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Sample records for macroinvertebrate collection methods

  1. Macroinvertebrate community sample collection methods and data collected from Sand Creek and Medano Creek, Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve, Colorado, 2005–07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Morgan A.; Zuellig, Robert E.; Walters, David M.; Bruce, James F.

    2016-08-11

    This report provides a table of site descriptions, sample information, and semiquantitative aquatic macroinvertebrate data from 105 samples collected between 2005 and 2007 from 7 stream sites within the Sand Creek and Medano Creek watersheds in Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve, Saguache County, Colorado. Additionally, a short description of sample collection methods and laboratory sample processing procedures is presented. These data were collected in anticipation of assessing the potential effects of fish toxicants on macroinvertebrates.

  2. A comparison of macroinvertebrate and habitat methods of data collection in the Little Colorado River Watershed, Arizona 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spindler, Patrice; Paretti, Nick V.

    2007-01-01

    The Arizona Department of Environmental Quality (ADEQ) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Ecological Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP), use different field methods for collecting macroinvertebrate samples and habitat data for bioassessment purposes. Arizona’s Biocriteria index was developed using a riffle habitat sampling methodology, whereas the EMAP method employs a multi-habitat sampling protocol. There was a need to demonstrate comparability of these different bioassessment methodologies to allow use of the EMAP multi-habitat protocol for both statewide probabilistic assessments for integration of the EMAP data into the national (305b) assessment and for targeted in-state bioassessments for 303d determinations of standards violations and impaired aquatic life conditions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the two methods yield similar bioassessment results, such that the data could be used interchangeably in water quality assessments. In this Regional EMAP grant funded project, a probabilistic survey of 30 sites in the Little Colorado River basin was conducted in the spring of 2007. Macroinvertebrate and habitat data were collected using both ADEQ and EMAP sampling methods, from adjacent reaches within these stream channels. All analyses indicated that the two macroinvertebrate sampling methods were significantly correlated. ADEQ and EMAP samples were classified into the same scoring categories (meeting, inconclusive, violating the biocriteria standard) 82% of the time. When the ADEQ-IBI was applied to both the ADEQ and EMAP taxa lists, the resulting IBI scores were significantly correlated (r=0.91), even though only 4 of the 7 metrics in the IBI were significantly correlated. The IBI scores from both methods were significantly correlated to the percent of riffle habitat, even though the average percent riffle habitat was only 30% of the stream reach. Multivariate analyses found that the percent riffle was an important

  3. Macroinvertebrate and algal community sample collection methods and data collected at selected sites in the Eagle River watershed, Colorado, 2000-07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuellig, Robert E.; Bruce, James F.

    2010-01-01

    State and local agencies are concerned about the effects of increasing urban development and human population growth on water quality and the biological condition of regional streams in the Eagle River watershed. In response to these needs, the U.S. Geological Survey initiated a study in cooperation with the Colorado River Water Conservation District, Eagle County, Eagle River Water and Sanitation District, Upper Eagle Regional Water Authority, Colorado Department of Transportation, City of Aurora, Town of Eagle, Town of Gypsum, Town of Minturn, Town of Vail, Vail Resorts, Colorado Springs Utilities, Denver Water, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service. As part of this study, previously collected macroinvertebrate and algal data from the Eagle River watershed were compiled. This report includes macroinvertebrate data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and(or) the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service from 73 sites from 2000 to 2007 and algal data collected from up to 26 sites between 2000 and 2001 in the Eagle River watershed. Additionally, a brief description of the sample collection methods and data processing procedures are presented.

  4. A digital reference collection for aquatic macroinvertebrates of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, David; Ford, Morgan A; Zuellig, Robert E.

    2017-01-01

    Aquatic invertebrates are a key component of freshwater ecosystems, and understanding aquatic invertebrate taxonomy is a cornerstone of freshwater science. Physical reference collections of expertly identified voucher specimens are the ‘gold-standard’ used to confirm specimen identifications. However, most biologists lack access to such collections, which themselves tend to be highly regionalized and somewhat limited in terms of taxonomic scope. The North American Aquatic Macroinvertebrate Digital Reference Collection (NAAMDRC; https://sciencebase.usgs.gov/naamdrc) was developed by the US Geological Survey (USGS) to overcome these limitations of physical collections. NAAMDRC provides users with public-domain, high-quality digital photographs to help verify specimen identifications.

  5. Comparison of two methods for estimating the abundance, diversity and habitat preference of fluvial macroinvertebrates in contrasting habitats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alonso, A.; Camargo, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    In this research we evaluate the effects of the method used for estimating the potential surface available for benthic macroinvertebrates in macrophyte and unvegetated habitats on several metrics and habitat preference of aquatic macroinvertebrates in the upper catchment of the Henares River (Guadal

  6. Meander reconnection method determines restoration success for macroinvertebrate communities in a German lowland river

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenz, Stefan; Leszinski, Marc; Graeber, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Re-meandering of degraded rivers is a frequently implemented measure in river restoration. A simple solution is reconnection of old meanders; however, its success likely depends on the reconnection method. We conducted a field study to analyze the benefits of a fully reconnected (fully opened...... sufficiently affect the basic hydromorphological requirements to achieve reference macroinvertebrate community composition. Measures including hydromorphological conditions are therefore recommended for employment in environmental management....

  7. Macroinvertebrate diversity in the karst Jadro River (Croatia

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    Rađa Biljana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of 10 years of investigation of the aquatic macroinvertebrate fauna along the karst Jadro River. The Jadro is a typical karst river. Benthic macroinvertebrates were collected along the river at 15 sites by standard methods of sampling, in addition to which several physicochemical parameters were also determined. Based on qualitative and quantitative composition of the macroinvertebrate fauna, correspondence analysis divided the river course into three sections: upstream, midcourse, and downstream. Forty-three taxa were recorded. Results of saprobiological analysis based on macrozoobenthos indicate that water of the Jadro River belongs to quality classes I and II.

  8. Freshwater Macroinvertebrates.

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    Nalepa, T. F.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of freshwater biology particularly freshwater macroinvertebrates and their effect on water pollution, covering publications of 1976-77. A list of 158 references is also presented. (HM)

  9. Fish stomach contents in benthic macroinvertebrate assemblage assessments

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    TH. Tupinambás

    Full Text Available The choice of sampling gears to assess benthic macroinvertebrate communities depends on environmental characteristics, study objectives, and cost effectiveness. Because of the high foraging capacity and diverse habitats and behaviors of benthophagous fishes, their stomach contents may offer a useful sampling tool in studies of benthic macroinvertebrates, especially in large, deep, fast rivers that are difficult to sample with traditional sediment sampling gear. Our objective was to compare the benthic macroinvertebrate communities sampled from sediments with those sampled from fish stomachs. We collected benthic macroinvertebrates and fish from three different habitat types (backwater, beach, riffle in the wet season, drying season, and dry season along a single reach of the Grande River (Paraná River Basin, southeast Brazil. We sampled sediments through use of a Petersen dredge (total of 216 grabs and used gill nets to sample fish (total of 36 samples. We analyzed the stomach contents of three commonly occurring benthophagous fish species (Eigenmannia virescens, Iheringichthys labrosus, Leporinus amblyrhynchus. Chironomids dominated in both sampling methods. Macroinvertebrate taxonomic composition and abundances from fish stomachs differed from those from sediment samples, but less so from riffles than from backwater and beach habitats. Macroinvertebrate taxa from E. virescens stomachs were more strongly correlated with sediment samples from all three habitats than were those from the other two species. The species accumulation curves and higher mean dispersion values, compared with with sediment samples suggest that E. virescens is more efficient than sediment samples and the other fish studied at collecting benthic taxa. We conclude that by analyzing the stomach contents of benthophagous fishes it is possible to assess important characteristics of benthic communities (dispersion, taxonomic composition and diversity. This is especially true

  10. Rapid Bioassessment Methods for Assessing Stream Macroinvertebrate Community on the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Specht, W.L.

    1999-11-22

    Macroinvertebrate sampling was performed at 16 locations in the Savannah River Site (SRS) streams using Hester-Dendy multiplate samplers and EPA Rapid Bioassessment Protocols (RBP). Some of the sampling locations were unimpacted, while other locations had been subject to various forms of perturbation by SRS activities. In general, the data from the Hester-Dendy multiplate samplers were more sensitive at detecting impacts than were the RBP data. We developed a Biotic Index for the Hester-Dendy data which incorporated eight community structure, function, and balance parameters. when tested using a data set that was unrelated to the data set that was used in developing the Biotic Index, the index was very successful at detecting impact.

  11. Comparison of Artificial Neural Network (ANN Model Development Methods for Prediction of Macroinvertebrate Communities in the Zwalm River Basin in Flanders, Belgium

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    Andy P. Dedecker

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Modelling has become an interesting tool to support decision making in water management. River ecosystem modelling methods have improved substantially during recent years. New concepts, such as artificial neural networks, fuzzy logic, evolutionary algorithms, chaos and fractals, cellular automata, etc., are being more commonly used to analyse ecosystem databases and to make predictions for river management purposes. In this context, artificial neural networks were applied to predict macroinvertebrate communities in the Zwalm River basin (Flanders, Belgium. Structural characteristics (meandering, substrate type, flow velocity and physical and chemical variables (dissolved oxygen, pH were used as predictive variables to predict the presence or absence of macroinvertebrate taxa in the headwaters and brooks of the Zwalm River basin. Special interest was paid to the frequency of occurrence of the taxa as well as the selection of the predictors and variables to be predicted on the prediction reliability of the developed models. Sensitivity analyses allowed us to study the impact of the predictive variables on the prediction of presence or absence of macroinvertebrate taxa and to define which variables are the most influential in determining the neural network outputs.

  12. Protocols for collection of streamflow, water-quality, streambed-sediment, periphyton, macroinvertebrate, fish, and habitat data to describe stream quality for the Hydrobiological Monitoring Program, Equus Beds Aquifer Storage and Recovery Program, city of Wichita, Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Mandy L.; Rasmussen, Teresa J.; Bennett, Trudy J.; Poulton, Barry C.; Ziegler, Andrew C.

    2012-01-01

    The city of Wichita, Kansas uses the Equus Beds aquifer, one of two sources, for municipal water supply. To meet future water needs, plans for artificial recharge of the aquifer have been implemented in several phases. Phase I of the Equus Beds Aquifer Storage and Recovery (ASR) Program began with injection of water from the Little Arkansas River into the aquifer for storage and subsequent recovery in 2006. Construction of a river intake structure and surface-water treatment plant began as implementation of Phase II of the Equus Beds ASR Program in 2010. An important aspect of the ASR Program is the monitoring of water quality and the effects of recharge activities on stream conditions. Physical, chemical, and biological data provide the basis for an integrated assessment of stream quality. This report describes protocols for collecting streamflow, water-quality, streambed-sediment, periphyton, macroinvertebrate, fish, and habitat data as part of the city of Wichita's hydrobiological monitoring program (HBMP). Following consistent and reliable methods for data collection and processing is imperative for the long-term success of the monitoring program.

  13. Development of a local-scale urban stream assessment method using benthic macroinvertebrates: An example from the Santa Clara Basin, California

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    Carter, J.L.; Purcell, A.H.; Fend, S.V.; Resh, V.H.

    2009-01-01

    Research that explores the biological response to urbanization on a site-specific scale is necessary for management of urban basins. Recent studies have proposed a method to characterize the biological response of benthic macroinvertebrates along an urban gradient for several climatic regions in the USA. Our study demonstrates how this general framework can be refined and applied on a smaller scale to an urbanized basin, the Santa Clara Basin (surrounding San Jose, California, USA). Eighty-four sampling sites on 14 streams in the Santa Clara Basin were used for assessing local stream conditions. First, an urban index composed of human population density, road density, and urban land cover was used to determine the extent of urbanization upstream from each sampling site. Second, a multimetric biological index was developed to characterize the response of macroinvertebrate assemblages along the urban gradient. The resulting biological index included metrics from 3 ecological categories: taxonomic composition ( Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera), functional feeding group (shredder richness), and habit ( clingers). The 90th-quantile regression line was used to define the best available biological conditions along the urban gradient, which we define as the predicted biological potential. This descriptor was then used to determine the relative condition of sites throughout the basin. Hierarchical partitioning of variance revealed that several site-specific variables (dissolved O2 and temperature) were significantly related to a site's deviation from its predicted biological potential. Spatial analysis of each site's deviation from its biological potential indicated geographic heterogeneity in the distribution of impaired sites. The presence and operation of local dams optimize water use, but modify natural flow regimes, which in turn influence stream habitat, dissolved O2, and temperature. Current dissolved O2 and temperature regimes deviate from natural

  14. Meander reconnection method determines restoration success for macroinvertebrate communities in a German lowland river

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenz, Stefan; Leszinski, Marc; Graeber, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Re-meandering of degraded rivers is a frequently implemented measure in river restoration. A simple solution is reconnection of old meanders; however, its success likely depends on the reconnection method. We conducted a field study to analyze the benefits of a fully reconnected (fully opened...

  15. Macroinvertebrates as indicators of fish absence in naturally fishless lakes

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    Schilling, Emily Gaenzle; Loftin, C.S.; Huryn, Alexander D.

    2009-01-01

    1. Little is known about native communities in naturally fishless lakes in eastern North America, a region where fish stocking has led to a decline in these habitats. 2. Our study objectives were to: (i) characterise and compare macroinvertebrate communities in fishless lakes found in two biophysical regions of Maine (U.S.A.): kettle lakes in the eastern lowlands and foothills and headwater lakes in the central and western mountains; (ii) identify unique attributes of fishless lake macroinvertebrate communities compared to lakes with fish and (iii) develop a method to efficiently identify fishless lakes when thorough fish surveys are not possible. 3. We quantified macroinvertebrate community structure in the two physiographic fishless lake types (n = 8 kettle lakes; n = 8 headwater lakes) with submerged light traps and sweep nets. We also compared fishless lake macroinvertebrate communities to those in fish-containing lakes (n = 18) of similar size, location and maximum depth. We used non-metric multidimensional scaling to assess differences in community structure and t-tests for taxon-specific comparisons between lakes. 4. Few differences in macroinvertebrate communities between the two physiographic fishless lake types were apparent. Fishless and fish-containing lakes had numerous differences in macroinvertebrate community structure, abundance, taxonomic composition and species richness. Fish presence or absence was a stronger determinant of community structure in our study than differences in physical conditions relating to lake origin and physiography. 5. Communities in fishless lakes were more speciose and abundant than in fish-containing lakes, especially taxa that are large, active and free-swimming. Families differing in abundance and taxonomic composition included Notonectidae, Corixidae, Gyrinidae, Dytiscidae, Aeshnidae, Libellulidae and Chaoboridae. 6. We identified six taxa unique to fishless lakes that are robust indicators of fish absence: Graphoderus

  16. Modeling Aquatic Macroinvertebrate Richness Using Landscape Attributes

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    Marcia S. Meixler

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We used a rapid, repeatable, and inexpensive geographic information system (GIS approach to predict aquatic macroinvertebrate family richness using the landscape attributes stream gradient, riparian forest cover, and water quality. Stream segments in the Allegheny River basin were classified into eight habitat classes using these three landscape attributes. Biological databases linking macroinvertebrate families with habitat classes were developed using life habits, feeding guilds, and water quality preferences and tolerances for each family. The biological databases provided a link between fauna and habitat enabling estimation of family composition in each habitat class and hence richness predictions for each stream segment. No difference was detected between field collected and modeled predictions of macroinvertebrate families in a paired t-test. Further, predicted stream gradient, riparian forest cover, and total phosphorus, total nitrogen, and suspended sediment classifications matched observed classifications much more often than by chance alone. High gradient streams with forested riparian zones and good water quality were predicted to have the greatest macroinvertebrate family richness and changes in water quality were predicted to have the greatest impact on richness. Our findings indicate that our model can provide meaningful landscape scale macroinvertebrate family richness predictions from widely available data for use in focusing conservation planning efforts.

  17. Application of the BMWP-Costa Rica biotic index in aquatic biomonitoring: sensitivity to collection method and sampling intensity.

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    Gutiérrez-Fonseca, Pablo E; Lorion, Christopher M

    2014-04-01

    The use of aquatic macroinvertebrates as bio-indicators in water quality studies has increased considerably over the last decade in Costa Rica, and standard biomonitoring methods have now been formulated at the national level. Nevertheless, questions remain about the effectiveness of different methods of sampling freshwater benthic assemblages, and how sampling intensity may influence biomonitoring results. In this study, we compared the results of qualitative sampling using commonly applied methods with a more intensive quantitative approach at 12 sites in small, lowland streams on the southern Caribbean slope of Costa Rica. Qualitative samples were collected following the official protocol using a strainer during a set time period and macroinvertebrates were field-picked. Quantitative sampling involved collecting ten replicate Surber samples and picking out macroinvertebrates in the laboratory with a stereomicroscope. The strainer sampling method consistently yielded fewer individuals and families than quantitative samples. As a result, site scores calculated using the Biological Monitoring Working Party-Costa Rica (BMWP-CR) biotic index often differed greatly depending on the sampling method. Site water quality classifications using the BMWP-CR index differed between the two sampling methods for 11 of the 12 sites in 2005, and for 9 of the 12 sites in 2006. Sampling intensity clearly had a strong influence on BMWP-CR index scores, as well as perceived differences between reference and impacted sites. Achieving reliable and consistent biomonitoring results for lowland Costa Rican streams may demand intensive sampling and requires careful consideration of sampling methods.

  18. Determining the trophic guilds of fishes and macroinvertebrates in a seagrass food web

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    Luczkovich, J.J.; Ward, G.P.; Johnson, J.C.; Christian, R.R.; Baird, D.; Neckles, H.; Rizzo, W.M.

    2002-01-01

    We established trophic guilds of macroinvertebrate and fish taxa using correspondence analysis and a hierarchical clustering strategy for a seagrass food web in winter in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. To create the diet matrix, we characterized the trophic linkages of macroinvertebrate and fish taxa present in Halodule wrightii seagrass habitat areas within the St. Marks National Wildlife Refuge (Florida) using binary data, combining dietary links obtained from relevant literature for macroinvertebrates with stomach analysis of common fishes collected during January and February of 1994. Heirarchical average-linkage cluster analysis of the 73 taxa of fishes and macroinvertebrates in the diet matrix yielded 14 clusters with diet similarity ??? 0.60. We then used correspondence analysis with three factors to jointly plot the coordinates of the consumers (identified by cluster membership) and of the 33 food sources. Correspondence analysis served as a visualization tool for assigning each taxon to one of eight trophic guilds: herbivores, detritivores, suspension feeders, omnivores, molluscivores, meiobenthos consumers, macrobenthos consumers, and piscivores. These trophic groups, cross-classified with major taxonomic groups, were further used to develop consumer compartments in a network analysis model of carbon flow in this seagrass ecosystem. The method presented here should greatly improve the development of future network models of food webs by providing an objective procedure for aggregating trophic groups.

  19. Macroinvertebrate assemblages in agricultural, mining, and urban tropical streams: implications for conservation and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwedzi, Tongayi; Bere, Taurai; Mangadze, Tinotenda

    2016-06-01

    The study evaluated the response of macroinvertebrate assemblages to changes in water quality in different land-use settings in Manyame catchment, Zimbabwe. Four land-use categories were identified: forested commercial farming, communal farming, Great Dyke mining (GDM) and urban areas. Macroinvertebrate community structure and physicochemical variables data were collected in two seasons from 41 sites following standard methods. Although not environmentally threatening, urban and GDM areas were characterised by higher conductivity, total dissolved solids, salinity, magnesium and hardness. Chlorides, total phosphates, total nitrogen, calcium, potassium and sodium were significantly highest in urban sites whilst dissolved oxygen (DO) was significantly higher in the forested commercial faming and GDM sites. Macroinvertebrate communities followed the observed changes in water quality. Macroinvertebrates in urban sites indicated severe pollution (e.g. Chironomidae) whilst those in forested commercial farming sites and GDM sites indicated relatively clean water (e.g. Notonemouridae). Forested watersheds together with good farm management practices are important in mitigating impacts of urbanisation and agriculture. Strategies that reduce oxygen-depleting substances must be devised to protect the health of Zimbabwean streams. The study affirms the wider applicability of the South African Scoring System in different land uses.

  20. Conservation unit and water quality: the influence of environmental integrity on benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages

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    Jessé Renan Scapini Sobczak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of a Conservation Unit (CU in maintaining the quality of freshwater habitats and to evaluate the influence of environmental integrity on benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages. METHODS: The research was conducted at sampling sites located within and outside of the CU in the Alto Uruguai region, southern Brazil, and included two stages: (i the collection of benthic macroinvertebrates and (ii the application of a Rapid Assessment Protocol (RAP to characterise the habitat quality. RESULTS: A total of 1,362 benthic macroinvertebrates were collected during the study, totalling 30 taxa. The densities within and outside the CU were significantly different (F= 160.08; p= 0.05, and the Shannon diversity and taxa richness followed the same pattern (F= 118.72, p= 0.05; and F= 176.33, p= 0.04, respectively. In contrast, the Pielou equitability did not differ within and outside the CU (F= 0.19, p= 0.74. The biotic index (Biological Monitoring Working Party indicated that water quality was good or very good in the majority of cases. Most of the sampling sites were classified as ‘natural’ according to the RAP. The taxa richness was significantly related to habitat diversity (F= 7.24; p = 0.05, but no significant relationship was found between the habitat diversity and the Shannon diversity (F= 2.13, p = 0.22. CONCLUSION: The CU was effective for the conservation of water quality and the freshwater biodiversity of benthic macroinvertebrates. The results show that the environmental integrity was related to the distribution of benthic macroinvertebrates, primarily to the taxa richness. More detailed investigations need to be developed to better understand these relationships and to take into account the temporal scale. An analysis of the most significant sources of stress on the aquatic life outside the area is recommended.

  1. L-Lake macroinvertebrate community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Specht, W.L.

    1996-06-01

    To characterize the present benthic macroinvertebrate community of L-Lake, Regions 5 and 7 of the reservoir were sampled in September 1995 at the same locations sampled in 1988 and 1989 during the L-Lake monitoring program. The macroinvertebrate community of 1995 is compared to that of 1988 and 1989. The species composition of L-Lake`s macroinvertebrate community has changed considerably since 1988-1989, due primarily to maturation of the reservoir ecosystem. L-Lake contains a reasonably diverse macroinvertebrate community that is capable of supporting higher trophic levels, including a diverse assemblage of fish species. The L-Lake macroinvertebrate community is similar to those of many other southeastern reservoirs, and there is no indication that the macroinvertebrate community is perturbed by chemical or physical stressors.

  2. A sampler for quantifying the vertical distribution of macroinvertebrates in shallow wetlands

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    MacKay, J.; Euliss, N.H.

    1993-01-01

    A sampler for quantifying the vertical distribution of aquatic macroinvertebrates in wetlands is described. This device will facilitate quantitative sampling of macroinvertebrates in waterfowl ecology and related studies. Because it simultaneously collects benthic and pelagic invertebrates the sampler reduces bias associated with sampling macroinvertebrates that occupy the benthic-pelagic interface of wetlands. The sampling device also separates benthic and pelagic macroinvertebrates into separate vertical profiles to facilitate studies of distribution patterns or the influence of chemical and physical gradients on invertebrate vertical distribution.

  3. A field-based method to derive macroinvertebrate benchmark for specific conductivity adapted for small data sets and demonstrated in the Hun-Tai River Basin, Northeast China.

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    Zhao, Qian; Jia, Xiaobo; Xia, Rui; Lin, Jianing; Zhang, Yuan

    2016-09-01

    Ionic mixtures, measured as specific conductivity, have been increasingly concerned because of their toxicities to aquatic organisms. However, identifying protective values of specific conductivity for aquatic organisms is challenging given that laboratory test systems cannot examine more salt-intolerant species nor effects occurring in streams. Large data sets used for deriving field-based benchmarks are rarely available. In this study, a field-based method for small data sets was used to derive specific conductivity benchmark, which is expected to prevent the extirpation of 95% of local taxa from circum-neutral to alkaline waters dominated by a mixture of SO4(2-) and HCO3(-) anions and other dissolved ions. To compensate for the smaller sample size, species level analyses were combined with genus level analyses. The benchmark is based on extirpation concentration (XC95) values of specific conductivity for 60 macroinvertebrate genera estimated from 296 sampling sites in the Hun-Tai River Basin. We derived the specific conductivity benchmark by using a 2-point interpolation method, which yielded the benchmark of 249 μS/cm. Our study tailored the method that was developed by USEPA to derive aquatic life benchmark for specific conductivity for basin scale application, and may provide useful information for water pollution control and management.

  4. Evaluation of alternative macroinvertebrate sampling techniques for use in a new tropical freshwater bioassessment scheme

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    Isabel Eleanor Moore

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study aimed to determine the effectiveness of benthic macroinvertebrate dredge net sampling procedures as an alternative method to kick net sampling in tropical freshwater systems, specifically as an evaluation of sampling methods used in the Zambian Invertebrate Scoring System (ZISS river bioassessment scheme. Tropical freshwater ecosystems are sometimes dangerous or inaccessible to sampling teams using traditional kick-sampling methods, so identifying an alternative procedure that produces similar results is necessary in order to collect data from a wide variety of habitats.MethodsBoth kick and dredge nets were used to collect macroinvertebrate samples at 16 riverine sites in Zambia, ranging from backwaters and floodplain lagoons to fast flowing streams and rivers. The data were used to calculate ZISS, diversity (S: number of taxa present, and Average Score Per Taxon (ASPT scores per site, using the two sampling methods to compare their sampling effectiveness. Environmental parameters, namely pH, conductivity, underwater photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, temperature, alkalinity, flow, and altitude, were also recorded and used in statistical analysis. Invertebrate communities present at the sample sites were determined using multivariate procedures.ResultsAnalysis of the invertebrate community and environmental data suggested that the testing exercise was undertaken in four distinct macroinvertebrate community types, supporting at least two quite different macroinvertebrate assemblages, and showing significant differences in habitat conditions. Significant correlations were found for all three bioassessment score variables between results acquired using the two methods, with dredge-sampling normally producing lower scores than did the kick net procedures. Linear regression models were produced in order to correct each biological variable score collected by a dredge net to a score similar to that of one collected by kick net

  5. Towards a multimetric index for the assessment of Dutch streams using benthic macroinvertebrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlek, H.E.; Verdonschot, P.F.M.; Nijboer, R.C.

    2004-01-01

    This study describes the development of a macroinvertebrate based multimetric index for two stream types, fast and slow running streams, in the Netherlands within the AQEM project. Existing macroinvertebrate data (949 samples) were collected from these stream types from all over the Netherlands. All

  6. A Stream Multimetric Macroinvertebrate Index (MMI) for the Sand Hills Ecoregion of the Southeastern Plains, USA

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    Kosnicki, Ely; Sefick, Stephen A.; Paller, Michael H.; Jerrell, Miller S.; Prusha, Blair A.; Sterrett, Sean C.; Tuberville, Tracey D.; Feminella, Jack W.

    2016-10-01

    A macroinvertebrate multimetric index is an effective tool for assessing the biological integrity of streams. However, data collected under a single protocol may not be available for an entire region. We sampled macroinvertebrates from the full extent of the Sand Hills ecoregion Level IV of the Southeastern Plains with a standard protocol during the summers of 2010-2012. We evaluated the performance of 94 metrics through a series of screening criteria and built 48 macroinvertebrate multimetric indexs with combinations of the best performing metrics, representing richness, habit, functional feeding guild, sensitivity, and community composition. A series of narrative-response tests for each macroinvertebrate multimetric index was used to find the best performing macroinvertebrate multimetric index which we called the Sand Hills macroinvertebrate multimetric index. The Sand Hills macroinvertebrate multimetric index consisted of the measures Biotic Index, % Shredder taxa, Clinger taxa2/total taxa, Plecoptera and Trichoptera richness, and Tanytarsini taxa2/Chironomidae taxa. Comparison of the Sand Hills macroinvertebrate multimetric index with existing assessment tools calculated with our data indicated that the Sand Hills macroinvertebrate multimetric index performs at a high level with regard to identifying degraded sites and in its response to stress gradients.

  7. Macroinvertebrate and diatom metrics as indicators of water-quality conditions in connected depression wetlands in the Mississippi Alluvial Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justus, Billy; Burge, David; Cobb, Jennifer; Marsico, Travis; Bouldin, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Methods for assessing wetland conditions must be established so wetlands can be monitored and ecological services can be protected. We evaluated biological indices compiled from macroinvertebrate and diatom metrics developed primarily for streams to assess their ability to indicate water quality in connected depression wetlands. We collected water-quality and biological samples at 24 connected depressions dominated by water tupelo (Nyssa aquatica) or bald cypress (Taxodium distichum) (water depths = 0.5–1.0 m). Water quality of the least-disturbed connected depressions was characteristic of swamps in the southeastern USA, which tend to have low specific conductance, nutrient concentrations, and pH. We compared 162 macroinvertebrate metrics and 123 diatom metrics with a water-quality disturbance gradient. For most metrics, we evaluated richness, % richness, abundance, and % relative abundance values. Three of the 4 macroinvertebrate metrics that were most beneficial for identifying disturbance in connected depressions decreased along the disturbance gradient even though they normally increase relative to stream disturbance. The negative relationship to disturbance of some taxa (e.g., dipterans, mollusks, and crustaceans) that are considered tolerant in streams suggests that the tolerance scale for some macroinvertebrates can differ markedly between streams and wetlands. Three of the 4 metrics chosen for the diatom index reflected published tolerances or fit the usual perception of metric response to disturbance. Both biological indices may be useful in connected depressions elsewhere in the Mississippi Alluvial Plain Ecoregion and could have application in other wetland types. Given the paradoxical relationship of some macroinvertebrate metrics to dissolved O2 (DO), we suggest that the diatom metrics may be easier to interpret and defend for wetlands with low DO concentrations in least-disturbed conditions.

  8. Patterning and predicting aquatic macroinvertebrate diversities using artificial neural network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Park, Y.S.; Verdonschot, P.F.M.; Chon, T.S.; Lek, S.

    2003-01-01

    A counterpropagation neural network (CPN) was applied to predict species richness (SR) and Shannon diversity index (SH) of benthic macroinvertebrate communities using 34 environmental variables. The data were collected at 664 sites at 23 different water types such as springs, streams, rivers, canals

  9. Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory; processing, taxonomy, and quality control of benthic macroinvertebrate samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulton, Stephen R.; Carter, James L.; Grotheer, Scott A.; Cuffney, Thomas F.; Short, Terry M.

    2000-01-01

    Qualitative and quantitative methods to process benthic macroinvertebrate (BMI) samples have been developed and tested by the U.S. Geological Survey?s National Water Quality Laboratory Biological Group. The qualitative processing method is based on visually sorting a sample for up to 2 hours. Sorting focuses on attaining organisms that are likely to result in taxonomic identifications to lower taxonomic levels (for example, Genus or Species). Immature and damaged organisms are also sorted when they are likely to result in unique determinations. The sorted sample remnant is scanned briefly by a second person to determine if obvious taxa were missed. The quantitative processing method is based on a fixed-count approach that targets some minimum count, such as 100 or 300 organisms. Organisms are sorted from randomly selected 5.1- by 5.1-centimeter parts of a gridded subsampling frame. The sorted remnant from each sample is resorted by a second individual for at least 10 percent of the original sort time. A large-rare organism search is performed on the unsorted remnant to sort BMI taxa that were not likely represented in the sorted grids. After either qualitatively or quantitatively sorting the sample, BMIs are identified by using one of three different types of taxonomic assessment. The Standard Taxonomic Assessment is comparable to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Rapid Bioassessment Protocol III and typically provides Genus- or Species-level taxonomic resolution. The Rapid Taxonomic Assessment is comparable to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Rapid Bioassessment Protocol II and provides Familylevel and higher taxonomic resolution. The Custom Taxonomic Assessment provides Species-level resolution whenever possible for groups identified to higher taxonomic levels by using the Standard Taxonomic Assessment. The consistent use of standardized designations and notes facilitates the interpretation of BMI data within and among water-quality studies

  10. Qualitative Macroinvertebrate Assessment of Crouch Branch, June 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Specht, W.L.

    1999-11-05

    An assessment of the macroinvertebrate community of Crouch Branch was performed in June 1999 to determine if effluent from the H-02 outfall is impairing the quality of the stream. Concurrent samples were collected for metals analyses (copper and zinc). The results of the study indicate that the stream is most impaired just downstream from the H-02 outfall and that the quality of the stream biota improves with increasing distance from the outfall. Conversely, macroinvertebrate habitat quality is best just downstream from the H-02 outfall. The midreaches of the stream contain very poor habitat quality, and the lower reaches of the stream, contain habitat of intermediate quality. Although much of the stream has degraded habitat due to channel erosion and scouring, there is strong evidence to suggest that the impairment is due to elevated concentrations of copper and zinc that are present in the H-02 effluent. A comparison of macroinvertebrate data collected in 1997 to the data collected in this study indicates that the macroinvertebrate community of Crouch Branch has improved markedly in the last two years.

  11. Characterization of Macroinvertebrate Communities in the Hyporheic Zone of River Ecosystems Reflects the Pump-Sampling Technique Used

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dole-Olivier, Marie-José; Galassi, Diana M. P.; Hogan, John-Paul; Wood, Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    The hyporheic zone of river ecosystems provides a habitat for a diverse macroinvertebrate community that makes a vital contribution to ecosystem functioning and biodiversity. However, effective methods for sampling this community have proved difficult to establish, due to the inaccessibility of subsurface sediments. The aim of this study was to compare the two most common semi-quantitative macroinvertebrate pump-sampling techniques: Bou-Rouch and vacuum-pump sampling. We used both techniques to collect replicate samples in three contrasting temperate-zone streams, in each of two biogeographical regions (Atlantic region, central England, UK; Continental region, southeast France). Results were typically consistent across streams in both regions: Bou-Rouch samples provided significantly higher estimates of taxa richness, macroinvertebrate abundance, and the abundance of all UK and eight of 10 French common taxa. Seven and nine taxa which were rare in Bou-Rouch samples were absent from vacuum-pump samples in the UK and France, respectively; no taxon was repeatedly sampled exclusively by the vacuum pump. Rarefaction curves (rescaled to the number of incidences) and non-parametric richness estimators indicated no significant difference in richness between techniques, highlighting the capture of more individuals as crucial to Bou-Rouch sampling performance. Compared to assemblages in replicate vacuum-pump samples, multivariate analyses indicated greater distinction among Bou-Rouch assemblages from different streams, as well as significantly greater consistency in assemblage composition among replicate Bou-Rouch samples collected in one stream. We recommend Bou-Rouch sampling for most study types, including rapid biomonitoring surveys and studies requiring acquisition of comprehensive taxon lists that include rare taxa. Despite collecting fewer macroinvertebrates, vacuum-pump sampling remains an important option for inexpensive and rapid sample collection. PMID:27723819

  12. Characterization of Macroinvertebrate Communities in the Hyporheic Zone of River Ecosystems Reflects the Pump-Sampling Technique Used.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbington, Rachel; Dole-Olivier, Marie-José; Galassi, Diana M P; Hogan, John-Paul; Wood, Paul J

    2016-01-01

    The hyporheic zone of river ecosystems provides a habitat for a diverse macroinvertebrate community that makes a vital contribution to ecosystem functioning and biodiversity. However, effective methods for sampling this community have proved difficult to establish, due to the inaccessibility of subsurface sediments. The aim of this study was to compare the two most common semi-quantitative macroinvertebrate pump-sampling techniques: Bou-Rouch and vacuum-pump sampling. We used both techniques to collect replicate samples in three contrasting temperate-zone streams, in each of two biogeographical regions (Atlantic region, central England, UK; Continental region, southeast France). Results were typically consistent across streams in both regions: Bou-Rouch samples provided significantly higher estimates of taxa richness, macroinvertebrate abundance, and the abundance of all UK and eight of 10 French common taxa. Seven and nine taxa which were rare in Bou-Rouch samples were absent from vacuum-pump samples in the UK and France, respectively; no taxon was repeatedly sampled exclusively by the vacuum pump. Rarefaction curves (rescaled to the number of incidences) and non-parametric richness estimators indicated no significant difference in richness between techniques, highlighting the capture of more individuals as crucial to Bou-Rouch sampling performance. Compared to assemblages in replicate vacuum-pump samples, multivariate analyses indicated greater distinction among Bou-Rouch assemblages from different streams, as well as significantly greater consistency in assemblage composition among replicate Bou-Rouch samples collected in one stream. We recommend Bou-Rouch sampling for most study types, including rapid biomonitoring surveys and studies requiring acquisition of comprehensive taxon lists that include rare taxa. Despite collecting fewer macroinvertebrates, vacuum-pump sampling remains an important option for inexpensive and rapid sample collection.

  13. Benthic macroinvertebrate based indices for assessing the ecological status of freshwaters on oceanic islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PEDRO M. RAPOSEIRO

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Following the Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC, macroinvertebrates are required biological elements for monitoring European aquatic ecosystems. Several efforts have been made towards establishing a biomonitoring programme for the Azores freshwater systems using benthic macroinvertebrates. However, little was previously known concerning Azorean freshwater macroinvertebrate fauna. Data from a major ongoing survey of macroinvertebrate freshwater fauna for two islands are presented and the use ofmacroinvertebrates as water quality indicators for the Azorean streams is evaluated. The upper, middle and lower reaches of streams longer than 10 km from São Miguel (10 and Santa Maria (1 were surveyed (a total of 33 samples. A total of 21 taxa were collected;Diptera, in particular chironomidae, were dominant; chironomids were collected from all sampling sites. The Azorean lotic fauna is characterized by low levels of abundance and the absence of macroinvertebrate groups commonly associated with continental systems.Traditional biotic indices, used to classify ecological quality, yielded poor to bad classifications despite little or no environmental impacts at the sampling sites. The paucityof macroinvertebrate fauna is probably due to the result of geological and physicochemical processes, the oceanic character of the islands, their volcanic origin, small size and geological youth and climate related factors such as seasonal peaks in rainfall. Considering these constraints, we demonstrate that watershed age plays a determinant role in shaping Azorean macroinvertebrate freshwater communities which can confound the water quality classification via the use of traditional biotic indices.

  14. Development of a regional littoral benthic macroinvertebrate multi-metric index (MMI) for lakes from the National Lakes Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    During the 2007 National Lakes Assessment (NLA) benthic macroinvertebrate samples were collected from the lake littoral zone. The purpose of the sampling was to assess the feasibility of a multi-metric index (MMI) to assess the condition of the littoral benthic macroinvertebrate...

  15. Influence of macroinvertebrate sample size on bioassessment of streams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlek, H.E.; Sporka, F.; Krno, I.

    2006-01-01

    In order to standardise biological assessment of surface waters in Europe, a standardised method for sampling, sorting and identification of benthic macroinvertebrates in running waters was developed during the AQEM project. The AQEM method has proved to be relatively time-consuming. Hence, this stu

  16. Targeted gene enrichment and high-throughput sequencing for environmental biomonitoring: a case study using freshwater macroinvertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowle, Eddy J; Pochon, Xavier; C Banks, Jonathan; Shearer, Karen; Wood, Susanna A

    2016-09-01

    Recent studies have advocated biomonitoring using DNA techniques. In this study, two high-throughput sequencing (HTS)-based methods were evaluated: amplicon metabarcoding of the cytochrome C oxidase subunit I (COI) mitochondrial gene and gene enrichment using MYbaits (targeting nine different genes including COI). The gene-enrichment method does not require PCR amplification and thus avoids biases associated with universal primers. Macroinvertebrate samples were collected from 12 New Zealand rivers. Macroinvertebrates were morphologically identified and enumerated, and their biomass determined. DNA was extracted from all macroinvertebrate samples and HTS undertaken using the illumina miseq platform. Macroinvertebrate communities were characterized from sequence data using either six genes (three of the original nine were not used) or just the COI gene in isolation. The gene-enrichment method (all genes) detected the highest number of taxa and obtained the strongest Spearman rank correlations between the number of sequence reads, abundance and biomass in 67% of the samples. Median detection rates across rare (5%) taxa were highest using the gene-enrichment method (all genes). Our data indicated primer biases occurred during amplicon metabarcoding with greater than 80% of sequence reads originating from one taxon in several samples. The accuracy and sensitivity of both HTS methods would be improved with more comprehensive reference sequence databases. The data from this study illustrate the challenges of using PCR amplification-based methods for biomonitoring and highlight the potential benefits of using approaches, such as gene enrichment, which circumvent the need for an initial PCR step. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Benthic macroinvertebrates in Italian rice fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Lupi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Rice fields can be considered man-managed temporary wetlands. Five rice fields handled with different management strategies, their adjacent channels, and a spring were analysed by their benthic macroinvertebrate community to i evaluate the role of rice agroe- cosystem in biodiversity conservation; ii find indicator species which can be used to compare the ecological status of natural wetlands with rice agroecosystems; and iii find the influence of environmental variables on biodiversity. Different methods of data analysis with increasing degree of complexity – from diversity index up to sophisticated multivariate analysis – were used. The investigation provided a picture of benthic macroinvertebrates inhabiting rice agroecosystems where 173 taxa were identified, 89 of which detected in rice paddies. Among them, 4 phyla (Mollusca, Annelida, Nematomorpha, and Arthropoda, 8 classes (Bivalvia, Gastropoda, Oligochaeta, Hirudinea, Gordioida, Insecta, Branchiopoda, and Malacostraca, 24 orders, 68 families, 127 genera and 159 species have been found. Ten threatened and 3 invasive species were detected in the habitats examined. The information obtained by the different methods of data analysis allowed a more comprehensive view on the value of the components of rice agroecosystems. Data analyses highlighted significant differences between habitats (feeding channel and rice field, with higher diversity observed in channels, and emphasised the role of the water chemical-physical parameters. The period of water permanence in rice fields resulted to be only one of the factors influencing the community of benthic macroinvertebrates. The presence of rare/endangered species allowed characterising some stations, but it was less informative about management strategies in rice paddies because most of these species were absent in rice fields.

  18. Ecological assessment of the Tajan river using feeding groups of benthic macroinvertebrates and biotic indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Sharifinia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the best practical methods to understand ecological status of a water body and determine impacts of human intervention in reducing water quality is using benthic macroinvertebrates as assessment tools for monitoring their biological integrity and health. The Tajan River is one of the rivers of Caspian Southernsub-basin that drains the Caspian Sea. Macroinvertebrate samples were taken using Surber’s sampler (40 x 40 cm and 100µ mesh size in 45 day intervals with 3 replicates in each sampling site for a period of one year (May 2010 to May 2011. The collected organisms were preserved in 4% formalin solution and transferred to the laboratory for identification and counting. Six different functional feeding groups of macroinvertebrate e.g. Collector-gathering, Collector-filtering, Predator, Collector-gathering /Scraper, Predator/Collector-gathering and Scraper were determined. Feeding groups of Collector-gathering, Collector-filtering and Collector-gathering /Scraper were relatively dominant in comparison to other groups. Groups of Collector-filtering and Collector-gathering were dominant in slightly and heavily polluted stations, respectively. In this study population structure measures including abundance, EPT percent and the EPT and EPT/CHIR indics were mearsured. Species diversity, species richness were also determined using Shannon- Weiner, Margalef and Jacardindics. The minimum and maximum values of Hilsenhoff biotic index were observedin stations 1 (4.29 and 5 (5.57, respectively. Moreover, the highest and lowest values of BMWP/ASPT were observed in station 1 (4.51 and 5 (3.25, respectively. Evaluation of indicators revealed less water quality at stations 2, 3 and 5 which located at the lowermost of fish farms and effluent of factory. This reduction might be implicated to the effluents of water damps from fish farms running into the stream as diversity and total abundance (% of sociable macroinvertebrates decreased and that of

  19. Analytical approaches used in stream benthic macroinvertebrate biomonitoring programs of State agencies in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, James L.; Resh, Vincent H.

    2013-01-01

    Biomonitoring programs based on benthic macroinvertebrates are well-established worldwide. Their value, however, depends on the appropriateness of the analytical techniques used. All United States State, benthic macroinvertebrate biomonitoring programs were surveyed regarding the purposes of their programs, quality-assurance and quality-control procedures used, habitat and water-chemistry data collected, treatment of macroinvertebrate data prior to analysis, statistical methods used, and data-storage considerations. State regulatory mandates (59 percent of programs), biotic index development (17 percent), and Federal requirements (15 percent) were the most frequently reported purposes of State programs, with the specific tasks of satisfying the requirements for 305b/303d reports (89 percent), establishment and monitoring of total maximum daily loads, and developing biocriteria being the purposes most often mentioned. Most states establish reference sites (81 percent), but classify them using State-specific methods. The most often used technique for determining the appropriateness of a reference site was Best Professional Judgment (86 percent of these states). Macroinvertebrate samples are almost always collected by using a D-frame net, and duplicate samples are collected from approximately 10 percent of sites for quality assurance and quality control purposes. Most programs have macroinvertebrate samples processed by contractors (53 percent) and have identifications confirmed by a second taxonomist (85 percent). All States collect habitat data, with most using the Rapid Bioassessment Protocol visual-assessment approach, which requires ~1 h/site. Dissolved oxygen, pH, and conductivity are measured in more than 90 percent of programs. Wide variation exists in which taxa are excluded from analyses and the level of taxonomic resolution used. Species traits, such as functional feeding groups, are commonly used (96 percent), as are tolerance values for organic pollution

  20. Bioassessment of Choghakhor Wetland using Benthic Macroinvertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Fathi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In present study, besides investigating benthic communities and their demographics in Choghakhor wetland, the water quality has been evaluated and classified. Then, 10 stations were selected and sampling of benthos was done every 45 days since April 2010 to March 2011, with 3 replications at each station. Samples were obtained by Ekman grab Sampler (surface 400 cm2. The collected samples were separated and fixed by formalin (4%. The Macroinvertebrates samples were identified and counted in laboratory. Generally 25 families of benthic macroinvertebrates belonging to 5 classes and 12 orders were identified. The results were calculated as community measures, including total richness, Shannon - Wiener diversity index and Hilsenhoff Biological index at family level. The results obtained from temporal and spatial changes of data (Statgeraphics software and water qualitative classification using Shannon diversity index conformed to biological Hilsenhoff index. And finally, water quality of wetland was assessed to be polluted in average to high level. According to this study findings, it seems that, these indicators could be used as useful tools for evaluating water supplies quality.

  1. Combining taxonomy and function in the study of stream macroinvertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth W. Cummins

    2016-03-01

    in freshwater ecosystems found in different geographical settings that are represented by a much smaller number of FFGs. An example of the generality of the functional group concept is the presence of detrital shredders that are dependent upon riparian plant litter inputs being found in essentially all forested streams world-wide (e.g., across the USA and Canada, Chile, Brazil, West Africa, New Zealand, Australia, Japan, Thailand; Cummins, unpublished. Freshwater macroinvertebrate taxonomic determinations, especially at the species level, may be the best basis for developing specific indices of pollution (tolerance values in ecological tables. However, the FFG method appears to provide better indicators of overall freshwater ecosystem condition.

  2. Household batteries: Evaluation of collection methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seeberger, D.A.

    1992-01-01

    While it is difficult to prove that a specific material is causing contamination in a landfill, tests have been conducted at waste-to-energy facilities that indicate that household batteries contribute significant amounts of heavy metals to both air emissions and ash residue. Hennepin County, MN, used a dual approach for developing and implementing a special household battery collection. Alternative collection methods were examined; test collections were conducted. The second phase examined operating and disposal policy issues. This report describes the results of the grant project, moving from a broad examination of the construction and content of batteries, to a description of the pilot collection programs, and ending with a discussion of variables affecting the cost and operation of a comprehensive battery collection program. Three out-of-state companies (PA, NY) were found that accept spent batteries; difficulties in reclaiming household batteries are discussed.

  3. Household batteries: Evaluation of collection methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seeberger, D.A.

    1992-12-31

    While it is difficult to prove that a specific material is causing contamination in a landfill, tests have been conducted at waste-to-energy facilities that indicate that household batteries contribute significant amounts of heavy metals to both air emissions and ash residue. Hennepin County, MN, used a dual approach for developing and implementing a special household battery collection. Alternative collection methods were examined; test collections were conducted. The second phase examined operating and disposal policy issues. This report describes the results of the grant project, moving from a broad examination of the construction and content of batteries, to a description of the pilot collection programs, and ending with a discussion of variables affecting the cost and operation of a comprehensive battery collection program. Three out-of-state companies (PA, NY) were found that accept spent batteries; difficulties in reclaiming household batteries are discussed.

  4. Assessment of ecological quality of the Tajan river in Iran using a multimetric macroinvertebrate index and species traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aazami, J.; Esmaili Sari, A.; Abdoli, A.; Sohrabi, H.; Brink, van den P.J.

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the biological water of the Iranian Tajan River using different metrics, i.e., a Multimetric Macroinvertebrate Index (MMI) and a traits-based method. Twenty-eight physico-chemical parameters, 10 habitat factors, and abundance of macroinvertebrates were obt

  5. Assessment of ecological quality of the Tajan river in Iran using a multimetric macroinvertebrate index and species traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aazami, J.; Esmaili Sari, A.; Abdoli, A.; Sohrabi, H.; Brink, van den P.J.

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the biological water of the Iranian Tajan River using different metrics, i.e., a Multimetric Macroinvertebrate Index (MMI) and a traits-based method. Twenty-eight physico-chemical parameters, 10 habitat factors, and abundance of macroinvertebrates were

  6. Assessment of ecological quality of the Tajan river in Iran using a multimetric macroinvertebrate index and species traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aazami, J.; Esmaili Sari, A.; Abdoli, A.; Sohrabi, H.; Brink, van den P.J.

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the biological water of the Iranian Tajan River using different metrics, i.e., a Multimetric Macroinvertebrate Index (MMI) and a traits-based method. Twenty-eight physico-chemical parameters, 10 habitat factors, and abundance of macroinvertebrates were obt

  7. Mercury and selenium concentrations in biofilm, macroinvertebrates, and fish collected in the Yankee Fork of the Salmon River, Idaho, USA, and their potential effects on fish health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhea, Darren T.; Farag, Aïda M.; Harper, David D.; McConnell, Elizabeth; Brumbaugh, William G.

    2013-01-01

    The Yankee Fork is a large tributary of the Salmon River located in central Idaho, USA, with an extensive history of placer and dredge-mining activities. Concentrations of selenium (Se) and mercury (Hg) in various aquatic trophic levels were measured in the Yankee Fork during 2001 and 2002. Various measurements of fish health were also performed. Sites included four on the mainstem of the Yankee Fork and two off-channel sites in partially reclaimed dredge pools used as rearing habitat for cultured salmonid eggs and fry. Hg concentrations in whole mountain whitefish and shorthead sculpin ranged from 0.28 to 0.56 μg/g dry weight (dw), concentrations that are generally less than those reported to have significant impacts on fish. Biofilm and invertebrates ranged from 0.05 to 0.43 μg Hg/g dw. Se concentrations measured in biota samples from the Yankee Fork were greater than many representative samples collected in the Snake and Columbia watersheds and often exceeded literature-based toxic thresholds. Biofilm and invertebrates ranged from 0.58 to 4.66 μg Se/g dw. Whole fish ranged from 3.92 to 7.10 μg Se/g dw, and gonads ranged from 6.91 to 31.84 μg Se/g dw. Whole-body Se concentrations exceeded reported toxicological thresholds at three of four sites and concentrations in liver samples were mostly greater than concentrations shown to have negative impacts on fish health. Histological examinations performed during this study noted liver abnormalities, especially in shorthead sculpin, a bottom-dwelling species.

  8. Are sugarcane leaf-detritus well colonized by aquatic macroinvertebrates?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciene Aparecida Leite-Rossi

    Full Text Available AIM: The aim was to compare the kinetics of decomposition and the colonization of leaf litter of two plant species, the native Talauma ovata (pinha-do-brejo and the exotic Saccharum officinarum (sugarcane, by aquatic macroinvertebrates; METHODS: From each substrate, three recipients of colonization were taken from a stream, and the specimens identified to the lowest taxonomic level on days 7, 15, 34, 44, 61 and 75. The debris was weighed at the beginning and end of the experiment and determined their cell wall fractions; RESULTS: The coefficients of mineralization indicated higher velocity decay of organic matter refractory in T. ovata. There was no difference in taxonomic structure of macroinvertebrates, between the two substrates, but the community exhibited distinct functional feeding groups in the peak of colonization, with a greater number of shredders in T. ovata. The successive states of decomposition of the two plant detritus showed distinct macroinvertebrate densities; CONCLUSIONS: The amount and state of the plant biomass were important factors influencing the density and diversity of the macroinvertebrate fauna throughout the process of organic decomposition.

  9. Dynamic Method for Identifying Collected Sample Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, John

    2008-01-01

    G-Sample is designed for sample collection missions to identify the presence and quantity of sample material gathered by spacecraft equipped with end effectors. The software method uses a maximum-likelihood estimator to identify the collected sample's mass based on onboard force-sensor measurements, thruster firings, and a dynamics model of the spacecraft. This makes sample mass identification a computation rather than a process requiring additional hardware. Simulation examples of G-Sample are provided for spacecraft model configurations with a sample collection device mounted on the end of an extended boom. In the absence of thrust knowledge errors, the results indicate that G-Sample can identify the amount of collected sample mass to within 10 grams (with 95-percent confidence) by using a force sensor with a noise and quantization floor of 50 micrometers. These results hold even in the presence of realistic parametric uncertainty in actual spacecraft inertia, center-of-mass offset, and first flexibility modes. Thrust profile knowledge is shown to be a dominant sensitivity for G-Sample, entering in a nearly one-to-one relationship with the final mass estimation error. This means thrust profiles should be well characterized with onboard accelerometers prior to sample collection. An overall sample-mass estimation error budget has been developed to approximate the effect of model uncertainty, sensor noise, data rate, and thrust profile error on the expected estimate of collected sample mass.

  10. Storage methods to maintain a tulip collection

    OpenAIRE

    Bonnier, F.J.M.; Eikelboom, W.; Tuyl, van, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    Collections of tulip genotypes are maintained by yearly planting, harvesting and storage of the bulbs. To optimise the maintenance, two methods were examined for their suitability to store bulbs for one or more growing seasons. Method 1: bulbs were stored after flower development at -2 °C. Method 2: bulbs were stored before the start of flower development at -0.5 °C, followed by a temperature regime of 4 weeks 25 °C, 6 weeks 20 °C and 16 weeks 5 °C, for development of sprouts. With the first ...

  11. Structure of benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages on a gradient of environmental integrity in Neotropical streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Thais Suriano

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This study investigated the taxonomic composition of the benthic macroinvertebrates in streams to evaluate how this fauna reflects the various uses of the soil and to identify which groups of macroinvertebrates might be taken as characterizing each situation under study. METHODS: To achieve these objectives, 29 streams were collected and inserted in regions with different conservation using Surber sampler. Analyzes were performed of environmental variables (Principal Components Analysis - PCA and taxonomic structure of the community (taxon richness, numerical abundance and Multidimensional scaling - MDS. RESULTS: EPT group (orders Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera and the Coleoptera exhibited greater numerical abundance and taxon richness in streams located in reference areas. In contrast, dipteran larvae, especially the chironomids, along with immature odonates, were more abundant in streams in areas suffering from a lack of riparian forest. Multidimensional scaling analysis (MDS revealed an environmental gradient, on which the streams within the Atlantic forest formed a tightly clustered group, as did those in semideciduous forests. However, the latter group occupied an intermediate position between the Atlantic forest streams and those in areas disturbed by human activity. Among these areas there were no specific clusters by monoculture. CONCLUSIONS: Among the groups of streams defined by the types of land use in the adjacent areas, the state of integrity was found to decline from Atlantic rainforest, through semi-deciduous forest and then pasture, to the monocultures of eucalypts and sugarcane.

  12. Benthic Macroinvertebrate Communities in Agriculturally Impaired Streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginija Pliuraite

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE This work presents research into the taxonomic composition of macroinvertebrate communities in streams that are under the influence of agricultural pollution A total of 67 macroinvertebrate taxa (including 61 identified species belonging to 40 families have been identified in the explored streams. The greatest species richness is recorded for the Trichoptera (18 species/1 taxa and Mollusca (12 species. The molluscs Gyraulus albus, amphipods Gammarus pulex, caddisflies Hydropsyche pellucidula and oligochaetes are detected in all examined streams. There, the number of total benthic macroinvertebrate taxa is highly variable, ranging from 16 to 40. Results show that the examined streams depending on the benthic macroinvertebrate taxonomic composition and predominance of seperate macroinvertebrate groups undergo different pollution. Intolerant to pollution taxa such as Plecoptera, which are the most sensitive to pollution insects, have been found only in 5 of 12 examined streams and in low abundances. The richness and diversity of macrozoobenthos in some streams appear to respond to the water quality deterioration. The present study has found out that in the stream where the total macroinvertebrate taxa, EPT taxa richness are the lowest and a relative abundance of gatherers is the highest, the values of NH4-N, NO3-N, total N, PO4-P and total P in the stream water are the highest, too.

  13. Marine sediment sample pre-processing for macroinvertebrates metabarcoding: mechanical enrichment and homogenization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Aylagas

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Metabarcoding is an accurate and cost-effective technique that allows for simultaneous taxonomic identification of multiple environmental samples. Application of this technique to marine benthic macroinvertebrate biodiversity assessment for biomonitoring purposes requires standardization of laboratory and data analysis procedures. In this context, protocols for creation and sequencing of amplicon libraries and their related bioinformatics analysis have been recently published. However, a standardized protocol describing all previous steps (i.e. processing and manipulation of environmental samples for macroinvertebrate community characterization is lacking. Here, we provide detailed procedures for benthic environmental sample collection, processing, enrichment for macroinvertebrates, homogenization, and subsequent DNA extraction for metabarcoding analysis. Since this is the first protocol of this kind, it should be of use to any researcher in this field, having the potential for improvement.

  14. Benthic Macroinvertebrate Communities in the Northern Tributaries of the “Iron Gates” Gorge (Danube River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curtean-Bănăduc Angela

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the structure of the benthonic macro-invertebrates communities in the Berzasca, Sirinia, Liubcova, and Mraconia rivers. The results are based on quantitative benthos samples (95 samples, collected in July 2014 from 19 sampling stations within the study area. In longitudinal profile, the benthonic macro-invertebrate communities of the Sirinia, Liubcova and Berzasca rivers displays relatively large structural variability, while the communities of the Mraconia River displays smaller structural variability. The structure of the benthonic macro-invertebrate communities correlated with the biotope characteristics indicates the good ecological status of the analysed rivers, with the exception of the Berzasca River sector downstream of the town of Berzasca and immediately upstream of the Danube junction, a sector with moderate ecological status due to negative effects from man-made modifications in the lotic biotope of the sector.

  15. Qualitative Macroinvertebrate Assessment of Crouch Branch, June 1999 and November 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Specht, W.L.

    2001-08-27

    Qualitative assessments of the macroinvertebrate community of Crouch Branch were performed in June 1999 and November 2000 to determine if effluent from the H-02 outfall is impairing the quality of the receiving stream. Concurrent samples were collected for metals analyses (copper and zinc in 1999; copper in 2000).

  16. A Simple Method for Collecting Airborne Pollen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevan, Peter G.; DiGiovanni, Franco; Ho, Rong H.; Taki, Hisatomo; Ferguson, Kristyn A.; Pawlowski, Agata K.

    2006-01-01

    Pollination is a broad area of study within biology. For many plants, pollen carried by wind is required for successful seed set. Airborne pollen also affects human health. To foster studies of airborne pollen, we introduce a simple device--the "megastigma"--for collecting pollen from the air. This device is flexible, yielding easily obtained data…

  17. Repeatability of oral fluid collection methods for THC measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwing, Sjoerd; Smink, Beitske E.; Legrand, Sara-Ann; Mathijssen, Rene P. M.; Verstraete, Alain G.; Brookhuis, Karel A.

    2012-01-01

    Study objectives: To determine the influence of sample collection for two different collection methods on THC concentrations and to compare THC concentrations collected by both methods. Methods: A total of 136 pairs of oral fluid samples from subjects who had recently smoked Cannabis were obtained

  18. Evaluation of bioassays versus contaminant concentrations in explaining the macroinvertebrate community structure in the Rhine-Meuse delta, The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, E T; Dewitte, A; Koelmans, A A; van der Velden, J A; den Besten, P J

    2001-12-01

    It is often assumed that bioassays are better descriptors of sediment toxicity than toxicant concentrations and that ecological factors are more important than toxicants in structuring macroinvertebrate communities. In the period 1992 to 1995, data were collected in the enclosed Rhine-Meuse delta, The Netherlands, on macroinvertebrates, sediment toxicity, sediment contaminant concentrations, and ecological factors. The effect of various groups of pollutants (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, trace metals, oil, polychlorinated biphenyls) and of ecological variables on the structure of the macroinvertebrate community were quantified. Ecological factors explained 17.3% of the macroinvertebrate variation, while contaminants explained 13.8%. Another 14.7% was explained by the covariation between ecological variables and contaminants. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons explained a larger part of the variation than trace metals. The contributions of oil and polychlorinated biphenyls were small but significant. Elevated contaminant concentrations were significantly associated with differences in the macroinvertebrate food web structure. The response in bioassays (Vibrio fischeri, Daphnia magna, Chironomus riparius) was susceptible to certain contaminants but also to certain ecological factors. There was a weak correlation between in situ species composition and bioassays; 1.9% of in situ macroinvertebrate variation was explained by the bioassay responses. This seems to contradict the validity of using bioassays for a system-oriented risk assessment. Possible reasons for this discrepancy might be the manipulations of the sediment before the test and a higher pollutant tolerance of the in situ macroinvertebrates. Thus, macroinvertebrate field surveys and laboratory bioassays yield different types of information on ecotoxicological effects, and both are recommended in sediment risk assessment procedures.

  19. Effect of streambed substrate on macroinvertebrate biodiversity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuehua DUAN; Zhaoyin WANG; Shimin TIAN

    2008-01-01

    Macroinvertebrates are important components of stream ecosystems, and are often used as indicator spe-cies for the assessment of river ecology. Numerous studies have shown that substrate is the primary physical envir-onmental variable affecting the taxa richness and density of macroinvertebrates. The aim of this work is to study the effects of the characteristics of streambed substrate, such as grain size, shape, and roughness, on the composition and biodiversity of macroinvertebrates. A field experi-ment was done on the Juma River, a second-order moun-tain stream in northern China. Substrata of cobbles, hewn stones, pebbles, coarse sand, and fine sand were used to replace the original gravel and sand bed in a stretch of 30 m in length. The sampling results indicated that the macroinvertebrate assemblage is significantly affected by the grain size, porosity and interstitial dimension of the substrate, while it is rarely affected by the shape and the surface roughness of the experimental substrata. Macroinvertebrate compositions in cobbles and hewn stones were stable and changed least over time. The taxa richness and density of individuals in the substrata of cobbles, hewn stones, and pebbles are much higher than in those of the coarse sand and fine sand.

  20. Small-scale habitat structure modulates the effects of no-take marine reserves for coral reef macroinvertebrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Dumas

    Full Text Available No-take marine reserves are one of the oldest and most versatile tools used across the Pacific for the conservation of reef resources, in particular for invertebrates traditionally targeted by local fishers. Assessing their actual efficiency is still a challenge in complex ecosystems such as coral reefs, where reserve effects are likely to be obscured by high levels of environmental variability. The goal of this study was to investigate the potential interference of small-scale habitat structure on the efficiency of reserves. The spatial distribution of widely harvested macroinvertebrates was surveyed in a large set of protected vs. unprotected stations from eleven reefs located in New Caledonia. Abundance, density and individual size data were collected along random, small-scale (20×1 m transects. Fine habitat typology was derived with a quantitative photographic method using 17 local habitat variables. Marine reserves substantially augmented the local density, size structure and biomass of the target species. Density of Trochus niloticus and Tridacna maxima doubled globally inside the reserve network; average size was greater by 10 to 20% for T. niloticus. We demonstrated that the apparent success of protection could be obscured by marked variations in population structure occurring over short distances, resulting from small-scale heterogeneity in the reef habitat. The efficiency of reserves appeared to be modulated by the availability of suitable habitats at the decimetric scale ("microhabitats" for the considered sessile/low-mobile macroinvertebrate species. Incorporating microhabitat distribution could significantly enhance the efficiency of habitat surrogacy, a valuable approach in the case of conservation targets focusing on endangered or emblematic macroinvertebrate or relatively sedentary fish species.

  1. Small-Scale Habitat Structure Modulates the Effects of No-Take Marine Reserves for Coral Reef Macroinvertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Pascal; Jimenez, Haizea; Peignon, Christophe; Wantiez, Laurent; Adjeroud, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    No-take marine reserves are one of the oldest and most versatile tools used across the Pacific for the conservation of reef resources, in particular for invertebrates traditionally targeted by local fishers. Assessing their actual efficiency is still a challenge in complex ecosystems such as coral reefs, where reserve effects are likely to be obscured by high levels of environmental variability. The goal of this study was to investigate the potential interference of small-scale habitat structure on the efficiency of reserves. The spatial distribution of widely harvested macroinvertebrates was surveyed in a large set of protected vs. unprotected stations from eleven reefs located in New Caledonia. Abundance, density and individual size data were collected along random, small-scale (20×1 m) transects. Fine habitat typology was derived with a quantitative photographic method using 17 local habitat variables. Marine reserves substantially augmented the local density, size structure and biomass of the target species. Density of Trochus niloticus and Tridacna maxima doubled globally inside the reserve network; average size was greater by 10 to 20% for T. niloticus. We demonstrated that the apparent success of protection could be obscured by marked variations in population structure occurring over short distances, resulting from small-scale heterogeneity in the reef habitat. The efficiency of reserves appeared to be modulated by the availability of suitable habitats at the decimetric scale (“microhabitats”) for the considered sessile/low-mobile macroinvertebrate species. Incorporating microhabitat distribution could significantly enhance the efficiency of habitat surrogacy, a valuable approach in the case of conservation targets focusing on endangered or emblematic macroinvertebrate or relatively sedentary fish species PMID:23554965

  2. Small-scale habitat structure modulates the effects of no-take marine reserves for coral reef macroinvertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Pascal; Jimenez, Haizea; Peignon, Christophe; Wantiez, Laurent; Adjeroud, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    No-take marine reserves are one of the oldest and most versatile tools used across the Pacific for the conservation of reef resources, in particular for invertebrates traditionally targeted by local fishers. Assessing their actual efficiency is still a challenge in complex ecosystems such as coral reefs, where reserve effects are likely to be obscured by high levels of environmental variability. The goal of this study was to investigate the potential interference of small-scale habitat structure on the efficiency of reserves. The spatial distribution of widely harvested macroinvertebrates was surveyed in a large set of protected vs. unprotected stations from eleven reefs located in New Caledonia. Abundance, density and individual size data were collected along random, small-scale (20×1 m) transects. Fine habitat typology was derived with a quantitative photographic method using 17 local habitat variables. Marine reserves substantially augmented the local density, size structure and biomass of the target species. Density of Trochus niloticus and Tridacna maxima doubled globally inside the reserve network; average size was greater by 10 to 20% for T. niloticus. We demonstrated that the apparent success of protection could be obscured by marked variations in population structure occurring over short distances, resulting from small-scale heterogeneity in the reef habitat. The efficiency of reserves appeared to be modulated by the availability of suitable habitats at the decimetric scale ("microhabitats") for the considered sessile/low-mobile macroinvertebrate species. Incorporating microhabitat distribution could significantly enhance the efficiency of habitat surrogacy, a valuable approach in the case of conservation targets focusing on endangered or emblematic macroinvertebrate or relatively sedentary fish species.

  3. Aquatic macroinvertebrates and water quality of Sandia Canyon, Los Alamos National Laboratory, November 1993--October 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cross, S.

    1995-08-01

    The Ecological Studies Team (EST) of ESH-20 at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has collected samples from the stream within Sandia Canyon since the summer of 1990. These field studies gather water quality measurements and collect aquatic macroinvertebrates from permanent sampling sites. Reports by Bennett (1994) and Cross (1994) discuss previous EST aquatic studies in Sandia Canyon. This report updates and expands those findings. EST collected water quality data and aquatic macroinvertebrates at five permanent stations within the canyon from November 1993 through October 1994. The two upstream stations are located below outfalls that discharge industrial and sanitary waste effluent into the stream, thereby maintaining year-round flow. Some water quality parameters are different at the first three stations from those expected of natural streams in the area, indicating degraded water quality due to effluent discharges. The aquatic habitat at the upper stations has also been degraded by sedimentation and channelization. The macroinvertebrate communities at these stations are characterized by low diversities and unstable communities. In contrast, the two downstream stations appear to be in a zone of recovery, where water quality parameters more closely resemble those found in natural streams of the area. The two lower stations have increased macroinvertebrate diversity and stable communities, further indications of downstream water quality improvement.

  4. Comparing the Effects of Mesh Size on Benthic Macroinvertebrate Performance Characteristics in Montana streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laidlaw, T. L.; Jessup, B.; Stagliano, D.; Stribling, J.; Feldman, D. L.; Bollman, W.

    2005-05-01

    Montana's Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) has collected macroinvertebrate data for twenty years. During this time, sampling methods and mesh sizes have been modified, though the effects of the modifications on the samples collected have not been studied. DEQ has used and continues to use both 500 and 1200 ìm mesh sizes. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of the different mesh sizes on taxonomic diversity and metric values. Field crews followed DEQ's traveling kick sampling methods and collected samples at each site using both mesh sizes. Sixteen sampling locations were distributed throughout two ecoregions (the Mountains and the Mountain and Valley Foothills) with replicate samples collected at seven locations. We developed a suite of both quantitative and qualitative performance characteristics (precision, accuracy, bias) and directly compared them for each mesh size. Preliminary ordination results showed no significant differences between the community level performance measures. Preliminary metric analysis showed that the 1200 ìm mesh captured a greater abundance and diversity of caddisflies (Trichoptera) than the 500 ìm mesh. This study will determine if data collected using different mesh sizes can be aggregated for development of bioassessment tools and will help DEQ implement consistent statewide sampling protocols.

  5. Repeatability of oral fluid collection methods for THC measurement.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwing, S. Smink, B.E. Legrand, S.-A. Mathijssen, M.P.M. Verstraete, A.G. & Brookhuis, K.A.

    2013-01-01

    The study objective was to determine the influence of sample collection for two different collection methods on THC concentrations and to compare THC concentrations collected by both methods. A total of 136 pairs of oral fluid samples from subjects who had recently smoked Cannabis were obtained by

  6. Benthic macroinvertebrate communities as aquatic bioindicators of contamination by Giardia and Cryptosporidium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reboredo-Fernández, Aurora; Prado-Merini, Óscar; García-Bernadal, Teresa; Gómez-Couso, Hipólito; Ares-Mazás, Elvira

    2014-05-01

    Benthic macroinvertebrates (community composed mostly by aquatic forms of insects, such as stonefly nymphs, dragonfly nymphs, water bugs or beetle larvae) are often used in biological monitoring programmes to evaluate the ecological status of rivers and thus to indicate the repercussions of anthropogenic activities. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the use of this indicator community to detect human enteroprotozoan parasites that are transmitted via water. In total, 32 samples of macroinvertebrates were collected, with the aid of surber nets of mesh size 500 μm, from nine rivers in Galicia (NW Spain), on different occasions between 2005 and 2009. The samples were homogenised (0.04 M phosphate buffered saline, pH 7.2), sieved (150 and 45 μm mesh), and concentrated (by a diphasic method). Aliquots of the sediments were then analysed by a direct immunofluorescence technique with monoclonal antibodies against Giardia and Cryptosporidium. Giardia cysts were detected in one (3.1%) of the samples and Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in four (12.5%) of the samples. This work is the first study carried out to investigate the presence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in this benthic community. The results demonstrate that benthic invertebrates could be used as bioindicators of contamination by these waterborne protozoans. Moreover, as this aquatic organisms act as intermittent accumulators and its monitoring enables chronological analysis of perturbations, in both the short- and mid-term, this may represent a suitable alternative or complementary method to the usual techniques of detecting human and animal enteropathogens in water samples.

  7. OPEMS: Health System Method for Collecting and Displaying ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OPEMS: Health System Method for Collecting and Displaying Information for ... to develop and introduce an electronic data collection system for the monitoring ... patients' information sources and records was undertaken in order to capture all ...

  8. Quantification of environment-driven changes in epiphytic macroinvertebrate communities associated to Phragmites australis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel CAÑEDO-ARGÜELLES

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The epiphytic macroinvertebrate communities associated with the Common Reed, Phragmites australis (Cav. Trin. ex Steudel, were examined seasonally from summer 2004 to spring 2005 in eleven coastal lagoons of the Llobregat Delta (NE Spain following the method proposed by Kornijów & Kairesalo (1994. The aims of the study were to: 1 characterise and quantify changes in epiphytic macroinvertebrate communities along environmental gradients; 2 assess the contribution of elements of the epiphytic compartment to structuring the community; 3 define the optima and tolerances of selected epiphytic macroinvertebrate taxa for the most relevant ecological factors responsible for assemblage composition; and 4 identify possible epiphytic species assemblages that would allow a lagoon’s typology to be established, as well as their representative indicator species. Communities showed statistically significant seasonal variation, with two faunal peaks: one in summer, with high chironomid densities, and the other in winter, with high naidid densities. These peaks showed a clear response to the influence of environmental factors. Salinity explained the highest percentage of total variance (36%, while trophic variables (nutrients, phytoplanktonic chlorophyll-a, and total organic carbon and epiphyton biomass (19.2 and 4% of total variance explained, respectively were secondary. Three different epiphytic macroinvertebrate species assemblages could be defined. These assemblages were directly linked to conductivity conditions, which determined the rate of survival of certain taxa, and to the existence of a direct connection with the sea, which permitted the establishment of "brackish-water" species. In spite of the existence of these species assemblages, the species composition and biomass of epiphytic macroinvertebrates and epiphyton differed substantially between lagoons; both elements were subject to changes in the environment, which finally determined the site

  9. Contribution of trace metals in structuring in situ macroinvertebrate community composition along a salinity gradient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, E.T.H.M.; Gardeniers, J.J.P.; Koelmans, A.A.

    2000-01-01

    Macroinvertebrates were studied along a salinity gradient in the North Sea Canal, The Netherlands, to quantify the effect of trace metals (cadmium, copper, lead, zinc) on community composition. In addition, two methods for assessing metal bioavailability (normalizing metal concentrations on organic

  10. Classification and retrieval on macroinvertebrate image databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiranyaz, Serkan; Ince, Turker; Pulkkinen, Jenni; Gabbouj, Moncef; Ärje, Johanna; Kärkkäinen, Salme; Tirronen, Ville; Juhola, Martti; Turpeinen, Tuomas; Meissner, Kristian

    2011-07-01

    Aquatic ecosystems are continuously threatened by a growing number of human induced changes. Macroinvertebrate biomonitoring is particularly efficient in pinpointing the cause-effect structure between slow and subtle changes and their detrimental consequences in aquatic ecosystems. The greatest obstacle to implementing efficient biomonitoring is currently the cost-intensive human expert taxonomic identification of samples. While there is evidence that automated recognition techniques can match human taxa identification accuracy at greatly reduced costs, so far the development of automated identification techniques for aquatic organisms has been minimal. In this paper, we focus on advancing classification and data retrieval that are instrumental when processing large macroinvertebrate image datasets. To accomplish this for routine biomonitoring, in this paper we shall investigate the feasibility of automated river macroinvertebrate classification and retrieval with high precision. Besides the state-of-the-art classifiers such as Support Vector Machines (SVMs) and Bayesian Classifiers (BCs), the focus is particularly drawn on feed-forward artificial neural networks (ANNs), namely multilayer perceptrons (MLPs) and radial basis function networks (RBFNs). Since both ANN types have been proclaimed superior by different investigations even for the same benchmark problems, we shall first show that the main reason for this ambiguity lies in the static and rather poor comparison methodologies applied in most earlier works. Especially the most common drawback occurs due to the limited evaluation of the ANN performances over just one or few network architecture(s). Therefore, in this study, an extensive evaluation of each classifier performance over an ANN architecture space is performed. The best classifier among all, which is trained over a dataset of river macroinvertebrate specimens, is then used in the MUVIS framework for the efficient search and retrieval of particular

  11. Surface-water hydrology and quality, and macroinvertebrate and smallmouth bass populations in four stream basins in southwestern Wisconsin, 1987-90

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graczyk, David J.; Lillie, Richard A.; Schlesser, Roger A.; Mason, John W.; Lyons, John D.; Kerr, Roger A.; Graczyk, David J.

    1993-01-01

    Data on streamflow, water quality, and macroinvertebrate and smallmouth bass (microptercus dolomieni) populations were collected from July 1987 through September 1990, in four streams in southwestern Wisconsin to determine the effect of surface-water hydrology and quality on populations of macroinvertebrates and smallmouth bass. The study was a joint project of the U.S. Geological Survey and the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources.

  12. Are the effects of an invasive crayfish on lake littoral macroinvertebrate communities consistent over time?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruokonen T. J.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Management of invasive species requires assessment of their effects on recipient ecosystems. However, impact assessment of invasive species commonly lacks a long-term perspective which can potentially lead to false conclusions. We examined the effects of the invasive signal crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus Dana on the stony littoral macroinvertebrate communities of a large boreal lake and assessed the extent to which the patterns observed in previous short-term studies were stable over time. We used temporal macroinvertebrate data collected in five consecutive years from a site with a well-established crayfish population, a site with no crayfish and a site where crayfish had been recently introduced. Our results revealed that signal crayfish had temporally rather consistent negative effects on the benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages but that the effects might be limited to certain taxa, in particular Gastropoda and Coleoptera. We also observed increases in Gastropoda density and taxa richness following a decline in crayfish density, indicating that the recovery of invertebrate assemblages might be fast. Hence, negative effects on benthic macroinvertebrates can likely be minimized by effective control of the signal crayfish population.

  13. Risk assessment of imidacloprid use in forest settings on the aquatic macroinvertebrate community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, Elizabeth P; Grant, Jerome F; Nichols, Rebecca J; Webster, R Jesse; Schwartz, John S; Bailey, Joseph K

    2017-06-13

    The isolated effects of a single insecticide can be difficult to assess in natural settings because of the presence of numerous pollutants in many watersheds. Imidacloprid use for suppressing hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae (Annand) (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), in forests offers a rare opportunity to assess potential impacts on aquatic macroinvertebrates in relatively pristine landscapes. Aquatic macroinvertebrate communities were assessed in 9 streams in Great Smoky Mountains National Park (southern Appalachian Mountains, USA). The streams flow through hemlock conservation areas where imidacloprid soil drench treatments were applied for hemlock woolly adelgid suppression. Sites were located upstream and downstream of the imidacloprid treatments. Baseline species presence data (pre-imidacloprid treatment) were available from previous sample collections at downstream sites. Downstream and upstream sites did not vary in numerous community measures. Although comparisons of paired upstream and downstream sites showed differences in diversity in 7 streams, higher diversity was found more often in downstream sites. Macroinvertebrate functional feeding groups and life habits were similar between downstream and upstream sites. Downstream and baseline stream samples were similar. While some functional feeding group and life habit species richness categories varied, variations did not indicate poorer quality downstream communities. Imidacloprid treatments applied according to US Environmental Protection Agency federal restrictions did not result in negative effects to aquatic macroinvertebrate communities, which indicates that risks of imidacloprid use in forest settings are low. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;9999:1-12. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  14. Change does not happen overnight: a case study on stream macroinvertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guareschi S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of day/night conditions on individual animal/plant species has been widely studied, but diel cycle studies of the entire stream macroinvertebrate community are extremely rare. This study explored potential dissimilarities between daytime and nighttime macroinvertebrate assemblages by extensive fieldwork conducted in the Lemme stream, a natural water course of NW Italy. Here numerous structural and functional metrics (richness, abundance, biomass, indicator taxa, composition, biomonitoring values and feeding groups were evaluated at the family level. Small-scale environmental variables were investigated to understand possible differences between macroinvertebrate assemblages in the daytime/nighttime. After collecting and identifying 21 459 organisms of 50 taxa, Chironomidae (Diptera was the most abundant under both day and night conditions. Our findings stressed that similar results and biological information on daytime/nighttime data were obtained. No marked differences could be related to various factors: heterotrophic condition of small-order streams, presence of aquatic predators under night and day conditions, absence of taxa with a specific phototaxis. Of all the environmental variables, velocity was always the most important in both situations, with some differences detected in the importance of the second variable (riverbed substrate diameter. This research, and future studies on different conditions and geographic areas, will contribute knowledge on stream macroinvertebrate diel activity, and provide useful information about efficient sampling strategies.

  15. Responses of Aquatic Saproxylic Macroinvertebrates to Reduced-Impact Logging in Central Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roque, F O; Escarpinati, S C; Valente-Neto, F; Hamada, N

    2015-08-01

    Reduced-impact logging (RIL) is an alternative land use because it reduces damage to forest cover in comparison with clear-cut practices. However, management practices adopted in RIL can affect wood availability and, consequently, fauna associated with dead wood during part of their life cycle (saproxylic). In this study, we evaluated whether aquatic saproxylic macroinvertebrates are affected by reduced-impact logging in Central Amazonia. We selected six streams in areas under reduced-impacted logging and six in primary forest areas and collected submerged woody debris. We did not find any differences in water pH, conductivity, and wood availability between reduced-impacted forest and primary forest streams. We found 248 saproxylic aquatic macroinvertebrates belonging to 37 taxa. We found five wood specialist (Dryops, Lutrochus, Stenochironomus, Oukuriella, and Endotribelos) and 32 generalists, totalling 98 and 150 individuals, respectively. In general, our results show that reduced-impact logging does not affect richness, abundance, and composition of saproxylic macroinvertebrates. The main explanation for this pattern is that management practices do not change important macroinvertebrate niche dimensions, including wood availability and the water's chemical and physical variables. Thus, controlled logging, such as applied in the area of the Central Amazonian streams studied, opens a new prospect for insect conservation and commercial exploitation of wood, which is not possible when clear-cut practices are adopted.

  16. Trace element contamination in benthic macroinvertebrates from a small stream near a uranium mill tailings site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, M J; Smith, J G; Southworth, G R; Ryon, M G; Eddlemon, G K

    2002-03-01

    Direct measurement of the accumulation of non-radioactive trace elements in aquatic biota near uranium mining or processing sites has been relatively rare, with greater focus on the radiological activity in the adjacent soils and groundwater. To evaluate the potential ecological concern associated with trace elements at a former uranium mill site in southeastern Utah, benthic macroinvertebrates were collected and analyzed for 17 trace elements from multiple locations within a small on-site stream, Montezuma Creek, and a nearby reference stream. Key questions of this study relate to the spatial and temporal extent of contamination in aquatic biota, the potential ecological risks associated with that contamination, and the usefulness of benthic macroinvertebrates as a monitoring tool at this site. Composite samples of similar macroinvertebrate taxa and functional feeding groups were collected from each site over a two year period that was representative of normal and dry-year conditions. In both years, mean concentrations of arsenic, molybdenum, selenium, and vanadium were significantly higher (a factor of 2-4 times: P mill tailing site in comparison to concentrations from reference locations. Mean uranium concentrations in invertebrates immediately downstream of the mill site were more than 10 times higher than at reference sites. The site-to-site pattern of contamination in Montezuma Creek invertebrates was similar in 1995 and 1996, with mill-related trace elements showing a downstream decreasing trend. However, nine of seventeen contaminant concentrations were higher in the second year of the study, possibly due to a higher influx of deep groundwater during the drier second year of the study. A preliminary assessment of ecological risks, based on the benthic macroinvertebrate bioaccumulation data, suggests that aquatic and terrestrial population risks are low. Benthic macroinvertebrates appeared to be sensitive integrators of trace element inputs to the aquatic

  17. Research data collection methods: from paper to tablet computers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Adam B; Gallagher, Kathleen D; Boden-Albala, Bernadette; Bakken, Suzanne R

    2012-07-01

    Primary data collection is a critical activity in clinical research. Even with significant advances in technical capabilities, clear benefits of use, and even user preferences for using electronic systems for collecting primary data, paper-based data collection is still common in clinical research settings. However, with recent developments in both clinical research and tablet computer technology, the comparative advantages and disadvantages of data collection methods should be determined. To describe case studies using multiple methods of data collection, including next-generation tablets, and consider their various advantages and disadvantages. We reviewed 5 modern case studies using primary data collection, using methods ranging from paper to next-generation tablet computers. We performed semistructured telephone interviews with each project, which considered factors relevant to data collection. We address specific issues with workflow, implementation and security for these different methods, and identify differences in implementation that led to different technology considerations for each case study. There remain multiple methods for primary data collection, each with its own strengths and weaknesses. Two recent methods are electronic health record templates and next-generation tablet computers. Electronic health record templates can link data directly to medical records, but are notably difficult to use. Current tablet computers are substantially different from previous technologies with regard to user familiarity and software cost. The use of cloud-based storage for tablet computers, however, creates a specific challenge for clinical research that must be considered but can be overcome.

  18. Feasibility and acceptability of alternate methods of postnatal data collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, Lacey A; Friedrich, Christa; Fahrenwald, Nancy; Specker, Bonny

    2014-05-01

    This study was done in preparation for the launch of the National Children's Study (NCS) main study. The goal of this study was to examine the feasibility (completion rates and completeness of data), acceptability, staff time and cost-effectiveness of three methods of data collection for the postnatal 3- and 9-month questionnaires completed as part of NCS protocol. Eligible NCS participants who were scheduled to complete a postnatal questionnaire at three and nine months were randomly assigned to receive either: (a) telephone data collection (b) web-based data collection, or (c) self-administered (mailed) questionnaires. Event completion rates and satisfaction across the three data collection methods were compared and the influence of socio-demographic factors on completion rates and satisfaction rates was examined. Cost data were compared to data for completion and satisfaction for each of the delivery methods. Completion rates and satisfaction did not differ significantly by method, but completeness of data did, with odds of data completeness higher among web than phone (p data collection methods were seen. Mail and phone data collection were the least complete of the three methods and were the most expensive. Mailed data collection was neither complete nor exceptionally economical. Web-based data collection was the least costly and provided the most complete data. Participants without web access could complete the questionnaire over the phone.

  19. After site selection and before data analysis: sampling, sorting, and laboratory procedures used in stream benthic macroinvertebrate monitoring programs by USA state agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, James L.; Resh, Vincent H.

    2001-01-01

    A survey of methods used by US state agencies for collecting and processing benthic macroinvertebrate samples from streams was conducted by questionnaire; 90 responses were received and used to describe trends in methods. The responses represented an estimated 13,000-15,000 samples collected and processed per year. Kicknet devices were used in 64.5% of the methods; other sampling devices included fixed-area samplers (Surber and Hess), artificial substrates (Hester-Dendy and rock baskets), grabs, and dipnets. Regional differences existed, e.g., the 1-m kicknet was used more often in the eastern US than in the western US. Mesh sizes varied among programs but 80.2% of the methods used a mesh size between 500 and 600 (mu or u)m. Mesh size variations within US Environmental Protection Agency regions were large, with size differences ranging from 100 to 700 (mu or u)m. Most samples collected were composites; the mean area sampled was 1.7 m2. Samples rarely were collected using a random method (4.7%); most samples (70.6%) were collected using "expert opinion", which may make data obtained operator-specific. Only 26.3% of the methods sorted all the organisms from a sample; the remainder subsampled in the laboratory. The most common method of subsampling was to remove 100 organisms (range = 100-550). The magnification used for sorting ranged from 1 (sorting by eye) to 30x, which results in inconsistent separation of macroinvertebrates from detritus. In addition to subsampling, 53% of the methods sorted large/rare organisms from a sample. The taxonomic level used for identifying organisms varied among taxa; Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera were generally identified to a finer taxonomic resolution (genus and species) than other taxa. Because there currently exists a large range of field and laboratory methods used by state programs, calibration among all programs to increase data comparability would be exceptionally challenging. However, because many techniques are

  20. Evaluation of Macroinvertebrate Communities and Habitat for Selected Stream Reaches at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L.J. Henne; K.J. Buckley

    2005-08-12

    This is the second aquatic biological monitoring report generated by Los Alamos National Laboratory's (LANL's) Water Quality and Hydrology Group. The study has been conducted to generate impact-based assessments of habitat and water quality for LANL waterways. The monitoring program was designed to allow for the detection of spatial and temporal trends in water and habitat quality through ongoing, biannual monitoring of habitat characteristics and benthic aquatic macroinvertebrate communities at six key sites in Los Alamos, Sandia, Water, Pajarito, and Starmer's Gulch Canyons. Data were collected on aquatic habitat characteristics, channel substrate, and macroinvertebrate communities during 2001 and 2002. Aquatic habitat scores were stable between 2001 and 2002 at all locations except Starmer's Gulch and Pajarito Canyon, which had lower scores in 2002 due to low flow conditions. Channel substrate changes were most evident at the upper Los Alamos and Pajarito study reaches. The macroinvertebrate Stream Condition Index (SCI) indicated moderate to severe impairment at upper Los Alamos Canyon, slight to moderate impairment at upper Sandia Canyon, and little or no impairment at lower Sandia Canyon, Starmer's Gulch, and Pajarito Canyon. Habitat, substrate, and macroinvertebrate data from the site in upper Los Alamos Canyon indicated severe impacts from the Cerro Grande Fire of 2000. Impairment in the macroinvertebrate community at upper Sandia Canyon was probably due to effluent-dominated flow at that site. The minimal impairment SCI scores for the lower Sandia site indicated that water quality improved with distance downstream from the outfall at upper Sandia Canyon.

  1. Collection evaluation in University libraries (II. Methods based on collection use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Àngels Massísimo i Sánchez de Boado

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This is our second paper devoted to the collection evaluation in the university libraries. Seven methods are described, based on collection use. Their advantages and disadvantages are discussed, as well as their usefulness for a range of library types

  2. Smart Collection and Storage Method for Network Traffic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Smart Collection and Storage Method for Network Traffic Data Angela Horneman Nathan Dell September 2014 TECHNICAL REPORT CMU/SEI-2014-TR...3.2.4 Database Storage 14 4 Smart Collection and Storage 16 4.1 Methodology 16 4.2 Capture-Specific Considerations 16 4.2.1 Full Packet Capture...25 Figure 3: Example Total Daily Volume 34 Figure 4: Example Peak Value Plot for Total Volumes Shown in Figure 3 34 Figure 5: Smart Collection and

  3. Colonization by benthic macroinvertebrates in two artificial substrate types of a Riparian Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Borges dos Santos

    Full Text Available Abstract: Aim To analyze the efficiency of organic and inorganic substrates in samples of benthic macroinvertebrates of riparian forests from the Cerrado. Specific objectives (i characterize the ecological succession and taxonomic richness of benthic macroinvertebrates in stream affluent of a riparian forest; (ii analyze the influence of seasonality on the colonization of macroinvertebrates; and (iii determine the effect of the types of artificial substrates on the richness, composition and abundance of the benthic community. Methods Sampling was carried out in the rainy and dry seasons, and we installed in the watercourse two types of substrates: organic (leaf packs and inorganic (bricks, organized in pairs. Six samples per season were done to verify colonization, succession, richness and abundance of benthic community. The substrates were carefully sorted and the organisms were identified to the lowest possible taxonomic level. Results The ecological succession was clearly observed, with the initial occurrence of Chironomidae and Baetidae (considered early colonizers, and a late occurrence of organisms such as Helotrephidae and Trichoptera (considered late colonizers. No significant difference was found in the richness and abundance among the studied seasons (rainy and dry, but the organic substrate was significantly higher than the inorganic substrate for these parameters. Conclusion Organic artificial substrates are more efficient in characterizing the community of benthic macroinvertebrates in the study area, because they are more similar to the conditions of the substrate found naturally in the environment.

  4. Weeding Library Collections: Library Weeding Methods. Fourth Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slote, Stanly J.

    Weeding is one of the best ways to make long-term improvements to library collections, but it is also a difficult and sometimes painful task. In the tradition of previous editions, this book guides librarians in the process of methodical and efficient weeding. The book shows how to identify core collections versus the weedable items. The approach…

  5. A Practical Method for Collecting Social Media Campaign Metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharis, Laurie W.; Hightower, Mary F.

    2017-01-01

    Today's Extension professionals are tasked with more work and fewer resources. Integrating social media campaigns into outreach efforts can be an efficient way to meet work demands. If resources go toward social media, a practical method for collecting metrics is needed. Collecting metrics adds one more task to the workloads of Extension…

  6. Study on the influence of small hydropower stations on the macroinvertebrates community-Take Nanhe River as a case, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Weihua; Li, Qingyun; Guo, Weijie; Wang, Zhenhua

    2017-05-01

    This study take Nahan River as a case to research the impacts of small hydropower stations on macroinvertebrates community. Results showed that a total of 13 macroinvertebrate samples was collected and contained 56 taxa belonging to 18 families and 35 genera. The influence of runoff regulation was more seriously than hydrological period. There were obvious zoning phenomenon of macroinvertebrates between reservoir, downdam reaches and natural reaches. From reservoir, downdam reaches to natural reaches, species abundance increased in turn. There are the least species in reservoir, the most in natural rivers. The reservoirs had the highest biomass and were quite different from those in downdam and natural reaches. However, there was no significant difference between different periods of hydropower station.

  7. Aquatic macroinvertebrates of Batalha river reservoir for water captation and supply of the city of Bauru, SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Calcidoni Moreira

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study the composition and diversity of aquatic macroinvertebrates were evaluated in the reservoir of water captation of Batalha river for treatment and supplying of the city of Bauru. The samples were collected in dry (from June to August, 2005 and rainy (from December, 2005 to February, 2006 seasons. We analyzed and identified 840 organisms belonging to 8 taxa in dry season and 4 taxa in rainy season. The system presented low abundance and diversity of macroinvertebrates probably due to the water quality and its physical and chemical variations associated with rain events.

  8. THE INFLUENCE OF POST-FLOTATION TAILINGS POND “WARTOWICE” (LOWER SILESIA ON THE BIODIVERSITY OF MACROINVERTEBRATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Rybak

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the biodiversity studies on macroinvertebrates were conducted in the area post-flotation tailings pond “Wartowice”, which poses a serious threat to the environment. The analysis of the biodiversity was done with two methods: the use of biodiversity indices along with taxonomic identification to family level and with the application of morphospecies method. Both were assessed concerning their usefulness. Macrofauna was sampled in a five sites characterized by different level of pollution. We found the dependence of macroinvertebrates structure on habitat type. Both methods, although not very accurate, were found suitable for the assessment of such disturbance type.

  9. Evaluating ethanol-based sample preservation to facilitate use of DNA barcoding in routine freshwater biomonitoring programs using benthic macroinvertebrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric D Stein

    Full Text Available Molecular methods, such as DNA barcoding, have the potential to enhance biomonitoring programs worldwide. Altering routinely used sample preservation methods to protect DNA from degradation may pose a potential impediment to application of DNA barcoding and metagenomics for biomonitoring using benthic macroinvertebrates. Using higher volumes or concentrations of ethanol, requirements for shorter holding times, or the need to include additional filtering may increase cost and logistical constraints to existing biomonitoring programs. To address this issue we evaluated the efficacy of various ethanol-based sample preservation methods at maintaining DNA integrity. We evaluated a series of methods that were minimally modified from typical field protocols in order to identify an approach that can be readily incorporated into existing monitoring programs. Benthic macroinvertebrates were collected from a minimally disturbed stream in southern California, USA and subjected to one of six preservation treatments. Ten individuals from five taxa were selected from each treatment and processed to produce DNA barcodes from the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase I (COI. On average, we obtained successful COI sequences (i.e. either full or partial barcodes for between 93-99% of all specimens across all six treatments. As long as samples were initially preserved in 95% ethanol, successful sequencing of COI barcodes was not affected by a low dilution ratio of 2∶1, transfer to 70% ethanol, presence of abundant organic matter, or holding times of up to six months. Barcoding success varied by taxa, with Leptohyphidae (Ephemeroptera producing the lowest barcode success rate, most likely due to poor PCR primer efficiency. Differential barcoding success rates have the potential to introduce spurious results. However, routine preservation methods can largely be used without adverse effects on DNA integrity.

  10. Aquatic macroinvertebrates associated with roots of Eichhornia azuera (Swarts Kunth (Pontederiaceae in an oxbow lake in Pantanal, MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Henrique L. Saulino

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Macrophytes play an important role in the community structure of aquatic systems. In this study, we examined the macroinvertebrate communities within 20 Eichhornia azurea roots in an oxbow lake in Pantanal (MS during dry season. Species abundance and richness were compared via linear regression, and the mean relative proportion of macroinvertebrates among root samples was determined. Macroinvertebrates were identified to the lowest practical taxonomic level, and root volume was measured using the volume displacement method. We identified 371 specimens, belonging to 31 families and 21 taxonomic groups. Chironomus sp. (Chironomidae, Slavinia sp. and Dero sp. (Naididae, all detritivores, were most the represented taxon. Regression analysis indicated a positive correlation between root volume and the abundance and richness of the macroinvertebrate community. Analysis of variance showed no statistically significant differences between species abundance and richness among different E. azuera root volumes, however we did observe a trend toward a positive correlation of both variables with increasing root volume. We suspect that greater root volumes should increase microhabitat availability, which could explain this observed trend. Our results indicate that E. azurea roots may play an important ecologic role (e.g., by providing shelter, food stock in lake macroinvertebrate communities.

  11. Aquatic macroinvertebrates associated with Eichhornia azurea (Swartz Kunth and relationships with abiotic factors in marginal lentic ecosystems (São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CV. Silva

    Full Text Available Marginal lakes are characterised by their having high biological diversity due to the presence of aquatic macrophytes in their coastal zones, providing habitats for refuge and food for animal community members. Among the fauna components associated with macrophytes, aquatic macroinvertebrates are important because they are an energy source for predators and fish. In six lakes and two different seasons (March and August 2009, the ecological attributes of aquatic macroinvertebrate community associated with Eichhornia azurea were compared and the controlling environmental factors were identified. Since the attributes of macroinvertebrate community are strictly associated with abiotic variables of each distinct habitat, our hypothesis was that each site associated with the same floating aquatic macrophyte (E. azurea should have a typical composition and density of organisms. We identified 50 taxa of macroinvertebrates, with greater taxa richness for aquatic insects (37 taxa divided into eight orders; the order Diptera being the most abundant in the two study periods. On the other hand, higher values of total taxa richness were recorded in August. Dissolved oxygen and pH presented the greatest number of significant positive correlations with the different taxa. The animals most frequently collected in the six lakes in March and August 2009 were Hirudinea, Oligochaeta, Hydrachnidae, Conchostraca, Ostracoda, Noteridae, Ceratopogonidae, Chironomidae, Culicidae, Caenidae, Pleidae, Aeshnidae, Libellulidae, Coenagrionidae and Nematoda. Only densities of Trichoptera, Ostracoda and Conchostraca presented the highest significant differences between lakes in both study periods and considering the composition of macroinvertebrates no significant differences were registered for macroinvertebrate composition.

  12. Influence of seasonal variation on bioassessment of streams using macroinvertebrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sporka, F.; Vlek, H.E.; Bulánková, E.; Krno, I.

    2006-01-01

    The EU Water Framework Directive requires assessment of the ecological quality of running waters using macroinvertebrates. One of the problems of obtaining representative samples of organisms from streams is the choice of sampling date, as the scores obtained from macroinvertebrate indices vary natu

  13. Are macroinvertebrates in high altitude streams affected by oxygen deficiency?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Dean; Rostgaard, S.; Vásconez, J. J.

    2003-01-01

    conditions. However, this fails to take into account that oxygen solubility declines with decreasing atmospheric pressure, which may be of importance at high altitudes. 2. Based on samples of macroinvertebrate benthos and in situ measurements of respiratory oxygen demand of macroinvertebrates in small...

  14. Aquatic macroinvertebrates and water quality of Sandia Canyon, Los Alamos National Laboratory, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cross, S.; Nottelman, H.

    1997-01-01

    The Biology Team of ESH-20 (the Ecology Group) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has collected samples from the stream within Sandia Canyon since the summer of 1990. These field studies measure water quality parameters and collect aquatic macroinvertebrates from sampling sites within the upper canyon stream. Reports by Bennett and Cross discuss previous aquatic studies in Sandia Canyon. This report updates and expands the previous findings. The Biology Team collected water quality data and aquatic macroinvertebrates monthly at three sampling stations within Sandia Canyon in 1995. The two upstream stations occur near a cattail (Typha latifolia) dominated marsh downstream from outfalls that discharge industrial and sanitary waste effluent into the stream, thereby maintaining year-round flow. The third station is approximately 1.5 miles downstream from the outfalls within a mixed conifer forest. All water chemistry parameters measured in Sandia Canyon during 1995 fell within acceptable State limits and scored in the {open_quotes}good{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}excellent{close_quotes} ranges when compared to an Environmental Quality Index. However, aquatic macroinvertebrates habitats have been degraded by widespread erosion, channelization, loss of wetlands due to deposition and stream lowering, scour, limited acceptable substrates, LANL releases and spills, and other stressors. Macroinvertebrate communities at all the stations had low diversities, low densities, and erratic numbers of individuals. These results indicate that although the stream possesses acceptable water chemistry, it has reduced biotic potential. The best developed aquatic community occurs at the sampling station with the best habitat and whose downstream location partially mitigates the effects of upstream impairments.

  15. Parent-Collected Behavioral Observations: An Empirical Comparison of Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadler, Cy B.; Roberts, Mark W.

    2013-01-01

    Treatments for disruptive behaviors are often guided by parent reports on questionnaires, rather than by multiple methods of assessment. Professional observations and clinic analogs exist to complement questionnaires, but parents can also collect useful behavioral observations to inform and guide treatment. Two parent observation methods of child…

  16. Collection of problems proposed at International Conference on Variational Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    This collection of problems is based on the Problem Section held on May 24, 2007 during the International Conference on Variational Methods. These problems reflect various aspects of variational methods and are due to Professors Victor Bangert, Alain Chenciner, Ivar Ekeland, Nassif Ghoussoub, Zhaoli Liu, Paul Rabinowitz and Hans-Bert Rademacher.

  17. Collective communications apparatus and method for parallel systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knies, Allan D.; Keppel, David Pardo; Woo, Dong Hyuk; Fryman, Joshua B.

    2016-10-25

    A collective communication apparatus and method for parallel computing systems. For example, one embodiment of an apparatus comprises a plurality of processor elements (PEs); collective interconnect logic to dynamically form a virtual collective interconnect (VCI) between the PEs at runtime without global communication among all of the PEs, the VCI defining a logical topology between the PEs in which each PE is directly communicatively coupled to a only a subset of the remaining PEs; and execution logic to execute collective operations across the PEs, wherein one or more of the PEs receive first results from a first portion of the subset of the remaining PEs, perform a portion of the collective operations, and provide second results to a second portion of the subset of the remaining PEs.

  18. Method and a Mobile Unit for Collecting Biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    A method for collecting biomass, such as straw, and for producing a pyrolysis liquid, such as oil or tar, from the biomass, comprises the step of collecting the biomass from a growth site, e.g. a field, by means of a mobile unit. The biomass is continuously fed into a pyrolysis apparatus (200) ac...... for forcing biomass towards a reactive surface in a pyrolysis reactor. The mobile unit may be self-propelled....

  19. A direct method for e-cigarette aerosol sample collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmedo, Pablo; Navas-Acien, Ana; Hess, Catherine; Jarmul, Stephanie; Rule, Ana

    2016-08-01

    E-cigarette use is increasing in populations around the world. Recent evidence has shown that the aerosol produced by e-cigarettes can contain a variety of toxicants. Published studies characterizing toxicants in e-cigarette aerosol have relied on filters, impingers or sorbent tubes, which are methods that require diluting or extracting the sample in a solution during collection. We have developed a collection system that directly condenses e-cigarette aerosol samples for chemical and toxicological analyses. The collection system consists of several cut pipette tips connected with short pieces of tubing. The pipette tip-based collection system can be connected to a peristaltic pump, a vacuum pump, or directly to an e-cigarette user for the e-cigarette aerosol to flow through the system. The pipette tip-based system condenses the aerosol produced by the e-cigarette and collects a liquid sample that is ready for analysis without the need of intermediate extraction solutions. We tested a total of 20 e-cigarettes from 5 different brands commercially available in Maryland. The pipette tip-based collection system condensed between 0.23 and 0.53mL of post-vaped e-liquid after 150 puffs. The proposed method is highly adaptable, can be used during field work and in experimental settings, and allows collecting aerosol samples from a wide variety of e-cigarette devices, yielding a condensate of the likely exact substance that is being delivered to the lungs.

  20. Radioisotope Detection Device and Methods of Radioisotope Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranter, Troy J [Idaho Falls, ID; Oertel, Christopher P [Idaho Falls, ID; Giles, John R [Pocatello, ID; Mann, Nicholas R [Rigby, ID; McIlwain, Michael E [Idaho Falls, ID

    2011-04-12

    A device for collection of radionuclides includes a mixture of a polymer, a fluorescent organic scintillator and a chemical extractant. A radionuclide detector system includes a collection device comprising a mixture of a polymer, a fluorescent agent and a selective ligand. The system includes at least one photomultiplier tube (PMT). A method of detecting radionuclides includes providing a collector device comprising a mixture comprising a polymer, a fluorescent organic scintillator and a chemical extractant. An aqueous environment is exposed to the device and radionuclides are collected from the environment. Radionuclides can be concentrated within the device.

  1. Comparison of Pectin Hydrogel Collection Methods in Microfluidic Device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chaeyeon; Park, Ki-Su; Kang, Sung-Min; Kim, Jongmin; Song, YoungShin; Lee, Chang-Soo [Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    This study investigated the effect of different collection methods on physical properties of pectin hydrogels in microfluidic synthetic approach. The pectin hydrogels were simply produced by the incorporation of calcium ions dissolved in continuous mineral oil. Then, different collection methods, pipetting, tubing, and settling, for harvesting pectin hydrogels were applied. The settling method showed most uniform and monodispersed hydrogels. In the case of settling, a coefficient of variation was 3.46 which was lower than pipetting method (18.60) and tubing method (14.76). Under the settling method, we could control the size of hydrogels, ranging from 30 μm to 180 μm, by simple manipulation of the viscosity of pectin and volumetric flow rate of dispersed and continuous phase. Finally, according to the characteristics of simple encapsulation of biological materials, we envision that the pectin hydrogels can be applied to drug delivery, food, and biocompatible materials.

  2. Influence of agricultural, industrial, and anthropogenic stresses on the distribution and diversity of macroinvertebrates in Juru River Basin, Penang, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shami, Salman A; Md Rawi, Che Salmah; Ahmad, Abu Hassan; Abdul Hamid, Suhaila; Mohd Nor, Siti Azizah

    2011-07-01

    Abundance and diversity of benthic macroinvertebrates as well as physico-chemical parameters were investigated in five rivers of the Juru River Basin in northern Peninsula Malaysia: Ceruk Tok Kun River (CTKR), Pasir River (PR), Permatang Rawa River (PRR), Kilang Ubi River (KUR), and Juru River (JR). The physico-chemical parameters and calculated water quality index (WQI) were significantly different among the investigated rivers (ANOVA, Ppolluted). However, PRR and KUR fell into class IV (polluted). High diversity and abundance of macroinvertebrates, especially the intolerant taxa, Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera, were observed in the least polluted river, CTKR. Decreasing abundance of macroinvertebrates followed the deterioration of river water quality with the least number of the most tolerant taxa collected from PR. On the basis of composition and sensitivity of macroinvertebrates to pollutants in each river, the highest Biological Monitoring Working Party (BMWP) index score of 93 was reported in CTKR (good water quality). BMWP scores in PRR and JR were 38.7 and 20.1, respectively, classifying both of them into "moderate water quality" category. Poor water quality was reported in PR and KUR. The outcome of the multivariate analysis (CCA) was highly satisfactory, explaining 43.32% of the variance for the assemblages of macroinvertebrates as influenced by 19 physical and chemical variables. According to the CCA model, we assert that there were three levels of stresses on macroinvertebrate communities in the investigated rivers: Level 1, characterized of undisturbed or slightly polluted as in the case of CTKR; Level 2, characterized by a lower habitat quality (the JR) compared to the CTKR; and Level 3 showed severe environmental stresses (PRR, PR, and KUR) primarily contributed by agricultural, industrial, and municipal discharges.

  3. Assessing the ecological status of the Cisadane River’s headwaters using benthic macroinvertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krisanti, M.; Wardiatno, Y.; Anzani, Y. M.

    2017-01-01

    Benthic macroinvertebrates are commonly used in river health biomonitoring. In monitoring program biotic indices are now widely established in water quality monitoring around the world, including in the tropical countries. The aim of this study was to reveal the ecological status of Cisadane River’s headwaters in inside and outside of Mount Halimun-Salak National Park by using benthic macroinvertebrates. The research was conducted in the headwaters of Cisadane River located in Mount Halimun-Salak National Park. Macroinvertebrates were collected from four sites, i.e. inside the park (station 1, 2, 3, and 4) and from two sites outside the park (station 5 and 6). Collections were made twice a month, starting from April to June 2015 by means of Surber sampler (frame area 30x30 cm). A total of 65 genera from 38 families and 11 orders were found in the river. The results showed that based on diversity index, Lincoln Quality Index (LQI), Family Biotic Index (FBI), and Stream Invertebrate Grade Number Average Level 2 (SIGNAL 2), stations located within national park were ecologically better than those outside national park. Rivers with well-preserved riverside vegetation, as in the national park area have greater ecological status.

  4. Results of Macroinvertebrate Sampling Conducted at 33 SRS Stream Locations, July--August 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Specht, W.L.

    1994-12-01

    In order to assess the health of the macroinvertebrate communities of SRS streams, the macroinvertebrate communities at 30 stream locations on SRS were sampled during the summer of 1993, using Hester-Dendy multiplate samplers. In addition, three off-site locations in the Upper Three Runs drainage were sampled in order to assess the potential for impact from off-site activities. In interpreting the data, it is important to recognize that these data were from a single set of collections. Macroinvertebrate communities often undergo considerable temporal variation, and are also greatly influenced by such factors as water depth, water velocity, and available habitat. These stations were selected with the intent of developing an on-going sampling program at a smaller number of stations, with the selection of the stations to be based largely upon the results of this preliminary sampling program. When stations within a given stream showed similar results, fewer stations would be sampled in the future. Similarly, if a stream appeared to be perturbed, additional stations or chemical analyses might be added so that the source of the perturbation could be identified. In general, unperturbed streams will contain more taxa than perturbed streams, and the distribution of taxa among orders or families will differ. Some groups of macroinvertebrates, such as Ephemeroptera (mayflies), Plecoptera (stoneflies) and Trichoptera (caddisflies), which are collectively called EPT taxa, are considered to be relatively sensitive to most kinds of stream perturbation; therefore a reduced number of EPT taxa generally indicates that the stream has been subject to chemical or physical stressors. In coastal plain streams, EPT taxa are generally less dominant than in streams with rocky substrates, while Chironomidae (midges) are more abundant. (Abstract Truncated)

  5. Factors Influencing The Accuracy Of A Macroinvertebrate Bioassessment Protocol In South Carolina Coastal Plain Streams (DRAFT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paller, M. H.; Martin, F. D.; Wike, L. D.; Specht, W. L.

    2006-01-31

    The Multiple Habitat Sampling Protocol (MHSP) is a bioassessment method designed to assess the ecological health of South Carolina streams on the basis of macroinvertebrate samples collected from natural substrates. The MHSP is computed by averaging the EPT (number of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera taxa) and BI (a biotic index that reflects the pollution tolerances of individual taxa) to produce a bioclassification score. The MHSP produced low bioclassification scores that could falsely indicate environmental degradation in some undisturbed, high quality streams in the Sandhills ecoregion. This problem had two causes: (1) the metrics (especially EPT) were significantly related to stream size, which confounded stream size effects with environmental impacts, and (2) the scoring criteria for EPT were too high for some Sandhills streams, likely because of unrecognized heterogeneity among the Sandhills streams from which the criteria were derived. We corrected these problems by developing new scoring criteria from ecologically comparable undisturbed streams and by utilizing residuals from regressions of the metrics on stream width to normalize for stream size. The MHSP and related protocols are effective methods for assessing environmental quality but allowances must be made for the effects of stream size and the potential ecological heterogeneity that naturally exists among streams in some ecoregions.

  6. Aquatic macroinvertebrates of the Jablanica river, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanović Katarina S.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Research on the community of aquatic macroinvertebrates was carried out during 2005 and 2006 at four sampling sites along the Jablanica River, a right-hand tributary of the Kolubara River. Fifty-seven taxa were recorded in the course of the investigation. The most diverse group was Ephemeroptera, followed by Trichoptera and Plecoptera. Members of the Rhitrogena semicolorata group were the most abundant. Our results could be the basis for evaluation of the influence of damming of the Jablanica River on the status of its water and can serve as a model for studying the influ­ence of hydromorphological degradation of aquatic ecosystems.

  7. Co-occurrence between macrophytes and macroinvertebrates: towards a new approach for the running waters quality evaluation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Traversetti

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Several studies on concordance between macrophyte and macroinvertebrate communities were carried out for decades while any investigation on co-occurrence of single pair of taxa of these two groups was never addressed. Our main aim was to verify the existence of co-occurrence of single macrophyte–macroinvertebrate pair in a Mediterranean river of central Italy. We compared the co-occurrence frequencies of different plant and animal taxa with those expected by chance through the null model approach. Specifically, we proposed two main co-occurrence patterns of macrophyte and macroinvertebrate taxa in terms of aggregation (when groups co-occur more frequently than expected and segregation (when groups co-occur less frequently than expected. This approach was supported by correlations and analysis of covariance in order to identify the most significant co-occurring pairs. In this study we collected a total of 123 taxa (50 macrophytes + 73 macroinvertebrates in October 2008 and 102 (42+60 in June 2009. We obtained a total of 379 significantly correlating macrophyte-macroinvertebrate pairs. Amongst all these correlating pairs, 83.7% of them correlated in October session while 90.3% in June. All the correlating pairs showed a high relationships with human alterations in both the sampling sessions. Our results confirmed that direct correlations there are between macrophytes and macroinvertebrates, highlighting how these two biological groups co-occur mainly following the aggregative model in both sampling sessions. Therefore, it was possible to observe significant relationships between macrophyte and macroinvertebrate pairs along an entire river ecosystem. It allows us to demonstrate that there are some prospective for trying to increase the knowledge on macrophytes-macroinvertebrates co-occurrence and for suggesting to use only single pair of co-occurring taxa in the monitoring running water quality. Aware that more investigations ought to be

  8. Agricultural Rivers at Risk: Dredging Results in a Loss of Macroinvertebrates. Preliminary Observations from the Narew Catchment, Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateusz Grygoruk

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Ecosystem deterioration in small lowland agricultural rivers that results from river dredging entails a significant threat to the appropriate ecohydrological conditions of these water bodies, expressed as homogenization of habitats and loss of biodiversity. Our study was aimed at a comparison of abundance and taxonomic structure of bottom-dwelling macroinvertebrates in dredged and non-dredged stretches of small lowland rivers and tributaries of the middle Narew River, namely: Czaplinianka, Turośnianka, Dąb, and Ślina. The experimental setup was (1 to collect samples of the bottom material from the river stretches that either persisted in a non-modified state (dredging was not done there in the last few years or had been subjected to river dredging in the year of sampling; and (2 to analyze the abundance and taxonomic structure of macroinvertebrates in the collected samples. The study revealed that at the high level of statistical significance (from p = 0.025 to p = 0.001, the total abundance of riverbed macroinvertebrates in the dredged stretches of the rivers analyzed was approximately 70% lower than in non-dredged areas. We state that the dredging of small rivers in agricultural landscapes seriously affects their ecological status by negatively influencing the concentrations and species richness of benthic macroinvertebrates.

  9. Variable role of aquatic macroinvertebrates in initial breakdown of seasonal leaf litter inputs to a cold-desert river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, S.M.; Andersen, D.C.

    2007-01-01

    We used coarse-mesh and fine-mesh leafpacks to examine the importance of aquatic macroinvertebrates in the breakdown of floodplain tree leaf litter that seasonally entered a sand-bedded reach of the sixth-order Yampa River in semiarid Colorado. Leafpacks were positioned off the easily mobilized channel bed, mimicking litter trapped in debris piles. Organic matter (OM) loss was fastest for leaves collected from the floodplain and placed in the river in spring (k = 0.029/day) and slowest for leaves collected and placed in the river in winter (0.006/day). Macroinvertebrates were most abundant in winter and spring leaves, but seemed important to processing only in spring, when exclusion by fine mesh reduced OM loss by 25% and nitrogen loss by 65% in spring leaves. Macroinvertebrates seemed to have little role in processing of autumn, winter, or summer leaves over the 50-day to 104-day monitoring periods. Desiccation during bouts of low discharge and sediment deposition on leaves limited invertebrate processing in summer and autumn, whereas processing of winter leaves, which supported relatively large numbers of shredders, might have been restricted by ice formation and low water temperatures. These results were consistent with the concept that microbial processing dominates in higher-order rivers, but suggested that macroinvertebrate processing can be locally important in higher-order desert rivers in seasons or years with favorable discharge and water quality conditions.

  10. A bin integral method for solving the kinetic collection equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lian-Ping; Xue, Yan; Grabowski, Wojciech W.

    2007-09-01

    A new numerical method for solving the kinetic collection equation (KCE) is proposed, and its accuracy and convergence are investigated. The method, herein referred to as the bin integral method with Gauss quadrature (BIMGQ), makes use of two binwise moments, namely, the number and mass concentration in each bin. These two degrees of freedom define an extended linear representation of the number density distribution for each bin following Enukashvily (1980). Unlike previous moment-based methods in which the gain and loss integrals are evaluated for a target bin, the concept of source-bin pair interactions is used to transfer bin moments from source bins to target bins. Collection kernels are treated by bilinear interpolations. All binwise interaction integrals are then handled exactly by Gauss quadrature of various orders. In essence the method combines favorable features in previous spectral moment-based and bin-based pair-interaction (or flux) methods to greatly enhance the logic, consistency, and simplicity in the numerical method and its implementation. Quantitative measures are developed to rigorously examine the accuracy and convergence properties of BIMGQ for both the Golovin kernel and hydrodynamic kernels. It is shown that BIMGQ has a superior accuracy for the Golovin kernel and a monotonic convergence behavior for hydrodynamic kernels. Direct comparisons are also made with the method of Berry and Reinhardt (1974), the linear flux method of Bott (1998), and the linear discrete method of Simmel et al. (2002).

  11. Data Collection Methods for Evaluating Museum Programs and Exhibitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Amy Crack; Cohn, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Museums often evaluate various aspects of their audiences' experiences, be it what they learn from a program or how they react to an exhibition. Each museum program or exhibition has its own set of goals, which can drive what an evaluator studies and how an evaluation evolves. When designing an evaluation, data collection methods are purposefully…

  12. Comparison of fish and macroinvertebrates as bioindicators of Neotropical streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruaro, Renata; Gubiani, Éder André; Cunico, Almir Manoel; Moretto, Yara; Piana, Pitágoras Augusto

    2016-01-01

    The biomonitoring of aquatic ecosystems in developing countries faces several limitations, especially related to gathering resources. The present study aimed at comparing the responses of fish and benthic macroinvertebrates to environmental change, to identify which group best indicates the differences between reference and impacted streams in southern Brazil. We determined reference and impacted sites based on physical and chemical variables of the water. For the analysis and comparison of biological responses, we calculated 22 metrics and submitted them to a discriminant analysis. We selected from this analysis only six metrics, which showed that the two studied assemblages respond differently to environmental change. A larger number of metrics were selected for macroinvertebrates than for fish in the separate analysis. The metrics selected for macroinvertebrates in the pooled analysis (i.e., fish and macroinvertebrates together) were different from those selected in the separate analysis for macroinvertebrates alone. However, the metrics selected for fish in the pooled analysis were the same selected in the separate analysis for fish alone. The macroinvertebrate assemblage was more effective for distinguishing reference from impacted sites. We suggest the use of macroinvertebrates as bioindicators of Neotropical streams, especially in situations in which time and money are short.

  13. Biological Assessment of Water Quality in the National Park of Prespa Lake Using Macroinvertebrates as Bioindicators

    OpenAIRE

    , E. Keçi; , A. Paparisto; , E. Hamzaraj; , O. Laknori; , B. Pepa; , A. Fjerza

    2016-01-01

    Macroinvertebrates were examined for use as potential biodiversity indicators in continental aquatic ecosystems in a semiarid Mediterranean region, the Prespa Lake basin. Biological assessment is one of the monitoring methods, which gives data related with the water quality. This assessment effectively describes water quality physical and anthropogenic impact (R. W. Plotnikoff, 1994). In our study are used the main groups of invertebrates which are phylum Arthropoda, phylum Annelidae, phylum ...

  14. Estimation and application of indicator values for common macroinvertebrate genera and families of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlisle, D.M.; Meador, M.R.; Moulton, S.R.; Ruhl, P.M.

    2007-01-01

    Tolerance of macroinvertebrate taxa to chemical and physical stressors is widely used in the analysis and interpretation of bioassessment data, but many estimates lack empirical bases. Our main objective was to estimate genus- and family-level indicator values (IVs) from a data set of macroinvertebrate communities, chemical, and physical stressors collected in a consistent manner throughout the United States. We then demonstrated an application of these IVs to detect alterations in benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages along gradients of urbanization in New England and Alabama. Principal components analysis (PCA) was used to create synthetic gradients of chemical stressors, for which genus- and family-level weighted averages (WAs) were calculated. Based on results of PCA, WAs were calculated for three synthetic gradients (ionic concentration, nutrient concentration, and dissolved oxygen/water temperature) and two uncorrelated physical variables (suspended sediment concentration and percent fines). Indicator values for each stress gradient were subsequently created by transforming WAs into ten ordinal ranks based on percentiles of values across all taxa. Mean IVs of genera and families were highly correlated to road density in Alabama and New England, and supported the conclusions of independent assessments of the chemical and physical stressors acting in each geographic area. Family IVs were nearly as responsive to urbanization as genus IVs. The limitations of widespread use of these IVs are discussed.

  15. Using water, bryophytes, and macroinvertebrates to assess trace element concentrations in the Upper Colorado River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deacon, J.R.; Spahr, N.E.; Mize, S.V.; Boulger, R.W.

    2001-01-01

    This study examined trace elements concentrations and macroinvertebrate community structure at 32 sites in 22 streams in Colorado. Sites affected by mining activities (mining sites) and sites that were minimally disturbed (nonmining sites) were selected for the assessment. Water and transplanted aquatic bryophyte samples were analyzed for trace elements. Macroinvertebrate samples were collected to assess the effects of trace elements on the aquatic community of the stream. All samples of aquatic bryophytes had detectable concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn. Principal components analysis of chemical and physical properties classified sites into three groups. The first group represented sites that were unaffected to minimally affected by mining activities; the second group was characterized by sites with Cd, Pb and Zn predominant in the mineralogy; and the third group was characterized by sites with Cu predominant in the mineralogy. Six macroinvertebrate families were common in the study area. Median values of total abundance, taxa richness and mayfly and stonefly abundance were reduced at mining sites. Abundances of Heptageniidae, Chloroperlidae and Rhyacophila and Baetis sp. also were reduced at sites with elevated trace element concentrations. Tanytarsini chironomids were most abundant at reference and minimally-disturbed sites.

  16. Effects of ambient metals concentrations on the benthic macroinvertebrate community in the Animas River, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Covington, S.M.; Parkhurst, B.R. [Cadmus Group Inc., Laramie, WY (United States); Perino, L. [Sunnyside Gold Corp., Silverton, CO (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The Upper Animas River is located in southern Colorado at approximately 9500 feet above mean sea level near the town of Silverton in San Juan County. It drains several first and second order creeks and gulches, many of which are subject to water quality impacts from natural sources of metals and acid mine drainage and mine tailings from historical mining activity. When the State of Colorado proposed new designated uses with more stringent metal standards for the Upper Animas River, Sunnyside Gold Corp was concerned that these new proposed designated uses and their associated standards were unattainable primarily because of existing poor ambient water quality. Studies were designed to address this and other issues. This presentation focuses on ambient metal concentrations and their effect on macroinvertebrate density and composition. Aluminum, cadmium, copper, iron, manganese, and zinc were measured in the water column and in the precipitate on the gravel-cobble substrates at each location. Macroinvertebrate samples were also collected at these locations. The trends in benthic macroinvertebrate community composition in relationship to metal concentration and distribution will be discussed.

  17. Species Diversity and Spatial Distribution of Macroinvertebrates on the Intertidal Zone of Rajamangala Beach, Trang Province, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khwanta Tantikamton

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The study on species diversity and spatial distribution of macro-invertebrates on the intertidal zone of Rajamangala beach, Trang province, Thailand aims to investigate species, numbers and spatial distribution changes of polychaetes, mollusks and crabs along the 2 km beach. Four sampling stations from an adjacent of the estuary to the end at the beach, located near a hill, were examined. Each station was divided into four lines: highest tide, 100 m, 200 m and 300 m in distance from the high tide line. Quadrate sampling method was applied for sample collection in monsoon and dry seasons with three replicates in a season. The results showed that 23 polychaete, 23 mollusk and 19 crab species were found. The highest polychaete diversity was recorded at the lowest tide line. At 200 m and 300 m from the highest tide line, there was the highest diversity of mollusk species, whereas at 100 m from the highest tide line, the diversity of crab species was highest. Lumbrineris punctata McIntosh, 1885 and Scoloplos spp. were dominated polychaete species of the 200 m and 300 m whereas Glycera spp. were frequently found at the 100 m from the highest tide line. For mollusk species, high densities of Nassarius spp., Pilucina sp. and Donax incarnatus Gmelin, 1791 were found. Crab species found on the beach were in Infraorder Brachyura (15 species and Anomura (four species. The most abundant species was Dotilla myctiroides (Milne-Edwards, 1852 followed by Scopimera proxima Kemp, 1919. The species diversity of all sampling stations had similar distribution, but from the highest tide line to the lowest tide line, a different pattern of macroinvertebrate species distribution was found.

  18. Impacts of land use change on hydrological components and macroinvertebrate distributions in the Poyang lake area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmalz, Britta; Kuemmerlen, Mathias; Kiesel, Jens; Jähnig, Sonja C.; Fohrer, Nicola

    2014-05-01

    Climate and land use changes affect river ecosystems globally and cause environmental impacts at different spatial and temporal scales. An integrated modelling approach for depicting the effect of environmental changes on aquatic ecosystems was developed and tested. Catchment characteristics, the flow regime and the distribution of aquatic organisms were linked together. The Changjiang river catchment (1717 km²), as part of the Poyang Lake basin in China, was selected as the test area. Measuring and sampling campaigns at 50 locations were carried out for collecting land use, hydrological, hydraulic and biological (macroinvertebrate) data. The water balance of the catchment was modeled with the ecohydrological model SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool). The streamflow time series computed with SWAT at each of the 50 sampling points were tranfered to the species distribution model BIOMOD which predicted the occurrence of macroinvertebrates in the stream network based on hydrological, climatic and topographic variables. The SWAT modeling results showed high temporal dynamics where 72% of the annual streamflow occurred during the monsoon season from March to July. Due to various slopes, soil characteristics, land cover and associated land management, a high spatial variability of surface runoff between the subbasins and HRUs was detected. The highest values occurred on agricultural land with cabbage cultivation, the lowest in forest areas. The SWAT model indicates that deforestation scenarios result in higher streamflow, higher surface runoff and altered flow patterns compared with the base model. In contrast, model runs representing afforestation showed opposite trends. The predictions for the stream macroinvertebrate community, arising from the integrated modelling framework were found to be suitable for describing changing environmental conditions. The deforestation scenario reduced macroinvertebrate richness through the increase in agriculture and tea plantations.

  19. Use of Benthic Macroinvertebrates to Evaluate Stream Water Quality in Trinidad and Tobago, West Indies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharaj, L. D.; Alkins-Koo, M.

    2005-05-01

    In order to determine the best method of using benthic macroinvertebrates to monitor water quality in Trinidad and Tobago, 63 sites along 38 streams were sampled in each of the wet and dry seasons from 1999-2001. At each site, 5 benthic samples were collected with a 300μm 'D' frame kicknet, along with data for 14 environmental parameters and habitat data. Principal Components Analyses separated the streams into 3 ecoregions based on substrate type and discharge. Using ANOVA, mean values for each environmental parameter were compared across each ecoregion. Values of dissolved Oxygen, BOD-5, nitrates, total suspended solids and pH varied significantly during the wet season, while dissolved Oxygen, pH and chlorophyll-a varied significantly during the dry. Using PRIMER version 5, non-metric multi-dimensional scaling and cluster analyses were performed on the faunal data for each ecoregion separately and for all sites combined. These analyses indicate that the fauna associated with minimally, moderately and severely impaired sites is similar across all 3 ecoregions. Of the different metrics compared during the study, a modified version of the Average Score Per Taxon (ASPT) best fit the clusters were produced.

  20. Detecting significant change in stream benthic macroinvertebrate communities in wilderness areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Alexander M.; Woodward, Andrea; Freilich, Jerome E.; Black, Robert W.; Resh, Vincent H.

    2015-01-01

    A major challenge in the biological monitoring of stream ecosystems in protected wilderness areas is discerning whether temporal changes in community structure are significantly outside of a reference condition that represents natural or acceptable annual variation in population cycles. Otherwise sites could erroneously be classified as impaired. Long-term datasets are essential for understanding these trends, to ascertain whether any changes in community structure significantly beyond the reference condition are permanent shifts or with time move back to within previous limits. To this end, we searched for long-term (>8 years) quantitative data sets of macroinvertebrate communities in wadeable rivers collected by similar methods and time of year in protected wilderness areas with minimal anthropogenic disturbance. Four geographic areas with datasets that met these criteria in the USA were identified, namely: McLaughlin Nature Reserve in California (1 stream), Great Smoky Mountains National Park in Tennesse-North Carolina (14 streams), Wind River Wilderness Areas in Wyoming (3 streams) and Denali National Park and Preserve in Alaska (6 streams).

  1. Effects of engineered application of Eichhornia crassipes on the benthic macroinvertebrate diversity in Lake Dianchi, an ultra-eutrophic lake in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiyong; Wang, Zhi; Zhang, Zhenghua; Zhang, Junqian; Guo, Junyao; Li, Enhua; Wang, Xuelei; Liu, Haiqin; Yan, Shaohua

    2016-05-01

    An ecological engineering project with confined growth of 1.5 km(2) of Eichhornia crassipes was implemented to remove pollutants in Lake Dianchi. To assess the ecological effects of this project on benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages, a 1-year investigation at the areas inside and outside E. crassipes mats was conducted from May 2013 to May 2014. All the 10 sampling sites in the areas were grouped into two statistically significant clusters mainly corresponding to inside and outside E. crassipes mat areas (EMAs), by clustering analysis. E. crassipes reduced the densities of pollution indicator taxa (e.g., Oligochaeta and Chironomidae larvae); thus, the total densities of benthic macroinvertebrates at the area inside EMAs (mean 328.2 ind./m(2)) were slightly lower than that at the area outside EMAs (mean 505.6 ind./m(2)). Four functional feeding groups including 38 species of benthic macroinvertebrates were collected at the area inside EMAs, while only three functional feeding groups containing 17 species were collected at the area outside EMAs. The biodiversity indices (Shannon-Weiner, Margalef, Simpson, and Peilou indices) and K-dominance curves also showed higher diversity of benthic macroinvertebrates at the area inside EMAs than at the area outside EMAs. These results suggested that a certain scale of engineering application of E. crassipes was beneficial to benthic macroinvertebrate communities in the ultra-eutrophic Lake Dianchi and it could be used as a pioneer species in ultra-eutrophic lake for pollutant removal.

  2. Examining spatial patterns in polycyclic aromatic compounds measured in stream macroinvertebrates near a small subarctic oil and gas operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korosi, J B; Eickmeyer, D C; Chin, K S; Palmer, M J; Kimpe, L E; Blais, J M

    2016-03-01

    The Cameron River runs through a small, remote petrochemical development in the Cameron Hills (Northwest Territories, Canada). In order to evaluate the exposure of aquatic biota to contaminants from oil and gas activities, we measured polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) in macroinvertebrates collected from sites and tributaries along the Cameron River, including upstream and downstream of the development, and sites located near drilled wells (developed). Macroinvertebrate tissue PAC burdens ranged from 0.2-2.8 μg g(-1) lipid for unsubstituted compounds, and from 4.2-63.2 μg g(-1) lipid for alkylated compounds, relatively low compared to similar studies from more industrialized regions in North America. There was no significant difference in tissue PAC burdens between upstream, downstream, or developed sites (p = 0.12), although alkyl PACs in five out of seven developed sites were higher than the regional average. Petrogenic PACs were dominant in most samples, including alkyl fluorines, alkyl phenanthrene/anthracenes, and alkyl dibenzothiophenes. Minimal changes in PAC composition in macroinvertebrate tissues were detected along the Cameron River, with the exception of the two sites furthest downstream that had high concentrations of C3-C4 naphthalene. Overall, our results suggest that oil and gas development in the Cameron Hills has not resulted in substantial increases in PAC bioaccumulation in stream macroinvertebrates, although the potential that alkyl naphthalenes are being transported downstream from the development warrants further attention.

  3. Heuristic methods for a refuse collection vehicle routing problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mourao, M.C.; Almeida, M.T.

    1994-12-31

    The problem of generating the set of routes that minimizes the total time required to collect the household refuse in a particular quarter of Lisbon can be formulated as a Capacitated Arc Routing Problem with some side constraints. Our aim is to obtain approximate solutions, as the problem is known to be NP-hard. We present heuristic methods to generate feasible solutions and report their performance over a set of test problems.

  4. Free-energy calculation methods for collective phenomena in membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, Yuliya G.; Fuhrmans, Marc; Barragan Vidal, Israel A.; Müller, Marcus

    2015-09-01

    Collective phenomena in membranes are those which involve the co-operative reorganization of many molecules. Examples of these are membrane fusion, pore formation, bending, adhesion or fission. The time and length scales, on which these processes occur, pose a challenge for atomistic simulations. Therefore, in order to solve the length scale problem it is popular to introduce a coarse-grained representation. To facilitate sampling of the relevant states additional computational techniques, which encourage the system to explore the free-energy landscape far from equilibrium and visit transition states, are needed. These computational techniques provide insights about the free-energy changes involved in collective transformations of membranes, yielding information about the rate limiting states, the transformation mechanism and the influence of architectural, compositional and interaction parameters. A common approach is to identify an order parameter (or reaction coordinate), which characterizes the pathway of membrane reorganization. However, no general strategy exists to define such an order parameter that can properly describe cooperative reorganizations in membranes. Recently developed methods can overcome this problem of the order-parameter choice and allow us to study collective phenomena in membranes. We will discuss such methods as thermodynamic integration, umbrella sampling, and the string method and results provided by their applications to particle-based simulations, particularly focusing on membrane fusion and pore formation.

  5. Macro-invertebrate and Avian Species Survey : Biological Summary Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This was a survey effort to determine species diversity and density of macro-invertebrates and avian species inhabiting playa systems located in SW regions of Baca...

  6. Foote Brook Macroinvertebrate Biomonitoring-Phase I in Johnson, Vermont

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Foote Brook Biomonitoring Project, Phase I geospatial dataset consists of data from the biomonitoring of benthic macroinvertebrates at three sites located along...

  7. Hydrologic controls on basin-scale distribution of benthic macroinvertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertuzzo, E.; Ceola, S.; Singer, G. A.; Battin, T. J.; Montanari, A.; Rinaldo, A.

    2013-12-01

    The presentation deals with the role of streamflow variability on basin-scale distributions of benthic macroinvertebrates. Specifically, we present a probabilistic analysis of the impacts of the variability along the river network of relevant hydraulic variables on the density of benthic macroinvertebrate species. The relevance of this work is based on the implications of the predictability of macroinvertebrate patterns within a catchment on fluvial ecosystem health, being macroinvertebrates commonly used as sensitive indicators, and on the effects of anthropogenic activity. The analytical tools presented here outline a novel procedure of general nature aiming at a spatially-explicit quantitative assessment of how near-bed flow variability affects benthic macroinvertebrate abundance. Moving from the analytical characterization of the at-a-site probability distribution functions (pdfs) of streamflow and bottom shear stress, a spatial extension to a whole river network is performed aiming at the definition of spatial maps of streamflow and bottom shear stress. Then, bottom shear stress pdf, coupled with habitat suitability curves (e.g., empirical relations between species density and bottom shear stress) derived from field studies are used to produce maps of macroinvertebrate suitability to shear stress conditions. Thus, moving from measured hydrologic conditions, possible effects of river streamflow alterations on macroinvertebrate densities may be fairly assessed. We apply this framework to an Austrian river network, used as benchmark for the analysis, for which rainfall and streamflow time-series and river network hydraulic properties and macroinvertebrate density data are available. A comparison between observed vs "modeled" species' density in three locations along the examined river network is also presented. Although the proposed approach focuses on a single controlling factor, it shows important implications with water resources management and fluvial

  8. Altitudinal distribution limits of aquatic macroinvertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Philip B.; Morabowen, Andrés; Andino, Patricio

    2015-01-01

    altitudinal patterns in population densities, (ii) transplants of the five taxa upstream of their natural altitudinal limit to test the short-term (14days) effect on survival, and (iii) in situ experiments of locomotory activity as a proxy for animal response to relatively small differences in temperature (5...... relatively small differences in temperature and oxygen may produce effects explaining ecological patterns, and depending on the taxon, either water temperature or oxygen saturation, without clear interacting effects, are important drivers of altitudinal limits.......1. Temperature and oxygen are recognised as the main drivers of altitudinal limits of species distributions. However, the two factors are linked, and both decrease with altitude, why their effects are difficult to disentangle. 2. This was experimentally addressed using aquatic macroinvertebrates...

  9. Simple Methods to Approximate CPC Shape to Preserve Collection Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Jafrancesco

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The compound parabolic concentrator (CPC is the most efficient reflective geometry to collect light to an exit port. Anyway, to allow its actual use in solar plants or photovoltaic concentration systems, a tradeoff between system efficiency and cost reduction, the two key issues for sunlight exploitation, must be found. In this work, we analyze various methods to model an approximated CPC aimed to be simpler and more cost-effective than the ideal one, as well as to preserve the system efficiency. The manufacturing easiness arises from the use of truncated conic surfaces only, which can be realized by cheap machining techniques. We compare different configurations on the basis of their collection efficiency, evaluated by means of nonsequential ray-tracing software. Moreover, due to the fact that some configurations are beam dependent and for a closer approximation of a real case, the input beam is simulated as nonsymmetric, with a nonconstant irradiance on the CPC internal surface.

  10. Relationships among rotational and conventional grazing systems, stream channels, and macroinvertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, K.L.; Vondracek, B.

    2011-01-01

    Cattle grazing in riparian areas can reduce water quality, alter stream channel characteristics, and alter fish and macroinvertebrate assemblage structure. The U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Services has recommended Rotational Grazing (RG) as an alternative management method on livestock and dairy operations to protect riparian areas and water quality. We evaluated 13 stream channel characteristics, benthic macroinvertebrate larvae (BML), and chironomid pupal exuviae (CPE) from 18 sites in the Upper Midwest of the United States in relation to RG and conventional grazing (CG). A Biotic Composite Score comprised of several macroinvertebrate metrics was developed for both the BML assemblage and the CPE assemblage. Multi-Response Permutation Procedures (MRPP) indicated a significant difference in stream channel characteristics between RG and CG. Nonmetric Multidimensional Scaling indicated that RG sites were associated with more stable stream banks, higher quality aquatic habitat, lower soil compaction, and larger particles in the streambed. However, neither MRPP nor Mann-Whitney U tests demonstrated a difference in Biotic Composite Scores for BML or CPE along RG and CG sites. The BML and CPE metrics were significantly correlated, indicating that they were likely responding to similar variables among the study sites. Although stream channel characteristics appeared to respond to grazing management, BML and CPE may have responded to land use throughout the watershed, as well as local land use. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. (outside the USA).

  11. Trophic relationships between macroinvertebrates and fish in a pampean lowland stream (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María V. López van Oosterom

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The diet and trophic relationships between the macroinvertebrates Phyllogomphoides joaquini Rodrigues Capítulo, 1992 and Coenagrionidae (Odonata, Chironomidae (Diptera, Diplodon delodontus (Lamarck, 1919 (Bivalvia: Hyriidae, and Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822 (Gastropoda: Ampulariidae and the fishes Pimelodella laticeps Eigenmann, 1917 (Heptapteridae and Bryconamericus iheringii (Boulenger, 1887 (Characidae in a temperate lowland lotic system in Argentina were assessed on the basis of gut contents and stable-isotope analyses. The feeding strategies were analyzed by the AMUNDSEN method. Relative food items contribution for the taxa studied indicated a generalist-type trophic strategy. In macroinvertebrates, in general, the values of stable isotope confirmed the result of the analysis of gut contents. With the fish, stable-isotope analysis demonstrated that both species are predators, although B. iheringii exhibited a more omnivorous behaviour. These feeding studies allowed us to determine the trophic relationships among taxa studied. Detritus and diatoms were a principal source of food for all the macroinvertebrates studied. In La Choza stream the particulate organic matter is a major no limited food resource, has a significant influence upon the community.

  12. Effects of human-induced environmental changes on benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages of wetlands in Lake Tana Watershed, Northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gezie, Ayenew; Anteneh, Wassie; Dejen, Eshete; Mereta, Seid Tiku

    2017-04-01

    Wetlands of Lake Tana Watershed provide various ecological and socioeconomic functions. However, they are losing their vigor at alarming rate due to unwise management. Hence, there is an urgent need to monitor and assess these resources so as to identify the major drivers of its degradation and to provide information for management decisions. In this context, we aimed to assess the effects of human activities on macroinvertebrate assemblages of wetlands in Lake Tana Watershed. Biotic and abiotic data were collected from 46 sampling sites located in eight wetlands. A total of 2568 macroinvertebrates belonging to 46 families were recorded. Macroinvertebrate metrics such as Biological Monitoring Working Party score, Shannon diversity index, Ephemeroptera and odonata family richness, and total family richness portrayed a clear pattern of decreasing with increasing in human disturbances, whereas Family biotic index score, which is an indicator of organic pollution, increased with increasing in human disturbances. The regression analysis also revealed that livestock grazing, leather tanning, and eucalyptus plantation were important predictors of macroinvertebrate metrics (p wetlands such as farming, leather tanning, solid waste dumping, and effluent discharges were contributed to the degradation of water quality and decreasing in the macroinvertebrate richness and diversity. These alterations could also reduce the availability of wetland products (sedges, craft materials, etc.) and the related ecosystem services. This in turn has an adverse effect on food security and poverty alleviation with considerable impact on communities who heavily depend on wetland products for their livelihood. Therefore, it is essential to formulate wetland policy for achieving wise use goals and necessary legal and institutional backup for sustainable wetland management in Ethiopia.

  13. Integrated Data Collection Analysis (IDCA) Program - SSST Testing Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandstrom, Mary M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Brown, Geoffrey W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Preston, Daniel N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Pollard, Colin J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Warner, Kirstin F. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC), Indian Head, MD (United States). Indian Head Division; Remmers, Daniel L. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC), Indian Head, MD (United States). Indian Head Division; Sorensen, Daniel N. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC), Indian Head, MD (United States). Indian Head Division; Whinnery, LeRoy L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Phillips, Jason J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Shelley, Timothy J. [Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms (ATF), Huntsville, AL (United States); Reyes, Jose A. [Applied Research Associates, Tyndall AFB, FL (United States); Hsu, Peter C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Reynolds, John G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2013-03-25

    The Integrated Data Collection Analysis (IDCA) program is conducting a proficiency study for Small- Scale Safety and Thermal (SSST) testing of homemade explosives (HMEs). Described here are the methods used for impact, friction, electrostatic discharge, and differential scanning calorimetry analysis during the IDCA program. These methods changed throughout the Proficiency Test and the reasons for these changes are documented in this report. The most significant modifications in standard testing methods are: 1) including one specified sandpaper in impact testing among all the participants, 2) diversifying liquid test methods for selected participants, and 3) including sealed sample holders for thermal testing by at least one participant. This effort, funded by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), is putting the issues of safe handling of these materials in perspective with standard military explosives. The study is adding SSST testing results for a broad suite of different HMEs to the literature. Ultimately the study will suggest new guidelines and methods and possibly establish the SSST testing accuracies needed to develop safe handling practices for HMEs. Each participating testing laboratory uses identical test materials and preparation methods wherever possible. The testing performers involved are Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Indian Head Division, Naval Surface Warfare Center, (NSWC IHD), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL/RXQL). These tests are conducted as a proficiency study in order to establish some consistency in test protocols, procedures, and experiments and to compare results when these testing variables cannot be made consistent.

  14. Macroinvertebrate Trophic Groups in an Andean Wetland of Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Jader Rivera Usme

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the wetland Jaboque (Bogotá, Colombia the physical and chemical properties of the water and the food dietary guilds of the aquatic macroinvertebrate community were analyzed from April 2009 to January 2010. The wetland waters had a slightly acid character with high values of nitrate, ammonia and orthophosphate, so this ecosystem is classified as eutrophic to hypereutrophic.In the aquatic macroinvertebrate community six food groups were recorded; they were conformed by 27 families, 26 confirmed genera and nine to be confirmed, with a total of 6,403 individuals collected in 28 samples of macrophytes. The highest abundances corresponded to detritivores (43.5 %, collector-scrapers (31.5 %, and collector-shredders (14.1 %, which were more abundantin the months of low rainfall. Stomach contents of some of the organisms showed that most of these individuals consumed more than one food type and high amounts of organic matter. Detrended correspondence analysis (DCA showed a spatial (stations and temporal (climatic seasons organization, in which trophic guilds are grouped according to their niche requirements, environmental fluctuations or anthropogenic factors. Variations in dietary groups reflected changes in the macroinvertebrate community from a functional perspective and indicated that the wetland is very disturbed by urban activities.GRUPOS TRÓFICOS DE MACROINVERTEBRADOS ACUÁTICOS EN UN HUMEDAL URBANO ANDINO DE COLOMBIAEn el humedal Jaboque (Bogotá, Colombia se analizaron las condiciones físicas y químicas del agua y se estudió la comunidad de macroinvertebrados acuáticos por grupos dietarios entre abril de 2009 y enero de 2010. Las aguas del humedal presentaron un carácter ligeramente ácido con valores altos de nitratos, nitrógeno amoniacal y fósforo, por lo que este ecosistema se clasificacomo eutrófico a hipereutrófico. La comunidad de macroinvertebrados acuáticos registró seis grupos alimenticios, los cuales

  15. Guam Community Coral Reef Monitoring Program, Macroinvertebrate Training Surveys in Guam in 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Guam community members gathered macroinvertebrate within a 25-meter x 2-meter belt transect. Members identified macroinvertebrates to species (when possible),...

  16. Guam Community Coral Reef Monitoring Program, Macroinvertebrate Surveys in Guam in 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Guam community members gathered macroinvertebrate within a 25-meter x 2-meter belt transect. Members identified macroinvertebrates to species (when possible),...

  17. Relationships of field habitat measurements, visual habitat indices, and land cover to benthic macroinvertebrates in urbanized streams of the Santa Clara Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fend, S.V.; Carter, J.L.; Kearns, F.R.

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated several approaches for measuring natural and anthropogenic habitat characteristics to predict benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages over a range of urban intensity at 85 stream sites in the Santa Clara Valley, California. Land cover was summarized as percentage urban land cover and impervious area within upstream buffers and the upstream subwatersheds. Field measurements characterized water chemistry, channel slope, sediment, and riparian canopy. In . addition to applying the visual-based habitat assessment in U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's rapid bioassessment protocol, we developed a simplified urban habitat assessment index based on turbidity, fine sediment deposition, riparian condition, and channel modification. Natural and anthropogenic habitat variables covaried along longitudinal stream gradients and were highly correlated with elevation. At the scale of the entire watershed, benthic macroinvertebrate measures were equally correlated with variables expressing natural gradients and urbanization effects. When natural gradients were reduced by partitioning sites into ecoregion subsection groupings, habitat variables most highly correlated with macroinvertebrate measures differed between upland and valley floor site groups. Among the valley floor sites, channel slope and physical modification of channel and riparian habitats appeared more important than upstream land cover or water quality in determining macroinvertebrate richness and ordination scores. Among upland sites, effects of upstream reservoir releases on habitat quality appeared important. Rapid habitat evaluation methods appeared to be an effective method for describing habitat features important to benthic macroinvertebrates when adapted for the region and the disturbance of interest. ?? 2005 by the American Fisheries Society.

  18. Effects of anthropogenic silt on aquatic macroinvertebrates and abiotic variables in streams in the Brazilian Amazon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couceiro, Sheyla Regina Marques; Hamada, Neusa [Inst. Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia, Coordenacao de Pesquisas em Entomologia, Manaus, AM (Brazil); Forsberg, Bruce Rider [Inst. Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia, Coordenacao de Pesquisas em Entomologia, Manaus, AM (Brazil); Inst. Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia, Coordenacao de Pesquisas em Ecologia, Manaus, AM (Brazil); Padovesi-Fonseca, Claudia [Univ. de Brasilia, Dept. de Ecologia, Brasilia, DF (Brazil)

    2010-01-15

    Purpose: While environmental risks associated with petroleum extraction such as oil spills or leaks are relatively well known, little attention has been given to the impacts of silt. The increase in petroleum exploitation in Amazonia has resulted in sediment input to aquatic systems, with impacts on their biodiversity. Here we use a combination of field measurements and statistical analyses to evaluate the impacts of anthropogenic silt derived from the construction of roads, borrow pits, and wells during the terrestrial development of gas and oil, on macroinvertebrate communities in streams of the Urucu Petroleum Province in the Central Brazilian Amazon. Material and methods: Ten impacted and nine non-impacted streams were sampled in January, April, and November of 2007. Macroinvertebrates were sampled along a 100-m continuous reach in each stream at 10-m intervals using a dip net. Abiotic variables including, a siltation index (SI), suspended inorganic sediment (SIS), sediment color index (SCI), suspend organic sediment (SOS), pH, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen, temperature, water velocity, channel width, and depth, were measured at three equidistant points in each stream ({proportional_to}30-m intervals). Results and discussion: SI did not differ between impacted and undisturbed streams. SIS was higher and SCI lower (more reddish) in impacted than in non-impacted streams. SCI had a positive and SIS a negative effect on both macroinvertebrate richness and density. SIS and SCI also influenced macrophyte taxonomic composition. In impacted streams, taxonomic richness and density were 1.5 times lower than in non-impacted streams. No taxon was significantly associated with impacted streams. SIS was positively correlated with SOS and electrical conductivity while SCI was negatively correlated with SOS, electrical conductivity, and pH. The lack of difference in SI between impacted and nonimpacted streams suggests that anthropogenic sediment does not accumulate

  19. System and Method for RFID-Enabled Information Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Patrick W. (Inventor); Lin, Gregory Y. (Inventor); Kennedy, Timothy F. (Inventor); Ngo, Phong H. (Inventor); Byerly, Diane (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Methods, apparatuses and systems for radio frequency identification (RFID)-enabled information collection are disclosed, including an enclosure, a collector coupled to the enclosure, an interrogator, a processor, and one or more RFID field sensors, each having an individual identification, disposed within the enclosure. In operation, the interrogator transmits an incident signal to the collector, causing the collector to generate an electromagnetic field within the enclosure. The electromagnetic field is affected by one or more influences. RFID sensors respond to the electromagnetic field by transmitting reflected signals containing the individual identifications of the responding RFID sensors to the interrogator. The interrogator receives the reflected signals, measures one or more returned signal strength indications ("RSSI") of the reflected signals and sends the RSSI measurements and identification of the responding RFID sensors to the processor to determine one or more facts about the influences. Other embodiments are also described.

  20. The Andean Biotic Index (ABI): revised tolerance to pollution values for macroinvertebrate families and index performance evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos-Touma, Blanca; Acosta, Raúl; Prat, Narcís

    2014-04-01

    Score-based biotic indices are widely used to evaluate the water quality of streams and rivers. Few adaptations of these indices have been done for South America because there is a lack of knowledge on macroinvertebrate taxonomy, distribution and tolerance to pollution in the region. Several areas in the Andes are densely populated and there is need for methods to assess the impact of increasing human pressures on aquatic ecosystems. Considering the unique ecological and geographical features of the Andes, macroinvertebrate indices used in other regions must be adapted with caution. Here we present a review of the literature on macroinvertebrate distribution and tolerance to pollution in Andean areas above 2,000 masl. Using these data, we propose an Andean Biotic Index (ABI), which is based on the BMWP index. In general, ABI includes fewer macroinvertebrate families than in other regions of the world where the BMWP index has been applied because altitude restricts the distribution of several families. Our review shows that in the high Andes, the tolerance of several macroinvertebrate families to pollution differs from those reported in other areas. We tested the ABI index in two basins in Ecuador and Peru, and compared it to other BMWP adaptations using the reference condition approach. The ABI index is extremely useful for detecting the general impairment of rivers but class quality boundaries should be defined independently for each basin because reference conditions may be different. The ABI is widely used in Ecuador and Peru, with high correlations with land-use pressures in several studies. The ABI index is an integral part of the new multimetric index designed for high Andean streams (IMEERA).

  1. The Andean Biotic Index (ABI: revised tolerance to pollution values for macroinvertebrate families and index performance evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Ríos-Touma

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Score-based biotic indices are widely used to evaluate the water quality of streams and rivers. Few adaptations of these indices have been done for South America because there is a lack of knowledge on macroinvertebrate taxonomy, distribution and tolerance to pollution in the region. Several areas in the Andes are densely populated and there is need for methods to assess the impact of increasing human pressures on aquatic ecosystems. Considering the unique ecological and geographical features of the Andes, macroinvertebrate indices used in other regions must be adapted with caution. Here we present a review of the literature on macroinvertebrate distribution and tolerance to pollution in Andean areas above 2 000masl. Using these data, we propose an Andean Biotic Index (ABI, which is based on the BMWP index. In general, ABI includes fewer macroinvertebrate families than in other regions of the world where the BMWP index has been applied because altitude restricts the distribution of several families. Our review shows that in the high Andes, the tolerance of several macroinvertebrate families to pollution differs from those reported in other areas. We tested the ABI index in two basins in Ecuador and Peru, and compared it to other BMWP adaptations using the reference condition approach. The ABI index is extremely useful for detecting the general impairment of rivers but class quality boundaries should be defined independently for each basin because reference conditions may be different. The ABI is widely used in Ecuador and Peru, with high correlations with land-use pressures in several studies. The ABI index is an integral part of the new multimetric index designed for high Andean streams (IMEERA. Rev. Biol. Trop. 62 (Suppl. 2: 249-273. Epub 2014 April 01.

  2. Aquatic macroinvertebrates and water quality of Sandia Canyon, Los Alamos National Laboratory, December 1992--October 1993. Status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cross, S. [Ewing Technical Design, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-09-01

    In the summer of 1990, an accidental spill from the TA-3 Power Plant Environment Tank released more than 3,785 liters of sulfuric acid into upper Sandia Canyon. The Biological Resource Evaluation Team (BRET) of EM-8 at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has collected aquatic samples from the stream within Sandia Canyon since then. These field studies gather water quality measurements and collect macroinvertebrates from permanent sampling sites. An earlier report by Bennett (1994) discusses previous BRET aquatic studies in Sandia Canyon. This report updates and expands Bennett`s initial findings. During 1993, BRET collected water quality data and aquatic macroinvertebrates at five permanent stations within the canyon. The substrates of the upper three stations are largely sands and silts while the substrates of the two lower stations are largely rock and cobbles. The two upstream stations are located near outfalls that discharge industrial and sanitary waste effluent. The third station is within a natural cattail marsh, approximately 0.4 km (0.25 mi) downstream from Stations SC1 and SC2. Water quality parameters are slightly different at these first three stations from those expected of natural streams, suggesting slightly degraded water quality. Correspondingly, the macroinvertebrate communities at these stations are characterized by low diversities and poorly-developed community structures. The two downstream stations appear to be in a zone of recovery, where water quality parameters more closely resemble those found in natural streams of the area. Macroinvertebrate diversity increases and community structure becomes more complex at the two lower stations, which are further indications of improved water quality downstream.

  3. Geothermal water and gas: collected methods for sampling and analysis. Comment issue. [Compilation of methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas, J.G.; Serne, R.J.; Shannon, D.W.; Woodruff, E.M.

    1976-08-01

    A collection of methods for sampling and analysis of geothermal fluids and gases is presented. Compilations of analytic options for constituents in water and gases are given. Also, a survey of published methods of laboratory water analysis is included. It is stated that no recommendation of the applicability of the methods to geothermal brines should be assumed since the intent of the table is to encourage and solicit comments and discussion leading to recommended analytical procedures for geothermal waters and research. (WHK)

  4. Implementation of artificial neural networks (ANNs) to analysis of inter-taxa communities of benthic microorganisms and macroinvertebrates in a polluted stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byunghyuk; Lee, Se-Eun; Song, Mi-Young; Choi, Jung-Hye; Ahn, Soon-Mo; Lee, Kun-Seop; Cho, Eungchun; Chon, Tae-Soo; Koh, Sung-Cheol

    2008-02-01

    This study was performed to gain an understanding of the structural and functional relationships between inter-taxa communities (macroinvertebrates as consumers, and microbes as decomposers or preys for the invertebrates) in a polluted stream using artificial neural networks techniques. Sediment samples, carrying microorganisms (eubacteria) and macroinvertebrates, were seasonally collected from similar habitats in streams with different levels of pollution. Microbial community taxa and densities were determined using polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) and 16S rDNA sequence analysis techniques. The identity and density of macroinvertebrates were concurrently determined. In general, differences were observed on grouping by self-organizing map (SOM) in polluted, clean and recovering sites based on the microbial densities, while the community patterns were partly dependent on the sampling period. A Spearman rank order correlation analysis revealed correlations of several eubacterial species with those of macroinvertebrates: a negative correlation was observed between Acidovorax sp. (from polluted sites) and Gammaridae (mostly from the clean site), while Herbaspirillum sp. and Janthinobacterium sp. appeared to have positive correlations with some macroinvertebrate species. The population dynamics of the tolerant texa, Tubificidae and Chironomidae, appeared to be related with changes in the densities of Acidovorax sp. This study revealed community relationships between macroinvertebrates and microorganisms, reflecting the connectivity between the two communities via the food chain. A further physio-ecological and symbiological study on the invertebrate-microorganism relationships will be required to understand the degradation and utilization of detritus in aquatic ecosystems as well as to elucidate the roles of the inter-taxa in the recovery of polluted aquatic environments.

  5. POP bioaccumulation in macroinvertebrates of alpine freshwater systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizzotto, E C; Villa, S; Vighi, M

    2009-12-01

    This study serves to investigate the uptake of POPs in the different trophic levels (scrapers, collectors, predators, shredders) of macroinvertebrate communities sampled from a glacial and a non-glacial stream in the Italian Alps. The presented results show that the contaminant concentrations in glacial communities are generally higher compared to those from non-glacial catchments, highlighting the importance of glaciers as temporary sinks of atmospherically transported pollutants. Moreover, the data also suggests that in mountain systems snow plays an important role in influencing macroinvertebrate contamination. The main chemical uptake process to the macroinvertebrates is considered to be bioconcentration from water, as similar contaminant profiles were observed between the different trophic levels. The role of biomagnification/bioaccumulation is thought to be absent or negligible. The enrichment of chemicals observed in the predators is likely to be related to their greater lipid content compared to that of other feeding groups.

  6. Assessment of macroinvertebrate communities in adjacent urban stream basins, Kansas City, Missouri, metropolitan area, 2007 through 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Eric D.; Krempa, Heather M.

    2013-01-01

    Macroinvertebrates were collected as part of two separate urban water-quality studies from adjacent basins, the Blue River Basin (Kansas City, Missouri), the Little Blue River and Rock Creek Basins (Independence, Missouri), and their tributaries. Consistent collection and processing procedures between the studies allowed for statistical comparisons. Seven Blue River Basin sites, nine Little Blue River Basin sites, including Rock Creek, and two rural sites representative of Missouri ecological drainage units and the area’s ecoregions were used in the analysis. Different factors or levels of urban intensity may affect the basins and macroinvertebrate community metrics differently, even though both basins are substantially developed above their downstream streamgages (Blue River, 65 percent; Little Blue River, 52 percent). The Blue River has no flood control reservoirs and receives wastewater effluent and stormflow from a combined sewer system. The Little Blue River has flood control reservoirs, receives no wastewater effluent, and has a separate stormwater sewer system. Analysis of macroinvertebrate community structure with pollution-tolerance metrics and water-quality parameters indicated differences between the Blue River Basin and the Little Blue River Basin.

  7. On Dentographs, A New Method of Visualizing Library Collections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Denton

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A dentograph is a visualization of a library's collection built on the idea that a classification scheme is a mathematical function mapping one set of things (books or the universe of knowledge onto another (a set of numbers and letters. Dentographs can visualize aspects of just one collection or can be used to compare two or more collections. This article describes how to build them, with examples and code using Ruby and R, and discusses some problems and future directions.

  8. Habitat characteristics for different freshwater snail species as determined biologically through macroinvertebrate information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Khayat, Hanaa M M; Mahmoud, Kadria M A; Mostafa, Bayomy B; Tantawy, Ahmad A; El-Deeb, Fatma A; Ragb, Fawzy M; Ismail, Nahed M; El-Said, Kalil M; Taleb, Hoda M Abu

    2011-12-01

    Macro-invertebrates including freshwater snails collected from 643 sites over 8 successive seasons among the River Nile, branches, main canals and certain drains in eight Egyptian Governorates. Thirteen snail species and one bivalve species were identified. The most distributed were Lanistus carinatus and Physa acuta while the most abundant were Cleopatra bulimoides and Physa acuta during the whole study. The sites that harbored each snail species in all the examined water-courses were grouped seasonally and their biological assessment was determined by their minimum and maximum total point similarity percentage to that of the corresponded reference site and mean of the total points. Habitats for most snail species attained minimum total point's similarity percentage less than 21% (very poor habitat) during autumn and winter then spring while during summer very poor habitat was harbored by only few snail species. P. acuta was the only survived snails in habitat which attained 0 as a minimum total point's similarity percentage during two seasons and L. carinatus and Succinea cleopatra during one season. With respect to medically important snails very poor sites constituted 23% of Biomphalaria alexandrina sites, 14% of Lymnaea natalensis and 9.4% of Bulinus truncatus sites. The studied macroinvertebrate matrices, total number of organisms, taxa richness, the Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera (EPT) index, ratio of EPT index to chironomidae, ratio of scraper to filtering collector, contribution of dominant macroinvertebrate major group, comparison revealed descending tolerances from B. alexanrina followed by L. natalensis then B. truncates, but Hilsenhoff Biotic Index (HBI) showed the same tolerance to organic pollution.

  9. Response of benthic macroinvertebrate communities to highway construction in an Appalachian watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedrick, Lara B.; Welsh, S.A.; Anderson, James T.; Lin, L.-S.; Chen, Y.; Wei, X.

    2010-01-01

    Highway construction in mountainous areas can result in sedimentation of streams, negatively impacting stream habitat, water quality, and biotic communities. We assessed the impacts of construction of a segment of Corridor H, a four-lane highway, in the Lost River watershed, West Virginia, by monitoring benthic macroinvertebrate communities and water quality, before, during, and after highway construction and prior to highway use at upstream and downstream sites from 1997 through 2007. Data analysis of temporal impacts of highway construction followed a Before-After-Control-Impact (BACI) study design. Highway construction impacts included an increase in stream sedimentation during the construction phase. This was indicated by an increase in turbidity and total suspended solids. Benthic macroinvertebrate metrics indicated a community more tolerant during and after construction than in the period before construction. The percent of Chironomidae and the Hilsenhoff Biotic Index (HBI) increased, while percent of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera (EPT) decreased. Our 10-year study addressed short-term impacts of highway construction and found that impacts were relatively minimal. A recovery of the number of EPT taxa collected after construction indicated that the benthic macroinvertebrate community may be recovering from impacts of highway construction. However, this study only addressed a period of 3 years before, 3 years during, and 4 years post construction. Inferences cannot be made concerning the long-term impacts of the highway, highway traffic, runoff, and other factors associated with highway use. Continual monitoring of the watershed is necessary to determine if the highway has a continual impact on stream habitat, water quality, and biotic integrity. ?? 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  10. Alternative Methods of Collective Disputes Resolution in the Czech Republic

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Klára Hamuľáková; Jana Petrov Křiváčková

    2016-01-01

    On 11 June 2013, the Commission issued the Recommendation on common principles for injunctive and compensatory collective redress mechanisms in the Member States concerning the violations of rights...

  11. A comparison of three macroinvertebrate sampling devices for use in conducting rapid-assessment procedures of Delmarva Peninsula wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Terrence (Peter); Tebbs, Kerry; Sparling, Donald W.

    2016-01-01

    Three types of macroinvertebrate collecting devices, Gerking box traps, D-shaped sweep nets, and activity traps, have commonly been used to sample macroinvertebrates when conducting rapid biological assessments of North American wetlands. We compared collections of macroinvertebrates identified to the family level made with these devices in 6 constructed and 2 natural wetlands on the Delmarva Peninsula of Maryland. We also assessed their potential efficacy in comparisons among wetlands using several proportional and richness attributes. Differences in median diversity among samples from the 3 devices were significant; the sweep-net samples had the greatest diversity and the activity-trap samples had the least diversity. Differences in median abundance were not significant between the Gerking box-trap samples and sweep-net samples, but median abundance among activity-trap samples was significantly lower than among samples of the other 2 devices. Within samples, the proportions of median diversity composed of major class and order groupings were similar among the 3 devices. However the proportions of median abundance composed of the major class and order groupings within activity-trap samples were not similar to those of the other 2 devices. There was a slight but significant increase in the total number of families captured when we combined activity-trap samples with Gerking box-trap samples or with sweep-net samples, and the per-sample median numbers of families of the combined activity-trap and sweep-net samples was significantly higher than that of the combined activity-trap and Gerking box-trap samples. We detected significant differences among wetlands for 4 macroinvertebrate attributes with the Gerking box-trap data, 6 attributes with sweep-net data, and 5 attributes with the activity-trap data. A small, but significant increase in the number of attributes showing differences among wetlands occurred when we combined activity-trap samples with those of the

  12. Macroinvertebrates inhabiting the tank leaf terrestrial and epiphyte bromeliads at Reserva Adolpho Ducke, Manaus, Amazonas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharlene Roberta da Silva Torreias

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate the diversity of macroinvertebrates and also verify if the abundance and diversity of Diptera were influenced by the abiotic factors. The samples were collected from the epiphytic and terrestrial bromeliads G. brasiliensis (1 and 3m in wet and dry seasons at Reserva Adolpho Ducke analyzed total of 144 samples were analyzed from a total of 15,238 individuals collected. These conatined 14,097 insects and, among these, 8,258 were immature Diptera, represented by eight most abundant families: Chironomidae, Ceratopogonidae and Culicidae. The relationship of Diptera diversity was influenced by the seasons and stratifications (p= 0.01; the abundance was influenced by the volume of water (p= 0.02 and the relationship between the season and volume of water in the terrestrial bromeliads was significant (p= 0.01. This study represented the first contribution to knowledge of community of macroinvertebrates associated to bromeliads G. brasiliensis in Central Amazon.

  13. Collection methods of trematode eggs using experimental animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsubokawa, Daigo; Sugiyama, Hiromu; Mikami, Fusako; Shibata, Katsumasa; Shibahara, Toshiyuki; Fukuda, Koichi; Takamiya, Shinzaburo; Yamasaki, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Takeshi; Tsuji, Naotoshi

    2016-10-01

    Although observing the eggs of human parasitic helminth is essential for medical education in parasitology, opportunities for collection of the eggs are limited. Collection of the eggs using experimental animal models is needed for a sustainable supply. The metacercariae of three trematode species, Paragonimus westermani, Clonorchis sinensis and Metagonimus yokogawai, were collected from the second intermediate hosts: freshwater crabs and fishes, which were obtained using online shopping in Japan, and inoculated to experimental animal rat and dog. Consequently, eggs of the three trematode species were obtained abundantly from the feces of the animals. The eggs are being used for student training in several Japanese universities. In this article, we introduce the collection procedures for trematode eggs.

  14. Innovative Methods for Corn Stover Collecting, Handling, Storing and Transporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-04-01

    Circles with 50 mile Collection Radius Conclusions • Biorefineries with wet processes are most likely to use feedstock supplied by unit trains... biorefineries using wet storage systems—from one-pass harvest and the modified cropping practices through lowering the amount of process residue and... processing . 44 CONCLUSIONS • Biorefineries with wet processes are most likely to use feedstock supplied by unit trains from wet storage collection

  15. Alternative Methods of Collective Disputes Resolution in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamuľáková Klára

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available On 11 June 2013, the Commission issued the Recommendation on common principles for injunctive and compensatory collective redress mechanisms in the Member States concerning the violations of rights granted under Union law. The main areas where private enforcement of rights granted under Union law in the form of collective redress is of value are consumer protection, competition, environment protection, protection of personal data, financial services legislation and protection of investments. Point 13 of the Recommendation concurrently emphasises that the principles it puts forward relate both to judicial and out-of-court collective redress. The Member States should ensure that judicial collective redress mechanisms are accompanied by appropriate means of collective alternative dispute resolution available to the parties before and throughout the litigation. Point 25 et seq. of the Recommendation then contains special regulations concerning collective alternative dispute resolution and settlements. The purpose of this article is to evaluate if the current legislation on alternative dispute resolution in the Czech Republic meets the principles encompassed in the Recommendation or if radical legal changes need to be adopted.

  16. Macroinvertebrate Richness Importance in Coastal Tropical Streams of Esmeraldas (Ecuador and Its Use and Implications in Environmental Management Procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Martínez-Sanz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at determining the performance of some indices and community attributes frequently used to assess river quality and test the role of macroinvertebrate taxa richness as element of bioindication in several coastal tropical streams of western Esmeraldas (Ecuador. In addition, a macroinvertebrate taxon list of this region was provided for the first time. Thirteen sampled points distributed across nine streams were selected for this study and nineteen parameters and attributes of bioindication were tested. The differences between nonimpact and impact places were evaluated mainly using one-way analysis of variance. Jackknife 2 and Clench were used to estimate the regional richness and the quality of the inventory, respectively. Seventy taxa (principally genus and family of the main groups of macroinvertebrates were collected. Measured richness and family richness were the best metric followed by Biological Monitoring Working Party/Colombia (BMWP/Col, Odonata richness, Shannon-Weiner, and EPT richness (Ephemeroptera + Plecoptera + Trichoptera indices. Only a slight right trend (Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera, and Chironomidae attributes or incorrect performances (Average Score Per Taxon (ASPT and % EPT were showed by frequently used metrics. Finally, several recommendations were made about taxonomic level used, the ranks of quality of taxa richness, and the effort-results relationship in the field of bioindication.

  17. Macrophyte presence and growth form influence macroinvertebrate community structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walker, P.D.; Wijnhoven, S.; van der Velde, G.

    2013-01-01

    Multivariate analysis demonstrated that macroinvertebrate assemblages of macrophyte-dominated sub-habitats within a small eutrophic pond differed markedly from those of Bottom substrate and Open water habitats. Certain habitats (e.g. Nymphaea and Phragmites) appeared to be quite similar in their

  18. Assessment of benthic macroinvertebrates at Nile tilapia production using artificial substrate samplers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. G. Moura e Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract Biomonitoring is a cheap and effective tool for evaluation of water quality, and infer on the balance of aquatic ecosystems. The benthic macroinvertebrates are bioindicators sensitive to environmental changes, and can assist in detecting and preventing impacts such as organic enrichment and imbalance in the food chain. We compared the structure of benthic communities on artificial substrate samplers located in places near and far from net cages for production of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. Samplers were manufactured with nylon net, using substrates such as crushed stone, gravel, loofah and cattail leaves. Samples were collected after 30 days of colonization, rinsed and then the specimens were identified and quantified. The following metrics were calculated: richness of Operational Taxonomic Units, Margalef richness, abundance of individuals, Shannon index and evenness index. The macrobenthic community structure was strongly modified according to the proximity of the net cages. Metrics showed significant differences (p < 0.05 between near and distant sites, for both periods (dry and rainy seasons. The position of the samplers significantly affected the structure of macroinvertebrate community, as near sites showed higher values for the community metrics, such as richness and diversity. Near sites presented a larger number of individuals, observed both in the dry and rainy seasons, with a predominance of Chironomidae (Diptera in the dry season and Tubificidae (Oligochaeta in the rainy season.

  19. Assessing the performance of macroinvertebrate metrics in the Challhuaco-Ñireco System (Northern Patagonia, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melina Mauad

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Seven sites were examined in the Challhuaco-Ñireco system, located in the reserve of the Nahuel Huapi National Park, however part of the catchment is urbanized, being San Carlos de Bariloche (150,000 inhabitants placed in the lower part of the basin. Physico-chemical variables were measured and benthic macroinvertebrates were collected during three consecutive years at seven sites from the headwater to the river outlet. Sites near the source of the river were characterised by Plecoptera, Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera and Diptera, whereas sites close to the river mouth were dominated by Diptera, Oligochaeta and Mollusca. Regarding functional feeding groups, collector-gatherers were dominant at all sites and this pattern was consistent among years. Ordination Analysis (RDA revealed that species assemblages distribution responded to the climatic and topographic gradient (temperature and elevation, but also were associated with variables related to human impact (conductivity, nitrate and phosphate contents. Species assemblages at headwaters were mostly represented by sensitive insects, whereas tolerant taxa such as Tubificidae, Lumbriculidae, Chironomidae and crustacean Aegla sp. were dominant at urbanised sites. Regarding macroinvertebrate metrics employed, total richness, EPT taxa, Shannon diversity index and Biotic Monitoring Patagonian Stream index resulted fairly consistent and evidenced different levels of disturbances at the stream, meaning that this measures are suitable for evaluation of the status of Patagonian mountain streams.

  20. Collecting Information for Rating Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF): Sources of Information and Methods for Information Collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    I H, Monrad Aas

    2014-11-01

    Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) is an assessment instrument that is known worldwide. It is widely used for rating the severity of illness. Results from evaluations in psychiatry should characterize the patients. Rating of GAF is based on collected information. The aim of the study is to identify the factors involved in collecting information that is relevant for rating GAF, and gaps in knowledge where it is likely that further development would play a role for improved scoring. A literature search was conducted with a combination of thorough hand search and search in the bibliographic databases PubMed, PsycINFO, Google Scholar, and Campbell Collaboration Library of Systematic Reviews. Collection of information for rating GAF depends on two fundamental factors: the sources of information and the methods for information collection. Sources of information are patients, informants, health personnel, medical records, letters of referral and police records about violence and substance abuse. Methods for information collection include the many different types of interview - unstructured, semi-structured, structured, interviews for Axis I and II disorders, semistructured interviews for rating GAF, and interviews of informants - as well as instruments for rating symptoms and functioning, and observation. The different sources of information, and methods for collection, frequently result in inconsistencies in the information collected. The variation in collected information, and lack of a generally accepted algorithm for combining collected information, is likely to be important for rated GAF values, but there is a fundamental lack of knowledge about the degree of importance. Research to improve GAF has not reached a high level. Rated GAF values are likely to be influenced by both the sources of information used and the methods employed for information collection, but the lack of research-based information about these influences is fundamental. Further development of

  1. Sediment Burial Intolerance of Marine Macroinvertebrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicki J Hendrick

    Full Text Available The marine environment contains suspended particulate matter which originates from natural and anthropogenic sources. Settlement of this material can leave benthic organisms susceptible to smothering, especially if burial is sudden i.e. following storms or activities such as dredging. Their survival will depend on their tolerance to, and their ability to escape from burial. Here we present data from a multi-factorial experiment measuring burial responses incorporating duration, sediment fraction and depth. Six macroinvertebrates commonly found in sediment rich environments were selected for their commercial and/or conservation importance. Assessments revealed that the brittle star (Ophiura ophiura, the queen scallop (Aequipecten opercularis and the sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis were all highly intolerant to burial whilst the green urchin (Psammichinus miliaris and the anemone (Sagartiogeton laceratus, showed intermediate and low intolerance respectively, to burial. The least intolerant, with very high survival was the Ross worm (Sabellaria spinulosa. With the exception of C. intestinalis, increasing duration and depth of burial with finer sediment fractions resulted in increased mortality for all species assessed. For C. intestinalis depth of burial and sediment fraction were found to be inconsequential since there was complete mortality of all specimens buried for more than one day. When burial emergence was assessed O. ophiura emerged most frequently, followed by P. miliaris. The former emerged most frequently from the medium and fine sediments whereas P. miliaris emerged more frequently from coarse sediment. Both A. opercularis and S. laceratus showed similar emergence responses over time, with A. opercularis emerging more frequently under coarse sediments. The frequency of emergence of S. laceratus increased with progressively finer sediment and C. intestinalis did not emerge from burial irrespective of sediment fraction or depth. Finally

  2. Real Time Quality Control Methods for Cued EMI Data Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-12

    stages as well as during the final demonstration of the technology. Thanks to Kevin Kingdon, Dave Lutes, and Barry Zelt (with Sky Research at the time...aforementioned feature quality metrics. The first example shows inversion results for data collected over a 60mm mortar at 30cm burial depth (Figure 6

  3. Outcomes of Children with Hearing Loss: Data Collection and Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomblin, J Bruce; Walker, Elizabeth A; McCreery, Ryan W; Arenas, Richard M; Harrison, Melody; Moeller, Mary Pat

    2015-01-01

    The primary objective of this article was to describe recruitment, data collection, and methods for a longitudinal, multicenter study involving children with bilateral mild to severe hearing loss. The goals of this research program were to characterize the developmental outcomes of children with mild to severe bilateral hearing loss during infancy and the preschool years. Furthermore, the researchers examined how these outcomes were associated with the child's hearing loss and how home background and clinical interventions mediated and moderated these outcomes. The participants in this study were children who are hard of hearing (CHH) and children with normal hearing (CNH) who provided comparison data. CHH were eligible for participation if (1) their chronological age was between 6 months and 7 years of age at the time of recruitment, (2) they had a better-ear pure-tone average of 25 to 75 dB HL, (3) they had not received a cochlear implant, (4) they were from homes where English was the primary language, and (5) they did not demonstrate significant cognitive or motor delays. Across the time span of recruitment, 430 parents of potential children with hearing loss made contact with the research group. This resulted in 317 CHH who qualified for enrollment. In addition, 117 CNH qualified for enrollment. An accelerated longitudinal design was used, in which multiple age cohorts were followed long enough to provide overlap. Specifically, children were recruited and enrolled continuously across an age span of 6.5 years and were followed for at least 3 years. This design allowed for tests of time (period) versus cohort age effects that could arise by changes in services and technology over time, yet still allowed for examination of important developmental relationships. The distribution of degree of hearing loss for the CHH showed that the majority of CHH had moderate or moderate-to-severe hearing losses, indicating that the sample undersampled children with mild HL. For

  4. Assessment of Ecological Quality of the Tajan River in Iran Using a Multimetric Macroinvertebrate Index and Species Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aazami, Jaber; Esmaili Sari, Abbas; Abdoli, Asghar; Sohrabi, Hormoz; Van den Brink, Paul J.

    2015-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the biological water of the Iranian Tajan River using different metrics, i.e., a Multimetric Macroinvertebrate Index (MMI) and a traits-based method. Twenty-eight physico-chemical parameters, 10 habitat factors, and abundance of macroinvertebrates were obtained for 17 sites. The Shahid-Rajaie dam divides the Tajan River into an up- and downstream part, with different land uses. Eighteen metrics were used to represent four components of ecosystem quality, including tolerance (Hilsenhoff, SIGNAL), diversity (Margalef, Shannon-Wiener, Simpson, and Evenness), abundance (total number of taxa, individuals, Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera, EPT, and Insects), and composition of assemblages (% Ephemeroptera, % Plecoptera, % Trichoptera, and % EPT Taxa). The integrated MMI was calculated by averaging the obtained scores of all indices. In the next step, we gathered information on 22 biological traits of macroinvertebrates to evaluate whether (group of) traits could be identified that are indicative for specific or general stress. Result showed a decrease in MMI from upstream (very good water quality) to downstream (bad) due to human activities. Industrial activities like pulping and papermaking operations or sand mining in the downstream part had more effects than agriculture and fish ponds in the upstream part. A redundancy analysis biplot showed the variation between the modalities of trait of macroinvertebrates and their correlation with physico-chemical parameters in Tajan River. The findings show that traits can be indicative for different kind of stress but that more effort has to be put in gathering data sets to disentangle the effect of habitat quality, pollution, and the physico-chemical properties of high- versus lowland rivers.

  5. Using a Geospatial Model to Relate Fluvial Geomorphology to Macroinvertebrate Habitat in a Prairie River—Part 1: Genus-Level Relationships with Geomorphic Typologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna G. N. Meissner

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern river ecosystems undergo constant stress from disturbances such as bank stabilization, channelization, dams, and municipal, agricultural, and industrial water use. As these anthropogenic water requirements persist, more efficient methods of characterizing river reaches are essential. Benthic macroinvertebrates are helpful when evaluating fluvial health, because they are often the first group to react to contaminants that can then be transferred through them to other trophic levels. Hence, the purpose of this research is to use a geospatial model to differentiate instream macroinvertebrate habitats, and determine if the model is a viable method for stream evaluation. Through the use of ArcGIS and digital elevation models, the fluvial geomorphology of the Qu’Appelle River in Saskatchewan (SK was assessed. Four geomorphological characteristics of the river were isolated (sinuosity, slope, fractal dimension, and stream width and clustered through Principle Component Analysis (PCA, yielding sets of river reaches with similar geomorphological characteristics, called typologies. These typologies were mapped to form a geospatial model of the river. Macroinvertebrate data were aligned to the locations of the typologies, revealing several relationships with the fluvial geomorphology. A Kruskal-Wallis analysis and post hoc pairwise multiple comparisons were completed with the macroinvertebrate data to pinpoint significant genera, as related to the geospatial model.

  6. Assessment of river quality in a subtropical Austral river system: a combined approach using benthic diatoms and macroinvertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nhiwatiwa, Tamuka; Dalu, Tatenda; Sithole, Tatenda

    2017-07-01

    River systems constitute areas of high human population densities owing to their favourable conditions for agriculture, water supply and transportation network. Despite human dependence on river systems, anthropogenic activities severely degrade water quality. The main aim of this study was to assess the river health of Ngamo River using diatom and macroinvertebrate community structure based on multivariate analyses and community metrics. Ammonia, pH, salinity, total phosphorus and temperature were found to be significantly different among the study seasons. The diatom and macroinvertebrate taxa richness increased downstream suggesting an improvement in water as we moved away from the pollution point sources. Canonical correspondence analyses identified nutrients (total nitrogen and reactive phosphorus) as important variables structuring diatom and macroinvertebrate community. The community metrics and diversity indices for both bioindicators highlighted that the water quality of the river system was very poor. These findings indicate that both methods can be used for water quality assessments, e.g. sewage and agricultural pollution, and they show high potential for use during water quality monitoring programmes in other regions.

  7. Tolerance of benthic macroinvertebrates to organic enrichment in highland streams of northeastern Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Correa Mazzoni

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: the aim of this study was to determine the ecological valence of benthic macroinvertebrates at different pollution levels in highland rivers and streams of Rio Grande do Sul; METHODS: the dataset proceeds from samplings performed between 2002-2011 in 35 lotic ecosystems. The Chemical Index was used to determine pollution levels. Indices of richness and Shannon diversity were applied to characterize the structure of benthic communities. The descriptors used to determine taxa's ecological valence were selected according to Coefficient of Variation and regression analyses. Groups of tolerance were identified using Interquartile range and cluster analysis; RESULTS: Conductivity and Chemical Index were the descriptors best related with diversity of benthic macroinvertebrate community. These metrics were used to determine the tolerance range of 38 taxa. Interquartile range and cluster analysis revealed three groups of taxa, according to their occurrence in different levels of pollution: taxa with narrow amplitudes, present at sites with very low or very high load of organic enrichment; taxa with moderate amplitude, found until moderately polluted sites; and taxa with occurrence in widespread environmental conditions. The results, when compared to other studies in Brazil, showed differences in some taxa's tolerance. This observation indicates the need to assess the bioindication potential of these taxa in genus and species level; CONCLUSION: the present study contributes to increase knowledge about the bioindicator potential of benthic macroinvertebrates. Therefore, the study supports an advanced biomonitoring of ecological quality in mountain streams of southern Brazil.

  8. Impact of pesticides on hyphomycetes leaf processing and macroinvertebrate shredding activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul Monberg, Rikke; Rasmussen, Jes; Baatrup-Pedersen, Annette

    -cypermethrine (100, 1000 or 2000 ng/L) for three hours. Subsequently, we studied post exposure leaf degradation for four weeks in the laboratory in the presence/absence of two macroinvertebrate shredders (Gammarus pulex and Halesus radiatus) applying a classic crossed factorial design. Preliminary results indicate...... the first post exposure week when macroinvertebrate shredders were present. After four weeks no differences were apparent among treatments indicating a strong degree of functional redundancy applying this macroinvertebrate assemblage....

  9. Collection of methods for reliability and safety engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fussell, J.B.; Rasmuson, D.M.; Wilson, J.R.; Burdick, G.R.; Zipperer, J.C.

    1976-04-01

    The document presented contains five reports each describing a method of reliability and safety engineering. Report I provides a conceptual framework for the study of component malfunctions during system evaluations. Report II provides methods for locating groups of critical component failures such that all the component failures in a given group can be caused to occur by the occurrence of a single separate event. These groups of component failures are called common cause candidates. Report III provides a method for acquiring and storing system-independent component failure logic information. The information stored is influenced by the concepts presented in Report I and also includes information useful in locating common cause candidates. Report IV puts forth methods for analyzing situations that involve systems which change character in a predetermined time sequence. These phased missions techniques are applicable to the hypothetical ''accident chains'' frequently analyzed for nuclear power plants. Report V presents a unified approach to cause-consequence analysis, a method of analysis useful during risk assessments. This approach, as developed by the Danish Atomic Energy Commission, is modified to reflect the format and symbology conventionally used for other types of analysis of nuclear reactor systems.

  10. Impacts of Shorebirds on Macroinvertebrates in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Study of the impacts of migratory birds by assessing macroinvertebrate community composition, abundance and biomass associated with habitats.

  11. Stream macroinvertebrate occurrence along gradients in organic pollution and eutrophication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friberg, Nikolai; Skriver, Jens; Larsen, Søren Erik

    2010-01-01

    We analysed a large number of concurrent samples of macroinvertebrate communities and chemical indicators of eutrophication and organic pollution [total-P, total-N, NH4-N, biological oxygen demand (BOD5)] from 594 Danish stream sites. Samples were taken over an 11-year time span as part of the Da......We analysed a large number of concurrent samples of macroinvertebrate communities and chemical indicators of eutrophication and organic pollution [total-P, total-N, NH4-N, biological oxygen demand (BOD5)] from 594 Danish stream sites. Samples were taken over an 11-year time span as part...... to be slightly less sensitive than Leuctra. Other plecopterans such as Isoperla showed a similar type of response curve to Leuctra (negative exponential) but occurred at sites with relatively high concentrations of BOD5 up to 3-4 mg L-1. In contrast, the response curve of the isopod Asellus aquaticus followed...

  12. Introducing dyadic interviews as a method for collecting qualitative data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, David L; Ataie, Jutta; Carder, Paula; Hoffman, Kim

    2013-09-01

    In dyadic interviews, two participants interact in response to open-ended research questions. There are few precedents for using dyadic interviews as a technique for qualitative research. We introduce this method largely in comparison to focus groups, because both represent forms of interactive interviewing. We do not, however, view dyadic interviews as miniature focus groups, and treat them as generating their own opportunities and issues. To illustrate the nature of dyadic interviewing, we present summaries of three studies using this method. In the first study, we used dyadic interviews and photovoice techniques to examine experiences of people with early-stage dementia. In the second study, we explored the experiences of staff who provided services to elderly housing residents. In the third study, we examined barriers and facilitators to substance abuse treatment among Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders in Hawaii. We conclude with a discussion of directions for future research using dyadic interviews.

  13. Evaluating ranking methods on heterogeneous digital library collections

    CERN Document Server

    Canévet, Olivier; Marian, Ludmila; Chonavel, Thierry

    In the frame of research in particle physics, CERN has been developing its own web-based software /Invenio/ to run the digital library of all the documents related to CERN and fundamental physics. The documents (articles, photos, news, thesis, ...) can be retrieved through a search engine. The results matching the query of the user can be displayed in several ways: sorted by latest first, author, title and also ranked by word similarity. The purpose of this project is to study and implement a new ranking method in Invenio: distributed-ranking (D-Rank). This method aims at aggregating several ranking scores coming from different ranking methods into a new score. In addition to query-related scores such as word similarity, the goal of the work is to take into account non-query-related scores such as citations, journal impact factor and in particular scores related to the document access frequency in the database. The idea is that for two equally query-relevant documents, if one has been more downloaded for inst...

  14. Biological and physical conditions of macroinvertebrates in reference lowland streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Brouwer, Jan; Eekhout, Joris; Verdonschot, Piet

    2016-04-01

    Channelisation measures taken halfway the 20th century have had destructive consequences for the diversity of the ecology in the majority of the lowland streams in countries such as the Netherlands. Currently, stream restoration measures are being implemented in these degraded lowland streams, where design principles are often based on outdated relationships between biological and physical conditions. Little is known about the reference conditions in these streams. Therefore, the aim of this research is to quantify the relationships between biological and physical conditions of macroinvertebrates in reference lowland streams. The research was conducted in four near-natural lowland streams in Central Poland. Field data were obtained during a field campaign in 2011. The following data were obtained in a 50-m reach in each of the four streams: macroinvertebrate sampling, spatial habitat patterns, bathymetry, and flow-velocity. Furthermore, water level, light sensitivity and temperature sensors were installed to obtain the temporal dynamic of these streams. Macroinvertebrates were sampled in 9 different habitat types, i.e. sand, gravel, fine organic matter, stones, branches, leaves, silt, vegetation, and wood. Macroinvertebrates were determined to the highest taxonomic level possible. Data from the bathymetrical surveys were interpolated on a grid and bathymetrical metrics were determined. Flow velocity measurements were related to habitats and flow velocity metrics were determined. Analysis of the data shows that flow conditions vary among the different habitat, with a gradient from hard substrates towards soft substrates. Furthermore, the data show that stream as a unit best explains species composition, but also specific habitat conditions, such as substrate type and flow velocity, correlate with species composition. More specific, the data shows a strong effect of wood on species composition. These findings may have implications for stream restoration design, which

  15. Fire, flow and dynamic equilibrium in stream macroinvertebrate communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkle, R.S.; Pilliod, D.S.; Strickler, K.

    2010-01-01

    The complex effects of disturbances on ecological communities can be further complicated by subsequent perturbations within an ecosystem. We investigated how wildfire interacts with annual variations in peak streamflow to affect the stability of stream macroinvertebrate communities in a central Idaho wilderness, USA. We conducted a 4-year retrospective analysis of unburned (n = 7) and burned (n = 6) catchments, using changes in reflectance values (??NBR) from satellite imagery to quantify the percentage of each catchment's riparian and upland vegetation that burned at high and low severity. For this wildland fire complex, increasing riparian burn severity and extent were associated with greater year-to-year variation, rather than a perennial increase, in sediment loads, organic debris, large woody debris (LWD) and undercut bank structure. Temporal changes in these variables were correlated with yearly peak flow in burned catchments but not in unburned reference catchments, indicating that an interaction between fire and flow can result in decreased habitat stability in burned catchments. Streams in more severely burned catchments exhibited increasingly dynamic macroinvertebrate communities and did not show increased similarity to reference streams over time. Annual variability in macroinvertebrates was attributed, predominantly, to the changing influence of sediment, LWD, riparian cover and organic debris, as quantities of these habitat components fluctuated annually depending on burn severity and annual peak streamflows. These analyses suggest that interactions among fire, flow and stream habitat may increase inter-annual habitat variability and macroinvertebrate community dynamics for a duration approaching the length of the historic fire return interval of the study area. ?? 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. THE STUDY OF WATER QUALITY USING BENTHIC MACROINVERTEBRATES AS BIOINDICATORS IN THE CATCHMENT AREAS OF THE RIVERS JIU, OLT AND IALOMIŢA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Daniela MITITELU

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The wide distribution of benthic invertebrates and their different sensitivity shown upon modifying the qualitative parameters of aquatic ecosystems led to a frequent use of these group as bioindicators in different studies. The present study aims at presenting a list concerning the different macroinvertebrates identified in the larva stage in three watersheds (Jiu, Olt, Ialomiţa and establishing the water quality of the monitored sections using this benthic macroinvertebrates. The sample collecting points were represented by 23 stations. The abundance and frequency values recorded for benthic communities varied according to the physical-chemical conditions specific to each sample collecting station. There were identified 15 groups in total. The most frequent were Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera, Diptera (Chironomidae and others. The deterioration of water quality is marked by the decrease in the biotic index EPT/Ch value.

  17. Improved Multiple Event Location Methods for Ground Truth Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-04

    likewise Gaussian with zero mean and variance matrix given by Γpri = ACAT . (24) The Rodi-Myers method specifies the model variance indirectly in terms of...respect to eij of the loga- rithm of the pick-error p.d.f. in (15). In the Gaussian case (p = 2) the weights are simply inverse variances: wij = σ −2 ij...data weights are set to reciprocal pick-error variances for any p, as they are in the Gaussian case. That is, the weights are set as wij = 1 σ2ij p 2/p

  18. POP bioaccumulation in macroinvertebrates of alpine freshwater systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bizzotto, E.C.; Villa, S. [Department of Environmental and Landscape Sciences, University of Milano-Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 1, 20126 Milano (Italy); Vighi, M., E-mail: marco.vighi@unimib.i [Department of Environmental and Landscape Sciences, University of Milano-Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 1, 20126 Milano (Italy)

    2009-12-15

    This study serves to investigate the uptake of POPs in the different trophic levels (scrapers, collectors, predators, shredders) of macroinvertebrate communities sampled from a glacial and a non-glacial stream in the Italian Alps. The presented results show that the contaminant concentrations in glacial communities are generally higher compared to those from non-glacial catchments, highlighting the importance of glaciers as temporary sinks of atmospherically transported pollutants. Moreover, the data also suggests that in mountain systems snow plays an important role in influencing macroinvertebrate contamination. The main chemical uptake process to the macroinvertebrates is considered to be bioconcentration from water, as similar contaminant profiles were observed between the different trophic levels. The role of biomagnification/bioaccumulation is thought to be absent or negligible. The enrichment of chemicals observed in the predators is likely to be related to their greater lipid content compared to that of other feeding groups. - Influence of POP release in glacial-fed streams, enhanced by global warming, on pristine aquatic ecosystems.

  19. Altitudinal changes in diversity of macroinvertebrates from small streams in the Ecuadorian Andes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Dean

    2003-01-01

    Altitudinal patterns in diversity of macroinvertebrate families at different spatial scales (stone, stream and altitude) were studied by collecting stone samples from six streams at each of the three altitudes: lowlands (400m), midlands (2000m) and highlands (3800 m), in the equatorial Andes...... of Ecuador. Stream sites were characterised by a number of physico-chemical parameters and the fauna by several indices of richness, diversity and evenness. A MDS ordination on the composition of the fauna clearly separated the streams in three groups according to altitude. The invertebrate fauna......). Four of the five measures of stream diversity correlated significantly with altitude and temperature. In addition, seven environmental parameters were correlated with one or more of the diversity measures. Of these parameters, stream width, riparian vegetation cover and coarse detritus cover were inter...

  20. Macroinvertebrate-based assessment of biological condition at selected sites in the Eagle River watershed, Colorado, 2000-07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuellig, Robert E.; Bruce, James F.; Healy, Brian D.; Williams, Cory A.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Colorado River Water Conservation District, Eagle County, Eagle River Water and Sanitation District, Upper Eagle Regional Water Authority, Colorado Department of Transportation, City of Aurora, Town of Eagle, Town of Gypsum, Town of Minturn, Town of Vail, Vail Resorts, Colorado Springs Utilities, Denver Water, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service (FS), compiled macroinvertebrate (73 sites, 124 samples) data previously collected in the Eagle River watershed from selected USGS and FS studies, 2000-07. These data were analyzed to assess the biological condition (that is, biologically ?degraded? or ?good?) at selected sites in the Eagle River watershed and determine if site class (for example, urban or undeveloped) described biological condition. An independently developed predictive model was applied to calculate a site-specific measure of taxonomic completeness for macroinvertebrate communities, where taxonomic completeness was expressed as the ratio of observed (O) taxa to those expected (E) to occur at each site. Macroinvertebrate communities were considered degraded at sites were O/E values were less than 0.80, indicating that at least 20 percent of expected taxa were not observed. Sites were classified into one of four classes (undeveloped, adjacent road or highway or both, mixed, urban) using a combination of riparian land-cover characteristics, examination of topographic maps and aerial imagery, screening for exceedances in water-quality standards, and best professional judgment. Analysis of variance was used to determine if site class accounted for variability in mean macroinvertebrate O/E values. Finally, macroinvertebrate taxa observed more or less frequently than expected at urban sites were indentified. This study represents the first standardized assessment of biological condition of selected sites distributed across the Eagle River watershed. Of the 73 sites evaluated, just over

  1. 40 CFR 246.201-5 - Recommended procedures: Methods of separation and collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Recommended Procedures § 246.201-5 Recommended procedures: Methods of separation and collection. Following separation within the home, any of the following methods of collection may be used: (a) Materials may be... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recommended procedures: Methods of...

  2. Benthic macroinvertebrates as bioindicators of water quality in an Atlantic forest fragment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Oliveira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate benthic macroinvertebrate communities as bioindicators of water quality in five streams located in the "Reserva Particular do Patrimônio Natural" (RPPN Mata Samuel de Paula and its surroundings, in the municipality of Nova Lima near the city of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, southeastern Brazil. This region has been strongly modified by human activities including mining and urbanization. Samples were collected in the field every three months between August 2004 and November 2005, totaling six samplings in the rainy and dry seasons. This assessment identified one area ecologically altered while the other sampling sites were found to be minimally disturbed systems, with well-preserved ecological conditions. However, according to the Biological Monitoring Work Party (BMWP and the Average Score Per Taxon (ASPT indices, all sampling sites had excellent water quality. A total of 14,952 organisms was collected, belonging to 155 taxa (148 Insecta, two Annelida, one Bivalvia, one Decapoda, one Planariidae, one Hydracarina, and one Entognatha. The most abundant benthic groups were Chironomidae (47.9%, Simuliidae (12.3%, Bivalvia (7.5%, Decapoda (6.1%, Oligochaeta (5.2%, Polycentropodidae (3.7%, Hydropsychidae (2.5%, Calamoceratidae (1.8%, Ceratopogonidae (1.7%, and Libellulidae (1.2%. The assessment of the benthic functional feeding groups showed that 34% of the macroinvertebrates were collector-gatherers, 29% predators, 24% collector-filterers, 8% shredders, and 5% scrapers. The RPPN Mata Samuel de Paula comprises diversified freshwater habitats that are of great importance for the conservation of many benthic taxa that are intolerant to organic pollution.

  3. Data Collection Method for Mobile Control Sink Node in Wireless Sensor Network Based on Compressive Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Yongfa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a mobile control sink node data collection method in the wireless sensor network based on compressive sensing. This method, with regular track, selects the optimal data collection points in the monitoring area via the disc method, calcu-lates the shortest path by using the quantum genetic algorithm, and hence determines the data collection route. Simulation results show that this method has higher network throughput and better energy efficiency, capable of collecting a huge amount of data with balanced energy consumption in the network.

  4. Device and method for enhanced collection and assay of chemicals with high surface area ceramic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Addleman, Raymond S.; Li, Xiaohong Shari; Chouyyok, Wilaiwan; Cinson, Anthony D.; Bays, John T.; Wallace, Krys

    2016-02-16

    A method and device for enhanced capture of target analytes is disclosed. This invention relates to collection of chemicals for separations and analysis. More specifically, this invention relates to a solid phase microextraction (SPME) device having better capability for chemical collection and analysis. This includes better physical stability, capacity for chemical collection, flexible surface chemistry and high affinity for target analyte.

  5. 10 CFR 207.3 - Method of collecting energy information under ESECA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Method of collecting energy information under ESECA. 207.3... than ESECA or that such energy information should, as a matter of discretion, be collected under the... verifying the accuracy of any energy information requested, acquired, or collected by the DOE,...

  6. Fuzzy rule-based macroinvertebrate habitat suitability models for running waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekhoven, Van E.; Adriaenssens, V.; Baets, De B.; Verdonschot, P.F.M.

    2006-01-01

    A fuzzy rule-based approach was applied to a macroinvertebrate habitat suitability modelling problem. The model design was based on a knowledge base summarising the preferences and tolerances of 86 macroinvertebrate species for four variables describing river sites in springs up to small rivers in t

  7. Evaluating regional differences in macroinvertebrate communities from forested depressional wetlands across eastern and central North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darold P. Batzer; Susan E. Dietz-Brantley; Barbara E. Taylor; Adrienne E. DeBiase

    2005-01-01

    Forested depressional wetlands are an important seasonal wetland type across eastern and central North America. Macroinvertebrates are crucial ecosystem components of most forested depressional wetlands, but community compositions can vary widely across the region. We evaluated variation in macroinvertebrate faunas across eastern and central North America using 5...

  8. Spatial and temporal variability of mobile macro-invertebrate assemblages associated to coralligenous habitat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. BEDINI

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to investigate patterns of spatial and temporal variability of mobile macroinvertebrate assemblages associated to coralligenous habitat. A multi-factorial sampling design was used to test the hypotheses that the structure of assemblages and their spatial and temporal variability changed in relation to substrate inclination. Moreover, macroalgae and sessile macro-invertebrates were also investigated in order to detect eventual relationship between sessile and mobile assemblages. A total of 236 mobile macro-invertebrate taxa were identified, among them 2 Platyhelminthes, 4 Sipuncula, 6 Nemertea, 27 Mollusca, 86 Annelida, 103 Arthropoda, 8 Echinodermata. Results of the study showed that mobile macro-invertebrate assemblages of coralligenous habitat were little influenced by the inclination of substrate and by the morphology of sessile organisms, as patterns of variation were different between the two assemblages. Mobile macro-invertebrate assemblages changed among sampling dates within one year period and they showed high variability at the spatial scale examined.

  9. A Method for Establishing a Depreciated Monetary Value for Print Collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marman, Edward

    1995-01-01

    Outlines a method for establishing a depreciated value of a library collection and includes an example of applying the formula for calculating depreciation. The method is based on the useful life of books, other print, and audio visual materials; their original cost; and on sampling subsets or sections of the collection. (JKP)

  10. The Nuclear Born-Oppenheimer Method Applied to Nuclear Collective Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zettili, Nouredine; Boukahil, Abdelkrim

    We deal with the application of the nuclear Born-Oppenheimer (NBO) method to the study of nuclear collective motion. In particular, we look at the description of nuclear rotations and vibrations. The collective operators are specified within the NBO method only to the extent of identifying the type of collective degrees of freedom we intend to describe; the operators are then determined from the dynamics of the system. To separate the collective degrees of freedom into rotational and vibrational terms, we transform the collective tensor operator from the lab fixed frame of reference to the frame defined by the principal axes of the system; this transformation diagonalizes the tensor operator. We derive a general expression for the NBO mean energy and show that it contains internal, collective and coupling terms. Then, we specify the approximations that need to be made in order to establish a connection between Bohr's collective model and the NBO method. We show that Bohr's collective Hamiltonian can be recovered from the NBO Hamiltonian only after adopting some rather crude approximations. In addition, we try to understand, in light of the NBO approach, why Bohr's collective model gives the wrong inertial parameters. We show that this is due to two major reasons: the ad hoc selection of the collective degrees of freedom within the context of Bohr's collective model and the unwarranted neglect of several important terms from the Hamiltonian.

  11. The Nuclear Born--Oppenheimer Method Applied to Nuclear Collective Motion*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zettili, Nouredine

    2002-04-01

    We deal here with the application of the nuclear Born--Oppenheirmer (NBO) method to the study of nuclear collective motion. In particular, we look at the description of nuclear rotations and vibrations. The collective operators are specified within the NBO method only to the extent of identifying the type of collective degrees of freedom we intend to describe; the operators are then determined from the dynamics of the system. To separate the collective degrees of freedom into rotational and vibrational terms, we transform the collective tensor operator from the lab fixed frame of reference to the frame defined by the principal axes of the system; this transformation diagonalizes the tensor operator. We derive a general expression for the NBO mean energy and show that it contains internal, collective and coupling terms. Then, we specify the approximations that need to be made in order to establish a connection between Bohr's collective model and the NBO method. We show that Bohr's collective Hamiltonian can be recovered from the NBO Hamiltonian only after adopting some rather crude approximations. In addition, we try to understand, in light of the NBO approach, why Bohr's collective model gives the wrong inertial parameters. We show that this is due to two major reasons: the ad hoc selection of the collective degrees of freedom within the context of Bohr's collective model and the unwarranted neglect of several important terms from the Hamiltonian. *Supported by a research grant from Jacksonville State University.

  12. Fast egg collection method greatly improves randomness of egg sampling in Drosophila melanogaster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Mads Fristrup

    2013-01-01

    When obtaining samples for population genetic studies, it is essential that the sampling is random. For Drosophila, one of the crucial steps in sampling experimental flies is the collection of eggs. Here an egg collection method is presented, which randomizes the eggs in a water column and dimini......When obtaining samples for population genetic studies, it is essential that the sampling is random. For Drosophila, one of the crucial steps in sampling experimental flies is the collection of eggs. Here an egg collection method is presented, which randomizes the eggs in a water column...... and to obtain a representative collection of genotypes, the method presented here is strongly recommended when collecting eggs from Drosophila....

  13. Fast egg collection method greatly improves randomness of egg sampling in Drosophila melanogaster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Mads Fristrup

    2013-01-01

    When obtaining samples for population genetic studies, it is essential that the sampling is random. For Drosophila, one of the crucial steps in sampling experimental flies is the collection of eggs. Here an egg collection method is presented, which randomizes the eggs in a water column and dimini......When obtaining samples for population genetic studies, it is essential that the sampling is random. For Drosophila, one of the crucial steps in sampling experimental flies is the collection of eggs. Here an egg collection method is presented, which randomizes the eggs in a water column...... and to obtain a representative collection of genotypes, the method presented here is strongly recommended when collecting eggs from Drosophila....

  14. Depth-related response of macroinvertebrates to the reversal of eutrophication in a Mediterranean lake: Implications for ecological assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzanti, Marcello; Mastrantuono, Luciana; Pilotto, Francesca

    2017-02-01

    A better management of nutrient inflows into lakes has led to an improvement in their conditions (i.e. reversal of eutrophication) and the effects of this on macroinvertebrate communities that inhabit different lake-depth zones is largely unknown. This paper reports a comparison of macroinvertebrate communities living in the eulittoral, infralittoral and sublittoral/profundal zones of Lake Nemi (Central Italy) before and after its natural recovery from eutrophication following the deviation of domestic wastewater. The infralittoral zone responded more rapidly than the other two depth-zones to the improved ecological conditions, as shown by larger differences in community composition between the two periods. In the eulittoral sand, the combined effects of hydromorphological pressures and reversal of eutrophication hindered the biotic response. In the eulittoral and infralittoral zones, typical taxa of mesotrophic waters appeared or increased their abundances after the eutrophication reversal. Benthic invertebrate response was slower in the sublittoral/profundal zone due to deoxygenation that continued to prevail in the deepest area of the lake during summer. However, both tolerant and more sensitive taxa were collected there for the first time. After the reversal of eutrophication, the percentage of molluscan+large crustaceans increased in the infralittoral zone, whereas the oligochaete/chironomid ratio decreased in both sublittoral/profundal and infralittoral zones. Functional feeding metrics (percentages of filter-feeders, collector-gatherers, miners and scrapers/grazers) differently tracked the reversal of eutrophication in the three depth-zones probably according to the effects of the reduction of nutrients on food-web structure influencing macroinvertebrates. Biological Monitoring Working Party (BMWP) and the Average Score Per Taxon (ASPT) seemed to respond to eutrophication reversal only in the sublittoral/profundal zone, where deoxygenation plays a major role

  15. [Effects of benthic macro-invertebrate on decomposition of Acer buergerianum leaf litter in streams].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Li-Hong; Wang, Bei-Xin; Chen, Ai-Qing; Lan, Ce-Jie

    2009-05-01

    By using composite mesh bag method, the effects of benthic macro-invertebrate in an undisturbed stream and an ecologically restored stream on the decomposition process of Acer buergerianum leaf litter from the Purple Mountain of Nanjing in winter were studied. After 112 days of decomposition, the remaining rate of A. buergerianum leaf litter based on ash-free dry mass was 31-62%, and the decomposition rate followed a declined exponential equation (P Shredders (mainly Asellus sp.) had the highest abundance (70.4%) in the flowing water of undisturbed stream, while filterers (mainly Tanytarsus sp.) were dominant (37.8%) in the flowing water of ecologically restored stream. The decomposition rate of the leaf litter was significantly correlated with the richness and abundance of shredder species in flowing water (P shredders, suggesting that the decomposition of A. buergerianum leaf litter in streams in winter was more dependent on the richness and abundance of shredders.

  16. Water Quality Assessment Using Benthic Macroinvertebrates in Saigon River and Its Tributaries, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duc Pham Anh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study to enhance the discussion about the usefulness of benthic macroinvertebrates for water quality assessment in Saigon River and its tributaries. Data from 16 sites were used as a representative example for Saigon River and its tributaries in the area of basin over 4,500 km2, the length through provinces of Tay Ninh, Binh Phuoc, Binh Duong, and Ho Chi Minh City of about 280 km. The data covered the period of dry and rainy seasons in 2015, the survey sampled 16 sites (32 events of the Saigon River and its tributaries selected. To implement this evaluation, the analyses were based on MRC methods and classifications these improved by the scientific group.

  17. MACROINVERTEBRATES COMPOSITION IN THE BLIZNEC STREAM, SECOND AND THIRD MAKSIMIR LAKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Piria

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative and quantitative macroinvertebrates in spring period was investigated during two years in the first and second Maksimir Lake and Bliznec stream. The domination of Gastropoda was outstanding at these three investigated sites. From time to time stronger development of Gastropoda, Bivalvia, Diptera and Crustacea was noted at the second Maksimir Lake. Gastropoda was dominant at the third Maksimir Lake (from 1.484 to 2.506 g m–2 while Crustacea, Oligochaeta and Hirudinea made important biomass. Species density in the Bliznec stream was quantitative higher than the one at other stations. The dominant group was Gastropoda (from 0.568 to 3.026 g m–2 and there was higher development of Trichoptera, Crustacea, Diptera, Heteroptera and Bivalvia (Table 3 and 4. Bliznec stream water quality, observed by biological method given by Kerovec, ranged from polluted to highly polluted.

  18. Stream habitat structure influences macroinvertebrate response to pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jes; Wiberg-Larsen, Peter; Baattrup-Pedersen, Annette

    2012-01-01

    Agricultural pesticide contamination in surface waters is increasingly threatening to impair the surface water ecosystems. Agricultural streams are furthermore often heavily maintained to optimise the transport of water away from fields. The physical habitat degradation that result from heavy...... the effects of pesticides between sites with degraded and more undisturbed physical properties. The effect of pesticides on macroinvertebrate communities (measured as the relative abundance of SPEcies At Risk) was increased at stream sites with degraded physical habitats primarily due to the absence...... of species with specific preferences for habitats with hard substrate. Our findings highlight the importance of considering physical habitat degradation in the assessment and mitigation of risk in agricultural streams....

  19. Fast egg collection method greatly improves randomness of egg sampling in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schou, Mads Fristrup

    2013-01-01

    When obtaining samples for population genetic studies, it is essential that the sampling is random. For Drosophila, one of the crucial steps in sampling experimental flies is the collection of eggs. Here an egg collection method is presented, which randomizes the eggs in a water column and diminishes environmental variance. This method was compared with a traditional egg collection method where eggs are collected directly from the medium. Within each method the observed and expected standard deviations of egg-to-adult viability were compared, whereby the difference in the randomness of the samples between the two methods was assessed. The method presented here was superior to the traditional method. Only 14% of the samples had a standard deviation higher than expected, as compared with 58% in the traditional method. To reduce bias in the estimation of the variance and the mean of a trait and to obtain a representative collection of genotypes, the method presented here is strongly recommended when collecting eggs from Drosophila.

  20. Urine specimen collection following consensual intercourse - A forensic evidence collection method for Y-DNA and spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joki-Erkkilä, Minna; Tuomisto, Sari; Seppänen, Mervi; Huhtala, Heini; Ahola, Arja; Karhunen, Pekka J

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the prospective research was to evaluate the benefit of urine specimen as a collection technique for biological forensic evidence in adult volunteers following consensual intercourse. For detecting Y-chromosomal material Buccal Swab Spin Protocol(®) was used in DNA extraction and purification and samples were analysed with Quantifiler Y Human Male DNA Quantification Kit(®). The time frame for positive Y-DNA was evaluated. Immediate microscopy for detection of spermatozoa was performed. Y-DNA was detected in 173/205 (84.4%) urine samples. Of the 86 first post-coital void urine samples available, Y-DNA was detected in 83 (96.5%) specimens. Of the 119 urine samples from volunteers with post-coital activities Y-DNA was still measurable in 70 (58.8%) urine specimens. The male DNA amount was below 0.023 ng/μl in 28/153 (18.3%) urine samples. Of the 22 urine samples obtained after 24 post-coital hours, 9 (40.9%) were still Y-DNA positive. No associations were found between coital durance, coital frequency during the past two weeks prior to the study intercourse, post-coital activities, and the urine sample Y-DNA positivity. Of the 111 urine samples where the immediate microscopy was performed, in 66 (59.5%) samples spermatozoa were verified and one sample even contained motile spermatozoa. Microscopy detected 66 (67.3%) and failed to detect spermatozoa in 32 (32.7%) of Y-DNA positive samples. In addition to conventional invasive swab techniques, urine samples seem to be an effective biological trace collection method for Y-DNA and spermatozoa within 24 h following penile-vaginal penetration. Furthermore, it may be considered as a non-invasive collection method in suspected acute child sexual abuse cases to diminish time delay in forensic evidence collection and to improve patients' positive attitudes towards evidence collection.

  1. Spatial-temporal variability in water quality and macro-invertebrate assemblages in the Upper Mara River basin, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilonzo, Fidelis; Masese, Frank O.; Van Griensven, Ann; Bauwens, Willy; Obando, Joy; Lens, Piet N. L.

    Tropical rivers display profound temporal and spatial heterogeneity in terms of environmental conditions. This aspect needs to be considered when designing a monitoring program for water quality in rivers. Therefore, the physico-chemical composition and the nutrient loading of the Upper Mara River and its two main tributaries, the Amala and Nyangores were monitored. Initial daily, and later a weekly monitoring schedule for 4 months spanning through the wet and dry seasons was adopted. Benthic macro-invertebrates were also collected during the initial sampling to be used as indicators of water quality. The aim of the current study was to investigate the physico-chemical status and biological integrity of the Upper Mara River basin. This was achieved by examining trends in nutrient concentrations and analyzing the structure, diversity and abundance of benthic macro-invertebrates in relation to varying land use patterns. Sampling sites were selected based on catchment land use and the level of human disturbance, and using historical records of previous water quality studies. River water pH, dissolved oxygen, electrical conductivity (EC), temperature, and turbidity were determined in situ. All investigated parameters except iron and manganese had concentration values within allowable limits according to Kenyan and international standards for drinking water. The Amala tributary is more mineralized and also shows higher levels of pH and EC than water from the Nyangores tributary. The latter, however, has a higher variability in both the total phosphorus (TP) and total nitrogen (TN) concentrations. The variability in TP and TN concentrations increases downstream for both tributaries and is more pronounced for TN than for TP. Macro-invertebrate assemblages responded to the changes in land use and water quality in terms of community composition and diversity. The study recommends detailed continuous monitoring of the water quality at shorter time intervals and to identify

  2. Multiple stress response of lowland stream benthic macroinvertebrates depends on habitat type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graeber, Daniel; Jensen, Tinna M; Rasmussen, Jes J; Riis, Tenna; Wiberg-Larsen, Peter; Baattrup-Pedersen, Annette

    2017-12-01

    Worldwide, lowland stream ecosystems are exposed to multiple anthropogenic stress due to the combination of water scarcity, eutrophication, and fine sedimentation. The understanding of the effects of such multiple stress on stream benthic macroinvertebrates has been growing in recent years. However, the interdependence of multiple stress and stream habitat characteristics has received little attention, although single stressor studies indicate that habitat characteristics may be decisive in shaping the macroinvertebrate response. We conducted an experiment in large outdoor flumes to assess the effects of low flow, fine sedimentation, and nutrient enrichment on the structure of the benthic macroinvertebrate community in riffle and run habitats of lowland streams. For most taxa, we found a negative effect of low flow on macroinvertebrate abundance in the riffle habitat, an effect which was mitigated by fine sedimentation for overall community composition and the dominant shredder species (Gammarus pulex) and by nutrient enrichment for the dominant grazer species (Baetis rhodani). In contrast, fine sediment in combination with low flow rapidly affected macroinvertebrate composition in the run habitat, with decreasing abundances of many species. We conclude that the effects of typical multiple stressor scenarios on lowland stream benthic macroinvertebrates are highly dependent on habitat conditions and that high habitat diversity needs to be given priority by stream managers to maximize the resilience of stream macroinvertebrate communities to multiple stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. 77 FR 23674 - Proposed Information Collection Requests: Measures and Methods for the National Reporting System...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-20

    ... Proposed Information Collection Requests: Measures and Methods for the National Reporting System for Adult... that go into effect on July 1, 2012, for the follow-up measures related to student employment status... information collection request may be accessed from http://edicsweb.ed.gov , by selecting the ``Browse...

  4. Collecting and Documenting Evidence: Methods for Helping Teachers Improve Instruction and Promote Academic Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Laurice M.; Kastein, Laura A.; Konrad, Moira; Chan, Paula E.; Peters, Mary T.; Ressa, Virginia A.

    2014-01-01

    The ongoing collection and documentation of evidence of students' performance in the classroom is a fundamental component of formative instructional practices, essential for ensuring student success. Multiple methods of collecting and documenting evidence of students' academic performance in the classroom are described. These methods…

  5. Feasibility of a new method to collect exhaled breath condensate in pre-school children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosias, Philippe P. R.; Robroeks, Charlotte M.; van de Kant, Kim D.; Rijkers, Ger T.; Zimmermann, Luc J.; van Schayck, Constant P.; Heynens, Jan W.; Jobsis, Quirijn; Dompeling, Edward

    2010-01-01

    Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is a promising non-invasive method to assess respiratory inflammation in adults and children with lung disease. Especially in pre-school children, condensate collection is hampered by long sampling times because of open-ended collection systems. We aimed to assess the

  6. Development of rapid bioassessment approaches using benthic macroinvertebrates for Thai streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonsoong, Boonsatien; Sangpradub, Narumon; Barbour, Michael T

    2009-08-01

    Thailand currently lacks formal bioassessment approaches and protocols to assist management decisions for water quality. The aim of this research is to develop a practical method of rapid bioassessment for a professional level by using benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages for streams in Thailand. Eleven reference and nine test sites were sampled in the headwater streams of the Loei River and adjacent areas to explore the development of a practical protocol. Specific physico-chemical parameters were selected to provide ecological information supplemental to the biological indicators. The biological research was designed around the USEPA Rapid Bioassessment Protocols (RBPs) using the multi-habitat approach. Four fixed-count subsamplings (100, 200, 300 and 500 organisms) were randomly conducted using a standardized gridded pan to evaluate an appropriate level for bioassessment in Thai streams. A 300 organism subsample is adequate for bioassessment purposes in Thai stream (evaluated by calculating dissimilarity values and ordination techniques). A systematic selection of candidate reference sites, metric selection, and index calibration was part of this research. Multimetric and multivariate analyses were examined as a foundation for bioassessment in Thailand. The multimetric approach appears to be more practical for a rapid bioassessment technique. Nine core metrics were identified for biological index score including number of total taxa, Diptera taxa, Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera, and Coleoptera taxa, (%) Plecoptera, (%) Tolerant organisms, Beck's Biotic Index, (%) Intolerant organisms, Shredders taxa and Clingers taxa were calibrated for the final index. As a result of multimetric and multivariate analyses, family level identification data effectively discriminated reference condition and broad-scale environmental gradients. Hampered by incomplete taxonomic knowledge of benthic macroinvertebrates in Thailand, family-level identification may be sufficient

  7. Spatial and temporal heterogeneity in a subtropical reservoir and their effects over the benthic macroinvertebrate community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico Guilherme de Souza Beghelli

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The objective of the present study was to demonstrate the influences of the environment spatial heterogeneity on benthic macroinvertebrates considering transverse and longitudinal gradients as also seasonality. METHODS: Four samplings were performed: two in the wet and two in the dry season in the riverine, transitional and lacustrine zones in the littoral and profundal regions of Itupararanga reservoir, SP, Brazil. Abiotic characterization of the water and of the sediment was performed. The biotic characterization was based on richness, dominance, diversity, and density of organisms, as well as on the relative abundance of predominant taxa. Two-way ANOSIM analyses were performed for both biotic and abiotic components, in order to test the significance of the differences in the longitudinal and transverse directions as well as of the differences between seasons. RESULTS: Compartmentalization was present in both directions, longitudinal and transverse. In a general way, the littoral region presented higher diversity values when compared with the profundal region, and the riverine zone presented high densities and high percentage of taxons, which usually indicate organic pollution. The differentiation between the transitional and lacustrine zones was determined mainly by taxonomic composition. Seasonality was also observed and the transportation of small particles, the entrance of nutrients, and the presence of macrophytes were considered as determinants for differentiation. CONCLUSIONS: Together, these results demonstrate the responses of benthic macroinvertebrate communities considering distinct sources of variation: longitudinal heterogeneity, determined by the increasing distance from the forming rivers that leads to a gradient of physical and chemical conditions; transverse heterogeneity, determined by the proximity with the land environment and depth differences. Seasonal heterogeneity was recorded during the period of this research and

  8. The effects of fire severity on macroinvertebrate detritivores and leaf litter decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckingham, Sebastian; Murphy, Nick; Gibb, Heloise

    2015-01-01

    High severity wildfire events are a feature of forests globally and are likely to be more prevalent with climate change. As a disturbance process, fire has the potential to change important ecological functions, such as decomposition, through its impact on biodiversity. Despite the recognised importance of decomposition in terms of fuel loads and energy flow, little is known about the post-fire effects of fire severity on decomposition by litter-dwelling macroinvertebrate detritivores. We tested the hypotheses that: 1) increasing fire severity is associated with decreased rates of leaf litter decomposition by macroinvertebrate detritivores; and 2) the abundance and biomass of macroinvertebrate detritivores decreases with increasing fire severity, while body size increases. We used a litterbag experiment at long-unburnt, ground-burnt and crown-burnt sites (n = 7 for all treatments) to test the effect of fire severity on: a) macroinvertebrate-driven break-down of litter fuel loads; and b) the size and abundance of macroinvertebrate detritivores three years after fire. Microhabitat conditions differed among fire severity classes. Macroinvertebrate exclusion reduced litter decomposition by 34.7%. Macroinvertebrate detritivores were larger and less abundant following higher severity fires, possibly as a result of fire-induced changes in habitat structure. Opposing effects of fire severity on macroinvertebrate abundance and body size resulted in both similar detritivore biomass and, most interestingly, no differences in leaf litter decomposition under different fire severities. This suggests that the diversity of macroinvertebrates enhances functional resilience of litter decomposition to fire and that litter-breakdown is not inhibited within three years following a high severity fire in this forest type and where recolonisation sources are readily available. We found no support for the hypothesis that high severity fires reduce litter decomposition and therefore

  9. Macroinvertebrate distribution and aquatic ecology in the Ruoergai (Zoige) Wetland, the Yellow River source region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Na; Xu, Mengzhen; Li, Zhiwei; Wang, Zhaoyin; Zhou, Hanmi

    2017-09-01

    The Ruoergai (Zoige) Wetland, the largest plateau peatland in the world, is located in the Yellow River source region. The discharge of the Yellow River increases greatly after flowing through the Ruoergai Wetland. The aquatic ecosystem of the Ruoergai Wetland is crucial to the whole Yellow River basin. The Ruoergai wetland has three main kinds of water bodies: rivers, oxbow lakes, and marsh wetlands. In this study, macroinvertebrates were used as indicators to assess the aquatic ecological status because their assemblage structures indicate long-term changes in environments with high sensitivity. Field investigations were conducted in July, 2012 and in July, 2013. A total of 72 taxa of macroinvertebrates belonging to 35 families and 67 genera were sampled and identified. Insecta was the dominant group in the Ruoergai Basin. The alpha diversity of macroinvertebrates at any single sampling site was low, while the alpha diversity on a basin-wide scale was much higher. Macroinvertebrate assemblages in rivers, oxbow lakes, and marsh wetlands differ markedly. Hydrological connectivity was a primary factor causing the variance of the bio-community. The river channels had the highest alpha diversity of macroinvertebrates, followed by marsh wetlands and oxbow lakes. The density and biomass of Gastropoda, collector filterers, and scrapers increased from rivers to oxbow lakes and then to marsh wetlands. The river ecology was particular in the Ruoergai Wetland with the high beta diversity of macroinvertebrates, the low alpha diversity of macroinvertebrates, and the low taxa richness, density, and biomass of EPT (Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera). To maintain high alpha diversity of macroinvertebrates macroinvertebrates in the Ruoergai Wetland, moderate connectivity of oxbow lakes and marsh wetlands with rivers and measures to control headwater erosion are both crucial.

  10. Macroinvertebrate distribution and aquatic ecology in the Ruoergai (Zoige) Wetland, the Yellow River source region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Na; Xu, Mengzhen; Li, Zhiwei; Wang, Zhaoyin; Zhou, Hanmi

    2016-12-01

    The Ruoergai (Zoige) Wetland, the largest plateau peatland in the world, is located in the Yellow River source region. The discharge of the Yellow River increases greatly after flowing through the Ruoergai Wetland. The aquatic ecosystem of the Ruoergai Wetland is crucial to the whole Yellow River basin. The Ruoergai wetland has three main kinds of water bodies: rivers, oxbow lakes, and marsh wetlands. In this study, macroinvertebrates were used as indicators to assess the aquatic ecological status because their assemblage structures indicate long-term changes in environments with high sensitivity. Field investigations were conducted in July, 2012 and in July, 2013. A total of 72 taxa of macroinvertebrates belonging to 35 families and 67 genera were sampled and identified. Insecta was the dominant group in the Ruoergai Basin. The alpha diversity of macroinvertebrates at any single sampling site was low, while the alpha diversity on a basin-wide scale was much higher. Macroinvertebrate assemblages in rivers, oxbow lakes, and marsh wetlands differ markedly. Hydrological connectivity was a primary factor causing the variance of the bio-community. The river channels had the highest alpha diversity of macroinvertebrates, followed by marsh wetlands and oxbow lakes. The density and biomass of Gastropoda, collector filterers, and scrapers increased from rivers to oxbow lakes and then to marsh wetlands. The river ecology was particular in the Ruoergai Wetland with the high beta diversity of macroinvertebrates, the low alpha diversity of macroinvertebrates, and the low taxa richness, density, and biomass of EPT (Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera). To maintain high alpha diversity of macroinvertebrates macroinvertebrates in the Ruoergai Wetland, moderate connectivity of oxbow lakes and marsh wetlands with rivers and measures to control headwater erosion are both crucial.

  11. The Ten Beads method: a novel way to collect quantitative data in rural Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Mulekya Bwambale

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper illustrates how locally appropriate methods can be used to collect quantitative data from illiterate respondents. This method uses local beads to represent quantities, which is a novel yet potentially valuable methodological improvement over standard Western survey methods.

  12. 40 CFR 246.200-5 - Recommended procedures: Methods of separation and collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Recommended Procedures § 246.200-5 Recommended procedures: Methods of separation and collection. (a) Systems... desk-top system has been designed to minimize these problems. (d) The precise method of separation and... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recommended procedures: Methods of...

  13. [Functional feeding groups of macroinvertebrates in Gaira river, Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Barrios, Javier; Ospina-Tórres, Rodulfo; Turizo-Correa, Rodrigo

    2011-12-01

    Tropical rivers are frequently described on their biodiversity but few studies have considered the ecological value of this richness in their food webs. We determined the trophic structure of aquatic macroinvertebrate communities (expressed in the richness and abundance of taxa and biomass proportions of different functional feeding groups) at the level of the river, stretch and microhabitats (functional units - UFs). We evaluated the spatial and temporal variation of these descriptors during wet and dry events, and selected three sites associated with different altitudinal belts. We reported 109 taxa, with 11167 individuals who contributed 107.11g of biomass. Density of macroinvertebrates was favored with increasing height, and biomass showed the opposite pattern (K-W = 10.1, d.f. = 1, p shredders (Macrobrachium, 73%), present only in the lower reaches, followed by shredder Leptonema with 15%, located mostly in the upper reaches and predatory stoneflies of the genus Anacroneuria to 6.56%, which dominated in the middle stretch of stream. Excluding Macrobrachium from the analysis, there was dominance of Anacroneuria in the lower reaches. Between rainfall and drought events, biomass of functional feeding groups was higher in rain (W = 10.1, d.f. = 1, p < 0.05), favoring the growth of decapods, but the abundance was much higher during drought events.

  14. Patterns of Macroinvertebrate and Fish Diversity in Freshwater Sulphide Springs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Greenway

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Extreme environments are characterised by the presence of physicochemical stressors and provide unique study systems to address problems in evolutionary ecology research. Sulphide springs provide an example of extreme freshwater environments; because hydrogen sulphide’s adverse physiological effects induce mortality in metazoans even at micromolar concentrations. Sulphide springs occur worldwide, but while microbial communities in sulphide springs have received broad attention, little is known about macroinvertebrates and fish inhabiting these toxic environments. We reviewed qualitative occurrence records of sulphide spring faunas on a global scale and present a quantitative case study comparing diversity patterns in sulphidic and adjacent non-sulphidic habitats across replicated river drainages in Southern Mexico. While detailed studies in most regions of the world remain scarce, available data suggests that sulphide spring faunas are characterised by low species richness. Dipterans (among macroinvertebrates and cyprinodontiforms (among fishes appear to dominate the communities in these habitats. At least in fish, there is evidence for the presence of highly endemic species and populations exclusively inhabiting sulphide springs. We provide a detailed discussion of traits that might predispose certain taxonomic groups to colonize sulphide springs, how colonizers subsequently adapt to cope with sulphide toxicity, and how adaptation may be linked to speciation processes.

  15. Macroinvertebrates of the Iranian running waters: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moslem Sharifinia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A comprehensive review of macroinvertebrate studies conducted along the Iranian running waters over the last 15 years has been made by providing the most updated checklist of the Iranian running waters benthic invertebrates. Running waters ecosystems are complex environments known for their importance in terms of biodiversity. As part of the analysis, we endeavored to provide the critical re-identification of the reported species by through comparisons with the database of the Animal Diversity Web (ADW and appropriate literature sources or expert knowledge. A total of 126 species belonging to 4 phyla have been compiled from 57 references. The phylum Arthropoda was found to comprise the most taxa (n = 104 followed by Mollusca, Annelida and Platyhelminthes. Ongoing efforts in the Iranian running waters regarding biomonitoring indices development, testing, refinement and validation are yet to be employed in streams and rivers. Overall, we suggest that future macroinvertebrate studies in Iranian running waters should be focused on long-term changes by broadening target species and strong efforts to publish data in peer-reviewed journals in English.

  16. Method for Determining Language Objectives and Criteria. Volume II. Methodological Tools: Computer Analysis, Data Collection Instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-05-25

    This volume presents (1) Methods for computer and hand analysis of numerical language performance data (includes examples) (2) samples of interview, observation, and survey instruments used in collecting language data. (Author)

  17. Macroinvertebrate communities associated with macrophyte habitats in a tropical man-made lake (Lake Taabo, Côte d’Ivoire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouamé M. K.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available An ecological study was done on Lake Taabo with the main objective of characterising macroinvertebrate communities associated with the microhabitats created mainly by Eichhornia crassipes and other littoral native macrophytes. We sampled organisms in patches of those aquatic macrophytes. Also, some abiotic variables (temperature, transparency, turbidity, pH, TDS, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, NH$_{4}^{+}$+4, NO$_{3}^{-}$−3, NO$_{2}^{-}$−2, PO$_{4}^{3-}$3−4 and SiO$_{2}^{-}$−2 were measured. Overall, forty-three taxa of macroinvertebrates were identified. Ten of them were exclusively associated with water hyacinth while five were only associated with littoral macrophytes. Macroinvertebrate taxa with some of the highest family richness were Gastropoda, Coleoptera, Heteroptera, Odonata and Diptera. The taxon with highest density in both microhabitats was Chironomidae. Although higher values of taxonomic richness (Rs, the Shannon index (H′ and evenness (J were obtained with the water hyacinth habitat, significant differences between the two microhabitats were not observed. Canonical Correspondence Analysis revealed that samples of E. crassipes collected in the dry season were characterised by Gastropoda and Odonata, as well as higher values of transparency and ammonia-nitrogen. Baetidae, Hydrophilidae, Chironomidae, Ceratopogonidae, Coenagrionidae, Naucoridae and Ostracoda were most abundant in both E. crassipes and littoral macrophyte habitats during the rainy season. This season was characterised by higher levels of nitrates and conductivity.

  18. A study of post-thermal recovery of the macroinvertebrate community of Four Mile Creek, June 1985--September 1987. [Savannah River Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauritsen, D.; Starkel, W.; Specht, W.

    1989-11-01

    Four Mile Creek is one of several streams at the Savannah River Site which has received thermal effluents ({le}70{degrees}C water) from nuclear production operations. From 1955--mid-1985, Four Mile Creek received thermal effluent from C-Reactor as well as non-thermal discharges from F and H Separation Areas. Total discharges from all of these facilities was about ten times higher than the natural flow of the creek (Firth et al. 1986). All water being discharged into Four Mile Creek was originally pumped from the Savannah River. This study reports the results of the artificial substrate sampling of macroinvertebrate communities of Four Mile Creek from June 1985 through September 1987, when sampling was terminated. Macroinvertebrate taxa richness, densities, and biomass data from this study are compared to Four Mile data collected prior to the shutdown of C-Reactor (Kondratieff and Kondratieff 1985 and Firth et al. 1986), and to comparable macroinvertebrate data from other Savannah River Site streams. 29 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. Methods and Paths for Rural Collectively Owned Profit-oriented Construction Land Entering into Trading Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue LU; Zhongxiang YU

    2016-01-01

    On the basis of analyzing cases of existing rural collectively owned profit-oriented construction land entering into trading market,this paper put forward several thoughts,introduced methods and paths for rural collectively owned profit-oriented construction land entering into trading market,including reforming rural collective land property right system,cultivating new rural collective economy organizations,helping them to become market entities; improving various legal systems,making clear range of construction land entering into trading market; formulating scientific benefit allocation mechanism; establishing fair and transparent decision making mechanism.

  20. Effects of the “Run-of-River” Hydro Scheme on Macroinvertebrate Communities and Habitat Conditions in a Mountain River of Northeastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoran Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to quantify the impacts of the run of river (ROR scheme on the instream habitat and macroinvertebrate community. We sampled the macroinvertebrate assemblages and collected the habitat variables above and below an ROR hydropower plant: Aotou plant in the Hailang River, China. The effects of the ROR scheme on habitat conditions were examined using regulation-related variables, most of which, particularly the hydrological variables and substrate composition, presented spatial variations along the downstream direction, contributing to heterogeneous conditions between reaches. The macroinvertebrate richness, the density and the diversity metrics showed significant decreases in the “depleted” reach compared with the upper and lower reaches. Approximately 75% of reach-averaged densities and 50% of taxa richness suffered decreases in the “depleted” reach compared with the upper reach. Furthermore, functional feeding groups also showed distinct site differences along the channel. The relative abundance of both collector-gatherers and the scrapers reduced considerably at the “depleted” sites, particularly at the site immediately downstream of the weir. The total variance in the the functional feeding group (FFG data explained by Canonical correlation analysis (CCA was more than 81.4% and the high-loadings factors were depth, flow velocity, DO and substrate composition. We demonstrated that flow diversion at the 75% level and an in-channel barrier, due to the ROR scheme, are likely to lead to poor habitat conditions and decrease both the abundance and the diversity of macroinvertebrates in reaches influenced by water diversion.

  1. A possible alternative method for collecting mosquito larvae in rice fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goff Gilbert

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rice fields are efficient breeding places for malaria vectors in Madagascar. In order to establish as easily as possible if a rice field is an effective larval site for anophelines, we compared classical dipping versus a net as methods of collecting larvae. Results Using similar collecting procedures, we found that the total number of anopheline larvae collected with the net was exactly double (174/87 that collected by dipping. The number of anopheline species collected was also greater with a net. Conclusions The net is an effective means of collecting anopheline larvae and can be used for qualitative ecological studies and to rapidly determine which rice fields are containing malaria vectors.

  2. Method of Constructing Core Collection for Malus sieversii in Xinjiang, China Using Molecular Markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Chun-yu; CHEN Xue-sen; ZHANG Yan-min; YUAN Zhao-he; LIU Zun-chun; WANG Yan-ling; LIN Qun

    2009-01-01

    The method for constructing core collection of Malus sieversii based on molecular marker data was proposed. According to 128 SSR allele of 109 M. sieversii, an allele preferred sampling strategy was used to construct M. sieversii core collection, using the UPGMA (unweighted pair-group average method) cluster method according to Nei & Li, SM, and Jaccard genetic distances, by stepwise clustering, and compared with the random sampling strategy. The number of lost allele and t-test of Nei's gene diversity and Shannon's information index were used to evaluate the representative core collections. The results showed that compared with the random sampling strategy, allele preferred sampling strategy could construct more representative core collections. SM, Jaccard, and Nei & Li genetic distances had no significant difference for construction of M. sieversii core collection. SRAP (sequence-related amplified polymorphism) data and morphological data showed that allele preferred sampling strategy was a good sampling strategy for constructing core collection of M. sieversii. Allele preferred sampling strategy combined with SM, Jaccard, and Nei & Li genetic distances using stepwise clustering was the suitable method for constructing M. sieversii core collection.

  3. Assessment of Streamside Management Zones for Conserving Benthic Macroinvertebrate Communities Following Timber Harvest in Eastern Kentucky Headwater Catchments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua K. Adkins

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Headwater streams generally comprise the majority of stream area in a watershed and can have a strong influence on downstream food webs. Our objective was to determine the effect of altering streamside management zone (SMZ configurations on headwater aquatic insect communities. Timber harvests were implemented within six watersheds in eastern Kentucky. The SMZ configurations varied in width, canopy retention and best management practice (BMP utilization at the watershed scale. Benthic macroinvertebrate samples collected one year before and four years after harvest indicated few differences among treatments, although post-treatment abundance was elevated in some of the treatment streams relative to the unharvested controls. Jaccard index values were similar across SMZ treatments after logging, indicating strong community overlap. These findings suggest that stream invertebrate communities did respond to the timber harvest, though not negatively. Results also suggest that SMZ criteria for aquatic habitats in steeply sloping topography, including at least 50 percent canopy retention and widths of at least 16.8 m, appear to be adequate for protecting benthic macroinvertebrate communities from logging impacts.

  4. The influence of the anthropic activities on the benthonic macroinvertebrates communities existing in the Jiu and Jiul de Vest rivers, southwest of Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milca Petrovici

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The different sensibility of the benthonic macro-invertebrates has been used in determiningthe manner in which these communities are being influenced by the alteration of the water quality. Thepresent study aims at following this precise aspect. The benthos samples have been collected from tworivers in the south-west of Romania: Jiu (3 stations and Jiul de Vest (2 stations. There have beenstudied 10 groups of benthonic invertebrates. The benthonic communities’ density, abundance andfrequency values have varied according to the physic-chemical conditions of the collecting station.

  5. Cash Management, Revenue Sources and Cost Effective Methods of Revenue Collection at Local Government Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustapha Gimba Kumshe

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper was to focus on the elements, objectives, goals and importance of cash management; and also to examine the sources of revenue and cost effective collections for local governments. The elements of cash management are identified as establishing bank relations, preparing cash flow statements, estimating collection receipts and analyzing cash flow and preparing a budget. Amongst the objectives of cash management is to ensure availability of cash resources at all times for efficient and unconstrained implementation of the annual budget. The primary goals of a good cash management system are to maintain adequate cash at hand to meet the daily cash requirements of the local government while maximizing the amount available for investment and to obtain the maximum earnings on invested funds while ensuring their safety. The local governments obtain their revenue through internal and external sources, the external sources of revenue includes federal statutory allocations and loans obtained from financial institutions and other agencies; while among the internal sources are revenue from market fees, fees collected from motor parks, street hawking fees, shop fees and other miscellaneous sources. Some of the cost effective methods of revenue collections are contracting out of revenue collections to private collection agency, designating collection points for convenience, application of e-collection method where the local governments device a means of allowing tax payers to pay their taxes online. It is recommended that proper management of funds, efficient accounting and auditing system is necessary for proper cash management.

  6. Increased recovery of touch DNA evidence using FTA paper compared to conventional collection methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirgiz, Irina A; Calloway, Cassandra

    2017-04-01

    Tape lifting and FTA paper scraping methods were directly compared to traditional double swabbing for collecting touch DNA from car steering wheels (n = 70 cars). Touch DNA was collected from the left or right side of each steering wheel (randomized) using two sterile cotton swabs, while the other side was sampled using water-soluble tape or FTA paper cards. DNA was extracted and quantified in duplicate using qPCR. Quantifiable amounts of DNA were detected for 100% of the samples (n = 140) collected independent of the method. However, the DNA collection yield was dependent on the collection method. A statistically significant difference in DNA yield was observed between FTA scraping and double swabbing methods (p = 0.0051), with FTA paper collecting a two-fold higher amount. Statistical analysis showed no significant difference in DNA yields between the double swabbing and tape lifting techniques (p = 0.21). Based on the DNA concentration required for 1 ng input, 47% of the samples collected using FTA paper would be expected to yield a short tandem repeat (STR) profile compared to 30% and 23% using double swabbing or tape, respectively. Further, 55% and 77% of the samples collected using double swabbing or tape, respectively, did not yield a high enough DNA concentration for the 0.5 ng of DNA input recommended for conventional STR kits and would be expected to result in a partial or no profile compared to 35% of the samples collected using FTA paper. STR analysis was conducted for a subset of the higher concentrated samples to confirm that the DNA collected from the steering wheel was from the driver. 32 samples were selected with DNA amounts of at least 1 ng total DNA (100 pg/μl when concentrated if required). A mixed STR profile was observed for 26 samples (88%) and the last driver was the major DNA contributor for 29 samples (94%). For one sample, the last driver was the minor DNA contributor. A full STR profile of the last driver was observed for

  7. ANALYSIS OF MACROINVERTEBRATE ASSEMBLAGES IN RELATION TO ENVIRONMENTAL GRADIENTS IN ROCKY MOUNTAIN STREAMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using redundancy analysis (RDA) and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA), we assessed relationships among chemical and physical characteristics and macroinvertebrate assemblages at stream sites sampled by the Regional Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (R-EMAP) in...

  8. The isolation and characterization of actinobacteria from dominant benthic macroinvertebrates endemic to Lake Baikal

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Axenov-Gribanov, Denis; Rebets, Yuriy; Tokovenko, Bogdan; Voytsekhovskaya, Irina; Timofeyev, Maxim; Luzhetskyy, Andriy

    2016-01-01

    ...’ communities of Lake Baikal. Twenty-five distinct strains were obtained from 5 species of Baikal endemic macroinvertebrates of amphipods, freshwater sponges, turbellaria worms, and insects (caddisfly larvae...

  9. Fish, macroinvertebrate, and habitat survey of three Willapa National Wildlife Refuge streams

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In September and October 2003, staff from the Columbia River Fisheries Program Office (CRFPO) conducted fish, macroinvertebrate, and habitat surveys of three small,...

  10. VEGETATION TYPE AND THE INTERTIDAL MACROINVERTEBRATE FAUNA OF A BRACKISH MARSH: PHRAGMITES VS. SPARTINA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The responses of tidal marsh macroinvertebrate assemblages to the conversion of Spartina alterniflora marshes to marshes dominated by the invasive reed, Phragmites australis, are poorly understood. Changes in edaphic, vegetative, hydrological, and detrital conditions that attend ...

  11. Soft sediment dwelling macro-invertebrates of Rajapur Bay, central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Harkantra, S.N.; Parulekar, A.H.

    Thirtyfour species of soft sediment dwelling macro-invertebrates were recorded in Rajapur Bay at the proposed effluent discharge location of nuclear power plant. The fauna mainly composed of polychaetes (42.52%), molluscs (39.03%), crustaceans (7...

  12. Amphibian and benthic macroinvertebrate response to physical and chemical properties of Themi River, Arusha, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Lyimo, Emmanuel

    2012-01-01

    I hypothesized that variation in physical and chemical properties and habitat destruction of the Themi River as a result of human activities would affect abundance and diversity of amphibian and benthic macroinvertebrates. Variation in habitat physical and chemical conditions, and amphibian and benthic macroinvertebrate diversity and abundance were assessed in the Themi River of Arusha municipality. These physical, chemical and biological conditions were assessed at forty sampling stations...

  13. Impacts of acidification on macroinvertebrate communities in streams of the western Adirondack Mountains, New York, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldigo, Barry P.; Lawrence, G.B.; Bode, R.W.; Simonin, H.A.; Roy, K.M.; Smith, A.J.

    2009-01-01

    Limited stream chemistry and macroinvertebrate data indicate that acidic deposition has adversely affected benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages in numerous headwater streams of the western Adirondack Mountains of New York. No studies, however, have quantified the effects that acidic deposition and acidification may have had on resident fish and macroinvertebrate communities in streams of the region. As part of the Western Adirondack Stream Survey, water chemistry from 200 streams was sampled five times and macroinvertebrate communities were surveyed once from a subset of 36 streams in the Oswegatchie and Black River Basins during 2003-2005 and evaluated to: (a) document the effects that chronic and episodic acidification have on macroinvertebrate communities across the region, (b) define the relations between acidification and the health of affected species assemblages, and (c) assess indicators and thresholds of biological effects. Concentrations of inorganic Al in 66% of the 200 streams periodically reached concentrations toxic to acid-tolerant biota. A new acid biological assessment profile (acidBAP) index for macroinvertebrates, derived from percent mayfly richness and percent acid-tolerant taxa, was strongly correlated (R2 values range from 0.58 to 0.76) with concentrations of inorganic Al, pH, ANC, and base cation surplus (BCS). The BCS and acidBAP index helped remove confounding influences of natural organic acidity and to redefine acidification-effect thresholds and biological-impact categories. AcidBAP scores indicated that macroinvertebrate communities were moderately or severely impacted by acidification in 44-56% of 36 study streams, however, additional data from randomly selected streams is needed to accurately estimate the true percentage of streams in which macroinvertebrate communities are adversely affected in this, or other, regions. As biologically relevant measures of impacts caused by acidification, both BCS and acidBAP may be useful

  14. Satisfaction survey with DNA cards method to collect genetic samples for pharmacogenetics studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal-Taboada, Jose M; Cucala, Mercedes; Mas Herrero, Sergio; Lafuente, Amalia; Cobos, Albert

    2006-01-01

    Background Pharmacogenetic studies are essential in understanding the interindividual variability of drug responses. DNA sample collection for genotyping is a critical step in genetic studies. A method using dried blood samples from finger-puncture, collected on DNA-cards, has been described as an alternative to the usual venepuncture technique. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the implementation of the DNA cards method in a multicentre clinical trial, and to assess the degree of investigators' satisfaction and the acceptance of the patients perceived by the investigators. Methods Blood samples were collected on DNA-cards. The quality and quantity of DNA recovered were analyzed. Investigators were questioned regarding their general interest, previous experience, safety issues, preferences and perceived patient satisfaction. Results 151 patients' blood samples were collected. Genotyping of GST polymorphisms was achieved in all samples (100%). 28 investigators completed the survey. Investigators perceived patient satisfaction as very good (60.7%) or good (39.3%), without reluctance to finger puncture. Investigators preferred this method, which was considered safer and better than the usual methods. All investigators would recommend using it in future genetic studies. Conclusion Within the clinical trial setting, the DNA-cards method was very well accepted by investigators and patients (in perception of investigators), and was preferred to conventional methods due to its ease of use and safety. PMID:16681846

  15. Satisfaction survey with DNA cards method to collect genetic samples for pharmacogenetics studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mas Herrero Sergio

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pharmacogenetic studies are essential in understanding the interindividual variability of drug responses. DNA sample collection for genotyping is a critical step in genetic studies. A method using dried blood samples from finger-puncture, collected on DNA-cards, has been described as an alternative to the usual venepuncture technique. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the implementation of the DNA cards method in a multicentre clinical trial, and to assess the degree of investigators' satisfaction and the acceptance of the patients perceived by the investigators. Methods Blood samples were collected on DNA-cards. The quality and quantity of DNA recovered were analyzed. Investigators were questioned regarding their general interest, previous experience, safety issues, preferences and perceived patient satisfaction. Results 151 patients' blood samples were collected. Genotyping of GST polymorphisms was achieved in all samples (100%. 28 investigators completed the survey. Investigators perceived patient satisfaction as very good (60.7% or good (39.3%, without reluctance to finger puncture. Investigators preferred this method, which was considered safer and better than the usual methods. All investigators would recommend using it in future genetic studies. Conclusion Within the clinical trial setting, the DNA-cards method was very well accepted by investigators and patients (in perception of investigators, and was preferred to conventional methods due to its ease of use and safety.

  16. A New and Simple Method for Collecting Eggs of the Striped Stemborer,Chilo suppressalis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Jun-hui; LIU Guang-jie

    2004-01-01

    The method for collecting eggs of the striped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis using plastic bags was studied in comparison with using caged rice plants. There was no significant difference in fecundity of C. suppressalis at 279 eggs/moth and in percentage of hatched eggs at 95% between in plastic bags and on rice plants. More egg masses were collected on plastic bags than on rice plants, whereas more smaller egg masses (less than 100 eggs per mass) in plastic bags than on rice plants. The advantages in collecting eggs of C. suppressalis and other insects by using plastic bags were also discussed.

  17. Temporally variable macroinvertebrate-stone relationships in streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, D.

    2005-01-01

    Stones were used to sample macroinvertebrates and characterise microhabitats at monthly or bimonthly intervals in six Ecuadorian streams covering a gradient in four different stability measures and other stream characteristics. The physical variables current velocity, water depth, horizontal...... of families vs. individuals) were related to the physical characteristics of individual stone habitats. My second objective was to quantify temporal variability in fauna-stone relationships and to analyse if such variability was related to overall stability of stream reaches. Partial Least Squares (PLS......) multiple regression analyses showed high temporal variability between sampling dates in factor loadings of specific stone micro habitat variables. In spite of this, there was a clear negative effect of depth and a positive effect of current on density and number of families. Stone size was consistently...

  18. Effects of hydrologic connectivity on aquatic macroinvertebrate assemblages in different marsh types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sung-Ryong; King, Sammy L.

    2013-01-01

    Hydrologic connectivity can be an important driver of aquatic macroinvertebrate assemblages. Its effects on aquatic macroinvertebrate assemblages in coastal marshes, however, are relatively poorly studied. We evaluated the effects of lateral hydrologic connectivity (permanently connected ponds: PCPs; temporary connected ponds: TCPs), and other environmental variables on aquatic macroinvertebrate assemblages and functional feeding groups (FFGs) in freshwater, brackish, and saline marshes in Louisiana, USA. We hypothesized that (1) aquatic macroinvertebrate assemblages in PCPs would have higher assemblage metric values (density, biomass, Shannon-Wiener diversity) than TCPs and (2) the density and proportional abundance of certain FFGs (i.e. scrapers, shredders, and collectors) would be greater in freshwater marsh than brackish and saline marshes. The data in our study only partially supported our first hypothesis: while freshwater marsh PCPs had higher density and biomass than TCPs, assemblage metric values in saline TCPs were greater than saline PCPs. In freshwater TCPs, long duration of isolation limited access of macroinvertebrates from adjacent water bodies, which may have reduced assemblage metric values. However, the relatively short duration of isolation in saline TCPs provided more stable or similar habitat conditions, facilitating higher assemblage metric values. As predicted by our second hypothesis, freshwater PCPs and TCPs supported a greater density of scrapers, shredders, and collectors than brackish and saline ponds. Aquatic macroinvertebrate assemblages seem to be structured by individual taxa responses to salinity as well as pond habitat attributes.

  19. Ecological effects of ocean acidification and habitat complexity on reef-associated macroinvertebrate communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabricius, K E; De'ath, G; Noonan, S; Uthicke, S

    2014-01-22

    The ecological effects of ocean acidification (OA) from rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) on benthic marine communities are largely unknown. We investigated in situ the consequences of long-term exposure to high CO2 on coral-reef-associated macroinvertebrate communities around three shallow volcanic CO2 seeps in Papua New Guinea. The densities of many groups and the number of taxa (classes and phyla) of macroinvertebrates were significantly reduced at elevated CO2 (425-1100 µatm) compared with control sites. However, sensitivities of some groups, including decapod crustaceans, ascidians and several echinoderms, contrasted with predictions of their physiological CO2 tolerances derived from laboratory experiments. High CO2 reduced the availability of structurally complex corals that are essential refugia for many reef-associated macroinvertebrates. This loss of habitat complexity was also associated with losses in many macroinvertebrate groups, especially predation-prone mobile taxa, including crustaceans and crinoids. The transition from living to dead coral as substratum and habitat further altered macroinvertebrate communities, with far more taxa losing than gaining in numbers. Our study shows that indirect ecological effects of OA (reduced habitat complexity) will complement its direct physiological effects and together with the loss of coral cover through climate change will severely affect macroinvertebrate communities in coral reefs.

  20. [Studies on Latin American freshwater macroinvertebrates: recent advances and future directions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Alonso; Gutiérrez-Fonseca, Pablo E

    2014-04-01

    Latin America is an active scientific research area, in particular with respect to the study of freshwater macroinvertebrates. The present serves as an introduction to a special issue that highlights recent research projects on macroinvertebrates in Latin America. As part of this introduction, we conducted a literature analysis of the last 14 years of publications from the region that highlights the steady increase in publications on macroinvertebrates. Most studies from 2000-2013 were conducted in Brazil, Colombia, Argentina, and Costa Rica, and were focused on taxonomy and different issues related to biodiversity and distribution. There was a tendency for the use of local low-impact journals, but high impact publications were also found. This special issue contributes with 18 studies conducted in eight different countries. Two major topics are covered in the special issue, the ecology and natural history of aquatic macroinvertebrates and their use in the evaluation of anthropogenic impacts to aquatic ecosystems. Based on the literature review and contributions included in the issue, we discuss research needs for the region. Identified needs include: (1) to continue emphasizing taxonomic research, (2) assess mechanisms responsible for changes in biodiversity, (3) assess the role of macroinvertebrates in ecosystem processes and function, (4) improve biomonitoring efforts beyond unimetric indices, (5) the need for an ecosystem perspective, and (6) establishing long-term studies. This special issue is an initial effort to advance our knowledge on freshwater macroinvertebrates in Latin America.

  1. Macro-invertebrate decline in surface water polluted with imidacloprid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessa C Van Dijk

    Full Text Available Imidacloprid is one of the most widely used insecticides in the world. Its concentration in surface water exceeds the water quality norms in many parts of the Netherlands. Several studies have demonstrated harmful effects of this neonicotinoid to a wide range of non-target species. Therefore we expected that surface water pollution with imidacloprid would negatively impact aquatic ecosystems. Availability of extensive monitoring data on the abundance of aquatic macro-invertebrate species, and on imidacloprid concentrations in surface water in the Netherlands enabled us to test this hypothesis. Our regression analysis showed a significant negative relationship (P<0.001 between macro-invertebrate abundance and imidacloprid concentration for all species pooled. A significant negative relationship was also found for the orders Amphipoda, Basommatophora, Diptera, Ephemeroptera and Isopoda, and for several species separately. The order Odonata had a negative relationship very close to the significance threshold of 0.05 (P = 0.051. However, in accordance with previous research, a positive relationship was found for the order Actinedida. We used the monitoring field data to test whether the existing three water quality norms for imidacloprid in the Netherlands are protective in real conditions. Our data show that macrofauna abundance drops sharply between 13 and 67 ng l(-1. For aquatic ecosystem protection, two of the norms are not protective at all while the strictest norm of 13 ng l(-1 (MTR seems somewhat protective. In addition to the existing experimental evidence on the negative effects of imidacloprid on invertebrate life, our study, based on data from large-scale field monitoring during multiple years, shows that serious concern about the far-reaching consequences of the abundant use of imidacloprid for aquatic ecosystems is justified.

  2. Method for the quantitative measurement of collecting lymphatic vessel contraction in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Liao

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Collecting lymphatic vessels are critical for the transport of lymph and its cellular contents to lymph nodes for both immune surveillance and the maintenance of tissue-fluid balance. Collecting lymphatic vessels drive lymph flow by autonomous contraction of smooth muscle cells that cover these vessels. Here we describe methods using intravital microscopy to image and quantify collecting lymphatic vessel contraction in mice. Our methods allow for the measurement of the strength of lymphatic contraction of an individual lymphangion in a mouse, which has not yet been demonstrated using other published methods. The ability to study murine collecting lymphatic vessel contraction—using the methods described here or other recently published techniques—allows the field to dissect the molecular mechanisms controlling lymphatic pumping under normal and pathological conditions using the wide variety of molecular tools and genetic models available in the mouse. We have used our methods to study lymphatic contraction in physiological and inflammatory conditions. The methods described here will facilitate the further study of lymphatic function in other pathological conditions that feature lymphatic complications.

  3. A comparison of methods for collecting data on performance during discrete trial teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerman, Dorothea C; Dittlinger, Laura Harper; Fentress, Genevieve; Lanagan, Taira

    2011-01-01

    Therapists of children with autism use a variety of methods for collecting data during discrete-trial teaching. Methods that provide greater precision (e.g., recording the prompt level needed on each instructional trial) are less practical than methods with less precision (e.g., recording the presence or absence of a correct response on the first trial only). However, few studies have compared these methods to determine if less labor-intensive systems would be adequate to make accurate decisions about child progress. In this study, precise data collected by therapists who taught skills to 11 children with autism were reanalyzed several different ways. For most of the children and targeted skills, data collected on just the first trial of each instructional session provided a rough estimate of performance across all instructional trials of the session. However, the first-trial data frequently led to premature indications of skill mastery and were relatively insensitive to initial changes in performance. The sensitivity of these data was improved when the therapist also recorded the prompt level needed to evoke a correct response. Data collected on a larger subset of trials during an instruction session corresponded fairly well with data collected on every trial and revealed similar changes in performance.

  4. Effects of sample collection and storage methods on antipneumococcal immunoglobulin A in saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurkka, A; Obiero, J; Käyhty, H; Scott, J A G

    2003-05-01

    Saliva contains components of both the mucosal and systemic immune systems. Variable flow rates, immunoglobulin proteases, and variation in collection and storage methods all introduce differences in the estimated concentrations of antibodies. We evaluated the effect of four collection methods and three storage protocols on the concentrations of immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibodies to pneumococcal capsular antigens 1, 5, 6B, and 14 and to pneumococcal surface adhesin A (PsaA) in saliva. Specimens were collected from 30 healthy Kenyan adults by collecting drool, by pipette suction, and with two commercial kits, OraSure and Oracol. Aliquots from each specimen were snap-frozen with glycerol in liquid nitrogen or stored for 4 to 8 h at +4 degrees C either with or without the addition of protease enzyme inhibitors prior to storage at -70 degrees C. Anticapsular IgA concentrations were not significantly different with different collection methods, but snap-freezing the specimens in liquid nitrogen led to concentrations 41 to 47% higher than those of specimens stored by the other methods (P < 0.0005).

  5. Effect of different sample collection methods on the results of raw milk analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Cabral, Jakeline Fernandes; Silva, Marco Antônio Pereira da; Brasil, Rafaella Belchior; Carvalho, Thiago Soares; Giovannini, Cristiane Isabô; Nicolau, Edmar Soares

    2013-01-01

    The collection of samples of raw milk shall be careful to reflect their actual composition, and different methods of collection, may lead to variations in levels of milk components. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different methods of milk sampling on the chemical composition and somatic cell count. Milk samples were taken from 492 cows in a dairy farm of Rio Verde, state of Goiás, Brazil. Two sampling methodologies were used: a pool-sample and a complete sample (40 mL) of...

  6. X-Ray Sources and High-Throughput Data Collection Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snell, Gyorgy

    2012-03-15

    X-ray diffraction experiments on protein crystals are at the core of the structure determination process. An overview of X-ray sources and data collection methods to support structure-based drug design (SBDD) efforts is presented in this chapter. First, methods of generating and manipulating X-rays for the purpose of protein crystallography, as well as the components of the diffraction experiment setup are discussed. SBDD requires the determination of numerous protein-ligand complex structures in a timely manner, and the second part of this chapter describes how to perform diffraction experiments efficiently on a large number of crystals, including crystal screening and data collection.

  7. The impact of saliva collection and processing methods on CRP, IgE, and Myoglobin immunoassays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Owing to its ease of collection, saliva is potentially the sample of choice in diagnosis. Salivary biomolecules have provided a porthole in surveying a person’s health and well-being. Our study aims were (1) to demonstrate the effects of pre-analytical steps, collection and pre-processing techniques on salivary protein detection and (2) to establish an indication of salivary reference intervals for 3 biomolecules of clinical interest. Methods Saliva samples were collected from participants (n = 25, ages 20–35 years) using the following methods: no stimulation (resting/unstimulated), mechanical, and acid stimulation. The saliva was prepared for analysis by: unprocessed, post standard centrifugation in a container without any additives, and centrifugation using Centrifugal Filter Unit (Amicon® Ultra-0.5). AlphaLisa® assays were used to measure the levels of C-Reactive Protein (CRP), Immunoglobin (IgE) and myoglobin in saliva samples. Results Saliva flow rates were lowest with the resting/drooling collection method. The lowest total protein concentration was with acid stimulation. Unstimulated and mechanically stimulated collections produced no effect on the CRP and IgE levels while myoglobin levels were highest with the unstimulated collection. Acid stimulation had a negative impact on the measured concentrations of IgE and myoglobin (except for CRP levels). Conclusion Mechanical stimulation was the most viable option for collecting saliva without affecting the levels of CRP and myoglobin. The processing methods had an adverse effect on the concentration of total protein as well as on CRP and IgE concentrations. PMID:23369566

  8. Effects of highway construction on stream water quality and macroinvertebrate condition in a Mid-Atlantic Highlands watershed, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y.; Viadero, R.C.; Wei, X.; Fortney, Ronald H.; Hedrick, Lara B.; Welsh, S.A.; Anderson, James T.; Lin, L.-S.

    2009-01-01

    Refining best management practices (BMPs) for future highway construction depends on a comprehensive understanding of environmental impacts from current construction methods. Based on a before-after-control impact (BACI) experimental design, long-term stream monitoring (1997-2006) was conducted at upstream (as control, n = 3) and downstream (as impact, n = 6) sites in the Lost River watershed of the Mid-Atlantic Highlands region, West Virginia. Monitoring data were analyzed to assess impacts of during and after highway construction on 15 water quality parameters and macroinvertebrate condition using the West Virginia stream condition index (WVSCI). Principal components analysis (PCA) identified regional primary water quality variances, and paired t tests and time series analysis detected seven highway construction-impacted water quality parameters which were mainly associated with the second principal component. In particular, impacts on turbidity, total suspended solids, and total iron during construction, impacts on chloride and sulfate during and after construction, and impacts on acidity and nitrate after construction were observed at the downstream sites. The construction had statistically significant impacts on macroinvertebrate index scores (i.e., WVSCI) after construction, but did not change the overall good biological condition. Implementing BMPs that address those construction-impacted water quality parameters can be an effective mitigation strategy for future highway construction in this highlands region. Copyright ?? 2009 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  9. Introduction to Field Water-Quality Methods for the Collection of Metals - 2007 Project Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Monica L.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Region VI of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), and the Osage Nation presented three 3-day workshops, in June-August 2007, entitled ?Introduction to Field Water-Quality Methods for the Collection of Metals.? The purpose of the workshops was to provide instruction to tribes within USEPA Region VI on various USGS surface-water measurement methods and water-quality sampling protocols for the collection of surface-water samples for metals analysis. Workshop attendees included members from over 22 tribes and pueblos. USGS instructors came from Oklahoma, New Mexico, and Georgia. Workshops were held in eastern and south-central Oklahoma and New Mexico and covered many topics including presampling preparation, water-quality monitors, and sampling for metals in surface water. Attendees spent one full classroom day learning the field methods used by the USGS Water Resources Discipline and learning about the complexity of obtaining valid water-quality and quality-assurance data. Lectures included (1) a description of metal contamination sources in surface water; (2) introduction on how to select field sites, equipment, and laboratories for sample analysis; (3) collection of sediment in surface water; and (4) utilization of proper protocol and methodology for sampling metals in surface water. Attendees also were provided USGS sampling equipment for use during the field portion of the class so they had actual ?hands-on? experience to take back to their own organizations. The final 2 days of the workshop consisted of field demonstrations of current USGS water-quality sample-collection methods. The hands-on training ensured that attendees were exposed to and experienced proper sampling procedures. Attendees learned integrated-flow techniques during sample collection, field-property documentation, and discharge measurements and calculations. They also used enclosed chambers for sample processing and collected quality

  10. Impact of collection method on assessment of semen HIV RNA viral load.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan J W Osborne

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The blood HIV RNA viral load is the best-defined predictor of HIV transmission, in part due to ease of measurement and the correlation of blood and genital tract (semen or cervico-vaginal viral load, although recent studies found semen HIV RNA concentration to be a stronger predictor of HIV transmission. There is currently no standardized method for semen collection when measuring HIV RNA concentration. Therefore, we compared two collection techniques in order to study of the impact of antiretroviral therapy on the semen viral load. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Semen was collected by masturbation from HIV-infected, therapy-naïve men who have sex with men (MSM either undiluted (Visit 1 or directly into transport medium (Visit 2. Seminal plasma was then isolated, and the HIV RNA concentration obtained with each collection technique was measured and corrected for dilution if necessary. Collection of semen directly into transport medium resulted in a median HIV RNA viral load that was 0.4 log10 higher than undiluted samples. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The method of semen collection is an important consideration when quantifying the HIV RNA viral load in this compartment.

  11. Associations Between Macroinvertebrates and Paralemanea mexicana, an Endemic Freshwater Red Alga from a Mountain River in Central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caro-Borrero, A; Carmona-Jiménez, J

    2016-12-01

    Macrophytes are common inhabitants of lotic environments and, depending on their morphological traits, possess adaptations that provide shelter to aquatic invertebrates against strong river flow and predators. They may also be used as a food source by macroinvertebrates. The main goal of this study was to determine the relationship between the red alga Paralemanea mexicana and its role as a shelter and/or food source for lotic macroinvertebrates. We also conducted research on the role of microhabitat and morphological variations of the alga in determining macroinvertebrate taxon abundance, diversity, and functional group composition in a high-current velocity river. Results showed that changes in cover and morphology of P. mexicana were mostly correlated with river current velocity, irradiance, and seasonal variation. In turn, these were related to changes in abundance and diversity of the associated macroinvertebrate community. In addition, six macroinvertebrate functional feeding groups were evaluated for associations with the red alga: filtering and gathering collectors, piercers, scrapers, herbivore shredders, and predators. The results showed that the Trichoptera Hydroptilidae genera Ochrotrichia and Metrichia use P. mexicana as a food source and case-building material. The Trichoptera Glossosomatidae Mortoniella uses the alga as a substrate. The biotic interactions between P. mexicana and associated macroinvertebrates reveal the importance of macrophytes as purveyors of substrate, as food and shelter for macroinvertebrates, and also as promoters of macroinvertebrate community diversity. In addition, it was shown that macroinvertebrate herbivory likely facilitates vegetative propagation of the red alga through increased release and germination of carpospores and new gametophytes.

  12. Comparison of manual versus automated data collection method for an evidence-based nursing practice study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, M D; Jordan, T R; Welle, T

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate and improve the use of automated data collection procedures for nursing research and quality assurance. A descriptive, correlational study analyzed 44 orthopedic surgical patients who were part of an evidence-based practice (EBP) project examining post-operative oxygen therapy at a Midwestern hospital. The automation work attempted to replicate a manually-collected data set from the EBP project. Automation was successful in replicating data collection for study data elements that were available in the clinical data repository. The automation procedures identified 32 "false negative" patients who met the inclusion criteria described in the EBP project but were not selected during the manual data collection. Automating data collection for certain data elements, such as oxygen saturation, proved challenging because of workflow and practice variations and the reliance on disparate sources for data abstraction. Automation also revealed instances of human error including computational and transcription errors as well as incomplete selection of eligible patients. Automated data collection for analysis of nursing-specific phenomenon is potentially superior to manual data collection methods. Creation of automated reports and analysis may require initial up-front investment with collaboration between clinicians, researchers and information technology specialists who can manage the ambiguities and challenges of research and quality assurance work in healthcare.

  13. IMPROVEMENT OF METHODS FOR HYDROBIOLOGICAL RESEARCH AND MODIFICATION OF STANDARD TOOLS FOR SAMPLE COLLECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Aligadjiev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The paper discusses the improvement of methods of hydrobiological studies by modifying tools for plankton and benthic samples collecting. Methods. In order to improve the standard methods of hydro-biological research, we have developed tools for sampling zooplankton and benthic environment of the Caspian Sea. Results. Long-term practice of selecting hydrobiological samples in the Caspian Sea shows that it is required to complete the modernization of the sampling tools used to collect hydrobiological material. With the introduction of Azov and Black Sea invasive comb jelly named Mnemiopsis leidyi A. Agassiz to the Caspian Sea there is a need to collect plankton samples without disturbing its integrity. Tools for collecting benthic fauna do not always give a complete picture of the state of benthic ecosystems because of the lack of visual site selection for sampling. Moreover, while sampling by dredge there is a probable loss of the samples, especially in areas with difficult terrain. Conclusion. We propose to modify a small model of Upstein net (applied in shallow water to collect zooplankton samples with an upper inverted cone that will significantly improve the catchability of the net in theCaspian Sea. Bottom sampler can be improved by installing a video camera for visual inspection of the bottom topography, and use sensors to determine tilt of the dredge and the position of the valves of the bucket. 

  14. Fecal collection methods for the determination of protein digestibility in bullfrogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Verardino De Stéfani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Adequate methods for the determination of protein digestibility in bullfrogs are important for the understanding of nutrient utilization. Therefore, this study evaluated two methods of feces collection: intestinal dissection and fecal decantation, using cylindric-conical tanks. Frogs were fed with a commercial diet (45% crude protein which was ground and supplemented with 0.5% chromium oxide III. The frogs were fasted 48h before force-feeding (5% of the animal's live weight. For the decantation method, the animals were sacrificed 36 h after force-feeding and feces were collected directly from the large intestine. For the sedimentation method, feces were collected when they appeared in the tubes attached to the front end of the cylindric tanks. No significant difference (P>0.05 in the apparent digestibility coefficients of crude protein for dietary was observed between the methods tested (74.0% and 76.4% for the dissection and decantation methods, respectively. In conclusion, both methods can be used for the determination of protein digestibility of bullfrog feeds

  15. Validation of Cyanoacrylate Method for Collection of Stratum Corneum in Human Skin for Lipid Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jungersted, JM; Hellgren, Lars; Drachmann, Tue

    2010-01-01

    for the collection of SC in relation to lipid analysis. Methods: The results of the lipid analysis (ceramide/cholesterol and ceramide profile) of SC samples obtained by the cyanoacrylate method were compared to the results of the lipid analysis of mechanically removed SC samples. The intra- and interindividual...... removed total thickness of the SC and cyanoacrylate samples. With respect to the cyanoacrylate samples, the intraindividual variation was significantly smaller than the interindividual variation, and the results did not indicate a change in lipid profile related to the depth of SC. The results clearly......Background and Objective: Lipids in the stratum corneum (SC) are of major importance for the skin barrier function. Many different methods have been used for the collection of SC for the analysis of SC lipids. The objective of the present study was to validate the cyanoacrylate method...

  16. Sociodemographic data collection for health equity measurement: a mixed methods study examining public opinions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirst, Maritt; Shankardass, Ketan; Bomze, Sivan; Lofters, Aisha; Quiñonez, Carlos

    2013-08-30

    Monitoring inequalities in healthcare is increasingly being recognized as a key first step in providing equitable access to quality care. However, the detailed sociodemographic data that are necessary for monitoring are currently not routinely collected from patients in many jurisdictions. We undertook a mixed methods study to generate a more in-depth understanding of public opinion on the collection of patient sociodemographic information in healthcare settings for equity monitoring purposes in Ontario, Canada. The study included a provincial survey of 1,306 Ontarians, and in-depth interviews with a sample of 34 individuals. Forty percent of survey participants disagreed that it was important for information to be collected in healthcare settings for equity monitoring. While there was a high level of support for the collection of language, a relatively large proportion of survey participants felt uncomfortable disclosing household income (67%), sexual orientation (40%) and educational background (38%). Variation in perceived importance and comfort with the collection of various types of information was observed among different survey participant subgroups. Many in-depth interview participants were also unsure of the importance of the collection of sociodemographic information in healthcare settings and expressed concerns related to potential discrimination and misuse of this information. Study findings highlight that there is considerable concern regarding disclosure of such information in healthcare settings among Ontarians and a lack of awareness of its purpose that may impede future collection of such information. These issues point to the need for increased education for the public on the purpose of sociodemographic data collection as a strategy to address this problem, and the use of data collection strategies that reduce discomfort with disclosure in healthcare settings.

  17. Saliva collection methods for DNA biomarker analysis in oral cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, April M; Kaur, Harpal; Dodd, Michael; D'Souza, Jacob; Liloglou, Triantafillos; Shaw, Richard J; Risk, Janet M

    2013-07-01

    Patients with head and neck cancers are predisposed to local recurrence and second primaries because of the phenomenon of field cancerisation, and clinical detection of recurrence remains challenging. DNA biomarkers in saliva may prove to be an adjunct to current diagnostic methods, but irradiation of the primary site often leads to xerostomia. We assessed 3 methods of collecting saliva for their ability to generate DNA of sufficient quantity and quality to use in biomarker assays. Paired saliva samples were collected from 2 groups of patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). In the first group saliva was collected in Oragene(®) vials and as saline mouthwash from non-irradiated patients (n=21) (4 had had radiotherapy before collection); in the second group it was collected using Oragene(®) sponge kits and as mouthwash from irradiated patients (n=24). Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) showed that Oragene(®) vials contained DNA in significantly greater amounts (median 122 μg, range 4-379) than mouthwash (median 17 μg, range 2-194) (p=0.0001) in the non-irradiated patients, while Oragene(®) sponge kits (median 4 μg, range 0.1-61) and mouthwash (median 5.5 μg, range 0.1-75) generated comparable concentrations of DNA from the irradiated group. All 90 samples contained DNA of sufficient quantity and quality for p16 promoter quantitative methylation-specific PCR (qMSP). While Oragene(®) vials contained the most DNA, all 3 methods yielded enough to detect DNA biomarkers using qMSP. The method of collection should depend on the compliance of the patient and oral competency.

  18. A new digital enumeration method to collect phenotypic data for characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consistent data across animal populations are required to inform genomic science aimed at finding important adaptive genetic variations. The ADAPTMap Digital Phenotype Collection Method is a new procedure to provide consistent phenotypic data by digital enumeration of categorical and continuous valu...

  19. Physics of new methods of charged particle acceleration collective effects in dense charged particle ensembles

    CERN Document Server

    Bonch-Osmolovsky, A G

    1994-01-01

    This volume discusses the theory of new methods of charged particle acceleration and its physical and mathematical descriptions. It examines some collective effects in dense charged particle ensembles, and traces the history of the development of the field of accelerator physics.

  20. The Social Science Teacher. 1972. Collected Conference Papers: Social Science Concepts Classroom Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Pat, Ed.; And Others

    Papers in this publication are collected from a conference on social science concepts and classroom methods which focused on the theories of Jerome Bruner. The first article, entitled "Jerome Bruner," outlines four of Bruner's themes--structure, readiness, intuition, and interest--which relate to cognitive learning. Three…

  1. SPATIO-TEMPORAL VARIATIONS IN MACROINVERTEBRATE ASSEMBLAGES OF NEW CALEDONIAN STREAMS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARY N. J.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Forty-one sites located on 14 New Caledonian streams were surveyed four times between October 1996 and October 1997 in order to examine the spatial and temporal changes in the structure of the benthic macroinvertebrate communities. About 250 000 invertebrates representing 167 taxa were collected in the streams. Seventy-five percent of identified taxa and 67% of individuals were insects. Major spatial and temporal changes in the composition of the fauna were detected by multivariate analyses (ordination and classification. Overall, the number of individuals was significantly higher in the dry season (October than in the wetter seasons (January and June. However, a low temporal variability was detected in the structure of benthic communities during the sampling period. A cluster analysis based on taxonomic composition separated five groups of sites in relation with rock type, land use, and geographic characteristics. Several metrics (total invertebrate density, taxon richness, relative abundance of major invertebrate groups, diversity indices were used to characterize each group of sites. Forested streams, where the highest specific diversity occurred, represented the most speciose habitat for benthic fauna. A less rich and abundant fauna occurred in streams draining ultramafic rocks probably because of their low content in food resources and organic matter.

  2. Benthic macroinvertebrate community structure in relation to seasonal and geochemical changes in a chronically acidified stream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madarish, D.M.; Kimmel, W.G. [California University of Pennsylvania, California, PA (USA). Dept. of Biology and Environmental Sciences

    2000-07-01

    The Blue Hole Creek basin (1652 ha) is located in an area of Pennsylvania that is historically high in wet deposition of sulfates and nitrates. Five stations on Cole Run (chronically acidified) and one on Blue-Hole Creek (episodically acidified) were sampled twice seasonally - once at base flow and once at high flow. Total iron, aluminium, and sulfate trended toward a direct relationship with discharge, while pH and alkalinity exhibited an inverse relationship. Stations with higher pH values were linked with the Mauch Chunk geologic formation and Fluvaquents soil series, while those with lower pH were linked with the Pottsville geologic formation and the Brinkerton, Cookport, and Rayne-Gilpin soil series. Fewer macroinvertebrates were collected from the episodically acidified station than at any of the chronically acidified stations on 71% of the sample dates. Although the number of taxa was similar between stations, more taxa were unique to Cole Run than to Blue Hole Creek. No clear patterns were discerned for season or flow.

  3. Macroinvertebrates associated with bryophyta in a first-order Atlantic Forest stream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz F. J. V. Rosa

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the composition and structure of the benthic community associated with bryophytes in a first-order stream, located in a biological reserve of the Atlantic Forest, during two seasons. During three months of the dry season of 2007 and three months of the rainy season of 2008, samples of bryophytes attached to stones were collected randomly, along a 100 m stream reach. The structure of the community was analyzed through the mean density of individuals, Shannon's diversity index, Pielou's evenness, family richness, dominance index, and the percentage of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera (% EPT. Chironomidae larvae were dominant in the two periods of study, followed by Ceratopogonidae in the rainy season, and Naididae in the dry season. The orders EPT contributed 14 families. The results showed that bryophytes constitute suitable habitat which is able to shelter an abundant and diversified benthic fauna in a small extension of the stream. This habitat provides refuge during spates, and thus minimizes downstream transport of the macroinvertebrate fauna.

  4. Evaluating regional differences in macroinvertebrate communities from forested depressional wetlands across eastern and central North America.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batzer, Darold, P.; Dietz-Brantley, Susan E.; Taylor, Barbera E.; DeBiase, Adrienne E.

    2005-02-12

    Batzer, Darold, P., Susan E. Dietz-Brantley, Barbera E. Taylor, and Adrienne E. DeBiase. 2005. Evaluating regional differences in macroinvertebrate communities from forested depressional wetlands across eastern and central North America. J. N. Am. Benthol. Soc. 24(2):403-414. Abstract. Forested depressional wetlands are an important seasonal wetland type across eastern and central North America. Macroinvertebrates are crucial ecosystem components of most forested depressional wetlands, but community compositions can vary widely across the region. We evaluated variation in macroinvertebrate faunas across eastern and central North America using 5 published taxa lists from forested depressional wetlands in Michigan, Ontario, Wisconsin, Florida, and Georgia. We supplemented those data with quantitative community descriptions generated from 17 forested depressional wetlands in South Carolina and 74 of these wetlands in Minnesota. Cluster analysis of presence/absence data from these 7 locations indicated that distinct macroinvertebrate communities existed in northern and southern areas. Taxa characteristic of northern forested depressionalwetlands included Sphaeriidae, Lumbriculidae, Lymnaeidae, Physidae, Limnephilidae, Chirocephalidae, and Hirudinea (Glossophoniidae and/or Erpodbellidae) and taxa characteristic of southern sites included Asellidae, Crangonyctidae, Noteridae, and Cambaridae. Quantitative sampling in South Carolina and Minnesota indicated that regionally characteristic taxa included some of the most abundant organisms, with Sphaeriidae being the 2nd most abundant macroinvertebrate in Minnesota wetlands and Asellidae being the 2nd most abundant macroinvertebrate in South Carolina wetlands. Mollusks, in general, were restricted to forested depressional wetlands of northern latitudes, a pattern that may reflect a lack of Ca needed for shell formation in acidic southern sites. Differences in community composition probably translate into region

  5. Effects of grade control structures on the macroinvertebrate assemblage of an agriculturally impacted stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvan, M.E.; Stewart, T.W.; Pierce, C.L.; Larson, C.J.

    2008-01-01

    Nearly 400 rock rip-rap grade control structures (hereafter GCS) were recently placed in streams of western Iowa, USA to reduce streambank erosion and protect bridge infrastructure and farmland. In this region, streams are characterized by channelized reaches, highly incised banks and silt and sand substrates that normally support low macroinvertebrate abundance and diversity. Therefore, GCS composed of rip-rap provide the majority of coarse substrate habitat for benthic macroinvertebrates in these streams. We sampled 20 sites on Walnut Creek, Montgomery County, Iowa to quantify macroinvertebrate assemblage characteristics (1) on GCS rip-rap and at sites located (2) 5-50 m upstream of GCS, (3) 5-50 m downstream of GCS and (4) at least 1 km from any GCS (five sites each). Macroinvertebrate biomass, numerical densities and diversity were greatest at sites with coarse substrates, including GCS sites and one natural riffle site and relatively low at remaining sites with soft substrates. Densities of macroinvertebrates in the orders Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera, Diptera, Coleoptera and Acariformes were abundant on GCS rip-rap. Increases in macroinvertebrate biomass, density and diversity at GCS may improve local efficiency of breakdown of organic matter and nutrient and energy flow, and provide enhanced food resources for aquatic vertebrates. However, lack of positive macroinvertebrate responses immediately upstream and downstream of GCS suggest that positive effects might be restricted to the small areas of streambed covered by GCS. Improved understanding of GCS effects at both local and ecosystem scales is essential for stream management when these structures are present. Copyright ?? 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Surface flow types, near-bed hydraulics and the distribution of stream macroinvertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Reid

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Spatial variation in hydraulic conditions in streams often results in distinct water surface patterns, or surface flow types. Visual assessments of the distribution of surface flow types have been used to provide rapid assessment of the habitat heterogeneity. The efficacy of this approach is predicated on the notion that surface flow types consistently represent a distinct suite of hydraulic conditions with biological relevance. This study tested this notion, asking three specific questions. First, do surface flow types provide a characterisation of physical habitat that is relevant to macroinvertebrates? Second, how well do near-bed hydraulic conditions explain macroinvertebrate distributions? Third, what components of near-bed hydraulic conditions exert the strongest influence on macroinvertebrate distributions?

    Results show that hydraulic conditions (incorporating direct measurements of near-bed velocity and turbulence in three dimensions and substratum character (incorporating estimates of particle size distribution, and biofilm and macrophyte cover within each surface flow type were largely distinct and that macroinvertebrate assemblages differed across flow types in taxon richness and assemblage composition, thus supporting the notion that rapid assessments of surface flow type distributions provide biologically relevant information.

    Macroinvertebrate assemblages were most strongly correlated with water depth, size of a flow type patch, near-bed velocity in the downstream direction, turbulence in the transverse direction, % pebble, % sand, % silt and clay and macrophyte cover. This study suggests that surface flow type mapping provides an assessment of physical habitat that is relevant to macroinvertebrates. The strong relationship detected between macroinvertebrate assemblages and transverse turbulence also highlights the value of directly measuring near-bed hydraulics. Further investigations are required to test the

  7. Surface flow types, near-bed hydraulics and the distribution of stream macroinvertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Reid

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Spatial variation in hydraulic conditions in streams often results in distinct water surface patterns, or surface flow types. Visual assessments of the distribution of surface flow types have been used to provide rapid assessment of habitat heterogeneity. The efficacy of this approach is predicated on the notion that surface flow types consistently represent a distinct suite of hydraulic conditions with biological relevance. This study tested this notion, asking three specific questions. First, do surface flow types provide a characterisation of physical habitat that is relevant to macroinvertebrates? Second, how well do near-bed hydraulic conditions explain macroinvertebrate distributions? Third, what components of near-bed hydraulic conditions exert the strongest influence on macroinvertebrate distributions?

    Results show that hydraulic conditions (incorporating direct measurements of near-bed velocity and turbulence in three dimensions and substratum character (incorporating estimates of particle size distribution, and biofilm and macrophyte cover within each surface flow type were largely distinct and that macroinvertebrate assemblages differed across flow types in taxon richness and assemblage composition, thus supporting the notion that rapid assessments of surface flow type distributions provide biologically relevant information.

    Macroinvertebrate assemblages were most strongly correlated with water depth, size of a flow type patch, near-bed velocity in the downstream direction, turbulence in the transverse direction, % pebble, % sand, % silt and clay and macrophyte cover. This study suggests that surface flow type mapping provides an assessment of physical habitat that is relevant to macroinvertebrates. The strong relationship detected between macroinvertebrate assemblages and transverse turbulence also highlights the value of directly measuring near-bed hydraulics. Further investigations are required to test the

  8. A method for optimizing waste collection using mathematical programming: a Buenos Aires case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonomo, Flavio; Durán, Guillermo; Larumbe, Frederico; Marenco, Javier

    2012-03-01

    A method is proposed that uses operations research techniques to optimize the routes of waste collection vehicles servicing dumpster or skip-type containers. The waste collection problem is reduced to the classic travelling salesman problem, which is then solved using the Concorde solver program. A case study applying the method to the collection system in the southern zone of Buenos Aires is also presented. In addition to the typical minimum distance criterion, the optimization problem incorporates the objective of reducing vehicle wear and tear as measured by the physics concept of mechanical work. The solution approach, employing graph theory and mathematical programming tools, is fully described and the data correction process is also discussed. The application of the proposed method minimized the distance travelled by each collection vehicle in the areas studied, with actual reductions ranging from 10 to 40% of the existing routes. The shortened distances led in turn to substantial decreases in work done and therefore in vehicle wear and tear. Extrapolation of the results to the entire southern zone of Buenos Aires indicates potential savings for the civic authorities of more than US $200,000 per year in addition to the qualitative impacts of less traffic disruption, less vehicle driver fatigue and less pollution.

  9. THE MODERN MODELS AND METHODS OF DIAGNOSIS THE RESEARCH ACTIVITY OF ACADEMIC AND PEDAGOGICAL COLLECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loyko V. I.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of research – the development of models and methods of multiparametrical diagnostic the research activities of scientific and pedagogical collectives of educational institutions. The problematics of research is improving the quality and productivity (the efficiency of research activities in educational institutions. The problem of research is the question of how to objectively and comprehensively (in a complex diagnose the research activities of scientific and pedagogical collectives? The urgency of solving specified problem is caused by the need to ensuring a close relationship between research, methodological and educational activities in educational institutions. We have also to consider the increasing role of clusters in the Russian economy, cooperation and integration levels (steps a system of continuous education, etc. The authors identified the parameters reflecting significance of research activities of the scientific and the pedagogical collectives for the scientific and educational community (social megaenvironmental. When allocating indicators the authors took into account that science - the social and cultural phenomenon and the social institution, and the most important aspect of the significance of the research activity - in the innovative development of various spheres of human activity. The applied methods of research: mathematical modeling; methods of the theory of graphs, sets and relations; methods of "artificial intelligence" and the multi-parameter analysis of systems; methods of quality control (theory of latent variables. Methodological bases of research: systemic, cultural, competence, metasystem, sociological, qualimetric and synergetic approaches

  10. Evaluation of collection method and diet effects on apparent digestibility and energy values of swine diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y S; Tran, H; Bundy, J W; Burkey, T E; Kerr, B J; Nielsen, M K; Miller, P S

    2016-06-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of collection method and diet type on digestibility coefficients. In Exp. 1, 24 barrows were fed either a corn-soybean meal (CSBM) diet or CSBM with 20% dried distillers' grains with solubles (CSBM-DDGS). In Exp. 2, the effects of basal diet and collection method on determination of dried distillers' grains with solubles (DDGS) digestibility were studied using 24 barrows. The 4 diets used in Exp. 2 were: a CSBM (basal 1) , a barley-canola meal (BCM; basal 2), 80% basal 1 with 20% DDGS (CSBM-DDGS), and 80% basal 2 with 20% DDGS (BCM-DDGS). In both experiments, feces were collected using a time-based collection method (DY) or a "marker-to-marker" collection method (MM). Diets contained 0.5% of titanium dioxide (TiO) for estimating digestibility using the index marker approach (IM). The apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of DM and GE were lower ( diet than in the CSBM diet in Exp. 1 but were not different in Exp. 2. All the estimates of BCM-based diets were consistently lower ( diets. In Exp. 1, digestibility coefficients determined by the DY and MM were not different from each other, whereas those estimates were lower ( diet type and method for dietary digestibility coefficients. Digestibility and energy values estimated by the DY and MM were not different in pigs fed CSBM-based diets and the BCM-DDGS diet, whereas those estimates were greater ( diet and method for estimating DDGS digestibility. The ATTD of DM and GE of DDGS using the MM were greater ( diets. The mean DE and ME (as-fed basis) of DDGS were 3,994 and 3,688 kcal/kg, respectively, when estimated using the basal 1 diet and were 3,919 and 3,547 kcal/kg, respectively, when estimated using the basal 2 diet. In conclusion, both collection methods can be used to estimate energy and nutrient digestibility of diets and DDGS when using CSBM-based diets.

  11. METHODS OF LABORATORY ANIMALS" CARCASSES COLLECTION, STORAGE AND DESTRUCTION IN ISFAHAN UNIVERSITY OF MEDICAL SCIENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N SHAMANSOURI

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Environmental problems due to hazardous wastes production are increasing everyday. Laboratories of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences produce hazardous wastes in their daily research avtivities. These hazardous wastes are produced from laboratory animals" carcasses, which were used in educational and research activities. These carcasses are mixed with other wastes while they are contaminated with pathogenic organisms, toxic and chemical agents. These wastes can contaminate environment and threaten human s health. So, carcasses produced in laboratories should be collected and handle with a specific method in order to destruct in an incinerator. Methods: In this study, methods of collection, storge and destruction of laboratory animals" carcasses in Isfahan university of medical Sciences were evaluated during four months. Specific questionnaires were used for data collection. The mean weight of carcasses of each labratories, produced within a week, were calculated. DRE (Destruction and Removal Efficacy in different Temperatures in the incinerator were calculated. Results: Mean weight of laboratory animals" carcasses produced during a week in all the laboratories were 20kg. DRE in the incinerator were 9S.39% in 750.C temperature during 1 hour, 94.20% in 850°c temperature during 30 minutes, 94.10% in 950°c temperature during 20 minutes and 94.80% in 1000°c temperature during 15 minutes. Discussion: According to laboratory animals" carcasses contamination with pathogenic organisms, toxic and chemical agents, present methods of collection, storage and destruction aren"t standard and healthy. Also, due to low amout of carcasses daily production, everyday destruction of these carcasses isn"t economic. As a result, carcasses produced everyday should be stored in a collecting box under zero temperature and destruct at the end of the week in the designed incinerator in 1000°c temperature .

  12. A pilot study comparing three salivary collection methods in an adult population with salivary gland hypofunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, R; Navazesh, M; Wood, G J

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to compare the reliability of three collection methods (draining, chewing of gum base, and the Saxon test) for whole saliva using a sample of middle-aged and older ambulatory adults (n = 18) with proven salivary gland hypofunction. The results demonstrated high reliability (r values ranging from 0.91 to 0.80, p < 0.001) for all three methods. MANOVA analysis revealed significant (p < 0.001) differences in flow rates among the draining, chewing-stimulated, and Saxon methods.

  13. Web-based Survey Data Collection With Peer Support and Advocacy Organizations: Implications of Participatory Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrow, Laysha; Penney, Darby; Stuart, Elizabeth; Leaf, Phillip J

    2017-01-01

    The 2012 National Survey of Peer-Run Organizations is one of the first to survey a nationally representative sample of mental health peer-run organizations, nonprofit venues for support and advocacy which are defined by people with psychiatric histories being in positions of authority and control. This paper describes data collection methods and demonstrates how participatory strategies to involve people with psychiatric histories intersected with Internet research to achieve study aims. People with psychiatric histories were involved in designing and implementing a web-based survey to collect data on peer-run organizations' operations and views on national policy. Participatory approaches were used throughout design, data collection analysis, and dissemination. The extensive involvement of people with psychiatric histories in project design and implementation were important strategies that contributed to this study's success.

  14. A simple and novel method for retrieval of Pasteurellaceae from swab samples collected in the field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mie J; Bertelsen, Mads F; Dietz, Rune

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally it has been difficult or impossible to collect and preserve bacterial samples of especially fastidious bacteria in mixed primary cultures, unless the samples could be transported to a laboratory within approximately 24 h. Therefore, a simple novel method for preserving swab samples...... until bacterial isolation can be completed in the laboratory was developed and evaluated. Pasteurellaceae bacteria were used as a representative for fastidious bacteria. A 7.5% glucose serum medium was used as freeze medium. Swab samples were soaked in the medium a maximum of 2 h after collection...... and 30 days prior to plating. From a field setting in Greenland, eight polar bear samples were collected and subsequently stored for 240 to 259 days at -20°C before incubation. Pasteurellaceae bacteria were isolated and genotyped from all samples stored in the freeze medium, indicating that the medium...

  15. Setting health research priorities using the CHNRI method: V. Quantitative properties of human collective knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudan, Igor; Yoshida, Sachiyo; Wazny, Kerri; Chan, Kit Yee; Cousens, Simon

    2016-06-01

    The CHNRI method for setting health research priorities has crowdsourcing as the major component. It uses the collective opinion of a group of experts to generate, assess and prioritize between many competing health research ideas. It is difficult to compare the accuracy of human individual and collective opinions in predicting uncertain future outcomes before the outcomes are known. However, this limitation does not apply to existing knowledge, which is an important component underlying opinion. In this paper, we report several experiments to explore the quantitative properties of human collective knowledge and discuss their relevance to the CHNRI method. We conducted a series of experiments in groups of about 160 (range: 122-175) undergraduate Year 2 medical students to compare their collective knowledge to their individual knowledge. We asked them to answer 10 questions on each of the following: (i) an area in which they have a degree of expertise (undergraduate Year 1 medical curriculum); (ii) an area in which they likely have some knowledge (general knowledge); and (iii) an area in which they are not expected to have any knowledge (astronomy). We also presented them with 20 pairs of well-known celebrities and asked them to identify the older person of the pair. In all these experiments our goal was to examine how the collective answer compares to the distribution of students' individual answers. When answering the questions in their own area of expertise, the collective answer (the median) was in the top 20.83% of the most accurate individual responses; in general knowledge, it was in the top 11.93%; and in an area with no expertise, the group answer was in the top 7.02%. However, the collective answer based on mean values fared much worse, ranging from top 75.60% to top 95.91%. Also, when confronted with guessing the older of the two celebrities, the collective response was correct in 18/20 cases (90%), while the 8 most successful individuals among the

  16. A Multimetric Benthic Macroinvertebrate Index for the Assessment of Stream Biotic Integrity in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soon-Jin Hwang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available At a time when anthropogenic activities are increasingly disturbing the overall ecological integrity of freshwater ecosystems, monitoring of biological communities is central to assessing the health and function of streams. This study aimed to use a large nation-wide database to develop a multimetric index (the Korean Benthic macroinvertebrate Index of Biological Integrity—KB-IBI applicable to the biological assessment of Korean streams. Reference and impaired conditions were determined based on watershed, chemical and physical criteria. Eight of an initial 34 candidate metrics were selected using a stepwise procedure that evaluated metric variability, redundancy, sensitivity and responsiveness to environmental gradients. The selected metrics were number of taxa, percent Ephemeroptera-Plecoptera-Trichoptera (EPT individuals, percent of a dominant taxon, percent taxa abundance without Chironomidae, Shannon’s diversity index, percent gatherer individuals, ratio of filterers and scrapers, and the Korean saprobic index. Our multimetric index successfully distinguished reference from impaired conditions. A scoring system was established for each core metric using its quartile range and response to anthropogenic disturbances. The multimetric index was classified by aggregating the individual metric ..scores and the value range was quadrisected to provide a narrative criterion (Poor, Fair, Good and Excellent to describe the biological integrity of the streams in the study. A validation procedure showed that the index is an effective method for evaluating stream conditions, and thus is appropriate for use in future studies measuring the long-term status of streams, and the effectiveness of restoration methods.

  17. A New Method for Quick and Easy Hemolymph Collection from Apidae Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsuk, Grzegorz; Ptaszyńska, Aneta A.; Olszewski, Krzysztof; Domaciuk, Marcin; Krutmuang, Patcharin; Paleolog, Jerzy

    2017-01-01

    Bio-analysis of insects is increasingly dependent on highly sensitive methods that require high quality biological material, such as hemolymph. However, it is difficult to collect fresh and uncontaminated hemolymph from adult bees since they are very active and have the potential to sting, and because hemolymph is rapidly melanized. Here we aimed to develop and test a quick and easy method for sterile and contamination-free hemolymph sampling from adult Apidae. Our novel antennae method for hemolymph sampling (AMHS), entailed the detachment of an antenna, followed by application of delicate pressure to the bee's abdomen. This resulted in the appearance of a drop of hemolymph at the base of the detached antenna, which was then aspirated using an automatic pipetter. Larger insect size corresponded to easier and faster hemolymph sampling, and to a greater sample volume. We obtained 80–100 μL of sterile non-melanized hemolymph in 1 minute from one Bombus terrestris worker, in 6 minutes from 10 Apis mellifera workers, and in 15 minutes from 18 Apis cerana workers (+/−0.5 minutes). Compared to the most popular method of hemolymph collection, in which hemolymph is sampled by puncturing the dorsal sinus of the thorax with a capillary (TCHS), significantly fewer bees were required to collect 80–100 μL hemolymph using our novel AMHS method. Moreover, the time required for hemolymph collection was significantly shorter using the AMHS compared to the TCHS, which protects the acquired hemolymph against melanization, thus providing the highest quality material for biological analysis. PMID:28125668

  18. Dental non-linear image registration and collection method with 3D reconstruction and change detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmes, Mark; Fagan, Dean; Lemieux, George

    2017-03-01

    The capability of a software algorithm to automatically align same-patient dental bitewing and panoramic x-rays over time is complicated by differences in collection perspectives. We successfully used image correlation with an affine transform for each pixel to discover common image borders, followed by a non-linear homography perspective adjustment to closely align the images. However, significant improvements in image registration could be realized if images were collected from the same perspective, thus facilitating change analysis. The perspective differences due to current dental image collection devices are so significant that straightforward change analysis is not possible. To address this, a new custom dental tray could be used to provide the standard reference needed for consistent positioning of a patient's mouth. Similar to sports mouth guards, the dental tray could be fabricated in standard sizes from plastic and use integrated electronics that have been miniaturized. In addition, the x-ray source needs to be consistently positioned in order to collect images with similar angles and scales. Solving this pose correction is similar to solving for collection angle in aerial imagery for change detection. A standard collection system would provide a method for consistent source positioning using real-time sensor position feedback from a digital x-ray image reference. Automated, robotic sensor positioning could replace manual adjustments. Given an image set from a standard collection, a disparity map between images can be created using parallax from overlapping viewpoints to enable change detection. This perspective data can be rectified and used to create a three-dimensional dental model reconstruction.

  19. Evaluation of academic library collection using a check-list method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kornelija Petr Balog

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the quality of the ILS library collection of the Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences (FHSS in Osijek, Croatia and its congruence with the curriculum. The quality of the collection is measured using the check-list method. The required and optional reading lists of the Department of Information Sciences at the FHSS (academic year 2011/2012 are used as standard lists that the library holdings are compared to. The results found that the library does not have 30.8 per cent of the titles on the reading lists. The remaining 33.9 per cent of the titles are accessible in the library, 28.5 per cent are free electronic resources, and 6.8 per cent of titles are accessible for students through the Department’s Moodle, Learning Management System. The study provides data about the titles available and not available in the FHSS library. However, it does not differentiate between the titles on the required and optional reading lists. This study provides the FHSS librarians with the list of titles that should be obtained in the near future. In Croatia, very few papers on collection assessment have been published so far, and this is the first study about the quality of a library collection at the University of Osijek. The paper attempts to fill that gap and contribute to a deeper understanding of the quality of library collections in the Croatian academic setting.

  20. Application of the SCC method to the multi-O(4) model: The collective Hamiltonian

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU JianZhong; KOBAYASI Masato

    2009-01-01

    The collective Hamiltonian up to the fourth order for a multi-O(4) model is derived for the first time based on the self-consistent collective-coordinate (SCC) method,which is formulated in the framework of the time-dependent Hartree-Bogoliubov (TDHB) theory.This collective Hamiltonian is valid for the spherical case where the HB equilibrium point of the multi-O(4) model is spherical as well as for the deformed case where the HB equilibrium points are deformed.Its validity is tested numerically in both the spherical and deformed cases.Numerical simulations indicate that the low-lying states of the collective Hamiltonian and the transition amplitudes among them mimic fairly well those obtained by exactly diagonalizing the Hamiltonian of the multi-O(4) model.The numerical results for the deformed case imply that the "optimized RPA boundary condition" is also valid for the well-known η*,η expansion around the unstable HB point of the multi-O(4) model.All these illuminate the power of the SCC method.

  1. Application of the SCC method to the multi-O(4) model:The collective Hamiltonian

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KOBAYASI; Masato

    2009-01-01

    The collective Hamiltonian up to the fourth order for a multi-O(4) model is derived for the first time based on the self-consistent collective-coordinate(SCC) method,which is formulated in the framework of the time-dependent Hartree-Bogoliubov(TDHB) theory.This collective Hamiltonian is valid for the spherical case where the HB equilibrium point of the multi-O(4) model is spherical as well as for the deformed case where the HB equilibrium points are deformed.Its validity is tested numerically in both the spherical and deformed cases.Numerical simulations indicate that the low-lying states of the collective Hamiltonian and the transition amplitudes among them mimic fairly well those obtained by exactly diagonalizing the Hamiltonian of the multi-O(4) model.The numerical results for the deformed case imply that the "optimized RPA boundary condition" is also valid for the well-known η*,η expansion around the unstable HB point of the multi-O(4) model.All these illuminate the power of the SCC method.

  2. Numerical solution of the stochastic collection equation—comparison of the Linear Discrete Method with other methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmel, Martin; Trautmann, Thomas; Tetzlaff, Gerd

    The Linear Discrete Method is used to solve the Stochastic Collection Equation (SCE) numerically. Comparisons are made with the Method of Moments, the Berry-Reinhardt model and the Linear Flux Method. Simulations for all numerical methods are shown for the kernel after Golovin [Bull. Acad. Sci. USSR, Geophys. Ser. 5 (1963) 783] and are compared with the analytical solution for two different initial distributions. BRM seems to give the best results and LDM gives good results, too. LFM overestimates the drop growth for the right tail of the distribution and MOM does the same but over the entire drop spectrum. For the hydrodynamic kernel after Long [J. Atmos. Sci. 31 (1974) 1040], simulations are presented using the four numerical methods (LDM, MOM, BRM, LFM). Especially for high resolutions, the solutions of LDM and LFM approach each other very closely. In addition, LDM simulations using the hydrodynamic kernel after Böhm [Atmos. Res. 52 (1999) 167] are presented, which show good correspondence between low- and high-resolution results. Computation efficiency is especially important when numerical schemes are to be included in larger models. Therefore, the computation times of the four methods were compared for the cases with the Golovin kernel. The result is that LDM is the fastest method by far, needing less time than other methods by a factor of 2-7, depending on the case and the bin resolution. For high resolutions, MOM is the slowest. For the lowest resolution, this holds for LFM.

  3. Influence of salinity and prey presence on the survival of aquatic macroinvertebrates of a freshwater marsh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sung-Ryong; King, Sammy L.

    2012-01-01

    Salinization of coastal freshwater environments is a global issue. Increased salinity from sea level rise, storm surges, or other mechanisms is common in coastal freshwater marshes of Louisiana, USA. The effects of salinity increases on aquatic macroinvertebrates in these systems have received little attention, despite the importance of aquatic macroinvertebrates for nutrient cycling, biodiversity, and as a food source for vertebrate species. We used microcosm experiments to evaluate the effects of salinity, duration of exposure, and prey availability on the relative survival of dominant aquatic macroinvertebrates (i.e., Procambarus clarkii Girard, Cambarellus puer Hobbs, Libellulidae, Dytiscidae cybister) in a freshwater marsh of southwestern Louisiana. We hypothesized that increased salinity, absence of prey, and increased duration of exposure would decrease survival of aquatic macroinvertebrates and that crustaceans would have higher survival than aquatic insect taxon. Our first hypothesis was only partially supported as only salinity increases combined with prolonged exposure duration affected aquatic macroinvertebrate survival. Furthermore, crustaceans had higher survival than aquatic insects. Salinity stress may cause mortality when acting together with other stressful conditions.

  4. In situ effects of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on community structure of freshwater benthic macroinvertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanović, Boris; Milošević, Djuradj; Piperac, Milica Stojković; Savić, Ana

    2016-06-01

    For the first time in the current literature, the effect of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles on the community structure of macroinvertebrates has been investigated in situ. Macroinvertebrates were exposed for 100 days to an environmentally relevant concentration of TiO2 nanoparticles, 25 mg kg(-1) in sediment. Czekanowski's index was 0.61, meaning 39% of the macroinvertebrate community structure was affected by the TiO2 treatment. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) visualized the qualitative and quantitative variability of macroinvertebrates at the community level among all samples. A distance-based permutational multivariate analysis of variance (PERMANOVA) revealed the significant effect of TiO2 on the macroinvertebrate community structure. The indicator value analysis showed that the relative frequency and abundance of Planorbarius corneus and Radix labiata were significantly lower in the TiO2 treatment than in the control. Meanwhile, Ceratopogonidae, showed a significantly higher relative frequency and abundance in the TiO2 treatment than in the control.

  5. Eucalypt plantations reduce the diversity of macroinvertebrates in small forested streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cordero–Rivera, A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Land use patterns of a river basin have a significant effect on the structure and function of river ecosystems. Changes in the composition of riparian plant communities modify the quantity, quality and seasonality of leaf–litter inputs, determining changes in macroinvertebrate colonization and activity. The main goal of this study was to test the effect of land–use modifications, and particularly the impact of eucalypt plantations, on the macroinvertebrate communities of sixteen headwater streams. Macroinvertebrates were counted and identified to family level. Land uses were classified in five categories using aerial photography: native forest, eucalypt plantations, agricultural land, shrubland, and urban areas. We found that macroinvertebrate diversity increased with basin size and with the proportion of basin covered by native forest. This variable correlated negatively with the land occupied by eucalypt plantations. Macroinvertebrate richness diminished with the increase of land surface covered by eucalypt plantations, and a similar tendency was observed with diversity. Furthermore, streams whose drainage basin was mainly covered by Eucalyptus were more likely to dry up in summer. This observation adds to evidence from previous studies that concluded that fast–growing tree plantations affect hydric resources, an important ecosystem service in the context of global warming. To minimize the impact of industrial sylviculture, we suggest that maintaining and/or restoring riparian forests could mitigate the effects of intensive eucalypt monocultures.

  6. Aquatic macrophyte and macroinvertebrate diversity and conservation in wetlands of the Sinos River basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltchik, L; Rolon, A S; Stenert, C

    2010-12-01

    Wetlands are important sites for biological conservation because they support rich biodiversity and present high productivity. Species-area relationship is an important tool in conservation planning and it has been extensively used for wetland management. This study had as aims: (1) to analyse macrophyte and macroinvertebrate diversity in the fragmented wetlands of the Sinos River basin; and (2) to investigate whether wetland areas could work as a tool for selecting the important habitats for biodiversity conservation. Throughout the study, 56 species of macrophytes and 57 taxa of macroinvertebrates were identified. Macrophyte richness was related to the wetland area, but macroinvertebrate richness, however, was not related to the wetland area. The macrophyte and macroinvertebrate composition were not related to the wetland area. Species composition varied between the regions of the basin and the difference in the species composition occurred mainly by the distribution of macroinvertebrates. With regard to the biodiversity conservation of the Sinos River basin, the wetland area must not be a priority criterion for choosing the important wetlands for conservation. The environmental policies for biodiversity conservation must include management actions focused also on the protection of small wetlands. Moreover, other criteria should be analysed in further research such as habitat diversity, hydroperiod, geographic distribution and connectivity.

  7. Short-term effects of visitor trampling on macroinvertebrates in karst streams in an ecotourism region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escarpinati, Suzana Cunha; Siqueira, Tadeu; Medina-Jr, Paulino Barroso; de Oliveira Roque, Fabio

    2014-03-01

    In order to evaluate the potential risks of human visitation on macroinvertebrate communities in streams, we investigated the effect of trampling using two short-term experiments conducted in a Brazilian ecotourism karst region. We asked three questions: (a) Does trampling increase the drift rate of aquatic macroinvertebrates and organic matter? (b) Does trampling change the macroinvertebrate community organization? (c) If trampling alters the community structure, is a short time (5 days, a between weekends interval - peaks of tourism activities) sufficient for community restructuring? Analysis of variance of richness, total abundance, abundance of the most abundant genus (e.g., Simothraulopsis and Callibaetis), and community composition showed that trampling immediately affects macroinvertebrate community and that the intervals between the peaks of visitation (5 days) are not sufficient to complete community restructuring. Considering that bathing areas receive thousands of visitors every year and that intervals of time without visitation are nearly nonexistent, we suspect that the negative effects on the macroinvertebrate community occur in a cumulative way. Finally, we discuss some simple procedures that could potentially be used for reducing trampling impacts in lotic environments.

  8. Epigeal and Hypogeal Macroinvertebrate Diversity in Different Microhabitats of the Yusmarg Hill Resort (Kashmir, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abroo Ali

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Soil macroinvertebrate communities are important within the soil system and contribute to a wide variety of soil processes. A soil study was conducted to assess the composition and diversity of soil macroinvertebrates in Yusmarg hill resort of Kashmir valley at four sites characterised by different types of vegetation and interferences like grazing or fencing, during the months of May, June, November and December 2010. During the study, it was observed that different sites exhibited variations in diversity of both epigeal as well as hypogeal soil macroinvertebrates. For epigeal macroinvertebrates, highest diversity was recorded in forest edge (2.089 and inner forest (2.058 and relatively low diversity in grazed (1.61 and fenced areas (1.09. For hypogeal macroinvertebrates, diversity was recorded highest for inner forest site (2.216 than forest edge (1.9 and relatively lower in fenced (1.22 and grazed (1.21 sites. The physical disturbance in the form of grazing and fencing probably reduce the diversity of the soil macro fauna as is inferred from the present study.

  9. Finding the Place of Everyday Beauty: Correspondence as a Method of Data Collection

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    Pauliina Rautio

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Researching aesthetic engaging with one's surroundings in everyday life led the author to use correspondence as a method of data collection. In this paper she presents her research design and discusses correspondence as an underused method. She introduces the concepts of invisibility, time, and tangibility in defining correspondence as a method. The topic of the correspondence in her research was beauty. In common use beautiful signals that which is desirable. As an evaluative and a future-oriented statement everyday beauty seems to have a place in steering our lives. The participants accounted as beautiful the different meaningful relations they had formed over time to their surroundings. These relations were in constant change as the participants themselves changed over time. The author argues that correspondence is a method that works well in cumulating data for research. It has also proven to be a rewarding method for the participants.

  10. Long–term functional group recovery of lotic macroinvertebrates from logging disturbance.Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damon T. Ely; J. Bruce Wallace

    2010-01-01

    Clear-cut logging rapidly affects stream macroinvertebrates through substantial alteration of terrestrial–aquatic resource linkages; however, lesser known are the long-term influences of forest succession on benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages, which play key roles in stream ecosystem function. We compared secondary production and standing crops of detritus in two...

  11. Associations Between Macroinvertebrates and Paralemanea mexicana, an Endemic Freshwater Red Alga from a Mountain River in Central Mexico

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Caro-Borrero, A; Carmona-Jiménez, J

    2016-01-01

    .... They may also be used as a food source by macroinvertebrates. The main goal of this study was to determine the relationship between the red alga Paralemanea mexicana and its role as a shelter and/or food source for lotic macroinvertebrates...

  12. Toponymic Lexicography and Methods of Fieldwork Material Collection (1900-1920s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezhda M. Ivashova

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The author studies the early stage of the history of toponymic lexicography and field studies in Russia. More particularly the article focuses on the discussion provoked by I. P. Filevitch’s report “On elaboration of geographic nomenclature” at the Archeological Congress in Odessa (1896, as well as on some publications of 1920s containing results of toponymic research, revealing the importance of collecting toponyms, considering different aspects of toponymic studies, elaborating methods of fieldwork.

  13. To spear or not to spear: comparison of saliva collection methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donzella, Bonny; Talge, Nicole M; Smith, Tiffany L; Gunnar, Megan R

    2008-11-01

    The eye spear, or an absorbent sponge-like material, has been proposed as a useful method of obtaining repeated saliva samples from infants and young children for cortisol determination. This brief report examines possible interference effects of different types of eye spears under conditions of relatively high and low cortisol levels, with or without the use of oral stimulant, and using two common assays. In Study 1, one type of eye spear was compared to passively collected drool using two different assays (EIA, DELFIA), across high and low concentrations of cortisol. No differences were found between methods for either assay or cortisol level, indicating that the spears are potentially a viable method of collecting saliva. Study 2 compared three other types of absorbent eye spears to passive drooling under the presence or absence of oral stimulant use. This study revealed that the degree of interference varied as a function of the specific type of eye spear that was employed; stimulant use had no effect. Taken together, the results raise important considerations to take into account when selecting collection materials and procedures in the measurement of salivary cortisol.

  14. Responses to mental health stigma questions: the importance of social desirability and data collection method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Claire; Evans-Lacko, Sara; Flach, Clare; Thornicroft, Graham

    2012-03-01

    To evaluate the impact on the general public of England's Time to Change program to reduce mental health-related stigma and discrimination using newly developed measures of knowledge and intended behaviour regarding people with mental health problems, and an established attitudes scale, and to investigate whether social desirability affects responses to the new measures and test whether this varies according to data collection method. The Mental Health Knowledge Schedule (MAKS) and Reported and Intended Behaviour Scale (RIBS) were administered together with the 13-item version of the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale to 2 samples (each n = 196) drawn from the Time to Change mass media campaign target group; one group was interviewed face to face, while the other completed the measures as an online survey. After controlling for other covariates, interaction terms between collection method and social desirability were positive for each instrument. The social desirability score was associated with the RIBS score in the face-to-face group only (β = 0.35, 95% CI 0.14 to 0.57), but not with the MAKS score in either group; however, MAKS scores were more likely to be positive when data were collected face to face (β = 1.53, 95% CI 0.74 to 2.32). Behavioural intentions toward people with mental health problems may be better assessed using online self-complete methods than in-person interviews. The effect of face-to-face interviewing on knowledge requires further investigation.

  15. Assessment of Constructed Wetland Biological Integrity Using Aquatic Macroinvertebrates

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    C. Galbrand

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A surface flow constructed wetland consisting of seven cells was used to treat the leachates from a decommissioned landfill. Wetland monitoring was performed by evaluating the treatment efficiency of the landfill leachate and the wetland biological integrity of the wetland. The water quality samples were analyzed for iron, manganese, phosphorus (orthophosphate, pH, dissolved oxygen (DO, nitrogen (ammonia, nitrate, nitrite and TKN, chemical oxygen demand (COD, total suspended solids (TSS and total dissolved solids (TDS. Aquatic macroinvertebrates were examined using Average Score per Taxon (ASPT via the Biological Monitoring Working Party (BMWP biotic index, the Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera, Sphaeriidae and Odonata (ETSD biotic index, abundance of mayflies and trophic structure. Reductions of 49.66, 66.66, 1.91, 46.37 and 8.33% were obtained for manganese, orthophosphate, TSS, TDS and COD, respectively. The nitrite, dissolved oxygen and iron concentrations were not in accordance with the water quality guidelines for aquatic life. ASPT, ETSD, percent abundance of mayflies and trophic structure represented moderate to moderately-poor water quality in comparison to a high quality reference site. Iron had most adverse effect on the biological system of the wetland.

  16. Aquatic macroinvertebrate responses to native and non-native predators

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    Haddaway N. R.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-native species can profoundly affect native ecosystems through trophic interactions with native species. Native prey may respond differently to non-native versus native predators since they lack prior experience. Here we investigate antipredator responses of two common freshwater macroinvertebrates, Gammarus pulex and Potamopyrgus jenkinsi, to olfactory cues from three predators; sympatric native fish (Gasterosteus aculeatus, sympatric native crayfish (Austropotamobius pallipes, and novel invasive crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus. G. pulex responded differently to fish and crayfish; showing enhanced locomotion in response to fish, but a preference for the dark over the light in response to the crayfish. P.jenkinsi showed increased vertical migration in response to all three predator cues relative to controls. These different responses to fish and crayfish are hypothesised to reflect the predators’ differing predation types; benthic for crayfish and pelagic for fish. However, we found no difference in response to native versus invasive crayfish, indicating that prey naiveté is unlikely to drive the impacts of invasive crayfish. The Predator Recognition Continuum Hypothesis proposes that benefits of generalisable predator recognition outweigh costs when predators are diverse. Generalised responses of prey as observed here will be adaptive in the presence of an invader, and may reduce novel predators’ potential impacts.

  17. Analysis And Assessment Of The Security Method Against Incidental Contamination In The Collective Water Supply System

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    Szpak Dawid

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the main types of surface water incidental contaminations and the security method against incidental contamination in water sources. Analysis and assessment the collective water supply system (CWSS protection against incidental contamination was conducted. Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA was used. The FMEA method allow to use the product or process analysis, identification of weak points, and implementation the corrections and new solutions for eliminating the source of undesirable events. The developed methodology was shown in application case. It was found that the risk of water contamination in water-pipe network of the analyzed CWSS caused by water source incidental contamination is at controlled level.

  18. Catchment land-use effects on littoral macroinvertebrates in response to local habitat structure and trophic state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGoff, Elaine; Sandin, Leif Leonard

    2012-01-01

    macroinvertebrate community structure: trophic status, substrate variables or riparian variables. We also investigated what influence each of these groups of variables has on the other. The impact of large scale land use patterns was also investigated, to determine if macroinvertebrates responded differently in two...... different catchment land use types: impaired and unimpaired. Partial canonical ordination analysis showed that substrate variables were the most important for describing macroinvertebrate community variation in both catchment land use classes, followed by riparian descriptors, with the trophic signal only....... The macroinvertebrate community composition was also responding to changes in riparian vegetation, specifically the presence of riparian trees and canopy cover. These variables, or lack of, are possible proxies for anthropogenic alteration of lake shores. Therefore, although macroinvertebrates may not be strong...

  19. Long-Term Impacts on Macroinvertebrates Downstream of Reclaimed Mountaintop Mining Valley Fills in Central Appalachia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pond, Gregory J.; Passmore, Margaret E.; Pointon, Nancy D.; Felbinger, John K.; Walker, Craig A.; Krock, Kelly J. G.; Fulton, Jennifer B.; Nash, Whitney L.

    2014-10-01

    Recent studies have documented adverse effects to biological communities downstream of mountaintop coal mining and valley fills (VF), but few data exist on the longevity of these impacts. We sampled 15 headwater streams with VFs reclaimed 11-33 years prior to 2011 and sampled seven local reference sites that had no VFs. We collected chemical, habitat, and benthic macroinvertebrate data in April 2011; additional chemical samples were collected in September 2011. To assess ecological condition, we compared VF and reference abiotic and biotic data using: (1) ordination to detect multivariate differences, (2) benthic indices (a multimetric index and an observed/expected predictive model) calibrated to state reference conditions to detect impairment, and (3) correlation and regression analysis to detect relationships between biotic and abiotic data. Although VF sites had good instream habitat, nearly 90 % of these streams exhibited biological impairment. VF sites with higher index scores were co-located near unaffected tributaries; we suggest that these tributaries were sources of sensitive taxa as drifting colonists. There were clear losses of expected taxa across most VF sites and two functional feeding groups (% scrapers and %shredders) were significantly altered. Percent VF and forested area were related to biological quality but varied more than individual ions and specific conductance. Within the subset of VF sites, other descriptors (e.g., VF age, site distance from VF, the presence of impoundments, % forest) had no detectable relationships with biological condition. Although these VFs were constructed pursuant to permits and regulatory programs that have as their stated goals that (1) mined land be reclaimed and restored to its original use or a use of higher value, and (2) mining does not cause or contribute to violations of water quality standards, we found sustained ecological damage in headwaters streams draining VFs long after reclamation was completed.

  20. Transfer of mercury and methylmercury along macroinvertebrate food chains in a floodplain lake of the Beni River, Bolivian Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina, Carlos Israel, E-mail: camoar6088@gmail.com [Instituto de Ecologia, Unidad de Limnologia, UMSA, Casilla postal 10077, La Paz (Bolivia, Plurinational State of); Institut de Recherche pour le Developpement IRD, Casilla postal 9214, La Paz (Bolivia, Plurinational State of); CONICET-Facultad de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Tucuman, Miguel Lillo 205, 4 000, Tucuman (Argentina); Gibon, Francois-Marie [Institut de Recherche pour le Developpement IRD, Casilla postal 9214, La Paz (Bolivia, Plurinational State of); IRD, UMR BOREA, Museum national d' Histoire Naturelle MNHN, Case postale 26, 75231, Paris cedex 05 (France); Duprey, Jean-Louis [Institut de Recherche pour le Developpement IRD, Casilla postal 9214, La Paz (Bolivia, Plurinational State of); Dominguez, Eduardo [CONICET-Facultad de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Tucuman, Miguel Lillo 205, 4 000, Tucuman (Argentina); Guimaraes, Jean-Remy D. [Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Bloco G-CCS, Rio de Janeiro, CEP 21949-900 (Brazil); Roulet, Marc [Institut de Recherche pour le Developpement IRD, Casilla postal 9214, La Paz (Bolivia, Plurinational State of)

    2010-07-15

    We have evaluated the mercury and methylmercury transfers to and within the macroinvertebrate communities of a floodplain lake of the Beni River basin, Bolivia, during three hydrological seasons and in two habitats (open water and vegetation belt). Using the stable isotopes {delta}{sup 13}C and {delta}{sup 15}N, six trophic chains were identified during a previous study. Four are based on only one source: seston, organic matter from the bottom sediment, periphyton and macrophytes. Two are based on mixed sources (seston and periphyton in one case, periphyton and macrophytes in the other). During sampling, we found only one taxon that had surface sediment organic matter as food source and very few taxa whose trophic source was constituted by macrophytes. The periphyton was the most important source during all seasons; it produced the longest chain, with three trophic positions. Whatever the season and trophic source, all collected macroinvertebrates contained methyl mercury and the latter was biomagnified in all trophic chains that we identified. The biomagnification of methylmercury through invertebrate trophic chains accurately reflected the existence and length of these chains. Biomagnification was virtually non-existent in the sediment-based chain, low and restricted to the dry season in the macrophyte-based chain. It was significant in the seston-based chain, but limited by the existence of only two trophic levels and restricted to the wet season. Finally, it was very effective in the periphyton-based chain, which offers the highest rate of contamination of the source but, above all, the largest number of trophic levels.

  1. Comparison of indoor air sampling and dust collection methods for fungal exposure assessment using quantitative PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Jennie; Indugula, Reshmi; Vesper, Stephen; Zhu, Zheng; Jandarov, Roman; Reponen, Tiina

    2017-08-31

    Evaluating fungal contamination indoors is complicated because of the many different sampling methods utilized. In this study, fungal contamination was evaluated using five sampling methods and four matrices for results. The five sampling methods were a 48 hour indoor air sample collected with a Button™ inhalable aerosol sampler and four types of dust samples: a vacuumed floor dust sample, newly settled dust collected for four weeks onto two types of electrostatic dust cloths (EDCs) in trays, and a wipe sample of dust from above floor surfaces. The samples were obtained in the bedrooms of asthmatic children (n = 14). Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was used to analyze the dust and air samples for the 36 fungal species that make up the Environmental Relative Moldiness Index (ERMI). The results from the samples were compared by four matrices: total concentration of fungal cells, concentration of fungal species associated with indoor environments, concentration of fungal species associated with outdoor environments, and ERMI values (or ERMI-like values for air samples). The ERMI values for the dust samples and the ERMI-like values for the 48 hour air samples were not significantly different. The total cell concentrations of the 36 species obtained with the four dust collection methods correlated significantly (r = 0.64-0.79, p sampling methods (r = 0.68-0.86, p samples primarily because of differences in concentrations of Cladosporium cladosporioides Type 1 and Epicoccum nigrum. A representative type of dust sample and a 48 hour air sample might both provide useful information about fungal exposures.

  2. A Europe-wide system for assessing the quality of rivers using macroinvertebrates: the AQEM Project* and its importance for southern Europe (with special emphasis on Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna L. KEMP

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The AQEM Project aims to develop a Europe-wide system for monitoring the ecological quality of rivers using macroinvertebrates, to satisfy the requirements of the EU Water Framework Directive. Three main types of anthropogenic perturbation are being investigated: morphological degradation, water (organic pollution and acidification (the last is not under investigation in Italy. The selection of reference and impaired study sites is discussed. Particular attention is paid to the problems encountered when defining reference conditions. The initial stages of the project highlighted the lack of a Europe-wide definition of river types. The future development of such a typology from the AQEM database is discussed. The standard AQEM data gathering methods are presented, from background information about sites to the microhabitat-based macroinvertebrate sampling method. The extended fieldwork methods used in Italy are described. These included the separate analysis of the invertebrate assemblages from each replicate, the recording of additional microhabitat variables for each replicate and the completion of large-scale survey techniques for each site (including RHS. The extended method was designed to enhance the important ecological information available from the dataset, particularly relevant in Italy where significant gaps exist in the taxonomic and ecological knowledge of many macroinvertebrate taxa. Preliminary and expected findings are presented, including examples of the range and habitat selection of two species of Ephemeroptera endemic to Italy, as well as data relating to the number of taxa found at a site with increasing numbers of microhabitat replicates taken. The importance of the AQEM Project not only for biomonitoring, but also for ecology, taxonomy and conservation, in Italy and for the south of Europe in general, is emphasised.

  3. Investigation of recoil collection method for production of high specific activity nuclear medicine isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, K Y; Kunze, J F; Ehrhardt, G J

    1999-09-01

    High specific activity radiopharmaceuticals cannot readily be produced by (n, gamma) reactions in nuclear reactors, because the great abundance of parent atoms remaining have the same chemical characteristics as the produced isotope. We have investigated the effectiveness of using recoil atom collection methods for separating the produced radioisotope. Gold-198, produced from isotopically pure (natural) gold-197, was chosen for these experiments, which were run in the high flux (approximately 10(14) n/cm2 s thermal flux) of the reflector of the University of Missouri Research Reactor. Seven separate experiments were run, with a 2 mm separation between the emitter and the collector. Collection efficiencies were only a few percent of the radioisotope atoms produced in the top atomic layer of the emitter, instead of the 30% range anticipated. Furthermore, the collected radioisotope, instead of being nearly pure, contained a large quantity of the parent. Unless the reason for the "contamination" of product with the parent can be reduced by several orders of magnitude, this "surface hot atom recoil" method appears to offer no practical application for nuclear medicine isotope production.

  4. An alternative method of chronic cerebrospinal fluid collection via the cisterna magna in conscious rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilberto, David B; Zeoli, Angela H; Szczerba, Peter J; Gehret, John R; Holahan, Marie A; Sitko, Gary R; Johnson, Colena A; Cook, Jacquelynn J; Motzel, Sherri L

    2003-07-01

    Models of chronic cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) collection previously have been established for nonhuman primates and canines; many of these methods implement stainless-steel cannulas into the lateral or 4th ventricles or catheters into the cerebral or spinal subarachnoid space. These models have proved successful and reliable but unfortunately require invasive techniques to pass through the skull or require a laminectomy to enter the spinal subarachnoid space, involve the use of expensive and highly specialized stereotaxic equipment for the precise placement of the implants, and may require exteriorized hardware which is cumbersome to maintain and unaesthetic. The model we developed for the rhesus monkey allows for direct access to CSF outflow from the cisterna magna by using a 3.5-French fenestrated silicone catheter which was placed 1.0 cm into the cisterna. The catheter was attached to a titanium port placed subcutaneously between the scapulae to permit easy access for sampling CSF in a conscious, chaired rhesus monkey. We currently have instrumented animals from which we have consistently collected CSF for over 18 months. This novel, economical, less-invasive method permits chronic, reliable collection of CSF in conscious rhesus monkeys and has the additional advantages that the model is easier to maintain and more aesthetic.

  5. Perfusion Method for Intra-bone Marrow Collection and Stem Cell Transplantation: A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korrapati, Narasimhulu; Nanganuru, Harikrishna Yadav

    2014-03-19

    A bone marrow transplant is a procedure to replace damaged or destroyed bone marrow with healthy bone marrow stem cells. Bone marrow is the soft, fatty tissue inside our bones. Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is a powerful strategy for the treatment of leukemia, aplastic anemia, congenital immunodeficiency and autoimmune diseases. In humans, bone marrow cells (BMCs) have usually been collected by multiple bone marrow aspirations from the iliac crest. We have established a new "perfusion" method for collecting BMCs with minimal contamination with the peripheral blood using the long bones of cynomolgus monkeys. This method has proven to be a simple and safe method for harvesting BMCs and reduces the risk of acute graft versus host disease in allogeneic BMT. Intra-bone marrow-BMT (IBM-BMT) provides distinct advantages because it recruits donor-derived hematopoietic stem cells and mesenchymal stem cells. IBM-BMT has been shown to currently be the best strategy for allogeneic BMT. Here we review the perfusion method (for harvesting BMCs) and IBM-BMT (for their transplantation) and show that this combination will become a powerful new clinical strategy for allogeneic BMT.

  6. Comparison of Different Blood Collection, Sample Matrix, and Immunoassay Methods in a Prenatal Screening Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen L. A. Pennings

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We compared how measurements of pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A and the free beta subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin (fβ-hCG in maternal blood are influenced by different methods for blood collection, sample matrix, and immunoassay platform. Serum and dried blood spots (DBS were obtained by venipuncture and by finger prick of 19 pregnant women. PAPP-A and fβ-hCG from serum and from DBS were measured by conventional indirect immunoassay on an AutoDELFIA platform and by antibody microarray. We compared methods based on the recoveries for both markers as well as marker levels correlations across samples. All method comparisons showed high correlations for both marker concentrations. Recovery levels of PAPP-A from DBS were 30% lower, while those of fβ-hCG from DBS were 50% higher compared to conventional venipuncture serum. The recoveries were not affected by blood collection or immunoassay method. The high correlation coefficients for both markers indicate that DBS from finger prick can be used reliably in a prenatal screening setting, as a less costly and minimally invasive alternative for venipuncture serum, with great logistical advantages. Additionally, the use of antibody arrays will allow for extending the number of first trimester screening markers on maternal and fetal health.

  7. Evaluating macroinvertebrate community shifts in the confluence of freestone and limestone streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer K. Hellmann

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic macroinvertebrates are critical to ecosystem functioning through their regulation of many essential top-down and bottom-up ecosystem processes such as energy translocation, nutrient flow, and detrital decomposition. However, specific preferences by macroinvertebrates for certain ranges of abiotic and biotic characteristics mean that changes in these factors often create large differences in benthic community structure. Investigations into drivers of community structure have found distinct patterns of variation between ecosystems, but drivers of macroscale variation may differ from drivers of microscale variation. Such microscale variation in macroinvertebrate community structure as a function of abiotic conditions may be found in the confluence of two geologically distinct freshwater streams. Variation in the origin, underlying bedrock, and watershed of a stream results in drastically different physical and chemical characteristics and correspondingly distinct macroinvertebrate community structures. In areas where water from geologically distinct streams flows together, a mixing zone emerges with unique chemical and physical characteristics. There is little information on how invertebrate communities are structured within this mixing zone. To investigate this, we examined how the structure of the macroinvertebrate community changed downstream of the confluence. Up to thirty metres downstream, we found distinct stream sections that mirrored physical and chemical conditions found in limestone and freestone streams, and a mixing zone with emergent properties. These physical and chemical changes between sites were accompanied by shifts in macroinvertebrate community composition. Diversity indices indicated significantly higher diversity in freestone sites than in limestone sites or the mixing zone and there was a unique composition of genera in the mixing zone that were distinct from both limestone and freestone sites. Factors driving

  8. Data collection costs in industrial environments for three occupational posture exposure assessment methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trask Catherine

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Documentation of posture measurement costs is rare and cost models that do exist are generally naïve. This paper provides a comprehensive cost model for biomechanical exposure assessment in occupational studies, documents the monetary costs of three exposure assessment methods for different stakeholders in data collection, and uses simulations to evaluate the relative importance of cost components. Methods Trunk and shoulder posture variables were assessed for 27 aircraft baggage handlers for 3 full shifts each using three methods typical to ergonomic studies: self-report via questionnaire, observation via video film, and full-shift inclinometer registration. The cost model accounted for expenses related to meetings to plan the study, administration, recruitment, equipment, training of data collectors, travel, and onsite data collection. Sensitivity analyses were conducted using simulated study parameters and cost components to investigate the impact on total study cost. Results Inclinometry was the most expensive method (with a total study cost of € 66,657, followed by observation (€ 55,369 and then self report (€ 36,865. The majority of costs (90% were borne by researchers. Study design parameters such as sample size, measurement scheduling and spacing, concurrent measurements, location and travel, and equipment acquisition were shown to have wide-ranging impacts on costs. Conclusions This study provided a general cost modeling approach that can facilitate decision making and planning of data collection in future studies, as well as investigation into cost efficiency and cost efficient study design. Empirical cost data from a large field study demonstrated the usefulness of the proposed models.

  9. Effects of mining activities on heavy metal concentrations in water, sediment, and macroinvertebrates in different reaches of the Pilcomayo River, South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolders, A J P; Lock, R A C; Van der Velde, G; Medina Hoyos, R I; Roelofs, J G M

    2003-04-01

    From 1997 until 1999 the extent and the ecological effects of zinc, copper, lead, and cadmium pollution were studied in different reaches of the South American Pilcomayo River. A comparison of metal concentrations in water, sediment, and chironomid larvae, as well as the diversity of macroinvertebrate species, was made between sites near the origin of the Pilcomayo River, with hardly any mining activities, sites in the Potosí region, with intensive mining, and sites located 500 km or further downstream of Potosí, in the Chaco plain. Samples were also collected in an unpolluted river (Cachi Mayu River) and in the Tarapaya River, which is strongly contaminated by mine tailings (1000 tons a day). The upper parts of the Pilcomayo River are strongly affected by the release of mine tailings from the Potosí mines where mean concentrations of lead, cadmium, copper, and zinc in water, filtered water, sediment, and chironomid larvae were up to a thousand times higher than the local background levels. The diversity of the benthic macroinvertebrate community was strongly reduced in the contaminated parts; 97% of the benthic macroinvertebrates consisted of chironomid larvae. The degree of contamination in the lower reaches of the river, however, was fairly low because of sedimentation processes and the strong dilution of mine tailings with enormous amounts of clean sediment from erosion processes. Analysis of sediment cores from the Ibibobo floodplain, however, reveal an increase of the heavy metal concentrations in the lower reaches since the introduction of the contaminating flotation process in the mine industry in 1985.

  10. Relationships between physical and chemical factors and aquatic macroinvertebrates in perennial streams in the arid northern mountain basin El Batinah, Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Boulaaba

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The relationships between physical properties, water chemistry and aquatic macroinvertebrates were investigated in riffles of four perennial streams in the arid northern Oman. Samples were collected monthly in autumn, winter and spring with a Surber net. Thirty two invertebrate taxa were recorded, most species are widely distributed, but few species with very restricted distribution were also captured. Diptera followed by Pulmonata, Coleoptera and Odonata were the most represented taxa, Trichoptera and Heteroptera were a significant component only in one station (the Fezeh, where the lowest mean water temperature (23°C was recorded. In the dry months from May to October, aquatic macroinvertebrates were completely absent. In order to summarise the community response some biotic indices were calculated. The highest diversity was observed in the Fezeh station. A seasonal gradient was also observed, with the highest diversity values in January, April, and December. The low faunal diversity was attributed to the high air and water temperature and the hydrological regime instability. A between station and a between month coinertia analysis was carried out, to analyse the response to spatial and seasonal factors. The first coinertia axis was correlated with altitude and substrate composition, while the second axis was correlated with air and water temperature. The present research emphasizes the urgency for preserving the less disturbed wadis in arid zones, because, despite their species poorness, their uniqueness in faunal composition requires special attention. The presence of few endemic species with very restricted distribution highlights the topicality and the value in investigating these areas, allowing the increase of our knowledge on biodiversity, ecology and biogeography about the benthic macroinvertebrates living in these extreme habitats.

  11. Relationships between benthic macroinvertebrate community structure and geospatial habitat, in-stream water chemistry, and surfactants in the effluent-dominated Trinity River, Texas, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slye, Jaime L; Kennedy, James H; Johnson, David R; Atkinson, Sam F; Dyer, Scott D; Ciarlo, Michael; Stanton, Kathleen; Sanderson, Hans; Nielsen, Allen M; Price, Bradford B

    2011-05-01

    Over the past 20 years, benthic macroinvertebrate community structure studies have been conducted on the upper Trinity River, Texas, USA, which is dominated by municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and industrial effluents. The Trinity River is located in the Dallas-Fort Worth metropolitan area, and is the most highly populated and industrialized watershed in Texas. As such, the Trinity River represents a near-worst-case scenario to examine the environmental effects of domestic-municipal and industrial effluents on aquatic life. A 1987 to 1988 study concluded that many stretches of the river supported a diverse benthic community structure; however, a decline in taxa richness occurred immediately downstream of WWTPs. A 2005 study designed to parallel the 1987 to 1988 efforts evaluated how changes in water quality, habitat, and increased urbanization impacted benthic community structure. Physicochemical measurements, habitat quality, geospatial variables, and benthic macroinvertebrates were collected from 10 sites. Surfactants were measured and toxic units (TUs) were calculated for surface water and pore water as indicators of domestic/household use of cleaning products. Total TUs indicated a low potential for biological impacts. Toxic unit distribution was not dependent on WWTP location and did not correlate with any benthic variable. Eight environmental parameters were determined to be useful for predicting changes in benthic macroinvertebrate community structure: surfactant surface water TUs (SWTU), in-stream habitat cover, and surface water total organic carbon were the top three parameters. Abundance, taxa richness, and taxa similarity in 2005 had increased since the earlier study throughout the immediate vicinity of the metropolitan area.

  12. Blow collection as a non-invasive method for measuring cortisol in the beluga (Delphinapterus leucas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura A Thompson

    Full Text Available Non-invasive sampling techniques are increasingly being used to monitor glucocorticoids, such as cortisol, as indicators of stressor load and fitness in zoo and wildlife conservation, research and medicine. For cetaceans, exhaled breath condensate (blow provides a unique sampling matrix for such purposes. The purpose of this work was to develop an appropriate collection methodology and validate the use of a commercially available EIA for measuring cortisol in blow samples collected from belugas (Delphinapterus leucas. Nitex membrane stretched over a petri dish provided the optimal method for collecting blow. A commercially available cortisol EIA for measuring human cortisol (detection limit 35 pg ml-1 was adapted and validated for beluga cortisol using tests of parallelism, accuracy and recovery. Blow samples were collected from aquarium belugas during monthly health checks and during out of water examination, as well as from wild belugas. Two aquarium belugas showed increased blow cortisol between baseline samples and 30 minutes out of water (Baseline, 0.21 and 0.04 µg dl-1; 30 minutes, 0.95 and 0.14 µg dl-1. Six wild belugas also showed increases in blow cortisol between pre and post 1.5 hour examination (Pre 0.03, 0.23, 0.13, 0.19, 0.13, 0.04 µg dl-1, Post 0.60, 0.31, 0.36, 0.24, 0.14, 0.16 µg dl-1. Though this methodology needs further investigation, this study suggests that blow sampling is a good candidate for non-invasive monitoring of cortisol in belugas. It can be collected from both wild and aquarium animals efficiently for the purposes of health monitoring and research, and may ultimately be useful in obtaining data on wild populations, including endangered species, which are difficult to handle directly.

  13. A simple web-based tool to compare freshwater fish data collected using AFS standard methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonar, Scott A.; Mercado-Silva, Norman; Rahr, Matt; Torrey, Yuta T.; Cate, Averill

    2016-01-01

    The American Fisheries Society (AFS) recently published Standard Methods for Sampling North American Freshwater Fishes. Enlisting the expertise of 284 scientists from 107 organizations throughout Canada, Mexico, and the United States, this text was developed to facilitate comparisons of fish data across regions or time. Here we describe a user-friendly web tool that automates among-sample comparisons in individual fish condition, population length-frequency distributions, and catch per unit effort (CPUE) data collected using AFS standard methods. Currently, the web tool (1) provides instantaneous summaries of almost 4,000 data sets of condition, length frequency, and CPUE of common freshwater fishes collected using standard gears in 43 states and provinces; (2) is easily appended with new standardized field data to update subsequent queries and summaries; (3) compares fish data from a particular water body with continent, ecoregion, and state data summaries; and (4) provides additional information about AFS standard fish sampling including benefits, ongoing validation studies, and opportunities to comment on specific methods. The web tool—programmed in a PHP-based Drupal framework—was supported by several AFS Sections, agencies, and universities and is freely available from the AFS website and fisheriesstandardsampling.org. With widespread use, the online tool could become an important resource for fisheries biologists.

  14. Methods for collection and analysis of geopressured geothermal and oil field waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lico, Michael S.; Kharaka, Yousif K.; Carothers, William W.; Wright, Victoria A.

    1982-01-01

    Present methods are described for the collection, preservation, and chemical analysis of waters produced from geopressured geothermal and petroleum wells. Detailed procedures for collection include precautions and equipment necessary to ensure that the sample is representative of the water produced. Procedures for sample preservation include filtration, acidification, dilution for silica, methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) extraction of aluminum, addition of potassium permanganate to preserve mercury, and precipitation of carbonate species as strontium carbonate for stable carbon isotopes and total dissolved carbonate analysis. Characteristics determined at the well site are sulfide, pH, ammonia, and conductivity. Laboratory procedures are given for the analysis of lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, cesium, magnesium, calcium, strontium, barium, iron, manganese, zinc, lead, aluminum, .and mercury by atomic absorption and flame emission spectroscopy. Chloride is determined by silver nitrate titration and fluoride by ion-specific electrode. Bromide and iodide concentrations are determined by the hypochlorite oxidation method. Sulfate is analyzed by titration using barium chloride with thorin indicator after pretreatment with alumina. Boron and silica are determined colorimetrically by the carmine and molybdate-blue methods, respectively. Aliphatic acid anions (C2 through C5) are determined by gas chromatography after separation and concentration in a chloroform-butanol mixture.

  15. A Throughfall Collection Method Using Mixed Bed Ion Exchange Resin Columns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark E. Fenn

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Measurement of ionic deposition in throughfall is a widely used method for measuring deposition inputs to the forest floor. Many studies have been published, providing a large database of throughfall deposition inputs to forests. However, throughfall collection and analysis is labor intensive and expensive because of the large number of replicate collectors needed and because sample collection and chemical analyses are required on a stochastic precipitation event-based schedule. Therefore we developed and tested a throughfall collector system using a mixed bed ion exchange resin column. We anticipate that this method will typically require only one to three samplings per year. With this method, bulk deposition and bulk throughfall are collected by a funnel or snow tube and ions are retained as the solution percolates through the resin column. Ions retained by the resin are then extracted in the same column with 2N KCl and analyzed for nitrate and ammonium. Deposition values in throughfall from conventional throughfall solution collectors and colocated ion exchange samplers were not significantly different during consecutive 3- and 4-month exposure periods at a high (Camp Paivika; >35 kg N ha-1 year-1 and a low deposition (Barton Flats; 5–9 kg N ha-1 year-1 site in the San Bernardino Mountains in southern California. N deposition in throughfall under mature pine trees at Camp Paivika after 7 months of exposure was extremely high (87 and 92 kg ha-1 based on the two collector types compared to Barton Flats (11 and 13 kg ha-1. A large proportion of the N deposited in throughfall at Camp Paivika occurred as fog drip, demonstrating the importance of fog deposition as an input source of N at this site. By comparison, bulk deposition rates in open areas were 5.1 and 5.4 kg ha-1 at Camp Paivika based on the two collector types, and 1.9 and 3.0 kg ha-1 at Barton Flats.

  16. Macroinvertebrate community assembly in pools created during peatland restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Lee E; Ramchunder, Sorain J; Beadle, Jeannie M; Holden, Joseph

    2016-11-01

    Many degraded ecosystems are subject to restoration attempts, providing new opportunities to unravel the processes of ecological community assembly. Restoration of previously drained northern peatlands, primarily to promote peat and carbon accumulation, has created hundreds of thousands of new open water pools. We assessed the potential benefits of this wetland restoration for aquatic biodiversity, and how communities reassemble, by comparing pool ecosystems in regions of the UK Pennines on intact (never drained) versus restored (blocked drainage-ditches) peatland. We also evaluated the conceptual idea that comparing reference ecosystems in terms of their compositional similarity to null assemblages (and thus the relative importance of stochastic versus deterministic assembly) can guide evaluations of restoration success better than analyses of community composition or diversity. Community composition data highlighted some differences in the macroinvertebrate composition of restored pools compared to undisturbed peatland pools, which could be used to suggest that alternative end-points to restoration were influenced by stochastic processes. However, widely used diversity metrics indicated no differences between undisturbed and restored pools. Novel evaluations of restoration using null models confirmed the similarity of deterministic assembly processes from the national species pool across all pools. Stochastic elements were important drivers of between-pool differences at the regional-scale but the scale of these effects was also similar across most of the pools studied. The amalgamation of assembly theory into ecosystem restoration monitoring allows us to conclude with more certainty that restoration has been successful from an ecological perspective in these systems. Evaluation of these UK findings compared to those from peatlands across Europe and North America further suggests that restoring peatland pools delivers significant benefits for aquatic fauna by

  17. Physical restraint use among nursing home residents: A comparison of two data collection methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voyer Philippe

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In view of the issues surrounding physical restraint use, it is important to have a method of measurement as valid and reliable as possible. We determined the sensitivity and specificity of physical restraint use a reported by nursing staff and b reviewed from medical and nursing records in nursing home settings, by comparing these methods with direct observation. Methods We sampled eight care units in skilled nursing homes, seven care units in nursing homes and one long-term care unit in a hospital, from eight facilities which included 28 nurses and 377 residents. Physical restraint use was assessed the day following three periods of direct observation by two different means: interview with one or several members of the regular nursing staff, and review of medical and nursing records. Sensitivity and specificity values were calculated according to 2-by-2 contingency tables. Differences between the methods were assessed using the phi coefficient. Other information collected included: demographic characteristics, disruptive behaviors, body alignment problems, cognitive and functional skills. Results Compared to direct observation (gold standard, reported restraint use by nursing staff yielded a sensitivity of 87.4% at a specificity of 93.7% (phi = 0.84. When data was reviewed from subjects' medical and nursing records, sensitivity was reduced to 74.8%, and specificity to 86.3% (phi = 0.54. Justifications for restraint use including risk for falls, agitation, body alignment problems and aggressiveness were associated with the use of physical restraints. Conclusions The interview of nursing staff and the review of medical and nursing records are both valid and reliable techniques for measuring physical restraint use among nursing home residents. Higher sensitivity and specificity values were achieved when nursing staff was interviewed as compared to reviewing medical records. This study suggests that the interview of nursing

  18. Physical restraint use among nursing home residents: A comparison of two data collection methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurin, Danielle; Voyer, Philippe; Verreault, René; Durand, Pierre J

    2004-01-01

    Background In view of the issues surrounding physical restraint use, it is important to have a method of measurement as valid and reliable as possible. We determined the sensitivity and specificity of physical restraint use a) reported by nursing staff and b) reviewed from medical and nursing records in nursing home settings, by comparing these methods with direct observation. Methods We sampled eight care units in skilled nursing homes, seven care units in nursing homes and one long-term care unit in a hospital, from eight facilities which included 28 nurses and 377 residents. Physical restraint use was assessed the day following three periods of direct observation by two different means: interview with one or several members of the regular nursing staff, and review of medical and nursing records. Sensitivity and specificity values were calculated according to 2-by-2 contingency tables. Differences between the methods were assessed using the phi coefficient. Other information collected included: demographic characteristics, disruptive behaviors, body alignment problems, cognitive and functional skills. Results Compared to direct observation (gold standard), reported restraint use by nursing staff yielded a sensitivity of 87.4% at a specificity of 93.7% (phi = 0.84). When data was reviewed from subjects' medical and nursing records, sensitivity was reduced to 74.8%, and specificity to 86.3% (phi = 0.54). Justifications for restraint use including risk for falls, agitation, body alignment problems and aggressiveness were associated with the use of physical restraints. Conclusions The interview of nursing staff and the review of medical and nursing records are both valid and reliable techniques for measuring physical restraint use among nursing home residents. Higher sensitivity and specificity values were achieved when nursing staff was interviewed as compared to reviewing medical records. This study suggests that the interview of nursing staff is a more reliable

  19. Agreement between Two Methods of Dietary Data Collection in Male Adolescent Academy-Level Soccer Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc A. Briggs

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Collecting accurate and reliable nutritional data from adolescent populations is challenging, with current methods providing significant under-reporting. Therefore, the aim of the study was to determine the accuracy of a combined dietary data collection method (self-reported weighed food diary, supplemented with a 24-h recall when compared to researcher observed energy intake in male adolescent soccer players. Twelve Academy players from an English Football League club participated in the study. Players attended a 12 h period in the laboratory (08:00 h–20:00 h, during which food and drink items were available and were consumed ad libitum. Food was also provided to consume at home between 20:00 h and 08:00 h the following morning under free-living conditions. To calculate the participant reported energy intake, food and drink items were weighed and recorded in a food diary by each participant, which was supplemented with information provided through a 24-h recall interview the following morning. Linear regression, limits of agreement (LOA and typical error (coefficient of variation; CV were used to quantify agreement between observer and participant reported 24-h energy intake. Difference between methods was assessed using a paired samples t-test. Participants systematically under-reported energy intake in comparison to that observed (p < 0.01 but the magnitude of this bias was small and consistent (mean bias = −88 kcal·day−1, 95% CI for bias = −146 to −29 kcal·day−1. For random error, the 95% LOA between methods ranged between −1.11 to 0.37 MJ·day−1 (−256 to 88 kcal·day−1. The standard error of the estimate was low, with a typical error between measurements of 3.1%. These data suggest that the combined dietary data collection method could be used interchangeably with the gold standard observed food intake technique in the population studied providing that appropriate adjustment is made for the systematic under

  20. An assessment of various blood collection and transfer methods used for malaria rapid diagnostic tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baik Fred

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Four blood collection and transfer devices commonly used for malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs were assessed for their consistency, accuracy and ease of use in the hands of laboratory technicians and village health workers. Methods Laboratory technicians and village health workers collected blood from a finger prick using each device in random order, and deposited the blood either on filter paper or into a suitable casette-type RDT. Consistency and accuracy of volume delivered was determined by comparing the measurements of the resulting blood spots/heights with the measurements of laboratory-prepared pipetted standard volumes. The effect of varying blood volumes on RDT sensitivity and ease of use was also observed. Results There was high variability in blood volume collected by the devices, with the straw and the loop, the most preferred devices, usually transferring volumes greater than intended, while the glass capillary tube and the plastic pipette transferring less volume than intended or none at all. Varying the blood volume delivered to RDTs indicated that this variation is critical to RDT sensitivity only when the transferred volume is very low. Conclusion None of the blood transfer devices assessed performed consistently well. Adequate training on their use is clearly necessary, with more development efforts for improved designs to be used by remote health workers, in mind.

  1. Comparison of two methods for collecting antibiotic use data on small dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redding, L E; Cubas-Delgado, F; Sammel, M D; Smith, G; Galligan, D T; Levy, M Z; Hennessy, S

    2014-06-01

    Antibiotics are commonly used in animal agriculture; they can improve animal health and productivity, but their use may also represent a public health threat. Very little is known about antibiotic use on small farms in lower/middle income countries. To understand antibiotic use on these farms and promote the judicious use of these drugs, pharmacoepidemiologic data are necessary. However, acquiring such data can be difficult, as farmers are often illiterate (and therefore cannot participate in written surveys or keep treatment records), antibiotics can be obtained over-the-counter (in which case no prescriptions are generated) and monitoring and surveillance systems for drug use are often non-existent. The goal of this study was to compare two methods of acquiring pharmacoepidemiologic data pertaining to antibiotics that are well-adapted to farms in lower-middle income countries: self-report and the collection of discarded drug packaging. A convenience sample of 20 farmers in Cajamarca, Peru, participated in the study. Farmers placed discarded antibiotic packaging in bins for six months. At the end of the six-month period, farmers were interviewed and asked to recall the antibiotic usage that occurred on their farm over the past month and past six months; these self-reported data were quantitatively and qualitatively compared to the bin contents collected in the last month and previous six months. We found that the agreement between the bins and self-report was relatively poor for both the quantity and types of antibiotics used. The bins appeared to perform better than self-report when bottles and mLs of antibiotics were measured, while self-report appeared to perform better for intra-mammary infusions. The bins also appeared to perform better when data pertaining to an extended time period (six months) were collected. The results of this study will provide guidance to investigators seeking to collect pharmacoepidemiologic data in similar environments.

  2. A charge-collection method for measurements of pulsed fast-neutron flux

    CERN Document Server

    Ouyang, X P; Ho, Y K; Zhang, Z B

    2002-01-01

    A charge-collection method for measuring the flux of pulsed fast neutrons in current mode has been developed, which is based on the well-known recoil-proton method combined with ion-induced secondary electron emission from solid surfaces. The detection unit consists of four elements: an n-p converter, an absorber, a collector, and a rear insulator. The assembly does not require vacuum for operation. Recoil protons from the n-p converter and the secondary electrons induced by the passing protons on the interface of the absorber and the collector contribute to the detector output signal. By properly choosing the materials and the combination of the absorber and the collector, the fraction of secondary electrons in the output signal can be determined experimentally. This detection concept allows one to design a medium type of fast-neutron detector for measurements of extremely intense pulsed neutron flux with a number of advantages over the existing systems.

  3. Combining qualitative and quantitative sampling, data collection, and analysis techniques in mixed-method studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandelowski, M

    2000-06-01

    Researchers have increasingly turned to mixed-method techniques to expand the scope and improve the analytic power of their studies. Yet there is still relatively little direction on and much confusion about how to combine qualitative and quantitative techniques. These techniques are neither paradigm- nor method-linked; researchers' orientations to inquiry and their methodological commitments will influence how they use them. Examples of sampling combinations include criterion sampling from instrument scores, random purposeful sampling, and stratified purposeful sampling. Examples of data collection combinations include the use of instruments for fuller qualitative description, for validation, as guides for purposeful sampling, and as elicitation devices in interviews. Examples of data analysis combinations include interpretively linking qualitative and quantitative data sets and the transformation processes of qualitizing and quantitizing.

  4. Comparison of blood chemistry values for samples collected from juvenile chinook salmon by three methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congleton, J.L.; LaVoie, W.J.

    2001-01-01

    Thirteen blood chemistry indices were compared for samples collected by three commonly used methods: caudal transection, heart puncture, and caudal vessel puncture. Apparent biases in blood chemistry values for samples obtained by caudal transection were consistent with dilution with tissue fluids: alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase (CK), triglyceride, and K+ were increased and Na+ and Cl- were decreased relative to values for samples obtained by caudal vessel puncture. Some enzyme activities (ALT, AST, LDH) and K+ concentrations were also greater in samples taken by heart puncture than in samples taken by caudal vessel puncture. Of the methods tested, caudal vessel puncture had the least effect on blood chemistry values and should be preferred for blood chemistry studies on juvenile salmonids.

  5. RESUSPENSION METHOD FOR ROAD SURFACE DUST COLLECTION AND AERODYNAMIC SIZE DISTRIBUTION CHARACTERIZATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianhua Chen; Hongfeng Zheng; Wei Wang; Hongjie Liu; Ling Lu; Linfa Bao; Lihong Ren

    2006-01-01

    Traffic-generated fugitive dust is a source of urban atmospheric particulate pollution in Beijing. This paper introduces the resuspension method, recommended by the US EPA in AP-42 documents, for collecting Beijing road-surface dust. Analysis shows a single-peak distribution in the number size distribution and a double-peak mode for mass size distribution of the road surface dust. The median diameter of the mass concentration distribution of the road dust on a high-grade road was higher than that on a low-grade road. The ratio of PM2.5 to PM10 was consistent with that obtained in a similar study for Hong Kong. For the two selected road samples, the average relative deviation of the size distribution was 10.9% and 11.9%. All results indicate that the method introduced in this paper can effectively determine the size distribution of fugitive dust from traffic.

  6. The analysis of collective mindsets: introducing a new method of institutional analysis in comparative research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Pohlmann

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a specific qualitative method - the Collective Mindset Analysis (CMA - that is applicable within the frame of institutional analysis to map the cognitive and normative institutions at work. The purpose of this paper is to introduce and discuss the method and its methodology as well. The paper will elaborate on how the method is applied to international research and will provide concrete examples drawn from a bigger research project on economic elites in eleven countries. It will demonstrate the steps of interpretation of interview material from this project with the help of CMA, using concrete text sequences. The sequences have been extracted from interviews with Brazilian top managers that were conducted in the context of an international research project. The paper will show, how an institutional approach, that is relying on the sociology of knowledge, can be supported by a method, that helps to reconstruct the cognitive and normative rules in a given culture and to analyze, how these rules are translated in action orientations to solve culturally significant problems. Thus, the method can be a remedy for the shortcomings of institutional analysis in mapping and comparing the knowledge stocks in different cultures and a new tool in international comparative research.

  7. Method for the Collection, Gravimetric and Chemical Analysis of Nonvolatile Residue (NVR) on Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Keith; Rutherford, Gugu; Aranda, Denisse

    2017-01-01

    Nonvolatile residue (NVR), sometimes referred to as molecular contamination is the term used for the total composition of the inorganic and high boiling point organic components in particulates and molecular films deposited on critical surfaces surrounding space structures, with the particulate and NVR contamination originating primarily from pre-launch operations. The "nonvolatile" suggestion from the terminology NVR implies that the collected residue will not experience much loss under ambient conditions. NVR has been shown to have a dramatic impact on the ability to perform optical measurements from platforms based in space. Such contaminants can be detected early by the controlled application of various detection techniques and contamination analyses. Contamination analyses are the techniques used to determine if materials, components, and subsystems can be expected to meet the performance requirements of a system. Of particular concern is the quantity of NVR contaminants that might be deposited on critical payload surfaces from these sources. Subsequent chemical analysis of the contaminant samples by infrared spectroscopy and gas chromatography mass spectrometry identifies the components, gives semi-quantitative estimates of contaminant thickness, indicates possible sources of the NVR, and provides guidance for effective cleanup procedures. In this report, a method for the collection and determination of the mass of NVR was generated by the authors at NASA Langley Research Center. This report describes the method developed and implemented for collecting NVR contaminants, and procedures for gravimetric and chemical analysis of the residue obtained. The result of this NVR analysis collaboration will help pave the way for Langley's ability to certify flight hardware outgassing requirements in support of flight projects such as Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III (SAGE III), Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES), Materials International

  8. CRMS vegetation analytical team framework: Methods for collection, development, and use of vegetation response variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cretini, Kari F.; Visser, Jenneke M.; Krauss, Ken W.; Steyer, Gregory D.

    2011-01-01

    This document identifies the main objectives of the Coastwide Reference Monitoring System (CRMS) vegetation analytical team, which are to provide (1) collection and development methods for vegetation response variables and (2) the ways in which these response variables will be used to evaluate restoration project effectiveness. The vegetation parameters (that is, response variables) collected in CRMS and other coastal restoration projects funded under the Coastal Wetlands Planning, Protection and Restoration Act (CWPPRA) are identified, and the field collection methods for these parameters are summarized. Existing knowledge on community and plant responses to changes in environmental drivers (for example, flooding and salinity) from published literature and from the CRMS and CWPPRA monitoring dataset are used to develop a suite of indices to assess wetland condition in coastal Louisiana. Two indices, the floristic quality index (FQI) and a productivity index, are described for herbaceous and forested vegetation. The FQI for herbaceous vegetation is tested with a long-term dataset from a CWPPRA marsh creation project. Example graphics for this index are provided and discussed. The other indices, an FQI for forest vegetation (that is, trees and shrubs) and productivity indices for herbaceous and forest vegetation, are proposed but not tested. New response variables may be added or current response variables removed as data become available and as our understanding of restoration success indicators develops. Once indices are fully developed, each will be used by the vegetation analytical team to assess and evaluate CRMS/CWPPRA project and program effectiveness. The vegetation analytical teams plan to summarize their results in the form of written reports and/or graphics and present these items to CRMS Federal and State sponsors, restoration project managers, landowners, and other data users for their input.

  9. The accelerated polyvinyl-alcohol method for GSR collection--PVAL 2.0.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schyma, C; Placidi, P

    2000-11-01

    The polyvinyl-alcohol collection method (PVAL) is used in forensic practice to gather topographical information about gunshot residues (GSR) from the hands to decide if the subject has made use of firearms. The results allow a distinction between suicide and homicide. The only inconvenience of PVAL was that the procedure took about 60 min because three layers of liquid PVAL had to be applied and dried. Therefore, the collection method was only applied to corpses. The improved and accelerated PVAL 2.0 uses a sandwich technique. Cotton gauze for stabilization is moistened with a 10% PVAL solution. A solid film of PVAL (Solublon) is spread on the cotton mesh. The gauze is then modeled to the hand and dried with a hair dryer. After removing the cotton gauze, the traces are embedded in the water-soluble PVAL. The procedure does not take more than 15 min. The results demonstrate the qualities and advantages of PVAL: topographical distribution of GSR, highest gain of GSR, sampling of all other traces like blood, backspatter etc., and humidity does not reduce the gain. In addition, with the new PVAL 2.0 dislocation of GSR or contamination are excluded. PVAL 2.0 can also be applied on live suspects.

  10. Spatial capture-recapture: a promising method for analyzing data collected using artificial cover objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Chris; Munoz, David; Miller, David A.W.; Grant, Evan

    2016-01-01

    Spatial capture–recapture (SCR) is a relatively recent development in ecological statistics that provides a spatial context for estimating abundance and space use patterns, and improves inference about absolute population density. SCR has been applied to individual encounter data collected noninvasively using methods such as camera traps, hair snares, and scat surveys. Despite the widespread use of capture-based surveys to monitor amphibians and reptiles, there are few applications of SCR in the herpetological literature. We demonstrate the utility of the application of SCR for studies of reptiles and amphibians by analyzing capture–recapture data from Red-Backed Salamanders, Plethodon cinereus, collected using artificial cover boards. Using SCR to analyze spatial encounter histories of marked individuals, we found evidence that density differed little among four sites within the same forest (on average, 1.59 salamanders/m2) and that salamander detection probability peaked in early October (Julian day 278) reflecting expected surface activity patterns of the species. The spatial scale of detectability, a measure of space use, indicates that the home range size for this population of Red-Backed Salamanders in autumn was 16.89 m2. Surveying reptiles and amphibians using artificial cover boards regularly generates spatial encounter history data of known individuals, which can readily be analyzed using SCR methods, providing estimates of absolute density and inference about the spatial scale of habitat use.

  11. Collecting Protein Biomarkers in Breath Using Electret Filters: A Preliminary Method on New Technical Model and Human Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Li

    Full Text Available Biomarkers in exhaled breath are useful for respiratory disease diagnosis in human volunteers. Conventional methods that collect non-volatile biomarkers, however, necessitate an extensive dilution and sanitation processes that lowers collection efficiencies and convenience of use. Electret filter emerged in recent decade to collect virus biomarkers in exhaled breath given its simplicity and effectiveness. To investigate the capability of electret filters to collect protein biomarkers, a model that consists of an atomizer that produces protein aerosol and an electret filter that collects albumin and carcinoembryonic antigen-a typical biomarker in lung cancer development- from the atomizer is developed. A device using electret filter as the collecting medium is designed to collect human albumin from exhaled breath of 6 volunteers. Comparison of the collecting ability between the electret filter method and other 2 reported methods is finally performed based on the amounts of albumin collected from human exhaled breath. In conclusion, a decreasing collection efficiency ranging from 17.6% to 2.3% for atomized albumin aerosol and 42% to 12.5% for atomized carcinoembryonic antigen particles is found; moreover, an optimum volume of sampling human exhaled breath ranging from 100 L to 200 L is also observed; finally, the self-designed collecting device shows a significantly better performance in collecting albumin from human exhaled breath than the exhaled breath condensate method (p0.05. In summary, electret filters are potential in collecting non-volatile biomarkers in human exhaled breath not only because it was simpler, cheaper and easier to use than traditional methods but also for its better collecting performance.

  12. Effects of Temperature, Salinity and Fish in Structuring the Macroinvertebrate Community in Shallow Lakes: Implications for Effects of Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brucet, Sandra; Boix, Dani; Nathansen, Louise W.; Quintana, Xavier D.; Jensen, Elisabeth; Balayla, David; Meerhoff, Mariana; Jeppesen, Erik

    2012-01-01

    Climate warming may lead to changes in the trophic structure and diversity of shallow lakes as a combined effect of increased temperature and salinity and likely increased strength of trophic interactions. We investigated the potential effects of temperature, salinity and fish on the plant-associated macroinvertebrate community by introducing artificial plants in eight comparable shallow brackish lakes located in two climatic regions of contrasting temperature: cold-temperate and Mediterranean. In both regions, lakes covered a salinity gradient from freshwater to oligohaline waters. We undertook day and night-time sampling of macroinvertebrates associated with the artificial plants and fish and free-swimming macroinvertebrate predators within artificial plants and in pelagic areas. Our results showed marked differences in the trophic structure between cold and warm shallow lakes. Plant-associated macroinvertebrates and free-swimming macroinvertebrate predators were more abundant and the communities richer in species in the cold compared to the warm climate, most probably as a result of differences in fish predation pressure. Submerged plants in warm brackish lakes did not seem to counteract the effect of fish predation on macroinvertebrates to the same extent as in temperate freshwater lakes, since small fish were abundant and tended to aggregate within the macrophytes. The richness and abundance of most plant-associated macroinvertebrate taxa decreased with salinity. Despite the lower densities of plant-associated macroinvertebrates in the Mediterranean lakes, periphyton biomass was lower than in cold temperate systems, a fact that was mainly attributed to grazing and disturbance by fish. Our results suggest that, if the current process of warming entails higher chances of shallow lakes becoming warmer and more saline, climatic change may result in a decrease in macroinvertebrate species richness and abundance in shallow lakes. PMID:22393354

  13. Customized Mobile Apps: Improving data collection methods in large-scale field works in Finnish Lapland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupila, Juho

    2017-04-01

    Since the 1990s, a huge amount of data related to the groundwater and soil has been collected in several regional projects in Finland. EU -funded project "The coordination of groundwater protection and aggregates industry in Finnish Lapland, phase II" started in July 2016 and it covers the last unstudied areas in these projects in Finland. Project is carried out by Geological Survey of Finland (GTK), University of Oulu and Finnish Environment Institute and the main topic is to consolidate the groundwater protection and extractable use of soil resource in Lapland area. As earlier, several kinds of studies are also carried out throughout this three-year research and development project. These include e.g. drilling with setting up of groundwater observation wells, GPR-survey and many kinds of point-type observations, like sampling and general mapping on the field. Due to size of a study area (over 80 000 km2, about one quarter of a total area of Finland), improvement of the field work methods has become essential. To the general observation on the field, GTK has developed a specific mobile applications for Android -devices. With these Apps, data can be easily collected for example from a certain groundwater area and then uploaded directly to the GTK's database. Collected information may include sampling data, photos, layer observations, groundwater data etc. and it is all linked to the current GPS-location. New data is also easily available for post-processing. In this project the benefits of these applications will be field-tested and e.g. ergonomics, economy and usability in general will be taken account and related to the other data collecting methods, like working with heavy fieldwork laptops. Although these Apps are designed for usage in GTK's projects, they are free to download from Google Play for anyone interested. Geological Survey of Finland has the main role in this project with support from national and local authorities and stakeholders. Project is funded

  14. Intertidal benthic community ecology of sand-dwelling macroinvertebrates of Goa beaches

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Harkantra, S.N.; Parulekar, A.H.

    Studies on the intertidal ecology of two sandy beaches of Goa along the western coast of India revealed the presence of 47 species of macroinvertebrates belonging to 32 families. The open beach at Candolim, characterized by coarse sand-grain size...

  15. Multiple stress response of lowland stream benthic macroinvertebrates is dependent on habitat type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graeber, Daniel; Jensen, Tinna M.; Rasmussen, Jes

    2017-01-01

    , an effect which was reduced by fine sedimentation for the dominant shredder species (Gammarus pulex) and by nutrient enrichment for the dominating grazer species (Baetis rhodani). In contrast, fine sediment in combination with low flow rapidly affected macroinvertebrate composition in the run habitat...

  16. Divergent biogeography of native and introduced soil macroinvertebrates in North America north of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erik A. Lilleskov; William J. Mattson; Andrew J. Storer

    2008-01-01

    To improve understanding of the biogeographical consequences of species introduction, we examined whether introduced soil macroinvertebrates differ from natives in the relationship between species richness and key environmental predictors, and whether such differences affect the relationship between native and introduced species richness. For North America north of...

  17. Aquatic macroinvertebrate assemblages of Ghana, West Africa: understanding the ecology of a neglected tropical disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric Benbow, M; Kimbirauskas, Ryan; McIntosh, Mollie D; Williamson, Heather; Quaye, Charles; Boakye, Daniel; Small, Pamela L C; Merritt, Richard W

    2014-06-01

    Buruli ulcer (BU) is an emerging, but neglected tropical disease, where there has been a reported association with disturbed aquatic habitats and proposed aquatic macroinvertebrate vectors such as biting Hemiptera. An initial step in understanding the potential role of macroinvertebrates in the ecology of BU is to better understand the entire community, not just one or two taxa, in relation to the pathogen, Mycobacterium ulcerans, at a large spatial scale. For the first time at a country-wide scale this research documents that M. ulcerans was frequently detected from environmental samples taken from BU endemic regions, but was not present in 30 waterbodies of a non-endemic region. There were significant differences in macroinvertebrate community structure and identified potential indicator taxa in relation to pathogen presence. These results suggest that specific macroinvertebrate taxa or functional metrics may potentially be used as aquatic biological indicators of M. ulcerans. Developing ecological indicators of this pathogen is a first step for understanding the disease ecology of BU and should assist future studies of transmission.

  18. Spatial variation in lake benthic macroinvertebrate ecological assessment: a synthesis of European case studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandin, Leif Leonard; Solimini, Angelo G.

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes eight case studies that were analysed as part of the research theme ``lake benthic macroinvertebrates'' forming part of the EU-funded WISER project ``Water bodies in Europe: Integrative Systems to assess Ecological status and Recovery''. The relationships between lake benthi...

  19. Biodiversity of benthic macroinvertebrates in Air Terjun Asahan, Asahan, Melaka, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurhafizah-Azwa, S.; Ahmad A., K.

    2016-11-01

    A study on benthic macroinvertebrate diversity was conducted at Air Terjun Asahan, Asahan, Melaka. Five stations were selected with distance intervals of approximately 500 metres. Three replicates of benthic macroinvertebrate and water samples were taken. Results classified Air Terjun Asahan in class II, which indicated good water quality based on WQI recommended by the Department of Environment. A total of 1 phylum, 2 classes, 6 order, 30 families, and 2183 individuals were successfully sampled and recorded. The analysis showed that the average value of Shannon Diversity Index, H' (2.19), Pielou Evenness Index, J' (0.30), and Margaleff Richness Index, DMG (3.77) described that Air Terjun Asahan was in moderate condition and the distribution of macroinvertebrates was uniform between stations. Correlation test showed that the WQI had a strong relationship with the diversity indices involved. BMWP, and FBI showed that Air Terjun Asahan was in good water quality. CCA test was conducted to show environmental factors towards benthic macroinvertebrate distribution. The presence of Leptophlebiidae, Baetidae, Heptageniidae and Chironomidae with high abundance of the families showed the potential as biological indicators of a clean ecosystem.

  20. Rare and common macroinvertebrates: definition of distribution classes and their boundaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijboer, R.C.; Verdonschot, P.F.M.

    2004-01-01

    Rarity of macroinvertebrates can be used in assessing the ecological quality or conservation value of freshwaters. To select target species for nature conservation and to compare rarity or commonness between regions a classification of species distributions is needed. A distribution classification f

  1. Rare and common macroinvertebrates: definition of distribution classes and their boundaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijboer, R.C.; Verdonschot, P.F.M.

    2004-01-01

    Rarity of macroinvertebrates can be used in assessing the ecological quality or conservation value of freshwaters. To select target species for nature conservation and to compare rarity or commonness between regions a classification of species distributions is needed. A distribution classification

  2. Macro-Invertebrate Decline in surface water polluted with Imidacloprid: A rebuttal and soome new analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vijver, M.G.; Brink, van den P.J.

    2014-01-01

    Imidacloprid, the largest selling insecticide in the world, has received particular attention from scientists, policymakers and industries due to its potential toxicity to bees and aquatic organisms. The decline of aquatic macro-invertebrates due to imidacloprid concentrations in the Dutch surface w

  3. Patterning exergy of benthic macroinvertebrate communities using self-organizing maps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Park, Y.S.; Lek, S.; Scardi, M.; Verdonschot, P.F.M.; Jørgensen, S.E.

    2006-01-01

    Exergy is a measure of the free energy of a system with contributions from all components including the energy of organisms, and it is used as an ecological indicator. In this study, we implemented a self-organizing map (SOM) for patterning exergy of benthic macroinvertebrate communities. The datase

  4. Evaluation of the Macroinvertebrate Component of the Long Term Resource Monitoring Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-12-01

    using one Ponar grab per site major tasks, (1) characterization of selected produced abundance estimates for Oligochaeta, benthos , (2) population...assessment reports 1 Bioindicators 2 Outreach 3 Hypothesis generation, planning studies 2 How often do you use LTRMP macroinvertebrate data? Have not used

  5. Comparison of the abiotic preferences of macroinvertebrates in tropical river basins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert Everaert

    Full Text Available We assessed and compared abiotic preferences of aquatic macroinvertebrates in three river basins located in Ecuador, Ethiopia and Vietnam. Upon using logistic regression models we analyzed the relationship between the probability of occurrence of five macroinvertebrate families, ranging from pollution tolerant to pollution sensitive, (Chironomidae, Baetidae, Hydroptilidae, Libellulidae and Leptophlebiidae and physical-chemical water quality conditions. Within the investigated physical-chemical ranges, nine out of twenty-five interaction effects were significant. Our analyses suggested river basin dependent associations between the macroinvertebrate families and the corresponding physical-chemical conditions. It was found that pollution tolerant families showed no clear abiotic preference and occurred at most sampling locations, i.e. Chironomidae were present in 91%, 84% and 93% of the samples taken in Ecuador, Ethiopia and Vietnam. Pollution sensitive families were strongly associated with dissolved oxygen and stream velocity, e.g. Leptophlebiidae were only present in 48%, 2% and 18% of the samples in Ecuador, Ethiopia and Vietnam. Despite some limitations in the study design, we concluded that associations between macroinvertebrates and abiotic conditions can be river basin-specific and hence are not automatically transferable across river basins in the tropics.

  6. Comparison of the abiotic preferences of macroinvertebrates in tropical river basins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everaert, Gert; De Neve, Jan; Boets, Pieter; Dominguez-Granda, Luis; Mereta, Seid Tiku; Ambelu, Argaw; Hoang, Thu Huong; Goethals, Peter L M; Thas, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    We assessed and compared abiotic preferences of aquatic macroinvertebrates in three river basins located in Ecuador, Ethiopia and Vietnam. Upon using logistic regression models we analyzed the relationship between the probability of occurrence of five macroinvertebrate families, ranging from pollution tolerant to pollution sensitive, (Chironomidae, Baetidae, Hydroptilidae, Libellulidae and Leptophlebiidae) and physical-chemical water quality conditions. Within the investigated physical-chemical ranges, nine out of twenty-five interaction effects were significant. Our analyses suggested river basin dependent associations between the macroinvertebrate families and the corresponding physical-chemical conditions. It was found that pollution tolerant families showed no clear abiotic preference and occurred at most sampling locations, i.e. Chironomidae were present in 91%, 84% and 93% of the samples taken in Ecuador, Ethiopia and Vietnam. Pollution sensitive families were strongly associated with dissolved oxygen and stream velocity, e.g. Leptophlebiidae were only present in 48%, 2% and 18% of the samples in Ecuador, Ethiopia and Vietnam. Despite some limitations in the study design, we concluded that associations between macroinvertebrates and abiotic conditions can be river basin-specific and hence are not automatically transferable across river basins in the tropics.

  7. Anthropogenic impact on water chemistry and benthic macroinvertebrate associated changes in a southern Nigeria stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arimoro, Francis O; Odume, O Nelson; Uhunoma, Samson I; Edegbene, Augustine O

    2015-02-01

    The Ogba River in southern Nigeria is an important water resource for its riparian communities. This study evaluates impact of anthropogenic influences on the Ogba River using water chemistry and macroinvertebrate data sets obtained over a period of 6 months between January and June 2012. Four stations, stations 1-4, characterised by various human activities were chosen along the river. Organic wastes from domestic and industrial sources were the major point sources of pollutants. Station 2 where the municipal wastewater drains into the river had elevated values of flow velocity, BOD5, sulphate, phosphate, nitrate and sodium. Based on the canonical correspondence analysis (CCA), 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), sulphate, nitrate and phosphate were the main factors that help to shape the macroinvertebrate assemblage structure of the Ogba River. Macroinvertebrates clustered strongly by stations than by seasons indicating that water quality differences between the stations were responsible for the observed differences in the biotic assemblage. The preponderance of naidid oligochaetes, baetid nymphs and certain tolerant dipteran taxa including chironomids and ceratopogonids at all four stations was an indication that the entire water body was stressed. The odonates were the single most abundant taxa; their dominance could be attributed to the vegetative nature of the stream, favouring odonate colonisation. Overall, the responses of macroinvertebrates to stress were reflected by the different assemblage structures recorded at the four study stations. Substrate and microhabitat obliteration and poor water quality appeared to be the factors responsible for the observed assemblage structure in the Ogba River.

  8. Macroinvertebrate survival during cessation of flow and streambed drying in a lowland stream

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdonschot, R.C.M.; Oosten-Siedlecka, van A.M.; Braak, ter C.J.F.; Verdonschot, P.F.M.

    2015-01-01

    1.The number of perennial low-order lowland streams likely to experience intermittent flow is predicted to increase in north-western Europe. To understand the effects of such a change on macroinvertebrates, a field experiment was carried out in a currently perennial sandy lowland stream. 2.Using a b

  9. Comparison of the Abiotic Preferences of Macroinvertebrates in Tropical River Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everaert, Gert; De Neve, Jan; Boets, Pieter; Dominguez-Granda, Luis; Mereta, Seid Tiku; Ambelu, Argaw; Hoang, Thu Huong; Goethals, Peter L. M.; Thas, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    We assessed and compared abiotic preferences of aquatic macroinvertebrates in three river basins located in Ecuador, Ethiopia and Vietnam. Upon using logistic regression models we analyzed the relationship between the probability of occurrence of five macroinvertebrate families, ranging from pollution tolerant to pollution sensitive, (Chironomidae, Baetidae, Hydroptilidae, Libellulidae and Leptophlebiidae) and physical-chemical water quality conditions. Within the investigated physical-chemical ranges, nine out of twenty-five interaction effects were significant. Our analyses suggested river basin dependent associations between the macroinvertebrate families and the corresponding physical-chemical conditions. It was found that pollution tolerant families showed no clear abiotic preference and occurred at most sampling locations, i.e. Chironomidae were present in 91%, 84% and 93% of the samples taken in Ecuador, Ethiopia and Vietnam. Pollution sensitive families were strongly associated with dissolved oxygen and stream velocity, e.g. Leptophlebiidae were only present in 48%, 2% and 18% of the samples in Ecuador, Ethiopia and Vietnam. Despite some limitations in the study design, we concluded that associations between macroinvertebrates and abiotic conditions can be river basin-specific and hence are not automatically transferable across river basins in the tropics. PMID:25279673

  10. Seasonally distinct taxonomic and functional shifts in macroinvertebrate communities following dam removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, David W.P.

    2017-01-01

    Dam removal is an increasingly popular restoration tool, but our understanding of ecological responses to dam removal over time is still in the early stages. We quantified seasonal benthic macroinvertebrate density, taxonomic composition, and functional traits for three years after lowhead dam removal in three reaches of the Olentangy River (Ohio, USA): two upstream of former dam (one restored, one unrestored), and one downstream of former dam. Macroinvertebrate community density, generic richness, and Shannon–Wiener diversity decreased between ∼9 and ∼15 months after dam removal; all three variables consistently increased thereafter. These threshold responses were dependent on reach location: density and richness increased ∼15 months after removal in upstream reaches versus ∼19 months downstream of the former dam. Initial macroinvertebrate density declines were likely related to seasonality or life-history characteristics, but density increased up to 2.27× from year to year in three out of four seasons (late autumn, early spring, summer) across all reaches. Macroinvertebrate community composition was similar among the three reaches, but differed seasonally based on non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) and analysis of similarity (ANOSIM). Seasonal differences among communities tended to decrease after dam removal. We detected community-wide shifts in functional traits such as multivoltinism, depositional habitat use, burrowing, and collector-gatherer feeding mode. We observed that these traits were expressed most strongly with Chironomidae, which was the most abundant family. Our results suggest that seasonal environmental conditions can play a role in the response and recovery of macroinvertebrate communities—often used to monitor ecosystem condition—following dam removal. In particular, macroinvertebrate density and diversity can show recovery after dam removal, especially in seasons when macroinvertebrate density is typically lowest, with

  11. Bioassessment using benthic macroinvertebrates of the water quality in the Tigreiro river, Jacuí Basin - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v35i4.18934

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Copatti

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the water quality in the Tigreiro river, Jacuí river Basin, using different approaches. Benthic macroinvertebrates were sampled in July 2010 (winter and February 2011 (summer at five sites. In this study were analyzed: microbiological, physical and chemical variables, benthic macroinvertebrates richness and diversity, rapid ecological assessment protocol and benthic biotic indices (% EPT, BMWP’-IAP, ASPT, SOMI. A total of 5,852 individuals were collected belonging to 31 taxa of three Phyla: Annelida, Mollusca and Arthropoda. Chironomidae was the most abundant taxon (63.70%. A reduction in richness, diversity H’ and evenness J’ was observed from the initial stretches to the end stretches of Tigreiro river. The use of different approaches showed that sites in the rural area were less altered. The Tigreiro river was strongly impacted, mainly due to discharge of domestic effluents in the urban area, and the combination of different metrics was useful to detect impacted sites and the consequence for the water quality.

  12. Relations Between the Structure of Benthic Macro-Invertebrates and the Composition of Adult Water Beetle Diets from the Dytiscidae Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frelik, Anna; Pakulnicka, Joanna

    2015-10-01

    This paper investigates the relations between the diet structure of predaceous adult water beetles from the Dytiscidae family and the structure of macrofauna inhabiting the same environments. The field studies were carried out from April until September in 2012 and 2013 in 1-mo intervals. In total, >1,000 water beetles and 5,115 benthic macro-invertebrates were collected during the whole period of the study. Subsequently, 784 specimens of adult water beetles (70.6% out of the total sampled) with benthic macro-invertebrates found in their proventriculi, were subject to analysis. The predators were divided into three categories depending on their body size: small beetles (2.3-5.0 mm), medium-sized beetles (13-15 mm), and large beetles (27-37 mm). All adult Dytiscidae consumed primarily Ephemeroptera and Chironomidae larvae. Although Asellidae were numerically dominant inhabitants of the sites, the adult water beetles did not feed on them. The analysis of feeding relations between predators and their prey revealed that abundance of Ephemeroptera, Chironomidae, and larval Dytiscidae between the environment and the diet of adult Dytiscidae were strongly correlated.

  13. A method for high-throughput production of sequence-verified DNA libraries and strain collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Justin D; Schlecht, Ulrich; Xu, Weihong; Suresh, Sundari; Horecka, Joe; Proctor, Michael J; Aiyar, Raeka S; Bennett, Richard A O; Chu, Angela; Li, Yong Fuga; Roy, Kevin; Davis, Ronald W; Steinmetz, Lars M; Hyman, Richard W; Levy, Sasha F; St Onge, Robert P

    2017-02-13

    The low costs of array-synthesized oligonucleotide libraries are empowering rapid advances in quantitative and synthetic biology. However, high synthesis error rates, uneven representation, and lack of access to individual oligonucleotides limit the true potential of these libraries. We have developed a cost-effective method called Recombinase Directed Indexing (REDI), which involves integration of a complex library into yeast, site-specific recombination to index library DNA, and next-generation sequencing to identify desired clones. We used REDI to generate a library of ~3,300 DNA probes that exhibited > 96% purity and remarkable uniformity (> 95% of probes within twofold of the median abundance). Additionally, we created a collection of ~9,000 individually accessible CRISPR interference yeast strains for > 99% of genes required for either fermentative or respiratory growth, demonstrating the utility of REDI for rapid and cost-effective creation of strain collections from oligonucleotide pools. Our approach is adaptable to any complex DNA library, and fundamentally changes how these libraries can be parsed, maintained, propagated, and characterized.

  14. On the role of Posidonia oceanica beach wrack for macroinvertebrates of a Tyrrhenian sandy shore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombini, Isabella; Mateo, Miguel Ángel; Serrano, Oscar; Fallaci, Mario; Gagnarli, Elena; Serrano, Laura; Chelazzi, Lorenzo

    2009-01-01

    The use of Posidonia oceanica beach wrack by macroinvertebrates of the sandy beach at Burano (Tuscany, Italy) was assessed by following the colonisation dynamics of the wrack and analysing the stable isotopes 'scenario' of the main local carbon and nitrogen sources and consumers. One-hundred experimental cylinders, filled with P. oceanica wrack, were placed on the beach and sampled over a 1-month period. Abundance and species richness of macroinvertebrates in wracks varied through time. Wrack was colonised by crustaceans almost immediately after deployment of the experimental cylinders. The amphipod Talitrus saltator largely dominated the faunal assembly and, together with the isopod Tylos europaeus, occupied the wracks closer to the sealine. These were followed by dipterans, staphylinids, pselaphids and tenebrionids that occurred in drier wracks higher up on the eulittoral. Moisture content of the wrack and sand decreased through space and time. This was the primary factor explaining the spatial and temporal changes observed in macroinvertebrate abundance, with species colonising or abandoning wracks according to thresholds of environmental parameters. Isotopic analysis clearly established the absence of any direct dietary link between P. oceanica wrack and macroinvertebrates. Terrestrial food sources were also discarded. Both our experimental data and a literature search showed that the organic matter from seston as filtered by the sand is the most plausible carbon and nitrogen source for beach food webs. Even if P. oceanica wrack is not a trophic source for macroinvertebrates, it is vitally important as a physical structure that provides detritivorous and predatory species with refuge from environmentally stressful conditions.

  15. Downstream effects of hydropower production on aquatic macroinvertebrate assemblages in two rivers in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves-Ulloa, Ramsa; Umaña-Villalobos, Gerardo; Springer, Monika

    2014-04-01

    Despite the fact that little is known about the consequences of hydropower production in tropical areas, many large dams (> 15 m high) are currently under construction or consideration in the tropics. We researched the effects of large hydroelectric dams on aquatic macroinvertebrate assemblages in two Costa Rican rivers. We measured physicochemical characteristics and sampled aquatic macroinvertebrates from March 2003 to March 2004 in two dammed rivers, Peñas Blancas and San Lorenzo, as well as in the undammed Chachagua River. Sites above and below the dam had differences in their physicochemical variables, with wide variation and extreme values in variables measured below the dam in the San Lorenzo River. Sites below the dams had reduced water discharges, velocities, and depths when compared with sites above the dams, as well as higher temperatures and conductivity. Sites above dams were dominated by collector-gatherer-scrapers and habitat groups dominated by swimmer-clingers, while sites below dams had a more even representation of groups. In contrast, a comparison between two sites at different elevation in the undammed river maintained a similar assemblage composition. Tributaries might facilitate macroinvertebrate recovery above the turbine house, but the assemblage below the turbine house resembled the one below the dam. A massive sediment release event from the dam decreased the abundance per sample and macroinvertebrate taxa below the dam in the Peñas Blancas River. Our study illustrates the effects of hydropower production on neotropical rivers, highlighting the importance of using multiple measures of macroinvertebrate assemblage structure for assessing this type of environmental impact.

  16. Responses of epibenthic and nektonic macroinvertebrate communities to a gradient of fish size in ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Nieoczym

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Size relationships between fish and organisms from adjacent trophic levels are crucial for predicting the structure and dynamics of aquatic ecosystems. We compared macroinvertebrate communities along a fish-size gradient created by separate stocking of three age cohorts of common carp Cyprinus carpio in semi-natural ponds. The specific size range of fish (small, medium and large corresponding to fish age in ponds was the factor most strongly associated with macroinvertebrate composition. The other significant habitat variables were dissolved oxygen concentration in the water and submerged vegetation abundance in the open-water zone. Among the most numerous taxa in the ponds, relative abundances of Hirudinea, Gastropoda, Odonata and Coleoptera were larger in the presence of small-sized than of larger-sized carp. However, fish size effect was not linear, in that macroinvertebrate assemblages were less similar between ponds containing medium- vs large-sized fish than between ponds with small- vs large-sized fish. The dissimilarity patterns were mainly determined by disparities in abundance of Corixidae, which unlike other taxa common in the ponds occurred in the greatest numbers in the presence of large-sized carp. Macroinvertebrate diversity was greatest in ponds with small-sized fish and was positively related to emergent macrophyte cover. Enhancement of emergent vegetation is recommended as the most effective management strategy to buffer adverse impacts of fish on macroinvertebrates. If fish are present in the system, assessment of the size structure of fish populations can be advantageous in unravelling the essential processes driving the variation in pond communities.

  17. a Registration Method of Point Clouds Collected by Mobile LIDAR Using Solely Standard Las Files Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gézero, L.; Antunes, C.

    2017-05-01

    In the last few years, LiDAR sensors installed in terrestrial vehicles have been revealed as an efficient method to collect very dense 3D georeferenced information. The possibility of creating very dense point clouds representing the surface surrounding the sensor, at a given moment, in a very fast, detailed and easy way, shows the potential of this technology to be used for cartography and digital terrain models production in large scale. However, there are still some limitations associated with the use of this technology. When several acquisitions of the same area with the same device, are made, differences between the clouds can be observed. The range of that differences can go from few centimetres to some several tens of centimetres, mainly in urban and high vegetation areas where the occultation of the GNSS system introduces a degradation of the georeferenced trajectory. Along this article a different method point cloud registration is proposed. In addition to the efficiency and speed of execution, the main advantages of the method are related to the fact that the adjustment is continuously made over the trajectory, based on the GPS time. The process is fully automatic and only information recorded in the standard LAS files is used, without the need for any auxiliary information, in particular regarding the trajectory.

  18. Designing Alternative Transport Methods for the Distributed Data Collection of ATLAS EventIndex Project

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandez Casani, Alvaro; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    One of the key and challenging tasks of the ATLAS EventIndex project is to index and catalog all the produced events not only at CERN but also at hundreds of worldwide grid sites, and convey the data in real time to a central Hadoop instance at CERN. While this distributed data collection is currently operating correctly in production, there are some issues that might impose performance bottlenecks in the future, with an expected rise in the event production and reprocessing rates. In this work, we first describe the current approach based on a messaging system, which conveys the data from the sources to the central catalog, and we identify some weaknesses of this system. Then, we study a promising alternative transport method based on an object store, presenting a performance comparison with the current approach, and the architectural design changes needed to adapt the system to the next run of the ATLAS experiment at CERN.

  19. Representing older and disabled people in virtual user trials: data collection methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyi, D E; Sims, R E; Porter, J M; Marshall, R; Case, K

    2004-09-01

    A database was developed to support the creation of a computer-based tool which will support design teams in evaluating the usability of a design during early prototyping and indicate which individuals are effectively excluded or designed out. Methods are described for the collection of multivariate data on 100 real individuals covering a range of physical characteristics and capabilities. These data were tested to ensure a breadth of representation of individuals (particularly older and disabled people) in terms of anthropometry, joint constraints, postural capabilities and task behaviours. The concept of the design tool itself is explored by conducting virtual user trials in the computer-aided design environment. The novel approach of the research encourages empathy with individual users and allows generic abilities, such as bending, reaching and lifting to be assessed.

  20. Ellog Auger Drilling -"3-in-one" method for hydrogeological data collection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kurt; Larsen, Flemming

    1999-01-01

    continuously while drilling. Data processing is carried out in the field, and recorded log features are displayed as drilling advances. A slotted section in the stem, above the cutting head, allows anaerobic water and soil-gas samples to be taken at depth intervals of approximately 0.2 m. The logging, water......The Ellog auger drilling method is an integrated approach for hydrogeological data collection during auger drilling in unconsolidated sediments. The drill stem is a continuous flight, hollow-stem auger with integrated electrical and gamma logging tools. The geophysical logging is performed......, and gas sampling instrumentation in the drill stem is removable; therefore, when the drill stem is pulled back, piezometers can be installed through the hollow stem. Cores of sediments can subsequently be taken continuously using a technique in which the drill bit can be reinserted after each coring...

  1. Diabatic Mean-Field Description of Rotational Bands in Terms of the Selfconsistent Collective Coordinate Method

    CERN Document Server

    Shimizu, Y R; Shimizu, Yoshifumi R.; Matsuyanagi, Kenichi

    2000-01-01

    Diabatic description of rotational bands provides a clear-cut picture for understanding the back-bending phenomena, where the internal structure of the yrast band changes dramatically as a function of angular momentum. A microscopic framework to obtain the diabatic bands within the mean-field approximation is presented by making use of the selfconsistent collective coordinate method. Applying the framework, both the ground state rotational bands and the Stockholm bands are studied systematically for the rare-earth deformed nuclei. An overall agreement has been achieved between the calculated and observed rotational spectra. It is also shown that the inclusion of the double-stretched quadrupole-pairing interaction is crucial to obtain an overall agreement for the even-odd mass differences and the rotational spectra simultaneously.

  2. Methods for collecting benthic invertebrate samples as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuffney, Thomas F.; Gurtz, Martin E.; Meador, Michael R.

    1993-01-01

    Benthic invertebrate communities are evaluated as part of the ecological survey component of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program. These biological data are collected along with physical and chemical data to assess water-quality conditions and to develop an understanding of the factors that affect water-quality conditions locally, regionally, and nationally. The objectives of benthic invertebrate community characterizations are to (1) develop for each site a list of tax a within the associated stream reach and (2) determine the structure of benthic invertebrate communities within selected habitats of that reach. A nationally consistent approach is used to achieve these objectives. This approach provides guidance on site, reach, and habitat selection and methods and equipment for qualitative multihabitat sampling and semi-quantitative single habitat sampling. Appropriate quality-assurance and quality-control guidelines are used to maximize the ability to analyze data within and among study units.

  3. Automatic method for building indoor boundary models from dense point clouds collected by laser scanners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero, Enrique; Adán, Antonio; Cerrada, Carlos

    2012-11-22

    In this paper we present a method that automatically yields Boundary Representation Models (B-rep) for indoors after processing dense point clouds collected by laser scanners from key locations through an existing facility. Our objective is particularly focused on providing single models which contain the shape, location and relationship of primitive structural elements of inhabited scenarios such as walls, ceilings and floors. We propose a discretization of the space in order to accurately segment the 3D data and generate complete B-rep models of indoors in which faces, edges and vertices are coherently connected. The approach has been tested in real scenarios with data coming from laser scanners yielding promising results. We have deeply evaluated the results by analyzing how reliably these elements can be detected and how accurately they are modeled.

  4. Aquatic macroinvertebrate diversity and biomass as potential indices of environmental contamination at National Wildlife Refuges in Montana

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Aquatic macroinvertebrate diversity and biomass were measured at wetland units on three National Wildlife Refuges in Montana and examined to determine if they were...

  5. The Relative Influence of Catchment and Site Variabbles on Fish and Macroinvertebrate Richness in Cerrado Biome Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landscape and site-scale data aid the interpretation of biological data and management alternatives. We evaluated how three classes of environmental variables (natural landscape, anthropogenic pressures, and local physical habitat), influence fish and macroinvertebrate assemblage...

  6. The Relative Influence of Catchment and Site Variabbles on Fish and Macroinvertebrate Richness in Cerrado Biome Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landscape and site-scale data aid the interpretation of biological data and management alternatives. We evaluated how three classes of environmental variables (natural landscape, anthropogenic pressures, and local physical habitat), influence fish and macroinvertebrate assemblage...

  7. A new voluntary blood collection method for the Andean bear (Tremarctos ornatus) and Asiatic black bear (Ursus thibetanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otaki, Yusuke; Kido, Nobuhide; Omiya, Tomoko; Ono, Kaori; Ueda, Miya; Azumano, Akinori; Tanaka, Sohei

    2015-01-01

    Various training methods have been developed for animal husbandry and health care in zoos and one of these trainings is blood collection. One training method, recently widely used for blood collection in Ursidae, requires setting up a sleeve outside the cage and gives access to limited blood collection sites. A new voluntary blood collection method without a sleeve was applied to the Andean bear (Tremarctos ornatus) and Asiatic black bear (Ursus thibetanus) with access to various veins at the same time. The present study evaluated the effectiveness of this new method and suggests improvements. Two Andean and two Asiatic black bears in Yokohama and Nogeyama Zoological Gardens, respectively, were trained to hold a bamboo pipe outside their cages. We could, thereby, simultaneously access superficial dorsal veins, the dorsal venous network of the hand, the cephalic vein from the carpal joint, and an area approximately 10 cm proximal to the carpal joint. This allowed us to evaluate which vein was most suitable for blood collection. We found that the cephalic vein, approximately 10 cm proximal to the carpal joint, was the most suitable for blood collection. This new method requires little or no modification of zoo facilities and provides a useful alternative method for blood collection. It could be adapted for use in other clinical examinations such as ultrasound examination. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Owner-collected swabs of pets: a method fit for the purpose of zoonoses research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möbius, N; Hille, K; Verspohl, J; Wefstaedt, P; Kreienbrock, L

    2013-09-01

    As part of the preparation of a large cohort study in the entire German population, this study examined the feasibility of cat and dog owners collecting nasal and oral swabs of their animals at home as a method of assessing exposure to zoonoses. In veterinary clinics in Hannover, Germany, 100 pet owners were recruited. Nasal and oral swabs of pets were taken by a veterinarian at the clinic and owners took swabs at home. Swabs were analysed regarding bacterial growth and compared (owner vs. vet) using Cohen's kappa and McNemar's test. The return rate of kits was 92%, and 77% of owners thought it unnecessary to have veterinarian assistance to swab the mouth. McNemar's test results: oral swabs 78% agreement with Gram-positive bacterial growth, 87% agreement with Gram-negative bacterial growth; with similar results for nasal swabs. Although sample quality differed, this method allowed the receipt of swabs from pets in order to obtain information about colonization with zoonotic pathogens.

  9. Evaluation of standard methods for collecting and processing fuel moisture samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sally M. Haase; José Sánchez; David R. Weise

    2016-01-01

    A variety of techniques for collecting and processing samples to determine moisture content of wildland fuels in support of fire management activities were evaluated. The effects of using a chainsaw or handsaw to collect samples of largediameter wood, containers for storing and transporting collected samples, and quick-response ovens for estimating moisture content...

  10. Comparison of Data-Collection Methods in a Behavioral Intervention Program for Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders: A Replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najdowski, Adel C.; Chilingaryan, Vardui; Bergstrom, Ryan; Granpeesheh, Doreen; Balasanyan, Susie; Aguilar, Barbara; Tarbox, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    Cummings and Carr (2009) compared two methods of data collection in a behavioral intervention program for children with pervasive developmental disorders: collecting data on all trials versus only the first trial in a session. Results showed that basing a child's progress on first-trial data resulted in identifying mastery-level responding…

  11. Setting health research priorities using the CHNRI method: VI. Quantitative properties of human collective opinion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Sachiyo; Rudan, Igor; Cousens, Simon

    2016-06-01

    Crowdsourcing has become an increasingly important tool to address many problems - from government elections in democracies, stock market prices, to modern online tools such as TripAdvisor or Internet Movie Database (IMDB). The CHNRI method (the acronym for the Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative) for setting health research priorities has crowdsourcing as the major component, which it uses to generate, assess and prioritize between many competing health research ideas. We conducted a series of analyses using data from a group of 91 scorers to explore the quantitative properties of their collective opinion. We were interested in the stability of their collective opinion as the sample size increases from 15 to 90. From a pool of 91 scorers who took part in a previous CHNRI exercise, we used sampling with replacement to generate multiple random samples of different size. First, for each sample generated, we identified the top 20 ranked research ideas, among 205 that were proposed and scored, and calculated the concordance with the ranking generated by the 91 original scorers. Second, we used rank correlation coefficients to compare the ranks assigned to all 205 proposed research ideas when samples of different size are used. We also analysed the original pool of 91 scorers to to look for evidence of scoring variations based on scorers' characteristics. The sample sizes investigated ranged from 15 to 90. The concordance for the top 20 scored research ideas increased with sample sizes up to about 55 experts. At this point, the median level of concordance stabilized at 15/20 top ranked questions (75%), with the interquartile range also generally stable (14-16). There was little further increase in overlap when the sample size increased from 55 to 90. When analysing the ranking of all 205 ideas, the rank correlation coefficient increased as the sample size increased, with a median correlation of 0.95 reached at the sample size of 45 experts (median of the rank

  12. Visualisation methods for large provenance collections in data-intensive collaborative platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinuso, Alessandro; Fligueira, Rosa; Atkinson, Malcolm; Gemuend, Andre

    2016-04-01

    This work investigates improving the methods of visually representing provenance information in the context of modern data-driven scientific research. It explores scenarios where data-intensive workflows systems are serving communities of researchers within collaborative environments, supporting the sharing of data and methods, and offering a variety of computation facilities, including HPC, HTC and Cloud. It focuses on the exploration of big-data visualization techniques aiming at producing comprehensive and interactive views on top of large and heterogeneous provenance data. The same approach is applicable to control-flow and data-flow workflows or to combinations of the two. This flexibility is achieved using the W3C-PROV recommendation as a reference model, especially its workflow oriented profiles such as D-PROV (Messier et al. 2013). Our implementation is based on the provenance records produced by the dispel4py data-intensive processing library (Filgueira et al. 2015). dispel4py is an open-source Python framework for describing abstract stream-based workflows for distributed data-intensive applications, developed during the VERCE project. dispel4py enables scientists to develop their scientific methods and applications on their laptop and then run them at scale on a wide range of e-Infrastructures (Cloud, Cluster, etc.) without making changes. Users can therefore focus on designing their workflows at an abstract level, describing actions, input and output streams, and how they are connected. The dispel4py system then maps these descriptions to the enactment platforms, such as MPI, Storm, multiprocessing. It provides a mechanism which allows users to determine the provenance information to be collected and to analyze it at runtime. For this work we consider alternative visualisation methods for provenance data, from infinite lists and localised interactive graphs, to radial-views. The latter technique has been positively explored in many fields, from text

  13. Diversity and abundance of aquatic macroinvertebrates in a lotic environment in Midwestern São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Lucas Bochini

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the diversity and abundance of an aquatic macroinvertebrate community in the Vargem Limpa stream located in Bauru, Midwestern São Paulo State, and characterized the water quality based on biological parameters. The sampling was carried out during the rain season (December, 2004. It was analyzed and identified 3,068 organisms belonging to 9 macroinvertebrate families. The system showed low richness and diversity of organisms in response to water quality.

  14. Effects of sediment-spiked lufenuron on benthic macroinvertebrates in outdoor microcosms and single-species toxicity tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brock, T.C.M., E-mail: theo.brock@wur.nl [Alterra, Wageningen University and Research Centre, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands); Bas, D.A. [Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics (IBED), University of Amsterdam (Netherlands); Belgers, J.D.M. [Alterra, Wageningen University and Research Centre, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands); Bibbe, L. [Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics (IBED), University of Amsterdam (Netherlands); Boerwinkel, M-C.; Crum, S.J.H. [Alterra, Wageningen University and Research Centre, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands); Diepens, N.J. [Department of Aquatic Ecology and Water Quality Management, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands); Kraak, M.H.S.; Vonk, J.A. [Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics (IBED), University of Amsterdam (Netherlands); Roessink, I. [Alterra, Wageningen University and Research Centre, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • In outdoor microcosms constructed with lufenuron-spiked sediment we observed that this insecticide persistent in the sediment compartment. • Sediment exposure to lufenuron caused population-level declines (insects and crustaceans) and increases (mainly oligochaete worms) of benthic invertebrates. • The direct and indirect effects observed in the microcosms were supported by results of sediment-spiked single species tests with Chironomus riparius, Hyalella azteca and Lumbriculus variegatus. • The tier-1 effect assessment procedure for sediment organisms recommended by the European Food Safety Authority is protective for the treatment-related responses observed in the microcosm test. - Abstract: Sediment ecotoxicity studies were conducted with lufenuron to (i) complement the results of a water-spiked mesocosm experiment with this lipophilic benzoylurea insecticide, (ii) to explore the predictive value of laboratory single-species tests for population and community-level responses of benthic macroinvertebrates, and (iii) to calibrate the tier-1 effect assessment procedure for sediment organisms. For this purpose the concentration-response relationships for macroinvertebrates between sediment-spiked microcosms and those of 28-d sediment-spiked single-species toxicity tests with Chironomus riparius, Hyalella azteca and Lumbriculus variegatus were compared. Lufenuron persisted in the sediment of the microcosms. On average, 87.7% of the initial lufenuron concentration could still be detected in the sediment after 12 weeks. Overall, benthic insects and crustaceans showed treatment-related declines and oligochaetes treatment-related increases. The lowest population-level NOEC in the microcosms was 0.79 μg lufenuron/g organic carbon in dry sediment (μg a.s./g OC) for Tanytarsini, Chironomini and Dero sp. Multivariate analysis of the responses of benthic macroinvertebrates revealed a community-level NOEC of 0.79 μg a.s./g OC. The treatment

  15. Affinity Chart Analysis: A Method for Structured Collection, Aggregation, and Response to Customer Needs in Radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boll, Daniel T; Rubin, Geoffrey D; Heye, Tobias; Pierce, Laura J

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze implementation of the voice-of-the-customer method to assess the current state of image postprocessing and reporting delivered by a radiology department and to plan improvements on the basis of referring physicians' preferences. The voice-of-the-customer method consisted of discovery, analysis, and optimization phases. Fifty referring physicians were invited to be interviewed. Interviews addressed the topics of structure, process, outcome, and support. Interviews were dissected into individual statements categorized as fact or feeling. Statements were grouped to find collective voices. Improvements were compiled from affinity charts and were processed by identifying insights. Ninety-four percent (47/50) of physicians participated, generating 352 statements (81 facts and 271 feelings) that subsequently underwent affinity chart clustering. The resultant affinity charts covered distinct themes: "we need you to know us better," "we need you to consider our workflow," "we need more from your services," "we want to review your data in certain ways," and "we want to do more with you." As a result of the insights gained, the following optimizations were implemented: a software application that improves study requesting, performance tracking, study prioritization, and longitudinal data archiving; six prototype reports containing tabulated data and annotated images; two prototype longitudinal reporting templates assessing aneurysm evolution and treatment-induced changes in organ size over time; and a teaching curriculum for trainees. This study has shown the clinical feasibility to assess the current state of image postprocessing and reporting and to implement improvements of and investments in image postprocessing and reporting infrastructure on the basis of referring physicians' preferences using the voice-of-the-customer method.

  16. Genetic distance sampling: a novel sampling method for obtaining core collections using genetic distances with an application to cultivated lettuce

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, J.; Hintum, van T.J.L.

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel sampling method for obtaining core collections, entitled genetic distance sampling. The method incorporates information about distances between individual accessions into a random sampling procedure. A basic feature of the method is that automatically larger samples are

  17. The Search of Pedestrian Traffic Information Collection Method%行人交通信息采集方法分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈腾林; 林贵敏; 黄明芳

    2012-01-01

    The article introduces artificial collection method,video acquisition method,GPS acquisition method and wireless location acquisition method of pedestrian traffic information collection method from the pedestrian traffic characteristics;the article introduces detaily the wireless location acquisition method in pedestrian traffic information collection in use;it is very important significance in the study on pedestrian traffic.%从行人的交通特性出发,分别介绍人工采集法、视频采集法、GPS采集法和无线定位采集法等行人交通信息采集方法。详细分析无线定位采集法在行人交通信息采集中的运用,对研究行人交通具有重要意义。

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF MULTI-METRIC INDEX BASED ON BENTHIC MACROINVERTEBRATES TO ASSESS RIVER ECOSYSTEM OF A TYPICAL PLAIN RIVER NETWORK IN CHINA%典型平原河网地区底栖动物生物指数筛选及评价基准研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈小华; 康丽娟; 孙从军; 杨青

    2013-01-01

    Bio assessment of benthic macroinvertebrate-based multmietrics is a very effective approach to evaluate quality of river water. Benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages were sampled at 83 sites in Shanghai metropolitan area, a typical dense river network plain. A total of 20 taxa of the benthic macroinvertebrate were collected, including 50% of Mollusca, 30% of Arthropoda and 20% of Annelida. Among 74 sites with living samples, 32 relatively clean sites and 42 polluted sites were separated based on Hilsenhoff biotic index discrminatory criteria. A comprehensive evaluation using 28 widely-used metrics was carried out. Furthermore, 8 metrics were selected as the most sensitive ones based on non-parametric tests (i.e., Mann-Whitney U test and Kolmogorov-Smirnov test). By standard scoring method, eight sensitive metrics were unified and integrated into a multi-metric index on a scale ranging from 8 to 40 for bioassessment at each site. Biocriteria values for benthic macroinvertebrate were proposed by quartation, i.e., 8-15, very poor; 16-23, poor; 24-31, fair; and 32-40, good. Water quality of 9 sites with no living sample were marked as very poor. According to the biocriteria, 41 typical sites were divided into 5 groups. The past 5-year historical data of physico-chemical water quality indicators have significant difference among 5 group sites. Consequently, the discrminatory biocriteria are suitable for the assessment of the river water quality of the Shanghai City.%2011年夏、秋季在上海市全境主要河流的83个断面进行大型底栖动物的采样,共获取底栖动物20个分类单位(种),其中软体动物、环节动物和节肢动物分别占50%、30% 和20%.选取常见的28个生物指数分别进行计算,并采用非参数统计检验方法筛选出8个敏感生物指数.通过记分法对8种敏感生物指数统一量纲后,获得数值范围为8-40的综合生物指数,运用四分法划分了判别河道水环境质量的生物基准:32-40,

  19. Trophic significance of herbivorous macroinvertebrates on the central Great Barrier Reef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klumpp, D. W.; Pulfrich, A.

    1989-12-01

    The common herbivorous macroinvertebrates on reef flats of the central Great Barrier Reef (GBR) were, in order of abundance: gastropod molluscs ( Turbo and Trochus spp.); pagurid crabs; and the starfish, Linckia laevigata. The density of macroinvertebrates on Davies Reef was lowest in the thick-turf habitats at the windward reef-crest (0.6 0.9 m-2) compared with 3.1 to 5.2 m-2 elsewhere on the reef flat. Invertebrate grazer densities were similar on mid-shelf reef flats (mean: 2.3 3.6 m-2) and significantly lower on outer-shelf reefs (0.3 1.0 m-2). The ingestion rate of Turbo chrysostomus, the most abundant macroinvertebrate species, was derived from (a) faecal production and food absorption efficiency, (b) comparison of algal biomass on grazed and ungrazed natural substrata and (c) gut-filling rate and feeding periodicity in field populations. The ingestion rate of Trochus pyramis, the most common trochid and an abundant component of the macroinvertebrate fauna, was also estimated using (a). This gastropod fed continuously, whereas T. chrysostomus showed a distinct nocturnal feeding periodicity. T. chrysostomus and T. pyramis ingested daily means of 35 and 54 mgC animal-1, respectively. Total gastropod grazing rates (mgC m-2d-1 in the field ranged from 11 in a thick-turf, reef-crest habitat to 144 on the open-grazed main flat. Grazing by gastropods accounted for between 0.3 and 8% of the net production of benthic algal food resources, depending on location on the reef flat. Across the whole reef flat the mean (areally-weighted) gastropod grazing rate was 6% of net production. A comparison of the relative roles of different types of grazers led to the conclusion that fishes are likely to have the greatest overall trophic impact on reefs of the central GBR. Even where macroinvertebrates are most abundant on reef flats, the yield from benthic algal communities to macroinvertebrates is estimated to be only one third of that due to fishes.

  20. Biodiversity patterns of macrophyte and macroinvertebrate communities in two lagoons of Western Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyttis, G.; Reizopoulou, S.; Papastergiadou, E.

    2012-04-01

    Aquatic macrophytes and benthic macroinvertebrates were studied seasonally (Spring, Autumn, Summer) between the years 2009 - 2011 in two coastal lagoons (Kotychi and Prokopos) located in Peloponnese, Greece, in order to investigate spatial and temporal biodiversity trends related to hydrological processes (degree of confinement, nitrates, phosphates, chl-a, total suspended materials, light irradiance, pH, salinity, temperature and dissolved oxygen). Kotychi lagoon presents a better communication with the sea, while Prokopos has a high degree of confinement. Both ecosystems seasonally receive freshwater input from streams. The submerged aquatic macrophytes constituted a major component of the ecosystems studied. In total, 22 taxa of aquatic macrophytes (angiosperms and macroalgae), 16 taxa for Kotychi (2 Rhodophyta, 8 Chlorophyta, 5 Magnoliophyta, 1 Streptophyta) and 14 taxa for Prokopos (1 Rhodophyta, 5 Chlorophyta, 5 Magnoliophyta, 3 Streptophyta) were found. Ruppia cirrhosa, and Potamogeton pectinatus were dominant in both lagoons. Kotychi lagoon was also dominated by Zostera noltii and Prokopos by Zannichellia pallustris ssp. pedicellata, while the biomass of aquatic species peaked during the summer periods, in both lagoons. The total number of macroinvertebrates found in the lagoons was 28 taxa for Kotychi and 19 for Prokopos. Chironomidae were dominant in both lagoons, while Kotychi was also dominated by Lekanesphaera monodi and Monocorophium insidiosum, and Prokopos by Ostracoda and Lekanesphaera monodi. Benthic diversity ranged from 1.33 to 2.57 in Kotychi and from 0.67 to 2.48 in Prokopos. Species richness, diversity, and abundance of benthic macroinvertebrates were strongly related to aquatic vegetation and to the degree of communication with the marine environment. Moreover, species richness and abundance of both macrophytes and macroinvertebrates were mainly dependent on depth, temperature, pH and concentration of total suspended materials (TSM). Results

  1. Comparison of self-administered survey questionnaire responses collected using mobile apps versus other methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcano Belisario, José S; Jamsek, Jan; Huckvale, Kit; O'Donoghue, John; Morrison, Cecily P; Car, Josip

    2015-07-27

    Self-administered survey questionnaires are an important data collection tool in clinical practice, public health research and epidemiology. They are ideal for achieving a wide geographic coverage of the target population, dealing with sensitive topics and are less resource-intensive than other data collection methods. These survey questionnaires can be delivered electronically, which can maximise the scalability and speed of data collection while reducing cost. In recent years, the use of apps running on consumer smart devices (i.e., smartphones and tablets) for this purpose has received considerable attention. However, variation in the mode of delivering a survey questionnaire could affect the quality of the responses collected. To assess the impact that smartphone and tablet apps as a delivery mode have on the quality of survey questionnaire responses compared to any other alternative delivery mode: paper, laptop computer, tablet computer (manufactured before 2007), short message service (SMS) and plastic objects. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, IEEEXplore, Web of Science, CABI: CAB Abstracts, Current Contents Connect, ACM Digital, ERIC, Sociological Abstracts, Health Management Information Consortium, the Campbell Library and CENTRAL. We also searched registers of current and ongoing clinical trials such as ClinicalTrials.gov and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform. We also searched the grey literature in OpenGrey, Mobile Active and ProQuest Dissertation & Theses. Lastly, we searched Google Scholar and the reference lists of included studies and relevant systematic reviews. We performed all searches up to 12 and 13 April 2015. We included parallel randomised controlled trials (RCTs), crossover trials and paired repeated measures studies that compared the electronic delivery of self-administered survey questionnaires via a smartphone or tablet app with any other delivery mode. We included data obtained from

  2. DNA analysis of molluscs from a museum wet collection: a comparison of different extraction methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaksch, Katharina; Eschner, Anita; Rintelen, Thomas V; Haring, Elisabeth

    2016-07-18

    DNA isolation and PCR amplification from molluscan taxa is considered as problematic because polysaccharides in tissue and mucus presumably co-precipitate with the DNA and inhibit the activity of DNA polymerase. In the present study we tested two common extraction methods on specimens from the mollusc collection of the Natural History Museum Vienna (NHMW). We analysed a broad variety of taxa covering a large temporal span (acquisition years 1877 to 1999), which distinguishes our study from previous ones where mostly fresh material was used. We also took other factors into account: effects of sample age, effects of formaldehyde treatment and taxon-specific problems. We used several primer combinations to amplify amplicons of different lengths of two mitochondrial genes: cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI) and 16S rRNA gene (16S). Overall PCR success was 43 % in the 576 extractions (including all primer combinations). The smallest amplicon (~240 bp) showed the best results (49 % positive reactions), followed by the 400 bp amplicon (40.5 %). Both short sections yielded significantly better results than the 700 bp long amplicon (27 %). Comparatively, the Gen-ial-First, All-tissue DNA-Kit-extraction method performed significantly better than Promega-Tissue and Hair Extraction Kit. Generally, PCR success is age-dependent. Nonetheless, we were able to obtain the longest amplicon even from 137-year-old material. Importantly, formaldehyde traces did not totally inhibit amplification success, although very high concentrations did. Museum material has gained importance for DNA analysis in recent years, especially for DNA barcoding projects. In some cases, however, the amplification of the standard barcoding region (partial sequence of the COI) is problematic with old material. Our study clearly shows that the COI barcoding region could be amplified in up to 49 % of PCRs (varying with amplicon length), which is, for museum samples, quite a high percentage. The

  3. Collection Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbour, Denise

    2002-01-01

    Explains collection mapping for library media collections. Discusses purposes for creating collection maps, including helping with selection and weeding decisions, showing how the collection supports the curriculum, and making budget decisions; and methods of data collection, including evaluating a collaboratively taught unit with the classroom…

  4. Nano-sized aerosol classification, collection and analysis--method development using dental composite materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdan, Axel; Buckett, Mary I; Japuntich, Daniel A

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a methodical approach for generating, collecting, and analyzing nano-size (1-100 nm) aerosol from abraded dental composite materials. Existing aerosol sampling instruments were combined with a custom-made sampling chamber to create and sample a fresh, steady-state aerosol size distribution before significant Brownian coagulation. Morphological, size, and compositional information was obtained by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). To create samples sizes suitable for TEM analysis, aerosol concentrations in the test chamber had to be much higher than one would typically expect in a dental office, and therefore, these results do not represent patient or dental personnel exposures. Results show that nano-size aerosol was produced by the dental drill alone, with and without cooling water drip, prior to abrasion of dental composite. During abrasion, aerosol generation seemed independent of the percent filler load of the restorative material and the operator who generated the test aerosol. TEM investigation showed that "chunks" of filler and resin were generated in the nano-size range; however, free nano-size filler particles were not observed. The majority of observed particles consisted of oil droplets, ash, and graphitic structures.

  5. Optimized pH method for DNA elution from buccal cells collected in Whatman FTA cards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lema, Carolina; Kohl-White, Kendra; Lewis, Laurie R; Dao, Dat D

    2006-01-01

    DNA is the most accessible biologic material for obtaining information from the human genome because of its molecular stability and its presence in every nucleated cell. Currently, single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping and DNA methylation are the main DNA-based approaches to deriving genomic and epigenomic disease biomarkers. Upon the discontinuation of the Schleicher & Schuell IsoCode product (Dassel, Germany), which was a treated paper system to elute DNA from several biologic sources for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis, a high-yielding DNA elution method was imperative. We describe here an improved procedure of the not fully validated Whatman pH-based elution protocol. Our DNA elution procedure from buccal cells collected in Whatman FTA cards (Whatman Inc., Florham Park, NJ) yielded approximately 4 microg of DNA from a 6-mm FTA card punch and was successfully applied for HLA-DQB1 genotyping. The genotypes showed complete concordance with data obtained from blood of the same subjects. The achieved high DNA yield from buccal cells suggests a potential cost-effective tool for genomic and epigenomic disease biomarkers development.

  6. Comparative Examination of Capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus L. Behaviour Responses and Semen Quality to Two Methods of Semen Collection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Teresa Łukaszewicz

    Full Text Available Artificial insemination (AI is very helpful in solving the reproductive and biodiversity problems observed in small, closed avian populations. The successful production of fertilized eggs using AI is dependent on the collection of good quality semen. Two methods of male sexual stimulation and semen collection from captive kept capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus L., one of the most seriously endangered grouse species in Europe, are compared in this study. Ejaculates were obtained either with the use of a dummy female or by the dorso-abdominal massage method. Differences in the individual responses of the males to the two methods of semen collection as well as in their semen quality were noted. Only sperm concentration (432.4 x 10(6 mL(-1 with dummy female and 614.5 x 10(6 mL(-1 for massage method was significantly affected by capercaillie stimulation method. Sperm motility and morphology were not affected (P ≥ 0.05. Thus, for semen collection from captive kept capercaillie both methods can be used successfully. The dummy female can be an alternative to dorso-abdominal massage method, commonly used for semen collection from domesticated bird species.

  7. Water quality and benthic macroinvertebrate bioassessment of Gallinas Creek, San Miguel County, New Mexico, 1987-90

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garn, H.S.; Jacobi, G.Z.

    1996-01-01

    Upper Gallinas Creek in north-central New Mexico serves as the public water supply for the City of Las Vegas. The majority of this 84-square-mile watershed is within national forest lands managed by the U.S. Forest Service. In 1985, the Forest Service planned to conduct timber harvesting in the headwaters of Gallinas Creek. The City of Las Vegas was concerned about possible effects from logging on water quality and on water-supply treatment costs. The U.S. Geological Survey began a cooperative study in 1987 to (1) assess the baseline water-quality characteristics of Gallinas Creek upstream from the Las Vegas water-supply diversion, (2) relate water quality to State water- quality standards, and (3) determine possible causes for spatial differences in quality. During 1987-90, water-quality constituents and aquatic benthic macroinvertebrates were collected and analyzed at five sampling sites in the watershed. Specific conductance, pH, total hardness, total alkalinity, and calcium concentrations increased in a downstream direction, probably in response to differences in geology in the watershed. The water-quality standard for temperature was exceeded at the two most downstream sites probably due to a lack of riparian vegetation and low streamflow conditions. The standards for pH and turbidity were exceeded at all sites except the most upstream one. Concentrations of nitrogen species and phosphorus generally were small at all sites. The maximum total nitrogen concentration of 2.1 milligrams per liter was at the mouth of Porvenir Canyon; only one sample at this site exceeded the water-quality standard for total inorganic nitrogen. At each of the sites, 10 to 15 percent of the samples exceeded the total phosphorus standard of less than 0.1 milligram per liter. Except for aluminum and iron, almost all samples tested for trace elements contained concentrations less than the laboratory detection limit. No trace-element concentrations exceeded the State standard for domestic

  8. Using the CREW Method to Enhance Public and School Library Collections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, Belinda

    2009-01-01

    Now, more than ever, public and school libraries struggle to main- tain their relevance in the age of instant access, electronic databases, and Google. While print collections continue to grow, many collections are drowning in obsolete, unused, and unwanted materials. And while most libraries keep up with deselection in an intelligent manner, many…

  9. [Methods of collecting urine for the determination of microalbuminuria: time for consensus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, A.J.; Grauw, W.J.C. de

    2004-01-01

    In daily practice, collecting urine for the determination of microalbuminuria may take place in various ways and several different procedures are often used side by side in one institution. Ideally, the collection of urine should be as simple as possible for the patient, without losing diagnostic va

  10. Description of Collective Motion in Two-Dimensional Nuclei; Tomonaga's Method Revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Nishiyama, Seiya

    2014-01-01

    Four decades ago, Tomonaga proposed the elementary theory of quantum mechanical collective motion of two-dimensional nuclei of N nucleons. The theory is based essentially on the neglect of 1/sqrtN against unity. Very recently we have given exact canonically conjugate momenta to quadrupole-type collective coordinates under some subsidiary conditions and have derived nuclear quadrupole-type collective Hamiltonian. Even in the case of simple two-dimensional nuclei, we have a subsidiary condition to obtain exact canonical variables. Particularly the structure of the collective subspace satisfying the subsidiary condition is studied in detail. This subsidiary condition is important to investigate what is a structure of the collective subspace.

  11. High-speed and high-fidelity system and method for collecting network traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigle, Eric H.

    2010-08-24

    A system is provided for the high-speed and high-fidelity collection of network traffic. The system can collect traffic at gigabit-per-second (Gbps) speeds, scale to terabit-per-second (Tbps) speeds, and support additional functions such as real-time network intrusion detection. The present system uses a dedicated operating system for traffic collection to maximize efficiency, scalability, and performance. A scalable infrastructure and apparatus for the present system is provided by splitting the work performed on one host onto multiple hosts. The present system simultaneously addresses the issues of scalability, performance, cost, and adaptability with respect to network monitoring, collection, and other network tasks. In addition to high-speed and high-fidelity network collection, the present system provides a flexible infrastructure to perform virtually any function at high speeds such as real-time network intrusion detection and wide-area network emulation for research purposes.

  12. The effects of tricyclazole treatment on aquatic macroinvertebrates in the field and in laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Rossaro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of tricyclazole treatments on benthic macroinvertebrates in the field and in laboratory were studied. In field conditions, low density of benthic populations was observed, both in treated and untreated plots, which was attributed to the short period of submersion of the rice field and high water temperature, fungicide treatments had no significant effect. Both laboratory acute toxicity test and a test using a mesocosm suggested a low toxicity of tricyclazole on invertebrates. A reduction of the macroinvertebrate density was observed only when tricyclazole concentration was applied at concentrations 100 times the ones tested in the field, acute toxicity test gave an LC50 after 48 h of 26 mg*L–1, in agreement with data obtained for other species.

  13. Nutrient enrichment effect on macroinvertebrates in a lowland stream of Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustina Cortelezzi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT One of the most important effects derived from the intensive land use is the increase of nutrient concentration in the aquatic systems due to superficial drainage. Besides, the increment of precipitations in South America connected to the global climate change could intensify these anthropic impacts due to the changes in the runoff pattern and a greater discharge of water in the streams and rivers. The pampean streams are singular environments with high natural nutrient concentrations which could be increased even more if the predictions of global climate change for the area are met. In this context, the effect of experimental nutrient addition on macroinvertebrates in a lowland stream is studied. Samplings were carried out from March 2007 to February 2009 in two reaches (fertilized and unfertilized, upstream and downstream from the input of nutrients. The addition of nutrients caused an increase in the phosphorus concentration in the fertilized reach which was not observed for nitrogen concentration. From all macroinvertebrates studied only two taxa had significant differences in their abundance after fertilization: Corbicula fluminea and Ostracoda. Our results reveal that the disturbance caused by the increase of nutrients on the benthic community depends on basal nutrients concentration. The weak response of macroinvertebrates to fertilization in the pampean streams could be due to their tolerance to high concentrations of nutrients in relation to their evolutionary history in streams naturally enriched with nutrients. Further research concerning the thresholds of nutrients affecting macroinvertebrates and about the adaptive advantages of taxa in naturally eutrophic environments is still needed. This information will allow for a better understanding of the processes of nutrient cycling and for the construction of restoration measures in natural eutrophic ecosystems.

  14. Impact of metals on macroinvertebrate assemblages in the Forgotten Stretch of the Rio Grande.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordonez, Catalina; Lougheed, Vanessa L; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L; Bain, Lisa J

    2011-04-01

    The objective of this study was to examine how changes in the benthic macroinvertebrate community structure and a variety of abiotic variables, such as conductivity and sediment metal concentrations, are modified along the Forgotten River stretch of the Rio Grande. This stretch receives industrial effluent, raw sewage, and agricultural return flow from the El Paso (TX, USA)-Ciudad Juárez (CHI, Mexico) metroplex and then flows relatively undisturbed for 320 km before its next significant input. The high degree of use, followed by the 320-km undisturbed stretch, makes the Forgotten River a unique study site to examine downstream attenuation of contaminants and other abiotic variables to determine their potential effects on macroinvertebrates. Five different sites along the Forgotten Stretch were sampled over a 2-year period. Metal concentrations were low throughout the stretch and were predominantly correlated to percent sediment organic matter rather than explained spatially. Several sensitive invertebrate species, such as Leptophlebiidae, increased in relative abundance downstream, whereas the percentage of tolerant invertebrates decreased. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling separated the macroinvertebrate communities upstream from those downstream, with the more sensitive species being found predominantly downstream and more tolerant taxa associated upstream. Additionally, there was a distinct seasonal gradient to the community. The most important drivers of the community assemblage appear to be distance downstream and seasonality, as well as water conductivity and concentrations of sediment cadmium, which was the only metal that exceeded protective criteria. This study did not provide evidence of the downstream attenuation of heavy metals in the sediments in the Forgotten Stretch; however, downstream changes in macroinvertebrates toward more sensitive taxa suggests that other, unmeasured contaminants might be affecting biological communities in this isolated

  15. Diversity of aquatic insects and other associated macroinvertebrates in an arid wetland (Mendoza Province, Argentina)

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this work was to expand the evaluation of diversity of aquatic insects and associated macroinvertebrates along the Bañado Carilauquen using hand net for water column and Petersen dredge for benthos. Additionally, we explored seasonal and spatial differences and similarities of macro invertebrate assemblages' qualitative composition. Samplings were conducted seasonally in five reaches of the Bañado Carilauquen, from headwaters to outlet. A total of 47 taxa were identified; 37 of th...

  16. Benthic Macroinvertebrates of Selected Aquatic Habitats of the Lower Mississippi River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-04-01

    1975) and provides a graphical summary of the similarity between samples, stations, or communities. This technique was introduced by Bray and Curtis ...drift. Miscellaneous Paper E-80-1, U. S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, CE, Vicksburg, Miss. Bray, J. R., and J. T. Curtis . 1957. An...J. Cairns, Jr., and J. M. Bates. 1971. Cluster analysis of non-insect macro-invertebrates of the upper Potomac River. Hydro- biologia 37:173-181

  17. Incorporating scannable forms into immunization data collection processes: a mixed-methods study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine L Heidebrecht

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Individual-level immunization data captured electronically can facilitate evidence-based decision-making and planning. Populating individual-level records through manual data entry is time-consuming. An alternative is to use scannable forms, completed at the point of vaccination and subsequently scanned and exported to a database or registry. To explore the suitability of this approach for collecting immunization data, we conducted a feasibility study in two settings in Ontario, Canada. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Prior to the 2011-2012 influenza vaccination campaign, we developed a scannable form template and a corresponding database that captured required demographic and clinical data elements. We examined efficiency, data quality, and usability through time observations, record audits, staff interviews, and client surveys. The mean time required to scan and verify forms (62.3 s was significantly shorter than manual data entry (69.5 s in one organization, whereas there was no difference (36.6 s vs. 35.4 s in a second organization. Record audits revealed no differences in data quality between records populated by scanning versus manual data entry. Data processing personnel and immunized clients found the processes involved to be straightforward, while nurses and managers had mixed perceptions regarding the ease and merit of using scannable forms. Printing quality and other factors rendered some forms unscannable, necessitating manual entry. CONCLUSIONS: Scannable forms can facilitate efficient data entry, but certain features of the forms, as well as the workflow and infrastructure into which they are incorporated, should be evaluated and adapted if scannable forms are to be a meaningful alternative to manual data entry.

  18. Positive reinforcement methods to train chimpanzees to cooperate with urine collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomsmith, Mollie; Neu, Kim; Franklin, Andrea; Griffis, Caroline; McMillan, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Positive reinforcement training can be used in many ways to enhance the welfare of captive primates. Training for biologic sample collection is one application of positive reinforcement training. In this study, 35 adult female chimpanzees were trained to cooperate with the collection of urine samples needed to facilitate a research study. A median of 35 training sessions was required for the subjects to reach reliable performance (4 of 5 sequential attempts successful) of the urine collection behavior. Adult age had no effect on the speed of learning as indicated by a rank order correlation. Individual differences in the rate of learning were pronounced but did not vary with the age of the chimpanzees. Approximately 2 y after the initial training, and with continual sample collection taking place twice weekly, we assessed the reliability of their performance and found that the chimpanzees cooperated 100% of the time and that collection of a urine sample required about 5 min. Positive reinforcement training can markedly reduce staff time, particularly for studies such as this that require frequent biologic sample collection over long durations. Similar approaches could be used to train other laboratory primates to cooperate with urine collection procedures. Animal training programs that emphasize positive reinforcement training are an important refinement in the care of laboratory primates.

  19. Using Routinely Collected Hospital Data for Child Maltreatment Surveillance: Issues, Methods and Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Debbie A

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background International data on child maltreatment are largely derived from child protection agencies, and predominantly report only substantiated cases of child maltreatment. This approach underestimates the incidence of maltreatment and makes inter-jurisdictional comparisons difficult. There has been a growing recognition of the importance of health professionals in identifying, documenting and reporting suspected child maltreatment. This study aimed to describe the issues around case identification using coded morbidity data, outline methods for selecting and grouping relevant codes, and illustrate patterns of maltreatment identified. Methods A comprehensive review of the ICD-10-AM classification system was undertaken, including review of index terms, a free text search of tabular volumes, and a review of coding standards pertaining to child maltreatment coding. Identified codes were further categorised into maltreatment types including physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional or psychological abuse, and neglect. Using these code groupings, one year of Australian hospitalisation data for children under 18 years of age was examined to quantify the proportion of patients identified and to explore the characteristics of cases assigned maltreatment-related codes. Results Less than 0.5% of children hospitalised in Australia between 2005 and 2006 had a maltreatment code assigned, almost 4% of children with a principal diagnosis of a mental and behavioural disorder and over 1% of children with an injury or poisoning as the principal diagnosis had a maltreatment code assigned. The patterns of children assigned with definitive T74 codes varied by sex and age group. For males selected as having a maltreatment-related presentation, physical abuse was most commonly coded (62.6% of maltreatment cases while for females selected as having a maltreatment-related presentation, sexual abuse was the most commonly assigned form of maltreatment (52.9% of

  20. Comparison of Saliva Collection Methods in Children with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders: Acceptability and Recovery of Cortisol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Susan K.; Lopata, Christopher; Fox, Jeffery D.; Thomeer, Marcus L.; Rodgers, Jonathan D.; Volker, Martin A.; Lee, Gloria K.; Neilans, Erik G.; Werth, Jilynn

    2012-01-01

    This study compared cortisol concentrations yielded using three saliva collection methods (passive drool, salivette, and sorbette) in both in vitro and in vivo conditions, as well as method acceptability for a sample of children (n = 39) with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders. No cortisol concentration differences were observed between…

  1. Comparison of Saliva Collection Methods in Children with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders: Acceptability and Recovery of Cortisol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Susan K.; Lopata, Christopher; Fox, Jeffery D.; Thomeer, Marcus L.; Rodgers, Jonathan D.; Volker, Martin A.; Lee, Gloria K.; Neilans, Erik G.; Werth, Jilynn

    2012-01-01

    This study compared cortisol concentrations yielded using three saliva collection methods (passive drool, salivette, and sorbette) in both in vitro and in vivo conditions, as well as method acceptability for a sample of children (n = 39) with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders. No cortisol concentration differences were observed between…

  2. Examination of the Equivalence of Self-Report Survey-Based Paper-and-Pencil and Internet Data Collection Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigold, Arne; Weigold, Ingrid K.; Russell, Elizabeth J.

    2013-01-01

    Self-report survey-based data collection is increasingly carried out using the Internet, as opposed to the traditional paper-and-pencil method. However, previous research on the equivalence of these methods has yielded inconsistent findings. This may be due to methodological and statistical issues present in much of the literature, such as…

  3. Effects of anthropogenic impacts on benthic macroinvertebrates assemblages in subtropical mountain streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia M. Mesa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The nature of the riparian and surrounding landscape has been modified by anthropogenic activities, which may subsequently alter the composition and functional structure of macroinvertebrate assemblages. The effect of these changes on function of benthic fauna is difficult to assess due to the scarce knowledge on functional structures in tropical streams. In this study we evaluate whether sites impacted and unimpacted by anthropogenic alterations differed in assemblage composition and density, richness and diversity of each functional feeding group. The selection of the sites was related to their distinct riparian characteristics, following the QBRy riparian quality index. Collector-gatherer was the dominant functional feeding group, comprising 91% of total density, whereas the proportion of shredders was very low, representing less of 0.5% of total density. Asemblage composition of macroinvertebrates differed between impacted and unimpacted sites. Predators were dominant in taxa number, representing about 60% of total taxa richness. In addition, the diversity and richness of collector-gatherers differed significantly between degraded and unimpacted sites, reflecting the sensitivity of this group to environmental changes and the utility to be used in the assessment of anthropogenic modifications. The results of this study reinforce the idea that riparian corridor management is critical for the distribution of macroinvertebrate assemblages as well as functional organization of lotic streams.

  4. Effects of anthropogenic salinization on biological traits and community composition of stream macroinvertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szöcs, Eduard; Coring, Eckhard; Bäthe, Jürgen; Schäfer, Ralf B

    2014-01-15

    Salinization of rivers resulting from industrial discharge or road-deicing can adversely affect macroinvertebrates. Trait-based approaches are a promising tool in ecological monitoring and may perform better than taxonomy-based approaches. However only little is known how and which biological traits are affected by salinization. We investigated the effects of anthropogenic salinization on macroinvertebrate communities and biological traits in the Werra River, Germany and compared the taxonomic and trait response. We found a change in macroinvertebrate community and trait composition. Communities at saline sites were characterized by the three exotic species Gammarus tigrinus, Apocorophium lacustre and Potamopyrgus antipodarum. The frequencies of trait modalities long life cycle duration, respiration by gill, ovoviviparity, shredder and multivoltinism were statistically significantly increased at saline sites. The trait-based ordination resulted in a higher explained variance than the taxonomy-based ordination, indicating a better performance of the trait-based approach, resulting in a better discrimination between saline and non-saline sites. Our results are in general agreement with other studies from Europe, indicating a trait convergence for saline streams, being dominated by the traits ovoviviparity and multivoltinism. Three further traits (respiration by gill, life cycle duration and shredders) responded strongly to salinization, but this may primarily be attributed to the dominance of a single invasive species, G. tigrinus, at the saline sites in the Werra River.

  5. The influence of connectivity in forest patches, and riparian vegetation width on stream macroinvertebrate fauna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IC Valle

    Full Text Available We assessed two dimensions of stream connectivity: longitudinal (between forest patches along the stream and lateral (riparian vegetation, using macroinvertebrate assemblages as bioindicators. Sites representing different land-uses were sampled in a lowland basin that holds a mosaic of protected areas. Land-use analysis, forest successional stages and riparian zone widths were calculated by the GIS analysis. Macroinvertebrate fauna was strongly affected by land-use. We observed a continuous decrease in the number of sensitive species, %Shredders and IBE-IOC biotic index from the upstream protected area to highly deforested sites, increasing again where the stream crosses a Biological Reserve. When analysing buffer strips, we found aquatic fauna responding to land-use alterations beyond the 30 m riparian corridor (60 m and 100 m wide. We discussed the longitudinal connectivity between forest patches and the riparian vegetation buffer strips necessary to hold high macroinvertebrate diversity. We recommend actions for the increase/maintenance of biodiversity in this and other lowland basins.

  6. The influence of connectivity in forest patches, and riparian vegetation width on stream macroinvertebrate fauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, I C; Buss, D F; Baptista, D F

    2013-05-01

    We assessed two dimensions of stream connectivity: longitudinal (between forest patches along the stream) and lateral (riparian vegetation), using macroinvertebrate assemblages as bioindicators. Sites representing different land-uses were sampled in a lowland basin that holds a mosaic of protected areas. Land-use analysis, forest successional stages and riparian zone widths were calculated by the GIS analysis. Macroinvertebrate fauna was strongly affected by land-use. We observed a continuous decrease in the number of sensitive species, %Shredders and IBE-IOC biotic index from the upstream protected area to highly deforested sites, increasing again where the stream crosses a Biological Reserve. When analysing buffer strips, we found aquatic fauna responding to land-use alterations beyond the 30 m riparian corridor (60 m and 100 m wide). We discussed the longitudinal connectivity between forest patches and the riparian vegetation buffer strips necessary to hold high macroinvertebrate diversity. We recommend actions for the increase/maintenance of biodiversity in this and other lowland basins.

  7. Legacy of a Chemical Factory Site: Contaminated Groundwater Impacts Stream Macroinvertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Jes J; McKnight, Ursula S; Sonne, Anne Th; Wiberg-Larsen, Peter; Bjerg, Poul L

    2016-02-01

    Legislative and managing entities of EU member states face a comprehensive task because the chemical and ecological impacts of contaminated sites on surface waters must be assessed. The ecological assessment is further complicated by the low availability or, in some cases, absence of ecotoxicity data for many of the compounds occurring at contaminated sites. We studied the potential impact of a contaminated site, characterised by chlorinated solvents, sulfonamides, and barbiturates, on benthic macroinvertebrates in a receiving stream. Most of these compounds are characterised by low or unknown ecotoxicity, but they are continuously discharged into the stream by way of a long-lasting source generating long-term chronic exposure of the stream biota. Our results show that taxonomical density and diversity of especially sediment dwelling taxa were reduced by >50 % at the sampling sites situated in the primary inflow zone of the contaminated GW. Moreover, macroinvertebrate communities at these sampling sites could be distinguished from those at upstream control sites and sites situated along a downstream dilution gradient using multidimensional scaling. Importantly, macroinvertebrate indices currently used did not identify this impairment, thus underpinning an urgent need for developing suitable tools for the assessment of ecological effects of contaminated sites in streams.

  8. Modelling macroinvertebrate and fish biotic indices: From reaches to entire river networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Cabria, Mario; González-Ferreras, Alexia M; Peñas, Francisco J; Barquín, José

    2017-01-15

    We modelled three macroinvertebrate (IASPT, EPT number of families and LIFE) and one fish (percentage of salmonid biomass) biotic indices to river networks draining a large region (110,000km(2)) placed in Northern and Eastern Spain. Models were developed using Random Forest and 26 predictor variables (19 predictors to model macroinvertebrate indices and 22 predictors to model the fish index). Predictor variables were related with different environmental characteristics (water quality, physical habitat characteristics, hydrology, topography, geology and human pressures). The importance and effect of predictors on the 4 biotic indices was evaluated with the IncNodePurity index and partial dependence plots, respectively. Results indicated that the spatial variability of macroinvertebrate and fish indices were mostly dependent on the same environmental variables. They decreased in river reaches affected by high mean annual nitrate concentration (>4mg/l) and temperature (>12°C), with low flow water velocity (macrophytes. These indices were higher in the Atlantic region than in the Mediterranean. This study provides a continuous image of river biological communities used as indicators, which turns very useful to identify the main sources of change in the ecological status of water bodies and assist both, the integrated catchment management and the identification of river reaches for recovery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A Benthic Macroinvertebrate Multimetric Index for Assessment of the Ecological Integrity of Northeast Streams, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nantiya Rattanachan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to develop a benthic macroinvertebrate multimetric index for assessing the ecological quality of streams in Northeastern Thailand. ANOSIM indicated that the benthic macroinvertebrate assemblage in both of each basin and each season were not significantly different (R = 0.09, p = 0.24 and R = 0.07, p = 0.35, respectively. The efficacy metrics of each basin consisting of the Mekong II, the Chi, and the Mun basins were integrated and calibrated. A total of 255 data sets of water physico-chemical and benthic macroinvertebrates during the dry period (cool and hot seasons were obtained. The stream classification could be divided into three groups: the reference group (48 stations, the stressed group (42 stations, and the intermediate group (165 stations. Twelve out of 56 metrics have been considered as a core metric for the development of a biological index for quality streams in the Northeast, including Total taxa, EPT taxa, Ephemeroptera taxa, Coleoptera taxa, % EPT, % Chironomidae, % Tolerant individuals, % Intolerant individuals, Beck's index, HBI, Predator taxa, and Clinger taxa. Moreover, this metric set covered the structure and function of organisms including the diversity of species, community structure, tolerance/intolerance measures, functional feeding group, and habit. From the efficacy validation of the biological index, the results of stream assessment corresponded to the classification sites with the physico-chemical characteristics.

  10. How are macroinvertebrates of slow flowing lotic systems directly affected by suspended and deposited sediments?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kefford, Ben J., E-mail: ben.kefford@rmit.edu.a [Biotechnology and Environmental Biology, School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, PO Box 71, Bundoora, Victoria 3083 (Australia); Zalizniak, Liliana [Biotechnology and Environmental Biology, School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, PO Box 71, Bundoora, Victoria 3083 (Australia); Dunlop, Jason E. [Department of Environment and Resource Management (DERM), 120 Meiers Rd, Indooroopilly, Queensland 4068 (Australia); Smart Water Research Facility, Griffith University, Queensland (Australia); Nugegoda, Dayanthi [Biotechnology and Environmental Biology, School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, PO Box 71, Bundoora, Victoria 3083 (Australia); Choy, Satish C. [Department of Environment and Resource Management (DERM), 120 Meiers Rd, Indooroopilly, Queensland 4068 (Australia)

    2010-02-15

    The effects of suspended and deposited sediments on the macroinvertebrates are well documented in upland streams but not in slower flowing lowland rivers. Using species found in lowland lotic environments, we experimentally evaluate mechanisms for sediments to affect macroinvertebrates, and in one experiment whether salinity alters the effect of suspended sediments. Suspended kaolin clay reduced feeding of Ischnura heterosticta (Odonata: Coenagrionidae) at high turbidity (1000-1500 NTU) but had no effects on feeding of Hemianax papuensis (Odonata: Aeshnidae) and Micronecta australiensis (Hemiptera: Corixidae). In freshwater (0.1 mS/cm), survival of Ischnura aurora was poor in clear water, but improved with suspended kaolin. Growth and feeding of I. aurora were unaffected by suspended sediments and salinity. Burial (1-5 mm) of eggs with kaolin or sand reduced hatching in Physa acuta (Gastropoda: Physidae), Gyraulus tasmanica (Gastropoda: Planorbidae) and Chironomus cloacalis (Diptera: Chironomidae). Settling sediments may pose greater risk to lowland lotic invertebrates than suspended sediments. - Sediment deposition may be more directly detrimental to macroinvertebrates of lowland rivers than suspended sediments.

  11. Permafrost thaw and intense thermokarst activity decreases abundance of stream benthic macroinvertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Krista S; Lento, Jennifer; Culp, Joseph M; Lacelle, Denis; Kokelj, Steven V

    2016-08-01

    Intensification of permafrost thaw has increased the frequency and magnitude of large permafrost slope disturbances (mega slumps) in glaciated terrain of northwestern Canada. Individual thermokarst disturbances up to 40 ha in area have made large volumes of previously frozen sediments available for leaching and transport to adjacent streams, significantly increasing sediment and solute loads in these systems. To test the effects of this climate-sensitive disturbance regime on the ecology of Arctic streams, we explored the relationship between physical and chemical variables and benthic macroinvertebrate communities in disturbed and undisturbed stream reaches in the Peel Plateau, Northwest Territories, Canada. Highly disturbed and undisturbed stream reaches differed with respect to taxonomic composition and invertebrate abundance. Minimally disturbed reaches were not differentiated by these variables but rather were distributed along a disturbance gradient between highly disturbed and undisturbed sites. In particular, there was evidence of a strong negative relationship between macroinvertebrate abundance and total suspended solids, and a positive relationship between abundance and the distance from the disturbance. Increases in both sediments and nutrients appear to be the proximate cause of community differences in highly disturbed streams. Declines in macroinvertebrate abundance in response to slump activity have implications for the food webs of these systems, potentially leading to negative impacts on higher trophic levels, such as fish. Furthermore, the disturbance impacts on stream health can be expected to intensify as climate change increases the frequency and magnitude of thermokarst.

  12. Macroinvertebrate Community Responses to the Chemical Removal of Phragmites in a Lake Erie Coastal Wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulesza, A. E.; Holomuzki, J. R.; Klarer, D. M.

    2005-05-01

    The invasive giant reed, Phragmites australis, can quickly form near-monotypic stands in North American wetlands, and as a result, sometimes reduce system biodiversity. However, the effects of Phragmites, and of the glyphosate herbicides used to control it, on trophic structure in benthic communities in these systems are less well known. Our study compares macroinvertebrate, algal, and juvenile fish diversity in replicate 10 x 5 m stands of Typha angustifolia (narrow-leaf cattail), glyphosate-sprayed Phragmites, and unsprayed Phragmites in a Lake Erie coastal wetland in Huron, Ohio. Macroinvertebrate diversity and proportions of functional feeding groups did not differ among stand types. However, overall densities of macroinvertebrates did vary among stands. Snails and larval chironomids and odonates were typically higher in Phragmites than in Typha stands. Interactions between changing water levels, algal densities, and prevailing flow patterns partly explain these outcomes. Ovipositing adult odonates did not prefer a particular stand type. Similarly, captures of juvenile fish did not vary among stands. Our results suggest that Phragmites, at least in small to moderately sized-patches, and herbicide application to these patches, does not detrimentally affect diversity in wetland, benthic communities.

  13. An evaluation of the relative quality of dike pools for benthic macroinvertebrates in the Lower Missouri River, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulton, B.C.; Allert, A.L.

    2012-01-01

    A habitat-based aquatic macroinvertebrate study was initiated in the Lower Missouri River to evaluate relative quality and biological condition of dike pool habitats. Water-quality and sediment-quality parameters and macroinvertebrate assemblage structure were measured from depositional substrates at 18 sites. Sediment porewater was analysed for ammonia, sulphide, pH and oxidation-reduction potential. Whole sediments were analysed for particle-size distribution, organic carbon and contaminants. Field water-quality parameters were measured at subsurface and at the sediment-water interface. Pool area adjacent and downstream from each dike was estimated from aerial photography. Macroinvertebrate biotic condition scores were determined by integrating the following indicator response metrics: % of Ephemeroptera (mayflies), % of Oligochaeta worms, Shannon Diversity Index and total taxa richness. Regression models were developed for predicting macroinvertebrate scores based on individual water-quality and sediment-quality variables and a water/sediment-quality score that integrated all variables. Macroinvertebrate scores generated significant determination coefficients with dike pool area (R2=0.56), oxidation–reduction potential (R2=0.81) and water/sediment-quality score (R2=0.71). Dissolved oxygen saturation, oxidation-reduction potential and total ammonia in sediment porewater were most important in explaining variation in macroinvertebrate scores. The best two-variable regression models included dike pool size + the water/sediment-quality score (R2=0.84) and dike pool size + oxidation-reduction potential (R2=0.93). Results indicate that dike pool size and chemistry of sediments and overlying water can be used to evaluate dike pool quality and identify environmental conditions necessary for optimizing diversity and productivity of important aquatic macroinvertebrates. A combination of these variables could be utilized for measuring the success of habitat enhancement

  14. Anger as a Train and State, Anger Management Methods, and People\\\\\\'s Tendency towards Collective Aggression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariborz Nikdel

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction   Ethnic disputes and collective aggressions are observable in each period of history and are more evident in traditional and nomadic communities. This issue has had many life and property damages in the past and present times and it has also prevented social development to flourish. Based on the damages of collective aggression, the researchers attempt to study the fundamental causes of this problem. It is assumed that state-trait anger and anger control methods are effective variables on people's tendency toward collective aggression. Therefore, determining the effective factors on collective aggression is of great importance from social, family and individual aspects. The theoretical framework of the present study is the combination of psychological and social- psychological theories regarding collective aggression. According the theories regarding collective aggression and relevant researches, collective aggression stems from different factors and reasons as a multi-dimensional social phenomenon. In a general classification, these factors are divided into individual and social factors. Based on various researches regarding social reasons of tendency to collective aggression, only the individual and psychological causes have been investigated. Indeed, this study evaluated state-trait anger and anger control method variables as individual and psychological factors related to tendency to collective aggression.     Materials & Methods   The study method is non-experimental -anger ationneral BB Asianasurest time and it also and it is a survey in terms of type and cross section in terms of time. The study population is all citizens of the Kohgiluye and Buyerahmad province whose age is between 14 and 50 years old. Based on the latest census, they include 325204 individuals. The sample size is 400 based on Cochran’s formula. The sampling method is stratified random. Two questionnaires were used to measure the variables: a

  15. Standardized Method for Measuring Collection Efficiency from Wipe-sampling of Trace Explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkouteren, Jennifer R; Lawrence, Jeffrey A; Staymates, Matthew E; Sisco, Edward

    2017-04-10

    One of the limiting steps to detecting traces of explosives at screening venues is effective collection of the sample. Wipe-sampling is the most common procedure for collecting traces of explosives, and standardized measurements of collection efficiency are needed to evaluate and optimize sampling protocols. The approach described here is designed to provide this measurement infrastructure, and controls most of the factors known to be relevant to wipe-sampling. Three critical factors (the applied force, travel distance, and travel speed) are controlled using an automated device. Test surfaces are chosen based on similarity to the screening environment, and the wipes can be made from any material considered for use in wipe-sampling. Particle samples of the explosive 1,3,5-trinitroperhydro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) are applied in a fixed location on the surface using a dry-transfer technique. The particle samples, recently developed to simulate residues made after handling explosives, are produced by inkjet printing of RDX solutions onto polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) substrates. Collection efficiency is measured by extracting collected explosive from the wipe, and then related to critical sampling factors and the selection of wipe material and test surface. These measurements are meant to guide the development of sampling protocols at screening venues, where speed and throughput are primary considerations.

  16. Measuring DHEA-S in saliva: time of day differences and positive correlations between two different types of collection methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klein Laura C

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The anabolic steroid, dehydroepiandosterone sulfate (DHEA-S, is secreted from the adrenal cortex. It plays a significant role in the body as a precursor to sex steroids as well as a lesser known role in the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis (HPA response to stress. DHEA-S can be measured reliably in saliva, making saliva collection a valuable tool for health research because it minimizes the need for invasive sampling procedures (e.g., blood draws. Typical saliva collection methods include the use of plain cotton swab collection devices (e.g., Salivette® or passive drool. There has been some speculation that the plain saliva cotton collection device may interfere with determination of DHEA-S by enzyme immunoassay (EIA bringing this saliva collection method into question. Because of the increasing popularity of salivary biomarker research, we sought to determine whether the cotton swab interferes with DHEA-S determination through EIA techniques. Findings Fifty-six healthy young adult men and women aged 18-30 years came to the lab in the morning (0800 hrs; 14 men, 14 women or late afternoon (1600 hrs; 14 men, 14 women and provided saliva samples via cotton Salivette and passive drool. Passive drool collection was taken first to minimize particle cross contamination from the cotton swab. Samples were assayed for DHEA-S in duplicate using a commercially available kit (DSL, Inc., Webster, TX. DHEA-S levels collected via Salivette and passive drool were positively correlated (r = + 0.83, p Conclusions Results suggest that DHEA-S can be measured accurately using passive drool or cotton Salivette collection methods. Results also suggest that DHEA-S levels change across the day and that future studies need to take this time of day difference into account when measuring DHEA-S.

  17. Collective variables for the study of long-time kinetics from molecular trajectories: theory and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noé, Frank; Clementi, Cecilia

    2017-04-01

    Collective variables are an important concept to study high-dimensional dynamical systems, such as molecular dynamics of macromolecules, liquids, or polymers, in particular to define relevant metastable states and state-transition or phase-transition. Over the past decade, a rigorous mathematical theory has been formulated to define optimal collective variables to characterize slow dynamical processes. Here we review recent developments, including a variational principle to find optimal approximations to slow collective variables from simulation data, and algorithms such as the time-lagged independent component analysis. Using these concepts, a distance metric can be defined that quantifies how slowly molecular conformations interconvert. Extensions and open questions are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A method to collect, store and issue multiple aliquots of packed red blood cells for neonatal transfusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, R G; Villhauer, P J; Cordle, D G

    1995-01-01

    Premature neonates require multiple red blood cell (RBC) transfusions. Single-donor programs have been proposed as a means to limit donor exposures, but methods must be developed to collect, store long-term and issue multiple aliquots of RBCs from a single donor. We evaluated a method by which RBCs could be collected, leukocyte depleted, repeatedly centrifuged for issuance as multiple small aliquots of high-hematocrit cells and then resuspended for continued storage throughout 42 days. The quality of RBCs handled by the method were compared to cells stored in standard fashion. Leakage of intracellular potassium, hemoglobin and lactic dehydrogenase into the extracellular fluid from RBCs processed by either method was comparable-indicating maintenance of RBC integrity. Multiple cultures, taken throughout the period of storage, were sterile to document that extensive handling did not introduce contamination. This new method appears promising as a means to provide RBCs for neonates.

  19. American Samoa Reef Macroinvertebrate Inventory, 1992, (NODC Accession 9900054)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set includes data from a 1992 survey of the American Samoa coral reef ecosystem, collected as part of the American Samoa Coastal Resources Inventory...

  20. Land Use Influences Niche Size and the Assimilation of Resources by Benthic Macroinvertebrates in Tropical Headwater Streams.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Marcel Parreira de Castro

    Full Text Available It is well recognized that assemblage structure of stream macroinvertebrates changes with alterations in catchment or local land use. Our objective was to understand how the trophic ecology of benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages responds to land use changes in tropical streams. We used the isotope methodology to assess how energy flow and trophic relations among macroinvertebrates were affected in environments affected by different land uses (natural cover, pasture, sugar cane plantation. Macroinvertebrates were sampled and categorized into functional feeding groups, and available trophic resources were sampled and evaluated for the isotopic composition of 13C and 15N along streams located in the Cerrado (neotropical savanna. Streams altered by pasture or sugar cane had wider and more overlapped trophic niches, which corresponded to more generalist feeding habits. In contrast, trophic groups in streams with native vegetation had narrower trophic niches with smaller overlaps, suggesting greater specialization. Pasture sites had greater ranges of resources exploited, indicating higher trophic diversity than sites with natural cover and sugar cane plantation. We conclude that agricultural land uses appears to alter the food base and shift macroinvertebrate assemblages towards more generalist feeding behaviors and greater overlap of the trophic niches.

  1. Impact of Stream and Floodplain Rehabilitation on Macroinvertebrate Community Structure and Diversity on the Hammer Creek in Lancaster County, PA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reppert, J. C.; Kondikof, B.; Wallace, J. R.

    2005-05-01

    Naturally occurring floodplains act as a barrier to adverse effects from anthropogenic sources, while retaining aquatic organism diversity and potentially increasing stream productivity. The purpose of the study is to examine macroinvertebrate communities in response to stream and floodplain rehabilitation. This is an on-going study initiated with pre-restoration sampling conducted in July/August 2001. Post-rehabilitation sampling began in December 2001 and is continuing until the present. Long-term monitoring is being conducted among five sampling sites: above the restored area (control site), two sites within the restored section of the stream, and two sites 100 and 2500 meters below the impacted reach. Macroinvertebrates were sampled from the sites using a modified Hess sampler (n=6 replicates samples/ site). Macroinvertebrates were identified to generic level and analyzed using several metrics such as, Shannon and Simpson biodiversity indices, percent EPT, Functional feeding group analyses, ratio of scrapers to collector-filterers, and ratio of EPT abundance to Chironomidae. We found that stream restoration "traumatized" the macroinvertebrate community and diversity exhibited a lag-time in recovery. Because of an increase in riffle habitat, a modification of flow regime, and potential for preservation of habitat heterogeneity within these riffle zones, macroinvertebrate diversity may respond according to this improvement in habitat.

  2. Assessing condition of macroinvertebrate communities and sediment toxicity in the St. Lawrence River at Massena Area-of-Concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Brian T.; Baldigo, Barry P.; Smith, Alexander J; George, Scott D.; David, Anthony M.

    2016-01-01

    In 1972, the USA and Canada agreed to restore the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the Great Lakes ecosystem under the first Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement. In subsequent amendments, part of the St. Lawrence River at Massena, New York and segments of three tributaries, were designated as an Area of Concern (AOC) due to the effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), lead and copper contamination, and habitat degradation and resulting impairment to several beneficial uses. Because sediments have been largely remediated, the present study was initiated to evaluate the current status of the benthic macroinvertebrate (benthos) beneficial use impairment (BUI). Benthic macroinvertebrate communities and sediment toxicity tests using Chironomus dilutus were used to test the hypotheses that community condition and sediment toxicity at AOC sites were not significantly different from those of adjacent reference sites. Grain size was found to be the main driver of community composition and macroinvertebrate assemblages, and bioassessment metrics did not differ significantly between AOC and reference sites of the same sediment class. Median growth of C. dilutus and its survival in three of the four river systems did not differ significantly in sediments from AOC and reference sites. Comparable macroinvertebrate assemblages and general lack of toxicity across most AOC and reference sites suggest that the quality of sediments should not significantly impair benthic macroinvertebrate communities in most sites in the St. Lawrence River AOC.

  3. Land Use Influences Niche Size and the Assimilation of Resources by Benthic Macroinvertebrates in Tropical Headwater Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parreira de Castro, Diego Marcel; Reis de Carvalho, Débora; Pompeu, Paulo dos Santos; Moreira, Marcelo Zacharias; Nardoto, Gabriela Bielefeld; Callisto, Marcos

    2016-01-01

    It is well recognized that assemblage structure of stream macroinvertebrates changes with alterations in catchment or local land use. Our objective was to understand how the trophic ecology of benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages responds to land use changes in tropical streams. We used the isotope methodology to assess how energy flow and trophic relations among macroinvertebrates were affected in environments affected by different land uses (natural cover, pasture, sugar cane plantation). Macroinvertebrates were sampled and categorized into functional feeding groups, and available trophic resources were sampled and evaluated for the isotopic composition of 13C and 15N along streams located in the Cerrado (neotropical savanna). Streams altered by pasture or sugar cane had wider and more overlapped trophic niches, which corresponded to more generalist feeding habits. In contrast, trophic groups in streams with native vegetation had narrower trophic niches with smaller overlaps, suggesting greater specialization. Pasture sites had greater ranges of resources exploited, indicating higher trophic diversity than sites with natural cover and sugar cane plantation. We conclude that agricultural land uses appears to alter the food base and shift macroinvertebrate assemblages towards more generalist feeding behaviors and greater overlap of the trophic niches. PMID:26934113

  4. Differences in macroinvertebrate community structure in streams and rivers with different hydrologic regimes in the semi-arid Colorado Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Matthew P.; Brasher, Anne M.D.

    2011-01-01

    Aquatic macroinvertebrates are sensitive to changes in their chemical and physical environment, and as such, serve as excellent indicators of overall ecosystem health. Moreover, temporal and spatial differences in macroinvertebrate community structure can be used to investigate broad issues in aquatic science, such as the hypothesis that changes in climate are likely to have disproportionately large effects on small, intermittent stream ecosystems. We quantified macroinvertebrate community structure and abiotic conditions at ten stream sites with different dominant hydrologic regimes in the Colorado Plateau, ranging from small, intermittent desert streams to large perennial mountain rivers. Considerable differences were observed in community structure between sites with differing hydrologic regimes. Quantitative results of non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) ordination and Spearman rank correlations between physical habitat and macroinvertebrate resemblance matrices indicate that discharge, geomorphic channel unit type (% pools vs. % riffles), percent of substrate composed of sand, and velocity were the subset of measured habitat variables that best explained the differences in macroinvertebrate community structure among sites. Of the 134 taxa identified, nine taxa explained 95 % of the variability in community structure between sites. These results add to a growing base of knowledge regarding the functioning of lotic ecosystems in the Colorado Plateau, and provide timely information on anticipated changes in the structure and function of aquatic ecosystems in response to predicted future environmental conditions.

  5. Relationships between ecosystem metabolism, benthic macroinvertebrate densities, and environmental variables in a sub-arctic Alaskan river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Emily R.; Wipfli, Mark S.; Clapcott, Joanne E.; Hughes, Nicholas F.

    2013-01-01

    Relationships between environmental variables, ecosystem metabolism, and benthos are not well understood in sub-arctic ecosystems. The goal of this study was to investigate environmental drivers of river ecosystem metabolism and macroinvertebrate density in a sub-arctic river. We estimated primary production and respiration rates, sampled benthic macroinvertebrates, and monitored light intensity, discharge rate, and nutrient concentrations in the Chena River, interior Alaska, over two summers. We employed Random Forests models to identify predictor variables for metabolism rates and benthic macroinvertebrate density and biomass, and calculated Spearman correlations between in-stream nutrient levels and metabolism rates. Models indicated that discharge and length of time between high water events were the most important factors measured for predicting metabolism rates. Discharge was the most important variable for predicting benthic macroinvertebrate density and biomass. Primary production rate peaked at intermediate discharge, respiration rate was lowest at the greatest time since last high water event, and benthic macroinvertebrate density was lowest at high discharge rates. The ratio of dissolved inorganic nitrogen to soluble reactive phosphorus ranged from 27:1 to 172:1. We found that discharge plays a key role in regulating stream ecosystem metabolism, but that low phosphorous levels also likely limit primary production in this sub-arctic stream.

  6. A Method for Direct Systematic Observation of Collective Violence and Public Order Policing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adang, Otto

    2016-01-01

    The article outlines a methodology for systematically observing collective violence (and public order policing in relation to it). Specific attention is given to matters of sampling and measurement and to the way in which observational challenges have been met in comparison with participant observat

  7. Methods and Strategies for Creating a Culture of Collections Assessment at Comprehensive Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Heath; Robles-Smith, Kimberley; Garrison, Julie; Way, Doug

    2009-01-01

    Differing from those of their liberal arts and Association of Research Libraries counterparts, today's comprehensive universities face a variety of unique challenges and opportunities when it comes to assessing their collections. This article looks at the different needs and interests of comprehensive universities and focuses on the challenges…

  8. Combinatoric Models of Information Retrieval Ranking Methods and Performance Measures for Weakly-Ordered Document Collections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, Lewis

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation answers three research questions: (1) What are the characteristics of a combinatoric measure, based on the Average Search Length (ASL), that performs the same as a probabilistic version of the ASL?; (2) Does the combinatoric ASL measure produce the same performance result as the one that is obtained by ranking a collection of…

  9. Endoscopic Pancreas Fluid Collection: Methods and Relevance for Clinical Care and Translational Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Phil A; Topazian, Mark; Raimondo, Massimo; Cruz-Monserrate, Zobeida; Fisher, William E; Lesinski, Gregory B; Steen, Hanno; Conwell, Darwin L

    2016-09-01

    Pancreatic secretions have an important role in the regulation of a normal nutritional state but can be altered owing to a variety of pathophysiological mechanisms in the context of exocrine pancreatic disease. The development of an endoscopic technique for collection of pancreatic fluid, termed endoscopic pancreatic function testing, has led to improved understanding of these alterations and is particularly helpful to characterize chronic pancreatitis. In addition, investigators have found endoscopically collected pancreatic fluid to be a valuable biofluid for the purposes of translational science. Techniques such as proteomic, cytokine, genetic mutation, DNA methylation, and microRNA analyses, among others, can be utilized to gain a better understanding of the molecular characteristics of chronic pancreatitis and other pancreatic diseases. Endoscopic collection of pancreatic fluid is safe and relatively straightforward, permitting opportunities for longitudinal analysis of these translational markers throughout the course of disease. This manuscript summarizes our current knowledge of pancreatic fluid, with an emphasis on proper techniques for sample collection and handling, its clinical utility, and preliminary observations in translational science.

  10. Study on the Method for Collecting Vibration Signals from Mill Shell Based on Measuring the Fill Level of Ball Mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available At present the method for measuring the fill level which used the vibration signal of mill shell shows its advantage compared with other methods. However, this method is developed late, and the technique for collecting the vibration signal from mill shell is immature. In this paper, a novel method for collecting the vibration data from mill shell is proposed. Firstly, the layout scheme of vibration sensors on mill shell is given by analyzing the axial and circumferential movement of coal powder in roller. And a special data acquisition system is developed, which can acquire vibration data from different axial and circumferential positions on mill shell. Then the sampling frequency is obtained based on impact model and hierarchical model of steel balls. At the same time, the impact region on mill shell caused by steel balls is considered as the collecting region of vibration signals. Experimental result shows that vibration signals collected by the method proposed in this paper present a high sensitivity to the changes on fill level compared with vibration data of mill bearing, which provides a reliable basis for accurate measurement of the fill level.

  11. The effect of semen collection method and level of egg yolk on capability of dilution and storage of buck semen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.N. Dhaher

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of semen collection method for reduction of the deleterious interaction between the enzymes of bulbourethral gland and egg yolk during the dilution and storage of buck semen by three different level of egg yolk. Ten bucks were used in this study; the bucks were divided into two groups (five bucks in each group. Semen samples were collected once a week for four weeks from the bucks in first group using an artificial vagina, and from the animals in second group using an electroejaculator. The collected semen samples were diluted with sodium citrate extender with three different level of egg yolk (5, 10 and 20%. Extend semen samples were stored at 5 °C for three days. Computer assisted sperm analysis and Sperm Class Analyzer® were used for evaluation of the buck semen samples. Sperm motility parameters were evaluated which includes; percentage of motile sperm, percentage of progressive motile sperm, the value of the linear velocity (VSL, the value of the average velocity (VAP, the value of the curvilinear velocity (VCL, and the amplitude of lateral movement of the head (ALH. Results showed that all sperm motility parameters under the different level of egg yolk in semen samples that collected by artificial vagina were significantly higher than those which collected by electroejaculator. The percentage of motile sperm and progressive motile sperm of samples that collected by artificial vagina were higher at 10% of egg yolk, while these motility parameters were higher at 5% of egg yolk for semen samples that collected by electroejaculator. The differences between the two methods of semen collection in VCL and ALH were clear and the values were higher in samples that collected using the artificial vagina. The values of VSL, VAP and VCL of semen samples that collected by artificial vagina were higher at the second day than first day of semen storage under 10% of egg yolk. In conclusion, there are effects

  12. Optimizing odor-baited trap methods for collecting mosquitoes during the malaria season in The Gambia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Jawara

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Baited traps are potential tools for removal or surveillance of disease vectors. To optimize the use of counter-flow traps baited with human odor (nylon socks that had been worn for a single day to capture wild mosquitoes in the Gambia, investigations were conducted at a field experimental site. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Experiments employing Latin square design were conducted with a set of six huts to investigate the effects of the following on overnight mosquito trap catches: (1 placement of traps indoors or immediately outdoors, CO(2 supply, and presence of a human subject in the hut; (2 trap height for collecting mosquitoes immediately outdoors; (3 height and distance from hut; (4 interaction between multiple traps around a single hut and entry of mosquitoes into huts. A total of 106,600 adult mosquitoes (9.1% Anopheles gambiae s.l., 4.0% other Anopheles species were collected over 42 nights. The high numbers of An. gambiae s.l. and other mosquitoes collected by odor-baited traps required CO(2 but were largely independent of the presence of a person sleeping in the hut or of trap placement indoors or outdoors. For outdoor collection that is considered less intrusive, traps opening 15 cm above the floor of the hut veranda were more highly effective than traps at other heights or further from the hut. There was no significant evidence of saturation or competition by the traps, with multiple traps around a hut each collecting almost as many mosquitoes as single traps and no effect on the numbers of mosquitoes entering the huts. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The outdoor trapping protocol is convenient to compare attractiveness of different odors or synthetic chemicals to malaria vectors and other wild mosquitoes. The finding that such traps are reliably attractive in the presence or absence of a human volunteer encourages their potential development as standardised surveillance tools.

  13. Method and Apparatus for the Collection, Storage, and Real Time Analysis of Blood and Other Bodily Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiitson, Peggy A. (Inventor); Clift, Vaughan L. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    The present invention provides a method and apparatus for separating a blood sample having a volume of up to about 20 milliliters into cellular and acellular fractions. The apparatus includes a housing divided by a fibrous filter into a blood sample collection chamber having a volume of at least about 1 milliliter and a serum sample collection chamber. The fibrous filter has a pore size of less than about 3 microns, and is coated with a mixture including between about 1-40 wt/vol % mannitol and between about 0.1-15 wt/vol % of plasma fraction protein (or an animal or vegetable equivalent thereof). The coating causes the cellular fraction to be trapped by the small pores, leaving the cellular fraction intact on the fibrous filter while the acellular fraction passes through the filter for collection in unaltered form from the serum sample collection chamber.

  14. Analysis of dye-sensitized solar cells with current collecting electrodes using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, with a finite element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shitanda, Isao; Inoue, Kazuya; Hoshi, Yoshinao; Itagaki, Masayuki

    2014-02-01

    The internal resistances of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) with and without current collecting electrodes (CCEs) were analyzed using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) with a finite element method (FEM). Three different DSC models with or without current collecting electrodes were designed. Theoretical values of the internal resistance were estimated by FEM on changing the position and size of the current collecting electrodes. Large DSCs with current collecting electrodes were fabricated using a screen-printing technique, and experimental values of the internal resistance were analyzed by EIS and compared with the theoretical values. The internal resistances obtained from the impedance measurements were in good agreement with those obtained by simulation. The internal resistance was found to decrease with increasing width and thickness of the CCEs, below a threshold value. EIS was found to be extremely useful for evaluating CCE design for improved DSCs.

  15. The effect of cotton-based collection methods on eosinophil cationic protein (ECP concentrations detected in saliva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teck Yee Wong

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Teck Yee Wong, David Koh, Andrew Wee, Vivian Ng, Yong Tat Koh, Zhenjie Sum, Gerald KohDepartment of Community, Occupational and Family Medicine, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, SingaporeBackground: Salivary eosinophil cationic protein (ECP level has the potential to be an assessment tool for asthma. Its measurement is not well-established and needs standardization. We studied how passive drool (PD and two commercial devices, Salivette® (cotton-based device and Sorbette® (cellulose–cotton-based-device, may affect ECP levels during collection among healthy subjects.Methods: Study I (n = 10 involved direct sampling of healthy adult subjects with Salivette® and Sorbette®. Study II (n = 33 involved ‘indirect’ sampling of previously collected PD by both devices.Results: In study I, ECP levels were detected in all PD samples but only in three with Sorbette® and none with Salivette® (collection order: PD, Sorbette® and Salivette®. We changed the order of collection (Salivette®, Sorbette®, PD and the results were similar (ECP levels detected in all PD samples, three with Sorbette® and only one with Salivette®. In study II, ECP levels in saliva collected by PD was 12.8 μg/L (median and using Sorbette® and Salivette® were < 2.0 μg/L and 3.4 μg/L respectively (p < 0.01. ECP levels in PD correlated with Sorbette® (rs = 0.79, p < 0.01 and Salivette® (rs = 0.62, p 0.01.Conclusion: Compared to PD, saliva collected using cotton or cellulose-based collection devices resulted in lower measurable ECP levels.Keywords: salivary ECP, collection methods

  16. A novel method for semen collection and artificial insemination in large parrots (Psittaciformes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lierz, Michael; Reinschmidt, Matthias; Müller, Heiner; Wink, Michael; Neumann, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The paper described a novel technique for semen collection in large psittacines (patent pending), a procedure which was not routinely possible before. For the first time, a large set of semen samples is now available for analysis as well as for artificial insemination. Semen samples of more than 100 psittacine taxa were collected and analysed; data demonstrate large differences in the spermatological parameters between families, indicating an ecological relationship with breeding behaviour (polygamous versus monogamous birds). Using semen samples for artificial insemination resulted in the production of offspring in various families, such as Macaws and Cockatoos, for the first time ever. The present technique represents a breakthrough in species conservation programs and will enable future research into the ecology and environmental factors influencing endangered species.

  17. Program's method of VB to carry out nuclear data collection The VB is stated for Visual Basic

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao Yan Hui; Zou Qi Hong; Xu Yin

    2002-01-01

    The authors expatiate Program's methods of VB to carry out nuclear data collection in the case of that VB can not directly call on hardware, and had to using C or assemble language to compile DLL function of call on hardware, and then, using by VB main routine to realize to call on and control I/O port in VB environment

  18. Assessing the Accuracy of Two Enhanced Sampling Methods Using EGFR Kinase Transition Pathways: The Influence of Collective Variable Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Albert C; Weinreich, Thomas M; Shan, Yibing; Scarpazza, Daniele P; Shaw, David E

    2014-07-01

    Structurally elucidating transition pathways between protein conformations gives deep mechanistic insight into protein behavior but is typically difficult. Unbiased molecular dynamics (MD) simulations provide one solution, but their computational expense is often prohibitive, motivating the development of enhanced sampling methods that accelerate conformational changes in a given direction, embodied in a collective variable. The accuracy of such methods is unclear for complex protein transitions, because obtaining unbiased MD data for comparison is difficult. Here, we use long-time scale, unbiased MD simulations of epidermal growth factor receptor kinase deactivation as a complex biological test case for two widely used methods-steered molecular dynamics (SMD) and the string method. We found that common collective variable choices, based on the root-mean-square deviation (RMSD) of the entire protein, prevented the methods from producing accurate paths, even in SMD simulations on the time scale of the unbiased transition. Using collective variables based on the RMSD of the region of the protein known to be important for the conformational change, however, enabled both methods to provide a more accurate description of the pathway in a fraction of the simulation time required to observe the unbiased transition.

  19. Assessment of the effects of the dry period on the faunal composition of aquatic macroinvertebrate assemblages in two temporary ponds in NW Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaia Pérez-Bilbao

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Temporary ponds are habitats that undergo periods of drying and flooding. They have been neglected for many years and changes produced by climatic change will greatly affect them. Thus, nowadays they constitute an endangered ecosystem due to their characteristics and to human pressures. These habitats support a high biological richness with species adapted to extreme conditions. Assuming that hydroperiod is the main factor structuring aquatic assemblages in this type of ecosystem, the aim of this study was to assess the effect of the dry period on the faunal composition and the natural succession process of macroinvertebrate assemblages in two temporary ponds and to analyze the differences between two periods, before and after the dry period. A total of 7225 individuals belonging to 93 macroinvertebrate taxa (Nematoda, Hirudinea, Oligochaeta, Mollusca, Crustacea, Acari, Insecta were collected. The most abundant and richest group were insects. Cluster and Non-Metric Multi-Dimensional Scaling (NMDS analyses showed the clustering of the samples in two groups, before and after the dry period, as we had expected. Thus, there was a change in faunal composition in both ponds, corresponding to a successional process. According to the SIMPER analysis, the most contributive taxa in both ponds were mostly insects and crustaceans. Regarding feeding traits, predators and shredders were the dominant groups. However, there was a change in the trophic structure of the assemblages between the two periods. Most taxa resist the drying season with resting eggs, cocoons or simply by flying to more permanent freshwater bodies. Although the two studied ponds are temporary habitats, they support a different faunal composition hosting species that are endemic or rare at regional or national level. 

  20. Biological Assessment of Aquaculture Effects on Effluent-Receiving Streams in Ghana Using Structural and Functional Composition of Fish and Macroinvertebrate Assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansah, Yaw Boamah; Frimpong, Emmanuel A.; Amisah, Stephen

    2012-07-01

    Biological assessment of aquatic ecosystems is widely employed as an alternative or complement to chemical and toxicity testing due to numerous advantages of using biota to determine ecosystem condition. These advantages, especially to developing countries, include the relatively low cost and technical requirements. This study was conducted to determine the biological impacts of aquaculture operations on effluent-receiving streams in the Ashanti Region of Ghana. We collected water, fish and benthic macroinvertebrate samples from 12 aquaculture effluent-receiving streams upstream and downstream of fish farms and 12 reference streams between May and August of 2009, and then calculated structural and functional metrics for biotic assemblages. Fish species with non-guarding mode of reproduction were more abundant in reference streams than downstream ( P = 0.0214) and upstream ( P = 0.0251), and sand-detritus spawning fish were less predominant in reference stream than upstream ( P = 0.0222) and marginally less in downstream locations ( P = 0.0539). A possible subsidy-stress response of macroinvertebrate family richness and abundance was also observed, with nutrient (nitrogen) augmentation from aquaculture and other farming activities likely. Generally, there were no, or only marginal differences among locations downstream and upstream of fish farms and in reference streams in terms of several other biotic metrics considered. Therefore, the scale of impact in the future will depend not only on the management of nutrient augmentation from pond effluents, but also on the consideration of nutrient discharges from other industries like fruit and vegetable farming within the study area.

  1. Effects of streambank fencing of pasture land on benthic macroinvertebrates and the quality of surface water and shallow ground water in the Big Spring Run basin of Mill Creek watershed, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, 1993-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeone, Daniel G.; Brightbill, Robin A.; Low, Dennis J.; O'Brien, David L.

    2006-01-01

    were collected in May and September of each year; samples were collected at the outlet of the control and treatment basins and at three upstream sites, two in the treatment basin and one in the control basin. For each benthic-macroinvertebrate sample: Stream riffles and pools were sampled using the kick-net method; habitat was characterized using Rapid Bioassessment Protocols (RBP); water-quality samples were collected for nutrients and suspended sediment; stream field parameters were measured; and multiple biological metrics were calculated. The experimental design to study the effects of fencing on the quality of near-stream shallow ground water involved a nested well approach. Two well nests were in the treatment basin, one each at surface-water sites T-1 and T-2. Within each well nest, the data from one deep well and three shallow wells (no greater than 12 ft deep) were used for regional characterization of ground-water quality. At each site, two of the shallow wells were inside the eventual fence (treated wells); the other shallow well was outside the eventual fence (control well). The wells were sampled monthly, primarily during periods with little to no recharge, for laboratory analysis of nutrients and fecal streptococcus; field parameters of water quality also were measured. Ancillary data collected during the study included precipitation amounts, inorganic and organic nutrient applications in both basins, and the number of cows in both basins. Precipitation during the pre-treatment period averaged about 5 in. more per year than during the post-treatment period; streamflow was about 56-63 percent less during the post-treatment period relative to the calibration period. Agricultural activity did show some changes from the pre- to post-treatment period. The estimated amount of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) applied to the land as inorganic and organic fertilizers decreased 27 and 33 percent, respectively, from the pre- to the post-treatment period in t

  2. Influence of agricultural land-use and pesticides on benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages in an agricultural river basin in southeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egler, M; Buss, D F; Moreira, J C; Baptista, D F

    2012-08-01

    Land-use alterations and pesticide run-offs are among the main causes for impairment in agricultural areas. We evaluated the influence of different land-uses (forest, pasture and intensive agriculture) on the water quality and on benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages on three occasions: in the dry season, wet season and at the end of the wet season. Macroinvertebrates responded to this gradient of impairment: agricultural sites had significantly lower richness numbers than forested and pasture sites, and all major invertebrate groups were significantly affected. Most taxa found in forested sites were found in pasture sites, but often with lower densities. In this case, the loss of habitats due to sedimentation and the lower complexity of substrates seem to be the disruptive force for the macroinvertebrate fauna.

  3. Assessing the Effects of Hydromorphological Degradation on Macroinvertebrate Indicators in Rivers: Examples, Constraints and Outlook

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friberg, N.; Sandin, L.; Pedersen, Morten Lauge

    2009-01-01

    of hydromorphological degradation and commonly used macroinvertebrate indices. A regression analysis of 1049 sites from 3 countries revealed that the strongest relationship between a biotic metric-average score per taxon-and physiochemical variables (R2 = 0.61) was obtained with a multiple regression model...... that included concentration of total phosphorus and percent arable land in the catchment, as well as hydromorphological quality variables. Analyses of 3 data sets from streams primarily affected by hydromorphological degradation showed an overall weak relationship (max R2 = 0.25) with the River Habitat Survey......) scaling issues (spatial and temporal) when relating habitat surveys to macroinvertebrate assessments, and 3) the scope of commonly used macroinvertebrate assessment systems (mainly focusing on water chemistry perturbation, such as eutrophication and acidification). The need is urgent to develop refined...

  4. Review: Helmut Kromrey (2006. Empirische Sozialforschung. Modelle und Methoden der standardisierten Datenerhebung und Datenauswertung [Social Research Methods. Models and Methods of Standardized Data Collection and Data Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udo Kuckartz

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the new edition of his textbook, KROMREY outlines the basic principles of "traditional" empirical social research. The 650 pages of the book address the foundations of scientific theory and methods within empirical research. There are also extensive explanations of the most important methods of data collection (content analysis, observation, survey and of statistical analyses of data. This book would be a very suitable textbook for introductory university courses in the methods of empirical social research. The text includes many examples and is written in a very understandable style. Qualitative research methods are only mentioned marginally in the "Alternative Research Paradigms" section. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0801240

  5. Bioassay and biomolecular identification, sorting, and collection methods using magnetic microspheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Jr., Robert H.; Zhou, Feng; Nolan, John P

    2007-06-19

    The present invention is directed to processes of separating, analyzing and/or collecting selected species within a target sample by use of magnetic microspheres including magnetic particles, the magnetic microspheres adapted for attachment to a receptor agent that can subsequently bind to selected species within the target sample. The magnetic microspheres can be sorted into a number of distinct populations, each population with a specific range of magnetic moments and different receptor agents can be attached to each distinct population of magnetic microsphere.

  6. Evaluating collective significance of climatic trends: A comparison of methods on synthetic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huth, Radan; Dubrovský, Martin

    2017-04-01

    The common approach to determine whether climatic trends are significantly different from zero is to conduct individual (local) tests at each single site (station or gridpoint). Whether the number of sites where the trends are significantly non-zero can or cannot occur by random, is almost never evaluated in trend studies. That is, collective (global) significance of trends is ignored. We compare three approaches to evaluating collective statistical significance of trends at a network of sites, using the following statistics: (i) the number of successful local tests (a successful test means here a test in which the null hypothesis of no trend is rejected); this is a standard way of assessing collective significance in various applications in atmospheric sciences; (ii) the smallest p-value among the local tests (Walker test); and (iii) the counts of positive and negative trends regardless of their magnitudes and local significance. The third approach is a new procedure that we propose; the rationale behind it is that it is reasonable to assume that the prevalence of one sign of trends at individual sites is indicative of a high confidence in the trend not being zero, regardless of the (in)significance of individual local trends. A potentially large amount of information contained in trends that are not locally significant, which are typically deemed irrelevant and neglected, is thus not lost and is retained in the analysis. In this contribution we examine the feasibility of the proposed way of significance testing on synthetic data, produced by a multi-site stochastic generator, and compare it with the two other ways of assessing collective significance, which are well established now. The synthetic dataset, mimicking annual mean temperature on an array of stations (or gridpoints), is constructed assuming a given statistical structure characterized by (i) spatial separation (density of the station network), (ii) local variance, (iii) temporal and spatial

  7. Automated Serial Sectioning Methods for Rapid Collection of 3D Microstructure Data (Preprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    transmission images taken at various projections, while other methods utilize diffraction contrast and either ray tracing methods [9-11] or other spatial...comprised of high-resolution backscattered electron ( BSE ) images that provide atomic-number-based contrast to differentiate between multiple phases

  8. Review of Methods and Algorithms for Dynamic Management of CBRNE Collection Assets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Extract features to improve CBRNE threat classification Anomaly Detection Detection of cheating in high school test taking, biosurveillance for...CUSUM) charts. An important difference between standard SPC methods and biosurveillance is that, while SPC methods sample and consequently work...with independent sequences of data, biosurveillance data are always highly autocorrelated (Fricker 2013). In the second statistical approach, “normal

  9. Western blotting as a method for studying cell-biomaterial interactions : The role of protein collection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kooten, TG; Klein, CL; Kirkpatrick, CJ

    2001-01-01

    Research of cell-biomaterial interactions is building on knowledge and methods available in cell and molecular biology. Western blotting is one of the options to characterize protein expression in cell populations. Method transfer to biomaterial model systems is not trivial because of the structure

  10. Diversity assessment of benthic macroinvertebrates, yeasts, and microbiological indicators along a longitudinal gradient in Serra do Cipó, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Callisto

    Full Text Available The main goals of this study were: 1 to evaluate the structure, diversity, and functional trophic group composition of benthic macroinvertebrate communities; 2 to characterize water quality in the headwaters of the Doce river watershed, based on physical, chemical, and biological parameters (benthic macroinvertebrates, fecal coliforms, heterotrophic bacteria, and yeasts; and 3 to contribute to the knowledge of the structure and function of longitudinal gradients in lotic ecosystems in Brazil. A total of 60 benthic macroinvertebrate taxa were identified, the dominant group being the aquatic insects, with 50 families distributed in 8 orders. The dry period presented higher values of taxonomic richness and total density of benthic macroinvertebrates. A decreasing gradient was observed in these variable values from the 3rd order stretch down to the 6th order stretch. The highest Shannon-Wiener diversity values were found in the rainy period in the 3rd order stretches, which presented well-developed riparian forest. Besides the 3rd order stretches, the Pielou evenness index values were also high in the 6th order stretch. The collectors, together with the scrapers, predominated in the benthic macroinvertebrate communities in all river stretches, except in the 2nd, 4th, and 5th order stretches in the rainy period, where communities were dominated by filterers. The shredders and predators presented low densities for all river stretches. All microbiological variables presented low levels. Due to the high counts of heterotrophic bacteria and coliforms, the studied river stretches presented inadequate potability but adequate balneability levels. The results suggest that the structure, diversity, and composition of the benthic macroinvertebrate communities are influenced by the trophic resource availability, seasonality, and sediment heterogeneity. The microbiological results of this study allow inferring that the waters from Serra do Cipó have excellent

  11. A method for sizing submicrometer particles in air collected on formvar films and imaged by scanning electron microscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Hamacher-Barth

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Here we present a method to systematically investigate single aerosol particles collected on formvar film supported by a copper grid, with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM operating at low accelerating voltage. The method enabled us to observe the surface of the sample grid at high resolution. Subsequent processing of the images with digital image analysis provided a statistically and quantitative size resolved information on the particle population including their morphology on the film. The quality of the presented method was established using polystyrene nanospheres as standards in the size range expected for ambient aerosol particles over remote marine areas (20–900 nm in diameter. The sizing was found to be critically dependent on the contrasting properties of the particles towards the collection substrate. The relative standard deviation of the diameters of polystyrene nanospheres was better than 10% for sizes larger than 40 nm and 18% for 21 nm particles compared with the manufacturer's certificate. The size distributions derived from the microscope images of airborne aerosols collected during a research expedition to north of 80° N in the summer of 2008 were compared with simultaneously collected number particle size distributions seen by a Twin Differential Mobility Particle Sizer. We captured a representative fraction of the aerosol particles with SEM and were able to causally relate the determined morphological properties of the aerosol under investigation to aerosol transformation processes in air being advected from the marginal ice edge/open sea south of 80° N.

  12. Paleodemographic age-at-death distributions of two Mexican skeletal collections: a comparison of transition analysis and traditional aging methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, Meggan; Márquez, Lourdes; Hernández, Patricia; Ruíz, Fernando

    2013-09-01

    Traditional methods of aging adult skeletons suffer from the problem of age mimicry of the reference collection, as described by Bocquet-Appel and Masset (1982). Transition analysis (Boldsen et al., 2002) is a method of aging adult skeletons that addresses the problem of age mimicry of the reference collection by allowing users to select an appropriate prior probability. In order to evaluate whether transition analysis results in significantly different age estimates for adults, the method was applied to skeletal collections from Postclassic Cholula and Contact-Period Xochimilco. The resulting age-at-death distributions were then compared with age-at-death distributions for the two populations constructed using traditional aging methods. Although the traditional aging methods result in age-at-death distributions with high young adult mortality and few individuals living past the age of 50, the age-at-death distributions constructed using transition analysis indicate that most individuals who lived into adulthood lived past the age of 50.

  13. Temperature accelerated Monte Carlo (TAMC): a method for sampling the free energy surface of non-analytical collective variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccotti, Giovanni; Meloni, Simone

    2011-04-07

    We introduce a new method to simulate the physics of rare events. The method, an extension of the Temperature Accelerated Molecular Dynamics, comes in use when the collective variables introduced to characterize the rare events are either non-analytical or so complex that computing their derivative is not practical. We illustrate the functioning of the method by studying the homogeneous crystallization in a sample of Lennard-Jones particles. The process is studied by introducing a new collective variable that we call Effective Nucleus Size N. We have computed the free energy barriers and the size of critical nucleus, which result in agreement with data available in the literature. We have also performed simulations in the liquid domain of the phase diagram. We found a free energy curve monotonically growing with the nucleus size, consistent with the liquid domain.

  14. Comparison of watershed disturbance predictive models for stream benthic macroinvertebrates for three distinct ecoregions in western US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, I.R.; Brown, L.R.; Kennen, J.G.; May, J.T.; Cuffney, T.F.; Orlando, J.L.; Jones, K.A.

    2010-01-01

    The successful use of macroinvertebrates as indicators of stream condition in bioassessments has led to heightened interest throughout the scientific community in the prediction of stream condition. For example, predictive models are increasingly being developed that use measures of watershed disturbance, including urban and agricultural land-use, as explanatory variables to predict various metrics of biological condition such as richness, tolerance, percent predators, index of biotic integrity, functional species traits, or even ordination axes scores. Our primary intent was to determine if effective models could be developed using watershed characteristics of disturbance to predict macroinvertebrate metrics among disparate and widely separated ecoregions. We aggregated macroinvertebrate data from universities and state and federal agencies in order to assemble stream data sets of high enough density appropriate for modeling in three distinct ecoregions in Oregon and California. Extensive review and quality assurance of macroinvertebrate sampling protocols, laboratory subsample counts and taxonomic resolution was completed to assure data comparability. We used widely available digital coverages of land-use and land-cover data summarized at the watershed and riparian scale as explanatory variables to predict macroinvertebrate metrics commonly used by state resource managers to assess stream condition. The "best" multiple linear regression models from each region required only two or three explanatory variables to model macroinvertebrate metrics and explained 41-74% of the variation. In each region the best model contained some measure of urban and/or agricultural land-use, yet often the model was improved by including a natural explanatory variable such as mean annual precipitation or mean watershed slope. Two macroinvertebrate metrics were common among all three regions, the metric that summarizes the richness of tolerant macroinvertebrates (RICHTOL) and some form

  15. Macroinvertebrate assemblages and biodiversity levels: ecological role of constructed wetlands and artificial ponds in a natural park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Sartori

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 14 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Constructed wetlands play an important role in water supply, floodwater retention and nutrient removal, at the same time allowing the restoration of lost habitat and the preservation of biodiversity. There is little knowledge about the biodiversity that can be found in these artificial environments along time, especially at the invertebrate community level. Macroinvertebrate assemblages, water chemistry, morphology, and environmental characteristics of natural ponds, artificial pools and constructed wetlands in Parco Pineta (Northern Italy were studied to evaluate the effects of local factors on macroinvertebrate communities. The objective was to verify if each ecosystem could equally contribute to local biodiversity, regardless of its natural or artificial origin. Principal Components Analysis showed that ponds were divided into clusters, based on their morphology and their water quality, independently from their origin. The composition of macroinvertebrate communities was similar among natural wetlands and ponds artificially created to provide new habitats in the park, while it was different among natural wetlands and constructed wetlands created for wastewater treatment purposes. Biodiversity of natural ponds and constructed wetlands, evaluated using taxa richness, Shannon index, and Pielou index, was comparable. Canonical Correspondence Analysis highlighted differences in macroinvertebrate community composition and pointed out the relationships among macroinvertebrates and various environmental variables: habitat heterogeneity resulted as the most relevant factor that influences taxa richness. Water quality also affects the macroinvertebrate community structure. We determined that constructed wetlands with higher pollutant concentrations show different assemblage compositions but comparable overall macroinvertebrate biodiversity. Constructed wetlands became valuable ecological elements

  16. Stream macroinvertebrate communities across a gradient of natural gas development in the Fayetteville Shale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Erica; Austin, Bradley J; Inlander, Ethan; Gallipeau, Cory; Evans-White, Michelle A; Entrekin, Sally

    2015-10-15

    Oil and gas extraction in shale plays expanded rapidly in the U.S. and is projected to expand globally in the coming decades. Arkansas has doubled the number of gas wells in the state since 2005 mostly by extracting gas from the Fayetteville Shale with activity concentrated in mixed pasture-deciduous forests. Concentrated well pads in close proximity to streams could have adverse effects on stream water quality and biota if sedimentation associated with developing infrastructure or contamination from fracturing fluid and waste occurs. Cumulative effects of gas activity and local habitat conditions on macroinvertebrate communities were investigated across a gradient of gas well activity (0.2-3.6 wells per km(2)) in ten stream catchments in spring 2010 and 2011. In 2010, macroinvertebrate density was positively related to well pad inverse flowpath distance from streams (r=0.84, pgas activity close to streams. However, stream water turbidity (r=0.69, p=0.02) and chlorophyll a (r=0.89, pgas well activities. In 2011, a year with record spring flooding, a different pattern emerged where mayfly density (p=0.74, p=0.01) and mayfly, stonefly, and caddisfly richness (r=0.78, p=0.008) increased in streams with greater well density and less silt cover. Hydrology and well pad placement in a catchment may interact to result in different relationships between biota and catchment activity between the two sample years. Our data show evidence of different macroinvertebrate communities expressed in catchments with different levels of gas activity that reinforce the need for more quantitative analyses of cumulative freshwater-effects from oil and gas development.

  17. Temporal and altitudinal variations in benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages in an Andean river basin of Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica E. Scheibler

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Environmental variables and benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages were spatially and seasonally examined over two consecutive years (2000-2002 along a glacier and snowmelt river in the central-west of Argentina where lies the highest peak in America, Mount Aconcagua (6956 m elevation. The goal was to assess seasonal and altitudinal variability in benthic community structure and to define whether physical-chemical variables affect distribution of aquatic insects. The Mendoza river basin was characterised by high variability in flow and transparency, high conductivity, hard calcium sulphate water, neutral and alkaline pH, and dominant substrate composed of small blocks, cobbles, pebbles, and sand-silt. Richness of invertebrates was low, with the lowest taxonomic richness being recorded at the mouth. The dominant group with highest taxonomic richness was Diptera, although caddisflies, mayflies, beetles, and stoneflies were present. Seasonal and spatial variations in biotic and abiotic variables were detected. Maximal densities and taxonomic richness were recorded in autumn and winter. From Modified Morisita’s Cluster analysis it was found that the system is divided into two groupings of sites related to each other by faunal composition. INDVAL revealed species turnover along the altitudinal gradient of some taxa: Andesiops, Massartellopsis, Edwarsina, Chelifera, and Ceratopogonidae had preference for the headwaters (2835-2425 m elevation, Smicridea murina and Baetodes for the lower section (1413-1085 m elevation, and Austrelmis for the middle and lower sections. The middle section (1846-1727 m elevation was a transition area where taxa from the headwaters and the lower section coexisted. Generalised Linear Models evidenced that altitude was the major factor determining macroinvertebrate assemblages along the large arid Mendoza River and that the physical-chemical variables that most influenced variation in community structure were: transparency

  18. Influence of bed heterogeneity and habitat type on macroinvertebrate uptake in peri-urban streams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REID,H.E.; BRIERLEY,G.J.; BOOTHROYD,I.K.G.

    2010-01-01

    The role of geomorphic structure, referred to as physical heterogeneity, and its influence upon the colonization of habitat by macroinvertebrates was analysed in the peri-urban, Twin Streams Catchment, in West Auckland, New Zealand. Using a cross-scalar approach, 4 riffle-run assemblages were analysed in each of 2 River Styles (a confined, low sinuosity, gravel bed river and a partly confined, low sinuosity, bedrock, cobble, and gravel bed river). Each of these 8 locations comprised 2 distinct sampling areas; the upstream zone had a more heterogeneous river bed with a high diversity of physical features and flow, whilst the downstream area had a more homogeneous structure. Microhabitat features sampled at each site included streambed material, bank margins, fine grained organic debris, wood, and boulders. Habitat mosaics and their associated macroinvertebrate relationships followed a semi-predictable but interrupted pattern, supporting the view that river systems are a patchy discontinuum. Homogeneous zones were more frequently characterised by higher proportions of Trichoptera than heterogeneous zones, whilst heterogeneous zones were frequently characterised by Plecoptera and Ephemeroptera. Diversity was maximised when the species pools from heterogeneous and homogeneous sites were combined for any given site. Functional habitats influenced macroinvertebrate assemblages in non-linear and complex ways. Wood and organic debris habitats were associated with high diversity, abundance, and sensitive species whereas streambed habitat was usually associated with low diversity. A diverse range of physical zones that approximates the 'natural range of behaviour' for the given type of stream was considered to provide a more effective platform for rehabilitation planning than emphasising heterogeneity of physical structure in its own right.

  19. The impact of sediment removal on the aquatic macroinvertebrate assemblage in a fishpond littoral zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeněk ADÁMEK

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Bottom sediment removal, a widely used technique in restoration management of standing water bodies, has a strong influence on communities of aquatic organisms. As most information on the impact of sediment removal on the aquatic environment comes from studies on lakes, the aim of this study was to describe macroinvertebrate assemblage succession in a fishpond (Štěpánek fishpond, Bohemian-Moravian highlands, Czech Republic littoral zone following restoration by sediment removal during the winter of 2003/2004. Semi-quantitative hand net sampling was undertaken one year before (2003 and in each of the following five years (2004–2008 after sediment removal. A significant decrease in both abundance (approx. 90% of individuals and diversity (approx. 30% of taxa of macroinvertebrates was detected immediately after pond restoration. The values gradually increased over subsequent years, reaching comparable abundance and diversity three years after sediment removal. A significant shift was recorded in the taxonomic and functional composition of the macroinvertebrate assemblage after sediment removal. Mayfly larvae were the dominant invertebrates before restoration, while chironomid larvae and oligochaetes dominated after sediment removal. Phytophilous taxa, grazers and scrapers, and swimming or diving invertebrates were common in 2003, whilst open-water taxa preferring mud and other mostly inorganic microhabitats, gatherers/collectors, and burrowing/boring invertebrates were relatively common after sediment removal. In 2008, the assemblage reverted towards the situation before sediment removal, probably connected with a lower water level and accelerated macrophyte bed succession. Principal Component Analysis on the species data confirmed the differences in invertebrate taxonomic structure among sampling years. Succession of the fishpond invertebrate assemblage in the years following sediment removal was mainly influenced by fish farming practice and

  20. An assessment of macroinvertebrate assemblages in mosquito larval habitats--space and diversity relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Soumyajit; Aditya, Gautam; Saha, Nabaneeta; Saha, Goutam K

    2010-09-01

    The aquatic bodies designated as mosquito larval habitats are diverse in size and species composition. The macroinvertebrate predators in these habitats are elements that influence the abundance of mosquito species, providing a basis for biological control. Assessment of species assemblage in these habitats will indicate the possible variations in the resource exploitation and trophic interactions and, therefore, can help to frame biological control strategies more appropriately. In the present study, the species composition is being investigated in five different mosquito larval habitats at a spatial scale. A random sample of 80 each of the habitats, grouped as either small or large, was analyzed in respect to the macroinvertebrate species assemblage. The species composition in the habitats was noted to be an increasing function of habitat size (species number = 1.653 + 0.819 habitat size) and, thus, the diversity. The relative abundance of the mosquito immatures varied with the habitat, and the number of useful predator taxa was higher in the larger habitats. In the smaller habitats-plastic and earthen structures and sewage drains, the relative and absolute number of mosquito immatures per sampling unit were significantly higher than the pond and rice field habitats. This was evident in the cluster analysis where the smaller habitats were more related than the larger habitats. The principal component analysis on the species diversity yielded four and six components, respectively, for the smaller and larger habitats for explaining the observed variance of species abundance. The species composition in the habitats was consistent with the earlier findings and support that the abundance of coexisting macroinvertebrate species regulates the relative load of mosquito immatures in the habitats. The findings of this study may be further tested to deduce the relative importance of the habitats in terms of the productivity of mosquito immatures at a temporal scale.

  1. Trends in Benthic macroinvertebrate community Biomass and Energy Budgets in Lake Sevan, 1928-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapanian, Martin A.; Jenderedjian, K.; Hakobyan, S.

    2012-01-01

    Water levels of Lake Sevan (Armenia) were artificially lowered by nearly 20 m between 1949 and 1997. Lowered water levels, combined with increased eutrophication, were associated with seasonally anoxic conditions (lasting 1–4 months) near the bottom of the profundal zone each year during 1976–2004. In addition, the extents of the macrophyte zone and of certain substrate types were severely reduced following drawdown. Maximal depth of occurrence decreased by 2–44 m for at least for 50 species of benthic macroinvertebrates between 1982 and 2004 compared to 1937–1961. Species richness of benthic macroinvertebrates declined from 25 to three species at depths where seasonal anoxia occurred. Total biomass increased by a factor of 10 from the period 1928–1948 to 1976–1979 then declined by a factor of 3 to 4 between 1987 and 2004. Energy flow through detritivores was more than tripled during 1976–2004 compared to 1928–1971, a result of increased plankton primary production. In contrast, energy flow through herbivorous benthic macroinvertebrates decreased by a factor of nearly 5, due to reduced areal coverage of macrophytes. Energy flow through filter feeders did not change over the time period examined, but energy flow through the entire zoobenthos community was nearly tripled. The biomasses of Oligochaeta, Chironomidae, and total zoobenthos showed a delayed response to changes in primary production of 7–9, 2, and 2–4 years, respectively. These patterns may provide a basis to predict results of restoration efforts based on the abundance of the zoobenthos in future years as the level of the lake is restored and water quality improves.

  2. Aquatic macroinvertebrate communities of natural and ditched potholes in a San Francisco Bay salt marsh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnby, Mark A.; Collins, Joshua N.; Resh, Vincent H.

    1985-03-01

    Differences in macroinvertebrate community structure and composition were examined from April 1980 to March 1981 in three potholes that had been ditched for mosquito control and three natural (i.e. unditched) potholes, which are located in a San Francisco Bay, California, U.S.A. salt marsh. Measurements of incipient tidal flooding into potholes (i.e. pothole inundation threshold) indicated that these sites comprise a gradient of tidal influences. Exponential decreases in the frequency and duration of tidal inundation corresponded to linear increases in inundation threshold. Since ditched study sites had low thresholds they tended to be more uniformly and regularly influenced by tides, were less saline, had less variable temperature regimens, and supported less filamentous algae than natural potholes. Habitat conditions were generally more similar among ditched than unditched potholes, but environmental conditions were most severe at natural sites near the upper limit of the inundation threshold gradient, where some potholes desiccate during the dry season each year. Differences in macroinvertebrate communities corresponded to differences in habitat conditions. Species richness and diversity (Simpson's Index) were generally highest near the middle of the inundation threshold gradient, which is a pattern predicted by the Intermediate Disturbance Hypothesis. Analysis of faunal composition using discriminant functions indicated more similarity among potholes located at the lowest positions of the inundation gradient than among potholes with intermediate thresholds. Since ditching lowers the inundation thresholds of potholes, it reduces species richness and diversity, while increasing faunal similarity. As a result, extensive ditching to control salt marsh mosquitoes can reduce the overall complexity of lentic macroinvertebrate communities.

  3. Combined-sewer overflow data and methods of sample collection for selected sites, Detroit, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweat, M.J.; Wolf, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    The discharge of untreated sewage is illegal in Michigan unless permitted under Act 245 due to public health concerns. In October, 1992, the Michigan Department of Natural Resources (MDNR, now the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality) issued a discharge permit to Detroit authorizing discharge from the City's 78 combined-sewer overflows (CSOs), and requiring that a long-term control plan be developed to achieve mandated waterquality standards in receiving waters. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) issued a national CSO policy in April, 1994, which requires (1) operational improvements of existing systems to minimize discharges and prevent their occurrence in dry weather; (2) publicly operated treatment works (POTW) to characterize the frequency and volume of discharges; and (3) construction of CSO discharge control projects where necessary.In 1993, the Southeast Michigan Council of Governments (SEMCOG) requested assistance from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with Detroit Water and Sewerage Department (DWSD) and MDNR, Surface Water Quality Division, to address part of the technical data requirements for requirement 2. The USGS scope of services for this interdisciplinary, multiagency investigation consisted of collection, compilation, and interpretation of the necessary hydrologic data, and documentation of results. In addition to USGS personnel, personnel from DWSD assisted with the field collection of samples and in alerting USGS personnel to CSO effluent discharges.From October 1, 1994 through December 31, 1995, four CSOs discharging to the Detroit River in Detroit, Michigan (figure 1) were monitored to characterize storm-related water quantity and quality. Water velocity, stage, and precipitation were measured continuously and recorded at 5-minute intervals. Water-quality samples were collected at discrete times during storms and analyzed for inorganic and organic pollutants. Discharges were sampled between 30 and 78 times

  4. A collection of bioconductor methods to visualize gene-list annotations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kibbe Warren A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene-list annotations are critical for researchers to explore the complex relationships between genes and functionalities. Currently, the annotations of a gene list are usually summarized by a table or a barplot. As such, potentially biologically important complexities such as one gene belonging to multiple annotation categories are difficult to extract. We have devised explicit and efficient visualization methods that provide intuitive methods for interrogating the intrinsic connections between biological categories and genes. Findings We have constructed a data model and now present two novel methods in a Bioconductor package, "GeneAnswers", to simultaneously visualize genes, concepts (a.k.a. annotation categories, and concept-gene connections (a.k.a. annotations: the "Concept-and-Gene Network" and the "Concept-and-Gene Cross Tabulation". These methods have been tested and validated with microarray-derived gene lists. Conclusions These new visualization methods can effectively present annotations using Gene Ontology, Disease Ontology, or any other user-defined gene annotations that have been pre-associated with an organism's genome by human curation, automated pipelines, or a combination of the two. The gene-annotation data model and associated methods are available in the Bioconductor package called "GeneAnswers " described in this publication.

  5. Surface Sampling Collection and Culture Methods for Escherichia coli in Household Environments with High Fecal Contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exum, Natalie G; Kosek, Margaret N; Davis, Meghan F; Schwab, Kellogg J

    2017-08-22

    Empiric quantification of environmental fecal contamination is an important step toward understanding the impact that water, sanitation, and hygiene interventions have on reducing enteric infections. There is a need to standardize the methods used for surface sampling in field studies that examine fecal contamination in low-income settings. The dry cloth method presented in this manuscript improves upon the more commonly used swabbing technique that has been shown in the literature to have a low sampling efficiency. The recovery efficiency of a dry electrostatic cloth sampling method was evaluated using Escherichia coli and then applied to household surfaces in Iquitos, Peru, where there is high fecal contamination and enteric infection. Side-by-side measurements were taken from various floor locations within a household at the same time over a three-month period to compare for consistency of quantification of E. coli bacteria. The dry cloth sampling method in the laboratory setting showed 105% (95% Confidence Interval: 98%, 113%) E. coli recovery efficiency off of the cloths. The field application demonstrated strong agreement of side-by-side results (Pearson correlation coefficient for dirt surfaces was 0.83 (p samples (Pearson (0.53, p method can be utilized in households with high bacterial loads using either continuous (quantitative) or categorical (semi-quantitative) data. The standardization of this low-cost, dry electrostatic cloth sampling method can be used to measure differences between households in intervention and non-intervention arms of randomized trials.

  6. Enhancing Author Information for CERN Document Server: Creating an Author Collection and Using Author Disambiguation Methods

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2096274; Witowski, Sebastian

    Authors are a substantial part of queries in digital libraries, where the results are reflecting the service quality and success. Ambiguous author names can confuse users and cause an inaccurate relation between authorships and individual researchers. Providing a set of disambiguated authors is challenging and related to data integration, since this is done in several ways and by different systems, both manually and automatically. Many disambiguation algorithms have been proposed in the literature, where the most solutions are solving the ambiguities by applying machine learning techniques. However, such problems cannot be solved with an accuracy of 100%. Our contributions to the CERN Document Server presented in this work consists of two parts: first, we create and deploy an author knowledge data base (collection) and second, we link authors of bibliographic records back to their authority records. For the latter, we use a library providing machine learning tools for clustering (where we use trained data fro...

  7. Runoff-related agricultural impact in relation to macroinvertebrate communities of the Lourens River, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiere, Geraldine; Schulz, Ralf

    2004-07-01

    A field study at the Lourens River, South Africa, was undertaken during the pesticide application period between November 2001 and January 2002 in order to investigate the potential relation of agricultural pollution to the aquatic macroinvertebrate fauna. The upper regions of the Lourens River were free of contamination (LR1), whereas subsequent stretches flowing through a 400-ha orchard area (LR2) received transient insecticide peaks. Continuously operating suspended-particle samplers as well as flood samplers operating during runoff events were used to measure pesticide contamination. In addition, various physicochemical and morphological parameters were examined. A survey of the macroinvertebrate communities associated with the rocky substrates was carried out every three weeks. Community indices were calculated using the South African Scoring System (SASS 5) for bioassessment of water quality in rivers. The two sites differed in pesticide pollution as well as in average turbidity levels (LR1 5.5 mg/L; LR2 64.3 mg/L), but were similar in bottom substrate composition and most other abiotic factors. At the downstream site (LR2), pesticide values of 0.05 microg/L azinphos-methyl in water as well as 49 microg/kg azinphos-methyl, 94 microg/kg chlorpyrifos and 122 microg/kg total endosulfan in suspended particles were found during runoff conditions. The macroinvertebrate communities of the two sampling sites were similar in terms of number of total individuals, but differed significantly (ANOVA) in average number of taxa (LR1 11.7, LR2 8.9). Seven out of 17 investigated taxa occurred in significantly reduced numbers or were even absent at the downstream site LR2. The community characteristics determined by SASS 5 showed a significantly less sensitive community structure at the downstream site (TS 41; ASPT 4.6), indicating continuously lower water quality compared to site LR1 (TS 80; ASPT 6.9). It is concluded that the Lourens River macroinvertebrate communities are

  8. Spatiotemporal patterns in community structure of macroinvertebrates inhabiting calcareous periphyton mats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liston, S.E.; Trexler, J.C.

    2005-01-01

    Calcareous floating periphyton mats in the southern Everglades provide habitat for a diverse macroinvertebrate community that has not been well characterized. Our study described this community in an oligotrophic marsh, compared it with the macroinvertebrate community associated with adjacent epiphytic algae attached to macrophytes in the water column, and detected spatial patterns in density and community structure. The floating periphyton mat (floating mat) and epiphytic algae in the water column (submerged epiphyton) were sampled at 4 sites (???1 km apart) in northern Shark River Slough, Everglades National Park (ENP), in the early (July) and late (November) wet season. Two perpendicular 90-m transects were established at each site and ???100 samples were taken in a nested design. Sites were located in wet-prairie spikerush-dominated sloughs with similar water depths and emergent macrophyte communities. Floating mats were sampled by taking cores (6-cm diameter) that were sorted under magnification to enumerate infauna retained on a 250-??m-mesh sieve and with a maximum dimension >1 mm. Our results showed that floating mats provide habitat for a macroinvertebrate community with higher densities (no. animals/g ash-free dry mass) of Hyalella azteca, Dasyhelea spp., and Cladocera, and lower densities of Chironomidae and Planorbella spp. than communities associated with submerged epiphyton. Densities of the most common taxa increased 3x to 15x from early to late wet season, and community differences between the 2 habitat types became more pronounced. Floating-mat coverage and estimated floating-mat biomass increased 20 to 30%, and 30 to 110%, respectively, at most sites in the late wet season. Some intersite variation was observed in individual taxa, but no consistent spatial pattern in any taxon was detected at any scale (from 0.2 m to 3 km). Floating mats and their resident macroinvertebrate communities are important components in the Everglades food web. This

  9. River Discharge and Local Scale Habitat Influence LIFE Score Macroinvertebrate LIFE Scores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dunbar, Michael J.; Pedersen, Morten Lauge; Cadman, Dan

    2010-01-01

    . This is the first time that the combined importance of these two factors has been demonstrated using routine invertebrate biomonitoring data. These results complement other site-specific studies that have shown how channel structure interacts with flow to create physical habitat, and should assist future work...... Midlands of the U.K., we describe how local-scale habitat features (indexed through River Habitat Survey or Danish Habitat Quality Survey) and changing river flow (discharge) influence the response of a macroinvertebrate community index. The approach has broad applicability in developing regional flow...

  10. Experimental acidification of two biogeochemically-distinct neotropical streams: Buffering mechanisms and macroinvertebrate drift

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ardón, Marcelo, E-mail: ardonsayaom@ecu.edu [Department of Biology and North Carolina Center for Biodiversity, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC 27858 (United States); Duff, John H. [U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Ramírez, Alonso [Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, PR 00931 (Puerto Rico); Small, Gaston E. [Department of Ecology, Evolution, and Behavior, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108 (United States); Jackman, Alan P. [University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Triska, Frank J. [U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Pringle, Catherine M. [Odum School of Ecology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602 (United States)

    2013-01-15

    Research into the buffering mechanisms and ecological consequences of acidification in tropical streams is lacking. We have documented seasonal and episodic acidification events in streams draining La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica. Across this forested landscape, the severity in seasonal and episodic acidification events varies due to interbasin groundwater flow (IGF). Streams that receive IGF have higher concentrations of solutes and more stable pH (∼ 6) than streams that do not receive IGF (pH ∼ 5). To examine the buffering capacity and vulnerability of macroinvertebrates to short-term acidification events, we added hydrochloric acid to acidify a low-solute, poorly buffered (without IGF) and a high-solute, well buffered stream (with IGF). We hypothesized that: 1) protonation of bicarbonate (HCO{sub 3}{sup −}) would neutralize most of the acid added in the high-solute stream, while base cation release from the sediments would be the most important buffering mechanism in the low-solute stream; 2) pH declines would mobilize inorganic aluminum (Ali) from sediments in both streams; and 3) pH declines would increase macroinvertebrate drift in both streams. We found that the high-solute stream neutralized 745 μeq/L (96% of the acid added), while the solute poor stream only neutralized 27.4 μeq/L (40%). Protonation of HCO{sub 3}{sup −} was an important buffering mechanism in both streams. Base cation, Fe{sup 2+}, and Ali release from sediments and protonation of organic acids also provided buffering in the low-solute stream. We measured low concentrations of Ali release in both streams (2-9 μeq/L) in response to acidification, but the low-solute stream released double the amount Ali per 100 μeq of acid added than the high solute stream. Macroinvertebrate drift increased in both streams in response to acidification and was dominated by Ephemeroptera and Chironomidae. Our results elucidate the different buffering mechanisms in tropical streams and

  11. Validation of a Sampling Method to Collect Exposure Data for Central-Line-Associated Bloodstream Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammami, Naïma; Mertens, Karl; Overholser, Rosanna; Goetghebeur, Els; Catry, Boudewijn; Lambert, Marie-Laurence

    2016-05-01

    Surveillance of central-line-associated bloodstream infections requires the labor-intensive counting of central-line days (CLDs). This workload could be reduced by sampling. Our objective was to evaluate the accuracy of various sampling strategies in the estimation of CLDs in intensive care units (ICUs) and to establish a set of rules to identify optimal sampling strategies depending on ICU characteristics. Analyses of existing data collected according to the European protocol for patient-based surveillance of ICU-acquired infections in Belgium between 2004 and 2012. CLD data were reported by 56 ICUs in 39 hospitals during 364 trimesters. We compared estimated CLD data obtained from weekly and monthly sampling schemes with the observed exhaustive CLD data over the trimester by assessing the CLD percentage error (ie, observed CLDs - estimated CLDs/observed CLDs). We identified predictors of improved accuracy using linear mixed models. When sampling once per week or 3 times per month, 80% of ICU trimesters had a CLD percentage error within 10%. When sampling twice per week, this was >90% of ICU trimesters. Sampling on Tuesdays provided the best estimations. In the linear mixed model, the observed CLD count was the best predictor for a smaller percentage error. The following sampling strategies provided an estimate within 10% of the actual CLD for 97% of the ICU trimesters with 90% confidence: 3 times per month in an ICU with >650 CLDs per trimester or each Tuesday in an ICU with >480 CLDs per trimester. Sampling of CLDs provides an acceptable alternative to daily collection of CLD data.

  12. Using aquatic macroinvertebrate species traits to build test batteries for sediment toxicity assessment: accounting for the diversity of potential biological responses to toxicants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducrot, Virginie; Usseglio-Polatera, Philippe; Péry, T Alexandre R R; Mouthon, Jacques; Lafont, Michel; Roger, Marie-Claude; Garric, Jeanne; Férard, Jean-François

    2005-09-01

    An original species-selection method for the building of test batteries is presented. This method is based on the statistical analysis of the biological and ecological trait patterns of species. It has been applied to build a macroinvertebrate test battery for the assessment of sediment toxicity, which efficiently describes the diversity of benthic macroinvertebrate biological responses to toxicants in a large European lowland river. First, 109 potential representatives of benthic communities of European lowland rivers were selected from a list of 479 taxa, considering 11 biological traits accounting for the main routes of exposure to a sediment-bound toxicant and eight ecological traits providing an adequate description of habitat characteristics used by the taxa. Second, their biological and ecological trait patterns were compared using coinertia analysis. This comparison allowed the clustering of taxa into groups of organisms that exhibited similar life-history characteristics, physiological and behavioral features, and similar habitat use. Groups exhibited various sizes (7-35 taxa), taxonomic compositions, and biological and ecological features. Main differences among group characteristics concerned morphology, substrate preferendum and habitat utilization, nutritional features, maximal size, and life-history strategy. Third, the best representatives of the mean biological and ecological characteristics of each group were included in the test battery. The final selection was composed of Chironomus riparius (Insecta: Diptera), Branchiura sowerbyi (Oligochaeta: Tubificidae), Lumbriculus variegatus (Oligochaeta: Lumbriculidae), Valvata piscinalis (Gastropoda: Valvatidae), and Sericostoma personatum (Trichoptera: Sericostomatidae). This approach permitted the biological and ecological variety of the battery to be maximized. Because biological and ecological traits of taxa determine species sensitivity, such maximization should permit the battery to better account

  13. A knowledge discovery method based on analysis of multiple co-occurrence relationships in collections of journal papers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongshen; PANG

    2012-01-01

    Purpose:This paper explores a method of knowledge discovery by visualizing and analyzing co-occurrence relations among three or more entities in collections of journal articles.Design/methodology/approach:A variety of methods such as the model construction,system analysis and experiments are used.The author has improved Morris’crossmapping technique and developed a technique for directly describing,visualizing and analyzing co-occurrence relations among three or more entities in collections of journal articles.Findings:The visualization tools and the knowledge discovery method can efficiently reveal the multiple co-occurrence relations among three entities in collections of journal papers.It can reveal more and in-depth information than analyzing co-occurrence relations between two entities.Therefore,this method can be used for mapping knowledge domain that is manifested in association with the entities from multi-dimensional perspectives and in an all-round way.Research limitations:The technique could only be used to analyze co-occurrence relations of less than three entities at present.Practical implications:This research has expanded the study scope of co-occurrence analysis.The research result has provided a theoretical support for co-occurrence analysis.Originality/value:There has not been a systematic study on co-occurrence relations among multiple entities in collections of journal articles.This research defines multiple co-occurrence and the research scope,develops the visualization analysis tool and designs the analysis model of the knowledge discovery method.

  14. Novel methods to collect meaningful data from adolescents for the development of health interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hieftje, Kimberly; Duncan, Lindsay R; Fiellin, Lynn E

    2014-09-01

    Health interventions are increasingly focused on young adolescents, and as a result, discussions with this population have become a popular method in qualitative research. Traditional methods used to engage adults in discussions do not translate well to this population, who may have difficulty conceptualizing abstract thoughts and opinions and communicating them to others. As part of a larger project to develop and evaluate a video game for risk reduction and HIV prevention in young adolescents, we were seeking information and ideas from the priority audience that would help us create authentic story lines and character development in the video game. To accomplish this authenticity, we conducted in-depth interviews and focus groups with young adolescents aged 10 to 15 years and employed three novel methods: Storytelling Using Graphic Illustration, My Life, and Photo Feedback Project. These methods helped provide a thorough understanding of the adolescents' experiences and perspectives regarding their environment and future aspirations, which we translated into active components of the video game intervention. This article describes the processes we used and the valuable data we generated using these three engaging methods. These three activities are effective tools for eliciting meaningful data from young adolescents for the development of health interventions.

  15. Two-Step Injection Method for Collecting Digital Evidence in Digital Forensics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nana Rachmana Syambas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In digital forensic investigations, the investigators take digital evidence from computers, laptops or other electronic goods. There are many complications when a suspect or related person does not want to cooperate or has removed digital evidence. A lot of research has been done with the goal of retrieving data from flash memory or other digital storage media from which the content has been deleted. Unfortunately, such methods cannot guarantee that all data will be recovered. Most data can only be recovered partially and sometimes not perfectly, so that some or all files cannot be opened. This paper proposes the development of a new method for the retrieval of digital evidence called the Two-Step Injection method (TSI. It focuses on the prevention of the loss of digital evidence through the deletion of data by suspects or other parties. The advantage of this method is that the system works in secret and can be combined with other digital evidence applications that already exist, so that the accuracy and completeness of the resulting digital evidence can be improved. An experiment to test the effectiveness of the method was set up. The developed TSI system worked properly and had a 100% success rate.

  16. Use of Participant-Generated Photographs versus Time Use Diaries as a Method of Qualitative Data Collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MaryEllen Thompson PhD, OTR/L

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A small qualitative research study was chosen as a time efficient way to allow students to participate in and complete a research project during a 16-week long semester course. In the first year of the research contribution course, student researchers asked participants with diabetes to complete time use diaries as a part of their initial data collection. The time use diaries were found to be an ineffective way to collect data on self-management of diabetes and were not useful as a basis for subsequent interviews with the participants. A review of the literature suggested reasons for this lack of effectiveness; in particular, participants tend not to record frequently done daily activities. Further review of the literature pointed toward the use of participant-generated photography as an alternative. Subsequent participants were asked to take photographs of their daily self-management of their diabetes for initial data collection. These photographs provided a strong basis for subsequent interviews with the participants. A comparison of the data collected and the emergent themes from the two different methods of initial data collection demonstrated the improved ability to answer the original research question when using participant-generated photography as a basis for participant interviews. The student researchers found the use of participant-generated photographs to elicit interviews with participants in the context of a research contribution course to be effective and enjoyable.

  17. Grid-Search Location Methods for Ground-Truth Collection from Local and Regional Seismic Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, C A; Rodi, W; Myers, S C

    2003-07-24

    The objective of this project is to develop improved seismic event location techniques that can be used to generate more and better quality reference events using data from local and regional seismic networks. Their approach is to extend existing methods of multiple-event location with more general models of the errors affecting seismic arrival time data, including picking errors and errors in model-based travel-times (path corrections). Toward this end, they are integrating a grid-search based algorithm for multiple-event location (GMEL) with a new parameterization of travel-time corrections and new kriging method for estimating the correction parameters from observed travel-time residuals. Like several other multiple-event location algorithms, GMEL currently assumes event-independent path corrections and is thus restricted to small event clusters. The new parameterization assumes that travel-time corrections are a function of both the event and station location, and builds in source-receiver reciprocity and correlation between the corrections from proximate paths as constraints. The new kriging method simultaneously interpolates travel-time residuals from multiple stations and events to estimate the correction parameters as functions of position. They are currently developing the algorithmic extensions to GMEL needed to combine the new parameterization and kriging method with the simultaneous location of events. The result will be a multiple-event location method which is applicable to non-clustered, spatially well-distributed events. They are applying the existing components of the new multiple-event location method to a data set of regional and local arrival times from Nevada Test Site (NTS) explosions with known origin parameters. Preliminary results show the feasibility and potential benefits of combining the location and kriging techniques. They also show some preliminary work on generalizing of the error model used in GMEL with the use of mixture

  18. Grid-Search Location Methods for Ground-Truth Collection From Local and Regional Seismic Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William Rodi; Craig A. Schultz; Gardar Johannesson; Stephen C. Myers

    2005-05-13

    This project investigated new techniques for improving seismic event locations derived from regional and local networks. The technqiues include a new approach to empirical travel-time calibration that simultaneously fits data from multiple stations and events, using a generalization of the kriging method, and predicts travel-time corrections for arbitrary event-station paths. We combined this calibration approach with grid-search event location to produce a prototype new multiple-event location method that allows the use of spatially well-distributed events and takes into account correlations between the travel-time corrections from proximate event-station paths. Preliminary tests with a high quality data set from Nevada Test Site explosions indicated that our new calibration/location method offers improvement over the conventional multiple-event location methods now in common use, and is applicable to more general event-station geometries than the conventional methods. The tests were limited, however, and further research is needed to fully evaluate, and improve, the approach. Our project also demonstrated the importance of using a realistic model for observational errors in an event location procedure. We took the initial steps in developing a new error model based on mixture-of-Gaussians probability distributions, which possess the properties necessary to characterize the complex arrival time error processes that can occur when picking low signal-to-noise arrivals. We investigated various inference methods for fitting these distributions to observed travel-time residuals, including a Markov Chain Monte Carlo technique for computing Bayesian estimates of the distribution parameters.

  19. Proper Methodology and Methods of Collecting and Analyzing Slavery Data: An Examination of the Global Slavery Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Guth

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Global Slavery Index aims to, among other objectives, recognize the forms, size, and scope of slavery worldwide as well as the strengths and weaknesses of individual countries. An analysis of the Index’s methods exposes significant and critical weaknesses and raises questions into its replicability and validity. The Index may prove more valuable in the future if proper methods are implemented, but the longer improper methods are used the more damage is done to the public policy debate on slavery by advancing data and policy that is not based on sound methodology. To implement proper methods, a committee of sophisticated methodologists needs to develop measurement tools and constantly analyze and refine these methods over the years as data is collected.

  20. Text messaging: an innovative method of data collection in medical research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kew ST

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ubiquitous use of mobile phones in sending and receiving text messages has become a norm for young people. Undeniably, text messaging has become a new and important communication medium not only in the social realm but in education as well. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of using text messaging as a means to collect data for a medical research project. A cross sectional study was carried out during a double blind, randomized controlled trial to assess the efficacy and safety of a probiotic in the management of Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS. The study aim was to assess the response rate of weekly symptom reports via Short Message Service (SMS. The subjects were undergraduates in a private medical university in Malaysia. They were identified through a previous university wide study as suffering from IBS based on Rome III criteria. The subjects were randomly assigned to either the treatment arm receiving a daily probiotic, or the placebo arm. They were required to score their symptoms using eight-item-questionnaires at baseline, and thereafter weekly, for a total of 8 weeks. All subjects were given the choice to communicate their symptom scores by text messaging via mobile phones or by email. SMS text messages were sent to remind trial subjects to attend face-to-face visits and to complete a paper based 34-item-questionnaires on IBS quality of life assessment at baseline and at end of 8 weeks. Findings The response rate of weekly symptom scores via Short Message Service (SMS from a total of 38 subjects was 100%. Through the study, 342 reports were submitted: 33.3% of these were received on the due date without reminder, 60.0% one day after the deadline, after a single reminder, 6.1% 2-3 days after the deadline, after 2-3 reminders and 0.6% 5 days after the deadline, after SMS, phone reminder and face-to-face encounter. All SMS symptom reports, whether on time or late, were complete. With the help of

  1. Text messaging: an innovative method of data collection in medical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kew, St

    2010-12-20

    The ubiquitous use of mobile phones in sending and receiving text messages has become a norm for young people. Undeniably, text messaging has become a new and important communication