environment characterized by increased levels of technology-based, informal learning situations. Negative assessments included high investment costs, lack of technical support, and fear of device theft. While the research is limited, portable electronic educational resources present promising avenues to increase access to effective health education in resource-limited settings, contingent

  17. Model of e-learning with electronic educational resources of new generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Loban

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the article: improving of scientific and methodical base of the theory of the е-learning of variability. Methods used: conceptual and logical modeling of the е-learning of variability process with electronic educational resource of new generation and system analysis of the interconnection of the studied subject area, methods, didactics approaches and information and communication technologies means. Results: the formalization complex model of the е-learning of variability with electronic educational resource of new generation is developed, conditionally decomposed into three basic components: the formalization model of the course in the form of the thesaurusclassifier (“Author of e-resource”, the model of learning as management (“Coordination. Consultation. Control”, the learning model with the thesaurus-classifier (“Student”. Model “Author of e-resource” allows the student to achieve completeness, high degree of didactic elaboration and structuring of the studied material in triples of variants: modules of education information, practical task and control tasks; the result of the student’s (author’s of e-resource activity is the thesaurus-classifier. Model of learning as management is based on the principle of personal orientation of learning in computer environment and determines the logic of interaction between the lecturer and the student when determining the triple of variants individually for each student; organization of a dialogue between the lecturer and the student for consulting purposes; personal control of the student’s success (report generation and iterative search for the concept of the class assignment in the thesaurus-classifier before acquiring the required level of training. Model “Student” makes it possible to concretize the learning tasks in relation to the personality of the student and to the training level achieved; the assumption of the lecturer about the level of training of a

  18. Aquatic macroinvertebrates and water quality in Sandia Canyon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, K.

    1994-05-01

    In 1990, field studies of water quality and stream macroinvertebrate communities were initiated in Sandia Canyon at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The studies were designed to establish baseline data and to determine the effects of routine discharges of industrial and sanitary waste. Water quality measurements were taken and aquatic macroinvertebrates sampled at three permanent stations within the canyon. Two of the three sample stations are located where the stream regularly receives industrial and sanitary waste effluents. These stations exhibited a low diversity of macroinvertebrates and slightly degraded water quality. The last sample station, located approximately 0.4 km (0.25 mi) downstream from the nearest wastewater outfall, appears to be in a zone of recovery where water quality parameters more closely resemble those found in natural streams in the Los Alamos area. A large increase in macroinvertebrate diversity was also observed at the third station. These results indicate that effluents discharged into Sandia Canyon have a marked effect on water quality and aquatic macroinvertebrate communities

  19. Spatial and temporal effects of olive mill wastewaters to stream macroinvertebrates and aquatic ecosystems status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaouzas, Ioannis; Skoulikidis, Nikolaos T; Giannakou, Urania; Albanis, Triantafyllos A

    2011-12-01

    Olive mill wastewater (OMW) is one of the major and most challenging organic pollutants in olive oil production countries. However, the knowledge about the in-situ effects of olive mill wastewaters to lotic ecosystems and their benthic organisms is very limited. To resolve this, eight sampling sites were selected upstream and downstream the outflow of several olive mills to assess the spatial and temporal effects of OMW to stream macroinvertebrates and to ecological status of stream ecosystems. Biotic (macroinvertebrates) and abiotic (physicochemical, hydromorphological) data were monitored for two years thus following the biennial cycle of olive growth and production and hydrological variation (drought-wet years). The results of this study revealed the spatial and temporal structural deterioration of the aquatic community due to OMW pollution with consequent reduction of the river capacity for reducing the effects of polluting substances through internal mechanisms of self-purification. OMW, even highly diluted, had dramatic impacts on the aquatic fauna and to the ecological status of the receiving stream ecosystems. The organic load of the wastewater expressed as BOD(5), COD and TSS, substrate contamination (sewage bacteria) and distance from the mill outlet, were the most important factors affecting macroinvertebrate assemblages while the typology (i.e. slope, altitude) and hydrology of the stream site (i.e. mountainous-lowland) and the intensity and volume of the wastewater were the most important determinants of self-purification processes. As OMW are usually being discharged in small size streams that are not considered in the Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC, there is a need for including such systems into monitoring and assessment schemes as they may significantly contribute to the pollution load of the river basin. Furthermore, guidelines to manage these wastes through technologies that minimise their environmental impact and lead to a sustainable use

  20. Microplastic Effect Thresholds for Freshwater Benthic Macroinvertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Now that microplastics have been detected in lakes, rivers, and estuaries all over the globe, evaluating their effects on biota has become an urgent research priority. This is the first study that aims at determining the effect thresholds for a battery of six freshwater benthic macroinvertebrates with different species traits, using a wide range of microplastic concentrations. Standardized 28 days single species bioassays were performed under environmentally relevant exposure conditions using polystyrene microplastics (20–500 μm) mixed with sediment at concentrations ranging from 0 to 40% sediment dry weight (dw). Microplastics caused no effects on the survival of Gammarus pulex, Hyalella azteca, Asellus aquaticus, Sphaerium corneum, and Tubifex spp. and no effects were found on the reproduction of Lumbriculus variegatus. No significant differences in growth were found for H. azteca, A. aquaticus, S. corneum, L. variegatus, and Tubifex spp. However, G. pulex showed a significant reduction in growth (EC10 = 1.07% sediment dw) and microplastic uptake was proportional with microplastic concentrations in sediment. These results indicate that although the risks of environmentally realistic concentrations of microplastics may be low, they still may affect the biodiversity and the functioning of aquatic communities which after all also depend on the sensitive species. PMID:29337537

  1. Review of material recovery from used electric and electronic equipment-alternative options for resource conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friege, Henning

    2012-09-01

    For waste from electric and electronic equipment, the WEEE Directive stipulates the separate collection of electric and electronic waste. As to new electric and electronic devices, the Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) Directive bans the use of certain chemicals dangerous for man and environment. From the implementation of the WEEE directive, many unsolved problems have been documented: poor collection success, emission of dangerous substances during collection and recycling, irretrievable loss of valuable metals among others. As to RoHS, data from the literature show a satisfying success. The problems identified in the process can be reduced to some basic dilemmas at the borders between waste management, product policy and chemical safety. The objectives of the WEEE Directive and the specific targets for use and recycling of appliances are not consistent. There is no focus on scarce resources. Extended producer responsibility is not sufficient to guarantee sustainable waste management. Waste management reaches its limits due to problems of implementation but also due to physical laws. A holistic approach is necessary looking at all branch points and sinks in the stream of used products and waste from electric and electronic equipment. This may be done with respect to the general rules for sustainable management of material streams covering the three dimensions of sustainable policy. The relationships between the players in the field of electric and electronic devices have to be taken into account. Most of the problems identified in the implementation process will not be solved by the current amendment of the WEEE Directive.

  2. [Use of internet and electronic resources among Spanish intensivist physicians. First national survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Tello, V; Latour-Pérez, J; Añón Elizalde, J M; Palencia-Herrejón, E; Díaz-Alersi, R; De Lucas-García, N

    2006-01-01

    Estimate knowledge and use habits of different electronic resources in a sample of Spanish intensivists: Internet, E-mail, distribution lists, and use of portable electronic devices. Self-applied questionnaire. A 50-question questionnaire was distributed among Spanish intensivists through the hospital marketing delegates of a pharmaceutical company and of electronic forums. A total of 682 questionnaires were analyzed (participation: 74%). Ninety six percent of those surveyed used Internet individually: 67% admitted training gap. Internet was the second source of clinical consultations most used (61%), slightly behind consultation to colleagues (65%). The pages consulted most were bibliographic databases (65%) and electronic professional journals (63%), with limited use of Evidence Based Medicine pages (19%). Ninety percent of those surveyed used e-mail regularly in the practice of their profession, although 25% admitted that were not aware of its possibilities. The use of E-mail decreased significantly with increase in age. A total of 62% of the intensivists used distribution lists. Of the rest, 42% were not aware of its existence and 32% admitted they had insufficient training to handle them. Twenty percent of those surveyed had portable electronic devices and 64% considered it useful, basically due to its rapid consultation at bedside. Female gender was a negative predictive factor of its use (OR 0.35; 95% CI 0.2-0.63; p=0.0002). A large majority of the Spanish intensivists use Internet and E-mail. E-mail lists and use of portable devices are still underused resources. There are important gaps in training and infrequent use of essential pages. There are specific groups that require directed educational policies.

  3. The role of macroinvertebrates for conservation of freshwater systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Carolina; Ovando, Ximena M C; Loyola, Rafael; Izquierdo, Andrea; Romero, Fátima; Molineri, Carlos; Rodríguez, José; Rueda Martín, Paola; Fernández, Hugo; Manzo, Verónica; Miranda, María José

    2017-07-01

    Freshwater ecosystems are the most threatened ecosystems worldwide. Argentinian-protected areas have been established mainly to protect vertebrates and plants in terrestrial ecosystems. In order to create a comprehensive biodiverse conservation plan, it is crucial to integrate both aquatic and terrestrial systems and to include macroinvertebrates. Here, we address this topic by proposing priority areas of conservation including invertebrates, aquatic ecosystems, and their connectivity and land uses. Northwest of Argentina. We modeled the ecological niches of different taxa of macroinvertebrates such as Coleoptera, Ephemeroptera, Hemiptera, Megaloptera, Lepidoptera, Odonata, Plecoptera, Trichoptera, Acari, and Mollusca. Based on these models, we analyzed the contribution of currently established protected areas in the conservation of the aquatic biodiversity and we propose a spatial prioritization taking into account possible conflict regarding different land uses. Our analysis units were the real watersheds, to which were added longitudinal connectivity up and down the rivers. A total of 132 species were modeled in the priority area analyses. The analysis 1 showed that only an insignificant percentage of the macroinvertebrates distribution is within the protected areas in the North West of Argentina. The analyses 2 and 3 recovered similar values of protection for the macroinvertebrate species. The upper part of Bermejo, Salí-Dulce, San Francisco, and the Upper part of Juramento basins were identified as priority areas of conservation. The aquatic ecosystems need special protection and 10% or even as much as 17% of land conservation is insufficient for species of macroinvertebrates. In turn the protected areas need to combine the aquatic and terrestrial systems and need to include macroinvertebrates as a key group to sustain the biodiversity. In many cases, the land uses are in conflict with the conservation of biodiversity; however, it is possible to apply the

  4. Fish stomach contents in benthic macroinvertebrate assemblage assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TH. Tupinambás

    Full Text Available The choice of sampling gears to assess benthic macroinvertebrate communities depends on environmental characteristics, study objectives, and cost effectiveness. Because of the high foraging capacity and diverse habitats and behaviors of benthophagous fishes, their stomach contents may offer a useful sampling tool in studies of benthic macroinvertebrates, especially in large, deep, fast rivers that are difficult to sample with traditional sediment sampling gear. Our objective was to compare the benthic macroinvertebrate communities sampled from sediments with those sampled from fish stomachs. We collected benthic macroinvertebrates and fish from three different habitat types (backwater, beach, riffle in the wet season, drying season, and dry season along a single reach of the Grande River (Paraná River Basin, southeast Brazil. We sampled sediments through use of a Petersen dredge (total of 216 grabs and used gill nets to sample fish (total of 36 samples. We analyzed the stomach contents of three commonly occurring benthophagous fish species (Eigenmannia virescens, Iheringichthys labrosus, Leporinus amblyrhynchus. Chironomids dominated in both sampling methods. Macroinvertebrate taxonomic composition and abundances from fish stomachs differed from those from sediment samples, but less so from riffles than from backwater and beach habitats. Macroinvertebrate taxa from E. virescens stomachs were more strongly correlated with sediment samples from all three habitats than were those from the other two species. The species accumulation curves and higher mean dispersion values, compared with with sediment samples suggest that E. virescens is more efficient than sediment samples and the other fish studied at collecting benthic taxa. We conclude that by analyzing the stomach contents of benthophagous fishes it is possible to assess important characteristics of benthic communities (dispersion, taxonomic composition and diversity. This is especially true

  5. The Synthesis of the Hierarchical Structure of Information Resources for Management of Electronic Commerce Entities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krutova Anzhelika S.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to develop the theoretical bases for the classification and coding of economic information and the scientific justification of the content of information resources of an electronic commerce enterprise. The essence of information resources for management of electronic business entities is investigated. It is proved that the organization of accounting in e-commerce systems is advisable to be built on the basis of two circuits: accounting for financial flows and accounting associated with transformation of business factors in products and services as a result of production activities. There presented a sequence of accounting organization that allows to combine the both circuits in a single information system, which provides a possibility for the integrated replenishment and distributed simultaneous use of the e-commerce system by all groups of users. It is proved that the guarantee of efficient activity of the information management system of electronic commerce entities is a proper systematization of the aggregate of information resources on economic facts and operations of an enterprise in accordance with the management tasks by building the hierarchy of accounting nomenclatures. It is suggested to understand nomenclature as an objective, primary information aggregate concerning a certain fact of the economic activity of an enterprise, which is characterized by minimum requisites, is entered into the database of the information system and is to be reflected in the accounting system. It is proposed to build a database of e-commerce systems as a part of directories (constants, personnel, goods / products, suppliers, buyers and the hierarchy of accounting nomenclatures. The package of documents regulating the organization of accounting at an enterprise should include: the provision on the accounting services, the order on the accounting policy, the job descriptions, the schedules of information exchange, the report card and

  6. ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES FOR ONLINE SUPPORT OF MODERN CHEMISTRY CLASSES IN SPECIALIZED SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria D. Tukalo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article contains material of some modern electronic educational resources that can be used via the Internet to support the modern chemistry classes in specialized school. It was drawn attention to the educational chemical experiments as means of knowledge; simulated key motivational characteristics to enhance students interest for learning subjects, their cognitive and practical activity in the formation of self-reliance and self-creative; commented forecasts for creating of conditions to enhance the creative potential of students in a modern learning environment.

  7. Stream Macroinvertebrate Occurrence along Gradients in Organic Pollution and Eutrophication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friberg, Nikolai; Skriver, Jens; Larsen, Søren Erik

    2010-01-01

    We analysed a large number of concurrent samples of macroinvertebrate communities and chemical indicators of eutrophication and organic pollution [total-P, total-N, NH4-N, biological oxygen demand (BOD5)] from 594 Danish stream sites. Samples were taken over an 11-year time span as part of the Da......We analysed a large number of concurrent samples of macroinvertebrate communities and chemical indicators of eutrophication and organic pollution [total-P, total-N, NH4-N, biological oxygen demand (BOD5)] from 594 Danish stream sites. Samples were taken over an 11-year time span as part...

  8. Analytical approaches used in stream benthic macroinvertebrate biomonitoring programs of State agencies in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, James L.; Resh, Vincent H.

    2013-01-01

    (87 percent). Less often used are tolerance values for metals (28 percent). Benthic data are infrequently modified (34 percent) prior to analysis. Fixed-count subsampling is used widely (83 percent), with the number of organisms sorted ranging from 100 to 600 specimens. Most programs include a step during sample processing to acquire rare taxa (79 percent). Programs calculate from 2 to more than100 different metrics (mean 20), and most formulate a multimetric index (87 percent). Eleven of the 112 metrics reported represent 50 percent of all metrics considered to be useful, and most of these are based on richness or percent composition. Biotic indices and tolerance metrics are most oftenused in the eastern U.S., and functional and habitat-type metrics are most often used in the western U.S. Sixty-nine percent of programs analyze their data in-house, typically performing correlations and regressions, and few use any form of data transformation (34 percent). Fifty-one percent of the programs use multivariate analyses, typically non-metric multi-dimensional scaling. All programs have electronic data storage. Most programs use the Integrated Taxonomic Information System (75 percent) for nomenclature and to update historical data (78 percent). State procedures represent a diversity of biomonitoring approaches which likely compromises comparability among programs. A national-state consensus is needed for: (1) developing methods for the identification of reference conditions and reference sites, (2) standardization in determining and reporting species richness, (3) testing and documenting both the theoretical and mechanistic basis of often-used metrics, (4) development of properly replicated point-source study designs, and (5) curation of benthic macroinvertebrate data, including reference and voucher collections, for successful evaluation of future environmental changes.

  9. THE MODEL OF LINGUISTIC TEACHERS’ COMPETENCY DEVELOPMENT ON DESIGNING MULTIMEDIA ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES IN THE MOODLE SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton M. Avramchuk

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of developing the competency of teachers of language disciplines on designing multimedia electronic educational resources in the Moodle system. The concept of "the competence of teachers of language disciplines on designing multimedia electronic educational resources in the Moodle system" is justified and defined. Identified and characterized the components by which the levels of the competency development of teachers of language disciplines on designing multimedia electronic educational resources in the Moodle system should be assessed. Developed a model for the development of the competency of teachers of language disciplines on designing multimedia electronic educational resources in the Moodle system, which is based on the main scientific approaches, used in adult education, and consists of five blocks: target, informative, technological, diagnostic and effective.

  10. A preliminary categorization of end-of-life electrical and electronic equipment as secondary metal resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oguchi, Masahiro; Murakami, Shinsuke; Sakanakura, Hirofumi; Kida, Akiko; Kameya, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → End-of-life electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) as secondary metal resources. → The content and the total amount of metals in specific equipment are both important. → We categorized 21 EEE types from contents and total amounts of various metals. → Important equipment types as secondary resources were listed for each metal kind. → Collectability and possible collection systems of various EEE types were discussed. - Abstract: End-of-life electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) has recently received attention as a secondary source of metals. This study examined characteristics of end-of-life EEE as secondary metal resources to consider efficient collection and metal recovery systems according to the specific metals and types of EEE. We constructed an analogy between natural resource development and metal recovery from end-of-life EEE and found that metal content and total annual amount of metal contained in each type of end-of-life EEE should be considered in secondary resource development, as well as the collectability of the end-of-life products. We then categorized 21 EEE types into five groups and discussed their potential as secondary metal resources. Refrigerators, washing machines, air conditioners, and CRT TVs were evaluated as the most important sources of common metals, and personal computers, mobile phones, and video games were evaluated as the most important sources of precious metals. Several types of small digital equipment were also identified as important sources of precious metals; however, mid-size information and communication technology (ICT) equipment (e.g., printers and fax machines) and audio/video equipment were shown to be more important as a source of a variety of less common metals. The physical collectability of each type of EEE was roughly characterized by unit size and number of end-of-life products generated annually. Current collection systems in Japan were examined and potentially appropriate collection

  11. Open-Source Electronic Health Record Systems for Low-Resource Settings: Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syzdykova, Assel; Malta, André; Zolfo, Maria; Diro, Ermias; Oliveira, José Luis

    2017-11-13

    Despite the great impact of information and communication technologies on clinical practice and on the quality of health services, this trend has been almost exclusive to developed countries, whereas countries with poor resources suffer from many economic and social issues that have hindered the real benefits of electronic health (eHealth) tools. As a component of eHealth systems, electronic health records (EHRs) play a fundamental role in patient management and effective medical care services. Thus, the adoption of EHRs in regions with a lack of infrastructure, untrained staff, and ill-equipped health care providers is an important task. However, the main barrier to adopting EHR software in low- and middle-income countries is the cost of its purchase and maintenance, which highlights the open-source approach as a good solution for these underserved areas. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review of open-source EHR systems based on the requirements and limitations of low-resource settings. First, we reviewed existing literature on the comparison of available open-source solutions. In close collaboration with the University of Gondar Hospital, Ethiopia, we identified common limitations in poor resource environments and also the main requirements that EHRs should support. Then, we extensively evaluated the current open-source EHR solutions, discussing their strengths and weaknesses, and their appropriateness to fulfill a predefined set of features relevant for low-resource settings. The evaluation methodology allowed assessment of several key aspects of available solutions that are as follows: (1) integrated applications, (2) configurable reports, (3) custom reports, (4) custom forms, (5) interoperability, (6) coding systems, (7) authentication methods, (8) patient portal, (9) access control model, (10) cryptographic features, (11) flexible data model, (12) offline support, (13) native client, (14) Web client,(15) other clients, (16) code

  12. Aquatic macroinvertebrates and water quality of Sandia Canyon, Los Alamos National Laboratory, December 1992--October 1993. Status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, S.

    1994-09-01

    In the summer of 1990, an accidental spill from the TA-3 Power Plant Environment Tank released more than 3,785 liters of sulfuric acid into upper Sandia Canyon. The Biological Resource Evaluation Team (BRET) of EM-8 at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has collected aquatic samples from the stream within Sandia Canyon since then. These field studies gather water quality measurements and collect macroinvertebrates from permanent sampling sites. An earlier report by Bennett (1994) discusses previous BRET aquatic studies in Sandia Canyon. This report updates and expands Bennett's initial findings. During 1993, BRET collected water quality data and aquatic macroinvertebrates at five permanent stations within the canyon. The substrates of the upper three stations are largely sands and silts while the substrates of the two lower stations are largely rock and cobbles. The two upstream stations are located near outfalls that discharge industrial and sanitary waste effluent. The third station is within a natural cattail marsh, approximately 0.4 km (0.25 mi) downstream from Stations SC1 and SC2. Water quality parameters are slightly different at these first three stations from those expected of natural streams, suggesting slightly degraded water quality. Correspondingly, the macroinvertebrate communities at these stations are characterized by low diversities and poorly-developed community structures. The two downstream stations appear to be in a zone of recovery, where water quality parameters more closely resemble those found in natural streams of the area. Macroinvertebrate diversity increases and community structure becomes more complex at the two lower stations, which are further indications of improved water quality downstream

  13. THE MODEL OF LINGUISTIC TEACHERS’ COMPETENCY DEVELOPMENT ON DESIGNING MULTIMEDIA ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES IN THE MOODLE SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Anton M. Avramchuk

    2017-01-01

    The article is devoted to the problem of developing the competency of teachers of language disciplines on designing multimedia electronic educational resources in the Moodle system. The concept of "the competence of teachers of language disciplines on designing multimedia electronic educational resources in the Moodle system" is justified and defined. Identified and characterized the components by which the levels of the competency development of teachers of language disciplines on designing ...

  14. Determining the level of awareness of the physicians in using the variety of electronic information resources and the effecting factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papi, Ahmad; Ghazavi, Roghayeh; Moradi, Salimeh

    2015-01-01

    Understanding of the medical society's from the types of information resources for quick and easy access to information is an imperative task in medical researches and management of the treatment. The present study was aimed to determine the level of awareness of the physicians in using various electronic information resources and the factors affecting it. This study was a descriptive survey. The data collection tool was a researcher-made questionnaire. The study population included all the physicians and specialty physicians of the teaching hospitals affiliated to Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and numbered 350. The sample size based on Morgan's formula was set at 180. The content validity of the tool was confirmed by the library and information professionals and the reliability was 95%. Descriptive statistics were used including the SPSS software version 19. On reviewing the need of the physicians to obtain the information on several occasions, the need for information in conducting the researches was reported by the maximum number of physicians (91.9%) and the usage of information resources, especially the electronic resources, formed 65.4% as the highest rate with regard to meeting the information needs of the physicians. Among the electronic information databases, the maximum awareness was related to Medline with 86.5%. Among the various electronic information resources, the highest awareness (43.3%) was related to the E-journals. The highest usage (36%) was also from the same source. The studied physicians considered the most effective deterrent in the use of electronic information resources as being too busy and lack of time. Despite the importance of electronic information resources for the physician's community, there was no comprehensive knowledge of these resources. This can lead to less usage of these resources. Therefore, careful planning is necessary in the hospital libraries in order to introduce the facilities and full capabilities of the

  15. Success criteria for electronic medical record implementations in low-resource settings: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Fleur; Tilahun, Binyam; Dugas, Martin

    2015-03-01

    Electronic medical record (EMR) systems have the potential of supporting clinical work by providing the right information at the right time to the right people and thus make efficient use of resources. This is especially important in low-resource settings where reliable data are also needed to support public health and local supporting organizations. In this systematic literature review, our objectives are to identify and collect literature about success criteria of EMR implementations in low-resource settings and to summarize them into recommendations. Our search strategy relied on PubMed queries and manual bibliography reviews. Studies were included if EMR implementations in low-resource settings were described. The extracted success criteria and measurements were summarized into 7 categories: ethical, financial, functionality, organizational, political, technical, and training. We collected 381 success criteria with 229 measurements from 47 articles out of 223 articles. Most papers were evaluations or lessons learned from African countries, published from 1999 to 2013. Almost half of the EMR systems served a specific disease area like human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The majority of criteria that were reported dealt with the functionality, followed by organizational issues, and technical infrastructures. Sufficient training and skilled personnel were mentioned in roughly 10%. Political, ethical, and financial considerations did not play a predominant role. More evaluations based on reliable frameworks are needed. Highly reliable data handling methods, human resources and effective project management, as well as technical architecture and infrastructure are all key factors for successful EMR implementation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Recovery of lotic macroinvertebrate communities from disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, J. Bruce

    1990-09-01

    Ecosystem disturbances produce changes in macrobenthic community structure (abundances, biomass, and production) that persist for a few weeks to many decades. Examples of disturbances with extremely long-term effects on benthic communities include contamination by persistent toxic agents, physical changes in habitats, and altered energy inputs. Stream size, retention, and local geomorphology may ameliorate the influence of disturbances on invertebrates. Disturbances can alter food webs and may select for favorable genotypes (e.g., insecticidal resistance). Introductions of pesticides into lotic ecosystems, which do not result in major physical changes within habitats, illustrate several factors that influence invertebrate recovery time from disturbance. These include: (1) magnitude of original contamination, toxicity, and extent of continued use; (2) spatial scale of the disturbance; (3) persistence of the pesticide; (4) timing of the contamination in relation to the life history stages of the organisms; (5) vagility of populations influenced by pesticides; and (6) position within the drainage network. The ability of macroinvertebrates to recolonize denuded stream habitats may vary greatly depending on regional life histories, dispersal abilities, and position within the stream network (e.g., headwaters vs larger rivers). Although downstream drift is the most frequently cited mechanism of invertebrate recolonization following disturbance in middle- and larger-order streams, evidence is presented that shows aerial recolonization to be potentially important in headwater streams. There is an apparent stochastic element operating for aerial recolonization, depending on the timing of disturbance and flight periods of various taxa. Available evidence indicates that recolonization of invertebrate taxa without an aerial adult stage requires longer periods of time than for those that possess winged, terrestrial adult stages (i.e., most insects). Innovative, manipulative

  17. Impact of Knowledge Resources Linked to an Electronic Health Record on Frequency of Unnecessary Tests and Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Kenneth; Grad, Roland; Pluye, Pierre; Nowacki, Amy; Hickner, John

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Electronic knowledge resources have the potential to rapidly provide answers to clinicians' questions. We sought to determine clinicians' reasons for searching these resources, the rate of finding relevant information, and the perceived clinical impact of the information they retrieved. Methods: We asked general internists, family…

  18. Resource conservation approached with an appropriate collection and upgrade-remanufacturing for used electronic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlamparet, Gabriel I; Tan, Quanyin; Stevels, A B; Li, Jinhui

    2018-03-01

    This comparative research represents an example for a better conservation of resources by reducing the amount of waste (kg) and providing it more value under the umbrella of remanufacturing. The three discussed cases will expose three issues already addressed separately in the literature. The generation of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) interacts with the environmental depletion. In this article, we gave the examples of addressed issues under the concept of remanufacturing. Online collection opportunity eliminating classical collection, a business to business (B2B) implementation for remanufactured servers and medical devices. The material reuse (recycling), component sustainability, reuse (part harvesting), product reuse (after repair/remanufacturing) indicates the recovery potential using remanufacturing tool for a better conservation of resources adding more value to the products. Our findings can provide an overview of new system organization for the general collection, market potential and the technological advantages using remanufacturing instead of recycling of WEEE or used electrical and electronic equipment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Electronic theses and dissertations: a review of this valuable resource for nurse scholars worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodfellow, L M

    2009-06-01

    A worldwide repository of electronic theses and dissertations (ETDs) could provide worldwide access to the most up-to-date research generated by masters and doctoral students. Until that international repository is established, it is possible to access some of these valuable knowledge resources. ETDs provide a technologically advanced medium with endless multimedia capabilities that far exceed the print and bound copies of theses and dissertations housed traditionally in individual university libraries. CURRENT USE: A growing trend exists for universities worldwide to require graduate students to submit theses or dissertations as electronic documents. However, nurse scholars underutilize ETDs, as evidenced by perusing bibliographic citation lists in many of the research journals. ETDs can be searched for and retrieved through several digital resources such as the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations (http://www.ndltd.org), ProQuest Dissertations and Theses (http://www.umi.com), the Australasian Digital Theses Program (http://adt.caul.edu.au/) and through individual university web sites and online catalogues. An international repository of ETDs benefits the community of nurse scholars in many ways. The ability to access recent graduate students' research electronically from anywhere in the world is advantageous. For scholars residing in developing countries, access to these ETDs may prove to be even more valuable. In some cases, ETDs are not available for worldwide access and can only be accessed through the university library from which the student graduated. Public access to university library ETD collections is not always permitted. Nurse scholars from both developing and developed countries could benefit from ETDs.

  20. Soil macroinvertebrates along a successional gradient in central Florida

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frouz, Jan; Ali, A.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 87, č. 3 (2004), s. 386-390 ISSN 0015-4040 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6066911 Keywords : soil macroinvertebrates * successional gradient * central Florida Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.786, year: 2004

  1. Qualitative Macroinvertebrate Assessment of Crouch Branch, June 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Specht, W.L.

    1999-01-01

    An assessment of the macroinvertebrate community of Crouch Branch was performed in June 1999 to determine if effluent from the H-02 outfall is impairing the quality of the stream. Concurrent samples were collected for metals analyses (copper and zinc). The results of the study indicate that the stream is most impaired just downstream from the H-02 outfall and that the quality of the stream biota improves with increasing distance from the outfall. Conversely, macroinvertebrate habitat quality is best just downstream from the H-02 outfall. The midreaches of the stream contain very poor habitat quality, and the lower reaches of the stream, contain habitat of intermediate quality. Although much of the stream has degraded habitat due to channel erosion and scouring, there is strong evidence to suggest that the impairment is due to elevated concentrations of copper and zinc that are present in the H-02 effluent. A comparison of macroinvertebrate data collected in 1997 to the data collected in this study indicates that the macroinvertebrate community of Crouch Branch has improved markedly in the last two years

  2. Benthic macroinvertebrate community of a fourth order stream in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cinthia

    Full Length Research Paper. Benthic macroinvertebrate community of a fourth order stream in Kashmir Himalaya, India. Shazia Habib1* and A.R. Yousuf2. 1Department of Environmental Science, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India. 2National Green Tribunal, Government of India, India. Received 31 December, 2013; ...

  3. Patterning and predicting aquatic macroinvertebrate diversities using artificial neural network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Park, Y.S.; Verdonschot, P.F.M.; Chon, T.S.; Lek, S.

    2003-01-01

    A counterpropagation neural network (CPN) was applied to predict species richness (SR) and Shannon diversity index (SH) of benthic macroinvertebrate communities using 34 environmental variables. The data were collected at 664 sites at 23 different water types such as springs, streams, rivers,

  4. The effect of plant density on epiphytic macroinvertebrates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of variations in the density of a submerged macrophyte,Lagarosiphon ilicifolius, on epiphytic macroinvertebrate community structure in the shallow waters of a sheltered bay of Lake Kariba were investigated. The body size class distributions of a mayfly, Cloeon (Ephemeroptera: Baetidae), and the damselfly family, ...

  5. Physico-chemical conditions and macroinvertebrate fauna in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the distribution of benthic macroinvertebrates in relation to physico-chemical conditions along 1 035km of the River Nile from Aswan High Dam to Al Kanater Barrage, Cairo. Total Dissolved Salts and several individual chemical variables showed positive linear regression with distance from Aswan.

  6. The Colonization of Newly Built Fishponds by the Macroinvertebrate Assemblages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavla Řezníčková

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The succession of standing waters by aquatic macroinvertebrates is a present and insufficiently surveyed topic. This study is addressed to the issue of colonisation of newly created small standing waters. Two fishponds situated in the north of Moravia (Czech Republic were studied. The aim of this study was to determine the character and colonisation rate of these ponds by macroinvertebrates, to evaluate the abundance, taxonomic composition and changes in composition of freshwater assemblages as a result of the fish stock influence. Basic abiotic parameters were also measured within the sampling occasions (e.g. water temperature, dissolved oxygen, conductivity, pH, total nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations. Samples of aquatic macroinvertebrates were taken monthly during the years 2012 and 2013, by kick sampling method using the hand net. The character of sampled fishponds was very similar, environmental parameters (e.g. area, substrate, depth etc. were comparable. The colonisation of both fishponds was very fast. The pioneer colonists were mainly insect larvae (e.g. chironomids. Very low numbers of macroinvertebrates as a result of fish stock influence were recorded on both sites during the observation with the highest abundances in summer season.

  7. Effects of oil pollution on aquatic macroinvertebrate assemblages in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Macroinvertebrate assemblages from uncontaminated and contaminated sites in the Gamba Complex (Gabon) were compared, the latter sites having been subjected to ongoing oil spills since the 1970s. Vegetation communities surrounding the sites included savannah, shrub–scrub, palm forest, gallery forest and thick ...

  8. Ecology of benthic macroinvertebrates in the depositional biotope of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ecology of benthic macroinvertebrates was studied in the depositional biotope of a river in southern Nigeria in two contrasting tidally influenced fresh and brackish water stations. Forty five taxa in nineteen families representing seven major groups of benthos were recorded. The molluscan families, dominated by ...

  9. Impacts of trout on aquatic macroinvertebrates in three Drakensberg ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Further studies are recommended in order to provide additional information on seasonal variation in these patterns, as well as on density-dependent effects of trout on aquatic macroinvertebrate communities. Keywords: management, Oncorhynchus mykiss, Salmo trutta, Ukhahlamba-Drakensberg Park, waterfalls

  10. Are sugarcane leaf-detritus well colonized by aquatic macroinvertebrates?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciene Aparecida Leite-Rossi

    Full Text Available AIM: The aim was to compare the kinetics of decomposition and the colonization of leaf litter of two plant species, the native Talauma ovata (pinha-do-brejo and the exotic Saccharum officinarum (sugarcane, by aquatic macroinvertebrates; METHODS: From each substrate, three recipients of colonization were taken from a stream, and the specimens identified to the lowest taxonomic level on days 7, 15, 34, 44, 61 and 75. The debris was weighed at the beginning and end of the experiment and determined their cell wall fractions; RESULTS: The coefficients of mineralization indicated higher velocity decay of organic matter refractory in T. ovata. There was no difference in taxonomic structure of macroinvertebrates, between the two substrates, but the community exhibited distinct functional feeding groups in the peak of colonization, with a greater number of shredders in T. ovata. The successive states of decomposition of the two plant detritus showed distinct macroinvertebrate densities; CONCLUSIONS: The amount and state of the plant biomass were important factors influencing the density and diversity of the macroinvertebrate fauna throughout the process of organic decomposition.

  11. From Millennium ERM to Proquest 360 Resource Manager: Implementing a new Electronic Resources Management System ERMS in an International Graduate Research University in Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-05-17

    An overview of the Recommendation Study and the subsequent Implementation of a new Electronic Resources Management system ERMS in an international graduate research university in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. It covers the timeline, deliverables and challenges as well as lessons learnt by the Project Team.

  12. Sediment Burial Intolerance of Marine Macroinvertebrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicki J Hendrick

    Full Text Available The marine environment contains suspended particulate matter which originates from natural and anthropogenic sources. Settlement of this material can leave benthic organisms susceptible to smothering, especially if burial is sudden i.e. following storms or activities such as dredging. Their survival will depend on their tolerance to, and their ability to escape from burial. Here we present data from a multi-factorial experiment measuring burial responses incorporating duration, sediment fraction and depth. Six macroinvertebrates commonly found in sediment rich environments were selected for their commercial and/or conservation importance. Assessments revealed that the brittle star (Ophiura ophiura, the queen scallop (Aequipecten opercularis and the sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis were all highly intolerant to burial whilst the green urchin (Psammichinus miliaris and the anemone (Sagartiogeton laceratus, showed intermediate and low intolerance respectively, to burial. The least intolerant, with very high survival was the Ross worm (Sabellaria spinulosa. With the exception of C. intestinalis, increasing duration and depth of burial with finer sediment fractions resulted in increased mortality for all species assessed. For C. intestinalis depth of burial and sediment fraction were found to be inconsequential since there was complete mortality of all specimens buried for more than one day. When burial emergence was assessed O. ophiura emerged most frequently, followed by P. miliaris. The former emerged most frequently from the medium and fine sediments whereas P. miliaris emerged more frequently from coarse sediment. Both A. opercularis and S. laceratus showed similar emergence responses over time, with A. opercularis emerging more frequently under coarse sediments. The frequency of emergence of S. laceratus increased with progressively finer sediment and C. intestinalis did not emerge from burial irrespective of sediment fraction or depth. Finally

  13. Electronic tracking of human resource skills and knowledge, just in time training, manageable due diligence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolodziej, M.A. [Quick Test International Inc., (Canada). Canadian Technology Human Resource Board; Baker, O. [KeySpan Energy Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2001-06-01

    KeySpan Energy Canada is in the process of obtaining recognition of various occupational profiles including pipeline operators, inspectors, and field and plant operators from various certifying organizations. The process of allowing individuals to obtain certification is recognized by Canadian Technology Human Resources Board as a step towards national standards for technologists and technicians. Proven competency is a must for workers in todays oil industry in response to increasingly stringent government safety regulations, environmental concerns and high public scrutiny. Quick Test international Inc. has developed a management tool in collaboration with end users at KeySpan Energy Canada. It is an electronic, Internet based competency tool for tracking personal competencies and maintaining continued competency. Response to the tool has been favourable. 2 refs., 4 figs.

  14. Availability, Use and Constraints to Use of Electronic Information Resources by Postgraduates Students at the University of Ibadan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dare Samuel Adeleke

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Availability, awareness and use of electronic resources provide access to authoritative, reliable, accurate and timely access to information. The use of electronic information resources (EIRs can enable innovation in teaching and increase timeliness in research of postgraduate students which will eventual result into encouragement of the expected research-led enquiry in this digital age. The study adopted a descriptive survey design. Samples of 300 of postgraduate students within seven out 13 Faculties were randomly selected. Data were collected using questionnaire designed to elicit response from respondents and data were analyzed using descriptive statistics methods percentages, mean, and standard deviation. Results indicated that internet was ranked most available and used in the university. Low level of usage of electronic resources, in particular, full texts data bases is linked to a number of constraints: Interrupted power supply was ranked highest among other factors as speed and capacity of computers, retrieval of records with high recall and low precision, retrieving records relevant to information need, lack of knowledge of search techniques to retrieve information effectively, non possession of requisite IT skills and problems accessing the internet. The study recommended that usage of electronic resources be made compulsory, intensifying awareness campaigns concerning the availability, training on use of electronic resources and the problem of power outage be addressed.

  15. Using mobile electronic devices to deliver educational resources in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazal, Jonathan Robert; Ludwig, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Developing countries have far fewer trained radiography professionals than developed countries, which exacerbates the limited access to imaging services. The lack of trained radiographers reflects, in part, limited availability of radiographer-specific educational resources. Historically, organizations that provided such resources in the developing world faced challenges related to the limited stock of current materials as well as expenses associated with shipping and delivery. Four mobile electronic devices (MEDs) were loaded with educational content (e-books, PDFs, and digital applications) spanning major radiography topics. The MEDs were distributed to 4 imaging departments in Ghana, India, Nepal, and Nigeria based on evidence of need for radiography-specific resources, as revealed by survey responses. A cost comparison of postal delivery vs digital delivery of educational content was performed. The effectiveness of delivering additional content via Wi-Fi transmission also was evaluated. Feedback was solicited on users' experience with the MEDs as a delivery tool for educational content. An initial average per e-book expense of $30.05, which included the cost of the device, was calculated for the MED delivery method compared with $15.56 for postal delivery of printed materials. The cost of the MED delivery method was reduced to an average of $10.05 for subsequent e-book deliveries. Additional content was successfully delivered via Wi-Fi transmission to all recipients during the 3-month follow-up period. Overall user feedback on the experience was positive, and ideas for enhancing the MED-based method were identified. Using MEDs to deliver radiography-specific educational content appears to be more cost effective than postal delivery of printed materials on a long-term basis. MEDs are more efficient for providing updates to educational materials. Customization of content to department needs, and using projector devices could enhance the usefulness of MEDs for

  16. The electronic encapsulation of knowledge in hydraulics, hydrology and water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Michael B.

    The rapidly developing practice of encapsulating knowledge in electronic media is shown to lead necessarily to the restructuring of the knowledge itself. The consequences of this for hydraulics, hydrology and more general water-resources management are investigated in particular relation to current process-simulation, real-time control and advice-serving systems. The generic properties of the electronic knowledge encapsulator are described, and attention is drawn to the manner in which knowledge 'goes into hiding' through encapsulation. This property is traced in the simple situations of pure mathesis and in the more complex situations of taxinomia using one example each from hydraulics and hydrology. The consequences for systems architectures are explained, pointing to the need for multi-agent architectures for ecological modelling and for more general hydroinformatics systems also. The relevance of these developments is indicated by reference to ongoing projects in which they are currently being realised. In conclusion, some more general epistemological aspects are considered within the same context. As this contribution is so much concerned with the processes of signification and communication, it has been partly shaped by the theory of semiotics, as popularised by Eco ( A Theory of Semiotics, Indiana University, Bloomington, 1977).

  17. Plastics disassembly versus bulk recycling: engineering design for end-of-life electronics resource recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Pedro; Stuart, Julie Ann; Grant, Ed

    2003-12-01

    Annual plastic flows through the business and consumer electronics manufacturing supply chain include nearly 3 billion lb of high-value engineering plastics derived from petroleum. The recovery of resource value from this stream presents critical challenges in areas of materials identification and recycling process design that demand new green engineering technologies applied together with life cycle assessment and ecological supply chain analysis to create viable plastics-to-plastics supply cycles. The sustainable recovery of potentially high-value engineering plastics streams requires that recyclers either avoid mixing plastic parts or purify later by separating smaller plastic pieces created in volume reduction (shredding) steps. Identification and separation constitute significant barriers in the plastics-to-plastics recycling value proposition. In the present work, we develop a model that accepts randomly arriving electronic products to study scenarios by which a recycler might identify and separate high-value engineering plastics as well as metals. Using discrete eventsimulation,we compare current mixed plastics recovery with spectrochemical plastic resin identification and subsequent sorting. Our results show that limited disassembly with whole-part identification can produce substantial yields in separated streams of recovered engineering thermoplastics. We find that disassembly with identification does not constitute a bottleneck, but rather, with relatively few workers, can be configured to pull the process and thus decrease maximum staging space requirements.

  18. Macroinvertebrates as indicators of fish absence in naturally fishless lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Emily Gaenzle; Loftin, C.S.; Huryn, Alexander D.

    2009-01-01

    1. Little is known about native communities in naturally fishless lakes in eastern North America, a region where fish stocking has led to a decline in these habitats. 2. Our study objectives were to: (i) characterise and compare macroinvertebrate communities in fishless lakes found in two biophysical regions of Maine (U.S.A.): kettle lakes in the eastern lowlands and foothills and headwater lakes in the central and western mountains; (ii) identify unique attributes of fishless lake macroinvertebrate communities compared to lakes with fish and (iii) develop a method to efficiently identify fishless lakes when thorough fish surveys are not possible. 3. We quantified macroinvertebrate community structure in the two physiographic fishless lake types (n = 8 kettle lakes; n = 8 headwater lakes) with submerged light traps and sweep nets. We also compared fishless lake macroinvertebrate communities to those in fish-containing lakes (n = 18) of similar size, location and maximum depth. We used non-metric multidimensional scaling to assess differences in community structure and t-tests for taxon-specific comparisons between lakes. 4. Few differences in macroinvertebrate communities between the two physiographic fishless lake types were apparent. Fishless and fish-containing lakes had numerous differences in macroinvertebrate community structure, abundance, taxonomic composition and species richness. Fish presence or absence was a stronger determinant of community structure in our study than differences in physical conditions relating to lake origin and physiography. 5. Communities in fishless lakes were more speciose and abundant than in fish-containing lakes, especially taxa that are large, active and free-swimming. Families differing in abundance and taxonomic composition included Notonectidae, Corixidae, Gyrinidae, Dytiscidae, Aeshnidae, Libellulidae and Chaoboridae. 6. We identified six taxa unique to fishless lakes that are robust indicators of fish absence: Graphoderus

  19. SAGES: a suite of freely-available software tools for electronic disease surveillance in resource-limited settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheri L Lewis

    Full Text Available Public health surveillance is undergoing a revolution driven by advances in the field of information technology. Many countries have experienced vast improvements in the collection, ingestion, analysis, visualization, and dissemination of public health data. Resource-limited countries have lagged behind due to challenges in information technology infrastructure, public health resources, and the costs of proprietary software. The Suite for Automated Global Electronic bioSurveillance (SAGES is a collection of modular, flexible, freely-available software tools for electronic disease surveillance in resource-limited settings. One or more SAGES tools may be used in concert with existing surveillance applications or the SAGES tools may be used en masse for an end-to-end biosurveillance capability. This flexibility allows for the development of an inexpensive, customized, and sustainable disease surveillance system. The ability to rapidly assess anomalous disease activity may lead to more efficient use of limited resources and better compliance with World Health Organization International Health Regulations.

  20. Stream habitat structure influences macroinvertebrate response to pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jes; Wiberg-Larsen, Peter; Baattrup-Pedersen, Annette

    2012-01-01

    Agricultural pesticide contamination in surface waters is increasingly threatening to impair the surface water ecosystems. Agricultural streams are furthermore often heavily maintained to optimise the transport of water away from fields. The physical habitat degradation that result from heavy...... stream maintenance probably introduce additional stress that may act in concert with pesticide stress. We surveyed pesticide contamination and macroinvertebrate community structure in 14 streams along a gradient of expected pesticide exposure. A paired-reach approach was applied to differentiate...... the effects of pesticides between sites with degraded and more undisturbed physical properties. The effect of pesticides on macroinvertebrate communities (measured as the relative abundance of SPEcies At Risk) was increased at stream sites with degraded physical habitats primarily due to the absence...

  1. Electronic Human Resources Management (e-HRM Adoption Studies: Past and Future Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winarto Winarto

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Electronic human resource management (e-HRM systems become more widely used by profit and non-profit organization. However, the field currently lacks sound theoretical frameworks that can be useful in addressing a key issue concerning the implementation of e-HRM systems, in particular to obtain a better understanding of the factors influencing the adoption of e-HRM systems. The objective of this paper is to provide a foundation towards the development of a theoretical framework for the implementation of e-HRM systems and develop a conceptual model that would reflect the nature of e-HRM systems’ adoption through systematic literature review. Adopting Crossan and Apaydin’s procedure of systematic review, this paper investigated 21 empirical papers of electronics human resources management, then categorized them into 4 characteristics which influence the adoption; System and technology characteristics; Organizational characteristics; User/individual characteristics, and Environmental and contextual characteristics. Finally, the e-HRM adoption research framework is drawn and based on the framework; avenues for future research are discussed.   Bahasa Indonesia Abstrak: Manajemen sumber daya manusia elektronik (selanjutnya disebut dengan e-HRM semakin banyak digunakan oleh organisasi profit dan nonprofit. Namun, bidang dan topik ini belum memiliki kerangka teori yang mapan, yang dapat digunakan untuk menganalisis isu-isu terkait penerapan e-HRM, terutama mengenai faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi adopsi sistem e-HRM. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk memberikan landasan bagi pengembangan kerangka teoritis untuk implementasi sistem e-HRM dan mengembangkan model konseptual yang akan menggambarkan adopsi sistem e-HRM melalui tinjauan literatur sistematis. Mengadopsi prosedur dan metode Crossan dan Apaydin untuk melakukan telaah literatur secara sistematis, paper ini menyelidiki 21 publikasi empiris manajemen sumber daya manusia elektronik dari 2

  2. Littoral macroinvertebrates of acidified lakes in the Bohemian Forest

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ungermanová, L.; Kolaříková, K.; Stuchlík, E.; Senoo, T.; Horecký, J.; Kopáček, Jiří; Chvojka, P.; Tátosová, J.; Bitušík, P.; Fjellheim, A.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 69, č. 9 (2014), s. 1190-1201 ISSN 0006-3088 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA526/09/0567; GA ČR(CZ) GA206/07/1200 Grant - others:EC(XE) EURO-LIMPACS GOCE-CT-2003-505540 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : lakes * macroinvertebrates * acidification * recovery * forest catchment Subject RIV: DJ - Water Pollution ; Quality Impact factor: 0.827, year: 2014

  3. POP bioaccumulation in macroinvertebrates of alpine freshwater systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bizzotto, E.C.; Villa, S.; Vighi, M.

    2009-01-01

    This study serves to investigate the uptake of POPs in the different trophic levels (scrapers, collectors, predators, shredders) of macroinvertebrate communities sampled from a glacial and a non-glacial stream in the Italian Alps. The presented results show that the contaminant concentrations in glacial communities are generally higher compared to those from non-glacial catchments, highlighting the importance of glaciers as temporary sinks of atmospherically transported pollutants. Moreover, the data also suggests that in mountain systems snow plays an important role in influencing macroinvertebrate contamination. The main chemical uptake process to the macroinvertebrates is considered to be bioconcentration from water, as similar contaminant profiles were observed between the different trophic levels. The role of biomagnification/bioaccumulation is thought to be absent or negligible. The enrichment of chemicals observed in the predators is likely to be related to their greater lipid content compared to that of other feeding groups. - Influence of POP release in glacial-fed streams, enhanced by global warming, on pristine aquatic ecosystems.

  4. Macroinvertebrate community change associated with the severity of streamflow alteration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlisle, Daren M.; Eng, Kenny; Nelson, S.M.

    2014-01-01

    Natural streamflows play a critical role in stream ecosystems, yet quantitative relations between streamflow alteration and stream health have been elusive. One reason for this difficulty is that neither streamflow alteration nor ecological responses are measured relative to their natural expectations. We assessed macroinvertebrate community condition in 25 mountain streams representing a large gradient of streamflow alteration, which we quantified as the departure of observed flows from natural expectations. Observed flows were obtained from US Geological Survey streamgaging stations and discharge records from dams and diversion structures. During low-flow conditions in September, samples of macroinvertebrate communities were collected at each site, in addition to measures of physical habitat, water chemistry and organic matter. In general, streamflows were artificially high during summer and artificially low throughout the rest of the year. Biological condition, as measured by richness of sensitive taxa (Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera) and taxonomic completeness (O/E), was strongly and negatively related to the severity of depleted flows in winter. Analyses of macroinvertebrate traits suggest that taxa losses may have been caused by thermal modification associated with streamflow alteration. Our study yielded quantitative relations between the severity of streamflow alteration and the degree of biological impairment and suggests that water management that reduces streamflows during winter months is likely to have negative effects on downstream benthic communities in Utah mountain streams. 

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF A STREAM BENTHIC MACROINVERTEBRATE INTEGRITY INDEX (SBMII) FOR WADEABLE STREAMS IN THE MID-ATLANTIC HIGHLANDS REGION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Stream Benthic Macroinvertebrate Integrity Index (SBMII), a multimetric biotic index for assessing biological conditions of wadeable streams, was developed using seven macroinvertebrate metrics (Ephemeroptera richness, Plecoptera richness, Trichoptera richness, Collector-Filt...

  6. Impact of Electronic Resources and Usage in Academic Libraries in Ghana: Evidence from Koforidua Polytechnic & All Nations University College, Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akussah, Maxwell; Asante, Edward; Adu-Sarkodee, Rosemary

    2015-01-01

    The study investigates the relationship between impact of electronic resources and its usage in academic libraries in Ghana: evidence from Koforidua Polytechnic & All Nations University College, Ghana. The study was a quantitative approach using questionnaire to gather data and information. A valid response rate of 58.5% was assumed. SPSS…

  7. Utilization of Electronic Information Resources by Undergraduate Students of University of Ibadan: A Case Study of Social Sciences and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owolabi, Sola; Idowu, Oluwafemi A.; Okocha, Foluke; Ogundare, Atinuke Omotayo

    2016-01-01

    The study evaluated utilization of electronic information resources by undergraduates in the Faculties of Education and the Social Sciences in University of Ibadan. The study adopted a descriptive survey design with a study population of 1872 undergraduates in the Faculties of Education and the Social Sciences in University of Ibadan, from which a…

  8. Systematic review of electronic surveillance of infectious diseases with emphasis on antimicrobial resistance surveillance in resource-limited settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanaumpawan, Pinyo; Boonyasiri, Adhiratha; Vong, Sirenda; Thamlikitkul, Visanu

    2018-02-01

    Electronic surveillance of infectious diseases involves rapidly collecting, collating, and analyzing vast amounts of data from interrelated multiple databases. Although many developed countries have invested in electronic surveillance for infectious diseases, the system still presents a challenge for resource-limited health care settings. We conducted a systematic review by performing a comprehensive literature search on MEDLINE (January 2000-December 2015) to identify studies relevant to electronic surveillance of infectious diseases. Study characteristics and results were extracted and systematically reviewed by 3 infectious disease physicians. A total of 110 studies were included. Most surveillance systems were developed and implemented in high-income countries; less than one-quarter were conducted in low-or middle-income countries. Information technologies can be used to facilitate the process of obtaining laboratory, clinical, and pharmacologic data for the surveillance of infectious diseases, including antimicrobial resistance (AMR) infections. These novel systems require greater resources; however, we found that using electronic surveillance systems could result in shorter times to detect targeted infectious diseases and improvement of data collection. This study highlights a lack of resources in areas where an effective, rapid surveillance system is most needed. The availability of information technology for the electronic surveillance of infectious diseases, including AMR infections, will facilitate the prevention and containment of such emerging infectious diseases. Copyright © 2018 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The Use of Electronic Resources by Academic Staff at the University of Ilorin, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tella, Adeyinka; Orim, Faith; Ibrahim, Dauda Morenikeji; Memudu, Suleiman Ajala

    2018-01-01

    The use of e-resources is now commonplace among academics in tertiary educational institutions the world over. Many academics including those in the universities are exploring the opportunities of e-resources to facilitate teaching and research. As the use of e-resources is increasing particularly among academics at the University of Ilorin,…

  10. Modeling antecedents of electronic medical record system implementation success in low-resource setting hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilahun, Binyam; Fritz, Fleur

    2015-08-01

    With the increasing implementation of Electronic Medical Record Systems (EMR) in developing countries, there is a growing need to identify antecedents of EMR success to measure and predict the level of adoption before costly implementation. However, less evidence is available about EMR success in the context of low-resource setting implementations. Therefore, this study aims to fill this gap by examining the constructs and relationships of the widely used DeLone and MacLean (D&M) information system success model to determine whether it can be applied to measure EMR success in those settings. A quantitative cross sectional study design using self-administered questionnaires was used to collect data from 384 health professionals working in five governmental hospitals in Ethiopia. The hospitals use a comprehensive EMR system since three years. Descriptive and structural equation modeling methods were applied to describe and validate the extent of relationship of constructs and mediating effects. The findings of the structural equation modeling shows that system quality has significant influence on EMR use (β = 0.32, P quality has significant influence on EMR use (β = 0.44, P service quality has strong significant influence on EMR use (β = 0.36, P effect of EMR use on user satisfaction was not significant. Both EMR use and user satisfaction have significant influence on perceived net-benefit (β = 0.31, P mediating factor in the relationship between service quality and EMR use (P effect on perceived net-benefit of health professionals. EMR implementers and managers in developing countries are in urgent need of implementation models to design proper implementation strategies. In this study, the constructs and relationships depicted in the updated D&M model were found to be applicable to assess the success of EMR in low resource settings. Additionally, computer literacy was found to be a mediating factor in EMR use and user satisfaction of

  11. Effects of Student-Induced Trampling on Aquatic Macroinvertebrates in Agricultural Headwater Streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon P. Bossley

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Outdoor education (OE stream classes provide students with an opportunity to gain hands-on experience with sampling methods for evaluating stream water quality. Trampling by students as a result of stream classes may disrupt the substrate and negatively impact aquatic macroinvertebrates. The impact of student-induced trampling in headwaters as a result of stream classes on aquatic macroinvertebrates has not been evaluated. Our aim was to document the short-term macroinvertebrate responses to an experimental disturbance that simulated the impacts of trampling by students in riffles within small headwater streams. We measured hydrologic variables, visually estimated substrate composition and sampled aquatic macroinvertebrates within control and experimental riffles in three agricultural headwater streams in central Ohio one day prior to experimental disturbance, immediately after disturbance and one day after disturbance. Hydrologic variables and substrate type did not differ daily or between riffle types. Macroinvertebrate abundance, percentage of Ephemeroptera Plecoptera Trichoptera and percentage of Leuctridae increased after experimental disturbance, while diversity, evenness, percentage of clingers and non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMS axis 1 site scores declined after disturbance. Macroinvertebrate diversity, percent clingers and NMS axis 1 site scores were lower in experimental riffles than control riffles. None of the macroinvertebrate response variables exhibited a significant interaction effect of day × riffle type that is indicative of an effect of the experimental disturbance. Our results suggest the one-time use of an undisturbed riffle within an agricultural headwater stream for an OE stream class is not likely to impact aquatic macroinvertebrates.

  12. Small-scale habitat structure modulates the effects of no-take marine reserves for coral reef macroinvertebrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Dumas

    Full Text Available No-take marine reserves are one of the oldest and most versatile tools used across the Pacific for the conservation of reef resources, in particular for invertebrates traditionally targeted by local fishers. Assessing their actual efficiency is still a challenge in complex ecosystems such as coral reefs, where reserve effects are likely to be obscured by high levels of environmental variability. The goal of this study was to investigate the potential interference of small-scale habitat structure on the efficiency of reserves. The spatial distribution of widely harvested macroinvertebrates was surveyed in a large set of protected vs. unprotected stations from eleven reefs located in New Caledonia. Abundance, density and individual size data were collected along random, small-scale (20×1 m transects. Fine habitat typology was derived with a quantitative photographic method using 17 local habitat variables. Marine reserves substantially augmented the local density, size structure and biomass of the target species. Density of Trochus niloticus and Tridacna maxima doubled globally inside the reserve network; average size was greater by 10 to 20% for T. niloticus. We demonstrated that the apparent success of protection could be obscured by marked variations in population structure occurring over short distances, resulting from small-scale heterogeneity in the reef habitat. The efficiency of reserves appeared to be modulated by the availability of suitable habitats at the decimetric scale ("microhabitats" for the considered sessile/low-mobile macroinvertebrate species. Incorporating microhabitat distribution could significantly enhance the efficiency of habitat surrogacy, a valuable approach in the case of conservation targets focusing on endangered or emblematic macroinvertebrate or relatively sedentary fish species.

  13. Use and Cost of Electronic Resources in Central Library of Ferdowsi University Based on E-metrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Davarpanah

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the usage of electronic journals in Ferdowsi University, Iran based on e-metrics. The paper also aimed to emphasize the analysis of cost-benefit and the correlation between the journal impact factors and the usage data. In this study experiences of Ferdowsi University library on licensing and usage of electronic resources was evaluated by providing a cost-benefit analysis based on the cost and usage statistics of electronic resources. Vendor-provided data were also compared with local usage data. The usage data were collected by tracking web-based access locally, and by collecting vender-provided usage data. The data sources were one-year of vendor-supplied e-resource usage data such as Ebsco, Elsevier, Proquest, Emerald, Oxford and Springer and local usage data collected from the Ferdowsi university web server. The study found that actual usage values differ for vendor-provided data and local usage data. Elsevier has got the highest usage degree in searches, sessions and downloads. Statistics also showed that a small number of journals satisfy significant amount of use while the majority of journals were used less frequent and some were never used at all. The users preferred the PDF rather than HTML format. The data in subject profile suggested that the provided e-resources were best suited to certain subjects. There was no correlation between IF and electronic journal use. Monitoring the usage of e-resources gained increasing importance for acquisition policy and budget decisions. The article provided information about local metrics for the six surveyed vendors/publishers, e.g. usage trends, requests per package, cost per use as related to the scientific specialty of the university.

  14. Use and User Perception of Electronic Information Resources: A Case Study of Siva Institute of Frontier Technology, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velmurugan Chandran

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to explore the use and user perception of electronic resources in Siva Institute of Frontier Technology, India. A total number of 123 users were taken into account for the study through a questionnaire-based survey method. A well-structured questionnaire was designed and distributed to the selected 200 students and staff members. 123 copies of the questionnaires were returned dully filled in and the overall response rate was 61.50 percent. The questionnaire contained both open- and close-ended questions. The collected data were classified, analyzed, and tabulated by using simple statistical methods. This study covers the impact of electronic resources on students and faculty in their academic pursuit.

  15. Pollution evaluation in the Shahrood River: Do physico-chemical and macroinvertebrate-based indices indicate same responses to anthropogenic activities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifinia, Moslem; Mahmoudifard, Abbas; Imanpour Namin, Javid; Ramezanpour, Zohreh; Yap, Chee Kong

    2016-09-01

    This study evaluates the impact of anthropogenic activities on the Shahrood River using water physico-chemical variables and macroinvertebrates data sets obtained over a period of 12 months between February 2012 and February 2013 at 8 sampling sites. Biotic indices i.e. FBI and BMWP based on macroinvertebrates and physico-chemical indices (MPI, HPI and NSF-WQI) were employed to evaluate the water quality status in connection with natural- and human-induced pressures. Based on physico-chemical indices, water quality was categorized as low polluted level and it is suitable for drinking purposes. The water quality based on biotic indices was related to the anthropic activities; a clear deterioration of the water quality was observed from upstream to downstream sites. The water quality along the river changed from very good (class I; reference sites) to good (class II; midstream sites) and turned into moderate (class III) and poor (class IV) quality (downstream sites). These findings indicate that biotic indices are more powerful indicators in assessing water quality than physico-chemical indices. Allocapnia, Glossosoma and Hesperoperla were exclusively related to least disturbed sites, and Naididae, Orthocladiinae and Ecdyonurus were found in sites showing notable degradation. Our results recommended that the use of macroinvertebrates could be employed as a cost-effective tool for biomonitoring and controlling of polluted riverine ecosystems in the Middle East. Finally, the results from this study may be useful not only for developing countries, but also for any organization struggling to use macroinvertebrate based indices with restricted financial resources and knowledge. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Challenges in the implementation of an electronic surveillance system in a resource-limited setting: Alerta, in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soto Giselle

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infectious disease surveillance is a primary public health function in resource-limited settings. In 2003, an electronic disease surveillance system (Alerta was established in the Peruvian Navy with support from the U.S. Naval Medical Research Center Detachment (NMRCD. Many challenges arose during the implementation process, and a variety of solutions were applied. The purpose of this paper is to identify and discuss these issues. Methods This is a retrospective description of the Alerta implementation. After a thoughtful evaluation according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC guidelines, the main challenges to implementation were identified and solutions were devised in the context of a resource-limited setting, Peru. Results After four years of operation, we have identified a number of challenges in implementing and operating this electronic disease surveillance system. These can be divided into the following categories: (1 issues with personnel and stakeholders; (2 issues with resources in a developing setting; (3 issues with processes involved in the collection of data and operation of the system; and (4 issues with organization at the central hub. Some of the challenges are unique to resource-limited settings, but many are applicable for any surveillance system. For each of these challenges, we developed feasible solutions that are discussed. Conclusion There are many challenges to overcome when implementing an electronic disease surveillance system, not only related to technology issues. A comprehensive approach is required for success, including: technical support, personnel management, effective training, and cultural sensitivity in order to assure the effective deployment of an electronic disease surveillance system.

  17. RESEARCH OF INFLUENCE OF QUALITY OF ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES ON QUALITY OF TRAINING WITH USE OF DISTANCE TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Kravtsov

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Communication improving of educational processes requires today new approaches to the management arrangements and forming of educational policy in the field of distance learning, which is based on the use of modern information and communication technologies. An important step in this process is the continuous monitoring of the development and implementation of information technology and, in particular, the distance learning systems in higher educational establishments. The main objective of the monitoring is the impact assessment on the development of distance learning following the state educational standards, curricula, methodical and technical equipment and other factors; factors revelation that influence the implementation and outcomes of distance learning; results comparison of educational institution functioning and distance education systems in order to determine the most efficient ways of its development. The paper presents the analysis results of the dependence of the quality of educational services on the electronic educational resources. Trends in educational services development was studied by comparing the quality influence of electronic educational resources on the quality of educational services of higher pedagogical educational institutions of Ukraine as of 2009-2010 and 2012-2013. Generally, the analysis of the survey results allows evaluating quality of the modern education services as satisfactory and it can be said that almost 70% of the success of their future development depends on the quality of the used electronic educational resources and distance learning systems in particular.

  18. Tracking the Flow of Resources in Electronic Waste - The Case of End-of-Life Computer Hard Disk Drives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Komal; Parajuly, Keshav; Wenzel, Henrik

    2015-10-20

    Recovery of resources, in particular, metals, from waste flows is widely seen as a prioritized option to reduce their potential supply constraints in the future. The current waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) treatment system is more focused on bulk metals, where the recycling rate of specialty metals, such as rare earths, is negligible compared to their increasing use in modern products, such as electronics. This study investigates the challenges in recovering these resources in the existing WEEE treatment system. It is illustrated by following the material flows of resources in a conventional WEEE treatment plant in Denmark. Computer hard disk drives (HDDs) containing neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB) magnets were selected as the case product for this experiment. The resulting output fractions were tracked until their final treatment in order to estimate the recovery potential of rare earth elements (REEs) and other resources contained in HDDs. The results further show that out of the 244 kg of HDDs treated, 212 kg comprising mainly of aluminum and steel can be finally recovered from the metallurgic process. The results further demonstrate the complete loss of REEs in the existing shredding-based WEEE treatment processes. Dismantling and separate processing of NdFeB magnets from their end-use products can be a more preferred option over shredding. However, it remains a technological and logistic challenge for the existing system.

  19. HELP (INFORMATION ELECTRONIC RESOURCE "CHRONICLE OF ONU: DATES, FACTS, EVENTS": HISTORY OF UNIVERSITY IN INFORMATION SPACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. М. Гавриленко

    2016-03-01

    Object of research is the help information resource "The chronicle of the Odessa national university of I. I. Mechnikov: dates, facts, events". The main objective of our article – to state the main methodological bases of creation of information resource. One of advantages of information resource is possibility of continuous updating and replenishment by new information. Main objective of creation of this information resource is systematization of material on stories of the Odessa national university of I. I. Mechnikov from the date of his basis to the present, ensuring interactive access to information on the main dates, the most significant events in life of university. The base of research are sources on the history of university, chronology of historical development, formation of infrastructure, cadres and scientific researches. In information resource the main stages of development, functioning and transformation of the Odessa University are analyzed, information on its divisions is collected. For creation of this information resource in Scientific library the method of work was developed, the main selection criteria of data are allocated. This information resource have practical value for all who is interested in history of university, historians, scientists-researchers of history of science and the city of Odessa.

  20. Aquatic-macroinvertebrate communities of Prairie-Pothole wetlands and lakes under a changed climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Kyle I.; Mushet, David M.; Renton, David A.; Stockwell, Craig A.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how aquatic-macroinvertebrate communities respond to changes in climate is important for biodiversity conservation in the Prairie Pothole Region and other wetland-rich landscapes. We sampled macroinvertebrate communities of 162 wetlands and lakes previously sampled from 1966 to 1976, a much drier period compared to our 2012–2013 sampling timeframe. To identify possible influences of a changed climate and predation pressures on macroinvertebrates, we compared two predictors of aquatic-macroinvertebrate communities: ponded-water dissolved-ion concentration and vertebrate-predator presence/abundance. Further, we make inferences of how macroinvertebrate communities were structured during the drier period when the range of dissolved-ion concentrations was much greater and fish occurrence in aquatic habitats was rare. We found that aquatic-macroinvertebrate community structure was influenced by dissolved-ion concentrations through a complex combination of direct and indirect relationships. Ion concentrations also influenced predator occurrence and abundance, which indirectly affected macroinvertebrate communities. It is important to consider both abiotic and biotic gradients when predicting how invertebrate communities will respond to climate change. Generally, in the wetlands and lakes we studied, freshening of ponded water resulted in more homogenous communities than occurred during a much drier period when salinity range among sites was greater.

  1. Macroinvertebrate distribution and aquatic ecology in the Ruoergai (Zoige) Wetland, the Yellow River source region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Na; Xu, Mengzhen; Li, Zhiwei; Wang, Zhaoyin; Zhou, Hanmi

    2017-09-01

    The Ruoergai (Zoige) Wetland, the largest plateau peatland in the world, is located in the Yellow River source region. The discharge of the Yellow River increases greatly after flowing through the Ruoergai Wetland. The aquatic ecosystem of the Ruoergai Wetland is crucial to the whole Yellow River basin. The Ruoergai wetland has three main kinds of water bodies: rivers, oxbow lakes, and marsh wetlands. In this study, macroinvertebrates were used as indicators to assess the aquatic ecological status because their assemblage structures indicate long-term changes in environments with high sensitivity. Field investigations were conducted in July, 2012 and in July, 2013. A total of 72 taxa of macroinvertebrates belonging to 35 families and 67 genera were sampled and identified. Insecta was the dominant group in the Ruoergai Basin. The alpha diversity of macroinvertebrates at any single sampling site was low, while the alpha diversity on a basin-wide scale was much higher. Macroinvertebrate assemblages in rivers, oxbow lakes, and marsh wetlands differ markedly. Hydrological connectivity was a primary factor causing the variance of the bio-community. The river channels had the highest alpha diversity of macroinvertebrates, followed by marsh wetlands and oxbow lakes. The density and biomass of Gastropoda, collector filterers, and scrapers increased from rivers to oxbow lakes and then to marsh wetlands. The river ecology was particular in the Ruoergai Wetland with the high beta diversity of macroinvertebrates, the low alpha diversity of macroinvertebrates, and the low taxa richness, density, and biomass of EPT (Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera). To maintain high alpha diversity of macroinvertebrates macroinvertebrates in the Ruoergai Wetland, moderate connectivity of oxbow lakes and marsh wetlands with rivers and measures to control headwater erosion are both crucial.

  2. Environmental drivers of the benthic macroinvertebrates community in a hypersaline estuary (Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlinda Railly Ferreira Medeiros

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The estuarine community of benthic macroinvertebrates spatially varies in response to changes in environmental variables in these ecosystems. Understanding this variability helps our understanding the mechanisms structuring these communities. Aim Assess the structural aspects of the benthic macroinvertebrate community in a hypersaline estuary, and to relate to environmental variables that influence the community structure along the estuary. Methods The study was conducted at Tubarão river estuary in May 2015. We sampled two estuarine areas (upper and lower, and in each zone were sampled six points composed of two replicas, one sampled in sandy bottom and the other in muddy bottom. Samples of benthic macroinvertebrates and estuarine environmental variables were collected. Environmental drivers of the benthic macroinvertebrate community were determined by Distance-based Linear Models analysis. The contribution of individual species to the dissimilarity between the areas and substrate types were determined by analysis of the percentage of similarity. Results The composition of benthic macroinvertebrate community differed between the upper and lower areas, although it was similar between the muddy and sandy bottoms. The variation in the benthic community between areas was mainly related to the influence of salinity in the upper area. In the lower area, the variation of the macroinvertebrates was related to salinity, associated with other variables in the sandy (temperature, turbidity and dissolved oxygen and muddy (temperature, total dissolved solids and dissolved oxygen substrates. Taxa which contributed most to the dissimilarity between the upper and lower areas were Nereididae (17.89%, Anomalocardia brasiliana (15% and Cirratulidae (10.43%. Conclusions Salinity was the main driver of the structural aspects of the benthic macroinvertebrate community in the upper area of the estuary, although in the lower area a set of

  3. Print and Electronic Resources: Usage Statistics at Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Kanta

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to quantify the use of electronic journals in comparison with the print collections in the Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University Library. Design/methodology/approach: A detailed analysis was made of the use of lending services, the Xerox facility and usage of electronic journals such as Science Direct,…

  4. Understanding intention to use electronic information resources: A theoretical extension of the technology acceptance model (TAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Donghua

    2008-11-06

    This study extended the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) by examining the roles of two aspects of e-resource characteristics, namely, information quality and system quality, in predicting public health students' intention to use e-resources for completing research paper assignments. Both focus groups and a questionnaire were used to collect data. Descriptive analysis, data screening, and Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) techniques were used for data analysis. The study found that perceived usefulness played a major role in determining students' intention to use e-resources. Perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use fully mediated the impact that information quality and system quality had on behavior intention. The research model enriches the existing technology acceptance literature by extending TAM. Representing two aspects of e-resource characteristics provides greater explanatory information for diagnosing problems of system design, development, and implementation.

  5. Coal-tar based pavement sealant toxicity to freshwater macroinvertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryer, Pamela J.; Scoggins, Mateo; McClintock, Nancy L.

    2010-01-01

    Non-point-source pollution is a major source of ecological impairment in urban stream systems. Recent work suggests that coal-tar pavement sealants, used extensively to protect parking areas, may be contributing a large portion of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) loading seen in urban stream sediments. The hypothesis that dried coal-tar pavement sealant flake could alter the macroinvertebrate communities native to streams in Austin, TX was tested using a controlled outdoor laboratory type approach. The treatment groups were: control, low, medium, and high with total PAH concentrations (TPAH = sum of 16 EPA priority pollutant PAHs) of 0.1, 7.5, 18.4, and 300 mg/kg respectively. The low, medium, and high treatments were created via the addition of dried coal-tar pavement sealant to a sterile soil. At the start of the 24-day exposure, sediment from a minimally impacted local reference site containing a community of live sediment-dwelling benthic macroinvertebrates was added to each replicate. An exposure-dependent response was found for several stream health measures and for several individual taxa. There were community differences in abundance (P = 0.0004) and richness (P < 0.0001) between treatments in addition to specific taxa responses, displaying a clear negative relationship with the amount of coal-tar sealant flake. These results support the hypothesis that coal-tar pavement sealants contain bioavailable PAHs that may harm aquatic environments. - Coal-tar pavement sealants degrade stream invertebrate communities.

  6. Coal-tar based pavement sealant toxicity to freshwater macroinvertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryer, Pamela J; Scoggins, Mateo; McClintock, Nancy L

    2010-05-01

    Non-point-source pollution is a major source of ecological impairment in urban stream systems. Recent work suggests that coal-tar pavement sealants, used extensively to protect parking areas, may be contributing a large portion of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) loading seen in urban stream sediments. The hypothesis that dried coal-tar pavement sealant flake could alter the macroinvertebrate communities native to streams in Austin, TX was tested using a controlled outdoor laboratory type approach. The treatment groups were: control, low, medium, and high with total PAH concentrations (TPAH = sum of 16 EPA priority pollutant PAHs) of 0.1, 7.5, 18.4, & 300 mg/kg respectively. The low, medium, and high treatments were created via the addition of dried coal-tar pavement sealant to a sterile soil. At the start of the 24-day exposure, sediment from a minimally impacted local reference site containing a community of live sediment-dwelling benthic macroinvertebrates was added to each replicate. An exposure-dependent response was found for several stream health measures and for several individual taxa. There were community differences in abundance (P = 0.0004) and richness (P pavement sealants contain bioavailable PAHs that may harm aquatic environments. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Coal-tar based pavement sealant toxicity to freshwater macroinvertebrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryer, P.J.; Scoggins, M.; McClintock, N.L. [Lamar University, Beaumont, TX (United States). Dept. of Biology

    2010-05-15

    Non-point-source pollution is a major source of ecological impairment in urban stream systems. Recent work suggests that coal-tar pavement sealants, used extensively to protect parking areas, may be contributing a large portion of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) loading seen in urban stream sediments. The hypothesis that dried coal-tar pavement sealant flake could alter the macroinvertebrate communities native to streams in Austin, TX was tested using a controlled outdoor laboratory type approach. The treatment groups were: control, low, medium, and high with total PAH concentrations (TPAH = sum of 16 EPA priority pollutant PAHs) of 0.1, 7.5, 18.4, & 300 mg/kg respectively. The low, medium, and high treatments were created via the addition of dried coal-tar pavement sealant to a sterile soil. At the start of the 24-day exposure, sediment from a minimally impacted local reference site containing a community of live sediment-dwelling benthic macroinvertebrates was added to each replicate. An exposure-dependent response was found for several stream health measures and for several individual taxa. There were community differences in abundance (P = 0.0004) and richness (P < 0.0001) between treatments in addition to specific taxa responses, displaying a clear negative relationship with the amount of coal-tar sealant flake. These results support the hypothesis that coal-tar pavement sealants contain bioavailable PAHs that may harm aquatic environments.

  8. Patterns of Macroinvertebrate and Fish Diversity in Freshwater Sulphide Springs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Greenway

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Extreme environments are characterised by the presence of physicochemical stressors and provide unique study systems to address problems in evolutionary ecology research. Sulphide springs provide an example of extreme freshwater environments; because hydrogen sulphide’s adverse physiological effects induce mortality in metazoans even at micromolar concentrations. Sulphide springs occur worldwide, but while microbial communities in sulphide springs have received broad attention, little is known about macroinvertebrates and fish inhabiting these toxic environments. We reviewed qualitative occurrence records of sulphide spring faunas on a global scale and present a quantitative case study comparing diversity patterns in sulphidic and adjacent non-sulphidic habitats across replicated river drainages in Southern Mexico. While detailed studies in most regions of the world remain scarce, available data suggests that sulphide spring faunas are characterised by low species richness. Dipterans (among macroinvertebrates and cyprinodontiforms (among fishes appear to dominate the communities in these habitats. At least in fish, there is evidence for the presence of highly endemic species and populations exclusively inhabiting sulphide springs. We provide a detailed discussion of traits that might predispose certain taxonomic groups to colonize sulphide springs, how colonizers subsequently adapt to cope with sulphide toxicity, and how adaptation may be linked to speciation processes.

  9. Stream habitat structure influences macroinvertebrate response to pesticides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, Jes Jessen; Wiberg-Larsen, Peter; Baattrup-Pedersen, Annette; Friberg, Nikolai; Kronvang, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Agricultural pesticides continue to impair surface water ecosystems, although there are few assessments of interactions with other modifications such as fine sediment and physical alteration for flood drainage. We, therefore, surveyed pesticide contamination and macroinvertebrates in 14 streams along a gradient of expected pesticide exposure using a paired-reach approach to differentiate effects between physically modified and less modified sites. Apparent pesticides effects on the relative abundance of SPEcies At Risk (SPEAR) were increased at sites with degraded habitats primarily due to the absence of species with specific preferences for hard substrates. Our findings highlight the importance of physical habitat degradation in the assessment and mitigation of pesticide risk in agricultural streams. - Highlights: ► %SPEAR abundance significantly decreased with increasing TU (D. magna). ► %SPEAR abundance was significantly lower when soft sediment was dominant. ► Species specific habitat preferences influenced the total effect of pesticides. ► This study has strong implications for future stream management and risk assessment. - Ecological impacts of pesticides on stream macroinvertebrates are influenced by the heterogeneity and physical structure of micro-habitats.

  10. Building and Managing Electronic Resources in Digital Era in India with Special Reference to IUCAA and NIV, Pune: A Comparative Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, H. K.; Singh, S. N.

    2015-04-01

    This paper discusses and presents a comparative case study of two libraries in Pune, India, Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics and Information Centre and Library of National Institute of Virology (Indian Council of Medical Research). It compares how both libraries have managed their e-resource collections, including acquisitions, subscriptions, and consortia arrangements, while also developing a collection of their own resources, including pre-prints and publications, video lectures, and other materials in an institutional repository. This study illustrates how difficult it is to manage electronic resources in a developing country like India, even though electronic resources are used more than print resources. Electronic resource management can be daunting, but with a systematic approach, various problems can be solved, and use of the materials will be enhanced.

  11. The level of the usage of the human resource information system and electronic recruitment in Croatian companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snježana Pivac

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Performing business according to contemporary requirements influences companies for continuous usage of modern managerial tools, such as a human resource information system (HRIS and electronic recruitment (ER. Human resources have been recognised as curtail resources and the main source of a competitive advantage in creation of successful business performance. In order to attract and select the top employees, companies use quality information software for attracting internal ones, and electronic recruitment for attracting the best possible external candidates. The main aim of this paper is to research the level of the usage of HRIS and ER within medium-size and large Croatian companies. Moreover, the additional aim of this paper is to evaluate the relationship among the usage of these modern managerial tools and the overall success of human resource management within these companies. For the purpose of this paper, primary and secondary research has been conducted in order to reveal the level of the usage of HRIS and ER as well as the overall success of human resource management in Croatian companies. The companies’ classification (HRIS and ER is done by using the non-hierarchical k-means cluster method as well as the nonparametric Kruskal Wallis test. Further, the companies are ranked by the multicriteria PROMETHEE method. Relevant nonparametric tests are used for testing the overall companies’ HRM. Finally, binary logistic regression is estimated, relating binary variable HRM and HRIS development. After detailed research, it can be concluded that large Croatian companies apply HRIS in majority (with a positive relation to HRM performance, but still require certain degrees of its development.

  12. MendelWeb: An Electronic Science/Math/History Resource for the WWW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumberg, Roger B.

    This paper describes a hypermedia resource, called MendelWeb that integrates elementary biology, discrete mathematics, and the history of science. MendelWeb is constructed from Gregor Menders 1865 paper, "Experiments in Plant Hybridization". An English translation of Mendel's paper, which is considered to mark the birth of classical and…

  13. Helping Patrons Find Locally Held Electronic Resources: An Interlibrary Loan Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Pamela

    2016-01-01

    The University of North Texas Libraries provide extensive online access to academic journals through major vendor databases. As illustrated by interlibrary loan borrowing requests for items held in our databases, patrons often have difficulty navigating the available resources. In this study, the Interlibrary Loan staff used data gathered from the…

  14. QR Codes as Finding Aides: Linking Electronic and Print Library Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Danielle; Schneidewind, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    As part of a focused, methodical, and evaluative approach to emerging technologies, QR codes are one of many new technologies being used by the UC Irvine Libraries. QR codes provide simple connections between print and virtual resources. In summer 2010, a small task force began to investigate how QR codes could be used to provide information and…

  15. Macroinvertebrate community response to acid mine drainage in rivers of the High Andes (Bolivia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Damme, Paul Andre; Hamel, Caroli; Ayala, Alfredo; Bervoets, Lieven

    2008-01-01

    Several High Andes Rivers are characterized by inorganic water pollution known as acid mine drainage (AMD). The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between metal concentrations in the sediments and the macroinvertebrate communities in two river basins affected by AMD. In general, the taxon diversity of the macroinvertebrate community at the family level was low. The concentrations of Cd, Cu, Zn, Pb and Ni at mining sites were higher than at unpolluted sites. The pH of the water was alkaline (7.0-8.5) in unpolluted sites, whereas it dropped to very low values (<3) at mining sites. Redundancy Analysis (RDA) showed that pH was the best predictor of macroinvertebrate community richness. The number of macroinvertebrate families decreased gradually with increasing acidity, both in pools and riffles, though it is suggested that riffle communities were more affected because they are in closer contact with the acid water. - Community response to AMD

  16. Soft sediment dwelling macro-invertebrates of Rajapur Bay, central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Harkantra, S.N.; Parulekar, A.H.

    Thirtyfour species of soft sediment dwelling macro-invertebrates were recorded in Rajapur Bay at the proposed effluent discharge location of nuclear power plant. The fauna mainly composed of polychaetes (42.52%), molluscs (39.03%), crustaceans (7...

  17. Benthic Macroinvertebrate Assemblages in the Near Coastal Zone of Lake Erie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages have been used as indicators of ecological condition because their responses integrate localized environmental conditions of the sediments and overlying water. Assemblages of benthic invertebrates in the near coastal region are of particular...

  18. Development of a multimetric index based on macroinvertebrates for drainage ditch networks in agricultural areas.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdonschot, R.C.M.; Keizer-Vlek, H.E.; Verdonschot, P.F.M.

    2012-01-01

    Drainage ditches are a prominent feature of many intensively managed agricultural areas. These small, shallow, line-shaped waterbodies could harbor a rich macroinvertebrate community, resembling that of natural small lentic ecosystems. Despite their high biodiversity potential, many ditch ecosystems

  19. Numerical analyses of soft bottom macroinvertebrates to diagnose the pollution in tropical coastal waters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Harkantra, S.N.; Rodrigues, N.R.

    of techniques to assess the impact of pollution on benthic community structure. Hence, to test this hypotheses some of the univariate and multivariate techniques were applied to soft bottom macro-invertebrates data of coastal waters of Mangalore, central west...

  20. Impact of Urban Effluents on the Macroinvertebrates of a Creek in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    The impact of effluents on the macroinvertebrate communities of an urban creek in ... of complying with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) guidelines are ..... Business. World Water Council, Earthscan. Publications Ltd. London, UK.

  1. Quantification of environment-driven changes in epiphytic macroinvertebrate communities associated to Phragmites australis

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel CAÑEDO-ARGÜELLES; Maria RIERADEVALL

    2009-01-01

    The epiphytic macroinvertebrate communities associated with the Common Reed, Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steudel, were examined seasonally from summer 2004 to spring 2005 in eleven coastal lagoons of the Llobregat Delta (NE Spain) following the method proposed by Kornijów & Kairesalo (1994). The aims of the study were to: 1) characterise and quantify changes in epiphytic macroinvertebrate communities along environmental gradients; 2) assess the contribution of elements of the epi...

  2. The Effects of Exurbanization on Bird and Macroinvertebrate Communities in Deciduous Forests on the Cumberland Plateau, Tennessee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan M. Casey

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the potential causes of changes to bird communities in exurban areas, we examined the relationship between bird and macroinvertebrate communities in exurbanized forest. We randomly located sampling points across a gradient of exurbanization. We used point counts to quantify bird communities and sweep netting, soil cores, pitfalls, and frass collectors to quantify macroinvertebrates. Bird communities had higher richness and abundance in exurban areas compared to undeveloped forests, and lost some species of conservation concern but gained others. The macroinvertebrate community was slightly more abundant in exurban areas, with a slight shift in taxonomic composition. The abundance of macroinvertebrates in soil cores (but not pitfalls predicted the abundance of ground-foraging birds. The abundance of macroinvertebrates in sweep nets was not associated with the abundance of aerial insectivore birds. Exurbanization therefore appears to change bird and macroinvertebrate communities, but to a lesser extent than agricultural forest fragmentation or intensive urbanization.

  3. The impact of episodic coal mine drainage pollution on benthic macroinvertebrates in streams in the Anthracite region of Pennsylvania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacCausland, A.; McTammany, M.E.

    2007-01-01

    Episodic coal mine drainage, caused by fluctuations in mine discharges relative to stream flow, has devastating effects on aquatic macroinvertebrate communities. Seven stream reaches in the Anthracite region of Pennsylvania were identified as chronically, episodically or not impaired by mine drainage, and sampled seasonally for 1 year to determine the effect of episodic mine drainage on macroinvertebrates. Specific conductance fluctuated seasonally in episodic sites; it was lower in winter when discharge increased and higher in summer when discharges decreased and mine drainage made up a larger proportion of stream flow. Although we hypothesized that episodic streams would have higher macroinvertebrate richness than chronic streams, comparisons showed no differences in richness between treatments. Episodic pollution may result from undersized or poorly maintained passive treatment systems; therefore, intensive macroinvertebrate monitoring may be needed to identify streams being affected by episodic mine drainage because macroinvertebrate richness may be sensitive to water quality fluctuations. - Episodic coal mine pollution decreases benthic macroinvertebrate richness and density

  4. Eavesdropping on Electronic Guidebooks: Observing Learning Resources in Shared Listening Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Allison; Aoki, Paul M.; Grinter, Rebecca E.; Hurst, Amy; Szymanski, Margaret H.; Thornton, James D.

    This paper describes an electronic guidebook, "Sotto Voce," that enables visitors to share audio information by eavesdropping on each others guidebook activity. The first section discusses the design and implementation of the guidebook device, key aspects of its user interface, the design goals for the audio environment, the eavesdropping…

  5. Temporally variable macroinvertebrate-stone relationships in streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, D.

    2005-01-01

    of fauna parameter and stone variable from different sampling dates (n=9-11) were rarely correlated to any of the measures of stream stability, this study has demonstrated high temporal variability in fauna-stone relationships (CV's of regression slopes). Consequently, temporally un-replicated studies......Stones were used to sample macroinvertebrates and characterise microhabitats at monthly or bimonthly intervals in six Ecuadorian streams covering a gradient in four different stability measures and other stream characteristics. The physical variables current velocity, water depth, horizontal...... of families vs. individuals) were related to the physical characteristics of individual stone habitats. My second objective was to quantify temporal variability in fauna-stone relationships and to analyse if such variability was related to overall stability of stream reaches. Partial Least Squares (PLS...

  6. Influence of peak flow changes on the macroinvertebrate drift downstream of a Brazilian hydroelectric dam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, D M P; Hughes, R M; Callisto, M

    2013-11-01

    Successive daily peak flows from hydropower plants can disrupt aquatic ecosystems and alter the composition and structure of macroinvertebrates downstream. We evaluated the influence of peak flow changes on macroinvertebrate drift downstream of a hydroelectric plant as a basis for determining ecological flows that might reduce the disturbance of aquatic biota. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of flow fluctuations on the seasonal and daily drift patterns of macroinvertebrates. We collected macroinvertebrates during fixed flow rates (323 m3.s-1 in the wet season and 111 m3.s-1 in the dry season) and when peak flows fluctuated (378 to 481 m3.s-1 in the wet season, and 109 to 173 m3.s-1 in the dry season) in 2010. We collected 31,924 organisms belonging to 46 taxa in the four sampling periods. Taxonomic composition and densities of drifting invertebrates differed between fixed and fluctuating flows, in both wet and dry seasons, but family richness varied insignificantly. We conclude that macroinvertebrate assemblages downstream of dams are influenced by daily peak flow fluctuations. When making environmental flow decisions for dams, it would be wise to consider drifting macroinvertebrates because they reflect ecological changes in downstream biological assemblages.

  7. Seasonal comparison of aquatic macroinvertebrate assemblages in a flooded coastal freshwater marsh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sung-Ryong; King, Sammy L.

    2013-01-01

    Marsh flooding and drying may be important factors affecting aquatic macroinvertebrate density and distribution in coastal freshwater marshes. Limited availability of water as a result of drying in emergent marsh may decrease density, taxonomic diversity, and taxa richness. The principal objectives of this study are to characterize the seasonal aquatic macroinvertebrate assemblage in a freshwater emergent marsh and compare aquatic macroinvertebrate species composition, density, and taxonomic diversity to that of freshwater marsh ponds. We hypothesize that 1) freshwater emergent marsh has lower seasonal density and taxonomic diversity compared to that of freshwater marsh ponds; and 2) freshwater emergent marsh has lower taxa richness than freshwater marsh ponds. Seasonal aquatic macroinvertebrate density in freshwater emergent marsh ranged from 0 organisms/m2 (summer 2009) to 91.1 ± 20.53 organisms/m2 (mean ± SE; spring 2009). Density in spring was higher than in all other seasons. Taxonomic diversity did not differ and there were no unique species in the freshwater emergent marsh. Our data only partially support our first hypothesis as aquatic macroinvertebrate density and taxonomic diversity between freshwater emergent marsh and ponds did not differ in spring, fall, and winter but ponds supported higher macroinvertebrate densities than freshwater emergent marsh during summer. However, our data did not support our second hypothesis as taxa richness between freshwater emergent marsh and ponds did not statistically differ.

  8. SPATIO-TEMPORAL VARIATIONS IN MACROINVERTEBRATE ASSEMBLAGES OF NEW CALEDONIAN STREAMS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARY N. J.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Forty-one sites located on 14 New Caledonian streams were surveyed four times between October 1996 and October 1997 in order to examine the spatial and temporal changes in the structure of the benthic macroinvertebrate communities. About 250 000 invertebrates representing 167 taxa were collected in the streams. Seventy-five percent of identified taxa and 67% of individuals were insects. Major spatial and temporal changes in the composition of the fauna were detected by multivariate analyses (ordination and classification. Overall, the number of individuals was significantly higher in the dry season (October than in the wetter seasons (January and June. However, a low temporal variability was detected in the structure of benthic communities during the sampling period. A cluster analysis based on taxonomic composition separated five groups of sites in relation with rock type, land use, and geographic characteristics. Several metrics (total invertebrate density, taxon richness, relative abundance of major invertebrate groups, diversity indices were used to characterize each group of sites. Forested streams, where the highest specific diversity occurred, represented the most speciose habitat for benthic fauna. A less rich and abundant fauna occurred in streams draining ultramafic rocks probably because of their low content in food resources and organic matter.

  9. Volunteer Macroinvertebrate Monitoring: Tensions Among Group Goals, Data Quality, and Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerbonne, Julia Frost; Nelson, Kristen C.

    2008-09-01

    Volunteer monitoring of natural resources is promoted for its ability to increase public awareness, to provide valuable knowledge, and to encourage policy change that promotes ecosystem health. We used the case of volunteer macroinvertebrate monitoring (VMM) in streams to investigate whether the quality of data collected is correlated with data use and organizers’ perception of whether they have achieved these outcomes. We examined the relation between site and group characteristics, data quality, data use, and perceived outcomes (education, social capital, and policy change). We found that group size and the degree to which citizen groups perform tasks on their own (rather than aided by professionals) positively correlated with the quality of data collected. Group size and number of years monitoring positively influenced whether a group used their data. While one might expect that groups committed to collecting good-quality data would be more likely to use it, there was no relation between data quality and data use, and no relation between data quality and perceived outcomes. More data use was, however, correlated with a group’s feeling of connection to a network of engaged citizens and professionals. While VMM may hold promise for bringing citizens and scientists together to work on joint conservation agendas, our data illustrate that data quality does not correlate with a volunteer group’s desire to use their data to promote regulatory change. Therefore, we encourage scientists and citizens alike to recognize this potential disconnect and strive to be explicit about the role of data in conservation efforts.

  10. Louisiana waterthrush and benthic macroinvertebrate response to shale gas development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Petra; Frantz, Mack W.; Becker, Douglas A.

    2016-01-01

    Because shale gas development is occurring over large landscapes and consequently is affecting many headwater streams, an understanding of its effects on headwater-stream faunal communities is needed. We examined effects of shale gas development (well pads and associated infrastructure) on Louisiana waterthrush Parkesia motacilla and benthic macroinvertebrate communities in 12 West Virginia headwater streams in 2011. Streams were classed as impacted (n = 6) or unimpacted (n = 6) by shale gas development. We quantified waterthrush demography (nest success, clutch size, number of fledglings, territory density), a waterthrush Habitat Suitability Index, a Rapid Bioassessment Protocol habitat index, and benthic macroinvertebrate metrics including a genus-level stream-quality index for each stream. We compared each benthic metric between impacted and unimpacted streams with a Student's t-test that incorporated adjustments for normalizing data. Impacted streams had lower genus-level stream-quality index scores; lower overall and Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera richness; fewer intolerant taxa, more tolerant taxa, and greater density of 0–3-mm individuals (P ≤ 0.10). We then used Pearson correlation to relate waterthrush metrics to benthic metrics across the 12 streams. Territory density (no. of territories/km of stream) was greater on streams with higher genus-level stream-quality index scores; greater density of all taxa and Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera taxa; and greater biomass. Clutch size was greater on streams with higher genus-level stream-quality index scores. Nest survival analyses (n = 43 nests) completed with Program MARK suggested minimal influence of benthic metrics compared with nest stage and Habitat Suitability Index score. Although our study spanned only one season, our results suggest that shale gas development affected waterthrush and benthic communities in the headwater streams we studied. Thus, these ecological effects of

  11. Urbanization reduces and homogenizes trait diversity in stream macroinvertebrate communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnum, Thomas R; Weller, Donald E; Williams, Meghan

    2017-12-01

    More than one-half of the world's population lives in urban areas, so quantifying the effects of urbanization on ecological communities is important for understanding whether anthropogenic stressors homogenize communities across environmental and climatic gradients. We examined the relationship of impervious surface coverage (a marker of urbanization) and the structure of stream macroinvertebrate communities across the state of Maryland and within each of Maryland's three ecoregions: Coastal Plain, Piedmont, and Appalachian, which differ in stream geomorphology and community composition. We considered three levels of trait organization: individual traits, unique combinations of traits, and community metrics (functional richness, functional evenness, and functional divergence) and three levels of impervious surface coverage (low [10%]). The prevalence of an individual trait differed very little between low impervious surface and high impervious surface sites. The arrangement of trait combinations in community trait space for each ecoregion differed when impervious surface coverage was low, but the arrangement became more similar among ecoregions as impervious surface coverage increased. Furthermore, trait combinations that occurred only at low or medium impervious surface coverage were clustered in a subset of the community trait space, indicating that impervious surface affected the presence of only a subset of trait combinations. Functional richness declined with increasing impervious surface, providing evidence for environmental filtering. Community metrics that include abundance were also sensitive to increasing impervious surface coverage: functional divergence decreased while functional evenness increased. These changes demonstrate that increasing impervious surface coverage homogenizes the trait diversity of macroinvertebrate communities in streams, despite differences in initial community composition and stream geomorphology among ecoregions. Community

  12. Macro-invertebrate decline in surface water polluted with imidacloprid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessa C Van Dijk

    Full Text Available Imidacloprid is one of the most widely used insecticides in the world. Its concentration in surface water exceeds the water quality norms in many parts of the Netherlands. Several studies have demonstrated harmful effects of this neonicotinoid to a wide range of non-target species. Therefore we expected that surface water pollution with imidacloprid would negatively impact aquatic ecosystems. Availability of extensive monitoring data on the abundance of aquatic macro-invertebrate species, and on imidacloprid concentrations in surface water in the Netherlands enabled us to test this hypothesis. Our regression analysis showed a significant negative relationship (P<0.001 between macro-invertebrate abundance and imidacloprid concentration for all species pooled. A significant negative relationship was also found for the orders Amphipoda, Basommatophora, Diptera, Ephemeroptera and Isopoda, and for several species separately. The order Odonata had a negative relationship very close to the significance threshold of 0.05 (P = 0.051. However, in accordance with previous research, a positive relationship was found for the order Actinedida. We used the monitoring field data to test whether the existing three water quality norms for imidacloprid in the Netherlands are protective in real conditions. Our data show that macrofauna abundance drops sharply between 13 and 67 ng l(-1. For aquatic ecosystem protection, two of the norms are not protective at all while the strictest norm of 13 ng l(-1 (MTR seems somewhat protective. In addition to the existing experimental evidence on the negative effects of imidacloprid on invertebrate life, our study, based on data from large-scale field monitoring during multiple years, shows that serious concern about the far-reaching consequences of the abundant use of imidacloprid for aquatic ecosystems is justified.

  13. Development and evolution of The Knowledge Hub for Pathology and related electronic resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardwick, David F; Sinard, John; Silva, Fred

    2011-06-01

    The Knowledge Hub for Pathology was created to provide authenticated and validated knowledge for United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology members and pathologists worldwide with access to the Web. Using the material presented at the annual meeting of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology with existing selection and review procedures ensured that these criteria were met without added costly procedures. Further submissions for courses and research papers are provided in electronic format and funded by universities and hospitals for their creation; thus, the principal costs borne by the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology are Web site-posting costs. Use has escalated rapidly from 2 million hits in 2002 to 51 million in 2009 with use by 35,000 pathologists from now a total of 180 countries. This true "freemium" model is a successful process as are more traditional continuing professional development course structures such as Anatomic Pathology Electronic Case Series, a "premium" model for learning electronically also sponsored by the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. An Exploratory study on the use of LibAnswers to Resolve, Track and Monitor Electronic Resources Issues: The KAUST Library experience

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-01-01

    An Exploratory study on KAUST library use of LibAnswers in resolving electronic resources questions received in LibAnswers. It describes the findings of the questions received in LibAnswers. The author made suggestions based on the findings to improve the reference services in responding to e-resources questions.

  15. An Exploratory study on the use of LibAnswers to Resolve, Track and Monitor Electronic Resources Issues: The KAUST Library experience

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-05-03

    An Exploratory study on KAUST library use of LibAnswers in resolving electronic resources questions received in LibAnswers. It describes the findings of the questions received in LibAnswers. The author made suggestions based on the findings to improve the reference services in responding to e-resources questions.

  16. Designing a model of electronic human resource management’s implementation at the Ministry of Communications and Information Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirali Seyednaghavi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available : In the first phase of this study a model for electronic human resource management in government agencies based on new public services was explored by using software MAXQDA, then in the second phase, relationship between the elements of the theory were tested using software Smart PLS2. So the aim of this study is to design a model of electronic human resource management’s implementation at the Ministry of Communications and Information Technology. In this regard, according to Strauss and Corbin’s structured plan, five hypotheses were tested. Quantitative data analysis indicates that the pressures of the policies and global perspectives cause to move toward e-HRM. Among the contextual conditions macro structural mechanisms, considerations of actors, governance considerations have a significant impact on the strategy of new public services and therefore lead to the consequences of its implementation in public organizations. The findings suggest that e-HRM does not have a positive and meaningful impact on new public services, and in our country, although the recent political developments have somehow removed the gap between public policy makers, administrators, and the public, but there is still a long way to go.

  17. Preference and Use of Electronic Information and Resources by Blind/Visually Impaired in NCR Libraries in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailendra Kumar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to determine the preference and use of electronic information and resources by blind/visually impaired users in the leading National Capital Region (NCR libraries of India. Survey methodology has been used as the basic research tool for data collection with the help of questionnaires. The 125 in total users surveyed in all the five libraries were selected randomly on the basis of willingness of the users with experience of working in digital environments to participate in the survey. The survey results were tabulated and analyzed with descriptive statistics methods using Excel software and 'Stata version 11'. The findings reveal that ICT have a positive impact in the lives of people with disabilities as it helps them to work independently and increases the level of confidence among them. The Internet is the most preferred medium of access to information among the majority of blind/visually impaired users. The 'Complexity of content available on the net' is found as the major challenge faced during Internet use by blind users of NCR libraries. 'Audio books on CDs/DVDs and DAISY books' are the most preferred electronic resources among the majority of blind/visually impaired users. This study will help the library professionals and organizations/institutions serving people with disabilities to develop effective library services for blind/visually impaired users in the digital environment on the basis of findings on information usage behavior in the study.

  18. Internet and electronic resources for inflammatory bowel disease: a primer for providers and patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortinsky, Kyle J; Fournier, Marc R; Benchimol, Eric I

    2012-06-01

    Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are increasingly turning to the Internet to research their condition and engage in discourse on their experiences. This has resulted in new dynamics in the relationship between providers and their patients, with misinformation and advertising potentially presenting barriers to the cooperative patient-provider partnership. This article addresses important issues of online IBD-related health information and social media activity, such as quality, reliability, objectivity, and privacy. We reviewed the medical literature on the quality of online information provided to IBD patients, and summarized the most commonly accessed Websites related to IBD. We also assessed the activity on popular social media sites (such as Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube), and evaluated currently available applications for use by IBD patients and providers on mobile phones and tablets. Through our review of the literature and currently available resources, we developed a list of recommended online resources to strengthen patient participation in their care by providing reliable, comprehensive educational material. Copyright © 2011 Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America, Inc.

  19. Macroinvertebrate community responses to gravel augmentation in a high-gradient, Southeastern regulated river

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McManamay, Ryan A [ORNL; Orth, Dr. Donald J [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University; Dolloff, Dr. Charles A [United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), United States Forest Service (USFS) and Virginia Pol

    2013-01-01

    Sediment transport, one of the key processes of river systems, is altered or stopped by dams, leaving lower river reaches barren of sand and gravel, both of which are essential habitat for fish and macroinvertebrates. One way to compensate for losses in sediment is to supplement gravel to river reaches below impoundments. Because gravel addition has become a widespread practice, it is essential to evaluate the biotic response to restoration projects in order to improve the efficacy of future applications. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the response of the macroinvertebrate community to gravel addition in a high-gradient, regulated river in western North Carolina. We collected benthic macroinvertebrate samples from gravel-enhanced areas and unenhanced areas for 1 season before gravel addition, and for 4 seasons afterwards. Repeated measures multivariate analysis of variance indicated that the responses of macroinvertebrates to gravel addition were generally specific to individual taxa or particular functional feeding groups and did not lead to consistent patterns in overall family richness, diversity, density, or evenness. Non-metric multi-dimensional scaling showed that shifts in macroinvertebrate community composition were temporary and dependent upon site conditions and season. Correlations between macroinvertebrate response variables and substrate microhabitat variables existed with or without the inclusion of data from enhanced areas, which suggests that substrate-biotic relationships were present before gravel addition. A review of the current literature suggests that the responses of benthic macroinvertebrates to substrate restoration are inconsistent and dependent upon site conditions and the degree habitat improvement of pre-restoration site conditions.

  20. Electronic medical records in diabetes consultations: participants' gaze as an interactional resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Penny; Small, Neil; Rowley, Emma; Langdon, Mark; Ariss, Steven; Wright, John

    2008-09-01

    Two routine consultations in primary care diabetes clinics are compared using extracts from video recordings of interactions between nurses and patients. The consultations were chosen to present different styles of interaction, in which the nurse's gaze was either primarily toward the computer screen or directed more toward the patient. Using conversation analysis, the ways in which nurses shift both gaze and body orientation between the computer screen and patient to influence the style, pace, content, and structure of the consultation were investigated. By examining the effects of different levels of engagement between the electronic medical record and the embodied patient in the consultation room, we argue for the need to consider the contingent nature of the interface of technology and the person in the consultation. Policy initiatives designed to deliver what is considered best-evidenced practice are modified in the micro context of the interactions of the consultation.

  1. Granulometric composition study of mineral resources using opto-electronic devices and Elsieve software system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaminski Stanislaw

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of mechanical sieves has a great impact on measurement results because occurrence of anisometric particles causes undercounting the average size. Such errors can be avoided by using opto-electronic measuring devices that enable measurement of particles from 10 μm up to a few dozen millimetres in size. The results of measurement of each particle size fraction are summed up proportionally to its weight with the use of Elsieve software system and for every type of material particle-size distribution can be obtained. The software allows further statistical interpretation of the results. Beam of infrared radiation identifies size of particles and counts them precisely. Every particle is represented by an electronic impulse proportional to its size. Measurement of particles in aqueous suspension that replaces the hydrometer method can be carried out by using the IPS L analyser (range from 0.2 to 600 μm. The IPS UA analyser (range from 0.5 to 2000 μm is designed for measurement in the air. An ultrasonic adapter enables performing measurements of moist and aggregated particles from 0.5 to 1000 μm. The construction and software system allow to determine second dimension of the particle, its shape coefficient and specific surface area. The AWK 3D analyser (range from 0.2 to 31.5 mm is devoted to measurement of various powdery materials with subsequent determination of particle shape. The AWK B analyser (range from 1 to 130 mm measures materials of thick granulation and shape of the grains. The presented method of measurement repeatedly accelerates and facilitates study of granulometric composition.

  2. [Effect of environmental factors on macroinvertebrate community structure in the Huntai River basin in the Huntai River basin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan-li; Li, Yan-fen; Xu, Zong-xue

    2015-01-01

    In May-June 2012, macroinvertebrates were investigated at 66 sampling sites in the Huntai River basin in Northeast of China. A total of 72 macrobenthos species were collected, of which, 51 species (70.83%) were aquatic insects, 10 species (13.89%) were mollusks, 7 species (9.72%) were annelids, and 4 species (5.56%) were arthropods. First, 13 candidate metrics (EPT taxa, Dominant taxon%, Ephemeroptera%, Trichoptera%, mollusks%, Heptageniidae/Ephemeroptera; Hydropsychidae/ Trichoptera, Oligochaeta%, intolerant taxon% , tolerant taxon%, Collector%, Clingers%, Shannon-wiener index.) which belonged to six types were chosen to represent macroinvertebrate community structure by correlation analysis. Then, relationships between anthropogenic and physiography pressures and macroinvertebrate community structure variables were measured using redundancy analysis. Then, this study compared the relative influences of anthropogenic and physiographic pressures on macroinvertebrate community structure and the relative influences of anthropogenic pressures at reach, riparian and catchment scales by pRDA. The results showed all environmental factors explained 72.23% of the variation of macroinvertebrate community structure. In addition, a large proportion of the explained variability in macroinvertebrate community structure was related to anthropogenic pressures (48.9%) and to physiographic variables (11.8%), anthropogenic pressures at reach scale influenced most significantly macroinvertebrate community structure which explained 35.3% of the variation of macroinvertebrate community structure. pH, habitat, TN, CODMn, hardness, conductivity, total dissolved particle and ammonia influenced respectively explained 4%, 3.6%, 1.8%, 1.7%, 1.7%, 0.9%, 0.9% and 0.9% of the variation of macroinvertebrate community structure. The land use at riparian and catchment scale respectively explained 10% and 7% of the variation of macroinvertebrate community structure. Finally, the relationships of

  3. Non-indigenous macroinvertebrate species in Lithuanian fresh waters, Part 2: Macroinvertebrate assemblage deviation from naturalness in lotic systems and the consequent potential impacts on ecological quality assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arbačiauskas K.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The biological pressure represented by non-indigenous macroinvertebrate species (NIMS should be addressed in the implementation of EU Water Framework Directive as this can have a direct impact on the ’naturalness’ of the invaded macroinvertebrate assemblage. The biocontamination concept allows assessment of this deviation from naturalness, by evaluation of abundance and disparity contamination of an assemblage. This study aimed to assess the biocontamination of macroinvertebrate assemblages in Lithuanian rivers, thereby revealing the most high-impact non-indigenous species, and to explore the relationship between biocontamination and conventional metrics of ecological quality. Most of the studied rivers appeared to be impacted by NIMS. The amphipods Pontogammarus robustoides, Chelicorophium curvispinum and snail Litoglyphus naticoides were revealed as high-impact NIMS for Lithuanian lotic systems. Metrics of ecological quality which largely depend upon the richness of indicator taxa, such as the biological monitoring working party (BMWP score and Ephemeroptera/Plecoptera/Trichoptera (EPT taxa number, were negatively correlated with biocontamination, implying they could provide unreliable ecological quality estimates when NIMS are present. Routine macroinvertebrate water quality monitoring data are sufficient for generation of the biocontamination assessment and thus can provide supplementary information, with minimal extra expense or effort. We therefore recommend that biocontamination assessment is included alongside established methods for gauging biological and chemical water quality.

  4. Influence of salinity and prey presence on the survival of aquatic macroinvertebrates of a freshwater marsh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sung-Ryong; King, Sammy L.

    2012-01-01

    Salinization of coastal freshwater environments is a global issue. Increased salinity from sea level rise, storm surges, or other mechanisms is common in coastal freshwater marshes of Louisiana, USA. The effects of salinity increases on aquatic macroinvertebrates in these systems have received little attention, despite the importance of aquatic macroinvertebrates for nutrient cycling, biodiversity, and as a food source for vertebrate species. We used microcosm experiments to evaluate the effects of salinity, duration of exposure, and prey availability on the relative survival of dominant aquatic macroinvertebrates (i.e., Procambarus clarkii Girard, Cambarellus puer Hobbs, Libellulidae, Dytiscidae cybister) in a freshwater marsh of southwestern Louisiana. We hypothesized that increased salinity, absence of prey, and increased duration of exposure would decrease survival of aquatic macroinvertebrates and that crustaceans would have higher survival than aquatic insect taxon. Our first hypothesis was only partially supported as only salinity increases combined with prolonged exposure duration affected aquatic macroinvertebrate survival. Furthermore, crustaceans had higher survival than aquatic insects. Salinity stress may cause mortality when acting together with other stressful conditions.

  5. Successional trends of the benthic macroinvertebrate community in a new southeastern cooling reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, M.A.; Herring, M.K.

    1990-01-01

    Lakes created by river impoundments provide new lentic habitats for benthic macroinvertebrates. As new lakes age, benthic macroinvertebrate succession proceeds as first colonizers are replaced and stable populations eventually become established. L Lake, a 400 ha reservoir, was constructed in 1985 on the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site in South Carolina to receive heated effluent from a nuclear production reactor. Benthic macroinvertebrates were collected in L Lake with a ponar grab sampler at 2 and 4 meters at 10 locations in 5 lake regions. Monthly collections were made from 1986 through 1989. Annual average densities of benthic macroinvertebrates increased substantially during the study (ranging from 3955.5--4471.6 organisms/m 2 in 1986 to 8948.1--11,694.1 organisms/m 2 in 1988). Annual mean biomass also increased (ranging from 0.749--0.907g AFDM/m 2 in 1986 to 2074--11,322 g AFDM/m 2 in 1988). Mean annual taxa richness ranged from 9.3--12.2 per ponar in 1986 to 11.8--15.3 per ponar in 1988. Some early colonizers (Chironomidae: Chironomini) dominated throughout the study (ranging from 60.3--79.1% of all organisms). Other chironomids (Tanytarsini and Tanypodinae) declined while slower colonizers (oligochaetes and nematodes) generally increased from 1986 through 1988. The increases in macroinvertebrate density, biomass and changes in community composition observed are typical of early reservoir succession. 14 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab

  6. In situ effects of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on community structure of freshwater benthic macroinvertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanović, Boris; Milošević, Djuradj; Piperac, Milica Stojković; Savić, Ana

    2016-06-01

    For the first time in the current literature, the effect of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles on the community structure of macroinvertebrates has been investigated in situ. Macroinvertebrates were exposed for 100 days to an environmentally relevant concentration of TiO2 nanoparticles, 25 mg kg(-1) in sediment. Czekanowski's index was 0.61, meaning 39% of the macroinvertebrate community structure was affected by the TiO2 treatment. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) visualized the qualitative and quantitative variability of macroinvertebrates at the community level among all samples. A distance-based permutational multivariate analysis of variance (PERMANOVA) revealed the significant effect of TiO2 on the macroinvertebrate community structure. The indicator value analysis showed that the relative frequency and abundance of Planorbarius corneus and Radix labiata were significantly lower in the TiO2 treatment than in the control. Meanwhile, Ceratopogonidae, showed a significantly higher relative frequency and abundance in the TiO2 treatment than in the control. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Impact of heavy metals on macro-invertebrate fauna of the thaddo stream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazneen, S.; Begum, F.; Sharmeen, R.; Ahmed, Z.

    2003-01-01

    Impact of some heavy metals like zinc, lead, copper, chromium and cadmium were studied at four spots on the macro-invertebrate fauna of the Thaddo stream, a tributary of Malir River. This was in correlation with an earlier study on the physico-chemical aspects of water which showed a severe pollution in this stream. Present data for the qualitative and quantitative analyses of macro-invertebrates and the ranges of heavy metals (Zn 0.5-3.5, Pb 0.90-1.42, Cu 0.35-0.93, Cr 0.0-0.08 and Cd 0.003-0.01 ppm) in the water samples also indicate high level of pollution in the stream. Macro-invertebrate fauna comprises only of aquatic insects which include larvae of Chironomus spp., adults of the Notonectus sp., and nymphs of Gomphus sp. (dragon fly) belonging to the order Diptera , Hemiptera and Odonata, respectively. Quantitatively Notonectus sp. predominated and followed by Chironomus larvae. The maximum concentrations of all heavy metals were recorded at spot 3. A general trend of increase was observed from up stream to down stream regions particularly in the level of zinc. However, a reverse trend was observed in the abundance of macro-invertebrates with a great reduction at spot 4. The statistical analysis of the data generally indicates a negative correlation between the values of the studied heavy metals and the abundance of macro-invertebrates throughout this study. (author)

  8. Scale-dependency of macroinvertebrate communities: responses to contaminated sediments within run-of-river dams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colas, Fanny; Archaimbault, Virginie; Devin, Simon

    2011-03-01

    Due to their nutrient recycling function and their importance in food-webs, macroinvertebrates are essential for the functioning of aquatic ecosystems. These organisms also constitute an important component of biodiversity. Sediment evaluation and monitoring is an essential aspect of ecosystem monitoring since sediments represent an important component of aquatic habitats and are also a potential source of contamination. In this study, we focused on macroinvertebrate communities within run-of-river dams, that are prime areas for sediment and pollutant accumulation. Little is known about littoral macroinvertebrate communities within run-of-river dam or their response to sediment levels and pollution. We therefore aimed to evaluate the following aspects: the functional and structural composition of macroinvertebrate communities in run-of-river dams; the impact of pollutant accumulation on such communities, and the most efficient scales and tools needed for the biomonitoring of contaminated sediments in such environments. Two run-of-river dams located in the French alpine area were selected and three spatial scales were examined: transversal (banks and channel), transversal x longitudinal (banks/channel x tail/middle/dam) and patch scale (erosion, sedimentation and vegetation habitats). At the patch scale, we noted that the heterogeneity of littoral habitats provided many available niches that allow for the development of diversified macroinvertebrate communities. This implies highly variable responses to contamination. Once combined on a global 'banks' spatial scale, littoral habitats can highlight the effects of toxic disturbances. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Short-term effects of visitor trampling on macroinvertebrates in karst streams in an ecotourism region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escarpinati, Suzana Cunha; Siqueira, Tadeu; Medina, Paulino Barroso; de Oliveira Roque, Fabio

    2014-03-01

    In order to evaluate the potential risks of human visitation on macroinvertebrate communities in streams, we investigated the effect of trampling using two short-term experiments conducted in a Brazilian ecotourism karst region. We asked three questions: (a) Does trampling increase the drift rate of aquatic macroinvertebrates and organic matter? (b) Does trampling change the macroinvertebrate community organization? (c) If trampling alters the community structure, is a short time (5 days, a between weekends interval - peaks of tourism activities) sufficient for community restructuring? Analysis of variance of richness, total abundance, abundance of the most abundant genus (e.g., Simothraulopsis and Callibaetis), and community composition showed that trampling immediately affects macroinvertebrate community and that the intervals between the peaks of visitation (5 days) are not sufficient to complete community restructuring. Considering that bathing areas receive thousands of visitors every year and that intervals of time without visitation are nearly nonexistent, we suspect that the negative effects on the macroinvertebrate community occur in a cumulative way. Finally, we discuss some simple procedures that could potentially be used for reducing trampling impacts in lotic environments.

  10. Assessment of ecological quality of the Tajan river in Iran using a multimetric macroinvertebrate index and species traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aazami, J.; Esmaili Sari, A.; Abdoli, A.; Sohrabi, H.; Brink, van den P.J.

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the biological water of the Iranian Tajan River using different metrics, i.e., a Multimetric Macroinvertebrate Index (MMI) and a traits-based method. Twenty-eight physico-chemical parameters, 10 habitat factors, and abundance of macroinvertebrates were

  11. Comparison of two methods for estimating the abundance, diversity and habitat preference of fluvial macroinvertebrates in contrasting habitats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alonso, A.; Camargo, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    In this research we evaluate the effects of the method used for estimating the potential surface available for benthic macroinvertebrates in macrophyte and unvegetated habitats on several metrics and habitat preference of aquatic macroinvertebrates in the upper catchment of the Henares River

  12. Intensive removal of signal crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus) from rivers increases numbers and taxon richness of macroinvertebrate species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorhouse, Tom P; Poole, Alison E; Evans, Laura C; Bradley, David C; Macdonald, David W

    2014-02-01

    Invasive species are a major cause of species extinction in freshwater ecosystems, and crayfish species are particularly pervasive. The invasive American signal crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus has impacts over a range of trophic levels, but particularly on benthic aquatic macroinvertebrates. Our study examined the effect on the macroinvertebrate community of removal trapping of signal crayfish from UK rivers. Crayfish were intensively trapped and removed from two tributaries of the River Thames to test the hypothesis that lowering signal crayfish densities would result in increases in macroinvertebrate numbers and taxon richness. We removed 6181 crayfish over four sessions, resulting in crayfish densities that decreased toward the center of the removal sections. Conversely in control sections (where crayfish were trapped and returned), crayfish density increased toward the center of the section. Macroinvertebrate numbers and taxon richness were inversely correlated with crayfish densities. Multivariate analysis of the abundance of each taxon yielded similar results and indicated that crayfish removals had positive impacts on macroinvertebrate numbers and taxon richness but did not alter the composition of the wider macroinvertebrate community. Synthesis and applications: Our results demonstrate that non-eradication-oriented crayfish removal programmes may lead to increases in the total number of macroinvertebrates living in the benthos. This represents the first evidence that removing signal crayfish from riparian systems, at intensities feasible during control attempts or commercial crayfishing, may be beneficial for a range of sympatric aquatic macroinvertebrates.

  13. Green Supply Chain Collaboration for Fashionable Consumer Electronics Products under Third-Party Power Intervention—A Resource Dependence Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiuh-Biing Sheu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Under third-party power intervention (TPPI, which increases uncertainty in task environments, complex channel power interplays and restructuring are indispensable among green supply chain members as they move toward sustainable collaborative relationships for increased viability and competitive advantage. From the resource dependence perspective, this work presents a novel conceptual model to investigate the influence of political and social power on channel power restructuring and induced green supply chain collaboration in brander-retailer bidirectional green supply chains of fashionable consumer electronics products (FCEPs. An FCEP refers to the consumer electronics product (e.g., personal computers, mobile phones, computer notebooks, and game consoles with the features of a well-known brand associated, a short product lifecycle, timely and fashionable design fit for market trends, and quick responsiveness to the variations of market demands. The proposed model is tested empirically using questionnaire data obtained from retailers in the FCEP brander-retailer distribution channels. Analytical results reveal that as an extension of political and social power, TPPI positively affects the reciprocal interdependence of dyadic members and reduces power asymmetry, thereby enhancing the collaborative relationship of dyadic members and leading to improved green supply chain performance. Therein, reciprocal interdependence underlying collaborative relationship is the key to reducing the external environmental uncertainties in the TPPI context.

  14. Aquatic macroinvertebrate responses to native and non-native predators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haddaway N. R.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-native species can profoundly affect native ecosystems through trophic interactions with native species. Native prey may respond differently to non-native versus native predators since they lack prior experience. Here we investigate antipredator responses of two common freshwater macroinvertebrates, Gammarus pulex and Potamopyrgus jenkinsi, to olfactory cues from three predators; sympatric native fish (Gasterosteus aculeatus, sympatric native crayfish (Austropotamobius pallipes, and novel invasive crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus. G. pulex responded differently to fish and crayfish; showing enhanced locomotion in response to fish, but a preference for the dark over the light in response to the crayfish. P.jenkinsi showed increased vertical migration in response to all three predator cues relative to controls. These different responses to fish and crayfish are hypothesised to reflect the predators’ differing predation types; benthic for crayfish and pelagic for fish. However, we found no difference in response to native versus invasive crayfish, indicating that prey naiveté is unlikely to drive the impacts of invasive crayfish. The Predator Recognition Continuum Hypothesis proposes that benefits of generalisable predator recognition outweigh costs when predators are diverse. Generalised responses of prey as observed here will be adaptive in the presence of an invader, and may reduce novel predators’ potential impacts.

  15. The management of online resources and long-term saving of electronic documents by transfer into the digital space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Daniel MAREŞ

    2011-12-01

    The electronic archive refers to the electronic storage system, along with the totality of electronic-type stored documents, while using as storage support any environment that can support storing and from which an electronic document can be presented.

  16. Marine sediment sample pre-processing for macroinvertebrates metabarcoding: mechanical enrichment and homogenization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Aylagas

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Metabarcoding is an accurate and cost-effective technique that allows for simultaneous taxonomic identification of multiple environmental samples. Application of this technique to marine benthic macroinvertebrate biodiversity assessment for biomonitoring purposes requires standardization of laboratory and data analysis procedures. In this context, protocols for creation and sequencing of amplicon libraries and their related bioinformatics analysis have been recently published. However, a standardized protocol describing all previous steps (i.e. processing and manipulation of environmental samples for macroinvertebrate community characterization is lacking. Here, we provide detailed procedures for benthic environmental sample collection, processing, enrichment for macroinvertebrates, homogenization, and subsequent DNA extraction for metabarcoding analysis. Since this is the first protocol of this kind, it should be of use to any researcher in this field, having the potential for improvement.

  17. Functional changes in littoral macroinvertebrate communities in response to watershed-level anthropogenic stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katya E Kovalenko

    Full Text Available Watershed-scale anthropogenic stressors have profound effects on aquatic communities. Although several functional traits of stream macroinvertebrates change predictably in response to land development and urbanization, little is known about macroinvertebrate functional responses in lakes. We assessed functional community structure, functional diversity (Rao's quadratic entropy and voltinism in macroinvertebrate communities sampled across the full gradient of anthropogenic stress in Laurentian Great Lakes coastal wetlands. Functional diversity and voltinism significantly decreased with increasing development, whereas agriculture had smaller or non-significant effects. Functional community structure was affected by watershed-scale development, as demonstrated by an ordination analysis followed by regression. Because functional community structure affects energy flow and ecosystem function, and functional diversity is known to have important implications for ecosystem resilience to further environmental change, these results highlight the necessity of finding ways to remediate or at least ameliorate these effects.

  18. Benthic Macroinvertebrate Communities in the Northern Tributaries of the “Iron Gates” Gorge (Danube River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curtean-Bănăduc Angela

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the structure of the benthonic macro-invertebrates communities in the Berzasca, Sirinia, Liubcova, and Mraconia rivers. The results are based on quantitative benthos samples (95 samples, collected in July 2014 from 19 sampling stations within the study area. In longitudinal profile, the benthonic macro-invertebrate communities of the Sirinia, Liubcova and Berzasca rivers displays relatively large structural variability, while the communities of the Mraconia River displays smaller structural variability. The structure of the benthonic macro-invertebrate communities correlated with the biotope characteristics indicates the good ecological status of the analysed rivers, with the exception of the Berzasca River sector downstream of the town of Berzasca and immediately upstream of the Danube junction, a sector with moderate ecological status due to negative effects from man-made modifications in the lotic biotope of the sector.

  19. Quantification of environment-driven changes in epiphytic macroinvertebrate communities associated to Phragmites australis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel CAÑEDO-ARGÜELLES

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The epiphytic macroinvertebrate communities associated with the Common Reed, Phragmites australis (Cav. Trin. ex Steudel, were examined seasonally from summer 2004 to spring 2005 in eleven coastal lagoons of the Llobregat Delta (NE Spain following the method proposed by Kornijów & Kairesalo (1994. The aims of the study were to: 1 characterise and quantify changes in epiphytic macroinvertebrate communities along environmental gradients; 2 assess the contribution of elements of the epiphytic compartment to structuring the community; 3 define the optima and tolerances of selected epiphytic macroinvertebrate taxa for the most relevant ecological factors responsible for assemblage composition; and 4 identify possible epiphytic species assemblages that would allow a lagoon’s typology to be established, as well as their representative indicator species. Communities showed statistically significant seasonal variation, with two faunal peaks: one in summer, with high chironomid densities, and the other in winter, with high naidid densities. These peaks showed a clear response to the influence of environmental factors. Salinity explained the highest percentage of total variance (36%, while trophic variables (nutrients, phytoplanktonic chlorophyll-a, and total organic carbon and epiphyton biomass (19.2 and 4% of total variance explained, respectively were secondary. Three different epiphytic macroinvertebrate species assemblages could be defined. These assemblages were directly linked to conductivity conditions, which determined the rate of survival of certain taxa, and to the existence of a direct connection with the sea, which permitted the establishment of "brackish-water" species. In spite of the existence of these species assemblages, the species composition and biomass of epiphytic macroinvertebrates and epiphyton differed substantially between lagoons; both elements were subject to changes in the environment, which finally determined the site

  20. Effects of Management Legacies on Stream Fish and Aquatic Benthic Macroinvertebrate Assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quist, Michael C.; Schultz, Randall D.

    2014-09-01

    Fish and benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages often provide insight on ecological conditions for guiding management actions. Unfortunately, land use and management legacies can constrain the structure of biotic communities such that they fail to reflect habitat quality. The purpose of this study was to describe patterns in fish and benthic macroinvertebrate assemblage structure, and evaluate relationships between biota and habitat characteristics in the Chariton River system of south-central Iowa, a system likely influenced by various potential management legacies (e.g., dams, chemical removal of fishes). We sampled fishes, benthic macroinvertebrates, and physical habitat from a total of 38 stream reaches in the Chariton River watershed during 2002-2005. Fish and benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages were dominated by generalist species tolerant of poor habitat quality; assemblages failed to show any apparent patterns with regard to stream size or longitudinal location within the watershed. Metrics used to summarize fish assemblages and populations [e.g., presence-absence, relative abundance, Index of Biotic Integrity for fish (IBIF)] were not related to habitat characteristics, except that catch rates of piscivores were positively related to the depth and the amount of large wood. In contrast, family richness of benthic macroinvertebrates, richness of Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera, and Plecoptera taxa, and IBI values for benthic macroinvertebrates (IBIBM) were positively correlated with the amount of overhanging vegetation and inversely related to the percentage of fine substrate. A long history of habitat alteration by row-crop agriculture and management legacies associated with reservoir construction has likely resulted in a fish assemblage dominated by tolerant species. Intolerant and sensitive fish species have not recolonized streams due to downstream movement barriers (i.e., dams). In contrast, aquatic insect assemblages reflected aquatic habitat, particularly

  1. Evaluating macroinvertebrate community shifts in the confluence of freestone and limestone streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer K. Hellmann

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic macroinvertebrates are critical to ecosystem functioning through their regulation of many essential top-down and bottom-up ecosystem processes such as energy translocation, nutrient flow, and detrital decomposition. However, specific preferences by macroinvertebrates for certain ranges of abiotic and biotic characteristics mean that changes in these factors often create large differences in benthic community structure. Investigations into drivers of community structure have found distinct patterns of variation between ecosystems, but drivers of macroscale variation may differ from drivers of microscale variation. Such microscale variation in macroinvertebrate community structure as a function of abiotic conditions may be found in the confluence of two geologically distinct freshwater streams. Variation in the origin, underlying bedrock, and watershed of a stream results in drastically different physical and chemical characteristics and correspondingly distinct macroinvertebrate community structures. In areas where water from geologically distinct streams flows together, a mixing zone emerges with unique chemical and physical characteristics. There is little information on how invertebrate communities are structured within this mixing zone. To investigate this, we examined how the structure of the macroinvertebrate community changed downstream of the confluence. Up to thirty metres downstream, we found distinct stream sections that mirrored physical and chemical conditions found in limestone and freestone streams, and a mixing zone with emergent properties. These physical and chemical changes between sites were accompanied by shifts in macroinvertebrate community composition. Diversity indices indicated significantly higher diversity in freestone sites than in limestone sites or the mixing zone and there was a unique composition of genera in the mixing zone that were distinct from both limestone and freestone sites. Factors driving

  2. Impact of pesticides on hyphomycetes leaf processing and macroinvertebrate shredding activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul Monberg, Rikke; Rasmussen, Jes; Baatrup-Pedersen, Annette

    , consequently impacting stream dwelling organism feeding on the organic material. The impact of pyrethroid insecticides on stream macroinvertebrates are well studied and increased mortality and drift rate along with decreased feeding activity are well known responses to even very low concentrations (10-100 ng...... organisms have the power to reduce organic matter breakdown and food quality for macroinvertebrates, thereby decreasing ecosystem decomposition rates. We exposed preconditioned leafs of beech (Fagus sylvatica) to the fungicide propiconazole (100, 1000 or 2000 μg/L) and/or the insecticide alpha...

  3. Development of an Electronic Medical Record Based Alert for Risk of HIV Treatment Failure in a Low-Resource Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puttkammer, Nancy; Zeliadt, Steven; Balan, Jean Gabriel; Baseman, Janet; Destiné, Rodney; Domerçant, Jean Wysler; France, Garilus; Hyppolite, Nathaelf; Pelletier, Valérie; Raphael, Nernst Atwood; Sherr, Kenneth; Yuhas, Krista; Barnhart, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Background The adoption of electronic medical record systems in resource-limited settings can help clinicians monitor patients' adherence to HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART) and identify patients at risk of future ART failure, allowing resources to be targeted to those most at risk. Methods Among adult patients enrolled on ART from 2005–2013 at two large, public-sector hospitals in Haiti, ART failure was assessed after 6–12 months on treatment, based on the World Health Organization's immunologic and clinical criteria. We identified models for predicting ART failure based on ART adherence measures and other patient characteristics. We assessed performance of candidate models using area under the receiver operating curve, and validated results using a randomly-split data sample. The selected prediction model was used to generate a risk score, and its ability to differentiate ART failure risk over a 42-month follow-up period was tested using stratified Kaplan Meier survival curves. Results Among 923 patients with CD4 results available during the period 6–12 months after ART initiation, 196 (21.2%) met ART failure criteria. The pharmacy-based proportion of days covered (PDC) measure performed best among five possible ART adherence measures at predicting ART failure. Average PDC during the first 6 months on ART was 79.0% among cases of ART failure and 88.6% among cases of non-failure (pART initiation were added to PDC, the risk score differentiated between those who did and did not meet failure criteria over 42 months following ART initiation. Conclusions Pharmacy data are most useful for new ART adherence alerts within iSanté. Such alerts offer potential to help clinicians identify patients at high risk of ART failure so that they can be targeted with adherence support interventions, before ART failure occurs. PMID:25390044

  4. Development of an electronic medical record based alert for risk of HIV treatment failure in a low-resource setting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Puttkammer

    Full Text Available The adoption of electronic medical record systems in resource-limited settings can help clinicians monitor patients' adherence to HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART and identify patients at risk of future ART failure, allowing resources to be targeted to those most at risk.Among adult patients enrolled on ART from 2005-2013 at two large, public-sector hospitals in Haiti, ART failure was assessed after 6-12 months on treatment, based on the World Health Organization's immunologic and clinical criteria. We identified models for predicting ART failure based on ART adherence measures and other patient characteristics. We assessed performance of candidate models using area under the receiver operating curve, and validated results using a randomly-split data sample. The selected prediction model was used to generate a risk score, and its ability to differentiate ART failure risk over a 42-month follow-up period was tested using stratified Kaplan Meier survival curves.Among 923 patients with CD4 results available during the period 6-12 months after ART initiation, 196 (21.2% met ART failure criteria. The pharmacy-based proportion of days covered (PDC measure performed best among five possible ART adherence measures at predicting ART failure. Average PDC during the first 6 months on ART was 79.0% among cases of ART failure and 88.6% among cases of non-failure (p<0.01. When additional information including sex, baseline CD4, and duration of enrollment in HIV care prior to ART initiation were added to PDC, the risk score differentiated between those who did and did not meet failure criteria over 42 months following ART initiation.Pharmacy data are most useful for new ART adherence alerts within iSanté. Such alerts offer potential to help clinicians identify patients at high risk of ART failure so that they can be targeted with adherence support interventions, before ART failure occurs.

  5. Innovative direct energy conversion systems using electronic adiabatic processes of electron fluid in solid conductors: new plants of electrical power and hydrogen gas resources without environmental pollutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondoh, Y.; Kondo, M.; Shimoda, K.; Takahashi, T.

    2001-07-01

    It is shown that using a novel recycling process of the environmental thermal energy, innovative permanent auto-working direct energy converter systems (PA-DEC systems) from the environmental thermal to electrical and/or chemical potential (TE/CP) energies, abbreviated as PA-TE/CP-DEC systems, can be used for new auto-working electrical power plants and the plants of the compressible and conveyable hydrogen gas resources at various regions in the whole world, with contributions to the world peace and the economical development in the south part of the world. It is shown that the same physical mechanism by free electrons and electrical potential determined by temperature in conductors, which include semiconductors, leads to the Peltier effect and the Seebeck one. It is experimentally clarified that the long distance separation between two π type elements of the heat absorption (HAS) and the production one (HPS) of the Peltier effect circuit system or between the higher temperature side (HTS) and the lower one (LTS) of the Seebeck effect circuit one does not change in the whole for the both effects. By using present systems, we do not need to use petrified fuels such as coals, oils, and natural gases in order to decrease the greenhouse effect by the CO 2 surrounding the earth. Furthermore, we do not need plats of nuclear fissions that left radiating wastes, i.e., with no environmental pollutions. The PA-TE/CP-DEC systems can be applicable for several km scale systems to the micro ones, such as the plants of the electrical power, the compact transportable hydrogen gas resources, a large heat energy container, which can be settled at far place from thermal energy absorbing area, the refrigerators, the air conditioners, home electrical apparatuses, and further the computer elements. It is shown that the simplest PA-TE/CP-DEC system can be established by using only the Seebeck effect components and the resolving water ones. It is clarified that the externally applied

  6. Macroinvertebrate community assembly in pools created during peatland restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Lee E; Ramchunder, Sorain J; Beadle, Jeannie M; Holden, Joseph

    2016-11-01

    Many degraded ecosystems are subject to restoration attempts, providing new opportunities to unravel the processes of ecological community assembly. Restoration of previously drained northern peatlands, primarily to promote peat and carbon accumulation, has created hundreds of thousands of new open water pools. We assessed the potential benefits of this wetland restoration for aquatic biodiversity, and how communities reassemble, by comparing pool ecosystems in regions of the UK Pennines on intact (never drained) versus restored (blocked drainage-ditches) peatland. We also evaluated the conceptual idea that comparing reference ecosystems in terms of their compositional similarity to null assemblages (and thus the relative importance of stochastic versus deterministic assembly) can guide evaluations of restoration success better than analyses of community composition or diversity. Community composition data highlighted some differences in the macroinvertebrate composition of restored pools compared to undisturbed peatland pools, which could be used to suggest that alternative end-points to restoration were influenced by stochastic processes. However, widely used diversity metrics indicated no differences between undisturbed and restored pools. Novel evaluations of restoration using null models confirmed the similarity of deterministic assembly processes from the national species pool across all pools. Stochastic elements were important drivers of between-pool differences at the regional-scale but the scale of these effects was also similar across most of the pools studied. The amalgamation of assembly theory into ecosystem restoration monitoring allows us to conclude with more certainty that restoration has been successful from an ecological perspective in these systems. Evaluation of these UK findings compared to those from peatlands across Europe and North America further suggests that restoring peatland pools delivers significant benefits for aquatic fauna by

  7. Macro-Invertebrate Decline in Surface Water Polluted with Imidacloprid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dijk, Tessa C.; Van Staalduinen, Marja A.; Van der Sluijs, Jeroen P.

    2013-01-01

    Imidacloprid is one of the most widely used insecticides in the world. Its concentration in surface water exceeds the water quality norms in many parts of the Netherlands. Several studies have demonstrated harmful effects of this neonicotinoid to a wide range of non-target species. Therefore we expected that surface water pollution with imidacloprid would negatively impact aquatic ecosystems. Availability of extensive monitoring data on the abundance of aquatic macro-invertebrate species, and on imidacloprid concentrations in surface water in the Netherlands enabled us to test this hypothesis. Our regression analysis showed a significant negative relationship (Pmacro-invertebrate abundance and imidacloprid concentration for all species pooled. A significant negative relationship was also found for the orders Amphipoda, Basommatophora, Diptera, Ephemeroptera and Isopoda, and for several species separately. The order Odonata had a negative relationship very close to the significance threshold of 0.05 (P = 0.051). However, in accordance with previous research, a positive relationship was found for the order Actinedida. We used the monitoring field data to test whether the existing three water quality norms for imidacloprid in the Netherlands are protective in real conditions. Our data show that macrofauna abundance drops sharply between 13 and 67 ng l−1. For aquatic ecosystem protection, two of the norms are not protective at all while the strictest norm of 13 ng l−1 (MTR) seems somewhat protective. In addition to the existing experimental evidence on the negative effects of imidacloprid on invertebrate life, our study, based on data from large-scale field monitoring during multiple years, shows that serious concern about the far-reaching consequences of the abundant use of imidacloprid for aquatic ecosystems is justified. PMID:23650513

  8. Consumer reports [electronic resource

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1942-01-01

    ... only. A limited number of selected reports, advice on product selection and safety alerts are freely available, as are a five year listing of product recalls, a listing of major consumer product...

  9. The electronic Rothamsted Archive (e-RA), an online resource for data from the Rothamsted long-term experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perryman, Sarah A M; Castells-Brooke, Nathalie I D; Glendining, Margaret J; Goulding, Keith W T; Hawkesford, Malcolm J; Macdonald, Andy J; Ostler, Richard J; Poulton, Paul R; Rawlings, Christopher J; Scott, Tony; Verrier, Paul J

    2018-05-15

    The electronic Rothamsted Archive, e-RA (www.era.rothamsted.ac.uk) provides a permanent managed database to both securely store and disseminate data from Rothamsted Research's long-term field experiments (since 1843) and meteorological stations (since 1853). Both historical and contemporary data are made available via this online database which provides the scientific community with access to a unique continuous record of agricultural experiments and weather measured since the mid-19 th century. Qualitative information, such as treatment and management practices, plans and soil information, accompanies the data and are made available on the e-RA website. e-RA was released externally to the wider scientific community in 2013 and this paper describes its development, content, curation and the access process for data users. Case studies illustrate the diverse applications of the data, including its original intended purposes and recent unforeseen applications. Usage monitoring demonstrates the data are of increasing interest. Future developments, including adopting FAIR data principles, are proposed as the resource is increasingly recognised as a unique archive of data relevant to sustainable agriculture, agroecology and the environment.

  10. Principles of formation of the content of an educational electronic resource on the basis of general and didactic patterns of learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ольга Юрьевна Заславская

    2018-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the influence of the development of technical means of teaching on the effectiveness of educational and methodical resources. Modern opportunities of information and communication technologies allow creating electronic educational resources that represent educational information that automates the learning process, provide information assistance, if necessary, collect and process statistical information on the degree of development of the content of the school material by schoolchildren, set an individual trajectory of learning, and so on. The main principle of data organization is the division of the training course into separate sections on the thematic elements and components of the learning process. General regularities include laws that encompass the entire didactic system, and in specific (particular cases, those whose actions extend to a separate component (aspect of the system. From the standpoint of the existence of three types of electronic training modules in the aggregate content of the electronic learning resource - information, control and module of practical classes - the principles of the formation of the electronic learning resource, in our opinion, should regulate all these components. Each of the certain principles is considered in the groups: scientific orientation, methodological orientation, systemic nature, accounting of interdisciplinary connections, fundamentalization, systematic and dosage sequence, rational use of study time, accessibility, minimization, operationalization of goals, unified identification diagnosis.

  11. The module of methodical support in system of electronic educational resources as the innovative element of the modern maintenance of formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ольга Николаевна Крылова

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The article introduces some results of research, which were devoted to evaluation of tearches' mobility to introduce innovations in the contents of education. The author considers innovative potential of modules of the methodical support for system of electronic educational resources.

  12. Charting a Course through CORAL: Texas A&M University Libraries' Experience Implementing an Open-Source Electronic Resources Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartnett, Eric; Beh, Eugenia; Resnick, Taryn; Ugaz, Ana; Tabacaru, Simona

    2013-01-01

    In 2010, after two previous unsuccessful attempts at electronic resources management system (ERMS) implementation, Texas A&M University (TAMU) Libraries set out once again to find an ERMS that would fit its needs. After surveying the field, TAMU Libraries selected the University of Notre Dame Hesburgh Libraries-developed, open-source ERMS,…

  13. Aquatic macroinvertebrates and water quality of Sandia Canyon, Los Alamos National Laboratory, November 1993--October 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cross, S.

    1995-08-01

    The Ecological Studies Team (EST) of ESH-20 at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has collected samples from the stream within Sandia Canyon since the summer of 1990. These field studies gather water quality measurements and collect aquatic macroinvertebrates from permanent sampling sites. Reports by Bennett (1994) and Cross (1994) discuss previous EST aquatic studies in Sandia Canyon. This report updates and expands those findings. EST collected water quality data and aquatic macroinvertebrates at five permanent stations within the canyon from November 1993 through October 1994. The two upstream stations are located below outfalls that discharge industrial and sanitary waste effluent into the stream, thereby maintaining year-round flow. Some water quality parameters are different at the first three stations from those expected of natural streams in the area, indicating degraded water quality due to effluent discharges. The aquatic habitat at the upper stations has also been degraded by sedimentation and channelization. The macroinvertebrate communities at these stations are characterized by low diversities and unstable communities. In contrast, the two downstream stations appear to be in a zone of recovery, where water quality parameters more closely resemble those found in natural streams of the area. The two lower stations have increased macroinvertebrate diversity and stable communities, further indications of downstream water quality improvement.

  14. Macroinvertebrate Community responses to gravel addition in a Southeastern regulated river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan A. McManamay; Donald J. Orth; A. Charles. Dolloff

    2013-01-01

    Sediment transport, one of the key processes of river systems, is altered or stopped by dams, leaving lower river reaches barren of sand and gravel, both of which are essential habitat for fish and macroinvertebrates. One way to compensate for losses in sediment is to supplement gravel to river reaches below impoundments. Because gravel addition has become a widespread...

  15. Are the effects of an invasive crayfish on lake littoral macroinvertebrate communities consistent over time?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruokonen T. J.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Management of invasive species requires assessment of their effects on recipient ecosystems. However, impact assessment of invasive species commonly lacks a long-term perspective which can potentially lead to false conclusions. We examined the effects of the invasive signal crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus Dana on the stony littoral macroinvertebrate communities of a large boreal lake and assessed the extent to which the patterns observed in previous short-term studies were stable over time. We used temporal macroinvertebrate data collected in five consecutive years from a site with a well-established crayfish population, a site with no crayfish and a site where crayfish had been recently introduced. Our results revealed that signal crayfish had temporally rather consistent negative effects on the benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages but that the effects might be limited to certain taxa, in particular Gastropoda and Coleoptera. We also observed increases in Gastropoda density and taxa richness following a decline in crayfish density, indicating that the recovery of invertebrate assemblages might be fast. Hence, negative effects on benthic macroinvertebrates can likely be minimized by effective control of the signal crayfish population.

  16. Short-term disturbance effects of outdoor education stream classes on aquatic macroinvertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Outdoor education stream classes provide students with an opportunity to gain hands-on experience with sampling methods for evaluating stream water quality. Student trampling as a result of stream classes may disrupt the substrate and negatively impact aquatic macroinvertebrates. The impact of stude...

  17. Comparison of the abiotic preferences of macroinvertebrates in tropical river basins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert Everaert

    Full Text Available We assessed and compared abiotic preferences of aquatic macroinvertebrates in three river basins located in Ecuador, Ethiopia and Vietnam. Upon using logistic regression models we analyzed the relationship between the probability of occurrence of five macroinvertebrate families, ranging from pollution tolerant to pollution sensitive, (Chironomidae, Baetidae, Hydroptilidae, Libellulidae and Leptophlebiidae and physical-chemical water quality conditions. Within the investigated physical-chemical ranges, nine out of twenty-five interaction effects were significant. Our analyses suggested river basin dependent associations between the macroinvertebrate families and the corresponding physical-chemical conditions. It was found that pollution tolerant families showed no clear abiotic preference and occurred at most sampling locations, i.e. Chironomidae were present in 91%, 84% and 93% of the samples taken in Ecuador, Ethiopia and Vietnam. Pollution sensitive families were strongly associated with dissolved oxygen and stream velocity, e.g. Leptophlebiidae were only present in 48%, 2% and 18% of the samples in Ecuador, Ethiopia and Vietnam. Despite some limitations in the study design, we concluded that associations between macroinvertebrates and abiotic conditions can be river basin-specific and hence are not automatically transferable across river basins in the tropics.

  18. Metal contamination in benthic macroinvertebrates in a sub-basin in the southeast of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WAC Chiba

    Full Text Available Benthic macroinvertebrates have many useful properties that make possible the use of these organisms as sentinel in biomonitoring programmes in freshwater. Combined with the characteristics of the water and sediment, benthic macroinvertebrates are potential indicators of environmental quality. Thus, the spatial occurrence of potentially toxic metals (Al, Zn, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn and Ni in the water, sediment and benthic macroinvertebrates samples were investigated in a sub-basin in the southeast of Brazil in the city of São Carlos, São Paulo state, with the aim of verifying the metals and environment interaction with benthic communities regarding bioaccumulation. Hypothetically, there can be contamination by metals in the aquatic environment in the city due to lack of industrial effluent treatment. All samples were analysed by the USEPA adapted method and processed in an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The sub-basin studied is contaminated by toxic metals in superficial water, sediment and benthic macroinvertebrates. The Bioaccumulation Factor showed a tendency for metal bioaccumulation by the benthic organisms for almost all the metal species. The results show a potential human and ecosystem health risk, contributing to metal contamination studies in aquatic environments in urban areas.

  19. Colonization by benthic macroinvertebrates in two artificial substrate types of a Riparian Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Borges dos Santos

    Full Text Available Abstract: Aim To analyze the efficiency of organic and inorganic substrates in samples of benthic macroinvertebrates of riparian forests from the Cerrado. Specific objectives (i characterize the ecological succession and taxonomic richness of benthic macroinvertebrates in stream affluent of a riparian forest; (ii analyze the influence of seasonality on the colonization of macroinvertebrates; and (iii determine the effect of the types of artificial substrates on the richness, composition and abundance of the benthic community. Methods Sampling was carried out in the rainy and dry seasons, and we installed in the watercourse two types of substrates: organic (leaf packs and inorganic (bricks, organized in pairs. Six samples per season were done to verify colonization, succession, richness and abundance of benthic community. The substrates were carefully sorted and the organisms were identified to the lowest possible taxonomic level. Results The ecological succession was clearly observed, with the initial occurrence of Chironomidae and Baetidae (considered early colonizers, and a late occurrence of organisms such as Helotrephidae and Trichoptera (considered late colonizers. No significant difference was found in the richness and abundance among the studied seasons (rainy and dry, but the organic substrate was significantly higher than the inorganic substrate for these parameters. Conclusion Organic artificial substrates are more efficient in characterizing the community of benthic macroinvertebrates in the study area, because they are more similar to the conditions of the substrate found naturally in the environment.

  20. Change does not happen overnight: a case study on stream macroinvertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guareschi S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of day/night conditions on individual animal/plant species has been widely studied, but diel cycle studies of the entire stream macroinvertebrate community are extremely rare. This study explored potential dissimilarities between daytime and nighttime macroinvertebrate assemblages by extensive fieldwork conducted in the Lemme stream, a natural water course of NW Italy. Here numerous structural and functional metrics (richness, abundance, biomass, indicator taxa, composition, biomonitoring values and feeding groups were evaluated at the family level. Small-scale environmental variables were investigated to understand possible differences between macroinvertebrate assemblages in the daytime/nighttime. After collecting and identifying 21 459 organisms of 50 taxa, Chironomidae (Diptera was the most abundant under both day and night conditions. Our findings stressed that similar results and biological information on daytime/nighttime data were obtained. No marked differences could be related to various factors: heterotrophic condition of small-order streams, presence of aquatic predators under night and day conditions, absence of taxa with a specific phototaxis. Of all the environmental variables, velocity was always the most important in both situations, with some differences detected in the importance of the second variable (riverbed substrate diameter. This research, and future studies on different conditions and geographic areas, will contribute knowledge on stream macroinvertebrate diel activity, and provide useful information about efficient sampling strategies.

  1. Assessing Ecosystem Integrity And Macroinvertebrates Community Structure Towards Conservation Of Small Streams In Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredrick Ojija

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to use biological indices such as Biological Monitoring Working Party BMWP Average Score Per Taxa ASPT and Hilsenhoff Family Biotic Index FBI in order to determine the ecosystem health and water quality of Nzovwe stream in Mbeya Tanzania. Macroinvertebrates were sampled from Nzovwe stream using semi-quantitative techniques from March to June 2016. About 500 meters of Nzovwe stream was divided into 5 sampling sites each site was 100 meters apart. The macroinvertebrates were collected from all the possible microhabitats of each site using a 250m mesh size D- frame kick net. Macroinvertebrate specimens were preserved in the 70 ethyl alcohol in the polyethylene bottles. The samples were identified to the family level using standard identification keys. The BMWP score and ASPT score indicated good and moderate stream water quality respectively. The FBI showed the stream had possibility of some organic pollution. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index shows the sampling sites were moderately polluted or possibly impaired. Macroinvertebrates in pollution class II were abundant suggesting moderate pollution. Moreover the Midge Insects Diptera and Snail indicated the stream water quality or ecosystem health is between unimpaired and possibly impaired. Based on these results the study concludes that the stream ecosystem is moderately polluted and therefore the study recommends a regular stream monitoring.

  2. The role of benthic microhabitats in determining the effects of hydromorphological river restoration on macroinvertebrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdonschot, R.C.M.; Kail, Jochem; McKie, Brendan G.; Verdonschot, P.F.M.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the large number of river restoration projects carried out worldwide, evidence for strong and long-term positive ecological effects of hydromorphological restoration on macroinvertebrates is scarce. To improve the understanding of the success and failure of restoration measures, a

  3. Macroinvertebrate assemblages in agricultural, mining, and urban tropical streams: implications for conservation and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwedzi, Tongayi; Bere, Taurai; Mangadze, Tinotenda

    2016-06-01

    The study evaluated the response of macroinvertebrate assemblages to changes in water quality in different land-use settings in Manyame catchment, Zimbabwe. Four land-use categories were identified: forested commercial farming, communal farming, Great Dyke mining (GDM) and urban areas. Macroinvertebrate community structure and physicochemical variables data were collected in two seasons from 41 sites following standard methods. Although not environmentally threatening, urban and GDM areas were characterised by higher conductivity, total dissolved solids, salinity, magnesium and hardness. Chlorides, total phosphates, total nitrogen, calcium, potassium and sodium were significantly highest in urban sites whilst dissolved oxygen (DO) was significantly higher in the forested commercial faming and GDM sites. Macroinvertebrate communities followed the observed changes in water quality. Macroinvertebrates in urban sites indicated severe pollution (e.g. Chironomidae) whilst those in forested commercial farming sites and GDM sites indicated relatively clean water (e.g. Notonemouridae). Forested watersheds together with good farm management practices are important in mitigating impacts of urbanisation and agriculture. Strategies that reduce oxygen-depleting substances must be devised to protect the health of Zimbabwean streams. The study affirms the wider applicability of the South African Scoring System in different land uses.

  4. Macroinvertebrate community response to acid mine drainage in rivers of the High Andes (Bolivia).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damme, P.A. van; Hamel, C.; Ayala, A.; Bervoets, L.

    2008-01-01

    Several High Andes Rivers are characterized by inorganic water pollution known as acid mine drainage (AMD). The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between metal concentrations in the sediments and the macroinvertebrate communities in two river basins affected by AMD. In general, the

  5. Legacy of a Chemical Factory Site: Contaminated Groundwater Impacts Stream Macroinvertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jes J.; McKnight, Ursula S.; Sonne, Anne Thobo

    2016-01-01

    data for many of the compounds occurring at contaminated sites. We studied the potential impact of a contaminated site, characterised by chlorinated solvents, sulfonamides, and barbiturates, on benthic macroinvertebrates in a receiving stream. Most of these compounds are characterised by low or unknown...

  6. Does diet influence consumer nutrient cycling? Macroinvertebrate and fish excretion in streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan McManamay; Jackson Webster; H. Valett; C. Dolloff

    2011-01-01

    Consumer nutrient cycling supplies limiting elements to autotrophic and heterotrophic organisms in aquatic systems. However, the role of consumers in supplying nutrients may change depending on their diet and their own stoichiometry. We evaluated the stoichiometry, N and P excretion, and diets of the dominant macroinvertebrates and fish at 6 stream sites to determine...

  7. Concordance between macrophytes and macroinvertebrates in a Mediterranean river of central Apennine region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traversetti, Lorenzo; Scalici, Massimiliano; Ginepri, Valeria; Manfrin, Alessandro; Ceschin, Simona

    2014-05-01

    The main aim of this study was to improve the knowledge about the concordance among macrophytes and macroinvertebrates to provide complementary information and facilitate the procedures for quality assessment of river ecosystems. Macrophytes and macroinvertebrates were collected in 11 sampling sites along a central Apennine calcareous river in October 2008 and June 2009. The concordance between the two biomonitoring groups was tested according to several environmental parameters. The comparison of data matrix similarities by Mantel test showed differences in the assemblage of macrophytes and macroinvertebrates along the river since correlation values were 0.04, p > 0.05 in October 2008 and 0.39, p > 0.05 in June 2009. The study revealed lack of concordance between the two groups, emphasizing that the information provided by macrophytes and macroinvertebrates does not overlap in terms of response to environmental parameters. Indeed, the two different biological groups resulted useful descriptors of different parameters. Together, they could represent a complementary tool to reflect the river environmental quality.

  8. Risk assessment of imidacloprid use in forest settings on the aquatic macroinvertebrate community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, Elizabeth P; Grant, Jerome F; Nichols, Rebecca J; Webster, R Jesse; Schwartz, John S; Bailey, Joseph K

    2017-11-01

    The isolated effects of a single insecticide can be difficult to assess in natural settings because of the presence of numerous pollutants in many watersheds. Imidacloprid use for suppressing hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae (Annand) (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), in forests offers a rare opportunity to assess potential impacts on aquatic macroinvertebrates in relatively pristine landscapes. Aquatic macroinvertebrate communities were assessed in 9 streams in Great Smoky Mountains National Park (southern Appalachian Mountains, USA). The streams flow through hemlock conservation areas where imidacloprid soil drench treatments were applied for hemlock woolly adelgid suppression. Sites were located upstream and downstream of the imidacloprid treatments. Baseline species presence data (pre-imidacloprid treatment) were available from previous sample collections at downstream sites. Downstream and upstream sites did not vary in numerous community measures. Although comparisons of paired upstream and downstream sites showed differences in diversity in 7 streams, higher diversity was found more often in downstream sites. Macroinvertebrate functional feeding groups and life habits were similar between downstream and upstream sites. Downstream and baseline stream samples were similar. While some functional feeding group and life habit species richness categories varied, variations did not indicate poorer quality downstream communities. Imidacloprid treatments applied according to US Environmental Protection Agency federal restrictions did not result in negative effects to aquatic macroinvertebrate communities, which indicates that risks of imidacloprid use in forest settings are low. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:3108-3119. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  9. Macro-Invertebrate Decline in Surface Water Polluted with Imidacloprid : A Rebuttal and Some New Analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vijver, M.G.; Brink, van den P.J.

    2014-01-01

    Imidacloprid, the largest selling insecticide in the world, has received particular attention from scientists, policymakers and industries due to its potential toxicity to bees and aquatic organisms. The decline of aquatic macro-invertebrates due to imidacloprid concentrations in the Dutch surface

  10. Macro-Invertebrate Decline in surface water polluted with Imidacloprid: A rebuttal and soome new analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vijver, M.G.; Brink, van den P.J.

    2014-01-01

    Imidacloprid, the largest selling insecticide in the world, has received particular attention from scientists, policymakers and industries due to its potential toxicity to bees and aquatic organisms. The decline of aquatic macro-invertebrates due to imidacloprid concentrations in the Dutch surface

  11. Intertidal benthic community ecology of sand-dwelling macroinvertebrates of Goa beaches

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Harkantra, S.N.; Parulekar, A.H.

    Studies on the intertidal ecology of two sandy beaches of Goa along the western coast of India revealed the presence of 47 species of macroinvertebrates belonging to 32 families. The open beach at Candolim, characterized by coarse sand-grain size...

  12. Depauperate macroinvertebrates in a mine affected stream: Clean water may be the key to recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battaglia, M.; Hose, G.C.; Turak, E.; Warden, B.

    2005-01-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) is frequently linked with changes in macroinvertebrate assemblages, but the relative contribution of water and sediment to toxicity is equivocal. We have shown that the macroinvertebrate fauna of Neubecks Ck, a mine impacted stream in New South Wales, Australia, was much poorer than in two reference streams. Multivariate RELATE analyses indicated that the patterns in the biological data were more strongly correlated with the concentrations of common metals in the surface water than the pore water of these streams. From this we hypothesised that the water was more toxic to the biota than the sediment and we tested this hypothesis with a sediment transplant experiment. Sediment from Neubecks Ck that was placed in reference streams retained high concentrations of metals throughout the experiment, yet supported a macroinvertebrate assemblage similar to that in the reference streams. Sediment from the reference streams that was placed in Neubecks Ck supported few, if any, animals. This indicates that water in Neubecks Ck is toxic to biota, but that sediment is able to support aquatic biota in clean water. Therefore, remediation should focus on improving water quality rather than sediment quality. - Macroinvertebrates colonise contaminated sediment in clean water

  13. Multiple stress response of lowland stream benthic macroinvertebrates is dependent on habitat type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graeber, Daniel; Jensen, Tinna M.; Rasmussen, Jes

    2017-01-01

    Worldwide, lowland stream ecosystems are exposed to multiple anthropogenic stress due to the combination of water scarcity, eutrophication and fine sedimentation. The understanding of the effects of such multiple stress on stream benthic macroinvertebrates has been growing in the recent years...

  14. Contribution of trace metals in structuring in situ macroinvertebrate community composition along a salinity gradient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, E.T.H.M.; Gardeniers, J.J.P.; Koelmans, A.A.

    2000-01-01

    Macroinvertebrates were studied along a salinity gradient in the North Sea Canal, The Netherlands, to quantify the effect of trace metals (cadmium, copper, lead, zinc) on community composition. In addition, two methods for assessing metal bioavailability (normalizing metal concentrations on organic

  15. Biodiversity of benthic macroinvertebrates in Air Terjun Asahan, Asahan, Melaka, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurhafizah-Azwa, S.; Ahmad A., K.

    2016-11-01

    A study on benthic macroinvertebrate diversity was conducted at Air Terjun Asahan, Asahan, Melaka. Five stations were selected with distance intervals of approximately 500 metres. Three replicates of benthic macroinvertebrate and water samples were taken. Results classified Air Terjun Asahan in class II, which indicated good water quality based on WQI recommended by the Department of Environment. A total of 1 phylum, 2 classes, 6 order, 30 families, and 2183 individuals were successfully sampled and recorded. The analysis showed that the average value of Shannon Diversity Index, H' (2.19), Pielou Evenness Index, J' (0.30), and Margaleff Richness Index, DMG (3.77) described that Air Terjun Asahan was in moderate condition and the distribution of macroinvertebrates was uniform between stations. Correlation test showed that the WQI had a strong relationship with the diversity indices involved. BMWP, and FBI showed that Air Terjun Asahan was in good water quality. CCA test was conducted to show environmental factors towards benthic macroinvertebrate distribution. The presence of Leptophlebiidae, Baetidae, Heptageniidae and Chironomidae with high abundance of the families showed the potential as biological indicators of a clean ecosystem.

  16. Effects of Ecohydraulic Bank Stabilization Structures on Bank Stability and Macroinvertebrate Community in Surabaya River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daru Setyo Rini

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available There were 18 accelerated erosion sites identified along 7 km of Surabaya River Fishery Sanctuary Area. A model of ecohydraulic bank stabilization was applied to reduce bank erosion in Surabaya River at Gresik Regency Indonesia. The model is combination of reprofiled and revegetated bank with rock toe reinforcement and  addition of log groynes. Various native plant species were planted and naturally grown to establish multi-strata littoral vegetation structure. This study assessed effects of ecohydraulic bank stabilization on bank morphology, near bank velocity and littoral macroinvertebrate community during September 2014 to August 2016. The study found that rock toe enforcement, log groynes and reprofiled bank slope could stabilized the eroded bank, and littoral vegetation formation reduced near bank velocity at restored sites. There were 31 families of macroinvertebrate found in Surabaya River with high abundance of moderately pollution sensitive taxa Atyidae and pollution tolerant taxa Corixidae, Chironomidae and Tubificidae. The taxa richness, diversity index and abundance of sensitive and moderately sensitive macroinvertebrate group were increased after application of ecohydraulic bank stabilization at restored area. The results shown that ecohydraulic bank stabilization structure provides multi-benefits in improving bank stabilization against erosion and providing new micro-habitats for biotic community. Keywords:  ecohydraulic bank stabilization, macroinvertebrates, riparian restoration

  17. Rare and common macroinvertebrates: definition of distribution classes and their boundaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijboer, R.C.; Verdonschot, P.F.M.

    2004-01-01

    Rarity of macroinvertebrates can be used in assessing the ecological quality or conservation value of freshwaters. To select target species for nature conservation and to compare rarity or commonness between regions a classification of species distributions is needed. A distribution classification

  18. Studying the movement behaviour of benthic macroinvertebrates with automated video tracking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Augusiak, J.A.; Brink, van den P.J.

    2015-01-01

    Quantifying and understanding movement is critical for a wide range of questions in basic and applied ecology. Movement ecology is also fostered by technological advances that allow automated tracking for a wide range of animal species. However, for aquatic macroinvertebrates, such detailed methods

  19. Catchment land-use effects on littoral macroinvertebrates in response to local habitat structure and trophic state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGoff, Elaine; Sandin, Leif Leonard

    2012-01-01

    macroinvertebrate community structure: trophic status, substrate variables or riparian variables. We also investigated what influence each of these groups of variables has on the other. The impact of large scale land use patterns was also investigated, to determine if macroinvertebrates responded differently in two...... different catchment land use types: impaired and unimpaired. Partial canonical ordination analysis showed that substrate variables were the most important for describing macroinvertebrate community variation in both catchment land use classes, followed by riparian descriptors, with the trophic signal only...

  20. Evaluation of Macroinvertebrate Communities and Habitat for Selected Stream Reaches at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L.J. Henne; K.J. Buckley

    2005-08-12

    This is the second aquatic biological monitoring report generated by Los Alamos National Laboratory's (LANL's) Water Quality and Hydrology Group. The study has been conducted to generate impact-based assessments of habitat and water quality for LANL waterways. The monitoring program was designed to allow for the detection of spatial and temporal trends in water and habitat quality through ongoing, biannual monitoring of habitat characteristics and benthic aquatic macroinvertebrate communities at six key sites in Los Alamos, Sandia, Water, Pajarito, and Starmer's Gulch Canyons. Data were collected on aquatic habitat characteristics, channel substrate, and macroinvertebrate communities during 2001 and 2002. Aquatic habitat scores were stable between 2001 and 2002 at all locations except Starmer's Gulch and Pajarito Canyon, which had lower scores in 2002 due to low flow conditions. Channel substrate changes were most evident at the upper Los Alamos and Pajarito study reaches. The macroinvertebrate Stream Condition Index (SCI) indicated moderate to severe impairment at upper Los Alamos Canyon, slight to moderate impairment at upper Sandia Canyon, and little or no impairment at lower Sandia Canyon, Starmer's Gulch, and Pajarito Canyon. Habitat, substrate, and macroinvertebrate data from the site in upper Los Alamos Canyon indicated severe impacts from the Cerro Grande Fire of 2000. Impairment in the macroinvertebrate community at upper Sandia Canyon was probably due to effluent-dominated flow at that site. The minimal impairment SCI scores for the lower Sandia site indicated that water quality improved with distance downstream from the outfall at upper Sandia Canyon.

  1. Downstream effects of hydropower production on aquatic macroinvertebrate assemblages in two rivers in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves-Ulloa, Ramsa; Umaña-Villalobos, Gerardo; Springer, Monika

    2014-04-01

    Despite the fact that little is known about the consequences of hydropower production in tropical areas, many large dams (> 15 m high) are currently under construction or consideration in the tropics. We researched the effects of large hydroelectric dams on aquatic macroinvertebrate assemblages in two Costa Rican rivers. We measured physicochemical characteristics and sampled aquatic macroinvertebrates from March 2003 to March 2004 in two dammed rivers, Peñas Blancas and San Lorenzo, as well as in the undammed Chachagua River. Sites above and below the dam had differences in their physicochemical variables, with wide variation and extreme values in variables measured below the dam in the San Lorenzo River. Sites below the dams had reduced water discharges, velocities, and depths when compared with sites above the dams, as well as higher temperatures and conductivity. Sites above dams were dominated by collector-gatherer-scrapers and habitat groups dominated by swimmer-clingers, while sites below dams had a more even representation of groups. In contrast, a comparison between two sites at different elevation in the undammed river maintained a similar assemblage composition. Tributaries might facilitate macroinvertebrate recovery above the turbine house, but the assemblage below the turbine house resembled the one below the dam. A massive sediment release event from the dam decreased the abundance per sample and macroinvertebrate taxa below the dam in the Peñas Blancas River. Our study illustrates the effects of hydropower production on neotropical rivers, highlighting the importance of using multiple measures of macroinvertebrate assemblage structure for assessing this type of environmental impact.

  2. Responses of epibenthic and nektonic macroinvertebrate communities to a gradient of fish size in ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Nieoczym

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Size relationships between fish and organisms from adjacent trophic levels are crucial for predicting the structure and dynamics of aquatic ecosystems. We compared macroinvertebrate communities along a fish-size gradient created by separate stocking of three age cohorts of common carp Cyprinus carpio in semi-natural ponds. The specific size range of fish (small, medium and large corresponding to fish age in ponds was the factor most strongly associated with macroinvertebrate composition. The other significant habitat variables were dissolved oxygen concentration in the water and submerged vegetation abundance in the open-water zone. Among the most numerous taxa in the ponds, relative abundances of Hirudinea, Gastropoda, Odonata and Coleoptera were larger in the presence of small-sized than of larger-sized carp. However, fish size effect was not linear, in that macroinvertebrate assemblages were less similar between ponds containing medium- vs large-sized fish than between ponds with small- vs large-sized fish. The dissimilarity patterns were mainly determined by disparities in abundance of Corixidae, which unlike other taxa common in the ponds occurred in the greatest numbers in the presence of large-sized carp. Macroinvertebrate diversity was greatest in ponds with small-sized fish and was positively related to emergent macrophyte cover. Enhancement of emergent vegetation is recommended as the most effective management strategy to buffer adverse impacts of fish on macroinvertebrates. If fish are present in the system, assessment of the size structure of fish populations can be advantageous in unravelling the essential processes driving the variation in pond communities.

  3. Macroinvertebrate community assembly in pools created during peatland restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Lee E.; Ramchunder, Sorain J.; Beadle, Jeannie M.; Holden, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Many degraded ecosystems are subject to restoration attempts, providing new opportunities to unravel the processes of ecological community assembly. Restoration of previously drained northern peatlands, primarily to promote peat and carbon accumulation, has created hundreds of thousands of new open water pools. We assessed the potential benefits of this wetland restoration for aquatic biodiversity, and how communities reassemble, by comparing pool ecosystems in regions of the UK Pennines on intact (never drained) versus restored (blocked drainage-ditches) peatland. We also evaluated the conceptual idea that comparing reference ecosystems in terms of their compositional similarity to null assemblages (and thus the relative importance of stochastic versus deterministic assembly) can guide evaluations of restoration success better than analyses of community composition or diversity. Community composition data highlighted some differences in the macroinvertebrate composition of restored pools compared to undisturbed peatland pools, which could be used to suggest that alternative end-points to restoration were influenced by stochastic processes. However, widely used diversity metrics indicated no differences between undisturbed and restored pools. Novel evaluations of restoration using null models confirmed the similarity of deterministic assembly processes from the national species pool across all pools. Stochastic elements were important drivers of between-pool differences at the regional-scale but the scale of these effects was also similar across most of the pools studied. The amalgamation of assembly theory into ecosystem restoration monitoring allows us to conclude with more certainty that restoration has been successful from an ecological perspective in these systems. Evaluation of these UK findings compared to those from peatlands across Europe and North America further suggests that restoring peatland pools delivers significant benefits for aquatic fauna by

  4. Macroinvertebrate community assembly in pools created during peatland restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Lee E., E-mail: l.brown@leeds.ac.uk; Ramchunder, Sorain J.; Beadle, Jeannie M.; Holden, Joseph

    2016-11-01

    Many degraded ecosystems are subject to restoration attempts, providing new opportunities to unravel the processes of ecological community assembly. Restoration of previously drained northern peatlands, primarily to promote peat and carbon accumulation, has created hundreds of thousands of new open water pools. We assessed the potential benefits of this wetland restoration for aquatic biodiversity, and how communities reassemble, by comparing pool ecosystems in regions of the UK Pennines on intact (never drained) versus restored (blocked drainage-ditches) peatland. We also evaluated the conceptual idea that comparing reference ecosystems in terms of their compositional similarity to null assemblages (and thus the relative importance of stochastic versus deterministic assembly) can guide evaluations of restoration success better than analyses of community composition or diversity. Community composition data highlighted some differences in the macroinvertebrate composition of restored pools compared to undisturbed peatland pools, which could be used to suggest that alternative end-points to restoration were influenced by stochastic processes. However, widely used diversity metrics indicated no differences between undisturbed and restored pools. Novel evaluations of restoration using null models confirmed the similarity of deterministic assembly processes from the national species pool across all pools. Stochastic elements were important drivers of between-pool differences at the regional-scale but the scale of these effects was also similar across most of the pools studied. The amalgamation of assembly theory into ecosystem restoration monitoring allows us to conclude with more certainty that restoration has been successful from an ecological perspective in these systems. Evaluation of these UK findings compared to those from peatlands across Europe and North America further suggests that restoring peatland pools delivers significant benefits for aquatic fauna by

  5. The Relative Influence of Catchment and Site Variabbles on Fish and Macroinvertebrate Richness in Cerrado Biome Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landscape and site-scale data aid the interpretation of biological data and management alternatives. We evaluated how three classes of environmental variables (natural landscape, anthropogenic pressures, and local physical habitat), influence fish and macroinvertebrate assemblage...

  6. Ecological impact assessment of sediment remediation in a metal-contaminated lowland river using translocated zebra mussels and resident macroinvertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jonge, M; Belpaire, C; Geeraerts, C; De Cooman, W; Blust, R; Bervoets, L

    2012-12-01

    The present study investigated to what extent accumulated metal levels in aquatic invertebrates can reflect environmental contamination and how these tissue levels can be related to alterations in macroinvertebrate communities in the dredged River Dommel. Metal accumulation was measured in translocated zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) and resident Chironomidae. Furthermore, macroinvertebrate community composition was assessed. Our results indicated that trends of total metal concentrations in surface water of the Dommel in time are reflected well by metal levels in tissue of D. polymorpha. In contrast, sediment-bound metals were the most dominant exposure route for Chironomidae. Alterations in macroinvertebrate community composition were observed during dredging and significant relations between metal levels in invertebrate tissues and ecological responses were found. Our results demonstrated that metal accumulation in both zebra mussels and Chironomidae can be used as an integrated measure of metal bioavailability and to predict ecological effects of metal toxicity on macroinvertebrate communities. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    International Acer Incorporated, Hsin Chu, Taiwan Aerospace Industrial Development Corporation, Taichung, Taiwan American Institute of Taiwan, Taipei, Taiwan...Singapore and Malaysia .5 - 4 - The largest market for semiconductor products is the high technology consumer electronics industry that consumes up...Singapore, and Malaysia . A new semiconductor facility costs around $3 billion to build and takes about two years to become operational

  8. Macroinvertebrate communities evaluated prior to and following a channel restoration project in Silver Creek, Blaine County, Idaho, 2001-16

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCoy, Dorene E.; Short, Terry M.

    2017-11-22

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Blaine County and The Nature Conservancy, evaluated the status of macroinvertebrate communities prior to and following a channel restoration project in Silver Creek, Blaine County, Idaho. The objective of the evaluation was to determine whether 2014 remediation efforts to restore natural channel conditions in an impounded area of Silver Creek caused declines in local macroinvertebrate communities. Starting in 2001 and ending in 2016, macroinvertebrates were sampled every 3 years at two long-term trend sites and sampled seasonally (spring, summer, and autumn) in 2013, 2015, and 2016 at seven synoptic sites. Trend-site communities were collected from natural stream-bottom substrates to represent locally established macroinvertebrate assemblages. Synoptic site communities were sampled using artificial (multi-plate) substrates to represent recently colonized (4–6 weeks) assemblages. Statistical summaries of spatial and temporal patterns in macroinvertebrate taxonomic composition at both trend and synoptic sites were completed.The potential effect of the restoration project on resident macroinvertebrate populations was determined by comparing the following community assemblage metrics:Total taxonomic richness (taxa richness);Total macroinvertebrate abundance (total abundance);Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera (EPT) richness;EPT abundance;Simpson’s diversity; andSimpson’s evenness for periods prior to and following restoration.A significant decrease in one or more metric values in the period following stream channel restoration was the basis for determining impairment to the macroinvertebrate communities in Silver Creek.Comparison of pre-restoration (2001–13) and post‑restoration (2016) macroinvertebrate community composition at trend sites determined that no significant decreases occurred in any metric parameter for communities sampled in 2016. Taxa and EPT richness of colonized assemblages at synoptic sites

  9. Effects of brine contamination from energy development on wetland macroinvertebrate community structure in the Prairie Pothole Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Todd M.; Borgreen, Michael J.; Ray, Andrew M.

    2018-01-01

    Wetlands in the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) of North America support macroinvertebrate communities that are integral to local food webs and important to breeding waterfowl. Macroinvertebrates in PPR wetlands are primarily generalists and well adapted to within and among year changes in water permanence and salinity. The Williston Basin, a major source of U.S. energy production, underlies the southwest portion of the PPR. Development of oil and gas results in the coproduction of large volumes of highly saline, sodium chloride dominated water (brine) and the introduction of brine can alter wetland salinity. To assess potential effects of brine contamination on macroinvertebrate communities, 155 PPR wetlands spanning a range of hydroperiods and salinities were sampled between 2014 and 2016. Brine contamination was documented in 34 wetlands with contaminated wetlands having significantly higher chloride concentrations, specific conductance and percent dominant taxa, and significantly lower taxonomic richness, Shannon diversity, and Pielou evenness scores compared to uncontaminated wetlands. Non-metric multidimensional scaling found significant correlations between several water quality parameters and macroinvertebrate communities. Chloride concentration and specific conductance, which can be elevated in naturally saline wetlands, but are also associated with brine contamination, had the strongest correlations. Five wetland groups were identified from cluster analysis with many of the highly contaminated wetlands located in a single cluster. Low or moderately contaminated wetlands were distributed among the remaining clusters and had macroinvertebrate communities similar to uncontaminated wetlands. While aggregate changes in macroinvertebrate community structure were observed with brine contamination, systematic changes were not evident, likely due to the strong and potentially confounding influence of hydroperiod and natural salinity. Therefore, despite the observed

  10. Diversity and abundance of aquatic macroinvertebrates in a lotic environment in Midwestern São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Lucas Bochini

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the diversity and abundance of an aquatic macroinvertebrate community in the Vargem Limpa stream located in Bauru, Midwestern São Paulo State, and characterized the water quality based on biological parameters. The sampling was carried out during the rain season (December, 2004. It was analyzed and identified 3,068 organisms belonging to 9 macroinvertebrate families. The system showed low richness and diversity of organisms in response to water quality.

  11. Reach-scale stream restoration in agricultural streams of southern Minnesota alters structural and functional responses of macroinvertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolph, Christine L.; Eggert, Susan L.; Magner, Joe; Ferrington, Leonard C.; Vondracek, Bruce C.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that stream restoration at the reach scale may not increase stream biodiversity, raising concerns about the utility of this conservation practice. We examined whether reach-scale restoration in disturbed agricultural streams was associated with changes in macroinvertebrate community structure (total macroinvertebrate taxon richness, total macroinvertebrate density, Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera [EPT] taxon richness, % abundance of EPT taxa) or secondary production (macroinvertebrate biomass over time). We collected macroinvertebrate samples over the course of 1 y from restored and unrestored reaches of 3 streams in southern Minnesota and used generalized least-square (GLS) models to assess whether measures of community structure were related to reach type, stream site, or sampling month. After accounting for effects of stream site and time, we found no significant difference in total taxon richness or % abundance of EPT taxa between restored and unrestored reaches. However, the number of EPT taxa and macroinvertebrate density were significantly higher in restored than in unrestored reaches. We compared secondary production estimates among study reaches based on 95th-percentile confidence intervals generated via bootstrapping. In each study stream, secondary production was significantly (2–3×) higher in the restored than in the unrestored reach. Higher productivity in the restored reaches was largely a result of the disproportionate success of a few dominant, tolerant taxa. Our findings suggest that reach-scale restoration may have ecological effects that are not detected by measures of total taxon richness alone.

  12. Biodiversity patterns of macrophyte and macroinvertebrate communities in two lagoons of Western Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyttis, G.; Reizopoulou, S.; Papastergiadou, E.

    2012-04-01

    Aquatic macrophytes and benthic macroinvertebrates were studied seasonally (Spring, Autumn, Summer) between the years 2009 - 2011 in two coastal lagoons (Kotychi and Prokopos) located in Peloponnese, Greece, in order to investigate spatial and temporal biodiversity trends related to hydrological processes (degree of confinement, nitrates, phosphates, chl-a, total suspended materials, light irradiance, pH, salinity, temperature and dissolved oxygen). Kotychi lagoon presents a better communication with the sea, while Prokopos has a high degree of confinement. Both ecosystems seasonally receive freshwater input from streams. The submerged aquatic macrophytes constituted a major component of the ecosystems studied. In total, 22 taxa of aquatic macrophytes (angiosperms and macroalgae), 16 taxa for Kotychi (2 Rhodophyta, 8 Chlorophyta, 5 Magnoliophyta, 1 Streptophyta) and 14 taxa for Prokopos (1 Rhodophyta, 5 Chlorophyta, 5 Magnoliophyta, 3 Streptophyta) were found. Ruppia cirrhosa, and Potamogeton pectinatus were dominant in both lagoons. Kotychi lagoon was also dominated by Zostera noltii and Prokopos by Zannichellia pallustris ssp. pedicellata, while the biomass of aquatic species peaked during the summer periods, in both lagoons. The total number of macroinvertebrates found in the lagoons was 28 taxa for Kotychi and 19 for Prokopos. Chironomidae were dominant in both lagoons, while Kotychi was also dominated by Lekanesphaera monodi and Monocorophium insidiosum, and Prokopos by Ostracoda and Lekanesphaera monodi. Benthic diversity ranged from 1.33 to 2.57 in Kotychi and from 0.67 to 2.48 in Prokopos. Species richness, diversity, and abundance of benthic macroinvertebrates were strongly related to aquatic vegetation and to the degree of communication with the marine environment. Moreover, species richness and abundance of both macrophytes and macroinvertebrates were mainly dependent on depth, temperature, pH and concentration of total suspended materials (TSM). Results

  13. Macroinvertebrate Prey Availability and Fish Diet Selectivity in Relation to Environmental Variables in Natural and Restoring North San Francisco Bay Tidal Marsh Channels

    OpenAIRE

    Emily R. Howe; Charles A. Simenstad; Jason D. Toft; Jeffrey R. Cordell; Stephen M. Bollens

    2014-01-01

    Tidal marsh wetlands provide important foraging habitat for a variety of estuarine fishes. Prey organisms include benthic–epibenthic macroinvertebrates, neustonic arthropods, and zooplankton. Little is known about the abundance and distribution of interior marsh macroinvertebrate communities in the San Francisco Estuary (estuary). We describe seasonal, regional, and site variation in the composition and abundance of neuston and benthic–epibenthic macroinvertebrates that inhabit tidal marsh ch...

  14. Evaluation of three electronic report processing systems for preparing hydrologic reports of the U.S Geological Survey, Water Resources Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiltner, G.J.

    1990-01-01

    In 1987, the Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey undertook three pilot projects to evaluate electronic report processing systems as a means to improve the quality and timeliness of reports pertaining to water resources investigations. The three projects selected for study included the use of the following configuration of software and hardware: Ventura Publisher software on an IBM model AT personal computer, PageMaker software on a Macintosh computer, and FrameMaker software on a Sun Microsystems workstation. The following assessment criteria were to be addressed in the pilot studies: The combined use of text, tables, and graphics; analysis of time; ease of learning; compatibility with the existing minicomputer system; and technical limitations. It was considered essential that the camera-ready copy produced be in a format suitable for publication. Visual improvement alone was not a consideration. This report consolidates and summarizes the findings of the electronic report processing pilot projects. Text and table files originating on the existing minicomputer system were successfully transformed to the electronic report processing systems in American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) format. Graphics prepared using a proprietary graphics software package were transferred to all the electronic report processing software through the use of Computer Graphic Metafiles. Graphics from other sources were entered into the systems by scanning paper images. Comparative analysis of time needed to process text and tables by the electronic report processing systems and by conventional methods indicated that, although more time is invested in creating the original page composition for an electronically processed report , substantial time is saved in producing subsequent reports because the format can be stored and re-used by electronic means as a template. Because of the more compact page layouts, costs of printing the reports were 15% to 25

  15. Use of macroinvertebrates to identify cultivated wetlands in the Prairie Pothole Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euliss, Ned H.; Mushet, David M.; Johnson, Douglas H.

    2001-01-01

    We evaluated the use of macroinvertebrates as a potential tool to identify dry and intensively farmed temporary and seasonal wetlands in the Prairie Pothole Region. The techniques we designed and evaluated used the dried remains of invertebrates or their egg banks in soils as indicators of wetlands. For both the dried remains of invertebrates and their egg banks, we weighted each taxon according to its affinity for wetlands or uplands. Our study clearly demonstrated that shells, exoskeletons, head capsules, eggs, and other remains of macroinvertebrates can be used to identify wetlands, even when they are dry, intensively farmed, and difficult to identify as wetlands using standard criteria (i.e., hydrology, hydrophytic vegetation, and hydric soils). Although both dried remains and egg banks identified wetlands, the combination was more useful, especially for identifying drained or filled wetlands. We also evaluated the use of coarse taxonomic groupings to stimulate use of the technique by nonspecialists and obtained satisfactory results in most situations.

  16. La Popala creek: quality analysis of water from some physical - chemical, microbiological variables and aquatic macroinvertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milan Valoyes, Wandy Yohanna; Caicedo Quintero, Orlando; Aguirre Ramirez, Nestor Jaime

    2011-01-01

    The Popala creek supplies water to the people of Bolombolo in Venecia municipality in Antioquia, Colombia. In November 14th and 28th of 2009, four sampling station were located along the creek, to measure five sets of variables: physico- chemical, microbiological, aquatic macroinvertebrate, biological indicators and biotic index BMWP.Physico- chemical variables, aquatic macroinvertebrates and index BMWP indicate good environmental conditions in station 2, located about 150 m from the headwaters (station 1). On the other hand, Station 4, located near to the Cauca River, exhibits deterioration in water quality. Stations 3 and 4 displayed high levels of fecal coliforms. However, the samples taken from Bolombolo's water supply network indicate the water of the aqueduct is adequate for human consumption.

  17. Electronic resources of the rare books and valuable editions department of the Central Scientific Library of the V.N. Karazin Kharkiv National University: open access for research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    І. К. Журавльова

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes tasks that electronic collections of rare books fulfill: broad access for readers to rare and valuable editions providing, preservation of ensuring of the original. On the example of the electronic collection of the Central Scientific Library of the V.N. Karazin Kharkiv National University – «eScriptorium: electronic archive of rare books and manuscripts for research and education» the possibility of the full-text resources of the valuable editions using is shown. The principles of creation, structure, chronological frameworks, directions of adding the documents to the archive are represented. The perspectives of the project development are outlined as well as examples of the digital libraries of the European countries and Ukraine are provided, the actual task of preserving the originals of the rare books of the country is raised, the innovative approaches to serving users with electronic resources are considered. The evidences of cooperation of the Central Scientific Library of the V.N. Karazin Kharkiv National University with the largest world digital libraries: World Digital Library and Europeana are provided.

  18. The use of quality benchmarking in assessing web resources for the dermatology virtual branch library of the National electronic Library for Health (NeLH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamel Boulos, M N; Roudsari, A V; Gordon, C; Muir Gray, J A

    2001-01-01

    In 1998, the U.K. National Health Service Information for Health Strategy proposed the implementation of a National electronic Library for Health to provide clinicians, healthcare managers and planners, patients and the public with easy, round the clock access to high quality, up-to-date electronic information on health and healthcare. The Virtual Branch Libraries are among the most important components of the National electronic Library for Health. They aim at creating online knowledge based communities, each concerned with some specific clinical and other health-related topics. This study is about the envisaged Dermatology Virtual Branch Libraries of the National electronic Library for Health. It aims at selecting suitable dermatology Web resources for inclusion in the forthcoming Virtual Branch Libraries after establishing preliminary quality benchmarking rules for this task. Psoriasis, being a common dermatological condition, has been chosen as a starting point. Because quality is a principal concern of the National electronic Library for Health, the study includes a review of the major quality benchmarking systems available today for assessing health-related Web sites. The methodology of developing a quality benchmarking system has been also reviewed. Aided by metasearch Web tools, candidate resources were hand-selected in light of the reviewed benchmarking systems and specific criteria set by the authors. Over 90 professional and patient-oriented Web resources on psoriasis and dermatology in general are suggested for inclusion in the forthcoming Dermatology Virtual Branch Libraries. The idea of an all-in knowledge-hallmarking instrument for the National electronic Library for Health is also proposed based on the reviewed quality benchmarking systems. Skilled, methodical, organized human reviewing, selection and filtering based on well-defined quality appraisal criteria seems likely to be the key ingredient in the envisaged National electronic Library for

  19. Barriers to electronic access and delivery of educational information in resource constrained public schools: a case of Greater Tubatse Municipality

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pholotho, T

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) are capable of expanding access to quality education, educational resources and provide teachers with new skills. Nevertheless, a majority of rural public schools have limited ICTs, mainly due...

  20. Electronic Grey Literature in Accelerator Science and Its Allied Subjects : Selected Web Resources for Scientists and Engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Rajendiran, P

    2006-01-01

    Grey literature Web resources in the field of accelerator science and its allied subjects are collected for the scientists and engineers of RRCAT (Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology). For definition purposes the different types of grey literature are described. The Web resources collected and compiled in this article (with an overview and link for each) specifically focus on technical reports, preprints or e-prints, which meet the main information needs of RRCAT users.

  1. Macroinvertebrate short-term responses to flow variation and oxygen depletion: A mesocosm approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calapez, Ana R; Branco, Paulo; Santos, José M; Ferreira, Teresa; Hein, Thomas; Brito, António G; Feio, Maria João

    2017-12-01

    In Mediterranean rivers, water scarcity is a key stressor with direct and indirect effects on other stressors, such as water quality decline and inherent oxygen depletion associated with pollutants inputs. Yet, predicting the responses of macroinvertebrates to these stressors combination is quite challenging due to the reduced available information, especially if biotic and abiotic seasonal variations are taken under consideration. This study focused on the response of macroinvertebrates by drift to single and combined effects of water scarcity and dissolved oxygen (DO) depletion over two seasons (winter and spring). A factorial design of two flow velocity levels - regular and low (vL) - with three levels of oxygen depletion - normoxia, medium depletion (dM) and higher depletion (dH) - was carried out in a 5-artificial channels system, in short-term experiments. Results showed that both stressors individually and together had a significant effect on macroinvertebrate drift ratio for both seasons. Single stressor effects showed that macroinvertebrate drift decreased with flow velocity reduction and increased with DO depletion, in both winter and spring experiments. Despite single stressors opposing effects in drift ratio, combined stressors interaction (vL×dM and vL×dH) induced a positive synergistic drift effect for both seasons, but only in winter the drift ratio was different between the levels of DO depletion. Stressors interaction in winter seemed to intensify drift response when reached lower oxygen saturation. Also, drift patterns were different between seasons for all treatments, which may depend on individual's life stage and seasonal behaviour. Water scarcity seems to exacerbate the oxygen depletion conditions resulting into a greater drifting of invertebrates. The potential effects of oxygen depletion should be evaluated when addressing the impacts of water scarcity on river ecosystems, since flow reductions will likely contribute to a higher oxygen

  2. Evaluation of alternative macroinvertebrate sampling techniques for use in a new tropical freshwater bioassessment scheme

    OpenAIRE

    Isabel Eleanor Moore; Kevin Joseph Murphy

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The study aimed to determine the effectiveness of benthic macroinvertebrate dredge net sampling procedures as an alternative method to kick net sampling in tropical freshwater systems, specifically as an evaluation of sampling methods used in the Zambian Invertebrate Scoring System (ZISS) river bioassessment scheme. Tropical freshwater ecosystems are sometimes dangerous or inaccessible to sampling teams using traditional kick-sampling methods, so identifying an alternative procedure that...

  3. Disentangling the effects of low pH and metal mixture toxicity on macroinvertebrate diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornaroli, Riccardo; Ippolito, Alessio; Tolkkinen, Mari J.; Mykrä, Heikki; Muotka, Timo; Balistrieri, Laurie S.; Schmidt, Travis S.

    2018-01-01

    One of the primary goals of biological assessment of streams is to identify which of a suite of chemical stressors is limiting their ecological potential. Elevated metal concentrations in streams are often associated with low pH, yet the effects of these two potentially limiting factors of freshwater biodiversity are rarely considered to interact beyond the effects of pH on metal speciation. Using a dataset from two continents, a biogeochemical model of the toxicity of metal mixtures (Al, Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn) and quantile regression, we addressed the relative importance of both pH and metals as limiting factors for macroinvertebrate communities. Current environmental quality standards for metals proved to be protective of stream macroinvertebrate communities and were used as a starting point to assess metal mixture toxicity. A model of metal mixture toxicity accounting for metal interactions was a better predictor of macroinvertebrate responses than a model considering individual metal toxicity. We showed that the direct limiting effect of pH on richness was of the same magnitude as that of chronic metal toxicity, independent of its influence on the availability and toxicity of metals. By accounting for the direct effect of pH on macroinvertebrate communities, we were able to determine that acidic streams supported less diverse communities than neutral streams even when metals were below no-effect thresholds. Through a multivariate quantile model, we untangled the limiting effect of both pH and metals and predicted the maximum diversity that could be expected at other sites as a function of these variables. This model can be used to identify which of the two stressors is more limiting to the ecological potential of running waters.

  4. Soil macroinvertebrate communities across a productivity gradient in deciduous forests of eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evelyn S. Wenk; Mac A. Callaham; Joseph O' Brien; Paul J. Hanson

    2016-01-01

    Within the temperate, deciduous forests of the eastern US, diverse soil-fauna communities are structured by a combination of environmental gradients and interactions with other biota. The introduction of non-native soil taxa has altered communities and soil processes, and adds another degree of variability to these systems. We sampled soil macroinvertebrate abundance...

  5. Benthic macroinvertebrates as ecological indicators for estuarine and coastal ecosystems : assessment and intercalibration

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira, Heliana Lilita Gonçalves

    2010-01-01

    Tese de doutoramento em Biologia (Ecologia) apresentada à Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia da Universidade de Coimbra The aim of the research work presented in this thesis is to be a contribution to the field of ecological assessment in coastal and transitional ecosystems. The main goals were: a) to present a method for the assessment of the ecological status of benthic macroinvertebrate communities in Portuguese transitional waters that would meet the requirements of the Eur...

  6. Aquatic macroinvertebrate diversity and composition in streams along an altitudinal gradient in Southeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Henriques-Oliveira, Ana Lucia; Nessimian, Jorge Luiz

    2010-01-01

    Aquatic macroinvertebrate diversity and composition in streams along an altitudinal gradient in Southeastern Brazil. A study concerning taxonomic richness and composition of the aquatic insect fauna in streams within the same catchment basin along an altitudinal gradient in Southeast Brazil, was conducted to test the hypothesis that there is a faunal discontinuity in the biocenotic composition, related to differences in altitude and latitude. In Southeastern Brazil, around latitude 22°, this ...

  7. Results of Macroinvertebrate Sampling Conducted at 33 SRS Stream Locations, July--August 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Specht, W.L.

    1994-12-01

    In order to assess the health of the macroinvertebrate communities of SRS streams, the macroinvertebrate communities at 30 stream locations on SRS were sampled during the summer of 1993, using Hester-Dendy multiplate samplers. In addition, three off-site locations in the Upper Three Runs drainage were sampled in order to assess the potential for impact from off-site activities. In interpreting the data, it is important to recognize that these data were from a single set of collections. Macroinvertebrate communities often undergo considerable temporal variation, and are also greatly influenced by such factors as water depth, water velocity, and available habitat. These stations were selected with the intent of developing an on-going sampling program at a smaller number of stations, with the selection of the stations to be based largely upon the results of this preliminary sampling program. When stations within a given stream showed similar results, fewer stations would be sampled in the future. Similarly, if a stream appeared to be perturbed, additional stations or chemical analyses might be added so that the source of the perturbation could be identified. In general, unperturbed streams will contain more taxa than perturbed streams, and the distribution of taxa among orders or families will differ. Some groups of macroinvertebrates, such as Ephemeroptera (mayflies), Plecoptera (stoneflies) and Trichoptera (caddisflies), which are collectively called EPT taxa, are considered to be relatively sensitive to most kinds of stream perturbation; therefore a reduced number of EPT taxa generally indicates that the stream has been subject to chemical or physical stressors. In coastal plain streams, EPT taxa are generally less dominant than in streams with rocky substrates, while Chironomidae (midges) are more abundant. (Abstract Truncated)

  8. Disentangling the effects of low pH and metal mixture toxicity on macroinvertebrate diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornaroli, Riccardo; Ippolito, Alessio; Tolkkinen, Mari J; Mykrä, Heikki; Muotka, Timo; Balistrieri, Laurie S; Schmidt, Travis S

    2018-04-01

    One of the primary goals of biological assessment of streams is to identify which of a suite of chemical stressors is limiting their ecological potential. Elevated metal concentrations in streams are often associated with low pH, yet the effects of these two potentially limiting factors of freshwater biodiversity are rarely considered to interact beyond the effects of pH on metal speciation. Using a dataset from two continents, a biogeochemical model of the toxicity of metal mixtures (Al, Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn) and quantile regression, we addressed the relative importance of both pH and metals as limiting factors for macroinvertebrate communities. Current environmental quality standards for metals proved to be protective of stream macroinvertebrate communities and were used as a starting point to assess metal mixture toxicity. A model of metal mixture toxicity accounting for metal interactions was a better predictor of macroinvertebrate responses than a model considering individual metal toxicity. We showed that the direct limiting effect of pH on richness was of the same magnitude as that of chronic metal toxicity, independent of its influence on the availability and toxicity of metals. By accounting for the direct effect of pH on macroinvertebrate communities, we were able to determine that acidic streams supported less diverse communities than neutral streams even when metals were below no-effect thresholds. Through a multivariate quantile model, we untangled the limiting effect of both pH and metals and predicted the maximum diversity that could be expected at other sites as a function of these variables. This model can be used to identify which of the two stressors is more limiting to the ecological potential of running waters. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Assessing the ecological status of the Cisadane River’s headwaters using benthic macroinvertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krisanti, M.; Wardiatno, Y.; Anzani, Y. M.

    2017-01-01

    Benthic macroinvertebrates are commonly used in river health biomonitoring. In monitoring program biotic indices are now widely established in water quality monitoring around the world, including in the tropical countries. The aim of this study was to reveal the ecological status of Cisadane River’s headwaters in inside and outside of Mount Halimun-Salak National Park by using benthic macroinvertebrates. The research was conducted in the headwaters of Cisadane River located in Mount Halimun-Salak National Park. Macroinvertebrates were collected from four sites, i.e. inside the park (station 1, 2, 3, and 4) and from two sites outside the park (station 5 and 6). Collections were made twice a month, starting from April to June 2015 by means of Surber sampler (frame area 30x30 cm). A total of 65 genera from 38 families and 11 orders were found in the river. The results showed that based on diversity index, Lincoln Quality Index (LQI), Family Biotic Index (FBI), and Stream Invertebrate Grade Number Average Level 2 (SIGNAL 2), stations located within national park were ecologically better than those outside national park. Rivers with well-preserved riverside vegetation, as in the national park area have greater ecological status.

  10. Effects of anthropogenic impacts on benthic macroinvertebrates assemblages in subtropical mountain streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia M. Mesa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The nature of the riparian and surrounding landscape has been modified by anthropogenic activities, which may subsequently alter the composition and functional structure of macroinvertebrate assemblages. The effect of these changes on function of benthic fauna is difficult to assess due to the scarce knowledge on functional structures in tropical streams. In this study we evaluate whether sites impacted and unimpacted by anthropogenic alterations differed in assemblage composition and density, richness and diversity of each functional feeding group. The selection of the sites was related to their distinct riparian characteristics, following the QBRy riparian quality index. Collector-gatherer was the dominant functional feeding group, comprising 91% of total density, whereas the proportion of shredders was very low, representing less of 0.5% of total density. Asemblage composition of macroinvertebrates differed between impacted and unimpacted sites. Predators were dominant in taxa number, representing about 60% of total taxa richness. In addition, the diversity and richness of collector-gatherers differed significantly between degraded and unimpacted sites, reflecting the sensitivity of this group to environmental changes and the utility to be used in the assessment of anthropogenic modifications. The results of this study reinforce the idea that riparian corridor management is critical for the distribution of macroinvertebrate assemblages as well as functional organization of lotic streams.

  11. Spatial and temporal distribution of benthic macroinvertebrates in a Southeastern Brazilian river.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, M P; Buss, D F; Nessimian, J L; Baptista, D F

    2006-05-01

    Benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages are structured according to physical and chemical parameters that define microhabitats, including food supply, shelter to escape predators, and other biological parameters that influence reproductive success. The aim of this study is to investigate spatial and temporal distribution of macroinvertebrate assemblages at the Macaé river basin, in Rio de Janeiro state, Southeastern Brazil. According to the "Habitat Assessment Field Data Sheet--High Gradient Streams" (Barbour et al., 1999), the five sampling sites are considered as a reference condition. Despite the differences in hydrological parameters (mean width, depth and discharge) among sites, the physicochemical parameters and functional feeding groups' general structure were similar, except for the less impacted area, which showed more shredders. According to the Detrended Correspondence Analysis based on substrates, there is a clear distinction between pool and riffle assemblages. In fact, the riffle litter substrate had higher taxa in terms of richness and abundance, but the pool litter substrate had the greatest number of exclusive taxa. A Cluster Analysis based on sampling sites data showed that temporal variation was the main factor in structuring macroinvertebrate assemblages in the studied habitats.

  12. A Benthic Macroinvertebrate Multimetric Index for Assessment of the Ecological Integrity of Northeast Streams, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nantiya Rattanachan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to develop a benthic macroinvertebrate multimetric index for assessing the ecological quality of streams in Northeastern Thailand. ANOSIM indicated that the benthic macroinvertebrate assemblage in both of each basin and each season were not significantly different (R = 0.09, p = 0.24 and R = 0.07, p = 0.35, respectively. The efficacy metrics of each basin consisting of the Mekong II, the Chi, and the Mun basins were integrated and calibrated. A total of 255 data sets of water physico-chemical and benthic macroinvertebrates during the dry period (cool and hot seasons were obtained. The stream classification could be divided into three groups: the reference group (48 stations, the stressed group (42 stations, and the intermediate group (165 stations. Twelve out of 56 metrics have been considered as a core metric for the development of a biological index for quality streams in the Northeast, including Total taxa, EPT taxa, Ephemeroptera taxa, Coleoptera taxa, % EPT, % Chironomidae, % Tolerant individuals, % Intolerant individuals, Beck's index, HBI, Predator taxa, and Clinger taxa. Moreover, this metric set covered the structure and function of organisms including the diversity of species, community structure, tolerance/intolerance measures, functional feeding group, and habit. From the efficacy validation of the biological index, the results of stream assessment corresponded to the classification sites with the physico-chemical characteristics.

  13. Permafrost thaw and intense thermokarst activity decreases abundance of stream benthic macroinvertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Krista S; Lento, Jennifer; Culp, Joseph M; Lacelle, Denis; Kokelj, Steven V

    2016-08-01

    Intensification of permafrost thaw has increased the frequency and magnitude of large permafrost slope disturbances (mega slumps) in glaciated terrain of northwestern Canada. Individual thermokarst disturbances up to 40 ha in area have made large volumes of previously frozen sediments available for leaching and transport to adjacent streams, significantly increasing sediment and solute loads in these systems. To test the effects of this climate-sensitive disturbance regime on the ecology of Arctic streams, we explored the relationship between physical and chemical variables and benthic macroinvertebrate communities in disturbed and undisturbed stream reaches in the Peel Plateau, Northwest Territories, Canada. Highly disturbed and undisturbed stream reaches differed with respect to taxonomic composition and invertebrate abundance. Minimally disturbed reaches were not differentiated by these variables but rather were distributed along a disturbance gradient between highly disturbed and undisturbed sites. In particular, there was evidence of a strong negative relationship between macroinvertebrate abundance and total suspended solids, and a positive relationship between abundance and the distance from the disturbance. Increases in both sediments and nutrients appear to be the proximate cause of community differences in highly disturbed streams. Declines in macroinvertebrate abundance in response to slump activity have implications for the food webs of these systems, potentially leading to negative impacts on higher trophic levels, such as fish. Furthermore, the disturbance impacts on stream health can be expected to intensify as climate change increases the frequency and magnitude of thermokarst. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Spray drift of pesticides and stream macroinvertebrates: Experimental evidence of impacts and effectiveness of mitigation measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maltby, Lorraine [Department of Animal and Plant Sciences, University of Sheffield, Western Bank, Sheffield S10 2TN (United Kingdom)], E-mail: l.maltby@sheffield.ac.uk; Hills, Louise [Department of Animal and Plant Sciences, University of Sheffield, Western Bank, Sheffield S10 2TN (United Kingdom)

    2008-12-15

    Impoverished stream communities in agricultural landscapes have been associated with pesticide contamination, but conclusive evidence of causality is rare. We address this deficiency by adopting an experimental approach to investigate the effects of the insecticides cypermethrin and chlorpyrifos on benthic macroinvertebrates. Three treatments were established and a combination of biomarker, bioassay and biomonitoring approaches was employed to investigate, individual, population and community-level effects. Animals deployed during pesticide application had altered enzyme activity, depressed feeding rate and reduced survival, but these effects were only observed where pesticide was sprayed to the stream edge. There were no clear pesticide-related effects on macroinvertebrate community structure or on the population densities of individual species. Hence, short-term pesticide exposure did cause individual-level effects in stream macroinvertebrates, but these were not translated to effects at the population or community-level and were effectively mitigated by the adoption of a no-spray buffer zone. - Pulsed pesticide exposures via spray drift adversely affected stream invertebrates but did not cause population or community-level effects and were mitigated by no-spray buffer zones.

  15. How are macroinvertebrates of slow flowing lotic systems directly affected by suspended and deposited sediments?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kefford, Ben J., E-mail: ben.kefford@rmit.edu.a [Biotechnology and Environmental Biology, School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, PO Box 71, Bundoora, Victoria 3083 (Australia); Zalizniak, Liliana [Biotechnology and Environmental Biology, School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, PO Box 71, Bundoora, Victoria 3083 (Australia); Dunlop, Jason E. [Department of Environment and Resource Management (DERM), 120 Meiers Rd, Indooroopilly, Queensland 4068 (Australia); Smart Water Research Facility, Griffith University, Queensland (Australia); Nugegoda, Dayanthi [Biotechnology and Environmental Biology, School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, PO Box 71, Bundoora, Victoria 3083 (Australia); Choy, Satish C. [Department of Environment and Resource Management (DERM), 120 Meiers Rd, Indooroopilly, Queensland 4068 (Australia)

    2010-02-15

    The effects of suspended and deposited sediments on the macroinvertebrates are well documented in upland streams but not in slower flowing lowland rivers. Using species found in lowland lotic environments, we experimentally evaluate mechanisms for sediments to affect macroinvertebrates, and in one experiment whether salinity alters the effect of suspended sediments. Suspended kaolin clay reduced feeding of Ischnura heterosticta (Odonata: Coenagrionidae) at high turbidity (1000-1500 NTU) but had no effects on feeding of Hemianax papuensis (Odonata: Aeshnidae) and Micronecta australiensis (Hemiptera: Corixidae). In freshwater (0.1 mS/cm), survival of Ischnura aurora was poor in clear water, but improved with suspended kaolin. Growth and feeding of I. aurora were unaffected by suspended sediments and salinity. Burial (1-5 mm) of eggs with kaolin or sand reduced hatching in Physa acuta (Gastropoda: Physidae), Gyraulus tasmanica (Gastropoda: Planorbidae) and Chironomus cloacalis (Diptera: Chironomidae). Settling sediments may pose greater risk to lowland lotic invertebrates than suspended sediments. - Sediment deposition may be more directly detrimental to macroinvertebrates of lowland rivers than suspended sediments.

  16. Assessment tools for urban catchments: developing biological indicators based on benthic macroinvertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, A.H.; Bressler, D.W.; Paul, M.J.; Barbour, M.T.; Rankin, E.T.; Carter, J.L.; Resh, V.H.

    2009-01-01

    Biological indicators, particularly benthic macroinvertebrates, are widely used and effective measures of the impact of urbanization on stream ecosystems. A multimetric biological index of urbanization was developed using a large benthic macroinvertebrate dataset (n = 1,835) from the Baltimore, Maryland, metropolitan area and then validated with datasets from Cleveland, Ohio (n = 79); San Jose, California (n = 85); and a different subset of the Baltimore data (n = 85). The biological metrics used to develop the multimetric index were selected using several criteria and were required to represent ecological attributes of macroinvertebrate assemblages including taxonomic composition and richness (number of taxa in the insect orders of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera), functional feeding group (number of taxa designated as filterers), and habit (percent of individuals which cling to the substrate). Quantile regression was used to select metrics and characterize the relationship between the final biological index and an urban gradient (composed of population density, road density, and urban land use). Although more complex biological indices exist, this simplified multimetric index showed a consistent relationship between biological indicators and urban conditions (as measured by quantile regression) in three climatic regions of the United States and can serve as an assessment tool for environmental managers to prioritize urban stream sites for restoration and protection.

  17. Community structure of benthic macroinvertebrates inhabiting a highly stratified Mediterranean estuary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Nebra

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The community composition and spatial distribution of benthic macroinvertebrates were studied along the Ebro estuary, a highly stratified estuary located in the NE Iberian Peninsula. During the last decade the oligotrophication process occurring in the lower Ebro River and its estuary has allowed a complex benthic macroinvertebrate community to become established; these results contrast with the poor community found there in the early nineties. A total of 214 taxa were identified, and polychaetes dominated the community both in abundance and species richness. The results showed spatial differences in the structure and composition of macroinvertebrates, which suggests that there are two distinct communities along the estuary. Each community was found in a specific stretch (upper and lower estuary in function of the presence of the salt wedge. The macrobenthos of the upper estuary was dominated by freshwater taxa, but some euryhaline species were also found. The lower estuary showed a marine community typical of shallow Mediterranean environments. The transition between these two communities fits an ecotone model. The highest abundances, richness and diversities were recorded at the lower estuarine stations, especially those closer to the river mouth, whereas the lowest values corresponded to the stations adjacent to the tip of the salt wedge.

  18. Assessing combined impacts of agrochemicals: Aquatic macroinvertebrate population responses in outdoor mesocosms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmentlo, S Henrik; Schrama, Maarten; Hunting, Ellard R; Heutink, Roel; van Bodegom, Peter M; de Snoo, Geert R; Vijver, Martina G

    2018-08-01

    Agricultural ditches host a diverse community of species. These species often are unwarrantedly exposed to fertilizers and a wide-array of pesticides (hereafter: agrochemicals). Standardized ecotoxicological research provides valuable information to predict whether these pesticides possibly pose a threat to the organisms living within these ditches, in particular macro-invertebrates. However, knowledge on how mixtures of these agrochemicals affect macro-invertebrates under realistic abiotic conditions and with population and community complexity is mostly lacking. Therefore we examined here, using a full factorial design, the population responses of macroinvertebrate species assemblages exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of three commonly used agrochemicals (for 35days) in an outdoor experiment. The agrochemicals selected were an insecticide (imidacloprid), herbicide (terbuthylazine) and nutrients (NPK), all having a widespread usage and often detected together in watersheds. Effects on species abundance and body length caused by binary mixture combinations could be described from single substance exposure. However, when agrochemicals were applied as tertiary mixtures, as they are commonly found in agricultural waters, species' abundance often deviated from expectations made based on the three single treatments. This indicates that pesticide-mixture induced toxicity to population relevant endpoints are difficult to extrapolate to field conditions. As in agricultural ditches often a multitude (approx. up to 7) of agrochemicals residues are detected, we call other scientist to verify the ecological complexity of non-additive induced shifts in natural aquatic invertebrate populations and aquatic species assemblages. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of logging on macroinvertebrates in streams with and without buffer strips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newbold, J D; Erman, D C; Roby, K B

    1980-01-01

    The impact of logging with and without buffer strip protection on stream macroinvertebrates was examined through comparisons of community structure in commercially logged and control watersheds throughout northern California. A nonparametric test of community dissimilarities within matched blocks of two control and one or two treated stations showed significant (P < 0.05) logging effects on unprotected streams when Euclidean distance and mutual information were used as dissimilarity indices, but not when chord distance was used. Shannon diversity in unprotected streams was lower (P < 0.01) than in control (unlogged) streams; densities of total macroinvertebrate fauna and of Chironomidae, Baetis, and Nemoura were higher in unprotected streams than in controls (P <0.05). Streams with narrow buffer strips (<30 m) showed significant effects by the Euclidean distance test, but diversity varied widely and was not significantly different from that in either unprotected or control streams than in controls (P < 0.05). Macroinvertebrate communities in streams with wide buffers (greater than or equal to 30m) could not be distinguished from those of controls by either Euclidean distance or diversity; however, diversity in wide-buffered streams was significantly greater than in streams without buffer strips, indicating effective protection from logging effects.

  20. Water quality in Danube Delta Lakes: An assessment using benthic macroinvertebrates community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IBRAM Orhan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available An assessment of the ecological status of selected lakes in the Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve was done based on temporal and spatial variation of macroinvertebrate communities during 2012 and 2013. Macroinvertebrate communities and measures of these communities were evaluated and a baseline characterization of assemblages was determined for the analyzed sites. Each year, three sampling campaigns, one for each ice-free season were organized for data collection. Macroinvertebrate samples have been collected in every lake from three different stations with the use of an Ekmann dredge. The highest taxa richness are recorded in Fortuna and Isac lakes in 2013. Total abundance followed a pattern similar to taxa number with Fortuna and Isac lakes having the highest yearly values (maximum number of individuals – 225 - per sample has been recorded in September 2013, in Isac Lake.Using saprobic index as an indicator of ecological status Isac lake was classifies as moderate and other three lakes, Merhei, Furtuna and Rosu as good ecological status. Lack of correlation between diversity indices and the saprobic values suggests that other assessment methods could be more effective and provide better information than saprobic index does at least for Danube Delta.

  1. The influence of connectivity in forest patches, and riparian vegetation width on stream macroinvertebrate fauna

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    IC Valle

    Full Text Available We assessed two dimensions of stream connectivity: longitudinal (between forest patches along the stream and lateral (riparian vegetation, using macroinvertebrate assemblages as bioindicators. Sites representing different land-uses were sampled in a lowland basin that holds a mosaic of protected areas. Land-use analysis, forest successional stages and riparian zone widths were calculated by the GIS analysis. Macroinvertebrate fauna was strongly affected by land-use. We observed a continuous decrease in the number of sensitive species, %Shredders and IBE-IOC biotic index from the upstream protected area to highly deforested sites, increasing again where the stream crosses a Biological Reserve. When analysing buffer strips, we found aquatic fauna responding to land-use alterations beyond the 30 m riparian corridor (60 m and 100 m wide. We discussed the longitudinal connectivity between forest patches and the riparian vegetation buffer strips necessary to hold high macroinvertebrate diversity. We recommend actions for the increase/maintenance of biodiversity in this and other lowland basins.

  2. Effects of anthropogenic silt on aquatic macroinvertebrates and abiotic variables in streams in the Brazilian Amazon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couceiro, Sheyla Regina Marques; Hamada, Neusa [Inst. Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia, Coordenacao de Pesquisas em Entomologia, Manaus, AM (Brazil); Forsberg, Bruce Rider [Inst. Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia, Coordenacao de Pesquisas em Entomologia, Manaus, AM (Brazil); Inst. Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia, Coordenacao de Pesquisas em Ecologia, Manaus, AM (Brazil); Padovesi-Fonseca, Claudia [Univ. de Brasilia, Dept. de Ecologia, Brasilia, DF (Brazil)

    2010-01-15

    Purpose: While environmental risks associated with petroleum extraction such as oil spills or leaks are relatively well known, little attention has been given to the impacts of silt. The increase in petroleum exploitation in Amazonia has resulted in sediment input to aquatic systems, with impacts on their biodiversity. Here we use a combination of field measurements and statistical analyses to evaluate the impacts of anthropogenic silt derived from the construction of roads, borrow pits, and wells during the terrestrial development of gas and oil, on macroinvertebrate communities in streams of the Urucu Petroleum Province in the Central Brazilian Amazon. Material and methods: Ten impacted and nine non-impacted streams were sampled in January, April, and November of 2007. Macroinvertebrates were sampled along a 100-m continuous reach in each stream at 10-m intervals using a dip net. Abiotic variables including, a siltation index (SI), suspended inorganic sediment (SIS), sediment color index (SCI), suspend organic sediment (SOS), pH, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen, temperature, water velocity, channel width, and depth, were measured at three equidistant points in each stream ({proportional_to}30-m intervals). Results and discussion: SI did not differ between impacted and undisturbed streams. SIS was higher and SCI lower (more reddish) in impacted than in non-impacted streams. SCI had a positive and SIS a negative effect on both macroinvertebrate richness and density. SIS and SCI also influenced macrophyte taxonomic composition. In impacted streams, taxonomic richness and density were 1.5 times lower than in non-impacted streams. No taxon was significantly associated with impacted streams. SIS was positively correlated with SOS and electrical conductivity while SCI was negatively correlated with SOS, electrical conductivity, and pH. The lack of difference in SI between impacted and nonimpacted streams suggests that anthropogenic sediment does not accumulate

  3. Evaluation of alternative macroinvertebrate sampling techniques for use in a new tropical freshwater bioassessment scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Eleanor Moore

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study aimed to determine the effectiveness of benthic macroinvertebrate dredge net sampling procedures as an alternative method to kick net sampling in tropical freshwater systems, specifically as an evaluation of sampling methods used in the Zambian Invertebrate Scoring System (ZISS river bioassessment scheme. Tropical freshwater ecosystems are sometimes dangerous or inaccessible to sampling teams using traditional kick-sampling methods, so identifying an alternative procedure that produces similar results is necessary in order to collect data from a wide variety of habitats.MethodsBoth kick and dredge nets were used to collect macroinvertebrate samples at 16 riverine sites in Zambia, ranging from backwaters and floodplain lagoons to fast flowing streams and rivers. The data were used to calculate ZISS, diversity (S: number of taxa present, and Average Score Per Taxon (ASPT scores per site, using the two sampling methods to compare their sampling effectiveness. Environmental parameters, namely pH, conductivity, underwater photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, temperature, alkalinity, flow, and altitude, were also recorded and used in statistical analysis. Invertebrate communities present at the sample sites were determined using multivariate procedures.ResultsAnalysis of the invertebrate community and environmental data suggested that the testing exercise was undertaken in four distinct macroinvertebrate community types, supporting at least two quite different macroinvertebrate assemblages, and showing significant differences in habitat conditions. Significant correlations were found for all three bioassessment score variables between results acquired using the two methods, with dredge-sampling normally producing lower scores than did the kick net procedures. Linear regression models were produced in order to correct each biological variable score collected by a dredge net to a score similar to that of one collected by kick net

  4. Ecological assessment of the Tajan river using feeding groups of benthic macroinvertebrates and biotic indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Sharifinia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the best practical methods to understand ecological status of a water body and determine impacts of human intervention in reducing water quality is using benthic macroinvertebrates as assessment tools for monitoring their biological integrity and health. The Tajan River is one of the rivers of Caspian Southernsub-basin that drains the Caspian Sea. Macroinvertebrate samples were taken using Surber’s sampler (40 x 40 cm and 100µ mesh size in 45 day intervals with 3 replicates in each sampling site for a period of one year (May 2010 to May 2011. The collected organisms were preserved in 4% formalin solution and transferred to the laboratory for identification and counting. Six different functional feeding groups of macroinvertebrate e.g. Collector-gathering, Collector-filtering, Predator, Collector-gathering /Scraper, Predator/Collector-gathering and Scraper were determined. Feeding groups of Collector-gathering, Collector-filtering and Collector-gathering /Scraper were relatively dominant in comparison to other groups. Groups of Collector-filtering and Collector-gathering were dominant in slightly and heavily polluted stations, respectively. In this study population structure measures including abundance, EPT percent and the EPT and EPT/CHIR indics were mearsured. Species diversity, species richness were also determined using Shannon- Weiner, Margalef and Jacardindics. The minimum and maximum values of Hilsenhoff biotic index were observedin stations 1 (4.29 and 5 (5.57, respectively. Moreover, the highest and lowest values of BMWP/ASPT were observed in station 1 (4.51 and 5 (3.25, respectively. Evaluation of indicators revealed less water quality at stations 2, 3 and 5 which located at the lowermost of fish farms and effluent of factory. This reduction might be implicated to the effluents of water damps from fish farms running into the stream as diversity and total abundance (% of sociable macroinvertebrates decreased and that of

  5. Effects of sediment quality on macroinvertebrates in the Sunraysia region of the Murray-Darling Rivers, Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharley, David J. [Centre for Environmental Stress and Adaptation Research-Hoffmann Laboratory, Zoology Department, University of Melbourne, Level 2, Bio 21 Institute, 30 Flemington Road, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia)], E-mail: sharleyd@unimelb.edu.au; Hoffmann, Ary A. [Centre for Environmental Stress and Adaptation Research-Hoffmann Laboratory, Zoology Department, University of Melbourne, Level 2, Bio 21 Institute, 30 Flemington Road, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Pettigrove, Vincent [Research and Technology, Melbourne Water, PO Box 4342, Melbourne, Victoria 3001 (Australia)

    2008-12-15

    A field-based microcosm approach was tested to identify deterioration of sediment quality in waterways using freshwater macroinvertebrates. The method can potentially identify the nature of contaminants based on species-specific responses. Sediments were collected from the Murray and Darling Rivers and irrigation drains within the Sunraysia region of south-eastern Australia and compared to non-polluted reference sediment. Clean sediments were also spiked with fertiliser to test whether nutrients affected the aquatic fauna. Seven of the eight sediments from the Sunraysia region had a negative impact on the macroinvertebrates, in particular sediment from the Darling River, which supported an impoverished fauna. Three species of chironomid showed varied responses to sediment quality and, although it was hypothesised that nutrients may have impacted on the macroinvertebrate fauna, the results suggest that other pollutants are also involved. The field-based microcosm method proved effective for determining the impact of sediment quality on indigenous macroinvertebrates. - Sediment quality effects on freshwater macroinvertebrates are isolated.

  6. Ecological impact assessment of sediment remediation in a metal-contaminated lowland river using translocated zebra mussels and resident macroinvertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Jonge, M.; Belpaire, C.; Geeraerts, C.; De Cooman, W.; Blust, R.; Bervoets, L.

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated to what extent accumulated metal levels in aquatic invertebrates can reflect environmental contamination and how these tissue levels can be related to alterations in macroinvertebrate communities in the dredged River Dommel. Metal accumulation was measured in translocated zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) and resident Chironomidae. Furthermore, macroinvertebrate community composition was assessed. Our results indicated that trends of total metal concentrations in surface water of the Dommel in time are reflected well by metal levels in tissue of D. polymorpha. In contrast, sediment-bound metals were the most dominant exposure route for Chironomidae. Alterations in macroinvertebrate community composition were observed during dredging and significant relations between metal levels in invertebrate tissues and ecological responses were found. Our results demonstrated that metal accumulation in both zebra mussels and Chironomidae can be used as an integrated measure of metal bioavailability and to predict ecological effects of metal toxicity on macroinvertebrate communities. - Highlights: ► The use of tissue concentrations to assess environmental metal pollution was studied. ► Metal accumulation was measured in caged zebra mussels and resident Chironomidae. ► Shell condition of mussels and macroinvertebrate taxa distribution was assessed. ► Different accumulation between biota and relations with community level were found. ► Bioaccumulation is an integrated measure of metal toxicity in aquatic communities. - Metal accumulation in selected aquatic invertebrates can be used as an integrated measure of metal bioavailability and to predict ecological effects of metal toxicity.

  7. Effects of sediment quality on macroinvertebrates in the Sunraysia region of the Murray-Darling Rivers, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharley, David J.; Hoffmann, Ary A.; Pettigrove, Vincent

    2008-01-01

    A field-based microcosm approach was tested to identify deterioration of sediment quality in waterways using freshwater macroinvertebrates. The method can potentially identify the nature of contaminants based on species-specific responses. Sediments were collected from the Murray and Darling Rivers and irrigation drains within the Sunraysia region of south-eastern Australia and compared to non-polluted reference sediment. Clean sediments were also spiked with fertiliser to test whether nutrients affected the aquatic fauna. Seven of the eight sediments from the Sunraysia region had a negative impact on the macroinvertebrates, in particular sediment from the Darling River, which supported an impoverished fauna. Three species of chironomid showed varied responses to sediment quality and, although it was hypothesised that nutrients may have impacted on the macroinvertebrate fauna, the results suggest that other pollutants are also involved. The field-based microcosm method proved effective for determining the impact of sediment quality on indigenous macroinvertebrates. - Sediment quality effects on freshwater macroinvertebrates are isolated

  8. Aquatic macroinvertebrates associated with roots of Eichhornia azuera (Swarts Kunth (Pontederiaceae in an oxbow lake in Pantanal, MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Henrique L. Saulino

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Macrophytes play an important role in the community structure of aquatic systems. In this study, we examined the macroinvertebrate communities within 20 Eichhornia azurea roots in an oxbow lake in Pantanal (MS during dry season. Species abundance and richness were compared via linear regression, and the mean relative proportion of macroinvertebrates among root samples was determined. Macroinvertebrates were identified to the lowest practical taxonomic level, and root volume was measured using the volume displacement method. We identified 371 specimens, belonging to 31 families and 21 taxonomic groups. Chironomus sp. (Chironomidae, Slavinia sp. and Dero sp. (Naididae, all detritivores, were most the represented taxon. Regression analysis indicated a positive correlation between root volume and the abundance and richness of the macroinvertebrate community. Analysis of variance showed no statistically significant differences between species abundance and richness among different E. azuera root volumes, however we did observe a trend toward a positive correlation of both variables with increasing root volume. We suspect that greater root volumes should increase microhabitat availability, which could explain this observed trend. Our results indicate that E. azurea roots may play an important ecologic role (e.g., by providing shelter, food stock in lake macroinvertebrate communities.

  9. Assessing condition of macroinvertebrate communities and sediment toxicity in the St. Lawrence River at Massena Area-of-Concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Brian T.; Baldigo, Barry P.; Smith, Alexander J.; George, Scott D.; David, Anthony M.

    2016-01-01

    In 1972, the USA and Canada agreed to restore the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the Great Lakes ecosystem under the first Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement. In subsequent amendments, part of the St. Lawrence River at Massena, New York and segments of three tributaries, were designated as an Area of Concern (AOC) due to the effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), lead and copper contamination, and habitat degradation and resulting impairment to several beneficial uses. Because sediments have been largely remediated, the present study was initiated to evaluate the current status of the benthic macroinvertebrate (benthos) beneficial use impairment (BUI). Benthic macroinvertebrate communities and sediment toxicity tests using Chironomus dilutus were used to test the hypotheses that community condition and sediment toxicity at AOC sites were not significantly different from those of adjacent reference sites. Grain size was found to be the main driver of community composition and macroinvertebrate assemblages, and bioassessment metrics did not differ significantly between AOC and reference sites of the same sediment class. Median growth of C. dilutus and its survival in three of the four river systems did not differ significantly in sediments from AOC and reference sites. Comparable macroinvertebrate assemblages and general lack of toxicity across most AOC and reference sites suggest that the quality of sediments should not significantly impair benthic macroinvertebrate communities in most sites in the St. Lawrence River AOC.

  10. Effects of sea lamprey substrate modification and carcass nutrients on macroinvertebrate assemblages in a small Atlantic coastal stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Daniel M.; Coghlan, Stephen M.; Zydlewski, Joseph D.

    2018-01-01

    Aquatic macroinvertebrates respond to patch dynamics arising from interactions of physical and chemical disturbances across space and time. Anadromous fish, such as sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, migrate from the ocean and alter physical and chemical properties of recipient spawning streams. Sea lamprey disturb stream benthos physically through nest construction and spawning, and enrich food webs through nutrient deposition from decomposing carcasses. Sea lamprey spawning nests support greater macroinvertebrate abundance than adjacent reference areas, but concurrent effects of stream bed modification and nutrient supplementation have not been examined sequentially. We added carcasses and cleared substrate experimentally to mimic the physical disturbance and nutrient enrichment associated with lamprey spawning, and characterized effects on macroinvertebrate assemblage structure. We found that areas receiving cleared substrate and carcass nutrients were colonized largely by Simuliidae compared to upstream and downstream control areas that were colonized largely by Hydropsychidae, Philopotamidae, and Chironomidae. Environmental factors such as stream flow likely shape assemblages by physically constraining macroinvertebrate establishment and feeding. Our results indicate potential changes in macroinvertebrate assemblages from the physical and chemical changes to streams brought by spawning populations of sea lamprey.

  11. Clinician‐selected Electronic Information Resources do not Guarantee Accuracy in Answering Primary Care Physicians’ Information Needs. A review of: McKibbon, K. Ann, and Douglas B. Fridsma. “Effectiveness of Clinician‐selected Electronic Information Resources for Answering Primary Care Physicians’ Information Needs.” Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association 13.6 (2006: 653‐9.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Ingrid Preddie

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To determine if electronic information resources selected by primary care physicians improve their ability to answer simulated clinical questions.Design – An observational study utilizing hour‐long interviews and think‐aloud protocols.Setting – The offices and clinics of primary care physicians in Canada and the United States.Subjects – Twenty‐five primary care physicians of whom 4 were women, 17 were from Canada, 22 were family physicians,and 24 were board certified.Methods – Participants provided responses to 23 multiple‐choice questions. Each physician then chose two questions and looked for the answers utilizing information resources of their own choice. The search processes, chosen resources and search times were noted. These were analyzed along with data on the accuracy of the answers and certainties related to the answer to each clinical question prior to the search.Main results – Twenty‐three physicians sought answers to 46 simulated clinical questions. Utilizing only electronic information resources, physicians spent a mean of 13.0 (SD 5.5 minutes searching for answers to the questions, an average of 7.3(SD 4.0 minutes for the first question and 5.8 (SD 2.2 minutes to answer the second question. On average, 1.8 resources were utilized per question. Resources that summarized information, such as the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, UpToDate and Clinical Evidence, were favored 39.2% of the time, MEDLINE (Ovid and PubMed 35.7%, and Internet resources including Google 22.6%. Almost 50% of the search and retrieval strategies were keyword‐based, while MeSH, subheadings and limiting were used less frequently. On average, before searching physicians answered 10 of 23 (43.5% questions accurately. For questions that were searched using clinician‐selected electronic resources, 18 (39.1% of the 46 answers were accurate before searching, while 19 (42.1% were accurate after searching. The difference of

  12. Self-Paced Interactive Multimedia Courseware: A Learning Support Resource for Enhancing Electronic Theses and Dissertations Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essel, Harry Barton; Osei-Poku, Patrick; Tachie-Menson, Akosua; Opoku-Asare, Nana Afia

    2016-01-01

    Submission of Electronic Theses and Dissertations (ETDs) by postgraduate students has become a common phenomenon in learning environments globally. The purpose of ETDs is to train postgraduate students as knowledge workers in online publishing and also extend their skills beyond word processing. The challenge however, is that many postgraduate…

  13. Web Accessibility Issues for Higher & Further Education. EDNER (Formative Evaluation of the Distributed National Electronic Resource) Project. Issues Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchester Metropolitan Univ. (England).

    This issues paper, sixth in a series of eight, is intended to distill formative evaluation questions on topics that are central to the development of the higher and further education information environment in the United Kingdom. In undertaking formative evaluation studies, the Formative Evaluation of the Distributed National Electronic Resource…

  14. Analyzing the Academic Research Trends by Using University Digital Resources: A Bibliometric Study of Electronic Commerce in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Anam; Abbas, Asad; Ming, Wan; Zaheer, Ahmad Nawaz; Akhtar, Masood-ul-Hassan

    2017-01-01

    Technology plays a vital role in every field of life especially in business and education. Electronic commerce (EC) begins in the year of 1991 right after internet was introduced for commercial use. It is known to be the 12th five years' plan (2011 to 2015) of Chinese Ministry of Industry and Information Technology. The main "objective"…

  15. Green Supply Chain Collaboration for Fashionable Consumer Electronics Products under Third-Party Power Intervention—A Resource Dependence Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Jiuh-Biing Sheu

    2014-01-01

    Under third-party power intervention (TPPI), which increases uncertainty in task environments, complex channel power interplays and restructuring are indispensable among green supply chain members as they move toward sustainable collaborative relationships for increased viability and competitive advantage. From the resource dependence perspective, this work presents a novel conceptual model to investigate the influence of political and social power on channel power restructuring and induced ...

  16. Benthic macroinvertebrates and the use of stable isotopes (δ13C and δ15N) in the impact assessment of peatland use on boreal stream ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieminen, Mika L.; Daza Secco, Emmanuela; Nykänen, Hannu; Meissner, Kristian

    2013-04-01

    Stable isotope analysis (SIA) can provide insights into carbon flow dynamics and trophic positions of consumers in food webs. SIA is used in this study, where we assess the possible changes in the basal resources of Finnish boreal stream ecosystems and differences in the impact of two forms of peatland use, forestry and peat mining. About 30% of the total land area of Finland is classified as peatland, of which about 55% has been drained for forestry and about 0.6% is in peat production. Unlike forestry, peat production is regionally less scattered and can thus have measurable local impacts although the total area of peat production is small. Three watersheds were used as study areas. Within each watershed, one stream drains a subcatchment affected only by peat mining, whereas the other stream flows through a subcatchment affected by forestry. The two subcatchment streams merge to form a single stream flowing into a lake. Studied watersheds were subject to no other forms of land use. In addition to the impacted sites, we used two pristine natural mire and two natural forest catchments as controls. We analysed the stable isotopes of carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) from benthic macroinvertebrates, stream bank soil, stream sediment, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in stream water. Samples for stable isotope analyses were collected in the summer of 2011 and samples for invertebrate community analyses in the autumn of 2011. Upon sampling we measured several physical parameters at each sampling site. In addition, stream water samples collected in summer and autumn 2012 were analysed for CH4 and CO2 gas concentrations and autumn gas samples also for their δ13C values. Our initial SIA results of invertebrates suggest some degree of discrimination between different sources of OM and possible effects on feeding habits, presumably due to the quality of the basal resources. We will explore this result further by examining not only taxonomical structure, but also the

  17. Assessing the Effects of Hydromorphological Degradation on Macroinvertebrate Indicators in Rivers: Examples, Constraints and Outlook

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friberg, N.; Sandin, L.; Pedersen, Morten Lauge

    2009-01-01

    data of 28 Swedish streams, whereas moderate (R2 0.43) relationships with more detailed measurements of morphology were found in 2 Danish studies (39 and 6 streams, respectively). Although evidence exists in the literature on the importance of physical features for in-stream biota in general......) scaling issues (spatial and temporal) when relating habitat surveys to macroinvertebrate assessments, and 3) the scope of commonly used macroinvertebrate assessment systems (mainly focusing on water chemistry perturbation, such as eutrophication and acidification). The need is urgent to develop refined......An extensive amount of literature on linkages between the in-stream physical environment and river benthic macroinvertebrates reports a number of relationships across multiple spatial scales. We analyzed data on different spatial scales to elucidate the linkages between different measurements...

  18. Evaluation of Deposited Sediment and Macroinvertebrate Metrics Used to Quantify Biological Response to Excessive Sedimentation in Agricultural Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Andrew B.; Culp, Joseph M.; Benoy, Glenn A.

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate which macroinvertebrate and deposited sediment metrics are best for determining effects of excessive sedimentation on stream integrity. Fifteen instream sediment metrics, with the strongest relationship to land cover, were compared to riffle macroinvertebrate metrics in streams ranging across a gradient of land disturbance. Six deposited sediment metrics were strongly related to the relative abundance of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera and six were strongly related to the modified family biotic index (MFBI). Few functional feeding groups and habit groups were significantly related to deposited sediment, and this may be related to the focus on riffle, rather than reach-wide macroinvertebrates, as reach-wide sediment metrics were more closely related to human land use. Our results suggest that the coarse-level deposited sediment metric, visual estimate of fines, and the coarse-level biological index, MFBI, may be useful in biomonitoring efforts aimed at determining the impact of anthropogenic sedimentation on stream biotic integrity.

  19. Influence of agricultural land-use and pesticides on benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages in an agricultural river basin in southeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Egler

    Full Text Available Land-use alterations and pesticide run-offs are among the main causes for impairment in agricultural areas. We evaluated the influence of different land-uses (forest, pasture and intensive agriculture on the water quality and on benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages on three occasions: in the dry season, wet season and at the end of the wet season. Macroinvertebrates responded to this gradient of impairment: agricultural sites had significantly lower richness numbers than forested and pasture sites, and all major invertebrate groups were significantly affected. Most taxa found in forested sites were found in pasture sites, but often with lower densities. In this case, the loss of habitats due to sedimentation and the lower complexity of substrates seem to be the disruptive force for the macroinvertebrate fauna.

  20. Share and share alike: encouraging the reuse of academic resources through the Scottish electronic Staff Development Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorna M. Campbell

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The Scottish electronic Staff Development Library (http://www.sesdl.scotcit.acuk is an ongoing collaborative project involving the Universities of Edinburgh, Paisley and Strathclyde which has been funded by SHEFC as part of their current ScotCIT Programme (http:llwww.scotcit.ac.uk. This project is being developed in response to the increasing demand for flexible, high-quality staff development materials.

  1. Changes of Benthic Macroinvertebrates in Thi Vai River and Cai Mep Estuaries Under Polluted Conditions with Industrial Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huong Nguyen Thi Thanh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The pollution on the Thi Vai River has been spreading out rapidly over the two lasted decades caused by the wastewater from the industrial parks in the left bank of Thi Vai River and Cai Mep Estuaries. The evaluation of the benthic macroinvertebrate changes was very necessary to identify the consequences of the industrial wastewater on water quality and aquatic ecosystem of Thi Vai River and Cai Mep Estuaries. In this study, the variables of benthic macroinvertebrates and water quality were investigated in Thi Vai River and Cai Mep Estuaries, Southern Vietnam. The monitoring data of benthic macroinvertebrates and water quality parameters covered the period from 1989 to 2015 at 6 sampling sites in Thi Vai River and Cai Mep Estuaries. The basic water quality parameters were also tested including pH, dissolved oxygen (DO, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus. The biodiversity indices of benthic macroinvertebrates were applied for water quality assessment. The results showed that pH ranged from 6.4 – 7.6 during the monitoring. The DO concentrations were in between 0.20 - 6.70 mg/L. The concentrations of total nitrogen and total phosphorous ranged from 0.03 - 5.70 mg/L 0.024 - 1.380 mg/L respectively. Macroinvertebrate community in the study area consisted of 36 species of polychaeta, gastropoda, bivalvia, and crustacea, of which, species of polychaeta were dominant in species number. The benthic macroinvertebartes density ranged from 0 - 2.746 individuals/m−1 with the main dominant species of Neanthes caudata, Prionospio malmgreni, Paraprionospio pinnata, Trichochaeta carica, Maldane sarsi, Capitella capitata, Terebellides stroemi, Euditylia polymorpha, Grandidierella lignorum, Apseudes vietnamensis. The biodiversity index values during the monitoring characterized for aquatic environmental conditions of mesotrophic to polytrophic. Besides, species richness positively correlated with DO, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus. The results

  2. Effects of local land-use on riparian vegetation, water quality, and the functional organization of macroinvertebrate assemblages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierro, Pablo; Bertrán, Carlos; Tapia, Jaime; Hauenstein, Enrique; Peña-Cortés, Fernando; Vergara, Carolina; Cerna, Cindy; Vargas-Chacoff, Luis

    2017-12-31

    Land-use change is a principal factor affecting riparian vegetation and river biodiversity. In Chile, land-use change has drastically intensified over the last decade, with native forests converted to exotic forest plantations and agricultural land. However, the effects thereof on aquatic ecosystems are not well understood. Closing this knowledge gap first requires understanding how human perturbations affect riparian and stream biota. Identified biological indicators could then be applied to determine the health of fluvial ecosystems. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of land-use change on the health of riparian and aquatic ecosystems by assessing riparian vegetation, water quality, benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages, and functional feeding groups. Twenty-one sites in catchment areas with different land-uses (i.e. pristine forests, native forests, exotic forest plantations, and agricultural land) were selected and sampled during the 2010 to 2012 dry seasons. Riparian vegetation quality was highest in pristine forests. Per the modified Macroinvertebrate Family Biotic Index for Chilean species, the best conditions existed in native forests and the worst in agricultural catchments. Water quality and macroinvertebrate assemblages significantly varied across land-use areas, with forest plantations and agricultural land having high nutrient concentrations, conductivity, suspended solids, and apparent color. Macroinvertebrate assemblage diversity was lowest for agricultural and exotic forest plantation catchments, with notable non-insect representation. Collector-gatherers were the most abundant functional feeding group, suggesting importance independent of land-use. Land-use areas showed no significant differences in functional feeding groups. In conclusion, anthropogenic land-use changes were detectable through riparian quality, water quality, and macroinvertebrate assemblages, but not through functional feeding groups. These data, particularly the

  3. Effects of watershed and in-stream liming on macroinvertebrate communities in acidified tributaries to an Adirondack lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Scott D.; Baldigo, Barry P.; Lawrence, Gregory B.; Fuller, Randall L.

    2018-01-01

    Liming techniques are being explored as a means to accelerate the recovery of aquatic biota from decades of acid deposition in many regions. The preservation or restoration of native sportfish populations has typically been the impetus for liming programs, and as such, less attention has been given to its effects on other biological assemblages such as macroinvertebrates. Furthermore, the differing effects of various lime application strategies such as in-stream and watershed applications are not well understood. In 2012, a program was initiated using in-stream and aerial (whole-watershed) liming to improve water quality and Brook Trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) recruitment in three acidified tributaries of a high-elevation Adirondack lake in New York State. Concurrently, macroinvertebrates were sampled annually between 2013 and 2016 at 3 treated sites and 3 untreated reference sites to assess the effects of each liming technique on this community. Despite improvements in water chemistry in all three limed streams, our results generally suggest that neither liming technique succeeded in improving the condition of macroinvertebrate communities. The watershed application caused an immediate and unsustained decrease in the density of macroinvertebrates and increase in the proportion of sensitive taxa. These changes were driven primarily by a one-year 71 percent reduction of the acid-tolerant Leuctra stoneflies and likely represent an initial chemistry shock from the lime application rather than a recovery response. The in-stream applications appeared to reduce the density of macroinvertebrates, particularly in one stream where undissolved lime covered the natural substrate. The close proximity of our study sites to the in-stream application points (50 and 1230 m) may partly explain these negative effects. Our results are consistent with prior studies of in-stream liming which indicate that this technique often fails to restore macroinvertebrate communities to a pre

  4. Aquatic macroinvertebrates of Batalha river reservoir for water captation and supply of the city of Bauru, SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Calcidoni Moreira

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study the composition and diversity of aquatic macroinvertebrates were evaluated in the reservoir of water captation of Batalha river for treatment and supplying of the city of Bauru. The samples were collected in dry (from June to August, 2005 and rainy (from December, 2005 to February, 2006 seasons. We analyzed and identified 840 organisms belonging to 8 taxa in dry season and 4 taxa in rainy season. The system presented low abundance and diversity of macroinvertebrates probably due to the water quality and its physical and chemical variations associated with rain events.

  5. Macroinvertebrate assemblages and biodiversity levels: ecological role of constructed wetlands and artificial ponds in a natural park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Sartori

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 14 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Constructed wetlands play an important role in water supply, floodwater retention and nutrient removal, at the same time allowing the restoration of lost habitat and the preservation of biodiversity. There is little knowledge about the biodiversity that can be found in these artificial environments along time, especially at the invertebrate community level. Macroinvertebrate assemblages, water chemistry, morphology, and environmental characteristics of natural ponds, artificial pools and constructed wetlands in Parco Pineta (Northern Italy were studied to evaluate the effects of local factors on macroinvertebrate communities. The objective was to verify if each ecosystem could equally contribute to local biodiversity, regardless of its natural or artificial origin. Principal Components Analysis showed that ponds were divided into clusters, based on their morphology and their water quality, independently from their origin. The composition of macroinvertebrate communities was similar among natural wetlands and ponds artificially created to provide new habitats in the park, while it was different among natural wetlands and constructed wetlands created for wastewater treatment purposes. Biodiversity of natural ponds and constructed wetlands, evaluated using taxa richness, Shannon index, and Pielou index, was comparable. Canonical Correspondence Analysis highlighted differences in macroinvertebrate community composition and pointed out the relationships among macroinvertebrates and various environmental variables: habitat heterogeneity resulted as the most relevant factor that influences taxa richness. Water quality also affects the macroinvertebrate community structure. We determined that constructed wetlands with higher pollutant concentrations show different assemblage compositions but comparable overall macroinvertebrate biodiversity. Constructed wetlands became valuable ecological elements

  6. THE INFLUENCE OF POST-FLOTATION TAILINGS POND “WARTOWICE” (LOWER SILESIA ON THE BIODIVERSITY OF MACROINVERTEBRATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Rybak

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the biodiversity studies on macroinvertebrates were conducted in the area post-flotation tailings pond “Wartowice”, which poses a serious threat to the environment. The analysis of the biodiversity was done with two methods: the use of biodiversity indices along with taxonomic identification to family level and with the application of morphospecies method. Both were assessed concerning their usefulness. Macrofauna was sampled in a five sites characterized by different level of pollution. We found the dependence of macroinvertebrates structure on habitat type. Both methods, although not very accurate, were found suitable for the assessment of such disturbance type.

  7. Assessing disruption of longitudinal connectivity on macroinvertebrate assemblages in a semiarid lowland river

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Leiva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim: Our aim in this study was evaluate the effects of flow regulation for irrigation on the macroinvertebrate assemblages in a semiarid river. Methods We sampled two reaches in Dulce River; one placed upstream a weir that diverts flow into a network of irrigation channels and the other downstream that weir, in the assessment of the fluvial discontinuity. We assess the differences among reaches and sites, environmental variables, invertebrate density, richness and Shannon-Wiener index applying non-parametric analyses of variance Kruskal Wallis. The similarity percentage analysis (SIMPER was used to identify which species contributed to the dissimilarities on macroinvertebrate assemblage structure. Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA was performed with the total set of samples to explore macroinvertebrate distribution in reaches and associations of the assemblages with habitat variables. Results The density, richness and Shannon index values did not show differences between the reaches located upstream and downstream. Beta diversity (Whittaker was 0.72 among upstream sites, 0.56 among downstream sites and higher species turnover (0.73 was obtained between both reaches. The Canonical Correspondence Analysis explained 46.71% of the variance differentiating upstream sites explained by higher values of organic matter of bottom sediments and discharge, high density of Nais communis, Bothrioneurum americanum, Pelomus, Stephensoniana trivandrana, Pristina menoni, P. jenkinae, P.longidentata, P. americana, Dero obtusa, Endotribelos, Heleobia and Turbellaria. The downstream sites were associated to coarser substratum and higher density of Lopescladius, Polypedilum, Cricotopus, Thienamaniella, Cryptochironomus, Baetidae, Nematoda and Corbicula fluminea. Conclusions The low-flow disturbance had effects on the composition of the benthic invertebrate assemblages, but attributes (such as density and richness showed a lower variability probably

  8. Stream macroinvertebrate communities across a gradient of natural gas development in the Fayetteville Shale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Erica; Austin, Bradley J; Inlander, Ethan; Gallipeau, Cory; Evans-White, Michelle A; Entrekin, Sally

    2015-10-15

    Oil and gas extraction in shale plays expanded rapidly in the U.S. and is projected to expand globally in the coming decades. Arkansas has doubled the number of gas wells in the state since 2005 mostly by extracting gas from the Fayetteville Shale with activity concentrated in mixed pasture-deciduous forests. Concentrated well pads in close proximity to streams could have adverse effects on stream water quality and biota if sedimentation associated with developing infrastructure or contamination from fracturing fluid and waste occurs. Cumulative effects of gas activity and local habitat conditions on macroinvertebrate communities were investigated across a gradient of gas well activity (0.2-3.6 wells per km(2)) in ten stream catchments in spring 2010 and 2011. In 2010, macroinvertebrate density was positively related to well pad inverse flowpath distance from streams (r=0.84, pgas activity close to streams. However, stream water turbidity (r=0.69, p=0.02) and chlorophyll a (r=0.89, pgas well activities. In 2011, a year with record spring flooding, a different pattern emerged where mayfly density (p=0.74, p=0.01) and mayfly, stonefly, and caddisfly richness (r=0.78, p=0.008) increased in streams with greater well density and less silt cover. Hydrology and well pad placement in a catchment may interact to result in different relationships between biota and catchment activity between the two sample years. Our data show evidence of different macroinvertebrate communities expressed in catchments with different levels of gas activity that reinforce the need for more quantitative analyses of cumulative freshwater-effects from oil and gas development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of acid mine drainage on water, sediment and associated benthic macroinvertebrate communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutherford, L.G.; Cherry, D.S.; Dobbs, M.G.; Cairns, J. Jr.; Zipper, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    The toxic constituents of abandoned mined land (AML) discharges (acidic pH, heavy metals, total suspended solids) are extremely toxic to aquatic life . Studies were undertaken to ascertain environmental impacts to the upper Powell River, Lee and Wise Counties, Va. These impacts included disruptions in physical water quality, sediment quality, altered benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages, and toxicity of the water column and sediments from short-term impairment bioassays, and the potential to bioaccumulate selected metals (Al, Fe, Mn, P, Zn, Cu, Mg, S, Ni, Cd) by periphyton and resident bivalves. Water chemistry and macroinvertebrate assemblages were collected at upstream control, just below acid mine drainage and other downstream sites. Selected trace metal concentrations (Al, Fe, Mn, P, Zn, Cu, Mg, S, Ni, Cd) were determined for water, sediment and resident bivalves using ICP-AES. Acidic pH ranged from 2.15--3.3 at three AML-influenced seeps and varied from 6.4--8.0 at reference stations. At one AML-influenced creek, acidic pH conditions worsened from summer to fall and eradicated aquatic life throughout a 1.5 km stretch of that creek as it flowed into another creek. An additional dilution of 3.4 km in the second creek was needed to nearly neutralize the acidic pH problem. Conductivity (umhos/cm) ranged from 32--278 at reference sites and from 245--4,180 at AML-impact sites. Benthic macroinvertebrate abundance and taxon richness were essentially eliminated in the seeps or reached numbers of 1 -3 taxa totaling < 10 organisms relative to reference areas where richness values were 12--17 and comprised 300--977 organisms. Concentrations of Fe, Al, Mg and Cu and Zn were highest in the environmentally stressed stations of low pH and high conductivity relative to the reference stations. Iron was, by far, the element in highest concentration followed by Al and Mg

  10. The impact of sediment removal on the aquatic macroinvertebrate assemblage in a fishpond littoral zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeněk ADÁMEK

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Bottom sediment removal, a widely used technique in restoration management of standing water bodies, has a strong influence on communities of aquatic organisms. As most information on the impact of sediment removal on the aquatic environment comes from studies on lakes, the aim of this study was to describe macroinvertebrate assemblage succession in a fishpond (Štěpánek fishpond, Bohemian-Moravian highlands, Czech Republic littoral zone following restoration by sediment removal during the winter of 2003/2004. Semi-quantitative hand net sampling was undertaken one year before (2003 and in each of the following five years (2004–2008 after sediment removal. A significant decrease in both abundance (approx. 90% of individuals and diversity (approx. 30% of taxa of macroinvertebrates was detected immediately after pond restoration. The values gradually increased over subsequent years, reaching comparable abundance and diversity three years after sediment removal. A significant shift was recorded in the taxonomic and functional composition of the macroinvertebrate assemblage after sediment removal. Mayfly larvae were the dominant invertebrates before restoration, while chironomid larvae and oligochaetes dominated after sediment removal. Phytophilous taxa, grazers and scrapers, and swimming or diving invertebrates were common in 2003, whilst open-water taxa preferring mud and other mostly inorganic microhabitats, gatherers/collectors, and burrowing/boring invertebrates were relatively common after sediment removal. In 2008, the assemblage reverted towards the situation before sediment removal, probably connected with a lower water level and accelerated macrophyte bed succession. Principal Component Analysis on the species data confirmed the differences in invertebrate taxonomic structure among sampling years. Succession of the fishpond invertebrate assemblage in the years following sediment removal was mainly influenced by fish farming practice and

  11. Response of benthic macroinvertebrate communities to highway construction in an Appalachian watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedrick, Lara B.; Welsh, S.A.; Anderson, James T.; Lin, L.-S.; Chen, Y.; Wei, X.

    2010-01-01

    Highway construction in mountainous areas can result in sedimentation of streams, negatively impacting stream habitat, water quality, and biotic communities. We assessed the impacts of construction of a segment of Corridor H, a four-lane highway, in the Lost River watershed, West Virginia, by monitoring benthic macroinvertebrate communities and water quality, before, during, and after highway construction and prior to highway use at upstream and downstream sites from 1997 through 2007. Data analysis of temporal impacts of highway construction followed a Before-After-Control-Impact (BACI) study design. Highway construction impacts included an increase in stream sedimentation during the construction phase. This was indicated by an increase in turbidity and total suspended solids. Benthic macroinvertebrate metrics indicated a community more tolerant during and after construction than in the period before construction. The percent of Chironomidae and the Hilsenhoff Biotic Index (HBI) increased, while percent of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera (EPT) decreased. Our 10-year study addressed short-term impacts of highway construction and found that impacts were relatively minimal. A recovery of the number of EPT taxa collected after construction indicated that the benthic macroinvertebrate community may be recovering from impacts of highway construction. However, this study only addressed a period of 3 years before, 3 years during, and 4 years post construction. Inferences cannot be made concerning the long-term impacts of the highway, highway traffic, runoff, and other factors associated with highway use. Continual monitoring of the watershed is necessary to determine if the highway has a continual impact on stream habitat, water quality, and biotic integrity. ?? 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  12. Long-Term Benthic Macroinvertebrate Community Monitoring to Assess Pollution Abatement Effectiveness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, John G [ORNL; Brandt, Craig C [ORNL; Christensen, Sigurd W [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    The benthic macroinvertebrate community of East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) in East Tennessee was monitored for 18 years to evaluate the effectiveness of a water pollution control program implemented at a major United States (U.S.) Department of Energy facility. Several actions were implemented to reduce and control releases of pollutants into the headwaters of the stream. Four of the most significant actions were implemented during different time periods, which allowed assessment of each action. Macroinvertebrate samples were collected annually in April from three locations in EFPC (EFK24, EFK23, and EFK14) and two nearby reference streams from 1986 through 2003. Significant improvements occurred in the macroinvertebrate community at the headwater sites (EFK24 and EFK23) after implementation of each action, while changes detected 9 km further downstream (EFK14) could not be clearly attributed to any of the actions. Because the stream was impacted at its origin, invertebrate recolonization was primarily limited to aerial immigration, thus, recovery has been slow. As recovery progressed, abundances of small pollution-tolerant taxa (e.g., Orthocladiinae chironomids) decreased and longer lived taxa colonized (e.g., hydropsychid caddisflies, riffle beetles, Baetis). While assessments lasting three to four years may be long enough to detect a response to new pollution controls at highly impacted locations, more time may be needed to understand the full effects. Studies on the effectiveness of pollution controls can be improved if impacted and reference sites are selected to maximize spatial and temporal trending, and if a multidisciplinary approach is used to broadly assess environmental responses (e.g., water quality trends, invertebrate and fish community assessments, toxicity testing, etc.).

  13. Benthic macroinvertebrates along the soil/water interface of the HUMEX lake 1989-1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hargeby, A.; Petersen, R.C. Jr.; Kullberg, A.; Svensson, M. (Univ. of Lund (Sweden))

    1992-01-01

    The taxonomic composition, abundance, and size distribution of benthic macroinvertebrates were studied at the soil/water interface two years before and the first year after the start of artificial acidification of a small catchment and its humic lake. The macroinvertebrate assemblage consisted mainly of predators; dragonflies (Odonata), damselflies (Zygoptera), net-building caddisflies (Polycentropodidae), diving beetles (Dytiscidae), and water bugs (Hemiptera). It is suggested that benthic and planktonic microcrustaceans are important prey for damselflies and that intraguild predation is important for the structure of the community. The typical bog tarn assemblage did not include snails, mussels, or macrocrustaceans, which are algae and detritus feeders known to be affected by low pH. The only potential herbivores on filaments algae and shredders of coarse detritus were case building caddisflies and the ephemeropteran Leptophlebia vespertina, which were all found in low numbers. If the artificial acidification will eliminate these macroinvertebrates, it will have little impact on attached filaments algae, and on processing of coarse detritus. Although there was a general similarity in taxonomic structure on the two sides, significantly higher numbers of dytiscids (Acilius sulcatus and Ilybius spp.) were consistently found on the experimental side than on the control side through the three years of study. The first year after acidification, the number of Zygoptera was lower on the experimental side than on the control side. The abundance on the control side in this year was, however, also higher than in the previous two years. The size distribution of Coenagrion hastulatum, the dominating zygopteran, showed no difference between lake sides. Significant difference between years indicate, however, that size distribution could be used to detect altered growth conditions. 20 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Field experiments on responses of a freshwater, benthic macroinvertebrate community to vertebrate predators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorp, J.H.; Bergey, E.A.

    1981-01-01

    The seasonal importance of vertebrate predators in potentially regulating the abundance and diversity of the benthic macroinvertebrates in the littoral zone of a soft-bottom reservoir that receives thermal effluent from a nuclear production reactor was examined. Thirty-six predator (fish and turtle) exclusion cages (4 m 2 ) were placed in shallow water at six locations along a thermal gradient in Par Pond, a 1100-ha cooling reservoir on the Savannah River Plant near Aiken, South Carolina, USA. An additional 36 control plots (4 m 2 ) were also set up. Cages were in place during three, 3-mo test periods beginning in September 1977. Estimates of benthic density, taxon richness, and distribution within functional groups (defined by feeding mechanism) were calculated for each test period. Effects of temperature on predator-prey relationships were also determined. Experimental results of this study suggest that vertebrate predation was not the fundamental parameter organizing the benthic macroinvertebrate community in the littoral zone of this reservoir. Neither taxon richness nor density of total macroinvertebrates was conclusively related to predator treatment. Relationships between predator treatment and community response (changes in density and taxon richness) were generally unaffected by either plot locality, temperature fluctuations from thermal effluent, or seasonal changes. When data from caged and control plots were pooled, however, both location and water temperature individually had direct impacts on the benthic community. From these results and other field studies it is hypothesized that individual species of keystone benthic predators do not occur in the littoral zone of freshwater lentic environments with soft bottoms

  15. Success factors for implementing and sustaining a mature electronic medical record in a low-resource setting: a case study of iSanté in Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    deRiel, E; Puttkammer, N; Hyppolite, N; Diallo, J; Wagner, S; Honoré, J G; Balan, J G; Celestin, N; Vallès, J S; Duval, N; Thimothé, G; Boncy, J; Coq, N R L; Barnhart, S

    2018-03-01

    Electronic health information systems, including electronic medical records (EMRs), have the potential to improve access to information and quality of care, among other things. Success factors and challenges for novel EMR implementations in low-resource settings have increasingly been studied, although less is known about maturing systems and sustainability. One systematic review identified seven categories of implementation success factors: ethical, financial, functionality, organizational, political, technical and training. This case study applies this framework to iSanté, Haiti's national EMR in use in more than 100 sites and housing records for more than 750 000 patients. The author group, consisting of representatives of different agencies within the Haitian Ministry of Health (MSPP), funding partner the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Haiti, and implementing partner the International Training and Education Center for Health (I-TECH), identify successes and lessons learned according to the seven identified categories, and propose an additional cross-cutting category, sustainability. Factors important for long-term implementation success of complex information systems are balancing investments in hardware and software infrastructure upkeep, user capacity and data quality control; designing and building a system within the context of the greater eHealth ecosystem with a plan for interoperability and data exchange; establishing system governance and strong leadership to support local system ownership and planning for system financing to ensure sustainability. Lessons learned from 10 years of implementation of the iSanté EMR system are relevant to sustainability of a full range of increasingly interrelated information systems (e.g. for laboratory, supply chain, pharmacy and human resources) in the health sector in low-resource settings. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene

  16. Distribution of macroinvertebrates on intertidal rocky shores in Gorgona Island, Colombia (Tropical Eastern Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgardo Londoño-Cruz

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Organisms found on rocky shores must endure harsh environmental conditions during tidal changes but scientific studies on tropical rocky shores are scarce, particularly in Colombian shores. Here we describe the spatial distribution of macroinvertebrates associated to the intertidal rocky ecosystems of Gorgona Island, Colombia (Tropical Eastern Pacific. Sampling was carried out in four localities around the Island: La Ventana and La Camaronera (sampled during October 2010 and La Mancora and El Muelle (sampled during March 2011. Two methodologies were used: rapid ecological assessments for qualitative data and quadrats for quantitative data. The richness, abundance, diversity (Shannon-Wiener H’, and evenness (Pielou J’ of macroinvertebrates were determined for and compared between, using one way ANOVA, each locality and the three intertidal zones of La Ventana (see methods. One hundred twenty-one species of macroinvertebrates were found during the sampling period. In all localities, Mollusca was the richest and most abundant taxon (46% of the species and 59% of the individuals, followed by Crustacea (32% of the species and 33% of the individuals. The other groups accounted for the remaining 22% of the richness and 8% of the abundance. Several studies have demonstrated that mollusks and crustaceans are the richest and most abundant taxa in marine benthic communities. Most of the abundant species found were herbivores. The species composition varied among zones. The results of dominant species for each zone are consistent with the ones observed in other tropical rocky intertidal shores. All response variables showed a decreasing pattern from the low to the high intertidal (in La Ventana. Post-hoc results indicated that the high intertidal, the zone with the harshest environmental conditions, had significantly lower values than the other two zones for all response variables. Comparisons between the low intertidal zones of the different localities

  17. Seagrass habitat complexity and macroinvertebrate abundance in Lakshadweep coral reef lagoons, Arabian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Z. A.; Rivonker, C. U.; Ramani, P.; Parulekar, A. H.

    1991-09-01

    Macrofauna of seagrass community in the five Lakshadweep atolls were studied and compared. The associated epifaunal and infaunal taxa comprising nine major taxonomic groups, showed significant differences in the total number of individuals (1041 8411 m-2) among sites and habitats. The density of macrofauna was directly related to mean macrophytic biomass (405 895 g wet wt. m-2). The fauna was dominated by epifaunal polychaetes, amphipods and isopods in the vegetated areas. When compared with the density of nearby unvegetated areasleft( {bar x = 815{text{m }}^{ - 2} } right), seagrass meadows harbour a denser and richer macroinvertebrate assemblageleft( {bar x = 4023{text{m }}^{ - 2} } right).

  18. Influence of benthic macro-invertebrate bioturbation on the biogeochemical behaviour of uranium within freshwater sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagauzere, S.

    2008-06-01

    In freshwater ecosystems, sediments act as an accumulation compartment for metallic pollutants as uranium. Secondary, there can also represent endogenous sources of contamination by resuspension (e.g. flood, bioturbation) or changes of metal speciation that acts upon their bioavailability. Indeed, metallic compounds can be transformed in more or less toxic or inert compounds through physico-chemical (e.g. pH, redox conditions, ionic force) and microbiological variations. These conditions are themselves under the effects of benthic macro-invertebrate activities via bioturbation processes. The main objective of this PhD was to determinate the influence of two benthic macro-invertebrate species (Chironomus riparius and Tubifex tubifex) on the distribution and the transfers of uranium within freshwater sediments. To reach this goal, laboratory experiments were performed in order to (i) assess the effects of uranium on benthic macro-invertebrates, more particularly on their bioturbation activity, (ii) determine the influence of these organisms on uranium behaviour through high resolution physico-chemical measurements (e.g. oxygen optodes, DET gel probes), and (iii) estimate the consequences of these interactions on pelagic organisms via genotoxicity measurements (micronuclei assay and molecular bio-markers analysis on Xenopus laevis). The results demonstrate that bioturbation intensity of macro-invertebrates can be affected in uranium-contaminated sediments, but the two species studied in this work show a relative tolerance. For high uranium concentrations (>100 times the geochemical background level), corresponding however to realistic concentrations in highly contaminated sites, T. tubifex worms are able to maintain a sufficient bioturbation activity that induces a high remobilization of uranium initially associated with sediments to the overlying water (factor 2 to 10). That represents therefore a potential risk for the remaining aquatic biocenose. However, by

  19. Mesohabitat mosaic in lowland braided rivers: Short-term variability of macroinvertebrate metacommunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Burgazzi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Braided rivers are among the most variable and dynamic riverine systems. Changes in these environments are sudden and frequent, driven by the high hydrological variability. They host high levels of local heterogeneity, with many different habitats in close proximity establishing a mosaic of patches. This provides the conditions for high levels of biodiversity, with strong community variability in particular among the different habitats at the stream-reach level. Nevertheless, these systems are still poorly studied and their complexity is often not taken into account in biomonitoring protocols. We applied mixed effects modelling, spatial ordination techniques and beta-diversity partitioning (into nestedness and turnover components with the aim of improving the knowledge of braided rivers, investigating: i the organization of macroinvertebrate communities among the different habitats of a river reach, and ii the temporal variability of this organization (both among seasons and during summer. We predicted a differentiation of macroinvertebrate communities between distinct habitats within rivers, with this differentiation increasing during the low-flow period. We carried out our study in four braided rivers and streams of the Po River basin (Northern Italy sampling three different kinds of mesohabitats (main channel, secondary channel and pool in eight stations during seven campaigns from June 2015 to April 2016. We found a high variability of taxa richness, abundance and community structure among mesohabitats, with marginal ones accounting for the greater part of macroinvertebrate diversity. Secondary channels resulted as being the habitat hosting greater taxa diversity, with 10 exclusive taxa. Surprisingly the mesohabitat communities differed greatly during the seasonal phase, whereas their dissimilarity decreased during summer. This could be explained considering the summer flow reduction as a homogenizing force, leading to a general loss of the

  20. Experimental acidification of two biogeochemically-distinct neotropical streams: Buffering mechanisms and macroinvertebrate drift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ardón, Marcelo; Duff, John H.; Ramírez, Alonso; Small, Gaston E.; Jackman, Alan P.; Triska, Frank J.; Pringle, Catherine M.

    2013-01-01

    Research into the buffering mechanisms and ecological consequences of acidification in tropical streams is lacking. We have documented seasonal and episodic acidification events in streams draining La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica. Across this forested landscape, the severity in seasonal and episodic acidification events varies due to interbasin groundwater flow (IGF). Streams that receive IGF have higher concentrations of solutes and more stable pH (∼ 6) than streams that do not receive IGF (pH ∼ 5). To examine the buffering capacity and vulnerability of macroinvertebrates to short-term acidification events, we added hydrochloric acid to acidify a low-solute, poorly buffered (without IGF) and a high-solute, well buffered stream (with IGF). We hypothesized that: 1) protonation of bicarbonate (HCO 3 − ) would neutralize most of the acid added in the high-solute stream, while base cation release from the sediments would be the most important buffering mechanism in the low-solute stream; 2) pH declines would mobilize inorganic aluminum (Ali) from sediments in both streams; and 3) pH declines would increase macroinvertebrate drift in both streams. We found that the high-solute stream neutralized 745 μeq/L (96% of the acid added), while the solute poor stream only neutralized 27.4 μeq/L (40%). Protonation of HCO 3 − was an important buffering mechanism in both streams. Base cation, Fe 2+ , and Ali release from sediments and protonation of organic acids also provided buffering in the low-solute stream. We measured low concentrations of Ali release in both streams (2-9 μeq/L) in response to acidification, but the low-solute stream released double the amount Ali per 100 μeq of acid added than the high solute stream. Macroinvertebrate drift increased in both streams in response to acidification and was dominated by Ephemeroptera and Chironomidae. Our results elucidate the different buffering mechanisms in tropical streams and suggest that low

  1. Experimental acidification of two biogeochemically-distinct neotropical streams: Buffering mechanisms and macroinvertebrate drift

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ardón, Marcelo, E-mail: ardonsayaom@ecu.edu [Department of Biology and North Carolina Center for Biodiversity, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC 27858 (United States); Duff, John H. [U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Ramírez, Alonso [Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, PR 00931 (Puerto Rico); Small, Gaston E. [Department of Ecology, Evolution, and Behavior, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108 (United States); Jackman, Alan P. [University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Triska, Frank J. [U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Pringle, Catherine M. [Odum School of Ecology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602 (United States)

    2013-01-15

    Research into the buffering mechanisms and ecological consequences of acidification in tropical streams is lacking. We have documented seasonal and episodic acidification events in streams draining La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica. Across this forested landscape, the severity in seasonal and episodic acidification events varies due to interbasin groundwater flow (IGF). Streams that receive IGF have higher concentrations of solutes and more stable pH (∼ 6) than streams that do not receive IGF (pH ∼ 5). To examine the buffering capacity and vulnerability of macroinvertebrates to short-term acidification events, we added hydrochloric acid to acidify a low-solute, poorly buffered (without IGF) and a high-solute, well buffered stream (with IGF). We hypothesized that: 1) protonation of bicarbonate (HCO{sub 3}{sup −}) would neutralize most of the acid added in the high-solute stream, while base cation release from the sediments would be the most important buffering mechanism in the low-solute stream; 2) pH declines would mobilize inorganic aluminum (Ali) from sediments in both streams; and 3) pH declines would increase macroinvertebrate drift in both streams. We found that the high-solute stream neutralized 745 μeq/L (96% of the acid added), while the solute poor stream only neutralized 27.4 μeq/L (40%). Protonation of HCO{sub 3}{sup −} was an important buffering mechanism in both streams. Base cation, Fe{sup 2+}, and Ali release from sediments and protonation of organic acids also provided buffering in the low-solute stream. We measured low concentrations of Ali release in both streams (2-9 μeq/L) in response to acidification, but the low-solute stream released double the amount Ali per 100 μeq of acid added than the high solute stream. Macroinvertebrate drift increased in both streams in response to acidification and was dominated by Ephemeroptera and Chironomidae. Our results elucidate the different buffering mechanisms in tropical streams and

  2. Evidence for responses in water chemistry and macroinvertebrates in a strongly acidified mountain stream

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Beneš, F.; Horecký, J.; Senoo, T.; Kamasová, L.; Lamačová, Anna; Tátosová, J.; Hardekopf, D. W.; Stuchlík, Evžen

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 72, č. 9 (2017), s. 1049-1058 ISSN 0006-3088 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-05935S; GA ČR(CZ) GA15-08124S Institutional support: RVO:86652079 ; RVO:60077344 Keywords : acidified mountain stream * macroinvertebrates * logging * hydrological patterns * recovery Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour; EH - Ecology, Behaviour (BC-A) OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7); Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7) (BC-A) Impact factor: 0.759, year: 2016

  3. Spatial variation in lake benthic macroinvertebrate ecological assessment: a synthesis of European case studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandin, Leif Leonard; Solimini, Angelo G.

    2012-01-01

    macroinvertebrate community composition and natural and human induced environmental variables (eutrophication, catchment land-use, and hydromorphological pressures) were studied. This was done in different lake habitats (the profundal, sublittoral, and littoral) in five regions of Europe (Alpine, Northern, Central...... local invertebrate assemblages. In this issue we provide a contribution towards the understanding of basic sources of spatial variation of invertebrate assemblages in different European lake habitat types and their relationship with major human pressures. All papers have an obvious applied objective...... and our aim is to provide useful information for designing monitoring programs and invertebrate based ecological classification tools with the ultimate aim to improve a sound management of European lake ecosystems....

  4. Selection and Evaluation of Electronic Resources Elektronik Kaynakların Seçimi ve Değerlendirilmesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doğan Atılgan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Publication boom and issues related to controlling and accession of printed sources have created some problems after World War II. Consequently, publishing industry has encountered the problem of finding possible solution for emerged situation. Industry of electronic publishing has started to improve with the rapid increase of the price of printed sources as well as the problem of publication boom. The first effects of electronic publishing were appeared on the academic and scholarly publications then electronic publishing became a crucial part of all types of publications. As a result of these developments, collection developments and service policies of information centers were also significantly changed. In this article, after a general introduction about selection and evaluation processes of electronic publications, the subscribed databases by a state and a privately owned university in Turkey and their usage were examined. İkinci dünya savaşından sonra görülen yayın patlaması, basılı kaynakların denetim ve erişiminde sorunlar yaşanmasına neden olmuştur. Bu da yayıncılık sektöründe yeni arayışlara yol açmıştır. 1980’li yıllardan sonra basılı yayın fiyatlarındaki hızlı artış da bu etmenlere eklenince elektronik yayıncılık sektörü gelişmeye başlamıştır. Öncelikle bilimsel ve akademik yayınlarla başlayan elektronik yayın günümüzde tüm yayın türlerini kapsamaktadır. Yayıncılıktaki bu gelişim bilgi merkezlerinin derme geliştirme ve hizmet politikalarını da önemli ölçüde değiştirmiştir. Bu çalışmada elektronik yayınların seçim, değerlendirme ve sağlama konularında genel bir girişten sonra bir devlet üniversitesinin bir de özel üniversitenin abone olduğu veritabanları ve bu veri tabanlarının kullanımının değerlendirilmesi yapılmaktadır.

  5. Data compilation and assessment for water resources in Pennsylvania state forest and park lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeone, Daniel G.

    2011-01-01

    As a result of a cooperative study between the U.S. Geological Survey and the Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources (PaDCNR), available electronic data were compiled for Pennsylvania state lands (state forests and parks) to allow PaDCNR to initially determine if data exist to make an objective evaluation of water resources for specific basins. The data compiled included water-quantity and water-quality data and sample locations for benthic macroinvertebrates within state-owned lands (including a 100-meter buffer around each land parcel) in Pennsylvania. In addition, internet links or contacts for geographic information system coverages pertinent to water-resources studies also were compiled. Water-quantity and water-quality data primarily available through January 2007 were compiled and summarized for site types that included streams, lakes, ground-water wells, springs, and precipitation. Data were categorized relative to 35 watershed boundaries defined by the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection for resource-management purposes. The primary sources of continuous water-quantity data for Pennsylvania state lands were the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the National Weather Service (NWS). The USGS has streamflow data for 93 surface-water sites located in state lands; 38 of these sites have continuous-recording data available. As of January 2007, 22 of these 38 streamflow-gaging stations were active; the majority of active gaging stations have over 40 years of continuous record. The USGS database also contains continuous ground-water elevation data for 32 wells in Pennsylvania state lands, 18 of which were active as of January 2007. Sixty-eight active precipitation stations (primarily from the NWS network) are located in state lands. The four sources of available water-quality data for Pennsylvania state lands were the USGS, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (PaDEP), and

  6. Ecological response of a multi-purpose river development project using macro-invertebrates richness and fish habitat value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellaud, M.

    2007-05-01

    It has been acknowledged that river morphology and hydrology have been intensively altered due to the anthropic demands in floodplain land use and management, flood protection, promotion of navigability or energy production. Rivers were transformed in water highways, having lost contact with their surrounding floodplain as well as the plethora of ecological processes and occupants once thriving in these ecotonal zones. The identification of this emerging threat of morphological and hydrological alteration on ecological integrity adds further complexity in the exploitation of hydrosystem resources. These resources are heavily coveted and guarded by different lobbies each having strategic views on future project development. Stakeholders may want to promote hydro-electricity, ecologists a natural reserve, communes may wish to have an increased flood protection and leisure promoters a nautical center. As a result, the proposition of a river development project is certain to face opposition of one party or the other. The motivations of this dissertation are anchored in this context, where various and sometimes conflicting potentials for hydrosystem exploitation remain. This works aims at contributing scientifically to an innovative approach at the conception phase of a multi-purpose river development project by developing the ecological module to be implemented in the general project's optimizer. The SYNERGIE project hypothesis is that it should be possible to identify a synergetic pattern joining the interests of ecological integrity, flood safety, energy production and leisure development. Such a multi-objective river development project would stand more chance of acceptance. This dissertation focuses on the ecological aspects of such a river development project and an application on the regulated Swiss Upper Rhone River. Is expected an ecological answer to a river development project design / management which has to be compatible with Heller's Heller (2007) general

  7. Macroinvertebrate response to acid mine drainage: community metrics and on-line behavioural toxicity bioassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerhardt, A.; Janssens de Bisthoven, L.; Soares, A.M.V.M.

    2004-01-01

    The hypothesis is tested that toxicity of acid mine drainage can be detected by a selection of existing macroinvertebrate community and bioindicator metrices supplemented by toxicity tests with the local mosquitofish Gambusia holbrooki Girard and the shrimp Atyaephyra desmaresti Millet. The behavioural responses of A. desmaresti to acid mine drainage were recorded in the Multispecies Freshwater Biomonitor[reg], based on behaviour and survival as parameters. Bioassessment methods were based on community diversity, structure, function, and bioindicators and supplemented by chemical analysis (temperature, pH, metals). The Biological Monitoring Working Party adapted for the Iberian Peninsula, the number of predators (Coleoptera, Hemiptera) and the number of Ephemeroptera and Trichoptera taxa differentiated the sites well. The on-line toxicity test revealed pH-dependent acute toxicity of the acid mine drainage for the shrimp (LC 50 -48 h: pH-AMD=5.8) and a pH- dependent decrease in locomotory activity with the lowest-observed-response-times (LORTs) within 5 h of exposure. Shrimp were more sensitive to acid mine drainage than fish (LC 50 -48 h: pH-AMD=4.9). A new multimetric index combining toxicity testing and bioassessment methods is proposed. - Toxicity of acid mine drainage was evaluated by macroinvertebrate bioassessment and a new on-line rapid behavioural toxicity test with Atyaephyra desmaresti (Crustacea)

  8. Macroinvertebrate response to acid mine drainage: community metrics and on-line behavioural toxicity bioassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerhardt, A.; Janssens de Bisthoven, L.; Soares, A.M.V.M

    2004-07-01

    The hypothesis is tested that toxicity of acid mine drainage can be detected by a selection of existing macroinvertebrate community and bioindicator metrices supplemented by toxicity tests with the local mosquitofish Gambusia holbrooki Girard and the shrimp Atyaephyra desmaresti Millet. The behavioural responses of A. desmaresti to acid mine drainage were recorded in the Multispecies Freshwater Biomonitor[reg], based on behaviour and survival as parameters. Bioassessment methods were based on community diversity, structure, function, and bioindicators and supplemented by chemical analysis (temperature, pH, metals). The Biological Monitoring Working Party adapted for the Iberian Peninsula, the number of predators (Coleoptera, Hemiptera) and the number of Ephemeroptera and Trichoptera taxa differentiated the sites well. The on-line toxicity test revealed pH-dependent acute toxicity of the acid mine drainage for the shrimp (LC{sub 50}-48 h: pH-AMD=5.8) and a pH- dependent decrease in locomotory activity with the lowest-observed-response-times (LORTs) within 5 h of exposure. Shrimp were more sensitive to acid mine drainage than fish (LC{sub 50}-48 h: pH-AMD=4.9). A new multimetric index combining toxicity testing and bioassessment methods is proposed. - Toxicity of acid mine drainage was evaluated by macroinvertebrate bioassessment and a new on-line rapid behavioural toxicity test with Atyaephyra desmaresti (Crustacea)

  9. Impact of heated waters on water quality and macroinvertebrate community in the Narew River (Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krolak Elzbieta

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of heated waters from coal-burning power stations on the water parameters and the occurrence of macroinvertebrates depends on the individual characteristics of the river to which the heated waters are discharged. The objective of the study was to assess the impact of heated water from the Ostrołęka Power Station on selected water properties and the macroinvertebrate community in the Narew River. Samples were collected in years: 2013-2016 along two river stretches: upstream and downstream of the canal. The water temperature was higher and the oxygen concentrations were lower at the downstream sites compared to the upstream sites of the canal. The values of conductivity, concentrations of nitrates, phosphates, chlorides and calcium were similar at the sampling sites. A total of 33 families of macrozoobenthos were found. The numbers of families were positively correlated with the temperature and conductivity and negatively correlated with oxygen. The heated waters were found to have no effect on the Shannon-Wiener diversity index. The inflow of heated waters increased the percentage of Gammaridae, represented by species Dikerogammarus haemobaphes (Eichwald, 1841 and decreased the percentage of Chironomidae. The presence of the thermophilous bivalve Sinanodonta woodiana (Lea, 1934 was noted downstream of the canal.

  10. Assessing the performance of macroinvertebrate metrics in the Challhuaco-Ñireco System (Northern Patagonia, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melina Mauad

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Seven sites were examined in the Challhuaco-Ñireco system, located in the reserve of the Nahuel Huapi National Park, however part of the catchment is urbanized, being San Carlos de Bariloche (150,000 inhabitants placed in the lower part of the basin. Physico-chemical variables were measured and benthic macroinvertebrates were collected during three consecutive years at seven sites from the headwater to the river outlet. Sites near the source of the river were characterised by Plecoptera, Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera and Diptera, whereas sites close to the river mouth were dominated by Diptera, Oligochaeta and Mollusca. Regarding functional feeding groups, collector-gatherers were dominant at all sites and this pattern was consistent among years. Ordination Analysis (RDA revealed that species assemblages distribution responded to the climatic and topographic gradient (temperature and elevation, but also were associated with variables related to human impact (conductivity, nitrate and phosphate contents. Species assemblages at headwaters were mostly represented by sensitive insects, whereas tolerant taxa such as Tubificidae, Lumbriculidae, Chironomidae and crustacean Aegla sp. were dominant at urbanised sites. Regarding macroinvertebrate metrics employed, total richness, EPT taxa, Shannon diversity index and Biotic Monitoring Patagonian Stream index resulted fairly consistent and evidenced different levels of disturbances at the stream, meaning that this measures are suitable for evaluation of the status of Patagonian mountain streams.

  11. Assessment of benthic macroinvertebrates at Nile tilapia production using artificial substrate samplers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. G. Moura e Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract Biomonitoring is a cheap and effective tool for evaluation of water quality, and infer on the balance of aquatic ecosystems. The benthic macroinvertebrates are bioindicators sensitive to environmental changes, and can assist in detecting and preventing impacts such as organic enrichment and imbalance in the food chain. We compared the structure of benthic communities on artificial substrate samplers located in places near and far from net cages for production of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. Samplers were manufactured with nylon net, using substrates such as crushed stone, gravel, loofah and cattail leaves. Samples were collected after 30 days of colonization, rinsed and then the specimens were identified and quantified. The following metrics were calculated: richness of Operational Taxonomic Units, Margalef richness, abundance of individuals, Shannon index and evenness index. The macrobenthic community structure was strongly modified according to the proximity of the net cages. Metrics showed significant differences (p < 0.05 between near and distant sites, for both periods (dry and rainy seasons. The position of the samplers significantly affected the structure of macroinvertebrate community, as near sites showed higher values for the community metrics, such as richness and diversity. Near sites presented a larger number of individuals, observed both in the dry and rainy seasons, with a predominance of Chironomidae (Diptera in the dry season and Tubificidae (Oligochaeta in the rainy season.

  12. Mercury in fish and macroinvertebrates from New York's streams and rivers: A compendium of data sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva-Murray, Karen; Burns, Douglas A.

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has compiled a list of existing data sets, from selected sources, containing mercury (Hg) concentration data in fish and macroinvertebrate samples that were collected from flowing waters of New York State from 1970 through 2014. Data sets selected for inclusion in this report were limited to those that contain fish and (or) macroinvertebrate data that were collected across broad areas, cover relatively long time periods, and (or) were collected as part of a broader-scale (e.g. national) study or program. In addition, all data sets listed were collected, processed, and analyzed with documented methods, and contain critical sample information (e.g. fish species, fish size, Hg species) that is needed to analyze and interpret the reported Hg concentration data. Fourteen data sets, all from state or federal agencies, are listed in this report, along with selected descriptive information regarding each data source and data set contents. Together, these 14 data sets contain Hg and related data for more than 7,000 biological samples collected from more than 700 unique stream and river locations between 1970 and 2014.

  13. Benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages and sediment toxicity testing in the Ely Creek watershed restoration project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soucek, D.J.; Currie, R.J.; Cherry, D.S.; Latimer, H.A.

    1998-01-01

    The Ely Creek watershed in Lee County, Virginia, contains an abundance of abandoned mined land (AML) seeps that contaminate the majority of the creek and its confluence into Big Stone Creek. Contaminated sediments had high concentrations of iron (∼10,000 mg/kg), aluminum (∼1,500 mg/kg), magnesium (∼400 mg/kg) and manganese (∼150 mg/kg). Copper and zinc generally ranged from 3 to 20 mg/kg. Benthic macroinvertebrates surveys at six of 20 sites sampled in the watershed yielded no macroinvertebrates, while eight others had total abundances of 1 to 9 organisms. Four reference sites contained ≥100 organisms and at least 14 different taxa. Laboratory, 10-day survival/impairment sediments tests with Daphnia magna did not support the field data. Mortality of 92 to 100% for D. magna occurred in samples collected from six cities. Daphnid reproduction was more sensitive than laboratory test organism survivorship; however, neither daphnid survivorship nor reproduction were good predictors of taxa richness. Laboratory test concerns included the use of a reference diluent water rather than site specific diluent water

  14. Utility of the electronic information resource UpToDate for clinical decision-making at bedside rounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phua, J; See, K C; Khalizah, H J; Low, S P; Lim, T K

    2012-02-01

    Clinical questions often arise at daily hospital bedside rounds. Yet, little information exists on how the search for answers may be facilitated. The aim of this prospective study was, therefore, to evaluate the overall utility, including the feasibility and usefulness of incorporating searches of UpToDate, a popular online information resource, into rounds. Doctors searched UpToDate for any unresolved clinical questions during rounds for patients in general medicine and respiratory wards, and in the medical intensive care unit of a tertiary teaching hospital. The nature of the questions and the results of the searches were recorded. Searches were deemed feasible if they were completed during the rounds and useful if they provided a satisfactory answer. A total of 157 UpToDate searches were performed during the study period. Questions were raised by all ranks of clinicians from junior doctors to consultants. The searches were feasible and performed immediately during rounds 44% of the time. Each search took a median of three minutes (first quartile: two minutes, third quartile: five minutes). UpToDate provided a useful and satisfactory answer 75% of the time, a partial answer 17% of the time and no answer 9% of the time. It led to a change in investigations, diagnosis or management 37% of the time, confirmed what was originally known or planned 38% of the time and had no effect 25% of the time. Incorporating UpToDate searches into daily bedside rounds was feasible and useful in clinical decision-making.

  15. Response of benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages to round (Neogobius melanostomus, Pallas 1814) and tubenose (Proterorhinus semilunaris, Heckel 1837) goby predation pressure

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikl, Libor; Adámek, Zdeněk; Všetičková, Lucie; Janáč, Michal; Roche, Kevin Francis; Šlapanský, Luděk; Jurajda, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 785, č. 1 (2017), s. 219-232 ISSN 0018-8158 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP505/11/1768 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Invasive species * Gobies * Macroinvertebrates * Impact * European rivers * Diet Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Marine biology, freshwater biology, limnology Impact factor: 2.056, year: 2016

  16. Biodiversity assessment of benthic macroinvertebrates along a reservoir cascade in the lower São Francisco river (northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Callisto

    Full Text Available In order to verify the cascade-system effect in benthic macroinvertebrate communities, and the implications for policy making and proposals for conservation and sustainable use of the lower portion of São Francisco river basin (Bahia State, Brazil, a three-reservoir cascade system including two stretches downstream were studied during dry (June, 1997 and rainy (March, 1998 periods. The dominant groups found were Mollusca (Melanoides tuberculata, Oligochaeta, and Chironomidae larvae. Low Shannon-Wiener and Pielou index values were found, but with no significant difference between the sampling periods. However, density and taxonomic richness were significantly different (t(0.05; 31 = -2.1945; p < 0.05; e t(0.05; 31 = -3.0600; p < 0.01 between the sampling periods, with a reduction in the number of taxaand macroinvertebrate abundance during the rainy period. An increasing gradient in benthic macroinvertebrate community structures was noted along the reservoir cascade from the first reservoir (Apolônio Sales, followed by a decrease downstream from the third reservoir of the system (Xingó. Despite the negative consequences of rapid proliferation of dams, which have caused widespread loss of freshwater habitats, the reservoir cascade system promoted an increase in benthic macroinvertebrate diversity, due to water-quality improvement along the system.

  17. Agricultural Rivers at Risk: Dredging Results in a Loss of Macroinvertebrates. Preliminary Observations from the Narew Catchment, Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateusz Grygoruk

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Ecosystem deterioration in small lowland agricultural rivers that results from river dredging entails a significant threat to the appropriate ecohydrological conditions of these water bodies, expressed as homogenization of habitats and loss of biodiversity. Our study was aimed at a comparison of abundance and taxonomic structure of bottom-dwelling macroinvertebrates in dredged and non-dredged stretches of small lowland rivers and tributaries of the middle Narew River, namely: Czaplinianka, Turośnianka, Dąb, and Ślina. The experimental setup was (1 to collect samples of the bottom material from the river stretches that either persisted in a non-modified state (dredging was not done there in the last few years or had been subjected to river dredging in the year of sampling; and (2 to analyze the abundance and taxonomic structure of macroinvertebrates in the collected samples. The study revealed that at the high level of statistical significance (from p = 0.025 to p = 0.001, the total abundance of riverbed macroinvertebrates in the dredged stretches of the rivers analyzed was approximately 70% lower than in non-dredged areas. We state that the dredging of small rivers in agricultural landscapes seriously affects their ecological status by negatively influencing the concentrations and species richness of benthic macroinvertebrates.

  18. Evaluation of Environmental Factors to Determine the Distribution of Functional Feeding Groups of Benthic Macroinvertebrates Using an Artificial Neural Network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdonschot, P.F.M.

    2008-01-01

    Functional feeding groups (FFGs) of benthic macroinvertebrates are guilds of invertebrate taxa that obtain food in similar ways, regardless of their taxonomic affinities. They can represent a heterogeneous assemblage of benthic fauna and may indicate disturbances of their habitats. The proportion of

  19. LANDSCAPE INFLUENCES ON IN-STREAM BIOTIC INTEGRITY: USE OF MACROINVERTEBRATE METRICS TO IDENTIFY LANDSCAPE STRESSORS IN HEADWATER CATCHMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The biotic integrity of streams is profoundly influenced by quantitative and qualitative features in the landscape of the surrounding catchment. In this study, aquatic macroinvertebrate metrics (e.g., relative abundance of Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera, and/or Plecoptera taxa, or t...

  20. Predicted macroinvertebrate response to water diversion from a montane stream using two-dimensional hydrodynamic models and zero flow approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmquist, Jeffrey G.; Waddle, Terry J.

    2013-01-01

    We used two-dimensional hydrodynamic models for the assessment of water diversion effects on benthic macroinvertebrates and associated habitat in a montane stream in Yosemite National Park, Sierra Nevada Mountains, CA, USA. We sampled the macroinvertebrate assemblage via Surber sampling, recorded detailed measurements of bed topography and flow, and coupled a two-dimensional hydrodynamic model with macroinvertebrate indicators to assess habitat across a range of low flows in 2010 and representative past years. We also made zero flow approximations to assess response of fauna to extreme conditions. The fauna of this montane reach had a higher percentage of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera (%EPT) than might be expected given the relatively low faunal diversity of the study reach. The modeled responses of wetted area and area-weighted macroinvertebrate metrics to decreasing discharge indicated precipitous declines in metrics as flows approached zero. Changes in area-weighted metrics closely approximated patterns observed for wetted area, i.e., area-weighted invertebrate metrics contributed relatively little additional information above that yielded by wetted area alone. Loss of habitat area in this montane stream appears to be a greater threat than reductions in velocity and depth or changes in substrate, and the modeled patterns observed across years support this conclusion. Our models suggest that step function losses of wetted area may begin when discharge in the Merced falls to 0.02 m3/s; proportionally reducing diversions when this threshold is reached will likely reduce impacts in low flow years.

  1. Investigating the influence of heavy metals on macro-invertebrate assemblages using Partial Cononical Correspondence Analysis (pCCA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beasley, Gary; Kneale, Pauline E.

    This paper defines the spectrum of impairment to stream macroinvertebrates arising from urban runoff. Field sampling of stream sediments at 62 sites across Yorkshire, UK was used to investigate the influence of heavy metals and habitat on macroinvertebrate family distribution using partial Canonical Correspondence Analysis (pCCA). Increasing urbanization and trafficking was associated with increasing levels of metal pollution but, even when traffic is light, family numbers can be reduced by 50%. Industrial areas and motorway runoff depress macroinvertebrate numbers but drainage from streets with no off-road parking in residential areas can have similar impacts. The heavy metals in the sediment accounted for approximately 24% of the variation in macroinvertebrate community composition while the physical habitat variables used in RIVPACS (River InVertebrate Prediction And Classification System) (Wright, 2000) accounted for an additional 30%. Zinc and nickel were the main metal influences regardless of the time of sampling; at these sites copper is less than critical. Results agree with those reported in other studies in which families mainly from the orders Ephemeroptera (mayfly), Plecoptera (stonefly) and Tricoptera (caddisfly) displayed metal sensitivity in that they were absent from metal polluted streams. However, within each of these orders, a continuum of sensitivity is evident: this highlights the risks of generalising on orders rather than using family or indeed species data.

  2. Variance in water chemistry parameters in isolated wetlands of Florida, USA, and relationships with macroinvertebrate and diatom community structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eighty small isolated wetlands throughout Florida were sampled in 2005 to explore within-site variability of water chemistry parameters and relate water chemistry to macroinvertebrate and diatom community structure. Three samples or measures of water were collected within each si...

  3. Efficiency of Pollution Tolerance Index (PTI of macroinvertebrates in detecting aquatic pollution in an oxbow lake in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipankar Ghosh

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the efficiency of a macroinvertebrate-based Pollution Tolerance Index (PTI in detecting aquatic pollution in the Chhariganga oxbow lake in India. In this lake, calculated PTIs were compared with results from an array of physicochemical water and sediment parameters and to a macroinvertebrate diversity assessment conducted in parallel for the same lake. The obtained PTI values fell in a range (between 20 and 31 that are indicative of an absence of organic pollution according to the literature, and are normally reported for systems devoid of anthropogenic activity (for instance no monsoonal polluting jute retting activities. However, in the light of the results for the assessed water and sediment physicochemical parameters, and the support of diversity indexes of macroinvertebrates, using data from the same lake, it was possible to conclude that the obtained PTI values do not reflect the true pollution status of this oxbow lake. As PTI values and diversity indexes contradict each other in detecting pollution, it is advised to take both parameters into consideration when using macroinvertebrates to assess aquatic health.

  4. Relationships between soil properties and community structure of soil macroinvertebrates in oak-history forests along an acidic deposition gradient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuperman, R.G. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Assessment Div.

    1996-02-01

    Soil macroinvertebrate communities were studied in ecologically analogous oak-hickory forests across a three-state atmospheric pollution gradient in Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio. The goal was to investigate changes in the community structure of soil fauna in study sites receiving different amounts of acidic deposition for several decades and the possible relationships between these changes and physico-chemical properties of soil. The study revealed significant differences in the numbers of soil animals among the three study sites. The sharply differentiated pattern of soil macroinvertebrate fauna seems closely linked to soil chemistry. Significant correlations of the abundance of soil macroinvertebrates with soil parameters suggest that their populations could have been affected by acidic deposition in the region. Abundance of total soil macroinvertebrates decreased with the increased cumulative loading of acidic deposition. Among the groups most sensitive to deposition were: earthworms gastropods, dipteran larvae, termites, and predatory beetles. The results of the study support the hypothesis that chronic long-term acidic deposition could aversely affect the soil decomposer community which could cause lower organic matter turnover rates leading to an increase in soil organic matter content in high deposition sites.

  5. Macroinvertebrate community structure and function along gradients of physical stream quality and pesticide contamination in Danish streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jes

    to stream are surface runoff and tile drainage giving rise to short pulses of acute contamination strongly coinciding with high levels of precipitation. Field studies indicate that macroinvertebrate community structure can be impacted by pesticides during spraying seasons in May and June, but also...

  6. Assessment of the ecological potential of mine-water treatment wetlands using a baseline survey of macroinvertebrate communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batty, L.C.; Atkin, L.; Manning, D.A.C.

    2005-01-01

    A baseline survey of macroinvertebrate populations in two mine-water treatment wetlands, one treating a net acidic spoil heap discharge and one a net alkaline ferruginous pumped mine water, was undertaken to assess the potential of these systems to provide habitats for faunal communities. Both wetlands were found to be impoverished in comparison to natural wetlands but did sustain a macroinvertebrate community that could support higher organisms. Wetland size and water quality in terms of pH, conductivity and metal concentrations were found to be important factors in determining the quality of the populations supported. Direct toxicity to organisms was unlikely to be the main cause of lower diversity, but the smothering of organisms via the precipitation of iron hydroxides particularly in the early parts of the treatment systems affected macroinvertebrate communities. The presence of areas of open water within the planted systems was found to be important for providing habitats for macroinvertebrates and this should be both a future design and maintenance consideration for environmental managers. - Mine-water treatment wetlands can be engineered to provide habitats for ecological communities

  7. Influence of riparian canopy on macroinvertebrate composition and food habits of juvenile salmonids in several Oregon streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    William R. Meehan

    1996-01-01

    The community composition of macroinvertebrates and the feeding habits of juvenile salmonids were studied in eight Oregon streams. Benthic, drift, sticky trap, and water trap samples were taken over a 3-year period, along with stomach samples of the fish. Samples were taken in stream reaches with and without riparian canopy. Both main effects—fish diet versus...

  8. Differences found in the macroinvertebrate community composition in the presence or absence of the invasive alien crayfish, Orconectes hylas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeland-Riggert, Brandye T.; Cairns, Stefan H.; Poulton, Barry C.; Riggert, Chris M.

    2016-01-01

    Introductions of alien species into aquatic ecosystems have been well documented, including invasions of crayfish species; however, little is known about the effects of these introductions on macroinvertebrate communities. The woodland crayfish (Orconectes hylas (Faxon)) has been introduced into the St. Francis River watershed in southeast Missouri and has displaced populations of native crayfish. The effects of O. hylas on macroinvertebrate community composition were investigated in a fourth-order Ozark stream at two locations, one with the presence of O. hylas and one without. Significant differences between sites and across four sampling periods and two habitats were found in five categories of benthic macroinvertebrate metrics: species richness, percent/composition, dominance/diversity, functional feeding groups, and biotic indices. In most seasons and habitat combinations, the invaded site had significantly higher relative abundance of riffle beetles (Coleoptera: Elmidae), and significantly lower Missouri biotic index values, total taxa richness, and both richness and relative abundance of midges (Diptera: Chironomidae). Overall study results indicate that some macroinvertebrate community differences due to the O. hylas invasion were not consistent between seasons and habitats, suggesting that further research on spatial and temporal habitat use and feeding ecology of Ozark crayfish species is needed to improve our understanding of the effects of these invasions on aquatic communities.

  9. Macroinvertebrates in North American tallgrass prairie soils: effects of fire, mowing, and fertilization on density and biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.A. Callaham; J.M. Blair; T.C. Todd; D.J. Kitchen; M.R. Whiles

    2003-01-01

    The responses of tallgrass prairie plant communities and ecosystem processes to fire and grazing are well characterized. However, responses of invertebrate consumer groups. and particularly soil-dwelling organisms, to these disturbances are not well known. At Konza Prairie Biological Station. we sampled soil macroinvertebrates in 1994 and 1999 as part of a long-term...

  10. Long-Term Changes in the Water Quality and Macroinvertebrate Communities of a Subtropical River in South China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Li

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Subtropical rivers support a highly diverse array of benthic macroinvertebrates. In this study, by combining historical data and new data, we identified specific changes in the Guanlan River, in South China, from 1981 to 2011, and evaluated the effectiveness of an ecological restoration project under highly polluted conditions. From 1981 to 2011, the water quality in the Guanlan River underwent three major stages. With the deterioration of water quality, there was an overall decrease in the species number of macroinvertebrates in the Guanlan River, an increase in macroinvertebrate density, and a reduction of the biodiversity, and a reduction of functional feeding groups. In 2011, after five years of comprehensive remediation, the Guanlan River was somewhat improved. Macroinvertebrate biodiversity in the middle reach of the Guanlan River, where a key ecological restoration engineering project was implemented, did not differ significantly from other sites. This finding indicates that the effectiveness of ecological restoration measures in highly polluted rivers, particularly at the reach-scale, is very limited and even ineffective.

  11. Sources of beta diversity in estuarine benthic macro-invertebrate communities in the Baltic Sea - North Sea transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefson, Alf B.; Göke, Cordula

    Identification of sources of beta diversity, the change of diversity, is important to understand regulation of overall diversity. Additive partitioning of diversity (species richness and expH) compared to random, was performed on a quantitative benthic macro-invertebrate collection of > 400 speci...

  12. Scale-dependence of the correlation between human population and the species richness of stream macro-invertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pecher, C.; Fritz, Susanne; Marini, L.

    2010-01-01

    . This is surprising as EPT are bio-indicators of stream pollution and most local studies report higher species richness of these macro-invertebrates where human influences on water quality are lower. Using a newly collated taxonomic dataset, we studied whether the species richness of EPT is related to human...

  13. Macroinvertebrate communities associated with littoral zone habitats and the influence of environmental factors in Malilangwe Reservoir, Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalu T.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to investigate macroinvertebrate communities so as to understand factors and processes structuring macroinvertebrate communities in a small reservoir, Malilangwe reservoir over seven months (April to October. Sampling was performed by active sweep netting and searching soil sediments. Water temperature, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, pH, ammonia, nitrogen, phosphorus, chemical oxygen demand and macrophyte cover were determined. In total, forty-two macroinvertebrate families belonging to 10 orders were identified amongst 13 macrophyte species and sediments. Thiaridae and Physidae (Mollusca were the dominant and most abundant taxa (57.71% and there were followed by the Hemiptera (27.31%. High indices for sites 1 to 3 for the Simpsons index, the Shannon-Weaver index and evenness were recorded, while low indices were observed for sites 4 to 5, with significant differences being observed among the study site using the Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA test (p < 0.05. Redundancy Analysis revealed that among environmental factors, hydrologically linked parameters such as conductivity, water level and macrophyte cover had the strongest influence on macroinvertebrate distribution.

  14. Richness of littoral macroinvertebrate communities in mountain ponds from NW Spain: what factors does it depend on?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Garcia-Criado

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent researches have started to provide useful information on the littoral macroinvertebrates living in European mountain ponds. However, there is still uncertainty on the factors really shaping their communities. Understanding patterns of biodiversity in these systems is essential for conservation and management purposes. In this paper, we sampled littoral macroinvertebrates at 51 mountain ponds from a wide Spanish region (Castilla y León in order to define which of a set of environmental variables were responsible for differences in richness (genus level or above. One macroinvertebrate sample was collected at each pond (in late June or early July between 2004 and 2008 by kicking and sweeping following a multihabitat time-limited sampling. Twenty-four variables measured at 39 ponds were used to generate a predictive model by multiple linear regression. This model revealed number of habitats and fish stocking as the only significant variables, showing their relative importance against variables traditionally considered to influence richness in mountain ponds and lakes (for example, altitude and pond size. Furthermore, this model accurately predicted richness when tested on a new set of twelve ponds. Additional data analyses proved that neither altitude nor habitat type significantly influenced macroinvertebrate richness, while water permanence had a slight effect (the number of taxa was slightly lower in temporary than in permanent ponds.

  15. Responses of aquatic organisms to metal pollution in a lowland river in Flanders: A comparison of diatoms and macroinvertebrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonge, Maarten de [Department of Biology, Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology Group, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)], E-mail: maarten.dejonge@ua.ac.be; Vijver, Bart van de [Department of Bryophytes and Thallophytes, National Botanic Garden of Belgium, Domein van Bouchout, 1860 Meise (Belgium); Blust, Ronny; Bervoets, Lieven [Department of Biology, Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology Group, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2008-12-15

    The role of macroinvertebrates and diatoms as indicator for metal pollution was investigated by assessing both biota along a metal gradient in the Belgian river the Dommel. Macroinvertebrates and diatoms were sampled in summer and winter and physical-chemical characteristics of the water were measured at four different sample periods and related to sediment characteristics. Although metal concentrations, except cadmium, in the water nowhere exceeded water quality standards, high metal concentrations were measured in the sediment, indicating historical contamination of the Dommel. At the sites that were situated downstream of the pollution source, high levels of conductivity and chloride were measured in the water. Redundancy Analysis (RDA) indicated pH, phosphate and zinc as the significant environmental variables explaining each respectively 7.7%, 11.6% and 22.6% of the macroinvertebrate community composition. Two clusters could be separated, with Gammarus pulex, Leptocerus interruptus, Baetis rhodani and Cloeon dipterum associated with low zinc concentrations and Tubificidae, Asellus aquaticus, Erpobdella sp. and Chironomus thummi-plumosus associated with higher zinc concentrations. Ammonium (10.6%), conductivity (16.5%), chloride (11.4%) and zinc (5.9%) turned out to be significant variables explaining the diatom community structure. Based on physical-chemical differences and species composition, three different groups could be separated. With this Tabellaria flocculosa and Fragilaria capucina var. rumpens were associated with low metal concentrations, Gomphonema parvulum and Nitzschia palea with elevated concentrations and Eolimna minima and Sellaphora seminulum with high zinc concentrations. In conclusion, the diatom community best reflected the metal gradient. With regard to water quality indices, those based on macroinvertebrates best followed the metal pollution gradient and were most strongly correlated with physical-chemical variables of water and

  16. Application of Water Quality and Ecology Indices of Benthic Macroinvertebrate to Evaluate Water Quality of Tertiary Irrigation in Malang District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desi Kartikasari

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to determine the water quality of tertiary irrigation in several subdistricts in Malang, namely Kepanjen, Karangploso, and Tumpang. The water quality depends on the water quality indices (National Sanitation Foundation’s-NSF Indices and O’Connor’s Indices based on variables TSS, TDS, pH, DO, and Nitrate concentrate and ecological indices of benthic macroinvertebrate (Diversity Indices Shannon-Wiener, Hilsenhof Biotic Indices-HBI, Average Score per Taxon-ASPT which is calculated by Biological Monitoring Working Party-BMWP, Ephemeroptera Indices, Plecoptera, Trichoptera-EPT. Observation of the physico-chemical water quality and benthic macroinvertebrate on May 2012 to April 2013. The sampling in each subdistrict was done at two selected stations in tertiary irrigation channel with three plot at each station. The data of physico-chemical quality of water were used to calculate the water quality indices, while the benthic macroinvertebrate data were used to calculate the ecological indices. The research findings showed that 27 taxa of benthic macroinvertebrates belong 10 classes were found in the three subdistrict. The pH, DO, Nitrate, TSS and TDS in six tertiary irrigation channels in Malang still met the water quality standards based on Government Regulation No. 82 of 2001 on Management of Water Quality and Water Pollution Control Class III. Based on NSF-WQI indices and O'Connor's Indices, water qualities in these irrigation channels were categorized into medium or moderate (yellow to good (green category. However, based on benthic macroinvertebrate communities which was used to determine the HBI, the water quality in the irrigation channels were categorized into the fair category (fairly significant organic pollution to fairly poor (significant organic pollution, while based on the value of ASPT, the water were categorized into probable moderate pollution to probable severe pollution. The irrigation water which was

  17. Responses of aquatic organisms to metal pollution in a lowland river in Flanders: A comparison of diatoms and macroinvertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonge, Maarten de; Vijver, Bart van de; Blust, Ronny; Bervoets, Lieven

    2008-01-01

    The role of macroinvertebrates and diatoms as indicator for metal pollution was investigated by assessing both biota along a metal gradient in the Belgian river the Dommel. Macroinvertebrates and diatoms were sampled in summer and winter and physical-chemical characteristics of the water were measured at four different sample periods and related to sediment characteristics. Although metal concentrations, except cadmium, in the water nowhere exceeded water quality standards, high metal concentrations were measured in the sediment, indicating historical contamination of the Dommel. At the sites that were situated downstream of the pollution source, high levels of conductivity and chloride were measured in the water. Redundancy Analysis (RDA) indicated pH, phosphate and zinc as the significant environmental variables explaining each respectively 7.7%, 11.6% and 22.6% of the macroinvertebrate community composition. Two clusters could be separated, with Gammarus pulex, Leptocerus interruptus, Baetis rhodani and Cloeon dipterum associated with low zinc concentrations and Tubificidae, Asellus aquaticus, Erpobdella sp. and Chironomus thummi-plumosus associated with higher zinc concentrations. Ammonium (10.6%), conductivity (16.5%), chloride (11.4%) and zinc (5.9%) turned out to be significant variables explaining the diatom community structure. Based on physical-chemical differences and species composition, three different groups could be separated. With this Tabellaria flocculosa and Fragilaria capucina var. rumpens were associated with low metal concentrations, Gomphonema parvulum and Nitzschia palea with elevated concentrations and Eolimna minima and Sellaphora seminulum with high zinc concentrations. In conclusion, the diatom community best reflected the metal gradient. With regard to water quality indices, those based on macroinvertebrates best followed the metal pollution gradient and were most strongly correlated with physical-chemical variables of water and

  18. Analysis of benthic macroinvertebrates and biotic indices to evaluate water quality in rivers impacted by mining activities in northern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvial I.E.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Catchments in the semiarid regions are especially susceptible to environmental perturbation associated with water scarcity, hydrological variations and overuse by anthropogenic activities. Using multivariate analysis to relate environmental and biological data, and diversity and biotic indices (ChBMWP, ChIBF, we analyzed the macroinvertebrate composition of 12 rivers of the semiarid region of northern Chile. A non-metric multidimensional scaling for macroinvertebrate taxa and a principal component analysis for environmental variables strongly separated upstream sites (e.g. Vacas Heladas and Malo Rivers, which presented low pH and high dissolved metal concentrations, from other sites. Effectively, CCA showed that metals and low pH, associated with the altitudinal gradient, determined the distributional patterns of macroinvertebrates in the Elqui catchment. The causes of these particular conditions could be related to geological processes and human impact. The biotic indices applied to the sampling sites corroborated and reflected these characteristics, with La Laguna and Turbio Rivers showing a diverse macroinvertebrate community and moderate to good water quality, and the Claro River showing favorable conditions for the development of aquatic biota, indicating its better quality relative to other stations. To the middle and low part of the basin, a change in the composition of the community was observed, with species that suggest an impact by an increase in organic matter, due to agricultural activities and urban settlements concentrated in this area. Our results suggest that macroinvertebrate taxa in northern Chile may be exceptional species, adapted to unfavorable geochemical conditions, and emphasize the need for protection of the semiarid basins of the region.

  19. Comprehensive evaluation of electronic medical record system use and user satisfaction at five low-resource setting hospitals in ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilahun, Binyam; Fritz, Fleur

    2015-05-25

    Electronic medical record (EMR) systems are increasingly being implemented in hospitals of developing countries to improve patient care and clinical service. However, only limited evaluation studies are available concerning the level of adoption and determinant factors of success in those settings. The objective of this study was to assess the usage pattern, user satisfaction level, and determinants of health professional's satisfaction towards a comprehensive EMR system implemented in Ethiopia where parallel documentation using the EMR and the paper-based medical records is in practice. A quantitative, cross-sectional study design was used to assess the usage pattern, user satisfaction level, and determinant factors of an EMR system implemented in Ethiopia based on the DeLone and McLean model of information system success. Descriptive statistical methods were applied to analyze the data and a binary logistic regression model was used to identify determinant factors. Health professionals (N=422) from five hospitals were approached and 406 responded to the survey (96.2% response rate). Out of the respondents, 76.1% (309/406) started to use the system immediately after implementation and user training, but only 31.7% (98/309) of the professionals reported using the EMR during the study (after 3 years of implementation). Of the 12 core EMR functions, 3 were never used by most respondents, and they were also unaware of 4 of the core EMR functions. It was found that 61.4% (190/309) of the health professionals reported over all dissatisfaction with the EMR (median=4, interquartile range (IQR)=1) on a 5-level Likert scale. Physicians were more dissatisfied (median=5, IQR=1) when compared to nurses (median=4, IQR=1) and the health management information system (HMIS) staff (median=2, IQR=1). Of all the participants, 64.4% (199/309) believed that the EMR had no positive impact on the quality of care. The participants indicated an agreement with the system and information

  20. Abundance and diversity of aquatic macroinvertebrate communities in lakes exposed to Chernobyl-derived ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, J.F.; Nagorskaya, L.L.; Smith, J.T.

    2011-01-01

    Littoral (lake shore) macroinvertebrate communities were studied in eight natural lakes affected by fallout from the Chernobyl accident. The lakes spanned a range in 137 Cs contamination from 100 to 15500 kBq m -2 and estimated external dose rates ranged from 0.13 to 30.7 μGy h -1 . General linear models were used to assess whether abundance of individuals, taxon richness, Berger-Parker dominance and Shannon-Wiener diversity varied across the lakes. Step-wise multiple regressions were used to relate variation in total abundance, taxon richness, Berger-Parker dominance, Shannon-Wiener diversity, taxon richness within major groups of macroinvertebrates and abundance of the more common individual taxa to the measured environmental characteristics (conductivity, pH, total hardness and phosphate; lake area, lake maximum depth and total external dose) of the lakes. No evidence was found in this study that the ecological status of lake communities has been influenced by radioactive contamination from the Chernobyl accident. Indeed, the most contaminated lake, Glubokoye, contained the highest richness of aquatic invertebrates. Taxon richness in the eight study lakes varied from 22 (Svyatskoe no. 7) to 42 (Glubokoye) which spans a range typical for uncontaminated lakes in the region. Since 90 Sr is readily-absorbed by Mollusca, estimated dose rates to this group exceeded those for other invertebrate groups in two lakes (Perstok and Glubokoye). However this study found no association between mollusc diversity or abundance of individual snail species and variation between lakes in the external radiation dose. Indeed Glubokoye, the lake most contaminated by 90 Sr, had the highest richness of freshwater snails per sample (an average of 8.9 taxa per sample). - Highlights: → We studied the effect of radiation on macroinvertebrates in Chernobyl affected lakes. → Abundance, taxon richness, Berger-Parker dominance, Shannon-Wiener diversity evaluated. → No relationship between

  1. Community-level response of fishes and aquatic macroinvertebrates to stream restoration in a third-order tributary of the Potomac River, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selego, Stephen M.; Rose, Charnee L.; Merovich, George T.; Welsh, Stuart A.; Anderson, James T.

    2012-01-01

    Natural stream channel design principles and riparian restoration practices were applied during spring 2010 to an agriculturally impaired reach of the Cacapon River, a tributary of the Potomac River which flows into the Chesapeake Bay. Aquatic macroinvertebrates and fishes were sampled from the restoration reach, two degraded control, and two natural reference reaches prior to, concurrently with, and following restoration (2009 through 2010). Collector filterers and scrapers replaced collector gatherers as the dominant macroinvertebrate functional feeding groups in the restoration reach. Before restoration, based on indices of biotic integrity (IBI), the restoration reach fish and macroinvertebrate communities closely resembled those sampled from the control reaches, and after restoration more closely resembled those from the reference reaches. Although the macroinvertebrate community responded more favorably than the fish community, both communities recovered quickly from the temporary impairment caused by the disturbance of restoration procedures and suggest rapid improvement in local ecological conditions.

  2. Community-Level Response of Fishes and Aquatic Macroinvertebrates to Stream Restoration in a Third-Order Tributary of the Potomac River, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M. Selego

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural stream channel design principles and riparian restoration practices were applied during spring 2010 to an agriculturally impaired reach of the Cacapon River, a tributary of the Potomac River which flows into the Chesapeake Bay. Aquatic macroinvertebrates and fishes were sampled from the restoration reach, two degraded control, and two natural reference reaches prior to, concurrently with, and following restoration (2009 through 2010. Collector filterers and scrapers replaced collector gatherers as the dominant macroinvertebrate functional feeding groups in the restoration reach. Before restoration, based on indices of biotic integrity (IBI, the restoration reach fish and macroinvertebrate communities closely resembled those sampled from the control reaches, and after restoration more closely resembled those from the reference reaches. Although the macroinvertebrate community responded more favorably than the fish community, both communities recovered quickly from the temporary impairment caused by the disturbance of restoration procedures and suggest rapid improvement in local ecological conditions.

  3. Randomized Controlled Trial of Electronic Care Plan Alerts and Resource Utilization by High Frequency Emergency Department Users with Opioid Use Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Rathlev, MD

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is a paucity of literature supporting the use of electronic alerts for patients with high frequency emergency department (ED use. We sought to measure changes in opioid prescribing and administration practices, total charges and other resource utilization using electronic alerts to notify providers of an opioid-use care plan for high frequency ED patients. Methods: This was a randomized, non-blinded, two-group parallel design study of patients who had 1 opioid use disorder and 2 high frequency ED use. Three affiliated hospitals with identical electronic health records participated. Patients were randomized into “Care Plan” versus “Usual Care groups”. Between the years before and after randomization, we compared as primary outcomes the following: 1 opioids (morphine mg equivalents prescribed to patients upon discharge and administered to ED and inpatients; 2 total medical charges, and the numbers of; 3 ED visits, 4 ED visits with advanced radiologic imaging (computed tomography [CT] or magnetic resonance imaging [MRI] studies, and 5 inpatient admissions. Results: A total of 40 patients were enrolled. For ED and inpatients in the “Usual Care” group, the proportion of morphine mg equivalents received in the post-period compared with the pre-period was 15.7%, while in the “Care Plan” group the proportion received in the post-period compared with the pre-period was 4.5% (ratio=0.29, 95% CI [0.07-1.12]; p=0.07. For discharged patients in the “Usual Care” group, the proportion of morphine mg equivalents prescribed in the post-period compared with the pre-period was 25.7% while in the “Care Plan” group, the proportion prescribed in the post-period compared to the pre-period was 2.9%. The “Care Plan” group showed an 89% greater proportional change over the periods compared with the “Usual Care” group (ratio=0.11, 95% CI [0.01-0.092]; p=0.04. Care plans did not change the total charges, or, the numbers

  4. Rapid Bioassessment Methods for Assessing Stream Macroinvertebrate Community on the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Specht, W.L.

    1999-11-22

    Macroinvertebrate sampling was performed at 16 locations in the Savannah River Site (SRS) streams using Hester-Dendy multiplate samplers and EPA Rapid Bioassessment Protocols (RBP). Some of the sampling locations were unimpacted, while other locations had been subject to various forms of perturbation by SRS activities. In general, the data from the Hester-Dendy multiplate samplers were more sensitive at detecting impacts than were the RBP data. We developed a Biotic Index for the Hester-Dendy data which incorporated eight community structure, function, and balance parameters. when tested using a data set that was unrelated to the data set that was used in developing the Biotic Index, the index was very successful at detecting impact.

  5. Water Quality Assessment Using Benthic Macroinvertebrates in Saigon River and Its Tributaries, Vietnam

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    Duc Pham Anh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study to enhance the discussion about the usefulness of benthic macroinvertebrates for water quality assessment in Saigon River and its tributaries. Data from 16 sites were used as a representative example for Saigon River and its tributaries in the area of basin over 4,500 km2, the length through provinces of Tay Ninh, Binh Phuoc, Binh Duong, and Ho Chi Minh City of about 280 km. The data covered the period of dry and rainy seasons in 2015, the survey sampled 16 sites (32 events of the Saigon River and its tributaries selected. To implement this evaluation, the analyses were based on MRC methods and classifications these improved by the scientific group.

  6. River Discharge and Local Scale Habitat Influence LIFE Score Macroinvertebrate LIFE Scores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dunbar, Michael J.; Pedersen, Morten Lauge; Cadman, Dan

    2010-01-01

    Midlands of the U.K., we describe how local-scale habitat features (indexed through River Habitat Survey or Danish Habitat Quality Survey) and changing river flow (discharge) influence the response of a macroinvertebrate community index. The approach has broad applicability in developing regional flow...... Invertebrate index for Flow Evaluation (LIFE), an average of abundance-weighted flow groups which indicate the microhabitat preferences of each taxon for higher velocities and clean gravel/cobble substrata or slow/still velocities and finer substrata. 3. For the Danish fauna, the LIFE score responded to three...... of the channel (negative). In both cases, LIFE responded negatively to features associated with historical channel modification. We suggest that there are several mechanisms for these relationships, including the narrower tolerances of taxa preferring high velocity habitat; these taxa are also continually...

  7. Rapid Bioassessment Methods for Assessing Stream Macroinvertebrate Community on the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Specht, W.L.

    1999-01-01

    Macroinvertebrate sampling was performed at 16 locations in the Savannah River Site (SRS) streams using Hester-Dendy multiplate samplers and EPA Rapid Bioassessment Protocols (RBP). Some of the sampling locations were unimpacted, while other locations had been subject to various forms of perturbation by SRS activities. In general, the data from the Hester-Dendy multiplate samplers were more sensitive at detecting impacts than were the RBP data. We developed a Biotic Index for the Hester-Dendy data which incorporated eight community structure, function, and balance parameters. when tested using a data set that was unrelated to the data set that was used in developing the Biotic Index, the index was very successful at detecting impact

  8. Macroinvertebrate Community Response to the Elimination of Concentrated Feedlot Runoff to a Headwater Stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snitgen, J. L.; Moren, M. M.

    2005-05-01

    During rainfall and snow melt events, a first order, cold-water stream was receiving varying amounts of liquefied manure from a concentrated feed lot. Stream restoration efforts included the implementation of best management practices to prevent further discharge of the water/manure mixture to the stream. Physical, chemical and biological data were collected pre-construction and two years post-construction of the containment system at a fixed location downstream of the feedlot. Hilsenhoff Biotic Index scores improved significantly, from 6.79 or "Fairly Poor" before the installation of the manure containment system, to 5.28 or "Good" after the installation of the manure containment system. Taxa richness improved from 25 to 34 and the EPT score improved from 0 to 4. Key words: macroinvertebrate, community response, manure, feedlot runoff, stream restoration

  9. Effects of agricultural and urban impacts on macroinvertebrates assemblages in streams (Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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    Luiz Ubiratan Hepp

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the effects of agricultural and urban activities on the structure and composition of benthic communities of streams in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Benthic macroinvertebrates were collected in streams influenced by urbanization and agriculture and in streams with no anthropogenic disturbances (reference streams. Organism density was superior in urban streams when compared with streams in the other two areas. The taxonomic richness and Shannon diversity index were higher in reference streams. The benthic fauna composition was significantly different among land uses. The classification and ordination analyses corroborated the results of variance analyses demonstrating the formation of clusters corresponding to streams with similar land use. Seasonality was also found to influence the benthic community, though in a lesser degree than land use.

  10. The isolation and characterization of actinobacteria from dominant benthic macroinvertebrates endemic to Lake Baikal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axenov-Gribanov, Denis; Rebets, Yuriy; Tokovenko, Bogdan; Voytsekhovskaya, Irina; Timofeyev, Maxim; Luzhetskyy, Andriy

    2016-03-01

    The high demand for new antibacterials fosters the isolation of new biologically active compounds producing actinobacteria. Here, we report the isolation and initial characterization of cultured actinobacteria from dominant benthic organisms' communities of Lake Baikal. Twenty-five distinct strains were obtained from 5 species of Baikal endemic macroinvertebrates of amphipods, freshwater sponges, turbellaria worms, and insects (caddisfly larvae). The 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA)-based phylogenic analysis of obtained strains showed their affiliation to Streptomyces, Nocardia, Pseudonocardia, Micromonospora, Aeromicrobium, and Agromyces genera, revealing the diversity of actinobacteria associated with the benthic organisms of Lake Baikal. The biological activity assays showed that 24 out of 25 strains are producing compounds active against at least one of the test cultures used, including Gram-negative bacteria and Candida albicans. Complete dereplication of secondary metabolite profiles of two isolated strains led to identification of only few known compounds, while the majority of detected metabolites are not listed in existing antibiotic databases.

  11. There is a Relationship between Resource Expenditures and Reference Transactions in Academic Libraries. A Review of: Dubnjakovic, A. (2012. Electronic resource expenditure and the decline in reference transaction statistics in academic libraries. Journal of Academic Librarianship, 38(2, 94-100. doi:10.1016/j.acalib.2012.01.001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie M. Hughes

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To provide an analysis of the impact of expenditures on electronic resourcesand gate counts on the increase or decrease in reference transactions.Design – Analysis of results of existing survey data from the National Center for Educational Statistics (NCES 2006 Academic Library Survey(ALS.Setting – Academic libraries in the United States.Subjects – 3925 academic library respondents.Methods – The author chose to use survey data collected from the 2006 ALS conducted bythe NCES. The survey included data on various topics related to academic libraries, but in the case of this study, the author chose to analyze three of the 193 variables included. The three variables: electronic books expenditure, computer hardware and software, and expenditures on bibliographic utilities, were combined into one variable called electronic resource expenditure. Gate counts were also considered as a variable. Electronic resource expenditure was also split as a variable into three groups: low, medium, and high. Multiple regression analysis and general linear modeling, along with tests of reliability, were employed. Main Results – The author determined that low, medium, and high spenders with regard to electronic resources exhibited differences in gate counts, and gate counts have an effect on reference transactions in any given week. Gate counts tend to not have much of an effect on reference transactions for the higher spenders, and higher spenders tend to have a higher number of reference transactions overall. Low spenders have lower gate counts and also a lower amount of reference transactions.Conclusion – The findings from this study show that academic libraries spending more on electronic resources also tend to have an increase with regard to reference transactions. The author also concludes that library spaces are no longer the determining factor with regard to number of reference transactions. Spending more on electronic resources is

  12. Aquatic macroinvertebrates associated with Eichhornia azurea (Swartz Kunth and relationships with abiotic factors in marginal lentic ecosystems (São Paulo, Brazil

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    CV. Silva

    Full Text Available Marginal lakes are characterised by their having high biological diversity due to the presence of aquatic macrophytes in their coastal zones, providing habitats for refuge and food for animal community members. Among the fauna components associated with macrophytes, aquatic macroinvertebrates are important because they are an energy source for predators and fish. In six lakes and two different seasons (March and August 2009, the ecological attributes of aquatic macroinvertebrate community associated with Eichhornia azurea were compared and the controlling environmental factors were identified. Since the attributes of macroinvertebrate community are strictly associated with abiotic variables of each distinct habitat, our hypothesis was that each site associated with the same floating aquatic macrophyte (E. azurea should have a typical composition and density of organisms. We identified 50 taxa of macroinvertebrates, with greater taxa richness for aquatic insects (37 taxa divided into eight orders; the order Diptera being the most abundant in the two study periods. On the other hand, higher values of total taxa richness were recorded in August. Dissolved oxygen and pH presented the greatest number of significant positive correlations with the different taxa. The animals most frequently collected in the six lakes in March and August 2009 were Hirudinea, Oligochaeta, Hydrachnidae, Conchostraca, Ostracoda, Noteridae, Ceratopogonidae, Chironomidae, Culicidae, Caenidae, Pleidae, Aeshnidae, Libellulidae, Coenagrionidae and Nematoda. Only densities of Trichoptera, Ostracoda and Conchostraca presented the highest significant differences between lakes in both study periods and considering the composition of macroinvertebrates no significant differences were registered for macroinvertebrate composition.

  13. Colonization of leaf litter of two aquatic macrophytes, Mayaca fluviatilis Aublet and Salvinia auriculata Aublet by aquatic macroinvertebrates in a tropical reservoir

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    Marcia Cristina de Paula

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Decomposition and colonization of S. auriculata and M. fluviatilis by macroinvertebrates were analyzed during 40 days to determine whether differences existed on colonization by aquatic macroinvertebrates of two macrophytes with distinct habits (submerged versus fluctuant. Leaf litter of S. auriculata and M. fluviatilis were incubated in 24 litter bags (12 of each species, in a small reservoir surrounded by a cerrado fragment with low level of anthropic impact. After 10, 20, 30 and 40 days, the litter bags were removed and aquatic macroinvertebrates community was analyzed. Two hundred twenty macroinvertebrates were associated with S. auriculata and 261 were associated with M. fluviatilis, identified in 24 taxa. Both macrophyte species were colonized mainly by macroinvertebrate predators. Ablabesmyia with predator and collector food mechanisms was present in all sampling. The data showed an expressive increase of abundance during the process of decomposition and a decrease at the end of the experiment, in both macrophytes. Cluster analysis permitted inference that the colonization of the leaf liter by macroinvertebrates was determinated by incubation time of leaf litter not by the habit of macrophytes (submerged or fluctuant.

  14. Global application of disorders of sex development-related electronic resources: e-learning, e-consultation and e-information sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscarella, Miriam; Kranenburg-van Koppen, Laura; Grijpink-van den Biggelaar, Kalinka; Drop, Stenvert L S

    2014-01-01

    The past 20 years have seen proliferation of electronic (e) resources that promote improved understanding of disorders of sex development (DSD): e-learning for physicians and trainees, e-consultation between clinicians, and e-information for families and affected individuals. Recent e-learning advances have emerged from the European Society for Pediatric Endocrinology's online learning portal for current physicians and trainees. Developed with attention to developing clinical competencies incorporating learning theory, and presenting material that represents international best practice, this e-learning portal offers advances in training, making information more accessible for clinicians and trainees. Multiple levels of instruction, authentic case examples, collaborative forums for physicians and trainees, individualized feedback and user-friendly tools represent advances in trainee and physician learning that can take place in any location. e-consultation is an emerging tool that aims to connect physicians with specialists experienced in DSD care. Although it faces logistical challenges, e-consultation carries the potential to improve DSD care, especially in remote areas with limited access to DSD specialists. e-information for families and patients of all ages is widely accessible online, often with focus on DSD biology, medical care, and psychological and social support. e-information tools aid self-management and support of those affected by DSD. Efforts to improve these resources should aim to map information to individual users, incorporate optimally clear nomenclature, and continue as a 'shared enterprise' of clinicians, affected individuals, families and researchers. Improving the quality of DSD-related e-learning and e-information and developing e-consultation carries the potential to transform DSD care and support for patients, families and physicians worldwide. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Spatial and temporal heterogeneity in a subtropical reservoir and their effects over the benthic macroinvertebrate community

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    Frederico Guilherme de Souza Beghelli

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The objective of the present study was to demonstrate the influences of the environment spatial heterogeneity on benthic macroinvertebrates considering transverse and longitudinal gradients as also seasonality. METHODS: Four samplings were performed: two in the wet and two in the dry season in the riverine, transitional and lacustrine zones in the littoral and profundal regions of Itupararanga reservoir, SP, Brazil. Abiotic characterization of the water and of the sediment was performed. The biotic characterization was based on richness, dominance, diversity, and density of organisms, as well as on the relative abundance of predominant taxa. Two-way ANOSIM analyses were performed for both biotic and abiotic components, in order to test the significance of the differences in the longitudinal and transverse directions as well as of the differences between seasons. RESULTS: Compartmentalization was present in both directions, longitudinal and transverse. In a general way, the littoral region presented higher diversity values when compared with the profundal region, and the riverine zone presented high densities and high percentage of taxons, which usually indicate organic pollution. The differentiation between the transitional and lacustrine zones was determined mainly by taxonomic composition. Seasonality was also observed and the transportation of small particles, the entrance of nutrients, and the presence of macrophytes were considered as determinants for differentiation. CONCLUSIONS: Together, these results demonstrate the responses of benthic macroinvertebrate communities considering distinct sources of variation: longitudinal heterogeneity, determined by the increasing distance from the forming rivers that leads to a gradient of physical and chemical conditions; transverse heterogeneity, determined by the proximity with the land environment and depth differences. Seasonal heterogeneity was recorded during the period of this research and

  16. Benthic macroinvertebrates as bioindicators of water quality in an Atlantic forest fragment

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    Augusto Oliveira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate benthic macroinvertebrate communities as bioindicators of water quality in five streams located in the "Reserva Particular do Patrimônio Natural" (RPPN Mata Samuel de Paula and its surroundings, in the municipality of Nova Lima near the city of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, southeastern Brazil. This region has been strongly modified by human activities including mining and urbanization. Samples were collected in the field every three months between August 2004 and November 2005, totaling six samplings in the rainy and dry seasons. This assessment identified one area ecologically altered while the other sampling sites were found to be minimally disturbed systems, with well-preserved ecological conditions. However, according to the Biological Monitoring Work Party (BMWP and the Average Score Per Taxon (ASPT indices, all sampling sites had excellent water quality. A total of 14,952 organisms was collected, belonging to 155 taxa (148 Insecta, two Annelida, one Bivalvia, one Decapoda, one Planariidae, one Hydracarina, and one Entognatha. The most abundant benthic groups were Chironomidae (47.9%, Simuliidae (12.3%, Bivalvia (7.5%, Decapoda (6.1%, Oligochaeta (5.2%, Polycentropodidae (3.7%, Hydropsychidae (2.5%, Calamoceratidae (1.8%, Ceratopogonidae (1.7%, and Libellulidae (1.2%. The assessment of the benthic functional feeding groups showed that 34% of the macroinvertebrates were collector-gatherers, 29% predators, 24% collector-filterers, 8% shredders, and 5% scrapers. The RPPN Mata Samuel de Paula comprises diversified freshwater habitats that are of great importance for the conservation of many benthic taxa that are intolerant to organic pollution.

  17. Biomonitoring with macroinvertebrate communities in Italy: What happened to our past and what is the future?

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    Tiziano Bo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the history and development of biological water quality assessment using macroinvertebrates in Italy. Italy was one of the first European countries to officially adopt a biomonitoring system based on benthic invertebrates, the Indice Biotico Esteso (IBE. After the European Water Framework Directive (WFD 2000/60/EC, this method was replaced by the “Standardisation of River Classifications_Intercalibration Common Metrics” (STAR_ICM index, which met the new requirements. As this method has been employed for some years, it could be useful to take a provisional stock and to provide some suggestions to ameliorate the current biomonitoring approach, also trying to minimize the break with past practices and better harmonize the history of biomonitoring in Italy. One of the most evident difference between past and current approach is related to the amount of time and effort required in the application of the two methods. STAR_ICMi is a scientifically rigorous and modern method, but much more time-consuming and challenging in both field and laboratory efforts. This fact has various disturbing practical repercussions, i.e., the environmental agencies have generally reduced the number of sampling stations routinely monitored during the year. The aim of our work is to propose some operational changes that would help to simplify and expedite the monitoring process. In particular, regarding fieldwork, we focus on the time and effort required for macroinvertebrate collection, while for laboratory activity we suggest a reshaping of the requested taxonomic detail. Moreover, in this way the data provided by the new approach could be compared with the long time series available from the previous application of IBE.

  18. Macroinvertebrate fauna associated with Pistia stratiotes and Nymphoides indica in subtropical lakes (south Brazil

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    EF. Albertoni

    Full Text Available This study was carried out at the Biguás and Polegar lakes, both small environments but at different successional stages. The main objective was to characterize the macroinvertebrate community associated to the aquatic macrophyte stand in each lake in order for this community, the environmental conditions and their water quality to interact. The samples were taken in 2003. The abiotic variables of N and P totals, the temperature, electrical conductivity, pH and dissolved oxygen, as well as the determined clorophyll a concentration were measured. Macroinvertebrates were sampled with a 500 µ mesh size net, separated under a stereomicroscope and identified at the lowest possible taxonomic level, and their densities were shown as the number of individuals per 100 g of macrophyte dry weight. The Shannon-Wiener Diversity Index (H', Pielou evenness (J, frequency of occurrence, abundance and taxa richness were calculated for each invertebrate community. The Lago dos Biguás is undergoing a process of eutrophication and during the study presented a large Pistia stratiotes stand. The Lago Polegar is oligotrophic and had only a small Nymphoides indica bankwe. The macrophyte associated invertebrate communities in each lake were considered significantly different (p < 0.05. Sixty seven taxa were found for the Lago dos Biguás and 32 for the Lago Polegar. For both lakes, most of the taxa were considered rare, with a low dominance in a few months. The taxa with highest densities at Lago dos Biguás were Chironomidae, Daphniidae and Cyclopidae, and Oligochaeta, Chironomidae and Coenagrionidae for Lago Polegar.

  19. The influence of urbanisation on macroinvertebrate biodiversity in constructed stormwater wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackintosh, Teresa J; Davis, Jenny A; Thompson, Ross M

    2015-12-01

    The construction of wetlands in urban environments is primarily carried out to assist in the removal of contaminants from wastewaters; however, these wetlands have the added benefit of providing habitat for aquatic invertebrates, fish and waterbirds. Stormwater quantity and quality is directly related to impervious area (roads, sealed areas, roofs) in the catchment. As a consequence, it would be expected that impervious area would be related to contaminant load and biodiversity in receiving waters such as urban wetlands. This study aimed to establish whether the degree of urbanisation and its associated changes to stormwater runoff affected macroinvertebrate richness and abundance within constructed wetlands. Urban wetlands in Melbourne's west and south east were sampled along a gradient of urbanisation. There was a significant negative relationship between total imperviousness (TI) and the abundance of aquatic invertebrates detected for sites in the west, but not in the south east. However macroinvertebrate communities were relatively homogenous both within and between all study wetlands. Chironomidae (non-biting midges) was the most abundant family recorded at the majority of sites. Chironomids are able to tolerate a wide array of environmental conditions, including eutrophic and anoxic conditions. Their prevalence suggests that water quality is impaired in these systems, regardless of degree of urbanisation, although the causal mechanism is unclear. These results show some dependency between receiving wetland condition and the degree of urbanisation of the catchment, but suggest that other factors may be as important in determining the value of urban wetlands as habitat for wildlife. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Macro-Invertebrate Decline in Surface Water Polluted with Imidacloprid: A Rebuttal and Some New Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijver, Martina G.; van den Brink, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    Imidacloprid, the largest selling insecticide in the world, has received particular attention from scientists, policymakers and industries due to its potential toxicity to bees and aquatic organisms. The decline of aquatic macro-invertebrates due to imidacloprid concentrations in the Dutch surface waters was hypothesised in a recent paper by Van Dijk, Van Staalduinen and Van der Sluijs (PLOS ONE, May 2013). Although we do not disagree with imidacloprid's inherent toxicity to aquatic organisms, we have fundamental concerns regarding the way the data were analysed and interpreted. Here, we demonstrate that the underlying toxicity of imidacloprid in the field situation cannot be understood except in the context of other co-occurring pesticides. Although we agree with Van Dijk and co-workers that effects of imidacloprid can emerge between 13 and 67 ng/L we use a different line of evidence. We present an alternative approach to link imidacloprid concentrations and biological data. We analysed the national set of chemical monitoring data of the year 2009 to estimate the relative contribution of imidacloprid compared to other pesticides in relation to environmental quality target and chronic ecotoxicity threshold exceedances. Moreover, we assessed the relative impact of imidacloprid on the pesticide-induced potential affected fractions of the aquatic communities. We conclude that by choosing to test a starting hypothesis using insufficient data on chemistry and biology that are difficult to link, and by ignoring potential collinear effects of other pesticides present in Dutch surface waters Van Dijk and co-workers do not provide direct evidence that reduced taxon richness and abundance of macroinvertebrates can be attributed to the presence of imidacloprid only. Using a different line of evidence we expect ecological effects of imidacloprid at some of the exposure profiles measured in 2009 in the surface waters of the Netherlands. PMID:24587069

  1. Macro-invertebrate decline in surface water polluted with imidacloprid: a rebuttal and some new analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina G Vijver

    Full Text Available Imidacloprid, the largest selling insecticide in the world, has received particular attention from scientists, policymakers and industries due to its potential toxicity to bees and aquatic organisms. The decline of aquatic macro-invertebrates due to imidacloprid concentrations in the Dutch surface waters was hypothesised in a recent paper by Van Dijk, Van Staalduinen and Van der Sluijs (PLOS ONE, May 2013. Although we do not disagree with imidacloprid's inherent toxicity to aquatic organisms, we have fundamental concerns regarding the way the data were analysed and interpreted. Here, we demonstrate that the underlying toxicity of imidacloprid in the field situation cannot be understood except in the context of other co-occurring pesticides. Although we agree with Van Dijk and co-workers that effects of imidacloprid can emerge between 13 and 67 ng/L we use a different line of evidence. We present an alternative approach to link imidacloprid concentrations and biological data. We analysed the national set of chemical monitoring data of the year 2009 to estimate the relative contribution of imidacloprid compared to other pesticides in relation to environmental quality target and chronic ecotoxicity threshold exceedances. Moreover, we assessed the relative impact of imidacloprid on the pesticide-induced potential affected fractions of the aquatic communities. We conclude that by choosing to test a starting hypothesis using insufficient data on chemistry and biology that are difficult to link, and by ignoring potential collinear effects of other pesticides present in Dutch surface waters Van Dijk and co-workers do not provide direct evidence that reduced taxon richness and abundance of macroinvertebrates can be attributed to the presence of imidacloprid only. Using a different line of evidence we expect ecological effects of imidacloprid at some of the exposure profiles measured in 2009 in the surface waters of the Netherlands.

  2. Model-Based Analysis of the Potential of Macroinvertebrates as Indicators for Microbial Pathogens in Rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Jerves-Cobo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The quality of water prior to its use for drinking, farming or recreational purposes must comply with several physicochemical and microbiological standards to safeguard society and the environment. In order to satisfy these standards, expensive analyses and highly trained personnel in laboratories are required. Whereas macroinvertebrates have been used as ecological indicators to review the health of aquatic ecosystems. In this research, the relationship between microbial pathogens and macrobenthic invertebrate taxa was examined in the Machangara River located in the southern Andes of Ecuador, in which 33 sites, according to their land use, were chosen to collect physicochemical, microbiological and biological parameters. Decision tree models (DTMs were used to generate rules that link the presence and abundance of some benthic families to microbial pathogen standards. The aforementioned DTMs provide an indirect, approximate, and quick way of checking the fulfillment of Ecuadorian regulations for water use related to microbial pathogens. The models built and optimized with the WEKA package, were evaluated based on both statistical and ecological criteria to make them as clear and simple as possible. As a result, two different and reliable models were obtained, which could be used as proxy indicators in a preliminary assessment of pollution of microbial pathogens in rivers. The DTMs can be easily applied by staff with minimal training in the identification of the sensitive taxa selected by the models. The presence of selected macroinvertebrate taxa in conjunction with the decision trees can be used as a screening tool to evaluate sites that require additional follow up analyses to confirm whether microbial water quality standards are met.

  3. Effects of an oil spill on leafpack-inhabiting macroinvertebrates in the Chariton river, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulton, B.C.; Callahan, E.V.; Hurtubise, R.D.; Mueller, B.G.

    1998-01-01

    Artificial leaf packs were used to determine the effects of an oil spill on stream macroinvertebrate communities in the Chariton River, Missouri. Plastic mesh leaf retainers with approximately 10 g of leaves from five tree species were deployed at five sites (two upstream of the spill and three downstream) immediately after the spill and one year later. Four macroinvertebrate species dominating the community at upstream sites were virtually eliminated below the spill, including the stonefly Isoperla bilineata, the caddisfly Potamyia flava, the midge Thienemanniella xena, and blackfly larvae (Simulium sp.). Density of collector and shredder functional groups, and number of shredder taxa differed between upstream sites and the two furthest downstream sites during the 1990 sample period (Kruskal-Wallis w/Bonferroni paired comparisons, experiment wise error rate = 0.05). With one exception, no differences between sites were detected in the 1991-1992 sample period, indicating that the benthic community had at least partially recovered from the oil spill after one year. The odds of obtaining a sample with a small abundance of shredders (abundance < median) in 1990 was significantly greater downstream of the spill than upstream, and the odds of obtaining a sample with a small abundance of shredders at downstream sites was greater in 1990 than in 1991-1992. A similar pattern was observed in abundance and taxa richness of the collector functional group. No significant differences between the two sampling periods were detected at upstream sites. Observed effects appeared to be associated with oil sorption and substrate coating, creating conditions unsuitable for successful colonization.

  4. Effects of extreme floods on macroinvertebrate assemblages in tributaries to the Mohawk River, New York, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon, Mirian R.; Baldigo, Barry P.; Smith, Alexander J.; Endreny, Theodore A.

    2017-01-01

    Climate change is forecast to bring more frequent and intense precipitation to New York which has motivated research into the effects of floods on stream ecosystems. Macroinvertebrate assemblages were sampled at 13 sites in the Mohawk River basin during August 2011, and again in October 2011, following historic floods caused by remnants of Hurricane Irene and Tropical Storm Lee. The annual exceedance probabilities of floods at regional flow-monitoring sites ranged from 0.5 to 0.001. Data from the first 2 surveys, and from additional surveys done during July and October 2014, were assessed to characterize the severity of flood impacts, effect of seasonality, and recovery. Indices of total taxa richness; Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera (EPT) richness; Hilsenhoff's biotic index; per cent model affinity; and nutrient biotic index-phosphorus were combined to calculate New York State Biological Assessment Profile scores. Analysis of variance tests were used to determine if the Biological Assessment Profile, its component metrics, relative abundance, and diversity differed significantly (p ≤ .05) among the four surveys. Only total taxa richness and Shannon–Wiener diversity increased significantly, and abundance decreased significantly, following the floods. No metrics differed significantly between the July and August 2014 surveys which indicates that the differences denoted between the August and October 2011 surveys were caused by the floods. Changes in taxa richness, EPT richness, and diversity were significantly correlated with flood annual exceedance probabilities. This study increased our understanding of the resistance and resilience of benthic macroinvertebrate communities by showing that their assemblages were relatively impervious to extreme floods across the region.

  5. Ranking Medical Terms to Support Expansion of Lay Language Resources for Patient Comprehension of Electronic Health Record Notes: Adapted Distant Supervision Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinying; Jagannatha, Abhyuday N; Fodeh, Samah J; Yu, Hong

    2017-10-31

    Medical terms are a major obstacle for patients to comprehend their electronic health record (EHR) notes. Clinical natural language processing (NLP) systems that link EHR terms to lay terms or definitions allow patients to easily access helpful information when reading through their EHR notes, and have shown to improve patient EHR comprehension. However, high-quality lay language resources for EHR terms are very limited in the public domain. Because expanding and curating such a resource is a costly process, it is beneficial and even necessary to identify terms important for patient EHR comprehension first. We aimed to develop an NLP system, called adapted distant supervision (ADS), to rank candidate terms mined from EHR corpora. We will give EHR terms ranked as high by ADS a higher priority for lay language annotation-that is, creating lay definitions for these terms. Adapted distant supervision uses distant supervision from consumer health vocabulary and transfer learning to adapt itself to solve the problem of ranking EHR terms in the target domain. We investigated 2 state-of-the-art transfer learning algorithms (ie, feature space augmentation and supervised distant supervision) and designed 5 types of learning features, including distributed word representations learned from large EHR data for ADS. For evaluating ADS, we asked domain experts to annotate 6038 candidate terms as important or nonimportant for EHR comprehension. We then randomly divided these data into the target-domain training data (1000 examples) and the evaluation data (5038 examples). We compared ADS with 2 strong baselines, including standard supervised learning, on the evaluation data. The ADS system using feature space augmentation achieved the best average precision, 0.850, on the evaluation set when using 1000 target-domain training examples. The ADS system using supervised distant supervision achieved the best average precision, 0.819, on the evaluation set when using only 100 target

  6. Impact of two interventions on timeliness and data quality of an electronic disease surveillance system in a resource limited setting (Peru: a prospective evaluation

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    Quispe Jose A

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A timely detection of outbreaks through surveillance is needed in order to prevent future pandemics. However, current surveillance systems may not be prepared to accomplish this goal, especially in resource limited settings. As data quality and timeliness are attributes that improve outbreak detection capacity, we assessed the effect of two interventions on such attributes in Alerta, an electronic disease surveillance system in the Peruvian Navy. Methods 40 Alerta reporting units (18 clinics and 22 ships were included in a 12-week prospective evaluation project. After a short refresher course on the notification process, units were randomly assigned to either a phone, visit or control group. Phone group sites were called three hours before the biweekly reporting deadline if they had not sent their report. Visit group sites received supervision visits on weeks 4 & 8, but no phone calls. The control group sites were not contacted by phone or visited. Timeliness and data quality were assessed by calculating the percentage of reports sent on time and percentage of errors per total number of reports, respectively. Results Timeliness improved in the phone group from 64.6% to 84% in clinics (+19.4 [95% CI, +10.3 to +28.6]; p Conclusion Regular phone reminders significantly improved timeliness of reports in clinics and ships, whereas supervision visits led to improved data quality only among clinics. Further investigations are needed to establish the cost-effectiveness and optimal use of each of these strategies.

  7. Optimisation of the Monitoring Strategy of Macroinvertebrate Communities in the River Dender, in Relation to the EU Water Framework Directive

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    Tom P. D’heygere

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The Dender basin in Flanders (Belgium was used as a case study to implement the European Union (EU Water Framework Directive. During the last 5 years, ample research on pollution loads and ecological water quality has been done on the Dender River. In addition to biological sampling of macroinvertebrates and fish, automated measurement stations were also used to investigate the spatial-temporal variability of the physical-chemical water quality. This research revealed that the pollution of the Dender River is highly variable. The high nutrient loads result in severe algae blooms during summer, leading to very complex diurnal processes. In this paper, the monitoring strategy for the assessment of the biological water quality in the Dender basin has been reviewed in relation to the EU Water Framework Directive. For this, seasonal macroinvertebrate data were collected and assessed. General trends and hidden structures in these data were analysed by means of classification trees, using different inputs (seasons, river types, and subbasins. Validation of the results was obtained by applying statistical methods. Analysis about the presence and abundance of the macroinvertebrates revealed that there is a distinct difference between the biological water quality in the Dender stem river and its tributaries. There are also seasonal differences between the macroinvertebrate communities when the Dender and its tributaries are examined separately. An optimised monitoring strategy is proposed based on these results and the EU Water Framework Directive. This includes two monitoring campaigns in summer and winter every 3 years. Furthermore, a cyclic monitoring scheme was developed to minimise sampling efforts.

  8. Are the streams of the Sinos River basin of good water quality? Aquatic macroinvertebrates may answer the question

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    L. Bieger

    Full Text Available Macroinvertebrate communities are one of the most used groups in assessments of water quality, since they respond directly to the level of contamination of aquatic ecosystems. The main objective of this study was the assessment of the water quality of the Sinos River basin (Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil through biotic indices based on the macroinvertebrate community ("Family Biotic Index - FBI", and "Biological Monitoring Working Party Score System - BMWP". Three lower order streams (2nd order were selected in each one of three main regions of the basin. In each stream, the samplings were performed in three reaches (upper, middle, and lower, totalling 27 reaches. Two samplings were carried in each reach over one year (winter and summer. A total of 6,847 macroinvertebrates distributed among 54 families were sampled. The streams from the upper region were of better water quality than the lower region. The water quality did not change between the upper, middle and lower reaches of the streams. However, the upper reaches of the streams were of better water quality in all the regions of the basin. The water quality of the streams did not vary between the summer and the winter. This result demonstrated that water quality may be analysed in both studied seasons (summer and winter using biotic indices. The analysis of the results allows us to conclude that the biotic indices used reflected the changes related to the water quality along the longitudinal gradient of the basin. Thus, aquatic macroinvertebrates were important bioindicators of the water and environmental quality of the streams of the Sinos River basin.

  9. Agricultural Rivers at Risk: Dredging Results in a Loss of Macroinvertebrates. Preliminary Observations from the Narew Catchment, Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Mateusz Grygoruk; Magdalena Frąk; Aron Chmielewski

    2015-01-01

    Ecosystem deterioration in small lowland agricultural rivers that results from river dredging entails a significant threat to the appropriate ecohydrological conditions of these water bodies, expressed as homogenization of habitats and loss of biodiversity. Our study was aimed at a comparison of abundance and taxonomic structure of bottom-dwelling macroinvertebrates in dredged and non-dredged stretches of small lowland rivers and tributaries of the middle Narew River, namely: Czaplinianka, Tu...

  10. Assessment of Ecological Quality of the Tajan River in Iran Using a Multimetric Macroinvertebrate Index and Species Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aazami, Jaber; Esmaili Sari, Abbas; Abdoli, Asghar; Sohrabi, Hormoz; Van den Brink, Paul J.

    2015-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the biological water of the Iranian Tajan River using different metrics, i.e., a Multimetric Macroinvertebrate Index (MMI) and a traits-based method. Twenty-eight physico-chemical parameters, 10 habitat factors, and abundance of macroinvertebrates were obtained for 17 sites. The Shahid-Rajaie dam divides the Tajan River into an up- and downstream part, with different land uses. Eighteen metrics were used to represent four components of ecosystem quality, including tolerance (Hilsenhoff, SIGNAL), diversity (Margalef, Shannon-Wiener, Simpson, and Evenness), abundance (total number of taxa, individuals, Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera, EPT, and Insects), and composition of assemblages (% Ephemeroptera, % Plecoptera, % Trichoptera, and % EPT Taxa). The integrated MMI was calculated by averaging the obtained scores of all indices. In the next step, we gathered information on 22 biological traits of macroinvertebrates to evaluate whether (group of) traits could be identified that are indicative for specific or general stress. Result showed a decrease in MMI from upstream (very good water quality) to downstream (bad) due to human activities. Industrial activities like pulping and papermaking operations or sand mining in the downstream part had more effects than agriculture and fish ponds in the upstream part. A redundancy analysis biplot showed the variation between the modalities of trait of macroinvertebrates and their correlation with physico-chemical parameters in Tajan River. The findings show that traits can be indicative for different kind of stress but that more effort has to be put in gathering data sets to disentangle the effect of habitat quality, pollution, and the physico-chemical properties of high- versus lowland rivers.

  11. Towards stressor-specific macroinvertebrate indices: Which traits and taxonomic groups are associated with vulnerable and tolerant taxa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Elisabeth; Haase, Peter; Schäfer, Ralf B; Sundermann, Andrea

    2018-04-01

    Monitoring of macroinvertebrate communities is frequently used to define the ecological health status of rivers. Ideally, biomonitoring should also give an indication on the major stressors acting on the macroinvertebrate communities supporting the selection of appropriate management measures. However, most indices are affected by more than one stressor. Biological traits (e.g. size, generation time, reproduction) could potentially lead to more stressor-specific indices. However, such an approach has rarely been tested. In this study we classify 324 macroinvertebrate taxa as vulnerable (decreasing abundances) or tolerant (increasing abundances) along 21 environmental gradients (i.e. nutrients, major ions, oxygen and micropollutants) from 422 monitoring sites in Germany using Threshold Indicator Taxa Analysis (TITAN). Subsequently, we investigate which biological traits and taxonomic groups are associated with taxa classified as vulnerable or tolerant with regard to specific gradients. The response of most taxa towards different gradients was similar and especially high for correlated gradients. Traits associated with vulnerable taxa across most gradients included: larval aquatic life stages, isolated cemented eggs, reproductive cycle per year macrophytes, microphytes, silt or mud and a body size >2-4cm. Our results question whether stressor-specific indices based on macroinvertebrate assemblages can be achieved using single traits, because we observed that similar taxa responded to different gradients and also similar traits were associated with vulnerable and tolerant taxa across a variety of water quality gradients. Future studies should examine whether combinations of traits focusing on specific taxonomic groups achieve higher stressor specificity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Spatial variation of macroinvertebrate community structure and associated environmental conditions in a subtropical river system of southeastern China

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    Fu L.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of macroinvertebrate distributions and associated environmental drivers in subtropical Asian rivers is relatively scarce. To fill this knowledge gap, we examined the spatial variation of macroinvertebrate community structure and associated environmental conditions in a subtropical river system, the Dongjiang River Basin, in southeastern China. A total of 70 families and 9 classes of macroinvertebrates were identified from 74 sites sampled in January 2013. Our study has the following findings: (1 a distinct spatial differentiation of macroinvertebrate communities was present in the Dongjiang River Basin indicated by non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS, which corresponded to the northern region (NR, middle region (MR, and southern region (SR gradient; (2 ANOVAs showed that diversity indices (total taxa, Margalef index and the Shannon diversity index, biotic indices (richness of EPT, percentage of EPT, and family biotic index and most of the studied environmental conditions (elevation, slope, steam order, water temperature, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen, pH, substrates, ammoniacal nitrogen, total phosphorus, percentage of urban land, percentage of rural land, and percentage of forest land differed significantly among the three regions and a degradation gradient was observed in the NR–MR–SR direction; (3 Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA revealed that NR sites were characterized by steep slope and coarse substrate, MR sites were characterized by high water temperatures and shallow slopes, and SR sites were primarily characterized by high total phosphorus and ammoniacal nitrogen concentrations; and (4 the Indicator Species Analysis, in conjunction with CCA analysis indicated that the most representative indicator taxon is Tipulidae for NR, Semisulcospira sp. for MR, and Branchiura sp. for SR.

  13. Effects of organic pollution and physical stress on benthic macroinvertebrate communities from two intermittently closed and open coastal lagoons (ICOLLs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Susana; Pérez-Ruzafa, Angel; Gamito, Sofia

    2015-12-01

    Benthic macroinvertebrate communities and environmental conditions were studied in two intermittently closed and open coastal lakes and lagoons (ICOLLs), located in southern Algarve (Foz do Almargem e Salgados), with the purpose of evaluating the effects of organic pollution, originated mainly from wastewater discharges, and the physical stress caused by the irregular opening of the lagoons. Most of the year, lagoons were isolated from the sea, receiving the freshwater inputs from small rivers and in Salgados, also from the effluents of a wastewater plant. According to environmental and biotic conditions, Foz do Almargem presented a greater marine influence and a lower trophic state (mesotrophic) than Salgados (hypereutrophic). Benthic macroinvertebrate communities in the lagoons were distinct, just as their relations with environmental parameters. Mollusca were the most abundant macroinvertebrates in Foz do Almargem, while Insecta, Oligochaeta and Crustacea were more relevant in Salgados. Corophium multisetosum occurred exclusively in Salgados stations and, just as Chironomus sp., other Insecta and Oligochaeta, densities were positively related to total phosphorus, clay content and chlorophyll a concentration in the sediment, chlorophyll a concentration in water and with total dissolved inorganic nitrogen. Abra segmentum, Cerastoderma glaucum, Peringia ulvae and Ecrobia ventrosa occurred only in Foz do Almargem, with lower values of the above mentioned parameters. Both lagoons were dominated by deposit feeders and taxa tolerant to environmental stress, although in Salgados there was a greater occurrence of opportunistic taxa associated to pronounced unbalanced situations, due to excess organic matter enrichment.

  14. Disturbance caused by freshwater releases of different magnitude on the aquatic macroinvertebrate communities of two coastal lagoons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañedo-Argüelles, Miguel; Rieradevall, Maria

    2010-06-01

    The response of the aquatic macroinvertebrate communities to freshwater releases of different magnitude and persistence was investigated in two Mediterranean coastal lagoons (Ca l'Arana and Ricarda). The study was carried out during 14 months (June 2004-July 2005) in which different environmental variables and the macroinvertebrate communities associated with two different habitats, the Phragmites australis belt and the deep area of the lagoons, were sampled monthly. Additionally, potential colonizing sources were identified through the analysis of Chironomidae pupal exuviae. The initial response of the communities to the freshwater releases was similar, being characterized by a peak of opportunistic taxa (mainly Naididae), but the late response was different for each lagoon. In the Ca l'Arana, the magnitude of the freshwater release was higher (salinity dropped below five, which is the limit commonly established for most freshwater species) and its persistence was also higher, allowing the colonization of the lagoon by new insect taxa, which replaced the brackish water species. In the Ricarda, the salinity never dropped beyond five and pre-disturbance conditions were rapidly re-established. This, together with the acclimatizing mechanisms showed by the species Chironomus riparius and Hediste diversicolor, permitted the recovery of the pre-disturbance macroinvertebrate community.

  15. Tolerance of benthic macroinvertebrates to organic enrichment in highland streams of northeastern Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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    Aline Correa Mazzoni

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: the aim of this study was to determine the ecological valence of benthic macroinvertebrates at different pollution levels in highland rivers and streams of Rio Grande do Sul; METHODS: the dataset proceeds from samplings performed between 2002-2011 in 35 lotic ecosystems. The Chemical Index was used to determine pollution levels. Indices of richness and Shannon diversity were applied to characterize the structure of benthic communities. The descriptors used to determine taxa's ecological valence were selected according to Coefficient of Variation and regression analyses. Groups of tolerance were identified using Interquartile range and cluster analysis; RESULTS: Conductivity and Chemical Index were the descriptors best related with diversity of benthic macroinvertebrate community. These metrics were used to determine the tolerance range of 38 taxa. Interquartile range and cluster analysis revealed three groups of taxa, according to their occurrence in different levels of pollution: taxa with narrow amplitudes, present at sites with very low or very high load of organic enrichment; taxa with moderate amplitude, found until moderately polluted sites; and taxa with occurrence in widespread environmental conditions. The results, when compared to other studies in Brazil, showed differences in some taxa's tolerance. This observation indicates the need to assess the bioindication potential of these taxa in genus and species level; CONCLUSION: the present study contributes to increase knowledge about the bioindicator potential of benthic macroinvertebrates. Therefore, the study supports an advanced biomonitoring of ecological quality in mountain streams of southern Brazil.

  16. Using macroinvertebrate assemblages and multiple stressors to infer urban stream system condition: A case study in the central US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, John W.; Hubbart, Jason A.; Poulton, Barry C.

    2016-01-01

    Characterizing the impacts of hydrologic alterations, pollutants, and habitat degradation on macroinvertebrate species assemblages is of critical value for managers wishing to categorize stream ecosystem condition. A combination of approaches including trait-based metrics and traditional bioassessments provides greater information, particularly in anthropogenic stream ecosystems where traditional approaches can be confounded by variously interacting land use impacts. Macroinvertebrates were collected from two rural and three urban nested study sites in central Missouri, USA during the spring and fall seasons of 2011. Land use responses of conventional taxonomic and trait-based metrics were compared to streamflow indices, physical habitat metrics, and water quality indices. Results show that biotic index was significantly different (p habitats in urban reaches contained 21 % more (p = 0.03) multivoltine organisms, which was positively correlated to the magnitude of peak flows (r2 = 0.91, p = 0.012) suggesting that high flow events may serve as a disturbance in those areas. Results support the use of macroinvertebrate assemblages and multiple stressors to characterize urban stream system condition and highlight the need to better understand the complex interactions of trait-based metrics and anthropogenic aquatic ecosystem stressors.

  17. Assessment of macroinvertebrate communities in adjacent urban stream basins, Kansas City, Missouri, metropolitan area, 2007 through 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Eric D.; Krempa, Heather M.

    2013-01-01

    Macroinvertebrates were collected as part of two separate urban water-quality studies from adjacent basins, the Blue River Basin (Kansas City, Missouri), the Little Blue River and Rock Creek Basins (Independence, Missouri), and their tributaries. Consistent collection and processing procedures between the studies allowed for statistical comparisons. Seven Blue River Basin sites, nine Little Blue River Basin sites, including Rock Creek, and two rural sites representative of Missouri ecological drainage units and the area’s ecoregions were used in the analysis. Different factors or levels of urban intensity may affect the basins and macroinvertebrate community metrics differently, even though both basins are substantially developed above their downstream streamgages (Blue River, 65 percent; Little Blue River, 52 percent). The Blue River has no flood control reservoirs and receives wastewater effluent and stormflow from a combined sewer system. The Little Blue River has flood control reservoirs, receives no wastewater effluent, and has a separate stormwater sewer system. Analysis of macroinvertebrate community structure with pollution-tolerance metrics and water-quality parameters indicated differences between the Blue River Basin and the Little Blue River Basin.

  18. Identifying primary stressors impacting macroinvertebrates in the Salinas River (California, USA): Relative effects of pesticides and suspended particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, B.S.; Phillips, B.M.; Hunt, J.W.; Connor, V.; Richard, N.; Tjeerdema, R.S.

    2006-01-01

    Laboratory dose-response experiments with organophosphate and pyrethroid pesticides, and dose-response experiments with increasing particle loads were used to determine which of these stressors were likely responsible for the toxicity and macroinvertebrate impacts previously observed in the Salinas River. Experiments were conducted with the amphipod Hyalella azteca, the baetid mayfly Procloeon sp., and the midge Chironomus dilutus (Shobanov, formerly Chironomus tentans). The results indicate the primary stressor impacting H. azteca was pesticides, including chlorpyrifos and permethrin. The mayfly Procloeon sp. was sensitive to chlorpyrifos and permethrin within the range of concentrations of these pesticides measured in the river. Chironomus dilutus were sensitive to chlorpyrifos within the ranges of concentrations measured in the river. None of the species tested were affected by turbidity as high as 1000 NTUs. The current study shows that pesticides are more important acute stressors of macroinvertebrates than suspended sediments in the Salinas River. - Pesticides are the primary stressor impacting macroinvertebrates in sections of the lower Salinas River

  19. Identifying primary stressors impacting macroinvertebrates in the Salinas River (California, USA): Relative effects of pesticides and suspended particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, B.S. [Department of Environmental Toxicology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)]. E-mail: anderson@ucdavis.edu; Phillips, B.M. [Department of Environmental Toxicology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Hunt, J.W. [Department of Environmental Toxicology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Connor, V. [Division of Water Quality, State Water Resources Control Board, 1001 I. Street, Sacramento, CA 95814 (United States); Richard, N. [Division of Water Quality, State Water Resources Control Board, 1001 I. Street, Sacramento, CA 95814 (United States); Tjeerdema, R.S. [Department of Environmental Toxicology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2006-06-15

    Laboratory dose-response experiments with organophosphate and pyrethroid pesticides, and dose-response experiments with increasing particle loads were used to determine which of these stressors were likely responsible for the toxicity and macroinvertebrate impacts previously observed in the Salinas River. Experiments were conducted with the amphipod Hyalella azteca, the baetid mayfly Procloeon sp., and the midge Chironomus dilutus (Shobanov, formerly Chironomus tentans). The results indicate the primary stressor impacting H. azteca was pesticides, including chlorpyrifos and permethrin. The mayfly Procloeon sp. was sensitive to chlorpyrifos and permethrin within the range of concentrations of these pesticides measured in the river. Chironomus dilutus were sensitive to chlorpyrifos within the ranges of concentrations measured in the river. None of the species tested were affected by turbidity as high as 1000 NTUs. The current study shows that pesticides are more important acute stressors of macroinvertebrates than suspended sediments in the Salinas River. - Pesticides are the primary stressor impacting macroinvertebrates in sections of the lower Salinas River.

  20. Macroinvertebrate Richness Importance in Coastal Tropical Streams of Esmeraldas (Ecuador and Its Use and Implications in Environmental Management Procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Martínez-Sanz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at determining the performance of some indices and community attributes frequently used to assess river quality and test the role of macroinvertebrate taxa richness as element of bioindication in several coastal tropical streams of western Esmeraldas (Ecuador. In addition, a macroinvertebrate taxon list of this region was provided for the first time. Thirteen sampled points distributed across nine streams were selected for this study and nineteen parameters and attributes of bioindication were tested. The differences between nonimpact and impact places were evaluated mainly using one-way analysis of variance. Jackknife 2 and Clench were used to estimate the regional richness and the quality of the inventory, respectively. Seventy taxa (principally genus and family of the main groups of macroinvertebrates were collected. Measured richness and family richness were the best metric followed by Biological Monitoring Working Party/Colombia (BMWP/Col, Odonata richness, Shannon-Weiner, and EPT richness (Ephemeroptera + Plecoptera + Trichoptera indices. Only a slight right trend (Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera, and Chironomidae attributes or incorrect performances (Average Score Per Taxon (ASPT and % EPT were showed by frequently used metrics. Finally, several recommendations were made about taxonomic level used, the ranks of quality of taxa richness, and the effort-results relationship in the field of bioindication.

  1. Responses of macroinvertebrate community metrics to a wastewater discharge in the Upper Blue River of Kansas and Missouri, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulton, Barry C.; Graham, Jennifer L.; Rasmussen, Teresa J.; Stone, Mandy L.

    2015-01-01

    The Blue River Main wastewater treatment facility (WWTF) discharges into the upper Blue River (725 km2), and is recently upgraded to implement biological nutrient removal. We measured biotic condition upstream and downstream of the discharge utilizing the macroinvertebrate protocol developed for Kansas streams. We examined responses of 34 metrics to determine the best indicators for discriminating site differences and for predicting biological condition. Significant differences between sites upstream and downstream of the discharge were identified for 15 metrics in April and 12 metrics in August. Upstream biotic condition scores were significantly greater than scores at both downstream sites in April (p = 0.02), and in August the most downstream site was classified as non-biologically supporting. Thirteen EPT taxa (Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera) considered intolerant of degraded stream quality were absent at one or both downstream sites. Increases in tolerance metrics and filtering macroinvertebrates, and a decline in ratio of scrapers to filterers all indicated effects of increased nutrient enrichment. Stepwise regressions identified several significant models containing a suite of metrics with low redundancy (R2 = 0.90 - 0.99). Based on the rapid decline in biological condition downstream of the discharge, the level of nutrient removal resulting from the facility upgrade (10% - 20%) was not enough to mitigate negative effects on macroinvertebrate communities.

  2. Assessment of river quality in a subtropical Austral river system: a combined approach using benthic diatoms and macroinvertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nhiwatiwa, Tamuka; Dalu, Tatenda; Sithole, Tatenda

    2017-12-01

    River systems constitute areas of high human population densities owing to their favourable conditions for agriculture, water supply and transportation network. Despite human dependence on river systems, anthropogenic activities severely degrade water quality. The main aim of this study was to assess the river health of Ngamo River using diatom and macroinvertebrate community structure based on multivariate analyses and community metrics. Ammonia, pH, salinity, total phosphorus and temperature were found to be significantly different among the study seasons. The diatom and macroinvertebrate taxa richness increased downstream suggesting an improvement in water as we moved away from the pollution point sources. Canonical correspondence analyses identified nutrients (total nitrogen and reactive phosphorus) as important variables structuring diatom and macroinvertebrate community. The community metrics and diversity indices for both bioindicators highlighted that the water quality of the river system was very poor. These findings indicate that both methods can be used for water quality assessments, e.g. sewage and agricultural pollution, and they show high potential for use during water quality monitoring programmes in other regions.

  3. Richness and density of aquatic benthic macroinvertebrates after exposure to fungicides and insecticides in rice paddy fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALANA C.D. WANDSCHEER

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to verify the richness and density of aquatic benthic macroinvertebrates after exposure to fungicides and insecticides of the rice paddy fields. In the crop seasons of 2012/13 and 2013/14, field experiments were performed, which consisted of single-dose applications of the fungicides trifloxystrobin + tebuconazole and tricyclazole, and the insecticides lambda-cyhalothrin + thiamethoxam and diflubenzuron, in 10 m2 experimental plots, over rice plants in the R3 stage. Control plots with and without rice plants were maintained in order to simulate a natural environment. Soil samples were collected during rice cultivation for assessment of the macroinvertebrate fauna. Chemical-physical parameters assessed in the experiments included temperature, pH and oxygen dissolved in the water and pesticide persistence in the water and in the soil. The application of a single dose of the pesticides and fungicides in the recommended period does not cause significant negative effects over the richness and density of the macroinvertebrates. Tebuconazole, tricyclazole and thiamethoxam showed high persistence in the irrigation water of rice paddy fields. Thus, the doses and number of applications of these products in crops should be carefully handled in order to avoid contamination of the environment.

  4. Richness and density of aquatic benthic macroinvertebrates after exposure to fungicides and insecticides in rice paddy fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandscheer, Alana C D; Marchesan, Enio; Santos, Sandro; Zanella, Renato; Silva, Marília F; Londero, Guilherme P; Donato, Gabriel

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to verify the richness and density of aquatic benthic macroinvertebrates after exposure to fungicides and insecticides of the rice paddy fields. In the crop seasons of 2012/13 and 2013/14, field experiments were performed, which consisted of single-dose applications of the fungicides trifloxystrobin + tebuconazole and tricyclazole, and the insecticides lambda-cyhalothrin + thiamethoxam and diflubenzuron, in 10 m2 experimental plots, over rice plants in the R3 stage. Control plots with and without rice plants were maintained in order to simulate a natural environment. Soil samples were collected during rice cultivation for assessment of the macroinvertebrate fauna. Chemical-physical parameters assessed in the experiments included temperature, pH and oxygen dissolved in the water and pesticide persistence in the water and in the soil. The application of a single dose of the pesticides and fungicides in the recommended period does not cause significant negative effects over the richness and density of the macroinvertebrates. Tebuconazole, tricyclazole and thiamethoxam showed high persistence in the irrigation water of rice paddy fields. Thus, the doses and number of applications of these products in crops should be carefully handled in order to avoid contamination of the environment.

  5. Environmental stressors as a driver of the trait composition of benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages in polluted Iberian rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmanovic, Maja; Dolédec, Sylvain; de Castro-Catala, Nuria; Ginebreda, Antoni; Sabater, Sergi; Muñoz, Isabel; Barceló, Damià

    2017-07-01

    We used the trait composition of macroinvertebrate communities to identify the effects of pesticides and multiple stressors associated with urban land use at different sites of four rivers in Spain. Several physical and chemical stressors (high metal pollution, nutrients, elevated temperature and flow alterations) affected the urban sites. The occurrence of multiple stressors influenced aquatic assemblages at 50% of the sites. We hypothesized that the trait composition of macroinvertebrate assemblages would reflect the strategies that the assemblages used to cope with the respective environmental stressors. We used RLQ and fourth corner analysis to address the relationship between stressors and the trait composition of benthic macroinvertebrates. We found a statistically significant relationship between the trait composition and the exposure of assemblages to environmental stressors. The first RLQ dimension, which explained most of the variability, clearly separated sites according to the stressors. Urban-related stressors selected taxa that were mainly plurivoltine and fed on deposits. In contrast, pesticide impacted sites selected taxa with high levels of egg protection (better egg survival), indicating a potentially higher risk for egg mortality. Moreover, the trait diversity of assemblages at urban sites was low compared to that observed in pesticide impacted sites, suggesting the homogenization of assemblages in urban areas. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Assessing condition of macroinvertebrate communities and bed sediment toxicity in the Rochester Embayment Area of Concern, New York, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Brian; George, Scott D.; Baldigo, Barry P.; Smith, Alexander J.

    2017-01-01

    The United States and Canada agreed to restore the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the Great Lakes ecosystem under the first Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement in 1972. The lowest reach of the Genesee River and the Rochester Embayment on Lake Ontario between Bogus Point and Nine Mile Point, including Braddock Bay, were designated as an Area of Concern (AOC) due to effects of contaminated sediments and physical disturbance on several beneficial uses. Following sediment remedial efforts and with conditions improving in the AOC, the present study was conducted to reevaluate the status of the benthic macroinvertebrate (benthos) beneficial use impairment (BUI). Benthic macroinvertebrate community assessments and 10-day Chironomus dilutus bioassays were used to test the hypotheses that sediments within the AOC were no more toxic than sediments from surrounding reference areas. The study was separated into three discrete systems (Genesee River, Lake Ontario, and Braddock Bay) and non-parametric analyses determined that a multimetric index of benthic macroinvertebrate community integrity was significantly higher at AOC sites compared to reference sites on the Genesee River and in Braddock Bay while AOC and reference sites on Lake Ontario did not differ significantly. Survival and growth of C. dilutus were also similar between AOC and reference sites for each system with the exception of significantly higher growth at reference sites on Lake Ontario. Results generally indicated that the condition of benthos and toxicity of sediment of the Rochester Embayment AOC are similar to or better than that in the surrounding area.

  7. Online Resources

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Online Resources. Journal of Genetics. Online Resources. Volume 97. 2018 | Online resources. Volume 96. 2017 | Online resources. Volume 95. 2016 | Online resources. Volume 94. 2015 | Online resources. Volume 93. 2014 | Online resources. Volume 92. 2013 | Online resources ...

  8. Interactive Electronic Decision Trees for the Integrated Primary Care Management of Febrile Children in Low Resource Settings - Review of existing tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keitel, Kristina; D'Acremont, Valérie

    2018-04-20

    The lack of effective, integrated diagnostic tools pose a major challenge to the primary care management of febrile childhood illnesses. These limitations are especially evident in low-resource settings and are often inappropriately compensated by antimicrobial over-prescription. Interactive electronic decision trees (IEDTs) have the potential to close these gaps: guiding antibiotic use and better identifying serious disease. This narrative review summarizes existing IEDTs, to provide an overview of their degree of validation, as well as to identify gaps in current knowledge and prospects for future innovation. Structured literature review in PubMed and Embase complemented by google search and contact with developers. Six integrated IEDTs were identified: three (eIMCI, REC, and Bangladesh digital IMCI) based on Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses (IMCI); four (SL eCCM, MEDSINC, e-iCCM, and D-Tree eCCM) on Integrated Community Case Management (iCCM); two (ALMANACH, MSFeCARE) with a modified IMCI content; and one (ePOCT) that integrates novel content with biomarker testing. The types of publications and evaluation studies varied greatly: the content and evidence-base was published for two (ALMANACH and ePOCT), ALMANACH and ePOCT were validated in efficacy studies. Other types of evaluations, such as compliance, acceptability were available for D-Tree eCCM, eIMCI, ALMANACH. Several evaluations are still ongoing. Future prospects include conducting effectiveness and impact studies using data gathered through larger studies to adapt the medical content to local epidemiology, improving the software and sensors, and Assessing factors that influence compliance and scale-up. IEDTs are valuable tools that have the potential to improve management of febrile children in primary care and increase the rational use of diagnostics and antimicrobials. Next steps in the evidence pathway should be larger effectiveness and impact studies (including cost analysis) and

  9. Macroinvertebrate-based assessment of biological condition at selected sites in the Eagle River watershed, Colorado, 2000-07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuellig, Robert E.; Bruce, James F.; Healy, Brian D.; Williams, Cory A.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Colorado River Water Conservation District, Eagle County, Eagle River Water and Sanitation District, Upper Eagle Regional Water Authority, Colorado Department of Transportation, City of Aurora, Town of Eagle, Town of Gypsum, Town of Minturn, Town of Vail, Vail Resorts, Colorado Springs Utilities, Denver Water, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service (FS), compiled macroinvertebrate (73 sites, 124 samples) data previously collected in the Eagle River watershed from selected USGS and FS studies, 2000-07. These data were analyzed to assess the biological condition (that is, biologically ?degraded? or ?good?) at selected sites in the Eagle River watershed and determine if site class (for example, urban or undeveloped) described biological condition. An independently developed predictive model was applied to calculate a site-specific measure of taxonomic completeness for macroinvertebrate communities, where taxonomic completeness was expressed as the ratio of observed (O) taxa to those expected (E) to occur at each site. Macroinvertebrate communities were considered degraded at sites were O/E values were less than 0.80, indicating that at least 20 percent of expected taxa were not observed. Sites were classified into one of four classes (undeveloped, adjacent road or highway or both, mixed, urban) using a combination of riparian land-cover characteristics, examination of topographic maps and aerial imagery, screening for exceedances in water-quality standards, and best professional judgment. Analysis of variance was used to determine if site class accounted for variability in mean macroinvertebrate O/E values. Finally, macroinvertebrate taxa observed more or less frequently than expected at urban sites were indentified. This study represents the first standardized assessment of biological condition of selected sites distributed across the Eagle River watershed. Of the 73 sites evaluated, just over

  10. Library resources on the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Nancy L.

    1995-07-01

    Library resources are prevalent on the Internet. Library catalogs, electronic books, electronic periodicals, periodical indexes, reference sources, and U.S. Government documents are available by telnet, Gopher, World Wide Web, and FTP. Comparatively few copyrighted library resources are available freely on the Internet. Internet implementations of library resources can add useful features, such as full-text searching. There are discussion lists, Gophers, and World Wide Web pages to help users keep up with new resources and changes to existing ones. The future will bring more library resources, more types of library resources, and more integrated implementations of such resources to the Internet.

  11. Cascade-pond System Health Assessment Based on Macroinvertebrate Indices and Its Relationship with Impervious Cover and Aquatic Buffer Zone in Urbanized Catchments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulkarnain Faris

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A cascade-pond system consists of six ponds located at Universitas Indonesia Campus, Depok. Its catchment area is dominated by high density urban area with moderate to high imperviousness. Some of riparian buffers surrounds six ponds are also occupied by high imperviousness that may lead some ecohydrological problems i.e. water quality degradation, declining freshwater biodiversity and food web changes. The aim of this study is assessing the current state of cascade-pond system health. The assessment of macroinvertebrate indices is based on SingScore that have been developed by Public Utilities Board of Singapore for macroinvertebrate biotic index. Impervious cover data is obtained from high-resolution imageries and processed using ArcGIS 10.5. Qualitative statistics methods, Chi-squared test describes the relationship of macroinvertebrate indices with catchment area imperviousness and aquatic buffer zone. The health assessment based on macroinvertebrates indices shows that the lower ponds are relatively healthier than the upper one. There is also any significant relationship between macroinvertebrate indices with impervious cover based on chi square test and cross tabulation analysis.

  12. Multiyear Synthesis of the Macroinvertebrate Component From 1992 to 2002 for the Long Term Resource Monitoring Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sauer, Jennifer

    2004-01-01

    ...) were added to the sampling design in 1993 and zebra mussels (Dreissena Polymorpha) were added in 1995. Sampling was based on a stratified random design and conducted at approximately 125 sites per study area...

  13. Biomass of macroinvertebrates and physicochemical characteristics of water in an Andean urban wetland of Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Usme, J J; Pinilla, G A; Rangel-Churio, J O; Castro, M I; Camacho-Pinzón, D L

    2015-01-01

    Aquatic macroinvertebrates (AMI) play an important role in the ecology of wetlands, either by their job as regulators of the cycles of matter, as for their energy storage function represented in their biomass, which is transferred to higher trophic levels. To answer the question of how biomass of different AMI trophic guilds is related with physicochemical variables in the wetland Jaboque (Bogotá, Colombia), four samplings were achieved between April 2009 and January 2010, according to periods of rain and drought in the region. The AMI biomass values obtained were rated as of intermediate rank. No temporal but spatial significant differences were found. Apparently these spatial differences appear to be associated with variations in anthropogenic pressure, which differs in each area of the wetland. In dry months (January and August), biomass was greater and dominated by detritivores. We observed a positive relationship between the specific conductance of water and the biomass of predators and detritivores and between water temperature and the biomass of detritivores and shredders. These relationships suggest that the physical and chemical variables influence the distribution, abundance, and biomass of functional groups. The physical and chemical conditions of water exhibited spatiotemporal fluctuations related to changes in the concentration of organic matter and nutrients, which presumably were related to the affluents discharges and the high impact of local human populations.

  14. Study of aquatic macroinvertebrate communities exposed to buckeye reclamation landfill drainage wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klemm, D.J.; Thoeny, W.T.; McCarthy, H.W.

    1995-01-01

    The Buckeye Reclamation Landfill (BRL), a Superfund site, incorporates approximately 50 acres of a 658 acre tract of land. The BRL consists of past underground mining voids, including some surface-mined lands, and mine refuse piles from processed bituminous coal. The area was subsequently used as a nonhazardous public and municipal solid waste landfill, and industrial sludge and liquid wastes were also deposited in an impoundment in the northern section of the landfill. The entire landfill area was completely covered with soil and revegetated in the late 1980's and early 1990's. The BRL produces acidic and highly mineralized drainage causing a widespread problem of serious mine drainage pollution in the watershed. A study was undertaken to assess the exposure of pollutants to the macroinvertebrate assemblages and to determine the extent of pollution of the BRL watershed. Samples were collected from ten sites in 1995. Nine systematic and spatial transect samples were taken at each collection site for macroinverbrates with a 595 microm mesh, modified kick net from riffle/run and glide/pool habitats of streams above and below the BRL watershed. All macroinverbrates were identified to the lowest taxonomic level possible. The levels for total Zn ranged from 22--604 microg/L; pH ranged from 4.4 to 8.1. The data distinguished the exposed sites receiving landfill leachates and sedimentation runoff from the less impacted sites

  15. Macroinvertebrate response to acid mine drainage: community metrics and on-line behavioural toxicity bioassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Gerhardt; L. Janssens de Bisthoven; A.M.V.M. Soares [University of Aveiro, Aveiro (Portugal). Department of Biology

    2004-07-01

    The hypothesis is tested that toxicity of acid mine drainage can be detected by a selection of existing macroinvertebrate community and bioindicator metrices supplemented by toxicity tests with the local mosquitofish Gambusia holbrooki Girard and the shrimp Atyaephyra desmaresti Millet. The behavioural responses of A. desmaresti to acid mine drainage were recorded in the Multispecies Freshwater Biomonitor{reg_sign}, based on behaviour and survival as parameters. Bioassessment methods were based on community diversity, structure, function, and bioindicators and supplemented by chemical analysis (temperature, pH, metals). The Biological Monitoring Working Party adapted for the Iberian Peninsula, the number of predators (Coleoptera, Hemiptera) and the number of Ephemeroptera and Trichoptera taxa differentiated the sites well. The on-line toxicity test revealed pH-dependent acute toxicity of the acid mine drainage for the shrimp (LC{sub 50}-48 h: pH-AMD=5.8) and a pH-dependent decrease in locomotory activity with the lowest-observed-response-times (LORTs) within 5 h of exposure. Shrimp were more sensitive to acid mine drainage than fish (LC{sub 50}-48 h: pH-AMD=4.9). A new multimetric index combining toxicity testing and bioassessment methods is proposed.

  16. A Multimetric Benthic Macroinvertebrate Index for the Assessment of Stream Biotic Integrity in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soon-Jin Hwang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available At a time when anthropogenic activities are increasingly disturbing the overall ecological integrity of freshwater ecosystems, monitoring of biological communities is central to assessing the health and function of streams. This study aimed to use a large nation-wide database to develop a multimetric index (the Korean Benthic macroinvertebrate Index of Biological Integrity—KB-IBI applicable to the biological assessment of Korean streams. Reference and impaired conditions were determined based on watershed, chemical and physical criteria. Eight of an initial 34 candidate metrics were selected using a stepwise procedure that evaluated metric variability, redundancy, sensitivity and responsiveness to environmental gradients. The selected metrics were number of taxa, percent Ephemeroptera-Plecoptera-Trichoptera (EPT individuals, percent of a dominant taxon, percent taxa abundance without Chironomidae, Shannon’s diversity index, percent gatherer individuals, ratio of filterers and scrapers, and the Korean saprobic index. Our multimetric index successfully distinguished reference from impaired conditions. A scoring system was established for each core metric using its quartile range and response to anthropogenic disturbances. The multimetric index was classified by aggregating the individual metric ..scores and the value range was quadrisected to provide a narrative criterion (Poor, Fair, Good and Excellent to describe the biological integrity of the streams in the study. A validation procedure showed that the index is an effective method for evaluating stream conditions, and thus is appropriate for use in future studies measuring the long-term status of streams, and the effectiveness of restoration methods.

  17. Macroinvertebrates associated with bryophyta in a first-order Atlantic Forest stream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz F. J. V. Rosa

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the composition and structure of the benthic community associated with bryophytes in a first-order stream, located in a biological reserve of the Atlantic Forest, during two seasons. During three months of the dry season of 2007 and three months of the rainy season of 2008, samples of bryophytes attached to stones were collected randomly, along a 100 m stream reach. The structure of the community was analyzed through the mean density of individuals, Shannon's diversity index, Pielou's evenness, family richness, dominance index, and the percentage of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera (% EPT. Chironomidae larvae were dominant in the two periods of study, followed by Ceratopogonidae in the rainy season, and Naididae in the dry season. The orders EPT contributed 14 families. The results showed that bryophytes constitute suitable habitat which is able to shelter an abundant and diversified benthic fauna in a small extension of the stream. This habitat provides refuge during spates, and thus minimizes downstream transport of the macroinvertebrate fauna.

  18. A Multimetric Benthic Macroinvertebrate Index for the Assessment of Stream Biotic Integrity in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Yung-Chul; Won, Doo-Hee; Lee, Soo-Hyung; Kong, Dong-Soo; Hwang, Soon-Jin

    2012-01-01

    At a time when anthropogenic activities are increasingly disturbing the overall ecological integrity of freshwater ecosystems, monitoring of biological communities is central to assessing the health and function of streams. This study aimed to use a large nation-wide database to develop a multimetric index (the Korean Benthic macroinvertebrate Index of Biological Integrity—KB-IBI) applicable to the biological assessment of Korean streams. Reference and impaired conditions were determined based on watershed, chemical and physical criteria. Eight of an initial 34 candidate metrics were selected using a stepwise procedure that evaluated metric variability, redundancy, sensitivity and responsiveness to environmental gradients. The selected metrics were number of taxa, percent Ephemeroptera-Plecoptera-Trichoptera (EPT) individuals, percent of a dominant taxon, percent taxa abundance without Chironomidae, Shannon’s diversity index, percent gatherer individuals, ratio of filterers and scrapers, and the Korean saprobic index. Our multimetric index successfully distinguished reference from impaired conditions. A scoring system was established for each core metric using its quartile range and response to anthropogenic disturbances. The multimetric index was classified by aggregating the individual metric ..scores and the value range was quadrisected to provide a narrative criterion (Poor, Fair, Good and Excellent) to describe the biological integrity of the streams in the study. A validation procedure showed that the index is an effective method for evaluating stream conditions, and thus is appropriate for use in future studies measuring the long-term status of streams, and the effectiveness of restoration methods. PMID:23202765

  19. The Benthonic Macroinvertebrates of Pozo Azul (Gaira River Basin, Colombia and their Relationship with Water Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Guerrero-Bolaño

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available On July 2002, a study of some physicochemical parameters and their relationship with the benthonic macroinvertebrates community structure on four coriotypes: stone, trash, silt and macrophytes, was carried out in Pozo Azul (Gaira River basin, Magdalena, Colombia. The physicochemical parameters were determined, to a considerable extent, by the geographic characteristics of the system. The water was found to be oxygen saturated, and intermediate compounds of the organic matter stabilization, such as nitrites and ammonium, there were found 588 individuals distributed in 11 orders and 38 families. The most representative orders were Trichoptera, Coleoptera, Diptera and Ephemeroptera. The most representative families were Baetidae, Simullidae, Perlidae, Chironomidae, and Hydropsychidae, in this rank of abundance. The BMWP index for the relationship between the community structure and the water quality (adapted by Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia was calculated. According to this index the water quality was optimum. Also, given the general characteristics of the site studied, the water mass quality was classified as good and oligosaprobit, based on the saprobit ecology. It is possible that this state was reached due to stabilization after a small perturbation induced by coffee cultivation in the zone.

  20. Macroinvertebrate community responses to a dewatering disturbance gradient in a restored stream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. D. Muehlbauer

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Dewatering disturbances are common in aquatic systems and represent a relatively untapped field of disturbance ecology, yet studying dewatering events along gradients in non-dichotomous (i.e. wet/dry terms is often difficult. Because many stream restorations can essentially be perceived as planned hydrologic manipulations, such systems can make ideal test-cases for understanding processes of hydrological disturbance. In this study we used an experimental drawdown in a 440 ha stream/wetland restoration site to assess aquatic macroinvertebrate community responses to dewatering and subsequent rewetting. The geomorphic nature of the site and the design of the restoration allowed dewatering to occur predictably along a gradient and decoupled the hydrologic response from any geomorphic (i.e. habitat heterogeneity effects. In the absence of such heterogeneous habitat refugia, reach-scale wetted perimeter and depth conditions exerted a strong control on community structure. The community exhibited an incremental response to dewatering severity over the course of this disturbance, which was made manifest not as a change in community means but as an increase in community variability, or dispersion, at each site. The dewatering also affected inter-species abundance and distributional patterns, as dewatering and rewetting promoted alternate species groups with divergent habitat tolerances. Finally, our results indicate that rapid rewetting – analogous to a hurricane breaking a summer drought – may represent a recovery process rather than an additional disturbance and that such processes, even in newly restored systems, may be rapid.

  1. Inferring community properties of benthic macroinvertebrates in streams using Shannon index and exergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tuyen Van; Cho, Woon-Seok; Kim, Hungsoo; Jung, Il Hyo; Kim, YongKuk; Chon, Tae-Soo

    2014-03-01

    Definition of ecological integrity based on community analysis has long been a critical issue in risk assessment for sustainable ecosystem management. In this work, two indices (i.e., Shannon index and exergy) were selected for the analysis of community properties of benthic macroinvertebrate community in streams in Korea. For this purpose, the means and variances of both indices were analyzed. The results found an extra scope of structural and functional properties in communities in response to environmental variabilities and anthropogenic disturbances. The combination of these two parameters (four indices) was feasible in identification of disturbance agents (e.g., industrial pollution or organic pollution) and specifying states of communities. The four-aforementioned parameters (means and variances of Shannon index and exergy) were further used as input data in a self-organizing map for the characterization of water quality. Our results suggested that Shannon index and exergy in combination could be utilized as a suitable reference system and would be an efficient tool for assessment of the health of aquatic ecosystems exposed to environmental disturbances.

  2. Effects of 2 fungicide formulations on microbial and macroinvertebrate leaf decomposition under laboratory conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elskus, Adria; Smalling, Kelly L.; Hladik, Michelle; Kuivila, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    Aquatic fungi contribute significantly to the decomposition of leaves in streams, a key ecosystem service. However, little is known about the effects of fungicides on aquatic fungi and macroinvertebrates involved with leaf decomposition. Red maple (Acer rubrum) leaves were conditioned in a stream to acquire microbes (bacteria and fungi), or leached in tap water (unconditioned) to simulate potential reduction of microbial biomass by fungicides. Conditioned leaves were exposed to fungicide formulations QUILT (azoxystrobin + propiconazole) or PRISTINE (boscalid + pyraclostrobin), in the presence and absence of the leaf shredder, Hyalella azteca (amphipods; 7-d old at start of exposures) for 14 d at 23 °C. QUILT formulation (~ 0.3 μg/L, 1.8 μg/L, 8 μg/L) tended to increase leaf decomposition by amphipods (not significant) without a concomitant increase in amphipod biomass, indicating potential increased consumption of leaves with reduced nutritional value. PRISTINE formulation (~ 33 μg/L) significantly reduced amphipod growth and biomass (p<0.05), effects similar to those observed with unconditioned controls. The significant suppressive effects of PRISTINE on amphipod growth, and the trend towards increased leaf decomposition with increasing QUILT concentration, indicate the potential for altered leaf decay in streams exposed to fungicides. Further work is needed to evaluate fungicide effects on leaf decomposition under conditions relevant to stream ecosystems, including temperature shifts and pulsed exposures to pesticide mixtures.

  3. The value of enduring environmental surrogates as predictors of estuarine benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildsmith, Michelle D.; Valesini, Fiona J.; Robinson, Samuel F.

    2017-10-01

    This study tested the extent to which spatial differences in the benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages of a temperate microtidal estuary were 'explained' by the enduring (biophysical) vs non-enduring (water and sediment quality) environmental attributes of a diverse range of habitats, and thus the potential of those environmental surrogates to support faunal prediction. Species composition differed significantly among habitats in each season, with the greatest differences occurring in winter and spring and the least in summer. The pattern of habitat differences, as defined by their enduring environmental characteristics, was significantly and well matched with that in the fauna in each season. In contrast, significant matches between the non-enduring environmental and faunal data were only detected in winter and/or spring, and to a lesser extent. Field validation of the faunal prediction capacity of the biophysical surrogate framework at various 'test' sites throughout the estuary showed good agreement between the actual vs predicted key species. These findings demonstrate that enduring environmental criteria, which can be readily measured from mapped data, provide a better and more cost-effective surrogate for explaining spatial differences in the invertebrate fauna of this system than non-enduring criteria, and are thus a promising basis for faunal prediction. The approaches developed in this study are also readily adapted to any estuary worldwide.

  4. Macroinvertebrate abundance, water chemistry, and wetland characteristics affect use of wetlands by avian species in Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longcore, J.R.; McAuley, D.G.; Pendelton, G.W.; Bennatti, C.R.; Mingo, T.M.; Stromborg, K.L.

    2006-01-01

    Our objective was to determine use by avian species (e.g., piscivores, marsh birds, waterfowl, selected passerines) of 29 wetlands in areas with low (chemistry, basin characteristics, and avian use of different wetland types. Shallow, beaver (Castor canadensis)-created wetlands with the highest phosphorus levels and abundant and varied macrophyte assemblages supported greater densities of macroinvertebrates and numbers of duck broods (88.3% of all broods) in contrast to deep, glacial type wetlands with sparse vegetation and lower invertebrate densities that supported fewer broods (11.7%). Low pH may have affected some acid-intolerant invertebrate taxa (i.e., Ephemeroptera), but high mean numbers of Insecta per wetland were recorded from wetlands with a pH of 5.51. Other Classes and Orders of invertebrates were more abundant on wetlands with pH > 5.51. All years combined use of wetlands by broods was greater on wetlands with pH ≤ 5.51 (77.4%) in contract to wetlands with pH > 5.51 that supported 21.8% of the broods. High mean brood density was associated with mean number of Insecta per wetland. For lentic wetlands created by beaver, those habitats contained vegetative structure and nutrients necessary to provide cover to support invertebrate populations that are prey of omnivore and insectivore species. The fishless status of a few wetlands may have affected use by some waterfowl species and obligate piscivores.

  5. Herpes - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genital herpes - resources; Resources - genital herpes ... following organizations are good resources for information on genital herpes : March of Dimes -- www.marchofdimes.org/complications/sexually- ...

  6. The Use of Quality Benchmarking in Assessing Web Resources for the Dermatology Virtual Branch Library of the National electronic Library for Health (NeLH)

    OpenAIRE

    Boulos, MN Kamel; Roudsari, AV; Gordon, C; Gray, JA Muir

    2001-01-01

    Background In 1998, the U.K. National Health Service Information for Health Strategy proposed the implementation of a National electronic Library for Health to provide clinicians, healthcare managers and planners, patients and the public with easy, round the clock access to high quality, up-to-date electronic information on health and healthcare. The Virtual Branch Libraries are among the most important components of the National electronic Library for Health . They aim at creating online kno...

  7. Biotic diversity of benthic macroinvertebrates at contrasting glacier-fed systems in Patagonia Mountains: The role of environmental heterogeneity facing global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miserendino, María Laura; Brand, Cecilia; Epele, Luis B; Di Prinzio, Cecilia Y; Omad, Guillermo H; Archangelsky, Miguel; Martínez, Oscar; Kutschker, Adriana M

    2018-05-01

    Patagonia is by far the largest glacierized area in South America. However, little is known about ecology, functioning and biodiversity of glacier-fed streams facing global warming. We investigated changes in environmental features and macroinvertebrate communities along a longitudinal gradient of glacier influence of two Patagonian systems that differ in glacier cover magnitude and the spatial sequence of lotic and lentic phases. Both glaciers, Torrecillas (~5.5km 2 , Torrecillas system) and Cónico (~0.44km 2 , Baggilt system), are retreating. Longitudinal distribution of benthic invertebrates partially fitted to predictions for glacierized temperate systems, with Diamesinae spp. dominating at closest sites to the Cónico, and Orthocladiinae increasing downstream, but patterns were unclear at Torrecillas. Generalized Linear Model identified chlorophyll a and conductivity as having significant effect on richness and density respectively at Torrecillas; detritus biomass and gravel influenced species richness, and boulder percentage and water temperature affected density, at Baggilt. Canonical Correspondence Analyses integrating benthic biota and environmental variables revealed that a higher environmental heterogeneity at Baggilt, related with spatial dimension (unshaded/shaded reaches, wetland reaches), local resources (detritus, bryophytes) and temperature, probably explained the unexpected high richness in benthic assemblages (67 taxa). Environmental conditions imposed by the lake outlet (proglacial) at Torrecillas resulted in a less diverse community (31 taxa). Finally our results suggest that these isolated, small glacier-fed streams typical of the Patagonian landscape appear highly vulnerable to global warming. Endemic elements could disappear at upper segments being replaced by other species common at rhithral environments, which might increase local diversity (alfa diversity) but decrease regional diversity (gamma diversity). From an ecosystem perspective

  8. Results of investigating the macroinvertebrate community of the Danube River on the sector upstream from the Iron Gate (km 1083-1071

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paunović Momir M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work cites results of investigating aquatic macroinvertebrates of the Danube River on the sector upstream from the Iron Gate (KM 1083-1071. The investigated part is interesting from the hydrobiological standpoint above all due to differences of faunal composition in relation to higher sections that could be expected in view of differences in overall characteristics of the river. A rich macroinvertebrate community (84 taxa was observed. The diversity of taxa is primarily a result of habitat diversity within the given stretch. Oligochaeta and Mollusca were the principal components.

  9. Assessment of water chemistry, habitat, and benthic macroinvertebrates at selected stream-quality monitoring sites in Chester County, Pennsylvania, 1998-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reif, Andrew G.

    2004-01-01

    Biological, chemical, and habitat data have been collected from a network of sites in Chester County, Pa., from 1970 to 2003 to assess stream quality. Forty sites in 6 major stream basins were sampled between 1998 and 2000. Biological data were used to determine levels of impairment in the benthic-macroinvertebrate community in Chester County streams and relate the impairment, in conjunction with chemical and habitat data, to overall stream quality. Biological data consisted of benthic-macroinvertebrate samples that were collected annually in the fall. Water-chemistry samples were collected and instream habitat was assessed in support of the biological sampling.Most sites in the network were designated as nonimpacted or slightly impacted by human activities or extreme climatic conditions on the basis of biological-metric analysis of benthic-macroinvertebrate data. Impacted sites were affected by factors, such as nutrient enrichment, erosion and sedimentation, point discharges, and droughts and floods. Streams in the Schuylkill River, Delaware River, and East Branch Brandywine Creek Basins in Chester County generally had low nutrient concentrations, except in areas affected by wastewater-treatment discharges, and stream habitat that was affected by erosion. Streams in the West Branch Brandywine, Christina, Big Elk, and Octoraro Creek Basins in Chester County generally had elevated nutrient concentrations and streambottom habitat that was affected by sediment deposition.Macroinvertebrate communities identified in samples from French Creek, Pigeon Creek (Schuylkill River Basin), and East Branch Brandywine Creek at Glenmoore consistently indicate good stream conditions and were the best conditions measured in the network. Macroinvertebrate communities identified in samples from Trout Creek (site 61), West Branch Red Clay Creek (site 55) (Christina River Basin), and Valley Creek near Atglen (site 34) (Octoraro Creek Basin) indicated fair to poor stream conditions and

  10. Effects of near-bed turbulence and micro-topography on macroinvertebrate movements across contrasting gravel-bed surfaces (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffin-Belanger, T. K.; Rice, S. P.; Reid, I.; Lancaster, J.

    2009-12-01

    Fluvial habitats can be described from a series of physical variables but to adequately address the habitat quality it becomes necessary to develop an understanding that combines the physical variables with the behaviour of the inhabitating organisms. The hypothesis of flow refugia provide a rational that can explain the persistence of macroinvertebrate communities in gravel-bed rivers when spates occur. The movement behaviour of macroinvertebrates is a key element to the flow refugia hypothesis, but little is known about how local near-bed turbulence and bed microtopography may affect macroinvertebrate movements. We reproduced natural gravel-bed substrates with contrasting gravel bed textures in a large flume where we were able to document the movement behaviour of the cased caddisfly Potamophylax latipennis for a specific discharge. The crawling paths and drift events of animals were analysed from video recordings. Characteristics of movements differ from one substrate to another. The crawling speed is higher for the small grain-size substrates but the mean travel distance remains approximately the same between substrates. For each substrate, the animals tended to follow consistent paths across the surface. The number of drift events and mean distance drifted is higher for the small grain-size substrate. ADV measurements close to the boundary allow detailed characterisation of near-bed hydraulic variables, including : skewness coefficients, TKE, UV correlation coefficients and integral time scales from autocorrelation analysis. For these variables, the vertical patterns of turbulence parameters are similar between the substrates but the amplitude of the average values and standard errors vary significantly. The spatial distribution of this variability is considered in relation to the crawling paths. It appears that the animals tend to crawl within areas of the substrate where low flow velocities and low turbulent kinetic energies are found, while sites that

  11. Combined effects of water stress and pollution on macroinvertebrate and fish assemblages in a Mediterranean intermittent river.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalogianni, Eleni; Vourka, Aikaterini; Karaouzas, Ioannis; Vardakas, Leonidas; Laschou, Sofia; Skoulikidis, Nikolaos Th

    2017-12-15

    Water stress is a key stressor in Mediterranean intermittent rivers exacerbating the negative effects of other stressors, such as pollutants, with multiple effects on different river biota. The current study aimed to determine the response of macroinvertebrate and fish assemblages to instream habitat and water chemistry, at the microhabitat scale and at different levels of water stress and pollution, in an intermittent Mediterranean river. Sampling was conducted at high and low summer discharge, at two consecutive years, and included four reaches that were targeted for their different levels of water stress and pollution. Overall, the macroinvertebrate fauna of Evrotas River indicated high resilience to intermittency, however, variation in community structure and composition occurred under acute water stress, due to habitat alteration and change in water physico-chemistry, i.e. water temperature increase. The combined effects of pollution and high water stress had, however, pronounced effects on species richness, abundance and community structure in the pollution impacted reach, where pollution sensitive taxa were almost extirpated. Fish response to drought, in reaches free of pollution, consisted of an increase in the abundance of the two small limnophilic species, coupled with their shift to faster flowing riffle habitats, and a reduction in the abundance of the larger, rheophilic species. In the pollution impacted reach, however, the combination of pollution and high water stress led to hypoxic conditions assumed to be the leading cause of the almost complete elimination of the fish assemblage. In contrast, the perennial Evrotas reaches with relatively stable physicochemical conditions, though affected hydrologically by drought, appear to function as refugia for fish during high water stress. When comparing the response of the two biotic groups to combined acute water stress and pollution, it is evident that macroinvertebrates were negatively impacted, but fish

  12. Multi-scale functional and taxonomic β-diversity of the macroinvertebrate communities in a Mediterranean coastal lagoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. CABANA

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Benthic macroinvertebrate communities form the basis of the intricate lagoonal food web. Understanding their functional and taxonomic response, from a β-diversity perspective, is essential to disclose underlying patterns with potential applicability in conservation and management actions. Within the central lagoon of Messolonghi we studied the main environmental components structuring the macroinvertebrate community. We analyzed the β-taxonomic and β-functional diversity across the main habitats and seasons, over a year time frame. Our results outline habitat type and vegetation biomass as the major factors structuring the communities. We found environmental variability to have a positive correlation with functional β-diversity, however no correlation was found with taxonomic β-diversity. Across the seasons an asynchronous response of the functional and taxonomic β-diversity was identified. The taxonomic composition displayed significant heterogeneity during the driest period and the functional during the rainy season. Across the habitats the unvegetated presented higher taxonomic homogeneity and functionally heterogeneity, contrary the vegetated habitats present higher taxonomic variability and functional homogeneity. Across the seasons and habitats a pattern of functional redundancy and taxonomic replacement was identified. Besides high functional turnover versus low taxonomic turnover was documented in an anthropogenic organically enriched habitat We conclude that habitats display independent functional and taxonomic seasonal patterns, thus different processes may contribute to their variability. The framework presented here highlights the importance of studying both β-diversity components framed in a multiscale approach to better understand ecological processes and variability patterns. These results are important to understand macroinvertebrate community assembly processes and are valuable for conservation purposes.

  13. Analysis on Current Situation and Countermeasure of Domestic Electronic Commerce Logistics in the Internet Age——Based on Resource Dependence Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jiapeng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the status of electric business logistics in the current Internet era in China, and combines the SWOT analysis with AHP to do the empirical analysis, then puts forward the countermeasure that the electric business logistics resource should be shared based on the resource dependence theory. Through the empirical analysis, it is found that the disadvantages and opportunities of the logistics status are important in the Internet era.The resource sharing strategy based on the resource dependence theory is more scientific. The rational use of Internet technology in electric business logistics industry can achieve “sharing”. It is of great significance for its balanced development, intelligent development and optimization and development.

  14. Macroinvertebrate community structure and function along gradients of physical stream quality and pesticide contamination in Danish streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jes

    to stream are surface runoff and tile drainage giving rise to short pulses of acute contamination strongly coinciding with high levels of precipitation. Field studies indicate that macroinvertebrate community structure can be impacted by pesticides during spraying seasons in May and June, but also...... was calculated for 1 km2 catchments (produced from topographical maps) on Funen, Denmark. The physical condition (substrate, meandering etc.) of 1st and 2nd order streams (based on existing data from the National Monitoring Programme and personal exploring) draining these catchments was, additionally, assessed...

  15. An evaluation of seasonal change in Benthic Macroinvertebrate community composition in the east branch of the Finniss River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, C.

    2002-01-01

    Rum Jungle is an abandoned uranium-copper mine responsible for acid rock drainage into the surface waters of the intermittent East Branch and the channel of the Finniss Rivers. Prior to large-scale remediation in the mid 1980s, the East Branch was biologically dead for 8.5 km downstream to the confluence with the Finniss River, and suffered substantial ecological impairment for a further 15 km downstream. Recent studies suggest some recovery in fish diversity and abundance in the Finniss River, but only minor recovery in the macroinvertebrate fauna of the East Branch

  16. Pesticides in agricultural headwater streams in southwestern Germany and effects on macroinvertebrate populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Gero; Christmann, Nicole; Thiery, Ann-Cathrin; Martens, Dieter; Kubiniok, Jochen

    2018-04-01

    Pesticides are a major burden for stream ecosystems in the central European cultivated landscape. The objective of the present study was to investigate the applicability of ecological indicator methods in relation to toxicity of pesticides under the specific hydro-morphological conditions in small water bodies. Thus, an association of toxicity evaluating methods with different ecological indicators was to be attempted. Based on three random samples taken within the 2016 vegetation period, 23 headwater areas in the Saarland were investigated to test for pesticides and their metabolites. The macroinvertebrate population was also surveyed in 16 of these streams. Evidence was found of 41 substances in total. Most dominant substances include atrazine, isoproturone, quinmerac and tebuconazol as well as metabolites of dimethenamid, chloridazon and metazachlor. At 9 of the 23 sampling points, over 10 plant protection products and metabolites were found. Only 17% of the water bodies investigated contained fewer than 5 substances. Around half of the bodies of water investigated show noticeably high concentrations of metabolites of plant protection products. Maximum concentrations exceeding environmental quality standards or the Health-oriented Guideline Values were measured for 13 substances at individual sampling points. Analysis of the biological data for only 4 of the water bodies investigated resulted in the Ecological Status Class (ESC) "good". All others fell short of the quality target, although they were classified as "good" or "very good" according to the Saprobic index. SPEAR pesticides as a measurement of the sensitivity of the biocoenosis to pesticides shows their influence in a few water bodies. Likewise, high toxic unit values have also been calculated, indicating the presence of toxic substances at relevant concentrations. However, an actual correlation between SPEAR pesticides and toxic unit could not be derived. Clearly in these very headwater streams other

  17. Methyl mercury concentrations in macroinvertebrates and fish from burned and undisturbed lakes on the Boreal Plain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, E.W. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Biological Sciences; Prepas, E.E. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Biological Sciences; Lakehead Univ., Thunder Bay, ON (Canada). Faculty of Forest and the Forest Environment; Gabos, S.; Zhang, W. [Alberta Health and Wellness, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Strachan, W.M.J. [Environment Canada, Burlington, ON (Canada). National Water Research Inst.

    2005-09-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in macroinvertebrates and fish from 5 lakes in burned catchments in Alberta's Swan Hills region were compared with those from 5 reference lakes on the western Canadian Boreal Plain. The objective was to determine the effect of forest fire on the bioaccumulation of MeHg, a toxic pollutant. It was noted that lakes near the Alberta Special Waste Treatment Centre (ASWTC) have fish consumption advisories due to high mercury concentrations. In a separate comparison, MeHg concentrations in biota from a single lake were compared before and after a forest fire interrupted a prescribed timber harvest experiment. The affect of lake water chemistry, watershed characteristics, and trophic ecology on the bioaccumulation and biomagnification of MeHg in littoral food webs was also examined. The study area covered 2 ecoregions, the Boreal Foothills and the Boreal Mixedwood. Two years after the fire, MeHg concentrations in 5 of 6 aquatic taxa did not differ between burned and reference drainage basins in the Swan Hills. These results were in agreement with previous studies. Biomagnification of MeHg was negatively correlated with lake water chlorophyll 'a' concentration. Ecoregional variation in water chemistry seemed to influence MeHg concentrations in aquatic biota, which eluded comparisons of MeHg bioaccumulation between burned and reference drainage basins. MeHg concentrations in biota were negatively correlated with lake water pH, as well as with total phosphorous and dominant cation concentrations, all of which were higher in Mixedwood than in Foothills lakes. It was concluded that in the short-term, fire may lower MeHg concentrations in aquatic biota in a nutrient-rich setting by inducing an increase in lake productivity that dilutes MeHg at the base of the food web. 42 refs., 5 tabs., 7 figs.

  18. Congruence in demersal fish, macroinvertebrate, and macroalgal community turnover on shallow temperate reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Russell J; Hill, Nicole A; Leaper, Rebecca; Ellis, Nick; Pitcher, C Roland; Barrett, Neville S; Edgar, Graham J

    2014-03-01

    To support coastal planning through improved understanding of patterns of biotic and abiotic surrogacy at broad scales, we used gradient forest modeling (GFM) to analyze and predict spatial patterns of compositional turnover of demersal fishes, macroinvertebrates, and macroalgae on shallow, temperate Australian reefs. Predictive models were first developed using environmental surrogates with estimates of prediction uncertainty, and then the efficacy of the three assemblages as biosurrogates for each other was assessed. Data from underwater visual surveys of subtidal rocky reefs were collected from the southeastern coastline of continental Australia (including South Australia and Victoria) and the northern coastline of Tasmania. These data were combined with 0.01 degree-resolution gridded environmental variables to develop statistical models of compositional turnover (beta diversity) using GFM. GFM extends the machine learning, ensemble tree-based method of random forests (RF), to allow the simultaneous modeling of multiple taxa. The models were used to generate predictions of compositional turnover for each of the three assemblages within unsurveyed areas across the 6600 km of coastline in the region of interest. The most important predictor for all three assemblages was variability in sea surface temperature (measured as standard deviation from measures taken interannually). Spatial predictions of compositional turnover within unsurveyed areas across the region of interest were remarkably congruent across the three taxa. However, the greatest uncertainty in these predictions varied in location among the different assemblages. Pairwise congruency comparisons of observed and predicted turnover among the three assemblages showed that invertebrate and macroalgal biodiversity were most similar, followed by fishes and macroalgae, and lastly fishes and invertebrate biodiversity, suggesting that of the three assemblages, macroalgae would make the best biosurrogate for

  19. Local environment rather than past climate determines community composition of mountain stream macroinvertebrates across Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Múrria, Cesc; Bonada, Núria; Vellend, Mark; Zamora-Muñoz, Carmen; Alba-Tercedor, Javier; Sainz-Cantero, Carmen Elisa; Garrido, Josefina; Acosta, Raul; El Alami, Majida; Barquín, Jose; Derka, Tomáš; Álvarez-Cabria, Mario; Sáinz-Bariain, Marta; Filipe, Ana F; Vogler, Alfried P

    2017-11-01

    Community assembly is determined by a combination of historical events and contemporary processes that are difficult to disentangle, but eco-evolutionary mechanisms may be uncovered by the joint analysis of species and genetic diversity across multiple sites. Mountain streams across Europe harbour highly diverse macroinvertebrate communities whose composition and turnover (replacement of taxa) among sites and regions remain poorly known. We studied whole-community biodiversity within and among six mountain regions along a latitudinal transect from Morocco to Scandinavia at three levels of taxonomic hierarchy: genus, species and haplotypes. Using DNA barcoding of four insect families (>3100 individuals, 118 species) across 62 streams, we found that measures of local and regional diversity and intraregional turnover generally declined slightly towards northern latitudes. However, at all hierarchical levels we found complete (haplotype) or high (species, genus) turnover among regions (and even among sites within regions), which counters the expectations of Pleistocene postglacial northward expansion from southern refugia. Species distributions were mostly correlated with environmental conditions, suggesting a strong role of lineage- or species-specific traits in determining local and latitudinal community composition, lineage diversification and phylogenetic community structure (e.g., loss of Coleoptera, but not Ephemeroptera, at northern sites). High intraspecific genetic structure within regions, even in northernmost sites, reflects species-specific dispersal and demographic histories and indicates postglacial migration from geographically scattered refugia, rather than from only southern areas. Overall, patterns were not strongly concordant across hierarchical levels, but consistent with the overriding influence of environmental factors determining community composition at the species and genus levels. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Nestedness and successional trajectories of macroinvertebrate assemblages in man-made wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhí, Albert; Boix, Dani; Gascón, Stéphanie; Sala, Jordi; Quintana, Xavier D

    2013-02-01

    Current successional models, primarily those based on floral succession, propose several distinct trajectories based on the integration of two key hypotheses from succession theory: convergence versus divergence in species composition among successional sites, and progression towards versus deviation from a desired reference state. We applied this framework to faunal succession, including differential colonization between active and passive dispersers, and the nested patterns generated as a consequence of this peculiarity. Nine man-made wetlands located in three different areas, from 0-3 years from wetland creation, were assessed. In addition, 91 wetlands distributed throughout the region were used as references for natural macroinvertebrate communities. We predicted the following: (1) highly nested structures in pioneering assemblages will decrease to lower mid-term values due to a shift from active pioneering taxa to passive disperser ones; (2) passive idiosyncratic taxa will elicit divergent successional trajectories among areas; (3) the divergent trajectories will provoke lower local and higher regional diversity values in the mid-term assemblages than in pioneer assemblages. Our results were largely congruent with hypotheses (1) and (2), diverging from the anticipated patterns only in the case of the temporary wetlands area. However, overall diversity trends based on hypothesis (3) did not follow the expected pattern. The divergent successional trajectories did not compensate for regional biodiversity losses that occurred as a consequence of pioneering colonizer decline over time. Consequently, we suggest reconsidering wetland construction for mitigation purposes within mid-term time frames (≤ 3 years). Wetlands may not offset, within this temporal scenario, regional biodiversity loss because the ecosystem may not support idiosyncratic taxa from natural wetlands.

  1. Effects of repeated insecticide pulses on macroinvertebrate drift in indoor stream mesocosms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghahn, Rüdiger; Mohr, Silvia; Hübner, Verena; Schmiediche, Ronny; Schmiedling, Ina; Svetich-Will, Erkki; Schmidt, Ralf

    2012-10-15

    Pesticide contaminations via run-off or spray drift have been reported to result in the mass drift of macroinvertebrates as well as causing structural and functional changes of the corresponding stream sections. However, pesticide pulses in the field are associated with sudden increases in flow velocity, water turbidity, and changes in water temperature, which can also induce drift. Only through replicated community testing under highly controlled conditions can these effects be disentangled. In a stream mesocosm study, 12-h pulses of 12 μg/L imidacloprid were set three times at weekly intervals and are considered a "pulse series". Two pulse series of this neonicotinoid insecticide were run in both spring and summer with 4 treatment and 4 control stream mesocosms used in each pulse series. Prior to the start of the mesocosm experiment, both pulse concentration and duration had been screened for drift responses in larval Baetidae, Chironomidae and adult Gammarus roeseli in laboratory experiments. In the subsequent mesocosm study, each pulse caused a pronounced increase in the drift of insect larvae and gammarids. The drift response was taxon-specific, which was related to preferred habitat and exposure to other stressors like current velocity, in addition to imidacloprid sensitivity. Activity measurements employing a Multispecies Freshwater Biomonitor(®) revealed that in Baetis sp. the diurnal activity pattern became more pronounced even 12h after the pulse though with slightly decreased mean physical activity. Adult G. roeseli showed a drastic pulse by pulse decrease in physical activity which after the 3rd pulse lasted longer than 24h. In conclusion, drift is a sensitive, ecologically relevant endpoint and should be regarded when a specific risk assessment for lotic surface waters is done, e.g. in the context of a spatially explicit risk assessment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Ecological response of a multi-purpose river development project using macro-invertebrates richness and fish habitat value[Dissertation 3807

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pellaud, M.

    2007-05-15

    It has been acknowledged that river morphology and hydrology have been intensively altered due to the anthropic demands in floodplain land use and management, flood protection, promotion of navigability or energy production. Rivers were transformed in water highways, having lost contact with their surrounding floodplain as well as the plethora of ecological processes and occupants once thriving in these ecotonal zones. The identification of this emerging threat of morphological and hydrological alteration on ecological integrity adds further complexity in the exploitation of hydrosystem resources. These resources are heavily coveted and guarded by different lobbies each having strategic views on future project development. Stakeholders may want to promote hydro-electricity, ecologists a natural reserve, communes may wish to have an increased flood protection and leisure promoters a nautical center. As a result, the proposition of a river development project is certain to face opposition of one party or the other. The motivations of this dissertation are anchored in this context, where various and sometimes conflicting potentials for hydrosystem exploitation remain. This works aims at contributing scientifically to an innovative approach at the conception phase of a multi-purpose river development project by developing the ecological module to be implemented in the general project's optimizer. The SYNERGIE project hypothesis is that it should be possible to identify a synergetic pattern joining the interests of ecological integrity, flood safety, energy production and leisure development. Such a multi-objective river development project would stand more chance of acceptance. This dissertation focuses on the ecological aspects of such a river development project and an application on the regulated Swiss Upper Rhone River. Is expected an ecological answer to a river development project design / management which has to be compatible with Heller's Heller (2007

  3. Assessment of Streamside Management Zones for Conserving Benthic Macroinvertebrate Communities Following Timber Harvest in Eastern Kentucky Headwater Catchments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua K. Adkins

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Headwater streams generally comprise the majority of stream area in a watershed and can have a strong influence on downstream food webs. Our objective was to determine the effect of altering streamside management zone (SMZ configurations on headwater aquatic insect communities. Timber harvests were implemented within six watersheds in eastern Kentucky. The SMZ configurations varied in width, canopy retention and best management practice (BMP utilization at the watershed scale. Benthic macroinvertebrate samples collected one year before and four years after harvest indicated few differences among treatments, although post-treatment abundance was elevated in some of the treatment streams relative to the unharvested controls. Jaccard index values were similar across SMZ treatments after logging, indicating strong community overlap. These findings suggest that stream invertebrate communities did respond to the timber harvest, though not negatively. Results also suggest that SMZ criteria for aquatic habitats in steeply sloping topography, including at least 50 percent canopy retention and widths of at least 16.8 m, appear to be adequate for protecting benthic macroinvertebrate communities from logging impacts.

  4. Field and laboratory investigations on the effects of road salt (NaCl) on stream macroinvertebrate communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blasius, B.J.; Merritt, R.W.

    2002-01-01

    Short-term exposure to road salt did not significantly affect stream macro-invertebrate communities. - Field and laboratory experiments were conducted to examine the effects of road salt (NaCl) on stream macroinvertebrates. Field studies investigated leaf litter processing rates and functional feeding group composition at locations upstream and downstream from point source salt inputs in two Michigan, USA streams. Laboratory studies determined the effects of increasing NaCl concentrations on aquatic invertebrate drift, behavior, and survival. Field studies revealed that leaves were processed faster at upstream reference sites than at locations downstream from road salt point source inputs. However, it was sediment loading that resulted in partial or complete burial of leaf packs, that affected invertebrate activity and confounded normal leaf pack colonization. There were no significant differences that could be attributed to road salt between upstream and downstream locations in the diversity and composition of invertebrate functional feeding groups. Laboratory drift and acute exposure studies demonstrated that drift of Gammarus (Amphipoda) may be affected by NaCl at concentrations greater than 5000 mg/l for a 24-h period. This amphipod and two species of limnephilid caddisflies exhibited a dose response to salt treatments with 96-h LC 50 values of 7700 and 3526 mg NaCl/l, respectively. Most other invertebrate species and individuals were unaffected by NaCl concentrations up to 10,000 mg/l for 24 and 96 h, respectively

  5. BIOLOGICAL WATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF THE WHITECLAWED CRAYFISH HABITAT BASED ON MACROINVERTEBRATE COMMUNITIES: USEFULNESS FOR ITS CONSERVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GRANDJEAN F.

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available A survey of the macroinvertebrates of three brooks harbouring the white-clawed crayfish was conducted in Haute-Vienne department (France. Its aim was to increase our understanding of these ecosystems to help the conservation of A. pallipes. These brooks run through pastoral areas with well-developed riparian vegetation, which offers an important shade. Water temperature, dissolved oxygen concentration, pH, and conductivity fell within the ranges found for this species. A total of 34, 31, 29 taxa and 1 502, 1 364, 2 707 individuals of macrobenthos were collected in Holme, Besque and Bellecombe streams, respectively. Results showed good to very good water quality with IBGN scores ranging from 15 (Bellecombe to 17 (Holme and Besque, reflecting a limited impact of the anthropogenic disturbances. Taxa diversity were high for Holme and Besque with Shannon index around 3.2, translating a great heterogeneity of habitat and an equilibrated faunal community. Bellecombe showed a limited diversity with Shannon index of 1.42, resulting from the presence of numberous Chironomidae. This brook suffers probably weak organic pollution which could be related to the low water flow observed during the sampling. The similarity test according to Jaccard index showed high percentage of common taxa among ETP (Ephemeroptera-Trichoptera-Plecoptera between all sites. The high similarity of benthic macroinvertebrate communities could be an useful criteria to identify brooks for restocking purpose.

  6. Effects of highway construction on stream water quality and macroinvertebrate condition in a mid-atlantic highlands watershed, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yushun; Viadero, Roger C; Wei, Xinchao; Fortney, Ronald; Hedrick, Lara B; Welsh, Stuart A; Anderson, James T; Lin, Lian-Shin

    2009-01-01

    Refining best management practices (BMPs) for future highway construction depends on a comprehensive understanding of environmental impacts from current construction methods. Based on a before-after-control impact (BACI) experimental design, long-term stream monitoring (1997-2006) was conducted at upstream (as control, n = 3) and downstream (as impact, n = 6) sites in the Lost River watershed of the Mid-Atlantic Highlands region, West Virginia. Monitoring data were analyzed to assess impacts of during and after highway construction on 15 water quality parameters and macroinvertebrate condition using the West Virginia stream condition index (WVSCI). Principal components analysis (PCA) identified regional primary water quality variances, and paired t tests and time series analysis detected seven highway construction-impacted water quality parameters which were mainly associated with the second principal component. In particular, impacts on turbidity, total suspended solids, and total iron during construction, impacts on chloride and sulfate during and after construction, and impacts on acidity and nitrate after construction were observed at the downstream sites. The construction had statistically significant impacts on macroinvertebrate index scores (i.e., WVSCI) after construction, but did not change the overall good biological condition. Implementing BMPs that address those construction-impacted water quality parameters can be an effective mitigation strategy for future highway construction in this highlands region.

  7. Abundance and distribution of benthic macroinvertebrates in offshore soft sediments in Western Lake Huron, 2001-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, J. R. P.; Schaeffer, J.S.; Roseman, E.F.; Kiley, C.S.; Fouilleroux, A.

    2009-01-01

    Invasive species have had major impacts on the Great Lakes. This is especially true of exotic dreissenid mussels which are associated with decreased abundance of native macroinvertebrates and changes in food availability for fish. Beginning in 2001, we added a benthic macroinvertebrate survey to the USGS-Great Lakes Science Center's annual fall prey fish assessment of Lake Huron to monitor abundance of macrobenthos. Mean abundance of Diporeia, the most abundant benthic taxon in Lake Huron reported by previous investigators, declined greatly between 2001 and 2007. Diporeia was virtually absent at 27-m sites by 2001, decreased and was lost completely from 46-m depths by 2006, but remained present at reduced densities at 73-m sites. Dreissenids in our samples were almost entirely quagga mussels Dreissena bugensis. Zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha were virtually absent from our samples, suggesting that they were confined to nearshore areas shallower than we sampled. Loss of Diporeia at individual sites was associated with arrival of quagga mussels, even when mussel densities were low. Quagga mussel density peaked during 2002, then decreased thereafter. During the study quagga mussels became established at most 46-m sites, but remained rare at 73-m sites. Length frequency distributions suggest that initial widespread recruitment may have occurred during 2001-2002. Like other Great Lakes, Lake Huron quagga mussels were associated with decreased abundance of native taxa, but negative effects occurred even though dreissenid densities were much lower. Dreissenid effects may extend well into deep oligotrophic habitats of Lake Huron.

  8. Effect of spatial variation on salinity tolerance of macroinvertebrates in Eastern Australia and implications for ecosystem protection trigger values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunlop, Jason E.; Horrigan, Nelli; McGregor, Glenn; Kefford, Ben J.; Choy, Satish; Prasad, Rajesh

    2008-01-01

    Salinisation of freshwater has been identified as a serious environmental issue in Australia and around the world. Protective concentrations (trigger values) for salinity can be used to manage salinity impacts, though require locally relevant salinity tolerance information. 72-h acute salinity tolerance values were determined for 102 macroinvertebrates collected from 11 locations in four biologically distinct freshwater bio-regions in Northeast Australia and compared with sensitivities observed in Southeast Australia. The salinity tolerance of individual taxa was consistent across Northeast Australia and between Northeast and Southeast Australia. However, two distinct communities were identified in Northeast Australia using distributions of the acute tolerance values and a calculated index of salinity sensitivity. Salinity trigger values should therefore be representative of local or regionally relevant communities and may be adequately calculated using sensitivity values from throughout Eastern Australia. The results presented provide a basis for assessing salinity risk and determining trigger values for salinity in freshwater ecosystems at local and regional scales in Eastern Australia. - Salinity tolerance of macroinvertebrate communities vary in Eastern Australia hence water quality guidelines should be developed at a local or regional scale

  9. The response of macroinvertebrate community taxa and functional groups to pollution along a heavily impacted river in Central Europe (Bilina River, Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Orendt, C.; Wolfram, G.; Adámek, Zdeněk; Jurajda, Pavel; Schmitt-Jansen, M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 1 (2012), s. 180-199 ISSN 0006-3088 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : community analysis * functional community * taxonomic community * multiple pollution * multi-stress * macroinvertebrates * Central Europe * lower mountain river * EU-WFD Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.506, year: 2012

  10. Sensitivity of macroinvertebrates to carbendazim under semi-field conditions in Thailand: Implications for the use of temperate toxicity data in a tropical risk assessment of fungicides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daam, M.A.; Satapornvanit, K.; Brink, van den P.J.; Nogueira, A.J.A.

    2009-01-01

    The present paper discusses the fate of the fungicide carbendazim (nominal concentrations: 0, 3.3, 33, 100 and 1000 µg L-1) and its effects on the macroinvertebrate community in outdoor microcosms set up in Thailand. Fate and threshold values were subsequently compared with those noted in temperate

  11. Response of a macro-invertebrate community to insecticide application in replicated freshwater microcosms with emphasis on the use of principal component analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breukelen, van S.W.F.; Brock, T.C.M.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of chlorpyrifos on a macro-invertebrate community were studied in indoor freshwater ecosystems. A single dose of the insecticide was applied to achieve nominal concentrations of 5 (low dose) and 35 (high dose) μg/1. Acute primary effects of the treatment consisted of the death of most

  12. Using a Geospatial Model to Relate Fluvial Geomorphology to Macroinvertebrate Habitat in a Prairie River—Part 1: Genus-Level Relationships with Geomorphic Typologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna G. N. Meissner

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern river ecosystems undergo constant stress from disturbances such as bank stabilization, channelization, dams, and municipal, agricultural, and industrial water use. As these anthropogenic water requirements persist, more efficient methods of characterizing river reaches are essential. Benthic macroinvertebrates are helpful when evaluating fluvial health, because they are often the first group to react to contaminants that can then be transferred through them to other trophic levels. Hence, the purpose of this research is to use a geospatial model to differentiate instream macroinvertebrate habitats, and determine if the model is a viable method for stream evaluation. Through the use of ArcGIS and digital elevation models, the fluvial geomorphology of the Qu’Appelle River in Saskatchewan (SK was assessed. Four geomorphological characteristics of the river were isolated (sinuosity, slope, fractal dimension, and stream width and clustered through Principle Component Analysis (PCA, yielding sets of river reaches with similar geomorphological characteristics, called typologies. These typologies were mapped to form a geospatial model of the river. Macroinvertebrate data were aligned to the locations of the typologies, revealing several relationships with the fluvial geomorphology. A Kruskal-Wallis analysis and post hoc pairwise multiple comparisons were completed with the macroinvertebrate data to pinpoint significant genera, as related to the geospatial model.

  13. Using a Geospatial Model to Relate Fluvial Geomorphology to Macroinvertebrate Habitat in a Prairie River—Part 2: Matching Family-Level Indices to Geomorphological Response Units (GRUs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Grace Nostbakken Meissner

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Many rivers are intensely managed due to anthropogenic influences such as dams, channelization, and water provision for municipalities, agriculture, and industry. With this growing pressure on fluvial systems comes a greater need to evaluate the state of their ecosystems. The purpose of this research is to use a geospatial model of the Qu’Appelle River in Saskatchewan to distinguish instream macroinvertebrate habitats at the family level. River geomorphology was assessed through the use of ArcGIS and digital elevation models; with these tools, the sinuosity, slope, fractal dimension, and stream width of the river were processed. Subsequently, Principal Component Analysis, a clustering technique, revealed areas with similar sets of geomorphological characteristics. These similar typology sequences were then grouped into geomorphological response units (GRUs, designated a color, and mapped into a geospatial model. Macroinvertebrate data was then incorporated to reveal several relationships to the model. For instance, certain GRUs contained more highly sensitive species and healthier diversity levels than others. Future possibilities for expanding on this project include incorporating stable isotope data to evaluate the food-web structure within the river basin. Although GRUs have been very successful in identifying fish habitats in other studies, the macroinvertebrates may be too sessile and their habitat too localized to be identified by such large river units. Units may need to be much shorter (250 m to better identify macroinvertebrate habitat.

  14. How Students Learn: Ways of Thinking about "Good Learning" in HE. EDNER (Formative Evaluation of the Distributed National Electronic Resource) Project. Issues Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchester Metropolitan Univ. (England).

    This issues paper, one of a series of eight, is intended to distill formative evaluation questions on topics that are central to the development of the higher and further education information environment in the United Kingdom. The topic of this first issues paper is a conceptual framework that can help members of a project (information resource)…

  15. 大學圖書館電子資源之需求分析與行銷策略之研究 A Study of Demands Analysis and Marketing Strategy of Electronic Resources in University Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang-Yu Liu

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available 電子資源的出現,使得知識載體有了新的突破,提高了使用者的便利性與即時性。對於圖書館而言,如何使電子資源的使用效益達到最高,必須思考一套有效的行銷策略。電子資源行銷概念應以讀者為導向,尊重讀者的資訊需求,並利用各種宣傳技巧,行銷電子資源,使圖書館能提供更完善的服務。本研究之目的旨在探討讀者的使用需求及電子資源的推廣策略,以獲致最有效益的行銷方式。研究對象以開南大學日間部四學院(商學院、運輸觀光學院、資訊學院、人文社會學院)學生為樣本,佐以缺口分析模型為分析架構,藉以找出個案中讀者/學生對於電子資源使用的真實需求,並進而歸納出提供服務的大學圖書館在其推廣或行銷服務上可有的因應策略。The emergence of electronic resources has made new breakthrough in knowledge carriers because of their ease of use, instant availability, and the characteristic of no time and space constraints. For public libraries to achieve maximum efficiency in its electronic resources, it is necessary to seek the most effective marketing strategies. Therefore, the marketing concept of the electronic resources should be reader oriented, such as respecting and understanding library user’s information needs. Libraries also need to utilize various media and techniques to market the electronic resources, so that more comprehensive services and experiences can be provided to readers. The purpose of this study is to investigate library user’s needs and promotion strategies of electronic resources in order to identify the most effective ways of marketing. This study focuses on the students of the four colleges (College of Business, College of Tourism, College of Information, and College of Humanities and Social Science in Kainan University as subjects in the survey questionnaire. It uses the Gap Analysis

  16. [Effects of cascading hydropower dams operation on the structure and distribution pattern of benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages in Manwan Reservoir, Southwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin Peng; Dong, Shi Kui; Peng, Ming Chun; Wu, Xuan; Zhou, Fang; Yu, Yin

    2017-12-01

    Benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages are one of the biological groups in aquatic ecosystem most sensitive to the habitat change and degradation, and can be a biological indicator for the aquatic ecosystem change and succession in cascading hydropower dam reservoir. The middle and lower reaches of the Lancang River are key spot for international biodiversity conservation and ecological studies on the effects of cascading hydropower dam exploitation. In this study, the reservoir of Manwan hydropower dam, the first dam in Lancang-Mekong river main stream, was selected as the study site. The benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages were sampled in 2011 and 2016 respectively. Meanwhile, the survey data before impounding (natural river, 1996) and early stage of single dam (1997) were collected to conduct the overall analysis for structure, distribution pattern and evolution of benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages. The results showed that the dominant biological group was gradually changed from the Oligochaeta and Insecta to the Mollusca. Along the longitudinal gradient, the density and biomass of the benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages were remarkably increased in reservoir, especially in the lacustrine zone. As for the functional feeding group, the predator and gatherer-collector changed into filter-collector predominantly in lacustrine zone. With the cascading dams operation, the biotic index indicated that the water quality of reservoir in 2016 was better than in 2011. The evolution of benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages in the Manwan Reservoir was related to the operation of Xiaowan dam in the upper reach, the hydrological regime and siltation in the reservoir, and would continue with dynamic changes with the operation of the cascading hydropower dam.

  17. A comparison of different biotic indices based on benthic macro-invertebrates in italian lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura MARZIALI

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Benthic macroinvertebrates samples were taken from Italian lakes with different geological, morphological and chemical characteristics. Thirty-two lowland small and large lakes sampled using a grab in soft substrate were selected to develop biotic indices. Diversity indices based on species numbers - abundances and indices using species sensitivity values were compared. The lakes selected were all situated in the Alpine Ecoregion below 800 m a.s.l. and had similar chemical composition but different levels of anthropogenic pressure. Lakes with data available in different years were included as separate lakes in the analysis; littoralsublittoral samples of large lakes were also separated from profundal samples yielding a total of 41 sites for analysis. Seven different biotic indices were compared: (1 Shannon diversity index (H, (2 weighted Shannon diversity index (Hw including in the calculation a sensitivity value assigned to each species, (3 a benthic quality index based on means of three different environmental variables, measuring trophic status, weighted by species abundances (BQITS, (4 an index based on weighted means using a larger set of environmental variables (BQIENV, (5 a modified BQITS, which included both species numbers and total abundance of individuals (BQIES, (6 an index calculated according to a rarefaction method (ES, (7 an index considering indicator species based on experts judgment (BQIEJ. The indices were compared with a trophic status index (TSI constructed by joining three environmental variables: O2% saturation in the hypolimnion during summer stratification, total phosphorous and transparency during full circulation. Comparisons were also made with another environmental stress index (ENI constructed on a larger number of variables. All the biotic indices had significant correlations with both TSI and ENI. BQIES, WFD compliant and well correlated with TSI and ENI, was selected to tentatively assign the investigated lakes

  18. Application of electronic learning tools for training of specialists in the field of information technologies for enterprises of mineral resources sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Е. В. Катунцов

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The article shows the advantages of using modern electronic learning tools in the training of specialists for the mineral and raw materials complex and considers the basic principles of organizing training using these tools. The experience of using electronic learning tools using foreign teaching materials and involving foreign professors is described. A special attention is given to the electronic learning environment of the Cisco Networking Academy – Cisco NetAcad. The experience of teaching at the Networking Academy of the Saint-Petersburg Mining University is described. Details are given to modern virtual environments for laboratory work, such as Cisco Packet Tracer, GNS3 and Emulated Virtual Environment. The experience of using electronic learning technologies at the University of Economics of Bratislava is considered. It actively cooperates with a number of universities of other countries, such as the University of International Business (Almaty, the Eurasian National University named after LN Gumilyov (Astana and the Institute of Social and Humanitarian Knowledge (Kazan.

  19. An operational utility assessment [electronic resource]: measuring the effectiveness of the Joint Concept Technology Demonstration (JCTD), Joint Forces Protection Advance Security System (JFPASS)

    OpenAIRE

    McGovern, Mark; Mayor, Jeffrey D.; Symmes, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    MBA Professional Report Planning modern military operations requires an accurate intelligence assessment of potential threats, combined with a detailed assessment of the physical theater of operations. This information can then be combined with equipment and manpower resources to set up a logistically supportable operation that mitigates as much of the enemy threat as possible. Given such a daunting challenge, military planners often turn to intelligent software agents to support their...

  20. Effects of cutting disturbance in Schoenoplectus californicus (C.A. Mey. Soják on the benthic macroinvertebrates - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v33i1.6383 Effects of cutting disturbance in Schoenoplectus californicus (C.A. Mey. Soják on the benthic macroinvertebrates - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v33i1.6383

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Luiza Würdig

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Lagoons are considered protected areas because these systems play a key ecological role. However, the extraction of macrophyte Schoenoplectus californicus is held for manufacture of handcrafts, being an alternative income for riverbank communities. This study evaluated the impact of S. californicus experimental cutting on benthic macroinvertebrates trough a field experiment. Macroinvertebrates were sampled at 1, 12, 26 and 60 days after the macrophyte cutting in demarked plots (1 m², as well at control plots. The families number was not statistically different (ANOVA, p > 0.05, but the total density of invertebrates, and the density of Ceratopogonidae were significant (ANOVA, p S. californicus, in this area, as the intensity of the cut held, did not affect considerably the aquatic macroinvertebrates. The results suggest that the small-scale extractivism in these regions carries little effect because the fauna of adjacent areas probably can quickly colonize the disturbed areas.Lagoons are considered protected areas because these systems play a key ecological role. However, the extraction of macrophyte Schoenoplectus californicus is held for manufacture of handcrafts, being an alternative income for riverbank communities. This study evaluated the impact of S. californicus experimental cutting on benthic macroinvertebrates trough a field experiment. Macroinvertebrates were sampled at 1, 12, 26 and 60 days after the macrophyte cutting in demarked plots (1 m², as well at control plots. The families number was not statistically different (ANOVA, p > 0.05, but the total density of invertebrates, and the density of Ceratopogonidae were significant (ANOVA, p S. californicus, in this area, as the intensity of the cut held, did not affect considerably the aquatic macroinvertebrates. The results suggest that the small-scale extractivism in these regions carries little effect because the fauna of adjacent areas probably can quickly colonize the disturbed